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Sample records for human neuroglobin obtained

  1. Human neuroglobin protein in cerebrospinal fluid

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    Whalen Gail

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Neuroglobin is a hexacoordinated member of the globin family of proteins. It is predominantly localized to various brain regions and retina where it may play a role in protection against ischemia and nitric oxide-induced neural injury. Cerebrospinal fluid was collected from 12 chronic regional or systemic pain and 5 control subjects. Proteins were precipitated by addition of 50% 0.2 N acetic acid, 50% ethanol, 0.02% sodium bisulfite. The pellet was extensively digested with trypsin. Peptides were separated by capillary liquid chromatography using a gradient from 95% water to 95% acetonitrile in 0.2% formic acid, and eluted through a nanoelectrospray ionization interface into a quadrapole – time-of-flight dual mass spectrometer (QToF2, Waters, Milford, MA. Peptides were sequenced (PepSeq, MassLynx v3.5 and proteins identified using MASCOT ®. Results Six different neuroglobin peptides were identified in various combinations in 3 of 9 female pain subjects, but none in male pain, or female or male control subjects. Conclusion This is the first description of neuroglobin in cerebrospinal fluid. The mechanism(s leading to its release in chronic pain states remain to be defined.

  2. Neuroglobin and Cytoglobin expression in the human brain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hundahl, Christian Ansgar; Kelsen, Jesper; Hay-Schmidt, Anders

    2013-01-01

    Neuroglobin and Cytoglobin are new members of the heme-globin family. Both globins are primarily expressed in neurons of the brain and retina. Neuroglobin and Cytoglobin have been suggested as novel therapeutic targets in various neurodegenerative diseases based on their oxygen binding and cell p...

  3. EPR analysis of cyanide complexes of wild-type human neuroglobin and mutants in comparison to horse heart myoglobin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Doorslaer, Sabine; Trandafir, Florin; Harmer, Jeffrey R; Moens, Luc; Dewilde, Sylvia

    2014-06-01

    Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) data reveal large differences between the ferric ((13)C-)cyanide complexes of wild-type human neuroglobin (NGB) and its H64Q and F28L point mutants and the cyanide complexes of mammalian myo- and haemoglobin. The point mutations, which involve residues comprising the distal haem pocket in NGB, induce smaller, but still significant changes, related to changes in the stabilization of the cyanide ligand. Furthermore, for the first time, the full (13)C hyperfine tensor of the cyanide carbon of cyanide-ligated horse heart myoglobin (hhMb) was determined using Davies ENDOR (electron nuclear double resonance). Disagreement of these experimental data with earlier predictions based on (13)C NMR data and a theoretical model reveal significant flaws in the model assumptions. The same ENDOR procedure allowed also partial determination of the corresponding (13)C hyperfine tensor of cyanide-ligated NGB and H64QNGB. These (13)C parameters differ significantly from those of cyanide-ligated hhMb and challenge our current theoretical understanding of how the haem environment influences the magnetic parameters obtained by EPR and NMR in cyanide-ligated haem proteins. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Hypoxic regulation of cytoglobin and neuroglobin expression in human normal and tumor tissues

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    Emara Marwan

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cytoglobin (Cygb and neuroglobin (Ngb are recently identified globin molecules that are expressed in vertebrate tissues. Upregulation of Cygb and Ngb under hypoxic and/or ischemic conditions in vitro and in vivo increases cell survival, suggesting possible protective roles through prevention of oxidative damage. We have previously shown that Ngb is expressed in human glioblastoma multiforme (GBM cell lines, and that expression of its transcript and protein can be significantly increased after exposure to physiologically relevant levels of hypoxia. In this study, we extended this work to determine whether Cygb is also expressed in GBM cells, and whether its expression is enhanced under hypoxic conditions. We also compared Cygb and Ngb expression in human primary tumor specimens, including brain tumors, as well as in human normal tissues. Immunoreactivity of carbonic anhydrase IX (CA IX, a hypoxia-inducible metalloenzyme that catalyzes the hydration of CO2 to bicarbonate, was used as an endogenous marker of hypoxia. Results Cygb transcript and protein were expressed in human GBM cells, and this expression was significantly increased in most cells following 48 h incubation under hypoxia. We also showed that Cygb and Ngb are expressed in both normal tissues and human primary cancers, including GBM. Among normal tissues, Cygb and Ngb expression was restricted to distinct cell types and was especially prominent in ductal cells. Additionally, certain normal organs (e.g. stomach fundus, small bowel showed distinct regional co-localization of Ngb, Cygb and CA IX. In most tumors, Ngb immunoreactivity was significantly greater than that of Cygb. In keeping with previous in vitro results, tumor regions that were positively stained for CA IX were also positive for Ngb and Cygb, suggesting that hypoxic upregulation of Ngb and Cygb also occurs in vivo. Conclusions Our finding of hypoxic up-regulation of Cygb/Ngb in GBM cell lines and human

  5. Neuroglobin over expressing mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raida, Zindy; Hundahl, Christian Ansgar; Nyengaard, Jens R

    2013-01-01

    thoroughly validated antibodies and oligos, we give a detailed brain anatomical characterization of transgenic mice over expressing Neuroglobin. Moreover, using permanent middle artery occlusion the effect of elevated levels of Neuroglobin on ischemic damage was studied. Lastly, the impact of mouse strain...... genetic background on ischemic damage was investigated. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A four to five fold increase in Neuroglobin mRNA and protein expression was seen in the brain of transgenic mice. A β-actin promoter was used to drive Neuroglobin over expression, but immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization...... showed over expression to be confined to primarily the cortex, hippocampus, cerebellum, and only in neurons. The level and expression pattern of endogenous Neuroglobin was unaffected by insertion of the over expressing Ngb transgene. Neuroglobin over expression resulted in a significant reduction...

  6. Neuroglobin protects nerve cells from apoptosis by inhibiting the intrinsic pathway of cell death.

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    Raychaudhuri, Subhadip; Skommer, Joanna; Henty, Kristen; Birch, Nigel; Brittain, Thomas

    2010-04-01

    In the past few years, overwhelming evidence has accrued that a high level of expression of the protein neuroglobin protects neurons in vitro, in animal models, and in humans, against cell death associated with hypoxic and amyloid insult. However, until now, the exact mechanism of neuroglobin's protective action has not been determined. Using cell biology and biochemical approaches we demonstrate that neuroglobin inhibits the intrinsic pathway of apoptosis in vitro and intervenes in activation of pro-caspase 9 by interaction with cytochrome c. Using systems level information of the apoptotic signalling reactions we have developed a quantitative model of neuroglobin inhibition of apoptosis, which simulates neuroglobin blocking of apoptosome formation at a single cell level. Furthermore, this model allows us to explore the effect of neuroglobin in conditions not easily accessible to experimental study. We found that the protection of neurons by neuroglobin is very concentration sensitive. The impact of neuroglobin may arise from both its binding to cytochrome c and its subsequent redox reaction, although the binding alone is sufficient to block pro-caspase 9 activation. These data provides an explanation the action of neuroglobin in the protection of nerve cells from unwanted apoptosis.

  7. Neuroglobin modification by reactive quinone species.

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    Nicolis, Stefania; Monzani, Enrico; Pezzella, Alessandro; Ascenzi, Paolo; Sbardella, Diego; Casella, Luigi

    2013-12-16

    The physiological functions of neuroglobin (Ngb), the heme protein of the globin family expressed in the nervous tissue, have not yet been clarified. Besides O2 storage and homeostasis, Ngb is thought to play a role in neuroprotection as a scavenger of toxic reactive species generated in vivo under conditions of oxidative stress. Herein, the interaction of Ngb with the quinones generated by oxidation of catecholamines (dopamine, norepinephrine) and catechol estrogens (2-hydroxyestradiol and 4-hydroxyestradiol), which have been implicated in neurodegenerative pathologies like Parkinson's and Alzheimer's diseases, has been investigated. The cytotoxicity of quinones has been ascribed to the derivatization of amino acid residues (mainly cysteine) in proteins through the formation of covalent bonds with the aromatic rings. Combined studies of tandem mass spectrometry and protein unfolding indicate the presence of quinone-promoted modifications in all of the Ngb derivatives analyzed (i.e., obtained employing either catecholamines or catechol estrogens as the source of the reactive species). Among protein residues, the highest reactivity of cysteines (Cys46, Cys55, and Cys120 in human Ngb) toward quinone species has been confirmed, and the dependence of the extent of protein modification on the method employed for catechol oxidation has been observed. When the oxidation reaction proceeds by one-electron steps, the involvement of semiquinone reactivity has been observed. The whole analysis of the data of Ngb modification suggests that the catecholamine-oxidation products can extensively modify proteins (likely by catecholamine oligomers, the compounds initially formed during the transformation of catecholamine to melanin). The modification mediated by catechol estrogens is less pronounced but strongly affects the interactions with the solvent as well as the protein stability.

  8. Neuroglobin protection in retinal ischemia.

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    Chan, Anita S Y; Saraswathy, Sindhu; Rehak, Matus; Ueki, Mari; Rao, Narsing A

    2012-02-01

    Neuroglobin (Ngb) is a vertebrate globin that is predominantly expressed in the retina and brain. To explore the role of Ngb in retinal neuroprotection during ischemia reperfusion (IR), the authors examined the effect of Ngb overexpression in the retina in vivo by using Ngb-transgenic (Ngb-Tg) mice. Retinal IR was induced in Ngb overexpressing Ngb-Tg mice and wild type (WT) mice by cannulating the anterior chamber and transiently elevating the IOP for 60 minutes. After Day 7 of reperfusion, the authors evaluated Ngb mRNA and protein expression in nonischemic control as well as ischemic mice and its effect on retinal histology, mitochondrial oxidative stress, and apoptosis, using morphometry and immunohistochemistry, quantitative PCR analysis and Western blot techniques. Ngb-Tg mice without ischemia overexpress Ngb mRNA 11.3-fold (SE ± 0.457, P layers, and photoreceptor inner segments. This overexpression of Ngb is associated with decreased mitochondrial DNA damage in Ngb-Tg mice with IR in comparison with WT. Ngb-Tg mice with IR also revealed significant preservation of retinal thickness, significantly less activated caspase 3 protein expression, and apoptosis in comparison with WT mice. Neuroglobin overexpression plays a neuroprotective role against retinal ischemia reperfusion injury due to decreasing of mitochondrial oxidative stress-mediated apoptosis.

  9. Distance determination between low-spin ferric haem and nitroxide spin label using DEER: the neuroglobin case

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    Ezhevskaya, M.; Bordignon, E.; Polyhach, Y.; Moens, L.; Dewilde, S.; Jeschke, G.; Van Doorslaer, S.

    2013-10-01

    This work demonstrates for the first time the feasibility of using double electron-electron resonance (DEER) to determine the inter-spin distance between nitroxide spin labels and low-spin (S = 1/2) ferric haem centres. For these means, two human neuroglobin variants were spin labelled leading to singly labelled haem proteins with the nitroxide label on one of the natural Cys residues (Cys55 or Cys120). Room-temperature electron paramagnetic resonance was used to characterise the mobility of the nitroxide labels and X- and Q-band DEER experiments were performed to detect nitroxide-haem distances. Effects of residual nuclear modulations in the DEER traces were carefully evaluated. The DEER-derived distances were compared with theoretical predictions from an X-ray diffraction structure of human neuroglobin using a rotamer library approach as well as with distance information obtained from electron relaxation measurements. The structural biological implications of the spin-labelled side chains' dynamics and of the obtained distances are also discussed.

  10. Protection by neuroglobin expression in brain pathologies

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    Eliana Baez

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Astrocytes play an important role in physiological, metabolic and structural functions and, when impaired, they can be involved in various pathologies including Alzheimer, focal ischemic stroke and traumatic brain injury. These disorders involve an imbalance in the blood flow and nutrients such as glucose and lactacte, leading to biochemical and molecular changes that cause neuronal damage, which is followed by loss of cognitive and motor functions. Previous studies have shown that astrocytes are more resilient than neurons during brain insults as a consequence of their more effective antioxidant systems, transporters and enzymes, which made them less susceptible to excitotoxicity. In addition, astrocytes synthesize and release different protective molecules for neurons, including neuroglobin, a member of the globin family of proteins. After brain injury neuroglobin expression is induced in astrocytes. Since neuroglobin promotes neuronal survival, its increased expression in astrocytes after brain injury may represent an endogenous neuroprotective mechanism. Here, we review the role of neuroglobin in the CNS, its relationship with different pathologies, and the role of different factors that regulate its expression in astrocytes.

  11. 14-3-3 binding and phosphorylation of neuroglobin during hypoxia modulate six-to-five heme pocket coordination and rate of nitrite reduction to nitric oxide.

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    Jayaraman, Thottala; Tejero, Jesús; Chen, Bill B; Blood, Arlin B; Frizzell, Sheila; Shapiro, Calli; Tiso, Mauro; Hood, Brian L; Wang, Xunde; Zhao, Xuejun; Conrads, Thomas P; Mallampalli, Rama K; Gladwin, Mark T

    2011-12-09

    Neuroglobin protects neurons from hypoxia in vitro and in vivo; however, the underlying mechanisms for this effect remain poorly understood. Most of the neuroglobin is present in a hexacoordinate state with proximal and distal histidines in the heme pocket directly bound to the heme iron. At equilibrium, the concentration of the five-coordinate neuroglobin remains very low (0.1-5%). Recent studies have shown that post-translational redox regulation of neuroglobin surface thiol disulfide formation increases the open probability of the heme pocket and allows nitrite binding and reaction to form NO. We hypothesized that the equilibrium between the six- and five-coordinate states and secondary reactions with nitrite to form NO could be regulated by other hypoxia-dependent post-translational modification(s). Protein sequence models identified candidate sites for both 14-3-3 binding and phosphorylation. In both in vitro experiments and human SH-SY5Y neuronal cells exposed to hypoxia and glucose deprivation, we observed that 1) neuroglobin phosphorylation and protein-protein interactions with 14-3-3 increase during hypoxic and metabolic stress; 2) neuroglobin binding to 14-3-3 stabilizes and increases the half-life of phosphorylation; and 3) phosphorylation increases the open probability of the heme pocket, which increases ligand binding (CO and nitrite) and accelerates the rate of anaerobic nitrite reduction to form NO. These data reveal a series of hypoxia-dependent post-translational modifications to neuroglobin that regulate the six-to-five heme pocket equilibrium and heme access to ligands. Hypoxia-regulated reactions of nitrite and neuroglobin may contribute to the cellular adaptation to hypoxia.

  12. Reduced infarct size in neuroglobin-null mice after experimental stroke in vivo

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    Raida, Zindy; Hundahl, Christian Ansgar; Kelsen, Jesper

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Neuroglobin is considered to be a novel important pharmacological target in combating stroke and neurodegenerative disorders, although the mechanism by which this protection is accomplished remains an enigma. We hypothesized that if neuroglobin is directly involved in neuroprotection,...

  13. Neuroglobin and cytoglobin: two new members of globin family

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    Priscilla Tosqui

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The globin family has long been defined by myoglobin and hemoglobin, proteins with the functions of oxygen storage and transportation, respectively. Recently, two new members of this family were discovered: neuroglobin present in neurons and retinal cells and cytoglobin found in various types of tissue. The increased expression of these proteins in hypoxic conditions first suggested a role in oxygen supply. However structural and functional differences, such as the hexacoordinated heme, a high autoxidation rate and different concentrations between different cellular types, have dismissed this hypothesis. The protective role of these globins has already been established. In vitro and in vivo studies have demonstrated increased survival of neurons under stress in the presence of neuroglobin and increased resistance to neurodegenerative diseases. However the mechanism remains unknown. Functions, including detoxification of nitric oxide, free radical scavenging and as an antioxidant and signaling of apoptosis, have also been suggested for neuroglobin and an antifibrotic function for cytoglobin.

  14. Circadian behaviour in neuroglobin deficient mice.

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    Christian A Hundahl

    Full Text Available Neuroglobin (Ngb, a neuron-specific oxygen-binding globin with an unknown function, has been proposed to play a key role in neuronal survival. We have previously shown Ngb to be highly expressed in the rat suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN. The present study addresses the effect of Ngb deficiency on circadian behavior. Ngb-deficient and wild-type (wt mice were placed in running wheels and their activity rhythms, endogenous period and response to light stimuli were investigated. The effect of Ngb deficiency on the expression of Period1 (Per1 and the immediate early gene Fos was determined after light stimulation at night and the neurochemical phenotype of Ngb expressing neurons in wt mice was characterized. Loss of Ngb function had no effect on overall circadian entrainment, but resulted in a significantly larger phase delay of circadian rhythm upon light stimulation at early night. A light-induced increase in Per1, but not Fos, gene expression was observed in Ngb-deficient mice. Ngb expressing neurons which co-stored Gastrin Releasing Peptide (GRP and were innervated from the eye and the geniculo-hypothalamic tract expressed FOS after light stimulation. No PER1 expression was observed in Ngb-positive neurons. The present study demonstrates for the first time that the genetic elimination of Ngb does not affect core clock function but evokes an increased behavioural response to light concomitant with increased Per1 gene expression in the SCN at early night.

  15. Neuroglobin, a Factor Playing for Nerve Cell Survival

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    Diego Guidolin

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Cell death represents the final outcome of several pathological conditions of the central nervous system and available evidence suggests that in both acute injuries and neurodegenerative diseases it is often associated with mitochondrial dysfunction. Thus, the possibility to prevent mitochondrial events involved in cell death might represent efficient tools to limit neuronal damage. In recent years, increased attention has been paid to the endogenous protein neuroglobin, since accumulating evidence showed that its high expression was associated with preserved mitochondrial function and to an increased survival of nerve cells in vitro and in vivo in a variety of experimental models of cell insult. The biological and structural features of neuroglobin and the mitochondria-related mechanisms of neuroglobin-induced neuroprotection will be here briefly discussed. In this respect, the inhibition of the intrinsic pathway of apoptosis emerges as a key neuroprotective effect induced by the protein. These findings could open the possibility to develop efficient neuroglobin-mediated therapeutic strategies aimed at minimizing the neuronal cell death occurring in impacting neurological pathologies like stroke and neurodegenerative diseases.

  16. A role for neuroglobin: Resetting the trigger level for apoptosis in neuronal and retinal cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fago, Angela; Mathews, A.J.; Brittain, T.

    2008-01-01

    We propose a new hypothesis for the molecular mechanism by which neuroglobin exerts its protective effect in hypoxia-induced cell death. Our recent observation of a very rapid electron-transfer reaction between ferrous neuroglobin and ferric cytochrome c is central to this hypothesis. In contrast...... apoptotic pathway. Our hypothesis also fits well with a number of previously uncorrelated findings, including the localization of neuroglobin in close proximity to mitochondria, the high concentration of neuroglobin in cells whose basal rates of aerobic metabolism are extremely high, and the cell types...... to previously suggested roles for neuroglobin, related to its putative but unlikely oxygen storage/transport properties or its ability to react with nitrogen oxides, we suggest that ferrous neuroglobin exerts its protective effect via modulation of the early events in the intrinsic apoptotic pathway. We suggest...

  17. Neuroglobin of seals and whales: evidence for a divergent role in the diving brain.

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    Schneuer, M; Flachsbarth, S; Czech-Damal, N U; Folkow, L P; Siebert, U; Burmester, T

    2012-10-25

    Although many physiological adaptations of diving mammals have been reported, little is known about how their brains sustain the high demands for metabolic energy and thus O(2) when submerged. A recent study revealed in the deep-diving hooded seal (Cystophora cristata) a unique shift of the oxidative energy metabolism and neuroglobin, a respiratory protein that is involved in neuronal hypoxia tolerance, from neurons to astrocytes. Here we have investigated neuroglobin in another pinniped species, the harp seal (Pagophilus groenlandicus), and in two cetaceans, the harbor porpoise (Phocoena phocoena) and the minke whale (Balaenoptera acutorostrata). Neuroglobin sequences, expression levels and patterns were compared with those of terrestrial relatives, the ferret (Mustela putorius furo) and the cattle (Bos taurus), respectively. Neuroglobin sequences of whales and seals only differ in two or three amino acids from those of cattle and ferret, and are unlikely to confer functional differences, e.g. in O(2) affinity. Neuroglobin is expressed in the astrocytes also of P. groenlandicus, suggesting that the shift of neuroglobin and oxidative metabolism is a common adaptation in the brains of deep-diving phocid seals. In the cetacean brain neuroglobin resides in neurons, like in terrestrial mammals. However, neuroglobin mRNA expression levels were 4-15 times higher in the brains of harbor porpoises and minke whales than in terrestrial mammals or in seals. Thus neuroglobin appears to play a specific role in diving mammals, but seals and whales have evolved divergent strategies to cope with cerebral hypoxia. The specific function of neuroglobin that conveys hypoxia tolerance may either relate to oxygen supply or protection from reactive oxygen species. The different strategies in seals and whales resulted from a divergent evolution and an independent adaptation to diving. Copyright © 2012 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. The legal status of evidence obtained through human rights ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Constitution of the Republic of Uganda, 1995 is silent on the issue of dealing with evidence obtained through human rights violations. This silence dates to the earlier Constitutions of 1962, 1966 and 1967. It is only the Prohibition and Prevention of Torture Act of 2012 that renders evidence obtained through torture and ...

  19. Reactions of ferrous neuroglobin and cytoglobin with nitrite under anaerobic conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Morten Gjerning; Dewilde, Sylvia; Fago, Angela

    2008-01-01

    hexacoordinate globins from vertebrates expressed in brain and in a variety of tissues, respectively, also react with nitrite under anaerobic conditions. Using absorption spectroscopy, we find that ferrous neuroglobin and nitrite react with a second-order rate constant similar to that of myoglobin, whereas......Recent evidence suggests that the reaction of nitrite with deoxygenated hemoglobin and myoglobin contributes to the generation of nitric oxide and S-nitrosothiols in vivo under conditions of low oxygen availability. We have investigated whether ferrous neuroglobin and cytoglobin, the two...

  20. Neuroglobin Overexpression Inhibits AMPK Signaling and Promotes Cell Anabolism.

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    Cai, Bin; Li, Wenjun; Mao, XiaoOu; Winters, Ali; Ryou, Myoung-Gwi; Liu, Ran; Greenberg, David A; Wang, Ning; Jin, Kunlin; Yang, Shao-Hua

    2016-03-01

    Neuroglobin (Ngb) is a recently discovered globin with preferential localization to neurons. Growing evidence indicates that Ngb has distinct physiological functions separate from the oxygen storage and transport roles of other globins, such as hemoglobin and myoglobin. We found increased ATP production and decreased glycolysis in Ngb-overexpressing immortalized murine hippocampal cell line (HT-22), in parallel with inhibition of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) signaling and activation of acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC). In addition, lipid and glycogen content was increased in Ngb-overexpressing HT-22 cells. AMPK signaling was also inhibited in the brain and heart from Ngb-overexpressing transgenic mice. Although Ngb overexpression did not change glycogen content in whole brain, glycogen synthase was activated in cortical neurons of Ngb-overexpressing mouse brain and Ngb overexpression primary neurons. Moreover, lipid and glycogen content was increased in hearts derived from Ngb-overexpressing mice. These findings suggest that Ngb functions as a metabolic regulator and enhances cellular anabolism through the inhibition of AMPK signaling.

  1. The binding of cytochrome c to neuroglobin: A docking and surface plasmon resonance study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bønding, Signe Helbo; Henty, K.; Dingley, A.J.

    2008-01-01

    . surface plasmon resonance studies provide a value of 45 μM for the equilibrium constant for cytochrome c binding to neuroglobin, which increases significantly as the ionic strength of the solution increases. The temperature dependence of the binding constant indicates that the complex formation...

  2. Regulatory effect of neuroglobin in the recovery of spinal cord injury.

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    Dai, Ji-Lin; Lin, Yun; Yuan, Yong-Jian; Xing, Shi-Tong; Xu, Yi; Zhang, Qiang-Hua; Min, Ji-Kang

    2017-11-16

    The present study was aimed to investigate the therapeutic potential of neuroglobin in the recovery of spinal cord injury. The male albino Wistar strain rats were used as an experimental model, and adeno associated virus (AAV) was administered in the T12 section of spinal cord ten days prior to the injury. Basso Beattie Bresnahan (BBB) locomotor rating scale was used to determine the recovery of the hind limb during four weeks post-operation. Malondialdehyde (MDA), catalase and superoxide dismutase (SOD) were determined in the spinal cord tissues. Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (TdT) dUTP Nick-End Labeling (TUNEL) assay was carried out to determine the presence of apoptotic cells. Immunofluorescence analysis was carried out to determine the neuroglobin expression. Western blot analysis was carried out to determine the protein expressions of caspase-3, cytochrome c, bax and bcl-2 in the spinal cord tissues. Experimental results showed that rats were recovered from the spinal cord injury due to increased neuroglobin expression. Lipid peroxidation was reduced, whereas catalase and SOD activity were increased in the spinal cord tissues. Apoptosis and lesions were significantly reduced in the spinal cord tissues. Caspase-3, cytochrome c and bax levels were significantly reduced, whereas bcl-2 expression was reduced in the spinal cord tissues. Taking all these data together, it is suggested that the increased neuroglobin expression could improve the locomotor function.

  3. Neuroglobin in the rat brain (II): co-localisation with neurotransmitters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hundahl, Christian Ansgar; Kelsen, Jesper; Dewilde, Sylvia

    2008-01-01

    In an accompanying article, we found that neuroglobin (Ngb) was expressed in a few well-defined nuclei in the rat brain. Here, we show by use of immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridisation (ISH) that Ngb co-localise with several specific neurotransmitters. Ngb co-localise consistently with tyr...

  4. The reaction of neuroglobin with potential redox protein partners cytochrome b5  and cytochrome c

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fago, Angela; Mathews, A.J.; Moens, L.

    2006-01-01

    Previously identified, potentially neuroprotective reactions of neuroglobin require the existence of yet unknown redox partners. We show here that the reduction of ferric neuroglobin by cytochrome b5 is relatively slow (k=6×102M-1s-1 at pH 7.0) and thus is unlikely to be of physiological signific...... significance. In contrast, the reaction between ferrous neuroglobin and ferric cytochrome c is very rapid (k=2×107M-1s-1) with an apparent overall equilibrium constant of 1μM. Based on this data we propose that ferrous neuroglobin may well play a role in preventing apoptosis...

  5. Nocardia arizonensis sp. nov., obtained from human respiratory specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasker, Brent A; Bell, Melissa; Klenk, Hans-Peter; Schumann, Peter; Brown, June M

    2015-11-01

    In 2008, three clinical isolates (W9405(T), W9409 and W9575) were obtained from bronchial wash or sputum specimens from patients from the state of Arizona and characterised by polyphasic analysis. All three clinical isolates 16S rRNA gene sequences were found to be 100% identical to each other and showed the strains belong in the genus Nocardia. BLASTn searches in the GenBank database of near full-length 16S rRNA gene sequences showed the highest sequence similarities to the type strains of Nocardia takedensis (98.3%, sequence similarity), Nocardia lijiangensis (97.4%), Nocardia harenae (97.4%), and Nocardia xishanensis (97.1%). The DNA-DNA relatedness between isolate W9405(T) and the type strain of N. takedensis is 26.0 ± 2.4% when measured in silico using genomic DNA sequences. The G+C content of isolate W9405(T) is 68.6 mol%. Chemotaxonomic analyses of the clinical isolates were consistent with their assignment to the genus Nocardia: whole cell hydrolysates contain meso-diaminopimelic acid as the diagnostic diamino acid of peptidoglycan; the whole-cell sugars are arabinose and galactose; the predominant phospholipids include diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylinositol; MK-8-(H4)(ω-cyc) as the major menaquinone; mycolic acids ranging from 38 to 62 carbon atoms; and palmitic acid, tuberculostearic acid, palmitelaidic acid and oleic acid are the major fatty acids. Genus and species specific profiles were obtained following analysis by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectra of the clinical isolates. All isolates were found to be intermediately resistant or resistant to minocycline and resistant to ciprofloxacin but were susceptible to amikacin, imipenem and linezolid. Our polyphasic analysis suggest the three clinical isolates obtained from patients in Arizona represent a novel species of Nocardia for which we propose the name Nocardia arizonensis, with strain W9405(T) (=DSM 45748(T) = CCUG

  6. Restricted expression of Neuroglobin in the mouse retina and co-localization with Melanopsin and Tyrosine Hydroxylase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hundahl, C A; Fahrenkrug, J; Luuk, H

    2012-01-01

    Neuroglobin (Ngb), a neuronal specific oxygen binding heme-globin, reported to be expressed at high levels in most layers of the murine retina. Ngb's function is presently unknown, but based on its high expression level and oxygen binding capabilities Ngb was proposed to function as an oxygen res...

  7. [Photoplethysmograph obtained from a small area of human gingiva].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikawa, M; Yamaki, K; Suzuki, N; Oonuma, M; Horiuchi, H

    1990-03-01

    We have established a method to observe circulation in a small area of the human gingiva. Reflected light photo-plethysmographs (RLP) and transilluminated light photo-plethysmographs (TLP) were recorded from healthy gingiva in 2 young adults of twenties. A tungsten-lamp, connected to a stabilized power source, was used to illuminate the gingiva. The reflected or transilluminated light was collected using a fibre-optic bundle. A CdSe photo-conductive cell was used as the photo-detector. The ECG was recorded simultaneously. The results were as follows: 1) RLP and TLP were both synchronous with the heart beat and showed a dicrotic-notched wave form. 2) When the light-collecting fibre was 0.5 mm from the surface of the gingiva, the dicrotic notch with TLP was clearer than that with RLP. 3) When the light-collecting fibre was placed less than 0.5 mm from the gingival surface, clear dicrotic notches were seen in RLP. 4) When the surface of the gingiva was covered with white opaque paint to prevent transilluminated light, definite dicrotic notches were observed with RLP. 5) RLP was produced mainly by the pulsation of the gingival surface, and the pulsatile movement of the tooth had a little effect on RLP. 6) RLP was consisted from the light reflected from the surface of the gingiva and also from the light reflected after penetrating some distance in the gingival tissue.

  8. Effect of Hemin on Brain Alterations and Neuroglobin Expression in Water Immersion Restraint Stressed Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merhan Ragy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the brain, the heme oxygenase (HO system has been reported to be very active and its modulation seems to play a crucial role in the pathophysiology of neurodegenerative disorders. Hemin as HO-1 inducer has been shown to attenuate neuronal injury so the goal of this study was to assess the effect of hemin therapy on the acute stress and how it would modulate neurological outcome. Thirty male albino rats were divided into three groups: control group and stressed group with six-hour water immersion restraint stress (WIRS and stressed group, treated with hemin, in which each rat received a single intraperitoneal injection of hemin at a dose level of 50 mg/kg body weight at 12 hours before exposure to WIRS. Stress hormones, oxidative stress markers, malondialdehyde (MDA, and total antioxidant capacity (TAC were measured and expressions of neuroglobin and S100B mRNA in brain tissue were assayed. Our results revealed that hemin significantly affects brain alterations induced by acute stress and this may be through increased expression of neuroglobin and through antioxidant effect. Hemin decreased blood-brain barrier damage as it significantly decreased the expression of S100B. These results suggest that hemin may be an effective therapy for being neuroprotective against acute stress.

  9. Restricted expression of Neuroglobin in the mouse retina and co-localization with Melanopsin and Tyrosine Hydroxylase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hundahl, C.A., E-mail: c.hundahl@gmail.com [Department of Clinical Biochemistry, Bispebjerg Hospital, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen (Denmark); Centre of Excellence for Translational Medicine, University of Tartu, Tartu (Estonia); Department of Physiology, University of Tartu, Tartu (Estonia); Department of Neuroscience and Pharmacology, The Panum Institute, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen (Denmark); Fahrenkrug, J. [Department of Clinical Biochemistry, Bispebjerg Hospital, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen (Denmark); Luuk, H. [Centre of Excellence for Translational Medicine, University of Tartu, Tartu (Estonia); Department of Physiology, University of Tartu, Tartu (Estonia); Hay-Schmidt, A. [Department of Neuroscience and Pharmacology, The Panum Institute, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen (Denmark); Hannibal, J. [Department of Clinical Biochemistry, Bispebjerg Hospital, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen (Denmark)

    2012-08-17

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Restricted Neuroglobin expression in the mouse retina. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Antibody validation using Neuroglobin-null mice. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Co-expression of Neuroglobin with Melanopsin and tyrosine hydroxylase. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer No effect of Neuroglobin deficiency on neuronal survival. -- Abstract: Neuroglobin (Ngb), a neuronal specific oxygen binding heme-globin, reported to be expressed at high levels in most layers of the murine retina. Ngb's function is presently unknown, but based on its high expression level and oxygen binding capabilities Ngb was proposed to function as an oxygen reservoir facilitating oxygen metabolism in highly active neurons or to function as a neuroprotectant. In the present study, we re-examined the expression pattern of Ngb in the retina using a highly validated antibody. Furthermore, intactness of retino-hypothalamic projections and the retinal expression level of Melanopsin and Tyrosine Hydroxylase were investigated in Ngb-null mice. Ngb-immunoreactivity was found in a few neurons of the ganglion cell and inner nuclear layers co-expressing Melanopsin and Tyrosine Hydroxylase, respectively. Ngb deficiency neither affected the level of Melanopsin and Tyrosine Hydroxylase proteins nor the intactness of PACAP-positive retinohypothalamic projections in the suprachiasmatic nucleus. Based on the present results, it seems unlikely that Ngb could have a major role in retinal oxygen homeostasis and neuronal survival under normal conditions. The present study suggests that a number of previously published reports have relied on antibodies with dubious specificity.

  10. Neuroglobin attenuates Alzheimer-like tau hyperphosphorylation by activating Akt signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Li-Ming; Xiong, Yan-Si; Kong, Fan-Li; Qu, Min; Wang, Qun; Chen, Xiao-Qian; Wang, Jian-Zhi; Zhu, Ling-Qiang

    2012-01-01

    Neuroglobin (Ngb) is a recently identified member of hemoglobin family, distributed mainly in central and peripheral nervous systems. Recent studies suggest that Ngb can protect neural cells from β-amyloid-induced toxicity in Alzheimer disease (AD). Hyperphosphorylation of tau is another characterized pathological hallmark in the AD brains; however, it is not reported whether Ngb also affects tau phosphorylation. In this study, we found that the level of Ngb was significantly reduced in Tg2576 mice (a recognized mouse model of AD) and TgMAPt mice, and the level of Ngb was negatively correlated with tau phosphorylation. Over-expression of Ngb attenuates tau hyperphosphorylation at multiple AD-related sites induced by up-regulation of glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β), a crucial tau kinase. While Ngb activates Akt and thus inhibits GSK-3β, simultaneously inhibition of Akt abolishes the effects of Ngb on GSK-3β inhibition and tau hyperphosphorylation. Our data indicate that Ngb may attenuate tau hyperphosphorylation through activating Akt signaling pathway, implying a therapeutic target for AD. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Neurochemistry © 2011 International Society for Neurochemistry.

  11. A Formidable Task: Reflections on obtaining legal empirical evidence on human trafficking in Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Hayli Millar; Tamara O'Doherty; Katrin Roots

    2017-01-01

    This article explores the experiences, challenges and findings of two empirical research studies examining Canada’s legal efforts to combat human trafficking. The authors outline the methodologies of their respective studies and reflect on some of the difficulties they faced in obtaining empirical data on human trafficking court cases and legal proceedings. Ultimately, the authors found that Canadian trafficking case law developments are in their early stages with very few convictions, despit...

  12. Human reliability analysis data obtainment through fuzzy logic in nuclear plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nascimento, C.S. do, E-mail: claudio.souza@ctmsp.mar.mil.br [Centro Tecnologico da Marinha em Sao Paulo (CTMSP), Av. Professor Lineu Prestes 2468, 05508-000 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Mesquita, R.N. de, E-mail: rnavarro@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN - SP), Av. Professor Lineu Prestes 2242, 05508-000 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2012-09-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Human Error Probability estimates from operator's reactions to emergency situations. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Human Reliability Analysis input data obtainment through fuzzy logic inference. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Performance Shaping Factors evaluation influence level onto the operator's actions. - Abstract: Human error has been recognized as an important factor for many industrial and nuclear accidents occurrence. Human error data is scarcely available for different reasons among which, lapses in historical database registry methodology is an important one. Human Reliability Analysis (HRA) is an usual tool employed to estimate the probability that an operator will reasonably perform a system required task in required time without degrading the system. This meta-analysis requires specific Human Error Probability estimates for most of its procedure. This work obtains Human Error Probability (HEP) estimates from operator's actions in response to emergency situations hypothesis on Research Reactor IEA-R1 from IPEN, Brazil. Through this proposed methodology HRA should be able to be performed even with shortage of related human error statistical data. A Performance Shaping Factors (PSF's) evaluation in order to classify and estimate their influence level onto the operator's actions and to determine their actual state over the plant was also done. Both HEP estimation and PSF evaluation were done based on expert judgment using interviews and questionnaires. Expert group was established based on selected IEA-R1 operators, and their evaluation were put into a knowledge representation system which used linguistic variables and group evaluation values that were obtained through Fuzzy Logic and Fuzzy Set theory. HEP obtained values show good agreement with literature published data corroborating the proposed methodology as a good alternative to be used on HRA.

  13. First donation of human skin obtained from corpse; Primera donacion de piel humana obtenida de cadaver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reyes F, M.L.; Luna Z, D. [ININ, 52750 La Marquesa, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2007-07-01

    The first donation of human skin coming from a cadaverous donor was obtained in the State of Mexico. The skin was obtained of a 34 year-old multi organic donor, the extraction of the same was carried out in an operating theatre by medical personnel, supported by personal of the Radio sterilized Tissue Bank (BTR) of the ININ. The skin was transported to the BTR for it processing. (Author)

  14. Neuroglobin - a potential biological marker of retinal damage induced by LED light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Z-L; Qiu, S; Chen, X-C; Dai, Z-H; Huang, Y-C; Li, Y-N; Cai, R-H; Lei, H-T; Gu, H-Y

    2014-06-13

    Neuroglobin (NGB), a protein highly expressed in the retina, has been shown to be up-regulated to protect neurons from hypoxic and ischemic injuries. It exhibits neuroprotective functions and plays an important role in the survival of neurons. Recent studies show that light-emitting diode (LED) white light emitted significant amounts of blue light (short-wavelength), which may be harmful to retinal cells, but the studies about biomarkers for evaluating the damage from LED white light are still insufficient. In our study, we found that NGB levels in the retina showed a twofold increase and peaked at 1h after a 1-h exposure to blue light (453 nm) which did not cause damage to the retina. However, retinal damage was observed after 2h of blue-light irradiation, which induced an approximate sevenfold increase of NGB levels as confirmed by Western blot and RT-PCR analysis. Immunofluorescence study demonstrated that NGB was predominantly up-regulated in the ganglion cell layer (GCL), plexiform layer (PL) and photoreceptor layer (PRL). We also examined Ngb mRNA and protein expression in the damaged retina induced by light of other wavelengths given equal photon fluxes. The LED red light (625 nm), green light (527 nm) and blue light (453 nm) increased the expression of NGB and caused TdT-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling-positive cells, especially in the blue-light group. In addition, a negative correlation between NGB and rhodopsin was observed. These findings suggested that there was a correlation between NGB expression and the severity of the retinal damage, indicating NGB's potential function as a biological marker of retinal damage induced by LED light. Copyright © 2014 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Involvement of decreased neuroglobin protein level in cognitive dysfunction induced by 1-bromopropane in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Ying; Yuan, Hua; Jiang, Lulu; Yang, Junlin; Zeng, Tao; Xie, Keqin; Zhang, Cuili; Zhao, Xiulan

    2015-03-10

    1-Bromopropane (1-BP) is used as a substitute for ozone-depleting solvents (ODS) in industrial applications. 1-BP could display central nervous system (CNS) neurotoxicity manifested by cognitive dysfunction. Neuroglobin (Ngb) is an endogenous neuroprotectant and is predominantly expressed in the nervous system. The present study aimed to investigate Ngb involvement in CNS neurotoxicity induced by 1-BP in rats. Male Wistar rats were randomly divided into 5 groups (n=14) and treated with 0, 100, 200, 400 and 800 mg/kg bw 1-BP, respectively, by gavage for consecutive 12 days. Rats displayed cognitive dysfunction dose-dependently through Morris water maze (MWM) test. Significant neuron loss in layer 5 of the prelimbic cortex (PL) was observed. Moreover, 1-BP decreased Ngb protein level in cerebral cortex and Ngb decrease was significantly positively correlated with cognitive dysfunction. Glutathione (GSH) content, GSH/oxidized glutathione (GSSG) ratio and glutamate cysteine ligase (GCL) activity decreased in cerebral cortex, coupled with the increase in GSSG content. GSH and GSH/GSSG ratio decrease were significantly positively correlated with cortical Ngb decrease. Additionally, levels of N-epsilon-hexanoyl-lysine (HEL) and 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (4-HNE) modified proteins in cerebral cortex of 1-BP-treated rats increased significantly. In conclusion, it was suggested that 1-BP resulted in decreased endogenous neuroprotectant Ngb in cerebral cortex, which might play an important role in CNS neurotoxicity induced by 1-BP and that 1-BP-induced oxidative stress in cerebral cortex might partly be responsible for Ngb decrease. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Replacement of murine fibroblasts by human fibroblasts irradiated in obtaining feeder layer for the culture of human keratinocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshito, Daniele; Sufi, Bianca S.; Santin, Stefany P.; Mathor, Monica B. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Altran, Silvana C.; Isaac, Cesar [Universidade Sao Paulo (USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Medicina. Lab. de Microcirurgia Plastica; Esteves-Pedro, Natalia M. [Universidade Sao Paulo (USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Ciencias Farmaceuticas. Lab. de Controle Biologico; Herson, Marisa R. [DonorTissue Bank of Victoria (Australia)

    2011-07-01

    Human autologous epithelia cultivated in vitro, have been used successfully in treating damage to skin integrity. The methodology allowed the cultivation of these epithelia was described by Rheinwald and Green in 1975, this methodology consisted in seeding keratinocytes onto a feeder layer composed of lineage 3T3 murine fibroblasts, the proliferation rate is controlled through the action of ionizing radiation. However, currently there is a growing concern about the possibility of transmitting prions and murine viruses to transplanted patients. Taking into account this concern, in this present work, we replaced the feeder layer originally composed of murine fibroblasts by human fibroblasts. To obtain this new feeder layer was necessary to standardize the enough irradiation dose to inhibit the replication of human fibroblasts and the verification of effectiveness of the development of keratinocytes culture on a feeder layer thus obtained. According to the obtained results we can verify that the human fibroblasts irradiated at various tested doses (60, 70, 100, 200, 250 and 300 Gy) had their mitotic activity inactivated by irradiation, allowing the use of any of these doses to confection of the feeder layer, since these fibroblasts irradiated still showed viable until fourteen days of cultivation. In the test of colony formation efficiency was observed that keratinocytes seeded on irradiated human fibroblasts were able to develop satisfactorily, preserving their clonogenic potential. Therefore it was possible the replacement of murine fibroblasts by human fibroblasts in confection of the feeder layer, in order to eliminate this xenobiotic component of the keratinocytes culture. (author)

  17. Improvement of the method of obtaining human IgA Fc-fragments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Y. Galkin

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available To address a number of fundamental and applied problems in immunology, molecular and cellular biology and biotechnology it is necessary to obtain Fc-fragments of immunoglobulins. Fc-fragments may be used for studying of the effector functions of antibodies which are mediated by these areas. They are often used as an immunogen to produce anti-specie (based on so-called secondary antibody conjugate in the development of serological tests for diagnostics (predominantly such conjugate based on monoclonal antibodies. The work is aimed to develop improved methods of obtaining and allocation of Fc-fragments of human IgA. To achieve this objective, optimization of hydrolysis of IgA with subsequent purification of Fс-fragments have been carried out. Improved method of obtaining Fc-fragments of IgA provides: papain hydrolysis of immunoglobulin in the environment of nitrogen for 4 h, allowing to achieve maximum output of Fc-fragments without their further degradation: isolation and purification of Fc-fragments of human IgA by one-stage gel filtration on sephadex G-100; control of purity of the target product by electrophoresis in polyacrylamide gel with sodium dodecyl sulfate and Ouchterlony immunodiffusion. Enzymatic hydrolysis was carried out at the optimal temperature of papain (37 °C. As the oxygen in the air may have inhibitory effect on enzymatic hydrolysis reaction, the reaction mixture was incubated in the nitrogen atmosphere to prevent inactivation of papain. To reduce the incident degradation of immunoglobulin molecules, papain hydrolysis was carried out without using an enzyme activator (cysteine. Usage of the proposed scheme allows obtaining Fc-fragments of human IgA of high purity. Outcome of Fc-fragments after all stages of purification was about 18% of the initial amount of IgA in the preparation. Molecular weight from Fc-fragments of human IgA was equal to approximately 70 kDa.

  18. Obtaining Human Ischemic Stroke Gene Expression Biomarkers from Animal Models: A Cross-species Validation Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yingying; Cai, Yunpeng

    2016-07-13

    Recent studies have revealed the systematic altering of gene expression in human peripheral blood during the early stages of ischemic stroke, which suggests a new potential approach for the rapid diagnosis or prediction of stroke onset. Nevertheless, due to the difficulties of collecting human samples during proper disease stages, related studies are rather restricted. Many studies have instead been performed on manipulated animal models for investigating the regulation patterns of biomarkers during different stroke stages. An important inquiry is how well the findings of animal models can be replicated in human cases. Here, a method is proposed based on PageRank scores of miRNA-mRNA interaction network to select ischemic stroke biomarkers derived from rat brain samples, and biomarkers are validated with two human peripheral blood gene expression datasets. Hierarchical clustering results revealed that the achieved biomarkers clearly separate the blood gene expression of stroke patients and healthy people. Literature searches and functional analyses further validated the biological significance of these biomarkers. Compared to the traditional methods, such as differential expression, the proposed approach is more stable and accurate in detecting cross-species biomarkers with biological relevance, thereby suggesting an efficient approach of re-using gene biomarkers obtained from animal-model studies for human diseases.

  19. A Formidable Task: Reflections on obtaining legal empirical evidence on human trafficking in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayli Millar

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the experiences, challenges and findings of two empirical research studies examining Canada’s legal efforts to combat human trafficking. The authors outline the methodologies of their respective studies and reflect on some of the difficulties they faced in obtaining empirical data on human trafficking court cases and legal proceedings. Ultimately, the authors found that Canadian trafficking case law developments are in their early stages with very few convictions, despite a growing number of police-reported charges. The authors assert it is difficult to assess the efficacy and effects of Canadian anti-trafficking laws and policies due to the institutional and political limitations to collecting legal data in this highly politicised subject area. They conclude with five recommendations to increase the transparency of Canada’s public claims about its anti-trafficking enforcement efforts and call for more empirically-based law reform.

  20. Immunofluorescence microscopy of paraffin-embedded human kidney specimens obtained by fine-needle aspiration biopsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rantala, I; Laasonen, A; Pasternack, A; Mustonen, J

    1983-04-01

    Recently, we have introduced an atraumatic fine-needle aspiration biopsy method to obtain human glomeruli for morphologic investigation. In the present study, immunofluorescence microscopy of paraffin-embedded, fine-needle specimens is described. The specimens were obtained by aspiration with a 10-mL syringe fitted to the fine-needle prepared from a lumbar puncture needle (Jintan Terumo). Embedding of the specimens into conventional paraffin blocks was carried out after pelleting them by centrifugation between processing steps in conical centrifuge tubes. Sections from the blocks were collected on small pieces of GelBond film (FMC Corporation) instead of objective slides, which prevented the detachment of small sections during enzyme treatment. Localization then was performed on deparaffinized trypsin-digested sections using fluorescein-labeled antibodies. The choice of fixative and digestive enzymes was found to have a marked effect on the localization; periodate-lysine-paraformaldehyde fixative and trypsin digestion gave the most reliable results.

  1. Strategies to Obtain Diverse and Specific Human Monoclonal Antibodies From Transgenic Animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brüggemann, Marianne; Osborn, Michael J; Ma, Biao; Buelow, Roland

    2017-08-01

    Techniques to obtain large quantities of antigen-specific monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) were first established in the 1970s when Georges Köhler and César Milstein immortalized antibody-producing mouse B-lymphocytes by fusion with myeloma cells (http://www.whatisbiotechnology.org/exhibitions/milstein). Combined with the expression of human antibodies in transgenic animals, this technique allowed upon immunization the generation of highly specific fully human mAbs for therapeutic applications. Apart from being extremely beneficial, mAbs are a huge success commercially. However, despite cell fusion generating many useful mAbs questions have been asked about which types of cells are prone to fuse and whether other methods may identify a wider range of binders. The discovery that expression libraries, using Escherichia coli or yeast, produced different specificities was intriguing and more recently Next-Generation Sequencing has identified wide-ranging usage with highly diverse and unique repertoires. Another strategy is the combination of flow cytometry sorting of antigen-binding B lymphocytes and single-cell reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction followed by reexpression, which has identified many high-affinity mAbs.

  2. PDGF-BB Preserves Mitochondrial Morphology, Attenuates ROS Production, and Upregulates Neuroglobin in an Astrocytic Model Under Rotenone Insult.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabezas, Ricardo; Vega-Vela, Nelson E; González-Sanmiguel, Juliana; González, Janneth; Esquinas, Paula; Echeverria, Valentina; Barreto, George E

    2017-05-02

    Platelet-derived growth factor, subtype BB (PDGF-BB) is a mitogenic growth factor produced in different cell types such as platelets, fibroblasts, neurons, and astrocytes. Previous reports have shown that different PDGF isoforms exert a neuroprotective effect in neurons and astrocytes against multiple degenerative insults. Previously, we showed that pretreatment with PDGF-BB for 24 h increased cell viability, preserved nuclear morphology and mitochondrial membrane potential following stimulation with rotenone, and reduced free radical production nearly to control conditions. In the present study, we explored the potential mechanisms associated with PDGF-BB protection against oxidative damage. Our results showed that PDGF-BB protected astrocytic cells through multiple responses, including decrease in the expression of cytoskeleton proteins, attenuated free radicals (reactive oxygen species (ROS)) production, preservation of mitochondrial ultrastructure, and improved expression of neuroglobin (Ngb1). In summary, these findings point out that PDGF-BB protects astrocytic cells by a reduction in ROS production and activation of antioxidant mechanisms.

  3. A Possible Role of Neuroglobin in the Retina After Optic Nerve Injury: A Comparative Study of Zebrafish and Mouse Retina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugitani, Kayo; Koriyama, Yoshiki; Ogai, Kazuhiro; Wakasugi, Keisuke; Kato, Satoru

    2016-01-01

    Neuroglobin (Ngb) is a new member of the family of heme proteins and is specifically expressed in neurons of the central and peripheral nervous systems in all vertebrates. In particular, the retina has a 100-fold higher concentration of Ngb than do other nervous tissues. The role of Ngb in the retina is yet to be clarified. Therefore, to understand the functional role of Ngb in the retina after optic nerve injury (ONI), we used two types of retina, from zebrafish and mice, which have permissible and non-permissible capacity for nerve regeneration after ONI, respectively. After ONI, the Ngb protein in zebrafish was upregulated in the amacrine cells within 3 days, whereas in the mouse retina, Ngb was downregulated in the retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) within 3 days. Zebrafish Ngb (z-Ngb) significantly enhanced neurite outgrowth in retinal explant culture. According to these results, we designed an overexpression experiment with the mouse Ngb (m-Ngb) gene in RGC-5 cells (retinal precursor cells). The excess of m-Ngb actually rescued RGC-5 cells under hypoxic conditions and significantly enhanced neurite outgrowth in cell culture. These data suggest that mammalian Ngb has positive neuroprotective and neuritogenic effects that induce nerve regeneration after ONI.

  4. Mitochondrial distribution of neuroglobin and its response to oxygen-glucose deprivation in primary-cultured mouse cortical neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Z; Xu, J; Liu, N; Wang, Y; Li, X; Pallast, S; van Leyen, K; Wang, X

    2012-08-30

    Neuroglobin (Ngb) is a new member of the globin family and a novel endogenous neuroprotective molecule, but its neuroprotective mechanisms remain largely undefined. Previous studies suggest Ngb is both physically and functionally related to mitochondria, however without direct evidence. Our recent discovery has shown that Ngb can physically interact with a number of mitochondrial proteins. In this study we aimed to define the physical interaction between Ngb and mitochondria by determining whether there is a mitochondrial distribution of Ngb under both physiological-resting and pathological oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) conditions. Western blot for the first time revealed a small portion of Ngb was physically localized in mitochondria, and the relative mitochondrial Ngb level was significantly increased after OGD in primary-cultured mouse cortical neurons, indicating a translocation of Ngb into mitochondria. Complementary approaches including confocal imaging and immuno-electron microscopy confirmed Ngb distribution in mitochondria under both basal-resting condition and OGD. Inhibitors of mitochondria permeability transition pore (mPTP) and Voltage-Dependent Anion Channel (VDAC) blocked OGD-induced increase of mitochondrial Ngb level, demonstrating a possible role of mPTP in Ngb's mitochondrial translocation. We further found that Ngb overexpression-conferred neuroprotection was correlated with increased mitochondrial Ngb level, suggesting the mitochondria distribution of Ngb is clearly associated with and may contribute to Ngb's neuroprotection. Copyright © 2012 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. [Vestibular influences on human locomotion: results obtained using galvanic vestibular stimulation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolbkov, Iu K; Gerasimenko, Iu P

    2014-06-01

    Locomotion is the most important mode of our movement in space. The role of the vestibular system during human locomotion is not well studied, mainly due to problems associated with its isolation stimulation. It is difficult to stimulate this system in isolation during locomotion because the real movement of the head to activate the vestibular end-organs inevitably leads to the activation of other sensory inputs. Galvanic stimulation is not a natural way to stimulate the vestibular system, but it has the advantage providing an isolated stimulation of the vestibular inputs. This technique is relatively novel in the examination of vestibular contributions during human locomotion. In our review we consider the current data regarding the effect of vestibular signals on human locomotion by using galvanic vestibular stimulation.

  6. Doxorubicin and cisplatin induce apoptosis in ovarian stromal cells obtained from cryopreserved human ovarian tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabbri, Raffaella; Macciocca, Maria; Vicenti, Rossella; Paradisi, Roberto; Klinger, Francesca Gioia; Pasquinelli, Gianandrea; Spisni, Enzo; Seracchioli, Renato; Papi, Alessio

    2016-07-01

    To investigate mechanisms by which doxorubicin (DOX) and cisplatin (CIS) cause human ovarian stroma injury. Stromal cells from human cryopreserved ovarian tissue were cultured in the presence of 1 µM DOX and 10 µM CIS. Ovarian damage induced by treatments was evaluated by 'Live/Dead' and sulforhodamine-B assays, the expression of different apoptosis markers. Stromal cell growth was inhibited by DOX and CIS, and this effect was accompanied by apoptosis through mitochondrial pathway activation: Bax, cleaved-caspase 9, cleaved-PARP1 induction and Akt1, Bcl2, phospho-44/42-MAPK/ERK1/2 reduction were observed. DOX and CIS induced apoptosis in human ovarian stromal cells. Knowledge of mechanisms by which the drugs act is important to identify possible ways to counteract side effects of chemotherapy on ovaries.

  7. Restricted varicella-zoster virus transcription in human trigeminal ganglia obtained soon after death

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W.J.D. Ouwendijk (Werner ); A. Choe (Alexander); M.A. Nagel (Maria ); D. Gilden (Don); A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert); R.J. Cohrs (Randall ); G.M.G.M. Verjans (George)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractWe analyzed the varicella-zoster virus (VZV) transcriptome in 43 latently infected human trigeminal ganglia (TG) with postmortem intervals (PMIs) ranging from 3.7 to 24 h. Multiplex reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR) revealed no VZV transcripts with a PMI of <9 h. Real-time PCR indicated

  8. EXPLANTATION OF MESANGIAL CELL HILLOCKS - A METHOD FOR OBTAINING HUMAN MESANGIAL CELLS IN CULTURE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    MULLER, EW; KIM, Y; MICHAEL, AF; VERNIER, RL; VANDERHEM, GK; VANDERWOUDE, FJ

    A simple method is presented for selective cell culture of human mesangial cells using explanatation of mesangial cell hillocks. Glomeruli which had been incubated with collagenase were explanted on plastic tissue culture flasks. Three to 6 weeks after explantation, a rapidly growing multilayer of

  9. Neuroglobin overexpression inhibits oxygen-glucose deprivation-induced mitochondrial permeability transition pore opening in primary cultured mouse cortical neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Zhanyang; Liu, Ning; Li, Yadan; Xu, Jianfeng; Wang, Xiaoying

    2013-08-01

    Neuroglobin (Ngb) is an endogenous neuroprotective molecule against hypoxic/ischemic brain injury, but the underlying mechanisms remain largely undefined. Our recent study revealed that Ngb can bind to voltage-dependent anion channel (VDAC), a regulator of mitochondria permeability transition (MPT). In this study we examined the role of Ngb in MPT pore (mPTP) opening following oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) in primary cultured mouse cortical neurons. Co-immunoprecipitation (Co-IP) and immunocytochemistry showed that the binding between Ngb and VDAC was increased after OGD compared to normoxia, indicating the OGD-enhanced Ngb-VDAC interaction. Ngb overexpression protected primary mouse cortical neurons from OGD-induced neuronal death, to an extent comparable to mPTP opening inhibitor, cyclosporine A (CsA) pretreatment. We further measured the role of Ngb in OGD-induced mPTP opening using Ngb overexpression and knockdown approaches in primary cultured neurons, and recombinant Ngb exposure to isolated mitochondria. Same as CsA pretreatment, Ngb overexpression significantly reduced OGD-induced mPTP opening markers including mitochondria swelling, mitochondrial NAD(+) release, and cytochrome c (Cyt c) release in primary cultured neurons. Recombinant Ngb incubation significantly reduced OGD-induced NAD(+) release and Cyt c release from isolated mitochondria. In contrast, Ngb knockdown significantly increased OGD-induced neuron death, and increased OGD-induced mitochondrial NAD(+) release and Cyt c release as well, and these outcomes could be rescued by CsA pretreatment. In summary, our results demonstrated that Ngb overexpression can inhibit OGD-induced mPTP opening in primary cultured mouse cortical neurons, which may be one of the molecular mechanisms of Ngb's neuroprotection. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Draft genome sequences of 9 LA-MRSA ST5 isolates obtained from humans after short term swine contact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livestock associated methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (LA-MRSA) sequence type 5 have raised concerns surrounding the potential for these isolates to colonize or cause disease in humans with swine contact. Here, we report draft genome sequences for 9 LA-MRSA ST5 isolates obtained from huma...

  11. Interpretation of recurring weak associations obtained from epidemiologic studies of suspected human teratogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoury, M J; James, L M; Flanders, W D; Erickson, J D

    1992-07-01

    Epidemiological studies of suspected human teratogens not infrequently lead to recurring weak or moderate associations (relative risks or odds ratios ranging from greater than 1 to 3 for adverse effects and from 1/3 to less than 1 for protective effects) between specific defects and prenatal exposures. Examples of such associations include cigarette smoking and oral clefts (odds ratios between 1 and 2) and periconceptional multivitamin/folic acid supplementation and neural tube defects (odds ratios from 1/3 to 1). In this paper, we illustrate that low relative risk recurring in well-designed studies may reflect underlying biologic mechanisms and should not be readily dismissed. Low relative risks could be the result of a combination of the following factors: 1) unmeasured confounding, 2) exposure misclassification (often related to the inability to pinpoint relevant dose and timing), 3) outcome misclassification (related to the etiologic heterogeneity of birth defects), 4) biologic interactions (related to teratogenic effects in population subgroups defined by genetic susceptibility or the presence of other exposures), and 5) differential prenatal survival (related to the combined impact of the exposure and the defect on prenatal survival). These issues can be addressed in epidemiologic studies by using biological markers of exposure and susceptibility, dysmorphologic evaluation of affected infants, subgroup analysis for etiologic heterogeneity, a search for biologic interactions, and the use of prospective cohort studies. Finally, low relative risks in the face of common exposures can reflect an important public health contribution of the exposure to the occurrence of the defect in the population.

  12. Sequencing and Analysis of Globally Obtained Human Respiratory Syncytial Virus A and B Genomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bose, Michael E.; He, Jie; Shrivastava, Susmita; Nelson, Martha I.; Bera, Jayati; Halpin, Rebecca A.; Town, Christopher D.; Lorenzi, Hernan A.; Noyola, Daniel E.; Falcone, Valeria; Gerna, Giuseppe; De Beenhouwer, Hans; Videla, Cristina; Kok, Tuckweng; Venter, Marietjie; Williams, John V.; Henrickson, Kelly J.

    2015-01-01

    Background Human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the leading cause of respiratory tract infections in children globally, with nearly all children experiencing at least one infection by the age of two. Partial sequencing of the attachment glycoprotein gene is conducted routinely for genotyping, but relatively few whole genome sequences are available for RSV. The goal of our study was to sequence the genomes of RSV strains collected from multiple countries to further understand the global diversity of RSV at a whole-genome level. Methods We collected RSV samples and isolates from Mexico, Argentina, Belgium, Italy, Germany, Australia, South Africa, and the USA from the years 1998-2010. Both Sanger and next-generation sequencing with the Illumina and 454 platforms were used to sequence the whole genomes of RSV A and B. Phylogenetic analyses were performed using the Bayesian and maximum likelihood methods of phylogenetic inference. Results We sequenced the genomes of 34 RSVA and 23 RSVB viruses. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the RSVA genome evolves at an estimated rate of 6.72 × 10-4 substitutions/site/year (95% HPD 5.61 × 10-4 to 7.6 × 10-4) and for RSVB the evolutionary rate was 7.69 × 10-4 substitutions/site/year (95% HPD 6.81 × 10-4 to 8.62 × 10-4). We found multiple clades co-circulating globally for both RSV A and B. The predominant clades were GA2 and GA5 for RSVA and BA for RSVB. Conclusions Our analyses showed that RSV circulates on a global scale with the same predominant clades of viruses being found in countries around the world. However, the distribution of clades can change rapidly as new strains emerge. We did not observe a strong spatial structure in our trees, with the same three main clades of RSV co-circulating globally, suggesting that the evolution of RSV is not strongly regionalized. PMID:25793751

  13. Evaluation of radiographic magnification in lateral cephalograms obtained with different X-ray devices: experimental study in human dry skull

    OpenAIRE

    José Rino Neto; João Batista de Paiva; Gilberto Vilanova Queiroz; Miguel Ferragut Attizzani; Hiroshi Miasiro Junior

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of the magnification factor of the radiographic image in angular, linear and proportional measurements. METHODS: From a dried human skull where metallic spheres with predetermined size were fixed (1.0 mm), 14 radiographs were obtained in devices of three different manufacturers: Panoura, Instrumentarium and Tomeceph. The Pearson correlation test was used to investigate the relationship between the rate of radiographic magnific...

  14. Evaluation of radiographic magnification in lateral cephalograms obtained with different X-ray devices: experimental study in human dry skull.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rino Neto, José; de Paiva, João Batista; Queiroz, Gilberto Vilanova; Attizzani, Miguel Ferragut; Miasiro Junior, Hiroshi

    2013-03-15

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of the magnification factor of the radiographic image in angular, linear and proportional measurements. From a dried human skull where metallic spheres with predetermined size were fixed (1.0 mm), 14 radiographs were obtained in devices from three different manufacturers: Panoura, Instrumentarium and Tomeceph. The Pearson correlation test was used to investigate the relationship between the rate of radiographic magnification and the cephalometric measurements assessed. According to the results, the linear measurements showed a high positive correlation, pointing out great influence of the magnification factor, while the angular and proportional measurements did not correlate. Comparisons between linear cephalometric measurements obtained with different devices from the same manufacturer showed maximum rates of expansion of 0.6%, 1.25% and 2.3%, respectively, for the devices from Instrumentarium (OP-100, Instrumentarium, Finland), Panoura (10CSU, Yoshida, Japan) and Satelec/Tomeceph (XMind, Satelec/Tomeceph Orion Corporation, Finland).

  15. The amino-terminal structure of human fragile X mental retardation protein obtained using precipitant-immobilized imprinted polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yufeng; Chen, Zhenhang; Fu, Yanjun; He, Qingzhong; Jiang, Lun; Zheng, Jiangge; Gao, Yina; Mei, Pinchao; Chen, Zhongzhou; Ren, Xueqin

    2015-03-01

    Flexibility is an intrinsic property of proteins and essential for their biological functions. However, because of structural flexibility, obtaining high-quality crystals of proteins with heterogeneous conformations remain challenging. Here, we show a novel approach to immobilize traditional precipitants onto molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) to facilitate protein crystallization, especially for flexible proteins. By applying this method, high-quality crystals of the flexible N-terminus of human fragile X mental retardation protein are obtained, whose absence causes the most common inherited mental retardation. A novel KH domain and an intermolecular disulfide bond are discovered, and several types of dimers are found in solution, thus providing insights into the function of this protein. Furthermore, the precipitant-immobilized MIPs (piMIPs) successfully facilitate flexible protein crystal formation for five model proteins with increased diffraction resolution. This highlights the potential of piMIPs for the crystallization of flexible proteins.

  16. Adeno-associated virus-mediated neuroglobin overexpression ameliorates the N-methyl-N-nitrosourea-induced retinal impairments: a novel therapeutic strategy against photoreceptor degeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Y

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Ye Tao,1,* Zhen Yang,2,* Wei Fang,2 Zhao Ma,3 Yi Fei Huang,1 Zhengwei Li4 1Department of Ophthalmology, Key Lab of Ophthalmology and Visual Science, Chinese PLA General Hospital, Beijing, 2Department of Neurosurgery, Institute for Functional Brain Disorders, Tangdu Hospital, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi’an, 3Department of Neurosurgery, Central Hospital of Wuhan, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, 4Department of Neurosurgery, Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Retinal degeneration (RD is a heterogeneous group of inherited dystrophies leading to blindness. The N-methyl-N-nitrosourea (MNU-administered mouse is used as a pharmacologically induced RD animal model in various therapeutic investigations. The present study found the retinal neuroglobin (NGB expression in the MNU-administered mice was significantly lower than in normal controls, suggesting NGB was correlated with RD. Subsequently, an adeno-associated virus (AAV-2-mCMV-NGB vector was delivered into the subretinal space of the MNU-administered mice. The retinal NGB expression of the treated eye was upregulated significantly in both protein and mRNA levels. Further, we found NGB overexpression could alleviate visual impairments and morphological devastations in MNU-administered mice. NGB overexpression could rectify apoptotic abnormalities and ameliorate oxidative stress in MNU-administered mice, thereby promoting photoreceptor survival. The cone photoreceptors in MNU-administered mice were also sensitive to AAV-mediated NGB overexpression. Taken together, our findings suggest that manipulating NGB bioactivity via gene therapy may represent a novel therapeutic strategy against RD. Future elucidation of the exact role of NGB would advance our knowledge about the pathological mechanisms underlying RD. Keywords: neuroglobin, retinal degeneration

  17. Seeding for sirtuins: microseed matrix seeding to obtain crystals of human Sirt3 and Sirt2 suitable for soaking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rumpf, Tobias [Albert-Ludwigs-University Freiburg, Albertstrasse 25, 79104 Freiburg, Baden-Württemberg (Germany); Gerhardt, Stefan; Einsle, Oliver, E-mail: einsle@biochemie.uni-freiburg.de [Albert-Ludwigs-University Freiburg, Albertstrasse 21, 79104 Freiburg, Baden-Württemberg (Germany); Jung, Manfred, E-mail: einsle@biochemie.uni-freiburg.de [Albert-Ludwigs-University Freiburg, Albertstrasse 25, 79104 Freiburg, Baden-Württemberg (Germany)

    2015-11-18

    In the present study, microseed matrix seeding was successfully applied to obtain a large number of crystals of the human sirtuin isotypes Sirt2 and Sirt3. These crystals appeared predictably in diverse crystallization conditions, diffracted to a higher resolution than reported in the literature and were subsequently used to study the protein–ligand interactions of two indole inhibitors. Sirtuins constitute a family of NAD{sup +}-dependent enzymes that catalyse the cleavage of various acyl groups from the ∊-amino group of lysines. They regulate a series of cellular processes and their misregulation has been implicated in various diseases, making sirtuins attractive drug targets. To date, only a few sirtuin modulators have been reported that are suitable for cellular research and their development has been hampered by a lack of structural information. In this work, microseed matrix seeding (MMS) was used to obtain crystals of human Sirt3 in its apo form and of human Sirt2 in complex with ADP ribose (ADPR). Crystal formation using MMS was predictable, less error-prone and yielded a higher number of crystals per drop than using conventional crystallization screening methods. The crystals were used to solve the crystal structures of apo Sirt3 and of Sirt2 in complex with ADPR at an improved resolution, as well as the crystal structures of Sirt2 in complex with ADPR and the indoles EX527 and CHIC35. These Sirt2–ADPR–indole complexes unexpectedly contain two indole molecules and provide novel insights into selective Sirt2 inhibition. The MMS approach for Sirt2 and Sirt3 may be used as the basis for structure-based optimization of Sirt2/3 inhibitors in the future.

  18. A feeder- and xeno-free human induced pluripotent stem cell line obtained from primary human dermal fibroblasts with epigenetic repression of reprogramming factors expression: GPCCi001-A

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał Stefan Lach

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The primary human dermal fibroblasts (PHDFs from breast cancer patient were obtained to generate the human induced pluripotent stem cell line GPCCi001-A via lentiviral transfection. Thus, a modified EF1a-hSTEMCCA-loxP with tetO operator which regulates transgene expression was used. This method takes advantage of epigenetic regulation of transcription and allows for stable silencing of the reprogramming factors in obtained hiPS cells. To increase the potential utility of hiPSCs for clinical applications, they were adapted to feeder- and xeno-free conditions. The pluripotency of GPCCi001-A cell line and ability to differentiate into three germ layers was confirmed.

  19. Seeding for sirtuins: microseed matrix seeding to obtain crystals of human Sirt3 and Sirt2 suitable for soaking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumpf, Tobias; Gerhardt, Stefan; Einsle, Oliver; Jung, Manfred

    2015-12-01

    Sirtuins constitute a family of NAD(+)-dependent enzymes that catalyse the cleavage of various acyl groups from the ℇ-amino group of lysines. They regulate a series of cellular processes and their misregulation has been implicated in various diseases, making sirtuins attractive drug targets. To date, only a few sirtuin modulators have been reported that are suitable for cellular research and their development has been hampered by a lack of structural information. In this work, microseed matrix seeding (MMS) was used to obtain crystals of human Sirt3 in its apo form and of human Sirt2 in complex with ADP ribose (ADPR). Crystal formation using MMS was predictable, less error-prone and yielded a higher number of crystals per drop than using conventional crystallization screening methods. The crystals were used to solve the crystal structures of apo Sirt3 and of Sirt2 in complex with ADPR at an improved resolution, as well as the crystal structures of Sirt2 in complex with ADPR and the indoles EX527 and CHIC35. These Sirt2-ADPR-indole complexes unexpectedly contain two indole molecules and provide novel insights into selective Sirt2 inhibition. The MMS approach for Sirt2 and Sirt3 may be used as the basis for structure-based optimization of Sirt2/3 inhibitors in the future.

  20. Obtaining source current density related to irregularly structured electromagnetic target field inside human body using hybrid inverse/FDTD method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jijun; Yang, Deqiang; Sun, Houjun; Xin, Sherman Xuegang

    2017-01-01

    Inverse method is inherently suitable for calculating the distribution of source current density related with an irregularly structured electromagnetic target field. However, the present form of inverse method cannot calculate complex field-tissue interactions. A novel hybrid inverse/finite-difference time domain (FDTD) method that can calculate the complex field-tissue interactions for the inverse design of source current density related with an irregularly structured electromagnetic target field is proposed. A Huygens' equivalent surface is established as a bridge to combine the inverse and FDTD method. Distribution of the radiofrequency (RF) magnetic field on the Huygens' equivalent surface is obtained using the FDTD method by considering the complex field-tissue interactions within the human body model. The obtained magnetic field distributed on the Huygens' equivalent surface is regarded as the next target. The current density on the designated source surface is derived using the inverse method. The homogeneity of target magnetic field and specific energy absorption rate are calculated to verify the proposed method.

  1. Isolation and Characterization of Human Dental Pulp Stem Cells from Cryopreserved Pulp Tissues Obtained from Teeth with Irreversible Pulpitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malekfar, Azin; Valli, Kusum S; Kanafi, Mohammad Mahboob; Bhonde, Ramesh R

    2016-01-01

    Human dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) are becoming an attractive target for therapeutic purposes because of their neural crest origin and propensity. Although DPSCs can be successfully cryopreserved, there are hardly any reports on cryopreservation of dental pulp tissues obtained from teeth diagnosed with symptomatic irreversible pulpitis during endodontic treatment and isolation and characterization of DPSCs from such cryopreserved pulp. The aim of this study was to cryopreserve the said pulp tissues to propagate and characterize isolated DPSCs. A medium consisting of 90% fetal bovine serum and 10% dimethyl sulfoxide was used for cryopreservation of pulp tissues. DPSCs were isolated from fresh and cryopreserved pulp tissues using an enzymatic method. Cell viability and proliferation were determined using the MTT [3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide] assay. DPSC migration and interaction were analyzed with the wound healing assay. Mesenchymal characteristics of DPSCs were verified by flow cytometric analysis of cell surface CD markers. The osteogenic and adipogenic potential of DPSCs was shown by von Kossa and oil red O staining methods, respectively, and the polymerase chain reaction method. We found no significant difference in CD marker expression and osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation potential of DPSCs obtained from fresh and cryopreserved dental pulp tissue. Our study shows that dental pulp can be successfully cryopreserved without losing normal characteristics and differentiation potential of their DPSCs, thus making them suitable for dental banking and future therapeutic purposes. Copyright © 2016 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Evaluation of radiographic magnification in lateral cephalograms obtained with different X-ray devices: experimental study in human dry skull

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Rino Neto

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of the magnification factor of the radiographic image in angular, linear and proportional measurements. METHODS: From a dried human skull where metallic spheres with predetermined size were fixed (1.0 mm, 14 radiographs were obtained in devices of three different manufacturers: Panoura, Instrumentarium and Tomeceph. The Pearson correlation test was used to investigate the relationship between the rate of radiographic magnification and the cephalometric measurements assessed. RESULTS: According to the results, the linear measurements showed a high positive correlation, pointing out great influence of the magnification factor, while the angular and proportional measurements did not correlate. CONCLUSIONS: Comparisons between linear cephalometric measurements obtained with different devices from the same manufacturer showed maximum rates of expansion of 0.6%, 1.25% and 2.3%, respectively, for the devices from Instrumentarium (OP-100, Instrumentarium, Finland, Panoura (10CSU, Yoshida, Japan and Satelec/Tomeceph (XMind, Satelec/Tomeceph Orion Corporation, Finland.

  3. Pathological changes in acute experimental toxoplasmosis with Toxoplasma gondii strains obtained from human cases of congenital disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinheiro, Breno Veloso; Noviello, Maria de Lourdes Meirelles; Cunha, Mariana Maciel; Tavares, Alice Thomaz; Carneiro, Ana Carolina Aguiar Vasconcelos; Arantes, Rosa Maria Esteves; Vitor, Ricardo Wagner Almeida

    2015-09-01

    There is a lack of studies using Toxoplasma gondii strains isolated from human patients. Here, we present a pathological study of three strains obtained from human cases of congenital toxoplasmosis in Brazil using inbred mice after oral infection with 10 tissue cysts. Multiplex-nested PCR-RFLP of eleven loci revealed atypical genotypes commonly found in Brazil: toxodb #8 for TgCTBr5 and TgCTBr16 strains and toxodb #11 for the TgCTBr9 strain. BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice were evaluated for survival and histological changes during the acute phase of the disease. All mice inoculated with the non-virulent TgCTBR5 strain survived after 30 days, although irreversible tissue damage was found. In contrast, no mice were resistant to infection with the highly virulent TgCTBR9 strain. The TgCTBr16 strain resulted in 80% survival in mice. However, this strain presented low infectivity, especially by the oral route of infection. Despite being identified with the same genotype, TgCTBr5 and TgCTBr16 strains showed biological differences. Histopathologic analysis revealed liver and lungs to be the most affected organs, and the pattern of tissue injury was similar to that found in mice inoculated perorally with strains belonging to clonal genotypes. However, there was a variation in the intensity of ileum lesions according to T. gondii strain and mouse lineage. C57BL/6 mice showed higher susceptibility than BALB/c for histological lesions. Taken together, these results revealed that the pathogenesis of T. gondii strains belonging to atypical genotypes can induce similar tissue damage to those from clonal genotypes, although intrinsic aspects of the strains seem critical to the induction of ileitis in the infected host. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Comparative study of biological properties between mucosal stem cells and mesenchymal stem cells obtained from human fallopian tube

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiao-jiao WANG

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective To explore whether there are stem cells in the endosalpinx, and to compare the biological properties between the mucosal stem cells (MuSCs and mesenchymal stem cells (MeSCs obtained from the fallopian tube for the purpose of providing experimental basis for clinical application. Methods In this study, we isolated, cultured and amplified human MuSCs and MeSCs in vitro, and compared the cell morphology, cell phenotype, colony forming efficiency, proliferation and differentiation capacities of MuSCs and MeSCs. Results Both MeSCs and MuSCs showed a similar elongated morphology, but the arrangement of MuSCs were more uniform than that of MeSCs. MuSCs showed a significantly higher proliferation capacity compared with MeSCs. Colony forming unit-fibroblast analysis further showed that more colonies formed with MuSCs than that of MeSCs, with a significant statistical difference. However, FTMSC and FMSC showed similar immunophenotypes. In vitro assays revealed that both types of cells showed the potential of adipogenic, osteogenic, and chondrogenic differentiation. Conclusions Stem cells were found in the fallopian tube mucosa, and MuSCs have stronger proliferation capacity than MeSCs, thus they possess a higher value for clinical application. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2015.04.08

  5. Distinct chromatographic forms of human hemi-myeloperoxidase obtained by reductive cleavage of the dimeric enzyme. Evidence for subunit heterogeneity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, K L; Guzman, G S; Pohl, J; Kinkade, J M

    1990-09-15

    The enzyme myeloperoxidase (MPO) is a functionally important glycoprotein of neutrophilic granulocytes and occurs in three major isoforms (forms 1, 2, and 3) that are dimeric structures composed of two heavy subunit-light subunit protomers, each of which is associated with a chlorine-like prosthetic group. In the present study, highly purified MPO isoforms were obtained from the cells of a single normal donor, and each protein was subjected to reductive alkylation under nondenaturing conditions. The resulting enzymatically active protomers were separated from unreacted dimer using gel filtration chromatography. Use of a fast protein liquid chromatography cation exchange system with a Mono S matrix revealed heterogeneity of the protomers, and allowed essentially complete resolution of the protomers of MPO form 2. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of the two resolved protomeric species under reducing conditions revealed small but reproducible differences in the Mr of their heavy subunits (59,000 and 57,000). Treatment with either endo-beta-N-acetylglucosaminidase or peptide N-glycohydrolase F reduced the Mr of each heavy subunit by approximately 3000 but did not change their relative electrophoretic mobilities. Heavy and light subunits were prepared from each of the MPO isoforms by reductive alkylation under conditions that allowed full retention of the prosthetic group with the heavy subunit. Reverse-phase chromatography and amino-terminal sequencing showed that each MPO isoform contained one major species of light subunit and several minor species. No differences in peroxidatic activity or inhibition by salicylhydroxamic acid were observed among any of the MPO isoforms or resolved protomers, but the latter were considerably more heat labile than dimeric forms of the enzyme and a monomeric form isolated from HL-60 cells. This is the first report of the isolation and partial characterization of distinct protomers from a single isoform of human

  6. Translocation and neuroprotective properties of transactivator-of-transcription protein-transduction domain-neuroglobin fusion protein in primary cultured cortical neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Guo-Yu; Zhou, Sheng-Nian; Lou, Zhi-Yin; Zhu, Can-Sheng; Zheng, Xue-Ping; Hu, Xue-Qiang

    2008-01-01

    Ngb (neuroglobin) is a newly discovered hexaco-ordinate globin that is expressed in vertebrate brain and peripheral nervous systems. Expression of Ngb increases in response to oxygen deprivation and protects neurons from hypoxia in vitro and in vivo. However, the lack of its transduction ability into cells resulted in limited neuroprotection. To educe its neuroprotection under hypoxia, a cell-permeable Ngb fusion protein was generated. A rat brain Ngb gene was cloned and fused with a gene fragment encoding the nine-amino-acid TAT PTD (transactivator-of-transcription protein-transduction domain; RKKRRQRRR) of HIV-1 in a prokaryotic expression vector to generate a genetic in-frame N-terminal hexahistidine-tagged) TAT PTD-Ngb fusion protein. It was expressed in soluble form in Escherichia coli BL21(DE3)plysS and purified with Ni(2+)-affinity chromatography. The results showed that the purified fusion protein TAT PTD-Ngb can enter into the primary cultured cortical neurons in a dose-dependent manner when added exogenously to the culture media and can be detected in cells within 48 h. The cell viability under hypoxia was increased and apoptosis induced by hypoxia was decreased after TAT PTD-Ngb was transduced into cortical neurons. The results provide a clue for the research of Ngb and suggest that transduction of TAT PTD-Ngb may be one of the ways for the therapy of CNS (central nervous system) diseases, especially cerebrovascular diseases and neurodegenerative diseases.

  7. Whole genome sequencing of Mycobacterium bovis to obtain molecular fingerprints in human and cattle isolates from Baja California, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarai Estrella Sandoval-Azuara

    2017-10-01

    Conclusions: All isolates from humans had spoligotype patterns that matched those observed in the cattle isolates, and all human isolates shared common ancestors with cattle in Baja California based on SNP analysis. This suggests that most human tuberculosis caused by M. bovis in Baja California is derived from M. bovis circulating in Baja California cattle. These results reinforce the importance of bovine tuberculosis surveillance and control in this region.

  8. Human cancer cells express Slug-based epithelial-mesenchymal transition gene expression signature obtained in vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastassiou Dimitris

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The biological mechanisms underlying cancer cell motility and invasiveness remain unclear, although it has been hypothesized that they involve some type of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT. Methods We used xenograft models of human cancer cells in immunocompromised mice, profiling the harvested tumors separately with species-specific probes and computationally analyzing the results. Results Here we show that human cancer cells express in vivo a precise multi-cancer invasion-associated gene expression signature that prominently includes many EMT markers, among them the transcription factor Slug, fibronectin, and α-SMA. We found that human, but not mouse, cells express the signature and Slug is the only upregulated EMT-inducing transcription factor. The signature is also present in samples from many publicly available cancer gene expression datasets, suggesting that it is produced by the cancer cells themselves in multiple cancer types, including nonepithelial cancers such as neuroblastoma. Furthermore, we found that the presence of the signature in human xenografted cells was associated with a downregulation of adipocyte markers in the mouse tissue adjacent to the invasive tumor, suggesting that the signature is triggered by contextual microenvironmental interactions when the cancer cells encounter adipocytes, as previously reported. Conclusions The known, precise and consistent gene composition of this cancer mesenchymal transition signature, particularly when combined with simultaneous analysis of the adjacent microenvironment, provides unique opportunities for shedding light on the underlying mechanisms of cancer invasiveness as well as identifying potential diagnostic markers and targets for metastasis-inhibiting therapeutics.

  9. Mouse p53-deficient cancer models as platforms for obtaining genomic predictors of human cancer clinical outcomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Dueñas

    Full Text Available Mutations in the TP53 gene are very common in human cancers, and are associated with poor clinical outcome. Transgenic mouse models lacking the Trp53 gene or that express mutant Trp53 transgenes produce tumours with malignant features in many organs. We previously showed the transcriptome of a p53-deficient mouse skin carcinoma model to be similar to those of human cancers with TP53 mutations and associated with poor clinical outcomes. This report shows that much of the 682-gene signature of this murine skin carcinoma transcriptome is also present in breast and lung cancer mouse models in which p53 is inhibited. Further, we report validated gene-expression-based tests for predicting the clinical outcome of human breast and lung adenocarcinoma. It was found that human patients with cancer could be stratified based on the similarity of their transcriptome with the mouse skin carcinoma 682-gene signature. The results also provide new targets for the treatment of p53-defective tumours.

  10. Mouse p53-Deficient Cancer Models as Platforms for Obtaining Genomic Predictors of Human Cancer Clinical Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dueñas, Marta; Santos, Mirentxu; Aranda, Juan F.; Bielza, Concha; Martínez-Cruz, Ana B.; Lorz, Corina; Taron, Miquel; Ciruelos, Eva M.; Rodríguez-Peralto, José L.; Martín, Miguel; Larrañaga, Pedro; Dahabreh, Jubrail; Stathopoulos, George P.; Rosell, Rafael; Paramio, Jesús M.; García-Escudero, Ramón

    2012-01-01

    Mutations in the TP53 gene are very common in human cancers, and are associated with poor clinical outcome. Transgenic mouse models lacking the Trp53 gene or that express mutant Trp53 transgenes produce tumours with malignant features in many organs. We previously showed the transcriptome of a p53-deficient mouse skin carcinoma model to be similar to those of human cancers with TP53 mutations and associated with poor clinical outcomes. This report shows that much of the 682-gene signature of this murine skin carcinoma transcriptome is also present in breast and lung cancer mouse models in which p53 is inhibited. Further, we report validated gene-expression-based tests for predicting the clinical outcome of human breast and lung adenocarcinoma. It was found that human patients with cancer could be stratified based on the similarity of their transcriptome with the mouse skin carcinoma 682-gene signature. The results also provide new targets for the treatment of p53-defective tumours. PMID:22880004

  11. Sphere-Derived Multipotent Progenitor Cells Obtained From Human Oral Mucosa Are Enriched in Neural Crest Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Shigehiro; Yamaguchi, Satoshi; Sato, Yutaka; Harada, Kiyoshi

    2016-01-01

    : Although isolation of oral mucosal stromal stem cells has been previously reported, complex isolation methods are not suitable for clinical application. The neurosphere culture technique is a convenient method for the isolation of neural stem cells and neural crest stem cells (NCSCs); neurosphere generation is a phenotype of NCSCs. However, the molecular details underlying the isolation and characterization of human oral mucosa stromal cells (OMSCs) by neurosphere culture are not understood. The purpose of the present study was to isolate NCSCs from oral mucosa using the neurosphere technique and to establish effective in vivo bone tissue regeneration methods. Human OMSCs were isolated from excised human oral mucosa; these cells formed spheres in neurosphere culture conditions. Oral mucosa sphere-forming cells (OMSFCs) were characterized by biological analyses of stem cells. Additionally, composites of OMSFCs and multiporous polylactic acid scaffolds were implanted subcutaneously into immunocompromised mice. OMSFCs had the capacity for self-renewal and expressed neural crest-related markers (e.g., nestin, CD44, slug, snail, and MSX1). Furthermore, upregulated expression of neural crest-related genes (EDNRA, Hes1, and Sox9) was observed in OMSFCs, which are thought to contain an enriched population of neural crest-derived cells. The expression pattern of α2-integrin (CD49b) in OMSFCs also differed from that in OMSCs. Finally, OMSFCs were capable of differentiating into neural crest lineages in vitro and generating ectopic bone tissues even in the subcutaneous region. The results of the present study suggest that OMSFCs are an ideal source of cells for the neural crest lineage and hard tissue regeneration. The sphere culture technique is a convenient method for isolating stem cells. However, the isolation and characterization of human oral mucosa stromal cells (OMSCs) using the sphere culture system are not fully understood. The present study describes the

  12. Mathematical Model for Localised and Surface Heat Flux of the Human Body Obtained from Measurements Performed with a Calorimetry Minisensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Socorro, Fabiola; Rodríguez de Rivera, Pedro Jesús; Rodríguez de Rivera, Miriam; Rodríguez de Rivera, Manuel

    2017-11-28

    The accuracy of the direct and local measurements of the heat power dissipated by the surface of the human body, using a calorimetry minisensor, is directly related to the calibration rigor of the sensor and the correct interpretation of the experimental results. For this, it is necessary to know the characteristics of the body's local heat dissipation. When the sensor is placed on the surface of the human body, the body reacts until a steady state is reached. We propose a mathematical model that represents the rate of heat flow at a given location on the surface of a human body by the sum of a series of exponentials: W ( t ) = A ₀ + ∑A i exp( -t / τ i ). In this way, transient and steady states of heat dissipation can be interpreted. This hypothesis has been tested by simulating the operation of the sensor. At the steady state, the power detected in the measurement area (4 cm²) varies depending on the sensor's thermostat temperature, as well as the physical state of the subject. For instance, for a thermostat temperature of 24 °C, this power can vary between 100-250 mW in a healthy adult. In the transient state, two exponentials are sufficient to represent this dissipation, with 3 and 70 s being the mean values of its time constants.

  13. Mathematical Model for Localised and Surface Heat Flux of the Human Body Obtained from Measurements Performed with a Calorimetry Minisensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Socorro, Fabiola; Rodríguez de Rivera, Pedro Jesús; Rodríguez de Rivera, Miriam

    2017-01-01

    The accuracy of the direct and local measurements of the heat power dissipated by the surface of the human body, using a calorimetry minisensor, is directly related to the calibration rigor of the sensor and the correct interpretation of the experimental results. For this, it is necessary to know the characteristics of the body’s local heat dissipation. When the sensor is placed on the surface of the human body, the body reacts until a steady state is reached. We propose a mathematical model that represents the rate of heat flow at a given location on the surface of a human body by the sum of a series of exponentials: W(t) = A0 + ∑Aiexp(−t/τi). In this way, transient and steady states of heat dissipation can be interpreted. This hypothesis has been tested by simulating the operation of the sensor. At the steady state, the power detected in the measurement area (4 cm2) varies depending on the sensor’s thermostat temperature, as well as the physical state of the subject. For instance, for a thermostat temperature of 24 °C, this power can vary between 100–250 mW in a healthy adult. In the transient state, two exponentials are sufficient to represent this dissipation, with 3 and 70 s being the mean values of its time constants. PMID:29182567

  14. Mathematical Model for Localised and Surface Heat Flux of the Human Body Obtained from Measurements Performed with a Calorimetry Minisensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiola Socorro

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The accuracy of the direct and local measurements of the heat power dissipated by the surface of the human body, using a calorimetry minisensor, is directly related to the calibration rigor of the sensor and the correct interpretation of the experimental results. For this, it is necessary to know the characteristics of the body’s local heat dissipation. When the sensor is placed on the surface of the human body, the body reacts until a steady state is reached. We propose a mathematical model that represents the rate of heat flow at a given location on the surface of a human body by the sum of a series of exponentials: W(t = A0 + ∑Aiexp(−t/τi. In this way, transient and steady states of heat dissipation can be interpreted. This hypothesis has been tested by simulating the operation of the sensor. At the steady state, the power detected in the measurement area (4 cm2 varies depending on the sensor’s thermostat temperature, as well as the physical state of the subject. For instance, for a thermostat temperature of 24 °C, this power can vary between 100–250 mW in a healthy adult. In the transient state, two exponentials are sufficient to represent this dissipation, with 3 and 70 s being the mean values of its time constants.

  15. Characterization of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus CC398 obtained from humans and animals on dairy farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fessler, Andrea T; Olde Riekerink, Richard G M; Rothkamp, Anja; Kadlec, Kristina; Sampimon, Otlis C; Lam, Theo J G M; Schwarz, Stefan

    2012-11-09

    In this study MRSA isolates from dairy farms were investigated for their genetic relationships and antimicrobial susceptibility. In total, 125 MRSA isolates from 26 dairy farms were studied, including isolates from milk samples (n=46), dairy cattle (n=24), calves (n=6), dust samples from pig (n=16) and veal calf sheds (n=1), dogs (n=2), a horse, a sheep and humans (n=28). CC398-specific PCRs, spa typing, SCCmec typing and ApaI macrorestriction analysis were conducted. Susceptibility testing was performed by broth microdilution. All 125 isolates belonged to CC398. Eight spa types (t011, t108, t034, t567, t1184, t1451, t2287 and t3934) were detected. SCCmec elements of types IV (n=48) and V (n=67) were identified with 10 isolates being non-typeable. Six main macrorestriction patterns - with up to 23 sub-patterns - and twelve resistance patterns were identified. Sixty-eight isolates showed a multiresistance phenotype. Farm-by-farm analysis revealed different scenarios: in some farms, the MRSA CC398 isolates from dairy cattle, humans, pig sheds and/or sheep were indistinguishable suggesting an interspecies exchange of the same MRSA CC398 subtype. In other farms, several MRSA CC398 subtypes were detected in different host species/sources with occasionally even more than one MRSA CC398 subtype from the same host species/source. These latter results may suggest that either different MRSA subtypes associated with humans or animals have been imported into the respective farm or that one MRSA CC398 strain has undergone diversification, reflected by more or less expanded changes in PFGE patterns, spa type or resistance pattern, during colonization of different hosts on the same farm. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Ultrastructural study of the mycelial phase of clinical isolates of Sporothrix schenckii obtained from feline, canine and human cases of sporotrichosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Martins Madrid

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Using transmission electron microscopy, we studied the presence of melanin and cell wall thickness of clinical isolates of Sporothrix schenckii obtained from cats, dogs and humans as compared to reference strains. We detected differences regarding presence of the melanin among the clinical isolates of S. schenckii and a correlation between presence of melanin and cell wall thickness.

  17. Analysis of the temporal relationship between human immunodeficiency virus type 1 quasispecies in sequential blood samples and various organs obtained at autopsy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van't Wout, A. B.; Ran, L. J.; Kuiken, C. L.; Kootstra, N. A.; Pals, S. T.; Schuitemaker, H.

    1998-01-01

    We studied the temporal relationship between human immunodeficiency type 1 (HIV-1) quasispecies in tissues and in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) of infected individuals. Sequential PBMC and tissue samples from various organs obtained at autopsy from three patients who died of AIDS-related

  18. New data on histology and physico-mechanical properties of human tooth tissue obtained with acoustic microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maev, Roman Gr; Denisova, Lyudmila A; Maeva, Elena Yu; Denissov, Alexey A

    2002-01-01

    Quantitative evaluation of human tooth structural elements, revealed in acoustic images, has been carried out. It has been shown that tissue elements with different acoustic impedances differed in acoustic images by intensity of grey color, and also feature with different longitudinal sound velocities (C(L)). In the layer of mantle dentin, C(L) is 7% to 8% lower than in bulk dentin, and in the layer of dentin around the pulp chamber, C(L) is 15% lower. In carious enamel and dentin, C(L) decreases up to 7% to 17%. In pathologic teeth, dentin areas with higher density can be revealed; they feature higher C(L); in transparent dentin C(L) can be 15% to 20% higher than in bulk dentin. Results of the present study show that acoustic images reflect internal biomechanical properties of tooth tissue microstructure that can be evaluated quantitatively by means of longitudinal sound velocity determination.

  19. An improved technique for obtaining E rosettes with human lymphocytes and its use for B cell purification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hokland, P; Hokland, M; Heron, I

    1977-01-01

    with the three methods, the lymphocyte-erythrocyte suspensions were sedimented on Ficoll-Isopaque to deplete them of rosette-forming cells and red cells. The purified lymphocyte preparations were tested for B and T cell markers to determine the degree of contamination with T cells. One of the improved rosetting...... methods was clearly better than the others, and led to the recovery of B lymphocytes with a contamination of only 2.0+/-1.9 per cent of T lymphocytes. Udgivelsesdato: 1976-null......The standard E rosette method and two previously described methods claimed to give improved E rosetting for enumeration of human T lymphocytes have been compared with respect to the speed of rosette formation, and the mechanical stability of the rosettes formed. Following rosette formation...

  20. A distribution analysis of action potential parameters obtained from patch-clamped human stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando López-Redondo

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available We investigated electrophysiological properties of human induced-pluripotent-stem-cell-derived and embryonic-stem-cell-derived cardiomyocytes, and analyzed action potential parameters by plotting their frequency distributions. In the both cell lines, the distribution analysis revealed that histograms of maximum upstroke velocity showed two subpopulations with similar intersection values. Sub-populations with faster maximum upstroke velocity showed significant prolongation of action potential durations by application of E-4031, whereas others did not, which may be partly due to shallower maximum diastolic potentials. We described electrophysiological and pharmacological properties of stem-cell-derived cardiomyocytes in the respective sub-populations, which provides a way to characterize diverse electrical properties of stem-cell-derived cardiomyocytes systematically.

  1. Trematodes obtained from the thiarid freshwater snail Melanoides tuberculata (Müller, 1774 as vector of human infections in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duangduen Krailas

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Larval stages of trematodes obtained from the freshwater snail Melanoides tuberculata (Cerithioidea, Thiaridae as intermediate host were studied by using cercarial emergence and crushing snails. Between December 2004 and September 2009 snails from one hundred twenty locations in Thailand were collected every two months for one year at each sampling site. Counts per unit of time method was used in this study, and the samples of snails were collected every 10 minutes per sampling by five collectors. The cercarial stages were examined using shedding and crushing methods. The infection rate was found to be 18.79%, i.e. 6,019 animals infected in a total of 32,026. Nine different types in eighteen species of cercariae were categorized, viz. are (1 Parapleurophocercous cercariae: Haplorchis pumilio, Haplorchis taichui, and Stictodora tridactyla; (2 Pleurophocercous cercariae: Centrocestus formosanus; (3 Xiphidiocercariae: Acanthatrium hitaense, Loxogenoides bicolor, and Haematoloechus similis; (4 Megalurous cercariae: Cloacitrema philippinum and Philophthalmus sp.; (5 Furcocercous cercariae: Cardicola alseae, Alaria mustelae, Transversotrema laruei, Apatemon gracilis, and Mesostephanus appendiculatus; (6 Echinostome cercariae: Echinochasmus pelecani; (7 Amphistome cercariae: Gastrothylax crumenifer; (8 Renicolid cercariae: Cercaria caribbea LXVIII; and, (9 Cotylomicrocercous cercariae: Podocotyle (Podocotyle lepomis.

  2. Human red blood cell recognition enhancement with three-dimensional morphological features obtained by digital holographic imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaferzadeh, Keyvan; Moon, Inkyu

    2016-12-01

    The classification of erythrocytes plays an important role in the field of hematological diagnosis, specifically blood disorders. Since the biconcave shape of red blood cell (RBC) is altered during the different stages of hematological disorders, we believe that the three-dimensional (3-D) morphological features of erythrocyte provide better classification results than conventional two-dimensional (2-D) features. Therefore, we introduce a set of 3-D features related to the morphological and chemical properties of RBC profile and try to evaluate the discrimination power of these features against 2-D features with a neural network classifier. The 3-D features include erythrocyte surface area, volume, average cell thickness, sphericity index, sphericity coefficient and functionality factor, MCH and MCHSD, and two newly introduced features extracted from the ring section of RBC at the single-cell level. In contrast, the 2-D features are RBC projected surface area, perimeter, radius, elongation, and projected surface area to perimeter ratio. All features are obtained from images visualized by off-axis digital holographic microscopy with a numerical reconstruction algorithm, and four categories of biconcave (doughnut shape), flat-disc, stomatocyte, and echinospherocyte RBCs are interested. Our experimental results demonstrate that the 3-D features can be more useful in RBC classification than the 2-D features. Finally, we choose the best feature set of the 2-D and 3-D features by sequential forward feature selection technique, which yields better discrimination results. We believe that the final feature set evaluated with a neural network classification strategy can improve the RBC classification accuracy.

  3. Human bones obtained from routine joint replacement surgery as a tool for studies of plutonium, americium and {sup 90}Sr body-burden in general public

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mietelski, Jerzy W., E-mail: jerzy.mietelski@ifj.edu.pl [Henryk Niewodniczanski Institute of Nuclear Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Radzikowskiego 152, 31-342 Cracow (Poland); Golec, Edward B. [Traumatology and Orthopaedic Clinic, 5th Military Clinical Hospital and Polyclinic, Independent Public Healthcare Facility, Wroclawska 1-3, 30-901 Cracow (Poland); Orthopaedic Rehabilitation Department, Chair of Clinical Rehabilitation, Faculty of Motor of the Bronislaw Czech' s Academy of Physical Education, Cracow (Poland); Department of Physical Therapy Basics, Faculty of Physical Therapy, Administration College, Bielsko-Biala (Poland); Tomankiewicz, Ewa [Henryk Niewodniczanski Institute of Nuclear Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Radzikowskiego 152, 31-342 Cracow (Poland); Golec, Joanna [Orthopaedic Rehabilitation Department, Chair of Clinical Rehabilitation, Faculty of Motor of the Bronislaw Czech' s Academy of Physical Education, Cracow (Poland); Physical Therapy Department, Institute of Physical Therapy, Faculty of Heath Science, Jagiellonian University, Medical College, Cracow (Poland); Nowak, Sebastian [Traumatology and Orthopaedic Clinic, 5th Military Clinical Hospital and Polyclinic, Independent Public Healthcare Facility, Wroclawska 1-3, 30-901 Cracow (Poland); Orthopaedic Rehabilitation Department, Chair of Clinical Rehabilitation, Faculty of Motor of the Bronislaw Czech' s Academy of Physical Education, Cracow (Poland); Szczygiel, Elzbieta [Physical Therapy Department, Institute of Physical Therapy, Faculty of Heath Science, Jagiellonian University, Medical College, Cracow (Poland); Brudecki, Kamil [Henryk Niewodniczanski Institute of Nuclear Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Radzikowskiego 152, 31-342 Cracow (Poland)

    2011-06-15

    The paper presents a new sampling method for studying in-body radioactive contamination by bone-seeking radionuclides such as {sup 90}Sr, {sup 239+240}Pu, {sup 238}Pu, {sup 241}Am and selected gamma-emitters, in human bones. The presented results were obtained for samples retrieved from routine surgeries, namely knee or hip joints replacements with implants, performed on individuals from Southern Poland. This allowed to collect representative sets of general public samples. The applied analytical radiochemical procedure for bone matrix is described in details. Due to low concentrations of {sup 238}Pu the ratio of Pu isotopes which might be used for Pu source identification is obtained only as upper limits other then global fallout (for example Chernobyl) origin of Pu. Calculated concentrations of radioisotopes are comparable to the existing data from post-mortem studies on human bones retrieved from autopsy or exhumations. Human bones removed during knee or hip joint surgery provide a simple and ethical way for obtaining samples for plutonium, americium and {sup 90}Sr in-body contamination studies in general public. - Highlights: > Surgery for joint replacement as novel sampling method for studying in-body radioactive contamination. > Proposed way of sampling is not causing ethic doubts. > It is a convenient way of collecting human bone samples from global population. > The applied analytical radiochemical procedure for bone matrix is described in details. > The opposite patient age correlations trends were found for 90Sr (negative) and Pu, Am (positive).

  4. The comparison of two methods to obtain human oral keratinocytes in primary culture; Comparacao de dois metodos de obtencao celular para cultura primaria de queratinocitos bucais humanos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klingbeil, Maria Fatima Guarizo

    2006-07-01

    The therapeutic procedures frequently used in oral treatments for the pathological diseases are surgical, resulting in failures of the mucosal continuity.The possibility to obtain transplantable oral epithelia from an in vitro cell culture opens new utilization perspectives not only to where it comes from, but also as a reconstructive material for other parts of the human body, such as: urethra, epithelia corneo-limbal, cornea, ocular surface. Many researchers still use controversial methods for obtaining cells. It was therefore evaluated and compared the efficiency in both methods: enzymatic and direct explant to obtain oral keratinocytes from human oral mucosa. Fragments of intra oral epithelial tissues from healthy human subjects, undergoing dental surgeries, were donated to the research project. The keratinocytes were cultivated over a feeder-layer from a previously irradiated 3T3 Swiss albino fibroblasts. In this study it was compared the time needed in the cell obtention, the best cell amount between both methods, the life-span, the cell capacity to form an in vitro epithelia and its morphologic structure. The results in the assessment of both methods have shown the possibility to obtain keratinocytes from a small oral fragment, but at the same time we may verify the advantages and peculiar restrictions for each one of both analyzed methods. (author)

  5. Human bones obtained from routine joint replacement surgery as a tool for studies of plutonium, americium and ⁹⁰Sr body-burden in general public.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mietelski, Jerzy W; Golec, Edward B; Tomankiewicz, Ewa; Golec, Joanna; Nowak, Sebastian; Szczygiel, Elżbieta; Brudecki, Kamil

    2011-06-01

    The paper presents a new sampling method for studying in-body radioactive contamination by bone-seeking radionuclides such as (90)Sr, (239+240)Pu, (238)Pu, (241)Am and selected gamma-emitters, in human bones. The presented results were obtained for samples retrieved from routine surgeries, namely knee or hip joints replacements with implants, performed on individuals from Southern Poland. This allowed to collect representative sets of general public samples. The applied analytical radiochemical procedure for bone matrix is described in details. Due to low concentrations of (238)Pu the ratio of Pu isotopes which might be used for Pu source identification is obtained only as upper limits other then global fallout (for example Chernobyl) origin of Pu. Calculated concentrations of radioisotopes are comparable to the existing data from post-mortem studies on human bones retrieved from autopsy or exhumations. Human bones removed during knee or hip joint surgery provide a simple and ethical way for obtaining samples for plutonium, americium and (90)Sr in-body contamination studies in general public. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. [Designing of hybrid human interferon alfa-2 strain-producers and the use of enteropeptidase for obtaining N-terminal methionine-free interferons].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirokov, D A; Riabichenko, V V; Akishina, R I; Ospel'nikova, T P; Glazunov, A V; Chestukhina, G G; Veĭko, V P

    2011-01-01

    A system for production of human interferon-alpha2a (IFN-alpha2a) and IFN-alpha2b lacking N-terminal methionine has been developed. Plasmids containing genes of hybrid IFN-alpha2 under the control of different promoters were constructed; a sequence encoding the enteropeptidase hydrolysis site being introduced in proximal part of the genes. As the result, 4 strains of Escherichia coli producing hybrid IFN-alpha2 have been obtained. The methodology for IFN-alpha2 renaturation, hydrolysis of its N-terminal part, chromatographic purification of N-terminal methionine-free IFN-alpha2 has been developed.

  7. Framework for combining REACH and national regulations to obtain equal protection levels of human health and the environment in different countries - Comparative study of Denmark and Korea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lee, Jihyun; Pedersen, Anders Branth; Thomsen, Marianne

    2013-01-01

    be included in REACH exposure scenarios in order to obtain territorially relevant chemical safety assessments (CSAs) were explored. The advantage of linking the REACH exposure scenarios with background environmental quality data reported under other national regulations is discussed. The main question is how...... is obliged to adopt REACH, while Korea implemented REACH to improve the competitiveness of Korean industry within the EU market. It is presented how differences in national regulations and environmental qualities in these two countries affect background human exposure concentrations. Choosing lead as a model...

  8. Antigenic fractions from Taenia crassiceps metacestodes obtained by hydrophobicity for the immunodiagnosis of active and inactive forms of neurocysticercosis in human cerebrospinal fluid samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Gabriela B; Nunes, Daniela S; de Sousa, José Eduardo N; Gonçalves-Pires, Maria do R F; Levenhagen, Marcelo A; Costa-Cruz, Julia M

    2017-04-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the total extract of Taenia crassiceps metacestodes (TC) and its antigenic fractions obtained by Triton X-114 fractionation techniques, such as detergent (DC) and aqueous (AC), in the immunodiagnosis of human neurocysticercosis (NCC). Cerebrospinal fluid samples were divided into two groups: Group 1 (n=40), which was further divided into active (n=20) and inactive (n=20) NCC, and Group 2 (control group), which comprised 39 CSF samples from patients who had another neurological disorder, were suffering from other infectious diseases of the brain or had other parasitic infections. The total extracts and antigenic fractions were tested by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to detect human IgG anti-Taenia solium. T. crassiceps fractions (DC and AC) showed the same value of sensitivity (Se), 100%, for active and inactive NCC and a specificity (Sp) of 97.4%. The DS fraction obtained from T. solium showed 100% Se for active NCC, 95% Se for inactive NCC and a 92.3% Sp. The AS fraction obtained from T. solium showed 100% Se for both active and inactive NCC and a 94.9% Sp. There was a positive correlation between the total saline extract of T. crassiceps (TC) and T. solium (TS) and their fractions (DC, AC, DS and AS). Positive predictive value, negative predictive value, diagnostic efficiency and Youden index were calculated. In conclusion, these results demonstrated that detergent and aqueous fractions obtained from T. crassiceps metacestodes are important sources of specific antigens and are efficient for immunodiagnosis of active and inactive NCC. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Theoretical assessment of the maximum obtainable power in wireless power transfer constrained by human body exposure limits in a typical room scenario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xi Lin; De Santis, Valerio; Umenei, Aghuinyue Esai

    2014-07-07

    In this study, the maximum received power obtainable through wireless power transfer (WPT) by a small receiver (Rx) coil from a relatively large transmitter (Tx) coil is numerically estimated in the frequency range from 100 kHz to 10 MHz based on human body exposure limits. Analytical calculations were first conducted to determine the worst-case coupling between a homogeneous cylindrical phantom with a radius of 0.65 m and a Tx coil positioned 0.1 m away with the radius ranging from 0.25 to 2.5 m. Subsequently, three high-resolution anatomical models were employed to compute the peak induced field intensities with respect to various Tx coil locations and dimensions. Based on the computational results, scaling factors which correlate the cylindrical phantom and anatomical model results were derived. Next, the optimal operating frequency, at which the highest transmitter source power can be utilized without exceeding the exposure limits, is found to be around 2 MHz. Finally, a formulation is proposed to estimate the maximum obtainable power of WPT in a typical room scenario while adhering to the human body exposure compliance mandates.

  10. Theoretical assessment of the maximum obtainable power in wireless power transfer constrained by human body exposure limits in a typical room scenario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xi Lin; De Santis, Valerio; Esai Umenei, Aghuinyue

    2014-07-01

    In this study, the maximum received power obtainable through wireless power transfer (WPT) by a small receiver (Rx) coil from a relatively large transmitter (Tx) coil is numerically estimated in the frequency range from 100 kHz to 10 MHz based on human body exposure limits. Analytical calculations were first conducted to determine the worst-case coupling between a homogeneous cylindrical phantom with a radius of 0.65 m and a Tx coil positioned 0.1 m away with the radius ranging from 0.25 to 2.5 m. Subsequently, three high-resolution anatomical models were employed to compute the peak induced field intensities with respect to various Tx coil locations and dimensions. Based on the computational results, scaling factors which correlate the cylindrical phantom and anatomical model results were derived. Next, the optimal operating frequency, at which the highest transmitter source power can be utilized without exceeding the exposure limits, is found to be around 2 MHz. Finally, a formulation is proposed to estimate the maximum obtainable power of WPT in a typical room scenario while adhering to the human body exposure compliance mandates.

  11. Angiotensin I-Converting Enzyme (ACE Inhibitory Activity and ACE Inhibitory Peptides of Salmon (Salmo salar Protein Hydrolysates Obtained by Human and Porcine Gastrointestinal Enzymes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Darewicz

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of the present study were two-fold: first, to detect whether salmon protein fractions possess angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE inhibitory properties and whether salmon proteins can release ACE inhibitory peptides during a sequential in vitro hydrolysis (with commercial porcine enzymes and ex vivo digestion (with human gastrointestinal enzymes. Secondly, to evaluate the ACE inhibitory activity of generated hydrolysates. A two-step ex vivo and in vitro model digestion was performed to simulate the human digestion process. Salmon proteins were degraded more efficiently by porcine enzymes than by human gastrointestinal juices and sarcoplasmic proteins were digested/hydrolyzed more easily than myofibrillar proteins. The ex vivo digested myofibrillar and sarcoplasmic duodenal samples showed IC50 values (concentration required to decrease the ACE activity by 50% of 1.06 and 2.16 mg/mL, respectively. The in vitro hydrolyzed myofibrillar and sarcoplasmic samples showed IC50 values of 0.91 and 1.04 mg/mL, respectively. Based on the results of in silico studies, it was possible to identify 9 peptides of the ex vivo hydrolysates and 7 peptides of the in vitro hydrolysates of salmon proteins of 11 selected peptides. In both types of salmon hydrolysates, ACE-inhibitory peptides IW, IY, TVY and VW were identified. In the in vitro salmon protein hydrolysates an ACE-inhibitory peptides VPW and VY were also detected, while ACE-inhibitory peptides ALPHA, IVY and IWHHT were identified in the hydrolysates generated with ex vivo digestion. In our studies, we documented ACE inhibitory in vitro effects of salmon protein hydrolysates obtained by human and as well as porcine gastrointestinal enzymes.

  12. Grape waste extract obtained by supercritical fluid extraction contains bioactive antioxidant molecules and induces antiproliferative effects in human colon adenocarcinoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazzè, Maria Claudia; Pizzala, Roberto; Gutiérrez Pecharromán, Francisco Javier; Gatòn Garnica, Paloma; Antolín Rodríguez, Juan Manuel; Fabris, Nicola; Bianchi, Livia

    2009-06-01

    Grape waste management is one of the main problems of winery industries, but, conversely, grape waste contains a high amount of polyphenols that might protect against human diseases related to oxidative stress, such as colorectal cancer. Therefore, the aim of this work was to investigate the antioxidant and antiproliferative activities of a grape waste extract obtained by supercritical fluid extraction. Because the beneficial effect of grape is related to its content of polyphenolic molecules, the extract was chemically characterized by high-performance liquid chromatography in order to assess its major bioactive components. The antioxidant activity of the grape extract was determined. The results showed that the grape extract presents a strong antiradical activity in the in vitro 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical assay and protects against reactive oxygen species production in human colon adenocarcinoma cells (Caco-2). In contrast, the extract did not protect in the citronellal thermooxidation system and showed a weak protective action against lipid peroxidation in Caco-2 cells. The clonogenic assay and the cell cycle distribution analysis showed that the grape extract has a significant antiproliferative effect in a tumor cell line. These data indicate that grape extract is a promising product to be used as an anti-free radical agent and could exert a chemopreventive action.

  13. Obtenção de células humanas certificadas. Um desafio da biometrologia / Obtaining certified human cells. A challenge of biometrology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radovan Borojevic

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available A biotecnologia aplicada à saúde necessita de células humanas para controle de qua-lidade de produtos e para análise toxicológica das moléculas que entram em contato com o corpo humano. Métodos alternativos validados promovem redução e substituição do uso de animais nos ensaios toxicológicos, mas a legislação brasileira referente ao uso de material biológico humano não prevê disponibilização de células com qualidade controlada e certificada.A análise crítica da legislação brasileira sobre vias de acesso legal a materiais bio-lógicos humanos para obtenção, caracterização e disponibilização de células humanas, abrangendo o período da Constituição Federal de 1988 até o mês de maio de 2014, evidencia que a sociedade Brasileira carece de regulamentação para coleta e uso de material biológico humano incluindo o fornecimento de células para fins terapêuticos ou para utilização na aplicação dos métodos alternativos.Propomos como modelo para disponibilização de materiais biológicos humanos como células, tecidos, órgãos ou partes do corpo humano para fins de pesquisa, ensaios toxi-cológicos e uso terapêutico o mesmo modelo de oferta do excedente de sangue e seus derivados. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------ Biotechnology applied to health requires human cells for quality controls of products and for toxicological assessment of molecules that enter in contact with human body. Validated alternative methods allowed reduction and/or replacement of animal use in toxicology, but the Brazilian legislation on the use of biological materials of human ori-gin does not provide human cells with controlled and certified quality.The critical analysis conducted in the Brazilian’ legislation on legal ways of access to human biological materials for obtaining, characterization and availability of hu-man cells, from the period of the Federal Constitution in 1988 until May

  14. Identification of oestrogen, progesterone receptor and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 expression in mediastinal metastases of breast cancer obtained by endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serra, P; Sanz-Santos, J; Castellà, E; Cirauqui, B; Andreo, F; Llatjós, M; Avila, M; Margelí, M; Serrano, L; Centeno, C; Quiroga, V; Torky, M; Ruiz-Manzano, J

    2017-11-09

    In breast cancer patients, the expression statuses of oestrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) are crucial in the choice of treatment. Receptor expression in metastatic lesions can differ from the primary tumour. The aim of our study was to analyse the utility of endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration (EBUS-TBNA) to obtain samples allowing the identification of ER, PR and HER2 expression in patients with mediastinal metastases of breast cancer. The clinical files of all patients with a final diagnosis of breast cancer mediastinal metastases diagnosed by EBUS-TBNA in our institution were retrospectively analysed. The ability of EBUS-TBNA to obtain samples that allowed hormone receptor and HER2 expression analysis was calculated. Twenty-four patients were included. ER, PR and HER2 assessments could be performed in 22, 20 and 22 patients, respectively. In 20 of the 24 patients it was possible to investigate all three types of receptor expression. In the remaining four cases, where ER, PR or HER2 expression tests could not be performed, it was due to a lack of tissue. In cases with adequate results for EBUS-TBNA and the primary tumour agreement was greater for ER (16/19) and HER2 (12/14) than PR (8/17). Based on receptor status, there was a change in the choice of treatment for five patients. In patients with breast cancer mediastinal metastases, ER, PR and HER2 expression can be assessed in samples obtained by EBUS-TBNA whenever a sufficient tissue sample is collected. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Different impressions of other agents obtained through social interaction uniquely modulate dorsal and ventral pathway activities in the social human brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Hideyuki; Terada, Kazunori; Morita, Tomoyo; Suzuki, Shinsuke; Haji, Tomoki; Kozima, Hideki; Yoshikawa, Masahiro; Matsumoto, Yoshio; Omori, Takashi; Asada, Minoru; Naito, Eiichi

    2014-09-01

    Internal (neuronal) representations in the brain are modified by our experiences, and this phenomenon is not unique to sensory and motor systems. Here, we show that different impressions obtained through social interaction with a variety of agents uniquely modulate activity of dorsal and ventral pathways of the brain network that mediates human social behavior. We scanned brain activity with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in 16 healthy volunteers when they performed a simple matching-pennies game with a human, human-like android, mechanical robot, interactive robot, and a computer. Before playing this game in the scanner, participants experienced social interactions with each opponent separately and scored their initial impressions using two questionnaires. We found that the participants perceived opponents in two mental dimensions: one represented "mind-holderness" in which participants attributed anthropomorphic impressions to some of the opponents that had mental functions, while the other dimension represented "mind-readerness" in which participants characterized opponents as intelligent. Interestingly, this "mind-readerness" dimension correlated to participants frequently changing their game tactic to prevent opponents from envisioning their strategy, and this was corroborated by increased entropy during the game. We also found that the two factors separately modulated activity in distinct social brain regions. Specifically, mind-holderness modulated activity in the dorsal aspect of the temporoparietal junction (TPJ) and medial prefrontal and posterior paracingulate cortices, while mind-readerness modulated activity in the ventral aspect of TPJ and the temporal pole. These results clearly demonstrate that activity in social brain networks is modulated through pre-scanning experiences of social interaction with a variety of agents. Furthermore, our findings elucidated the existence of two distinct functional networks in the social human brain

  16. Resveratrol Ameliorates the Maturation Process of β-Cell-Like Cells Obtained from an Optimized Differentiation Protocol of Human Embryonic Stem Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pezzolla, Daniela; López-Beas, Javier; Lachaud, Christian C.; Domínguez-Rodríguez, Alejandro; Smani, Tarik; Hmadcha, Abdelkrim; Soria, Bernat

    2015-01-01

    Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) retain the extraordinary capacity to differentiate into different cell types of an adult organism, including pancreatic β-cells. For this particular lineage, although a lot of effort has been made in the last ten years to achieve an efficient and reproducible differentiation protocol, it was not until recently that this aim was roughly accomplished. Besides, several studies evidenced the impact of resveratrol (RSV) on insulin secretion, even though the mechanism by which this polyphenol potentiates glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) is still not clear. The aim of this study was to optimize an efficient differentiation protocol that mimics in vivo pancreatic organogenesis and to investigate whether RSV may improve the final maturation step to obtain functional insulin-secreting cells. Our results indicate that treatment of hESCs (HS-181) with activin-A induced definitive endoderm differentiation as detected by the expression of SOX17 and FOXA2. Addition of retinoic acid (RA), Noggin and Cyclopamine promoted pancreatic differentiation as indicated by the expression of the early pancreatic progenitor markers ISL1, NGN3 and PDX1. Moreover, during maturation in suspension culture, differentiating cells assembled in islet-like clusters, which expressed specific endocrine markers such as PDX1, SST, GCG and INS. Similar results were confirmed with the human induced Pluripotent Stem Cell (hiPSC) line MSUH-001. Finally, differentiation protocols incorporating RSV treatment yielded numerous insulin-positive cells, induced significantly higher PDX1 expression and were able to transiently normalize glycaemia when transplanted in streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetic mice thus promoting its survival. In conclusion, our strategy allows the efficient differentiation of hESCs into pancreatic endoderm capable of generating β-cell-like cells and demonstrates that RSV improves the maturation process. PMID:25774684

  17. OBTAINING OF THE TRANSGENIC HELIANTHUS TUBEROSUS L. PLANTS, CALLUS AND "HAIRY" ROOT CULTURES ABLE TO EXPRESS THE RECOMBINANT HUMAN INTERFERON ALPHA-2b GENE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maistrenko, O M; Luchakivska, Yu S; Zholobak, N M; Spivak, M Ya; Kuchuk, M V

    2015-01-01

    This work is the first to our knowledge to describe the successful attempt of Agrobacterium rhizogenes-mediated transformation of topinambour in order to obtain the transgenic H. tuberosus plants, callus and "hairy" root cultures. The plasmid vectors contained the sequence of interferon gene fused with Nicotiana plumbagenifolia L. calreticulin apoplast targeting signal driven by 35S CaMV promoter or root-specific Mll promoter. Nearly 75% isolated Ri-root lines and callus cultures were proved (by PCR analysis) to contain HuINFa-2b transgene. We also managed to obtain H. tuberosus transgenic plants through somatic embryogenesis on the transgenic "hairy" root culture. The obtained transgenic H. tuberosus cultures exhibited high-level antiviral activity that ranged from 2000 to 54500 IU/g FW that makes this crop considered a promising source of recombinant interferon alpha 2b protein.

  18. Detection of sul1, sul2 and sul3 in sulphonamide resistant Escherichia coli isolates obtained from healthy humans, pork and pigs in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hammerum, Anette Marie; Sandvag, Dorthe; Andersen, Sigrid R.

    2006-01-01

    The occurrence of sulphonamide resistance was investigated in 998 Escherichia coli isolates, obtained from pig faeces collected at slaughter, Danish pork collected at retail outlets and from faeces from healthy persons in Denmark. In total 18% (n = 35), 20% (n = 38) and 26% (n = 161) of the E. co...

  19. GC profiles of volatile constituents from human urine obtained by closed loop stripping, purge and trap technique and simultaneous stem distillation-extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bestmann, H J; Haberkorn, K; Vostrowsky, O; Ferstl, R; Eggert, F

    1996-01-01

    Different techniques like "closed loop stripping" [CLSA], "purge and trap" [PTI], and continuous steam distillation extraction [SDE] were used to establish GC profiles of major histocompatibility complex-associated volatile constituents of human urine and statistically evaluated for reliability. Of the three methods investigated, PTI appeared to be superior for the detection of very volatile substances, whereas SDE was the most efficient one with respect to yield. A number of short to medium-chain ketones, 4-hydroxy-3-methoxy-styrene, menthol and nicotine were identified in preliminary analyses.

  20. Antimicrobial activity, growth inhibition of human tumour cell lines, and phytochemical characterization of the hydromethanolic extract obtained from Sapindus saponaria L. aerial parts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashed, Khaled N; Ćirić, Ana; Glamočlija, Jasmina; Calhelha, Ricardo C; Ferreira, Isabel C F R; Soković, Marina

    2013-01-01

    The hydromethanolic extract of Sapindus saponaria L. aerial parts was investigated for antimicrobial activity (against several Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria and fungi) and capacity to inhibit the growth of different human tumor cell lines as also nontumor liver cells. The evaluated extract was further characterized in terms of phytochemicals using UV, (1)H-NMR, (13)C-NMR, and MS spectroscopic tools. The extract has shown a significant antimicrobial activity on all tested bacterial and fungal species. The best activity was achieved against Bacillus cereus and Staphylococcus aureus among bacteria and against all three Penicillium species tested. It also revealed cytotoxicity against human colon (HCT-15), cervical (HeLa), breast (MCF-7), and lung (NCI-H460) carcinoma cell lines, with HeLa being the most susceptible tumor cell line. The extract was not toxic for nontumor liver cells. Chromatographic separation of the extract resulted in the isolation and identification of stigmasterol, oleanolic acid, luteolin, luteolin 8-C-β-glucoside (orientin), luteolin 6-C-β-glucoside (isoorientin), luteolin 7-O-β-glucuronide, and rutin. The results of the present findings may be useful for the discovery of novel antitumor and antimicrobial agents from plant origin.

  1. Antimicrobial Activity, Growth Inhibition of Human Tumour Cell Lines, and Phytochemical Characterization of the Hydromethanolic Extract Obtained from Sapindus saponaria L. Aerial Parts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaled N. Rashed

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The hydromethanolic extract of Sapindus saponaria L. aerial parts was investigated for antimicrobial activity (against several Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria and fungi and capacity to inhibit the growth of different human tumor cell lines as also nontumor liver cells. The evaluated extract was further characterized in terms of phytochemicals using UV, 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, and MS spectroscopic tools. The extract has shown a significant antimicrobial activity on all tested bacterial and fungal species. The best activity was achieved against Bacillus cereus and Staphylococcus aureus among bacteria and against all three Penicillium species tested. It also revealed cytotoxicity against human colon (HCT-15, cervical (HeLa, breast (MCF-7, and lung (NCI-H460 carcinoma cell lines, with HeLa being the most susceptible tumor cell line. The extract was not toxic for nontumor liver cells. Chromatographic separation of the extract resulted in the isolation and identification of stigmasterol, oleanolic acid, luteolin, luteolin 8-C-β-glucoside (orientin, luteolin 6-C-β-glucoside (isoorientin, luteolin 7-O-β-glucuronide, and rutin. The results of the present findings may be useful for the discovery of novel antitumor and antimicrobial agents from plant origin.

  2. Obtaining of inulin acetate

    OpenAIRE

    Khusenov, Arslonnazar; Rakhmanberdiev, Gappar; Rakhimov, Dilshod; Khalikov, Muzaffar

    2014-01-01

    In the article first obtained inulin ester inulin acetate, by etherification of inulin with acetic anhydride has been exposed. Obtained product has been studied using elementary analysis and IR spectroscopy.

  3. Computer treatment of the contents of some elements in the normal and pathologically altered human colon mucosa tissues obtained by INAA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Draskovic, R.J.; Bozanic, M.; Bozanic, V.; Bohus, T. (Institut za Nuklearne Nauke Boris Kidric, Belgrade (Yugoslavia))

    1984-11-01

    Distribution of some elements (Cr, Fe, Co, Sb, Sc and Zn) in normal and pathologically altered human colon mucosa tissues were investigated by INAA. The following tissues were analyzed: normal colon mucosa, colitis chronica, colitis ulcerosa, adenoma tubulare and adenocarcinoma (diagnoses were previously confirmed clinically and histopathologically). The values of contents of the elements in these tissues (Csub(x) in nkg/g) are treated by specific computer functional programs. Regression functions of these parameters were found for the altered tissues in comparison to the normal, as well as specific functional correlations of the Csub(x)/Csub(y) relations for pairs of investigated elements. The functions which characterize these relations for the investigated colon mucosa tissue were also determined.

  4. L-carnitine Effectively Induces hTERT Gene Expression of Human Adipose Tissue-derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells Obtained from the Aged Subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farahzadi, Raheleh; Mesbah-Namin, Seyed Alireza; Zarghami, Nosratollah; Fathi, Ezzatollah

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives Human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) are attractive candidates for cell therapy and regenerative medicine due to their multipotency and ready availability, but their application can be complicated by the factors such as age of the donors and senescence-associated growth arrest during culture conditions. The latter most likely reflects the fact that aging of hMSCs is associated with a rise in intracellular reactive oxygen species, loss of telomerase activity, decrease in human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) expression and finally eroded telomere ends. Over-expression of telomerase in hMSCs leads to telomere elongation and may help to maintain replicative life–span of these cells. The aim of this study was to evaluate of the effect of L-carnitine (LC) as an antioxidant on the telomerase gene expression and telomere length in aged adipose tissue-derived hMSCs. Methods For this purpose, cells were isolated from healthy aged volunteers and their viabilities were assessed by MTT assay. Quantitative gene expression of hTERT and absolute telomere length measurement were also performed by real-time PCR in the absence and presence of different doses of LC (0.1, 0.2 and 0.4 mM). Results The results indicated that LC could significantly increase the hTERT gene expression and telomere length, especially in dose of 0.2 mM of LC and in 48 h treatment for the aged adipose tissue-derived hMSCs samples. Conclusion It seems that LC would be a good candidate to improve the lifespan of the aged adipose tissue-derived hMSCs due to over-expression of telomerase and lengthening of the telomeres. PMID:27426092

  5. Taenia saginata metacestode antigenic fractions obtained by ion-exchange chromatography: potential source of immunodominant markers applicable in the immunodiagnosis of human neurocysticercosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, Daniela da Silva; Gonzaga, Henrique Tomaz; Ribeiro, Vanessa da Silva; da Cunha, Jair Pereira; Costa-Cruz, Julia Maria

    2013-05-01

    The aim of this study was to fractionate and partially characterize fractions obtained from the total saline extract (SE) of Taenia saginata metacestodes after ion-exchange procedure in carboxymethyl sepharose (CM) and diethylaminoethyl sepharose (DEAE) resins, as a source of antigenic markers applicable in the immunodiagnosis of neurocysticercosis (NCC). For IgG detection by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and immunoblotting, 140 serum samples were analyzed: 45 from patients with NCC (G1), 50 from patients with other parasitic infections (G2), and 45 from healthy individuals. Sensitivity (Se), specificity (Sp), area under curve (AUC), and likelihood ratios (LR) were calculated. CM S2 and DEAE S2 fractions provided high diagnostic values (Se 88.8% and 93.4%; Sp 93.7% and 92.6%; AUC 0.965 and 0.987; LR+ 14.07 and 12.67; LR- 0.11 and 0.07, respectively). In conclusion, CM S2 and DEAE S2 fractions are important sources of specific peptides, with high efficiency to diagnose NCC. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. A tunable Caco-2/HT29-MTX co-culture model mimicking variable permeabilities of the human intestine obtained by an original seeding procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Béduneau, Arnaud; Tempesta, Camille; Fimbel, Stéphane; Pellequer, Yann; Jannin, Vincent; Demarne, Frédéric; Lamprecht, Alf

    2014-07-01

    Standard monoculture models utilizing Caco-2 monolayers were extensively used to mimic the permeability of the human intestinal barrier. However, they exhibit numerous limitations such as the lack of mucus layer, an overestimation of the P-gp-mediated efflux and a low paracellular permeability. Here, we suggest a new procedure to set up an in vitro model of intestinal barrier to adjust gradually the properties of the absorption barrier. Mucin-secreting HT29-MTX cells were added to Caco-2 absorptive cells in a Transwell® at different time intervals. Effects of seeding day of HT29-MTX on the paracellular permeability of lucifer yellow (LY) and on the P-gp-mediated efflux of rhodamine 123 were investigated. Apparent permeability of the rhodamine 123 in the secretory direction was highly dependent on the seeding day of goblet cells. Transepithelial electrical resistance values and LY transport across the co-cultures in the apical-to-basolateral direction were intermediary between single Caco-2 and HT29-MTX models. Early seeding days of HT29-MTX allowed increasing the fraction of goblet cells in the co-culture. Co-culture permeability was unchanged between 21 and 30 days after Caco-2 seeding, corresponding to the period of use for Caco-2-based cell models. Thus, the HT29-MTX seeding day was a key factor to set up an in vitro intestinal model with tailor-made barrier properties in terms of P-gp expression and paracellular permeability. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. A biospectroscopic analysis of human prostate tissue obtained from different time periods points to a trans-generational alteration in spectral phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theophilou, Georgios; Lima, Kássio M G; Briggs, Matthew; Martin-Hirsch, Pierre L; Stringfellow, Helen F; Martin, Francis L

    2015-08-27

    Prostate cancer is the most commonly-diagnosed malignancy in males worldwide; however, there is marked geographic variation in incidence that may be associated with a Westernised lifestyle. We set out to determine whether attenuated total reflection Fourier-transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) or Raman spectroscopy combined with principal component analysis-linear discriminant analysis or variable selection techniques employing genetic algorithm or successive projection algorithm could be utilised to explore differences between prostate tissues from differing years. In total, 156 prostate tissues from transurethral resection of the prostate procedures for benign prostatic hyperplasia from 1983 to 2013 were collected. These were distributed to form seven categories: 1983-1984 (n = 20), 1988-1989 (n = 25), 1993-1994 (n = 21), 1998-1999 (n = 21), 2003-2004 (n = 21), 2008-2009 (n = 20) and 2012-2013 (n = 21). Ten-μm-thick tissue sections were floated onto Low-E (IR-reflective) slides for ATR-FTIR or Raman spectroscopy. The prostate tissue spectral phenotype altered in a temporal fashion. Examination of the two categories that are at least one generation (30 years) apart indicated highly-significant segregation, especially in spectral regions containing DNA and RNA bands (≈1,000-1,490 cm(-1)). This may point towards alterations that have occurred through genotoxicity or through epigenetic modifications. Immunohistochemical studies for global DNA methylation supported this. This study points to a trans-generational phenotypic change in human prostate.

  8. Buccal cells DNA extraction to obtain high quality human genomic DNA suitable for polymorphism genotyping by PCR-RFLP and Real-Time PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Küchler, Erika Calvano; Tannure, Patricia Nivoloni; Falagan-Lotsch, Priscila; Lopes, Taliria Silva; Granjeiro, Jose Mauro; Amorim, Lidia Maria Fonte

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate, by PCR-RFLP and real-time PCR, the yield and quality of genomic DNA collected from buccal cells by mouthwash after different storage times at room temperature. A group of volunteers was recruited to collect buccal cells using a mouthwash solution. The collected solution was divided into 3 tubes, one tube were used for immediate extraction and the remaining received ethanol and were kept at room temperature for 4 and 8 days followed by dna extraction. The concentration, purity and integrity of the dna were determined using spectrophotometry and electrophoresis. DNA quality differences among the three incubation times were also evaluated for genotyping EGF +61 a/g (rs 4444903) polymorphism by PCR-RFLP and for IRF6 polymorphism (rs 17015215) using real-time PCR. There was no significant difference of dna yield (p=0.75) and purity (p=0.86) among the three different incubation times. DNA obtained from different incubation times presented high-molecular weight. The PCR-RFLP and real time pcr reactions were successfully performed for all DNA samples, even those extracted after 8 days of incubation. All samples genotyped by real-time pcr presented c allele for irf6 gene polymorphism (homozygous: cc; heterozygous: Ct) and the C allele was used as a reference for Ct values. The samples presented the same genotype for the different times in both techniques. We demonstrated that the method described herein is simple and low cost, and that DNA can be extracted and pcr amplified after storage in mouthwash solution at room temperature.

  9. Establishment of culture systems for Genotypes 3 and 4 hepatitis E virus (HEV) obtained from human blood and application of HEV inactivation using a pathogen reduction technology system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owada, Takashi; Kaneko, Moe; Matsumoto, Chieko; Sobata, Rieko; Igarashi, Masashi; Suzuki, Ko; Matsubayashi, Keiji; Mio, Kazuhiro; Uchida, Shigeharu; Satake, Masahiro; Tadokoro, Kenji

    2014-11-01

    It has been demonstrated that the hepatitis E virus (HEV) can be transmitted via blood transfusion, and the risk of HEV transmission via transfusion has become a major global concern. An HEV culture system for blood-derived HEV has been sought to obtain valuable knowledge of the virus and the risk of HEV infection through blood products. We endeavored to establish an HEV culture system using RNA-positive blood specimens for Genotypes (G) 3 and 4 and applied this system to evaluate tissue culture infectious dose (TCID). We applied this method to investigate the potential of the Mirasol pathogen reduction technology (PRT) system (Terumo BCT) to inactivate live HEV in contaminated platelet samples (PLTs). PLTs were spiked with cultured HEV G3 or G4 and then treated with the Mirasol PRT system. PLTs were examined before and after the treatment for HEV load using TCID titration. We successfully established two strains for HEV production: the JRC-HE3 strain for G3 and the UA1 strain for G4. The Mirasol PRT system expressed more than 3 log inactivation for JRC-HE3 and more than 2 log inactivation for UA1. The Mirasol PRT system inactivated greater than 2 to 3 logs of live HEV in PLTs and can potentially be used to lower the possibility of blood-borne HEV transmission. The G3 and G4 HEV inocula identified in this study and the hepatoma cell culture system provide a new means to assess HEV infectious titer and to evaluate other pathogen reduction strategies. © 2014 AABB.

  10. Prevalence of human papillomavirus in archival samples obtained from patients with cervical pre-malignant and malignant lesions from Northeast Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prado José CM

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human Papillomavirus (HPV is considered as a necessary, but not sufficient, cause of cervical cancer. In this study, we aimed to assess the prevalence of HPV in a series of pre-malignant and malignant cervical lesion cases, to identify the virus genotypes, and to assess their distribution pattern according to lesion type, age range, and other considered variables. The samples were submitted to histopathological revision examination and analysed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR for the presence of HPV DNA, followed by HPV typing by dot blot hybridisation. Findings Of the analysed samples, 53.7% showed pre-malignant cervical lesions, and 46.3% presented with cervical cancer. Most cancer samples (84.1% were classified as invasive carcinoma. The mean age of these cancer patients was 47.3 years. The overall HPV prevalence was 82.4% in patients with pre-malignant lesions and 92.0% in the cancer patients. HPV 16 was the most prevalent type, followed by HPV 18 and 58, including both single and double infections. Double infection was detected in 11.6% of the samples, and the most common combination was HPV 16+18. Conclusions Cervical cancer appears to occur in women in a lower age range in the studied area, compared to the situation in other Brazilian regions. Furthermore, among the patients with CIN 3 and those with cancer, we observed a higher proportion of married women, women with more than one sexual partner, smokers, and individuals with less than an elementary education, relative to their counterparts. Findings The overall HPV prevalence was 82.4% in patients with pre-malignant lesions and 92.0% in the cervical cancer patients from Northeast Brazil. HPV 16 was the most prevalent type, followed by HPV 18 and 58. The most common double infection was HPV 16+18. Cervical cancer appears to occur in women in a lower age range in the Northeast Brazil. Among the patients with CIN 3 and those with cancer, we observed a higher

  11. In vivo expression of neuroglobin in reactive astrocytes during neuropathology in murine models of traumatic brain injury, cerebral malaria, and autoimmune encephalitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    DellaValle, Brian; Hempel, Casper; Kurtzhals, Jørgen AL

    2010-01-01

    and the astroglial scar. This is the first report of Ngb present in reactive astroglia and in scar-forming astrocytes in response to different pathological conditions relevant to human disease. In light of previously reported cyto-protective properties of Ngb, further insight may result in therapeutic ramifications....

  12. [Erythromycin ethylsuccinate obtaining possibilities].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stan, Cătălina Daniela; Stefanache, Alina; Tântaru, Gladiola; Poiată, Antonia; Dumitrache, M; Diaconu, D E; Profire, Lenuţa

    2008-01-01

    In this study we tried to improve the erythromycin ethylsuccinate obtaining, having in view to separate the erythromycin ester by crystallization in water. The erythromycin acylation and the erythromycin ethylsuccinate crystallization were realized, following the next steps: 1. the acylation of the erythromycin with a methylene chloride solution of monoethylsuccinyl chloride, at 25-28 degrees C for 3 hours in the presence of NaHCO3; 2. the transfer of the erythromycin ethylsuccinate from methylene chloride solution in acetone solution by distillation of mixture methylene chloride: acetone 1:1 at 25-28 degrees C; 3. erythromycin ethylsuccinate separation by crystallization in water at pH = 8-8.5 and 5 degrees C for 90 minutes. The quality control for the erythromycin ester was performed according to the Xth edition of Romanian Pharmacopoeia standards using national standard for erythromycin ethylsuccinate and national standard for erythromycin with an activity of 1: 937 U and 2.02% humidity. The Micrococcus luteus ATCC 9341 was used as a test microorganism and a thin layer cromatography was performed for qualitative control. 13.1 g of erythromycin ethylsuccinate were obtained with an output of the process of 82.02%. Using water for the separation of erythromycin ethylsuccinate the output of the process is greater (82.02%) than in case of using petroleum ether (74.14%) or hexane (80.25%). The thin layer cromatography revealed an Rf = 0.56 and the microbiological activity of the erythromycin ethylsuccinate was 98.7% compared with the standard. Using water instead of hexane or petroleum ether is gainful for the separation of erythromycin ethylsuccinate from the reaction medium. The obtained erythromycin ethylsuccinate corresponds to the Xth edition of Romanian Pharmacopoeia standards. So, the raw materials consumption is decreased, the costs are cut down, the obtained product purity is high and the output of the process is greater.

  13. Circadian behaviour in neuroglobin deficient mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hundahl, Christian A; Fahrenkrug, Jan; Hay-Schmidt, Anders

    2012-01-01

    on circadian behavior. Ngb-deficient and wild-type (wt) mice were placed in running wheels and their activity rhythms, endogenous period and response to light stimuli were investigated. The effect of Ngb deficiency on the expression of Period1 (Per1) and the immediate early gene Fos was determined after light...... stimulation at night and the neurochemical phenotype of Ngb expressing neurons in wt mice was characterized. Loss of Ngb function had no effect on overall circadian entrainment, but resulted in a significantly larger phase delay of circadian rhythm upon light stimulation at early night. A light......-positive neurons. The present study demonstrates for the first time that the genetic elimination of Ngb does not affect core clock function but evokes an increased behavioural response to light concomitant with increased Per1 gene expression in the SCN at early night....

  14. Neuroglobin in the rat brain: localization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hundahl, Christian Ansgar; Allen, Gregg C; Nyengaard, Jens Randel

    2008-01-01

    in the rat brain using immunohistochemistry, in situ hybridization, and quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). This revealed the interesting finding that Ngb expression is restricted to a few neurone populations, many of which are involved in the sleep-wake cycle, circadian regulation or food regulation...

  15. Tumor necrosis factor-α accelerates the calcification of human aortic valve interstitial cells obtained from patients with calcific aortic valve stenosis via the BMP2-Dlx5 pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Zaiqiang; Seya, Kazuhiko; Daitoku, Kazuyuki; Motomura, Shigeru; Fukuda, Ikuo; Furukawa, Ken-Ichi

    2011-04-01

    Calcific aortic valve stenosis (CAS) is the most frequent heart valve disease in the elderly, accompanied by valve calcification. Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), a pleiotropic cytokine secreted mainly from macrophages, has been detected in human calcified valves. However, the role of TNF-α in valve calcification remains unclear. To clarify whether TNF-α accelerates the calcification of aortic valves, we investigated the effect of TNF-α on human aortic valve interstitial cells (HAVICs) obtained from patients with CAS (CAS group) and with aortic regurgitation or aortic dissection having a noncalcified aortic valve (control group). HAVICs (2 × 10(4)) were cultured in a 12-well dish in Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium with 10% fetal bovine serum. The medium containing TNF-α (30 ng/ml) was replenished every 3 days after the cells reached confluence. TNF-α significantly accelerated the calcification and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity of HAVICs from CAS but not the control group after 12 days of culture. Furthermore, gene expression of calcigenic markers, ALP, bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2), and distal-less homeobox 5 (Dlx5) were significantly increased after 6 days of TNF-α treatment in the CAS group but not the control group. Dorsomorphin, an inhibitor of mothers against decapentaplegic homologs (Smads) 1/5/8 phosphorylation, significantly inhibited the enhancement of TNF-α-induced calcification, ALP activity, Smad phosphorylation, and Dlx5 gene expression of HAVICs from the CAS group. These results suggest that HAVICs from the CAS group have greater sensitivity to TNF-α, which accelerates the calcification of aortic valves via the BMP2-Dlx5 pathway.

  16. Method for obtaining Chromosomes Method for obtaining Chromosomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogart James P.

    1973-09-01

    Full Text Available It is very easy to obtain chromosomes from anuran amphibians.Amphibians have very large chromosomes which can easily be seen with an ordinary microscope. The method used has been tested in the laboratory and also at collecting sites. All that is required are a few chemicals and simple equipment.It is very easy to obtain chromosomes from anuran amphibians.Amphibians have very large chromosomes which can easily be seen with an ordinary microscope. The method used has been tested in the laboratory and also at collecting sites. All that is required are a few chemicals and simple equipment.

  17. [Legal regime of preservation of data on identifiers obtained form DNA analysis, in the light of the Decision of the European Tribunal of Human Rights (Large Chamber), of December 4 2008 (S. and Marper vs. United Kingdom)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reverón Palenzuela, Benito

    2009-01-01

    The author analyzes the Judgement of the European Court of Human Rights, of 4 December 2008 (case of S. and Marper v. the United Kingdom). It declares that retaining fingerprints and cellular samples and DNA profiles after the criminal proceedings, when the accused has been acquitted, constitutes a violation of Article 8 of the Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms. He also deals with the legal regime on data protection contained in the Spanish Law on police DNA databases of (Organic Law 10/2007, of 8 October), as well as its adaptation to the case law of the ECHR.

  18. Obtaining a pet: realistic expectations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marder, Amy; Duxbury, Margaret M

    2008-09-01

    Millions of dog-human relationships fail each year-some from simple and preventable mismatches. False or unrealistic expectations of a dog's behavior are a common reason for failed human-animal bonds. Veterinarians can reduce the incidence of false expectations and thereby increase the likelihood of successful adoptions by offering preadoption counseling to help clients sort through the many factors involved in the process of successful pet selection, by preparing clients to take on the important tasks of puppy socialization and the management of the home learning environment, and by educating new owners about the needs and behavior of dogs.

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    selectivity is the ratio of the rate constant of the reaction of carbocation with an externally added nucleophile, (nu, aniline) to that of the rate constant of the water. Our intention was to obtain a carbocation with high selectivity, so that one can pave a path for the synthesis of Schiff's base by the reaction of the carbocation ...

  20. Using a commercially available DNA extraction kit to obtain high quality human genomic DNA suitable for PCR and genotyping from 11-year-old saliva saturated cotton spit wads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hudziak James J

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We sought to describe the integrity of human genomic DNA extracted from saliva saturated cotton spit wads stored at -20°C for approximately 11 years. 783 spit wad samples were collected from an ADHD sample population (Vermont Family Study during 1996–2000. Human genomic DNA was extracted from the spit wads using a commercially available kit; QIAamp DNA Blood Midi Kit (Qiagen, Inc., Valencia, CA. with a few modifications. Results The resulting DNA yield was more than adequate for genetic analysis and ranged from approximately 1 μg to a total of 80 μg (mean 17.3 μgs ± 11.9 μgs. A260/A280 ratios for the human genomic DNA extracted from the spit wads was consistently within the generally acceptable values of 1.7–2.0, with the lowest purity being 1.70, and a mean value of 1.937 ± 0.226 for the 783 samples. The DNA also was suitable for PCR reactions as evidenced by the amplification of the serotonin-transporter-linked polymorphic region, 5HTTLPR. 5HTTLPR is a functional polymorphism in the promoter region of the serotonin transporter gene (HTT, SLC6A4, or SERT, consisting of two intensively studied alleles. 770 of the 783 samples (98.3% produced fragments after PCR of the expected size with primers specific for 5HTTLPR. Conclusion High quality and abundant genomic DNA can be successfully retrieved from saliva saturated cotton spit wads using the commercially available kit, QIAamp DNA Blood Midi Kit from Qiagen, Inc. Furthermore, the DNA can be extracted in less than 3 hours and multiple samples can be processed simultaneously thus reducing processing time.

  1. ADDITIVES USED TO OBTAIN FOOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorina Ardelean

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Use of food additives in food is determined by the growth of contemporary food needs of the world population. Additives used in food, both natural and artificial ones, contribute to: improving the organoleptic characteristics and to preserve the food longer, but we must not forget that all these additives should not be found naturally in food products. Some of these additives are not harmful and human pests in small quantities, but others may have harmful effects on health.

  2. ADDITIVES USED TO OBTAIN FOOD

    OpenAIRE

    Dorina Ardelean; Daniela Popa

    2012-01-01

    Use of food additives in food is determined by the growth of contemporary food needs of the world population. Additives used in food, both natural and artificial ones, contribute to: improving the organoleptic characteristics and to preserve the food longer, but we must not forget that all these additives should not be found naturally in food products. Some of these additives are not harmful and human pests in small quantities, but others may have harmful effects on health.

  3. Cultivation and irradiation of human fibroblasts in a medium enriched with platelet lysate for obtaining feeder layer in epidermal cell culture; Cultivo e irradiacao de fibroblastos humanos em meio enriquecido com lisado de plaquetas para obtencao de camada de sustentacao em culturas de celulas da epiderme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshito, Daniele

    2011-07-01

    For over 30 years, the use of culture medium, enriched with bovine serum, and murines fibroblasts, with the rate of proliferation controlled by irradiation or by share anticarcinogenic drugs, has been playing successfully its role in assisting in the development of keratinocytes in culture, for clinical purposes. However, currently there is a growing concern about the possibility of transmitting prions and animals viruses to transplanted patients. Taking into account this concern, the present work aims to cultivate human fibroblasts in a medium enriched with human platelets lysate and determine the irradiation dose of these cells, for obtaining feeder layer in epidermal cell culture. For carrying out the proposed objective, platelets lysis has standardized, this lysate was used for human fibroblasts cultivation and the irradiation dose enough to inhibit its duplication was evaluated. Human keratinocytes were cultivated in these feeder layers, in culture medium enriched with the lysate. With these results we conclude that the 10% platelets lysate promoted a better adhesion and proliferation of human fibroblasts and in all dose levels tested (60 to 300 Gy), these had their mitotic activity inactivated by ionizing irradiation, being that the feeder layers obtained with doses from 70 to 150 Gy were those that provided the best development of keratinocytes in medium containing 2.5% of human platelet lysate. Therefore, it was possible to standardize both the cultivation of human fibroblasts as its inactivation for use as feeder layer in culture of keratinocytes, so as to eliminate xenobiotics components. (author)

  4. The Use and Effectiveness of Triple Multiplex System for Coding Region Single Nucleotide Polymorphism in Mitochondrial DNA Typing of Archaeologically Obtained Human Skeletons from Premodern Joseon Tombs of Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang Seok Oh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Previous study showed that East Asian mtDNA haplogroups, especially those of Koreans, could be successfully assigned by the coupled use of analyses on coding region SNP markers and control region mutation motifs. In this study, we tried to see if the same triple multiplex analysis for coding regions SNPs could be also applicable to ancient samples from East Asia as the complementation for sequence analysis of mtDNA control region. By the study on Joseon skeleton samples, we know that mtDNA haplogroup determined by coding region SNP markers successfully falls within the same haplogroup that sequence analysis on control region can assign. Considering that ancient samples in previous studies make no small number of errors in control region mtDNA sequencing, coding region SNP analysis can be used as good complimentary to the conventional haplogroup determination, especially of archaeological human bone samples buried underground over long periods.

  5. Methods to obtain radiolabelled monocrotaline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lame, M.W.; Morin, D.; Wilson, D.W.; Segall, H.J. [University of California, Davis, CA (United States)

    1996-12-01

    Crotalaria spectabilis, a plant found in many areas of the world is associated with the pyrrolizidine alkaloid monocrotaline. Monocrotaline when injected subcutaneously in Sprague Dawley rats has been utilized for years to create a condition known to mimic pulmonary hypertension in humans. We attempted to determine the optimum conditions for the biosynthesis of radiolabelled monocrotaline. Our work describes the plant growth conditions and the time periods associated with the production of radiolabelled monocrotaline. In addition, the incorporation of {sup 14}CO{sub 2} or [2,3-{sup 3}H]-putrescine dihydrochloride and the specific activity plus the amount(s) of recovered radiolabelled monocrotaline are discussed. We conclude that the most efficient and cost effective method for the biosynthesis of radiolabelled monocrotaline is still the utilization of {sup 14}CO{sub 2}. (author).

  6. Drugs obtained by biotechnology processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Almeida

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the number of drugs of biotechnological origin available for many different diseases has increased exponentially, including different types of cancer, diabetes mellitus, infectious diseases (e.g. AIDS Virus / HIV as well as cardiovascular, neurological, respiratory, and autoimmune diseases, among others. The pharmaceutical industry has used different technologies to obtain new and promising active ingredients, as exemplified by the fermentation technique, recombinant DNA technique and the hybridoma technique. The expiry of the patents of the first drugs of biotechnological origin and the consequent emergence of biosimilar products, have posed various questions to health authorities worldwide regarding the definition, framework, and requirements for authorization to market such products.Nos últimos anos, tem aumentado exponencialmente o número de fármacos de origem biotecnológica ao dispor das mais diversas patologias, entre elas destacam-se, os diferentes tipos de cancêr, as doenças infecciosas (ex. vírus AIDS/HIV, as doenças autoimunes, as doenças cardiovasculares, a Diabetes Mellitus, as doenças neurológicas, as doenças respiratórias, entre outras. A indústria farmacêutica tem recorrido a diferentes tecnologias para a obtenção de novos e promissores princípios ativos, como são exemplo a fermentação, a técnica de DNA Recombinante, a técnica de hidridoma, entre outras. A queda das patentes dos primeiros fármacos de origem biotecnológica e o consequente aparecimento dos produtos biossimilares têm colocado diferentes questões às autoridades de saúde mundiais, sobre a definição, enquadramento e exigências para a autorização de entrada no mercado deste tipo de produtos.

  7. Characterization of Wastewaters obtained from Hatay Tanneries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Şana Sungur

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The leather tanning industry is one of the most significant pollutants in terms of both conventional and toxic parameters. On the other hand, leather industry has an important economic role both in Turkey and in the World. In this study, wastewater samples were taken from 15 different tanneries in the Hatay Region. Wastewaters obtained from liming process and chromium tanning process was analyzed. Sulfide, chromium (III, chromium (VI, oil and grease, total suspended solids (TSS, organic matters, biochemical oxygen demand (BOD, chemical oxygen demand (COD, pH and alkalinity were determined according to Turkish Standard Methods. The determined averages values belong to wastewaters obtained from liming process were as following: pH 11.71; COD 16821 mg L-1; BOD 4357 mg L-1; TSS 39023 mg L-1; oil and grease 364 mg L-1; S-2 concentration 802 mg L-1; alkalinity 2115 mg L-1. The determined averages values belong to wastewaters obtained from chromium tanning process were also as following: pH 4.23; COD 6740 mg L-1; BOD 377 mg L-1; Cr+3 concentrations 372 mg L-1; Cr+6 concentrations 127 mg L-1; TSS 14553 mg L-1; oil and grease 343 mg L-1. The results of all analyzes were higher than wastewater discharge standards. As a result, it’s necessary to use more effective treatments in order to reduce the negative impacts of leather tanning industry that affect environment, natural water resources and at last human health and welfare.

  8. 15 CFR 285.15 - Obtaining documents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Obtaining documents. 285.15 Section... VOLUNTARY LABORATORY ACCREDITATION PROGRAM § 285.15 Obtaining documents. (a) Application forms, NVLAP handbooks, and other NVLAP documents and information may be obtained by contacting the NVLAP, National...

  9. Hypoxia-protective roles of myoglobin and neuroglobin in vertebrates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helbo, Signe

    Myoglobin er et protein, der lagrer og transporterer ilt i hjerte- og skeletmuskulatur, og i de seneste år har man opdaget, at det spiller andre, hidtil ukendte, roller i beskyttelsen mod de skadelige effekter af iltmangel. I sit Ph.D.-projekt har Signe Helbo Bønding forsket i, hvordan forskellig...

  10. Comparative studies on pectinases obtained from Aspergillus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Comparative studies on pectinases obtained from Aspergillus fumigatus and Aspergillus niger in submerged fermentation system using pectin extracted from mango, orange and pineapple peels as carbon sources.

  11. Adult, embryonic and fetal hemoglobin are expressed in human glioblastoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emara, Marwan; Turner, A Robert; Allalunis-Turner, Joan

    2014-02-01

    Hemoglobin is a hemoprotein, produced mainly in erythrocytes circulating in the blood. However, non-erythroid hemoglobins have been previously reported in other cell types including human and rodent neurons of embryonic and adult brain, but not astrocytes and oligodendrocytes. Human glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most aggressive tumor among gliomas. However, despite extensive basic and clinical research studies on GBM cells, little is known about glial defence mechanisms that allow these cells to survive and resist various types of treatment. We have shown previously that the newest members of vertebrate globin family, neuroglobin (Ngb) and cytoglobin (Cygb), are expressed in human GBM cells. In this study, we sought to determine whether hemoglobin is also expressed in GBM cells. Conventional RT-PCR, DNA sequencing, western blot analysis, mass spectrometry and fluorescence microscopy were used to investigate globin expression in GBM cell lines (M006x, M059J, M059K, M010b, U87R and U87T) that have unique characteristics in terms of tumor invasion and response to radiotherapy and hypoxia. The data showed that α, β, γ, δ, ζ and ε globins are expressed in all tested GBM cell lines. To our knowledge, we are the first to report expression of fetal, embryonic and adult hemoglobin in GBM cells under normal physiological conditions that may suggest an undefined function of those expressed hemoglobins. Together with our previous reports on globins (Ngb and Cygb) expression in GBM cells, the expression of different hemoglobins may constitute a part of series of active defence mechanisms supporting these cells to resist various types of treatments including chemotherapy and radiotherapy.

  12. Astrophysical Reaction Rates Obtained By Indirect Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tribble, R. E.; Al-Abdullah, T.; Alharbi, A.; Äystö, J.; Banu, A.; Burjan, V.; Carstoiu, F.; Chen, X.; Clark, H. L.; Davidson, T.; Fu, C.; Gagliardi, C. A.; Hardy, J. C.; Iacob, V. E.; Jokinen, J.; Kroha, V.; Lui, Y.-W.; McCleskey, M.; Mukhamedzhanov, A.; Nica, N.; Park, H. I.; Roeder, B.; Saastamoinen, A.; Simmons, E.; Tabacaru, G.; Tokimoto, Y.; Trache, L.; Woods, P. J.; Zhai, Y.

    2010-08-01

    Indirect techniques have been used to obtain information about reaction rates for several proton capture reactions that occur on short-lived nuclei. The techniques used to carry out the measurements are reviewed and the results obtained are presented. Also future prospects for further measurements with a new facility, T-REX are discussed.

  13. [Obtaining active extracts for use in production of soluble thromboplastin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarasova, L N; Repniakova, E M; Vladimirova, S G; Savinykh, E Iu

    2004-07-01

    Methods of obtaining (from cadaveric human brain) the highly-active extracts to be used later as raw-materials for thromboplastin manufacturing, which is applied to determine the prothrombin (thromboplastin) time of human plasma or blood, are described in the paper. The study resulted in defining the optimal requirements to choosing the raw-materials, storing regime, centrifuging and extraction. The thus elaborated technology of soluble thromboplastin manufacturing ensures the production of a reagent with a high sensitivity to a changing level of factors VII and X and to a reducing activity of the prothrombin complex, which is achieved through the impact of indirect anticoagulants.

  14. Treatment of biomass to obtain ethanol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunson, Jr., James B.; Elander, Richard T [Evergreen, CO; Tucker, III, Melvin P.; Hennessey, Susan Marie [Avondale, PA

    2011-08-16

    Ethanol was produced using biocatalysts that are able to ferment sugars derived from treated biomass. Sugars were obtained by pretreating biomass under conditions of high solids and low ammonia concentration, followed by saccharification.

  15. 47 CFR 54.615 - Obtaining services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... non-profit entity that falls within one of the seven categories set forth in the definition of health... provided under § 54.621, that the requester cannot obtain toll-free access to an Internet service provider...

  16. Mass culture of photobacteria to obtain luciferase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chappelle, E. W.; Picciolo, G. L.; Rich, E., Jr.

    1969-01-01

    Inoculating preheated trays containing nutrient agar with photobacteria provides a means for mass culture of aerobic microorganisms in order to obtain large quantities of luciferase. To determine optimum harvest time, growth can be monitored by automated light-detection instrumentation.

  17. Differences in behavioral characteristics between dogs obtained as puppies from pet stores and those obtained from noncommercial breeders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMillan, Franklin D; Serpell, James A; Duffy, Deborah L; Masaoud, Elmabrok; Dohoo, Ian R

    2013-05-15

    To compare the owner-reported prevalence of behavioral characteristics in dogs obtained as puppies from pet stores with that of dogs obtained as puppies from noncommercial breeders. Cross-sectional study. Animals-Dogs obtained as puppies from pet stores (n = 413) and breeder-obtained dogs (5,657). Behavioral evaluations were obtained from a large convenience sample of current dog owners with the online version of the Canine Behavioral Assessment and Research Questionnaire, which uses ordinal scales to rate either the intensity or frequency of the dogs' behavior. Hierarchic linear and logistic regression models were used to analyze the effects of source of acquisition on behavioral outcomes when various confounding and intervening variables were controlled for. Pet store-derived dogs received significantly less favorable scores than did breeder-obtained dogs on 12 of 14 of the behavioral variables measured; pet store dogs did not score more favorably than breeder dogs in any behavioral category. Compared with dogs obtained as puppies from noncommercial breeders, dogs obtained as puppies from pet stores had significantly greater aggression toward human family members, unfamiliar people, and other dogs; greater fear of other dogs and nonsocial stimuli; and greater separation-related problems and house soiling. Obtaining dogs from pet stores versus noncommercial breeders represented a significant risk factor for the development of a wide range of undesirable behavioral characteristics. Until the causes of the unfavorable differences detected in this group of dogs can be specifically identified and remedied, the authors cannot recommend that puppies be obtained from pet stores.

  18. A system for obtaining an optical spectrum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    The present invention relates to a system for obtaining an optical spectrum 648 of analytes in a fluid sample, wherein a porous filter 602a, 602b is arranged so that the fluid sample may be placed onto a first region of the porous filter, and a SERS-active material 610a, 610b having a SERS...... the second region. Thereby, the porous filter enables that the fluid sample is filtered so that only sufficiently small entities in the fluid sample reach the second region where they may be probed so that an optical spectrum related to the analytes in the filtered sample may be obtained. The optical system...... also comprises a light source 634, a light detector 642, and the optical analysis system is arranged for obtaining the optical spectrum 648 of the analytes adjacent to the SERS-active material 610a, 610b exclusively from the second region of the porous filter 602a, 602b....

  19. Experiments for obtaining field influence mass particles.

    CERN Document Server

    Yahalomi, E

    2010-01-01

    Analyzing time dilation experiments the existence of a universal field interacting with moving mass particles is obtained. It is found that mass particle changes its properties depend on its velocity relative to this universal scalar field and not on its velocity relative to the laboratory. High energy proton momentum, energy and mass were calculated obtaining new results. Experiments in high energy accelerators are suggested as additional proofs for the existence of this universal field. This universal field may explain some results of other high energy experiments.

  20. Obtaining a minimal set of rewrite rules

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Davel, M

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the authors describe a new approach to rewrite rule extraction and analysis, using Minimal Representation Graphs. This approach provides a mechanism for obtaining the smallest possible rule set – within a context-dependent rewrite rule...

  1. Reverse technology transfer; obtaining feedback from managers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    A.B. Carey; J.M. Calhoun; B. Dick; K. O' Halloran; L.S. Young; R.E. Bigley; S. Chan; C.A. Harrington; J.P. Hayes; J. Marzluff

    1999-01-01

    Forestry policy, planning, and practice have changed rapidly with implementation of ecosystem management by federal, state, tribal, and private organizations. Implementation entails new concepts, terminology, and management approaches. Yet there seems to have been little organized effort to obtain feedback from on-the-ground managers on the practicality of implementing...

  2. Obtaining Your License: Careers in Real Estate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyon, Robert

    Two steps are required to obtain a real estate salesperson's license in Texas: (1) selecting a broker to serve as an advisor, and (2) meeting personal requirements (at least 18 years old, a Texas resident, completion of a minimum of 12 semester hours of real estate and related courses, application, acceptable score on state exam, and payment of…

  3. Strategies for obtaining unpublished drug trial data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wolfe, Nicole; Gøtzsche, Peter C.; Bero, Lisa Anne

    2013-01-01

    Authors of systematic reviews have difficulty obtaining unpublished data for their reviews. This project aimed to provide an in-depth description of the experiences of authors in searching for and gaining access to unpublished data for their systematic reviews, and to give guidance on best practi...

  4. Obtaining evapotranspiration and surface energy fluxes with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, SEBAL (Surface Energy Balance Algorithm for Land), a remote sensing based evapotranspiration model, has been applied with Landsat ETM+ sensor for the estimation of actual ... The land uses in this study area consists of irrigated agriculture, rain-fed agriculture and livestock grazing. The obtained results ...

  5. Obtaining the Andersen's chart, triangulation algorithm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sabaliauskas, Tomas; Ibsen, Lars Bo

    Andersen’s chart (Andersen & Berre, 1999) is a graphical method of observing cyclic soil response. It allows observing soil response to various stress amplitudes that can lead to liquefaction, excess plastic deformation or stabilizing soil response. The process of obtaining the original chart has...

  6. Isolation and characterization of microcrystalline cellulose obtained ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, microcrystalline cellulose, coded MCC-PNF, was obtained from palm nut (Elaeis guineensis) fibres. MCC-PNF was examined for its physicochemical and powder properties. The powder properties of MCC-PNF were compared to those of the best commercial microcrystalline cellulose grade, Avicel PH 101.

  7. A new method for obtaining transparent electrodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malureanu, Radu; Zalkovskij, Maksim; Song, Zhengyong

    2012-01-01

    In this article, we propose a simple scheme to make a metallic film on a semi-infinite substrate optically transparent, thus obtaining a completely transparent electrode in a desired frequency range. By placing a composite layer consisting of dielectric and metallic stripes on top of the metallic...

  8. Production and characterization of pectinases obtained from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Production and characterization of pectinases obtained from Aspergillus fumigatus in submerged fermentation system using pectin extracted from mango peels as ... The pectinase was used to degrade pectins extracted from orange and pineapple peels and its specific activities were found to be 30U/mg and 28.39U/mg ...

  9. Cell Therapy to Obtain Spinal Fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-02-01

    to the spine, circumventing the need for direct administration of the viruses that could have potential systemic side effects . 15. SUBJECT TERMS...adult mesenchymal stem cells, providing a possible role in treatment of osteoporo- sis. The recombinant human proteins BMP2 and BMP7 ( rhBMP2 and...significant challenges that need to be over- come for these strategies to be truly effective . Consequently, several approaches have been undertaken in

  10. Effective Active Ingredients Obtained through Biotechnology

    OpenAIRE

    Claudia Zappelli; Ani Barbulova; Fabio Apone; Gabriella Colucci

    2016-01-01

    The history of cosmetics develops in parallel to the history of man, associated with fishing, hunting, and superstition in the beginning, and later with medicine and pharmacy. Over the ages, together with human progress, cosmetics have changed continuously and nowadays the cosmetic market is global and highly competitive, where terms such as quality, efficacy and safety are essential. Consumers’ demands are extremely sophisticated, and thus scientific research and product development have bec...

  11. Obtaining superfine ethanol in a Cuban distillery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yailet Albernas Carvajal

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes obtaining superfine ethanol in a Cuban distillery from molasses as base raw material. The operational characteristics of the main stages for obtaining superfine alcohol have been described, emphasising alcohol fermentation due to its complexity in achieving process continuity; a Gantt chart led to determining a 31-hour process time and 5-hour cycle time. The influence of fermentation yield on process profitability was determined through mass and energy balances, demonstrating that a 4ºGL degree of alcohol was feasible. The main water-consuming elements were also determined (98% in molasses dilution as well as steam consumption (91% during distillation. A preliminary analysis was made of the opportunities provided by material and energy integration, mainly for distillation, contributing towards a positive environmental impact.

  12. Processing of hydroxyapatite obtained by combustion synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Canillas

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available One of the reasons of implants failure are the stress forces appearing in the material–tissue interface due to the differences between their mechanical properties. For this reason, similar mechanical properties to the surrounding tissue are desirable. The synthesis of hydroxyapatite by solution combustion method and its processing have been studied in order to obtain fully dense ceramic bodies with improved mechanical strength. Combustion synthesis provides nanostructured powders characterized by a high surface area to facilitate the following sintering. Moreover, synthesis was conducted in aqueous and oxidizing media. Oxidizing media improve homogenization and increase the energy released during combustion. It gives rise to particles whose morphology and size suggest lower surface energies compared with aqueous media. The obtained powders were sintered by using a controlled sintering rate schedule. Lower surfaces energies minimize the shrinkage during sintering and relative densities measurements and diametral compression test confirm improved densification and consequently mechanical properties.

  13. The quality of obtaining surgical informed consent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joolaee, Soodabeh; Faghanipour, Somayeh; Hajibabaee, Fatemeh

    2017-03-01

    Informed consent goes beyond signing a form; it is a process of providing necessary information, helping patients make an informed decision, and actively participate in their treatment. This study aimed to assess the quality of obtaining surgical informed consent in hospitals affiliated with Tehran University of Medical Sciences. Research design/participants/context: In a cross-sectional, descriptive-analytical study, 300 patients were chosen through stratified sampling from seven hospitals affiliated with Tehran University of Medical Sciences. Data were collected using a questionnaire developed by the researchers and analyzed using descriptive and analytical statistics on SPSS software. Ethical considerations: Ethical approval of this study was granted by Tehran University of Medical Sciences research ethics committee. Written informed consent for participation was obtained. The participants were reassured that their information will be used anonymously and their answers will not affect their treatment and care. The mean score of quality of acquisition of informed consent was 17.13 out of 35, indicating that the quality falls in the inappropriate category. The results indicate that 48% of the signatories do not even read the form before signing it. Among the 52% who did read the consent form, 61.3% mentioned varying degrees of incomprehensibility of the consent form and 94.2% mentioned the presence of incomprehensible technical, medical and legal vocabulary. Only 12% and 18% of respondents reported that they were not in hurry and they had no fear or anxiety, respectively, when signing the form. The quality of obtaining informed consent was higher in women, younger patients, patients with higher education, and those who had special surgeries. This study shows a poor practice in obtaining surgical informed consent in Iran. It seems necessary to consider fundamental changes in the process of acquiring consent based on the temporal and local conditions of the patients.

  14. Propensity for obtaining alcohol through shoulder tapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toomey, Traci L; Fabian, Lindsey E A; Erickson, Darin J; Lenk, Kathleen M

    2007-07-01

    Underage youth often obtain alcohol from adults who illegally provide the alcohol. One method for obtaining alcohol from adults is shoulder tapping, where youth approach an adult outside an alcohol establishment and ask the adult to purchase alcohol for them. The goal of this study was to assess what percentage of the general and youth-targeted adult population approached outside of a convenience/liquor store will agree to purchase and then provide alcohol to individuals who appear under age 21. We conducted 2 waves of pseudo-underage shoulder tap request attempts, using requesters who were age 21 or older but appeared 18 to 20 years old. In both waves, requests were conducted at randomly selected liquor and convenience stores, requesters explained that the reason they were asking the adult was because they did not have their identification with them, and requesters asked the adults to purchase a 6-pack of beer. During wave 1, we conducted 102 attempts, with the requester approaching the first adult entering the store alone. During wave 2, we conducted 102 attempts where the requester approached the first casually dressed male entering the store alone who appeared to be 21 to 30 years old. During wave 1, 8% of the general sample of approached adults provided alcohol to the pseudo-underage requesters. The odds of adults providing alcohol in urban areas were 9.4 times greater than in suburban areas. During wave 2, 19% of the approached young men provided alcohol to the requesters. No requester, request attempt, establishment, or community characteristics were associated with request attempt outcomes during wave 2. A small percentage of the general population of adults will agree to provide alcohol to underage youth when approached outside an alcohol establishment. The likelihood of underage youth obtaining alcohol through shoulder tapping increases substantially if the youth approach young men.

  15. Comparison of ionospheric characteristic parameters obtained by ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This paper presents a comparison of ionospheric characteristic parameters obtained by a GPS networkand three ionosondes at Mohe (122.4^◦E, 53.5^◦N, dip angle 70.983^◦N), Zuolingzhen (114.6^◦E, 30.5^◦N, dipangle 46.350^◦N), and Fuke (109.1^◦E, 19.5^◦N, dip angle 27.083^◦N) located in China with an IRI model inthe ...

  16. Reliability of "Google" for obtaining medical information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihir Kothari

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Internet is used by many patients to obtain relevant medical information. We assessed the impact of "Google" search on the knowledge of the parents whose ward suffered from squint. In 21 consecutive patients, the "Google" search improved the mean score of the correct answers from 47% to 62%. We found that "Google" search was useful and reliable source of information for the patients with regards to the disease etiopathogenesis and the problems caused by the disease. The internet-based information, however, was incomplete and not reliable with regards to the disease treatment.

  17. Experimental methodology for obtaining sound absorption coefficients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos A. Macía M

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: the authors propose a new methodology for estimating sound absorption coefficients using genetic algorithms. Methodology: sound waves are generated and conducted along a rectangular silencer. The waves are then attenuated by the absorbing material covering the silencer’s walls. The attenuated sound pressure level is used in a genetic algorithm-based search to find the parameters of the proposed attenuation expressions that include geometric factors, the wavelength and the absorption coefficient. Results: a variety of adjusted mathematical models were found that make it possible to estimate the absorption coefficients based on the characteristics of a rectangular silencer used for measuring the attenuation of the noise that passes through it. Conclusions: this methodology makes it possible to obtain the absorption coefficients of new materials in a cheap and simple manner. Although these coefficients might be slightly different from those obtained through other methodologies, they provide solutions within the engineering accuracy ranges that are used for designing noise control systems.

  18. OBTAINING AND CHARACTERISTIC OF CURCUMIN LIPOSOMAL FORM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shulga S. M.

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Creation of liposomal forms of curcumin (diferuloilmetane was investegated in the work. The methods of preparation and determination of the obtained liposomes sizes and percentage of curcumin in liposomes are given. Soybean phospholipids, egg yolk phospholipids and sunflower phospholipids were selected for preparation of “empty” liposomes and liposomes loaded curcumin: C-SPC-L (curcumin encapsulated in SPC liposomes, C-EPC-L (curcumin encapsulated in EPC liposomes and C-SFPC-L (curcumin encapsulated in liposomes SFPC. Physical properties of different liposomes such as average size (Dl and encapsulation efficiency (EE were studed. Using photon correlation spectroscopy, the average size of three types of curcumin-loaded liposomes were found as Dl = 111 ± 3 nm for C-SPC-L, Dl = 98 ± 5 nm for C-EPC-L and Dl = 109 ± 5 nm for C-SFPC-L. Encapsulation efficiency showed the following values: EEC-SPC-L = 83 ± 4%, EEC-EPC-L = 82 ± 3%, and EEC-SFPC-L = 85 ± 4%. We determined that by using the methods of freezing and thawing or sonication it was possible to isolate liposomes sized in the range 100– 120 nm. Upon that the obtained liposomal form of curcumin was stable and freeze-thaw method was optimal for liposomal form and provides a relatively high level (more than 80% of curcumin inclusion.

  19. Alcoholic Beverages Obtained from Black Mulberry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacinto Darias-Martín

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Black mulberry (Morus nigra is a fruit not known only for its nutritional qualities and its flavour, but also for its traditional use in natural medicine as it has a high content of active therapeutic compounds. However, this fruit is not widely produced in Spain but some trees are still found growing in the Canary Islands, particularly on the edges of the ravine. The inhabitants of these islands (Tenerife, La Gomera, La Palma, El Hierro and Lanzarote collect the fruit and prepare homemade beverages for medicinal purposes. Numerous authors have reported that type II diabetes mellitus can be controlled by taking a mixture containing black mulberry and water. Apart from that, this fruit has been used for the treatment of mouth, tongue and throat inflammations. In this study we present some characteristics of black mulberry juice (TSS, pH, titratable acidity, citric acid, lactic acid, polyphenols, anthocyanins, the potassium etc. and alcoholic beverages (alcoholic grade, pH, total acidity, volatile acidity, tannins, phenols etc. obtained from black mulberry. Moreover, we have studied the quality of liquors obtained from black mulberry in Canary Islands.

  20. OBTAINING FOOD SAFETY BY APPLYING HACCP SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ION CRIVEANU

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to increase the confidence of the trading partners and consumers in the products which are sold on the market, enterprises producing food are required to implement the food safety system HACCP,a particularly useful system because the manufacturer is not able to fully control finished products . SR EN ISO 22000:2005 establishes requirements for a food safety management system where an organization in the food chain needs to proove its ability to control food safety hazards in order to ensure that food is safe at the time of human consumption. This paper presents the main steps which ensure food safety using the HACCP system, and SR EN ISO 20000:2005 requirements for food safety.

  1. Polypropylene obtained through zeolite supported catalysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Queli C. Bastos

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Propylene polymerizations were carried out with f2C(Flu(CpZrCl2 and SiMe2(Ind2ZrCl2 catalysts supported on silica, zeolite sodic mordenite (NaM and acid mordenite (HM. The polymerizations were performed at different temperatures and varying aluminium/zirconium molar ratios ([Al]/[Zr]. The effect of these reaction parameters on the catalyst activity was investigated using a proposed statistical experimental planning. In the case of f2C(Flu(CpZrCl2, SiO2 and NaM were used as support and the catalyst performance evaluated using toluene and pentane as polymerization solvent. The molecular weight, molecular weight distribution, melting point and crystallinity of the polymers were examined. The results indicate very high activities for the syndiospecific heterogeneous system. Also, the polymers obtained had superior Mw and stereoregularity.

  2. ORIENTATION OF ENTERPRISES TOWARD OBTAINING COMPETITIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PAUL BOGDAN ZAMFIR

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper I proposed to emphasize the importance of obtaining competitive advantage by companies on EU internal market. The huge EU market, offers for participating companies the possibility to achieve significant economies of scale and numerous niches (segments market, which can be covered with large quantities of goods, the condition is that niches to be discovered in time, and the firms to be able to adapt promptly at their needs. Thus, the most important positive effect derives from the fact that companies have at their disposal a vast market consisting approximately 500 million consumers, free of customs duties and other restrictions inhindering the movement of goods. On this background, the companies can achieve high series production and thereby can reduce their cost of production and increase their competitiveness. In this context, the companies must meet the standards of the European Union, if they really want to gain competitive advantage on EU market.

  3. Effective Active Ingredients Obtained through Biotechnology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Zappelli

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The history of cosmetics develops in parallel to the history of man, associated with fishing, hunting, and superstition in the beginning, and later with medicine and pharmacy. Over the ages, together with human progress, cosmetics have changed continuously and nowadays the cosmetic market is global and highly competitive, where terms such as quality, efficacy and safety are essential. Consumers’ demands are extremely sophisticated, and thus scientific research and product development have become vital to meet them. Moreover, consumers are aware about environmental and sustainability issues, and thus not harming the environment represents a key consideration when developing a new cosmetic ingredient. The latest tendencies of cosmetics are based on advanced research into how to interfere with skin cell aging: research includes the use of biotechnology-derived ingredients and the analysis of their effects on the biology of the cells, in terms of gene regulation, protein expression and enzymatic activity measures. In this review, we will provide some examples of cosmetic active ingredients developed through biotechnological systems, whose activity on the skin has been scientifically proved through in vitro and clinical studies.

  4. WAYS OF OBTAINING FINANCING BY TOUR OPERATORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CARLAN ADRIANA

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available domanin.Romania is a country with highly touristic potential that is not exploited to maximum. In order to reach a high quality level of tourism permanent development and modernization are needed and also the establishment of new businesses That conducts other activities other than those which takes place in our country. Ways of getting funds are multiple, depending on individual needs.To develop tourism activities it is necessary to require some funding that can come from various sources: auto-financing, loans from various banks or from third parties and grants offered by the European Union. There are many programs designed to support the development of tourism, such as ROP that allows people to access grants in order to implement projects for the establishment and the development of the activity in the touristic field. The purpose of this article is to highlight funding opportunities for the tourism operators and to assist them in choosing the appropriate form of financing of the current activity or the activity they want to implement in the future and description of how to obtain the necessary funds from various sources.

  5. HOW TO OBTAIN BOOKS FOR YOUR GROUP

    CERN Multimedia

    Head Librarian

    2000-01-01

    The wide variety of scientific and technical activity engaged in by people working at CERN means that the Library cannot always provide a deep on-site coverage in areas which are outside the core subjects of particle physics and accelerators. As many of you have already experienced, one way of solving this is to borrow books from other libraries. Our Inter-Library Loan (ILL) service currently obtains about 1000 books on loan per year for readers at CERN. However, there may be books which groups need on a more permanent basis, in which case a loan from either our own collection or via ILL is not the appropriate solution. Instead, groups might prefer to purchase such books from their own budgets. To facilitate this, the CERN Library has set up a procedure with the SPL Division, by which you can submit your purchase request to us and be charged via a TID when you receive the book. In addition, via our database interface WebLib, we can provide you with a private virtual catalogue of your group's collection, which...

  6. Obtaining cementitious material from municipal solid waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Macías, A.

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The primary purpose of the present study was to determine the viability of using incinerator ash and slag from municipal solid waste as a secondary source of cementitious materials. The combustion products used were taken from two types of Spanish MSW incinerators, one located at Valdemingómez, in Madrid, and the other in Melilla, with different incineration systems: one with fluidised bed combustion and other with mass burn waterwall. The effect of temperature (from 800 to 1,200 ºC on washed and unwashed incinerator residue was studied, in particular with regard to phase formation in washed products with a high NaCl and KCl content. The solid phases obtained were characterized by X-ray diffraction and BET-N2 specific surface procedures.El principal objetivo del trabajo ha sido determinar la viabilidad del uso de las cenizas y escorias procedentes de la incineración de residuos sólidos urbanos, como materia prima secundaria para la obtención de fases cementantes. Para ello se han empleado los residuos generados en dos tipos de incineradoras españolas de residuos sólidos urbanos: la incineradora de Valdemingómez y la incineradora de Melilla. Se ha estudiado la transformación de los residuos, sin tratamiento previo, en función de la temperatura de calentamiento (desde 800 ºC hasta 1.200 ºC, así como la influencia del lavado de los residuos con alto contenido en NaCl y KCl en la formación de fases obtenidas a las diferentes temperaturas de calcinación. Las fases obtenidas fueron caracterizadas por difracción de rayos X y área superficial por el método BET-N2.

  7. Characterization of rough interfaces obtained by boriding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campos-Silva, I. [Instituto Politecnico Nacional, SEPI-ESIME, U.P. Adolfo Lopez Mateos, Zacatenco, Mexico D.F. 07738 (Mexico)], E-mail: icampos@ipn.mx; Balankin, A.S. [Instituto Politecnico Nacional, SEPI-ESIME, U.P. Adolfo Lopez Mateos, Zacatenco, Mexico D.F. 07738 (Mexico); Sierra, A.H. [Instituto Politecnico Nacional, UPIICSA, Av. Te 950, Col Granjas, Mexico D.F. 08400 (Mexico); Lopez-Perrusquia, N. [Instituto Politecnico Nacional, SEPI-ESIME, U.P. Adolfo Lopez Mateos, Zacatenco, Mexico D.F. 07738 (Mexico); Escobar-Galindo, R. [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid (CSIC), Cantoblanco, Madrid E-28049 (Spain); Morales-Matamoros, D. [Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo, Eje Lazaro Cardenas Norte, Mexico D.F. 07738 (Mexico)

    2008-12-30

    This study evaluates the morphology of borided interfaces by means of the fractal theory. The boride layers were formed in the AISI M2 steel by applying the paste boriding treatment at temperatures of 1253 and 1273 K and treatment times of 2 and 6 h, while a boron carbide paste thickness of 4 or 5 mm covered the samples surface in order to produce the boron diffusion. The morphology of interfaces formed between FeB and Fe{sub 2}B layers and between Fe{sub 2}B layer and steel substrate was analyzed by the rescaled-range (R/S), root-mean-square (RMS), and Fourier power spectrum (FPS) methods. Moreover, the multi-affine spectra of roughness exponent were obtained by calculating the q-order height-height correlation functions. We found that both interfaces are multi-affine, rather than self-affine. The multi-affine spectra of roughness exponents are found to be different for FeB/Fe{sub 2}B and Fe{sub 2}B/substrate interfaces, but independent on the treatment parameters (boron carbide paste thickness, temperature, and boriding time). Furthermore, we found that the multi-affine spectra of both interfaces behave as it is expected for 'universal multi-fractals' with the Levy index {gamma} = 1, associated with the multiplicative cascades with a log-Cauchy distribution. Furthermore, our data suggest a great homogeneity of the boron diffusion field, characterized by universal fractal dimension D{sub diff} = 2.90 {+-} 0.01. These findings provide a novel insight into the nature of phase formation during the boriding treatment.

  8. Component Repair Times Obtained from MSPI Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eide, Steven A. [Curtiss-Wright/Scietech, Ketchum, ID (United States); Cadwallader, Lee [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-05-01

    Information concerning times to repair or restore equipment to service given a failure is valuable to probabilistic risk assessments (PRAs). Examples of such uses in modern PRAs include estimation of the probability of failing to restore a failed component within a specified time period (typically tied to recovering a mitigating system before core damage occurs at nuclear power plants) and the determination of mission times for support system initiating event (SSIE) fault tree models. Information on equipment repair or restoration times applicable to PRA modeling is limited and dated for U.S. commercial nuclear power plants. However, the Mitigating Systems Performance Index (MSPI) program covering all U.S. commercial nuclear power plants provides up-to-date information on restoration times for a limited set of component types. This paper describes the MSPI program data available and analyzes the data to obtain median and mean component restoration times as well as non-restoration cumulative probability curves. The MSPI program provides guidance for monitoring both planned and unplanned outages of trains of selected mitigating systems deemed important to safety. For systems included within the MSPI program, plants monitor both train UA and component unreliability (UR) against baseline values. If the combined system UA and UR increases sufficiently above established baseline results (converted to an estimated change in core damage frequency or CDF), a “white” (or worse) indicator is generated for that system. That in turn results in increased oversight by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and can impact a plant’s insurance rating. Therefore, there is pressure to return MSPI program components to service as soon as possible after a failure occurs. Three sets of unplanned outages might be used to determine the component repair durations desired in this article: all unplanned outages for the train type that includes the component of interest, only

  9. [Biotechnological cultivation of edible macrofungi: an alternative for obtaining nutraceutics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suárez Arango, Carolina; Nieto, Ivonne Jeannette

    2013-01-03

    Macromycetes have been part of the human culture for thousand years, and have been reported as food in the most important civilizations in history. Many nutraceutical properties of macromycetes have been described, such as anti-cancer, anti-tumour, cholesterol lowering, antiviral, antibacterial, or immunomodulatory, among others. Given that production of mushrooms by traditional cultivation and extraction of bioactive metabolites is very difficult in some cases, biotechnology is essential for the development of profitable and productive techniques for obtaining these metabolites. It is the development of this technology, and the ease in which it enables the use of its variables that has allowed mycelium to be cultivated in liquid medium of macrofungi, with a significant reduction in time and an increased production of metabolites. This increased production has led to the study of compounds that have medicinal, nutriceutical and quasi-farmaceutical potential, in the exhausted media and the mycelium. The aim of this review is to provide an overview of the use of liquid-state fermentation as a technological tool for obtaining edible fungi, and the study of these and their metabolites, by describing the different cultivation conditions used in recent years, as well as the results obtained. The relevance of Agaricus, Flammulina, Grifola, Pleurotus and Lentinula genera, will also be discussed, with emphasis on the last one, since Shiitake has been always considered as the ultimate medicinal mushroom. Copyright © 2011 Revista Iberoamericana de Micología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  10. THE TECHNOLOGY OF PASTE FROM SUGAR BEET OBTAINING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. G. Magomedov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We considered a new technology for processing sugar beet into intermediate product for the food industry. Nowadays sugar beet is mainly used for processing into granulated sugar. In the granulated sugar obtaining sugar beet undergoes deep extraction of all nutrients: proteins, minerals, pectin, organic acids, preventing the crystallization process, and then the refined product (granulated sugar with a mass fraction of sucrose not less than 99.75% is obtained. We developed a technology for producing a sugar beet paste, which allows to preserve both sucrose, and almost all useful for human food substances containing in beet. A sugar beet paste is a valuable food product. Carbohydrates, organic acids, minerals, proteins, dietary fibers and vitamins are found in it. The block diagram of a sugar beet paste is given in the article. Technology of obtaining a sugar beet paste was tested under production conditions at the cannery (Joint Stock Company "Sadovoye" Liskinsky district,. Storozhevoe village, Voronezh region. The chemical composition of the paste (Dry Substances = 40% was determined, the degree of meeting of daily requirement for nutrients was calculated. 100 g of the product satisfy the daily requirement for dietary fiber by 42.5%, organic acids by 27.5% potassium by 24.0%, magnesium by 40.0%, iron by 26.7%. The sugar beet paste can be used as a semi-finished product in the confectionery, bakery, food concentrates industry, for products with increased nutritional value, as well as the finished product instead of marmalade and jam.

  11. Multialternative context effects obtained using an inference task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trueblood, Jennifer S

    2012-10-01

    When decision-makers are faced with a choice among multiple options that have several attributes, preferences are often influenced by how the options are related to one another. For example, consumer preferences can be influenced, and even reversed, by the context defined by available products. This article discusses three standard context effects found in the preferential-choice literature: the attraction, similarity, and compromise effects. While decision theorists have attempted to explain these three effects under single modeling accounts, it has never before been demonstrated that these effects can be obtained within the same experimental paradigm. A set of experiments is described that demonstrate the three effects in an inference task. The paradigm is completely novel, as no previous experimental work has examined the standard context effects in inference. The experiments also add to evidence that the effects are not confined to choices among options with affective value, such as consumer products. The experimental results provide evidence that these effects might be a general property of human choice behavior and bring into question explanations of the effects that are based on the concept of loss-aversion asymmetry.

  12. 32 CFR Appendix B to Part 275 - Obtaining Customer Authorization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Obtaining Customer Authorization B Appendix B to... OF 1978 Pt. 275, App. B Appendix B to Part 275—Obtaining Customer Authorization A. A DoD law... feasible, obtain the customer's consent. B. Any authorization obtained under paragraph A. of this appendix...

  13. 49 CFR 375.519 - Must I obtain weight tickets?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Must I obtain weight tickets? 375.519 Section 375... Household Goods Weighing the Shipment § 375.519 Must I obtain weight tickets? (a) You must obtain weight tickets whenever we require you to weigh the shipment in accordance with this subpart. You must obtain a...

  14. Dataset on metabolomics profile of acute leukemia blood obtained by the NMR methods

    OpenAIRE

    Bogaychuk, Alexander; Zyubin, Andrey; Lavrova, Anastasiya; Kupriyanova, Galina; Babak, Svetlana; Dambieva, Mariya; Demin, Maksim; Borisova, Anastasiya; Opryshko, Nikita

    2017-01-01

    This article contains NMR (nuclear magnetic resonance) experimental data, obtained by the NMR Varian 400?MHz spectrometer (USA) which can be used for the metabolites identification in human blood. Data include analyzed NMR spectra of plasma proteins extracted from human blood of 24 patients (0?5 years old) with the confirmed acute leukemia diagnosis. Data can provide information about metabolites and their concentration in blood.

  15. Dataset on metabolomics profile of acute leukemia blood obtained by the NMR methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogaychuk, Alexander; Zyubin, Andrey; Lavrova, Anastasiya; Kupriyanova, Galina; Babak, Svetlana; Dambieva, Mariya; Demin, Maksim; Borisova, Anastasiya; Opryshko, Nikita

    2017-04-01

    This article contains NMR (nuclear magnetic resonance) experimental data, obtained by the NMR Varian 400 MHz spectrometer (USA) which can be used for the metabolites identification in human blood. Data include analyzed NMR spectra of plasma proteins extracted from human blood of 24 patients (0-5 years old) with the confirmed acute leukemia diagnosis. Data can provide information about metabolites and their concentration in blood.

  16. Dataset on metabolomics profile of acute leukemia blood obtained by the NMR methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Bogaychuk

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This article contains NMR (nuclear magnetic resonance experimental data, obtained by the NMR Varian 400 MHz spectrometer (USA which can be used for the metabolites identification in human blood. Data include analyzed NMR spectra of plasma proteins extracted from human blood of 24 patients (0–5 years old with the confirmed acute leukemia diagnosis. Data can provide information about metabolites and their concentration in blood.

  17. 48 CFR 1815.403 - Obtaining cost or pricing data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Obtaining cost or pricing... ADMINISTRATION CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES CONTRACTING BY NEGOTIATION Contract Pricing 1815.403 Obtaining cost or pricing data. ...

  18. 32 CFR Appendix F to Part 275 - Obtaining Emergency Access

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) MISCELLANEOUS OBTAINING INFORMATION FROM FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS: RIGHT TO FINANCIAL PRIVACY ACT OF 1978 Pt. 275... the attached request were obtained by under the Right to Financial Privacy Act of 1978 on for the...

  19. 48 CFR 22.1007 - Requirement to obtain wage determinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Amended 22.1007 Requirement to obtain wage determinations. The contracting officer shall obtain wage... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Requirement to obtain wage determinations. 22.1007 Section 22.1007 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION...

  20. Obtaining of Trialkylphosphates in Anodic Dissolution of Copper Phosphide

    OpenAIRE

    A. P. Aueshov; М. S. Satayev; A. S. Tukibayeva

    2014-01-01

    Due to obtain trialkylphosphate is suggested to use anodic solution of copper phosphide in alcohol solutions. At this, it can use copper phosphide, obtained at the processing of wastes of phosphorus production. Moreover, it is presented ways of obtaining of tri-n-butylphosphate and tri-izo-butylphosphate.

  1. Novel method of generating non-human transgenic animals, and transgenic animals thus obtained

    OpenAIRE

    Ventura Oliveira, Pedro Nuno; Gutiérrez-Adán, Alfonso; Montoliu, Lluís

    2005-01-01

    Fecha de presentación internacional: 04.04.2005. - Titulares: Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC). - Instituto Nacional de Investigación y Tecnología Agraria y Alimentaria (INIA)

  2. Simple and efficient method for isolation and cultivation of endoscopically obtained human colonocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seidelin, Jakob B; Horn, Thomas; Nielsen, Ole H

    2003-01-01

    -diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide assay, by flowcytometry, by phase contrast microscopy, and by transmission electron microscopy. Incubation at 21 degrees C for 75 min gave an optimal yield of 3 x 10(6) (2.0-3.8 x 10(6)) viable epithelial cells in intact crypts per seven biopsies. Embedding of crypts in a collagen gel put...... and where the diagnosis of irritable bowel syndrome was later reached, were included. Seven colon biopsies were taken and incubated at varying time periods of 10-120 min and temperatures of 4-37 degrees C in a chelating buffer. The epithelium was then harvested and cultivated under three different...

  3. Sperm fractions obtained following density gradient centrifugation in human ejaculates show differences in sperm DNA longevity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Gosálvez

    2014-06-01

    Conclusion: 1 Unnecessary incubation of spermatozoa prior to artificial insemination or in vitro fertilization, should be avoided, since sperm DNA longevity is significantly reduced after ex vivo sperm handling and 2 Although sperm selection by DCG significantly reduces the baseline levels of SDF of sperm in Fraction 3, sperm DNA longevity in this fraction was ultimately lower following 24 h incubation when compared to sperm recovered from non-centrifuged NSS.

  4. Method of treating human and animal waste products and products so obtained

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taluntais, A.F.

    1977-08-17

    Animal slurry was complexed with an aldehyde and a nitrogenous substance with free amine or amide groups to give a substantially sterile and odorless fertilizer which slowly released nutrients into the soil when spread. For example, 11.3 kg 37% HCHO was mixed with 45 g pig slurry and 9 kg urea added. The mixture was adjusted to pH 2.5 with H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/, allowed to stand overnight, neutralized with CaCO/sub 3/, and mixed with 8 kg peat moss. The product was a compost-like controlled release fertilizer of 32.2% dry matter content.

  5. Simple and efficient method for isolation and cultivation of endoscopically obtained human colonocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seidelin, Jakob B; Horn, Thomas; Nielsen, Ole H

    2003-01-01

    and where the diagnosis of irritable bowel syndrome was later reached, were included. Seven colon biopsies were taken and incubated at varying time periods of 10-120 min and temperatures of 4-37 degrees C in a chelating buffer. The epithelium was then harvested and cultivated under three different...... conditions: 1) on a collagen coating, 2) embedded in a collagen gel, or 3) embedded in a gel put on a porous well insert. The effect of conditioned medium (CM), insulin, transferrin, selenium, and the oxygen content was assessed. Viability was tested by the metabolic dimethylthiazol...... on a porous membrane was superior to the other methods applied [P effects to FCS. Other supplements had...

  6. 9 CFR 592.100 - Who may obtain service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Who may obtain service. 592.100 Section 592.100 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... obtain service. (a) An application for service may be made by any interested person, including, but not...

  7. 27 CFR 17.103 - Bonds obtained from surety companies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... companies. 17.103 Section 17.103 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE... NONBEVERAGE PRODUCTS Bonds and Consents of Sureties § 17.103 Bonds obtained from surety companies. (a) The bond may be obtained from any surety company authorized by the Secretary of the Treasury to be a surety...

  8. Obtaining the Electron Angular Momentum Coupling Spectroscopic Terms, jj

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orofino, Hugo; Faria, Roberto B.

    2010-01-01

    A systematic procedure is developed to obtain the electron angular momentum coupling (jj) spectroscopic terms, which is based on building microstates in which each individual electron is placed in a different m[subscript j] "orbital". This approach is similar to that used to obtain the spectroscopic terms under the Russell-Saunders (LS) coupling…

  9. 5 CFR 294.107 - Places to obtain records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Places to obtain records. 294.107 Section 294.107 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS AVAILABILITY... § 294.107 Places to obtain records. (a) Address requests for OPM records to the officials listed in...

  10. Using nano-indentation and microscopy to obtain mechanical properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lukovic, M.; Schlangen, E.; Savija, B.; Ye, G.; Copuroglu, O.

    2015-01-01

    Simulation of mechanical behaviour of heterogeneous materials is only possible if the local properties of the components are known. In recent years nano-indentation is being applied on different levels to obtain local mechanical properties. The aim of this paper is to explore various ways to obtain

  11. 7 CFR 75.35 - Obtaining samples for lot inspections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Obtaining samples for lot inspections. 75.35 Section 75.35 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING... Sampling Provisions and Requirements § 75.35 Obtaining samples for lot inspections. Samples of seed for lot...

  12. STUDIES OF THE POSSIBILITY OF OBTAINING ECOLOGICALLY BASED CREAM CAPSAICIN IN THE TREATMENT OF RHEUMATIC DISEASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olimpia PANDIA

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Since herbal medicine makes strides to improve or cure of diseases or serious diseases to human, wherepreparations obtained by chemical are replaced successfully with herbal preparations obtained herbs, aromatic orthose of spontaneous. Thus, in this paper, several attempts are made to prepare a capsaicin based creams antrheumatic. This product is an environmentally friendly product, 100% vegetable produced in the laboratory as abase flossing a chilli extract obtained from private household, beeswax, distilled water, alcohol and peppermint oil.By obtaining this cream was intended to improve or cure people suffering from rheumatism, to relieve pain causedby arthritis, you know, is a readily available even at home, easy to manage, with immediate good results withoutside effects.

  13. Obtaining vanadyl porphyrins from asphaltite of Sadkinsk deposit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nadirov, N.K.; Kotova, A.V.; Ergalieva, A.K.; Yag' yaeva, S.M.; Gol' dberg, I.S.

    1987-11-01

    A method of obtaining vanadyl porphyrins by acetone treatment of asphaltite was proposed. A 1 gram asphaltite sample and 200 ml of acetone were placed in a flask and refluxed by 1 hour. After cooling, the solution was filtered and the content of vanadyl porphyrins in the acetone extract was determined by a spectrophotometer. The product was obtained in crystalline form after the solvent was driven off. Tests show that use of acetone resulted in a more complete extraction of the porphyrins than can be obtained by ordinary alcohol-acetone or alcohol extraction methods.

  14. Dielectric characterization of crude oil extracts obtained from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dielectric characterization of crude oil extracts obtained from different oil fields in Nigeria, intended for utility exploitation in electrical power transformers. J.O. Akinnifesi, F.M. Adebiyi, K.F. Olafisan ...

  15. Food product based on fish and glucomannan, procedure for obtainment

    OpenAIRE

    Borderías, A. Javier; Sólo de Zaldívar, M. Beatriz; Herranz, Beatriz

    2010-01-01

    [EN] The present invention relates to a food product the basic composition whereof comprises muscle from at least one aquatic animal species and glucomannan, and a procedure for the obtainment of said food product.

  16. PROBABILITY MODELS FOR OBTAINING NON-NUMERICAL DATA

    OpenAIRE

    Orlov A. I.

    2015-01-01

    The statistics of objects of non-numerical nature (statistics of non-numerical objects, non-numerical data statistics, non-numeric statistics) is the area of mathematical statistics, devoted to the analysis methods of non-numeric data. Basis of applying the results of mathematical statistics are probabilistic-statistical models of real phenomena and processes, the most important (and often only) which are models for obtaining data. The simplest example of a model for obtaining data is the mod...

  17. Perovskite type nanopowders and thin films obtained by chemical methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktor Fruth

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The review presents the contribution of the authors, to the preparation of two types of perovskites, namely BiFeO3 and LaCoO3, by innovative methods. The studied perovskites were obtained as powders, films and sintered bodies. Their complex structural and morphological characterization is also presented. The obtained results have underlined the important influence of the method of preparation on the properties of the synthesized perovskites.

  18. Functionalization of PET (polyethylene therephthalate) surfaces to obtain antimicrobial properties

    OpenAIRE

    Kaisersberger Vincek, Maja

    2015-01-01

    The trend in the development of innovative packaging materials is in packaging materials surface functionalization to obtain antimicrobial properties. Therefore, every day is growing interest in the functionalization procedures, which are environmentally friendly and use biodegradable reagents. One of the most perspective is chitosan, which is obtained by alkaline process deacetilation of chitin and is the second most widely bipolimer on Earth after cellulose. Chitosan contains amino groups t...

  19. Thermoluminescence properties of zinc oxide obtained by solution combustion synthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orante B, V. R.; Escobar O, F. M.; Cruz V, C. [Universidad de Sonora, Departamento de Investigacion en Polimeros y Materiales, Apdo. Postal 130, 83000 Hermosillo, Sonora (Mexico); Bernal, R., E-mail: victor.orante@polimeros.uson.mx [Universidad de Sonora, Departamento de Investigacion en Fisica, Apdo. Postal 5-088, 83190 Hermosillo, Sonora (Mexico)

    2014-08-15

    High-dose thermoluminescence dosimetry properties of novel zinc oxide obtained by solution combustion synthesis in a glycine-nitrate process, with a non-stoichiometric value of the elemental stoichiometric coefficient (Φ{sub c}) are presented in this work. Zn O powder samples obtained were annealed afterwards at 900 grades C during 2 h in air. Sintered particles of sizes between ∼ 0.5 and ∼ 2 μm were obtained, according to scanning electron microscopy results. X-ray diffraction indicates the presence of the hexagonal phase of Zn O for the powder samples obtained, before and after thermal annealing, without any remaining nitrate peaks observed. Thermoluminescence glow curves of Zn O obtained after being exposed to beta radiation consists of two maxima; one located at ∼ 149 grades C and another at ∼ 308 grades C, being the latter the dosimetric component of the curve. Dosimetric characterization of non-stoichiometric zinc oxide provided experimental evidence like asymptotic behavior of the Tl signal fading for times greater than 16 h between irradiation and the corresponding Tl readout, as well as the linear behaviour of the dose response without saturation in the dose interval studied (from 12.5 up to 400 Gy). Such characteristics place Zn O phosphors obtained in this work as a promising material for high-dose radiation dosimetry applications (e.g., radiotherapy and food industry). (author)

  20. Comparison of hearing thresholds obtained with Baha preoperative assessment tools and those obtained with the osseointegrated implant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heywood, Rebecca L; Patel, Parag M; Jonathan, David A

    2011-05-01

    We conducted a study of the Baha bone-anchored hearing aid system to quantify the difference between (1) hearing thresholds obtained through preoperative testing methods with the Baha sound processor attached to three different bone-conduction testing devices and (2) thresholds obtained postoperatively with the sound processor attached to a surgically placed osseointegrated titanium implant. Twenty-three patients underwent free-field testing in four situations: with the Baha sound processor attached to (1) the Baha Testband (transcutaneous transmission), (2) the Baha Softband (transcutaneous transmission), (3) a test rod (bone conduction via the teeth), and (4) the osseointegrated implant (percutaneous transmission). The main outcome measure was the result of a comparison of the thresholds obtained with the three preoperative test methods and those obtained with the osseointegrated implant. We found that aided thresholds obtained with the osseointegrated implant were significantly better (p < 0.05) than those obtained with the three preoperative test methods. The degree of superiority increased with higher frequencies. We conclude that thresholds of 1 to 18 dB better than those obtained by preoperative test methods can be expected postoperatively with the osseointegrated implant. The damping effect of sound transmission via the teeth or transcutaneously must be accounted for in making predictions of postoperative outcome.

  1. COMPARISON OF GINGER (Zingiber officiale Roscoe OLEORESIN OBTAINED WITH ETHANOL AND ISOPROPANOL WITH THAT OBTAINED WITH PRESSURIZED CO2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NOBREGA Lia P.

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe belongs to the Zingiberacea family. It is a spice of great commercial importance. In this work ginger oleoresin was obtained with ethanol, isopropanol and liquid carbon dioxide. The chemical compositions of the extract were compared with each other. All oleoresin samples had monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes. Carboxylic acids were found in organic solvent extracts for an extraction time of 2 hours. The component responsible the for pungent characteristic of the oleoresin, gingerois, were detected in samples obtained with organic solvent for extraction times of 6 hours and in samples obtained with CO2 liquid for extraction times of 2 hours.

  2. Comparison of different methodologies for obtaining nickel nanoferrites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galindo, R.; Menendez, N. [Departamento de Química Física Aplicada, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Cantoblanco, E-28049 Madrid (Spain); Crespo, P.; Velasco, V. [Instituto de Magnetismo Aplicado, UCM, ADIF CSIC, E-28230 Madrid (Spain); Bomati-Miguel, O.; Díaz-Fernández, D. [Departamento de Física Aplicada and Instituto Nicolás Cabrera, Facultad de Ciencias Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Cantoblanco, E-28049 Madrid (Spain); Herrasti, P., E-mail: pilar.herrasti@uam.es [Departamento de Química Física Aplicada, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Cantoblanco, E-28049 Madrid (Spain)

    2014-06-01

    Nickel nanoferrites were obtained by means of four different synthetic wet-routes: co-precipitation (CP), sonochemistry (SC), sonoelectrochemistry (SE) and electrochemistry (E). The influence of the synthesis method on the structural and magnetic properties of nickel ferrite nanoparticles is studied. Although similar experimental conditions such as temperature, pH and time of synthesis were used, a strong dependence of composition and microstructure on the synthesis procedure is found, as electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and Mössbauer spectroscopy studies reveal. Whereas by means of the CP and SC methods particles of a small size around 5–10 nm, respectively, and composed by different phases are obtained, the electrochemical routes (E and SE) allow obtaining monodisperse nanoparticles, with sizes ranging from 30 to 40 nm, and very close to stoichiometry. Magnetic characterization evidences a superparamagnetic behavior for samples obtained by CP and SC methods, whereas the electrochemical route leads to ferromagnetic ferrite nanoparticles. - Highlights: • Electrochemical synthesis produces pure NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanonoparticles with 40 nm particle size. • Coprecipitation and sonochemistry techniques generate NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanoparticles with impurities. • Nanoparticles obtained by coprecipitation and sonochemistry are superparamagnetic. • Electrochemical and sonoelectrochemical methods produce ferromagnetic nanoparticles.

  3. Technical and technological solution for vegetal bio-stimulants obtaining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anghelache, D. G.; Diaconescu, I.; Pătraşcu, R.

    2017-08-01

    The paper presents a modern technology for bio fertilizers resulted from waste plant mass after harvesting crops Experimental products were obtained rich in nutrients, but unstable in terms of existing microorganisms. Therefore, they conducted further studies to obtaining bio fungicide herb, so in all investigations undertaken so far in the laboratory, were able to conclude that the introduction of medicinal plant extracts with fungicidal effect into the bio fertilizers obtained by degradation of plant material post-harvest can get various bio-stimulants with nourishing effect upon the plants. Following this technology the paper’s objective is to identify a flux scheme for experimental equipment which can produce as final outcome this type of bio-stimulant. Also, in this work, this equipment will be chosen and will be designed following and obeying to the request of every step of the above technology.

  4. Obtaining a Spreadable Cheese Sort with Additives of Bioactive Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela Adriana TIŢA

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available To conduct this study, a market survey was conducted in the form of a questionnaire to see what assortment of cheese and what ingredients bioactive compounds people want to consume. In order to find out what assortment of cheese and what ingredients with bioactive compounds people want to consume, a market survey was made in the form of a questionnaire. Taking into account the results of the survey,to process a melted cheese mix with the addition of dried tomatoes and basil. A technological scheme was developed for this cheese and sodium bicarbonate was used instead of melting and emulsifying salts to try to obtain a healthier product. The obtained product was analyzed for a period of 30 days from a sensory and physico-chemical. Physico-chemical and sensory properties of the obtained product were analyzed for a period of 30 days.

  5. DEXTRINIZED SYRUPS OBTAINING THROUGH THE ENZYMATIC HYDROLYSIS OF SORGHUM STARCH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leyanis Rodríguez Rodríguez

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this work was the production of syrups dextrinized by enzymatic hydrolysis of starch red sorghum CIAPR-132 using α-amylase on solutions at different concentrations, with different concentrations of enzyme and enzyme hydrolysis time. The response variable was the dextrose equivalent in each obtained syrup (ED using the modified Lane-Eynon method. In some of the experiments, we used a full factorial design 23 and in others we worked with intermediate concentration and higher hydrolysis time with different levels of enzyme. The obtained products were syrups dextrinized ED between 10,25 and 33,97% (values we can find within the established ones for these types of syrups, which can be used for their functional properties as intermediates syrups or as raw material for different processes of the food industry. This allows you to set a pattern for the use of sorghum feedstock in unconventional obtaining products from its starch.

  6. Nanocrystalline and ultrafine grain copper obtained by mechanical attrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodolfo Rodríguez Baracaldo

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a method for the sample preparation and characterisation of bulk copper having grain size lower than 1 μm (ultra-fine grain and lower than 100 nm grain size (nanocrystalline. Copper is initially manufactured by a milling/alloying me- chanical method thereby obtaining a powder having a nanocrystalline structure which is then consolidated through a process of warm compaction at high pressure. Microstructural characterisation of bulk copper samples showed the evolution of grain size during all stages involved in obtaining it. The results led to determining the necessary conditions for achieving a wide range of grain sizes. Mechanical characterisation indicated an increase in microhardness to values of around 3.40 GPa for unconsolida- ted nanocrystalline powder. Compressivee strength was increased by reducing the grain size, thereby obtaining an elastic limit of 650 MPa for consolidated copper having a ~ 62 nm grain size.

  7. INTERACTIVE GLOBAL NETWORK FOR WEATHER DATA OBTAINING, EXCHANGE AND DISSEMINATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ю.А. Авер’янова

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available  The possibility to enhance the weather information provision of relevant customers is considered. It is based on the use of the complex global system for weather information obtaining, exchange and dissemination. The structural diagram of the system is proposed. The structural diagram is completed with addition connections that allow to pay strong attention on the most dangerous meteorological phenomena at the critical moment of flight. The proposed approach gives possibility to aircraft crew to select and use specified operative information and increase the probability for proper decision taking. The aircraft are used as the dynamic elements for data obtaining and exchange in the frame of the global system for weather information obtaining, exchange and dissemination.

  8. Nanostructured films of metal particles obtained by laser ablation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muniz-Miranda, M., E-mail: muniz@unifi.it [Dipartimento di Chimica “U. Schiff”, Università di Firenze, Via della Lastruccia 3, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Gellini, C. [Dipartimento di Chimica “U. Schiff”, Università di Firenze, Via della Lastruccia 3, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Giorgetti, E.; Margheri, G.; Marsili, P. [Istituto Sistemi Complessi (CNR), Via Madonna del Piano 10, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Lascialfari, L.; Becucci, L. [Dipartimento di Chimica “U. Schiff”, Università di Firenze, Via della Lastruccia 3, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Trigari, S. [Istituto Sistemi Complessi (CNR), Via Madonna del Piano 10, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Giammanco, F. [Dipartimento di Fisica “E. Fermi”, Università di Pisa, Largo Pontecorvo 3, 56127 Pisa (Italy)

    2013-09-30

    Colloidal dispersions of silver and gold nanoparticles were obtained in pure water by ablation with nanosecond pulsed laser. Then, by filtration of the metal particles on alumina, we fabricated nanostructured films, whose surface morphology was examined by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and related to surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) after adsorption of adenine. - Highlights: • Ag and Au colloidal nanoparticles were obtained by laser ablation. • Nanostructured Ag and Au films were fabricated by filtration of metal nanoparticles. • Surface morphology of metal films was investigated by atomic force microscopy. • Surface-enhanced Raman spectra (SERS) of adenine on metal films were obtained. • SERS enhancements were related to the surface roughness of the metal films.

  9. Inverse Modelling to Obtain Head Movement Controller Signal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, W. S.; Lee, S. H.; Hannaford, B.; Stark, L.

    1984-01-01

    Experimentally obtained dynamics of time-optimal, horizontal head rotations have previously been simulated by a sixth order, nonlinear model driven by rectangular control signals. Electromyography (EMG) recordings have spects which differ in detail from the theoretical rectangular pulsed control signal. Control signals for time-optimal as well as sub-optimal horizontal head rotations were obtained by means of an inverse modelling procedures. With experimentally measured dynamical data serving as the input, this procedure inverts the model to produce the neurological control signals driving muscles and plant. The relationships between these controller signals, and EMG records should contribute to the understanding of the neurological control of movements.

  10. Vibrational properties of gold nanoparticles obtained by green synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, Ramón A. B.; Cortez-Valadez, M.; Bueno, L. Oscar Neira; Britto Hurtado, R.; Rocha-Rocha, O.; Delgado-Beleño, Y.; Martinez-Nuñez, C. E.; Serrano-Corrales, Luis Ivan; Arizpe-Chávez, H.; Flores-Acosta, M.

    2016-10-01

    This study reports the synthesis and characterization of gold nanoparticles through an ecological method to obtain nanostructures from the extract of the plant Opuntia ficus-indica. Colloidal nanoparticles show sizes that vary between 10-20 nm, and present various geometric morphologies. The samples were characterized through optical absorption, Raman Spectroscopy and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). Additionally, low energy metallic clusters of Aun (n=2-20 atoms) were modeled by computational quantum chemistry. The theoretical results were obtained with Density Functional Theory (DFT). The predicted results of Au clusters show a tendency and are correlated with the experimental results concerning the optical absorption bands and Raman spectroscopy in gold nanoparticles.

  11. GHM method for obtaining rationalsolutions of nonlinear differential equations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vazquez-Leal, Hector; Sarmiento-Reyes, Arturo

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we propose the application of the general homotopy method (GHM) to obtain rational solutions of nonlinear differential equations. It delivers a high precision representation of the nonlinear differential equation using a few linear algebraic terms. In order to assess the benefits of this proposal, three nonlinear problems are solved and compared against other semi-analytic methods or numerical methods. The obtained results show that GHM is a powerful tool, capable to generate highly accurate rational solutions. AMS subject classification 34L30.

  12. Absolute FKBP binding affinities obtained via nonequilibrium unbinding simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ytreberg, F Marty

    2009-04-28

    We compute the absolute binding affinities for two ligands bound to the FKBP protein using nonequilibrium unbinding simulations. The methodology is straightforward requiring little or no modification to many modern molecular simulation packages. The approach makes use of a physical pathway, eliminating the need for complicated alchemical decoupling schemes. We compare our nonequilibrium results to those obtained via a fully equilibrium approach and to experiment. The results of this study suggest that to obtain accurate results using nonequilibrium approaches one should use the stiff-spring approximation with the second cumulant expansion. From this study we conclude that nonequilibrium simulation could provide a simple means to estimate protein-ligand binding affinities.

  13. Preparative method to obtain ursolic acid from Clinopodium revolutum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Azael Ludeña Huaman

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A method to obtain ursolic acid (UA in an easy, fast, and economical way was proposed, having as raw material the medicinal plant Clinopodium revolutum from Peru. This plant is known and marketed as flor de arena or té indio. The selective recrystallization technique used was efficient due to UA crystals were obtained without the need for chromatographic purification methods neither the use of toxic solvents. The purity determined by HPLC is greater than 95%. Thus, the flor de arena becomes an important biosource of this compound.

  14. OBTAINING COTTON SEED OIL EPOXIDIZED USING AN WEAK ACID

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Cruz-Aldaco

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, parameters which influence the chemical modification under mild conditions using a weak organic acid, fatty acids of unsaturated oil, cottonseed to produce epoxidized oil, which is a useful precursor in obtaining resins epoxy industrial importance, were evaluated. We studied the following reaction parameters: concentration of acetic acid, hydrogen peroxide, catalyst and solvent, as well as temperature, agitation rate and reaction time. The results showed that the agitation and temperature are the parameters which influence the modification of unsaturated fatty acids. Studied conditions allowed obtaining up to 70% relative conversion of oxygen-oxirane from cottonseed oil.

  15. Efficient Data-Driven Rule for Obtaining an Optimal Predictive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper proposes a rule for optimizing a predictive discriminant function (PDF) in discriminant analysis (DA). In this study, we carried out a sequential-stepwise analysis on the predictor variables and a percentage-N-fold cross-validation on the data set obtained from students' academic records in a university system.

  16. 9 CFR 354.30 - Who may obtain inspection service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Who may obtain inspection service. 354.30 Section 354.30 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... made by any interested person, including, but not being limited to, the United States, any State...

  17. 18 CFR 292.207 - Procedures for obtaining qualifying status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Procedures for obtaining qualifying status. 292.207 Section 292.207 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL... certification or recertification order was issued; (F) A decrease in the amount of fossil fuel used by a small...

  18. Mass Media Campaign Impacts Influenza Vaccine Obtainment of University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shropshire, Ali M.; Brent-Hotchkiss, Renee; Andrews, Urkovia K.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To describe the effectiveness of a mass media campaign in increasing the rate of college student influenza vaccine obtainment. Participants/Methods: Students ("N" = 721) at a large southern university completed a survey between September 2011 and January 2012 assessing what flu clinic media sources were visualized and if they…

  19. The mass of (1 Ceres obtained from four close encounters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovačević Anđelka B.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The technique of asteroid mass determination from perturbation during close approach requires as many as possible different close approaches in order to derive reliable mass of a perturber. Here are presented some results for the mass of (1 Ceres obtained using newly found close approaches.

  20. Application of enzyme drugs in obtaining of vegetable proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. E. Martemianova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available There have been carried out experimental research on lentil and lupin flour, which could show expediency of ballast polysaccharides destruction during cleaning the protein legumes from amylum components. Has been determined the influence of the values of hydro-module on technical and economic indices of the process of producing protein concentrate of lentils. Obtained functional vegetable proteins.

  1. Appraisal on the wound healing activity of different extracts obtained ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-12-02

    Dec 2, 2015 ... Appraisal on the wound healing activity of different extracts obtained from Aegle marmelos and. Mucuna pruriens by in vivo experimental models. FA Toppo, RS Pawar. Department of Pharmacognosy, Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry Laboratory, VNS Group of Institutions, Faculty of. Pharmacy, Bhopal ...

  2. Chelate forms of biometalls. Theoretical aspects of obtaining and characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Kapustyan

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The problem of microelements bioavailability is highlighted and the correct ways of its solution are substantiated as a result of generalization of theoretical aspects of obtaining of the biometals chelate forms. The characteristics of the main biogenic elements, their physiological significance, electrochemical properties are presented. The main examples of the participation of biometals in various biological processes are given. The properties and the structure peculiarities of biometals coordination complexes are considered in detail. It is shown that in obtaining of biometals chelate forms, there is the mutual selectivity and the affinity of biometals and ligands. The main factors of obtaining a hard metal complex are given. Potential bioligands for obtaining bioavailable forms of microelements are detailed. Among them there are amino acids, peptides, proteins, nucleic acids, carbohydrates. The possible character of complexation depending on the nature of the bioligand is indicated. Practical examples of preparation of biometals mixed ligand complexes are given. The expediency of using metabolic products and processing of lactic acid bacteria as promising components of mixed ligand chelate complexes is substantiated. These substances contain in their composition a mass of potential donor atoms that are capable to form covalent and coordination bonds with biomethalles, and also possess high biological and immunotropic activities. The use of this system in the biocoordination compounds of the "metals of life" can provide a synergistic effect of the components, significantly to expand the range of their physiological activity and to increase the degree of assimilation by the body.

  3. 15 CFR 711.6 - Where to obtain forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Where to obtain forms. 711.6 Section 711.6 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) BUREAU OF INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION REGULATIONS GENERAL...

  4. properties of films obtained from the polysaccharide derived from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The films obtained from Detarium microcarpium gum were compared in some aspects with gelatin films of equal thickness. Detarium film compared favourably with gelatin as a film former. Unplasticised and plasticised Detarium film absorbed less water than gelatin film, an advantage that could be of immense importance in ...

  5. Antioxidant properties of volatile oils obtained from Artemisia taurica ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, the antioxidant properties of volatile oils obtained from the earth parts of the Artemisia taurica Willd. and Salvia kronenburgii Rech. Fil. plants and their effects on xanthine oxidase enzyme were studied. The chemical contents of each volatile oil were determined by applying gas chromatograpghy-mass ...

  6. 41 CFR 101-26.308 - Obtaining filing cabinets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Obtaining filing cabinets. 101-26.308 Section 101-26.308 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System FEDERAL PROPERTY MANAGEMENT REGULATIONS SUPPLY AND PROCUREMENT 26-PROCUREMENT SOURCES AND...

  7. Strategies for Obtaining Probability Samples of Homeless Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golinelli, Daniela; Tucker, Joan S.; Ryan, Gery W.; Wenzel, Suzanne L.

    2015-01-01

    Studies of homeless individuals typically sample subjects from few types of sites or regions within a metropolitan area. This article focuses on the biases that can result from such a practice. We obtained a probability sample of 419 homeless youth from 41 sites (shelters, drop-in centers, and streets) in four regions of Los Angeles County (LAC).…

  8. Tailoring approach for obtaining molecular orbitals of large systems

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    With this view, an attempt is made in the present work to employ molecular tailoring approach (MTA) for obtaining the complete set of MO's including occupied and virtual orbitals, for large molecules at HF and B3LYP levels of theory. The energies of highest occupied and lowest unoccupied molecular orbitals, and hence the ...

  9. 9 CFR 2.52 - How to obtain tags.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., at their own expense, official tags from commercial tag manufacturers. 4 At the time the dealer or... list of the commercial manufacturers who produce these tags and are known to the Department may be... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false How to obtain tags. 2.52 Section 2.52...

  10. 7 CFR 400.411 - Obtaining personal records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Obtaining personal records. 400.411 Section 400.411 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FEDERAL CROP INSURANCE CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GENERAL ADMINISTRATIVE REGULATIONS General Administrative Regulations; Collection...

  11. Characterization of zinc–nickel alloy electrodeposits obtained from ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Zinc alloy offers superior sacrificial protection to steel as the alloy dissolves more slowly than pure zinc. ... characterization of zinc-nickel electrodeposits obtained from sulphamate bath containing substituted aldehydes was carried out using hardness testing, X-ray diffraction, and corrosion resistance measurements.

  12. Phase analysis and dielectric properties of oxides obtained in the ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Nb2O5–(x)Ta2O5 system. M THIRUMAL and A K GANGULI*. Department .... Financial assistance from the Board of Research for Nuclear Sciences, Government of. India is gratefully acknowledged. The authors thank Prof B Bhat for obtaining high-.

  13. 34 CFR 682.102 - Obtaining and repaying a loan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Obtaining and repaying a loan. 682.102 Section 682.102 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION FEDERAL FAMILY EDUCATION LOAN (FFEL) PROGRAM Purpose and Scope § 682.102...

  14. Temperature distributions obtained with diathermy electrodes implanted into a phantom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasserman, H J; Levin, W

    1979-11-01

    Uniform patterns of heating in a homogeneous phantom were obtained by implanting shortwave diathermy electrodes in a particular configuration. The methods of heating and measurement are described. The technique can be considered for applying localized hyperthermia in the treatment of cancer.

  15. Elemental spectrum of a mouse obtained via neutron stimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Amy C.; Tourassi, Georgia D.; Kapadia, Anuj J.; Crowell, Alexander S.; Kiser, Matthew R.; Hutcheson, Anthony; Harrawood, Brian P.; Howell, Calvin R.; Floyd, Carey E., Jr.

    2007-03-01

    Several studies have shown that the concentration of certain elements may be a disease indicator. We are developing a spectroscopic imaging technique, Neutron Stimulated Emission Computed Tomography (NSECT), to non-invasively measure and image elemental concentrations within the body. The region of interest is interrogated via a beam of high-energy neutrons that excite elemental nuclei through inelastic scatter. These excited nuclei then relax by emitting characteristic gamma radiation. Acquiring the gamma energy spectrum in a tomographic geometry allows reconstruction of elemental concentration images. Our previous studies have demonstrated NSECT's ability to obtain spectra and images of known elements and phantoms, as well as, initial interrogations of biological tissue. Here, we describe the results obtained from NSECT interrogation of a fixed mouse specimen. The specimen was interrogated via a 5MeV neutron beam for 9.3 hours in order to ensure reasonable counting statistics. The gamma energy spectrum was obtained using two High-Purity Germanium (HPGe) clover detectors. A background spectrum was obtained by interrogating a specimen container containing 50mL of 0.9% NaCl solution. Several elements of biological interest including 12C, 40Ca, 31P, and 39K were identified with greater then 90% confidence. This interrogation demonstrates the feasibility of NSECT interrogation of small animals. Interrogation with a commercial neutron source that provides higher neutron flux and lower energy (~2.5MeV) neutrons would reduce scanning time and eliminate background from certain elements.

  16. Microcrystalline cellulose obtained from plant as a pharmaceutical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was aimed at developing pharmaceutical grade microcrystalline cellulose from Chasmanthera dependens stem phloem fibres as a tablet excipient. The microcrystalline cellulose coded CD-MCC, was obtained from the phloem fibres by a two-stage sodium hydroxide delignification process followed by sodium ...

  17. Evidence of environmental pollution in caprine brains obtained from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evidence of environmental pollution in caprine brains obtained from a relatively unindustrialized area in nigeria. ... African Journal of Biomedical Research ... Molybdenum-Mo, Vanadium-Va, and Lead-Pb) in the different regions of the brain of goats in a relatively unindustrialized area in Nigeria was investigated using the ...

  18. Cultivation of Pleurotus mushrooms in substrates obtained by short ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cultivation of Pleurotus mushrooms in substrates obtained by short composting and steam pasteurization. Félix G. de Siqueira, William P. Maciel, Emerson T. Martos, Gilvan C. Duarte, Robert N. G. Miller, Romildo da Silva, Eustáquio S. Dias ...

  19. Characterization of a novel stable biocatalyst obtained by protein engineering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van den Burg, B; de Kreij, A; Van der Veek, P; Mansfeld, J; Venema, G

    Protein engineering is a powerful tool for the improvement of the properties of biocatalysts, Previously we have applied protein engineering technologies to obtain an extremely stable variant of the thermolysin-like protease from Bacillus stearothermophilus [Van den Burg, Vriend, Veltman, Venema and

  20. Porous graphitic materials obtained from carbonization of organic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    dered pore system prepared by simple evaporative drying and pyrolysis of organic .... Organic xerogel recipes and content of metal in carbon xerogel/metal composite obtained after carbonization. Mechanical integrity and drying shrink of. Metal content (wt.%) in .... after the heat treatment is made up of metal nanoparticles ...

  1. 32 CFR 564.40 - Procedures for obtaining medical care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Procedures for obtaining medical care. 564.40... benefits. (b) Authorization for care in civilian facility. (1) An individual who desires medical or dental care in civilian medical treatment facilities at Federal expense is not authorized such care without...

  2. Intermediate obtained from photoionization, serving as precursor for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this article, we have introduced an intermediate benzyl carbocation (formed as a result of photoionization) which serves as precursor for the synthesis of Schiff's base. Lifetimes of many carbocations were determined from our laboratory. During the determination of the lifetimes, our endeavor was to obtain a carbocation ...

  3. Data Obtained from Prototype Wave Dragon in Nissum Bredning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tedd, James William; Curie, Marie; Kofoed, Jens Peter

    This report is a product of the Project: Sea Testing and Optimisation of Power Production on a Scale 1:4.5 Test Rig of the Offshore Wave Energy Converter Wave Dragon. This report aims to provide access for the project partners to the raw data obtained from the testing period in Nissum Bredning. B...

  4. Obtaining orthotropic elasticity tensor using entries zeroing method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gierlach, Bartosz; Danek, Tomasz

    2017-04-01

    A generally anisotropic elasticity tensor obtained from measurements can be represented by a tensor belonging to one of eight material symmetry classes. Knowledge of symmetry class and orientation is helpful for describing physical properties of a medium. For each non-trivial symmetry class except isotropic this problem is nonlinear. A common method of obtaining effective tensor is a choosing its non-trivial symmetry class and minimizing Frobenius norm between measured and effective tensor in the same coordinate system. Global optimization algorithm has to be used to determine the best rotation of a tensor. In this contribution, we propose a new approach to obtain optimal tensor, with the assumption that it is orthotropic (or at least has a similar shape to the orthotropic one). In orthotropic form tensor 24 out of 36 entries are zeros. The idea is to minimize the sum of squared entries which are supposed to be equal to zero through rotation calculated with optimization algorithm - in this case Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) algorithm. Quaternions were used to parametrize rotations in 3D space to improve computational efficiency. In order to avoid a choice of local minima we apply PSO several times and only if we obtain similar results for the third time we consider it as a correct value and finish computations. To analyze obtained results Monte-Carlo method was used. After thousands of single runs of PSO optimization, we obtained values of quaternion parts and plot them. Points concentrate in several points of the graph following the regular pattern. It suggests the existence of more complex symmetry in the analyzed tensor. Then thousands of realizations of generally anisotropic tensor were generated - each tensor entry was replaced with a random value drawn from normal distribution having a mean equal to measured tensor entry and standard deviation of the measurement. Each of these tensors was subject of PSO based optimization delivering quaternion for optimal

  5. OBTAINING AND PROPERTIES OF AgInS2 FILMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Abdullaev

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. The aim is to obtain AgInS2 films and study their electrical and optical properties.Methods. The samples of thin AgInS2 films for measurement were obtained by the method of magnetron sputtering with direct current. The structure, phase and elemental composition were studied using DRON-2 X-ray diffractometer (СuKа - radiation and the microscope LEO-1450 with EDS attachment for X-ray microanalysis. The optical transmittance and absorption were examined using MDR-2 monochromator in the wavelength range of 400-800 nm with the Keitley electrometer and FD-10G; we applied the spectral resolution of ± 1 meV. The electrical conductivity, Hall effect was measured by the four-point probe method with indium ohmic contacts. Measurements were carried out in the temperature range of 77-400 K.Findings. We obtained indium disulfide and silver films with the thickness of up to 1 μm on quartz substrates by magnetron sputtering. It is shown that increasing the substrate temperature to about 450 0С allows to obtain single phase film with a chalcopyrite structure with a band gap of 1.88 eV and high absorption coefficient (>104см-1.Conclusions. The possibility of obtaining films in a wide range of the electrical resistance and variation of the electrical parameters at constant stoichiometry is of interest for efficient technologies of phototransduction.

  6. Influence of pansharpening techniques in obtaining accurate vegetation thematic maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibarrola-Ulzurrun, Edurne; Gonzalo-Martin, Consuelo; Marcello-Ruiz, Javier

    2016-10-01

    In last decades, there have been a decline in natural resources, becoming important to develop reliable methodologies for their management. The appearance of very high resolution sensors has offered a practical and cost-effective means for a good environmental management. In this context, improvements are needed for obtaining higher quality of the information available in order to get reliable classified images. Thus, pansharpening enhances the spatial resolution of the multispectral band by incorporating information from the panchromatic image. The main goal in the study is to implement pixel and object-based classification techniques applied to the fused imagery using different pansharpening algorithms and the evaluation of thematic maps generated that serve to obtain accurate information for the conservation of natural resources. A vulnerable heterogenic ecosystem from Canary Islands (Spain) was chosen, Teide National Park, and Worldview-2 high resolution imagery was employed. The classes considered of interest were set by the National Park conservation managers. 7 pansharpening techniques (GS, FIHS, HCS, MTF based, Wavelet `à trous' and Weighted Wavelet `à trous' through Fractal Dimension Maps) were chosen in order to improve the data quality with the goal to analyze the vegetation classes. Next, different classification algorithms were applied at pixel-based and object-based approach, moreover, an accuracy assessment of the different thematic maps obtained were performed. The highest classification accuracy was obtained applying Support Vector Machine classifier at object-based approach in the Weighted Wavelet `à trous' through Fractal Dimension Maps fused image. Finally, highlight the difficulty of the classification in Teide ecosystem due to the heterogeneity and the small size of the species. Thus, it is important to obtain accurate thematic maps for further studies in the management and conservation of natural resources.

  7. Neuroglobin expression in the rat suprachiasmatic nucleus: colocalization, innervation, and response to light

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hundahl, C A; Hannibal, J; Fahrenkrug, J

    2010-01-01

    protect neurons-remains largely elusive. We have previously described the localization of Ngb in the rat brain and found it to be expressed in areas primarily involved in sleep/wake, circadian, and food regulation. The present study was undertaken, using immunohistochemistry, to characterize...... a small portion was found to co-store GRP in the ventral SCN. Furthermore, some Ngb-containing neurons were responsive to light stimulation at late night evaluated by the induction of cFOS and only a few cells were found to express the core clock gene PER1 during the 24-hour light/dark cycle. The Ngb...

  8. Anatomical characterization of cytoglobin and neuroglobin mRNA and protein expression in the mouse brain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hundahl, Christian Ansgar; Allen, Gregg C; Hannibal, Jens

    2010-01-01

    -localize with almost all orexin neurons in the LH. In conclusion the distribution of Cygb and Ngb seems much more restricted and coherent than previously reported. We believe other functions than pure oxygen buffers and neuroprotectants should be considered. The anatomical data indicate a role in NO signalling...... for Cygb and involvement in sleep-wake cycling for Cygb and Ngb....

  9. Using social responsibility to obtain employees´ commitment

    OpenAIRE

    Vittor Santillan, Paola Rosa

    2011-01-01

    Masteroppgave i økonomi og administrasjon - Universitetet i Agder 2011 I remember the past semester in class of Strategic Marketing Management, the topic of the day was “Resource Dependent Theory” and the professor started to lecture saying: ... “A company is a collection of resource: physical resources, human resources and financial resources. The way how to organize them produce capabilities and the more capabilities in a company the more sustainable competitive advantage. If you nee...

  10. A manual method to obtain platelet rich plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Fabiana Paulino; Ingham, Sheila Jean McNeill; Forgas, Andrea; Franciozi, Carlos Eduardo da Silveira; Sasaki, Pedro Henrique; Abdalla, Rene Jorge

    2014-01-01

    This study is to report a manual method to obtain platelet rich plasma (PRP). For this study 61 ml of peripheral blood was obtained and submitted to centrifugation at 541g for 5 min. The centrifugation separates the blood into three components: red blood cells, buffy coat and platelet rich plasma. Blood and platelet rich plasma samples were sent to the Hospital's Laboratory and platelets and leukocytes were measured. A sample of 637 blood donors was evaluated. The platelet yield efficiency was 86.77% and the increase in platelet concentration factor was 2.89 times. The increase in leukocyte concentration factor was 1.97 times. The method described here produces leukocyte-rich and platelet-rich plasma with a high platelet and leukocyte increased factor. Level of Evidence IV, Controlled Laboratory Study.

  11. Stratospheric HBr mixing ratio obtained from far infrared emission spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, J. H.; Carli, B.; Barbis, A.

    1989-01-01

    Emission features of HBr isotopes have been identified in high-resolution FIR emission spectra obtained with a balloon-borne Fourier-transform spectrometer in the spring of 1979 at 32 deg N latitude. When six single-scan spectra at a zenith angle of 93.2 deg were averaged, two features of HBr isotopes at 50.054 and 50.069/cm were obtained with a signal-to-noise ratio of 2.5. The volume mixing ratio retrieved from the average spectrum is 2.0 x 10 to the -11th, which is assumed to be constant above 28 km, with an uncertainty of 35 percent. This stratospheric amount of HBr is about the same as the current level of tropospheric organic bromine compounds, 25 pptv. Thus HBr could be the major stratospheric bromine species.

  12. Obtaining and Characterization of Flux-Based Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cosmina Maria Bogăţean

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of creating this assortment was to remind the public of a long forgotten sugar based product, with a high energy value and which can be easily associated both with plain or mineral water consumption. Also we have taken into consideration the well-known '' home-made'' and ''vintage'' concepts. The purpose of this scientific research is to obtain a laboratory created product, as well as obtaining both the cocoa and the lemon sorbet. In the technological process this type of products can be redefined under a new form. The great advantage comes with the fact that it dosen't currently exit on the market and so it can be considered as being a brand new product. The anbalyses both on the raw materials and on the final deliverable product were done in the Faculty's laboratories and it was proven to meet the standars.

  13. Physicochemical characteristics of ozonated sunflower oils obtained by different procedures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diaz, M. F.; Sanchez, Y.; Gomez, M.; Hernandez, F.; Veloso, M. C.; Pereira, P. A.; Mangrich, A. S.; Andrade, J. B.

    2012-07-01

    Two ozonation procedures for sunflower oils at different applied ozone dosages were carried out. Ozone was obtained from medicinal oxygen and from air. Peroxide, acidity, and iodine indexes, along with density, viscosity and antimicrobial activity were determined. The fatty acid compositions of the samples were analyzed using GC. The content of oxygen was determined using an elemental analysis. Electronic Paramagnetic Resonance was used to measure the organic free radicals. The reactions were achieved up to peroxide index values of 658 and 675 mmolequiv kg1 using medicinal oxygen and air for 5 and 8 hours, respectively. The samples of ozonized sunflower oil did not present organic free radicals, which is a very important issue if these oils are to be used as drugs. The ozonation reaction is more rapid with medicinal oxygen (5 hours) than with air (8 hours). Ozonized sunflower oil with oxygen as an ozone source was obtained with high potential for antimicrobial activity. (Author) 34 refs.

  14. Associative self-anchoring interacts with obtainability of chosen objects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dean eMobbs

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available While there is evidence that implicit self-esteem transfers to chosen objects (associative self-anchoring, it is still unknown whether this phenomenon extends to explicit self-esteem. Moreover, whether the knowledge that these objects might belong to the self in the future or not affects the evaluation of these objects has yet to be tested. Here, we demonstrate that evaluations of chosen objects are further enhanced when they are obtainable as compared to when they are not in participants with high explicit self-esteem, whereas participants with low explicit self-esteem exhibit the opposite pattern. These findings extend previous results and shed new light on the role of self-esteem in altering preferences for chosen objects depending on their obtainability.

  15. Deliberation: obtaining informed input from a diverse public.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Grace; Gold, Marthe; Siegel, Joanna; Sofaer, Shoshanna; Yang, Manshu; Mallery, Coretta; Carman, Kristin L

    2015-02-01

    Health care decision makers require public input to incorporate diverse values into programs and policies. Deliberation, one method for obtaining input, seeks to apply inclusive principles wherein diverse groups provide perspectives to inform decisions. We evaluate whether participants of different racial, ethnic, and educational backgrounds show differences in the effect of deliberation and the value placed on deliberation participation. We surveyed 907 participants before and after deliberation. Regression models examined associations between demographics and change in knowledge and attitudes, and perceived impact. Changes in knowledge about using medical evidence in decision-making were not associated with race, ethnicity, or education. Changes in attitudes were not associated with these characteristics with one exception. African American, Hispanic, and participants with lower educational attainment reported more perceived impact. Similar results across demographic groups suggest deliberation's promise for obtaining input from a diverse public to inform health programs and policies.

  16. DIFFERENCES IN RESULTS OBTAINED BY STUDENTS OF DIFFERENT FACULTIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    OTAVOVÁ, Miroslava

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents and discusses the results of statistical analysis of differences among scores obtained by students of different faculties of the University of Economics in Prague. The analysed dataset contains the scores for 2256 students that took basic mathematics course during the academic year 2013/2014. A two way analysis of variance was performed with semester and faculty as main factors. The interaction between these two factors was also considered. Students have to take two tests. At first, the sum of the scores obtained from both tests is analysed and then, the two tests are analysed separately. It turns out that the significance of factors is the same in the three analyses. The assumptions of linear models are verified. Due to problem of heteroscedasticity, weighted least squares are used and the possibility of using Box-Cox transformation is also discussed, as the errors are not normally distributed. Finally, the differences between the faculties are described.

  17. New terpenoid glycosides obtained from Rosmarinus officinalis L. aerial parts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yi; Adelakun, Tiwalade Adegoke; Qu, Lu; Li, Xiaoxia; Li, Jian; Han, Lifeng; Wang, Tao

    2014-12-01

    Five new terpenoid glycosides, named as officinoterpenosides A₁ (1), A₂ (2), B (3), C (4), and D (5), together with 11 known ones, (1S,4S,5S)-5-exo-hydrocamphor 5-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (6), isorosmanol (7), rosmanol (8), 7-methoxyrosmanol (9), epirosmanol (10), ursolic acid (11), micromeric acid (12), oleanolic acid (13), niga-ichigoside F₁ (14), glucosyl tormentate (15), and asteryunnanoside B (16), were obtained from the aerial parts of Rosmarinus officinalis L. Their structures were elucidated by chemical and spectroscopic methods (UV, IR, HRESI-TOF-MS, 1D and 2D NMR). Among the new ones, 1 and 2, 3 and 4 are diterpenoid and triterpenoid glycosides, respectively; and 5 is a normonoterpenoid. For the known ones, 6 was isolated from the Rosmarinus genus first, and 15, 16 were obtained from this species for the first time. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Nanoporous microtubes obtained from a Cu-Ni metallic wire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marano, Emanuele Francesco; Lussana, Danilo; Castellero, Alberto; Baricco, Marcello

    2016-03-01

    Nanoporous microtubes of a nickel-copper alloy were obtained from a Cu-44Ni-1Mn (wt%) commercial wire (200 μm diameter). A new synthesis method was established through three steps: 1) partial oxidation of the wire at 1173 K in air, 2) removal of the inner unoxidized core by chemical etching, 3) reduction in 10 bar hydrogen atmosphere. During oxidation, the segregation of Cu and Ni occurred because of their different diffusion coefficients in the corresponding oxides. As a consequence, pores were formed by Kirkendall effect and due to selective chemical etching of the different oxides. Additional porosity formed because of volume contraction during reduction with hydrogen. After reduction, the microtube shows a composition gradient from the inner wall (almost pure nickel) to the outer wall (almost pure copper). The process allowed to obtain microtubes with tuneable wall thickness and inner pores around 180 ± 80 nm. The morphological features developed suggest improved capillarity properties for applications in MEMS.

  19. Chemical deinking of prints obtained by non-impact printing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdenka Bolanca

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper shows the results of efficiency investi-gation of chemical deinking of non-impact prints, where the principle of electrophotography is used for obtaining the latent image, on which the toner could adhere. The basis of scientific prepositions of deinking flotation and the mechanism for particle separation in the explanation of the results of experiment are given. The optical properties of hand-sheets in relation to the particle separation mechanism, their size, form and structure are discussed.The results obtained by deinking flotation of a mixed sample from the prints of non-impact printing and the conventional offset printing show clearly the influence of the specific characteristic of printing techniques and the chemical composition of toner, i.e. of printing inks on the quality of recycled fibers.

  20. Cellular Therapy to Obtain Rapid Endochondral Bone Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-01

    2001 Mar;22(5):439-444. 20. Sawhney AS, Pathak CP, Hubbell JA. Modification of islet of langerhans surfaces with immunoprotective poly(ethylene...vertebrae. Biomechanical Testing Prior to sectioning, formaldehyde fixed spines were encased in alginate in order to obtain flexion and extension...radiographs. Spines were suspended in an in-house mold. Alginate powder was combined in an equal volume to water (30 ml of each) and mixed until smooth

  1. Structure of Al-CF composites obtained by infiltration methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Dolata-Grosz

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The structure of the composites obtained in infiltration processes 2D and 3D carbon preform by liquid Al alloy have been presented in thispaper. An aluminum alloy with silicon and manganese AlSi9Mn (trimal 37-TR37 was applied in the researches. As the reinforcementused carbon perform prepared with various protective barriers such as the nickel coating, the coating of silicon carbide and pyrolyticcarbon coating. Carbon preforms was prepared at the Institute for Lightweight Structures and Polymer Technology (ILK TU Dresden andat the Institute of Technology and Ceramic Systems (Fraunhofer-IKTS. The process of infiltration of carbon perform by liquid aluminiumalloy was carried out using a pressure-vacuum infiltration on the Degussa press and gas-pressure infiltration (GPI in an autoclavedesigned and built at the Department of Materials Technology at the Silesian University of Technology. The obtained composites werecharacterized by a regular shape, with no surface casting defects. The best connection of components was observed in AlSi9Mn/Cf(Nicomposite, obtained by gas-pressure infiltration method (GPI. On metallographic specimens, good interface between fibres and thealuminium matrix were observed. The obtained research results justify the application of nickel coatings on the fibres. During the failurecrack propagated across fiber. There was no presence of aluminum carbide on the fiber-matrix. It can be assumed that the composite willbe characterized by the good mechanical properties. However, this requires further experimental verification planned in the next stage of research, in the project realized within the DFG program: "3D textile reinforced aluminium matrix composites for complex loadingsituations in lightweight automobile and machine parts".

  2. Activation energy for mullitization of gel fibres obtained from ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    and/or silicon tetrahedron (Esther et al 2007; Tan et al 2010). ... by adding AN, then the M–OH monomer (where M is defined as metal Al or Si) was obtained, when the hydrolysis of AIP or TEOS took place. The polymer chains of M–O–M and M–OH–M were present while the condensation polymerization of M–OH monomer.

  3. Dual frequency electrical impedance tomography to obtain functional image

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapuan, Imam; Ain, Khusnul; Suryanto, Alif

    2017-05-01

    Electric Impedance Tomography with two frequencies is a system to detect the anomalies. This system is expected to detect the presence of a cancer in the breast. In this study, the objects are modelled in a circle phantom within 13 cm diameter. Those objects are equipped with 16 electrodes of copperplate. The objects, carrots, are functioned as a cancer and water as a medium of the normal breast. This electrode works to inject the current and to measure the voltage at a certain point. The position of the electrode current injection is controlled by a de-multiplexer, whereas the measurement of voltage at the electrodes is controlled by a multiplexer. The electric current source utilized has two frequencies; 10 kHz and 100 kHz. This electric current is generated from a circuit of Voltage Controlled Current Source using an oscillator XR2206. The microcontroller is utilized to control the current injection through a de-multiplexer and the measurement of output voltage through a multiplexer. This research has produced three images. Two images are obtained from both frequencies of 10 kHz and 100 kHz. Those two images cannot be achieved in the reality. The object condition of normal breast cannot be measured, since the normal breast of a person is different from others. In this study, the two images can be obtained when the potential background of the phantom can be measured. The third image is obtained from the reconstruction of the electrical potential difference between the low and high frequencies. This image is called as a functional image. This functional image makes the EIT system can be implemented, since it can be obtained without measuring the potential background. This functional image reveals that the anomalies are more obvious than the single frequency image.

  4. Giant Permittivity Polymer Nanocomposites Obtained by Curing a Direct Emulsion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luna, Alan; Yuan, Jinkai; Néri, Wilfrid; Zakri, Cécile; Poulin, Philippe; Colin, Annie

    2015-11-10

    Near-percolated CNT-polymer composites are promising high-permittivity materials. The main challenge in the field consists of finding compromises that allow high permittivity and low losses in frequency ranges of interest. Using an emulsion approach and optimizing the size of the droplets and the curing procedure, we obtain unprecedented performances and measure giant permittivity larger than 20,000 at 100 Hz along with a conductivity below 10(-4) S/m.

  5. Prospects for obtaining metallic hydrogen with spherical presses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spain, I. L.; Ishizaki, K.; Marchello, J. M.; Paauwe, J.

    1973-01-01

    Description of a split-sphere apparatus modified for use at low temperature and affording a possible method for compressing molecular hydrogen to a pressure in excess of 1 Mbar and for converting it to the metallic state. The construction costs of the apparatus are relatively low and the amount of liquid helium required for low-temperature operation is readily obtainable with modern liquefiers.

  6. ACID HIDROLYSIS OF ALOE VERA (SABILA) BAGASSE FOR OBTAINING PECTIN

    OpenAIRE

    Caridad Curbelo Hernández; María Eugenia Moreno Quintero; Danibett Ramírez Hernández; Lourdes M. Crespo Zafra

    2017-01-01

    The processing of Aloe vera (sábila in sp.) has reached a great development during the last years, since its products are raw material for other industries. This has contributed to the increase of solid residues, which are not utilized to obtain added value products in the same industry. In this research, the acid hydrolysis method for pectin extraction from the Aloe vera bagasse was studied. Firstly, the bagasse was characterized determinig: humidity, ashes, proteins, acidity, and total cont...

  7. System for obtaining biogas. System zur Gewinnung von Biogas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1985-01-17

    The invention refers to a system for obtaining biogas from organic substances in at least one drum reactor, which is situated in a container accepting a liquid and which is driven so that it rotates preferably around its horizontal drum axis. It is distinguished by the fact that for at least one drum reactor acting as the main reactor there is at least one further reactor ahead of it for the pre-treatment or pre-fermentation of the substances.

  8. Bainite obtaining in cast iron with carbides castings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Pietrowski

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In these paper the possibility of upper and lower bainite obtaining in cast iron with carbides castings are presented. Conditions, when in cast iron with carbides castings during continuous free air cooling austenite transformation to upper bainite or its mixture with lower bainte proceeds, have been given. A mechanism of this transformation has been given, Si, Ni, Mn and Mo distribution in the eutectic cell has been tested and hardness of tested castings has been determined.

  9. Comparison of orbital volume obtained by tomography and rapid prototyping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roça, Guilherme Berto; Foggiatto, José Aguiomar; Ono, Maria Cecilia Closs; Ono, Sergio Eiji; da Silva Freitas, Renato

    2013-11-01

    This study aims to compare orbital volume obtained by helical tomography and rapid prototyping. The study sample was composed of 6 helical tomography scans. Eleven healthy orbits were identified to have their volumes measured. The volumetric analysis with the helical tomography utilized the same protocol developed by the Plastic Surgery Unit of the Federal University of Paraná. From the CT images, 11 prototypes were created, and their respective volumes were analyzed in 2 ways: using software by SolidWorks and by direct analysis, when the prototype was filled with saline solution. For statistical analysis, the results of the volumes of the 11 orbits were considered independent. The average orbital volume measurements obtained by the method of Ono et al was 20.51 cm, the average obtained by the SolidWorks program was 20.64 cm, and the average measured using the prototype method was 21.81 cm. The 3 methods demonstrated a strong correlation between the measurements. The right and left orbits of each patient had similar volumes. The tomographic method for the analysis of orbital volume using the Ono protocol yielded consistent values, and by combining this method with rapid prototyping, both reliability validations of results were enhanced.

  10. Obtaining of nanostructured ZnO coatings using mechanoactivated oxidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muktepavela, F [Institute of Solid State Physics, University of Latvia, Riga (Latvia); Bakradze, G [Institute of Solid State Physics, University of Latvia, Riga (Latvia); Tamanis, E [Daugavpils University, Daugavpils (Latvia); Grigorjeva, L [Institute of Solid State Physics, University of Latvia, Riga (Latvia); Kulis, P [Institute of Solid State Physics, University of Latvia, Riga (Latvia); Krutohvostovs, R [Institute of Solid State Physics, University of Latvia, Riga (Latvia)

    2007-12-15

    The concept to use nanostructured state of metal at the instant of destruction in air environment was used to obtain nanostructured Zn-ZnO coatings on glass and quartz by mechanical method. Subsequent annealing in the ambient atmosphere, annealing in vacuum and irradiation with 532-nm YAG:Nd laser were used to obtain completely oxidized, transparent ZnO coatings. The saturated with oxygen nanostructured coatings were transformed into nanostructured ZnO coatings after annealing above 773K or irradiation with laser (allowing to reach 673K) in ambient atmosphere. AFM and SEM images show that after annealing ZnO coatings have multi-shaped structure. The formation of ZnO need-like whiskers (d = 100nm, l = 2{mu}m) was observed after laser irradiation. Obtained ZnO coatings have high microhardness (10--12GPa), strong adhesion with substrates and show green and blue luminescence at room temperature. The oxidation process is mechanoactivated due to the facilitated oxygen diffusion along deformation defects: vacancies, dislocation, microcracks, and developed network of grain boundaries.

  11. Obtaining of Peracetic Cellulose from Oat Straw for Paper Manufacturing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetyana V. Zelenchuk

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background. Development of technology for obtaining peracetic pulp from oat straw and its use in the production of one of the paper mass types. Objective. Determination of peracetic cooking technological parameters’ optimal values for oat straw peracetic cellulose quality indicators. Methods. The oat straw cooking was carried out with peracetic acid at 95 ± 1 °C from 90 to 180 min for hydromodulus 8:1 and 7:1, using a sodium tungstate catalyst. To determine the oat straw peracetic cellulose mechanical indexes, laboratory samples of paper weighing 70 g/m2 were made. Results. Technological parameters’ optimum values (temperature, cooking duration, hydromodulus, hydrogen peroxide and acetic acid concentration for the oat straw delignification process were established. It is shown that the sodium tungstate catalyst addition to the cooking solution at a rate of up to 1 % of the plant raw material weight helps to reduce the lignin content in cellulose to 15 %. A diagram of the cellulose yield dependence on its residual lignin content for various methods of non-wood plant material species delignification is constructed. The high efficiency of the peracetic method for obtaining cellulose from non-wood plant raw materials, in particular from oat straw, has been confirmed. It is determined that the obtained peracetic cellulose from oat straw has high mechanical indexes. Conclusions. Oat straw peracetic cellulose can be used for the production of paper and cardboard mass types, in particular wrapping paper.

  12. In situ spectral aerosol absorption properties obtained in Valencia (Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segura, Sara; Estellés, Víctor; Esteve, Anna R.; Utrillas, María Pilar; Martínez-Lozano, José Antonio

    2014-05-01

    Aerosols play an important role in the radiative forcing in the Earth's atmosphere by scattering and absorbing solar radiation. Reducing uncertainties in the determination of aerosol light absorption is important in order to obtain better results for climate models. To do this, different methods and instruments are used to measure the absorption aerosol properties. The most common method for in-situ measurements is the filter-based technique, which determines the light absorption by measuring changes in the attenuation due by aerosols collected on a filter matrix. One of the instruments currently used for determining the absorption coefficient based on this technique is the Aethalometer (Magee Sci.). In this study, measurements have been obtained with a 7-wavelength Aethalometer AE-31 (Hansen et al., 1984). This instrument covers from the UV (370 nm) to the IR (950 nm) bands. As other filter-based instruments, the Aethalometer measurements also suffer artifacts which need to be compensated in order to determine the absorption coefficient (Weingartner et al., 2003). Specific site calibrated correction factors have been obtained for this site and applied to the data. Therefore, in - situ aerosol absorption properties at 7 different wavelengths have been obtained in Burjassot, Valencia, since 2011 in this study. Valencia is a medium size city in Spain (~1,800,000 inhabitants in the metropolitan area) located in the Western coast of the Mediterranean Sea. In total, a 3-year study of the absorption coefficient is presented attending to annual, seasonal and monthly variations. Spectral dependence of the aerosol absorption properties has been also analyzed using absorption coefficients obtained from the 7 Aethalometer channels. Determining the spectral dependence of aerosol absorption coefficient is important to distinguish different absorbing components. The major light-absorbing compounds among aerosols are carbonaceous substances and mineral dust. As the measurement

  13. Using social responsibility to obtain employees´ commitment

    OpenAIRE

    Vittor Santillan, Paola Rosa

    2011-01-01

    I remember the past semester in class of Strategic Marketing Management, the topic of the day was “Resource Dependent Theory” and the professor started to lecture saying: ... “A company is a collection of resource: physical resources, human resources and financial resources. The way how to organize them produce capabilities and the more capabilities in a company the more sustainable competitive advantage. If you need to choose just one resource, which one do you think is the crucial one?”...

  14. Acquisition strategy to obtain quantitative diffusion NMR data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrère, Caroline; Thureau, Pierre; Thévand, André; Viel, Stéphane

    2012-03-01

    Pulsed Gradient Spin Echo (PGSE) diffusion NMR experiments constitute a powerful tool for analyzing complex mixtures because they can in principle separate the NMR spectra of each mixture component. However, because these experiments intrinsically rely on spin echoes, they are traditionally regarded as non-quantitative, due to the signal attenuation caused by longitudinal (T1) and transverse (T2) nuclear magnetic relaxation during the rather long delays of the pulse sequence. Alternatively to the quantitative Direct Exponential Curve Resolution Algorithm (qDECRA) approach proposed by Antalek (J. Am. Chem. Soc. 128 (2006) 8402-8403), this work presents an acquisition strategy that renormalizes this relaxation attenuation using estimates of the T1 and T2 relaxation times for all the nuclei in the mixture, as obtained directly with the pulse sequence used to record the PGSE experiment. More specifically, it is shown that only three distinct PGSE experiments need to be recorded, each with a specific set of acquisition parameters. For small- and medium-sized molecules, only T1 is required for obtaining accurate quantification. For larger molecular weight species, which typically exhibit short T2 values, estimates of T2 must also be included but only a rough estimation is required. This appears fortunate because these data are especially hard to obtain with good accuracy when analyzing homonuclear scalar-coupled systems. Overall, the proposed methodology is shown to yield a quantification accuracy of ±5%, both in the absence and in the presence of spectral overlap, giving rise - at least, in our hands - to results that superseded those achieved by qDECRA, while requiring substantially less experimental time.

  15. Using stereophotogrammetric technology for obtaining intraoral digital impressions of implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradíes, Guillermo; Ferreiroa, Alberto; Özcan, Mutlu; Giménez, Beatriz; Martínez-Rus, Francisco

    2014-04-01

    The procedure for making impressions of multiple implants continues to be a challenge, despite the various techniques proposed to date. The authors' objective in this case report is to describe a novel digital impression method for multiple implants involving the use of stereophotogrammetric technology. The authors present three cases of patients who had multiple implants in which the impressions were obtained with this technology. Initially, a stereo camera with an infrared flash detects the position of special flag abutments screwed into the implants. This process is based on registering the x, y and z coordinates of each implant and the distances between them. This information is converted into a stereolithographic (STL) file. To add the soft-tissue information, the user must obtain another STL file by using an intraoral or extraoral scanner. In the first case presented, this information was acquired from the plaster model with an extraoral scanner; in the second case, from a Digital Imaging and Communication in Medicine (DICOM) file of the plaster model obtained with cone-beam computed tomography; and in the third case, through an intraoral digital impression with a confocal scanner. In the three cases, the frameworks manufactured from this technique showed a correct clinical passive fit. At follow-up appointments held six, 12 and 24 months after insertion of the prosthesis, no complications were reported. Stereophotogrammetric technology is a viable, accurate and easy technique for making multiple implant impressions. Clinicians can use stereophotogrammetric technology to acquire reliable digital master models as a first step in producing frameworks with a correct passive fit.

  16. Strategies of Intracellular Pathogens for Obtaining Iron from the Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nidia Leon-Sicairos

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Most microorganisms are destroyed by the host tissues through processes that usually involve phagocytosis and lysosomal disruption. However, some organisms, called intracellular pathogens, are capable of avoiding destruction by growing inside macrophages or other cells. During infection with intracellular pathogenic microorganisms, the element iron is required by both the host cell and the pathogen that inhabits the host cell. This minireview focuses on how intracellular pathogens use multiple strategies to obtain nutritional iron from the intracellular environment in order to use this element for replication. Additionally, the implications of these mechanisms for iron acquisition in the pathogen-host relationship are discussed.

  17. Obtaining Crosswind from Single-Aperture Optical Scintillometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dinther, D.; Hartogensis, O. K.

    2010-09-01

    A scintillometer is a device that consist of a transmitter and receiver. The receiver records intensity fluctuations of the electromagnetic beam emitted at optical or microwave wavelengths by the transmitter. These fluctuations are caused by refraction of the beam upon its passage through the turbulent surface layer. An increasingly popular application of scintillometry is to estimate the area-averaged surface fluxes from these raw measurements following scintillometer theory (Tatarskii, 1961) relating the raw intensity measurements to the structure parameter of the refractive index, Cn2 and Monin-Obukhov similarity theory that relates structure parameters to surface fluxes (Meijninger et al., 2002). A less known application of scintillometry is the estimation of the crosswind, i.e. the wind perpendicular to the scintillometer path. Past research on this issue focused on multiple aperture scintillometers that use the time delay between the turbulence signals of the displaced apertures to estimate the crosswind (Andreas, 2000, Poggio et al., 2000 and Furger et al., 2001,). The goal of this study is to explore a method to obtain the crosswind from single aperture scintillometers through spectral analysis of the raw scintillometer signal. In theory the scintillometer spectrum shows an inflection at the transition of the refractive and absorption part of the spectrum. The transition frequency (fC2) is related to the ratio of the crosswind and the diameter of the receiver and transmitter (Nieveen et al., 1998) via fc2 = -u-- 1.25D where u is the crosswind speed and D the diameter of the scintillometer. Limitation of the method is that it only works properly when the crosswind is constant, i.e. with a horizontal scintillometer path, no time variation and no spatial variations of the crosswind. The prescribed method to obtain the crosswind is examined with LITFASS-2009 (Germany) and Haarweg (The Netherlands) datasets. At LITFASS-2009 different optical and microwave

  18. Methods for obtaining sorption data from uranium-series disequilibria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finnegan, D.L.; Bryant, E.A.

    1987-12-01

    Two possible methods have been identified for obtaining in situ retardation factors from measurements of uranium-series disequilibria at Yucca Mountain. The first method would make use of the enhanced {sup 234}U/{sup 238}U ratio in groundwater to derive a signature for exchangeable uranium sorbed on the rock; the exchangeable uranium would be leached and assayed. The second method would use the ratio of {sup 222}Rn to {sup 234}U in solution, corrected for weathering, to infer the retardation factor for uranium. Similar methods could be applied to thorium and radium.

  19. Obtaining and Estimating Low Noise Floors in Vibration Sensors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brincker, Rune; Larsen, Jesper Abildgaard

    2007-01-01

    For some applications like seismic applications and measuring ambient vibrations in structures, it is essential that the noise floors of the sensors and other system components are low and known to the user. Some of the most important noise sources are reviewed and it is discussed how the sensor...... can be designed in order to obtain a low noise floor. Techniques to estimate the noise floors for sensors are reviewed and are demonstrated on a commercial commonly used sensor for vibration testing. It is illustrated how the noise floor can be calculated using the coherence between simultaneous...

  20. Natural Food Colorants Obtained from Algae and Their Functional Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Işıl Ilter

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Colour is one of the major features that fascinate the customers and makes the foods more allurement. Due to changes of customer demands and countries’ legislations, usage of synthetic colorants is being decreased every day and food industry tends to use natural colorant. Algae have recently gained importance owing to a sustainable natural source of colorant. Algae can rapidly increase their biomass compared to plants thus they produce more pigments. This review covers the subjects about the functional properties and usage areas of natural colorants obtained from algae; phycocyanin, phycoerythrin, astaxanthin, canthaxanthin, β-carotene, lutein, fucoxanthin.

  1. [Reticulate polymers used in obtaining new dental materials].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budală, Dana Gabriela; Vlad, Cristina Doina; Forna, Norina Consuela

    2010-01-01

    This paper seeks the characterization of new polymers acrylic cross-linked structure, prepared in the presence of a template that creates the polymer synthesized the property of saving template form. For carrying out synthesis of polymers reticulate-based on dimethacrylate monomer was left to the mono-, di-and trietilenglicol dimethacrylate. Cross-linked polymerization reaction was initiated with benzoyl peroxide. New structures are obtained witch respond to the need to diversify and improve the biomaterials used in dentistry. The materials are chemically thermally and mechanically inert. Reticulate polymers are non-biodegradable and therefore do not produce intoxication and not degrade biological fluids.

  2. Optimizing the Operation of Maceration to Obtain Quality White Wines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stegărus Diana

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This study monitors the physico-chemical properties of wines from Dragasani under the influence of pectolytic enzymes in various temperature conditions. during maceration contact is made between the grape skins and selected the optimal time leads to wines with more pronounced floral character. The physico-chemical extraction maceration leads to a more pronounced specific compounds, the time of maceration is very important in this case. The curing time is of great importance in producing varieties Muscat Ottonel and Tămâioasă Românească primarily for successful extraction of aromatic components from grape. As noted in the literature flavored grapes contain large amounts of terpene compounds are in free form or bound. To optimize the technological process is able to extract these compounds and to achieve a harmonious and balanced wine. The variants considered in the study presents the results of physico-chemical and aromatic wines obtained from the Muscat Ottonel and Tămâioasă Românească, which took into consideration both during maceration and the use of selected yeasts and enzymes, which form the basis for the selection of the optimal procedure for obtaining aromatic white wines in Dragasani Vineyard.

  3. Using quartzofeldspathic waste to obtain foamed glass material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.V. Kazmina

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The present paper proposes a method for the processing of mine refuse non-ferrous metal ore in the production of foamed glass. The subject of this research is a low-temperature frit synthesis (<900 °C, allowing for the high-temperature glass melting process to be avoided. The technology for the production of frit without complete melting of the batch and without using glass-making units offers a considerable reduction in energy consumption and air pollution. It was found that material samples obtained with a density of up to 250 kg/m3 are of rigidity (up to 1.7 MPa in comparison with the conventional foamed glass (1 MPa. This increased rigidity was due to the presence of crystalline phase particles in its interpore partition of less than 2 µm in size. Material with a density of 300 kg/cm3 is recommended for thermal insulation for the industrial and construction sectors. At densities above 300 kg/cm3 and a strength of 2.5 MPa, the purpose becomes heat-insulating construction material. The proposed method for obtaining a porous material from waste widens our choice of raw materials for foamed glass, whilst saving resources and energy.

  4. Characterization of polymer thin films obtained by pulsed laser deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palla-Papavlu, A., E-mail: apalla@nipne.ro [NILPRP, National Institute for Lasers, Plasma and Radiation Physics, 409 Atomistilor Street, PO Box MG-16, Zip RO-077125, Magurele, Bucharest (Romania); Dinca, V.; Ion, V.; Moldovan, A.; Mitu, B.; Luculescu, C.; Dinescu, M. [NILPRP, National Institute for Lasers, Plasma and Radiation Physics, 409 Atomistilor Street, PO Box MG-16, Zip RO-077125, Magurele, Bucharest (Romania)

    2011-04-01

    The development of laser techniques for the deposition of polymer and biomaterial thin films on solid surfaces in a controlled manner has attracted great attention during the last few years. Here we report the deposition of thin polymer films, namely Polyepichlorhydrin by pulsed laser deposition. Polyepichlorhydrin polymer was deposited on flat substrate (i.e. silicon) using an NdYAG laser (266 nm, 5 ns pulse duration and 10 Hz repetition rate). The obtained thin films have been characterized by atomic force microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and spectroscopic ellipsometry. It was found that for laser fluences up to 1.5 J/cm{sup 2} the chemical structure of the deposited polyepichlorhydrin polymer thin layers resembles to the native polymer, whilst by increasing the laser fluence above 1.5 J/cm{sup 2} the polyepichlorohydrin films present deviations from the bulk polymer. Morphological investigations (atomic force microscopy and scanning electron microscopy) reveal continuous polyepichlorhydrin thin films for a relatively narrow range of fluences (1-1.5 J/cm{sup 2}). The wavelength dependence of the refractive index and extinction coefficient was determined by ellipsometry studies which lead to new insights about the material. The obtained results indicate that pulsed laser deposition method is potentially useful for the fabrication of polymer thin films to be used in applications including electronics, microsensor or bioengineering industries.

  5. Characterization of polymer thin films obtained by pulsed laser deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palla-Papavlu, A.; Dinca, V.; Ion, V.; Moldovan, A.; Mitu, B.; Luculescu, C.; Dinescu, M.

    2011-04-01

    The development of laser techniques for the deposition of polymer and biomaterial thin films on solid surfaces in a controlled manner has attracted great attention during the last few years. Here we report the deposition of thin polymer films, namely Polyepichlorhydrin by pulsed laser deposition. Polyepichlorhydrin polymer was deposited on flat substrate (i.e. silicon) using an NdYAG laser (266 nm, 5 ns pulse duration and 10 Hz repetition rate). The obtained thin films have been characterized by atomic force microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and spectroscopic ellipsometry. It was found that for laser fluences up to 1.5 J/cm 2 the chemical structure of the deposited polyepichlorhydrin polymer thin layers resembles to the native polymer, whilst by increasing the laser fluence above 1.5 J/cm 2 the polyepichlorohydrin films present deviations from the bulk polymer. Morphological investigations (atomic force microscopy and scanning electron microscopy) reveal continuous polyepichlorhydrin thin films for a relatively narrow range of fluences (1-1.5 J/cm 2). The wavelength dependence of the refractive index and extinction coefficient was determined by ellipsometry studies which lead to new insights about the material. The obtained results indicate that pulsed laser deposition method is potentially useful for the fabrication of polymer thin films to be used in applications including electronics, microsensor or bioengineering industries.

  6. PbSe nanocubes obtained by high-energy milling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rojas-Chavez, H., E-mail: hrojasc@ipn.mx [Centro de Investigacion en Ciencia Aplicada y Tecnologia Avanzada - IPN (Mexico); Reyes-Carmona, F. [Facultad de Quimica - UNAM (Mexico); Achimovicova, M. [Slovak Academy of Sciences, Institute of Geotechnics (Slovakia); Daneu, N. [Jozef Stefan Institute, Department for Nanostructured Materials (Slovenia); Jaramillo-Vigueras, D. [Centro de Investigacion e Innovacion Tecnologica - IPN (Mexico)

    2012-06-15

    In this study, PbSe nanocubes were obtained by high-energy milling, and their optical properties were investigated by measuring the UV-VIS-IR spectra in the range of 200-2,000 nm. The optical absorption of all samples showed a strong UV emission band at 1.45 eV. Previously, to obtain only PbSe nanocubes, an intermediate phase was identified, PbSeO{sub 3}. Although both PbSeO{sub 3} and PbSe were traced through this study, a major effort is devoted to characterize the latter. To trace how chemical transitions evolve from precursors to PbSe, X-ray diffraction and Rietveld refinement were carried out. Therefore, the following parameters were evaluated as a function of milling time: phase percentages, area-to-volume ratio, average crystallite dimensions, specific surface area, and morphology changes. To corroborate previous findings, nitrogen adsorption and transmission electron microscopy techniques were used. All the set experimental results unambiguously confirm that crystallites show a cubic morphology, with its average crystallite size distribution being around 24 nm.

  7. Obtaining iron and graphite nanoparticles in argon plasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bica, I.

    1996-10-01

    Full Text Available The experimental equipment designed for obtaining iron and graphite nanoparticles in argon plasma, the building mechanisms of particles as well as the experimental results on Fe(CO5 and, 2-ethyl-hexyl- iron maleat dissociation by plasma jet are presented. The dimensions of the metal particles obtained range from 30 to 200 Å, while the graphite particles vary from 30 to 100 Å.

    Se presenta el equipo experimental ideado para obtener partículas de hierro y de grafito en plasma de argón, así como los mecanismos de formación de dichas partículas y los resultados experimentales alcanzados mediante la disociación de Fe(CO5 y maleato de 2-etil-hexil-hierro por el chorro de plasma. Las dimensiones de las partículas metálicas obtenidas varían entre 30 y 200 Å, mientras que las de grafito van de 30 a 100 Å.

  8. Characterisation of Aronia powders obtained by different drying processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horszwald, Anna; Julien, Heritier; Andlauer, Wilfried

    2013-12-01

    Nowadays, food industry is facing challenges connected with the preservation of the highest possible quality of fruit products obtained after processing. Attention has been drawn to Aronia fruits due to numerous health promoting properties of their products. However, processing of Aronia, like other berries, leads to difficulties that stem from the preparation process, as well as changes in the composition of bioactive compounds. Consequently, in this study, Aronia commercial juice was subjected to different drying techniques: spray drying, freeze drying and vacuum drying with the temperature range of 40-80 °C. All powders obtained had a high content of total polyphenols. Powders gained by spray drying had the highest values which corresponded to a high content of total flavonoids, total monomeric anthocyanins, cyaniding-3-glucoside and total proanthocyanidins. Analysis of the results exhibited a correlation between selected bioactive compounds and their antioxidant capacity. In conclusion, drying techniques have an impact on selected quality parameters, and different drying techniques cause changes in the content of bioactives analysed. Spray drying can be recommended for preservation of bioactives in Aronia products. Powder quality depends mainly on the process applied and parameters chosen. Therefore, Aronia powders production should be adapted to the requirements and design of the final product. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Dosimetric Algorithm to Reproduce Isodose Curves Obtained from a LINAC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Cesar Estrada Espinosa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work isodose curves are obtained by the use of a new dosimetric algorithm using numerical data from percentage depth dose (PDD and the maximum absorbed dose profile, calculated by Monte Carlo in a 18 MV LINAC. The software allows reproducing the absorbed dose percentage in the whole irradiated volume quickly and with a good approximation. To validate results an 18 MV LINAC with a whole geometry and a water phantom were constructed. On this construction, the distinct simulations were processed by the MCNPX code and then obtained the PDD and profiles for the whole depths of the radiation beam. The results data were used by the code to produce the dose percentages in any point of the irradiated volume. The absorbed dose for any voxel’s size was also reproduced at any point of the irradiated volume, even when the voxels are considered to be of a pixel’s size. The dosimetric algorithm is able to reproduce the absorbed dose induced by a radiation beam over a water phantom, considering PDD and profiles, whose maximum percent value is in the build-up region. Calculation time for the algorithm is only a few seconds, compared with the days taken when it is carried out by Monte Carlo.

  10. Nanostructured Thin Films Obtained from Fischer Aminocarbene Complexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa E. Lazo-Jiménez

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The synthesis of four amphiphilic organometallic complexes with the general formula RC = M(CO5NH(CH215CH3, where R is a ferrocenyl 2(a-b or a phenyl 4(a-b group as a donor moiety and a Fischer carbene of chromium (0 or tungsten (0 as an acceptor group, are reported. These four push-pull systems formed Langmuir (L monolayers at the air-water interface, which were characterized by isotherms of surface pressure versus molecular area and compression/expansion cycles (hysteresis curves; Brewster angle microscopic images were also obtained. By using the Langmuir–Blodgett (LB method, molecular monolayers were transferred onto glass substrates forming Z-type multilayers. LB films were characterized through ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy and X-ray diffraction techniques. Results indicated that films obtained from 2b complex [(Ferrocenyl(hexadecylaminemethylidene] pentacarbonyl tungsten (0 are the most stable and homogeneous; due to their properties, these materials may be incorporated into organic electronic devices.

  11. ACID HIDROLYSIS OF ALOE VERA (SABILA BAGASSE FOR OBTAINING PECTIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caridad Curbelo Hernández

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The processing of Aloe vera (sábila in sp. has reached a great development during the last years, since its products are raw material for other industries. This has contributed to the increase of solid residues, which are not utilized to obtain added value products in the same industry. In this research, the acid hydrolysis method for pectin extraction from the Aloe vera bagasse was studied. Firstly, the bagasse was characterized determinig: humidity, ashes, proteins, acidity, and total content of pectin, density and pH. pH, temperature, extraction time, particle size and speed of agitation were analyzed as variables of study or factors and pectin yield (% as response variable. The best results were obtained at 90°C, 1000 min-1 and the larger particle size that were the significant variables with 95 % of confidence. Pectin was characterized chemically and for infrared spectroscopy (FTIR. It was concluded that this pectin was of fast gellification variety, water-soluble and of high methoxyl content. The characteristic peaks of the functional groups of pectin were observed in infrared spectroscopy (FTIR analysis.

  12. Dosimetric algorithm to reproduce isodose curves obtained from a LINAC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrada Espinosa, Julio Cesar; Martínez Ovalle, Segundo Agustín; Pereira Benavides, Cinthia Kotzian

    2014-01-01

    In this work isodose curves are obtained by the use of a new dosimetric algorithm using numerical data from percentage depth dose (PDD) and the maximum absorbed dose profile, calculated by Monte Carlo in a 18 MV LINAC. The software allows reproducing the absorbed dose percentage in the whole irradiated volume quickly and with a good approximation. To validate results an 18 MV LINAC with a whole geometry and a water phantom were constructed. On this construction, the distinct simulations were processed by the MCNPX code and then obtained the PDD and profiles for the whole depths of the radiation beam. The results data were used by the code to produce the dose percentages in any point of the irradiated volume. The absorbed dose for any voxel's size was also reproduced at any point of the irradiated volume, even when the voxels are considered to be of a pixel's size. The dosimetric algorithm is able to reproduce the absorbed dose induced by a radiation beam over a water phantom, considering PDD and profiles, whose maximum percent value is in the build-up region. Calculation time for the algorithm is only a few seconds, compared with the days taken when it is carried out by Monte Carlo.

  13. Obtaining a TRIP microstructure by thermomechanical treatment without isothermal holding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masek, B.; Jirkova, H.; Kucerova, L.; F-X Wagner, M.

    2016-03-01

    The contemporary development of technological processes for the production of modern multiphase steels can be characterized by the need for precise control of their technological parameters. The design of modern technological processes that allow sophisticated microstructures to be obtained usually cannot be carried out on real production equipment for technical as well as economical reasons. Therefore, new processes and test devices are continuously being developed to make it possible to simulate and model thermomechanical treatments on small specimens with precise control and monitoring of process parameters. A simulator for experimental modelling of thermomechanical processes has been developed at the University of West Bohemia. In this paper, to demonstrate the feasibility of simulating thermomechanical treatments with this setup on a lab scale, we discuss the thermomechanical treatment of TRIP steels without isothermal holding - a processing route that is difficult to handle and thus poses several technological as well as economic problems. The realistic processing of wire rolling with different cooling strategies is tested on the TRIP CMnSiNb steel. Our results show that the processing route without isothermal holding allows to obtain multiphase microstructures with a tensile strength of up to 835 MPa and a ductility A5mm = 25%.

  14. OBTAINING STURGEON CAVIER FROM ACIPENSER NIKOLJUKINI BESTER IN UNCONVENTIONAL TERMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. I. Rabazanov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. The aim is to study the technological processes of obtaining Bester caviar in the unconventional autumn-winter period.Methods. Extraction of caviar was carried out antemortem by the pillow method cutting the oviducts. The scheme of gonadotropic stimulation for all Bester females was the same: preliminary surfagon injection at the rate of 0.5 mkg/kg, while an acceptable dose of injection is 2.5 mkg per kilogram of fish weight. The object of the research was the female bester (Acipenser nikoljukini grown in ponds at the age of 12-13 years with the polarization rate of 7-9, the caviar of which was extracted for the third time. The mass of fish and the yield of eggs were determined by the method of Pravdina I.F. The studies were performed in 4 experimental and 1 control variants.Results. We studied the possibility of extracting the caviar of the Bester females (Acipenser nikoljukini inhabiting the ponds at the natural water temperature in the unconventional autumnwinter period. It is shown that the hybrid form of sturgeon fishes, here, the female bester, can spawn without gradual withdrawal to spawning temperature regime and without prior exposure in these conditions in contrast to the recommendations adopted in sturgeon breeding.Conclusion. We established the possibility of obtaining and producing fresh caviar of sturgeon fishes, especially when the demand increases during the pre-New Year holidays. 

  15. Thermal Stabilization study of polyacrylonitrile fiber obtained by extrusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robson Fleming Ribeiro

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A low cost and environmental friendly extrusion process of the Polyacrylonitrile (PAN polymer was viabilized by using the 1,2,3-propanetriol (glycerol as a plasticizer. The characterization of the fibers obtained by this process was the object of study in the present work. The PAN fibers were heat treated in the range of 200 °C to 300 °C, which is the temperature range related to the stabilization/oxidation step. This is a limiting phase during the carbon fiber processing. The characterization of the fibers was made using infrared spectroscopy, thermal analysis and microscopy. TGA revealed that the degradation of the extruded PAN co-VA fibers between 250 °C and 350 °C, corresponded to a 9% weight loss to samples analyzed under oxidizing atmosphere and 18% when the samples were analyzed under inert atmosphere. DSC showed that the exothermic reactions on the extruded PAN co-VA fibers under oxidizing synthetic air was broader and the cyclization started at a lower temperature compared under inert atmosphere. Furthermore, FT-IR analysis correlated with thermal anlysis showed that the stabilization/oxidation process of the extruded PAN fiber were coherent with other works that used PAN fibers obtained by other spinning processes.

  16. Field sludge characterization obtained from inner of pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nava, N.; Sosa, E.; Alamilla, J.L. [Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo, Programa de Integridad de Ductos, Eje Central Lazaro Cardenas Norte 152, San Bartolo Atepehuacan, C.P. 07730 (Mexico); Knigth, C. [PEMEX Refinacion, Avenida Marina Nacional 329, Edificio B-2, Piso 11, C.P. 11311 (Mexico); Contreras, A. [Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo, Programa de Integridad de Ductos, Eje Central Lazaro Cardenas Norte 152, San Bartolo Atepehuacan, C.P. 07730 (Mexico)], E-mail: acontrer@imp.mx

    2009-11-15

    Physicochemical characterization of sludge obtained from refined hydrocarbons transmission pipeline was carried out through Moessbauer spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. The Moessbauer and X-ray patterns indicate the presence of corrosion products composed of different iron oxide and sulfide phases. Hematite ({alpha}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}), magnetite (Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}), maghemite ({gamma}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}), magnetic and superparamagnetic goethite ({alpha}-FeOOH), pyrrhotite (Fe{sub 1-x}S), akaganeite ({beta}-FeOOH), and lepidocrocite ({gamma}-FeOOH) were identified as corrosion products in samples obtained from pipeline transporting Magna and Premium gasoline. For diesel transmission pipeline, hematite, magnetite, and magnetic goethite were identified. Corrosion products follow a simple reaction mechanism of steel dissolution in aerated aqueous media at a near-neutral pH. Chemical composition of the corrosion products depends on H{sub 2}O and sulfur inherent in fluids (traces). These results can be useful for decision-making with regard to pipeline corrosion control.

  17. Schistosoma mansoni antigenic extracts obtained by different extraction procedures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam Tendler

    1981-06-01

    Full Text Available Solubilization of Schistosoma mansoni antigens was obtained by agitation of adult worms in a 3M KCl solution. The protein contents of the KCl extrats varied from 0.35 to 0.96 mg/ml. Sera from 97 patients with hepatointestinal shistosomiasis and viable eggs in stools from a Brazilian endemic area were studied by immunoelectroomophoresis and Ouchterlony immunodiffusion methods with the KCl extract and with another antigen, obtained by homogenization of adult schistosomes in saline. The rate of positiveness of immunoprecipitation deterctions by immunoelectroomophoresis with the KCl extract was 53.5%. A correlation was verified between methods of detection and extration procedures, resulting in a better association of the extract obtained by agitation in 3M KCl and immunoelectroomophoresis.Foi obtida a solubilização de antígenos do Schistosoma mansoni por agitação de vermes adultos em solução de KCl 3M. O teor protéico dos extratos de KCl variou de 0,35 a 0,96mg/ ml. Foram testados pelos métodos de imunoeletroosmoforese (IEOP e dupla imunodifusão (Ouchterlony, 97 soros de doentes de area endêmica brasileira de esquistossomose, forma clínica hepatointestinal e com exames coprológicos positivos para S. mansoni, com o extrato de KCl e outro antígeno obtido pela homogenização de vermes adultos em salina. A taxa de positividade das reações de imunoprecipitação por IEOP com o antígeno extraído pela ação do KCl 3M foi 53,5%. Foi verificada a correlação entre os métodos de detecção e de extração resultando numa melhor associação entre o extrato obtido por agitação no KCl 3M e a IEOP.

  18. Evaluation of salivary DNA obtained from dental prosthesis and its applicability in forensic investigations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauhan, Isha; Sugirtharaj, G; Sathyan, Sanish; Beena, V T; Banerjee, Moinak

    2016-08-01

    This study evaluated the salivary DNA obtained from dental prosthesis after a period of storage and its applicability in human identification. In first phase, DNA was extracted after a span of 1 week and 1 month from the dental prosthesis dipped in whole saliva for 15 min. It was followed by PCR and electrophoresis. In second phase, from extracted DNA samples 15 STRs (short tandem repeats) of human genomic DNA were amplified via polymerase chain reaction. DNA isolated from saliva stained dental prosthesis after a period of storage and the techniques employed are adequate for further forensic analysis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  19. Fibrillar films obtained from sodium soap fibers and polyelectrolyte multilayers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zawko, Scott A; Schmidt, Christine E

    2011-08-01

    An objective of tissue engineering is to create synthetic polymer scaffolds with a fibrillar microstructure similar to the extracellular matrix. Here, we present a novel method for creating polymer fibers using the layer-by-layer method and sacrificial templates composed of sodium soap fibers. Soap fibers were prepared from neutralized fatty acids using a sodium chloride crystal dissolution method. Polyelectrolyte multilayers (PEMs) of polystyrene sulfonate and polyallylamine hydrochloride were deposited onto the soap fibers, crosslinked with glutaraldehyde, and then the soap fibers were leached with warm water and ethanol. The morphology of the resulting PEM structures was a dense network of fibers surrounded by a nonfibrillar matrix. Microscopy revealed that the PEM fibers were solid structures, presumably composed of polyelectrolytes complexed with residual fatty acids. These fibrillar PEM films were found to support the attachment of human dermal fibroblasts. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Biotransformation and bioconversion of phenolic compounds obtainment: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madeira Junior, Jose Valdo; Teixeira, Camilo Barroso; Macedo, Gabriela Alves

    2015-03-01

    Phenolic compounds have recently been recognized for their influence on human metabolism, acting in the prevention of some chronic diseases as well as proving to be important antioxidants in food. Nevertheless, the extraction and concentration processes are usually carried out by organic solvent extraction from natural sources and can generate some drawbacks like phenolic compound degradation, lengthy process times and low yields. As a solution, some eco-friendly technologies, including solid-state fermentation (SSF) or enzymatic-assisted reaction, have been proposed as alternative processes. This article reviews the extraction of phenolic compounds from agro-industrial co-products by solid-state fermentation, even as friendly enzyme-assisted extractions. It also discusses the characteristics of each bioprocess system and the variables that affect product formation, as well as the range of substrates, microorganisms and enzymes that can be useful for the production of bioactive phenolic compounds.

  1. Using Short-Term Enrichments and Metagenomics to Obtain Genomes from uncultured Activated Sludge Microorganisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karst, Søren Michael; Nielsen, Per Halkjær; Albertsen, Mads

    is that they depend on system-specific reference genomes in order to analyze the vast amounts of data (Albertsen et al., 2012). This limits the application of -omics to environments for which a comprehensive catalogue of reference genomes exists e.g. the human gut. Several strategies for obtaining microbial genomes...... exist today, but their ability to obtain complete genomes from complex microbial communities on a large scale is still inadequate (Lasken, 2012). In theory, conventional metagenomics should be able to recover genomes from complex communities, but in practice the approach is hampered by the presence...... of microdiversity. This leads to fragmented and chimeric de novo assemblies, which prevent the extraction of complete genomes. The new approach presented here involves reducing the impact of microdiversity and increasing genome extraction efficiency by what we term “metagenome triangulation”. The microdiversity...

  2. Focusing geometry-induced size tailoring of silver nanoparticles obtained by laser ablation in water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stasic, Jelena; Joksic, Gordana; Zivkovic, Ljiljana; Mihailescu, Ion N.; Ghica, Corneliu; Kuncser, Andrei; Trtica, Milan

    2014-10-01

    Silver nanoparticles were obtained by picosecond laser ablation in water at 1064 nm, using focusing geometry to design the particles’ size. The position of the target surface with respect to the focal point strongly influences the NPs’ size: above and in the focus it is up to 20 nm and below focus ≤ 150 nm. Generated particles have a spherical shape. The solutions were further employed on human cells and the tests showed a deteriorating effect on DNA.

  3. Sol-gel as methodology to obtain bioactive materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    THIAGO J. RIBEIRO

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available We employed the solgel methodology to obtain a silica matrix modified with calcium and phosphate ions. We prepared the matrix by hydrolysis and condensation of the precursors triethyl phosphate, calcium nitrate, and tetraethylorthosilicate, which were the sources of phosphate, calcium, and silicon, respectively. We dried and heattreated the samples at 110 or 900°C and placed them in simulated body fluid (SBF for three days. We conducted scanning electron microscopy, Xray diffraction, and infrared spectroscopy analyses, which evidenced that the sample treated at 110°C contained calcium phosphate silicate and hydroxyapatite before and after contact with SBF, respectively. The sample treated at 900°C exhibited a hydroxyapatite phase before and after contact with SBF, but the crystalline phase was more evident after the contact. In conclusion, the solgel methodology provided bioactive samples for bone regeneration.

  4. Luminescent hybrid porphyrinosilica obtained by sol gel chemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neri Cláudio Roberto

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The sol-gel process is a methodology used to obtain organic-inorganic hybrid solids, which open new possibilities in the field of material science. The sol-gel technique offers a low temperature attractive approach for introducing organic molecules into amorphous materials. In order to introduce tetrakis (2-hydroxy-5-nitrophenylporphyrin covalently bounded to a silicate matrix, the inorganic precursor 3-isocyanatopropyltriethoxysilane was added (molar ratio 2:1 to the porphyrin solution in anhydrous dimethylformamide and triethylamine. The isolated porphyrin and the hybrid porphyrinosilica have excitation maximum centred at 400 nm and 424 nm, respectively and the emission spectra for both materials has bands centred at 650 nm and 713 nm. The formation of hybrid matrix was investigated by FTIR.

  5. Microcapsules obtained from complex coacervation of collagen and chondroitin sulfate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, W; Leong, K W

    1995-01-01

    Microcapsules composed of collagen and chondroitin sulfate were obtained by complex coacervation and characterized by DSC, optical microscopy, SEM, and UV-Vis spectroscopy. Composition of the microcapsules could be adjusted by the feed ratio and the pH of the solution. Prepared under low temperature and aqueous solution, the process is most suitable for encapsulating delicate bioactive agents. Albumin as a model protein was encapsulated with a loading level of up to 95% by weight. Degradation rate of the microcapsules decreased with the concentration of the crosslinking agent glutaraldehyde and increased with the bacterial collagenase level. Correspondingly the release of albumin could also be varied by the cross-linking degree of the microcapsules.

  6. Comparative Properties of Amazonian Oils Obtained by Different Extraction Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudio Galuppo Diniz

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Pequi (Caryocar brasiliense Camb., babaçu (Orbignya phalerata Mart., buriti (Mauritia flexuosa, and passion fruit (Passiflora edulis oils were studied to determine their antibacterial, antioxidant and cytotoxic activities, as well as their total phenol and carotenoid contents. The fatty acid contents were determined by GC-MS. The three types of passion fruit oils studied were refined, cold pressed or extracted from seeds in a Soxhlet apparatus. The oils thus obtained showed differences in antioxidant activity and carotenoid content, but were similar in regard to total phenols. Buriti and pequi had the highest carotenoid contents, while refined and cold pressed passion fruit oil displayed the highest antioxidant activity. Pequi oil was the only oil to display antibacterial and cytotoxic activity.

  7. How to obtain the Schwarzschild metric before Einstein's field equations

    CERN Document Server

    Kassner, Klaus

    2016-01-01

    As is well-known, there is no way to derive the Schwarzschild metric on the basis of pre-general-relativistic physics alone, which means using only special relativity, the Einstein equivalence principle and the Newtonian limit. It is however possible to encode the additional physics needed in two reasonably plausible postulates allowing to deduce the exact Schwarzschild metric without invoking Einstein's field equations. Since these requirements are designed to apply to the spherically symmmetric case, their union is much less powerful than the postulates from which Einstein obtained his field equations. It is shown that the field equations imply the postulates given here but that the converse is not quite true. The approach provides a fairly fast calculation method for the Schwarzschild metric in arbitrary coordinates exhibiting stationarity.

  8. Single sensor processing to obtain high resolution color component signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenn, William E. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A method for generating color video signals representative of color images of a scene includes the following steps: focusing light from the scene on an electronic image sensor via a filter having a tri-color filter pattern; producing, from outputs of the sensor, first and second relatively low resolution luminance signals; producing, from outputs of the sensor, a relatively high resolution luminance signal; producing, from a ratio of the relatively high resolution luminance signal to the first relatively low resolution luminance signal, a high band luminance component signal; producing, from outputs of the sensor, relatively low resolution color component signals; and combining each of the relatively low resolution color component signals with the high band luminance component signal to obtain relatively high resolution color component signals.

  9. Procedure for obtaining visas for Switzerland and France

    CERN Multimedia

    Relations with the Host States Service

    2011-01-01

    SIGNATURE RIGHTS - In accordance with the Status Agreements with CERN, Switzerland and France facilitate the entry of members of the Organization’s personnel on to their territories.  Where relevant, detailed procedures for obtaining visas apply. Within the framework of those procedures, only the following individuals are authorised to initiate the note verbale procedure as well as to sign the Official Invitation Letters and the Conventions d’accueil.  Kirsti ASPOLA (PH – CMO) Oliver BRÜNING (BE – ABP) Michelle CONNOR (PH – AGS) Patrick FASSNACHT (PH-ADO) David FOSTER (IT – DI) Nathalie GRÜB (PH – AGS) Tjitske KEHRER (DG-DI) Tadeusz KURTYKA (DG – PRJ) Cécile NOELS (DG – PRJ) Maria QUINTAS (HR – SPS) Kate RICHARDSON (PH-AGS) Jeanne ROSTANT (PH – AGS) José SALICIO-DIEZ (PH – AGS) Ulla TIHINEN (PH – A...

  10. Procedure for obtaining visas for Switzerland and France - Signature rights

    CERN Multimedia

    2015-01-01

    In accordance with the Status Agreements with CERN, Switzerland and France facilitate the entry of members of the Organization’s personnel on to their territories. Where relevant, detailed procedures for obtaining visas apply.   Within the framework of those procedures, only the following individuals are authorised to initiate the Note verbale procedure as well as to sign the Official Invitation Letters and the Conventions d’accueil. 1.     Kirsti ASPOLA (PH – CMO) 2.     Catherine BRANDT (DG – IR) 3.     Oliver BRÜNING (BE – HDO) 4.     Michelle CONNOR (PH – DI) 5.     Gaëlle DUPERRIER (PH – DI) 6.     Patrick FASSNACHT (PH – ADO) 7.     Fernando FERN...

  11. Procedure for obtaining visas for Switzerland and France - Signature rights

    CERN Multimedia

    2014-01-01

    In accordance with the Status Agreements with CERN, Switzerland and France facilitate the entry of members of the Organization’s personnel onto their territories. Where relevant, detailed procedures for obtaining visas apply.   Within the framework of those procedures, only the following individuals are authorised to initiate the note verbale procedure as well as to sign the Official Invitation Letters and the Conventions d’accueil. 1. Kirsti ASPOLA (PH – CMO) 2. Catherine BRANDT (DG – IR) 3. Oliver BRÜNING (BE – ABP) 4. Michelle CONNOR (PH – AGS) 5. Patrick FASSNACHT (PH – ADO) 6. Fernando FERNANDEZ SAVORGNANO (HR – TA) 7. David FOSTER (IT – DI) 8. Nathalie GRÜB (PH – AGS) 9. Cécile NOELS (DG – DI) 10. Maria QUINTAS (HR – TA) 11. Kate RICHARDSON (PH –  AGS) 12. Jeanne ROSTANT (PH – AGS) 13. José SALICIO-DIEZ (...

  12. Procedure for obtaining visas for Switzerland and France - Signature rights

    CERN Multimedia

    2013-01-01

    In accordance with the Status Agreements with CERN, Switzerland and France facilitate the entry of members of the Organization’s personnel on to their territories.  Where relevant, detailed procedures for obtaining visas apply.   Within the framework of those procedures, only the following individuals are authorised to initiate the note verbale procedure as well as to sign the Official Invitation Letters and the Conventions d’accueil. Kirsti ASPOLA (PH – CMO) Oliver BRÜNING (BE – ABP) Michelle CONNOR (PH – AGS) Patrick FASSNACHT (PH-ADO) David FOSTER (IT – DI) Nathalie GRÜB (PH – AGS) Tadeusz KURTYKA (DG – PRJ) Markus NORDBERG (PH – ADO) Cécile NOELS (DG – PRJ) Maria QUINTAS (HR – SPS) Kate RICHARDSON (PH-AGS) Jeanne ROSTANT (PH – AGS) José SALICIO-DIEZ (PH – AGS) Ulla TIHINEN (PH – AGS) Emmanuel...

  13. Procedure for obtaining visas for Switzerland and France - Signature rights

    CERN Multimedia

    DG Unit

    2010-01-01

    In accordance with the Status Agreements with CERN, Switzerland and France facilitate the entry of members of the Organization’s personnel onto their territories. Where relevant, detailed procedures for obtaining visas apply. Within the framework of those procedures, only the following individuals are authorised to initiate the Note verbale procedure as well as to sign the Official Invitation Letters and the Protocoles d’accueil. Kirsti ASPOLA (PH – CMO) Oliver BRÜNING (BE – ABP) Michelle CONNOR (PH – AGS) Sylvie DETHURENS FAVEZ (HR – SPS) David FOSTER (IT – DI) Nathalie GRUB (PH – AGS) Tadeusz KURTYKA (DG – PRJ) Jean-Pol MATHEYS (BE – ASR) Cécile NOELS (DG – PRJ) Connie POTTER (PH – AGS) Maria QUINTAS (HR – SPS) Jeanne ROSTANT (PH – AGS) José SALICIO-DIEZ (PH – AGS) Ulla...

  14. Procedure for obtaining visas for Switzerland and France Signature rights

    CERN Multimedia

    DG Unit

    2012-01-01

    In accordance with the Status Agreements with CERN, Switzerland and France facilitate the entry of members of the Organization’s personnel on to their territories.  Where relevant, detailed procedures for obtaining visas apply. Within the framework of those procedures, only the following individuals are authorised to initiate the note verbale procedure as well as to sign the Official Invitation Letters and the Conventions d’accueil. Kirsti ASPOLA (PH – CMO) Oliver BRÜNING (BE – ABP) Michelle CONNOR (PH – AGS) Patrick FASSNACHT (PH-ADO) David FOSTER (IT – DI) Nathalie GRÜB (PH – AGS) Tjitske KEHRER (DG-DI) Tadeusz KURTYKA (DG – PRJ) Markus NORDBERG (PH – ADO) Cécile NOELS (DG – PRJ) Maria QUINTAS (HR – SPS) Kate RICHARDSON (PH-AGS) Jeanne ROSTANT (PH – AGS) José SALICIO-DIEZ (PH – AGS) Ulla TIHINEN (PH – AG...

  15. Silica Xerogel Obtained by Ultrashort Laser Irradiation of Tetraethyl Orthosilicate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sansone, Maria; De Bonis, Angela; Galasso, Agostino; Santagata, Antonio; Teghil, Roberto

    2017-05-05

    The formation of an opaque solid foam was induced by the direct interaction between tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) and an ultrashort femtosecond laser source(Nd:glass, 527 nm, 10 Hz, 250 fs). The product, which resulted to be a silica xerogel, was characterized by different techniques. In particular, information about the morphology was obtained by scanning and transmission electron microscopy (SEM and TEM), while the presence of different functional groups was studied through IR measurements. Since the properties of this kind of material can be improved by functionalizing it with metal nanoparticles, a palladium metal target was ablated in liquid TEOS. TEM images show that palladium was present in the form of nanoparticles and EDX measurements confirm the presence of the metal inside the silica network. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Procedure for obtaining visas for Switzerland and France - Signature rights

    CERN Multimedia

    2016-01-01

    In accordance with the Status Agreements with CERN, Switzerland and France facilitate the entry of members of the Organization’s personnel on to their territories. Where relevant, detailed procedures for obtaining visas apply.   Within the framework of those procedures, only the following individuals are authorised to initiate the Note verbale procedure as well as to sign the Official Invitation Letters and the Conventions d’accueil. Kirsti ASPOLA (EP – CMO) Maite BARROSO LOPEZ (IT – DI) Catherine BRANDT (DG – DI) Michelle CONNOR (TH – GS) Gaëlle DUPERRIER (EP – AGS) Patrick FASSNACHT (EP – ADO) Fernando FERNANDEZ SAVORGNANO (HR – TA) Nathalie GRÜB (EP – AGS) Laurie HEMERY (BE – ASR) Cécile NOELS (ATS – DO) Tania PARDO (EP – AGS) Maria QUINTAS (HR – TA) Kate RICHARDSON (EP –  AGS) Jeanne ROSTANT (TH – GS)...

  17. Procedure for obtaining visas for Switzerland and France - Signature rights

    CERN Multimedia

    2016-01-01

    In accordance with the Status Agreements with CERN, Switzerland and France facilitate the entry of members of the Organization’s personnel on to their territories. Where relevant, detailed procedures for obtaining visas apply.   Within the framework of those procedures, only the following individuals are authorised to initiate the Note verbale procedure as well as to sign the Official Invitation Letters and the Conventions d’accueil. Kirsti ASPOLA (EP – CMO) Maria BARROSO LOPEZ (IT – DI) Catherine BRANDT (DG – DI) Michelle CONNOR (TH – GS) Gaëlle DUPERRIER (EP – AGS) Patrick FASSNACHT (EP – ADO) Fernando FERNANDEZ SAVORGNANO (HR – TA) Nathalie GOURIOU (EP – AGS) Nathalie GRÜB (EP – AGS) Laurie HEMERY (BE – ASR) Cécile NOELS (ATS – DO) Tania PARDO (EP – AGS) Maria QUINTAS (HR – TA) Kate RICHARDSON (EP –  A...

  18. Procedure for obtaining visas for Switzerland and France - signature rights

    CERN Document Server

    HR Department

    2009-01-01

    In accordance with the Status Agreements with CERN, Switzerland and France facilitate the entry of members of the Organization’s personnel on to their territories. Where relevant, detailed procedures for obtaining visas apply. Within the framework of those procedures, only the following individuals are authorised to initiate the note verbale procedure as well as to sign the Official Invitation Letters and the Protocoles d’accueil. Kirsti ASPOLA Oliver BRÜNING Inger CARRIERO Michelle CONNOR Lyndon EVANS Nathalie GRUB David JACOBS Tadeusz KURTYKA Jean-Pol MATHEYS Catherine NEDERMAN Chris ONIONS Connie POTTER Jeanne ROSTANT Ulla TIHINEN Emmanuel TSESMELIS Rüdiger VOSS The French and Swiss Authorities will reject any request signed by a person who is not on this list. We would like to remind you that in accordance with the memorandum of 7 December 2000 issued by the Director of the Administration, (ref. DG/DA/00-119), "the Organization shall not request any legitimisat...

  19. Microstructure and Properties of Composite Coatings Obtained on Aluminium Alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bara M.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents methods of modifying the anode surface layers of Al2O3 by introducing carbon to their microstructure. Composite coatings were prepared using two different methods. In the first, coatings were formed by means of oxidation under constant current conditions. Anodic oxidation of aluminium was conducted in a multicomponent electrolyte with the addition of organic acids and graphite. The second method was based on the formation of oxide coatings in an electrolyte without the addition of graphite or heat treatment of the layers of succinic acid. The obtained coatings were tested using SEM, TEM, and GDOES (glow discharge optical emission spectrometry and their tribological and stereometric properties were measured. The study demonstrated the beneficial effects of the methods when used to improve the tribological properties of sliding couples.

  20. On the energy resolution obtained with a multistep proportional counter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsey, B. D.; Weisskopf, M. C.

    1986-01-01

    Results of laboratory experiments with a standard multiwire imaging proportional counter (MWPC), modified to include a parallel grid preamplification stage are presented. Both argon and xenon were used as the primary absorbing gas in conjunction with a number of quench gases. It is found that extremely good energy resolution is obtained from the preamplification stage, almost independent of the ionization potential of the quench gas and over a broad range of gains. Furthermore, regardless of absorbing gas or quench agent, there was no difficulty in transferring a portion of this preamplified charge to the MWPC section for multistep mode operation. Finally, even for overall system gains greater than 10,000, the energy resolution from the second stage is found to be significantly improved, as long as the preamplification stage is operating. These results should have wide application and are of special interest for X-ray astronomy.

  1. Impact of cleaning before obtaining midstream urine samples from children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lytzen, Rebekka; Knudsen, Jenny Dahl; Ladelund, Steen

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Microbiological documentation of one uropathogenic bacterium in significant numbers in urine from patients with typical symptoms is the gold standard for diagnosing urinary tract infection (UTI). Cleaning before collecting midstream urine (MSU) is reported not to reduce the risk...... of contaminating the sample and was therefore omitted at Hvidovre Hospital as from the autumn of 2006. We evaluate if no cleaning increased the risk of contamination in the Department of Paediatrics. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A total of 1,858 patients aged 0-15 years who were suspected of UTI delivered two MSUs within...... 24 h. In 2004-2006 ("cleaning period"), 523 children were cleaned before obtaining two MSUs, contrary to the 1,335 children included in 2008-2010 ("non-cleaning period"). Significant bacteriuria was defined as at least 10,000 colony-forming units/ml of the same uropathogenic bacterium in two MSUs...

  2. Uniaxially aligned ceramic nanofibers obtained by chemical mechanical processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tararam, R. [Univ Estadual Paulista – UNESP – Instituto de Química, Rua Prof. Francisco Degni n° 55, CEP 14800-900 Araraquara, SP (Brazil); Foschini, C.R. [Univ Estadual Paulista – UNESP – Faculdade de Engenharia de Bauru, Dept. de Eng. Mecanica, Av. Eng. Luiz Edmundo C. Coube 14-01, CEP 17033-360 Bauru, SP (Brazil); Destro, F.B. [Univ Estadual Paulista – UNESP – Faculdade de Engenharia de Guaratinguetá, Guaratinguetá 12516-410, SP (Brazil); Simões, A.Z., E-mail: alezipo@yahoo.com [Univ Estadual Paulista – UNESP – Faculdade de Engenharia de Guaratinguetá, Guaratinguetá 12516-410, SP (Brazil); Longo, E.; Varela, J.A. [Univ Estadual Paulista – UNESP – Instituto de Química, Rua Prof. Francisco Degni n° 55, CEP 14800-900 Araraquara, SP (Brazil)

    2014-08-01

    For this study, we investigated a simple method to generate well aligned nanofibers over large areas using an organic polymer stretched over the substrate surface With this method, ZnO and CuO 3D parallel nanowire arrays were successfully prepared by calcinations of the polymer fibers. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis revealed that the copper oxide has a monoclinic structure while the zinc oxide has a hexagonal structure. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis showed ceramic nanofibers with an average diameter of 120 nm which were composed of small nanoparticles which are 10 nm in diameter. The ability to obtain uniaxially aligned nanofibers reveals a range of interesting properties with potential applications for sensors, catalysts and energy technologies.

  3. LIGNOCELLULOSE AS AN ALTERNATIVE SOURCE FOR OBTAINING OF BIOBUTANOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. Shulga

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Energy and environmental crisis facing the world force us to reconsider the effectiveness or find an alternative use of renewable natural resources, especially organic «waste» by using environmentally friendly technologies. Microbial conversion of renewable resources of biosphere to produce useful products, including biofuels, currently is an actual biotech problem. Anaerobic bacteria of Clostridiaceae family are known as butanol producers, but unfortunately, the microbiological synthesis is currently not economical one. In order to make cost-effective aceton-butanol-ethanol fermentation, solventproducing strains using available cheap raw materials, such as agricultural waste or plant biomass, are required. Opportunities and ways to obtaine economic and ecological processing of lignocellulosic wastes for biobutanol creation are described in the review .

  4. An antibacterial coating obtained through implantation of titanium ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delle Side, D.; Nassisi, V.; Giuffreda, E.; Velardi, L.; Alifano, P.; Talà, A.; Tredici, S. M.

    2014-04-01

    Everyday life is exposed to the risks of contracting severe diseases due to the diffusion of severe pathogens. For this reason, efficient antimicrobial surfaces becomes a need of primary importance. In this work we report the first evidences of a new technique to synthesize an antibacterial coating on Ultra High Molecular Weight Polyethylene (UHMWPE)samples, based on a non-stoichiometric, visible light responsive, titanium oxide. The coating was obtained through laser ablation of a titanium target, then the resulting ions were accelerated and implanted on the samples. The samples where tested against a Staphylococcus aureus strain, in order to assay their antimicrobial efficacy. Results show that this treatment strongly discourages bacterial adhesion to the treated surfaces.

  5. Biotechnological aspects concerning the ergosterol obtaining from yeasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena MOLODOI

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on the experimental results for selection of Saccharomyces carlsbergensis CNMN-Y-15 yeast strain with high potential for ergosterol biosynthesis; determination of morpho-cultural and physiologo-biochemical characteristics of this yeast strain; establishment of the effect of low-intensity millimeter waves on ergosterol biosynthesis. Research results contributed to the elaboration of technological flow for obtaining of high yield of ergosterol from yeasts. The significant increasing of ergosterol content is possible due to the utililization of optimized nutritive medium with manganese acetate (0.012 g/L and glucose (40.0 g/L; the treatment of inoculum with low-intensity millimeter waves for 20-30 minutes.

  6. A new methodology to obtain wine yeast strains overproducing mannoproteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quirós, Manuel; Gonzalez-Ramos, Daniel; Tabera, Laura; Gonzalez, Ramon

    2010-04-30

    Yeast mannoproteins are highly glycosylated proteins that are covalently bound to the beta-1,3-glucan present in the yeast cell wall. Among their outstanding enological properties, yeast mannoproteins contribute to several aspects of wine quality by protecting against protein haze, reducing astringency, retaining aroma compounds and stimulating growth of lactic-acid bacteria. The development of a non-recombinant method to obtain enological yeast strains overproducing mannoproteins would therefore be very useful. Our previous experience on the genetic determinants of the release of these molecules by Saccharomyces cerevisiae has allowed us to propose a new methodology to isolate and characterize wine yeast that overproduce mannoproteins. The described methodology is based on the resistance of the killer 9 toxin produced by Williopsis saturnus, a feature linked to an altered biogenesis of the yeast cell wall. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Obtaining P3P Privacy Policies for Composite Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Sun

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available With the development of web services technology, web services have changed from single to composite services. Privacy protection in composite services is becoming an important issue. P3P (platform for privacy preferences is a privacy policy language which was designed for single web services. It enables service providers to express how they will deal with the privacy information of service consumers. In order to solve the problem that P3P cannot be applied to composite services directly, we propose a method to obtain P3P privacy policies for composite services. In this method, we present the definitions of Purpose, Recipient, and Retention elements as well as Optional and Required attributes for P3P policies of composite services. We also provide an instantiation to illustrate the feasibility of the method.

  8. Obtaining P3P privacy policies for composite services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yi; Huang, Zhiqiu; Ke, Changbo

    2014-01-01

    With the development of web services technology, web services have changed from single to composite services. Privacy protection in composite services is becoming an important issue. P3P (platform for privacy preferences) is a privacy policy language which was designed for single web services. It enables service providers to express how they will deal with the privacy information of service consumers. In order to solve the problem that P3P cannot be applied to composite services directly, we propose a method to obtain P3P privacy policies for composite services. In this method, we present the definitions of Purpose, Recipient, and Retention elements as well as Optional and Required attributes for P3P policies of composite services. We also provide an instantiation to illustrate the feasibility of the method.

  9. Obtaining P3P Privacy Policies for Composite Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yi; Huang, Zhiqiu; Ke, Changbo

    2014-01-01

    With the development of web services technology, web services have changed from single to composite services. Privacy protection in composite services is becoming an important issue. P3P (platform for privacy preferences) is a privacy policy language which was designed for single web services. It enables service providers to express how they will deal with the privacy information of service consumers. In order to solve the problem that P3P cannot be applied to composite services directly, we propose a method to obtain P3P privacy policies for composite services. In this method, we present the definitions of Purpose, Recipient, and Retention elements as well as Optional and Required attributes for P3P policies of composite services. We also provide an instantiation to illustrate the feasibility of the method. PMID:25126609

  10. Obtaining of High Cr Content Cast Iron Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florea, C.; Bejinariu, C.; Carcea, I.; Cimpoesu, N.; Chicet, D. L.; Savin, C.

    2017-06-01

    We have obtained, through the classic casting process, 3 highly chromium-based experimental alloys proposed for replacing the FC 250 classical cast iron in braking applications. Casting was carried out in an induction furnace and cast into moulds made of KALHARTZ 8500 resin casting mixture and HARTER hardener at SC RanCon SRL Iasi. It is known that the microstructure of the cast iron is a combination of martensite with a small amount of residual austenite after the heat treatment of the ingot. In the case of high-alloy chromium alloys, the performance of the material is due to the presence of M7C3 carbides distributed in the iron matrix Resistance to machining and deformation is based on alloy composition and microstructure, while abrasion resistance will depend on properties and wear conditions.

  11. The possibility of obtaining beta-anhydrite from waste nitrogypsum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marinković S.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The possibility of obtaining β - anhydrite from nitrogypsum, which is waste from a nitrocellulose plant, was investigated. It was shown by means of qualitative IR analysis that the product obtained by heating nitrogypsum for 5 hours at 700 o C was â - anhydrite. When the β- anhydrite was mixed with water at a W/S (water/solid ratio of 0.54 in presence of different accelerators (CaO, mixture CaO - ash, ash, Na2SO4 and K2SO4, pastes were formed which hardened on standing. The compressive strength of the hardened samples was measured after 7 and 28 days and their composition determined by qualitative IR analysis. On the basis of these results, it was observed that a relationship exists between the composition (depending on the used accelerator and the compression strength of the samples. Namely, the formation of large cores of double salts: syngenite (K2SO4 ⋅CaSO4 ⋅H2O and glauberite (Na2SO4 ⋅CaSO4, in the presence of the accelerators K2SO4 and Na2SO4, respectively, was due to the rapid and complete crystallization of the dihydrate (CaSO4 ⋅2H2O. This fast crystal growth of the dihydrate resulted in high compressive strengths of these samples. In the other samples (prepared in presence of the accelerators: CaO, mixture CaO - ash and ash, dihydrate did not form and, consequently, their compressive strength was low.

  12. Whey-derived valuable products obtained by microbial fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pescuma, Micaela; de Valdez, Graciela Font; Mozzi, Fernanda

    2015-08-01

    Whey, the main by-product of the cheese industry, is considered as an important pollutant due to its high chemical and biological oxygen demand. Whey, often considered as waste, has high nutritional value and can be used to obtain value-added products, although some of them need expensive enzymatic synthesis. An economical alternative to transform whey into valuable products is through bacterial or yeast fermentations and by accumulation during algae growth. Fermentative processes can be applied either to produce individual compounds or to formulate new foods and beverages. In the first case, a considerable amount of research has been directed to obtain biofuels able to replace those derived from petrol. In addition, the possibility of replacing petrol-derived plastics by biodegradable polymers synthesized during bacterial fermentation of whey has been sought. Further, the ability of different organisms to produce metabolites commonly used in the food and pharmaceutical industries (i.e., lactic acid, lactobionic acid, polysaccharides, etc.) using whey as growth substrate has been studied. On the other hand, new low-cost functional whey-based foods and beverages leveraging the high nutritional quality of whey have been formulated, highlighting the health-promoting effects of fermented whey-derived products. This review aims to gather the multiple uses of whey as sustainable raw material for the production of individual compounds, foods, and beverages by microbial fermentation. This is the first work to give an overview on the microbial transformation of whey as raw material into a large repertoire of industrially relevant foods and products.

  13. Comparison between measurements obtained with three different perineometers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Brentegani Barbosa

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To analyze the results obtained in the evaluation of intra-vaginal pressure using three different brands of perineometers in nulliparous volunteers. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty nulliparous women with no anatomical alterations and/or dysfunction of the pelvic floor were enrolled in our study. All the women had the ability to voluntarily contract their PFM (Pelvic Floor Muscles, as assessed by digital palpation. The intra-vaginal pressure was assessed using three different brands of perineometer (Neurodyn EvolutionTM, SensuPowerTM and PeritronTM. Each volunteer was evaluated on three alternate days by a single examiner using a single brand of perineometer on each day. In the assessment, the volunteers were required to pull (contract their PFM in and up as strongly as possible 3 times and to sustain the contraction for 5 seconds, with an interval of 30 seconds between each pull. For the statistical analysis, a concordance correlation coefficient was used to compare the values that were obtained with each brand of perineometer. RESULTS: A moderate concordance (0.51 was found between the results from the PeritronTM and NeurodynTM perineometers, a fair concordance (0.21 between the PeritronTM and SensuPowerTM brands and a poor concordance (0.19 between the NeurodynTM and SensuPowerTM brands. CONCLUSION: The concordance of the measurements of the intra-vaginal pressure ranged from poor to moderate, suggesting that perineometers of different brands generate different results.

  14. Obtaining the essential oil of Syzygium aromaticum, identification of eugenol and its effect on Streptococcus mutans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osvelia Rodríguez

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Dental caries is a disease which affects the human oral cavity. Currently, the search for active principles of plants with antimicrobial effect seems promising for dental therapy. In this article the activity of the essential oil of Syzygium aromaticum (clove was evaluated with an emphasis on its antimicrobial properties. The oil was obtained by hydrodistillation, characterized by thin layer chromatography and chemical tests. The main compound was identified in the oil obtained from the flower buds and its antibacterial activity against planktonic cells Streptcoccus mutans ATCC700611 was assessed by performing serial dilutions, from 15 up to 1000µg/mL, compared with 0.12% chlorhexidine and dimethylsulfoxide. MIC was also determined. Subsequently, UFC was analyzed and compared with CMR® Test Ivoclar Vivadent. The efficiency in obtaining the oil was 2.20%. By using the CCD technique, a fraction was revealed by UV light, corresponding to eugenol. It had a good response for triterpenoids and flavonoids. It showed greater antimicrobial activity at concentrations of 1000, 500 and 250µg/ml. The MIC and MBC of the oil was 125 to 250µg/mL, respectively. Eugenol was found as an active principle in the oil obtained. Currently, the impact of using plant extracts has favored the evaluation of alternative, effective and biocompatible antibacterial agents for the formulations of oral hygiene products applied to the prevention or treatment of oral diseases.

  15. Antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of lecithin free egg yolk protein preparation hydrolysates obtained with digestive enzymes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Zambrowicz

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT:Several biological activities have now been associated with egg protein- derived peptides, including antihypertensive, antimicrobial, immunomodulatory, anticancer and antioxidantactivities, highlighting the importance of these biopeptides in human health, and disease prevention and treatment. Special attention has been given to peptides with antioxidant and antimicrobial activities as a new source of natural preservatives in food industry. In this study, the antioxidant properties of the egg-yolk protein by-product (YP hydrolysates were evaluated based on their radical scavenging capacity (DPPH, Fe2+chelating effect and ferric reducing power (FRAP. Furthermore, antimicrobial properties of obtained hydrolysates against Bacillus species were studied. The degrees (DHs of hydrolysis for 4h hydrolysates were: 19.1%, 13.5% and 13.0%, for pepsin, chymotrypsin and trypsin, respectively. Pepsin was the most effective in producing the free amino groups (1410.3 μmolGly/g. The RP-HPLC profiles of the protein hydrolysates showed differences in the hydrophobicity of the generated peptides.Trypsin hydrolysate obtained after 4h reaction demonstrated the strongest DPPH free radical scavenging activity (0.85 µmol Troloxeq/mg. Trypsin and chymotrypsin hydrolysates obtained after 4h reaction exhibited 4 times higher ferric reducing capacity than those treated bypepsin. The hydrolysis products obtained from YP exhibited significant chelating activity. The 4h trypsin hydrolysate exhibited weak antimicrobial activity against B. subtilis B3; B. cereus B512; B. cereus B 3p and B. laterosporum B6.

  16. Packaging and labeling of pharmaceutical products obtained from the internet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veronin, Michael

    2011-02-15

    For patients, the prescription container label may be the only source of instructions on how to take their medicines. In the United States, the legal requirements for a prescription label are set by federal law and state statutes. The container should be comparable to that which manufacturers use to package drug products and should preserve a product's identity, strength, quality, and purity and prevent contamination. Safety features such as a child-resistant closure should be provided. Pharmaceutical products purchased from international online pharmacies are not approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and may not meet US guidelines for labeling and packaging. The study objective was to determine whether commonly purchased pharmaceutical products obtained from international online pharmacies are comparable to products dispensed in the United States with regard to labeling and packaging. During March 2006 through January 2007, 41 pharmaceutical oral dosage form samples were obtained from international Internet pharmacy websites for evaluation: 18 generic simvastatin samples, 18 generic amlodipine samples, and 5 generic sildenafil samples. Contents for each package were observed and recorded and comparison of the prescription labeling and packaging of these products was made with prescription labeling and packaging requirements in the United States. Of the 41 drug products obtained from online pharmacies from 12 different countries, only 1 product (from Canada) would meet both labeling and packaging guidelines for products dispensed in the United States. Of those not meeting the requirements, 7 were dispensed in paper envelopes with label affixed that was either handwritten or typed and contained missing information such as name and address of dispenser, name of prescriber, name of patient, and directions for use. Another 3 products did not have a label affixed to the drug product, but information was printed on a paper document enclosed in the shipping

  17. Analysis of multiplex gene expression maps obtained by voxelation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smith Desmond J

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gene expression signatures in the mammalian brain hold the key to understanding neural development and neurological disease. Researchers have previously used voxelation in combination with microarrays for acquisition of genome-wide atlases of expression patterns in the mouse brain. On the other hand, some work has been performed on studying gene functions, without taking into account the location information of a gene's expression in a mouse brain. In this paper, we present an approach for identifying the relation between gene expression maps obtained by voxelation and gene functions. Results To analyze the dataset, we chose typical genes as queries and aimed at discovering similar gene groups. Gene similarity was determined by using the wavelet features extracted from the left and right hemispheres averaged gene expression maps, and by the Euclidean distance between each pair of feature vectors. We also performed a multiple clustering approach on the gene expression maps, combined with hierarchical clustering. Among each group of similar genes and clusters, the gene function similarity was measured by calculating the average gene function distances in the gene ontology structure. By applying our methodology to find similar genes to certain target genes we were able to improve our understanding of gene expression patterns and gene functions. By applying the clustering analysis method, we obtained significant clusters, which have both very similar gene expression maps and very similar gene functions respectively to their corresponding gene ontologies. The cellular component ontology resulted in prominent clusters expressed in cortex and corpus callosum. The molecular function ontology gave prominent clusters in cortex, corpus callosum and hypothalamus. The biological process ontology resulted in clusters in cortex, hypothalamus and choroid plexus. Clusters from all three ontologies combined were most prominently expressed in

  18. Physicochemical characteristics of ozonated sunflower oils obtained by different procedures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Díaz, M. F.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Two ozonation procedures for sunflower oils at different applied ozone dosages were carried out. Ozone was obtained from medicinal oxygen and from air. Peroxide, acidity, and iodine indexes, along with density, viscosity and antimicrobial activity were determined. The fatty acid compositions of the samples were analyzed using GC. The content of oxygen was determined using an elemental analysis. Electronic Paramagnetic Resonance was used to measure the organic free radicals. The reactions were achieved up to peroxide index values of 658 and 675 mmolequiv kg–1 using medicinal oxygen and air for 5 and 8 hours, respectively. The samples of ozonized sunflower oil did not present organic free radicals, which is a very important issue if these oils are to be used as drugs. The ozonation reaction is more rapid with medicinal oxygen (5 hours than with air (8 hours. Ozonized sunflower oil with oxygen as an ozone source was obtained with high potential for antimicrobial activity.

    Se ha aplicado dos procedimientos de ozonización a aceites de girasol a diferentes dosis de ozono, obteniendo el ozono a partir de oxígeno medicinal y de aire. Se han determinado los índices de peróxido, yodo y acidez conjuntamente con la densidad, viscosidad y la actividad antimicrobiana. La composición de ácidos grasos fue analizada mediante CG. El contenido de oxígeno fue determinado mediante Análisis Elemental. Se utilizó la resonancia paramagnética electrónica para medir los radicales libres orgánicos. Las reacciones fueron realizadas hasta valores de índice de peróxidos de 658 y 675 mmol-equiv kg–1 usando oxígeno medicinal y aire durante 5 y 8 horas, respectivamente. Las muestras de aceite de girasol ozonizado no presentaron radicales libres orgánicos, lo cual es muy importante en el caso de que estos aceites sean utilizados en medicina. La reacción de ozonización es más rápida cuando se utiliza oxígeno medicinal (5 horas

  19. Teleconsent: A novel approach to obtain informed consent for research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brandon M. Welch

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Lack of recruitment of qualified research participants continues to be a significant bottleneck in clinical trials, often resulting in costly time extensions, underpowered results, and in some cases early termination. Some of the reasons for suboptimal recruitment include laborious consent processes and access to participants at remote locations. While new electronic consents technologies (eConsent help overcome challenges related to readability and consent management, they do not adequately address challenges related to remote access. To address this, we have developed an innovative solution called “teleconsent”, which embeds the informed consent process into a telemedicine session. Teleconsent allows a researcher to remotely video conference with a prospective research participant, display and interactively guide participants in real-time through a consent form. When finished, the researcher and participant can electronically sign the consent form and print or download the signed document for archiving. This process can eliminate challenges related to travel and management of personnel at remote sites. Teleconsent has been successfully implemented in several clinical trials. Teleconsent can improve research recruitment by reducing the barriers related to informed consent, while preserving human interaction.

  20. Disperse reinforced concrete used in obtaining prefabricated elements for roads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan MEZEI

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Concrete is the most used material in construction. By improving the performance of materials and of technologies, concretes with outstanding performances were also developed, in the past two decades. Concrete with dispersed reinforcement represents a new generation of reinforced concrete that combines a good behavior of concrete compressive strength with an increased tensile strength of steel fibers. Using this material, monolithic and prefabricated concrete elements with high mechanical strengths and high durability can be obtained. Technological processes for preparation of concrete with dispersed reinforcement are similar to the conventional methods and do not involve using additional equipment for dosing the dispersed reinforcement. The study aimed the development of road plates made with optimized disperse- reinforced concrete. The first tests were done on plates from the gutter roadway, having a classic reinforcement, using different percentages of fibre reinforcement in the concrete composition, leading to the development of a new optimized economical solution. The results prove the enhanced characteristics of the disperse-reinforced concrete versus conventional concrete, and hence of the developed concrete plates.

  1. Obtaining a sulfoaluminate belite cement by industrial waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elkhadiri, L.

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Sulfoaluminate belite clinkers by burning raw at moderate temperatures near 1250 °C were synthesized. The used mixtures were made by calcium carbonate blended to two industrial wastes: low calcium fly ash and phosphogypsum. The clinkers were characterised by X-Ray Diffraction (XRD, Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR and free lime. The hydraulic behaviour of the obtained cements, by adequate clinkers with 7% of added gypsum, was followed by XRD, scaning electronic microscopy (SEM, FTIR and NMR.

    Los clínkeres belíticos de sulfoaluminatos se obtienen por cocción de crudos a temperaturas moderadas, hacia 1.250 ºC. Esos crudos se componen de carbonato de calcio mezclados con dos subproductos industriales: cenizas volantes pobres en óxido de calcio y fosfoyeso. Los clínkeres obtenidos se caracterizaron a través de Difracción de Rayos X (DRX, Espectroscopia Infrarroja por Transformada de Fourier (FTIR y por la determinación de CaO libre. El comportamiento hidráulico de los cementos elaborados de los clínkeres con el 7% de yeso se estudió por DRX, Microscopía Electrónica de Barrido (SEM, FTIR y Resonancia Magnética Nuclear (RMN

  2. Making connections: New Orleans Evacuees' experiences in obtaining drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunlap, Eloise; Johnson, Bruce D; Kotarba, Joseph A; Fackler, Jennifer

    2009-09-01

    Between August 29 and September 7, 2005, almost all New Orleans residents were evacuated from the area in the aftermath of Hurricane Katrina. News reports indicate that almost 130,000 New Orleans Evacuees (NOEs) were evacuated to Houston, Texas, the largest recipient of the civilian population from New Orleans. Some of these NOEs were active participants in the illicit drug market in New Orleans prior to the hurricane. The period between the flooding and the nearly complete evacuation of New Orleans as well as their subsequent displacement to Houston and other locations provided unique opportunities to study what occurs when illicit drug markets are disrupted, since populations of illicit drug users and purchasers could no longer routinely obtain their drugs in predictable ways. Utilizing qualitative data from in-depth interviews and focus groups, this article describes the ways NOEs (1) managed their drug acquisition and use following evacuation; (2) located new sources of drugs in Houston and elsewhere by tapping into shared drug culture; and (3) gained access to and learned the argot for drugs in the local drug market in new settings. This report contributes to the nascent literature on disrupted drug markets.

  3. A thermodynamic approach to obtain materials properties for engineering applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Y. Austin

    1993-01-01

    With the ever increases in the capabilities of computers for numerical computations, we are on the verge of using these tools to model manufacturing processes for improving the efficiency of these processes as well as the quality of the products. One such process is casting for the production of metals. However, in order to model metal casting processes in a meaningful way it is essential to have the basic properties of these materials in their molten state, solid state as well as in the mixed state of solid and liquid. Some of the properties needed may be considered as intrinsic such as the density, heat capacity or enthalpy of freezing of a pure metal, while others are not. For instance, the enthalpy of solidification of an alloy is not a defined thermodynamic quantity. Its value depends on the micro-segregation of the phases during the course of solidification. The objective of the present study is to present a thermodynamic approach to obtain some of the intrinsic properties and combining thermodynamics with kinetic models to estimate such quantities as the enthalpy of solidification of an alloy.

  4. Magnetic biocatalysts and their uses to obtain bioproducts

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Carmen; Cruz-Izquierdo, Álvaro; Picó, Enrique; García-Bárcena, Teresa; Villarroel, Noelia; Llama, María; Serra, Juan

    2014-08-01

    Nanobiocatalysis, as the synergistic combination of nanotechnology and biocatalysis, is rapidly emerging as a new frontier of biotechnology. The use of immobilized enzymes in industrial applications often presents advantages over their soluble counterparts, mainly in view of stability, reusability and simpler operational processing. Because of their singular properties, such as biocompatibility, large and modifiable surface and easy recovery, iron oxide magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) are attractive super-paramagnetic materials that serve as a support for enzyme immobilization and facilitate separations by applying an external magnetic field. Cross-linked enzyme aggregates (CLEAs) have several benefits in the context of industrial applications since they can be cheaply and easily prepared from unpurified enzyme extracts and show improved storage and operational stability against denaturation by heat and organic solvents. In this work, by using the aforementioned advantages of MNPs of magnetite and CLEAs, we prepared two robust magnetically-separable types of nanobiocatalysts by binding either soluble enzyme onto the surface of MNPs functionalized with amino groups or by cross-linking aggregates of enzyme among them and to MNPs to obtain magnetic CLEAs. For this purpose the lipase B of Candida antarctica (CALB) was used. The hydrolytic and biosynthetic activities of the resulting magnetic nanobiocatalysts were assessed in aqueous and organic media and compared between them and to those showed by the corresponding soluble enzyme. Thus, the hydrolysis of triglycerides or the transesterification reactions to synthesize biodiesel and biosurfactants were studied using magnetic CLEAs of CALB.

  5. Magnetic biocatalysts and their uses to obtain bioproducts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen eLópez

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Nanobiocatalysis, as the synergistic combination of nanotechnology and biocatalysis, is rapidly emerging as a new frontier of biotechnology. The use of immobilized enzymes in industrial applications often presents advantages over their soluble counterparts, mainly in view of stability, reusability and simpler operational processing. Because of their singular properties, such as biocompatibility, large and modifiable surface and easy recovery, iron oxide magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs are attractive super-paramagnetic materials that serve as a support for enzyme immobilization and facilitate separations by applying an external magnetic field. Cross-linked enzyme aggregates (CLEAs have several benefits in the context of industrial applications since they can be cheaply and easily prepared from unpurified enzyme extracts and show improved storage and operational stability against denaturation by heat and organic solvents. In this work, by using the aforementioned advantages of MNPs of magnetite and CLEAs, we prepared two robust magnetically-separable types of nanobiocatalysts by binding either soluble enzyme onto the surface of MNPs functionalized with amino groups or by cross-linking aggregates of enzyme among them and to MNPs to obtain magnetic CLEAs. For this purpose the lipase B of Candida antarctica (CALB was used. The hydrolytic and biosynthetic activities of the resulting magnetic nanobiocatalysts were assessed in aqueous and organic media and compared between them and to those showed by the corresponding soluble enzyme. Thus, the hydrolysis of triglycerides or the transesterification reactions to synthesize biodiesel and biosurfactants were studied using magnetic CLEAs of CALB.

  6. Obtaining Reimbursement in France and Italy for New Diabetes Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, Elmar; Sonsalla, Jessica

    2015-01-01

    Manufacturers launching next-generation or innovative medical devices in Europe face a very heterogeneous reimbursement landscape, with each country having its own pathways, timing, requirements and success factors. We selected 2 markets for a deeper look into the reimbursement landscape: France, representing a country with central decision making with defined processes, and Italy, which delegates reimbursement decisions to the regional level, resulting in a less transparent approach to reimbursement. Based on our experience in working on various new product launches and analyzing recent reimbursement decisions, we found that payers in both countries do not reward improved next-generation products with incremental reimbursement. Looking at innovations, we observe that manufacturers face a challenging and lengthy process to obtain reimbursement. In addition, requirements and key success factors differ by country: In France, comparative clinical evidence and budget impact very much drive reimbursement decisions in terms of pricing and restrictions, whereas in Italy, regional key opinion leader (KOL) support and additional local observational data are key. PMID:25550411

  7. Magnetic properties of nanoparticles obtained by different chemical routes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Angela L; Souza, Diana M; Pereira, Márcio C; Fabris, José D; Domingues, Rosana Z

    2009-03-01

    It is well known that nano-sized materials often present chemical, electronic, magnetic, and mechanical properties that are potentially interesting for many technological applications comparatively to their corresponding bulk properties. This paper describes the main differences in magnetic properties among nanomagnetite powders prepared by three methods: (I) reduction-precipitation of ferric chloride by reaction with Na2SO3; (II) reduction of hematite with coal, and (III) reduction of hematite with hydrogen gas. The obtained materials were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), saturation magnetization measurements, and Mössbauer spectroscopy. Saturation magnetization values varied from 60 to 86 J T(-1)kg(-1). XRD and Mössbauer spectroscopy results at 298 K showed the clear effect of the preparation routes on the crystallographic structure and crystallite size of the magnetic species. Magnetite was formed in varying proportions in all samples, with crystallite sizes estimated by Scherrer formula of about 10, 26, and 33 nm for samples prepared by methods (I), (II), and (III), respectively. The Mössbauer spectrum of the sample prepared by method (I) consisted of broad lines and hyperfine field for magnetite lower than that typically reported for the bulk material.

  8. Diurnal auroral occurrence statistics obtained via machine vision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. T. Syrjäsuo

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Modern ground-based digital auroral All-Sky Imager (ASI networks capture millions of images annually. Machine vision techniques are widely utilised in the retrieval of images from large data bases. Clearly, they can play an important scientific role in dealing with data from auroral ASI networks, facilitating both efficient searches and statistical studies. Furthermore, the development of automated techniques for identifying specific types of aurora opens up the potential of ASI control software that would change instrument operation in response to evolving geophysical conditions. In this paper, we describe machine vision techniques that we have developed for use on large auroral image data sets. We present the results of application of these techniques to a 350000 image subset of the CANOPUS Gillam ASI in the years 1993–1998. In particular, we obtain occurrence statistics for auroral arcs, patches, and Omega-bands. These results agree with those of previous manual auroral surveys.

    Key words. Ionosphere (Instruments and techniques General (new fields

  9. Diurnal auroral occurrence statistics obtained via machine vision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. T. Syrjäsuo

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Modern ground-based digital auroral All-Sky Imager (ASI networks capture millions of images annually. Machine vision techniques are widely utilised in the retrieval of images from large data bases. Clearly, they can play an important scientific role in dealing with data from auroral ASI networks, facilitating both efficient searches and statistical studies. Furthermore, the development of automated techniques for identifying specific types of aurora opens up the potential of ASI control software that would change instrument operation in response to evolving geophysical conditions. In this paper, we describe machine vision techniques that we have developed for use on large auroral image data sets. We present the results of application of these techniques to a 350000 image subset of the CANOPUS Gillam ASI in the years 1993–1998. In particular, we obtain occurrence statistics for auroral arcs, patches, and Omega-bands. These results agree with those of previous manual auroral surveys.Key words. Ionosphere (Instruments and techniques General (new fields

  10. Ferroelectric hollow particles obtained by solid-state reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buscaglia, Maria Teresa; Buscaglia, Vincenzo; Viviani, Massimo; Nanni, Paolo [Institute of Energetics and Interphases, National Research Council, Via De Marini 6, I-16149 Genoa (Italy); Dondero, Giovanni [Institute for Macromolecular Studies, National Research Council, Via De Marini 6, I-16149 Genoa (Italy); Roehrig, Serge; Ruediger, Andreas [Institute of Solid State Research, Centre of Nanoelectronic Systems for Information Technology, Research Centre Juelich, 52425 Juelich (Germany)], E-mail: v.buscaglia@ge.ieni.cnr.it

    2008-06-04

    Hollow particles of barium titanate were obtained by a two-step process combining colloidal chemistry and solid-state reaction. BaCO{sub 3} crystals (size {approx}1 {mu}m) suspended in a peroxy-Ti(IV) aqueous solution were coated with an amorphous TiO{sub 2} shell using a precipitation process. Calcination of the BaCO{sub 3}-TiO{sub 2} core-shell particles at 700 deg. C resulted in the formation of BaTiO{sub 3} hollow particles (shell thickness of {approx}70 nm) which retain the morphology of the BaCO{sub 3} crystals. Formation of the cavity occurs because out-diffusion of the core phase is much faster than in-diffusion of the shell material. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Raman spectroscopy indicate that the hollow particles possess a tetragonal ferroelectric structure with axial ratio c/a = 1.005. Piezoresponse force microscopy has shown strong piezoactivity and 180 deg. ferroelectric domains. The process described provides a general route to fabricate hollow ferroelectric structures of several compounds.

  11. Ferroelectric hollow particles obtained by solid-state reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buscaglia, Maria Teresa; Buscaglia, Vincenzo; Viviani, Massimo; Dondero, Giovanni; Röhrig, Serge; Rüdiger, Andreas; Nanni, Paolo

    2008-06-04

    Hollow particles of barium titanate were obtained by a two-step process combining colloidal chemistry and solid-state reaction. BaCO(3) crystals (size ≈1 µm) suspended in a peroxy-Ti(IV) aqueous solution were coated with an amorphous TiO(2) shell using a precipitation process. Calcination of the BaCO(3)@TiO(2) core-shell particles at 700 °C resulted in the formation of BaTiO(3) hollow particles (shell thickness of ≈70 nm) which retain the morphology of the BaCO(3) crystals. Formation of the cavity occurs because out-diffusion of the core phase is much faster than in-diffusion of the shell material. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Raman spectroscopy indicate that the hollow particles possess a tetragonal ferroelectric structure with axial ratio c/a = 1.005. Piezoresponse force microscopy has shown strong piezoactivity and 180° ferroelectric domains. The process described provides a general route to fabricate hollow ferroelectric structures of several compounds.

  12. Procedure for obtaining visas for Switzerland and France - Signature Rights

    CERN Multimedia

    Relations with the Host States Service

    2005-01-01

    In accordance with the Status Agreements with CERN, Switzerland and France facilitate the entry of members of the Organization's personnel on to their territories.  Where relevant, detailed procedures for obtaining visas apply. Within the framework of those procedures, only the following individuals are authorised to initiate the note verbale procedure as well as to sign the Official Invitation Letters and the Protocoles d'accueil. Olivier BRÜNING Philip BRYANT Lyndon EVANS John FERGUSON Catherine JONES Nicolas KOULBERG Hélène HALLER-MAUGER Michelle MAZERAND Chris ONIONS Monica PEPE-ALTARELLI The French and Swiss Authorities will reject any request signed by a person who is not on this list. We would like to remind you that, in accordance with the memorandum of 7 December 2000 issued by the Director of Administration (ref. DG/DA/00-119), 'the Organization shall not request any legitimisation document (or residence permit) or visa from the Host States for persons registered as EXTERNAL' (people who do...

  13. Procedure for obtaining visas for Switzerland and France

    CERN Document Server

    Relations with the Host States Service

    2004-01-01

    Signature Rights In accordance with the Status Agreements with CERN, Switzerland and France facilitate the entry of members of the Organization's personnel on to their territories. Where relevant, detailed procedures for obtaining visas apply. Within the framework of those procedures, only the following individuals are authorised to initiate the note verbale procedure as well as to sign the Official Invitation Letters and the Protocoles d'accueil. Jean BOILLOT Philip BRYANT Lyndon EVANS Nicolas KOULBERG Hélène HALLER-MAUGER Michelle MAZERAND Steve MYERS Chris ONIONS Monica PEPE-ALTARELLI Agnita QUERROU Jean-Pierre RIUNAUD We would like to remind you that in accordance with the memorandum of 7 December 2000 issued by the Director of the Administration, (ref. DG/DA/00-119), "the Organization shall not request any legitimisation document (or residence permit) or visa from the Host States for persons registered as EXTERNAL" (people who do not hold a contract of employment, association or apprenticeship w...

  14. Procedure for obtaining visas for Switzerland and France - Signature Rights

    CERN Document Server

    HR Department

    2007-01-01

    In accordance with their Status Agreements with CERN, Switzerland and France facilitate the entry of members of the Organization's personnel onto their territories. Where relevant, detailed procedures for obtaining visas apply. Within the framework of these procedures, only the following individuals are authorised to initiate the note verbale procedure, as well as to sign the Official Invitation Letters and the Protocoles d'accueil. Oliver BRÜNING Philip BRYANT Lyndon EVANS John FERGUSON Hélène HALLER-MAUGER David JACOBS Catherine NEDERMAN Chris ONIONS Claudio PARRINELLO Jeanne ROSTANT The French and Swiss Authorities will reject any request signed by a person who is not on this list. We would like to remind you that, in accordance with the memorandum of 7 December 2000 issued by the Director of Administration, (ref. DG/DA/00-119), 'the Organization shall not request any legitimisation document (or residence permit) or visa from the Host States for persons registered as EXTERNAL' (people w...

  15. Procedure for obtaining visas for Switzerland and France

    CERN Document Server

    2006-01-01

    Signature Rights In accordance with the Status Agreements with CERN, Switzerland and France facilitate the entry of members of the Organization's personnel on to their territories. Where relevant, detailed procedures for obtaining visas apply. Within the framework of those procedures, only the following individuals are authorised to initiate the note verbale procedure as well as to sign the Official Invitation Letters and the Protocoles d'accueil. Oliver BRÜNING Philip BRYANT Lyndon EVANS John FERGUSON David JACOBS Catherine JONES Hélène HALLER-MAUGER Michelle MAZERAND Chris ONIONS Claudio PARRINELLO The French and Swiss Authorities will reject any request signed by a person who is not on this list. We would like to remind you that in accordance with the memorandum of 7 December 2000 issued by the Director of the Administration, (ref. DG/DA/00-119), 'the Organization shall not request any legitimisation document (or residence permit) or visa from the Host States for persons registered as EXTERNAL' (p...

  16. PROCEDURE FOR OBTAINING VISAS FOR SWITZERLAND AND FRANCE

    CERN Document Server

    2007-01-01

    SIGNATURE RIGHTS In accordance with the Status Agreements with CERN, Switzerland and France facilitate the entry of members of the Organization’s personnel on to their territories. Where relevant, detailed procedures for obtaining visas apply. Within the framework of those procedures, only the following individuals are authorised to initiate the note verbale procedure as well as to sign the Official Invitation Letters and the Protocoles d’accueil. •\tOliver BRÜNING •\tVinod CHOHAN •\tLyndon EVANS •\tJohn FERGUSON •\tHélène HALLER-MAUGER •\tDavid JACOBS •\tPhilippe LEBRUN •\tCatherine NEDERMAN •\tChris ONIONS •\tClaudio PARRINELLO •\tJeanne ROSTANT The French and Swiss Authorities will reject any request signed by a person who is not on this list. We would like to remind you that in accordance with the memorandum of 7 December 2000 issued by the Director of the Administration, (ref. DG/DA/00-119), "the Organization shall not request any legitimisation d...

  17. Procedure for obtaining visas for Switzerland and France

    CERN Multimedia

    Relations with the Host States Service

    2006-01-01

    Signature rights In accordance with their Status Agreements with CERN, Switzerland and France facilitate the entry of members of the Organization's personnel onto their territories. Where relevant, detailed procedures for obtaining visas apply. Within the framework of these procedures, only the following individuals are authorised to initiate the note verbale procedure, as well as to sign the Official Invitation Letters and the Protocoles d'accueil. Oliver BRÜNING Philip BRYANT Lyndon EVANS John FERGUSON Catherine JONES Nicolas KOULBERG Hélène HALLER-MAUGER Michelle MAZERAND Chris ONIONS Claudio PARRINELLO The French and Swiss Authorities will reject any request signed by a person who is not on this list. We would like to remind you that, in accordance with the memorandum of 7 December 2000 issued by the Director of the Administration (ref. DG/DA/00-119), 'the Organization shall not request any legitimisation document (or residence permit) or visa from the Host States for persons registered as EXTERNA...

  18. Procedure for obtaining visas for Switzerland and France

    CERN Document Server

    2007-01-01

    Signature Rights In accordance with the Status Agreements with CERN, Switzerland and France facilitate the entry of members of the Organizations personnel on to their territories. Where relevant, detailed procedures for obtaining visas apply. Within the framework of those procedures, only the following individuals are authorised to initiate the note verbale procedure as well as to sign the Official Invitation Letters and the Protocoles daccueil. Oliver BRÜNING Philip BRYANT Lyndon EVANS John FERGUSON Hélène HALLER-MAUGER David JACOBS Catherine NEDERMAN Chris ONIONS Claudio PARRINELLO Jeanne ROSTANT The French and Swiss Authorities will reject any request signed by a person who is not on this list. We would like to remind you that in accordance with the memorandum of 7 December 2000 issued by the Director of the Administration, (ref. DG/DA/00-119), 'the Organization shall not request any legitimisation document (or residence permit) or visa from the Host States for persons registered as E...

  19. PROCEDURE FOR OBTAINING VISAS FOR SWITZERLAND AND FRANCE

    CERN Document Server

    2007-01-01

    SIGNATURE RIGHTS In accordance with the Status Agreements with CERN, Switzerland and France facilitate the entry of members of the Organization’s personnel on to their territories. Where relevant, detailed procedures for obtaining visas apply. Within the framework of those procedures, only the following individuals are authorised to initiate the note verbale procedure as well as to sign the Official Invitation Letters and the Protocoles d’accueil. •\tOliver BRÜNING •\tPhilip BRYANT •\tLyndon EVANS •\tJohn FERGUSON •\tHélène HALLER-MAUGER •\tDavid JACOBS •\tPhilippe LEBRUN •\tCatherine NEDERMAN •\tChris ONIONS •\tClaudio PARRINELLO •\tJeanne ROSTANT The French and Swiss Authorities will reject any request signed by a person who is not on this list. We would like to remind you that in accordance with the memorandum of 7 December 2000 issued by the Director of the Administration, (ref. DG/DA/00-119), "the Organization shall not request any legitimisation document (or residence per...

  20. Procedure for obtaining visas for Switzerland and France - Signature Rights

    CERN Multimedia

    Relations with the Host States Service

    2005-01-01

    In accordance with the Status Agreements with CERN, Switzerland and France facilitate the entry of members of the Organization's personnel on to their territories.  Where relevant, detailed procedures for obtaining visas apply. Within the framework of those procedures, only the following individuals are authorised to initiate the note verbale procedure as well as to sign the Official Invitation Letters and the Protocoles d'accueil. Olivier BRÜNING Philip BRYANT Lyndon EVANS John FERGUSON Catherine JONES Nicolas KOULBERG Hélène HALLER-MAUGER Michelle MAZERAND Chris ONIONS Monica PEPE-ALTARELLI The French and Swiss Authorities will reject any request signed by a person who is not on this list. We would like to remind you that in accordance with the memorandum of 7 December 2000 issued by the Director of the Administration, (ref. DG/DA/00-119), 'the Organization shall not request any legitimisation document (or residence permit) or visa from the Host States for perso...

  1. PROCEDURE FOR OBTAINING VISAS FOR SWITZERLAND AND FRANCE

    CERN Multimedia

    DSU Department

    2008-01-01

    SIGNATURE RIGHTS In accordance with the Status Agreements with CERN, Switzerland and France facilitate the entry of members of the Organization’s personnel onto their territories. Where relevant, detailed procedures for obtaining visas apply. Within the framework of those procedures, only the following individuals are authorised to initiate the "note verbale" procedure as well as to sign the Official Invitation Letters and the "Protocoles d’accueil": •\tOliver BRÜNING •\tInger CARRIERO •\tLyndon EVANS •\tHélène HALLER-MAUGER •\tDavid JACOBS •\tPhilippe LEBRUN •\tJean-Pol MATHEYS •\tCatherine NEDERMAN •\tChris ONIONS •\tJeanne ROSTANT The French and Swiss Authorities will reject any request signed by a person who is not on this list. We would like to remind you that in accordance with the memorandum of 7 December 2000 issued by the Director of the Administration (ref. DG/DA/00-119), "the Organization shall not request any legitimisation document (or resid...

  2. Obtaining patient feedback at point of service using electronic kiosks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dirocco, Danae N; Day, Susan C

    2011-07-01

    Engaging patients in their healthcare is a goal of healthcare reform. Obtaining sufficient, reliable patient feedback about their experiences in an office encounter has been a challenge. To determine the feasibility of collecting feedback from patients regarding their office encounter at the point of care using touch screen kiosk technology in an urban primary care clinic. We analyzed response rate, ease of use, provider data, and condition-specific data. The study was conducted over a 45-day period at 1 internal medicine academic teaching practice. Providers, staff, and a sponsor-supported monitor directed patients to use the kiosk after an office visit. A total of 1923 surveys were completed from 3850 office visits (50%). There was no appreciable impact on office flow in terms of wait time, checkout procedures, or visit with provider. Characteristics of patients completing the surveys were similar to practice demographics of patients with an office visit during the study period in terms of sex, but differed by age and race. Small but statistically significant differences were seen among patient ratings of resident versus attending physicians. Patients with depression were less likely than patients with diabetes, chronic low back pain, or asthma to report that they had set personal goals to manage their condition. This technology represents an important advance in our ability to capture the patient's opinion regarding quality and practice improvement initiatives, and has the potential for directly engaging patients in their care.

  3. Obtaining of Grafted Planting Material at Some Romanian Tomatoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madalina Doltu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The tomatoes have highest share in Romanian crops from protected spaces (greenhouses, solariums. The grafting is an agronomical technique that induces or improves some qualities of the tomato cultivars (resistance to soil diseases and pests, resistance to abiotic factors, quantity and quality of fruit production. The research was aimed the establishing of the technological stages for producing of scion and rootstock seedlings from L. esculentum species, to obtain compatible phenotype when is grafted. The observations of this research were conducted on Department of Horticultural Cultures in Protected Spaces from Horting Institute Bucharest. The experience was carry out on a cultivar collection consisting from L. esculentum plants: scions (‘Siriana’–F1 hybrid and ‘Buzău 1600’– variety, creations from the germplasm bank of Research and Development Station for Vegetable Growing Buzău Romania (VDRS Buzău and rootstock (‘Groundforce’–F1 hybrid. The plant diameters were correlated for a grafting by the annexation method, cutting at 45 degrees. The grafting was performed successfully. The technological steps have achieved phenotypic compatibility of the symbiotes when was the grafting by annexation. The technology for producing of scion and rootstock seedlings at these Romanian tomatoes (‘Siriana’ and ‘Buzău’ 1600 was established for the crops in protected spaces in south area of Romania.

  4. A Statistical Approach for Obtaining the Controlled Woven Fabric Width

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaker Khubab

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A common problem faced in fabric manufacturing is the production of inconsistent fabric width on shuttleless looms in spite of the same fabric specifications. Weft-wise crimp controls the fabric width and it depends on a number of factors, including warp tension, temple type, fabric take-up pressing tension and loom working width. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of these parameters on the fabric width produced. Taguchi’s orthogonal design was used to optimise the weaving parameters for obtaining controlled fabric width. On the basis of signal to noise ratios, it could be concluded that controlled fabric width could be produced using medium temple type and intense take-up pressing tension at relatively lower warp tension and smaller loom working width. The analysis of variance revealed that temple needle size was the most significant factor affecting the fabric width, followed by loom working width and warp tension, whereas take-up pressing tension was least significant of all the factors investigated in the study.

  5. Highly bactericidal Ag nanoparticle films obtained by cluster beam deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavaliere, Emanuele; De Cesari, Sebastiano; Landini, Giulia; Riccobono, Eleonora; Pallecchi, Lucia; Rossolini, Gian Maria; Gavioli, Luca

    2015-08-01

    The recent emergence of bacterial pathogens resistant to most or all available antibiotics is among the major global public health problems. As indirect transmission through contaminated surfaces is a main route of dissemination for most of such pathogens, the implementation of effective antimicrobial surfaces has been advocated as a promising approach for their containment, especially in the hospital settings. However, traditional wet synthesis methods of nanoparticle-based antimicrobial materials leave a number of key points open for metal surfaces: such as adhesion to the surface and nanoparticle coalescence. Here we demonstrate an alternative route, i.e. supersonic cluster beam deposition, to obtain antimicrobial Ag nanoparticle films deposited directly on surfaces. The synthesized films are simple to produce with controlled density and thickness, are stable over time, and are shown to be highly bactericidal against major Gram positive and Gram negative bacterial pathogens, including extensively drug-resistant strains. The use of silver nanoparticle in health care is getting more widespread. The authors here describe the technique of cluster beam deposition for spraying silver on surfaces used in health care sectors. This may open a new avenue for future anti-bacterial coatings. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Piecewise Model and Parameter Obtainment of Governor Actuator in Turbine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Zhao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The governor actuators in some heat-engine plants have nonlinear valves. This nonlinearity of valves may lead to the inaccuracy of the opening and closing time constants calculated based on the whole segment fully open and fully close experimental test curves of the valve. An improved mathematical model of the turbine governor actuator is proposed to reflect the nonlinearity of the valve, in which the main and auxiliary piecewise opening and closing time constants instead of the fixed oil motive opening and closing time constants are adopted to describe the characteristics of the actuator. The main opening and closing time constants are obtained from the linear segments of the whole fully open and close curves. The parameters of proportional integral derivative (PID controller are identified based on the small disturbance experimental tests of the valve. Then the auxiliary opening and closing time constants and the piecewise opening and closing valve points are determined by the fully open/close experimental tests. Several testing functions are selected to compare genetic algorithm and particle swarm optimization algorithm (GA-PSO with other basic intelligence algorithms. The effectiveness of the piecewise linear model and its parameters are validated by practical power plant case studies.

  7. New space value of the solar oblateness obtained with PICARD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Irbah, Abdanour; Meftah, Mustapha; Hauchecorne, Alain; Bocquier, Maxime; Cisse, E. Momar [Laboratoire Atmosphères, Milieux, Observations Spatiales (LATMOS), CNRS: UMR 8190-Université Paris VI-Pierre et Marie Curie-Université de Versailles Saint-Quentin-en-Yvelines-INSU, F-78280, Guyancourt (France); Djafer, Djelloul [Unité de Recherche Appliquée en Energies Renouvelables, URAER, Centre de Développement des Energies Renouvelables, CDER, 47133, Ghardaïa (Algeria); Corbard, Thierry, E-mail: Abdenour.Irbah@latmos.ipsl.fr [Laboratoire Lagrange, UMR7293, Université de Nice Sophia-Antipolis, CNRS, Observatoire de la Côte d' Azur, Bd. de l' Observatoire, F-06304 Nice (France)

    2014-04-20

    The PICARD spacecraft was launched on 2010 June 15 with the scientific objective of studying the geometry of the Sun. It is difficult to measure solar oblateness because images are affected by optical distortion. Rolling the satellite, as done in previous space missions, determines the contribution of the telescope by assuming that the geometry of the Sun is constant during the observations. The optical response of the telescope is considered to be time-invariant during the roll operations. This is not the case for PICARD because an orbital signature is clearly observed in the solar radius computed from its images. We take this effect into account and provide the new space value of solar oblateness from PICARD images recorded in the solar continuum at 535.7 nm on 2011 July 4-5. The equator-pole radius difference is 8.4 ± 0.5 mas, which corresponds to an absolute radius difference of 6.1 km. This coincides with the mean value of all solar oblateness measurements obtained during the last two decades from the ground, balloons, and space. It is also consistent with values determined from models using helioseismology data.

  8. Metal Ir coatings on endocardial electrode tips, obtained by MOCVD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vikulova, Evgeniia S.; Kal'nyi, Danila B.; Shubin, Yury V.; Kokovkin, Vasily V.; Morozova, Natalya B.; Hassan, Aseel; Basova, Tamara V.

    2017-12-01

    The present work demonstrates the application of the Metal-Organic Chemical Vapor Deposition technique to fabricate metal iridium coatings onto the pole tips of endocardial electrodes. Using iridium (III) acetylacetonate as a volatile precursor, the target coatings were successfully applied to the working surface of cathodes and anodes of pacemaker electrodes in the flow type reactor in hydrogen atmosphere at deposition temperature of 550 °C. The coating samples were characterized by means of XRD, SEM, Raman- and XPS-spectroscopies. The formation of non-textured coatings with fractal-like morphology and 7-24 nm crystallite size has been realized. The electrochemical properties of the coatings were investigated by cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The charge storage capacity values of the electrochemically activated samples were 17.0-115 mC cm-2 and 14.4-76.5 mC cm-2 for measurements carried out in 0.1 M sulfuric acid and in phosphate buffer saline solutions, respectively. A comparison of some characteristics of the samples obtained with commercially available cathode of pacemaker electrodes is also presented.

  9. Spectroscopy Study of Synthetic Forsterite Obtained from Zeolite Precursors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subotić, B.

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Important ceramics materials are prepared from aluminosilicate based precursors using novel methods, offering at the same time a better control over many important properties. Forsterite, due to its good refractoriness with melting point at 2163 K, excellent electrical insulation properties even at high temperatures, low dielectric permittivity, thermal expansion and chemical stability, is a material of interest to engineers and designers especially as an active medium for tuneable laser and is also a material of interest to SOFC (Solid oxide fuel cells manufacturers. The aim of this study is to investigate the synthesis of crystalline forsterite using different zeolite precursors previously activated by ball milling. Synthetic forsterite was synthesized from different zeolite precursors and MgO combining highenergy ball milling and thermal treatment of the mixture under determined conditions of time and temperature for each operation. In this research are studied the solid-state phase transformations taking place at temperatures below 1273 K. The obtained products were characterized using different spectroscopy techniques in comparison with surface analysis method and X-ray diffraction.

  10. The role of testing realism on experimentally obtained stereotype strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Errol R; Whitfield, Richard C

    2011-01-01

    It has been shown (Hoffmann 2009) that pencil-and-paper tests, when used to determine stereotype strength, may yield data quite different to that obtained from hardware tests. The purpose of this research was to determine the level of realism required in order to have stereotypes that are consistent with real-world values. It is surprising that there does not appear to be any published research addressing this problem; all previous researches have considered either paper/pencil or hardware tests or sometimes both, but no level of simulation in between these techniques. In order to determine the effect of level of testing realism, a specific example was chosen to test, that of water tap operation stereotypes. Tests used verbal questioning, photographs of tap arrangements, a partial hardware arrangement and finally a full hardware setup. The results of these four levels of realism were very different and illustrated that, only with a full realistic simulation, did participants respond as might be expected in a real-world environment, illustrating the importance of testing realism when determining population stereotypes. This result has strong implications for product designers when selecting appropriate layouts of displays and controls and the linkages relating these. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  11. Obtaining Martensitic Structures during Thixoforming of Hypoeutectic Gray Cast Iron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Bertolino Ragazzo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The control of parameters such as liquid fraction, holding time, and cooling rate during thixoforming can help control the final microstructure of the thixoformed part, thus improving its mechanical properties. This study intended to investigate conditions required to obtain martensite in hypoeutectic gray cast iron at 3.1% CE (carbon equivalent deformed in the semisolid state. Samples heated up to 1130, 1135, and 1145°C (liquid fractions of 10, 30, and 45% were compressed into platens without any holding time (0 s. If a sample presented a martensitic structure for 0 s holding time, new samples were retested at the same temperature for 30, 60, and 90 s holding times. The die casting process was simulated by allowing the platens to become locked after hot compression. Samples that cooled in the locked platens were submitted to higher cooling rates than samples that cooled with the platens open and presented martensite instead of the conventional ferrite and pearlite. Thus, the factor that had the greatest influence on the formation of martensite was the cooling rate rather than stress. The thixoforming process presented good morphological stability, which is highly desirable for industrial applications.

  12. Accuracy of stone casts obtained by different impression materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Cláudia Lapria Faria

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Several impression materials are available in the Brazilian marketplace to be used in oral rehabilitation. The aim of this study was to compare the accuracy of different impression materials used for fixed partial dentures following the manufacturers' instructions. A master model representing a partially edentulous mandibular right hemi-arch segment whose teeth were prepared to receive full crowns was used. Custom trays were prepared with auto-polymerizing acrylic resin and impressions were performed with a dental surveyor, standardizing the path of insertion and removal of the tray. Alginate and elastomeric materials were used and stone casts were obtained after the impressions. For the silicones, impression techniques were also compared. To determine the impression materials' accuracy, digital photographs of the master model and of the stone casts were taken and the discrepancies between them were measured. The data were subjected to analysis of variance and Duncan's complementary test. Polyether and addition silicone following the single-phase technique were statistically different from alginate, condensation silicone and addition silicone following the double-mix technique (p .05 to alginate and addition silicone following the double-mix technique, but different from polysulfide. The results led to the conclusion that different impression materials and techniques influenced the stone casts' accuracy in a way that polyether, polysulfide and addition silicone following the single-phase technique were more accurate than the other materials.

  13. Performance of dihaploid wheat lines obtained via anther culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salomon Marcus Vinicius

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The anther culture technique has been used in breeding programs to obtain haploid plants from hybrid plants of F1 generation and to develop more efficiently wheat cultivars. To study the behavior of dihaploid wheat lines and two check cultivars, IAC-24 and IAC-289, experiments were carried out under sprinkler irrigation at Monte Alegre do Sul, SP, Brazil, in an Haplic Acrisol and at Tatuí, SP, Brazil, in a Rhodic Ferrasol, during the years 1999 and 2000. Genotypes were evaluated for grain yield, 100 grain weight, plant height, resistance to leaf rust (Puccinia recondita f. sp. tritici Rob. Desm. and lodging. The genotypes were also evaluated under laboratory conditions for their Al+3 toxicity tolerance using nutrient solutions. The line 8, originated from ANA/IAC-24 cross, presented high grain yield, semidwarf plant type, heavy grain, leaf rust resistance and tolerance to Al+3 toxicity. The lines 4, 11, 12 and 14, also presented high tolerance to Al+3 toxicity in association to grain yield above 3.000 kg ha-1. These lines are suitable to be used in breeding programs to develop cultivars for acid soils.

  14. Obtaining Remote-Sensing Reflectance from Multiple Instrument Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Scott A.; Proctor, Christopher W.; Werdell, P. Jeremy

    2014-01-01

    Obtaining accurate in situ measurements of Apparent Optical Properties (AOPs) is critical to maintaining satellite data quality. One approach to ensure accuracy is to deploy several independent instruments to measure the same phenomenon. During a cruise in June 2012, off the lee coast of the island of Hawaii, repeated profiles were made with two separate radiometric systems, one from Satlantic, Inc. (Hyperpro) and the other from Biospherical Instruments, Inc. (C-Ops). The C-Ops is multispectral, while the Hyperpro is hyperspectral. Both measure above-water solar irradiance (E(sub s)), downwelling in-water irradiance (E(sub d)), and upwelling in-water radiance (L(sub u)). From these measurements remotely-sensed reflectance (R(sub rs))can be calculated and compared with satellite data. All instruments were calibrated shortly before use, and while differences are to be expected due to temporal changes and spectral weighting differences, these should be consistent and minimal. We explore these differences, and compare to data retrieved from the NASA Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer onboard Aqua (MODIS Aqua) when available. We also examine data collection and processing protocols for these systems.

  15. Adjustable and automated system to obtain 2-D photometric patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tecpoyotl-Torres, M.; Vera-Dimas, J. G.; Martínez-Fabián, S. E.; Mendoza-Zúñiga, J. L.; Escobedo-Alatorre, J.; Ibarra-Manzano, O. G.; Grimalsky, V. V.

    2013-09-01

    A complete adjustable and automated system has been developed on the base of three blocks: the first one is the mechanical and adjustable structure, which is composed by a mobile base and a rectangular arc, where the photodetector is located. The structure describes semi-spherical trajectories by means of two servomotors. Its lightweight and robustness constitutes two advantages which make it portable. The second stage corresponds to the automation of the structure movements. For controlling the motors and data acquisition, a microcontroller is employed that in turns helps keeping the cost of the overall system low. One of the servomotors is located on the lateral axis of the device; that displaces the sensor along a semi-circular trajectory of 160°, almost half meridians; the other one is located at the base of the illumination source, which enables it to realize an almost complete rotation around its axis. Finally, the last stage is formed by the graphical interface. The communication protocol between the data acquisition stage and the computer is USART. The graphical user interface (GUI) is developed using Visual C#. In the same window the data acquisition deployment and the data graph generator are given; the graphs can be shown in a polar or Cartesian formats showing more than one curve, if necessary, avoiding the use of additional software. The GUI keeps the low cost of the device, obtaining a comprehensive solution to generate the irradiance patterns of light sources.

  16. Obtaining reimbursement in France and Italy for new diabetes products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, Elmar; Schnell, Gerald; Sonsalla, Jessica

    2015-01-01

    Manufacturers launching next-generation or innovative medical devices in Europe face a very heterogeneous reimbursement landscape, with each country having its own pathways, timing, requirements and success factors. We selected 2 markets for a deeper look into the reimbursement landscape: France, representing a country with central decision making with defined processes, and Italy, which delegates reimbursement decisions to the regional level, resulting in a less transparent approach to reimbursement. Based on our experience in working on various new product launches and analyzing recent reimbursement decisions, we found that payers in both countries do not reward improved next-generation products with incremental reimbursement. Looking at innovations, we observe that manufacturers face a challenging and lengthy process to obtain reimbursement. In addition, requirements and key success factors differ by country: In France, comparative clinical evidence and budget impact very much drive reimbursement decisions in terms of pricing and restrictions, whereas in Italy, regional key opinion leader (KOL) support and additional local observational data are key. © 2015 Diabetes Technology Society.

  17. Obtaining meteorological data from historical newspapers: La Integridad

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez-González, Ignacio A.; Añel, Juan A.; Saenz, Guadalupe; Gimeno, Luis; de la Torre, Laura; Polychroniadou, Eleni; Vidal-Mina, Renán

    2017-04-01

    The meteorological data recovery from old documentary sources is of huge significance for meteorological and weather research of our planet. In this work we present the meteorological series from the end of XIX century and the beginning of the XX at the A Guarda's Observatory, pioneer in Galicia in this kind of measurements and located in that time at "Colexio Xesuita Apóstol Santiago". The data series was obtained from meteorological notes of the catholic newspaper "La Integridad" published in that dates in Tui(Galicia). It was revised in total for this study more than 1000 newspapers from this publication and it was manually retrieved about 60000 individual measurements. Recovered variables include temperature, pressure, wind, relative humidity, vapor pressure, evaporation, precipitation and overview weather observations. This enables us to get a general picture of weather for this period of time in the studied region, to validate and to complete others independent data sources and study climate change. Also we prove the reliability of meteorological forecasts published from time to time in the same journal using sea level pressure fields from historical datasets provided by the MetOffice.

  18. Pills easier to obtain as nations start to relax rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    In both developing and developed nations it has become easier to obtain oral contraception (OC). Generally, this means that the OC becomes available without a doctor's prescription and/or sources from outside a pharmacy. Sometimes there is no charge for the OC. In the People's Republic of China barefoot doctors distribute OC free of charge. Fiji, Israel, Korea and Pakistan have removed the prescription requirement. In India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Sri Lanka, and Turkey private family planning clinics distribute the OC on prescription but free of charge. Specially trained and registered midwives distribute OCs in Chile and Antigua has also recently lifted the prescription requirement. Free OC is available to low income women in Jamaica, Costa Rica and Peru. In Egypt family planning centers distribute the OC free and without prescription. The United Kingdom is making OCs available free-of-charge through the National Health Service. OCs are free in France. In the U.S. government agencies have provided free OCs to low-income women in government health centers and have subsidized free pills for distribution in private family planning clinics. In Canada and in the Democratic Republic of Germany, OCs are distributed free, on prescription, to low-income women.

  19. More Human than Human.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, David

    2017-07-01

    Within the literature surrounding nonhuman animals on the one hand and cognitively disabled humans on the other, there is much discussion of where beings that do not satisfy the criteria for personhood fit in our moral deliberations. In the future, we may face a different but related problem: that we might create (or cause the creation of) beings that not only satisfy but exceed these criteria. The question becomes whether these are minimal criteria, or hierarchical, such that those who fulfill them to greater degree should be afforded greater consideration. This article questions the validity and necessity of drawing divisions among beings that satisfy the minimum requirements for personhood; considering how future beings-intelligent androids, synthezoids, even alternate-substrate sentiences-might fit alongside the "baseline" human. I ask whether these alternate beings ought to be considered different to us, and why this may or may not matter in terms of a notion of "human community." The film Blade Runner, concerned in large part with humanity and its key synthezoid antagonist Roy Batty, forms a framing touchstone for my discussion. Batty is stronger, faster, more resilient, and more intelligent than Homo sapiens. His exploits, far beyond the capability of normal humans, are contrasted with his frailty and transient lifespan, his aesthetic appreciation of the sights he has seen, and his burgeoning empathy. Not for nothing does his creator within the mythos term him "more human than human."

  20. The determination of phenazone in blood plasma for obtained sistem suitable test of monitoring drug level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mochamad Lazuardi

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The determining of Phenazone to human blood plasma from healthy man after separated by solid phase extraction (SPE and spectroscopic measurements has been investigated. The objective of that research was to obtain system suitable test for determine the Phenazone level in biological fluids (human blood plasma, for new performed dosage regimented in clinical dentistry. The method can be divided into the following four steps. 1. Centrifugation the blood sample, 2. Extraction from blood plasma and, 3. Separation by SPE with manual pressured, 4. Elution to SPE followed by the measurement on a spectrophotometer in the ultra violet region. The critical value of  │t │at the 5% confidence level indicates that there is no systematic error in the linearity proposed method. Recoveries for this research were obtained at ranging 93.460 to 95.598%. The coefficient variation precision of this procedure was clearly good at smallest than 2%. The analytical procedure can be carried out in one working operation as a monitored therapeutic activity.

  1. Antiproliferative activity of VLC fractions obtained from Asparagopsis armata associated bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Fonseca Francisco

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Many studies are showing the presence of bioactive compounds in marine organisms, such as algae and algae associated bacteria. Cancer is one of the major causes of death in the world, consequently research for new antitumor compounds is continuous and have high importance for the human health. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antitumor activity of Shewanella sp. associated bacteria from Asparagopsis armata. Crude extract of associated bacteria was obtained with methanol and dichloromethane (1:1 extraction. Then the crude extract was fractioned by vacuum liquid chromatography (VLC using cyclohexane with increasing amounts of 25% of ethyl acetate, in order to isolate different compounds obtained five fractions (F1-F5. The cell viability and the cell proliferation studies were performed on human breast adenocarcinoma cell line (MCF-7 cells according to MTT method. In cytotoxicity assay (1mg/ml; 24 hours, the highest reduction of MCF-7 viability was induced by F2 and F3 fractions (53.6% and 48.6% respectively. On the other hand in cell proliferation assay (1mg/ml; 24 hours, all fractions showed anti-proliferative activity (1mg/mL, however the highest inhibition of MCF-7 proliferation was exhibited by F3 and F5 fractions, 15% and 17,7%, respectively. These results suggest that the Shewanella sp. associated bacteria from Asparagopsis armata can be an interesting source of new antitumor drugs.

  2. Major components in oils obtained from Amazonian palm fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santos, M. F. G.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Native palm trees belong to the Arecaceae family and are among the most useful plant resources in the Amazons. Despite its great diversity and various uses, few species have been study in detail, which makes it necessary to perform more comprehensive studies on the quality and composition of species not yet explored. This study deals with the characterization of the major compounds in the oils obtained from the mesocarp of fruits of the main palm species from the State of Amapá, Brasil, i.e. bacaba (Oenocarpus bacaba, buriti (Mauritia flexuosa, inajá (Maximiliana maripa, pupunha (Bactris gasipaes and tucumã (Astrocaryum vulgare. Physicochemical characteristics, fatty acids and triacylglycerol (TAG contents were analyzed by HPLC and GC. The proximate composition of the fruits was also analyzed. The results relating to acidity, peroxide value and polar compounds indicate good quality of the oils obtained. Oleic acid ranging from 39.2 to 71.6% and palmitic acid ranging from 20.8 to 39.6% were the two major fatty acids in all the samples. The oils from inajá were characterized by the presence of significant amounts of lauric (4.6% and miristic (10.7% acids while in bacaba, buriti, pupunha and tucumã, as in most edible vegetable oils, only the fatty acids of 16 and 18 carbon atoms were present. Accordingly, the major TAG species in all the samples were POP, POO and OOO. The mesocarp of the palm fruit had a high content in lipids ranging from 17.0% for pupunha to 38.3% for bacaba, expressed as dry basis.Las palmeras nativas de la familia Arecaceae constituyen recursos alimentarios de gran importancia en la región amazónica. A pesar de su diversidad y utilidad, muchas especies son poco conocidas por lo que son de interés los estudios dirigidos a conocer la calidad y composición de las especies menos exploradas para evaluar su potencial económico. El objetivo de este estudio fue la caracterización de los aceites obtenidos del mesocarpio

  3. A new electrode placement method for obtaining 12-lead ECGs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Gabriel M

    2015-01-01

    Worldwide, more than 50 million ECGs are carried out annually. Studies show that the standard wrist-ankle placement method may produce poor quality ECGs. Factors including limb movement, tremor, anxiety, cold extremities cause artefacts (distortions of the baseline and ECG waveforms). A problem exists. Physicians face a challenge interpreting poor quality ECGs. Diagnostic delays occur. Patients are subjected to recalls; compassion initiated this study. Torso (modified) leads are favoured as they provide rapid acquisition of better quality ECGs, but cause erroneous electrocardiography. Investigators have not attempted to correct these errors. This study analyses the errors and aims to rectify them. Our pilot and other studies indicated that torso electrodes placed close to the heart cause an increase in R wave amplitude >3 mm in inferior leads that results in disappearance of inferior infarcts; a decrease >3 mm in 1 and aVL may cause false lateral infarcts. We hypothesised that finding electrode placements that do not cause alterations in R wave amplitude should correct these problems. Several electrode placements were assessed to obtain ECGs identical with the standard, but with better quality. A total of 1112 patients received standard and new electrode placement recordings. ECG parameters were assessed. A blinded interpreter assisted. Electrodes positioned on the mid-arm and lower abdomen revealed ECGs identical with the standard without artefacts or loss of inferior or appearance of lateral infarcts. This study proved that the new method is faultless and provides better quality ECGs, no recalls and without risk for misinterpretations. Not having to remove leg garments is convenient and allows more rapid acquisition of ECGs. The forearms are freed for, intravenous, radial access, and ECGs needed during procedures. The findings have implications worldwide for patients, clinicians and technicians, and generate the need to study the method in emergency settings.

  4. First results obtained by the Cluster STAFF experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Cornilleau-Wehrlin

    Full Text Available The Spatio Temporal Analysis of Field Fluctuations (STAFF experiment is one of the five experiments, which constitute the Cluster Wave Experiment Consortium (WEC. STAFF consists of a three-axis search coil magnetometer to measure magnetic fluctuations at frequencies up to 4 kHz, a waveform unit (up to either 10 Hz or 180 Hz and a Spectrum Analyser (up to 4 kHz. The Spectrum Analyser combines the 3 magnetic components of the waves with the two electric components measured by the Electric Fields and Waves experiment (EFW to calculate in real time the 5 × 5 Hermitian cross-spectral matrix at 27 frequencies distributed logarithmically in the frequency range 8 Hz to 4 kHz. The time resolution varies between 0.125 s and 4 s. The first results show the capabilities of the experiment, with examples in different regions of the magnetosphere-solar wind system that were encountered by Cluster at the beginning of its operational phase. First results obtained by the use of some of the tools that have been prepared specifically for the Cluster mission are described. The characterisation of the motion of the bow shock between successive crossings, using the reciprocal vector method, is given. The full characterisation of the waves analysed by the Spectrum Analyser, thanks to a dedicated program called PRASSADCO, is applied to some events; in particular a case of very confined electromagnetic waves in the vicinity of the equatorial region is presented and discussed.

    Key words. Magnetospheric physics (magnetopause, cusp and boundary layer – Space plasma physics (waves and instabilities; shock waves

  5. Magnetic biocatalysts and their uses to obtain biodiesel and biosurfactants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Carmen; Cruz-Izquierdo, Alvaro; Picó, Enrique A; García-Bárcena, Teresa; Villarroel, Noelia; Llama, María J; Serra, Juan L

    2014-01-01

    Nanobiocatalysis, as the synergistic combination of nanotechnology and biocatalysis, is rapidly emerging as a new frontier of biotechnology. The use of immobilized enzymes in industrial applications often presents advantages over their soluble counterparts, mainly in view of stability, reusability and simpler operational processing. Because of their singular properties, such as biocompatibility, large and modifiable surface and easy recovery, iron oxide magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) are attractive super-paramagnetic materials that serve as a support for enzyme immobilization and facilitate separations by applying an external magnetic field. Cross-linked enzyme aggregates (CLEAs) have several benefits in the context of industrial applications since they can be cheaply and easily prepared from unpurified enzyme extracts and show improved storage and operational stability against denaturation by heat and organic solvents. In this work, by using the aforementioned advantages of MNPs of magnetite and CLEAs, we prepared two robust magnetically-separable types of nanobiocatalysts by binding either soluble enzyme onto the surface of MNPs functionalized with amino groups or by cross-linking aggregates of enzyme among them and to MNPs to obtain magnetic CLEAs. For this purpose the lipase B of Candida antarctica (CALB) was used. The hydrolytic and biosynthetic activities of the resulting magnetic nanobiocatalysts were assessed in aqueous and organic media. Thus, the hydrolysis of triglycerides and the transesterification reactions to synthesize biodiesel and biosurfactants were studied using magnetic CLEAs of CALB. The efficiency and easy performance of this magnetic biocatalysis validates this proof of concept and sets the basis for the application of magnetic CLEAs at industrial scale.

  6. Obtained mydriasis in long-term type 2 diabetic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Hsiao-Lei; Yang, Ko-Jen; Sun, Chi-Chin; Chen, Chih-Hung; Huang, Bi-Yu; Ng, Soh Ching; Yeung, Ling

    2011-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate obtained mydriasis and prevalence of small pupil in long-term type 2 diabetic patients. A prospective observational cross-sectional study was carried out. We included 107 eyes from 107 patients (mean age: 60.8) with long-term (≥10 years) type 2 diabetes mellitus. Patients were divided into 2 groups: no apparent diabetic retinopathy (group 1, n=33) and diabetic retinopathy (group 2, n=74). Exclusion criteria were eyes with prior intraocular surgeries, presence of other ocular disorders that may affect iris, or any other condition that precludes the precise measurement of pupil size. Sixty eyes in 60 age-matched nondiabetic patients (mean age: 61.0) scheduled for routine fundoscopy exam were enrolled as control. We measured pupil diameter by pupil gauges at 40 min after instillation of eye drops (phenylephrine 10% and tropicamide 1%). Small pupil was defined as pupil diameter of 6 mm or less. Mean pupil diameter was 8.07 mm [standard deviation (SD): 0.59 mm] in the control group, 7.46 mm (SD: 0.71 mm) in group 1, and 7.24 mm (SD: 0.83 mm) in group 2. Both group 1 (Ppupil were 1.9% in the control group, 6.1% in group 1, and 13.5% in group 2. When compared with control, group 2 showed significantly higher incidence of small pupil (P=0.023). Long-term diabetic patients showed poorer response to pharmacological mydriasis than nondiabetic patients. Higher prevalence of small pupil size was found in patients with diabetic retinopathy.

  7. Microbiological quality of goat's milk obtained under different production systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.K. Kyozaire

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to determine the safety of milk produced by smallholder dairy goat farms, a farm-based research study was conducted on commercial dairy goat farms to compare the microbiological quality of milk produced using 3 different types of dairy goat production systems (intensive, semi-intensive and extensive. A survey of dairy goat farms in and around Pretoria carried out by means of a questionnaire revealed that most of the smallholder dairy goat farms surveyed used an extensive type of production system. The method of milking varied with the type of production system, i.e. machine milking; bucket system machine milking and hand-milking, respectively. Udder half milk samples (n=270 were analysed, of which 31.1 % were infected with bacteria. The lowest intra-mammary infection was found amongst goats in the herd under the extensive system (13.3 %, compared with 43.3 % and 36.7 % infection rates under the intensive and semi-intensive production systems, respectively. Staphylococcus intermedius (coagulase positive, Staphylococcus epidermidis and Staphylococcus simulans (both coagulase negative, were the most common cause of intramammary infection with a prevalence of 85.7 % of the infected udder halves. The remaining 14.3 % of the infection was due to Staphylococcus aureus. Bacteriology of bulk milk samples on the other hand, showed that raw milk obtained by the bucket system milking machine had the lowest total bacterial count (16 450 colony forming units (CFU/mℓ compared to that by pipeline milking machine (36 300 CFU/mℓ or handmilking (48 000 CFU/mℓ. No significant relationship was found between the somatic cell counts (SCC and presence of bacterial infection in goat milk. In comparison with the herds under the other 2 production systems, it was shown that dairy goat farming under the extensive production system, where hand-milking was used, can be adequate for the production of safe raw goat milk.

  8. Obtaining of the antioxidants by supercritical fluid extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babović Nada V.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the important trends in the food industry today is demand for natural antioxidants from plant material. Synthetic antioxidants such as butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT, and butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA are now being replaced by the natural antioxidants because of theirs possible toxicity and as they may act as promoters of carcinogens. The natural antioxidants may show equivalent or higher antioxidant activity than the endogenous or the synthetic antioxidants. Thus, great effort is being devoted to the search for alternative and cheap sources of natural antioxidants, as well as to the development of efficient and selective extraction techniques. The supercritical fluid extraction (SFE with carbon dioxide is considered to be the most suitable method for producing natural antioxidants for the use in food industry. The supercritical extract does not contain residual organic solvents as in conventional extraction processes, which makes these products suitable for use in food, cosmetic and pharmaceutical industry. The recovery of antioxidants from plant sources involves many problematic aspects: choice of an adequate source (in terms of availability, cost, difference in phenolic content with variety and season; selection of the optimal recovery procedure (in terms of yield, simplicity, industrial application, cost; chemical analysis of extracts (for optimization purposes a fast colorimetric method is more preferable than a chromatographic one; evaluation of the antioxidant power (preferably by the different assay methods. The paper presents information about different operational methods for SFE of bioactive compounds from natural sources. It also includes the various reports on the antioxidant activity of the supercritical extracts from Lamiaceae herbs, in comparison with the activity of the synthetic antioxidants and the extracts from Lamiaceae herbs obtained by the conventional methods.

  9. Draft Genome Sequence of Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli Strain E24377A, Obtained from a Tribal Drinking Water Source in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamhankar, Ashok J; Nerkar, Sandeep S; Khadake, Prashant P; Akolkar, Dadasaheb B; Apurwa, Sachin R; Deshpande, Uday; Khedkar, Smita U; Stålsby-Lundborg, Cecilia

    2015-04-02

    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is a major cause of diarrheal disease in humans and animals. Its dissemination can occur through water sources contaminated by it. Here, we report for the first time the draft genome sequence of ETEC strain E24377A, obtained from a tribal drinking water source in India. Copyright © 2015 Tamhankar et al.

  10. Draft Genome Sequence of Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli Strain E24377A, Obtained from a Tribal Drinking Water Source in India

    OpenAIRE

    Tamhankar, Ashok J.; Nerkar, Sandeep S.; Khadake, Prashant P.; Akolkar, Dadasaheb B.; Apurwa, Sachin R.; Deshpande, Uday; Khedkar, Smita U.; St?lsby-Lundborg, Cecilia

    2015-01-01

    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is a major cause of diarrheal disease in humans and animals. Its dissemination can occur through water sources contaminated by it. Here, we report for the first time the draft genome sequence of ETEC strain E24377A, obtained from a tribal drinking water source in India.

  11. Human capital and career success

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Anders; Kato, Takao

    formal schooling and subsequent human capital obtained informally on the job are found to be complements in the production of career success. Fourth, though there is a large body of the literature on the relationship between firm-specific human capital and wages, the relative value of firm-specific human...

  12. Synthesis and Thermal Characterization of Hydroxyapatite Powders Obtained by Sol-Gel Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Flores, Y.; Camacho, N.; Rojas-Trigos, J. B.; Suárez, M.

    The development of bioactive materials presents an interesting and an extremely relevant problem to solve, in the development of customized cranial and maxillofacial prosthesis, bioactive coating, and cements, for example. In such areas, one of the more employed materials is the synthetic hydroxyapatite, due to its proved biocompatibility with the human body; however, there are few studies about the thermal affinity with the biological surroundings, and most of them are centered in the thermal stability of the hydroxyapatite instead of its transient thermal response. In the present paper, the synthesis and physical-chemical characterization of hydroxyapatite samples, obtained by the sol-gel technique employing ultrasonic mixing, are reported. Employing X-ray diffraction patterns, XEDS and FTIR spectra, the crystal symmetry, chemical elements, and the present functional groups of the studied samples were determined and found to correspond to those reported in the literature, with a stoichiometry close to the ideal for biological applications. Additionally, by means of the photoacoustic detection and infrared photothermal radiometry (IPTR) techniques, the thermal response of the samples was obtained. Analyzing the photoacoustic data, the synthetized samples show photoacoustic opaqueness, responding in the thermally thick regime in the measurement range, and their thermal effusivity was also determined, having values of 1.47 folds the thermal effusivity of the mandibular human bone. Finally, from the IPTR measurements, the thermal diffusivity and thermal conductivity of the samples were also determined, having good agreement with the reported values for synthetic hydroxyapatite. The structural and thermophysical properties of the here reported samples show that the synthesized samples have good thermal affinity with the mandibular human bone tissue, and are suitable for biomedical applications.

  13. Reliability of fish size estimates obtained from multibeam imaging sonar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hightower, Joseph E.; Magowan, Kevin J.; Brown, Lori M.; Fox, Dewayne A.

    2013-01-01

    Multibeam imaging sonars have considerable potential for use in fisheries surveys because the video-like images are easy to interpret, and they contain information about fish size, shape, and swimming behavior, as well as characteristics of occupied habitats. We examined images obtained using a dual-frequency identification sonar (DIDSON) multibeam sonar for Atlantic sturgeon Acipenser oxyrinchus oxyrinchus, striped bass Morone saxatilis, white perch M. americana, and channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus of known size (20–141 cm) to determine the reliability of length estimates. For ranges up to 11 m, percent measurement error (sonar estimate – total length)/total length × 100 varied by species but was not related to the fish's range or aspect angle (orientation relative to the sonar beam). Least-square mean percent error was significantly different from 0.0 for Atlantic sturgeon (x̄  =  −8.34, SE  =  2.39) and white perch (x̄  = 14.48, SE  =  3.99) but not striped bass (x̄  =  3.71, SE  =  2.58) or channel catfish (x̄  = 3.97, SE  =  5.16). Underestimating lengths of Atlantic sturgeon may be due to difficulty in detecting the snout or the longer dorsal lobe of the heterocercal tail. White perch was the smallest species tested, and it had the largest percent measurement errors (both positive and negative) and the lowest percentage of images classified as good or acceptable. Automated length estimates for the four species using Echoview software varied with position in the view-field. Estimates tended to be low at more extreme azimuthal angles (fish's angle off-axis within the view-field), but mean and maximum estimates were highly correlated with total length. Software estimates also were biased by fish images partially outside the view-field and when acoustic crosstalk occurred (when a fish perpendicular to the sonar and at relatively close range is detected in the side lobes of adjacent beams). These sources of

  14. Keratometric index obtained by Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography.

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    Yanjun Hua

    Full Text Available To determine the keratometric indices calculated based on parameters obtained by Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography (FD-OCT.The ratio of anterior corneal curvature to posterior corneal curvature (Ratio and keratometric index (N were calculated within central 3 mm zone with the RTVue FD-OCT (RTVue, Optovue, Inc. in 186 untreated eyes, 60 post-LASIK/PRK eyes, and 39 keratoconus eyes. The total corneal powers were calculated using different keratometric indices: Kcal based on the mean calculated keratometric index, K1.3315 calculated by the keratometric index of 1.3315, and K1.3375 calculated by the keratometric index of 1.3375. In addition, the total corneal powers based on Gaussian optics formula (Kactual were calculated.The means for Ratio in untreated controls, post-LASIK/PRK group and keratoconus group were 1.176 ± 0.022 (95% confidence interval (CI, 1.172-1.179, 1.314 ± 0.042 (95%CI, 1.303-1.325 and 1.229 ± 0.118 (95%CI, 1.191-1.267, respectively. And the mean calculated keratometric index in untreated controls, post-LASIK/PRK group and keratoconus group were 1.3299 ± 0.00085 (95%CI, 1.3272-1.3308, 1.3242 ± 0.00171 (95%CI, 1.3238-1.3246 and 1.3277 ± 0.0046 (95%CI, 1.3263-1.3292, respectively. All the parameters were normally distributed. The differences between Kcal and Kactual, K1.3315 and Kactual, and K1.3375 and Kactual were 0.00 ± 0.11 D, 0.21 ± 0.11 D and 0.99 ± 0.12 D, respectively, in untreated controls; -0.01 ± 0.20 D, 0.85 ± 0.18 D and 1.56 ± 0.16 D, respectively, in post-LASIK/PRK group; and 0.03 ± 0.67 D, 0.56 ± 0.70 D and 1.40 ± 0.76 D, respectively, in keratoconus group.The calculated keratometric index is negatively related to the ratio of anterior corneal curvature to posterior corneal curvature in untreated, post-LASIK/PRK, and keratoconus eyes, respectively. Using the calculated keratometric index may improve the prediction accuracies of total corneal powers in untreated controls, but not in post

  15. Electrophysiological Characterization of Spontaneously Contracting Cell Aggregates Obtained from Rainbow Trout Larvae with Multielectrode Arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia M. Mehnert

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Safety pharmacology requires novel model systems for the detection of cardiac side effects. Ranging from cell-based systems to model organisms, no model available to date reflects the complexity of the human heart and evokes the great need for improved and more affordable systems. Many drugs interact with hERG potassium channels and consequently cause life threatening ventricular arrhythmias, further highlighting the importance of suitable model systems. Methods: Spontaneously Contracting Cell aggregates (SCC as a 3D in vitro heart-syncytium obtained from rainbow trout larvae represent a novel model system for cardiac safety pharmacology. SCCs can be harvested cost-effectively and kept in culture for several weeks while retaining their functionality and displaying contraction rates similar to the human heart. Results: Extracellular field potential recordings with multielectrode arrays revealed significant prolongation of field potential duration upon administration of common hERG potassium channel blockers. Infusion of 1 µM Dofetilide and 10 µM Terfenadine prolonged field potentials 10 fold and 2 fold, respectively. In addition, SCCs enabled analysis of autonomous contraction frequencies. Conclusion: Thus, SCCs represent a novel and low-cost cardiac model system of the human heart for application in safety pharmacology.

  16. New urea biosensor based on urease enzyme obtained from Helycobacter pylori.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dindar, Bahar; Karakuş, Emine; Abasıyanık, Fatih

    2011-11-01

    The urease enzyme of Helicobacter pylori was isolated from biopsy sample obtained from antrum big curvature cell extracts. A new urea biosensor was prepared by immobilizing urease enzyme isolated from Helicobacter pylori on poly(vinylchloride) (PVC) ammonium membrane electrode by using nonactine as an ammonium ionophore. The effect of pH, buffer concentration, and temperature for the biosensor prepared with urease from H. pylori were obtained as 6.0, 5 mM, and 25 °C, respectively. We also investigated urease concentration, stirring rate, and enzyme immobilization procedures in response to urea of the enzyme electrode. The linear working range of the biosensor extends from 1 × 10(-5) to 1 × 10(-2) M and they showed an apparent Nernstian response within this range. Urea enzyme electrodes prepared with urease enzymes obtained from H. pylori and Jack bean based on PVC membrane ammonium-selective electrode showed very good analytical parameters: high sensitivity, dynamic stability over 2 months with less decrease of sensitivity, response time 1-2 min. The analytical characteristics were investigated and were compared those of the urea biosensor prepared with urease enzyme isolated from Jack bean prepared at the same conditions. It was observed that rapid determinations of human serum urea amounts were also made possible with both biosensors.

  17. Classification of K-Pop Dance Movements Based on Skeleton Information Obtained by a Kinect Sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dohyung; Kim, Dong-Hyeon; Kwak, Keun-Chang

    2017-06-01

    This paper suggests a method of classifying Korean pop (K-pop) dances based on human skeletal motion data obtained from a Kinect sensor in a motion-capture studio environment. In order to accomplish this, we construct a K-pop dance database with a total of 800 dance-movement data points including 200 dance types produced by four professional dancers, from skeletal joint data obtained by a Kinect sensor. Our classification of movements consists of three main steps. First, we obtain six core angles representing important motion features from 25 markers in each frame. These angles are concatenated with feature vectors for all of the frames of each point dance. Then, a dimensionality reduction is performed with a combination of principal component analysis and Fisher's linear discriminant analysis, which is called fisherdance. Finally, we design an efficient Rectified Linear Unit (ReLU)-based Extreme Learning Machine Classifier (ELMC) with an input layer composed of these feature vectors transformed by fisherdance. In contrast to conventional neural networks, the presented classifier achieves a rapid processing time without implementing weight learning. The results of experiments conducted on the constructed K-pop dance database reveal that the proposed method demonstrates a better classification performance than those of conventional methods such as KNN (K-Nearest Neighbor), SVM (Support Vector Machine), and ELM alone.

  18. Marginal and internal fit of zirconia copings obtained using different digital scanning methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorena Oliveira PEDROCHE

    Full Text Available Abstract The objective of this study was to evaluate the marginal and internal fit of zirconia copings obtained with different digital scanning methods. A human mandibular first molar was set in a typodont with its adjacent and antagonist teeth and prepared for an all-ceramic crown. Digital impressions were made using an intraoral scanner (3Shape. Polyvinyl siloxane impressions and Type IV gypsum models were also obtained and scanned with a benchtop laboratory scanner (3Shape D700. Ten zirconia copings were fabricated for each group using CAD-CAM technology. The marginal and internal fit of the zirconia copings was assessed by the silicone replica technique. Four sections of each replica were obtained, and each section was evaluated at four points: marginal gap (MG, axial wall (AW, axio-occlusal edge (AO and centro-occlusal wall (CO, using an image analyzing software. The data were submitted to one-way ANOVA and Tukey’s test (α = 0.05. They showed statistically significant differences for MG, AO and CO. Regarding MG, intraoral scanning showed lower gap values, whereas gypsum model scanning showed higher gap values. Regarding AO and CO, intraoral digital scanning showed lower gap values. Polyvinyl siloxane impression scanning and gypsum model scanning showed higher gap values and were statistically similar. It can be concluded that intraoral digital scanning provided a lower mean gap value, in comparison with conventional impressions and gypsum casts scanned with a standard benchtop laboratory scanner.

  19. Effect of grape pomace extracts obtained from different grape varieties on microbial quality of beef patty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagdic, Osman; Ozturk, Ismet; Yilmaz, Mustafa Tahsin; Yetim, Hasan

    2011-09-01

    Grape pomace extracts were obtained from 5 different grape varieties grown in Turkey. The extracts were concentrated to obtain crude extracts; and incorporated into beef patties at 0% (Control), 1%, 2%, 5%, and 10% concentrations to test their antimicrobial effects in different storage periods (first, 12, 24, and 48 h). The numbers of microorganism were generally decreased by the extract concentration during the storage period. All the microorganisms tested were inhibited by the extract concentration of 10% in all the storage periods. Furthermore, the foodborne pathogens including Enterobacteriaceae and coliform bacteria, and the spoilage microorganisms including yeasts and moulds and lipolytic bacteria were also inhibited by 5% of Emir, Gamay, and Kalecik Karasi varieties in beef patties. Considering the results, the extracts of grape pomaces might be a good choice in the microbial shelf life extension of the food products as well as inhibiting the food pathogens as the case of beef patties. Grape pomace consists of seeds, skins, and stems, and an important by-product that is well known to be the rich source of phenolic compounds, both flavonoids and non-flavonoids. These substances have considerable beneficial effects on human health. The use of natural antimicrobial compounds, like plant extracts of herbs and spices for the preservation of foods has been very popular issue because of their antimicrobial activity. Therefore, grape pomace should be added into some food formulations to benefit from their protective effects. In this respect, this study reports the effect of addition of grape pomace extracts obtained from different grape varieties on microbial quality of beef patty. The results obtained in this study may be useful for food industry, which has recently tended to use natural antimicrobial sources in place of synthetic preservatives to prevent microbial spoilage. © 2011 Institute of Food Technologists®

  20. Application of different techniques to obtain spatial estimates of debris flows erosion and deposition depths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boreggio, Mauro; Gregoretti, Carlo; Degetto, Massimo; Bernard, Martino

    2016-04-01

    In Alpine regions, debris flows endanger settlements and human life. Danger mitigation strategies based on the preparation of hazard maps are necessary tools for the current land planning. To date, hazard maps are obtained by using one- or two-dimensional numerical models that are able to forecast the potential inundated areas, after careful calibration of those input parameters that directly affect the flow motion and its interaction with the ground surface (sediments entrainment or deposition). In principle, the reliability of these numerical models can be tested by flume experiments in laboratory using, for example, particles and water mixtures. However, for more realistic materials including coarse particles, the scaling effects are still difficult to account for. In some cases, where there are enough data (for example, point measures of flow depths and velocities or spatial estimation of erosion and deposition depths), these models can be tested against field observations. As it regards the spatial estimates of debris flows erosion and deposition depths, different approaches can be followed to obtain them, mainly depending on both the type and accuracy of the available initial data. In this work, we explain the methods that have been employed to obtain the maps of erosion and deposition depths for three occurred debris flows in the Dolomites area (North-Eastern Italian Alps). The three events are those occurred at Rio Lazer (Trento) on the 4th of November 1966, at Fiames (Belluno) on the 5th of July 2006 and at Rio Val Molinara (Trento) on the 15th of August 2010. For each case study, we present the available initial data and the related problems, the techniques that have been used to overcome them and finally the results obtained.

  1. Power spectrum and blood flow velocity images obtained by dual-beam backscatter laser Doppler velocimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishida, Hiroki; Yasue, Youichi; Hachiga, Tadashi; Andoh, Tsugunobu; Akiguchi, Shunsuke; Kuraishi, Yasushi; Shimizu, Tadamichi

    2014-07-01

    We developed a micro multipoint laser Doppler velocimeter (μ-MLDV) for noninvasive in-vivo measurements of blood flow and we presented the results of demonstrations performed on experimental animals. In this paper, we investigate the validity of power spectrum analysis for determining the flow velocity and the minimum power of the semiconductor laser in the μ-MLDV. Although average velocity is generally estimated from a peak position ( f peak) in the power spectrum, the power spectrum of blood flow included an additional component in the high-frequency region. The conventional method for determining the average velocity of flows of transparent artificial fluids, which involves determining the average velocity from f peak, is unsuitable for in-vivo measurements of blood flow. The laser power was reduced from 140 to 30mW since 30mW was the minimum power at which images of blood flow velocity in microvessels could be obtained. About 30mW (power density of 15mW/mm2) is the maximum power which can be irradiated to humans. Further reduction in the laser power is necessary before this technique can be applied to humans.

  2. Mapping Bone Mineral Density Obtained by Quantitative Computed Tomography to Bone Volume Fraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennline, James A.; Mulugeta, Lealem

    2017-01-01

    Methods for relating or mapping estimates of volumetric Bone Mineral Density (vBMD) obtained by Quantitative Computed Tomography to Bone Volume Fraction (BVF) are outlined mathematically. The methods are based on definitions of bone properties, cited experimental studies and regression relations derived from them for trabecular bone in the proximal femur. Using an experimental range of values in the intertrochanteric region obtained from male and female human subjects, age 18 to 49, the BVF values calculated from four different methods were compared to the experimental average and numerical range. The BVF values computed from the conversion method used data from two sources. One source provided pre bed rest vBMD values in the intertrochanteric region from 24 bed rest subject who participated in a 70 day study. Another source contained preflight vBMD values from 18 astronauts who spent 4 to 6 months on the ISS. To aid the use of a mapping from BMD to BVF, the discussion includes how to formulate them for purpose of computational modeling. An application of the conversions would be used to aid in modeling of time varying changes in vBMD as it relates to changes in BVF via bone remodeling and/or modeling.

  3. ACE-I Inhibitory Activity from Phaseolus lunatus and Phaseolus vulgaris Peptide Fractions Obtained by Ultrafiltration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betancur-Ancona, David; Dávila-Ortiz, Gloria; Chel-Guerrero, Luis Antonio; Torruco-Uco, Juan Gabriel

    2015-11-01

    The involvement of angiotensin-I-converting enzyme (ACE-I) as one of the mechanisms controlling blood pressure is being studied to find alternative means of control of hypertension on human beings. On the market there are synthetic drugs that can control it, but these can cause undesirable health side effects. In this work was assessed the fractionation by ultrafiltration of the Lima bean (Phaseolus lunatus) and Jamapa bean (Phaseolus vulgaris), protein hydrolysates obtained with Alcalase(®) and Flavourzyme(®) on ACE-I inhibitory activity. Four membranes of different molecular cutoffs (10, 5, 3, and 1 kDa) were used. Fractions that had a higher inhibitory activity in both legumes were denominated as E (Phaseolus vulgaris with Alcalase and Flavourzyme with about 63.8 and 65.8 μg/mL values, respectively. The amino acid composition of these fractions showed residues in essential amino acids, which make a good source of energy and amino acids. On the other hand, the presence of hydrophobic amino acids such as V and P is a determining factor in the ACE-I inhibitor effect. The results suggest the possibility of obtaining and utilizing these peptide fractions in the development and innovation of a functional product that helps with treatment and/or prevention of hypertension.

  4. SYNTHESIS OF 25-HYDROXYVITAMIN D3 CONJUGATE WITH KEYHOLE LIMPET HEMOCYANIN AND OBTAINING OF IMMUNE SERA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    А. O. Mazanova

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The study was aimed at obtaining polyclonal antibodies that recognize 25-Hydroxyvitamin D3, for their further specifications and applications in immunochemical test systems of 25-Hydroxyvitamin D3, determination in blood serum. We used the methods of chemical synthesis of immunoconjugates (modified carbodiimide method using N´-ethyl carbodiimide, thin layer chromatography, gel filtration and indirect immunoenzyme analysis ELISA. The work describes the stages of the synthesis of 25-Hydroxyvitamin D3, immunoconjugate with keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH, which was used for receiving immune sera. As a result of mouse and rabbit immunization antisera were obtained and antibody titers against 25-Hydroxyvitamin D3, were tested by immunoenzyme assay. It was demonstrated that the titer of specific antibodies was higher in rabbits compared with mice. The resulting polyclonal antibodies can be used for the development of immunochemical test systems for screening studies of 25-Hydroxyvitamin D3, content in human blood serum as a marker of vitamin D3 availability.

  5. Simultaneous extraction and biotransformation process to obtain high bioactivity phenolic compounds from Brazilian citrus residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madeira, Jose Valdo; Macedo, Gabriela Alves

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies have pointed to a reduction in the incidence of some cancers, diabetes, and neuro-degenerative diseases as a result of human health benefits from flavanones. Currently, flavanones are obtained by chemical synthesis or extraction from plants, and these processes are only produced in the glycosylated form. An interesting environmentally friendly alternative that deserves attention regarding phenolic compound production is the simultaneous extraction and biotransformation of these molecules. Orange juice consumption has become a worldwide dietary habit and Brazil is the largest producer of orange juice in the world. Approximately half of the citrus fruit is discarded after the juice is processed, thus generating large amounts of residues (peel and pectinolytic material). Hence, finding an environmentally clean technique to extract natural products and bioactive compounds from different plant materials has presented a challenging task over the last decades. The aim of this study was to obtain phenolics from Brazilian citrus residues with high bioactivity, using simultaneous extraction (cellulase and pectinase) and biotransformation (tannase) by enzymatic process. The highest hesperetin, naringenin and ellagic acid production in the experiment were 120, 80, and 11,250 µg g(-1), respectively, at 5.0 U mL(-1) of cellulase and 7.0 U mL(-1) of tannase at 40°C and 200 rpm. Also, the development of this process generated an increase of 77% in the total antioxidant capacity. These results suggest that the bioprocess obtained innovative results where the simultaneous enzymatic and biotransformatic extracted flavanones from agro-industrial residues was achieved without the use of organic solvents. The methodology can therefore be considered a green technology. © 2015 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  6. Human Factors Evaluation Mentor Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — To obtain valid and reliable data, Human Factors Engineering (HFE) evaluations are currently conducted by people with specialized training and experience in HF. HFE...

  7. Human Resource Outsourcing Success

    OpenAIRE

    Hasliza Abdul-Halim; Elaine Ee; T. Ramayah; Noor Hazlina Ahmad

    2014-01-01

    The existing literature on partnership seems to take the relationship between partnership quality and outsourcing success for granted. Therefore, this article aims at examining the role of service quality in strengthening the relationship between partnership quality and human resource (HR) outsourcing success. The samples were obtained from 96 manufacturing organizations in Penang, Malaysia. The results showed that par...

  8. Human memory search

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Davelaar, E.J.; Raaijmakers, J.G.W.; Hills, T.T.; Robbins, T.W.; Todd, P.M.

    2012-01-01

    The importance of understanding human memory search is hard to exaggerate: we build and live our lives based on what whe remember. This chapter explores the characteristics of memory search, with special emphasis on the use of retrieval cues. We introduce the dependent measures that are obtained

  9. Human mammary microenvironment better regulates the biology of human breast cancer in humanized mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Ming-Jie; Wang, Jue; Xu, Lu; Zha, Xiao-Ming; Zhao, Yi; Ling, Li-Jun; Wang, Shui

    2015-02-01

    During the past decades, many efforts have been made in mimicking the clinical progress of human cancer in mouse models. Previously, we developed a human breast tissue-derived (HB) mouse model. Theoretically, it may mimic the interactions between "species-specific" mammary microenvironment of human origin and human breast cancer cells. However, detailed evidences are absent. The present study (in vivo, cellular, and molecular experiments) was designed to explore the regulatory role of human mammary microenvironment in the progress of human breast cancer cells. Subcutaneous (SUB), mammary fat pad (MFP), and HB mouse models were developed for in vivo comparisons. Then, the orthotopic tumor masses from three different mouse models were collected for primary culture. Finally, the biology of primary cultured human breast cancer cells was compared by cellular and molecular experiments. Results of in vivo mouse models indicated that human breast cancer cells grew better in human mammary microenvironment. Cellular and molecular experiments confirmed that primary cultured human breast cancer cells from HB mouse model showed a better proliferative and anti-apoptotic biology than those from SUB to MFP mouse models. Meanwhile, primary cultured human breast cancer cells from HB mouse model also obtained the migratory and invasive biology for "species-specific" tissue metastasis to human tissues. Comprehensive analyses suggest that "species-specific" mammary microenvironment of human origin better regulates the biology of human breast cancer cells in our humanized mouse model of breast cancer, which is more consistent with the clinical progress of human breast cancer.

  10. Human rights

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gaay Fortman, B. de

    2006-01-01

    Human rights reflect a determined effort to protect the dignity of each and every human being against abuse of power. This endeavour is as old as human history. What is relatively new is the international venture for the protection of human dignity through internationally accepted legal standards

  11. Human Milk-Treatment and Quality of Banked Human Milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picaud, Jean-Charles; Buffin, Rachel

    2017-03-01

    The aim of human milk banks is to deliver safe and high quality donor human milk. Treatment of human milk has to destroy most microorganisms while preserving immunological and nutrient components, which is obtained when using low time low temperature pasteurization. However it destroys bile-simulated lipase, reduces lactoferrin, lysozyme, immunoglobulins, and bactericidal capacity of human milk. New methods are under investigation such as high temperature short time pasteurization, high pressure processing, or ultraviolet irradiation. They have been tested in experimental conditions and there are promising results, but they have to be tested in real conditions in human milk bank. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Characterization of a half-molecular fragment obtained by reduction of human α2-macroglobulin with dithiothreitol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sjöberg, B.; Pap, S.; Kjems, Jørgen

    1985-01-01

    ,000; the latter value is associated with a relatively large error due to the uncertainty in the concentration determination. Shape analysis indicates that the best-fitting scattering-equivalent threeaxial bodies are oblate shaped, with two of their axial dimensions about three to four times larger than the third......, is at 43% D2O; the data are consistent with a particle having a higher scattering density at large distances from the particle centre. From the X-ray and neutron intensities scattered at zero angle, the specific volume was determined to be 0.73 cm3/g at+5°C and the molecular weight to be 390...

  13. Case study on human α1-antitrypsin: Recombinant protein titers obtained by commercial ELISA kits are inaccurate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Henning Gram; Kildegaard, Helene Faustrup; Min Lee, Gyun

    2016-01-01

    Accurate titer determination of recombinant proteins is crucial for evaluating protein production cell lines and processes. Even though enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) is the most widely used assay for determining protein titer, little is known about the accuracy of commercially availab...

  14. Human Rights, Human Needs, Human Development, Human Security

    OpenAIRE

    Gasper, D.R.

    2007-01-01

    Human rights, human development and human security form increasingly important, partly interconnected, partly competitive and misunderstood ethical and policy discourses. Each tries to humanize a pre-existing and unavoidable major discourse of everyday life, policy and politics; each has emerged within the United Nations world; each relies implicitly on a conceptualisation of human need; each has specific strengths. Yet mutual communication, understanding and co-operation are deficient, espec...

  15. Differential processing of social chemosignals obtained from potential partners in regards to gender and sexual orientation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lübke, Katrin T; Hoenen, Matthias; Pause, Bettina M

    2012-03-17

    On an individual level, human body odors carry information about whether a person is an eligible mate. The current studies investigate if body odors also transmit information about individuals being potential partners in more general terms, namely in regards to gender and sexual orientation. In study 1, 14 gay and 14 heterosexual men were presented with body odors obtained from potential partners (gay male and heterosexual female body odors, respectively) and heterosexual male body odor as a control. In study 2, 14 lesbian and 14 heterosexual women were presented with lesbian female and heterosexual male body odors representing body odors of potential partners, and heterosexual female body odor as a control. Central nervous processing was analyzed using chemosensory event-related potentials and current source density analysis (64-channel EEG recording). Gay and heterosexual men responded with shorter P2 latencies to the body odors of their preferred sexual partners, and lesbian women responded with shorter P2 latencies to body odors of their preferred gender. In response to heterosexual male body odors, lesbian women displayed the most pronounced P3 amplitude, and distinct neuronal activation in medial frontal and parietal neocortical areas. A similar pattern of neuronal activation was observed in gay men when presented with heterosexual male body odor. Both the early processing advantage (P2) for desirable partners' body odors as well as the enhanced evaluative processing (P3, CSD) of undesirable partners' body odors suggest that human body odors indeed carry information about individuals being potential partners in terms of gender and sexual orientation. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Gene expression in intestinal mucosal biopsy specimens obtained from dogs with chronic enteropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilke, Vicki L; Nettleton, Dan; Wymore, Meghan J; Gallup, Jack M; Demirkale, Cumhur Yusuf; Ackermann, Mark R; Tuggle, Chris K; Ramer-Tait, Amanda E; Wannemuehler, Michael J; Jergens, Albert E

    2012-08-01

    To characterize mucosal gene expression in dogs with chronic enteropathy (CE). 18 dogs with CE and 6 healthy control dogs. Small intestinal mucosal biopsy specimens were endoscopically obtained from dogs. Disease severity in dogs with CE was determined via inflammatory bowel index scores and histologic grading of biopsy specimens. Total RNA was extracted from biopsy specimens and microchip array analysis (approx 43,000 probe sets) and quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR assays were performed. 1,875 genes were differentially expressed between dogs with CE and healthy control dogs; 1,582 (85%) genes were downregulated in dogs with CE, including neurotensin, fatty acid-binding protein 6, fatty acid synthase, aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 family member B1, metallothionein, and claudin 8, whereas few genes were upregulated in dogs with CE, including genes encoding products involved in extracellular matrix degradation (matrix metallopeptidases 1, 3, and 13), inflammation (tumor necrosis factor, interleukin-8, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ, and S100 calcium-binding protein G), iron transport (solute carrier family 40 member 1), and immunity (CD96 and carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule [CEACAM] 18). Dogs with CE and protein-losing enteropathy had the greatest number of differentially expressed genes. Results of quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR assay for select genes were similar to those for microchip array analysis. Expression of genes encoding products regulating mucosal inflammation was altered in dogs with CE and varied with disease severity. Impact for Human Medicine-Molecular pathogenesis of CE in dogs may be similar to that in humans with inflammatory bowel disease.

  17. Human Monkeypox

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wilson, Mary E; Hughes, James M; McCollum, Andrea M; Damon, Inger K

    2014-01-01

    Human monkeypox is found primarily in forested areas of Central Africa. This article provides a basic review of the clinical, epidemiological, and biological factors that contribute to human disease...

  18. Human microbiomics

    OpenAIRE

    Rajendhran, J.; Gunasekaran, P.

    2010-01-01

    The sequencing of the human genome has driven the study of human biology in a significant way and enabled the genome-wide study to elucidate the molecular basis of complex human diseases. Recently, the role of microbiota on human physiology and health has received much attention. The influence of gut microbiome (the collective genomes of the gut microbiota) in obesity has been demonstrated, which may pave the way for new prophylactic and therapeutic strategies such as bacteriotherapy. The sig...

  19. Broad Surveys of DNA Viral Diversity Obtained through Viral Metagenomics of Mosquitoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Terry Fei Fan; Willner, Dana L.; Lim, Yan Wei; Schmieder, Robert; Chau, Betty; Nilsson, Christina; Anthony, Simon; Ruan, Yijun; Rohwer, Forest; Breitbart, Mya

    2011-01-01

    Viruses are the most abundant and diverse genetic entities on Earth; however, broad surveys of viral diversity are hindered by the lack of a universal assay for viruses and the inability to sample a sufficient number of individual hosts. This study utilized vector-enabled metagenomics (VEM) to provide a snapshot of the diversity of DNA viruses present in three mosquito samples from San Diego, California. The majority of the sequences were novel, suggesting that the viral community in mosquitoes, as well as the animal and plant hosts they feed on, is highly diverse and largely uncharacterized. Each mosquito sample contained a distinct viral community. The mosquito viromes contained sequences related to a broad range of animal, plant, insect and bacterial viruses. Animal viruses identified included anelloviruses, circoviruses, herpesviruses, poxviruses, and papillomaviruses, which mosquitoes may have obtained from vertebrate hosts during blood feeding. Notably, sequences related to human papillomaviruses were identified in one of the mosquito samples. Sequences similar to plant viruses were identified in all mosquito viromes, which were potentially acquired through feeding on plant nectar. Numerous bacteriophages and insect viruses were also detected, including a novel densovirus likely infecting Culex erythrothorax. Through sampling insect vectors, VEM enables broad survey of viral diversity and has significantly increased our knowledge of the DNA viruses present in mosquitoes. PMID:21674005

  20. Bioactive glass and hydroxyapatite thin films obtained by pulsed laser deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gyorgy, E. [National Institute for Lasers, Plasma and Radiation Physics, P.O. Box MG 36, 77125 Bucharest (Romania) and Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Barcelona, Campus UAB, 08193 Bellaterra (Spain)]. E-mail: egyorgy@icmab.es; Grigorescu, S. [National Institute for Lasers, Plasma and Radiation Physics, P.O. Box MG 36, 77125 Bucharest (Romania); Socol, G. [National Institute for Lasers, Plasma and Radiation Physics, P.O. Box MG 36, 77125 Bucharest (Romania); Mihailescu, I.N. [National Institute for Lasers, Plasma and Radiation Physics, P.O. Box MG 36, 77125 Bucharest (Romania); Janackovic, D. [Faculty of Technology and Metallurgy, University of Belgrade, Karnegijeva 4, 11000 Belgrade (Serbia); Dindune, A. [Institute of Inorganic Chemistry of the Riga Technical University (Latvia); Plasma and Ceramic Technologies Ltd. (PCT Ltd.) (Latvia); Kanepe, Z. [Institute of Inorganic Chemistry of the Riga Technical University (Latvia); Plasma and Ceramic Technologies Ltd. (PCT Ltd.) (Latvia); Palcevskis, E. [Plasma and Ceramic Technologies Ltd. (PCT Ltd.) (Latvia); Zdrentu, E.L. [Institute of Biochemistry, Splaiul Independentei 296, Bucharest (Romania); Petrescu, S.M. [Institute of Biochemistry, Splaiul Independentei 296, Bucharest (Romania)

    2007-07-31

    Bioactive glass (BG), calcium hydroxyapatite (HA), and ZrO{sub 2} doped HA thin films were grown by pulsed laser deposition on Ti substrates. An UV KrF{sup *} ({lambda} = 248 nm, {tau} {>=} 7 ns) excimer laser was used for the multi-pulse irradiation of the targets. The substrates were kept at room temperature or heated during the film deposition at values within the (400-550 deg. C) range. The depositions were performed in oxygen and water vapor atmospheres, at pressure values in the range (5-40 Pa). The HA coatings were heat post-treated for 6 h in a flux of hot water vapors at the same temperature as applied during deposition. The surface morphology, chemical composition, and crystalline quality of the obtained thin films were studied by scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, and X-ray diffractometry. The films were seeded for in vitro tests with Hek293 (human embryonic kidney) cells that revealed a good adherence on the deposited layers. Biocompatibility tests showed that cell growth was better on HA than on BG thin films.

  1. Pathogenicity and phenotypic sulfadiazine resistance of Toxoplasma gondii isolates obtained from livestock in northeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio BS Oliveira

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Toxoplasma gondii is the causative protozoan agent of toxoplasmosis, which is a common infection that is widely distributed worldwide. Studies revealed stronger clonal strains in North America and Europe and genetic diversity in South American strains. Our study aimed to differentiate the pathogenicity and sulfadiazine resistance of three T. gondii isolates obtained from livestock intended for human consumption. The cytopathic effects of the T. gondii isolates were evaluated. The pathogenicity was determined by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP using a CS3 marker and in a rodent model in vivo. Phenotypic sulfadiazine resistance was measured using a kinetic curve of drug activity in Swiss mice. IgM and IgG were measured by ELISA, and the dihydropteroate synthase (DHPS gene sequence was analysed. The cytopathic effects and the PCR-RFLP profiles from chickens indicated a different infection source. The Ck3 isolate displayed more cytopathic effects in vitro than the Ck2 and ME49 strains. Additionally, the Ck2 isolate induced a differential humoral immune response compared to ME49. The Ck3 and Pg1 isolates, but not the Ck2 isolate, showed sulfadiazine resistance in the sensitivity assay. We did not find any DHPS gene polymorphisms in the mouse samples. These atypical pathogenicity and sulfadiazine resistance profiles were not previously reported and served as a warning to local health authorities.

  2. A facile method to compare EFTEM maps obtained from materials changing composition over time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casu, Alberto; Genovese, Alessandro; Di Benedetto, Cristiano; Lentijo Mozo, Sergio; Sogne, Elisa; Zuddas, Efisio; Falqui, Andrea

    2015-12-01

    Energy Filtered Transmission Electron Microscopy (EFTEM) is an analytical tool that has been successfully and widely employed in the last two decades for obtaining fast elemental maps in TEM mode. Several studies and efforts have been addressed to investigate limitations and advantages of such technique, as well as to improve the spatial resolution of compositional maps. Usually, EFTEM maps undergo post-acquisition treatments by changing brightness and contrast levels, either via dedicated software or via human elaboration, in order to maximize their signal-to-noise ratio and render them as visible as possible. However, elemental maps forming a single set of EFTEM images are usually subjected to independent map-by-map image treatment. This post-acquisition step becomes crucial when analyzing materials that change composition over time as a consequence of an external stimulus, because the map-by-map approach doesn't take into account how the chemical features of the imaged materials actually progress, in particular when the investigated elements exhibit very low signals. In this article, we present a facile procedure applicable to whole sets of EFTEM maps acquired on a sample that is evolving over time. The main aim is to find a common method to treat the images features, in order to make them as comparable as possible without affecting the information there contained. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. A facile method to compare EFTEM maps obtained from materials changing composition over time

    KAUST Repository

    Casu, Alberto

    2015-10-31

    Energy Filtered Transmission Electron Microscopy (EFTEM) is an analytical tool that has been successfully and widely employed in the last two decades for obtaining fast elemental maps in TEM mode. Several studies and efforts have been addressed to investigate limitations and advantages of such technique, as well as to improve the spatial resolution of compositional maps. Usually, EFTEM maps undergo post-acquisition treatments by changing brightness and contrast levels, either via dedicated software or via human elaboration, in order to maximize their signal-to-noise ratio and render them as visible as possible. However, elemental maps forming a single set of EFTEM images are usually subjected to independent map-by-map image treatment. This post-acquisition step becomes crucial when analyzing materials that change composition over time as a consequence of an external stimulus, because the map-by-map approach doesn\\'t take into account how the chemical features of the imaged materials actually progress, in particular when the investigated elements exhibit very low signals. In this article, we present a facile procedure applicable to whole sets of EFTEM maps acquired on a sample that is evolving over time. The main aim is to find a common method to treat the images features, in order to make them as comparable as possible without affecting the information there contained. Microsc. Res. Tech. 78:1090–1097, 2015. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. VOC emission rates over London and South East England obtained by airborne eddy covariance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughan, Adam R; Lee, James D; Shaw, Marvin D; Misztal, Pawel K; Metzger, Stefan; Vieno, Massimo; Davison, Brian; Karl, Thomas G; Carpenter, Lucy J; Lewis, Alastair C; Purvis, Ruth M; Goldstein, Allen H; Hewitt, C Nicholas

    2017-08-24

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) originate from a variety of sources, and play an intrinsic role in influencing air quality. Some VOCs, including benzene, are carcinogens and so directly affect human health, while others, such as isoprene, are very reactive in the atmosphere and play an important role in the formation of secondary pollutants such as ozone and particles. Here we report spatially-resolved measurements of the surface-to-atmosphere fluxes of VOCs across London and SE England made in 2013 and 2014. High-frequency 3-D wind velocities and VOC volume mixing ratios (made by proton transfer reaction - mass spectrometry) were obtained from a low-flying aircraft and used to calculate fluxes using the technique of eddy covariance. A footprint model was then used to quantify the flux contribution from the ground surface at spatial resolution of 100 m, averaged to 1 km. Measured fluxes of benzene over Greater London showed positive agreement with the UK's National Atmospheric Emissions Inventory, with the highest fluxes originating from central London. Comparison of MTBE and toluene fluxes suggest that petroleum evaporation is an important emission source of toluene in central London. Outside London, increased isoprene emissions were observed over wooded areas, at rates greater than those predicted by a UK regional application of the European Monitoring and Evaluation Programme model (EMEP4UK). This work demonstrates the applicability of the airborne eddy covariance method to the determination of anthropogenic and biogenic VOC fluxes and the possibility of validating emission inventories through measurements.

  5. Pathogenicity and phenotypic sulfadiazine resistance of Toxoplasma gondii isolates obtained from livestock in northeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Claudio Bs; Meurer, Ywlliane Sr; Andrade, Joelma Ma; Costa, Maria Esm; Andrade, Milena Mc; Silva, Letícia A; Lanza, Daniel Cf; Vítor, Ricardo Wa; Andrade-Neto, Valter F

    2016-06-03

    Toxoplasma gondii is the causative protozoan agent of toxoplasmosis, which is a common infection that is widely distributed worldwide. Studies revealed stronger clonal strains in North America and Europe and genetic diversity in South American strains. Our study aimed to differentiate the pathogenicity and sulfadiazine resistance of three T. gondii isolates obtained from livestock intended for human consumption. The cytopathic effects of the T. gondii isolates were evaluated. The pathogenicity was determined by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) using a CS3 marker and in a rodent model in vivo. Phenotypic sulfadiazine resistance was measured using a kinetic curve of drug activity in Swiss mice. IgM and IgG were measured by ELISA, and the dihydropteroate synthase (DHPS) gene sequence was analysed. The cytopathic effects and the PCR-RFLP profiles from chickens indicated a different infection source. The Ck3 isolate displayed more cytopathic effects in vitro than the Ck2 and ME49 strains. Additionally, the Ck2 isolate induced a differential humoral immune response compared to ME49. The Ck3 and Pg1 isolates, but not the Ck2 isolate, showed sulfadiazine resistance in the sensitivity assay. We did not find any DHPS gene polymorphisms in the mouse samples. These atypical pathogenicity and sulfadiazine resistance profiles were not previously reported and served as a warning to local health authorities.

  6. Antioxidant Properties of Mushroom Mycelia Obtained by Batch Cultivation and Tocopherol Content Affected by Extraction Procedures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuel Vamanu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The determination of the antioxidant potential of lyophilized mushroom mycelia from 5 strains of the species Pleurotus ostreatus and Coprinus comatus (obtained by submerged cultivation in batch system was analyzed as ethanolic extracts by evaluating ABTS and the hydroxyl scavenging activity, FRAP method, the chelating capacity, the inhibition of human erythrocyte hemolysis, and the inhibition of xanthine oxidase activity. The main compounds present in all extracts were determined by HPLC chromatography. Overall, results demonstrated that the biologically active substances content is modulated by the extraction method used. The most beneficial extract, characterized by determining the EC50 value, was that of C. comatus M8102, followed by P. ostreatus PQMZ91109. Significant amount of α-tocopherol (179.51 ± 1.51 mg/100 g extract was determined as well as flavones such as rutin and apigenin. In the P. ostreatus PQMZ91109 extract, 4.8 ± 0.05 mg/100 g extract of tocopherol acetate known to play a significant role as an antioxidant in skin protection against oxidative stress generated by UV rays was determined. The various correlations (r2=0.7665–0.9426 for tocopherol content assessed and the composition of extracts in fluidized bed from the mycelia of the tested species depicted a significant pharmacological potential as well as the possibility of usage in the development of new functional products.

  7. Antioxidant properties of mushroom mycelia obtained by batch cultivation and tocopherol content affected by extraction procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vamanu, Emanuel

    2014-01-01

    The determination of the antioxidant potential of lyophilized mushroom mycelia from 5 strains of the species Pleurotus ostreatus and Coprinus comatus (obtained by submerged cultivation in batch system) was analyzed as ethanolic extracts by evaluating ABTS and the hydroxyl scavenging activity, FRAP method, the chelating capacity, the inhibition of human erythrocyte hemolysis, and the inhibition of xanthine oxidase activity. The main compounds present in all extracts were determined by HPLC chromatography. Overall, results demonstrated that the biologically active substances content is modulated by the extraction method used. The most beneficial extract, characterized by determining the EC50 value, was that of C. comatus M8102, followed by P. ostreatus PQMZ91109. Significant amount of α-tocopherol (179.51 ± 1.51 mg/100 g extract) was determined as well as flavones such as rutin and apigenin. In the P. ostreatus PQMZ91109 extract, 4.8 ± 0.05 mg/100 g extract of tocopherol acetate known to play a significant role as an antioxidant in skin protection against oxidative stress generated by UV rays was determined. The various correlations (r (2) = 0.7665-0.9426 for tocopherol content) assessed and the composition of extracts in fluidized bed from the mycelia of the tested species depicted a significant pharmacological potential as well as the possibility of usage in the development of new functional products.

  8. Increase in the specific radioactivity of tritium-labeled compounds obtained by tritium thermal activation method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Badun, G.A.; Chernysheva, M.G. [Lomonosov Moscow State Univ., Moscow (Russian Federation). Radiochemistry Div.; Ksenofontov, A.L. [Lomonosov Moscow State Univ., Moscow (Russian Federation). N. Belozersky Institute of Physico-Chemical Biology

    2012-07-01

    A method of tritium introduction into different types of organic molecules that is based on the interaction of atomic tritium with solid organic target is described. Tritium atoms are formed on the hot W-wire, which is heated by the electric current. Such an approach is called 'tritium thermal activation method'. Here we summarize the results of labeling globular proteins (lysozyme, human and bovine serum albumins); derivatives of pantothenic acid and amino acids; ionic surfactants (sodium dodecylsulfate and alkyltrimethylammonium bromides) and nonionic high-molecular weight surfactants - pluronics. For the first time it is observed that if the target-compound is fixed and its radicals are stable the specific radioactivity of the labeled product can be drastically increased (up to 400 times) when the target temperature is ca. 295 K compared with the results obtained at 77 K. The influence of labeling parameters as tritium gas pressure, exposure time and W-wire temperature was tested for each target temperature that results in the optimum labeling conditions with high specific radioactivity and chemical yield of the resulting compound. (orig.)

  9. Performing data analytics on information obtained from various sensors on an OSUS compliant system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cashion, Kelly; Landoll, Darian; Klawon, Kevin; Powar, Nilesh

    2017-05-01

    The Open Standard for Unattended Sensors (OSUS) was developed by DIA and ARL to provide a plug-n-play platform for sensor interoperability. Our objective is to use the standardized data produced by OSUS in performing data analytics on information obtained from various sensors. Data analytics can be integrated in one of three ways: within an asset itself; as an independent plug-in designed for one type of asset (i.e. camera or seismic sensor); or as an independent plug-in designed to incorporate data from multiple assets. As a proof-of-concept, we develop a model that can be used in the second of these types - an independent component for camera images. The dataset used was collected as part of a demonstration and test of OSUS capabilities. The image data includes images of empty outdoor scenes and scenes with human or vehicle activity. We design, test, and train a convolution neural network (CNN) to analyze these images and assess the presence of activity in the image. The resulting classifier labels input images as empty or activity with 86.93% accuracy, demonstrating the promising opportunities for deep learning, machine learning, and predictive analytics as an extension of OSUS's already robust suite of capabilities.

  10. Human Development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.R. Gasper (Des)

    2009-01-01

    textabstract‘Human development’ language spread gradually in circles of national and international development policy and planning from the 1970s and acquired a definitive form in the 1990s in the United Nations Development Programme’s Human Development Reports (HDRs). Human development was defined

  11. Human Smuggling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siegel - Rozenblit, Dina|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/152524096; Zaitch, Damian|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/183348486

    2014-01-01

    Human smuggling is based on a consensus between smuggler, smuggled, and his/her family (which usually guarantees or effectuates payment). However, unauthorized immigrants are violating immigration laws and human smugglers are profiting from enabling illegal immigration. Both human smuggling and its

  12. Human Technology and Human Affects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fausing, Bent

    2009-01-01

    Human Technology and Human Affects  This year Samsung introduced a mobile phone with "Soul". It was made with a human touch and included itself a magical touch. Which function does technology and affects get in everyday aesthetics like this, its images and interactions included this presentation...... will ask and try to answer. The mobile phone and its devices are depicted as being able to make a unique human presence, interaction, and affect. The medium, the technology is a necessary helper to get towards this very special and lost humanity. Without the technology, no special humanity - soul...... - is the prophecy. This personification or anthropomorphism is important for the branding of new technology. The technology is seen as creating a technotranscendens towards a more qualified humanity, which is in contact with the fundamental human values like intuition, vision, and sensing; all the qualities...

  13. Human Parvoviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Jianming; Söderlund-Venermo, Maria; Young, Neal S

    2017-01-01

    Parvovirus B19 (B19V) and human bocavirus 1 (HBoV1), members of the large Parvoviridae family, are human pathogens responsible for a variety of diseases. For B19V in particular, host features determine disease manifestations. These viruses are prevalent worldwide and are culturable in vitro, and serological and molecular assays are available but require careful interpretation of results. Additional human parvoviruses, including HBoV2 to -4, human parvovirus 4 (PARV4), and human bufavirus (BuV) are also reviewed. The full spectrum of parvovirus disease in humans has yet to be established. Candidate recombinant B19V vaccines have been developed but may not be commercially feasible. We review relevant features of the molecular and cellular biology of these viruses, and the human immune response that they elicit, which have allowed a deep understanding of pathophysiology. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Microbiology.

  14. Human Rights/Human Needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canning, Cynthia

    1978-01-01

    The faculty of Holy Names High School developed an interdisciplinary human rights program with school-wide activities focusing on three selected themes: the United Nations Universal Declaration of Human Rights, in conjunction with Human Rights Week; Food; and Women. This article outlines major program activities. (SJL)

  15. [Scientific ethics of human cloning].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenzuela, Carlos Y

    2005-01-01

    True cloning is fission, budding or other types of asexual reproduction. In humans it occurs in monozygote twinning. This type of cloning is ethically and religiously good. Human cloning can be performed by twinning (TWClo) or nuclear transfer (NTClo). Both methods need a zygote or a nuclear transferred cell, obtained in vitro (IVTec). They are under the IVTec ethics. IVTecs use humans (zygotes, embryos) as drugs or things; increase the risk of malformations; increase development and size of abnormalities and may cause long-term changes. Cloning for preserving extinct (or almost extinct) animals or humans when sexual reproduction is not possible is ethically valid. The previous selection of a phenotype in human cloning violates some ethical principles. NTClo for reproductive or therapeutic purposes is dangerous since it increases the risk for nucleotide or chromosome mutations, de-programming or re-programming errors, aging or malignancy of the embryo cells thus obtained.

  16. Proliferative effect of whey from cow's milk obtained at two different stages of pregnancy measured in MCF-7 cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Tina S; Andersen, Charlotte; Sejrsen, Kristen

    2012-01-01

    (whey) in a proliferation assay with estrogen-sensitive MCF-7 human breast cancer cells. Milk samples were obtained from 22 cows representing different stages of pregnancy (first and second half) and whey was produced from the milk. 0·1, 0·25 or 0·5% whey was included in the cell culture medium......Dietary estrogens may play a role in the etiology of hormone-dependent cancers like breast cancer. Cow's milk contains various endogenous estrogens and feed derived phytoestrogens that potentially contribute to an estrogenic effect of milk in consumers, and therefore we evaluated the effect of milk...

  17. Preliminary Work in Obtaining Site-Directed Mutants of Hen Egg White Lysozyme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Leonard D.

    1996-01-01

    Protein crystal growth studies are recognized as a critical endeavor in the field of molecular biotechnology. The scientific applications of this field include the understanding of how enzymes function and the accumulation of accurate information of atomic structures, a key factor in the process of rational drug design. NASA has committed substantial investment and resources to the field of protein crystal growth and has conducted many microgravity protein crystal growth experiments aboard shuttle flights. Crystals grown in space tend to be larger, denser and have a more perfect habit and geometry. These improved properties gained in the microgravity environment of space result largely from the reduction of solutal convection, and the elimination of sedimentation at the growing crystal surface. Shuttle experiments have yielded many large, high quality crystals that are suitable for high resolution X-ray diffraction analysis. Examples of biologically important macromolecules which have been successfully crystallized during shuttle missions include: lysozyme, isocitrate lyase, gamma-interferon, insulin, human serum albumin and canavalin. Numerous other examples are also available. In addition to obtaining high quality crystals, investigators are also interested in learning the mechanisms by which the growth events take place. Crystallization experiments indicate that for the enzyme HEWL, measured growth rates do not follow mathematical models for 2D nucleation and dislocation-led growth of tetragonal protein crystals. As has been suggested by the laboratory of Marc L. Pusey, a possible explanation for the disagreement between observation and data is that HEWL tetraconal crystals form by aggregated units of lysozyme in supersaturated solutions. Surface measurement data was shown to fit very well with a model using an octamer unit cell as the growth unit. According to this model, the aggregation pathway and subsequent crystal growth is described by: monomer dimer

  18. Evaluation of marginal and internal gaps of metal ceramic crowns obtained from conventional impressions and casting techniques with those obtained from digital techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Rathika Rai; S Arun Kumar; R Prabhu; Ranjani Thillai Govindan; Faiz Mohamed Tanveer

    2017-01-01

    Background: Accuracy in fit of cast metal restoration has always remained as one of the primary factors in determining the success of the restoration. A well-fitting restoration needs to be accurate both along its margin and with regard to its internal surface. Aim: The aim of the study is to evaluate the marginal fit of metal ceramic crowns obtained by conventional inlay casting wax pattern using conventional impression with the metal ceramic crowns obtained by computer-aided design and comp...

  19. Digital Humanities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brügger, Niels

    2016-01-01

    Digital humanities is an umbrella term for theories, methodologies, and practices related to humanities scholarship that use the digital computer as an integrated and essential part of its research and teaching activities. The computer can be used for establishing, finding, collecting......, and preserving material to study, as an object of study in its own right, as an analytical tool, or for collaborating, and for disseminating results. The term "digital humanities" was coined around 2001, and gained currency within academia in the following years. However, computers had been used within...... the humanities for decades, starting with research fields such as humanities computing or computational linguistics in the 1950s, and later new media studies and internet studies. The historical development of digital humanities has been characterized by a focus on three successive, but co-existing types...

  20. Human evolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Llamas, Bastien; Willerslev, Eske; Orlando, Ludovic Antoine Alexandre

    2017-01-01

    The field of human ancient DNA (aDNA) has moved from mitochondrial sequencing that suffered from contamination and provided limited biological insights, to become a fully genomic discipline that is changing our conception of human history. Recent successes include the sequencing of extinct hominins......, and true population genomic studies of Bronze Age populations. Among the emerging areas of aDNA research, the analysis of past epigenomes is set to provide more new insights into human adaptation and disease susceptibility through time. Starting as a mere curiosity, ancient human genetics has become...

  1. Characterization of derived natural hydroxyapatite (HAp) obtained from different types of tilapia fish bones and scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fara, A. N. K. A.; Abdullah, H. Z.

    2015-07-01

    Hydroxyapatite, (HAp), Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2, is recognised as a biomaterial that is widely used for bone implant due to its chemical and structural similarity to the mineral components in human bone and enamel. The elements of HAp are primarily composed of calcium and phosphorus molar ratio of calcium to phosphorous is 1.67 capable to promote bone in-growth into prosthetic implant. Enormous amounts of by-product waste produced from fish factories generated an undesirable environmental impact. Thus, this study was conducted to obtain natural biological HAp from different types of tilapia fish bones and scales from fishery waste. Therefore, fish bones and scales can be as cheap source to produce biological HAp for medical applications. For this purpose, fish bones and scales of tilapia fish were boiled at 100°C to remove adhering meat and other impurities. Later, fish bones and scales were separated into several groups and subjected to different calcination temperatures of 800° C and 900° C for 3h respectively. Afterward, all calcined samples were crushed to form a fine powder. The XRD result revealed the presence of derived Hapfrom the samples powder and were identical with standard Hap. Thermo Gravimetric Analysis was carried out to show the thermal stability of the HAp powder from different types of fish bones and scales. SEM results show porous structure appeared in calcined samples compared to raw samples. The findings are the promising alternative to produce calcium and phosphorus from fishery wastes that beneficial to medical applications.

  2. Occurrence of virulence-associated genes in Pasteurella multocida isolates obtained from different hosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirzad Aski, Hesamaddin; Tabatabaei, Mohammad

    2016-07-01

    Pasteurella multocida infects a wide range of animals and the infection may spread to human through animal bites and scratches. Pasteurella multocida isolates, obtained from several clinically healthy and diseased animals (bovine, sheep, goat, poultry, dog and cat), were investigated for capsule biosynthesis (capA, B, D, E and F) and expression of 22 virulence-associated genes using Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR). Multiplex PCR results revealed expression of capA, capD and capB genes in 81 (61.83%), 30 (22.90%) and 10 isolates (7.29%), respectively. However, neither of the isolates harbored capE or capF genes and ten isolates (7.29%) were negative for all cap genes. The expression of the capB gene was observed in small ruminant isolates. The occurrence of the ompA, ompH, oma87, sodA and sodC genes was noticed in all of the samples. More than 90% of the isolates harbored hgbA (96.18%), ptfA (95.41%), exbBD-tonB (93.12%), nanB (93.12%) and plbB genes (90.83%). The transferrin binding protein encoding gene tbpA was exclusively detected in the ruminant isolates. The limited number of isolates (25.95%) harbored dermonecrotoxin gene (toxA) and the highest occurrence was noted in the small ruminants, and the capsular type D isolates. This study highlights that the toxA, tbpA, and pfhA genes can be considered as important epidemiological markers for the characterization of P. multocida isolates. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. In vitro cell cultures obtained from different explants of Corylus avellana produce Taxol and taxanes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cavalli Francesca

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Taxol is an effective antineoplastic agent, originally extracted from the bark of Taxus brevifolia with a low yield. Many attempts have been made to produce Taxol by chemical synthesis, semi-synthesis and plant tissue cultures. However, to date, the availability of this compound is not sufficient to satisfy the commercial requirements. The aim of the present work was to produce suspension cell cultures from plants not belonging to Taxus genus and to verify whether they produced Taxol and taxanes. For this purpose different explants of hazel (Corylus avellana species were used to optimize the protocol for inducing in vitro callus, an undifferentiated tissue from which suspension cell cultures were established. Results Calli were successfully induced from stems, leaves and seeds grown in various hormone concentrations and combinations. The most suitable callus to establish suspension cell cultures was obtained from seeds. Media recovered from suspension cell cultures contained taxanes, and showed antiproliferative activity on human tumour cells. Taxol, 10-deacetyltaxol and 10-deacetylbaccatin III were the main taxanes identified. The level of Taxol recovered from the media of hazel cultures was similar to that found in yew cultures. Moreover, the production of taxanes in hazel cell cultures increased when elicitors were used. Conclusion Here we show that hazel cell cultures produce Taxol and taxanes under controlled conditions. This result suggests that hazel possesses the enzymes for Taxol production, which until now was considered to be a pathway particular to Taxus genus. The main benefit of producing taxanes through hazel cell cultures is that hazel is widely available, grows at a much faster rate in vivo, and is easier to cultivate in vitro than yew. In addition, the production of callus directly from hazel seeds shortens the culture time and minimizes the probability of contamination. Therefore, hazel could become a

  4. On the limit matrix obtained in the homogenization of an optimal ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. A new formulation for the limit matrix occurring in the cost functional of an optimal control problem on homogenization is obtained. It is used to obtain an upper bound for this matrix (in the sense of positive definite matrices).

  5. Human Rights, Human Needs, Human Development, Human Security - Relationships between four international human discourses.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.R. Gasper (Des)

    2007-01-01

    markdownabstractAbstract: Human rights, human development and human security form increasingly important, partly interconnected, partly competitive and misunderstood ethical and policy discourses. Each tries to humanize a pre-existing and unavoidable major discourse of everyday life, policy and

  6. 22 CFR 42.1 - Aliens not required to obtain immigrant visas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Aliens not required to obtain immigrant visas... Immigrants § 42.1 Aliens not required to obtain immigrant visas. An immigrant within any of the following categories is not required to obtain an immigrant visa: (a) Aliens lawfully admitted for permanent residence...

  7. 5 CFR 410.308 - Training to obtain an academic degree.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Training to obtain an academic degree... REGULATIONS TRAINING Establishing and Implementing Training Programs § 410.308 Training to obtain an academic degree. (a) An agency may authorize training for an employee to obtain an academic degree under...

  8. Human Rights and Human Nature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vittorio Possenti

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available There seems to be two different versions of human rights in Western tradition: say Rationalistic and Christian; the former adopted in revolutionary France, the latter highly developed in Renaissance Spain. Current relativistic criticisms attempt to deny the universality of human rights alleging that this theory has been created in Western countries or it has no strong justification, and therefore cannot have universal approach; but this objection can be dismissed with an alternative justification of human rights.

  9. Think Human

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Charlotte Marie Bisgaard

    2013-01-01

    years' campaigns suggests that the theory of communication underlying the campaign has its basis in mechanical action rather than in human communication. The practice of 'Communication design' is investigated in relation to this metaphorical 'machine thinking' model of communication and contrasted...... with the human-centered theory of communication advocated by integrationism....

  10. Human trichuriasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Betson, Martha; Søe, Martin Jensen; Nejsum, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Human trichuriasis is a neglected tropical disease which affects hundreds of millions of people worldwide and is particularly prevalent among children living in areas where sanitation is poor. This review examines the current knowledge on the taxonomy, genetics and phylogeography of human Trichuris...

  11. Human kapital

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grosen, Anders; Nielsen, Peder Harbjerg

    2007-01-01

    finansiel og human kapital. Den traditionelle rådgivnings snævre synsvinkel kan føre til forkerte investeringsråd. Der skal derfor opfordres til, at de finansielle virksomheder i tilrettelæggelsen af deres rådgivning af private kunder systematisk inddrager den humane kapitals størrelse og karakteristika i...

  12. Hormetic Influence of Glucocorticoids on Human Memory

    OpenAIRE

    Lupien, Sonia J.; Buss, Claudia; Schramek, Tania E.; Maheu, Francoise; Pruessner, Jens

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, we discuss the effects of glucocorticoids on human learning and memory using the recent model of hormesis proposed by Calabrese and collaborators. Although acute increases in glucocorticoids have been shown to impair memory function in humans, other studies report no such impairments or, in contrast, beneficial effects of acute glucocorticoid increases on human memory function. We summarize these studies and assess whether the wealth of data obtained in humans with regard to th...

  13. Evaluation of marginal and internal gaps of metal ceramic crowns obtained from conventional impressions and casting techniques with those obtained from digital techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Rathika; Kumar, S Arun; Prabhu, R; Govindan, Ranjani Thillai; Tanveer, Faiz Mohamed

    2017-01-01

    Accuracy in fit of cast metal restoration has always remained as one of the primary factors in determining the success of the restoration. A well-fitting restoration needs to be accurate both along its margin and with regard to its internal surface. The aim of the study is to evaluate the marginal fit of metal ceramic crowns obtained by conventional inlay casting wax pattern using conventional impression with the metal ceramic crowns obtained by computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) technique using direct and indirect optical scanning. This in vitro study on preformed custom-made stainless steel models with former assembly that resembles prepared tooth surfaces of standardized dimensions comprised three groups: the first group included ten samples of metal ceramic crowns fabricated with conventional technique, the second group included CAD/CAM-milled direct metal laser sintering (DMLS) crowns using indirect scanning, and the third group included DMLS crowns fabricated by direct scanning of the stainless steel model. The vertical marginal gap and the internal gap were evaluated with the stereomicroscope (Zoomstar 4); post hoc Turkey's test was used for statistical analysis. One-way analysis of variance method was used to compare the mean values. Metal ceramic crowns obtained from direct optical scanning showed the least marginal and internal gap when compared to the castings obtained from inlay casting wax and indirect optical scanning. Indirect and direct optical scanning had yielded results within clinically acceptable range.

  14. Comparison of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid obtained by manual aspiration with a handheld syringe with that obtained by automated suction pump aspiration from healthy dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Katharine S; Defarges, Alice M N; Abrams-Ogg, Anthony C G; Dobson, Howard; Brisson, Brigitte A; Viel, Laurent; Bienzle, Dorothee

    2014-01-01

    To compare bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid obtained by manual aspiration (MA) with a handheld syringe with that obtained by suction pump aspiration (SPA) in healthy dogs. 13 adult Beagles. Each dog was anesthetized and bronchoscopic BAL was performed. The MA technique was accomplished with a 35-mL syringe attached to the bronchoscope biopsy channel. The SPA technique was achieved with negative pressure (5 kPa) applied to the bronchoscope suction valve with a disposable suction trap. Both aspiration techniques were performed in each dog in randomized order on opposite caudal lung lobes. Two 1 mL/kg aliquots of warm saline (0.9% NaCl) solution were infused per site. For each BAL fluid sample, the percentage of retrieved fluid was calculated, the total nucleated cell count (TNCC) and differential cell count were determined, and semiquantitative assessment of slide quality was performed. Comparisons were made between MA and SPA techniques for each outcome. 1 dog was removed from the study because of illness. The mean percentage of fluid retrieved (mean difference, 23%) and median TNCC (median distribution of differences, 100 cells/μL) for samples obtained by SPA were significantly greater than those for samples obtained by MA. In healthy dogs, BAL by SPA resulted in a significantly higher percentage of fluid retrieval and samples with a higher TNCC than did MA. Further evaluation of aspiration techniques in dogs with respiratory tract disease is required to assess whether SPA improves the diagnostic yield of BAL samples.

  15. Human Computation

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2008-01-01

    What if people could play computer games and accomplish work without even realizing it? What if billions of people collaborated to solve important problems for humanity or generate training data for computers? My work aims at a general paradigm for doing exactly that: utilizing human processing power to solve computational problems in a distributed manner. In particular, I focus on harnessing human time and energy for addressing problems that computers cannot yet solve. Although computers have advanced dramatically in many respects over the last 50 years, they still do not possess the basic conceptual intelligence or perceptual capabilities...

  16. Size-controlled gold nanoparticles obtained from electrodeposited amidoferrocenylpoly(propyleneimine) dendrimer-templates for the electrochemical sensing of dopamine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villena, Carlos; Bravo, Marta; Alonso, Beatriz; Casado, Carmen M.; Losada, José; García Armada, M. Pilar

    2017-10-01

    Nanometer-scale gold particles exhibit size-dependent electronic properties with important sensing and biosensing applications. In the same way, a lot of analytes show some type of surface-sensitive reaction and the electrode material has a strong influence on the catalytic activity. In this work we study the kinetics and electrochemistry of electrodes with size controlled gold nanoparticles, obtained by electrodeposited amidoferrocenylpoly(propyleneimine) dendrimers of two generations as templates, and the kinetics and the analytical response to the oxidation of dopamine. We demonstrate that the four-types of modified electrodes show good catalytic responses toward the oxidation of dopamine via different processes in relation with the absence or presence of gold nanoparticles and their size. The best response was obtained with the largest nanoparticles, obtained with the first generation dendrimer-template at 0.3 V vs. SCE, with three linear ranges (0-70, 70-600 and 600-1000 μM), with sensitivities 585.7; 466.0 and 314.3 μA/mM cm2, and limit of detection of 0.01 μM. The effect of interfering substances has been studied by differential pulse voltammetry and the developed sensor has been successfully used for the determination of dopamine in a commercial dopamine hydrochloride injection and in spiked Human urine.

  17. Human phantom

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1973-01-01

    This human phantom has been received by CERN on loan from the State Committee of the USSR for the Utilization of Atomic Energy. It is used by the Health Physics Group to study personel radiation doses near the accelerators.

  18. Human expunction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klee, Robert

    2017-10-01

    Thomas Nagel in `The Absurd' (Nagel 1971) mentions the future expunction of the human species as a `metaphor' for our ability to see our lives from the outside, which he claims is one source of our sense of life's absurdity. I argue that the future expunction (not to be confused with extinction) of everything human - indeed of everything biological in a terran sense - is not a mere metaphor but a physical certainty under the laws of nature. The causal processes by which human expunction will take place are presented in some empirical detail, so that philosophers cannot dismiss it as merely speculative. I also argue that appeals to anthropic principles or to forms of mystical cosmology are of no plausible avail in the face of human expunction under the laws of physics.

  19. Human brucellosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Franco, María Pía; Mulder, Maximilian; Gilman, Robert H.; Smits, Henk L.

    2007-01-01

    Human brucellosis still presents scientists and clinicians with several challenges, such as the understanding of pathogenic mechanisms of Brucella spp, the identification of markers for disease severity, progression, and treatment response, and the development of improved treatment regimens.

  20. Human Toxicity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jolliet, Olivier; Fantke, Peter

    2015-01-01

    This chapter reviews the human toxicological impacts of chemicals and how to assess these impacts in life cycle impact assessment (LCIA), in order to identify key processes and pollutants. The complete cause-effect pathway – from emissions of toxic substances up to damages on human health...... on characterisation factors means that results should by default be reported and interpreted in log scales when comparing scenarios or substance contribution! We conclude by outlining future trends in human toxicity modelling for LCIA, with promising developments for (a) better estimates of degradation halflives, (b......) the inclusion of ionization of chemicals in human exposure including bioaccumulation, (c) metal speciation, (d) spatialised models to differentiate the variability associated with spatialisation from the uncertainty, and (e) the assessment of chemical exposure via consumer products and occupational settings...

  1. Essential oils from clove affect growth of Penicillium species obtained from lemons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, J A; González, R

    2013-01-01

    Continuous use of fungicides to control citrus postharvest diseases has led to increasing resistant strains of pathogens. Since the appearance of fungicide resistance has become an important factor in limiting the efficacy fungicide treatments, new studies have been needed in order to improve control methods. There is a growing consumer's concern about the possible harmful effects of synthetic fungicides on the human health and the environment. Alternatives to synthetic fungicides for citrus decay control include essential oils. These compounds are known for their natural components and they are searched for potential bioactive plant extracts against fungi. In this study, two isolates of P. digitatum and P. italicum each were collected from lemon fruits affected by green and blue mould, respectively. Isolates were purified in potato dextrose agar (PDA) in order to separate the two species which we are demonstrated that they commonly grow together in nature. In vitro assays, in which isolates were grown at 26 degrees C on Petri dishes containing PDA for up to 17 days, were carried out by pouring several doses of essential oils from clove (Syzygium aromaticum L.) on PDA to obtain the following concentrations (v/v): 1.6; 8, 40, 200 and 500 microL L(-1) + tween 80 (0.1 mL L(-1)). Mycelial growth curves and growth, conidiation, mass of aerial mycelium and conidial size were measured. Penicillium isolates showed a slight degree of variability in their growth kinetics, depending on the isolate. 500 microL L(-1) inhibited the growth of all the isolates, whereas concentrations lower than 40 microL L(-1) slightly increased the growth. 200 microL L(-1) reduced both growth and conidiation in all isolates. Aerial mycelium of P. digitatum was not affected by clove, whereas reduced the mass of mycelium of P. italicum at concentrations higher than 8 microL L(-1). In vivo experiment was carried out inoculating a drop of an extract of conidia with a hypodermal syringe though a

  2. Obtaining water with a high degree of purity by using reverse osmosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolae Chirilă

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we used the method of reverse osmosis in order to obtain water with a high degree of purity. For this aim, we used the TKA 20-120ECO device. We completed physic-chemical determinations for the water of supply, as well as for the water obtained after the osmosis process. The results that we obtained are relevant and interesting.

  3. Human ehrlichiosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đokić Milomir

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Human ehrlichiosis is a newly recognized disease. It is a tick-borne disease caused by several bacterial species of the genhus Erlichia. These are small gram-negative pleomorphic cocci, that are obligatory intracellular bacteria. Tick Ixodes is the principle vector in Europe, and Amblyomma americanum in the United States. Bacterial organisms replicate in a tick, and are transmited from infected cells in a vector to the blood cells of animals or humans. Human ehrlichiosis is a name for a group of diseases caused by different species of Ehrlichia. One of them is the disease named human monocytic ehrlichiosis, caused by Ehrlichia chaffeensis, and the other is a human granulocytic ehrlichiosis caused by Anaplasma phagocytophilia. Case report. We reported a 23-year-old patient admitted for the clinical treatment with the symptoms of high febrility (above 40 °C, headache, vomiting, general weakness and exhaustion, but without data on a tick bite. The patient was treated with trimetoprim-sulfamethoxazole for a week when Ehrlichia chaffeensis was confirmed by the immunofluoroscence test, and the therapy contimed with doxacyclin. Conclusion. Human ehrlichiosis is also present in our country, so this disease should be considered everyday, especially in infectology practice.

  4. Evaluation of marginal and internal gaps of metal ceramic crowns obtained from conventional impressions and casting techniques with those obtained from digital techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rathika Rai

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Accuracy in fit of cast metal restoration has always remained as one of the primary factors in determining the success of the restoration. A well-fitting restoration needs to be accurate both along its margin and with regard to its internal surface. Aim: The aim of the study is to evaluate the marginal fit of metal ceramic crowns obtained by conventional inlay casting wax pattern using conventional impression with the metal ceramic crowns obtained by computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM technique using direct and indirect optical scanning. Materials and Methods: This in vitro study on preformed custom-made stainless steel models with former assembly that resembles prepared tooth surfaces of standardized dimensions comprised three groups: the first group included ten samples of metal ceramic crowns fabricated with conventional technique, the second group included CAD/CAM-milled direct metal laser sintering (DMLS crowns using indirect scanning, and the third group included DMLS crowns fabricated by direct scanning of the stainless steel model. The vertical marginal gap and the internal gap were evaluated with the stereomicroscope (Zoomstar 4; post hoc Turkey's test was used for statistical analysis. One-way analysis of variance method was used to compare the mean values. Results and Conclusion: Metal ceramic crowns obtained from direct optical scanning showed the least marginal and internal gap when compared to the castings obtained from inlay casting wax and indirect optical scanning. Indirect and direct optical scanning had yielded results within clinically acceptable range.

  5. Early observations in radiculopathic pain control using electrodiagnostically derived new treatment techniques: automated twitch-obtaining intramuscular stimulation (ATOIMS) and electrical twitch-obtaining intramuscular stimulation (ETOIMS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, J

    2000-06-01

    To show in a pilot group of patients that electrodiagnostically derived new treatment techniques (automated twitch-obtaining intramuscular stimulation (ATOIMS) and electrical twitch-obtaining intramuscular stimulation (ETOIMS) methods) have a role in the control of radiculopathy related myofascial pain and fibromyalgia. Retrospective analysis of six patients treated between 6-96 and 10-98. All received sequential treatments with ETOIMS and combined ATOIMS and ETOIMS of which four began treatments with standard TOIMS (StdTOIMS). The StdTOIMS utilized manual oscillation of a monopolar electromyographic (EMG) pin at tender muscle sites. ETOIMS employed microelectrical stimulation at 2 Hz for two seconds/site. The ATOIMS device automatically inserts and retracts a monopolar EMG pin after oscillating it at 2 Hz for three cycles/two seconds/site. Obtaining forceful muscle twitches were the goals of all three treatments. Treatment included multiple points in bilateral multiple myotomes. Patients received weekly treatments and recorded daily visual analog pain levels. Significant reductions in pain levels occurred with the use of ETOIMS compared to that achieved with StdTOIMS. The combined use of ATOIMS and ETOIMS was more effective in reducing pain than StdTOIMS or ETOIMS only treatments. Control of radiculopathy related myofascial pain and fibromyalgia using the ETOIMS with ATOIMS methods seem promising. Reduction of mechanical tension through muscle relaxation is the proposed basis for the pain relief. There is a need for prospective studies to document efficacy in myofascial pain control.

  6. Human milk donation is an alternative to human milk bank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Ho-Torng; Fong, Tze-Vun; Hassan, Nurulhuda Mat; Wong, Hoi-Ling; Rai, Jasminder Kaur; Khalid, Zorina

    2012-04-01

    Human milk bank is a source of human milk supply in many neonatal intensive care units. However, there are some hospitals without this facility because of financial or religious impediments, such as the Muslim community. We introduced human milk donation as an alternative to human milk banking based on Islamic principles. The suitable donor is a healthy rooming-in mother whose expressed breastmilk is in excess of her baby's demand. The milk is used after 72 hours of freezing at -20°C. The donor must fulfill the criteria for selection of donors and be nonreactive to human immunodeficiency virus and syphilis. Once the recipient's family and the donor state their desire for the human milk donation, a meeting with both parties is made. Unpasteurized frozen-thawed donor's milk will be provided to the recipient after written consents are obtained from both parties. This study was carried out in the Duchess of Kent Hospital (Sandakan, Sabah, Malaysia) between January 2009 and December 2010. A total of 48 babies received donated breastmilk. Forty-two infants were from the special care nursery, and the remaining six were from the pediatric ward. Eighty-eight percent of the donors and 77% of the recipients were Muslims. Sixty percent of the infants who received donated human milk were premature. Two infants died because of the underlying nature of their disease. Human milk donation is an option for hospitals without a human milk bank or in the Muslim community.

  7. 49 CFR 40.141 - How does the MRO obtain information for the verification decision?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Verification Process § 40.141 How does the MRO obtain information for the verification decision? As the MRO... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false How does the MRO obtain information for the verification decision? 40.141 Section 40.141 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation...

  8. Position of two southern radiostars obtained with the Danjon astrolabe at Santiago

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Debarbat, S.; Noel, F.

    1988-10-01

    Precise values derived from astrolabe observations, are given for the right ascension of the radiostar ..cap alpha.. Sco A obtained during 1986 and for the right ascension and declination of the radio star 9 Sgr obtained during the period 1984-1986.

  9. 22 CFR 212.25 - Procedures for obtaining materials under this subpart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...) The direct costs of any necessary duplication will be charged in accordance with the fee schedule set... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Procedures for obtaining materials under this... Availability of Information for Public Inspection and Copying § 212.25 Procedures for obtaining materials under...

  10. Obtaining ABET Student Outcome Satisfaction from Course Learning Outcome Data Using Fuzzy Logic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imam, Muhammad Hasan; Tasadduq, Imran Ali; Ahmad, Abdul-Rahim; Aldosari, Fahd

    2017-01-01

    One of the approaches for obtaining the satisfaction data for ABET "Student Outcomes" (SOs) is to transform Course Learning Outcomes (CLOs) satisfaction data obtained through assessment of CLOs to SO satisfaction data. Considering the fuzzy nature of metrics of CLOs and SOs, a Fuzzy Logic algorithm has been proposed to extract SO…

  11. 20 CFR 702.319 - Obtaining documents from the administrative file for reintroduction at formal hearings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Obtaining documents from the administrative file for reintroduction at formal hearings. 702.319 Section 702.319 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT....319 Obtaining documents from the administrative file for reintroduction at formal hearings. Whenever...

  12. Chemical short range order obtained from the atomic pair distribution function

    OpenAIRE

    Proffen, Th.; Petkov, V.; Billinge, S. J. L.; Vogt, T.

    2002-01-01

    Many crystalline materials show chemical short range order and relaxation of neighboring atoms. Local structural information can be obtained by analyzing the atomic pair distribution function (PDF) obtained from powder diffraction data. In this paper, we present the successful extraction of chemical short range order parameters from the x-ray PDF of a quenched Cu_3Au sample.

  13. Obtaining Consent from Young People with Autism to Participate in Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loyd, Daisy

    2013-01-01

    Young people with autism were involved in a study examining the participation of young people with autism in drama education. This study considers the approaches devised to obtain consent from ten young people with autism who communicated in different ways. The process of obtaining consent and monitoring assent is outlined and evaluated. The…

  14. 32 CFR 37.860 - What rights should I obtain for inventions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What rights should I obtain for inventions? 37... Matters Intellectual Property § 37.860 What rights should I obtain for inventions? (a) You should negotiate rights in inventions that represent a good balance between the Government's interests (see § 37...

  15. 21 CFR 1311.25 - Requirements for obtaining a CSOS digital certificate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... request for certification of the public digital signature key. After the request is approved, the... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Requirements for obtaining a CSOS digital... REQUIREMENTS FOR ELECTRONIC ORDERS AND PRESCRIPTIONS (Eff. 6-1-10) Obtaining and Using Digital Certificates for...

  16. Genetic and phenotypic diversity of Ralstonia solanacearum biovar 2 strains obtained from Dutch waterways

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stevens, P.; van Elsas, J.D.

    A novel set of Ralstonia solanacearum biovar 2 isolates was obtained, at several sampling occasions, from Dutch waterways, sediment and bittersweet plants and their genetic and phenotypic diversity was investigated. As reference strains, two previously-described strains obtained from diseased potato

  17. 32 CFR Appendix A to Part 275 - Obtaining Basic Identifying Account Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Obtaining Basic Identifying Account Information A Appendix A to Part 275 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS OBTAINING INFORMATION FROM FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS: RIGHT TO FINANCIAL PRIVACY ACT OF 1978 Pt. 275, App. A...

  18. A new form of MgTa2O6 obtained by the molten salt method

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    In addition, scanning electron micrographs (SEM) were obtained on a Cambridge Stereoscan 360 electron microscope to observe the morphology of the grains obtained. The dielectric constant was measured on sintered disks. (1100°C) coated with silver using a HP 4284L LCR meter in the frequency range of 50 Hz to 500 ...

  19. 7 CFR 32.402 - Samples of mohair top grades; method of obtaining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Samples of mohair top grades; method of obtaining. 32... STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS PURCHASE OF GREASE MOHAIR AND MOHAIR TOP SAMPLES § 32.402 Samples of mohair top grades; method of obtaining. Samples certified as representative of the official standards of the...

  20. 7 CFR 32.400 - Samples of grease mohair grades; method of obtaining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Samples of grease mohair grades; method of obtaining... STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS PURCHASE OF GREASE MOHAIR AND MOHAIR TOP SAMPLES § 32.400 Samples of grease mohair grades; method of obtaining. Samples certified as representative of the official standards of the...

  1. 38 CFR 61.15 - Obtaining additional information and awarding capital grants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Obtaining additional information and awarding capital grants. 61.15 Section 61.15 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) VA HOMELESS PROVIDERS GRANT AND PER DIEM PROGRAM § 61.15 Obtaining...

  2. 30 CFR 250.409 - May I obtain departures from these drilling requirements?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Oil and Gas Drilling Operations General Requirements § 250.409 May I obtain departures from these drilling requirements? The District... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false May I obtain departures from these drilling...

  3. 21 CFR 1305.11 - Procedure for obtaining DEA Forms 222.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Procedure for obtaining DEA Forms 222. 1305.11... I AND II CONTROLLED SUBSTANCES DEA Form 222 § 1305.11 Procedure for obtaining DEA Forms 222. (a) DEA..., which is based on the business activity of the registrant, will be imposed on the number of DEA Forms...

  4. 41 CFR 101-39.4901 - Obtaining standard and optional forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... VEHICLES 39-INTERAGENCY FLEET MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS 39.49-Forms § 101-39.4901 Obtaining standard and optional... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Obtaining standard and optional forms. 101-39.4901 Section 101-39.4901 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property...

  5. 32 CFR Appendix G to Part 275 - Releasing Information Obtained From Financial Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... record was obtained pursuant to the Right to Financial Privacy Act of 1978, 12 U.S.C. 3401 et seq., and... further a legitimate law enforcement inquiry, you may have legal rights under the Financial Privacy Act of... information which was obtained pursuant to the Right to Privacy Act of 1978, 12 U.S.C. 3401 et seq. This...

  6. 42 CFR 420.304 - Procedures for obtaining access to books, documents, and records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Procedures for obtaining access to books, documents... Books, Documents, and Records of Subcontractors § 420.304 Procedures for obtaining access to books... following elements: (1) Reasonable identification of the books, documents, and records to which access is...

  7. 20 CFR 30.406 - Are there any exceptions to these procedures for obtaining medical care?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... for obtaining medical care? 30.406 Section 30.406 Employees' Benefits OFFICE OF WORKERS' COMPENSATION... AMENDED Medical and Related Benefits Medical Treatment and Related Issues § 30.406 Are there any exceptions to these procedures for obtaining medical care? In cases involving emergencies or unusual...

  8. 20 CFR 10.304 - Are there any exceptions to these procedures for obtaining medical care?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... for obtaining medical care? 10.304 Section 10.304 Employees' Benefits OFFICE OF WORKERS' COMPENSATION... EMPLOYEES' COMPENSATION ACT, AS AMENDED Medical and Related Benefits Emergency Medical Care § 10.304 Are there any exceptions to these procedures for obtaining medical care? In cases involving emergencies or...

  9. Characterization of Titanium Oxide Nanoparticles Obtained by Hydrolysis Reaction of Ethylene Glycol Solution of Alkoxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naofumi Uekawa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Transparent and stable sols of titanium oxide nanoparticles were obtained by heating a mixture of ethylene glycol solution of titanium tetraisopropoxide (TIP and a NH3 aqueous solution at 368 K for 24 h. The concentration of NH3 aqueous solution affected the structure of the obtained titanium oxide nanoparticles. For NH3 aqueous solution concentrations higher than 0.2 mol/L, a mixture of anatase TiO2 nanoparticles and layered titanic acid nanoparticles was obtained. The obtained sol was very stable without formation of aggregated precipitates and gels. Coordination of ethylene glycol to Ti4+ ions inhibited the rapid hydrolysis reaction and aggregation of the obtained nanoparticles. The obtained titanium oxide nanoparticles had a large specific surface area: larger than 350 m2/g. The obtained titanium oxide nanoparticles showed an enhanced adsorption towards the cationic dye molecules. The selective adsorption corresponded to presence of layered titanic acid on the obtained anatase TiO2 nanoparticles.

  10. 32 CFR Appendix D to Part 275 - Obtaining Access By Search Warrant

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS OBTAINING INFORMATION FROM FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS: RIGHT TO FINANCIAL PRIVACY ACT... of Criminal Procedure. B. Unless a delay of notice has been obtained under provisions of Appendix H... rights under the Right to Financial Privacy Act of 1978.” C. In any state or territory of the United...

  11. 40 CFR 1045.201 - What are the general requirements for obtaining a certificate of conformity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... obtaining a certificate of conformity? 1045.201 Section 1045.201 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... obtaining a certificate of conformity? Engine manufacturers must certify their engines with respect to the... conformity: (a) You must send us a separate application for a certificate of conformity for each engine...

  12. 40 CFR 1039.201 - What are the general requirements for obtaining a certificate of conformity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... obtaining a certificate of conformity? 1039.201 Section 1039.201 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... obtaining a certificate of conformity? (a) You must send us a separate application for a certificate of conformity for each engine family. A certificate of conformity is valid from the indicated effective date...

  13. Dynamics of Venus' Southern hemisphere and South Polar Vortex from VIRTIS data obtained during the Venus Expres Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hueso, R.; Garate-Lopez, I.; Sanchez-Lavega, A.

    2011-12-01

    The VIRTIS instrument onboard Venus Express observes Venus in two channels (visible and infrared) obtaining spectra and multi-wavelength images of the planet. The images have been used to trace the motions of the atmosphere at different layers of clouds [1-3]. We review the VIRTIS cloud image data and wind results obtained by different groups [1-3] and we present new results concerning the morphology and evolution of the South Polar Vortex at the upper and lower cloud levels with data covering the first 900 days of the mission. We present wind measurements of the South hemisphere obtained by cloud tracking individual cloud features and higher-resolution wind results of the polar region covering the evolution of the South polar vortex. The later were obtained by an image correlation algorithm run under human supervision to validate the data. We present day-side data of the upper clouds obtained at 380 and 980 nm sensitive to altitudes of 66-70 km, night-side data in the near infrared at 1.74 microns of the lower cloud (45-50 km) and day and night-side data obtained in the thermal infrared (wavelengths of 3.8 and 5.1 microns) which covers the dynamical evolution of Venus South Polar vortex at the cloud tops (66-70 km). We explore the different dynamics associated to the varying morphology of the vortex, its dynamical structure at different altitudes, the variability of the global wind data of the southern hemisphere and the interrelation of the polar vortex dynamics with the wind dynamics at subpolar and mid-latitudes. Acknowledgements: Work funded by Spanish MICIIN AYA2009-10701 with FEDER support and Grupos Gobierno Vasco IT-464-07. References [1] A. Sánchez-Lavega et al., Geophys. Res. Lett. 35, L13204, (2008). [2] D. Luz et al., Science, 332, 577-580 (2011). [3] R. Hueso, et al., Icarus doi:10.1016/j.icarus.2011.04.020 (2011)

  14. Evaluation of agreement between temporal series obtained from electrocardiogram and pulse wave.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leikan, GM; Rossi, E.; Sanz, MCuadra; Delisle Rodríguez, D.; Mántaras, MC; Nicolet, J.; Zapata, D.; Lapyckyj, I.; Siri, L. Nicola; Perrone, MS

    2016-04-01

    Heart rate variability allows to study the cardiovascular autonomic nervous system modulation. Usually, this signal is obtained from the electrocardiogram (ECG). A simpler method for recording the pulse wave (PW) is by means of finger photoplethysmography (PPG), which also provides information about the duration of the cardiac cycle. In this study, the correlation and agreement between the time series of the intervals between heartbeats obtained from the ECG with those obtained from the PPG, were studied. Signals analyzed were obtained from young, healthy and resting subjects. For statistical analysis, the Pearson correlation coefficient and the Bland and Altman limits of agreement were used. Results show that the time series constructed from the PW would not replace the ones obtained from ECG.

  15. Genetic differences between avian and human isolates of Candida dubliniensis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McManus, Brenda A

    2009-09-01

    When Candida dubliniensis isolates obtained from seabird excrement and from humans in Ireland were compared by using multilocus sequence typing, 13 of 14 avian isolates were genetically distinct from human isolates. The remaining avian isolate was indistinguishable from a human isolate, suggesting that transmission may occur between humans and birds.

  16. [Humanized childbirth].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Su-Chen

    2005-06-01

    Childbirth is a major event in a family. The expectant parent's perception of the childbirth experience influences his or her development as a parent. Making childbirth a positive and satisfying experience for women is the responsibility of health care providers. Women want to have physical and emotional privacy during labor and delivery, and to experience both in a friendly, comfortable environment. For women expected to undergo normal deliveries, humanized childbirth is one accessible approach. This article explores the definition and evolution of humanized childbirth and the care practice that it involves. It also explores birth plans and birth experiences, and the improvements necessary to routine labor practices to enable women to participate in decision making about their childbirth experiences. The author emphasizes that when health-care providers recognize the value of humanized childbirth and make changes accordingly, the dignity of women's childbirth experiences will be enhanced.

  17. Human monkeypox.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCollum, Andrea M; Damon, Inger K

    2014-01-01

    Human monkeypox is a zoonotic Orthopoxvirus with a presentation similar to smallpox. Clinical differentiation of the disease from smallpox and varicella is difficult. Laboratory diagnostics are principal components to identification and surveillance of disease, and new tests are needed for a more precise and rapid diagnosis. The majority of human infections occur in Central Africa, where surveillance in rural areas with poor infrastructure is difficult but can be accomplished with evidence-guided tools and educational materials to inform public health workers of important principles. Contemporary epidemiological studies are needed now that populations do not receive routine smallpox vaccination. New therapeutics and vaccines offer hope for the treatment and prevention of monkeypox; however, more research must be done before they are ready to be deployed in an endemic setting. There is a need for more research in the epidemiology, ecology, and biology of the virus in endemic areas to better understand and prevent human infections.

  18. Estimating the burden of human leptospirosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abela-Ridder, Bernadette; Sikkema, Reina; Hartskeerl, Rudy A.

    2010-01-01

    Leptospirosis, a disease that is often under- or misdiagnosed, significantly impacts human health in many parts of the world and generally affects the most vulnerable communities. Obtaining reliable and comparable information about the occurrence of leptospirosis in populations, and detecting

  19. The role of the monopolar electromyographic pin in myofascial pain therapy: automated twitch-obtaining intramuscular stimulation (ATOIMS) and electrical twitch-obtaining intramuscular stimulation (ETOIMS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, J

    1999-12-01

    To show that the monopolar pin electrode has a role in the control of radiculopathy related myofascial pain and fibromyalgia using the automated twitch-obtaining intramuscular stimulation (ATOIMS) and electrical twitch-obtaining intramuscular stimulation (ETOIMS) methods. A hand-held ATOIMS device facilitated the insertion, oscillation and retraction of the monopolar pin into motor end-plate regions. The device oscillated the pin at 2 Hz for three times in two seconds. ETOIMS method employed micro-stimulation at 2 Hz for two seconds/point. Obtaining muscle twitches were the goals of both treatments. This is a retrospective study of two patients with fibromyalgia who received these treatments. Patient #1 with chronic low back > neck pain, underwent treatments which included the L2-S1 myotomes and patient #2 with chronic neck pain > low back pain, received treatments to the bilateral C2-T1 myotomes. Both received treatments also to bilateral C3-S1 paraspinal muscles. Treatments to both began with ETOIMS for two months and five months respectively. Following this period, they both received ATOIMS and ETOIMS to the same muscles in the same treatment session. The combined procedure sessions continued for the same treatment duration as for ETOIMS only sessions. Both patients recorded daily visual analog pain levels. Significant reductions in pain levels occurred with the increase in number of ETOIMS treatment sessions. More significant pain level reductions occurred with combined ATOIMS & ETOIMS treatments than with ETOIMS only treatments. The monopolar pin served both procedures well and there were no complications. The monopolar pin has a very promising role in the management of radiculopathy related myofascial pain using the ATOIMS and ETOIMS methods.

  20. Posthumanism: beyond humanism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valera, Luca

    2014-01-01

    The focal point of posthumanism consists not as such in an a-critical acceptance of the technological promises - like there is for transhumanism - but in a total contamination and hybridization of human beings with other living beings and machines (these are the two main forms of contamination). The change of perspective untaken by posthumanism would be, thus, a paradigmatic shift in anthropology. As with ecologism, posthumanism, in order to obtain total contamination and man's openness to otherness, proposes the elimination and the fluidification of boundaries, thus even denying man's identity, and, with it, the very possibility of openness. However, by denying the identity, one denies the condition of possibility of thought, just as it has been manifested in history until now: hence we understand how, primarily, posthumanism is not configured as an adequate philosophical reflection, but as a narrative that takes origin from certain requirements, which are eminently human, and that discloses its deeply anthropogenic roots.