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Sample records for human nasal fluid1

  1. Nasal obstruction and human communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malinoff, R; Moreno, C

    1989-04-01

    Nasal obstruction may cause a variety of communication disorders, particularly in children. The effects of nasal obstruction on hearing, speech, language, and voice are examined. Methods for assessing the effects of nasal obstruction are delineated, and recommendations for therapeutic interventions are described.

  2. Regional deposition of mometasone furoate nasal spray suspension in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Samir A; Berger, Robert L; McDermott, John; Gupta, Pranav; Monteith, David; Connor, Alyson; Lin, Wu

    2015-01-01

    Nasal deposition studies can demonstrate whether nasal sprays treating allergic rhinitis and polyposis reach the ciliated posterior nasal cavity, where turbinate inflammation and other pathology occurs. However, quantifying nasal deposition is challenging, because in vitro tests do not correlate to human nasal deposition; gamma scintigraphy studies are thus used. For valid data, the radiolabel must distribute, as the drug, into different-sized droplets, remain associated with the drug in the formulation after administration, and not alter its deposition. Some nasal deposition studies have demonstrated this using homogenous solutions. However, most commercial nasal sprays are heterogeneous suspensions. Using mometasone furoate nasal suspension (MFS), we developed a technique to validate radiolabel deposition as a surrogate for nasal cavity drug deposition and characterized regional deposition and nasal clearance in humans. Mometasone furoate (MF) formulation was spiked with diethylene triamine pentacaetic acid. Both unlabeled and radiolabeled formulations (n = 3) were sprayed into a regionally divided nasal cast. Drug deposition was quantified by high pressure liquid chromatography within each region; radiolabel deposition was determined by gamma camera. Healthy subjects (n = 12) were dosed and imaged for six hours. Scintigraphic images were coregistered with magnetic resonance imaging scans to quantify anterior and posterior nasal cavity deposition and mucociliary clearance. The ratio of radiolabel to unlabeled drug was 1.05 in the nasal cast and regionally appeared to match, indicating that in vivo radiolabel deposition could represent drug deposition. In humans, MFS delivered 86% (9.2) of metered dose to the nasal cavity, approximately 60% (9.1) of metered dose to the posterior nasal cavity. After 15 minutes, mucociliary clearance removed 59% of the initial radiolabel in the nasal cavity, consistent with clearance rates from the ciliated posterior surface. MFS

  3. Correlation of nasal geometry with aerosol deposition in human volunteers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, Yung-Seng; Simpson, S.Q.; Cheng, Kuo-His; Swift, D.L.; Yeh, Hsu-Chi; Guilmette, R.A.

    1994-01-01

    The nasal airways act as the first filter in the respiratory tract to remove very large or small particles, that would otherwise penetrate to the lower airways. Aerosol deposition data obtained with human volunteers vary considerably under comparable experimental conditions. Reasons for the intersubject variations have been frequently attributed to the geometry of the nasal passages. Because there is no direct proof of this hypothesis, nasal deposition of ultrafine particles in human volunteers has been studied in our laboratory. Preliminary results obtained with four adult volunteers also vary considerably between subjects. The purpose of this part of the study was to establish a theoretical equation relating diffusional deposition in nasal airways to the geometrical dimensions of the individual nasal airways. This relationship was then applied to the experimental deposition data and measurement of airway morphometry for correlation

  4. Nasal cytochrome P4502A: Identification in rats and humans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thornton-Manning, J.R.; Hotchkiss, J.A. [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States); Ding, Xinxin [Wadsworth Center for Laboratories and Research, Albany, NY (United States)] [and others

    1995-12-01

    The nasal mucosa, the first tissue of contact for inhaled xenobiotics, possesses substantial enobiotic-metabolizing capacti. Enzymes of the nasal cavity may metabolize xenobiotics to innocuous, more water-soluble compounds that are eliminated from the body, or they may bioactivate them to toxic metabolites. These toxic metabolites may find to cellular macromolecules in the nasal cavity or be transported to other parts of the body where they may react. Nasal carcinogenesis in rodents often results from bioactivation of xenobiotics. The increased incidences of nasal tumors associated with certain occupations suggest that xenobiotic bioactivation may be important in human nasal cancer etiology, as well. The increasing popularity of the nose as a route of drug administration makes information concerning nasal drug metabolism and disposition vital to accomplish therapeutic goals. For these reasons, the study of xenobiotic-met abolizing capacity of the nasal cavity is an important area of health-related research. In the present study, we have confirmed the presence of CYP2A6 mRNA in human respiratory mucosa.

  5. Human factor in Staphylococcus aureus nasal carriage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.L. Nouwen (Jan); H.A.M. Boelens (Hélène); A.F. van Belkum (Alex); H.A. Verbrugh (Henri)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractPersistent nasal carriers and noncarriers of Staphylococcus aureus were inoculated with a mixture of different S. aureus strains. The majority of noncarriers and nearly all persistent carriers returned to their original carrier state after artificial inoculation. Furthermore, the

  6. Zicam-induced damage to mouse and human nasal tissue.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae H Lim

    Full Text Available Intranasal medications are used to treat various nasal disorders. However, their effects on olfaction remain unknown. Zicam (zinc gluconate; Matrixx Initiatives, Inc, a homeopathic substance marketed to alleviate cold symptoms, has been implicated in olfactory dysfunction. Here, we investigated Zicam and several common intranasal agents for their effects on olfactory function. Zicam was the only substance that showed significant cytotoxicity in both mouse and human nasal tissue. Specifically, Zicam-treated mice had disrupted sensitivity of olfactory sensory neurons to odorant stimulation and were unable to detect novel odorants in behavioral testing. These findings were long-term as no recovery of function was observed after two months. Finally, human nasal explants treated with Zicam displayed significantly elevated extracellular lactate dehydrogenase levels compared to saline-treated controls, suggesting severe necrosis that was confirmed on histology. Our results demonstrate that Zicam use could irreversibly damage mouse and human nasal tissue and may lead to significant smell dysfunction.

  7. Mechanics of airflow in the human nasal airways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doorly, D J; Taylor, D J; Schroter, R C

    2008-11-30

    The mechanics of airflow in the human nasal airways is reviewed, drawing on the findings of experimental and computational model studies. Modelling inevitably requires simplifications and assumptions, particularly given the complexity of the nasal airways. The processes entailed in modelling the nasal airways (from defining the model, to its production and, finally, validating the results) is critically examined, both for physical models and for computational simulations. Uncertainty still surrounds the appropriateness of the various assumptions made in modelling, particularly with regard to the nature of flow. New results are presented in which high-speed particle image velocimetry (PIV) and direct numerical simulation are applied to investigate the development of flow instability in the nasal cavity. These illustrate some of the improved capabilities afforded by technological developments for future model studies. The need for further improvements in characterising airway geometry and flow together with promising new methods are briefly discussed.

  8. Characterizing adult human nasal airway dimensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guilmette, R.A.; Griffith, W.C.

    1994-01-01

    Respiratory tract models used in calculating radiation dose from exposure to inhaled radioactive aerosols have only recently focused attention on the importance of the nasal airways (NAs). Because the NAs are the first tissues of the respiratory tract available for aerosol deposition in normally nose-breathing people, any deposition of aerosol in this anatomical structure will reduce the amounts available to be deposited in the remainder of the respiratory tract. Thus, uncertainties in estimating the deposition fractions in the NAs will propagate throughout the remainder of the respiratory tract, creating errors in the calculated dose estimates. Additionally, there is evidence that the NAs are also at risk for induction of cancer from exposure to certain occupational aerosols such as wood dust, leather dust, chromium, and nickel. The purpose of this investigation was to conduct an anatomical study to assess the variabilities in NA dimensions

  9. Effects of nasal drug delivery device and its orientation on sprayed particle deposition in a realistic human nasal cavity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Xuwen; Dong, Jingliang; Shang, Yidan; Inthavong, Kiao; Tu, Jiyuan

    2016-10-01

    In this study, the effects of nasal drug delivery device and the spray nozzle orientation on sprayed droplets deposition in a realistic human nasal cavity were numerically studied. Prior to performing the numerical investigation, an in-house designed automated actuation system representing mean adults actuation force was developed to produce realistic spray plume. Then, the spray plume development was filmed by high speed photography system, and spray characteristics such as spray cone angle, break-up length, and average droplet velocity were obtained through off-line image analysis. Continuing studies utilizing those experimental data as boundary conditions were applied in the following numerical spray simulations using a commercially available nasal spray device, which was inserted into a realistic adult nasal passage with external facial features. Through varying the particle releasing direction, the deposition fractions of selected particle sizes on the main nasal passage for targeted drug delivery were compared. The results demonstrated that the middle spray direction showed superior spray efficiency compared with upper or lower directions, and the 10µm agents were the most suitable particle size as the majority of sprayed agents can be delivered to the targeted area, the main passage. This study elaborates a comprehensive approach to better understand nasal spray mechanism and evaluate its performance for existing nasal delivery practices. Results of this study can assist the pharmaceutical industry to improve the current design of nasal drug delivery device and ultimately benefit more patients through optimized medications delivery. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Immediate effect of benzalkonium chloride in decongestant nasal spray on the human nasal mucosal temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindemann, J; Leiacker, R; Wiesmiller, K; Rettinger, G; Keck, T

    2004-08-01

    Benzalkonium chloride is a preservative commonly used in nasal decongestant sprays. It has been suggested that benzalkonium chloride may be harmful to the nasal mucosa. Decongestion with the vasoconstrictor xylometazoline containing benzalkonium chloride has been shown to cause a significant reduction of the nasal mucosal temperature. The purpose of the present study was to determine the short-term influence of xylometazoline nasal spray with and without benzalkonium chloride on the nasal mucosal temperature. Healthy volunteers (30) were included in the study. Fifteen volunteers received xylometazoline nasal spray (1.0 mg/mL) containing benzalkonium chloride (0.1 mg/mL) and 15 age-matched subjects, received xylometazoline nasal spray without benzalkonium chloride. Using a miniaturized thermocouple the septal mucosal temperature was continuously measured at defined intranasal detection sites before and after application of the nasal spray. The mucosal temperature values did not significantly differ between the group receiving xylometazoline containing benzalkonium chloride and the group receiving xylometazoline spray without benzalkonium chloride before and after decongestion (P > 0.05). In both study groups septal mucosal temperatures significantly decreased after decongestion (P reduction of the nasal mucosal blood flow following vasoconstriction. This study indicates that benzalkonium chloride itself does not seem to influence nasal blood flow and nasal mucosal temperature in topical nasal decongestants.

  11. The human nasal microbiota and Staphylococcus aureus carriage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel N Frank

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Colonization of humans with Staphylococcus aureus is a critical prerequisite of subsequent clinical infection of the skin, blood, lung, heart and other deep tissues. S. aureus persistently or intermittently colonizes the nares of approximately 50% of healthy adults, whereas approximately 50% of the general population is rarely or never colonized by this pathogen. Because microbial consortia within the nasal cavity may be an important determinant of S. aureus colonization we determined the composition and dynamics of the nasal microbiota and correlated specific microorganisms with S. aureus colonization. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Nasal specimens were collected longitudinally from five healthy adults and a cross-section of hospitalized patients (26 S. aureus carriers and 16 non-carriers. Culture-independent analysis of 16S rRNA sequences revealed that the nasal microbiota of healthy subjects consists primarily of members of the phylum Actinobacteria (e.g., Propionibacterium spp. and Corynebacterium spp., with proportionally less representation of other phyla, including Firmicutes (e.g., Staphylococcus spp. and Proteobacteria (e.g. Enterobacter spp. In contrast, inpatient nasal microbiotas were enriched in S. aureus or Staphylococcus epidermidis and diminished in several actinobacterial groups, most notably Propionibacterium acnes. Moreover, within the inpatient population S. aureus colonization was negatively correlated with the abundances of several microbial groups, including S. epidermidis (p = 0.004. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The nares environment is colonized by a temporally stable microbiota that is distinct from other regions of the integument. Negative association between S. aureus, S. epidermidis, and other groups suggests microbial competition during colonization of the nares, a finding that could be exploited to limit S. aureus colonization.

  12. Characterization of deposition from nasal spray devices using a computational fluid dynamics model of the human nasal passages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimbell, Julia S; Segal, Rebecca A; Asgharian, Bahman; Wong, Brian A; Schroeter, Jeffry D; Southall, Jeremy P; Dickens, Colin J; Brace, Geoff; Miller, Frederick J

    2007-01-01

    Many studies suggest limited effectiveness of spray devices for nasal drug delivery due primarily to high deposition and clearance at the front of the nose. Here, nasal spray behavior was studied using experimental measurements and a computational fluid dynamics model of the human nasal passages constructed from magnetic resonance imaging scans of a healthy adult male. Eighteen commercially available nasal sprays were analyzed for spray characteristics using laser diffraction, high-speed video, and high-speed spark photography. Steadystate, inspiratory airflow (15 L/min) and particle transport were simulated under measured spray conditions. Simulated deposition efficiency and spray behavior were consistent with previous experimental studies, two of which used nasal replica molds based on this nasal geometry. Deposition fractions (numbers of deposited particles divided by the number released) of 20- and 50-microm particles exceeded 90% in the anterior part of the nose for most simulated conditions. Predicted particle penetration past the nasal valve improved when (1) the smaller of two particle sizes or the lower of two spray velocities was used, (2) the simulated nozzle was positioned 1.0 rather than 0.5 or 1.5 cm into the nostril, and (3) inspiratory airflow was present rather than absent. Simulations also predicted that delaying the appearance of normal inspiratory airflow more than 1 sec after the release of particles produced results equivalent to cases in which no inspiratory airflow was present. These predictions contribute to more effective design of drug delivery devices through a better understanding of the effects of nasal airflow and spray characteristics on particle transport in the nose.

  13. Unsteady flow characteristics through a human nasal airway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jong-Hoon; Na, Yang; Kim, Sung-Kyun; Chung, Seung-Kyu

    2010-07-31

    Time-dependent characteristics of the flow in a human nasal airway constructed from the CT image of a healthy volunteer were investigated using a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) technique. To capture the time-varying nature of the flow as well as pressure and temperature fields, the large eddy simulation (LES) technique instead of the RANS (Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes) approach was adopted. To make the present analysis more relevant to a real human breathing cycle, the flow was designed to be induced by the pressure difference and the time-varying pressure at the end of trachea was described to reproduce the flow rate data from the measurement. Comparison of the present results with those of typical steady simulations showed that the difference in flow characteristics is magnified in the expiration phase. This fact may suggest that the inertial effect associated with unsteady flow is more important during the expiration period. Also, the fact that the distribution of the flow rate in a given cross-section of the airway changes significantly with time implies the importance of unsteady data for clinical decision. The wall shear stress was found to have relatively high values at the locations near nasopharynx and larynx but the magnitude changes with time during the whole respiratory cycle. Analysis of the temperature field showed that most of the temperature change occurs in the nasal cavity when the air is incoming and thus, the nasal cavity acts as a very efficient heat exchanger during an inspiration period. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Human nasal rhinosporidiosis: a case report from Malawi | Sefu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Patient presented with long standing history of nasal obstruction and intermittent epistaxis for three years. Diagnosis was confirmed by histopathological examination and he was successfully treated by complete surgical excision. This was a very unusual cause of nasal masses in our setting. Nasal rhinosporidioss lesions ...

  15. Resident aerobic microbiota of the adult human nasal cavity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, TT; Kirkeby Nielsen, LP; Poulsen, Knud

    2000-01-01

    Recent evidence strongly suggests that the microbiota of the nasal cavity plays a crucial role in determining the reaction patterns of the mucosal and systemic immune system. However, little is known about the normal microbiota of the nasal cavity. The purpose of this study was to determine...... the microbiota in different parts of the nasal cavity and to develop and evaluate methods for this purpose. Samples were collected from 10 healthy adults by nasal washes and by swabbing of the mucosa through a sterile introduction device. Both methods gave results that were quantitatively and qualitatively...... reproducible, and revealed significant differences in the density of the nasal microbiota between individuals. The study revealed absence of gram-negative bacteria that are regular members of the commensal microbiota of the pharynx. Likewise, viridans type streptococci were sparsely represented. The nasal...

  16. Herpes viruses and human papilloma virus in nasal polyposis and controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrios Ioannidis

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT INTRODUCTION: Chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps is a multifactorial disease entity with an unclear pathogenesis. Contradictory data exist in the literature on the potential implication of viral elements in adult patients with chronic rhinosinusitis. OBJECTIVE: To compare the prevalence of human herpes viruses (1-6 and Human Papilloma Virus in adult patients with chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps and healthy controls. METHODS: Viral DNA presence was evaluated by real-time polymerase chain reaction application to nasal polyps specimens from 91 chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps patients and nasal turbinate mucosa from 38 healthy controls. RESULTS: Epstein-Barr virus positivity was higher in nasal polyps (24/91; 26.4% versus controls (4/38; 10.5%, but the difference did not reach significance (p = 0.06. Human herpes virus-6 positivity was lower in nasal polyps (13/91; 14.29% versus controls (10/38; 26.32%,p = 0.13. In chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps group, 1 sample was herpes simplex virus-1-positive (1/91; 1.1%, and another was cytomegalovirus-positive (1/91; 1.1%, versus none in controls. No sample was positive for herpes simplex virus-2, varicella-zoster virus, high-risk-human papilloma viruses (16, 18, 31, 33, 35, 39, 45, 51, 52, 56, 58, 59 and low-risk-human papilloma viruses (6, 11. CONCLUSION: Differences in Epstein-Barr virus and human herpes virus-6 positivity among patients with chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps and healthy controls are not statistically significant, weakening the likelihood of their implication in chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps pathogenesis.

  17. Herpes viruses and human papilloma virus in nasal polyposis and controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ioannidis, Dimitrios; Lachanas, Vasileios A; Florou, Zoe; Bizakis, John G; Petinaki, Efthymia; Skoulakis, Charalampos E

    2015-01-01

    Chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps is a multifactorial disease entity with an unclear pathogenesis. Contradictory data exist in the literature on the potential implication of viral elements in adult patients with chronic rhinosinusitis. To compare the prevalence of human herpes viruses (1-6) and Human Papilloma Virus in adult patients with chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps and healthy controls. Viral DNA presence was evaluated by real-time polymerase chain reaction application to nasal polyps specimens from 91 chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps patients and nasal turbinate mucosa from 38 healthy controls. Epstein-Barr virus positivity was higher in nasal polyps (24/91; 26.4%) versus controls (4/38; 10.5%), but the difference did not reach significance (p=0.06). Human herpes virus-6 positivity was lower in nasal polyps (13/91; 14.29%) versus controls (10/38; 26.32%, p=0.13). In chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps group, 1 sample was herpes simplex virus-1-positive (1/91; 1.1%), and another was cytomegalovirus-positive (1/91; 1.1%), versus none in controls. No sample was positive for herpes simplex virus-2, varicella-zoster virus, high-risk-human papilloma viruses (16, 18, 31, 33, 35, 39, 45, 51, 52, 56, 58, 59) and low-risk-human papilloma viruses (6, 11). Differences in Epstein-Barr virus and human herpes virus-6 positivity among patients with chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps and healthy controls are not statistically significant, weakening the likelihood of their implication in chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps pathogenesis. Copyright © 2015 Associação Brasileira de Otorrinolaringologia e Cirurgia Cérvico-Facial. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  18. In vivo deposition of ultrafine aerosols in human nasal and oral airways

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yeh, Hsu-Chi; Swift, D.L. [John Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, MD (United States); Simpson, S.Q. [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States)] [and others

    1995-12-01

    The extrathoracic airways, including the nasal passage, oral passage, pharynx, and larynx, are the first targets for inhaled particles and provide an important defense for the lung. Understanding the deposition efficiency of the nasal and oral passages is therefore crucial for assessing doses of inhaled particles to the extrathoracic airways and the lung. Significant inter-subject variability in nasal deposition has been shown in recent studies by Rasmussen, T.R. et al, using 2.6 {mu}m particles in 10 human subjects and in our preliminary studies using 0.004-0.15 {mu}m particles in four adult volunteers. No oral deposition was reported in either of these studies. Reasons for the intersubject variations have been frequently attributed to the geometry of the nasal passages. The aims of the present study were to measure in vivo the nasal airway dimensions and the deposition of ultrafine aerosols in both the nasal and oral passages, and to determine the relationship between nasal airway dimensions and aerosol deposition. A statistical procedure incorporated with the diffusion theory was used to model the dimensional features of the nasal airways which may be responsible for the biological variability in particle deposition. In summary, we have correlated deposition of particles in the size range of 0.004 to 0.15 {mu}m with the nasal dimensions of each subject.

  19. In vivo deposition of ultrafine aerosols in human nasal and oral airways

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeh, Hsu-Chi; Swift, D.L.; Simpson, S.Q.

    1995-01-01

    The extrathoracic airways, including the nasal passage, oral passage, pharynx, and larynx, are the first targets for inhaled particles and provide an important defense for the lung. Understanding the deposition efficiency of the nasal and oral passages is therefore crucial for assessing doses of inhaled particles to the extrathoracic airways and the lung. Significant inter-subject variability in nasal deposition has been shown in recent studies by Rasmussen, T.R. et al, using 2.6 μm particles in 10 human subjects and in our preliminary studies using 0.004-0.15 μm particles in four adult volunteers. No oral deposition was reported in either of these studies. Reasons for the intersubject variations have been frequently attributed to the geometry of the nasal passages. The aims of the present study were to measure in vivo the nasal airway dimensions and the deposition of ultrafine aerosols in both the nasal and oral passages, and to determine the relationship between nasal airway dimensions and aerosol deposition. A statistical procedure incorporated with the diffusion theory was used to model the dimensional features of the nasal airways which may be responsible for the biological variability in particle deposition. In summary, we have correlated deposition of particles in the size range of 0.004 to 0.15 μm with the nasal dimensions of each subject

  20. Effects of scaffold composition and architecture on human nasal chondrocyte redifferentiation and cartilaginous matrix deposition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miot, Sylvie; Woodfield, T.B.F.; Daniels, Alma U.; Suetterlin, Rosemarie; Peterschmitt, Iman; Heberer, Michael; van Blitterswijk, Clemens; Riesle, J.U.; Martin, Ivan

    2005-01-01

    We investigated whether the post-expansion redifferentiation and cartilage tissue formation capacity of adult human nasal chondrocytes can be regulated by controlled modifications of scaffold composition and architecture. As a model system, we used poly(ethylene

  1. Demonstration of carboxylesterase in cytology samples of human nasal respiratory epithelium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodgers, D.A.; Nikula, K.J.; Avila, K. [and others

    1995-12-01

    The epithelial lining of the nasal airways is a target for responses induced by a variety of toxicant exposures. The high metabolic capacity of this tissue has been suggested to play a role in both protection of the airways through detoxication of certain toxicants, as well as in activation of other compounds to more toxic metabolites. Specifically, nasal carboxylesterase (CE) has been shown to mediate the toxicity of inhaled esters and acrylates by converting them to more toxic acid and alcohol metabolites which can be cytotoxic and/or carcinogenic to the nasal mucosa. Due to difficulties in extrapolating rodent models to human, new paradigms using human cells and tissues are essential to understanding and evaluating the metabolic processes in human nasal epithelium.

  2. The role of human papilloma virus and herpes viruses in the etiology of nasal polyposis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koçoğlu, Mücahide Esra; Mengeloğlu, Fırat Zafer; Apuhan, Tayfun; Özsoy, Şeyda; Yilmaz, Beyhan

    2016-02-17

    The aim of this study was to investigate the etiological role of human papilloma virus (HPV), herpes simplex virus (HSV), varicella-zoster virus (VZV), Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), cytomegalovirus (CMV), and human herpes virus-6 (HHV-6) and -7 (HHV-7) in the occurrence of nasal polyposis. Nasal polyp samples from 30 patients with nasal polyposis and normal nasal mucosa from 10 patients without nasal polyps were obtained. DNA was extracted from tissues. Real-time polymerase chain reaction was performed for all runs. No HSV-1, HSV-2, or VZV was detected in the samples. Among the patient samples, EBV and HHV-7 DNA were detected in 18 (60%), HHV-6 was detected in 20 (66.7%), and HPV was detected in 4 (13.3%) samples. Among the controls, CMV DNA was positive in one (10%). EBV was positive in 5 (50%), HHV-6 and HHV-7 were positive in 7 (70%), and HPV was positive in 2 (20%) samples. No significant difference was found among the groups with any test in terms of positivity. The association of Herpesviridae and HPV with the pathogenesis of nasal polyps was investigated in this study and no relationship was found. Thus, these viruses do not play a significant role in the formation of nasal polyps.

  3. Patient-specific three-dimensional explant spheroids derived from human nasal airway epithelium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marthin, June Kehlet; Stevens, Elizabeth Munkebjerg; Larsen, Lars Allan

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Three-dimensional explant spheroid formation is an ex vivo technique previously used in studies of airway epithelial ion and water transport. Explanted cells and sheets of nasal epithelium form fully differentiated spheroids enclosing a partly fluid-filled lumen with the ciliated apical...... surface facing the outside and accessible for analysis of ciliary function. METHODS: We performed a two-group comparison study of ciliary beat pattern and ciliary beat frequency in spheroids derived from nasal airway epithelium in patients with primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) and in healthy controls...... in the investigation of pathophysiological aspects and drug effects in human nasal airway epithelium....

  4. Health risks associated with inhaled nasal toxicants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feron, VJ; Arts, JHE; Kuper, CF; Slootweg, PJ; Woutersen, RA

    2001-01-01

    Health risks of inhaled nasal toxicants were reviewed with emphasis on chemically induced nasal lesions in humans, sensory irritation, olfactory and trigeminal nerve toxicity, nasal immunopathology and carcinogenesis, nasal responses to chemical mixtures, in vitro models, and nasal dosimetry- and

  5. Nasal Physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Caregivers Contact ARS HOME ANATOMY Nasal Anatomy Sinus Anatomy Nasal Physiology Nasal Endoscopy Skull Base Anatomy Virtual Anatomy Disclosure ... Patient Education About this Website Font Size + - Home > ANATOMY > Nasal Physiology Nasal Anatomy Sinus Anatomy Nasal Physiology Nasal Endoscopy ...

  6. Nasal Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Caregivers Contact ARS HOME ANATOMY Nasal Anatomy Sinus Anatomy Nasal Physiology Nasal Endoscopy Skull Base Anatomy Virtual Anatomy Disclosure ... Size + - Home > ANATOMY > Nasal Anatomy Nasal Anatomy Sinus Anatomy Nasal Physiology Nasal Endoscopy Skull Base Anatomy Virtual Anatomy Disclosure ...

  7. Prevalence of human papilloma virus and human herpes virus types 1-7 in human nasal polyposis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaravinos, Apostolos; Bizakis, John; Spandidos, Demetrios A

    2009-09-01

    This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of human papilloma virus (HPV), herpes simplex virus-1/-2 (HSV-1/-2), varicella-zoster virus (VZV), Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), cytomegalovirus (CMV), and human herpes virus-6/-7 (HHV-6/-7) in 23 human nasal polyps by applying PCR. Two types of control tissues were used: adjacent inferior/middle turbinates from the patients and inferior/middle turbinates from 13 patients undergoing nasal corrective surgery. EBV was the virus most frequently detected (35%), followed by HPV (13%), HSV-1 (9%), and CMV (4%). The CMV-positive polyp was simultaneously positive for HSV-1. HPV was also detected in the adjacent turbinates (4%) and the adjacent middle turbinate (4%) of one of the HPV-positive patients. EBV, HSV, and CMV were not detected in the adjacent turbinates of the EBV-, HSV- or CMV-positive patients. All mucosae were negative for the VZV, HHV-6, and HHV-7. This is the first study to deal with the involvement of a comparable group of viruses in human nasal polyposis. The findings support the theory that the presence of viral EBV markedly influences the pathogenesis of these benign nasal tumors. The low incidence of HPV detected confirms the hypothesis that HPV is correlated with infectious mucosal lesions to a lesser extent than it is with proliferative lesions, such as inverted papilloma. The low incidence of HSV-1 and CMV confirms that these two herpes viruses may play a minor role in the development of nasal polyposis. Double infection with HSV-1 and CMV may also play a minor, though causative, role in nasal polyp development. VZV and HHV-6/-7 do not appear to be involved in the pathogenesis of these mucosal lesions.

  8. IL-13 regulates human nasal epithelial cell differentiation via H3K4me3 modification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu L

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Lei Yu,1 Na Li,1 Jisheng Zhang,2 Yan Jiang1 1Department of Otorhinolaryngology, 2Key Laboratory of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Affiliated Hospital of Qingdao University, Qingdao, China Introduction: Epigenetic regulation has been shown to play an important role in the development of inflammatory diseases, including chronic rhinosinusitis and nasal polyps. The latter are characterized by epithelial mis-differentiation and infiltration of inflammatory cytokines. H3K4me3 has been shown to be involved in regulating lineage commitment. However, the underlying mechanisms, especially in human nasal epithelial cells (HNEpC, remain underexplored. The objective of this study was to investigate the role of H3K4me3 in HNEpC differentiation treated with the Th2 cytokine IL-13. Patients and methods: The expression levels of mRNA and proteins were investigated using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR assays and Western blot in nasal polyp tissues and human nasal epithelial cells respectively. We measured these levels of H3K4me3, MLL1 and targeted genes compared with control subjects.Results: We demonstrate that expression of H3K4me3 and its methyltransferase MLL1 was significantly upregulated in IL-13-treated HNEpC. This elevation was also observed in nasal polyps. Expression of cilia-related transcription factors FOXJ1 and DNAI2 decreased, while goblet cell-derived genes CLCA1 and MUC5a increased upon IL-13 treatment. Mechanistically, knockdown of MLL1 restored expression of these four genes induced by IL-13. Conclusion: These findings suggest that H3K4me3 is a critical regulator in control of nasal epithelial cell differentiation. MLL1 may be a potential therapeutic target for nasal inflammatory diseases. Keywords: IL-13, H3K4me3 modification, nasal epithelial cell, differentiation 

  9. Is the human nasal cavity at risk from inhaled radionuclides?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boecker, B.B.; Hahn, F.F.; Cuddihy, R.G.; Snipes, M.B.; McClellan, R.O.

    1986-01-01

    In a series of three life-span studies in which beagle dogs inhaled relatively soluble forms of beta-emitting radionuclides, a number of cancers of the nasal cavity have arisen at long times after the inhalation exposure. No such cancers were observed in the control dogs. Data obtained in other studies involving serial sacrifice of dogs that received these radionuclides in similar forms have shown that high local concentrations of the radionuclides can persist in nasal turbinates for long periods of time, depending on the physical half-life of the radionuclide inhaled. Several nasal carcinomas have also been observed in dogs injected with 137 CsCl in which the relative concentrations of beta activity in the turbinate region were not as pronounced as in the above studies. Similar risks of sinonasal cancer were calculated for dogs in each of these studies regardless of differences in radionuclide, dosimetry, and route of administration. Since sinonasal cancers have occurred in people exposed to alpha-emitting radionuclides, it is reasonable to assume this could occur with beta emitters as well. Radiation protection guidelines should account for the sinonasal region being at risk. 23 refs., 1 fig., 6 tabs

  10. Yield Strength Testing in Human Cadaver Nasal Septal Cartilage and L-Strut Constructs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yuan F; Messinger, Kelton; Inman, Jared C

    2017-01-01

    To our knowledge, yield strength testing in human nasal septal cartilage has not been reported to date. An understanding of the basic mechanics of the nasal septum may help surgeons decide how much of an L-strut to preserve and how much grafting is needed. To determine the factors correlated with yield strength of the cartilaginous nasal septum and to explore the association between L-strut width and thickness in determining yield strength. In an anatomy laboratory, yield strength of rectangular pieces of fresh cadaver nasal septal cartilage was measured, and regression was performed to identify the factors correlated with yield strength. To measure yield strength in L-shaped models, 4 bonded paper L-struts models were constructed for every possible combination of the width and thickness, for a total of 240 models. Mathematical modeling using the resultant data with trend lines and surface fitting was performed to quantify the associations among L-strut width, thickness, and yield strength. The study dates were November 1, 2015, to April 1, 2016. The factors correlated with nasal cartilage yield strength and the associations among L-strut width, thickness, and yield strength in L-shaped models. Among 95 cartilage pieces from 12 human cadavers (mean [SD] age, 67.7 [12.6] years) and 240 constructed L-strut models, L-strut thickness was the only factor correlated with nasal septal cartilage yield strength (coefficient for thickness, 5.54; 95% CI, 4.08-7.00; P cadaver nasal septal cartilage, L-strut thickness was significantly associated with yield strength. In a bonded paper L-strut model, L-strut thickness had a more important role in determining yield strength than L-strut width. Surgeons should consider the thickness of potential L-struts when determining the amount of cartilaginous septum to harvest and graft. NA.

  11. Sodium transport and intracellular sodium activity in cultured human nasal epithelium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willumsen, Niels J.; Boucher, Richard C.

    1991-01-01

     human nasal epithelium (HNE). Under control conditions, intracellular Na+ activity (acNa) was 23 +/- 1 mM (n = 44 preparations, 393 impalements).Amiloride (10(-4) M) hyperpolarized the apical membrane and increased the fractional apical membrane resistance but did not affect acNa. Exposure to...

  12. Geographic variation in nasal cavity form among three human groups from the Japanese Archipelago: Ecogeographic and functional implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukase, Hitoshi; Ito, Tsuyoshi; Ishida, Hajime

    2016-05-01

    Geographic variation in human nasal form has often been interpreted as a climatic adaptation, owing to the nasal air-conditioning function. The aim of this study was to further address morphofunctional issues of the nasal cavity, using three human groups from subarctic, temperate, and subtropical regions of the Japanese Archipelago: prehistoric Okhotsk, early-modern Honshu and Okinawa groups. Using three-dimensional coordinates of craniometric landmarks surrounding the nasal cavity, we compared linear measurements regarding nasal cavity form among the three groups and also conducted 3D geometric morphometrics. Both linear measurements and morphometric analyses corroborate the previously reported covariation pattern of nasal cavity shape with climate, where humans from a cold/dry climate tend to possess a relatively tall, narrow, and deep nasal cavity compared with those from a warm/humid environment. The northern Okhotsk group had overall larger cranial airways, which may be attributable to their large facial skeleton. However, the ratio of nasal/bimaxillary breadth was significantly lower in the Okhotsk group, indicating that maxillary size does not necessarily constrain the nasal breadth. In addition, despite the presence of obvious geographic clines in anterior nasal shape, posterior choanal shape lacked the north-south geographic cline. This suggests a certain level of morphofunctional independence between the anterior and posterior nasal openings. The observed geographic variations must, however, be partly considered as a reflection of different ancestral traits and population histories of the three groups. Nevertheless, the results indicate that intergroup variations in nasal cavity morphology can be largely explained by climatic conditions. Am. J. Hum. Biol. 28:343-351, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Decellularization of Human Nasal Septal Cartilage for the Novel Filler Material of Vocal Fold Augmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Dae-Woon; Shin, Sung-Chan; Jang, Jeon-Yeob; Park, Hee-Young; Lee, Jin-Choon; Wang, Soo-Geun; Lee, Byung-Joo

    2017-01-01

    The clinical application of allogenic and/or xenogenic cartilage for vocal fold augmentation requires to remove the antigenic cellular component. The objective of this study was to assess the effect of cartilage decellularization and determine the change in immunogenicity after detergent treatment in human nasal septal cartilage flakes made by the freezing and grinding method. Human nasal septal cartilages were obtained from surgical cases. The harvested cartilages were treated by the freezing and grinding technique. The obtained cartilage flakes were treated with 1% Triton X-100 or 2% sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) for decellularization of the cartilage flakes. Hematoxylin and eosin stain (H&E stain), surface electric microscopy, immunohistochemical stain for major histocompatibility complex I and II, and ELISA for DNA contents were performed to assess the effect of cartilage decellularization after detergent treatment. A total of 10 nasal septal cartilages were obtained from surgical cases. After detergent treatment, the average size of the cartilage flakes was significantly decreased. With H&E staining, the cell nuclei of decellularized cartilage flakes were not observed. The expression of major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-I and II antigens was not identified in the decellularized cartilage flakes after treatment with detergent. DNA content was removed almost entirely from the decellularized cartilage flakes. Treatment with 2% SDS or 1% Triton X-100 for 1 hour appears to be a promising method for decellularization of human nasal septal cartilage for vocal fold augmentation. Copyright © 2017 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Unsteady Particle Deposition in a Human Nasal Cavity during Inhalation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camby M.K. Se

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigates the deposition efficiency during the unsteady inhalation cycle by using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD. The unsteady inhalation profile was applied at the outlet of nasopharynx, which had a maximum flow rate of 40.3L/min which corresponds to an equivalent steady inhalation tidal volume flow rate of 24.6L/min. Aerodynamic particle sizes of 5μm and 20μm were studied in order to reflect contrasting Stokes numbered particle behaviour. Two particle deposition efficiencies in the nasal cavity versus time are presented. In general, the deposition of 5μm particles was much less than 20μm particles. The first 0.2 second of the inhalation cycle was found to be significant to the particle transport, since the majority of particles were deposited during this period (i.e. its residence time. Comparisons were also made with its equivalent steady inhalation flow rate which found that the unsteady inhalation produced lower deposition efficiency for both particle sizes.

  15. Activated human nasal epithelial cells modulate specific antibody response against bacterial or viral antigens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiou-Yueh Yeh

    Full Text Available Nasal mucosa is an immune responsive organ evidenced by eliciting both specific local secretory IgA and systemic IgG antibody responses with intra-nasal administration of antigens. Nevertheless, the role of nasal epithelial cells in modulating such responses is unclear. Human nasal epithelial cells (hNECs obtained from sinus mucosa of patients with chronic rhinosinusitis were cultured in vitro and firstly were stimulated by Lactococcus lactis bacterium-like particles (BLPs in order to examine their role on antibody production. Secondly, both antigens of immunodominant protein IDG60 from oral Streptococcus mutans and hemagglutinin (HA from influenza virus were tested to evaluate the specific antibody response. Stimulated hNECs by BLPs exhibited a significant increase in the production of interleukin-6 (IL-6, and thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP. Conditioned medium of stimulated hNECs has effects on enhancing the proliferation of CD4+ T cells together with interferon-γ and IL-5 production, increasing the costimulatory molecules on dendritic cells and augmenting the production of IDG60 specific IgA, HA specific IgG, IgA by human peripheral blood lymphocytes. Such production of antigen specific IgG and IgA is significantly counteracted in the presence of IL-6 and TSLP neutralizing antibodies. In conclusion, properly stimulated hNECs may impart immuno-modulatory effects on the antigen-specific antibody response at least through the production of IL-6 and TSLP.

  16. Studies of blood flow in human nasal mucosa with /sup133/Xe washout technique and laser doppler flowmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olsson, P.

    1986-01-01

    The techniques were applied for studies of the influence of environmental temperature on the human nasal mucosa, for studies of mediators in nasal allergy and for studies of the sympathetic neurogenic control of blood flow in the nasal mucosa. The results show that the two techniques are complementary to one another. The /sup133/Xe washout technique is useful for semiquantitative estimations of blood flow in the deeper parts of the mucosa, while the laser doppler technique is especially suited for continuous recordings of relative blood flow changes in the superficial part of the mucosa. Vascular changes may take part in body temperature regulation changes may take part in body temperature regulation as well as in conditioning of respiratory air. The results support the theories that changes in nasal mucosal blood flow are related to body temperature control, while conditioning of inspiratory air may be more dependent on mucosal blood content. The observed dissociation between changes in the resistance and the capacitance vessels also illustrates that these vascular segments are regulated in different ways. The present results indicate that leukotriene D/sub4/ might contribute to an increased blood flow in the nasal mucosa and to blockage of the nasal airway in the acute allergic reaction. Vasomotion is demonstrated to be present in the nasal mucosa, and it appears to be partly dependent on sympathetic neurogenic activity. The development of the present techniques, means that vascular changes involved in normal nasal function and in nasal disease may be evaluated by a new approach. (author)

  17. Interleukin-33 induces mucin gene expression and goblet cell hyperplasia in human nasal epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishinaga, Hajime; Kitano, Masako; Toda, Masaaki; D'Alessandro-Gabazza, Corina N; Gabazza, Esteban C; Shah, Said Ahmad; Takeuchi, Kazuhiko

    2017-02-01

    We investigated whether IL-33 is involved in mucus overproduction and goblet cell hyperplasia in eosinophilic chronic rhinosinusitis (ECRS). IL-33 mRNA was significantly higher in the eosinophilic CRS group than in the non-eosinophilic CRS group from human nasal polyps. IL-33 induced MUC5AC mRNA and MUC5AC protein, and also goblet cell hyperplasia at air liquid interface culture in human nasal epithelial cells. In addition to that, IL-33 induced MUC5B and FOXA3, and reduces FOXJmRNA. In conclusion, our present study demonstrated that the direct evidence of IL-33 which lead to increase mucin gene and protein expression, as well as goblet cell hyperplasia. This study provides novel insights into the role of IL-33 on mucus overproduction in eosinophilic inflammation of human airways. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Cytotoxicity of Different Excipients on RPMI 2650 Human Nasal Epithelial Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamás Horváth

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The nasal route receives a great deal of attention as a non-invasive method for the systemic administration of drugs. For nasal delivery, specific formulations containing excipients are used. Because of the sensitive respiratory mucosa, not only the active ingredients, but also additives need to be tested in appropriate models for toxicity. The aim of the study was to measure the cytotoxicity of six pharmaceutical excipients, which could help to reach larger residence time, better permeability, and increased solubility dissolution rate. The following excipients were investigated on RPMI 2650 human nasal septum tumor epithelial cells: β-d-mannitol, sodium hyaluronate, α and β-cyclodextrin, polyvinyl alcohol and methylcellulose. 3-(4,5-dimethyltiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT dye conversion assay and real-time impedance analysis were used to investigate cytotoxicity. No excipient showed toxicity at 0.3% (w/v concentration or below while 1% concentration a significantly reduced metabolic activity was measured by MTT assay for methylcellulose and cyclodextrins. Using impedance measurements, only β-cyclodextrin (1% was toxic to cells. Mannitol at 1% concentration had a barrier opening effect on epithelial cells, but caused no cellular damage. Based on the results, all additives at 0.3%, sodium hyaluronate and polyvinyl alcohol at 1% concentrations can be safely used for nasal formulations.

  19. Human Parvovirus 4 in Nasal and Fecal Specimens from Children, Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drexler, Jan Felix; Reber, Ulrike; Muth, Doreen; Herzog, Petra; Annan, Augustina; Ebach, Fabian; Sarpong, Nimarko; Acquah, Samuel; Adlkofer, Julia; Adu-Sarkodie, Yaw; Panning, Marcus; Tannich, Egbert; May, Jürgen; Drosten, Christian

    2012-01-01

    Nonparenteral transmission might contribute to human parvovirus 4 (PARV4) infections in sub-Saharan Africa. PARV4 DNA was detected in 8 (0.83%) of 961 nasal samples and 5 (0.53%) of 943 fecal samples from 1,904 children in Ghana. Virus concentrations ≤6–7 log10 copies/mL suggest respiratory or fecal–oral modes of PARV4 transmission. PMID:23018024

  20. Effects of Endogenous Formaldehyde in Nasal Tissues on Inhaled Formmaldehyde Dosimetry Predictions in the Rat, Monkey, and Human Nasal Passages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ABSTRACT Formaldehyde, a nasal carcinogen, is also an endogenous compound that is present in all living cells. Due to its high solubility and reactivity, quantitative risk estimates for inhaled formaldehyde rely on internal dose calculations in the upper respiratory tract which ...

  1. Evidence of connections between cerebrospinal fluid and nasal lymphatic vessels in humans, non-human primates and other mammalian species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armstrong Dianna

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The parenchyma of the brain does not contain lymphatics. Consequently, it has been assumed that arachnoid projections into the cranial venous system are responsible for cerebrospinal fluid (CSF absorption. However, recent quantitative and qualitative evidence in sheep suggest that nasal lymphatics have the major role in CSF transport. Nonetheless, the applicability of this concept to other species, especially to humans has never been clarified. The purpose of this study was to compare the CSF and nasal lymph associations in human and non-human primates with those observed in other mammalian species. Methods Studies were performed in sheep, pigs, rabbits, rats, mice, monkeys and humans. Immediately after sacrifice (or up to 7 hours after death in humans, yellow Microfil was injected into the CSF compartment. The heads were cut in a sagittal plane. Results In the seven species examined, Microfil was observed primarily in the subarachnoid space around the olfactory bulbs and cribriform plate. The contrast agent followed the olfactory nerves and entered extensive lymphatic networks in the submucosa associated with the olfactory and respiratory epithelium. This is the first direct evidence of the association between the CSF and nasal lymph compartments in humans. Conclusions The fact that the pattern of Microfil distribution was similar in all species tested, suggested that CSF absorption into nasal lymphatics is a characteristic feature of all mammals including humans. It is tempting to speculate that some disorders of the CSF system (hydrocephalus and idiopathic intracranial hypertension for example may relate either directly or indirectly to a lymphatic CSF absorption deficit.

  2. A model of human nasal epithelial cells adapted for direct and repeated exposure to airborne pollutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardet, Gaëlle; Achard, Sophie; Loret, Thomas; Desauziers, Valérie; Momas, Isabelle; Seta, Nathalie

    2014-08-17

    Airway epithelium lining the nasal cavity plays a pivotal role in respiratory tract defense and protection mechanisms. Air pollution induces alterations linked to airway diseases such as asthma. Only very few in vitro studies to date have succeeded in reproducing physiological conditions relevant to cellular type and chronic atmospheric pollution exposure. We therefore, set up an in vitro model of human Airway Epithelial Cells of Nasal origin (hAECN) close to real human cell functionality, specifically adapted to study the biological effects of exposure to indoor gaseous pollution at the environmental level. hAECN were exposed under air-liquid interface, one, two, or three-times at 24 h intervals for 1 h, to air or formaldehyde (200 μg/m(3)), an indoor air gaseous pollutant. All experiments were ended at day 4, when both cellular viability and cytokine production were assessed. Optimal adherence and confluence of cells were obtained 96 h after cell seeding onto collagen IV-precoated insert. Direct and repeated exposure to formaldehyde did not produce any cellular damage or IL-6 production change, although weak lower IL-8 production was observed only after the third exposure. Our model is significantly better than previous ones due to cell type and the repeated exposure protocol. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  3. Surfactant Proteins A, B, C and D in the Human Nasal Airway

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaunsbaek, Maria Q; Kjeldsen, Anette D; Svane-Knudsen, Viggo

    2014-01-01

    Aims: To investigate the presence of surfactant protein (SP) A, B, C and D in nasal airways and to determine whether the proteins exert their main functions in nasal secretions or in the deeper layers of the nasal mucosa. Methods: Volunteers were recruited from the Department of ENT Head and Neck...

  4. Safety assessment of thiolated polymers: effect on ciliary beat frequency in human nasal epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmberger, Thomas F; Augustijns, Patrick; Vetter, Anja; Bernkop-Schnürch, Andreas

    2011-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the nasal safety of gel formulations of thiolated polymers (thiomers) by assessing their effect on ciliary beat frequency (CBF) in human nasal epithelial cells. Poly(acrylic acid) 450 kDa-cysteine (PAA-cys) and alginate-cysteine (alg-cys) were synthesized by covalent attachment of L-cysteine to the polymeric backbone. The cationic polymer chitosan-thiobutylamidine (chito-TBA) was synthesized by attaching iminothiolane to chitosan. CBF using was measured by a photometric system. CBF was measured before incubating the cells with test gels, during incubation and after washing out the polymeric test gels to evaluate reversibility of cilio-inhibition. The influence of viscosity on CBF was determined by using hydroxyethylcellulose (HEC)-gels of various concentrations. Ciliary beating was observed to be affected by viscosity, but cilia were still beating in the presence of a HEC-gel displaying an apparent viscosity of 25 Pa.s. In case of thiolated polymers and their unmodified control, a concentration-dependent decrease in CBF could be observed. PAA-cys, alg-cys, chito-TBA and their corresponding unmodified controls exhibited a moderate cilio-inhibitory effect, followed by a partial recovery of CBF when used at a concentration of 1%. Alg-cys 2% and chito-TBA 2% (m/v) gels exhibited severe cilio-inhibition, which was partially reversible. L-cysteine and reduced glutathione led to mild cilio-inhibition at concentrations of 3% (m/v). Taking into account that dilution after application and cilio-modifying effects is usually more pronounced under in vitro conditions, thiomers can be considered as suitable excipients for nasal drug delivery systems.

  5. Nasal Oxytocin Treatment Biases Dogs’ Visual Attention and Emotional Response toward Positive Human Facial Expressions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanni Somppi

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The neuropeptide oxytocin plays a critical role in social behavior and emotion regulation in mammals. The aim of this study was to explore how nasal oxytocin administration affects gazing behavior during emotional perception in domestic dogs. Looking patterns of dogs, as a measure of voluntary attention, were recorded during the viewing of human facial expression photographs. The pupil diameters of dogs were also measured as a physiological index of emotional arousal. In a placebo-controlled within-subjects experimental design, 43 dogs, after having received either oxytocin or placebo (saline nasal spray treatment, were presented with pictures of unfamiliar male human faces displaying either a happy or an angry expression. We found that, depending on the facial expression, the dogs’ gaze patterns were affected selectively by oxytocin treatment. After receiving oxytocin, dogs fixated less often on the eye regions of angry faces and revisited (glanced back at more often the eye regions of smiling (happy faces than after the placebo treatment. Furthermore, following the oxytocin treatment dogs fixated and revisited the eyes of happy faces significantly more often than the eyes of angry faces. The analysis of dogs’ pupil diameters during viewing of human facial expressions indicated that oxytocin may also have a modulatory effect on dogs’ emotional arousal. While subjects’ pupil sizes were significantly larger when viewing angry faces than happy faces in the control (placebo treatment condition, oxytocin treatment not only eliminated this effect but caused an opposite pupil response. Overall, these findings suggest that nasal oxytocin administration selectively changes the allocation of attention and emotional arousal in domestic dogs. Oxytocin has the potential to decrease vigilance toward threatening social stimuli and increase the salience of positive social stimuli thus making eye gaze of friendly human faces more salient for dogs. Our

  6. Nasal application of HSV encoding human preproenkephalin blocks craniofacial pain in a rat model of traumatic brain injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jens Christian Hedemann; Meidahl, Anders Christian Nørgaard; Tzabazis

    2017-01-01

    pain using nasal application of a herpes simplex virus (HSV)-based vector expressing human proenkephalin (SHPE) to target the trigeminal ganglia. Mild TBI was induced in rats by the use of a modified fluid percussion model. Two days after mild TBI, following the development of facial mechanical...... lasting at least 45 days. On the other hand, nasal SHPE application 2 days post-TBI attenuated facial allodynia, reaching significance by day 4–7 and maintaining this effect throughout the duration of the experiment. Immunohistochemical examination revealed strong expression of human proenkephalin...

  7. Computational Modelling of Gas-Particle Flows with Different Particle Morphology in the Human Nasal Cavity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiao Inthavong

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper summarises current studies related to numerical gas-particle flows in the human nasal cavity. Of interest are the numerical modelling requirements to consider the effects of particle morphology for a variety of particle shapes and sizes such as very small particles sizes (nanoparticles, elongated shapes (asbestos fibres, rough shapes (pollen, and porous light density particles (drug particles are considered. It was shown that important physical phenomena needed to be addressed for different particle characteristics. This included the Brownian diffusion for submicron particles. Computational results for the nasal capture efficiency for nano-particles and various breathing rates in the laminar regime were found to correlate well with the ratio of particle diffusivity to the breathing rate. For micron particles, particle inertia is the most significant property and the need to use sufficient drag laws is important. Drag correlations for fibrous and rough surfaced particles were investigated to enable particle tracking. Based on the simulated results, semi-empirical correlations for particle deposition were fitted in terms of Peclet number and inertial parameter for nanoparticles and micron particles respectively.

  8. In vitro safety evaluation of human nasal epithelial cell monolayers exposed to carrageenan sinus wash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramezanpour, Mahnaz; Murphy, Jae; Smith, Jason L P; Vreugde, Sarah; Psaltis, Alkis James

    2017-12-01

    Carrageenans have shown to reduce the viral load in nasal secretions and lower the incidence of secondary infections in children with common cold. Despite the widespread use of carrageenans in topical applications, the effect of carrageenans on the sinonasal epithelial barrier has not been elucidated. We investigate the effect of different carrageenans on the sinonasal epithelial barrier and inflammatory response in vitro. Iota and Kappa carrageenan delivered in saline irrigation solutions applied to air-liquid interface (ALI) cultures of primary human nasal epithelial cells from chronic rhinosinusitis patients and controls. Epithelial barrier structure was assessed by measuring the transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) and immunolocalization of F actin. Ciliary beat frequency (CBF), toxicity, and inflammatory response was studied. Kappa or Iota carrageenan in the different solutions was not toxic, did not have detrimental effects on epithelial barrier structure and CBF. Rather, application of Kappa carrageenan significantly increased TEER and suppressed interleukin 6 (IL-6) secretion in ALI cultures from CRS patients. Kappa or Iota carrageenan solution was safe and did not negatively affect epithelial barrier function. Kappa carrageenan increased TEER and decreased IL-6 production in CRS patients, indicating positive effects on epithelial barrier function in vitro. © 2017 ARS-AAOA, LLC.

  9. Transport and Deposition of Welding Fume Agglomerates in a Realistic Human Nasal Airway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Lin; Inthavong, Kiao; Lidén, Göran; Shang, Yidan; Tu, Jiyuan

    2016-07-01

    Welding fume is a complex mixture containing ultra-fine particles in the nanometer range. Rather than being in the form of a singular sphere, due to the high particle concentration, welding fume particles agglomerate into long straight chains, branches, or other forms of compact shapes. Understanding the transport and deposition of these nano-agglomerates in human respiratory systems is of great interest as welding fumes are a known health hazard. The neurotoxin manganese (Mn) is a common element in welding fumes. Particulate Mn, either as soluble salts or oxides, that has deposited on the olfactory mucosa in human nasal airway is transported along the olfactory nerve to the olfactory bulb within the brain. If this Mn is further transported to the basal ganglia of the brain, it could accumulate at the part of the brain that is the focal point of its neurotoxicity. Accounting for various dynamic shape factors due to particle agglomeration, the current computational study is focused on the exposure route, the deposition pattern, and the deposition efficiency of the inhaled welding fume particles in a realistic human nasal cavity. Particular attention is given to the deposition pattern and deposition efficiency of inhaled welding fume agglomerates in the nasal olfactory region. For particles in the nanoscale, molecular diffusion is the dominant transport mechanism. Therefore, Brownian diffusion, hydrodynamic drag, Saffman lift force, and gravitational force are included in the model study. The deposition efficiencies for single spherical particles, two kinds of agglomerates of primary particles, two-dimensional planar and straight chains, are investigated for a range of primary particle sizes and a range of number of primary particles per agglomerate. A small fraction of the inhaled welding fume agglomerates is deposited on the olfactory mucosa, approximately in the range 0.1-1%, and depends on particle size and morphology. The strong size dependence of the deposition

  10. New bioreactor vessel for tissue engineering of human nasal septal chondrocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Princz Sascha

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Cultivation of human nasal septal chondrocytes in a self-established automated bioreactor system with a new designed reactor glass vessel and the results of a computational fluid dynamics model are presented. The first results show the effect of a homogeneous fluidic condition of the continuous medium flow and the resulting stresses on the scaffolds’ surface and their influence on the migration of the cells into the scaffold matrix under these conditions. For this purpose computational models, generated with the computational fluid dynamics software STAR-CCM+, and the results of alcian blue staining for newly synthesized sulphated glycosaminoglycans have been compared during cultivation in the new and a first version of the glass reactor vessel with inhomogeneous fluidic conditions, with the same automated bioreactor system and under similar cultivation conditions.

  11. Effect of N-acetylcysteine on the human nasal ciliary activity in vitro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stafanger, G; Bisgaard, H; Pedersen, M

    1987-01-01

    N-acetylcysteine (NAC) is widely used as a mucolytic agent, but the clinical and pharmacological effects of NAC are still unclear. It has recently been claimed in animal studies that NAC will stimulate ciliary beating frequency at low concentrations, while inhibiting beating at higher concentrati......N-acetylcysteine (NAC) is widely used as a mucolytic agent, but the clinical and pharmacological effects of NAC are still unclear. It has recently been claimed in animal studies that NAC will stimulate ciliary beating frequency at low concentrations, while inhibiting beating at higher...... concentrations. Using a microphoto-oscillographic method combined with microperfusion technique, we studied the direct effect of NAC on human nasal cilia. NAC caused a direct dose- and time-related decrease in ciliary beating frequency, which was detectable at 2 mg/ml and reached statistically significant levels...

  12. Dosimetry of nasal uptake of soluble and reactive gases: A first study of inter-human variability (Journal Article)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anatomically accurate human child and adult nasal tract models will be used in concert with computationally simulated air flow information to investigate the influence of age-related differences in anatomy on inhalation dosimetry in the upper and lower airways. The findings of t...

  13. CriticalSorb: a novel efficient nasal delivery system for human growth hormone based on Solutol HS15.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illum, Lisbeth; Jordan, Faron; Lewis, Andrew L

    2012-08-20

    The absorption enhancing efficiency of CriticalSorb for human growth hormone (MW 22 kDa) was investigated in the conscious rat model. The principle absorption enhancing component of CriticalSorb, Solutol HS15, comprises polyglycol mono- and di-esters of 12-hydroxystearic acid combined with free polyethylene glycol. When administering hGH nasally in rats with increasing concentrations of Solutol HS15, it was found that for a 10%w/v solution formulation a bioavailability of 49% was obtained in the first 2h after administration. Furthermore it was shown that the most effective ratio of Solutol HS15 to hGH was 4:1 on a mg to mg basis. Histopathology studies in rats after 5 days repeated nasal administration showed that Solutol HS15 had no toxic effect on the nasal mucosa. These results have been confirmed in a 6 month repeat nasal toxicity study in rats. It can be concluded that the principle absorption enhancing component of CriticalSorb - Solutol HS15 - is a potent and non- toxic nasal absorption enhancer that warrants further development. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Absolute humidity and the human nose: A reanalysis of climate zones and their influence on nasal form and function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maddux, Scott D; Yokley, Todd R; Svoma, Bohumil M; Franciscus, Robert G

    2016-10-01

    Investigations into the selective role of climate on human nasal variation commonly divide climates into four broad adaptive zones (hot-dry, hot-wet, cold-dry, and cold-wet) based on temperature and relative humidity. Yet, absolute humidity-not relative humidity-is physiologically more important during respiration. Here, we investigate the global distribution of absolute humidity to better clarify ecogeographic demands on nasal physiology. We use monthly observations from the Climatic Research Unit Timeseries 3 (CRU TS3) database to construct global maps of average annual temperature, relative humidity and absolute humidity. Further, using data collected by Thomson and Buxton (1923) for over 15,000 globally-distributed individuals, we calculate the actual amount of heat and water that must be transferred to inspired air in different climatic regimes to maintain homeostasis, and investigate the influence of these factors on the nasal index. Our results show that absolute humidity, like temperature, generally decreases with latitude. Furthermore, our results demonstrate that environments typically characterized as "cold-wet" actually exhibit low absolute humidities, with values virtually identical to cold-dry environments and significantly lower than hot-wet and even hot-dry environments. Our results also indicate that strong associations between the nasal index and absolute humidity are, potentially erroneously, predicated on individuals from hot-dry environments possessing intermediate (mesorrhine) nasal indices. We suggest that differentially allocating populations to cold-dry or cold-wet climates is unlikely to reflect different selective pressures on respiratory physiology and nasal morphology-it is cold-dry, and to a lesser degree hot-dry environments, that stress respiratory function. Our study also supports assertions that demands for inspiratory modification are reduced in hot-wet environments, and that expiratory heat elimination for thermoregulation is a

  15. Nasal Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the way to your throat as you breathe. Cancer of the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses is ... be like those of infections. Doctors diagnose nasal cancer with imaging tests, lighted tube-like instruments that ...

  16. Aspects of nitrogen dioxide toxicity in environmental urban concentrations in human nasal epithelium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koehler, C.; Ginzkey, C.; Friehs, G.; Hackenberg, S.; Froelich, K.; Scherzed, A.; Burghartz, M.; Kessler, M.; Kleinsasser, N.

    2010-01-01

    Cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ) as part of urban exhaust pollution are widely discussed as potential hazards to human health. This study focuses on toxic effects of NO 2 in realistic environmental concentrations with respect to the current limit values in a human target tissue of volatile xenobiotics, the epithelium of the upper aerodigestive tract. Nasal epithelial cells of 10 patients were cultured as an air-liquid interface and exposed to 0.01 ppm NO 2 , 0.1 ppm NO 2 , 1 ppm NO 2 , 10 ppm NO 2 and synthetic air for half an hour. After exposure, genotoxicity was evaluated by the alkaline single-cell microgel electophoresis (Comet) assay and by induction of micronuclei in the micronucleus test. Depression of proliferation and cytotoxic effects were determined using the micronucleus assay and trypan blue exclusion assay, respectively. The experiments revealed genotoxic effects by DNA fragmentation starting at 0.01 ppm NO 2 in the Comet assay, but no micronucleus inductions, no changes in proliferation, no signs of necrosis or apoptosis in the micronucleus assay, nor did the trypan blue exclusion assay show any changes in viability. The present data reveal a possible genotoxicity of NO 2 in urban concentrations in a screening test. However, permanent DNA damage as indicated by the induction of micronuclei was not observed. Further research should elucidate the effects of prolonged exposure.

  17. Variations in the ultrastructure of human nasal cilia including abnormalities found in retinitis pigmentosa.

    OpenAIRE

    Fox, B; Bull, T B; Arden, G B

    1980-01-01

    The electron microscopic structure of cilia from the inferior turbinate of the nose was studied in 12 adults, four with chronic sinusitis, one with allergic rhinitis, two with bronchiectasis, three with deviated nasal septum, and two normals. The changes are compared with those found in nasal cilia in 14 patients with retinitis pigmentosa. There were compound cilia in the seven cases with chronic sinusitis, allergic rhinitis, and bronchiectasis but, apart from this, the structure of the cilia...

  18. Nasal Carriage of Staphylococcus intermedius in Humans in Contact with Dogs

    OpenAIRE

    Harvey, R. G.; Marples, R. R.; Noble, W. C.

    2011-01-01

    A study of staphylococci isolated from the anterior nares of 16 owners of dogs with atopic dermatitis and 13 veterinary practice staff in constant contact with dogs was conducted. There was one persistent nasal carrier and four transient nasal carriers of Staphylococcus intermedius. This carriage rate is higher than previously reported and presumably contributes to the presence of antibodies to S. intermedius in about 20 per cent of the normal population. Thus transfer of S. intermedius from ...

  19. A low percentage of autologous serum can replace bovine serum to engineer human nasal cartilage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Wolf

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available For the generation of cell-based therapeutic products, it would be preferable to avoid the use of animal-derived components. Our study thus aimed at investigating the possibility to replace foetal bovine serum (FBS with autologous serum (AS for the engineering of cartilage grafts using expanded human nasal chondrocytes (HNC. HNC isolated from 7 donors were expanded in medium containing 10% FBS or AS at different concentrations (2%, 5% and 10% and cultured in pellets using serum-free medium or in Hyaff®-11 meshes using medium containing FBS or AS. Tissue forming capacity was assessed histologically (Safranin O, immunohistochemically (type II collagen and biochemically (glycosaminoglycans -GAG- and DNA. Differences among experimental groups were assessed by Mann Whitney tests. HNC expanded under the different serum conditions proliferated at comparable rates and generated cartilaginous pellets with similar histological appearance and amounts of GAG. Tissues generated by HNC from different donors cultured in Hyaff®-11 had variable quality, but the accumulated GAG amounts were comparable among the different serum conditions. Staining intensity for collagen type II was consistent with GAG deposition. Among the different serum conditions tested, the use of 2% AS resulted in the lowest variability in the GAG contents of generated tissues. In conclusion, a low percentage of AS can replace FBS both during the expansion and differentiation of HNC and reduce the variability in the quality of the resulting engineered cartilage tissues.

  20. Immunoglobulins in nasal secretions of healthy humans: structural integrity of secretory immunoglobulin A1 (IgA1) and occurrence of neutralizing antibodies to IgA1 proteases of nasal bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkeby, L; Rasmussen, TT; Reinholdt, Jesper

    2000-01-01

    Certain bacteria, including overt pathogens as well as commensals, produce immunoglobulin A1 (IgA1) proteases. By cleaving IgA1, including secretory IgA1, in the hinge region, these enzymes may interfere with the barrier functions of mucosal IgA antibodies, as indicated by experiments in vitro....... Previous studies have suggested that cleavage of IgA1 in nasal secretions may be associated with the development and perpetuation of atopic disease. To clarify the potential effect of IgA1 protease-producing bacteria in the nasal cavity, we have analyzed immunoglobulin isotypes in nasal secretions of 11...... healthy humans, with a focus on IgA, and at the same time have characterized and quantified IgA1 protease-producing bacteria in the nasal flora of the subjects. Samples in the form of nasal wash were collected by using a washing liquid that contained lithium as an internal reference. Dilution factors and...

  1. Transcriptomic analysis across nasal, temporal, and macular regions of human neural retina and RPE/choroid by RNA-Seq

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitmore, S. Scott; Wagner, Alex H.; DeLuca, Adam P.; Drack, Arlene V.; Stone, Edwin M.; Tucker, Budd A.; Zeng, Shemin; Braun, Terry A.; Mullins, Robert F.; Scheetz, Todd E.

    2014-01-01

    Proper spatial differentiation of retinal cell types is necessary for normal human vision. Many retinal diseases, such as Best disease and male germ cell associated kinase (MAK)-associated retinitis pigmentosa, preferentially affect distinct topographic regions of the retina. While much is known about the distribution of cell-types in the retina, the distribution of molecular components across the posterior pole of the eye has not been well-studied. To investigate regional difference in molecular composition of ocular tissues, we assessed differential gene expression across the temporal, macular, and nasal retina and retinal pigment epithelium (RPE)/choroid of human eyes using RNA-Seq. RNA from temporal, macular, and nasal retina and RPE/choroid from four human donor eyes was extracted, poly-A selected, fragmented, and sequenced as 100 bp read pairs. Digital read files were mapped to the human genome and analyzed for differential expression using the Tuxedo software suite. Retina and RPE/choroid samples were clearly distinguishable at the transcriptome level. Numerous transcription factors were differentially expressed between regions of the retina and RPE/choroid. Photoreceptor-specific genes were enriched in the peripheral samples, while ganglion cell and amacrine cell genes were enriched in the macula. Within the RPE/choroid, RPE-specific genes were upregulated at the periphery while endothelium associated genes were upregulated in the macula. Consistent with previous studies, BEST1 expression was lower in macular than extramacular regions. The MAK gene was expressed at lower levels in macula than in extramacular regions, but did not exhibit a significant difference between nasal and temporal retina. The regional molecular distinction is greatest between macula and periphery and decreases between different peripheral regions within a tissue. Datasets such as these can be used to prioritize candidate genes for possible involvement in retinal diseases with

  2. Transcriptomic analysis across nasal, temporal, and macular regions of human neural retina and RPE/choroid by RNA-Seq.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitmore, S Scott; Wagner, Alex H; DeLuca, Adam P; Drack, Arlene V; Stone, Edwin M; Tucker, Budd A; Zeng, Shemin; Braun, Terry A; Mullins, Robert F; Scheetz, Todd E

    2014-12-01

    Proper spatial differentiation of retinal cell types is necessary for normal human vision. Many retinal diseases, such as Best disease and male germ cell associated kinase (MAK)-associated retinitis pigmentosa, preferentially affect distinct topographic regions of the retina. While much is known about the distribution of cell types in the retina, the distribution of molecular components across the posterior pole of the eye has not been well-studied. To investigate regional difference in molecular composition of ocular tissues, we assessed differential gene expression across the temporal, macular, and nasal retina and retinal pigment epithelium (RPE)/choroid of human eyes using RNA-Seq. RNA from temporal, macular, and nasal retina and RPE/choroid from four human donor eyes was extracted, poly-A selected, fragmented, and sequenced as 100 bp read pairs. Digital read files were mapped to the human genome and analyzed for differential expression using the Tuxedo software suite. Retina and RPE/choroid samples were clearly distinguishable at the transcriptome level. Numerous transcription factors were differentially expressed between regions of the retina and RPE/choroid. Photoreceptor-specific genes were enriched in the peripheral samples, while ganglion cell and amacrine cell genes were enriched in the macula. Within the RPE/choroid, RPE-specific genes were upregulated at the periphery while endothelium associated genes were upregulated in the macula. Consistent with previous studies, BEST1 expression was lower in macular than extramacular regions. The MAK gene was expressed at lower levels in macula than in extramacular regions, but did not exhibit a significant difference between nasal and temporal retina. The regional molecular distinction is greatest between macula and periphery and decreases between different peripheral regions within a tissue. Datasets such as these can be used to prioritize candidate genes for possible involvement in retinal diseases with

  3. A Review of the Comparative Anatomy, Histology, Physiology and Pathology of the Nasal Cavity of Rats, Mice, Dogs and Non-human Primates. Relevance to Inhalation Toxicology and Human Health Risk Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamanza, R; Wright, J A

    2015-11-01

    There are many significant differences in the structural and functional anatomy of the nasal cavity of man and laboratory animals. Some of the differences may be responsible for the species-specific nasal lesions that are often observed in response to inhaled toxicants. This paper reviews the comparative anatomy, physiology and pathology of the nasal cavity of the rat, mouse, dog, monkey and man, highlighting factors that may influence the distribution of nasal lesions. Gross anatomical variations such as turbinate structure, folds or grooves on nasal walls, or presence or absence of accessory structures, may influence nasal airflow and species-specific uptake and deposition of inhaled material. In addition, interspecies variations in the morphological and biochemical composition and distribution of the nasal epithelium may affect the local tissue susceptibility and play a role in the development of species-specific nasal lesions. It is concluded that, while the nasal cavity of the monkey might be more similar to that of man, each laboratory animal species provides a model that responds in a characteristic and species-specific manner. Therefore for human risk assessment, careful consideration must be given to the anatomical differences between a given animal model and man. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Variations in the ultrastructure of human nasal cilia including abnormalities found in retinitis pigmentosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, B; Bull, T B; Arden, G B

    1980-01-01

    The electron microscopic structure of cilia from the inferior turbinate of the nose was studied in 12 adults, four with chronic sinusitis, one with allergic rhinitis, two with bronchiectasis, three with deviated nasal septum, and two normals. The changes are compared with those found in nasal cilia in 14 patients with retinitis pigmentosa. There were compound cilia in the seven cases with chronic sinusitis, allergic rhinitis, and bronchiectasis but, apart from this, the structure of the cilia was similar in all 12 cases. There were variations in the microtubular pattern in about 4% of cilia, dynein arms were not seen in 4%, and in the rest an average of 5-6 dynein arms were seen in each cilium. The orientation of the cilia was 0 to 90 degrees. In the retinitis pigmentosa patients there was a highly significant increase in cilial abnormalities. The establishment on a quantitative basis of the variations in normal structure of nasal cilila facilitated the recognition of an association between cilial abnormalities and retinitis pigmentosa and should help in the identification of associations that may exist between cilial abnormalities and other diseases. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 PMID:7400333

  5. Enhanced chondrogenesis of human nasal septum derived progenitors on nanofibrous scaffolds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shafiee, Abbas [Department of Tissue Engineering, School of Advanced Technologies in Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Stem Cell biology and Tissue Engineering Departments, Stem Cell Technology Research Center, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Institute of Health and Biomedical Innovation, Queensland University of Technology (QUT), Brisbane, QLD (Australia); Seyedjafari, Ehsan [Department of Biotechnology, College of Science, University of Tehran, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Sadat Taherzadeh, Elham [Stem Cell biology and Tissue Engineering Departments, Stem Cell Technology Research Center, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Dinarvand, Peyman [Stem Cell biology and Tissue Engineering Departments, Stem Cell Technology Research Center, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); The Edward A. Doisy Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Saint Louis University School of Medicine, Saint Louis, MO (United States); Soleimani, Masoud [Hematology Department, Faculty of Medical Science, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ai, Jafar, E-mail: jafar_ai@tums.ac.ir [Department of Tissue Engineering, School of Advanced Technologies in Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Brain and Spinal Injury Research Center, Imam Hospital, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2014-07-01

    Topographical cues can be exploited to regulate stem cell attachment, proliferation, differentiation and function in vitro and in vivo. In this study, we aimed to investigate the influence of different nanofibrous topographies on the chondrogenic differentiation potential of nasal septum derived progenitors (NSP) in vitro. Aligned and randomly oriented Ploy (L-lactide) (PLLA)/Polycaprolactone (PCL) hybrid scaffolds were fabricated via electrospinning. First, scaffolds were fully characterized, and then NSP were seeded on them to study their capacity to support stem cell attachment, proliferation and chondrogenic differentiation. Compared to randomly oriented nanofibers, aligned scaffolds showed a high degree of nanofiber alignment with much better tensile strength properties. Both scaffolds supported NSP adhesion, proliferation and chondrogenic differentiation. Despite the higher rate of cell proliferation on random scaffolds, a better chondrogenic differentiation was observed on aligned nanofibers as deduced from higher expression of chondrogenic markers such as collagen type II and aggrecan on aligned scaffolds. These findings demonstrate that electrospun constructs maintain NSP proliferation and differentiation, and that the aligned nanofibrous scaffolds can significantly enhance chondrogenic differentiation of nasal septum derived progenitors. - Highlights: • Electrospun nanofiber scaffolds with different topographies were fabricated. • Aligned nanofiber scaffolds had better tensile strength properties. • Nasal septum derived progenitors were cultured on nanofibrous scaffolds. • Both topographies support proliferation and chondrogenic differentiation. • Better chondrogenic differentiation was observed on aligned nanofibers.

  6. Enhanced chondrogenesis of human nasal septum derived progenitors on nanofibrous scaffolds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shafiee, Abbas; Seyedjafari, Ehsan; Sadat Taherzadeh, Elham; Dinarvand, Peyman; Soleimani, Masoud; Ai, Jafar

    2014-01-01

    Topographical cues can be exploited to regulate stem cell attachment, proliferation, differentiation and function in vitro and in vivo. In this study, we aimed to investigate the influence of different nanofibrous topographies on the chondrogenic differentiation potential of nasal septum derived progenitors (NSP) in vitro. Aligned and randomly oriented Ploy (L-lactide) (PLLA)/Polycaprolactone (PCL) hybrid scaffolds were fabricated via electrospinning. First, scaffolds were fully characterized, and then NSP were seeded on them to study their capacity to support stem cell attachment, proliferation and chondrogenic differentiation. Compared to randomly oriented nanofibers, aligned scaffolds showed a high degree of nanofiber alignment with much better tensile strength properties. Both scaffolds supported NSP adhesion, proliferation and chondrogenic differentiation. Despite the higher rate of cell proliferation on random scaffolds, a better chondrogenic differentiation was observed on aligned nanofibers as deduced from higher expression of chondrogenic markers such as collagen type II and aggrecan on aligned scaffolds. These findings demonstrate that electrospun constructs maintain NSP proliferation and differentiation, and that the aligned nanofibrous scaffolds can significantly enhance chondrogenic differentiation of nasal septum derived progenitors. - Highlights: • Electrospun nanofiber scaffolds with different topographies were fabricated. • Aligned nanofiber scaffolds had better tensile strength properties. • Nasal septum derived progenitors were cultured on nanofibrous scaffolds. • Both topographies support proliferation and chondrogenic differentiation. • Better chondrogenic differentiation was observed on aligned nanofibers

  7. Nasal polyps

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... shrink polyps, and can reduce swelling and nasal congestion. The effect lasts a few months in most ... this procedure, your doctor uses a thin, lighted tube with instruments at the end. The tube is ...

  8. Nasal colonization of humans with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA CC398 with and without exposure to pigs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christiane Cuny

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Studies in several European countries and in North America revealed a frequent nasal colonization of livestock with MRSA CC398 and also in humans with direct professional exposure to colonized animals. The study presented here addresses the question of further transmission to non exposed humans. METHODS: After selecting 47 farms with colonized pigs in different regions of Germany we sampled the nares of 113 humans working daily with pigs and of their 116 non exposed family members. The same was performed in 18 veterinarians attending pig farms and in 44 of their non exposed family members. For investigating transmission beyond families we samples the nares of 462 pupils attending a secondary school in a high density pig farming area. MRSA were detected by direct culture on selective agar. The isolates were typed by means of spa-sequence typing and classification of SCCmec elements. For attribution of spa sequence types to clonal lineages as defined by multi locus sequence typing we used the BURP algorithm. Antibiotic susceptibility testing was performed by microbroth dilution assay. RESULTS: At the farms investigated 86% of humans exposed and only 4.3% of their family members were found to carry MRSA exhibiting spa-types corresponding to clonal complex CC398. Nasal colonization was also found in 45% of veterinarians caring for pig farms and in 9% of their non exposed family members. Multivariate analysis revealed that antibiotic usage prior to sampling beard no risk with respect to colonization. From 462 pupils only 3 were found colonized, all 3 were living on pig farms. CONCLUSION: These results indicate that so far the dissemination of MRSA CC398 to non exposed humans is infrequent and probably does not reach beyond familial communities.

  9. On the relation of nasal cycling with nasal airway dimensions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guilmette, R A; Wolff, R K

    1988-12-01

    The size and configuration of the nasal airways of humans change with time as a result of the normal process of congestion/decongestion of the erectile tissue of the nasal mucosa. To determine the extent to which airway areas change in vivo, we used magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to quantitate both the cross-sectional area and perimeter of coronal sections of the entire nasal airway of a human subject. Changes in airway size or patency were indexed to measured changes in unilateral nasal airway resistance determined by posterior rhino manometry. The results of this study in which two MRI scans were performed for presumed left-side patency and two for right-side patency, showed that changes in nasal airway resistance were difficult to ascribe to systematic changes In the sizes of the airways. (author)

  10. On the relation of nasal cycling with nasal airway dimensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guilmette, R.A.; Wolff, R.K.

    1988-01-01

    The size and configuration of the nasal airways of humans change with time as a result of the normal process of congestion/decongestion of the erectile tissue of the nasal mucosa. To determine the extent to which airway areas change in vivo, we used magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to quantitate both the cross-sectional area and perimeter of coronal sections of the entire nasal airway of a human subject. Changes in airway size or patency were indexed to measured changes in unilateral nasal airway resistance determined by posterior rhino manometry. The results of this study in which two MRI scans were performed for presumed left-side patency and two for right-side patency, showed that changes in nasal airway resistance were difficult to ascribe to systematic changes In the sizes of the airways. (author)

  11. Influence of essential and fatty oils on ciliary beat frequency of human nasal epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neher, Andreas; Gstöttner, Michaela; Thaurer, Michael; Augustijns, Patrick; Reinelt, Monika; Schobersberger, Wolfgang

    2008-01-01

    In alternative and complementary medicine, the use of essential and fatty oils has become more and more popular. In addition to conventional medical therapies, self-medication is showing increasing popularity, using agents with unclear compounds and poorly controlled dosages. Among other disorders, these alternative treatments are used in bronchitis and rhinitis, including some topical applications. Thus, the influence on ciliated epithelia should be evaluated, because a disturbance of the ciliary function can lead to recurrent sinusitis and chronic rhinosinusitis. The aim of this study was to test the influence of fatty and essential oils on the ciliary beat frequency (CBF) of nasal mucosa in vivo. The influence of sesame oil, soy oil, peanut oil, Miglyol 840, thyme oil, lavender oil, eucalyptus oil, and menthol on the ciliary activity of nasal brushings was evaluated by digital high-speed imaging. The presence of most fatty oils resulted in an increase in CBF, the effect being highest for peanut oil. Miglyol 840 had no significant influence on CBF. The essential oils were tested at a concentration of 0.2 and 2%. Thyme oil did not affect CBF, whereas the presence of all other essentials oils resulted in an increase in CBF; the effect was higher at 0.2% than at 2%. Except thyme oil and Miglyol 840, all tested oils caused an increase in CBF. Interestingly, the 0.2% concentrations of essential oils resulted in stronger effects when compared with the 2% concentrations.

  12. ANTHROPOMETRIC STUDY OF NASAL INDEX OF EGYPTIANS

    OpenAIRE

    Abdelmonem Awad Hegazy

    2014-01-01

    Background: The nasal index determination is one of the most commonly used anthropometric parameters in classifying human races. There are few reports in medical literature concerning nasal index that specifically address particular Egyptian populations. The objective of this study was to determine the normal parameters of external nose (width, height and nasal index) in Egyptians. Methods: The study was conducted randomly on healthy Egyptian subjects of both sexes. Nasal height and width ...

  13. Nitric oxide in exhaled and aspirated nasal air as an objective measure of human response to indoor air pollution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolarik, Barbara; Lagercrantz, L.; Sundell, Jan

    2009-01-01

    The concentration of nitric oxide (NO) in exhaled and aspirated nasal air was used to objectively assess human response to indoor air pollutants in a climate chamber exposure experiment. The concentration of NO was measured before exposure, after 2, and 4.5 h of exposure, using a chemiluminescence...... by the exposures. The results may indicate an association between polluted indoor air and subclinical inflammation.Measurement of nitric oxide in exhaled air is a possible objective marker of subclinical inflammation in healthy adults....... NO analyzer. Sixteen healthy female subjects were exposed to two indoor air pollutants and to a clean reference condition for 4.5 h. Subjective assessments of the environment were obtained by questionnaires. After exposure (4.5 h) to the two polluted conditions a small increase in NO concentration in exhaled...

  14. Nasal encephaloceles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoving, Eelco W.

    2000-01-01

    Nasal encephaloceles can be divided into frontoethmoidal and basal encephaloceles. Both conditions are very rare, but frontoethmoidal encephaloceles show a relatively high incidence (1:5,000) in Southeast Asia. The pathogenesis of encephaloceles may be explained by a disturbance in separation of

  15. Characteristics of nasal-associated lymphoid tissue (NALT) and nasal absorption capacity in chicken.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Haihong; Yan, Mengfei; Yu, Qinghua; Yang, Qian

    2013-01-01

    As the main mucosal immune inductive site of nasal cavity, nasal-associated lymphoid tissue (NALT) plays an important role in both antigen recognition and immune activation after intranasal immunization. However, the efficiency of intranasal vaccines is commonly restricted by the insufficient intake of antigen by the nasal mucosa, resulting from the nasal mucosal barrier and the nasal mucociliary clearance. The distribution of NALT and the characteristic of nasal cavity have already been described in humans and many laboratory rodents, while data about poultry are scarce. For this purpose, histological sections of the chicken nasal cavities were used to examine the anatomical structure and histological characteristics of nasal cavity. Besides, the absorptive capacity of chicken nasal mucosa was also studied using the materials with different particle size. Results showed that the NALT of chicken was located on the bottom of nasal septum and both sides of choanal cleft, which mainly consisted of second lymphoid follicle. A large number of lymphocytes were distributed under the mucosal epithelium of inferior nasal meatus. In addition, there were also diffuse lymphoid tissues located under the epithelium of the concha nasalis media and the walls of nasal cavity. The results of absorption experiment showed that the chicken nasal mucosa was capable to absorb trypan blue, OVA, and fluorescent latex particles. Inactivated avian influenza virus (IAIV) could be taken up by chicken nasal mucosa except for the stratified squamous epithelium sites located on the forepart of nasal cavity. The intake of IAIV by NALT was greater than that of the nasal mucosa covering on non-lymphoid tissue, which could be further enhanced after intranasal inoculation combined with sodium cholate or CpG DNA. The study on NALT and nasal absorptive capacity will be benefit for further understanding of immune mechanisms after nasal vaccination and development of nasal vaccines for poultry.

  16. Responses of primary human nasal epithelial cells to EDIII-DENV stimulation: the first step to intranasal dengue vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nantachit, Nattika; Sunintaboon, Panya; Ubol, Sukathida

    2016-08-18

    About half of the world's population are living in the endemic area of dengue viruses implying that a rapid-mass vaccination may be required. In addition, a major target of dengue vaccine are children, thus, a needle-free administration is more attractive. These problems may be overcome by the alternative route of vaccination such as topical, oral and intranasal vaccination. Here, we investigated the possibility to deliver a dengue immunogen intranasally, a painless route of vaccination. The tested immunogen was the domain III of dengue serotype-3 E protein (EDIII-D3) loaded into trimethyl chitosan nanoparticles (EDIII-D3 TMC NPs). The primary human nasal epithelial cells, HNEpCs, were used as an in vitro model for nasal responses. At tested concentrations, EDIII-D3 TMC NPs not only exerted no detectable toxicity toward HNEpC cultures but also efficiently delivered EDIII-D3 immunogens into HNEpCs. Moreover, HNEpCs quickly and strongly produced proinflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α), type-I IFN, the growth factors (GM-CSF, IL-7), the chemokines (MCP-1, MIP-1β, IL-8), Th1-related cytokines (IL-2, IL-12p70, IL-17, IFN-γ) and Th2-related cytokine (IL-4) in response to EDIII-D3 TMC NPs treatment. A potential mucosal delivery system for dengue immunogens was revealed and found to stimulate a strong local innate antiviral response which possibly leading to a systemic adaptive immunity.

  17. Absorption and Clearance of Pharmaceutical Aerosols in the Human Nose: Effects of Nasal Spray Suspension Particle Size and Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rygg, Alex; Hindle, Michael; Longest, P Worth

    2016-04-01

    The objective of this study was to use a recently developed nasal dissolution, absorption, and clearance (DAC) model to evaluate the extent to which suspended drug particle size influences nasal epithelial drug absorption for a spray product. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations of mucociliary clearance and drug dissolution were used to calculate total and microscale epithelial absorption of drug delivered with a nasal spray pump. Ranges of suspended particle sizes, drug solubilities, and partition coefficients were evaluated. Considering mometasone furoate as an example, suspended drug particle sizes in the range of 1-5 μm did not affect the total nasal epithelial uptake. However, the microscale absorption of suspended drug particles with low solubilities was affected by particle size and this controlled the extent to which the drug penetrated into the distal nasal regions. The nasal-DAC model was demonstrated to be a useful tool in determining the nasal exposure of spray formulations with different drug particle sizes and solubilities. Furthermore, the model illustrated a new strategy for topical nasal drug delivery in which drug particle size is selected to increase the region of epithelial surface exposure using mucociliary clearance while minimizing the drug dose exiting the nasopharynx.

  18. Assessment of nasal spray deposition pattern in a silicone human nose model using a color-based method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kundoor, Vipra; Dalby, Richard N

    2010-01-01

    To develop a simple and inexpensive method to visualize and quantify droplet deposition patterns. Deposition pattern was determined by uniformly coating the nose model with Sar-Gel (a paste that changes from white to purple on contact with water) and subsequently discharging sprays into the nose model. The color change was captured using a digital camera and analyzed using Adobe Photoshop. Several tests were conducted to validate the method. Deposition patterns of different nasal sprays (Ayr, Afrin, and Zicam) and different nasal drug delivery devices (Afrin nasal spray and PARI Sinustar nasal nebulizer) were compared. We also used the method to evaluate the effect of inhaled flow rate on nasal spray deposition. There was a significant difference in the deposition area for Ayr, Afrin, and Zicam. The deposition areas of Afrin nasal spray and PARI Sinustar nasal nebulizer (2 min and 5 min) were significantly different. Inhaled flow rate did not have a significant effect on the deposition pattern. Lower viscosity formulations (Ayr, Afrin) provided greater coverage than the higher viscosity formulation (Zicam). The nebulizer covered a greater surface area than the spray pump we evaluated. Aerosol deposition in the nose model was not affected by air flow conditions.

  19. Prevalence of human papillomavirus, Epstein-Barr virus, p21, and p53 expression in sinonasal inverted papilloma, nasal polyp, and hypertrophied turbinate in Hong Kong patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sham, C L; To, K F; Chan, Paul K S; Lee, Dennis L Y; Tong, Michael C F; van Hasselt, C Andrew

    2012-04-01

    The purpose of this study of human papillomavirus (HPV), Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), p21, and p53 in sinonasal inverted papilloma (IP) was to help elucidate its pathogenesis. Seventy-three IPs, 48 nasal polyps, and 85 hypertrophied turbinates were subjected to HPV polymerase chain reaction (PCR) study. Seventy-three IPs, 30 nasal polyps, and 32 hypertrophied turbinates were subjected to EBV in situ hybridization (ISH), p21, and p53 immunohistochemical (IHC) studies. HPV was positive in 3 of 73 IPs (4.1%). All specimens were EBV negative. In all, 99% of IPs showed strong and diffuse p21 nuclear reactivity. Most nasal polyps and hypertrophied turbinates showed weak to moderate immunoreactivity of the basal and parabasal cells. Only focal p53 immunoreactivity of the basal and parabasal cells was found in 19% of IPs and 40% of nasal polyps. HPV prevalence of our IP is low. EBV is not present in IP. High p21 and low p53 expression in IP suggests a non-p53-dependent regulation pathway. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Nasal Wash Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Medications Alternative Therapies Nasal Wash Treatment Nasal Wash Treatment Make an Appointment Ask a Question Refer Patient The Centers for Disease Control (CDC) guidelines for preparing water used in a nasal wash are listed below. Many ...

  1. Persistence of nasal colonization with human pathogenic bacteria and associated antimicrobial resistance in the German general population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Köck, R; Werner, P; Friedrich, A W; Fegeler, C; Becker, K

    The nares represent an important bacterial reservoir for endogenous infections. This study aimed to assess the prevalence of nasal colonization by different important pathogens, the associated antimicrobial susceptibility and risk factors. We performed a prospective cohort study among 1878

  2. The transmission of masticatory forces and nasal septum: structural comparison of the human skull and Gothic cathedral.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilloowala, Rumy; Kanth, Hrishi

    2007-07-01

    This study extrapolates the transmission of masticatory forces to the cranium based on the architectural principles of Gothic cathedrals. The most significant finding of the study, obtained by analysis of coronal CT scans, is the role of the hard palate, and especially the vomer and the perpendicular plate of the ethmoid in masticatory force transmission. The study also confirms, experimentally, the paths of masticatory forces, cited in literature but based purely on morphological observations. Human skulls and Gothic cathedrals have similar morphological and functional characteristics. The load exerted by the roof of the cathedral is transmitted to the ground by piers and buttresses. These structures also resist the shearing forces exerted by high winds. Similarly, the mid-facial bones of the skull transmit the vertical as well as the lateral masticatory forces from the maxillary dentition to the skull base. The nonload bearing walls and stained glass windows of the cathedral correspond to the translucent wall of the maxilla. The passageway between the aisle and the nave of the cathedral is equivalent to the meatal openings in the lateral wall of the nasal cavity.

  3. Role of the Akt/mTOR signaling pathway in human papillomavirus-associated nasal and sinonasal inverted papilloma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yongliang; Duan, Lihua; Tian, Jie; Song, Daoliang; Zhang, Min; Zhao, Shenlin; Yin, Zhaofu; Xiang, Xinxin; Li, Xuezhong

    2017-12-01

    Nasal and sinonasal inverted papilloma (NSIP) is a benign tumor in which surface epithelial cells grow downward into the underlying supportive tissue with varying degrees of metaplasia. Human papillomavirus (HPV) has been proposed as the causal agent in the pathogenesis of this disease. Many studies have shown that HPV can activate the Akt/mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway, but the role of this pathway in HPV-associated NSIP is largely unknown. In this study, we enrolled 40 control tissue samples and 80 NSIP tissue samples. HPV genotyping showed that 47 of the 80 examined cases of NSIP were HPV-positive (58.8%), and the most common subtype was HPV11 (20/53, 37.7%). The immunohistochemistry showed statistically significant differences in phosphorylated Akt and phosphorylated S6 ribosomal protein staining among control samples, HPV-positive NSIP and HPV-negative NSIP. The HPV11 L1-L2 plasmid increased the proliferation of normal human nasopharyngeal epithelial NP69-SV40T cells and human nasopharyngeal cancer CNE1 cells. Meanwhile, rapamycin, an mTOR inhibitor, reversed the increased cell proliferation induced by the HPV11 L1-L2 plasmid. Western blot analysis showed that Akt/mTOR/S6 were overexpressed in NP69-SV40T cells and CNE1 cells infected with the HPV11 L1-L2 plasmid. These data demonstrate that HPV promotes cell proliferation through the Akt/mTOR signaling pathway in NSIP. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Institute of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. The Effect of Menstrual Cycle on Nasal Resonance Characteristics in Females

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Suman; Basu, Shriya; Sinha, Anisha; Chatterjee, Indranil

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze resonance characteristics (nasality and nasalance values) during the menstrual cycle. Previous studies indicate changes in voice quality and nasal mucosa due to temporary falling estrogen levels in human females during their menstrual cycle. The present study compared the nasality and "nasalance scores"…

  5. Relative position and extent of the nasal and orbital openings in Gorilla, Pan and the human species from the study of their areas and centres of area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmittbuhl, M; Le Minor, J M; Schaaf, A

    1996-01-01

    In order to quantify the relative position and extent of the nasal and orbital openings in hominoid primates, a new methodology based on image analysis was developed and applied to a series of 134 hominoid skulls (52 Gorilla gorilla; 30 Pan troglodytes; 44 Homo sapiens, and, as comparison material, 8 Pongo pygmaeus). The areas and the centres of area of the orbital and nasal openings were determined automatically. The orbitonasal triangle connecting these three centres of area was then constructed. This triangle was used to quantify the elongation of the face. It was most elongated in gorilla, shortest in the human species and intermediate in Pan; the elongation in Pongo was close to that in Gorilla. The proportions of the areas of the orbital and nasal openings in the face were related to the extent of the bony structures of the midface and were thus used to quantify the facial robustness. A robust face was demonstrated in Gorilla, but a gracile face in the human species. Robusticity in Pan was intermediate.

  6. Pilot study to establish a nasal tip prediction method from unknown human skeletal remains for facial reconstruction and skull photo superimposition as applied to a Japanese male populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utsuno, Hajime; Kageyama, Toru; Uchida, Keiichi; Kibayashi, Kazuhiko; Sakurada, Koichi; Uemura, Koichi

    2016-02-01

    Skull-photo superimposition is a technique used to identify the relationship between the skull and a photograph of a target person: and facial reconstruction reproduces antemortem facial features from an unknown human skull, or identifies the facial features of unknown human skeletal remains. These techniques are based on soft tissue thickness and the relationships between soft tissue and the skull, i.e., the position of the ear and external acoustic meatus, pupil and orbit, nose and nasal aperture, and lips and teeth. However, the ear and nose region are relatively difficult to identify because of their structure, as the soft tissues of these regions are lined with cartilage. We attempted to establish a more accurate method to determine the position of the nasal tip from the skull. We measured the height of the maxilla and mid-lower facial region in 55 Japanese men and generated a regression equation from the collected data. We obtained a result that was 2.0±0.99mm (mean±SD) distant from the true nasal tip, when applied to a validation set consisting of another 12 Japanese men. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  7. Low Prevalence of Oral and Nasal Human Papillomavirus in Employees Performing CO2-laser Evaporation of Genital Warts or Loop Electrode Excision Procedure of Cervical Dysplasia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kofoed, Kristian; Norrbom, Christina; Forslund, Ola

    2014-01-01

    Risk of human papillomavirus (HPV) transmission during laser vaporisation of genital warts or loop electrode excision procedure is controversial. An oral rinse, a nasal swabs, history of HPV related diseases and data on HPV exposure were collected from 287 employees at departments of dermato......, or loop electrode excision procedure compared with those who did not. HPV 6 or 11 were not detected in any samples. Hand warts after the age of 24 years was more common among dermatology than among non-dermatology personnel (18% vs. 8.0%, p = 0.03). Mucosal HPV types are infrequent in the oral and nasal...... cavity of health care personnel, however, employees at departments of dermato-venereology are at risk of acquiring hand warts....

  8. Nitric oxide in exhaled and aspirated nasal air as an objective measure of human response to isopropanol oxidation products and pthtalate esters in indoor air

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lagercrantz, Love Per; Famula, Basia; Sundell, Jan

    2005-01-01

    The use of Nitric Oxide (NO) concentration in exhaled and aspirated nasal air to assess human response to indoor air pollution was tested in a climate chamber exposure experiment. The concentration of NO was measured using a chemiluminescence NO analyser. Sixteen healthy female subjects were...... exposed to 2 commonly occurring indoor air pollutants and to a clean reference condition for 4.5 hours. Assessments of the environment were obtained using questionnaires. The polluted conditions were perceived as worse than the reference condition. After exposure to the two polluted conditions a small...... increase in NO concentration (+2.7% and +7.2%) in exhaled air was observed. After exposure to the reference condition the mean NO concentration was significantly reduced (-14.3%) compared to before exposure. NO in nasal air was unaffected by the exposures. The results indicate an association between...

  9. Esthetic rhinoplasty as an adjunctive technique in nasal oncoplastic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adham Farouk

    2016-01-15

    Jan 15, 2016 ... Esthetic rhinoplasty;. Oncoplastic surgery nose;. Basal cell carcinoma;. Squamous cell carcinoma;. Nonmelanoma skin cancer;. Nasal reconstruction ... Conclusions: Esthetic rhinoplasty is a useful adjunctive technique in nasal oncoplastic surgery. .... All procedures performed in the study involving human.

  10. Modulation of epithelial sodium channel trafficking and function by sodium 4-phenylbutyrate in human nasal epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prulière-Escabasse, Virginie; Planès, Carole; Escudier, Estelle; Fanen, Pascale; Coste, André; Clerici, Christine

    2007-11-23

    Sodium 4-phenylbutyrate (4-PBA) has been shown to correct the cellular trafficking of several mutant or nonmutant plasma membrane proteins such as cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator through the expression of 70-kDa heat shock proteins. The objective of the study was to determine whether 4-PBA may influence the functional expression of epithelial sodium channels (ENaC) in human nasal epithelial cells (HNEC). Using primary cultures of HNEC, we demonstrate that 4-PBA (5 mm for 6 h) markedly stimulated amiloride-sensitive sodium channel activity and that this was related to an increased abundance of alpha-, beta-, and gamma-ENaC subunits in the apical membrane. The increase in ENaC cell surface expression (i) was due to insertion of newly ENaC subunits as determined by brefeldin A experiments and (ii) was not associated with cell surface retention of ENaC subunits because endocytosis of ENaC subunits was unchanged. In addition, we find that ENaC co-immunoprecipitated with the heat shock protein constitutively expressed Hsc70, that has been reported to modulate ENaC trafficking, and that 4-PBA decreased Hsc70 protein level. Finally, we report that in cystic fibrosis HNEC obtained from two cystic fibrosis patients, 4-PBA increased functional expression of ENaC as demonstrated by the increase in amiloride-sensitive sodium transport and in alpha-, beta-, and gamma-ENaC subunit expression in the apical membrane. Our results suggest that in HNEC, 4-PBA increases the functional expression of ENaC through the insertion of new alpha-, beta-, and gamma-ENaC subunits into the apical membrane and also suggest that 4-PBA could modify ENaC trafficking by reducing Hsc70 protein expression.

  11. The Ability of Human Nasal Inferior Turbinate-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells to Repair Vocal Fold Injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Choung-Soo; Choi, Hyunsu; Park, Ki Cheol; Kim, Sung Won; Sun, Dong-Il

    2018-03-01

    Objective This study investigated the ability of implanted human nasal inferior turbinate-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hTMSCs) to repair injured vocal folds. To this end, we used quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to analyze the early phase of wound healing and histopathological analysis to explore the late phase of wound healing in xenograft animal models. Study Design Prospective animal study. Setting Research laboratory. Subjects and Methods The right-side lamina propria of the vocal fold was injured in 20 rabbits and 30 rats. Next, hTMSCs were implanted into half of the injured vocal folds (hTMSC groups). As a control, phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) was injected into the other half of the injured vocal folds (PBS groups). Rat vocal folds were harvested for polymerase chain reaction (PCR) at 1 week after injury. Rabbit vocal folds were evaluated endoscopically and the larynges harvested for histological and immunohistochemical examination at 2 and 8 weeks after injury. Results In the hTMSC group, PCR showed that hyaluronan synthase ( HAS) 1, HAS 2, and transforming growth factor ( TGF)-β1 were significantly upregulated compared with the PBS group. Procollagen type III ( COL III) messenger RNA expression was significantly upregulated in the PBS group compared with the normal group. Histological analyses showed that hTMSC administration afforded more favorable collagen and hyaluronic acid deposition than was evident in the controls. Implanted hTMSCs were observed in injured vocal folds 2 weeks after implantation. Conclusions Our results show that hTMSCs implantation into injured vocal folds facilitated vocal fold regeneration, with presenting antifibrotic effects.

  12. Morphogenesis of respiratory syncytial virus in human primary nasal ciliated epithelial cells occurs at surface membrane microdomains that are distinct from cilia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jumat, Muhammad Raihan; Yan, Yan; Ravi, Laxmi Iyer; Wong, Puisan; Huong, Tra Nguyen; Li, Chunwei; Tan, Boon Huan; Wang, De Yun; Sugrue, Richard J.

    2015-01-01

    The distribution of cilia and the respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) nucleocapsid (N) protein, fusion (F) protein, attachment (G) protein, and M2-1 protein in human ciliated nasal epithelial cells was examined at between 1 and 5 days post-infection (dpi). All virus structural proteins were localized at cell surface projections that were distinct from cilia. The F protein was also trafficked into the cilia, and while its presence increased as the infection proceeded, the N protein was not detected in the cilia at any time of infection. The presence of the F protein in the cilia correlated with cellular changes in the cilia and reduced cilia function. At 5 dpi extensive cilia loss and further reduced cilia function was noted. These data suggested that although RSV morphogenesis occurs at non-cilia locations on ciliated nasal epithelial cells, RSV infection induces changes in the cilia body that leads to extensive cilia loss. - Highlights: • Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infects nasal ciliated epithelial cells. • Virus morphogenesis occurs within filamentous projections distinct from cilia. • The RSV N protein was not detected in the cilia at any time during infection. • Trafficking of the F protein into the cilia occurred early in infection. • Presence of the F protein in cilia correlated with impaired cilia function

  13. Morphogenesis of respiratory syncytial virus in human primary nasal ciliated epithelial cells occurs at surface membrane microdomains that are distinct from cilia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jumat, Muhammad Raihan [School of Biological Sciences, Nanyang Technological University, 60 Nanyang Drive, Singapore 637551 (Singapore); Yan, Yan [Department of Otolaryngology, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University Health System, National University of Singapore, Singapore 119228 (Singapore); Ravi, Laxmi Iyer [School of Biological Sciences, Nanyang Technological University, 60 Nanyang Drive, Singapore 637551 (Singapore); Wong, Puisan [Detection and Diagnostics Laboratory, DSO National Laboratories, 27 Medical Drive, Singapore 117510 (Singapore); Huong, Tra Nguyen [School of Biological Sciences, Nanyang Technological University, 60 Nanyang Drive, Singapore 637551 (Singapore); Li, Chunwei [Department of Otolaryngology, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University Health System, National University of Singapore, Singapore 119228 (Singapore); Tan, Boon Huan [Detection and Diagnostics Laboratory, DSO National Laboratories, 27 Medical Drive, Singapore 117510 (Singapore); Wang, De Yun [Department of Otolaryngology, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University Health System, National University of Singapore, Singapore 119228 (Singapore); Sugrue, Richard J., E-mail: rjsugrue@ntu.edu.sg [School of Biological Sciences, Nanyang Technological University, 60 Nanyang Drive, Singapore 637551 (Singapore)

    2015-10-15

    The distribution of cilia and the respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) nucleocapsid (N) protein, fusion (F) protein, attachment (G) protein, and M2-1 protein in human ciliated nasal epithelial cells was examined at between 1 and 5 days post-infection (dpi). All virus structural proteins were localized at cell surface projections that were distinct from cilia. The F protein was also trafficked into the cilia, and while its presence increased as the infection proceeded, the N protein was not detected in the cilia at any time of infection. The presence of the F protein in the cilia correlated with cellular changes in the cilia and reduced cilia function. At 5 dpi extensive cilia loss and further reduced cilia function was noted. These data suggested that although RSV morphogenesis occurs at non-cilia locations on ciliated nasal epithelial cells, RSV infection induces changes in the cilia body that leads to extensive cilia loss. - Highlights: • Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infects nasal ciliated epithelial cells. • Virus morphogenesis occurs within filamentous projections distinct from cilia. • The RSV N protein was not detected in the cilia at any time during infection. • Trafficking of the F protein into the cilia occurred early in infection. • Presence of the F protein in cilia correlated with impaired cilia function.

  14. Nasal chondromesenchymal hamartoma with no nasal symptoms.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Uzomefuna, Vincent

    2012-01-01

    The authors present a case of nasal chondromesenchymal hamartoma (NCMH) in an 8-year-old boy with a 4-month history of frontal headache and no symptoms of nasal obstruction, rhinorrhoea or postnasal drip. An ENT examination as well as ophthalmology assessment presented normal results. CT scan showed a lesion involving the sphenoid and ethmoid sinuses. The patient had an endoscopic resection of the lesion that was confirmed histologically to be a NCMH. Though NCMH is known to present usually in infants with obstructing nasal mass, an unusual presentation of a patient with throbbing headache without any nasal symptoms is reported here.

  15. Staphylococcus aureus and the ecology of the nasal microbiome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Cindy M; Price, Lance B; Hungate, Bruce A

    2015-01-01

    The human microbiome can play a key role in host susceptibility to pathogens, including in the nasal cavity, a site favored by Staphylococcus aureus. However, what determines our resident nasal microbiota-the host or the environment-and can interactions among nasal bacteria determine S. aureus...

  16. Nasal chondrocyte-based engineered autologous cartilage tissue for repair of articular cartilage defects: an observational first-in-human trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mumme, Marcus; Barbero, Andrea; Miot, Sylvie; Wixmerten, Anke; Feliciano, Sandra; Wolf, Francine; Asnaghi, Adelaide M; Baumhoer, Daniel; Bieri, Oliver; Kretzschmar, Martin; Pagenstert, Geert; Haug, Martin; Schaefer, Dirk J; Martin, Ivan; Jakob, Marcel

    2016-10-22

    Articular cartilage injuries have poor repair capacity, leading to progressive joint damage, and cannot be restored predictably by either conventional treatments or advanced therapies based on implantation of articular chondrocytes. Compared with articular chondrocytes, chondrocytes derived from the nasal septum have superior and more reproducible capacity to generate hyaline-like cartilage tissues, with the plasticity to adapt to a joint environment. We aimed to assess whether engineered autologous nasal chondrocyte-based cartilage grafts allow safe and functional restoration of knee cartilage defects. In a first-in-human trial, ten patients with symptomatic, post-traumatic, full-thickness cartilage lesions (2-6 cm 2 ) on the femoral condyle or trochlea were treated at University Hospital Basel in Switzerland. Chondrocytes isolated from a 6 mm nasal septum biopsy specimen were expanded and cultured onto collagen membranes to engineer cartilage grafts (30 × 40 × 2 mm). The engineered tissues were implanted into the femoral defects via mini-arthrotomy and assessed up to 24 months after surgery. Primary outcomes were feasibility and safety of the procedure. Secondary outcomes included self-assessed clinical scores and MRI-based estimation of morphological and compositional quality of the repair tissue. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01605201. The study is ongoing, with an approved extension to 25 patients. For every patient, it was feasible to manufacture cartilaginous grafts with nasal chondrocytes embedded in an extracellular matrix rich in glycosaminoglycan and type II collagen. Engineered tissues were stable through handling with forceps and could be secured in the injured joints. No adverse reactions were recorded and self-assessed clinical scores for pain, knee function, and quality of life were improved significantly from before surgery to 24 months after surgery. Radiological assessments indicated variable degrees of

  17. Human nasal turbinates as a viable source of respiratory epithelial cells using co-culture system versus dispase-dissociation technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noruddin, Nur Adelina Ahmad; Saim, Aminuddin B; Chua, Kien Hui; Idrus, Ruszymah

    2007-12-01

    To compare a co-culture system with a conventional dispase-dissociation method for obtaining functional human respiratory epithelial cells from the nasal turbinates for tissue engineering application. Human respiratory epithelial cells were serially passaged using a co-culture system and a conventional dispase-dissociation technique. The growth kinetics and gene expression levels of the cultured respiratory epithelial cells were compared. Four genes were investigated, namely cytokeratin-18, a marker for ciliated and secretory epithelial cells; cytokeratin-14, a marker for basal epithelial cells; MKI67, a proliferation marker; and MUC5B, a marker for mucin secretion. Immunocytochemical analysis was performed using monoclonal antibodies against the high molecular-weight cytokeratin 34 beta E12, cytokeratin 18, and MUC5A to investigate the protein expression from cultured respiratory epithelial cells. Respiratory epithelial cells cultured using both methods maintained polygonal morphology throughout the passages. At passage 1, co-cultured respiratory epithelial showed a 2.6-times higher growth rate compared to conventional dispase dissociation technique, and 7.8 times higher at passage 2. Better basal gene expression was observed by co-cultured respiratory epithelial cells compared to dispase dissociated cells. Immunocytochemical analyses were positive for the respiratory epithelial cells cultured using both techniques. Co-culture system produced superior quality of cultured human respiratory epithelial cells from the nasal turbinates as compared to dispase dissociation technique.

  18. Nasal septal hematoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001292.htm Nasal septal hematoma To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. A nasal septal hematoma is a collection of blood within the septum ...

  19. Persistence of nasal colonization with human pathogenic bacteria and associated antimicrobial resistance in the German general population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Köck

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The nares represent an important bacterial reservoir for endogenous infections. This study aimed to assess the prevalence of nasal colonization by different important pathogens, the associated antimicrobial susceptibility and risk factors. We performed a prospective cohort study among 1878 nonhospitalized volunteers recruited from the general population in Germany. Participants provided nasal swabs at three time points (each separated by 4–6 months. Staphylococcus aureus, Enterobacteriaceae and important nonfermenters were cultured and subjected to susceptibility testing. Factors potentially influencing bacterial colonization patterns were assessed. The overall prevalence of S. aureus, Enterobacteriaceae and nonfermenters was 41.0, 33.4 and 3.7%, respectively. Thirteen participants (0.7% were colonized with methicillin-resistant S. aureus. Enterobacteriaceae were mostly (>99% susceptible against ciprofloxacin and carbapenems (100%. Extended-spectrum β-lactamase–producing isolates were not detected among Klebsiella oxytoca, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Escherichia coli. Several lifestyle- and health-related factors (e.g. household size, travel, livestock density of the residential area or occupational livestock contact, atopic dermatitis, antidepressant or anti-infective drugs were associated with colonization by different microorganisms. This study unexpectedly demonstrated high nasal colonization rates with Enterobacteriaceae in the German general population, but rates of antibiotic resistance were low. Methicillin-resistant S. aureus carriage was rare but highly associated with occupational livestock contact.

  20. Nasal Lobular Capillary Hemangioma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prashant Patil

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Nasal lobular capillary hemangioma is a rare benign tumor of the paranasal sinuses. This lesion is believed to grow rapidly in size over time. The exact etiopathogenesis is still a dilemma. We discuss a case of nasal lobular capillary hemangioma presenting with a history of epistaxis. Contrast enhanced computed tomography of paranasal sinuses revealed an intensely enhancing soft-tissue mass in the left nasal cavity and left middle and inferior meati with no obvious bony remodeling or destruction. We present imaging and pathologic features of nasal lobular capillary hemangioma and differentiate it from other entities like nasal angiofibroma.

  1. Expression and functional activity of P-glycoprotein in passaged primary human nasal epithelial cell monolayers cultured by the air-liquid interface method for nasal drug transport study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Hyun-Jong; Choi, Min-Koo; Lin, Hongxia; Kim, Jung Sun; Chung, Suk-Jae; Shim, Chang-Koo; Kim, Dae-Duk

    2011-03-01

    P-glycoprotein (P-gp) is an efflux transporter encoded by the multidrug resistance gene (MDR1), which is also known as the human ABCB1 gene (ATP-binding cassette, subfamily-B). The objectives of this study were to investigate the expression of P-gp in passaged primary human nasal epithelial (HNE) cell monolayer, cultured by the air-liquid interface (ALI) method, and to evaluate its feasibility as an in-vitro model for cellular uptake and transport studies of P-gp substrates. Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was performed to verify the expression of the MDR1 gene. Transport and cellular uptake studies with P-gp substrate (rhodamine123) and P-gp inhibitors (verapamil and cyclosporin A) were conducted to assess the functional activity of P-gp in HNE cell monolayers cultured by the ALI method. MDR1 gene expression in primary HNE cell monolayers cultured by ALI method was confirmed by RT-PCR. The apparent permeability coefficient (P(app) ) of the P-gp substrate (rhodamine123) in the basolateral to apical (B to A) direction was 6.9 times higher than that in the apical to basolateral (A to B) direction. B to A transport was saturated at high rhodamine123 concentration, and the treatment of P-gp inhibitors increased cellular uptake of rhodamine123 in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. These results support the MDR1 gene expression and the functional activity of P-gp in primary HNE cell monolayers cultured by the ALI method. © 2011 The Authors. JPP © 2011 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  2. Risk Factors for Nasal Colonization by Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococci in Healthy Humans in Professional Daily Contact with Companion Animals in Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Ana Catarina; Belas, Adriana; Marques, Cátia; Cruz, Luís; Gama, Luís T; Pomba, Constança

    2018-05-01

    Methicillin-resistant staphylococci (MRS), namely Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and Staphylococcus pseudintermedius (MRSP), are opportunistic agents of great importance in human and veterinary medicine. The aims of this study were to investigate the frequency, persistence, and risk factors associated with nasal colonization by MRS in people in daily contact with animals in Portugal. Seventy-nine out of 129 (61.2%) participants were found to be colonized by, at least, one methicillin-resistant (MR) staphylococci species (MR Staphylococcus epidermidis [n = 68], MRSA [n = 19], MR Staphylococcus haemolyticus [n = 7], MRSP [n = 2], and other coagulase-negative staphylococci [n = 4]). Three lineages were identified among the MRSA isolates (n = 7): the major human healthcare clone in Portugal (ST22-t032-IV, n = 3), the livestock-associated MRSA (ST398-t108-V, n = 3), and the New York-/Japan-related clone (ST105-t002-II, n = 1). MRSP isolates belonged to the European clone ST71-II-III. We identified two risk factors for nasal colonization by MRS in healthy humans: (i) being a veterinary professional (veterinarian and veterinary nurse) (p < 0.0001, odds ratio [OR] = 6.369, 95% confidence interval [CI, 2.683-15.122]) and (ii) have contacted with one MRSA- or MRSP-positive animal (p = 0.0361, OR = 2.742, 95% CI [1.067-7.045]). The follow-up study revealed that the majority (85%) remain colonized. This study shows that MRS in veterinary clinical practice is a professional hazard and highlights the need to implement preventive measures to minimize spread.

  3. Nasal Glioma: Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozgur Surmelioglu

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Nasal gliomas are rare, benign, congenital tumors that are thought to be result of abnormality in embryonic development. Three types of clinical presentations have been recognized; extranasal, intranasal and combined. Clinically, these masses are non-pulsatile, gray or purple lesions that obstruct the nasal cavity and cause deformity extranasaly. Histologically, they are made up of astrocytic cells, fibrous and vascular connective tissue that is covered with nasal respiratory mucosa. Treatment of the nasal glioma requires a multidisciplinary approach including an radiologist, neurosurgeon and otorhinolaryngologist. Radiological investigation should be performed to describe intracranial extension. In this case, a 2 years old boy with nasal mass that was diagnosed as nasal glioma is reported. . [Cukurova Med J 2011; 36(1.000: 34-36

  4. Nasal Glioma: Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozgur Surmelioglu

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Nasal gliomas are rare, benign, congenital tumors that are thought to be result of abnormality in embryonic development. Three types of clinical presentations have been recognized; extranasal, intranasal and combined. Clinically, these masses are non-pulsatile, gray or purple lesions that obstruct the nasal cavity and cause deformity extranasaly. Histologically, they are made up of astrocytic cells, fibrous and vascular connective tissue that is covered with nasal respiratory mucosa. Treatment of the nasal glioma requires a multidisciplinary approach including an radiologist, neurosurgeon and otorhinolaryngologist. Radiological investigation should be performed to describe intracranial extension. In this case, a 2 years old boy with nasal mass that was diagnosed as nasal glioma is reported. . [Cukurova Med J 2011; 36(1: 34-36

  5. Cyanocobalamin Nasal Gel

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to supply extra vitamin B12 to people who need unusually large amounts of this vitamin because they are pregnant or have certain diseases. ... Cyanocobalamin nasal gel will supply you with enough vitamin B12 only as ... it regularly. You may need to use cyanocobalamin nasal gel every week for ...

  6. Nasal dermoid sinus cyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cauchois, R; Laccourreye, O; Bremond, D; Testud, R; Küffer, R; Monteil, J P

    1994-08-01

    Nasal dermoid sinus cyst is one of the diagnoses of midline nasal masses in children. This retrospective study analyzes the various theories regarding the origin of this congenital abnormality, the differential diagnosis, and the value of magnetic resonance imaging, as well as the various surgical options available.

  7. The effects of gas humidification with high-flow nasal cannula on cultured human airway epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chidekel, Aaron; Zhu, Yan; Wang, Jordan; Mosko, John J; Rodriguez, Elena; Shaffer, Thomas H

    2012-01-01

    Humidification of inspired gas is important for patients receiving respiratory support. High-flow nasal cannula (HFNC) effectively provides temperature and humidity-controlled gas to the airway. We hypothesized that various levels of gas humidification would have differential effects on airway epithelial monolayers. Calu-3 monolayers were placed in environmental chambers at 37°C with relative humidity (RH) 90% (HFNC) for 4 and 8 hours with 10 L/min of room air. At 4 and 8 hours, cell viability and transepithelial resistance measurements were performed, apical surface fluid was collected and assayed for indices of cell inflammation and function, and cells were harvested for histology (n = 6/condition). Transepithelial resistance and cell viability decreased over time (P < 0.001) between HFNC and dry groups (P < 0.001). Total protein secretion increased at 8 hours in the dry group (P < 0.001). Secretion of interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-8 in the dry group was greater than the other groups at 8 hours (P < 0.001). Histological analysis showed increasing injury over time for the dry group. These data demonstrate that exposure to low humidity results in reduced epithelial cell function and increased inflammation.

  8. The Effects of Gas Humidification with High-Flow Nasal Cannula on Cultured Human Airway Epithelial Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron Chidekel

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Humidification of inspired gas is important for patients receiving respiratory support. High-flow nasal cannula (HFNC effectively provides temperature and humidity-controlled gas to the airway. We hypothesized that various levels of gas humidification would have differential effects on airway epithelial monolayers. Calu-3 monolayers were placed in environmental chambers at 37°C with relative humidity (RH 90% (HFNC for 4 and 8 hours with 10 L/min of room air. At 4 and 8 hours, cell viability and transepithelial resistance measurements were performed, apical surface fluid was collected and assayed for indices of cell inflammation and function, and cells were harvested for histology (n=6/condition. Transepithelial resistance and cell viability decreased over time (P<0.001 between HFNC and dry groups (P<0.001. Total protein secretion increased at 8 hours in the dry group (P<0.001. Secretion of interleukin (IL-6 and IL-8 in the dry group was greater than the other groups at 8 hours (P<0.001. Histological analysis showed increasing injury over time for the dry group. These data demonstrate that exposure to low humidity results in reduced epithelial cell function and increased inflammation.

  9. The Nasal Route as a Potential Pathway for Delivery of Erythropoietin in the Treatment of Acute Ischemic Stroke in Humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Cesar García-Rodríguez

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Intranasal delivery provides a practical, noninvasive method of bypassing the blood-brain barrier (BBB in order to deliver therapeutic agents to the brain. This method allows drugs that do not cross the BBB to be delivered to the central nervous system in a few minutes. With this technology, it will be possible to eliminate systemic administration and its potential side effects. Using the intranasal delivery system, researchers have demonstrated neuroprotective effects in different animal models of stroke using erythropoietin (EPO as a neuroprotector or other different types of EPO without erythropoiesis-stimulating activity. These new molecules retain their ability to protect neural tissue against injury and they include Asialoerythropoietin (asialoEPO carbamylated EPO (CEPO, and rHu-EPO with low sialic acid content (Neuro-EPO. Contrary to the other EPO variants, Neuro-EPO is not chemically modified, making it biologically similar to endogenous EPO, with the advantage of less adverse reactions when this molecule is applied chronically. This constitutes a potential benefit of Neuro-EPO over other variants of EPO for the chronic treatment of neurodegenerative illnesses. Nasal administration of EPO is a potential, novel, neurotherapeutic approach. However, it will be necessary to initiate clinical trials in stroke patients using intranasal delivery in order to obtain the clinical evidence of its neuroprotectant capacity in the treatment of patients with acute stroke and other neurodegenerative disorders. This new therapeutic approach could revolutionize the treatment of neurodegenerative disorders in the 21st century.

  10. Objective Measure of Nasal Air Emission Using Nasal Accelerometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cler, Meredith J.; Lien, Yu-An, S.; Braden, Maia N.; Mittleman, Talia; Downing, Kerri; Stepp, Cara, E.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This article describes the development and initial validation of an objective measure of nasal air emission (NAE) using nasal accelerometry. Method: Nasal acceleration and nasal airflow signals were simultaneously recorded while an expert speech language pathologist modeled NAEs at a variety of severity levels. In addition, microphone and…

  11. A Rare Nasal Bone Fracture: Anterior Nasal Spine Fracture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Egemen Kucuk

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Anterior nasal spine fractures are a quite rare type of nasal bone fractures. Associated cervical spine injuries are more dangerous than the nasal bone fracture. A case of the anterior nasal spine fracture, in a 18-year-old male was presented. Fracture of the anterior nasal spine, should be considered in the differential diagnosis of the midface injuries and also accompanying cervical spine injury should not be ignored.

  12. In vivo microvascular imaging of human oral and nasal cavities using swept-source optical coherence tomography with a single forward/side viewing probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Woo June; Wang, Ruikang K.

    2015-03-01

    We report three-dimensional (3D) imaging of microcirculation within human cavity tissues in vivo using a high-speed swept-source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT) at 1.3 μm with a modified probe interface. Volumetric structural OCT images of the inner tissues of oral and nasal cavities are acquired with a field of view of 2 mm x 2 mm. Two types of disposable and detachable probe attachments are devised and applied to the port of the imaging probe of OCT system, enabling forward and side imaging scans for selective and easy access to specific cavity tissue sites. Blood perfusion is mapped with OCT-based microangiography from 3D structural OCT images, in which a novel vessel extraction algorithm is used to decouple dynamic light scattering signals, due to moving blood cells, from the background scattering signals due to static tissue elements. Characteristic tissue anatomy and microvessel architectures of various cavity tissue regions of a healthy human volunteer are identified with the 3D OCT images and the corresponding 3D vascular perfusion maps at a level approaching capillary resolution. The initial finding suggests that the proposed method may be engineered into a promising tool for evaluating and monitoring tissue microcirculation and its alteration within a wide-range of cavity tissues in the patients with various pathological conditions.

  13. Nasal capillariasis in a dog

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, R.R.; Greiner, E.C.; Ackerman, N.; Woodard, J.C.

    1990-01-01

    A five-year-old dog was evaluated for chronic nasal discharge. Nasal infection caused by Capillaria aerophila was diagnosed by identification of adult nematodes and eggs in the nasal flush sediment and by nasal biopsy samples and eggs in faecal flotations. Reinfection occurred following treatment with fenbendazole and ivermectin, probably because of a contaminated housing area

  14. Characterization of nasal cavity-associated lymphoid tissue in ducks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Haihong; Yan, Mengfei; Yu, Qinghua; Yang, Qian

    2014-05-01

    The nasal mucosa is involved in immune defense, as it is the first barrier for pathogens entering the body through the respiratory tract. The nasal cavity-associated lymphoid tissue (NALT), which is found in the mucosa of the nasal cavity, is considered to be the main mucosal immune inductive site in the upper respiratory tract. NALT has been found in humans and many mammals, which contributes to local and systemic immune responses after intranasal vaccination. However, there are very few data on NALT in avian species, especially waterfowl. For this study, histological sections of the nasal cavities of Cherry Valley ducks were used to examine the anatomical location and histological characteristics of NALT. The results showed that several lymphoid aggregates are present in the ventral wall of the nasal cavity near the choanal cleft, whereas several more lymphoid aggregates were located on both sides of the nasal septum. In addition, randomly distributed intraepithelial lymphocytes and isolated lymphoid follicles were observed in the regio respiratoria of the nasal cavity. There were also a few lymphoid aggregates located in the lamina propria of the regio vestibularis, which was covered with a stratified squamous epithelium. This study focused on the anatomic and histological characteristics of the nasal cavity of the duck and performed a systemic overview of NALT. This will be beneficial for further understanding of immune mechanisms after nasal vaccination and the development of effective nasal vaccines for waterfowls. Copyright © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Nicotine Nasal Spray

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... with a smoking cessation program, which may include support groups, counseling, or specific behavior change techniques. Nicotine nasal ... and pharmacist what prescription and nonprescription medications, vitamins, nutritional supplements, and herbal products you are taking or ...

  16. Nasal carriage of methicillin-resistant coagulase-negative staphylococci in healthy humans is associated with occupational pig contact in a dose-response manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ling; Chen, Zhiyao; Guo, Dan; Li, Shunming; Huang, Jingya; Wang, Xiaolin; Yao, Zhenjiang; Chen, Sidong; Ye, Xiaohua

    2017-09-01

    This study aimed to explore the association between occupational pig contact and human methicillin-resistant coagulase-negative staphylococci (MRCoNS) carriage. We conducted a cross-sectional study of pig exposed participants and controls in Guangdong, China, using a multi-stage sampling design. Participants provided a nasal swab for MRCoNS analysis and resulting isolates were tested for antibiotic susceptibility. The dose-response relation was examined using log binomial regression or Poisson regression models. The adjusted prevalence of MRCoNS carriage in pig exposed participants was 1.67 times (95% CI: 1.32-2.11) higher than in controls. The adjusted average number of resistance to different antibiotic classes of MRCoNS isolates from pig exposed participants was 1.67 times (95% CI: 1.46-1.91) higher than those from controls. Notably, we found the frequency and duration of occupational pig contact was associated with increased prevalence and increased number of resistance to different antibiotic classes of MRCoNS in a dose-response manner. When examining these relations by MRCoNS species, there was still evidence of similar exposure-response relations. Additionally, the proportion of tetracycline-resistant and tet(M)-containing MRCoNS isolates was significantly higher in pig exposed participants than in controls. These findings suggested a potential transmission of MRCoNS from livestock to humans by occupational livestock contact, and the presence of phenotypic and genotypic tetracycline resistance may aid in the differentiation of animal origins of MRCoNS isolates. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Disposition of nasal, intravenous, and oral methadone in healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dale, Ola; Hoffer, Christine; Sheffels, Pamela; Kharasch, Evan D

    2002-11-01

    Nasal administration of many opioids demonstrates rapid uptake and fast onset of action. Nasal administration may be an alternative to intravenous and oral administration of methadone and was therefore studied in human volunteers. The study was approved by the Institutional Review Board of the University of Washington, Seattle. Eight healthy volunteers (6 men and 2 women) aged 19 to 33 years were enrolled after informed written consent was obtained. Subjects received 10 mg methadone hydrochloride nasally, orally, or intravenously on 3 separate occasions in a crossover design. Nasal methadone (50 mg/mL in aqueous solution) was given as a 100-microL spray in each nostril (Pfeiffer BiDose sprayer). Blood samples for liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analyses of methadone and the metabolite 2-ethyl-1,5-dimethyl-3,3-diphenylpyrrolinium were drawn for up to 96 hours. The methadone effect was measured by noninvasive infrared pupilometry coincident with blood sampling. Nasal uptake of methadone was rapid, with maximum plasma concentrations occurring within 7 minutes. The maximum effects of intravenous, nasal, and oral methadone, on the basis of dark-adapted pupil diameter, were reached in about 15 minutes, 30 minutes, and 2 hours, respectively. The respective durations were 24, 10, and 8 hours. Both nasal and oral bioavailabilities were 0.85. Subjects reported that nasal methadone caused a burning sensation. Nasal administration of methadone results in rapid absorption and onset of effect and high bioavailability, which was greater than that reported for other nasal opioids, with a similar duration of effect. Nasal administration may be an alternative route of methadone administration; however, improved formulations are desirable to reduce nasal irritation.

  18. Nasal septum extramedullary plasmacytoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belić Branislav

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Plasmacytomas are malignant tumors characterized by abnormal monoclonal proliferation of plasma cells. They originate in either bone - solitary osseous plasmacytoma, or in soft tissue - extramedullary plasmacytoma (EMP. EMP represents less than 1% of all head and neck malignancies. Case report. We presented a case of EMP of the nasal septum in a 44-year-old male who had progressive difficulty in breathing through the nose and frequent heavy epistaxis on the right side. Nasal endoscopy showed dark red, soft, polypoid tumor in the last third of the right nasal cavity arising from the nasal septum. The biopsy showed that it was plasmacytoma. Bence Jones protein in the urine, serum electrophoresis, bone marrow biopsy, skeletal survey and other screening tests failed to detect multiple myeloma. This confirmed the diagnosis of EMP. The mass was completely removed via an endoscopic approach, and then, 4 week later, radiotherapy was conducted with a radiation dose of 50 Gray. No recurrence was noted in a 3-year follow- up period. Conclusion. EMP of the nasal cavity, being rare and having long natural history, represents a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge for any ear, nose and throat surgeon. Depending on the resectability of the lesion, a combined therapy is the accepted treatment.

  19. [Nasal septal abscess].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barril, María F; Ferolla, Fausto M; José, Pablo; Echave, Cecilia; Tomezzoli, Silvana; Fiorini, Sandra; López, Eduardo Luis

    2008-12-01

    A nasal septal abscess (NA) is defined as a collection of pus between the cartilage or bony septum and its normally applied mucoperichondrium or mucoperiostium. It is an uncommon disease which should be suspected in a patient with acute onset of nasal obstruction and recent history of nasal trauma, periodontal infection or an inflammatory process of the rhinosinusal region. We report a case of an 8-year-old boy with bilateral NA caused by community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus(MR-CO) in order to emphasize the importance of prompt diagnosis and adequate treatment to prevent the potentially dangerous spread of infection and the development of severe functional and cosmetic sequelae.

  20. The nasal cavity microbiota of healthy adults

    OpenAIRE

    Bassis, Christine M; Tang, Alice L; Young, Vincent B; Pynnonen, Melissa A

    2014-01-01

    Background The microbiota of the nares has been widely studied. However, relatively few studies have investigated the microbiota of the nasal cavity posterior to the nares. This distinct environment has the potential to contain a distinct microbiota and play an important role in health. Results We obtained 35,142 high-quality bacterial 16S rRNA-encoding gene sequence reads from the nasal cavity and oral cavity (the dorsum of the tongue and the buccal mucosa) of 12 healthy adult humans and dep...

  1. Characterization of the human nasal embryonic LHRH factor gene, NELF, and a mutation screening among 65 patients with idiopathic hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (IHH).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miura, Kiyonori; Acierno, James S; Seminara, Stephanie B

    2004-01-01

    As the mouse nasal embryonic LHRH factor gene (Nelf) encodes a guidance molecule for the migration of the olfactory axon and gonadotropin-releasing hormone neurons, its human homolog, NELF, is a candidate gene for Kallmann syndrome, a disease of idiopathic hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (IHH) with anosmia or hyposmia. We report here characterization of NELF and results of mutation analysis in 65 IHH patients. Assembling EST clones, RACE, and sequencing showed that NELF mapped to 9q34.3 is composed of 16 exons and 15 introns with a 1,590-bp ORF encoding 530 amino acids. RT-PCR on a fetal brain cDNA library revealed five alternatively spliced variants. Among them, NELF-v1 has 93-94% identity at the amino acid level to mouse/rat Nelf, and four other transcripts are also highly conserved among the three species. A 3.0-kb transcript is expressed most highly in the adult and fetal brain, testis, and kidney, indicating that NELF plays a role in the function of these tissues. Mutation screening detected in a patient with IHH one novel heterozygous missense mutation (1438A>G, T480A) at the donor-splice site in exon 15 of NELF. As this mutation was not found in 100 normal control individuals, T480A may be associated with IHH. Four other novel SNPs (102C > T and 1029C > T within the coding region, and two IVS14+47C > T and IVS15+41G > A) were also identified in NELF.

  2. Impact of airborne particle size, acoustic airflow and breathing pattern on delivery of nebulized antibiotic into the maxillary sinuses using a realistic human nasal replica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leclerc, Lara; Pourchez, Jérémie; Aubert, Gérald; Leguellec, Sandrine; Vecellio, Laurent; Cottier, Michèle; Durand, Marc

    2014-09-01

    Improvement of clinical outcome in patients with sinuses disorders involves targeting delivery of nebulized drug into the maxillary sinuses. We investigated the impact of nebulization conditions (with and without 100 Hz acoustic airflow), particle size (9.9 μm, 2.8 μm, 550 nm and 230 nm) and breathing pattern (nasal vs. no nasal breathing) on enhancement of aerosol delivery into the sinuses using a realistic nasal replica developed by our team. After segmentation of the airways by means of high-resolution computed tomography scans, a well-characterized nasal replica was created using a rapid prototyping technology. A total of 168 intrasinus aerosol depositions were performed with changes of aerosol particle size and breathing patterns under different nebulization conditions using gentamicin as a marker. The results demonstrate that the fraction of aerosol deposited in the maxillary sinuses is enhanced by use of submicrometric aerosols, e.g. 8.155 ± 1.476 mg/L of gentamicin in the left maxillary sinus for the 2.8 μm particles vs. 2.056 ± 0.0474 for the 550 nm particles. Utilization of 100-Hz acoustic airflow nebulization also produced a 2- to 3-fold increase in drug deposition in the maxillary sinuses (e.g. 8.155 ± 1.476 vs. 3.990 ± 1.690 for the 2.8 μm particles). Our study clearly shows that optimum deposition was achieved using submicrometric particles and 100-Hz acoustic airflow nebulization with no nasal breathing. It is hoped that our new respiratory nasal replica will greatly facilitate the development of more effective delivery systems in the future.

  3. Cosmetic and Functional Nasal Deformities

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... nasal complaints. Nasal deformity can be categorized as “cosmetic” or “functional.” Cosmetic deformity of the nose results in a less ... taste , nose bleeds and/or recurrent sinusitis . A cosmetic or functional nasal deformity may occur secondary to ...

  4. Nasal insulin changes peripheral insulin sensitivity simultaneously with altered activity in homeostatic and reward-related human brain regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heni, M; Kullmann, S; Ketterer, C; Guthoff, M; Linder, K; Wagner, R; Stingl, K T; Veit, R; Staiger, H; Häring, H-U; Preissl, H; Fritsche, A

    2012-06-01

    Impaired insulin sensitivity is a major factor leading to type 2 diabetes. Animal studies suggest that the brain is involved in the regulation of insulin sensitivity. We investigated whether insulin action in the human brain regulates peripheral insulin sensitivity and examined which brain areas are involved. Insulin and placebo were given intranasally. Plasma glucose, insulin and C-peptide were measured in 103 participants at 0, 30 and 60 min. A subgroup (n = 12) was also studied with functional MRI, and blood sampling at 0, 30 and 120 min. For each time-point, the HOMA of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) was calculated as an inverse estimate of peripheral insulin sensitivity. Plasma insulin increased and subsequently decreased. This excursion was accompanied by slightly decreased plasma glucose, resulting in an initially increased HOMA-IR. At 1 h after insulin spray, the HOMA-IR subsequently decreased and remained lower up to 120 min. An increase in hypothalamic activity was observed, which correlated with the increased HOMA-IR at 30 min post-spray. Activity in the putamen, right insula and orbitofrontal cortex correlated with the decreased HOMA-IR at 120 min post-spray. Central insulin action in specific brain areas, including the hypothalamus, may time-dependently regulate peripheral insulin sensitivity. This introduces a potential novel mechanism for the regulation of peripheral insulin sensitivity and underlines the importance of cerebral insulin action for the whole organism.

  5. Expression profiling and functional analysis of Toll-like receptors in primary healthy human nasal epithelial cells shows no correlation and a refractory LPS response

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Tongeren, J.; Röschmann, K. I. L.; Reinartz, S. M.; Luiten, S.; Fokkens, W. J.; de Jong, E. C.; van Drunen, C. M.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Innate immune recognition via Toll-like receptors (TLRs) on barrier cells like epithelial cells has been shown to influence the regulation of local immune responses. Here we determine expression level variations and functionality of TLRs in nasal epithelial cells from healthy donors.

  6. Nasalance norms in Greek adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okalidou, Areti; Karathanasi, Asimina; Grigoraki, Eleni

    2011-08-01

    The purposes of this study were to derive nasalance norms for monolingual Greek speakers, to examine nasalance scores as a function of gender and to draw cross-linguistic comparisons based on normative data. Participants read aloud a corpus of linguistic material, consisting of (1) a nasal text, an oral text and a balanced text; (2) a set of nasal sentences and four sets of oral sentences and (3) repetitions of each of 12 syllable types (8 oral and 4 nasal). The last two sets of material corpus were based on an adaptation of the Simplified Nasometric Assessment Procedures Test (SNAP test) test ( MacKay and Kummer, 1994 ) in Greek, called the G-SNAP test. Eighty monolingual healthy young adult speakers of Greek, 40 males (mean age = 21 years) and 40 females (mean age = 20.5 years), with normal hearing and speech characteristics and unremarkable history were included in the study. The Nasometer (model 6200-3) was used to derive nasalance scores. Mean normative nasalance for spoken Greek was 25.50%, based on the G-oronasal text (with 8.6% nasals). Nasalance scores did not differ significantly with respect to gender. Finally, spoken Greek consistently yielded lower nasalance scores than other languages examined in past work. The aforementioned normative data on nasalance of young adult speakers of Greek are valid across gender and have direct clinical utility as they provide valuable reference information for the diagnosis and management of Greek adults with resonance disorders caused by velar dysfunction.

  7. Surgical management of nasal obstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moche, Jason A; Palmer, Orville

    2012-05-01

    The proper evaluation of the patient with nasal obstruction relies on a comprehensive history and physical examination. Once the site of obstruction is accurately identified, the patient may benefit from a trial of medical management. At times however, the definitive treatment of nasal obstruction relies on surgical management. Recognizing the nasal septum, nasal valve, and turbinates as possible sites of obstruction and addressing them accordingly can dramatically improve a patient's nasal breathing. Conservative resection of septal cartilage, submucous reduction of the inferior turbinate, and structural grafting of the nasal valve when appropriate will provide the optimal improvement in nasal airflow and allow for the most stable results. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. Nasal packing with ventilated nasal packs; a comparison with traditional vaseline nasal pack

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alam, J.; Siddiqui, M.W.; Abbas, A.; Sami, M.; Ayub, Z.

    2017-01-01

    To compare the benefits of ventilated nasal packing with traditional vaseline guaze nasal packing. Study Design: Randomized controlled trial. Place and Duration of Study: This study was conducted at CMH Multan, from Jun 2014 to Dec 2014. Material and Methods: In this study, sample size of 80 patients was calculated using WHO calculator. Patients were divided in two groups using lottery method endotracheal tube and piece of surgical glove filled with ribbon guaze was utilized for fabricated ventilated nasal pack and compared with traditional nasal packs. Nasal obstruction and sleep disturbance were studied at eight hours and twenty-four hours following surgery using visual analog scale. Results: Mean nasal obstruction with ventilated nasal pack was 45.62 +- 6.17 and with Vaseline nasal pack was 77.67 +- 4.85 which was statistically significant (p=0.001) in both the groups. Mean sleep disturbance in both the groups was 46.32 +- 5.23 and 68.75 +- 2.70 respectively which was statistically significant (p=0.001) in both the groups. Conclusion: Patients with ventilated nasal packs were found to have better tolerance to nasal packs due to less nasal obstruction and sleep disturbance

  9. Nasal deposition of ciclesonide nasal aerosol and mometasone aqueous nasal spray in allergic rhinitis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emanuel, Ivor A; Blaiss, Michael S; Meltzer, Eli O; Evans, Philip; Connor, Alyson

    2014-01-01

    Sensory attributes of intranasal corticosteroids, such as rundown to the back of the throat, may influence patient treatment preferences. This study compares the nasal deposition and nasal retention of a radiolabeled solution of ciclesonide nasal aerosol (CIC-hydrofluoroalkane [HFA]) with a radiolabeled suspension of mometasone furoate monohydrate aqueous nasal spray (MFNS) in subjects with either perennial allergic rhinitis (AR) or seasonal AR. In this open-label, single-dose, randomized, crossover scintigraphy study, 14 subjects with symptomatic AR received a single dose of radiolabeled 74-μg CIC-HFA (37 μg/spray, 1 spray/each nostril) via a nasal metered-dose inhaler or a single dose of radiolabeled 200-μg MFNS (50 μg/spray, 2 sprays/each nostril), with a minimum 5-day washout period between treatments. Initial deposition (2 minutes postdose) of radiolabeled CIC-HFA and MFNS in the nasal cavity, nasopharynx, and on nasal wipes, and retention of radioactivity in the nasal cavity and nasal run-out on nasal wipes at 2, 4, 6, 8, and 10 minutes postdose were quantified with scintigraphy. At 2 and 10 minutes postdose, deposition of radiolabeled CIC-HFA was significantly higher in the nasal cavity versus radiolabeled MFNS (99.42% versus 86.50% at 2 minutes, p = 0.0046; and 81.10% versus 54.31% at 10 minutes, p Deposition of radioactivity on nasal wipes was significantly higher with MFNS versus CIC-HFA at all five time points, and posterior losses of radiolabeled formulation were significantly higher with MFNS at 6, 8, and 10 minutes postdose. In this scintigraphic study, significantly higher nasal deposition and retention of radiolabeled aerosol CIC-HFA were observed versus radiolabeled aqueous MFNS in subjects with AR.

  10. Is there any relationship between right and left hand dominance and right and left nasal airflow dominance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, A; Eccles, R

    2017-10-01

    Left- or right-handedness is a common human trait, and it has been previously reported that human nasal airflow dominance correlates with hand dominance. Any relationship between hand dominance and nasal airflow dominance would be unusual. This study aimed to measure nasal airflow and look for any relationship to handedness. The modified Glatzel mirror was used to record the dominant nasal passage at 15-minute intervals over a 6-hour period in 29 healthy participants consisting of 15 left-handers and 14 right-handers. In left-handers, the percentage of time that the left nasal passage was dominant ranged from 0 to 100 per cent. In right-handers, the percentage of time that the right nasal passage was dominant ranged from 4.2 to 95.8 per cent. No correlation between nasal airflow dominance and hand dominance was identified. The results do not support the hypothesis that nasal airflow and handedness are related.

  11. Enzootic Nasal Adenocarcinoma: Cytological and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Enzootic nasal adenocarcinoma (ENA), a contagious retroviral disease of sheep and goats, characterized by neoplastic growth of the ethmoidal mucosa in the nasal cavity is described in a West African Dwarf goat (WAD). A two-year old WAD goat, weighing approximately 20kg was observed in the Teaching and Research ...

  12. Case report: Detection of the Middle East respiratory syndrome corona virus (MERS-CoV in nasal secretions of a dead human

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waleed H. Mahallawi, PhD

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available الملخص: يُعرف فيروس ”كورونا“ المسبب لمتلازمة الشرق الأوسط التنفسية على أنه فيروس شديد العدوى يصيب الجهاز التنفسي مع معدلات مرتفعة في المضاعفات والوفيات. يُحمِّل فيروس كورونا المسبب لمتلازمة الشرق الأوسط التنفسية عبئا كبيرا على مرافق الرعاية الصحية في المملكة العربية السعودية بنسبة وفيات تقارب الـ ٤٠٪. ولا يزال انتقال الفيروس غير مفهوم بشكل جيد. ولذلك، فإن منع أي طريق للانتقال هو أفضل وسيلة لمنع انتشار هذا المرض. تم باستخدام تفاعل البوليميرايز المتسلسل الآني، الكشف عن فيروس كورونا المسبب لمتلازمة الشرق الأوسط التنفسية في الافرازات الأنفية لجثة. لذا ينبغي تطبيق الاحتياطات الكاملة ومتابعتها لمنع انتقال الفيروس، خاصة بين العاملين في مجال الرعاية الصحية. Abstract: The Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV has been recognized as a highly pathogenic virus that infects the human respiratory tract and has high morbidity and mortality. The MERS-CoV is a huge burden on Saudi Arabian health-care facilities, causing approximately 40% mortality. The transmission mechanism of the virus is still not well understood. Therefore, the prevention of any route of transmission is the best measure to arrest the spread of this disease. Using the real time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR, MERS-CoV was detected in the nasal secretions of a human cadaver. Full precautions should be applied and carefully followed to prevent the transmission of the virus, especially among health care workers. الكلمات

  13. Chondrosarcoma of the nasal septum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Seiji; Motoori, Ken; Ueda, Takuya; Osaka, Iwao; Takano, Hideyuki; Nagata, Hiroshi

    2002-01-01

    The nasal septum is a particularly rare site of origin of chondrosarcoma. Cranial base invasion may be at hand, with such lesions making complete tumor removal difficult. MRI techniques allow precise definition of tumor extent. In the described case, CT and Dynamic MR imaging were performed in a case of chondrosarcoma of the nasal septum. Imaging clearly illustrated size and extent of the mass with central regions of internal calcification. Dynamic MRI was additionally performed, which helped to define the presumed origin of the lesion from the nasal septum. (orig.)

  14. Nasal Glial Heterotopia with Cleft Palate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandna, Sudhir; Mehta, Milind A; Kulkarni, Abhishek Kishore

    2018-01-01

    Congenital midline nasal masses are rare anomalies of which nasal glial heterotopia represents an even rarer subset. We report a case of a 25-day-old male child with nasal glial heterotopia along with cleft palate suggesting embryonic fusion anomaly which was treated with excision and primary closure for nasal mass followed by palatal repair at later date.

  15. Nasal glial heterotopia with cleft palate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudhir Chandna

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Congenital midline nasal masses are rare anomalies of which nasal glial heterotopia represents an even rarer subset. We report a case of a 25-day-old male child with nasal glial heterotopia along with cleft palate suggesting embryonic fusion anomaly which was treated with excision and primary closure for nasal mass followed by palatal repair at later date.

  16. Localized nasal cavity, sinus, and massive bilateral orbital involvement by human T cell leukemia virus 1 adult T cell lymphoma, with epidermal hypertrophy due to mite infestation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen Laveaux

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available HTLV1 adult T cell lymphoma occurs tends to be widely disseminated and aggressive, with only brief responses to chemotherapy. Aside from cervical adenopathy, involvement of head and neck structures is uncommon and orbital involvement rare. We report a case of nasal cavity HTLV lymphoma with massive bilateral orbital involvement and proptosis, resulting in complete left and partial right eye amaurosis. No other sites of disease were found. Response to chemotherapy was rapid and complete, with almost complete restoration of vision and oculo-motor function; the patient has remained in remission for one year. An associated problem was striking bilateral hypertrophic, hyperkeratotic eyelid and breast lesions due to mite infestation. 

  17. Intranasal administration of a proteosome-influenza vaccine is well-tolerated and induces serum and nasal secretion influenza antibodies in healthy human subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treanor, John; Nolan, Carrie; O'Brien, Diane; Burt, David; Lowell, George; Linden, Janine; Fries, Louis

    2006-01-16

    Two randomized, blinded, active comparator-controlled trials of a prototype monovalent A/Beijing/262/95 (H1N1) - proteosome vaccine delivered by intranasal spray were performed in healthy adults. Overall, the intranasal proteosome-adjuvanted vaccine was well-tolerated with only mild stuffy nose and rhinorrhea seen more frequently in recipients of vaccine than in recipients of intranasal saline, and there were no serious adverse events. The intranasal proteosome-adjuvanted vaccine induced serum hemagglutination inhibiting (HAI) and nasal secretory IgA (sIgA) responses specific for the influenza antigen. Serum HAI responses were most influenced by the dosage level, whereas mucosal sIgA responses, although demonstrable with both single-dose and two-dose vaccine regimens, appeared to be greater in response to two-dose regimens (regardless of dose level). Further evaluation of mucosal influenza immunization using the proteosome adjuvant/delivery system is clearly warranted.

  18. Poly(I:C) reduces expression of JAM-A and induces secretion of IL-8 and TNF-α via distinct NF-κB pathways in human nasal epithelial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohkuni, Tsuyoshi; Kojima, Takashi; Ogasawara, Noriko; Masaki, Tomoyuki; Fuchimoto, Jun; Kamekura, Ryuta; Koizumi, Jun-ichi; Ichimiya, Shingo; Murata, Masaki; Tanaka, Satoshi; Himi, Tetsuo; Sawada, Norimasa

    2011-01-01

    Human nasal epithelium is an important physical barrier and innate immune defense protecting against inhaled substances and pathogens. Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling, which plays a key role in the innate immune response, has not been well characterized in human nasal epithelial cells (HNECs), including the epithelial tight junctional barrier. In the present study, mRNAs of TLR1-10 were detected in hTERT-transfected HNECs, which can be used as an indispensable and stable model of normal HNECs, similar to primary cultured HNECs. To investigate the changes of tight junction proteins and the signal transduction pathways via TLRs in HNECs in vitro, hTERT-transfected HNECs were treated with TLR2 ligand P 3 CSK 4 , TLR3 ligand poly(I:C), TLR4 ligand LPS, TLR7/8 ligand CL097, TLR8 ligand ssRNA40/LyoVec, and TLR9 ligand ODN2006. In hTERT-transfected HNECs, treatment with poly(I:C) significantly reduced expression of the tight junction protein JAM-A and induced secretion of proinflammatory cytokines IL-8 and TNF-α. Both the reduction of JAM-A expression and the induction of secretion of IL-8 and TNF-α after treatment with poly(I:C) were modulated by distinct signal transduction pathways via EGFR, PI3K, and p38 MAPK and finally regulated by a TLR3-mediated NF-κB pathway. The control of TLR3-mediated signaling pathways in HNECs may be important not only in infection by viral dsRNA but also in autoimmune diseases caused by endogenous dsRNA released from necrotic cells.

  19. Nasal Foreign Bodies: A Sweet Experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leopard, D C; Williams, R G

    2015-10-01

    It is generally accepted that paediatric intranasal foreign bodies should be removed in the emergency setting. In the case of a difficult to access dissolvable foreign body in an uncooperative child, the question must be raised regarding whether or not a watch and wait strategy is more appropriate. We ask: How long does it take for popular sweets (candy) to dissolve in the human nose? Five popular UK sweets were placed in the right nasal cavity of a 29-year-old male (the author) with no sino-nasal disease. Time taken to dissolve was recorded. All five sweets were completely dissolved in under one hour. A watch and wait strategy in favour of examination under anaesthetic may be a viable option in some cases. Limitations of the study include the age of the participant and size of the sweets. It is also important in practice that the clinician is able to elicit an accurate history regarding the exact nature of the foreign body. It remains prudent to perform an examination under anaesthetic of an uncooperative child with a solid or unknown nasal foreign body. However, if the clinician can be certain the foreign body is a small sugar or chocolate based sweet only, a watch and wait strategy may be a reasonable choice. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Automated method for structural segmentation of nasal airways based on cone beam computed tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tymkovych, Maksym Yu.; Avrunin, Oleg G.; Paliy, Victor G.; Filzow, Maksim; Gryshkov, Oleksandr; Glasmacher, Birgit; Omiotek, Zbigniew; DzierŻak, RóŻa; Smailova, Saule; Kozbekova, Ainur

    2017-08-01

    The work is dedicated to the segmentation problem of human nasal airways using Cone Beam Computed Tomography. During research, we propose a specialized approach of structured segmentation of nasal airways. That approach use spatial information, symmetrisation of the structures. The proposed stages can be used for construction a virtual three dimensional model of nasal airways and for production full-scale personalized atlases. During research we build the virtual model of nasal airways, which can be used for construction specialized medical atlases and aerodynamics researches.

  1. Streptococcus pneumoniae Colonization Is Required To Alter the Nasal Microbiota in Cigarette Smoke-Exposed Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Pamela; Whelan, Fiona J; Schenck, L Patrick; McGrath, Joshua J C; Vanderstocken, Gilles; Bowdish, Dawn M E; Surette, Michael G; Stämpfli, Martin R

    2017-10-01

    Smokers have nasal microbiota dysbiosis, with an increased frequency of colonizing bacterial pathogens. It is possible that cigarette smoke increases pathogen acquisition by perturbing the microbiota and decreasing colonization resistance. However, it is difficult to disentangle microbiota dysbiosis due to cigarette smoke exposure from microbiota changes caused by increased pathogen acquisition in human smokers. Using an experimental mouse model, we investigated the impact of cigarette smoke on the nasal microbiota in the absence and presence of nasal pneumococcal colonization. We observed that cigarette smoke exposure alone did not alter the nasal microbiota composition. The microbiota composition was also unchanged at 12 h following low-dose nasal pneumococcal inoculation, suggesting that the ability of the microbiota to resist initial nasal pneumococcal acquisition was not impaired in smoke-exposed mice. However, nasal microbiota dysbiosis occurred as a consequence of established high-dose nasal pneumococcal colonization at day 3 in smoke-exposed mice. Similar to clinical reports on human smokers, an enrichment of potentially pathogenic bacterial genera such as Fusobacterium , Gemella , and Neisseria was observed. Our findings suggest that cigarette smoke exposure predisposes to pneumococcal colonization independent of changes to the nasal microbiota and that microbiota dysbiosis observed in smokers may occur as a consequence of established pathogen colonization. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  2. Internal nasal floor configuration in Homo with special reference to the evolution of Neandertal facial form.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franciscus, Robert G

    2003-06-01

    The presence of a steeply sloping or depressed nasal floor within the nasal cavity of Neandertals is frequently mentioned as a likely specialization or autapomorphy. The depressed nasal floor has also been seen as contributing to a relatively more capacious nasal cavity in Neandertals, which is tied to cold-climate respiratory adaptation and energetics. These observations have been limited largely to a relatively few intact crania, and the character states associated with this trait have not been as precisely codified or analyzed as those published for Plio-Pleistocene hominins (McCollum et al., 1993, J. Hum. Evol. 24, 87; McCollum, 2000, Am. J. Phys. Anthrop. 112, 275). This study examines the internal nasal floor topography in complete crania and isolated maxillae in European, west Asian, and African fossil Homo (n=158) including 25 Neandertals, and a wide range of recent humans from Europe, the Near East, and Africa (n=522). The configuration of the internal nasal floor relative to the nasal cavity entrance is codified as: 1) level, forming a smooth continuous plane; 2) sloped or mildly stepped; or 3) bilevel with a pronounced vertical depression. The frequency of these nasal floor configurations, and their relationship to both nasal margin cresting patterning and a comprehensive set of nasofacial metrics is examined. Neandertals show a high frequency of the bilevel (depressed) configuration in both adults and subadults (80%), but this configuration is also present in lower frequencies in Middle Pleistocene African, Late Pleistocene non-Neandertal (Skhul, Qafzeh), and European Later Upper Paleolithic samples (15%-50%). The bilevel configuration is also present in lower frequencies (ca. 10%) in all recent human samples, but attains nearly 20% in some sub-Saharan African samples. Across extinct and extant Homo (excluding Neandertals), internal nasal floor configuration is not associated with piriform aperture nasal margin patterning, but the two are strongly

  3. Image diagnosis of nasal bone fracture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirota, Yoshiharu; Shimizu, Yayoi; Iinuma, Toshitaka.

    1988-01-01

    Twenty cases of nasal bone fractures were evaluated as to the types of fractures based upon HRCT findings. Conventional X-Ray films for nasal bones were analyzed and compared with HRCT findings. Nasal bone fractures were classified into lateral and frontal fractures. HRCT images were evaluated in three planes including upper, middle and lower portions of the nasal bone. Fractures favored males of teens. Lateral fracture gave rise to the fractures of the nasal bone opposite to the external force, loosening of the ipsilateral nasomaxillary sutures and fractures of the frontal process of the maxilla. Conventional X-Ray films were reevaluated after HRCT evaluation and indications of nasal bone fractures were determined. In addition to the discontinuity of the nasal dorsum, fracture lines parallel to and beneath the nasal dorsum and indistinct fracture lines along the nasomaxillary sutures are the indication of nasal bone fractures by conventional X-Ray films. (author)

  4. Bilateral cleft lip nasal deformity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Arun

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Bilateral cleft lip nose deformity is a multi-factorial and complex deformity which tends to aggravate with growth of the child, if not attended surgically. The goals of primary bilateral cleft lip nose surgery are, closure of the nasal floor and sill, lengthening of the columella, repositioning of the alar base, achieving nasal tip projection, repositioning of the lower lateral cartilages, and reorienting the nares from horizontal to oblique position. The multiplicity of procedures in the literature for correction of this deformity alludes to the fact that no single procedure is entirely effective. The timing for surgical intervention and its extent varies considerably. Early surgery on cartilage may adversely affect growth and development; at the same time, allowing the cartilage to grow in an abnormal position and contributing to aggravation of deformity. Some surgeons advocate correction of deformity at an early age. However, others like the cartilages to grow and mature before going in for surgery. With peer pressure also becoming an important consideration during the teens, the current trend is towards early intervention. There is no unanimity in the extent of nasal dissection to be done at the time of primary lip repair. While many perform limited nasal dissection for the fear of growth retardation, others opt for full cartilage correction at the time of primary surgery itself. The value of naso-alveolar moulding (NAM too is not universally accepted and has now more opponents than proponents. Also most centres in the developing world have neither the personnel nor the facilities for the same. The secondary cleft nasal deformity is variable and is affected by the extent of the original abnormality, any prior surgeries performed and alteration due to nasal growth. This article reviews the currently popular methods for correction of nasal deformity associated with bilateral cleft lip, it′s management both at the time of cleft lip repair

  5. Sensitivity and specificity of hypopnoea detection using nasal pressure in the presence of a nasal expiratory resistive device (Provent®)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milne, Stephen; Amis, Terence C; Wheatley, John R; Kairaitis, Kristina

    2014-01-01

    Nasal expiratory resistive valves (Provent ® ) have been proposed as novel therapy for obstructive sleep apnea. We compared pressure measurements from a standard nasal pressure catheter used to assess nasal airflow during sleep with those from nasal expiratory resistive device with attached proprietary nasal pressure cannula. Nasal pressure cannula or Provent ® + proprietary nasal pressure cannula were attached to a bench model of human anterior nares and nasal passages, and pressure measured (P). Respiratory airflows generated by a subject breathing were applied to rear of model and airflow ( V-dot ) measured via pneumotachograph. Airflow amplitude (Δ V-dot ) was plotted against pressure amplitude (ΔP). Hypopnoea detection (<50% Δ V-dot ) sensitivity and specificity was tested by expressing ΔP in terms of two reference breaths: reference breath 1, Δ V-dot 0.55 L s −1  = 100%; and reference breath 2, Δ V-dot 0.45 L s −1  = 100%. ΔP/Δ V-dot relationships were linear for Δ V-dot  ≤ 0.55 L s −1 ; ΔP = 0.37ΔV + 0.16 (nasal pressure cannula), ΔP = 2.7ΔV + 0.12 (Provent ® + proprietary nasal pressure cannula); both R 2  > 0.65, p < 0.0001; p < 0.0001 for between slope difference). For nasal pressure cannula, specificity of hypopnoea detection differed between reference breaths one and two (80.2% and 40.0%, respectively), and Provent ® + proprietary nasal pressure cannula (30.3% and 74.2%, respectively). Quantification of airflow obstruction in the presence of Provent ® + proprietary nasal pressure cannula is greatly influenced by the reference breath chosen to determine a reduction in nasal airflow. Reported variability in therapeutic response to nasal expiratory resistive devices may relate to differences in measurement technique specificity used to quantify the severity of sleep disordered breathing. (paper)

  6. Nasal Delivery of High Molecular Weight Drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erdal Cevher

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Nasal drug delivery may be used for either local or systemic effects. Low molecular weight drugs with are rapidly absorbed through nasal mucosa. The main reasons for this are the high permeability, fairly wide absorption area, porous and thin endothelial basement membrane of the nasal epithelium. Despite the many advantages of the nasal route, limitations such as the high molecular weight (HMW of drugs may impede drug absorption through the nasal mucosa. Recent studies have focused particularly on the nasal application of HMW therapeutic agents such as peptide-protein drugs and vaccines intended for systemic effects. Due to their hydrophilic structure, the nasal bioavailability of peptide and protein drugs is normally less than 1%. Besides their weak mucosal membrane permeability and enzymatic degradation in nasal mucosa, these drugs are rapidly cleared from the nasal cavity after administration because of mucociliary clearance. There are many approaches for increasing the residence time of drug formulations in the nasal cavity resulting in enhanced drug absorption. In this review article, nasal route and transport mechanisms across the nasal mucosa will be briefly presented. In the second part, current studies regarding the nasal application of macromolecular drugs and vaccines with nanoand micro-particulate carrier systems will be summarised.

  7. Cosmetic reconstruction of a nasal plane and rostral nasal skin defect using a modified nasal rotation flap in a dog

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ter Haar, G.; Buiks, S.C.; Kirpensteijn, J.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract OBJECTIVE: To report reconstruction of a defect of the nasal plane and the rostral dorsum of the nose in a dog using a nasal rotation flap with Burow's triangles. STUDY DESIGN: Clinical report. ANIMALS: Mixed-breed dog (1.5 years, 8.6 kg). METHODS: A nasal defect caused by chronic

  8. Experimental investigation of nasal airflow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doorly, D; Taylor, D J; Franke, P; Schroter, R C

    2008-05-01

    The airway geometry of the nasal cavity is manifestly complex, and the manner in which it controls the airflow to accomplish its various physiological functions is not fully understood. Since the complex morphology and inaccessibility of the nasal passageways precludes detailed in-vivo measurements, either computational simulation or in-vitro experiments are needed to determine how anatomical form and function are related. The fabrication of a replica model of the nasal cavity, of a high optical clarity and derived from in-vivo scan data is described here, together with characteristics of the flow field investigated using particle image velocimetry (PIV) and flow visualization. Flow visualization is shown to be a capable and convenient technique for identifying key phenomena. Specifically the emergence of the jet from the internal nasal valve into the main cavity, how it impacts on the middle turbinate, and the large enhancement of dispersion that accompanies the initial appearance of flow instability are revealed as particularly significant features. The findings from the visualization experiments are complemented by PIV imaging, which provides quantitative detail on the variations in velocity in different regions of the nasal cavity. These results demonstrate the effectiveness of the cavity geometry in partitioning the flow into high shear zones, which facilitate rapid heat transfer and humidification from the nasal mucosa, and slower zones affording greater residence times to facilitate olfactory sensing. The experimental results not only provide a basis for comparison with other computational modelling but also demonstrate an alternative and flexible means to investigate complex flows, relevant to studies in different parts of the respiratory or cardiovascular systems.

  9. Nasal mophormetric pattern of the Abakaliki ethnic group of South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The nose is an important feature of the face involved in the description of human morphology, identification of individuals and classification of races and sex. The aim of this study is to document the nasal morphometric values of Igbo people of South-Eastern Nigeria resident in Abakaliki Area of Ebonyi State. The subjects ...

  10. Nasal myiasis: report of a case and literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reyes-Romero, Karen Eliana

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Myiasis is the infection of animal or human tissues or organs by larvae of Diptera. It may affect individuals of any age, but is more common in middle-aged and elderly patients. Nasal myiasis, an infection of the nasal and paranasal cavities by such larvae, is a common disease in tropical and developing countries. Reported cases of nasal myiasis have been caused by several different species, such as Lucilia sericata in Korea and Iran, Estro ovis in Algeria and France, Lucilia cuprina and Phaenicia sericata in Malaysia, Cochliomyia hominivorax in French Guiana, Drosophila melanogaster in Turkey, Eristalis tenax in Iran and Oestrus ovis in Israel. Signs and symptoms are related to the presence and movement of the larvae, and include foreign body sensation, bloody or muco-purulent nasal discharge. Prevention may be done with insect repellent. Treatment is based on antiparasitic drugs and techniques for removal of larvae, but may include the use of prophylactic topical or systemic antibiotics for possible secondary infections. We report a case of nasal and left maxillary sinus myiasis in an elderly woman, who responded favorably to treatment.

  11. Nasal Inserts for Drug Delivery: An Overview

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this review, the benefits, limitations and absorption mechanisms of the nasal route, as well ... molecules including peptide and proteins for ... (Mw) drugs, rapid and fast onset of action due to ... while the former act by disrupting the nasal.

  12. Haemangiopericytoma of the nasal cavity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, W.; Henkes, H.; Berg-Dammer, E.; Kuehne, D. [Alfred Krupp Krankenhaus, Essen (Germany). Klinik fuer Radiologie und Neuroradiologie; Metz, K.A. [Inst. fuer Pathologie, Universitaetsklinikum der Universitaets-Gesamthochschule Essen (Germany)

    2001-02-01

    Haemangiopericytomas (HPC) are rare vascular tumours originating from a pericytes, a term coined by Zimmermann to refer to the main location of this cell line in the pericapillary connective tissue. HPC may arise in any part of the body. We report a 29-year-old man with a histologically proven nasal haemangiopericytoma-like tumour. The lesion was embolised through the ophthalmic artery before it was removed surgically. The main symptoms of nasal HPC are epistaxis and obstruction of the nose. Malignant and benign clinical courses have been described. Local recurrence and metastases may be observed years after initial diagnosis. (orig.)

  13. Histamine and tryptase in nasal lavage fluid after allergen challenge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobi, H H; Skov, P S; Poulsen, L K

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Antihistamines (H1-receptor antagonists) act by competitive antagonism of histamine at H1-receptors. In addition, high concentrations of some antihistamines inhibit allergen-induced histamine release from mast cells in vitro. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to determine...... the effect of intranasal azelastine or systemic cetirizine (both potent antihistamines) on the allergen-induced release of mast-cell mediators from the human nasal mucosa in vivo. METHODS: Patients allergic to birch pollen (n = 11) and control subjects not allergic to birch pollen (n = 5) were included......, nasal allergen challenges were performed, and the number of sneezes were counted. In addition, nasal lavage fluid was collected, and the levels of mast-cell mediators (histamine and tryptase) were measured. RESULTS: The allergen challenge of patients allergic to pollen produced sneezing...

  14. Does Post Septoplasty Nasal Packing Reduce Complications?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bijan Naghibzadeh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The main issues in nasal surgery are to stabilize the nose in the good position after surgery and preserve the cartilages and bones in the favorable situation and reduce the risk of deviation recurrence. Also it is necessary to avoid the synechia formation, nasal valve narrowing, hematoma and bleeding. Due to the above mentioned problems and in order to solve and minimize them nasal packing, nasal splint and nasal mold have been advised. Patients for whom the nasal packing used may faced to some problems like naso-pulmonary reflex, intractable pain, sleep disorder, post operation infection and very dangerous complication like toxic shock syndrome. We have two groups of patients and three surgeons (one of the surgeons used post operative nasal packing in his patients and the two others surgeons did not.Complications and morbidities were compared in these two groups. Comparing the two groups showed that the rate of complication and morbidities between these two groups were same and the differences were not valuable, except the pain and discomfort post operatively and at the time of its removal. Nasal packing has several risks for the patients while its effects are not studied. Septoplasty can be safely performed without postoperative nasal packing. Nasal packing had no main findings that compensated its usage. Septal suture is one of the procedures that can be used as alternative method to nasal packing. Therefore the nasal packing after septoplasty should be reserved for the patients with increased risk of bleeding.

  15. Biological safety of nasal thallium-201 administration. A preclinical study for olfacto-scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Washiyama, Kohshin; Shiga, Hideaki; Hirota, Kyoko

    2011-01-01

    Nasal administration of thallium-201 ( 201 Tl) has previously been shown to be useful for the assessment of olfactory nerve connectivity in vivo. We assessed the biological effects of nasal 201 Tl administration in mice to determine its safety before conducting clinical trials on humans. 201 Tl uptake was evaluated in normal mice (n=5) in vivo by using a high-resolution gamma camera and radiography 15 min, 1, 2 and 9 d after administration of 201 TlCl to the right side of the nasal cavity (10 μl 201 TlCl per nostril, 74 MBq/ml). Murine olfactory epithelial thickness (n=5) was measured 9 d following nasal administration of 201 TlCl. We assessed the odor detection ability of normal mice (n=8) following nasal administration of 201 TlCl to both sides of the nasal cavity, by observing cycloheximide solution avoidance behavior. We subsequently administrated 201 TlCl (n=4) or saline (n=4) to both nostrils to assess the odor detection ability of mice following bilateral olfactory nerve transection. 201 Tl uptake by the nasal cavity decreased immediately following nasal administration of 201 Tl in normal mice. Nasal administration of 201 Tl did not affect the olfactory epithelial thickness or the odor detection ability of normal mice. Recovery of odor detection ability following olfactory nerve transection was not significantly different between mice nasally administered with 201 Tl, and mice administered with saline. Thus, nasal administration of 201 Tl for the diagnosis of traumatic olfactory impairment did not produce harmful biological effects in vivo. (author)

  16. Immunophenotype Heterogeneity in Nasal Glomangiopericytoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Handra-Luca

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Nasal glomangiopericytoma is rare. The immunophenotype is heterogeneous, more frequently smooth-muscle-actin and CD34-positive. We report expression patterns for several vascular-related proteins such as CD99, CD146, Bcl2, and WT1 as well as for treatment-related proteins such as mTOR and EGFR in a nasal glomangiopericytoma. The patient (woman, 86 years presented with a left nasal tumefaction. The resected specimen (1.5-cm showed a glomangiopericytoma. Tumor cells expressed smooth-muscle-actin, CD31, CD34, and progesterone receptor. They also expressed the vascular-cell-related proteins Bcl2, CD99, CD146, and WT1, as well as mTOR and EGFR. Nasal glomangiopericytomas show immunohistochemical heterogeneity for vascular-related markers, suggesting a possible extensive pericytic differentiation. The expression of potential targets for drug treatments such as mTOR and EGFR may impact on the clinical follow-up of these tumors occurring at advanced ages, which may require complex surgery.

  17. Calcitonin Salmon Nasal Spray

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calcitonin salmon is used to treat osteoporosis in women who are at least 5 years past menopause and cannot ... a human hormone that is also found in salmon. It works by preventing bone breakdown and increasing ...

  18. Relation between epistaxis, external nasal deformity, and septal deviation following nasal trauma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel, M; Raghavan, U

    2005-01-01

    Objectives: To find if the presence of epistaxis after nasal trauma can be used to predict post-traumatic external nasal deformity or a symptomatic deviated nasal septum. Methods: Retrospective analysis of all patients seen in the fractured nose clinic by the first author between 17 October 2003 and 27 February 2004. Presence of epistaxis, newly developed external nasal deformity, and the presence of a deviated nasal septum with new symptoms of nasal obstruction were noted. Results: A total of 139 patients were included in the study. Epistaxis following injury was noted in 106 (76%). Newly developed external nasal deformity was noted in 71 (51%), and 33 (24%) had a deviated nasal septum with new symptoms of nasal obstruction. Of the 106 patients with post-trauma epistaxis, 50 (67%) had newly developed external nasal deformity and of the 33 patients without post-traumatic epistaxis, 11 (33%) had nasal deformity (pepistaxis was not associated with the presence of a newly symptomatic deviated septum (25% in patients with epistaxis after injury versus 18% if there was no epistaxis). Conclusions: Presence of epistaxis after nasal trauma is associated with a statistically significant increase in external nasal deformity. However, one third of patients without epistaxis following nasal trauma also had external nasal deformity and hence all patients with a swollen nose after injury, irrespective of post-trauma epistaxis, still need to be referred to the fractured nose clinic. PMID:16244333

  19. Nasal Septum Perforation due to Methamphetamine abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Bakhshaee

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Spontaneous Perforation of the nasal septum is an uncommon condition. Nasal inhalation of substances such as cocaine has long been linked to this Perforation. Case Report: This report describes the case of a 46-year-old woman who was addicted to methamphetamine and who presented with perforation of the nasal septum.This is the first reported case of nasal septal necrosis linked to nasal inhalation of methamphetamine. Conclusions: Patient history and assurance regardingillegal drug consumption and abuse is a key point for fast and accurate diagnosis. The pathophysiology of drug-induced sinunasal disease and a review of the literature are also presented.

  20. Staphylococcus aureus nasal carriage could be a risk for development of clinical infections in rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Selva Martínez

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Although nasal carriage has been described as a risk factor for Staphylococcus aureus infections in humans, there is a scarcity of studies about S. aureus nasal carriers in animals. In rabbits, S. aureus is one of the most important pathogens responsible for a number of different types of infections. This study was designed to determine the extent of staphylococcal nasal carriage and to establish whether a relationship exists between nasal carriage and development of lesions. One hundred and sixteen rabbits with and without chronic signs of staphylococcosis from 6 industrial rabbitries were monitored. Nasal swabs for microbiological assessments were obtained from all animals. Microbiological results showed that 56% of the animals carried S. aureus in their nasal cavities with significantly higher incidence in animals with staphylococcal-related lesions (84.2% compared to apparently healthy animals (28.8%. Additionally, the S. aureus strains isolated from the nasal cavity and lesions were clonally related in 91.7% of animals. This suggests that nasal carriage of S. aureus in rabbits could be a risk for development of clinical infections.

  1. Appraisal of transverse nasal groove: a study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sathyanarayana, Belagola D; Basavaraj, Halevoor B; Nischal, Kuchangi C; Swaroop, Mukunda R; Umashankar, Puttagangu N; Agrawal, Dhruv P; Swamy, Suchetha S; Okram, Sarda

    2012-01-01

    Transverse nasal groove is a condition of cosmetic concern which awaits due recognition and has been widely described as a shallow groove that extends transversely over the dorsum of nose. However, we observed variations in the clinical presentations of this entity, hitherto undescribed in literature. We conducted a clinicoepidemiological study of transverse nasal lesions in patients attending our outpatient department. We conducted a prospective observational study. We screened all patients attending our out-patient department for presence of transverse nasal lesions, signs of any dermatosis and associated other skin conditions. One hundred patients were recruited in the study. Females (80%) predominated over males. Most patients were of 15-45 years age group (70%). Majority of the transverse nasal lesions were classical transverse nasal groove (39%) and others included transverse nasal line (28%), strip (28%), ridge (4%) and loop (1%). Seborrhoeic diathesis was the most common condition associated with transverse nasal lesion. Occurrence of transverse nasal line, strip, ridge and loop, in addition to classical transverse nasal groove implies that latter is actually a subset of transverse nasal lesions. Common association of this entity with seborrheic dermatitis, seborrhea and dandruff raises a possibility of whether transverse nasal lesion is a manifestation of seborrheic diathesis.

  2. Measurement of secretion in nasal lavage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bisgaard, H; Krogsgaard, O W; Mygind, N

    1987-01-01

    1. The amount of admixture in nasal lavage fluids was determined by addition of 99mTc labelled albumin, providing a correction factor for measurements of cellular material and humoral substances in nasal lavage return as well as a quantitative measure of nasal secretions. 2. Albumin was chosen...... as marker molecule, since only negligible amounts were absorbed or adsorbed to the mucosa during the nasal lavage. 3. Labelling of the albumin with 99mTc ensured an accuracy of measurements only limited by the precision of the weighing. The isotope allowed for the determination of the amount of admixed...... of the nose, yet not the oropharynx. 5. A dose related increase in nasal secretion harvested by the nasal lavage in 10 persons challenged with histamine chloride could be demonstrated by this technique. 6. It is concluded that the use of 99mTc-albumin in a nasal washing provides a safe, simple and quick...

  3. Measurement of secretion in nasal lavage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bisgaard, H; Krogsgaard, O W; Mygind, N

    1987-01-01

    1. The amount of admixture in nasal lavage fluids was determined by addition of 99mTc labelled albumin, providing a correction factor for measurements of cellular material and humoral substances in nasal lavage return as well as a quantitative measure of nasal secretions. 2. Albumin was chosen...... secretion to be carried out on the whole sample of lavage fluid, thereby avoiding the necessity of complete admixture between marker and lavage fluid which would be pertinent to marker molecules measured chemically. The radiation from a nasal lavage is minimal and the procedure is fully acceptable...... of the nose, yet not the oropharynx. 5. A dose related increase in nasal secretion harvested by the nasal lavage in 10 persons challenged with histamine chloride could be demonstrated by this technique. 6. It is concluded that the use of 99mTc-albumin in a nasal washing provides a safe, simple and quick...

  4. Rhinoplasty via the midface degloving approach for nasal deformity due to nasal polyps: A case report of Woakes’ syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Misato Ueda, MD

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Nasal polyps are inflammatory proliferative tumors arising from the mucosa of the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses. Although many cases concerning nasal polyps have been reported, those involving external nasal deformities are rare. We report a case of nasal polyposis filling the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses, leading to external nasal and facial deformities. The condition above is known as Woakes’ syndrome, which is characterized by severe recurrent nasal polyps with deformity of the nasal pyramid, leading to broadening of the nose. We performed nasal osteotomy and facial bone-shaving via the midface degloving approach, which improved the patient’s facial appearance.

  5. Impaired Air Conditioning within the Nasal Cavity in Flat-Faced Homo.

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    Takeshi Nishimura

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available We are flat-faced hominins with an external nose that protrudes from the face. This feature was derived in the genus Homo, along with facial flattening and reorientation to form a high nasal cavity. The nasal passage conditions the inhaled air in terms of temperature and humidity to match the conditions required in the lung, and its anatomical variation is believed to be evolutionarily sensitive to the ambient atmospheric conditions of a given habitat. In this study, we used computational fluid dynamics (CFD with three-dimensional topology models of the nasal passage under the same simulation conditions, to investigate air-conditioning performance in humans, chimpanzees, and macaques. The CFD simulation showed a horizontal straight flow of inhaled air in chimpanzees and macaques, contrasting with the upward and curved flow in humans. The inhaled air is conditioned poorly in humans compared with nonhuman primates. Virtual modifications to the human external nose topology, in which the nasal vestibule and valve are modified to resemble those of chimpanzees, change the airflow to be horizontal, but have little influence on the air-conditioning performance in humans. These findings suggest that morphological variation of the nasal passage topology was only weakly sensitive to the ambient atmosphere conditions; rather, the high nasal cavity in humans was formed simply by evolutionary facial reorganization in the divergence of Homo from the other hominin lineages, impairing the air-conditioning performance. Even though the inhaled air is not adjusted well within the nasal cavity in humans, it can be fully conditioned subsequently in the pharyngeal cavity, which is lengthened in the flat-faced Homo. Thus, the air-conditioning faculty in the nasal passages was probably impaired in early Homo members, although they have survived successfully under the fluctuating climate of the Plio-Pleistocene, and then they moved "Out of Africa" to explore the more

  6. Nasal avulsion injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denneny, J C

    1987-11-01

    The nose is the most frequently traumatized portion of the human face. High-speed motor vehicle accidents and interpersonal violence commonly produce bony pyramid and septal damage and occasional minor soft-tissue damage. Major soft-tissue injuries are much less commonly encountered. Avulsion injuries of this type may involve skin only or the bony and cartilaginous framework as well. The severity of these injuries can range from total avulsion to minor skin loss and anywhere within the spectrum between. My experience is reviewed, management guidelines and options are detailed, and selected cases are presented.

  7. Smart Polymers in Nasal Drug Delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chonkar, Ankita; Nayak, Usha; Udupa, N

    2015-01-01

    Nasal drug delivery has now been recognized as a promising route for drug delivery due to its capability of transporting a drug to systemic circulation and central nervous system. Though nasal mucosa offers improved bioavailability and quick onset of action of the drug, main disadvantage associated with nasal drug delivery is mucocilliary clearance due to which drug particles get cleared from the nose before complete absorption through nasal mucosa. Therefore, mucoadhesive polymeric approach can be successfully used to enhance the retention of the drug on nasal mucosal surface. Here, some of the aspects of the stimuli responsive polymers have been discussed which possess liquid state at the room temperature and in response to nasal temperature, pH and ions present in mucous, can undergo in situ gelation in nasal cavity. In this review, several temperature responsive, pH responsive and ion responsive polymers used in nasal delivery, their gelling mechanisms have been discussed. Smart polymers not only able to enhance the retention of the drug in nasal cavity but also provide controlled release, ease of administration, enhanced permeation of the drug and protection of the drug from mucosal enzymes. Thus smart polymeric approach can be effectively used for nasal delivery of peptide drugs, central nervous system dugs and hormones.

  8. Nasal morphological characteristics of the Serbian population

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    Jovanović J.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the nasal parameters in the population of central Serbia and to compare them with those determined in earlier studies in different populations. The research was conducted on 496 randomly selected persons (262 males and 234 females, aged 18-65 years. The measured parameters were nasal height and nasal breadth and the standard spreading caliper with scale was used for measurements. There were significant differences in the nasal parameters between male and female subjects. The nasal breadth was 34.72 mm in females, and in the male population it was 36.7 mm. The mean values of nasal height were 52.6 mm and 54.32 mm in females and males, respectively. The nasal index in females and males was 66.01 and 67.56, respectively, and the mean value of the nasal index of all respondents was 66.78. After conducting the research it was concluded that the dominant nasal type in the population of the central part of Serbia is leptorrhine. The present study showed the existence of sexual dimorphism in nasal morphology. The data obtained in our study may be useful in anthropological and forensic research, as well as in cosmetic planning and reconstructive surgery.

  9. Chondrosarcoma of the nasal septum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indudharan, R; Das, P K; Azman, A A; Suhaiza, S

    1998-08-01

    A case of chondrosarcoma of the nasal septum is presented with the result of treatment. The patient was admitted for a growth in the nose of four years' duration. Fine needle aspiration for cytological examination was suggestive of squamous cell carcinoma. She was treated with lateral rhinotomy and wide excision followed by septorhinoplasty. Histological examination showed that the lesion was chondrosarcoma. The patient remained free of disease 26 months after surgery.

  10. Correlation analysis on alpha attenuation and nasal skin temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nozawa, Akio; Tacano, Munecazu

    2009-01-01

    Some serious accidents caused by declines in arousal level, such as traffic accidents and mechanical control mistakes, have become issues of social concern. The physiological index obtained by human body measurement is expected to offer a leading tool for evaluating arousal level as an objective indicator. In this study, declines in temporal arousal levels were evaluated by nasal skin temperature. As arousal level declines, sympathetic nervous activity is decreased and blood flow in peripheral vessels is increased. Since peripheral vessels exist just under the skin on the fingers and nose, the psychophysiological state can be judged from the displacement of skin temperature caused by changing blood flow volume. Declining arousal level is expected to be observable as a temperature rise in peripheral parts of the body. The objective of this experiment was to obtain assessment criteria for judging declines in arousal level by nasal skin temperature using the alpha attenuation coefficient (AAC) of electroencephalography (EEG) as a reference benchmark. Furthermore, a psychophysical index of sleepiness was also measured using a visual analogue scale (VAS). Correlations between nasal skin temperature index and EEG index were analyzed. AAC and maximum displacement of nasal skin temperature displayed a clear negative correlation, with a correlation coefficient of −0.55

  11. Primary nasal tuberculosis following blunt trauma nose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaushik Saha

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Primary nasal tuberculosis is a rare disease with nearly 40 cases reported. Our patient was a young male presented with left sided nasal obstruction, anosmia and occasional epistaxis for last 7 weeks after 6 months of blunt trauma nose. Contrast enhanced computed tomography of the para nasal sinuses showed increased soft-tissue density with contrast enhancement in the left maxillary antrum with extension through left osteomeatal foramen to the left nasal cavity along with further extension through choana to nasopharynx resulting in partial obliteration of the nasopharyngeal airway. Nasal endoscopy revealed a sessile polypoidal pinkish mass arising from the left osteomeatal foramen. Histopathological examination of excisional biopsy of that area showed caseating granuloma. Our patient diagnosed as primary nasal tuberculosis following trauma and treated with anti-tubercular chemotherapy.

  12. Nasal morphological characteristics of the Serbian population

    OpenAIRE

    Jovanović J.; Jeremić D.; Jovanović B.; Vulović Maja; Sazdanović P.; Sazdanović Maja; Ognjanović Neda; Stojadinović D.; Jeremić Katarina; Marković N.; Živanović-Mačužić Ivana

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the nasal parameters in the population of central Serbia and to compare them with those determined in earlier studies in different populations. The research was conducted on 496 randomly selected persons (262 males and 234 females), aged 18-65 years. The measured parameters were nasal height and nasal breadth and the standard spreading caliper with scale was used for measurements. There were significant differences in ...

  13. Nasal Myiasis in Hinduism and Contemporary Otorhinolaryngology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosmia, Anand N; Zimmermann, Terence M; Griessenauer, Christoph J; Shane Tubbs, R; Rosenthal, Eben L

    2017-08-01

    Various case reports on nasal myiasis written during the 1990s and 2000s state that nasal myiasis, which is known as peenash among South Asian natives, is a form of divine punishment in Hindu mythology, but do not provide citations from Hindu scriptures that would suggest this interpretation. This paper aims to discuss the phenomenon of peenash in a historical context by examining medical literature written during the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, to identify Hindu texts contributing to the belief of some Hindus that nasal myiasis is a form of divine punishment, and to provide an overview of contemporary treatment for and management of nasal myiasis.

  14. Visualization of nasal airflow patterns in a patient affected with atrophic rhinitis using particle image velocimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, G J M [Hamner Institutes for Health Sciences, NC (United States); Mitchell, G [The Queens University of Belfast, Belfast (United Kingdom); Bailie, N [The Queens University of Belfast, Belfast (United Kingdom); Thornhill, D [The Queens University of Belfast, Belfast (United Kingdom); Watterson, J [The Queens University of Belfast, Belfast (United Kingdom); Kimbell, J S [Hamner Institutes for Health Sciences, NC (United States)

    2007-10-15

    The relationship between airflow patterns in the nasal cavity and nasal function is poorly understood. This paper reports an experimental study of the interplay between symptoms and airflow patterns in a patient affected with atrophic rhinitis. This pathology is characterized by mucosal dryness, fetor, progressive atrophy of anatomical structures, a spacious nasal cavity, and a paradoxical sensation of nasal congestion. A physical replica of the patient's nasal geometry was made and particle image velocimetry (PIV) was used to visualize and measure the flow field. The nasal replica was based on computed tomography (CT) scans of the patient and was built in three steps: three-dimensional reconstruction of the CT scans; rapid prototyping of a cast; and sacrificial use of the cast to form a model of the nasal passage in clear silicone. Flow patterns were measured by running a water-glycerol mixture through the replica and evaluating the displacement of particles dispersed in the liquid using PIV. The water-glycerol flow rate used corresponded to an air flow rate representative of a human breathing at rest. The trajectory of the flow observed in the left passage of the nose (more affected by atrophic rhinitis) differed markedly from what is considered normal, and was consistent with patterns of epithelial damage observed in cases of the condition. The data are also useful for validation of computational fluid dynamics predictions.

  15. Optical properties of nasal septum cartilage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagratashvili, Nodar V.; Sviridov, Alexander P.; Sobol, Emil N.; Kitai, Moishe S.

    1998-05-01

    Optical parameters (scattering coefficient s, absorption coefficient k and scattering anisotropy coefficient g) of hyaline cartilage were studied for the first time. Optical properties of human and pig nasal septum cartilage, and of bovine ear cartilage were examined using a spectrophotometer with an integrating sphere, and an Optical Multi-Channel Analyser. We measured total transmission Tt, total reflection Rt, and on-axis transmission Ta for light propagating through cartilage sample, over the visible spectral range (14000 - 28000 cm-1). It is shown that transmission and reflection spectra of human, pig and bovine cartilage are rather similar. It allows us to conclude that the pig cartilage can be used for in-vivo studies instead of human cartilage. The data obtained were treated by means of the one-dimensional diffusion approximation solution of the optical transport equation. We have found scattering coefficient s, absorption coefficient k and scattering anisotropy coefficient g by the iterative comparison of measured and calculated Tt, Rt and Ta values for human and pig cartilage. We found, in particular, that for 500 nm irradiation s equals 37,6 plus or minus 3.5 cm-1, g equals 0,56 plus or minus 0.05, k approximately equals 0,5 plus or minus 0.3 cm-1. The above data were used in Monte Carlo simulation for spatial intensity profile of light scattered by a cartilage sample. The computed profile was very similar to the profile measured using an Optical Multi-Channel Analyzer (OMA).

  16. Desloratadine citrate disodium injection, a potent histamine H(1) receptor antagonist, inhibits chemokine production in ovalbumin-induced allergic rhinitis guinea pig model and histamine-induced human nasal epithelial cells via inhibiting the ERK1/2 and NF-kappa B signal cascades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Meiling; Xu, Shuhong; Zhou, Peipei; He, Guangwei; Jie, Qiong; Wu, Yulin

    2015-11-15

    Chemokines have chemotactic properties on leukocyte subsets whose modulation plays a pivotal role in allergic inflammatory processes. Our present study was designed to investigate the anti-allergic and anti-inflammatory properties of desloratadine citrate disodium injection (DLC) and elucidate the molecular mechanisms of its anti-inflammatory properties. The anti-allergic effects of DLC were evaluated based on allergic symptoms, serological marker production and histological changes of the nasal mucosa in guinea pigs model of allergic rhinitis. The anti-inflammatory properties and molecular mechanisms of DLC were explored by studying the regulation of a set of chemokines and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)1/2 and nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) pathways, after DLC treatment in guinea pigs model of allergic rhinitis in vivo and histamine-activated human nasal epithelial cells (HNECs) in vitro. In vivo model in guinea pigs, DLC alleviated the rhinitis symptoms, inhibited inflammatory cells infiltration in nasal lavage fluid (NLF) and histamine, monocyte chemotactic protein (MCP)-1, regulated on activation normal T cell expressed, and presumably secreted (RANTEs) and interleukin (IL)-8 release in sera and P-ERK1/2 and NF-κB activation in nasal mucosa. In vitro, DLC markedly inhibited histamine-induced production of MCP-1, RANTEs and IL-8 and suppressed c-Raf, mitogen-activated protein/extracellular signal-regulated kinase kinase (MEK) and ERK1/2 activation in HNECs. These results provide evidence that DLC possesses potent anti-allergic and anti-inflammatory properties. The mechanism of action underlying DLC in allergic inflammation appears to be inhibition of the phosphorylation of ERK1/2, in addition to blocking of the NF-κB pathway. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Cartilage grafting in nasal reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Immerman, Sara; White, W Matthew; Constantinides, Minas

    2011-02-01

    Nasal reconstruction after resection for cutaneous malignancies poses a unique challenge to facial plastic surgeons. The nose, a unique 3-D structure, not only must remain functional but also be aesthetically pleasing to patients. A complete understanding of all the layers of the nose and knowledge of available cartilage grafting material is necessary. Autogenous material, namely septal, auricular, and costal cartilage, is the most favored material in a free cartilage graft or a composite cartilage graft. All types of material have advantages and disadvantages that should guide the most appropriate selection to maximize the functional and cosmetic outcomes for patients. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Distilled water nasal provocation in hyperreactive patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baudoin, T; Anzic, S A; Kalogjera, L

    1999-01-01

    Nonisotonic aerosol may act as a provocation agent in the upper and lower airways of hyperreactive individuals. The purpose of the study was to compare the results of nasal challenge with distilled water in patients with allergic rhinitis to those with noninfective nonallergic rhinitis (NINAR), with respect to the potential clinical use of the obtained data. A group of 68 ambulatory patients with allergic rhinitis or NINAR (39 perennial allergic, 6 seasonal, 23 NINAR) were challenged with 10 mL of distilled water aerosol after the baseline active anterior rhinomanometry. Patients with nasal polyposis at endoscopy, significant unilateral septal deviation, positive bacteriologic swab, recent nasal surgery, and uncertain anamnestic data about the medication taken 6 weeks before the provocation were excluded from the study. After 10 minutes of nasal provocation, rhinomanometry was repeated to assess the response. In 15 patients of the perennial allergic group, the same measurements were performed after a 2-week oral antihistamine and topical steroid therapy. Nasal resistance was significantly increased on the more patent side of the nose after nasal provocation with distilled water aerosol in allergic patients in comparison to the nasal resistance before provocation. In the patients with NINAR, the provocation resulted in a significant rise on the more patent side, but the total nasal airway resistance (NAR) levels were also significantly increased. The systemic antihistamine and topical steroid 2-week therapy in patients with perennial allergic rhinitis significantly reduced the response to nasal distilled water provocation. Nasal provocation with distilled water aerosol is a cheap, simple, and acceptable method that provides useful clinical data on the level of nonspecific nasal hyperreactivity and the therapy success.

  19. Effect of the nasal cycle on congestive response during bilateral nasal allergen provocation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Gotlib

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background. Bilateral nasal allergen provocation usually produces more pronounced obstruction of one nasal passage. It was found that this could be related to the stage of the nasal cycle before the provocation. objective. To discover whether the stage of the nasal cycle is decisive for asymmetry in congestive response observed during bilateral allergen nasal provocation. methods. Two bilateral nasal allergen provocations were performed in a group of 26 pollen-sensitive volunteers. Acoustic rhinometry measurements were taken during the nasal cycle, and then after the provocation. A cross-sectional area at the level of the inferior turbinate (CSA-2 was measured. Consecutive challenges were performed in the opposite phase of the nasal cycle: the side which had been wide just before the first challenge, was narrow before the second provocation. results. Asymmetry in CSA-2 reduction between the nasal passages was observed in most cases. Significant difference was observed between mean CSA-2 reduction rate (reactivity of the side that responded with greater congestion, and the opposite side. No significant difference was found in mean CSA-2 reduction rate between the side which was narrow, and the side which was wide before provocation. conclusions. Asymmetry of congestive response during bilateral nasal allergen provocation is not dependent on the stage of the nasal cycle preceding the challenge.

  20. NASAL INVERTED PAPILLOMA OF UNUSUAL ORIGIN

    OpenAIRE

    kasim s. kasim; Universiti Tunku Abdul Rahman; BALWANT SINGH GENDEH

    2013-01-01

    Two cases of Schneiderian papilloma of the nasal septum are presented. The condition is rare, as indicated by a review of previously published cases. The clinical course of the lesion suggests that it behaves like Schneiderian papillomas elsewhere in the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses. The need for aggressive surgical management and careful follow-up is emphasized.

  1. Nasal mucociliary transport in laryngectomees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pavia, J.; Garcia, A.; Abello, R.; Herranz, R.; Franch, M.; Espana, R. de

    1986-01-01

    A study has been carried out to assess the mucociliary function of nasal mucosa in 30 patients: 16 had undergone surgery due to larynx malignancy and the remaining 14 were divided in two groups. The first group was composed of seven patients suffering from larynx cancer but not operated, and the second group of seven had pathology not related to the airways (control group). The method used a sup(99m)technetium sulphur colloid drop deposited on the nasal mucosa of one nostril. To calculate the rate of transport, a new method of quantification has been introduced, based on the formation of a parametric image. The mean velocity in laryngectomees was 3.6 mm/min (range 1.1-6.4). It was compared with the group of 14 patients without tracheostomy (mean 5.3, range 3.3-8.2). An impaired student's-t-test gave a significant difference between both groups (P<0.005). The comparison between patients with nonoperated larynx cancer and normals have a nonsignificant difference. The 16 operated patients were arbitrarily divided into two groups as per the time elapsed from laryngectomy; seven were studied within the first 3 years of operation and seven other patients after this term. The comparison between them was not significant. (orig.)

  2. Esthesioneuroblastoma of the nasal cavity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollen, Tyler R; Morris, Christopher G; Kirwan, Jessica M; Amdur, Robert J; Werning, John W; Vaysberg, Mikhail; Mendenhall, William M

    2015-06-01

    Esthesioneuroblastoma is an uncommon cancer of the nasal cavity. We describe the outcomes for 26 patients treated with curative intent with photon radiotherapy (RT) at the University of Florida. Between May 1972 and June 2007, 26 patients received RT for previously untreated esthesioneuroblastoma of the nasal cavity. Sixteen patients were males and 10 were females with a median age of 55 years (range, 3 to 82 y). The modified Kadish stage distribution was: B, 7 patients; C, 17 patients; and D, 2 patients. Treatment modalities included the following: definitive RT, 5 patients; preoperative RT, 2 patients; and postoperative RT after resection, 19 patients. Elective neck irradiation (ENI) was performed in 17 (71%) of 24 N0 patients. Rates of local control, cause-specific survival, and absolute overall survival at 5 years were 79%, 72%, and 69%, respectively. Overall survival among patients treated with definitive RT was 20% at 5 years, compared with 81% among those who underwent surgery and adjuvant RT (P=0.01). One (6%) of 17 patients who received ENI developed a recurrence in the neck and was successfully salvaged. Ultimate neck control was 100% at 5 years for patients who received ENI versus 69% among those not receiving ENI (P=0.0173). Resection combined with adjuvant RT is more effective than surgery or RT alone in the treatment of esthesioneuroblastoma. ENI reduces the risk of regional relapse in patients with Kadish stage B and C cancers.

  3. [Clinical and anatomical characteristic of nasal injuries].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surikov, E V; Ivanets, I V

    2009-01-01

    A fracture of nasal bones is becoming a very common injury due to the increasingly greater number of car accidents and aggravated criminal situation. A total of 500 cases of nasal fracture associated with external deformities were included in the present study. The following kinds of deformities were identified: unilateral retraction, lateral displacement of the entire dorsum of the nose, and depressed comminuted fracture. Rhinoscopy revealed in addition such abnormalities associated with septal fracture as submucous hemorrhage, pathological mobility of the pyramid, deflection of the nasal septum at an acute angle. All in all, four types of nasal septum fractures were distinguished depending on the shape and localization of the fracture line. Two of them resulted in marked impairment of nasal breathing while two others required surgical intervention in the acute period after the injury.

  4. Velocity Measurements in Nasal Cavities by Means of Stereoscopic Piv - Preliminary Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cozzi, Fabio; Felisati, Giovanni; Quadrio, Maurizio

    2017-08-01

    The prediction of detailed flow patterns in human nasal cavities using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) can provide essential information on the potential relationship between patient-specific geometrical characteristics of the nasal anatomy and health problems, and ultimately led to improved surgery. The complex flow structure and the intricate geometry of the nasal cavities make achieving such goals a challenge for CFD specialists. The need for experimental data to validate and improve the numerical simulations is particularly crucial. To this aim an experimental set-up based on Stereo PIV and a silicon phantom of nasal cavities have been designed and realized at Politecnico di Milano. This work describes the main features and challenges of the set-up along with some preliminary results.

  5. Nasal Drug Delivery in Traditional Persian Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarshenas, Mohammad Mehdi; Zargaran, Arman; Müller, Johannes; Mohagheghzadeh, Abdolali

    2013-01-01

    Background Over one hundred different pharmaceutical dosage forms have been recorded in literatures of Traditional Persian Medicine among which nasal forms are considerable. Objectives This study designed to derive the most often applied nasal dosage forms together with those brief clinical administrations. Materials and Methods In the current study remaining pharmaceutical manuscripts of Persia during 9th to 18th century AD have been studied and different dosage forms related to nasal application of herbal medicines and their therapeutic effects were derived. Results By searching through pharmaceutical manuscripts of medieval Persia, different nasal dosage forms involving eleven types related to three main groups are found. These types could be derived from powder, solution or liquid and gaseous forms. Gaseous form were classified into fumigation (Bakhoor), vapor bath (Enkebab), inhalation (Lakhlakheh), aroma agents (Ghalieh) and olfaction or smell (Shomoom). Nasal solutions were as drops (Ghatoor), nasal snuffing drops (Saoot) and liquid snuff formulations (Noshoogh). Powders were as nasal insufflation or snorting agents (Nofookh) and errhine or sternutator medicine (Otoos). Nasal forms were not applied only for local purposes. Rather systemic disorders and specially CNS complications were said to be a target for these dosage forms. Discussion While this novel type of drug delivery is known as a suitable substitute for oral and parenteral administration, it was well accepted and extensively mentioned in Persian medical and pharmaceutical manuscripts and other traditional systems of medicine as well. Accordingly, medieval pharmaceutical standpoints on nasal dosage forms could still be an interesting subject of study. Therefore, the current work can briefly show the pharmaceutical knowledge on nasal formulations in medieval Persia and clarify a part of history of traditional Persian pharmacy. PMID:24624204

  6. Climatic effects on the nasal complex: a CT imaging, comparative anatomical, and morphometric investigation of Macaca mulatta and Macaca fascicularis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Márquez, Samuel; Laitman, Jeffrey T

    2008-11-01

    Previous studies exploring the effects of climate on the nasal region have largely focused on external craniofacial linear parameters, using dry crania of modern human populations. This investigation augments traditional craniofacial morphometrics with internal linear and volumetric measures of the anatomic units comprising the nasal complex (i.e., internal nasal cavity depth, maxillary sinus volumes). The study focuses on macaques (i.e., Macaca mulatta and Macaca fascicularis) living at high and low altitudes, rather than on humans, since the short residency of migratory human populations may preclude using them as reliable models to test the long-term relationship of climate to nasal morphology. It is hypothesized that there will be significant differences in nasal complex morphology among macaques inhabiting different climates. This study integrated three different approaches: CT imaging, comparative anatomy, and morphometrics-in an effort to better understand the morphological structure and adaptive nature of the nasal complex. Results showed statistically significant differences when subsets of splanchnocranial and neurocranial variables were regressed against total maxillary sinus volume for particular taxa. For example, basion-hormion was significant for M. fascicularis, whereas choanal dimensions were significant only for M. mulatta. Both taxa revealed strong correlation between sinus volume and prosthion to staphylion distance, which essentially represents the length of the nasal cavity floor-and is by extension an indicator of the air conditioning capacity of the nasal region. These results clearly show that climatic effects play a major role in shaping the anatomy of the nasal complex in closely related species. The major influence upon these differing structures appears to be related to respiratory-related adaptations subserving differing climatic factors. In addition, the interdependence of the paranasal sinuses with other parts of the complex strongly

  7. Comparison of Early-period Results of Nasal Splint and Merocel Nasal Packs in Septoplasty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bingöl, Fatih; Budak, Ali; Şimşek, Eda; Kılıç, Korhan; Bingöl, Buket Özel

    2017-01-01

    Objective Several types of nasal packs are used postoperatively in septoplasty. In this study, we compared two commonly used nasal packing materials, the intranasal septal splint with airway and Merocel tampon, in terms of pain, bleeding, nasal obstruction, eating difficulties, discomfort in sleep, and pain and bleeding during removal of packing in the early period. Methods The study group included 60 patients undergoing septoplasty. Patients were divided into two groups (n=30 in each group). An intranasal splint with airway was used for the patients in the first group after septoplasty, while Merocel nasal packing was used for the second group. Patients were investigated in terms of seven different factors - pain, bleeding while the tampon was in place, nasal obstruction, eating difficulties, night sleep, pain during removal of the nasal packing, and bleeding after removal of packing. Results There was no statistically significant difference between the groups in terms of pain 24 hours after operation (p=0.05), while visual analog scale (VAS) scores for nasal obstruction, night sleep, eating difficulties, and pain during packing removal were lower in the nasal splint group with a statistically significant difference (p<0.05). There was no statistically significant difference between the groups in terms of postoperative bleeding (p=0.23). Significantly less bleeding occurred during removal of the packing in the nasal splint group (p<0.05). Conclusion Our study indicates that the nasal splint was more comfortable and effective in terms of causing lesser bleeding and pain during removal of packing. PMID:29392071

  8. Involvement of vascular endothelial growth factor in nasal obstruction in patients with nasal allergy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetsuji Yamashita

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available It has recently been shown that vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF enhances vascular permeability and that mast cells produce VEGF, suggesting the involvement of VEGF in allergic diseases. In the present study we quantitatively analyzed VEGF in the nasal lavage fluid of patients with nasal allergy. We performed nasal antigen challenge with Japanese cedar pollen antigen in 10 healthy adult volunteers and in 10 cedar pollen IgE-positive patients with nasal allergy. In all patients with nasal allergy, VEGF and histamine levels in the nasal lavage fluid reached a peak 30 min after antigen challenge, then returned to prechallenge values 2 h after antigen challenge. In these patients, the histamine level increased three-fold, while the VEGF level increased 10-fold. However, in all healthy adult volunteers, VEGF and histamine levels did not increase. A stronger correlation was noted between the ratio of decreased nasal cavity volume and the ratio of increased VEGF levels (R = 0.823; P < 0.001 than between the ratio of nasal cavity volume and the ratio of increased histamine levels (R = 0.660; P < 0.01. These results suggest that VEGF may contribute to the pathogenesis of nasal obstruction in the early phase of nasal allergy as a new factor involved in increasing vascular permeability.

  9. Low dose oxytocin delivered intranasally with Breath Powered device affects social-cognitive behavior: a randomized 4-way crossover trial with nasal cavity dimension assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Quintana, Daniel; Westlye, Lars Tjelta; Rustan, Øyvind; Tesli, Natalia; Poppy, Claire; Smevik, Hanne; Tesli, Martin Steen; Røine, Marianne; Mahmoud, Ramy; Smerud, Knut Terje; Djupesland, Per G.; Andreassen, Ole Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Despite the promise of intranasal oxytocin (OT) for modulating social behavior, recent work has provided mixed results. This may relate to suboptimal drug deposition achieved with conventional nasal sprays, inter-individual differences in nasal physiology and a poor understanding of how intranasal OT is delivered to the brain in humans. Delivering OT using a novel ?Breath Powered' nasal device previously shown to enhance deposition in intranasal sites targeted for nose-to-brain transport, we ...

  10. Nasal continuous positive airway pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scholze, Alexandra; Lamwers, Stephanie; Tepel, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) is linked to increased cardiovascular risk. This risk can be reduced by nasal continuous positive airway pressure (nCPAP) treatment. As OSA is associated with an increase of several vasoconstrictive factors, we investigated whether nCPAP influences the digital volume...... pulse wave. We performed digital photoplethysmography during sleep at night in 94 consecutive patients who underwent polysomnography and 29 patients treated with nCPAP. Digital volume pulse waves were obtained independently of an investigator and were quantified using an algorithm for continuous.......01; n = 94) and the arousal index (Spearman correlation, r = 0.21; p CPAP treatment, the AHI was significantly reduced from 27 ± 3 events · h(-1) to 4 ± 2 events · h(-1) (each n = 29; p

  11. Spectral features of nasals in Standard Latvian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Taperte

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In the article, the acoustic features of nasals in Standard Latvian are investigated. The aim of the study is to examine whether some of the spectral properties of nasal murmur (namely anti-formant frequency, as well as frequency and bandwidth of the first nasal formant can be considered as efficient cues for distinguishing between nasal places of articulation.Speech recordings from 10 native speakers of Standard Latvian, five male and five female, aged 19–39, without any disorders or dialectal traces in their pronunciation, were used for the analysis. Prevocalic nasals [m; n; ɲ] were analyzed in isolated CVC syllables, where C is one of the nasals and V is one of the vowels [i(ː; e(ː; æ(ː; ɑ(ː; ɔ(ː; u(ː]. The velar [ŋ] — the allophone of the phoneme /n/ — was recorded in postvocalic position in [k]V[ŋks] structure units. 1260 items were analyzed in total.According to the results, the nasals of Standard Latvian can be distinguished by anti-formant frequencies rather efficiently, and the results generally agree with those obtained in previous research of Latvian as well as data reported for other languages. The frequencies and the bandwidths of the first nasal formant are less informative regarding nasal place of articulation and can be used only for distinguishing between [ŋ] and [m; n; ɲ]. Conducting perception tests to assess the auditory relevance of these acoustic features is necessary.

  12. Omalizumab a new prospective: a nasal polyposis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavaliere, C; Begvarfaj, E; Frati, F; Masieri, S

    2018-01-01

    Omalizumab, a monoclonal antibody against IgE, may be effective on nasal polyps, but its use is not currently authorized to treat that disease. We report the cases of three patients who were given omalizumab for asthma after undergoing nasal surgical polypectomy. Although such procedure is frequently followed by polyp recurrence, none of the three patients developed this complication, and in one subject the regression of initial polyp return was registered after starting omalizumab. Our data support the hypothesis that omalizumab may be useful to treat nasal polyposis.

  13. Angiomatous nasal polyp: Clinical diagnostic dilemma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunder Goyal

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Angiomatous polyp (Angiectatic nasal polyps is rare and its incidence is 4-5% of all nasal polyps. As it occurs with variable clinical features and there is no confirmatory preoperative investigation, clinical diagnosis can be a dilemma. Clinical picture of angiofibroma, simple antrochoanal polyp and inverted papilloma may resemble with each other. As polyps invade surrounding bone, these should be distinguished from a malignant mass. We present an interesting case of an infarcted angiectatic nasal polyp with extensive surrounding bony destruction. Correct preoperative radiological diagnosis is important to avoid unnecessary extensive surgery. Histopathological evaluation of polyps is mandatory since they require different treatment due to difference in the prognosis.

  14. Nasal mass removal in the koala (Phascolarctos cinereus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bercier, Marjorie; Wynne, Janna; Klause, Stephen; Stadler, Cynthia K; Gorow, April; Pye, Geoffrey W

    2012-12-01

    Nasal masses in the koala (Phascolarctos cinereus) are not uncommon and can be challenging to diagnose and treat. Differential diagnoses for nasal masses in the koala are cryptococcal granulomas, nasal polyps, nasal adenocarcinoma, and osteochondromatosis. This report describes successful surgical approaches for two adult koalas with nasal masses and includes photodocumentation and description of the anatomy of the koala nasal passages from the postmortem transverse sectioning of a normal koala head. Surgical removal of the nasal masses in these koalas resulted in a rapid resolution of clinical signs.

  15. Staphylococcus aureus ST398 gene expression profiling during ex vivo colonization of porcine nasal epithelium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tulinski, P.; Duim, B.; Wittink, F.R.; Jonker, M.J.; Breit, T.M.; van Putten, J.P.; Wagenaar, J.A.; Fluit, A.C.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Staphylococcus aureus is a common human and animal opportunistic pathogen. In humans nasal carriage of S. aureus is a risk factor for various infections. Methicillin-resistant S. aureus ST398 is highly prevalent in pigs in Europe and North America. The mechanism of successful pig

  16. Staphylococcus aureus ST398 gene expression profiling during ex vivo colonization of porcine nasal epithelium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tulinski, P.; Duim, B.; Wittink, F.R.; Jonker, M.J.; Breit, T.M.; Van Putten, J.P.; Wagenaar, J.A.; Fluit, A.C.

    2014-01-01

    Background Staphylococcus aureus is a common human and animal opportunistic pathogen. In humans nasal carriage of S. aureus is a risk factor for various infections. Methicillin-resistant S. aureus ST398 is highly prevalent in pigs in Europe and North America. The mechanism of successful pig

  17. Staphylococcus aureus ST398 gene expression profiling during ex vivo colonization of porcine nasal epithelium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tulinski, Pawel; Duim, Birgitta; Wittink, Floyd R; Jonker, Martijs J; Breit, Timo M; van Putten, Jos P; Wagenaar, Jaap A; Fluit, Ad C

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Staphylococcus aureus is a common human and animal opportunistic pathogen. In humans nasal carriage of S. aureus is a risk factor for various infections. Methicillin-resistant S. aureus ST398 is highly prevalent in pigs in Europe and North America. The mechanism of successful pig

  18. Effect of Local Nasal Immunotherapy on Nasal Blockage in Pollen-Induced Allergic Rhinitis of Guinea Pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeshi Nabe

    2008-01-01

    Conclusions: Local nasal immunotherapy may be clinically useful for allergic nasal blockage associated with nasal hyperresponsiveness. The mechanisms responsible for this effectiveness might not be related to IgE production. Additionally, the effectiveness for nasal tissue was dissociated from that seen for the ocular tissue.

  19. Perceiving nasal patency through mucosal cooling rather than air temperature or nasal resistance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Zhao

    Full Text Available Adequate perception of nasal airflow (i.e., nasal patency is an important consideration for patients with nasal sinus diseases. The perception of a lack of nasal patency becomes the primary symptom that drives these patients to seek medical treatment. However, clinical assessment of nasal patency remains a challenge because we lack objective measurements that correlate well with what patients perceive. The current study examined factors that may influence perceived patency, including air temperature, humidity, mucosal cooling, nasal resistance, and trigeminal sensitivity. Forty-four healthy subjects rated nasal patency while sampling air from three facial exposure boxes that were ventilated with untreated room air, cold air, and dry air, respectively. In all conditions, air temperature and relative humidity inside each box were recorded with sensors connected to a computer. Nasal resistance and minimum airway cross-sectional area (MCA were measured using rhinomanometry and acoustic rhinometry, respectively. General trigeminal sensitivity was assessed through lateralization thresholds to butanol. No significant correlation was found between perceived patency and nasal resistance or MCA. In contrast, air temperature, humidity, and butanol threshold combined significantly contributed to the ratings of patency, with mucosal cooling (heat loss being the most heavily weighted predictor. Air humidity significantly influences perceived patency, suggesting that mucosal cooling rather than air temperature alone provides the trigeminal sensation that results in perception of patency. The dynamic cooling between the airstream and the mucosal wall may be quantified experimentally or computationally and could potentially lead to a new clinical evaluation tool.

  20. Unilateral nasal pain with migraine features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, Mónica; Montojo, Teresa; de la Casa, Beatriz; Vela, Lydia; Pareja, Juan A

    2013-09-01

    Migraine attacks exclusively felt in the face are very rare, the pain involving the territories supplied by the second and third branches of the trigeminal nerve. Two patients suffering from heminasal pain attacks accompanied with typical migrainous features and responsive to oral or intranasal triptans - but not to intranasal lidocaine or oxymetazoline. In one patient, the attacks could be precipitated upon slight touching on the tip of the nose, in the other attacks were preceded by the nasal sensation typically heralding sneezing. Migraine pain mostly develops within the innervation territory of the first branch of the trigeminal nerve, which includes the nose. Therefore, episodes of unilateral nasal pain with migrainous features could be considered a migraine with unusual topography (nasal migraine). Painful nasal attacks occasionally preceded by stimulation of trigeminal afferents in the nose, could be conceived of as migraine-tic syndrome.

  1. Periapical Infection Masquerading as a Nasal Pustule

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Keywords: Endodontic treatment, Maxillary central incisor, Nasal pustule, Periapical infection,. Root length ... back under copious irrigation. Non‑setting calcium ... of working length. Figure 4: Obturated root canal of maxillary right central incisor ...

  2. Nasal Chondromesenchymal Hamartoma in a Child

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finitsis, Stefanos; Giavroglou, Constantinos; Potsi, Stamatia; Constantinidis, Ioannis; Mpaltatzidis, Angelos; Rachovitsas, Dimitrios; Tzioufa, Valentini

    2009-01-01

    Nasal chondromesenchymal hamartoma (NCMH) is a benign tumor that was described in 1998. The occurrence of this lesion in the nasal cavity of infants and children is especially rare, with only 21 cases reported in the international literature. We report a 12-month-old boy with respiratory distress due to nasal obstruction. Computed tomographic scan and magnetic resonance imaging examination demonstrated a soft-tissue mass obstructing the left nasal cavity. Digital subtraction angiography and preoperative superselective embolization with microparticles were also performed. The tumor was completely resected surgically. Histopathology and immunohistochemical analyses of the tumor disclosed a NCMH. The imaging characteristics of the tumor are described and the radiology literature is reviewed.

  3. Nasal manifestations in chromium industry workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aiyer, R G; Kumar, Gaurav

    2003-04-01

    People working in mines, plating factories, cement industries are mainly exposed to chrome substances, IIexavalent chromium has been implicated for its toxic effect on the nasal mucosa. Hereby we present a rare study of 28 patients who attended out patient department of Otorhinolaryngology at SSG Hospital, Baroda from a nearby chromium industry. This study aims to present various nasal manifestations of toxic effects of prolonged chromium exposure.

  4. CT findings of malignant nasal cavity tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ku, Young Mi; Chun, Kyung Ah; Choi, Kyu Ho; Yu, Won Jong; Kim, Young Joo; Kim, Sung Hoon; Park, Seog Hee; Shinn, Kyung Sub

    1997-01-01

    To evaluate the CT findings of malignant nasal cavity tumors. Retrospective analysis was performed on 20 patients with pathologically-proven malignant nasal cavity tumors. Using CT, we analysed their location, extent of bone destruction and of involvement of adjacent structures, and enhancing pattern. A total of 20 cases included nine squamous cell carcinomas, three olfactory neuroblastomas, three lymphomas, two polymorphic reticulosis, one adenoid cystic carcinoma, one undifferentiated carcinoma and one metastasis from renal cell carcinoma. All cases except one adenoid cystic carcinoma and one squamous cell carcinoma revealed bone destruction or erosion. Aggressive bone destruction and irregular enhancement were seen in eight cases of squamous cell carcinoma, seven cases of which showed involvement of the adjacent paranasal sinuses, nasopharynx, and orbit. Olfactory neuroblastomas were centered in the superior nasal cavity and the adjacent ethmoid sinus, and erosion or destruction of the cribriform plate had occurred. Lymphomas showed bilateral involvement, with uniform contrast enhancement. Polymorphic reticuloses showed perforation or erosion of the nasal septum, with bilateral involvement of the nasal cavity. The location, presence of bone destruction, involvement of adjacent structures, and enhancement pattern of tumor on CT can be helpful for the differential diagnosis of malignant nasal cavity tumors

  5. Eosinophilic Angiocentric Fibrosis of the Nasal Septum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunchuan Li

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Eosinophilic angiocentric fibrosis (EAF is a rare benign condition of unknown aetiology that causes stenosis of the upper respiratory tract. It is most commonly found at the nasal septum and sinus mucosa causing mucosal thickening and nasal obstructive symptoms. The diagnosis is mainly based on characteristic histologic findings. Case Report. A 27-year-old young woman presented with a slow growing mass at her anterior nasal septum for over eight years. She complained of persistent nasal obstruction, epistaxis, sometimes diffused facial pain, and chronic headache. 3 years ago, the tumor was partially resected for ventilation and a nasal septum perforation was left. Imaging findings indicated soft-tissue thickening of the anterior part of septum and adjacent lateral nasal walls. Pathological examination showed numerous inflammatory cells infiltrates containing eosinophils, fibroinflammatory lesion with a whorled appearance fibrosis which typically surrounded vessels. A diagnosis of eosinophilic angiocentric fibrosis was made. All laboratory tests were unremarkable. Skin prick test was positive. The tumor-like lesion was totally resected. Conclusions. EAF is a rare benign and progressive disorder causing destruction. Combined with radiological imaging of EAF historical findings contribute to the diagnosis. It is important to prevent tumor from recurrence by total resection of the lesion.

  6. NASALIZATION IN BRAZILIAN PORTUGUESE: AN AUTOSEGMENTAL (REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Consuelo de Paiva Godinho COSTA

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available We propose to make a brief review on nasalization phenomena studies in Portuguese, aiming the phonological process of nasal harmonization that occurs in the variety of Brazilian Portuguese spoken in Vitória da Conquista-BA and region, a phenomenon hitherto not described for any Portuguese dialect. To do so, we consider as fundamental, D’Angelis (2002 analysis, which incorporates relevant concepts presented by Trubetzkoy, from the Prague School, and some points of Camara Jr. propose. We also propose to update the discussion with the approaches along the lines of auto segmental phonology, incorporating some insights of Piggott (1992, discussing with other analyzes for nasalization phenomena in other languages, especially Guarani (language of Tupi-Guarani Linguistic Family, as proposed by Costa (2010, which deals with the phonological processes involving nasality and nasal harmony in Brazilian indigenous languages , in order to verify if the researches on nasality phenomena in other languages can shed some light on the processes that occur in Portuguese.

  7. Acoustic rhinometry (AR): An Alternative Method to Image Nasal Airway Geometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Straszek, Sune; Pedersen, O.F.

      ACOUSTIC RHINOMETRY (AR): AN ALTERNATIVE METHOD TO IMAGE NASAL AIRWAY GEOMETRY.  INTRODUCTION AND BACKGROUND:  In human studies the acoustic reflection technique was first applied to describe the area-distance relationship of the lower airways, but later the acoustic reflection technique appeared...... to be of more use in the description of nasal cavity geometry. Applied to human subjects AR has been applied to monitor the effect of corrective surgery and mucosal effects of pharmacological interventions. In recent years, however, AR has found use also in pharmacological studies in animals ranging in size...

  8. Nasal obstruction and smell impairment in nasal polyp disease: correlation between objective and subjective parameters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hox, V.; Bobic, S.; Callebaux, I.; Jorissen, M.; Hellings, P. W.

    2010-01-01

    Chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyposis (NP) represents an invalidating disorder that causes mainly nasal blockage and loss of smell. The aim of this study is to investigate correlations between individual subjective and objective parameters of stable NP disease. 65 NP patients scored their

  9. Nasal endotracheal intubation in a premature infant with a nasal encephalocele.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bannister, C M; Kashab, M; Dagestani, H; Placzek, M

    1993-01-01

    After a difficult nasal intubation a premature infant leaked cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from one nostril. After developing bacterial meningitis, the baby was referred for neurosurgical management of the CSF fistula. Transaxial computed tomograms demonstrated a nasal encephalocele, but coronal scans were needed to show the defect in the cribriform plate. Images PMID:8346963

  10. Clinical aspects of patients with nasal polyposis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crespo, Cassio Caldini

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The nasal Polyposis is a non-neoplastic chronic inflammatory process of the nasal mucosa. It causes a large impact to the patients' life quality. Objective: To analyze the characteristics of patients with polyposis in the Brazilian population. Method: 50 records of patients followed up in a tertiary hospital and submitted to surgical treatment of nasal polyposis were reviewed. The following variables were analyzed: age, sex, smoking, presence of asthma, presence of AAS intolerance and also the clinical manifestations: anterior and posterior rhinorrhea, nasal obstruction, hyposmia, sneezing and pruritus. The tomographic evaluation system applied was that of Lund-McKay. For statistical analysis we applied the chi-square test with p<0.05. Results: Out of 50 patients evaluated, 28 were male and 22 were female. The mean age range was of 40.8 years. The main clinical manifestation was nasal obstruction in 100% of the patients. In the tomographic evaluation, according to the Lund-McKay system, the average scoring was of 10.9. Discussion: No statistically significant difference was obtained in the patients' general symptoms compared to the patients with asthma or AAS intolerance. The difference in the Lund-McKay score was statistically significant in the populations studied. The symptoms were similar to the frequency of symptoms of other works. Conclusion: We concluded that the main complaint of the patients with nasal polyposis is nasal obstruction, the most affected age is of about 40 years old, without preference of sex. The severity of tomographic findings is higher in patients with asthma and AAS intolerance.

  11. Nasal obstruction and sleep-disordered breathing: the effect of supine body position on nasal measurements in snorers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virkkula, Paula; Maasilta, Paula; Hytönen, Maija; Salmi, Tapani; Malmberg, Henrik

    2003-06-01

    Nasal obstruction is considered to be a potential etiological factor in sleep-disordered breathing. However, a significant correlation between nasal measurements and obstructive sleep apnea has not been demonstrated so far. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationships between nasal resistance, nasal volumes and selected sleep parameters using nasal measurements performed in both seated and supine positions. We also investigated whether snoring patients in our clinical sample showed increased positional or decongestive nasal mucosal changes. Forty-one snoring men on a waiting list for correction of nasal obstruction underwent polysomnography, anterior rhinomanometry and acoustic rhinometry. Nineteen non-snoring control subjects were also recruited. Nasal measurements were performed in a seated position, after lying down in a supine position and, after decongestion of nasal mucosa, in a seated position again. In the overall patient group, nasal volume at a distance 2-4 cm from the nares in the supine position correlated inversely with apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) (r = -0.32, p patients, total nasal resistance measured in a supine position correlated with AHI (r = 0.50, p position and sleep parameters. Postural or decongestive changes in nasal measurements were not increased in snoring patients compared with control subjects. The relationship found between nasal measurements and sleep parameters suggests that nasal obstruction does augment airway collapse.

  12. [Nasal mucosa in patients with diabetes mellitus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Maciej; Betlejewski, Stanisław

    2003-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is the most common endocrinologic disease all over the world. 150 million people suffer from this disease, in Poland about 2 million. The disease on the basis of the onset and pathophysiology may be divided into type I and type II. Pathophysiologic changes include diabetic microangiopathy, macroangiopathy and neuropathy. The most common presentations in head and neck are otitis externa, hypoacusis, vertigo, disequilibrium, xerostomia, dysphagia, fungal and recurrent infections. The changes in nasal mucosa are not very well known. Only few papers concerned the problem. The main complaints of patients regarding the nose are xeromycteria, hyposmia and various degree of decreased patency of the nose. Chronic atrophic rhinitis, septal perforation, ulceration of nasal mucosa, alar necrosis, symptoms of staphylococcal or fungal infection can be found during otolaryngologic examination. The treatment in this group of patients should consist of systemic therapy of diabetes mellitus and on the other hand focal therapy with the use of a solution to moisten the nasal mucosa.

  13. Nasal and oral masses in a dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Esther; Mylonakis, Mathios E; Saridomichelakis, Manolis N; Polizopoulou, Zoe S; Psychogios, Vassilios; Koutinas, Alexander F

    2006-03-01

    A 5-year-old, intact male, stray dog was presented in poor body condition, with pallor, muzzle deformity, multiple oozing fistulas with grass awns, bilateral sanguinopurulent nasal discharge and a fleshy friable mass occupying part of the hard palate. A friable mass occupying both nasal cavities was found on rhinoscopy. The dog had moderate nonregenerative normochromic-microcytic anemia, thrombocytopenia, hyperglobulinemia, and hypoalbuminemia. Cytologic preparations of the nasal and oral masses contained a neoplastic population of round cells with intracytoplasmic and extracellular vacuoles. Leishmania amastigotes also were observed, in the cytoplasm of macrophages and, occasionally, within neoplastic cells. A diagnosis of transmissible venereal tumor and concurrent leishmaniosis was made. Treatment with vincristine and allopurinol resulted in complete resolution of clinical signs and disappearance of the masses. The presence of amastigotes in neoplastic TVT cells may suggest an alternative mode of transmission of canine leishmaniosis where these diseases co-exist.

  14. Inflammatory Myofibroblastic Tumor of the Nasal Septum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuri Okumura

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We report an extremely rare case of inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor of the posterior edge of the nasal septum. An 11-year-old boy presented with frequent epistaxis and nasal obstruction persisting for one year. Based on the clinical presentation and imaging studies, juvenile angiofibroma was suspected, but angiography suggested the possibility of another type of tumor. Transnasal endoscopic surgery found that the tumor protruded into the nasopharynx from the posterior end of the nasal septum. Histological examination identified spindle cells with immunoreaction for vimentin, smooth muscle actin, and anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK, but not for desmin and cytokeratin. This is a report of inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor mimicking juvenile angiofibroma. This case suggests that angiography is helpful in the differential diagnosis of epipharyngeal tumor in adolescence.

  15. Silver nasal sprays: misleading Internet marketing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaslin, Michael T; Rubin, Cory; Pribitkin, Edmund A

    2008-04-01

    Long-term use of silver-containing products is associated with a permanent bluish-gray discoloration of the skin known as argyria, but they remain widely available despite several measures by the FDA to regulate them. Several recent case reports have described the occurrence of argyria as a result of using these "natural" products. We used the five most common Internet search engines to find Web sites providing information on silver-containing nasal sprays. Of 49 Web sites analyzed, only 2 (4%) mentioned argyria as a possible complication, although 30 (61%) did caution against long-term use. Eight sites (16%) made specific claims about the health benefits of the product. All 49 sites (100%) provided direct or indirect links to buy silver-containing nasal sprays. We conclude that information about silver-containing nasal sprays on the Internet is misleading and inaccurate. Therefore, otolaryngologists should be aware of the misinformation their patients may be receiving about these products.

  16. Nasal budesonide offers superior symptom relief in perennial allergic rhinitis in comparison to nasal azelastine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, M A; Wade, A G; Ridout, S M; Cambell, L M

    1998-10-01

    Allergic rhinitis is usually treated with oral antihistamines or nasal steroids. Topically active nasal antihistamine is a new treatment modality for allergic rhinitis. The efficacy in comparison to well established topical treatment alternatives is not fully known. To compare the efficacy of intranasally administered azelastine to budesonide, at their respectively recommended dosage, on the symptoms of perennial rhinitis patients. A placebo-controlled, randomized, parallel group study was conducted to compare the efficacy and tolerability of intranasal budesonide aqueous suspension (256 microg once daily) with azelastine hydrochloride nasal spray (280 microg twice daily (560 microg/day)) and with placebo in the treatment of perennial allergic rhinitis. The 195 patients (with at least a 2-year history of perennial allergic rhinitis) recorded individual nasal symptom scores, the degree of symptom control achieved and any adverse events experienced over a 2-week baseline period and a 6-week treatment period. Following treatment, the reductions in mean combined and individual nasal symptom scores from baseline values were significantly greater in the budesonide group compared with the placebo group (P < .0001 for all variables except runny nose P = .01). In patients treated with budesonide, there were also significantly larger reductions from baseline values in combined nasal symptom scores (P < .01) and in scores for all individual nasal symptoms (P < or = .05) compared with those treated with azelastine. The reductions from baseline in both combined and individual nasal symptom scores did not differ between azelastine and placebo. The study medications were well tolerated, producing no unexpected or serious treatment-related adverse events. A once-daily dose of 256 microg of intranasal budesonide aqueous suspension is significantly more effective at relieving the symptoms of perennial allergic rhinitis compared with a twice daily dose of 280 microg of azelastine

  17. Nasal Carriage of 200 Patients with Nasal Bone Fracture in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Wook Lee

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundPathogens in the nasal cavity during nasal surgery could lead to a systemic infectious condition, such as bacteremia, nosocomial infection, or toxic shock syndrome. However, there is no research about the prevalence of nasal carriage in patients with nasal bone fracture.MethodsThis was a prospective, double-blind, randomized study about the rate of nasal carriage in 200 patients with nasal bone fracture in Korea. Nasal secretions were taken from both the middle nasal meatus and colonized. All analyses were carried out using SPSS software.ResultsPathogens were identified in 178 of the 200 cases. Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS were the most cultured bacteria in 127 (66.84% of the 190 total patients after excluding 10 cases of contaminated samples, and methicillin-resistant coagulase-negative staphylococci (MRCNS were found in 48 (25.26%. Staphylococcus aureus was the second most identified pathogen, found in 36 (18.95%, followed by 7 cases (3.68% of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA. The prevalence rate of MRSA in the females was higher than that in the males (RR=4.70; 95% CI, 1.09-20.18, but other demographic factors had no effect on the prevalence rate of MRSA and MRCNS.ConclusionsThe prevalence rate of these pathogens in patients with nasal bone fracture in Korea was similar to other reports. However, few studies have addressed the prevalence rate of CNS and MRCNS in accordance with risk factors or the change in prevalence according to specific prophylaxis against infectious complications. Additional research is needed on the potential connections between clinical factors and microbiological data.

  18. Viral respiratory infections and the maturation of nasal immune responses in infants: the VIGALL study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I.J. van Benten (Inesz)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractThe human body has an extensive defence mechanism (immune system) for coping with pathogens. It is regulated by signalling molecules called cytokines. Cytokines are produced by various cells of the immune system such as leucocytes (e.g. T-cells and macrophages) but also by nasal and

  19. Nasal aerodynamics protects brain and lung from inhaled dust in subterranean diggers, Ellobius talpinus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.P. Moshkin; D.V. Petrovski; A.E. Akulov; A.V. Romashchenko; L.A. Gerlinskaya; V.L. Ganimedov; M.I. Muchnaya; A.S. Sadovsky; I.V. Koptyug; A.A. Savelov; S. Yu Troitsky; Y.M. Moshkn; V.I. Bukhtiyarov; N.A. Kolchanov; R.Z. Sagdeev; V.M. Fomin

    2014-01-01

    textabstractInhalation of air-dispersed sub-micrometre and nano-sized particles presents a risk factor for animal and human health. Here, we show that nasal aerodynamics plays a pivotal role in the protection of the subterranean mole vole Ellobius talpinus from an increased exposure to

  20. Toxicity of formaldehyde and acrolein mixtures : in vitro studies using nasal epithelial cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cassee, F.R.; Stenhuis, W.S.; Groten, J.P.; Feron, V.J.

    1996-01-01

    In vitro studies with human and rat nasal epithelial cells were carried out to investigate the combined toxicity of formaldehyde and acrolein and the role of aldehyde dehydrogenases in this process. These studies showed that the toxic effect of mixtures of aldehydes was additive. In addition,

  1. Influence of deposition and spray pattern of nasal powders on insulin bioavailability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pringels, E; Callens, C; Vervaet, C; Dumont, F; Slegers, G; Foreman, P; Remon, J P

    2006-03-09

    The influence of the deposition pattern and spray characteristics of nasal powder formulations on the insulin bioavailability was investigated in rabbits. The formulations were prepared by freeze drying a dispersion containing a physical mixture of drum dried waxy maize starch (DDWM)/Carbopol 974P (90/10, w/w) or a spray-dried mixture of Amioca starch/Carbopol 974P (25/75, w/w). The deposition in the nasal cavity of rabbits and in a silicone human nose model after actuation of three nasal delivery devices (Monopowder, Pfeiffer and experimental system) was compared and related to the insulin bioavailability. Posterior deposition of the powder formulation in the nasal cavity lowered the insulin bioavailability. To study the spray pattern, the shape and cross-section of the emitted powder cloud were analysed. It was concluded that the powder bulk density of the formulation influenced the spray pattern. Consequently, powders of different bulk density were prepared by changing the solid fraction of the freeze dried dispersion and by changing the freezing rate during freeze drying. After nasal delivery of these powder formulations no influence of the powder bulk density and of the spray pattern on the insulin bioavailability was observed.

  2. Transnasal endoscopic resection of vascular leiomyomas of the nasal septum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hai-Hong Chen

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: The endoscope technique offers simple, rapid access to the nasal septum, and excellent visualization; it is a safe, minimally invasive, efficient procedure for removing benign nasal septum tumors that leaves no scar on the face.

  3. Nasal Osteogenic Chondrosarcoma: A Case Report | Adeniji | West ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    At emergency tracheostomy, examination under anaesthesia, meticulous nasal and nasopharyngeal tumour clearance was done. Histopathological examination of the mass revealed osteogenic chondrosarcoma. CONCLUSION: Though rare, osteogenic chondrosarcoma affects nasal bones. Clinically the tumour mimicks ...

  4. A study of Staphylococcus aureus nasal carriage, antibacterial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-12-30

    Dec 30, 2014 ... substantially enhancing nasal colonization, lung disease and abscess formation and promoting mechanisms of immune evasion.[7]. Antimicrobial ... nasal carriage, investigation of risk factors, and virulence traits among ...

  5. Nasal birth trauma: a review of appropriate treatment.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cashman, E C

    2012-02-01

    The aetiology of nasal deformity has frequently included birth trauma. There is no consensus in the literature as to whether nasal surgery, in the form of closed reduction, is indicated in neonates. The majority of studies in the literature that advocate intervention have inadequate followup periods and there is a paucity of evidence for the adverse effects of conservative management. This case highlights the therapeutic dilemma posed by such nasal injuries in the neonate and, to the best of the authors\\' knowledge, at the time of writing, represents the earliest reported case in the literature of nasal deformity in the neonate. The term nasal deformity is used to denote deformity of the nasal pyramid, soft tissue, and septum. Three main aspects of neonatal nasal deformity are addressed including, firstly, if nasal deformity at birth needs to be addressed, secondly, if left unaltered, what the long-term effects are and, finally, if intervention alters the normal course of midfacial development.

  6. Nasal prosthesis rehabilitation: a case report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jain, Sumeet; Maru, Kavita; Shukla, Jyotsana

    2011-01-01

    Facial defects resulting from neoplasm, congenital malformation or trauma can be restored with facial prosthesis using different materials and retention methods to achieve life-like look and function. A nasal prosthesis can re-establish esthetic form and anatomic contours for mid-facial defects...... the non-surgical rehabilitation, with polymethyl meth-acrylate resin, nasal prosthesis for a patient who received partial rhinectomy as a result of squamous cell carcinoma of the nose. The prosthesis was made to restore the esthetic appearance of the patient with a mechanical retained design using...

  7. A Rare Tumor of Nasal Cavity: Glomangiopericytoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aysegul Verim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Glomangiopericytoma is a rare vascular neoplasm characterized by a pattern of prominent perivascular growth. A 72-year-old woman was admitted to our clinic complaining of nasal obstruction, frequent epistaxis, and facial pain. A reddish tumor filling the left nasal cavity was observed on endoscopy and treated with endoscopic excision. Microscopically, closely packed cells interspersed with numerous thin-walled, branching staghorn vessels were seen. Glomangiopericytoma is categorized as a borderline low malignancy tumor by WHO classification. Long-term follow-up with systemic examination is necessary due to high risk of recurrence.

  8. [Nasal glial heterotopia: Clinical and morphological characteristics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bykova, V P; Bakhtin, A A; Polyakov, D P; Yunusov, A S; Daikhes, N A

    The paper describes a case of nasal glial heterotopia in a 10-month-old girl with a mixed (intranasal and subcutaneous) localization, which is accompanied by the divergence of the nasal bones. Histological examination supplemented by immunohistochemical reactions with antibodies to vimentin, S100 protein, neuron-specific enolase, as well as Ki-67 and smooth muscle actin confirmed the neural nature of the tumor. Fields of mature astrocytic glia including individual cells with neuronal differentiation were found among the fibrous and fibrovascular tissues. The paper provides a brief overview of the discussed pathology.

  9. Fluid mechanics based classification of the respiratory efficiency of several nasal cavities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lintermann, Andreas; Meinke, Matthias; Schröder, Wolfgang

    2013-11-01

    The flow in the human nasal cavity is of great importance to understand rhinologic pathologies like impaired respiration or heating capabilities, a diminished sense of taste and smell, and the presence of dry mucous membranes. To numerically analyze this flow problem a highly efficient and scalable Thermal Lattice-BGK (TLBGK) solver is used, which is very well suited for flows in intricate geometries. The generation of the computational mesh is completely automatic and highly parallelized such that it can be executed efficiently on High Performance Computers (HPCs). An evaluation of the functionality of nasal cavities is based on an analysis of pressure drop, secondary flow structures, wall-shear stress distributions, and temperature variations from the nostrils to the pharynx. The results of the flow fields of three completely different nasal cavities allow their classification into ability groups and support the a priori decision process on surgical interventions. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. STRATEGIES AND PROSPECTS OF NASAL DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEMS

    OpenAIRE

    Gannu Praveen Kumar

    2012-01-01

    The recent advancement of nasal drug delivery systems has increased enormously and is gaining significant importance. Intranasal therapy has been an accepted form of treatment in the Ayurvedic system of Indian Medicine. The non-invasive delivery of nasal drug delivery systems made to exploit for the development of successful treatment. The advantages, disadvantages, mechanism of action and application of nasal drug delivery system in local delivery, systematic delivery, nasal vaccines and CNS...

  11. The NOFLO trial: low-flow nasal prongs therapy in weaning nasal continuous positive airway pressure in preterm infants.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Donnell, Sinéad M

    2013-07-01

    To determine if low-flow nasal prongs therapy with room air, compared with no treatment, facilitates weaning from nasal continuous positive airway pressure (NCPAP) in very low birth weight (VLBW, birth weight <1500 g) infants.

  12. NORMAL NASAL GENE EXPRESSION LEVELS USING CDNA ARRAY TECHNOLOGY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Normal Nasal Gene Expression Levels Using cDNA Array Technology. The nasal epithelium is a target site for chemically-induced toxicity and carcinogenicity. To detect and analyze genetic events which contribute to nasal tumor development, we first defined the gene expressi...

  13. Nasal carriage of multi-drug resistant Staphylococcus aureus in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Nasal Staphylococcus aureus is a major source of community and hospital associated staphylococcal infections. This study determined the prevalence of nasal S. aureus isolates and investigated their antimicrobial resistance profile in healthy volunteers. Methods: Nasal specimens of healthy volunteers in ...

  14. Effects of retro-nasal aroma release on satiation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruijschop, R.; Boelrijk, A.E.M.; Ru, de J.A.; Graaf, de C.; Westerterp-Plantenga, M.

    2008-01-01

    It is suggested that the brain response of a food odour sensed retro-nasally is related to satiation. The extent of retro-nasal aroma release during consumption depends on the physical structure of a food, i.e. solid foods generate a longer, more pronounced retro-nasal aroma release than liquid

  15. High Frequency and Diversity of Antimicrobial Activities Produced by Nasal Staphylococcus Strains against Bacterial Competitors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Janek

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The human nasal microbiota is highly variable and dynamic often enclosing major pathogens such as Staphylococcus aureus. The potential roles of bacteriocins or other mechanisms allowing certain bacterial clones to prevail in this nutrient-poor habitat have hardly been studied. Of 89 nasal Staphylococcus isolates, unexpectedly, the vast majority (84% was found to produce antimicrobial substances in particular under habitat-specific stress conditions, such as iron limitation or exposure to hydrogen peroxide. Activity spectra were generally narrow but highly variable with activities against certain nasal members of the Actinobacteria, Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, or several groups of bacteria. Staphylococcus species and many other Firmicutes were insusceptible to most of the compounds. A representative bacteriocin was identified as a nukacin-related peptide whose inactivation reduced the capacity of the producer Staphylococcus epidermidis IVK45 to limit growth of other nasal bacteria. Of note, the bacteriocin genes were found on mobile genetic elements exhibiting signs of extensive horizontal gene transfer and rearrangements. Thus, continuously evolving bacteriocins appear to govern bacterial competition in the human nose and specific bacteriocins may become important agents for eradication of notorious opportunistic pathogens from human microbiota.

  16. Risk factors for nasal malignancies in German men: the South-German Nasal cancer study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greiser, Eberhard M; Greiser, Karin Halina; Ahrens, Wolfgang; Hagen, Rudolf; Lazszig, Roland; Maier, Heinz; Schick, Bernhard; Zenner, Hans Peter

    2012-11-06

    There are few studies of the effects of nasal snuff and environmental factors on the risk of nasal cancer. This study aimed to investigate the impact of using nasal snuff and of other risk factors on the risk of nasal cancer in German men. A population-based case-control study was conducted in the German Federal States of Bavaria and Baden-Württemberg. Tumor registries and ear, nose and throat departments provided access to patients born in 1926 or later. Telephone interviews were conducted with 427 cases (mean age 62.1 years) and 2.401 population-based controls (mean age 60.8 years). Ever-use of nasal snuff was associated with an odds ratio (OR) for nasal cancer of 1.45 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.88-2.38) in the total study population, whereas OR in smokers was 2.01 (95% CI 1.00-4.02) and in never smokers was 1.10 (95% CI 0.43-2.80). The OR in ever-smokers vs. never-smokers was 1.60 (95% CI 1.24-2.07), with an OR of 1.06 (95% CI 1.05-1.07) per pack-year smoked, and the risk was significantly decreased after quitting smoking. Exposure to hardwood dust for at least 1 year resulted in an OR of 2.33 (95% CI 1.40-3.91) in the total population, which was further increased in never-smokers (OR 4.89, 95% CI 1.92-12.49) in analyses stratified by smoking status. The OR for nasal cancer after exposure to organic solvents for at least 1 year was 1.53 (1.17-2.01). Ever-use of nasal sprays/nasal lavage for at least 1 month rendered an OR of 1.59 (1.04-2.44). The OR after use of insecticides in homes was 1.48 (95% CI 1.04-2.11). Smoking and exposure to hardwood dust were confirmed as risk factors for nasal carcinoma. There is evidence that exposure to organic solvents, and in-house use of insecticides could represent novel risk factors. Exposure to asbestos and use of nasal snuff were risk factors in smokers only.

  17. High Flow Nasal Cannulae in preterm infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Ciuffini

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Despite of improved survival of premature infants, the incidence of long term pulmonary complications, mostly associated with ventilation-induced lung injury, remains high. Non invasive ventilation (NIV is able to reduce the adverse effects of mechanical ventilation. Although nasal continuous positive airway pressure (NCPAP is an effective mode of NIV, traumatic nasal complications and intolerance of the nasal interface are common. Recently high flow nasal cannula (HFNC is emerging as an efficient, better tolerated form of NIV, allowing better access to the baby’s face, which may improve nursing, feeding and bonding. The aim of this review is to discuss the available evidence of effectiveness and safety of HFNC in preterm newborns with respiratory distress syndrome (RDS. It is known that distending pressure generated by HFNC increases with increasing flow rate and decreasing infant size and varies according to the amount of leaks by nose and mouth. The effects of HFNC on lung mechanics, its clinical efficacy and safety are still insufficiently investigated. In conclusion, there is a growing evidence of the feasibility of HFNC as an alternative mode of NIV. However, further larger randomized trials are required, before being able to recommend HFNC in the treatment of moderate respiratory distress of preterm infants.

  18. Fracture of nasal bones: an epidemiologic analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fornazieri, Marco Aurélio

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: One of the most common diseases in the otorhinolaryngology emergency room is the nasal bones fracture. The peak of incidence is between 15 and 25 years of age. Generally men are more affected. Objective: To analyze the age, gender and the most frequent causes of nasal fractures evaluated in the otorhinolaryngology service of a tertiary hospital. Method: Retrospective study of records of the patients with nasal fracture diagnosis treated between July 1st, 2003 and July 1st, 2007. Results: 167 patients with nasal bones fracture were included in the study, including 134 men and 33 women. Violence was the most frequent cause, with 55 cases (32.9%, followed by fall from their own height, with 33 cases (19.7%, and motorcycle accident, 14 cases (8.4%. The most common age was between 21 and 39 years (46.1%. Conclusion: Male, age between 21 and 39 years and violence are the most common characteristics found in our service. Motorcycle accidents also play an important role in this affection.

  19. Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nasal Vestibule

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horsmans, J D; Godballe, C; Jørgensen, K E

    1999-01-01

    From 1978 to 1992, 66 patients (32 women and 34 men) were treated for carcinoma of the nasal vestibule at Odense University Hospital. The treatment was radiotherapy (41 patients), surgery (13 patients) or a combination of the two modalities (12 patients). Twenty-one patients (32%) developed...

  20. Tumor relapse present in oncologic nasal repair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galvez Chavez, Julio Cesar; Sanchez Wals, Lenia; Monzon Fernandez, Abel Nicolas; Morales Tirado, Roxana

    2009-01-01

    Tumor relapse is one of the more fearsome complications of the oncologic course and also to obscure the life prognosis, causing the loss of many reconstructions and of exhausting the repairing surgical possibilities. The aim of this study was to determine the relapse frequency, the repercussion on the repair and the subsequent medical course of patients operated on malign nasal tumors

  1. Nasal symptoms following endoscopic transsphenoidal pituitary surgery: assessment using the General Nasal Patient Inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yi Yuen; Srirathan, Vinothan; Tirr, Erica; Kearney, Tara; Gnanalingham, Kanna K

    2011-04-01

    The endoscopic approach for pituitary tumors is a recent innovation and is said to reduce the nasal trauma associated with transnasal transsphenoidal surgery. The authors assessed the temporal changes in the rhinological symptoms following endoscopic transsphenoidal surgery for pituitary lesions, using the General Nasal Patient Inventory (GNPI). The GNPI was administered to 88 consecutive patients undergoing endoscopic transsphenoidal surgery at 3 time points (presurgery, 3-6 months postsurgery, and at final follow-up). The total GNPI score and the scores for the individual GNPI questions were calculated and differences between groups were assessed once before surgery, several months after surgery, and at final follow-up. Of a maximum possible score of 135, the mean GNPI score at 3-6 months postsurgery was only 12.9 ± 12 and was not significantly different from the preoperative score (10.4 ± 13) or final follow-up score (10.3 ± 10). Patients with functioning tumors had higher GNPI scores than those with nonfunctioning tumors for each of these time points (p surgery, with partial recovery (nasal sores and bleeding) or complete recovery (nasal blockage, painful sinuses, and unpleasant nasal smell) by final follow-up (p transsphenoidal surgery is a well-tolerated minimally invasive procedure for pituitary fossa lesions. Overall patient-assessed nasal symptoms do not change, but some individual symptoms may show a mild worsening or overall improvement.

  2. New CFD tools to evaluate nasal airflow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgos, M A; Sanmiguel-Rojas, E; Del Pino, C; Sevilla-García, M A; Esteban-Ortega, F

    2017-08-01

    Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is a mathematical tool to analyse airflow. As currently CFD is not a usual tool for rhinologists, a group of engineers in collaboration with experts in Rhinology have developed a very intuitive CFD software. The program MECOMLAND ® only required snapshots from the patient's cross-sectional (tomographic) images, being the output those results originated by CFD, such as airflow distributions, velocity profiles, pressure, temperature, or wall shear stress. This is useful complementary information to cover diagnosis, prognosis, or follow-up of nasal pathologies based on quantitative magnitudes linked to airflow. In addition, the user-friendly environment NOSELAND ® helps the medical assessment significantly in the post-processing phase with dynamic reports using a 3D endoscopic view. Specialists in Rhinology have been asked for a more intuitive, simple, powerful CFD software to offer more quality and precision in their work to evaluate the nasal airflow. We present MECOMLAND ® and NOSELAND ® which have all the expected characteristics to fulfil this demand and offer a proper assessment with the maximum of quality plus safety for the patient. These programs represent a non-invasive, low-cost (as the CT scan is already performed in every patient) alternative for the functional study of the difficult rhinologic case. To validate the software, we studied two groups of patients from the Ear Nose Throat clinic, a first group with normal noses and a second group presenting septal deviations. Wall shear stresses are lower in the cases of normal noses in comparison with those for septal deviation. Besides, velocity field distributions, pressure drop between nasopharynx and the ambient, and flow rates in each nostril were different among the nasal cavities in the two groups. These software modules open up a promising future to simulate the nasal airflow behaviour in virtual surgery intervention scenarios under different pressure or

  3. Acoustic Analysis of Nasal Vowels in Monguor Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hanbin

    2017-09-01

    The purpose of the study is to analyze the spectrum characteristics and acoustic features for the nasal vowels [ɑ˜] and [ɔ˜] in Monguor language. On the base of acoustic parameter database of the Monguor speech, the study finds out that there are five main zero-pole pairs appearing for the nasal vowel [ɔ˜] and two zero-pole pairs appear for the nasal vowel [ɔ˜]. The results of regression analysis demonstrate that the duration of the nasal vowel [ɔ˜] or the nasal vowel [ɔ˜] can be predicted by its F1, F2 and F3 respectively.

  4. Cell proliferation in rat nasal respiratory epithelium following three months exposure to formaldehyde gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monticello, T.M.; Morgan, K.T.

    1990-01-01

    Formaldehyde (HCHO), a ubiquitous chemical and rat nasal carcinogen, enhances cell proliferation in rat, monkey, and xenotransplanted human respiratory epithelium following short-term exposure. The present studies were designed to evaluate cell proliferation in relation to tumor induction in rat nasal respiratory epithelium following subchronic HCHO exposure. Male F-344 rats were whole-body exposed to either 0, 0.7, 2, 6, 10, or 15 ppm HCHO, for wither 4 d (6hr/d), 6 wks (5d/wk) or 3 months. Animals were labeled with tritiated thymidine prior to euthanasia. Nasal sections were processed for autoradiography and cell proliferation data was expressed as unit length labeling indices (ULLI). HCHO-induced lesions and increases in cell proliferation occurred in specific regions of the nose, primarily the wall of the lateral meatus and nasal septum of the anterior nasal cavity. Following 4 d exposure, significant elevations in cell proliferation were observed only in the 6, 10 and 15 ppm groups (16-, 18-, and 20-fold increase over control, respectively). Increases in ULLI were also present in the 6, 10 and 15 ppm groups after 6 wks of exposure (12-, 35-, and 40-fold increase over control). However, after 3 months exposure, elevations in ULLI were present only in the 10 and 15 ppm groups (9- and 14-fold increase over controls). These results demonstrate that (1) low levels of HCHO (0.7 and 2 ppm) do not increase cell proliferation in rat nasal respiratory epithelium; (2) 6 ppm HCHO induces transient increases in cell proliferation; and (3) clearly carcinogenic concentrations of HCHO (10 and 15 ppm) cause sustained elevations in cell proliferation which may play an important role in HCHO-induced carcinogenesis

  5. Cultivate Primary Nasal Epithelial Cells from Children and Reprogram into Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulm, Ashley; Mayhew, Christopher N; Debley, Jason; Khurana Hershey, Gurjit K; Ji, Hong

    2016-03-10

    Nasal epithelial cells (NECs) are the part of the airways that respond to air pollutants and are the first cells infected with respiratory viruses. They are also involved in many airway diseases through their innate immune response and interaction with immune and airway stromal cells. NECs are of particular interest for studies in children due to their accessibility during clinical visits. Human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) have been generated from multiple cell types and are a powerful tool for modeling human development and disease, as well as for their potential applications in regenerative medicine. This is the first protocol to lay out methods for successful generation of iPSCs from NECs derived from pediatric participants for research purposes. It describes how to obtain nasal epithelial cells from children, how to generate primary NEC cultures from these samples, and how to reprogram primary NECs into well-characterized iPSCs. Nasal mucosa samples are useful in epidemiological studies related to the effects of air pollution in children, and provide an important tool for studying airway disease. Primary nasal cells and iPSCs derived from them can be a tool for providing unlimited material for patient-specific research in diverse areas of airway epithelial biology, including asthma and COPD research.

  6. Linking Suspension Nasal Spray Drug Deposition Patterns to Pharmacokinetic Profiles: A Proof of Concept Study using Computational Fluid Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rygg, Alex; Hindle, Michael; Longest, P. Worth

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study is to link regional nasal spray deposition patterns of suspension formulations, predicted with computational fluid dynamics (CFD), to in vivo human pharmacokinetic (PK) plasma concentration profiles. This is accomplished through the use of CFD simulations coupled with compartmental PK modeling. Results showed a rapid initial rise in plasma concentration that is due to the absorption of drug particles deposited in the nasal middle passages, followed by a slower increase in plasma concentration that is governed by the transport of drug particles from the nasal vestibule to the middle passages. Although drug deposition locations in the nasal cavity had a significant effect on the shape of the concentration profile, the absolute bioavailability remained constant provided that all of the drug remained in the nose over the course of the simulation. Loss of drug through the nostrils even after long time periods resulted in a significant decrease in bioavailability and increased variability. The results of this study quantify how differences in nasal drug deposition affect transient plasma concentrations and overall bioavailability. These findings are potentially useful for establishing bioequivalence for nasal spray devices and reducing the burden of in vitro testing, pharmacodynamics and clinical studies. PMID:27238495

  7. Measurement with nasal scintigraphy of nasal mucociliary clearance in normal man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murai, Sumiko

    1989-01-01

    Nasal mucociliary function was evaluated by nasal scintigraphy in normal subjects. A microdrop of HSA or saline labelled with 99m Tc was dripped into the middle part of each middle meatus in the nasal cavity and its clearance was observed by scinticamera. The accumulated concentration of RI was determined every 30 seconds for 10 minutes. The changes of accumulated concentration were studied, and a curve of decreasing RI-counts was obtained, with the 'clearance rate' defined as 100% for the count at the initial 30 seconds and 'half time' as the time when radioactivity was reduced to one half the initial count. Nasal resistance was measured by rhinomanometry with the oscillation method. In nonsmokers, 10μl of saline was cleared (78.0±10.4%) significantly faster than 10μl of HSA (59.9±24.6%), and there was no significant difference in the clearance between 10μl and 5μl of HSA (55.9±27.7%). In smakers, the mucociliary clearance of 10μl of HSA and saline was significantly lower than in nonsmokers. The clearance of 10μl of HSA reflects a pathological state much better than that of 5μl. In nonsmokers, there is a significant negative correlation between nasal resistance and clearance rate, suggesting that the more patent the nose, the faster the mucociliary clearance. When both nostrils were closed, the clearance rate was significantly depressed. When one nostril was closed, there was no significant effect on clearance. Nasal resistance was decreased by exercise with a bicycle ergometer. Nasal mucociliary clearance was slightly decreased after exercise but not significantly so. (J.P.N.)

  8. Nasal Carriage of 200 Patients with Nasal Bone Fracture in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Wook Lee

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background Pathogens in the nasal cavity during nasal surgery could lead to a systemicinfectious condition, such as bacteremia, nosocomial infection, or toxic shock syndrome.However, there is no research about the prevalence of nasal carriage in patients with nasalbone fracture.Methods This was a prospective, double-blind, randomized study about the rate of nasalcarriage in 200 patients with nasal bone fracture in Korea. Nasal secretions were taken fromboth the middle nasal meatus and colonized. All analyses were carried out using SPSS software.Results Pathogens were identified in 178 of the 200 cases. Coagulase-negative staphylococci(CNS were the most cultured bacteria in 127 (66.84% of the 190 total patients after excluding10 cases of contaminated samples, and methicillin-resistant coagulase-negative staphylococci(MRCNS were found in 48 (25.26%. Staphylococcus aureus was the second mostidentified pathogen, found in 36 (18.95%, followed by 7 cases (3.68% of methicillin-resistantStaphylococcus aureus (MRSA. The prevalence rate of MRSA in the females was higher thanthat in the males (RR=4.70; 95% CI, 1.09-20.18, but other demographic factors had no effecton the prevalence rate of MRSA and MRCNS.Conclusions The prevalence rate of these pathogens in patients with nasal bone fracture inKorea was similar to other reports. However, few studies have addressed the prevalence rateof CNS and MRCNS in accordance with risk factors or the change in prevalence according tospecific prophylaxis against infectious complications. Additional research is needed on thepotential connections between clinical factors and microbiological data.

  9. Nasal Lipopolysaccharide Challenge and Cytokine Measurement Reflects Innate Mucosal Immune Responsiveness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaideep Dhariwal

    as innate immune stimulus in a human nasal challenge model, with serial sampling of nasal mucosal lining fluid (MLF by nasosorption using a synthetic absorptive matrix (SAM, and nasal curettage of mucosal cells. A dose response could be demonstrated in terms of levels of IL-1β, IL-6, CXCL8 and CCL3 in MLF, as well as ICAM-1 mRNA in nasal curettage specimens, and levels of neutrophils in nasal lavage. Depending on higher baseline levels of inflammation, there were occasional magnified innate inflammatory responses to LPS.Clinical Trials.gov NCT02284074.

  10. Adenoma pleomórfico de septo nasal: relato de caso Pleomorphic adenoma of the nasal septum: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauren P. Rocha

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available As neoplasias nasais são bastante raras. Os tumores mais observados na cavidade nasal são papilomas epiteliais, angiomas, carcinoma de células transicionais, carcinoma pavimentoso e adenocarcinoma. O adenoma pleomórfico pertence ao grupo de tumores que aparecem com menor freqüência na fossa nasal, e é o tumor benigno glandular mais comum originado na cabeça e pescoço. A apresentação clínica típica dos pacientes com adenoma pleomórfico do septo nasal é de obstrução nasal unilateral, epistaxe e massa indolor na cavidade nasal. Em vista da raridade da apresentação clínica do adenoma pleomórfico nesta localização, os autores descrevem um caso de adenoma pleomórfico nasal em um paciente do sexo masculino, com 69 anos de idade, onde relatam os achados clínicos, critérios diagnósticos, tratamento, prognóstico e revisão da literatura.Nasal tumours are very rare. The neoplasms most frequently seen in the nasal cavity are epithelial papillomas, angiomas, transitional cells carcinoma, pavement carcinoma and adenocarcinoma. The pleomorphic adenoma belongs to the group of tumours less commonly observed in the nasal cavity, and is the most common head and neck benign glandular tumour. The typical clinical presentation of the nasal pleomorphic adenoma is of unilateral nasal obstruction, epistaxis and a painless mass in the nasal cavity. The authors reported an adenoma pleomorphic case that highlights itself by its unusual nasal presentation in the nasal septum of a 45-year-old male patient who was submitted to surgical treatment, and discuss the clinical findings, diagnostic criteria, treatment, prognosis and literature review.

  11. The effect of topical benzamil and amiloride on nasal potential difference in cystic fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, H C; Knox, A J

    1999-09-01

    The electrochemical defect in the bronchial epithelium in cystic fibrosis (CF) consists of defective chloride secretion and excessive sodium reabsorption. The sodium channel blocker, amiloride, has been shown to reversibly correct the sodium reabsorption in CF subjects, but long term studies of amiloride have been disappointing due to its short duration of action. Benzamil, a benzyl substituted amiloride analogue, has a longer duration of action than amiloride in cultured human nasal epithelium. The results of the first randomized, placebo controlled, double blind, crossover study are reported here comparing the effects of benzamil and amiloride on nasal potential difference (nasal PD) in CF. Ten adults with CF attended on three occasions. At each visit baseline nasal PD was recorded, the drug (amiloride 1 x 10(-3) M, benzamil 1.7 x 10(-3) M, or 0.9% sodium chloride) was administered topically via a nasal spray, and nasal PD was measured at 15, 30 min, 1, 2, 4 and 8 h. Results were expressed as maximum change in nasal PD from baseline (PDmax), time for PDmax to return to 50% of baseline (t0.5), and the area under the curve (AUC). PDmax values for benzamil (20.6+/-0.9 mV) and amiloride (20.3+/-1.6 mV), were similar. The duration of effect was much longer for benzamil as measured as either AUC or t0.5 AUC values were 11.8+/-1.6 mV for benzamil, 2.8+/-0.4 mV for amiloride and 0.6+/-0.4 mV for placebo. The AUC value for benzamil was significantly greater than amiloride (95% confidence interval (CI) for the difference 5.3-12.7 mV, p<0.0001). t0.5 values were 4.3+/-0.7 h for benzamil and 0.6+/-0.1 h for amiloride (95% CI for the difference 2.0-5.3 h, p<0.001). It is concluded that benzamil has a similar maximal effect to amiloride but a more prolonged duration of action on nasal potential difference in cystic fibrosis. Benzamil may be a useful sodium channel blocker for the long-term treatment of the biochemical defect in the lungs of patients with cystic fibrosis.

  12. Fundus imaging with a nasal endoscope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Mahesh Shanmugam

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Wide field fundus imaging is needed to diagnose, treat, and follow-up patients with retinal pathology. This is more applicable for pediatric patients as repeated evaluation is a challenge. The presently available imaging machines though provide high definition images, but carry the obvious disadvantages of either being costly or bulky or sometimes both, which limits its usage only to large centers. We hereby report a technique of fundus imaging using a nasal endoscope coupled with viscoelastic. A regular nasal endoscope with viscoelastic coupling was placed on the cornea to image the fundus of infants under general anesthesia. Wide angle fundus images of various fundus pathologies in infants could be obtained easily with readily available instruments and without the much financial investment for the institutes.

  13. Augmentation Rhinoplasty in Cleft Lip Nasal Deformity: Preliminary Patients’ Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William H. C. Tiong

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The correction of cleft lip nasal deformity is challenging and there have been numerous methods described in the literature with little demonstrated technical superiority of one over another. The common clinical issues associated with cleft lip nasal deformity are its lack of symmetry, alar collapse on the affected side, obtuse nasal labial angle, short nasal length, loss of tip definition, and altered columella show among others. We carried out augmentation of cleft lip rhinoplasties with rib graft in 16 patients over the one-year study period. Each of these patients was reviewed and given questionnaire before and after surgery to evaluate their response on the outcome to the approach. Preoperatively, nasal asymmetry is the main complaint (14/16, 87.5% among our series of patients. Postoperatively, 12 (75% patients out of the 16 reported significant improvement in their nasal symmetry with the other four marginal. All patients reported excellent nasal projection postoperatively with good nasal tip definition. Our series of patients reported overall good satisfaction outcome and will recommend this procedure to other patients with cleft lip nasal deformity. In conclusion, augmentation of cleft lip rhinoplasty can be employed to achieve perceivable and satisfactory outcome in patients with cleft lip nasal deformity.

  14. Plasmocitoma extramedular nasal en un perro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Giraldo M.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Se describe un caso de plasmocitoma nasal en un canino, macho entero, de raza Akita de 30 Kg de peso y veintiún meses de edad, con historia de epistaxis unilateral crónica. Se practicó examen clínico y biopsia de la neoplasia visible en la cavidad nasal izquierda. La ubicación y extensión del tumor fue determinada mediante tomografía computarizada de cabeza y cuello. Se realizaron análisis histopatológico e inmunohistoquímico (IHQ del tejido tumoral. La tomografía computarizada evidenció una masa con densidad de tejido blando de 10 cm de longitud x 3.5 cm de diámetro y escasa captación de medio de contraste, que comprometía en su totalidad la cavidad nasal derecha y parte de la porción posterior de la coana izquierda. El análisis histopatológico reveló numerosas células redondas pleomórficas con poco citoplasma, rodeadas por trama escasa de tejido conectivo y bajo índice mitótico. En el examen IHQ la muestra fue negativa a los antígenos CD3 y CD20 para linfocitos T y B, respectivamente. Los hallazgos clínicos y de la tomografía computarizada, así como los resultados del análisis histopatológico del tejido tumoral, fueron compatibles con un plasmocitoma extramedular nasal de bajo grado de malignidad.

  15. SEPTOPLASTY WITH AND WITHOUT NASAL PACKING: A COMPARATIVE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitta

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Septoplasty is one of the most commonly performed surgeries in rhinology to relieve nasal obstruction of patients with distortion in the midline cartilage or septum of the nose to relieve nasal obstruction of patient and findings consistent with nasal endoscopy. The anterior nasal packing routinely done following septoplasty is usually conventional and not evidence based. The purpose of nasal packing is to obtain haemostasis, enhance opposition of septal flaps, avoid septal haematoma formation, close the dead space, avoid synechiae formation, provide support to septal cartilage and prevent its displacement. OBJECTIVE This study intends to evaluate the effects of nasal packing on surgical success and related complications in septoplasty. MATERIALS AND METHODS The present clinical prospective and randomised study was carried out on patients attending Otorhinolaryngology Department of Santhiram Medical College & General Hospital between March 2012 and March 2015. Patients undergoing septoplasty were randomised either to receive anterior nasal packing or to not receive nasal packing postoperatively. RESULTS Levels of pain experienced by patients with nasal packing postoperatively during the initial 24 hours postoperatively and during the removal of the pack were significantly more. Post-operative headache, epiphora, swallowing discomfort and sleep disturbance were more in patients with nasal packing and statistically (p.05. Septal haematoma, adhesions and local infections in both groups were statistically insignificant (p>.05. CONCLUSION Septoplasty enhances the standard of living of patients with septal deviation and nasal obstruction. Our study results suggest that nasal packing after septoplasty is not obligatory. Nasal packing causes considerably more pain and complications, and it should be reserved only for those who have bleeding predisposition.

  16. Deformation of nasal septal cartilage during mastication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Dayeh, Ayman A; Rafferty, Katherine L; Egbert, Mark; Herring, Susan W

    2009-10-01

    The cartilaginous nasal septum plays a major role in structural integrity and growth of the face, but its internal location has made physiologic study difficult. By surgically implanting transducers in 10 miniature pigs (Sus scrofa), we recorded in vivo strains generated in the nasal septum during mastication and masseter stimulation. The goals were (1) to determine whether the cartilage should be considered as a vertical strut supporting the nasal cavity and preventing its collapse, or as a damper of stresses generated during mastication and (2) to shed light on the overall pattern of snout deformation during mastication. Strains were recorded simultaneously at the septo-ethmoid junction and nasofrontal suture during mastication. A third location in the anterior part of the cartilage was added during masseter stimulation and manipulation. Contraction of jaw closing muscles during mastication was accompanied by anteroposterior compressive strains (around -1,000 muepsilon) in the septo-ethmoid junction. Both the orientation and the magnitude of the strain suggest that the septum does not act as a vertical strut but may act in absorbing loads generated during mastication. The results from masseter stimulation and manipulation further suggest that the masticatory strain pattern arises from a combination of dorsal bending and/or shearing and anteroposterior compression of the snout. 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  17. Nasal encephalocele: endoscopic excision with anesthetic consideration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Aziz, Mosaad; El-Bosraty, Hussam; Qotb, Mohamed; El-Hamamsy, Mostafa; El-Sonbaty, Mohamed; Abdel-Badie, Hazem; Zynabdeen, Mustapha

    2010-08-01

    Nasal encephalocele may presents as a nasal mass, its treatment is surgical and it should be done early in life. When removal is indicated, there are multiple surgical approaches; including lateral rhinotomy, a transnasal approach and a coronal flap approach. However, the treatment of a basal intranasal encephalocele using transnasal endoscopic approach could obviates the possible morbidity associated with other approaches. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of endoscopic removal of intranasal encephalocele, also to document the role of anesthetist in the operative and postoperative periods. Nine cases with nasal encephalocele were included in this study; CT and/or MRI were used in their examination. The lesions were removed via transnasal endoscopic approach. Preoperative evaluation, intervention and postoperative follow-up were presented with discussion of anesthesia used for those children. The lesions of all patients were removed successfully with no recurrence through the follow-up period of at least 21 months. No cases showed morbidity or mortality intra- or post-operatively. Endoscopic excision of intranasal encephalocele is an effective method with high success rate. Anesthetist plays an important role in the operative and postoperative period, even during the endoscopic follow up; sedation of the children is usually needed. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Nasal nitric oxide in unilateral sinus disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Hsiang Fu

    Full Text Available Unilateral sinus disease (USD can sometimes be difficult to accurately diagnose before surgery. The application of nasal nitric oxide (nNO for USD diagnosis and its surgical outcome in USD has not been reported in the literature. We prospectively enrolled sixty-six USD patients who underwent endoscopic sinus surgery for fungal rhinosinusitis (n = 19, chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS without nasal polyps (n = 13, CRS with nasal polyps (n = 12 and sinonasal mass lesions (n = 22. nNO levels were measured preoperatively and at three and six months postoperatively. Correlations between nNO levels and potential clinical parameters, type of disease, disease severity, and disease-related quality of life (QOL were assessed. Unlike bilateral CRS, in USD, nNO levels did not correlate with disease severity or postoperative QOL improvements. Except for fungus group, there were no differences in nNO levels between lesion and non-lesion sides in all the other groups. nNO levels on both sides were significantly elevated six months postoperatively in all groups. Fungal rhinosinusitis patients had the lowest preoperative nNO levels, and a cutoff of 239.3 ppb had the best sensitivity (79.0% and specificity (87.2% for preoperative diagnosis. While preoperative nNO levels cannot serve as an alternative marker for disease severity of USD, they were lower in fungal rhinosinusitis patients than in other USD patients and may be useful for more accurate diagnosis prior to surgery.

  19. Exhaled and nasal nitric oxide in chronic rhinosinusitis patients with nasal polyps in primary care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frendø, M; Håkansson, K; Schwer, S

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps (CRSwNP) is a common inflammatory disorder associated with lower airway disease. However, only few studies of CRSwNP from outside secondary/tertiary care centres have been published. We recently reported an asthma frequency of 44% and 65...... patients. Compared with controls, a high level of exhaled NO was significantly more prevalent in CRSwNP irrespective of asthma-status. Nasal NO was significantly lower in patients with CRSwNP compared with controls. CONCLUSION: Subclinical eosinophilic lower airway inflammation is common in CRSwNP......% in primary and secondary care patients respectively. Therefore, we hypothesise that inflammation of the lower airways could be present in all CRSwNP patients, even without asthma. Here, we assessed the degree of lower and upper airway inflammation using exhaled and nasal nitric oxide (NO) in primary care...

  20. Characterization of nasal potential difference in cftr knockout and F508del-CFTR mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilie Lyne Saussereau

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Treatments designed to correct cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR defects must first be evaluated in preclinical experiments in the mouse model of cystic fibrosis (CF. Mice nasal mucosa mimics the bioelectric defect seen in humans. The use of nasal potential difference (V(TE to assess ionic transport is a powerful test evaluating the restoration of CFTR function. Nasal V(TE in CF mice must be well characterized for correct interpretation. METHODS: We performed V(TE measurements in large-scale studies of two mouse models of CF--B6;129 cftr knockout and FVB F508del-CFTR--and their respective wild-type (WT littermates. We assessed the repeatability of the test for cftr knockout mice and defined cutoff points distinguishing between WT and F508del-CFTR mice. RESULTS: We determined the typical V(TE values for CF and WT mice and demonstrated the existence of residual CFTR activity in F508del-CFTR mice. We characterized intra-animal variability in B6;129 mice and defined the cutoff points for F508del-CFTR chloride secretion rescue. Hyperpolarization of more than -2.15 mV after perfusion with a low-concentration Cl(- solution was considered to indicate a normal response. CONCLUSIONS: These data will make it possible to interpret changes in nasal V(TE in mouse models of CF, in future preclinical studies.

  1. Kartagener's syndrome presented with nasal obstruction: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suna Asilsoy

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The nasal polyposis is a chronic inflammatory process of the nasal mucosa. Although it is rare in children, there may be also association with cystic fibrosis and primary ciliary dyskinesia. About 50% of primary ciliary dyskinesia patients develop situs inversus and it is known as Kartagener's syndrome. The Kartagener's sydrome is a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by sinusitis, bronchiectasis, situs inversus. Clinically, patients present to the otolaryngologist with nasal obstruction. We as pediatricians, should consider nasal polyposis as a rare cause of nasal obstruction in children. In the presence of recurrent upper and lower respiratory tract infections accompanying nasal polyposis, Kartagener's syndrome must be kept in mind as a rare reason. [Cukurova Med J 2014; 39(4.000: 942-945

  2. Nasal granuloma gravidarum presenting with recurrent massive epistaxis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tantinikorn, Weerachai; Uiprasertkul, Mongkol; Assanasen, Paraya

    2003-05-01

    Nasal granuloma gravidarum is a rare condition associated with pregnancy and minor trauma. This condition presents with a nasal mass with varying degree of bleeding and obstruction. We report a patient with nasal granuloma gravidarum in the third trimester of pregnancy. Surgical excision is the definite treatment for this condition in order to stop the vicious cycle of recurrent massive bleeding. Possible etiology, clinical features and management are discussed.

  3. Specificity and sensitivity assessment of selected nasal provocation testing techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edyta Krzych-Fałta

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Nasal provocation testing involves an allergen-specific local reaction of the nasal mucosa to the administered allergen. Aim: To determine the most objective nasal occlusion assessment technique that could be used in nasal provocation testing. Material and methods : A total of 60 subjects, including 30 patients diagnosed with allergy to common environmental allergens and 30 healthy subjects were enrolled into the study. The method used in the study was a nasal provocation test with an allergen, with a standard dose of a control solution and an allergen (5,000 SBU/ml administered using a calibrated atomizer into both nostrils at room temperature. Early-phase nasal mucosa response in the early phase of the allergic reaction was assessed via acoustic rhinometry, optical rhinometry, nitric oxide in nasal air, and tryptase levels in the nasal lavage fluid. Results : In estimating the homogeneity of the average values, the Levene’s test was used and receiver operating characteristic curves were plotted for all the methods used for assessing the nasal provocation test with an allergen. Statistically significant results were defined for p < 0.05. Of all the objective assessment techniques, the most sensitive and characteristic ones were the optical rhinometry techniques (specificity = 1, sensitivity = 1, AUC = 1, PPV = 1, NPV = 1. Conclusions : The techniques used showed significant differences between the group of patients with allergic rhinitis and the control group. Of all the objective assessment techniques, those most sensitive and characteristic were the optical rhinometry.

  4. Nasal septal angiofibroma, a subclass of extranasopharyngeal angiofibroma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Rodriguez, Laura; Rudman, Kelli; Cogbill, Christopher H; Loehrl, Todd; Poetker, David M

    2012-01-01

    Extranasopharyngeal angiofibromas (ENA) arising from the nasal septum or nasal septal angiofibromas are extremely rare; only 13 such cases have been reported in the international literature. Our objective is to describe the presentation, workup, and surgical management of these lesions. Case reports were done. The setting was a tertiary care referral center and the Veterans Affairs Medical Center. PATIENTS, INTERVENTIONS, AND RESULTS: We present 2 cases of extranasopharyngeal angiofibroma occurring on the nasal septum. In this report, we discuss the occurrence, the histopathologic findings, and the treatment of nasal septal angiofibroma. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Patient experience with mupirocin or povidone-iodine nasal decolonization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maslow, Jed; Hutzler, Lorraine; Cuff, Germaine; Rosenberg, Andrew; Phillips, Michael; Bosco, Joseph

    2014-06-01

    Led by the federal government, the payers of health care are enacting policies designed to base provider reimbursement on the quality of care they render. This study evaluated and compared patient experiences and satisfaction with nasal decolonization with either nasal povidone-iodine (PI) or nasal mupirocin ointment (MO). A total of 1903 patients were randomized to undergo preoperative nasal decolonization with either nasal MO or PI solution. All randomized patients were also given 2% chlorhexidine gluconate topical wipes. Patients were interviewed prior to discharge to assess adverse events and patient experience with their assigned preoperative antiseptic protocol. Of the 1903 randomized patients, 1679 (88.1%) were interviewed prior to discharge. Of patients receiving PI, 3.4% reported an unpleasant or very unpleasant experience, compared with 38.8% of those using nasal MO (P.05). Being recruited as an active participant in surgical site infection prevention was a positive experience for 87.2% of MO patients and 86.3% of PI patients (P=.652). Those assigned to receive PI solution preoperatively reported significantly fewer adverse events than the nasal MO group (P<.01). Preoperative nasal decolonization with either nasal PI or MO was considered somewhat or very helpful by more than two-thirds of patients. Copyright 2014, SLACK Incorporated.

  6. Nasal erosion as an uncommon sign of child abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culotta, Paige A; Isaac, Reena; Sarpong, Kwabena; Chandy, Binoy; Cruz, Andrea; Donaruma-Kwoh, Marcella

    2018-05-01

    While various forms of facial trauma, bruising, burns, and fractures are frequently seen in cases of child abuse, purposeful nasal erosion has rarely been identified as a form of abusive injury. Progressive destruction of nasal tissue in children provokes a wide differential diagnosis crossing multiple subspecialties: infectious, primary immunodeficiencies, inflammatory conditions, malignancy, and genetic disorders. Progressive nasal erosion also can be a manifestation of child abuse. The proposed mechanism is repetitive mechanical denudation of the soft tissue and cartilage resulting in chronic inflammation, bleeding, and ultimately destruction of the insulted tissue. We report 6 cases of child abuse manifesting as overt nasal destruction. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. A Research of nasal methicillin resistant/sensitive Staphylococcus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A Research of nasal methicillin resistant/sensitive Staphylococcus aureus and pharyngeal beta-haemolytic Streptococcus carriage in midwifery students in Kahramanmaras, Eastern Mediterranean Region of Turkey.

  8. The effect of nasalization on /a/ vowel formants before and after nasal consonant in 4-9-year old normal Persian speaking children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kowsar Baghban

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim : Nasalization of a vowel refers to the addition of nasal resonance to the vocal tract transfer function. Also, vowel nasalization occurs because of coarticulation. Coupling of the nasal resonating space to the oropharyngeal cavity alters the vocal tract formants in complex ways. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of nasalization on /a/ vowel formants in before and after nasal consonant.Methods: In current cross-sectional study, voice samples of 60 normal children ranging the age of four-nine years were investigated. Participants were asked to repeat / ʔ ama/ three times and vowel /a/ after presentation of an auditory model. Then, obtained samples were analyzed using Praat 5.3.13 . Average of F0, F1, F2 and F3 were calculated for /a/ comes before and after /m/ in production of / ʔ ama/ over three trials.Results: There were statistically significant differences of F1, F2 and F3 between / a/ which proceeds nasal consonant and /a/ follows nasal consonant , the before nasal consonant /a/ versus single /a/ and the after nasal consonant /a/ versus single /a/ (p=0.001 for all.Conclusion : F1, F2 and F3 in /a/ before nasal consonant affected by anticipatory nasal coarticulation and in /a/ after nasal consonant affected by carry-over nasal coarticulation . This study showed nasal coarticulation and nasalization result in decreasing F1, F2 and F3 in /a/ vowel.

  9. Relevance of histamine and tryptase concentrations in nasal secretions after nasal challenges with phosphate buffered saline and allergen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Wang

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available In this prospective study, a quantitative determination of histamine and tryptase in nasal secretions after nasal phosphate buffered saline (PBS and allergen challenge was performed in 18 atopic patients who were compared with ten non-allergic healthy volunteers. The aim of the study was to determine the normal and pathological concentrations of these important mediators in nasal secretions. The second objective was to test the relevance of these two mast cell secreted mediators after nasal challenge. Results showed that the concentrations of tryptase in almost all samples were under the minimal detection limit (< 0.5 μU/g and only a sigrtificant increase of tryptase (median, 28 μU/g occurred immediately after nasal allergen challenge in the patient group. Histamine concentration significantly increased after every nasal PBS challenge (median, 69 ng/g after first PBS challenge and 165 ng/g after second PBS challenge in the control group, as well as in the patient group after both PBS (median, 69 ng/g and allergen (median, 214 ng/g challenge. On the other hand, a rapid onset of sneezing and increase in nasal airway resistance was experienced only in the patient group after nasal allergen challenge, but did not occur after PBS challenge even though the histamine concentrations significantly increased in both groups. This study suggests that tryptase is a more preferable marker than histamine in quantitative monitoring of mast cell activation especially during the early phase nasal allergic reaction.

  10. Randomized trial of prongs or mask for nasal continuous positive airway pressure in preterm infants.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kieran, Emily A

    2012-11-01

    To determine whether nasal continuous positive airway pressure (NCPAP) given with nasal prongs compared with nasal mask reduces the rate of intubation and mechanical ventilation in preterm infants within 72 hours of starting therapy.

  11. Presurgical Nasal Molding With a Nasal Spring in Patients With Mild-to-Moderate Nasal Deformity With Incomplete Unilateral Cleft Lip With or Without Cleft Palate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peanchitlertkajorn, Supakit

    2018-01-01

    Traditional nasoalveolar molding (NAM) requires steep learning curve for clinicians and significant compliance from parents. Nasal springs have been developed by the author to simplify presurgical nasal molding. This article presents the design, construction, and application of the spring. The treatment goal is to improve nasal deformity prior to primary repair in infants born with incomplete unilateral cleft lip with or without cleft palate. The design, fabrication, and utility of the nasal spring are described. The spring has a simpler design and construction compared to a traditional NAM appliance. Two patients with incomplete unilateral cleft lip with and without cleft palate are presented. The spring is constructed and delivered. The active arm of the spring can be 3-dimensionally (3-D) adjusted to mold the alar cartilage of the affected nostril. The spring does not require an oral plate for adherence as a traditional NAM appliance does, hence an oral impression is not needed. The spring is easy for clinicians to adjust. It also requires less compliance by parents. Main Outcome Measures/Results: The presurgical molding achieved by the use of a nasal spring improved surgical nasolabial aesthetic outcomes. The nasal springs are effective in reducing the initial cleft nasal deformity. This facilitates primary surgical cleft lip and nose correction and improves surgical outcomes in patients with incomplete unilateral cleft lip with or without cleft palate.

  12. Xanthomatose normolipidemique a localisation nasale chez une ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction : Exposer un cas de xanthomatose normolipidémique. Observation : il s'agit d'une adolescente de 18 ans qui a présenté une masse des cavités nasales dont le bilan paraclinique a plaidé en faveur d'un xanthogranulome juvénile. L'évolution à court terme a été satisfaisante après l'exérèse chirurgicale par une ...

  13. Nasal-to-CNS drug delivery: where are we now and where are we heading? An industrial perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landis, Margaret S; Boyden, Tracey; Pegg, Simon

    2012-02-01

    Delivery of drug therapeutics across the blood-brain barrier is a challenging task for pharmaceutical scientists. Nasal-to-CNS drug delivery has shown promising results in preclinical efficacy models and investigatory human clinical trials. The further development of this technology with respect to the establishment of valid, predictable preclinical species models, translatable pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic relationships and definition of toxicology impact will help attract additional pharmaceutical investment in this drug-delivery approach. Further discoveries in nasal nanotechnology, targeted delivery devices and diagnostic olfactory imaging will serve to fuel the advancements in this area of drug delivery.

  14. Subjective Evaluation of Vocal Quality in Nasal Polyposis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziya Saltürk

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Nose is a resonator organ in production of voice. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of nasal obstruction caused by nasal polyposis on voice quality subjectively. Methods: Thirty-six patients diagnosed with nasal polyposis were included in the study. The 30-item voice handicap index 30 was used in order to evaluate subjective status of voice. Nasal endoscopy and computed tomography imaging of the paranasal sinuses were performed for each patient. Lund-Kennedy endoscopy scores and Lund-MacKay computed tomography scores were evaluated. Control group composed of 20 healthy subjects. Results: The mean voice handicap score in the patient group was 43.16 (SD 15.53 and it was 2.15 (SD 1.92 in control group. There was a statistically significant difference between the groups (p=0.001. The mean Lund-Kennedy and Lund-Mackay scores were 8.58 (SD 2.5 and 17 (SD 5.52, respectively. It was found that increased severity of nasal polyposis was the cause for decreased satisfaction with voice quality. Conclusion: Nasal obstruction caused by nasal polyposis affects voice quality adversely and as the severity of nasal polyposis increases, satisfaction with voice quality decreases.

  15. The effect of nasal surgery on apnea-hypopnea index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Navid Nourizadeh

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available One of the factors, which is involved in obstructive sleep apnea, is anatomic or inflammatory pathologies of nasal airway obstruction. Thus, it is logical to observe improvement of polysomnographic parameters of sleep-disordered breathing after nasal surgery. The authors performed a review of the literature, up to 2013, to determine the impact of nasal surgery on obstructive sleep apnea. Most current idea in this field is based on case series studies while randomized controlled trials evaluating the effect of surgery for nasal obstruction on sleep apnea are few and far between. According to these studies, surgery for nasal obstruction does not improve objective parameters of sleep apnea. Although nasal obstruction is one of the factors involved in obstructive apnea, one has to keep in mind that surgery will not result in major reduction of obstructive sleep apnea severity to relieve nasal obstruction. Detailed upper airway analysis has to be considered when surgery is an option for obstructive sleep apnea. Thus, nasal surgeries are beneficial when they are part of a multilevel approach in obstructive sleep apnea treatment.

  16. A study of Staphylococcus aureus nasal carriage, antibacterial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aim: This study was to determine the virulence encoding genes, and the antibiotic resistance patterns of the Staphylococcus aureus isolates, which were isolated from the nasal samples of chest clinic patients. Materials and Methods: The nasal samples of the in‑patients (431) and out‑patients (1857) in Kayseri Training and ...

  17. Nasal Chondromesenchymal Hamartoma: CT and MR Imaging Findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Ji Eun; Kim, Hyung Jin; Kim, Ji Hye; Ko, Young Hyeh; Chung, Seung Kyu

    2009-01-01

    We report CT and MR imaging findings for a case of nasal chondromesenchymal hamartoma occurring in a 19-month-old boy. A nasal chondromesenchymal hamartoma is a rare benign pediatric hamartoma that can simulate malignancy. Although rare, knowledge of this entity is essential to avoid potentially harmful therapies

  18. The development of the nasal capsule of the silver carp ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The development of the nasal capsule, including the procartilaginous as well as some mesenchymatous developmental stages, is described in the chinese silver carp,. Hypophthalmichthys molitrix (VaL). In the nasal capsule a primitive feature, namely the presence of a complete paraphysial bridge was observed.

  19. Systematic review: the influence of nasal obstruction on sleep apnea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debora Petrungaro Migueis

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT INTRODUCTION: Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS is a common disorder that can lead to cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, as well as to metabolic, neurological, and behavioral consequences. It is currently believed that nasal obstruction compromises the quality of sleep when it results in breathing disorders and fragmentation of sleep. However, recent studies have failed to objectively associate sleep quality and nasal obstruction. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this systematic review is to evaluate the influence of nasal obstruction on OSAS and polysomnographic indices associated with respiratory events. METHODS: Eleven original articles published from 2003 to 2013 were selected, which addressed surgical and non-surgical treatment for nasal obstruction, performing polysomnography type 1 before and after the intervention. RESULTS/CONCLUSIONS: In most trials, nasal obstruction was not related to the apnea-hypopnea index (AHI, indicating no improvement in OSAS with reduction in nasal resistance. However, few researchers evaluated other polysomnography indices, such as the arousal index and rapid eye movement (REM sleep percentage. These could change with nasal obstruction, since it is possible that the nasal obstruction does not completely block the upper airways, but can increase negative intrathoracic pressure, leading to sleep fragmentation.

  20. Significance of computerized tomography and nasal cytology in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ehab

    assessment of sinus disease in asthmatic children. Rhinosinusitis is a common asthma comorbidity. Nasal eosinophil or neutrophil score >0.5 provides a better predictive value for rhinosinusitis compared to total serum IgE. Keywords: computerized tomography, nasal sinus, asthma, sinusitis, allergic rhinitis, children.

  1. The validity of nasal endoscopy in patients with chronic rhinosinusitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, K. L.; Lange, B.; Darling, P.

    2018-01-01

    Objectives: Nasal endoscopy is a cornerstone in diagnosing sinonasal disease, but different raters might generate different results using the technique. Our study aims to evaluate the agreement between multiple raters to assess the validity of nasal endoscopy. Design/Participants: Three independe...

  2. Computed tomographic anatomy of the canine nasal passages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burk, R.L.

    1992-01-01

    A normal German shepherd dog underwent CT imaging with contiguous 10 mm thick images made of the nasal cavity from the caudal limit of the frontal sinuses to the rostral aspect of the nose. Normal structures were identified. This normal anatomic information will be of use in assessing CT images of dogs suspected of having nasal cavity disease

  3. Systematic review: the influence of nasal obstruction on sleep apnea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Migueis, Debora Petrungaro; Thuler, Luiz Claudio Santos; Lemes, Lucas Neves de Andrade; Moreira, Chirlene Santos Souza; Joffily, Lucia; Araujo-Melo, Maria Helena de

    2016-01-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) is a common disorder that can lead to cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, as well as to metabolic, neurological, and behavioral consequences. It is currently believed that nasal obstruction compromises the quality of sleep when it results in breathing disorders and fragmentation of sleep. However, recent studies have failed to objectively associate sleep quality and nasal obstruction. The aim of this systematic review is to evaluate the influence of nasal obstruction on OSAS and polysomnographic indices associated with respiratory events. Eleven original articles published from 2003 to 2013 were selected, which addressed surgical and non-surgical treatment for nasal obstruction, performing polysomnography type 1 before and after the intervention. In most trials, nasal obstruction was not related to the apnea-hypopnea index (AHI), indicating no improvement in OSAS with reduction in nasal resistance. However, few researchers evaluated other polysomnography indices, such as the arousal index and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep percentage. These could change with nasal obstruction, since it is possible that the nasal obstruction does not completely block the upper airways, but can increase negative intrathoracic pressure, leading to sleep fragmentation. Copyright © 2015 Associação Brasileira de Otorrinolaringologia e Cirurgia Cérvico-Facial. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  4. Nasal cavity of the farmed african catfish Clarias gariepinus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The nasal cavity microanatomy of farmed fingerlings of African catfish, Clarias gariepunus was investigated to fill existing knowledge gap on its histology from available literatures. This becomes very important as no gustatory cell was reported from previous researches on the fingerling digestive tract. A slice of nasal cavity of ...

  5. Nasal polyps. A clinical radiological histopathological and mycological study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Babiker, Babiker Eltayeb [Faculty of Medicine, University of Khartoum, Khartoum (Sudan)

    1997-12-01

    Forty patients with nasal polyposis were studied. This study included clinical, haematological and mycological aspects. There were 24 females (60% of patients) and 16 males (40%). We found that all patients presented with nasal obstruction and nasal tone and the majority of them had allergic nasal symptoms such as sneezing and watery discharge. Thirty five percent of the patients were recurrent cases, being operated before for nasal polyps. Radiological investigations showed high of sinusitis and that 10% of the patients had complicated disease with orbital or intracranial extensions. Mycological studies revealed the presence of fungal infection in 4 patient (10%) and it was caused by Aspergillus flavus. Histological studies identified the allergic nature of the polyps in all patients. Surgical treatment was carried out in all patients and operations varied from simple intranasal polypectomy, intranasal ethmiodectomy, external ethmoidectomy to Caldwell-Luc operation for patients with antrochanal polyps.(Author)

  6. Capillary hemangioma of adult nasal cavity: a case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paik, Sang Hyun; Kim, Hyun Sook; Kim, Wan Seop; Cho, Sung Bum; Choi, Yun Sun; Chung, Myung Jin; Kim, Seog Joon; Yoon, Sook Ja; Yoon, Yong Kyu

    2002-01-01

    Capillary hemangioma of the adult nasal cavity is rare. We report a case which occurred in the right nasal cavity of a 25-year-old woman, together with the multiphase enhanced CT findings. The patients who had a history of recurrent nasal bleeding, had experienced nasal obstruction and swelling during the two-month period prior to presentation, and one month before presentation, spontaneous vaginal delivery occurred. Physical examination revealed the presence of a well-defined round mass, with redness in the right nasal vertibule. The mass showed rim enhancement at early arterial-phase CT scanning, increased enhancement at the late arterial phase, and moderately homogeneous enhancement at the delayed phase

  7. A Case of Nasal Glial Heterotopia in an Adult

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    Akira Hagiwara

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a rare case of nasal glial heterotopia in an adult. After the surgery, frontal lobe cerebral hemorrhage developed. A 58-year-old man had unilateral nasal obstruction that progressed for one year. He had been treated for hypertension, chronic heart failure, and cerebral infarction with aspirin and warfarin. A computed tomography scan showed that the tumor occupied the right nasal cavity and the sinuses with small defect in the cribriform plate. The tumor was removed totally with endoscopy. After the operation, the patient developed convulsions and frontal lobe cerebral hemorrhage. The hemorrhage site was located near a defect in the cribriform plate. Nasal glial heterotopia is a rare developmental abnormality, particularly rare in adult. Only few cases were reported. We could not find any report of adult nasal glial heterotopias that developed cerebral hemorrhage as a complication of the surgery.

  8. Seasonal changes in nasal cytology in mite-allergic patients

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    Gelardi M

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Matteo Gelardi,1 Diego G Peroni,2 Cristoforo Incorvaia,3 Nicola Quaranta,1 Concetta De Luca,1 Salvatore Barberi,4 Ilaria Dell'Albani,5 Massimo Landi,6 Franco Frati,5 Olivier de Beaumont7 1Otolaryngology Unit, Department of Neuroscience and Sensory Organs, University of Bari, Bari, Italy; 2Department of Pediatrics, University of Verona, Verona, Italy; 3Allergy/Pulmonary Rehabilitation, ICP Hospital, Milan, Italy; 4Department of Pediatrics, San Paolo Hospital, Milan, Italy; 5Medical and Scientific Department, Stallergenes, Milan, Italy; 6Department of Pediatrics, National Healthcare System, ASL TO1, Turin, Italy; 7Medical Affairs Department, Stallergenes, Antony, France Background: House dust mites (HDMs are a major cause of allergic rhinitis (AR and asthma worldwide. Recent studies suggested that the allergen load presents seasonal modifications, giving rise to seasonal variation in nasal inflammation and symptoms. The aim of this study was to evaluate by nasal cytology whether nasal inflammation in mite-allergic patients changes with the seasons of the year. Methods: The study included 16 patients (seven males and nine females, mean age 38.1 years with persistent AR caused by monosensitization to HDMs. Nasal cytology was performed in all patients once monthly for 1 year. Results: Nasal cytology showed that the cells most commonly detected in the nasal mucosa were neutrophils. During the period from October to April, a peak in the number of neutrophils and also the presence of significant numbers of eosinophils, mast cells, and lymphocytes/plasma cells were found, which shows the occurrence of more intense inflammation during these months. Conclusion: Nasal cytology provides useful data in detecting nasal inflammation and its association with the clinical stage of AR. The seasonal variations in nasal cytology are likely to be induced by the fluctuations in the HDM allergen that have been uncovered in recent investigations. Keywords: allergens

  9. Nasal allergies hayfever among young adults in Melbourne, Australia

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    Michael Abramson

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Although there is wide variation in the prevalence of nasal allergies internationally, the extent to which this is due to variation in etiological factors is not known. The purpose of the present study was to define the relative importance of atopy and other risk factors for nasal allergies, including hayfever, among young adults in Melbourne. The subjects were participants in the second phase of the European Community Respiratory Health Survey; 876 adults between 20 and 45 years of age completed a detailed respiratory questionnaire, 745 had skin prick testing with common aeroallergens and 675 underwent methacholine challenge. Total and allergen-specific IgE levels were measured in 701 and 693 subjects by radioimmunoassay and RAST, respectively. Nasal allergies, including hayfever, were reported by 47.5% of randomly selected participants. Females, non- smokers, subjects with a family history of allergies, those with current asthma, a history of eczema and nasal symptoms induced by dust, pollen or food were significantly more likely to have nasal allergies. Oral antihistamines had been used by 45.7% of those reporting nasal allergies and 12.4% had received allergen immunotherapy. The risk of nasal allergies, including hayfever, was increased 6.1-fold by atopy, particularly by positive skin tests to outdoor allergens such as Birch, Timothy grass, plantain, olive, Cladosporium and Rye grass pollen. Total serum IgE was significantly higher in subjects reporting nasal allergies than in those who did not report such allergies. There were significant trends in the prevalence of nasal allergies with increasing titers of specific IgE directed against all allergens tested. In conclusion, the significant independent risk factors for nasal allergies, including hayfever, in young adults were atopy, particularly sensitization to Timothy grass, house dust mites and plantain, current asthma, not smoking, a history of eczema and female gender. Future research

  10. Objective measurements for grading the nasal esthetics on Basal view in individuals with secondary cleft nasal deformity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xing; Li, Hua; Shao, Yan; Shi, Bing

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to ascertain objective nasal measurements from the basal view that are predictive of nasal esthetics in individuals with secondary cleft nasal deformity. Thirty-three patients who had undergone unilateral cleft lip repair were retrospectively reviewed in this study. The degree of nasal deformity was subjectively ranked by seven surgeons using standardized basal-view measurements. Nine physical objective parameters including angles and ratios were measured. Correlations and regressions between these objective and subjective measurements were then analyzed. There was high concordance in subjective measurements by different surgeons (Kendall's harmonious coefficient = W = .825, P = .006). The strongest predictive factors for nasal aesthetics were the ratio of length of nasal alar (r = .370, P = .034) and the degree of deviation of the columnar axis (r = .451, P = .008). The columellar angle had a more powerful effect in rating nasal esthetics. There was reliable concordance in subjective ranking of nasal esthetics by surgeons. Measurement of the columnar angle may serve as an independent, objective predictor of esthetics of the nose.

  11. Is the use of benzalkonium chloride as a preservative for nasal formulations a safety concern? A cautionary note based on compromised mucociliary transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstein, I L

    2000-01-01

    Topical nasal solution and suspension delivery systems are available for short- and long-acting vasoconstrictors, ipratropium, cromolyn, azelastine, and glucocorticosteroids. The use of intranasal glucocorticosteroids has increased substantially because the efficacy of these agents has been well established for the treatment of perennial and seasonal allergic rhinitis. Adverse local effects of burning, irritation, and dryness are occasionally associated with glucocorticosteroid nasal preparations. Benzalkonium chloride (BKC) is a quaternary ammonium antimicrobial agent included in some nasal solutions (including glucocorticosteroids) to prevent the growth of bacteria. Some reports suggest that BKC in nasal sprays may cause adverse effects, including reduced mucociliary transport, rhinitis medicamentosa, and neutrophil dysfunction. This article summarizes recent literature about possible adverse biologic effects associated with BKC as a nasal spray preservative by examining its effects on the following properties of mucociliary transport: ciliary motion, ciliary form, ciliary beat frequency, electron microscopy, and particle movement/saccharin clearance tests. Both animal and human in vitro data suggest that BKC promotes ciliostasis and reduction in mucociliary transport that may be partially masked by absorption and dilution effects occurring in respiratory mucus. These possible confounding factors may account for several disparate human in vivo results. The use of BKC-free glucocorticosteroid formulations should be considered, particularly in patients who complain of nasal burning, dryness, or irritation.

  12. Alternaria alternata challenge at the nasal mucosa results in eosinophilic inflammation and increased susceptibility to influenza virus infection.

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    Ma, M; Redes, J L; Percopo, C M; Druey, K M; Rosenberg, H F

    2018-06-01

    Eosinophils in the nasal mucosa are an elemental feature of allergic rhinitis. Our objective was to explore eosinophilic inflammation and its impact on respiratory virus infection at the nasal mucosa. Inflammation in the nasal mucosae of mice was evaluated in response to repetitive stimulation with strict intranasal volumes of a filtrate of Alternaria alternata. Mice were then challenged with influenza virus. Repetitive stimulation with A. alternata resulted in eosinophil recruitment to the nasal passages in association with elevated levels of IL-5, IL-13 and eotaxin-1; eosinophil recruitment was diminished in eotaxin-1 -/- mice, and abolished in Rag1 -/- mice. A. alternata also resulted in elevated levels of nasal wash IgA in both wild-type and eosinophil-deficient ∆dblGATA mice. Interestingly, A. alternata-treated mice responded to an influenza virus infection with profound weight loss and mortality compared to mice that received diluent alone (0% vs 100% survival, ***P < .001); the lethal response was blunted when A. alternata was heat-inactivated. Minimal differences in virus titre were detected, and eosinophils present in the nasal passages at the time of virus inoculation provided no protection against the lethal sequelae. Interestingly, nasal wash fluids from mice treated with A. alternata included more neutrophils and higher levels of pro-inflammatory mediators in response to virus challenge, among these, IL-6, a biomarker for disease severity in human influenza. Repetitive administration of A. alternata resulted in inflammation of the nasal mucosae and unanticipated morbidity and mortality in response to subsequent challenge with influenza virus. Interestingly, and in contrast to findings in the lower airways, eosinophils recruited to the nasal passages provided no protection against lethal infection. As increased susceptibility to influenza virus among individuals with rhinitis has been the subject of several clinical reports, this model may be

  13. [Study on computed tomography features of nasal septum cellule and its clinical significance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Dingqiang; Li, Wanrong; Gao, Liming; Xu, Guanqiang; Ou, Xiaoyi; Tang, Guangcai

    2008-03-01

    To investigate the features of nasal septum cellule in computed tomographic (CT) images and its clinical significance. CT scans data of nasal septum in 173 patients were randomly obtained from January 2001 to June 2005. Prevalence and clinical features were summarized in the data of 19 patients with nasal septum cellule retrospectively. (1) Nineteen cases with nasal septum cellule were found in 173 patients. (2) All nasal septum cellule of 19 cases located in perpendicular plate of the ethmoid bone, in which 8 cases located in upper part of nasal septum and 11 located in middle. (3) There were totally seven patients with nasal diseases related to nasal septum cellule, in which 3 cases with inflammation, 2 cases with bone fracture, 1 case with cholesterol granuloma, 1 case with mucocele. Nasal septum cellule is an anatomic variation of nasal septum bone, and its features can provide further understanding of some diseases related to nasal septum cellule.

  14. Functional effects of Toll-like receptor (TLR3, 7, 9, RIG-I and MDA-5 stimulation in nasal epithelial cells.

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    Lotta Tengroth

    Full Text Available The human nasal epithelium is an important physical barrier, and a part of the innate immune defense that protect against pathogens. The epithelial cells recognize microbial components by pattern-recognition receptors (PRRs, and thereby trigger an immune response. Even though TLR3, TLR7, TLR9, RIG-I and MDA-5 are all known to respond to viral stimulation, their potential role in chronic airway inflammation triggered by local cytokine release remains to be established.mRNA and corresponding protein expression of TLR3, TLR7, TLR9, RIG-I and MDA-5 were analyzed in nasal biopsies and various upper airway epithelial cell lines using real-time reverse transcription PCR, immunohistochemistry and flow cytometry. Ligand induced, cytokine release, was evaluated with ELISA.Nasal biopsies were found to express TLR3, TLR7, TLR9, RIG-I and MDA-5, with the most abundant expression in the surface epithelium. These receptors were verified in primary human nasal epithelial cell (HNEC as well as in the airway epithelial cell lines Detroit-562 and FaDu. Poly(I:C (TLR3 and R-837 (TLR7 stimulation increased secretion of IL-6 and GM-CSF from the nasal mucosa and the epithelial cell lines. CpG (TLR9 stimulation caused release of IL-8 in the nasal mucosa and in FaDu. Poly(I:C/LyoVec (RIG-I/MDA-5 stimulation activated the secretion of IFN-β in the nasal mucosa. A corresponding release was also detected from HNEC and Detroit-562.The nasal epithelium has the ability to recognize viral intrusion through TLR and RLR receptors, and the subsequent response might have a role in exacerbation of inflammatory diseases like allergic rhinitis and chronic rhinosinusitis.

  15. [Understanding Oral and Nasal Mucosal Absorption of Fentanyl, and Rectal Absorption of Buprenorphine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimoyama, Naohito; Shimoyama, Megumi; Kubota, Yukino; Kato, Yoko

    2015-11-01

    One of the key issues in the treatment of pain is to choose the appropriate route and dosage form of analgesics for each individual patient in pain. New drug forms of fentanyl absorbed by oral or nasal mucosa, and buprenorphine absorbed by rectal mucosa are described in this chapter. Only lipophilic opioids such as fentanyl and buprenorphine can be absorbed via the mucosa of oral or nasal cavity of the human body. The T max of rapid onset opioids (ROO) such as fentanyl buccal or sublingual tablets is the fastest among various dosage forms of opioid analgesics. However, such rapid increase in plasma concentration of fentanyl by ROO formulations may cause the risk of respiratory depression. Safe ways to use ROO analgesics are described.

  16. NASAL-Geom, a free upper respiratory tract 3D model reconstruction software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cercos-Pita, J. L.; Cal, I. R.; Duque, D.; de Moreta, G. Sanjuán

    2018-02-01

    The tool NASAL-Geom, a free upper respiratory tract 3D model reconstruction software, is here described. As a free software, researchers and professionals are welcome to obtain, analyze, improve and redistribute it, potentially increasing the rate of development, and reducing at the same time ethical conflicts regarding medical applications which cannot be analyzed. Additionally, the tool has been optimized for the specific task of reading upper respiratory tract Computerized Tomography scans, and producing 3D geometries. The reconstruction process is divided into three stages: preprocessing (including Metal Artifact Reduction, noise removal, and feature enhancement), segmentation (where the nasal cavity is identified), and 3D geometry reconstruction. The tool has been automatized (i.e. no human intervention is required) a critical feature to avoid bias in the reconstructed geometries. The applied methodology is discussed, as well as the program robustness and precision.

  17. Analyses and treatments of postoperative nasal complications after endonasal transsphenoidal resection of pituitary neoplasms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, You; Xue, Fei; Wang, Tian-You; Ji, Jun-Feng; Chen, Wei; Wang, Zhi-Yi; Xu, Li; Hang, Chun-Hua; Liu, Xin-Feng

    2017-01-01

    Abstract In this study, we analyze and discuss the treatments of postoperative nasal complications after endonasal transsphenoidal resection of pituitary neoplasms (PNs). We performed 129 endonasal transsphenoidal resections of PNs and analyzed and treated cases with nasal complications. After endonasal transsphenoidal resection of PNs, there were 26 cases of postoperative nasal complications (20.1%), including nasal hemorrhage (4.8%), cerebrospinal fluid rhinorrhea (6.9%), sphenoid sinusitis (2.3%), atrophic rhinitis (1.6%), olfactory disorder (1.6%), perforation of nasal septum (0.8%), and nasal adhesion (2.3%). All patients clinically recovered after therapy, which included treatment of the cavity through nasal endoscopy, intranasal corticosteroids, and nasal irrigation. We propose that regular nasal endoscopic review, specific nasal medications, and regular nasal irrigation can effectively clear nasal mucosal hyperemia-induced edema and nasal/nasoantral secretions, as well as promote regeneration of nasal mucosa, prevent nasal adhesion, maintain the sinus cavity drainage, and accelerate the recovery of the physiological function of the paranasal sinus. Timely treatment of patients with nasal complications after endonasal transsphenoidal resections of PNs could greatly relieve the clinical symptoms. Nasal cleaning is very beneficial to patients after surgery recovery. PMID:28403108

  18. A Comparison of Over-the-Counter Mechanical Nasal Dilators: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiyohara, Nicole; Badger, Christopher; Tjoa, Tjoson; Wong, Brian

    2016-09-01

    The internal nasal valve is the narrowest part of the nasal airway and a common site of inspiratory collapse and obstruction of nasal airflow. Over-the-counter mechanical nasal dilators are an alternative to surgical intervention that attempts to improve airflow through the internal nasal valve. To determine the efficacy of over-the-counter mechanical nasal dilators and classify these products by mechanism. A database of 33 available over-the-counter mechanical nasal dilators was generated via a PubMed search as well as an internet search via Amazon.com and Google, conducted from April 1, 2013, through December 31, 2015. Products determined to be unavailable or discontinued were excluded from the database. Of the devices examined in published literature, efficacy was based on objective measures, such as measured airflow, the cross-sectional area of the nasal valve, and changes in resistance. Measures of reported sleep quality or patient perception were excluded. An analysis of each product's mechanism revealed 4 broad classes: external nasal dilator strips, nasal stents, nasal clips, and septal stimulators. A review demonstrated 5 studies supporting the use of external nasal dilator strips, 4 studies supporting the use of nasal clips, 1 study supporting the use of nasal stents, and no studies supporting the use of septal stimulators. Our findings suggest that external nasal dilator strips and nasal clips effectively relieve obstruction of the internal nasal valve and may be an alternative to surgical intervention in some patients.

  19. In vivo conjugation of nasal lavage proteins by hexahydrophthalic anhydride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johannesson, Gunvor; Lindh, Christian; Nielsen, Joern; Bjoerk, Birgitta; Rosqvist, Seema; Joensson, Bo A.G.

    2004-01-01

    Hexahydrophthalic anhydride (HHPA), an industrially important chemical, is a highly allergenic compound. The aim of this work was to identify proteins in nasal lavage fluid (NLF) that form adducts with HHPA. Such bindings may induce production of specific immunoglobulin E (IgE) or affect physiological mechanisms of the proteins. NLF was obtained from HHPA-exposed volunteers, workers and exposed guinea pigs. HHPA-binding proteins were visualized with immunoblotting using a polyclonal antiserum against HHPA. The proteins were excised from sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) gels, digested with trypsin and identified by tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) and database searches. The antiserum was found to be specific for HHPA-bound proteins. In vivo formed HHPA-binding proteins in humans were identified as antileukoproteinase, immunoglobulin G (IgG), immunoglobulin A (IgA), serum albumin and lactoferrin. In addition, several proteins binding to HHPA were found in NLFs from guinea pigs but these could not be identified from database searches. Hypotheses for development of airways diseases by adduction of this allergenic compound to the NLF proteins in humans were established

  20. SOME ASPECTS OF NASAL CARRIAGE OF STAPHYLOCOCCI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    NOBLE, W C; WILLIAMS, R E; JEVONS, M P; SHOOTER, R A

    1964-01-01

    The nasal carrier status of 3,736 patients was determined throughout their stay in hospital. The carrier rate on admission, which was highest in patients under 20 years of age, did not appear to vary with season.The carriage of strains resistant to penicillin increased with the patients' stay in hospital from 13.% on admission to 20.5% on discharge, and the acquisition of these strains was enhanced by the administration of antibiotics. Patients discharged from hospital carrying strains of staphylococci acquired in hospital lost them more readily than patients discharged carrying the strain which they had carried on admission, 31% of those discharged carrying strains resistant to penicillin and tetracycline being readmitted carrying these strains compared with 69% of those discharged carrying strains sensitive to these antibiotics.

  1. Efficacy of functional endoscopic sinus surgery in recurrent nasal polyposis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aslam, S.; Ali, M.; Ahmed, A.; Asghar, A.; Aslam, S.

    2014-01-01

    To analyze the efficacy of FESS in patients with recurrent nasal polyposis in terms of relief of nasal obstruction, improvement in sense of smell and to assess recurrence of disease. Study Design: Descriptive case series. Materials and Method: All patients who underwent FESS (Functional endoscopic sinus surgery) for recurrent nasal polyposis from June 2008 to June 2010 with an average follow up of 06 month were included. Clinical symptoms including nasal obstruction and olfactory disturbance were evaluated using VAS system pre and postoperatively. Preoperatively computed tomography scan was done in all cases to assess extent of disease and surgical anatomy. Results: Following FESS 96% of total patients demonstrated statistically significant improvement in relieving nasal obstruction after 6 months follow up, however improvement in sense of smell was seen in 44% of patients. Recurrence was seen in only 3 (6%) cases at 3rd and 6th month follow up. Conclusion: Functional endoscopy sinus surgery of recurrent nasal polyposis is an effective method of surgery with significant improvement of symptom of nasal obstruction and olfaction with minimal recurrence at 6 month in our centre. Our results were compatible with results attained internationally. (author)

  2. Congenital Midline Nasal Mass: Four Cases with Review of Literature

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    Sambhaji Govind Chintale

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Congenital midline nasal masses include nasal dermoids, gliomas, encephaloceles. Although rare, these disorders are clinically important because of their potential for connection to the central nervous system. Preoperative knowledge of an intracranial connection is a necessity to allow for neurosurgical consultation and possible planning for craniotomy. This study discusses the clinical presentation of congenital midline nasal mass and the role of imaging modalities like CT scan and MRI in diagnosis and the surgical management. Materials and Methods  This prospective study is carried from March 2014 to March 2016, during which 4 cases presented to the Otorhinolaryngology department. Pre-operative evaluation of the patients included endoscopic evaluation along with haematological investigations, CT Scan and MRI. The masses were removed with nasal endoscopic sinus surgery or by external approaches and neurosurgical intervention. Result The age of the patients ranged from 3 years to 25 years. Three of them were male and one female. There was one case of nasoethmoidal encephalocele and the other three were dermoids (intranasal dermoid cyst, nasal dermoid cyst and nasal dermoid sinus cyst. Conclusion Congenital midline nasal masses are rare. These disorders are clinically important because of their intracranial connection which require proper evaluation with radiological imaging like CT scan and/or MRI before FNAC and any surgical intervention.

  3. Inverted papillomas and benign nonneoplastic lesions of the nasal cavity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casiano, Roy R.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Benign lesions of the nasal cavity represent a diverse group of pathologies. Furthermore, each of these disorders may present differently in any given patient as pain and discomfort, epistaxis, headaches, vision changes, or nasal obstruction. Although these nasal masses are benign, many of them have a significant capacity for local tissue destruction and symptomatology secondary to this destruction. Advances in office-based endoscopic nasendoscopy have equipped the otolaryngologist with a safe, inexpensive, and rapid means of directly visualizing lesions within the nasal cavity and the initiation of appropriate treatment. Methods: The purpose of this study is to review the diagnosis, management, and controversies of many of the most common benign lesions of the nasal cavity encountered by the primary care physician or otolaryngologist. Results: This includes discussion of inverted papilloma (IP), juvenile angiofibroma, squamous papilloma, pyogenic granuloma, hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia, schwannoma, benign fibro-osseous lesions, and other benign lesions of the nasal cavity, with particular emphasis on IP and juvenile angiofibroma. Conclusion: A diverse array of benign lesions occur within the nasal cavity and paranasal cavities. Despite their inability to metastasize, many of these lesions have significant capability for local tissue destruction and recurrence. PMID:22487294

  4. Evaluation of the nasal shape after orthognathic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dantas, Wagner Ranier Maciel; Silveira, Márcia Maria Fonseca da; Vasconcelos, Belmiro Cavalcanti do Egito; Porto, Gabriela Granja

    2015-01-01

    Patients with dentofacial deformities may benefit from orthognathic surgery in the maxilla. Maxillary osteotomy may include procedures in the bone, cartilaginous, and soft tissues of the nose, leading to shape alterations. To evaluate the anatomic alterations of the nasal region in patients undergoing a Le Fort I osteotomy for advancement or superior impaction. This is a clinical prospective study. Twenty-one patients were evaluated during the pre- and postoperative periods. The positioning of the nasal tip and the modification of the nasal base were evaluated. The results showed that the nasal tip was superiorly positioned in 85% of the cases, advanced in 80%, rotated in 80%, and there was a wide nasal base in 95%, resulting in esthetic improvement. Surgeries of maxillary advancement and superior reposition tend to cause elevation and advancement of the nasal tip, as well as enlargement of the nasal base. Copyright © 2014 Associação Brasileira de Otorrinolaringologia e Cirurgia Cérvico-Facial. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  5. Nasal bacterial colonization in cases of idiopathic epistaxis in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamble, Payal; Saxena, Sonal; Kumar, Sunil

    2015-11-01

    To evaluate the role of nasal bacterial colonization in cases of idiopathic epistaxis in children. A descriptive, hospital based, observational study in our hospital was conducted on total 112 pediatric patients in the age group 4-16 years. Group A (control): 56 patients with no epistaxis; Group B (epistaxis): 56 patients with idiopathic epistaxis. A swab for microbiological evaluation was taken from the anterior nasal cavity of each child. A highly significant association between nasal colonization with pathological Staphylococcus aureus and idiopathic epistaxis was found. The presence of pathological S. aureus colonization in the anterior nasal cavity was also associated with statistically significant number of crusting and presence of dilated blood vessels on the anterior nasal septum of children in epistaxis group. Nasal bacterial colonization with S. aureus leads to a sequence of pathological events i.e. low grade inflammation, crusting and new vessel formation. This leads to irritation in nasal cavity resulting in digital trauma and subsequently epistaxis and thus it plays an important role in causing idiopathic epistaxis in children. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Treatment countermeasures for common problems in dacryocystorhinostomy under nasal endoscope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhong-Ling Luo

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To discuss the common problems and treatment countermeasures in dacryocystorhinostomy under nasal endoscope.METHODS: The clinical data of 37 cases(43 eyesof postoperative dacryocystorhinostomy under nasal endoscope, by using high-frequency electric knife to open the nasal mucosa, hemostasis in surgery, burning fixed lacrimal sac mucosal flap and nasal mucosal flap, methylene blue staining of the lacrimal sac, lacrimal drainage tube implanted and expansion foam support fixed anastomotic methods were reviewed in our hospital from Mar. 2011 to June. 2013. The effects of surgery were observed, and the intraoperative common questions and the treatments were discussed.RESULTS: In the 37 cases(43 eyes, 42 eyes(97.7%were cured, and 1 eye was improved, and the total efficiency was 100%. All operations were successfully completed without any serious complications during surgery.CONCLUSION: The common complication in dacryocystorhinostomy under nasal endoscope are effectively treated and the success rates of surgery are improved, by using high-frequency electric knife to open the nasal mucosa, hemostasis in surgery, burning fixed lacrimal sac mucosal flap and nasal mucosal flap, methylene blue staining of the lacrimal sac, lacrimal drainage tube implanted and expansion foam support fixed anastomotic methods. These methods are worthy of application and promotion.

  7. Nasal non-hodgkin's lymphoma : CT findings

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    No, Tae Youn; Baek, Ho Gil; Won, Jong Bu; Park, Sung Ho; Park, O Bong; Baik, Seung Kug; Shin, Mi Jung; Kim, Bong Ki; Choi, Han Yong [Wallace Memorial Baptist Hospital, Pusan (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-05-01

    To describe the characteristics of CT findings in nasal lymphoma. We retrospectively reviewed CT findings and pathologic findings of eight patients (six males and two females) aged between 24 and 68 years with pathologically-proven nasal lymphoma. We analyzed mass location, laterality, size, margin, mass effect, adjacent bony change and contrast enhancement pattern. All eight cases were non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, intermediate grade, diffuse large cell type. Seven cases were B-cell type and one was T-cell. In all cases, tumors were located in the medial wall of the inferior turbinate. In four cases, they were also found in the anterior ethmoidal sinus, and in one case, in the nasal septum. The mean size of the main mass was 3.3cm. In seven cases, tumors were unilateral (one on the right; six on the left), and in the remaining case, bilateral. In six cases tumor margin was smooth and in two cases focal nodularity was seen. In two cases there was no bony change, and in four, there was mucosal thickening along the nasal septum; in one of these four, minimal bony erosion was also found. In the other two cases, bony destruction was seen, and tumors were very large(7cm in diameter) or bilterally located. In three cases, the nasal septum was displaced by the mass. In all cases with bony change, the nasal septum was involved. All tumors were homogeneously well enhanced after IV contrast administration. The main CT findings of nasal non-Hodgkin's lymphoma were smooth margin, unilateral location (mainly in the medial wall of the inferior turbinate and growing to the medial side without bony destruction) mucosal thickening along the nasal septum and clear homogeneous enhancement after IV contrast administration. These characteristics will help diagnosis, help deter-mine the appropriate region for radiation and other appropriate therapy, and facilitate prognosis in patients with nasal non-Hodgkin's lymphoma.

  8. Nasal valve evaluation in the Mexican-Hispanic (mestizo) nose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasso-Ramírez, Elizabeth; Sánchez Y Béjar, Fernando; Arcaute Aizpuru, Fernando; Maulen Radován, Irene E; de la Garza Hesles, Héctor

    2018-04-01

    Our aim in this study was to determine the angle of the internal nasal valve in Mexican patients with the "mestizo nose" feature and without nasal obstructive symptoms. The work was prospective, comparative, and observational in nature and included patients >14 years of age who were seen in the Otolaryngology Department at the Los Angeles Lomas Hospital between April and May 2016. The angle of the internal nasal valve was measured in 30 patients without obstructive symptoms. Endoscopic examination was performed with a 0° endoscope framed with tape at a 13-mm distance from the endoscope's tip, and digital photographs of the internal nasal valve were taken. The measurement of the angle of the internal nasal valve was made in sexagesimal degrees using Golden Ratio v3.1 (2012) software. Statistical analysis was performed using Excel v15.13.3. The angles of the internal nasal valve of the patients were (mean ± standard deviation) 24.07 ± 4.8° for the right nasal cavity and 25.07 ± 5.0° for the left nasal cavity, wider than the angle reported in the normal Caucasian nose established in the literature. According to our results, the Mexican-Hispanic mestizo nose has a wider angle in the internal nasal valve than that considered normal in the literature (10°-15°). We believe it is necessary to undertake a second study and add an airflow resistance measurement with a rhinomanometry procedure so we can compare the results with those in the Caucasian population. © 2018 ARS-AAOA, LLC.

  9. Study of USH1 splicing variants through minigenes and transcript analysis from nasal epithelial cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María José Aparisi

    Full Text Available Usher syndrome type I (USH1 is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by congenital profound deafness, vestibular areflexia and prepubertal retinitis pigmentosa. The first purpose of this study was to determine the pathologic nature of eighteen USH1 putative splicing variants found in our series and their effect in the splicing process by minigene assays. These variants were selected according to bioinformatic analysis. The second aim was to analyze the USH1 transcripts, obtained from nasal epithelial cells samples of our patients, in order to corroborate the observed effect of mutations by minigenes in patient's tissues. The last objective was to evaluate the nasal ciliary beat frequency in patients with USH1 and compare it with control subjects. In silico analysis were performed using four bioinformatic programs: NNSplice, Human Splicing Finder, NetGene2 and Spliceview. Afterward, minigenes based on the pSPL3 vector were used to investigate the implication of selected changes in the mRNA processing. To observe the effect of mutations in the patient's tissues, RNA was extracted from nasal epithelial cells and RT-PCR analyses were performed. Four MYO7A (c.470G>A, c.1342_1343delAG, c.5856G>A and c.3652G>A, three CDH23 (c.2289+1G>A, c.6049G>A and c.8722+1delG and one PCDH15 (c.3717+2dupTT variants were observed to affect the splicing process by minigene assays and/or transcripts analysis obtained from nasal cells. Based on our results, minigenes are a good approach to determine the implication of identified variants in the mRNA processing, and the analysis of RNA obtained from nasal epithelial cells is an alternative method to discriminate neutral Usher variants from those with a pathogenic effect on the splicing process. In addition, we could observe that the nasal ciliated epithelium of USH1 patients shows a lower ciliary beat frequency than control subjects.

  10. Angiofibroma of the nasal cavity in 13 dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgess, K E; Green, E M; Wood, R D; Dubielzig, R R

    2011-12-01

    This case series describes a rare entity, nasal angiofibroma, in 13 dogs that were presented to the University of Wisconsin, School of Veterinary Medicine from 1988 to 2000. All dogs in this case series presented with clinical signs and radiographic changes that were strongly suggestive of a locally invasive neoplasm. However, histopathology completed on transnostral core biopsy samples revealed benign appearing vascular proliferation with secondary lymphosuppurative inflammation was established despite cytologic criteria of malignancy present in five dogs. On the basis of the outcomes in this case series, nasal angiofibroma should be considered a differential for dogs presenting with clinical signs consistent with a malignant nasal tumour. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  11. Extranasopharyngeal angiofibroma of the nasal septum: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohindra, Satyawati; Grover, Gogia; Bal, Amanjit Kaur

    2009-11-01

    Angiofibroma arising outside the nasopharynx is unusual. The nasal septum is an extremely rare site for the origin of angiofibroma, and to date only 6 such cases previously have been reported in the literature. We report here a case of a 22-year-old man with a vascular mass arising from his nasal septum. The histopathology report was consistent with angiofibroma. We also review other cases in the literature of angiofibroma arising from the nasal septum and discuss a theory of the likely origin of angiofibroma.

  12. Solitary Chemoreceptor Cell Proliferation in Adult Nasal Epithelium

    OpenAIRE

    Gulbransen, Brian D.; Finger, Thomas E.

    2005-01-01

    Nasal trigeminal chemosensitivity in mice and rats is mediated in part by solitary chemoreceptor cells (SCCs) in the nasal epithelium (Finger et al., 2003). Many nasal SCCs express the G-protein α-gustducin as well as other elements of the bitter-taste signaling cascade including phospholipase Cβ2, TRPM5 and T2R bitter-taste receptors. While some populations of sensory cells are replaced throughout life (taste and olfaction), others are not (hair cells and carotid body chemoreceptors). These ...

  13. Strategy for Nasal Reconstruction in Atypical Facial Clefts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fouad M. Ghareeb, FRCS, MD

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Summary:. It is difficult to put forward a strategy for the treatment of nasal clefts due to the rarity and diversity of anatomical aberrations of these cases contrary to the common nasal affection in cleft lip and palate patients, which differ in severity rather than differing in the morbid anatomy. This simple strategy for correction of these nasal clefts will hopefully help surgeons to achieve better results. In the mean time I intended to describe the morbid anatomy of these cases by choosing examples of each morbid anatomy.

  14. Nasal hyper-reactivity is a common feature in both allergic and nonallergic rhinitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Segboer, C. L.; Holland, C. T.; Reinartz, S. M.; Terreehorst, I.; Gevorgyan, A.; Hellings, P. W.; van Drunen, C. M.; Fokkens, W. J.

    2013-01-01

    Nasal hyper-reactivity is an increased sensitivity of the nasal mucosa to various nonspecific stimuli. Both allergic rhinitis (AR) and nonallergic rhinitis (NAR) patients can elicit nasal hyper-reactivity symptoms. Differences in the prevalence or type of nasal hyper-reactivity in AR and NAR

  15. Detection of Volatile Compounds Emitted from Nasal Secretions and Serum: Towards Non-Invasive Identification of Diseased Cattle Biomarkers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devin L. Maurer

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Non-invasive diagnostics and finding biomarkers of disease in humans have been a very active research area. Some of the analytical technologies used for finding biomarkers of human disease are finding their use in livestock. Non-invasive sample collection from diseased cattle using breath and headspace of fecal samples have been reported. In this work, we explore the use of volatile organic compounds (VOCs emitted from bovine nasal secretions and serum for finding biomarkers for bovine respiratory disease (BRD. One hundred nasal swabs and 100 serum samples (n = 50 for both ‘sick’ and ‘healthy’ were collected at the time of treatment for suspected BRD. Solid-phase microextraction (SPME was used to collect headspace samples that were analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS. It was possible to separate sick cattle using non-invasive analyses of nasal swabs and also serum samples by analyzing and comparing volatiles emitted from each group of samples. Four volatile compounds were found to be statistically significantly different between ‘sick’ and ‘normal’ cattle nasal swabs samples. Five volatile compounds were found to be significantly different between ‘sick’ and ‘normal’ cattle serum samples, with phenol being the common marker. Future studies are warranted to improve the extraction efficiency targeting VOCs preliminarily identified in this study. These findings bring us closer to the long-term goal of real-time, animal-side detection and separation of sick cattle.

  16. Linking Suspension Nasal Spray Drug Deposition Patterns to Pharmacokinetic Profiles: A Proof-of-Concept Study Using Computational Fluid Dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rygg, Alex; Hindle, Michael; Longest, P Worth

    2016-06-01

    The objective of this study was to link regional nasal spray deposition patterns of suspension formulations, predicted with computational fluid dynamics, to in vivo human pharmacokinetic plasma concentration profiles. This is accomplished through the use of computational fluid dynamics simulations coupled with compartmental pharmacokinetic modeling. Results showed a rapid initial rise in plasma concentration that is due to the absorption of drug particles deposited in the nasal middle passages, followed by a slower increase in plasma concentration that is governed by the transport of drug particles from the nasal vestibule to the middle passages. Although drug deposition locations in the nasal cavity had a significant effect on the shape of the concentration profile, the absolute bioavailability remained constant provided that all the drug remained in the nose over the course of the simulation. Loss of drug through the nostrils even after long periods resulted in a significant decrease in bioavailability and increased variability. The results of this study quantify how differences in nasal drug deposition affect transient plasma concentrations and overall bioavailability. These findings are potentially useful for establishing bioequivalence for nasal spray devices and reducing the burden of in vitro testing, pharmacodynamics, and clinical studies. Copyright © 2016 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Evaluation of the effect of localized skin cooling on nasal airway volume by acoustic rhinometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamagiwa, M; Hilberg, O; Pedersen, O F; Lundqvist, G R

    1990-04-01

    Ten healthy subjects (four men and six women) were subjected to localized skin cooling by submersion for 5 min of both feet and, in another experiment, one hand and forearm into ice-cold water. Repeated measurements of nasal cavity volumes by a new method, acoustic rhinometry, showed characteristic patterns ranging from marked increases in volumes lasting the entire exposure period to transient monophasic or biphasic responses to no change at all. The pattern in individual subjects was reproducible with the two methods of cooling, and it could be characterized by five types when related to baseline measurements during the preexposure period. Because of large minute-to-minute variations, probably determined by local differences and fluctuations in blood flow in tissues through the nose, evaluation of induced changes in the nasal cavity volume cannot be based on single measurements as has frequently been done in the past by using rhinomanometry as the experimental method. The mechanisms behind the characteristic patterns in immediate human nasal response to local skin cooling challenge remains to be explored.

  18. Application of nitrogen plasma immersion ion implantation to titanium nasal implants with nanonetwork surface structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Ying-Sui; Yang, Wei-En [Department of Dentistry, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei 112, Taiwan (China); Zhang, Lan [State Key Laboratory for Mechanical Behavior of Materials, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China); Zhu, Hongqin [State Key Laboratory of High Performance Ceramics and Superfine Microstructure, Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200050 (China); Lan, Ming-Ying [Division of Rhinology, Department of Otolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery, Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Taipei 112, Taiwan and School of Medicine, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei 112, Taiwan (China); Lee, Sheng-Wei [Institute of Materials Science and Engineering, National Central University, Taoyuan 320, Taiwan (China); Huang, Her-Hsiung, E-mail: hhhuang@ym.edu.tw [Department of Dentistry, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei 112, Taiwan (China); Institute of Oral Biology, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei 112, Taiwan (China); Graduate Institute of Basic Medical Science, China Medical University, Taichung 404, Taiwan (China); Department of Medical Research, China Medical University Hospital, Taichung 407, Taiwan (China); Department of Bioinformatics and Medical Engineering, Asia University, Taichung 413, Taiwan (China); Department of Stomatology, Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Taipei 112, Taiwan (China)

    2016-07-15

    In nasal reconstruction, the response of cells to titanium (Ti) implants is mainly determined by surface features of the implant. In a pilot study, the authors applied electrochemical anodization to Ti surfaces in an alkaline solution to create a network of nanoscale surface structures. This nanonetwork was intended to enhance the responses of primary human nasal epithelial cell (HNEpC) to the Ti surface. In this study, the authors then treated the anodized, nanonetwork-structured Ti surface using nitrogen plasma immersion ion implantation (NPIII) in order to further improve the HNEpC response to the Ti surface. Subsequently, surface characterization was performed to elucidate morphology, roughness, wettability, and chemistry of specimens. Cytotoxicity, blood, and HNEpC responses were also evaluated. Our results demonstrate that NPIII treatment led to the formation of a noncytotoxic TiN-containing thin film (thickness <100 nm) on the electrochemically anodized Ti surface with a nanonetwork-structure. NPIII treatment was shown to improve blood clotting and the adhesion of platelets to the anodized Ti surface as well as the adhesion and proliferation of hNEpC. This research spreads our understanding of the fact that a TiN-containing thin film, produced using NPIII treatment, could be used to improve blood and HNEpC responses to anodized, nanonetwork-structured Ti surfaces in nasal implant applications.

  19. Effect of terfenadine on nasal, eustachian tube, and pulmonary function after provocative intranasal histamine challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skoner, D P; Doyle, W J; Boehm, S; Fireman, P

    1991-12-01

    Previous studies have documented that intranasal histamine challenge results in nasal and eustachian tube obstruction (ETO) in human volunteers. The purpose of the present study was to assess the effect of pretreatment with terfenadine, a nonsedating antihistamine on the pathophysiologic consequences of intranasal histamine challenge. Fifteen subjects with allergic rhinitis were challenged intranasally with saline and increasing histamine doses (0.01, 0.1, 0.5, 1.0, 5.0, and 10.0 mg) before pretreatment (baseline) and after 1 week of pretreatment with terfenadine, 60 mg b.i.d., terfenadine, 120 mg b.i.d., and placebo. Nasal conductance as measured by posterior rhinomanometry showed a dose-dependent, monotonic decrease following sequential administration of the histamine solutions, but there were no apparent differences in the average responses among the four challenge sessions. The frequency of ETO after histamine challenge was decreased by pretreatment with both doses of terfenadine, although this was not significant. Histamine-induced sneezing and rhinorrhea, but not congestion, were significantly reduced by terfenadine pretreatment. There was no evidence of extension of the histamine effects to the lower airway. The results of the present study suggest that terfenadine, a nonsedating antihistamine, had a favorable effect on sneezing and rhinorrhea after provocative intranasal histamine challenge, but did not significantly attenuate the subjective or objective nasal and ET obstructive responses.

  20. Nasal congestion in relation to low air exchange rate in schools. Evaluation by acoustic rhinometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wålinder, R; Norbäck, D; Wieslander, G; Smedje, G; Erwall, C

    1997-09-01

    Upper airway symptoms are common, but there is little information available on clinical findings in relation to indoor air pollution. This pilot study was conducted to test whether increased levels of indoor air pollutants in schools may correlate to a swelling of the nasal mucosa. The assumption was made that the degree of swelling could be related to the degree of decongestive effect of xylometazoline, and measured by acoustic rhinometry. The study was performed among 15 subjects in a school with low air exchange rate (0.6 air changes/h) and 12 subjects in a school with high air exchange rate (5.2 air changes/h). Hygienic measurements were performed in both schools. Acoustic rhinometry was performed for each individual under standardized forms. Cross-sectional areas and volumes of the nasal cavity were measured before and after decongestion with xylometazoline hydrochloride. Absolute values of the minimal cross-sectional area were lower in the school with poor ventilation. The decongestive effect of xylometazoline was significantly higher in the school with low air exchange, when correction for the influence of age was made. A diminished decongestive effect was seen with increasing age. The exposure measurements showed that indoor concentrations of volatile organic compounds, bacteria and moulds were higher in the school with low ventilation. In conclusion, raised levels of indoor air pollutants due to inadequate ventilation in schools may affect the upper airways and cause a swelling of the nasal mucosa, and acoustic rhinometry could be a useful objective method to measure human nasal reactions to the indoor environment.

  1. Extraskeletal primary Ewing's scrcoma in the nasal cavity: A case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Bo Young; Park, Seok Won; Km, Eo Jin; Choi, Jong Sun; Lee, Eun Ja

    2013-01-01

    Ewing's sarcoma presents a rare tumor of the head and neck, and even rarer in the nasal cavity and/or paranasal sinuses. We report the case of Ewing's sarcoma in the nasal cavity, as presented with nasal obstruction and epistaxis. The CT and MRI examination reveals a mass in the left nasal cavity with extension to contralateral side, ethmoidal sinus, and nasopharynx. We provide an overview of Ewing's sarcoma in the nasal cavity and discuss radiologic findings of this unusual case.

  2. Angioleiomyoma of nasal septum: Case report and literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varun V. Varadarajan, M.D.

    2016-12-01

    Conclusion: Angioleiomyoma of the nasal septum is a rare and challenging clinical diagnosis that requires detailed histopathologic examination. The differential diagnosis includes a variety of epithelial and mesenchymal derived tumors. Literature review suggests a female predilection with possible hormonal influence.

  3. Nasal septum perforation in patient with pyoderma gangrenosum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maia, Camilla Bezerra da Cruz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The cocaine is obtained from the leaves of the coca (Erythroxylon coca. It can be used in many ways, but the most common is the drug inhalation. The Cocaine also causes vasoconstriction at nasal mucous membrane and its chronic use can cause necrosis and nasal septum perforation. Pyoderma gangrenosum is an uncommon idiopathic disease characterized by ulcerations, usually observed on the legs. Its diagnosis is most common an exclusion of others diseases. So far, there is no specific treatment based on evidence by randomized controlled trials. Objective: Describe the rare association between Pyoderma gangrenosum and cocaine. Case Report: E. A., 27-year-old woman with destruction of nasal septum and palate who has been using a big amount of cocaine, been necessary note the difference from which disease cause de damage. Final Comments: Also there are only three cases of Pyoderma gangrenosum complicated with nasal septum perforation in cocaine users.

  4. Reconstruction of the nasal septum using polydioxanone plate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boenisch, Miriam; Nolst Trenité, Gilbert J.

    2010-01-01

    To evaluate the usefulness of resorbable polydioxanone plate attached to nasal septal cartilage in external septoplasty, to assess its mechanical stability until healing of cartilage fragments, and to describe the surgical technique and clinical experience. External septoplasty with polydioxanone

  5. Psychological, Functional and Aesthetic Outcome after Nasal Reconstruction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.E. Moolenburgh (Sanne)

    2009-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ The incidence of nasal skin malignancies is increasing worldwide rapidly. As a result of the surgical treatment of these malignancies the demand for reconstructive procedures has also increased enormously. In literature, emphasis exists on technical refinements to

  6. Extra-skeletal Ewing's sarcoma of the nasal fossa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, S; Ironside, J W

    1990-07-01

    Extraskeletal Ewing's sarcoma is rarely found arising in the head and neck region. An unusual case arising in the nasal fossa in a young child is reported and the differential diagnosis, pathology and treatment discussed.

  7. Early surfactant therapy and nasal continuous positive airways ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) receiving nasal continuous positive airways ... required FiO2 was allowed to rise above 0.4 before surfactant was administered. ... group received surfactant immediately and the high-threshold group ...

  8. Rhinoscintigraphic analysis of nasal mucociliary function in patients ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-11-02

    Nov 2, 2015 ... renal failure, liver disorders or hypo/hyperthyroidism, use of any topical or systemic drugs that could affect nasal physiology (topical or oral decongestants, antihypertensives, ..... Anatomy of the Nose and Paranasal Sinuses.

  9. Nasal Aspergillosis in a Dog: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilo Padilla Peñuela

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Nasal aspergillosis is a major chronic disease affecting the nostrils in dogs. Clinical sinology is typical in every chronic nasal disease. Epistaxis and occasional pain occurs. Rhinoscopic assessment of the area evidences findings associated with the pathology and allows collecting samples for cytology and culture. Systemic therapy with oral antifungals has had variable utility, but now it has been replaced by direct topical medication to the affected area. This article describes the case of a 4-years-old male dog, submitted to consultation by unilateral muco-bloody nasal discharge with a week of evolution. The patient was treated by another vet center with cyclonamine and vitamin K for a possible clotting disorder. After a series of tests that included rhinoscopy and fungal culture, nasal aspergillosis was diagnosed. Intranasal clotrimazole was applied twice and it allowed the resolution of the clinical signs.

  10. Inducible clindamycin resistance and nasal carriage rates of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: MRSA nasal carriage among healthcare workers needs infection control practice in hospitals to prevent trans- ... infection and is becoming an increasing problem among ..... ated risk factors and pulsed field gel electrophoresis of.

  11. Flora bacteriana cloacal y nasal de Lepidochelys olivacea (Testudines: Cheloniidae en el pacífico norte de Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Santoro

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Con el objetivo de determinar la flora normal aerobia, cloacal y nasal de la tortuga lora (Lepidochelys olivacea , entre los meses de julio y agosto del 2002,se colectaron muestras bacteriológicas de 45 quelonios aparentemente sanos,durante el desove en Playa Nancite,Parque Nacional Santa Rosa, Costa Rica, a través del uso de hisopos estériles que se introdujeron en la cloaca y en uno de los conductos nasales. De las muestras recolectadas se obtuvieron e identificaron un total de 99 aislamientos, incluyendo 10 grupos de Gram-negativos y 5 de Gram-positivos. De cada tortuga se obtuvo un promedio de 0.7 bacterias de la cloaca y 1.4 de las cavidades nasales. Las bacterias más frecuente halladas fueron Aeromonas spp.(13/45 y Citrobacter freundi (6/45 en la cloaca, y Bacillus spp. (32/45,Staphylococcus aureus (6/45y Corynebacterium spp.(5/45en las cavidades nasales. En este investigación, la flora microbiana de las tortugas lora resultó constituida por microorganismos potencialmente patógenos para el ser humano y las tortugas.Cloacal and nasal bacterial flora of Lepidochelys olivacea (Testudines: Cheloniidae from the North Pacific coast of Costa Rica.The aerobic cloacal and nasal bacterial flora of 45 apparently healthy female olive ridley sea turtles (Lepidochelys olivacea was studied at Nancite nesting beach,in Santa Rosa National Park (Costa Rican North Pacificduring July and August 2002.Bacterial samples were obtained by inserting sterile swabs directly into the cloaca and the nasal cavities of the turtles.Ninety-nine aerobic bacterial isolates, including 10 Gram-negative and 5 Gram-positive bacteria, were recovered.The most common bacteria cultured were Aeromonas spp. (13/45 and Citrobacter freundi (6/45from cloacal samples and Bacillus spp.(32/45, Staphylococcus aureus (6/45and Corynebacterium spp.(5/45from nasal ducts.The results of the present study showed that the aerobic bacterial flora of nesting female olive ridleys was composed of

  12. Anatomy and Surgical Approaches to the Rabbit Nasal Septum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badran, Karam W; Chang, John C; Kuan, Edward C; Wong, Brian J F

    2017-09-01

    The rabbit is the primary animal model used to investigate aspects of nasal surgery. Although several studies have used this model, none has provided a comprehensive analysis of the surgical anatomy and techniques used to gain access to the rabbit nasal fossae and septum. To describe and optimize the surgical anatomy and approach to the rabbit nasal vault and septal cartilage. In an ex vivo animal study conducted at an academic medical center, preliminary cadaveric dissections were performed on rabbit head specimens to establish familiarity with relevant anatomy and rehearse various approaches. Live Pasteurella-free New Zealand white rabbits (3.5-4.0 kg) were used to further develop this surgical technique developed here. Access of the nasal vault was gained through a midline nasal dorsum incision and creation of an osteoplastic flap with a drill. Submucosal resection was performed with preservation of the mucoperichondrium. All rabbits were monitored daily for 4 weeks in the postoperative period for signs of infection, pain, and complications. The study was conducted from June 1, 2014, to December 1, 2014. Surgical anatomy and techniques used to gain access to the rabbit nasal vault and harvest septal cartilage. Four Pasteurella-free New Zealand white rabbits (Western Organ Rabbit Co), ranging in age from 9 to 12 months and weighing between 3.5 and 4.0 kg, were used in this study. Initial dissections demonstrated the feasibility of harvesting septal cartilage while preserving the mucoperichondrial envelope. Access to the nasal vault through this 3-osteotomy approach allowed for maximal exposure to the nasal cavity bilaterally while maintaining the integrity of the mucoperichondrium following septal cartilage harvest. The maximum amount of bulk, en bloc, cartilage harvested was 1.0 × 2.5 cm. Following surgical dissection, all animals maintained adequate airway patency and support to midface structures. Furthermore, all specimens preserved the integrity of the

  13. Midline nasal dermoid cyst with Tessier's 0 cleft

    OpenAIRE

    Guruprasad, Yadavalli; Chauhan, Dinesh Singh

    2014-01-01

    This is a rare anomaly of midline nasal dermoid cyst (NDC) along with Tessier's 0 cleft. Midline NDCs present most commonly result from aberrant embryological development, and most commonly give rise to bifid nasal deformity resulting in midline cleft of the nose. Craniofacial clefts are among the most disfiguring of all facial anomalies. They exist in a multitude of patterns and with varying degrees of severity. The bifid nose deformity is generally an indicator of Tessier number 0 cleft. We...

  14. Effect of nasal deviation on quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lima Ramos, Sueli; Hochman, Bernardo; Gomes, Heitor Carvalho; Abla, Luiz Eduardo Felipe; Veiga, Daniela Francescato; Juliano, Yara; Dini, Gal Moreira; Ferreira, Lydia Masako

    2011-07-01

    Nasal deviation is a common complaint in otorhinolaryngology and plastic surgery. This condition not only causes impairment of nasal function but also affects quality of life, leading to psychological distress. The subjective assessment of quality of life, as an important aspect of outcomes research, has received increasing attention in recent decades. Quality of life is measured using standardized questionnaires that have been tested for reliability, validity, and sensitivity. The aim of this study was to evaluate health-related quality of life, self-esteem, and depression in patients with nasal deviation. Sixty patients were selected for the study. Patients with nasal deviation (n = 32) were assigned to the study group, and patients without nasal deviation (n = 28) were assigned to the control group. The diagnosis of nasal deviation was made by digital photogrammetry. Quality of life was assessed using the Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short Form Health Survey questionnaire; the Rosenberg Self-Esteem/Federal University of São Paulo, Escola Paulista de Medicina Scale; and the 20-item Self-Report Questionnaire. There were significant differences between groups in the physical functioning and general health subscales of the Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short Form Health Survey (p < 0.05). Depression was detected in 11 patients (34.4 percent) in the study group and in two patients in the control group, with a significant difference between groups (p < 0.05). Nasal deviation is an aspect of rhinoplasty of which the surgeon should be aware so that proper psychological diagnosis can be made and suitable treatment can be planned because psychologically the patients with nasal deviation have significantly worse quality of life and are more prone to depression. Risk, II.(Figure is included in full-text article.).

  15. Alcohol hyper-responsiveness in chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Schryver, Els; Derycke, Lara; Campo, Paloma; Gabriels, Eline; Joos, Guy F; Van Zele, Thibaut; Bachert, Claus; Hellings, Peter W; Gevaert, Philippe

    2017-02-01

    An important percentage of subjects diagnosed with chronic upper airway disease report alcohol-induced worsening of their symptoms. The prevalence and characteristics of respiratory reactions provoked by alcohol-containing drinks have not been fully investigated yet. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence and characteristics of alcohol hyper-responsiveness in patients with chronic airway disease and healthy controls. Furthermore, nasal inflammation was evaluated in nasal polyp patients with and without hyper-responsiveness. We evaluated the prevalence and characteristics of alcohol-induced respiratory complaints in 1281 subjects. Chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps (CRSwNP) patients with and without NSAID exacerbated respiratory disease (NERD), chronic rhinosinusitis patients without nasal polyps (CRSsNP), allergic rhinitis (AR) patients and healthy controls were approached by means of a questionnaire. Inflammatory markers (eosinophilic cationic protein (ECP), IL-5, IgE, SAE-specific IgE, IL-17, TNFα and IFNγ) in tissue were then compared between alcohol hyper-responsive and non-hyper-responsive CRSwNP patients. The highest prevalence of nasal and bronchial alcohol hyper-responsiveness was observed in patients with NERD, followed by CRSwNP, and less frequent in CRSsNP, AR and healthy controls. Alcohol hyper-responsiveness is significantly more prevalent in CRSwNP patients suffering from recurrent disease and in patients with severe symptomatology. In nasal tissue of the hyper-responsive CRSwNP group, we observed significantly higher nasal levels of the eosinophilic biomarker ECP. Nasal hyper-responsiveness to alcohol is significantly more prevalent in severe eosinophilic upper airway disease. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Polyvinyl siloxane: novel material for external nasal splinting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayakumar, N K; Rathnaprabhu, V; Ramesh, S; Parameswaran, A

    2016-01-01

    External nasal splinting is performed routinely after nasal bone fracture reductions, osteotomies, and rhinoplasties. Materials commonly used include plaster of Paris (POP), thermoplastic splints, self-adhesive padded aluminium splints, and Orthoplast, among many others. The disadvantages of these materials are described in this paper, and polyvinyl siloxane is recommended as an effective and more readily available alternative material to counter these pitfalls. Copyright © 2015 International Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Veterinary vaccine nanotechnology: pulmonary and nasal delivery in livestock animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderon-Nieva, Daniella; Goonewardene, Kalhari Bandara; Gomis, Susantha; Foldvari, Marianna

    2017-08-01

    Veterinary vaccine development has several similarities with human vaccine development to improve the overall health and well-being of species. However, veterinary goals lean more toward feasible large-scale administration methods and low cost to high benefit immunization. Since the respiratory mucosa is easily accessible and most infectious agents begin their infection cycle at the mucosa, immunization through the respiratory route has been a highly attractive vaccine delivery strategy against infectious diseases. Additionally, vaccines administered via the respiratory mucosa could lower costs by removing the need of trained medical personnel, and lowering doses yet achieving similar or increased immune stimulation. The respiratory route often brings challenges in antigen delivery efficiency with enough potency to induce immunity. Nanoparticle (NP) technology has been shown to enhance immune activation by producing higher antibody titers and protection. Although specific mechanisms between NPs and biological membranes are still under investigation, physical parameters such as particle size and shape, as well as biological tissue distribution including mucociliary clearance influence the protection and delivery of antigens to the site of action and uptake by target cells. For respiratory delivery, various biomaterials such as mucoadhesive polymers, lipids, and polysaccharides have shown enhanced antibody production or protection in comparison to antigen alone. This review presents promising NPs administered via the nasal or pulmonary routes for veterinary applications specifically focusing on livestock animals including poultry.

  18. Use of digital technologies for nasal prosthesis manufacturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palousek, David; Rosicky, Jiri; Koutny, Daniel

    2014-04-01

    Digital technology is becoming more accessible for common use in medical applications; however, their expansion in prosthetic and orthotic laboratories is not large because of the persistent image of difficult applicability to real patients. This article aims to offer real example in the area of human facial prostheses. This article describes the utilization of optical digitization, computational modelling, rapid prototyping, mould fabrication and manufacturing of a nasal silicone prosthesis. This technical note defines the key points of the methodology and aspires to contribute to the introduction of a certified manufacturing procedure. The results show that the used technologies reduce the manufacturing time, reflect patient's requirements and allow the manufacture of high-quality prostheses for missing facial asymmetric parts. The methodology provides a good position for further development issues and is usable for clinical practice. Clinical relevance Utilization of digital technologies in facial prosthesis manufacturing process can be a good contribution for higher patient comfort and higher production efficiency but with higher initial investment and demands for experience with software tools.

  19. Paradoxical sensation of nasal airflow in patients with common cold. Are we measuring the correct modality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Jonathan D; Eccles, Ronald

    2005-12-01

    A paradoxical relationship between objective and subjective measures of nasal obstruction exists in participants not exposed to any treatment. The sensation of nasal obstruction may be due to the amalgamation of many different nasal sensations. Improved methods for measuring nasal sensations are required to further investigate the relationship between objective and subjective measures of nasal obstruction. In a recent study it was shown that the subjective sensation of nasal patency increased as the nasal passages became objectively more obstructed in patients who received a placebo compared to those who received an oral decongestant. This paradoxical response may be explained as a placebo effect, i.e. patients who received a placebo may have expected to feel less obstructed. The aim of the present study was to investigate this interesting paradox by determining objective and subjective measures of nasal obstruction over time in participants not exposed to any treatment. A total of 60 healthy participants with common cold were recruited. Objective and subjective measures of nasal obstruction were recorded at baseline and at 1 and 2 h using posterior rhinomanometry and a visual analogue scale. Objective measures demonstrated an increase in nasal obstruction over time for both nasal passages considered together and for individual nasal passages. Subjective measures demonstrated a sensation of decreased nasal obstruction over time for both nasal passages considered together and for individual nasal passages.

  20. Duration of Nasal Packs in the Management of Epistaxis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kundi, N. A.; Raza, M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To compare the efficacy of nasal packs for 12 and 24 hours in the management of epistaxis. Study Design: Quasi experimental study. Place and Duration of Study: Combined Military Hospital, Nowshera and Heavy Industries Taxilla Hospital, from October 2012 to April 2013. Methodology: A total of 60 patients presenting with epistaxis were selected and were divided into two groups of 30 patients each. Patients in both the groups were managed by nasal packs. In group-A packs were removed after 12 hours while in group-B after 24 hours. Symptoms of headache, lacrimation and recurrence of bleeding were recorded. SPSS 20 was used for data analysis and p-value less than 0.01 was considered significant. Results: There was significant difference for headache between removal of nasal packs after 12 hours and 24 hours (p < 0.001). There was significant difference for excessive lacrimation at 12 and 24 hours (p = 0.001). No significant difference was observed for recurrence of bleed when nasal packs were removed at 12 and 24 hours (p = 0.317). Conclusion: Duration in removal of nasal packs after 12 or 24 hours made a difference in the management of epistaxis. Symptoms of headache and excessive lacrimation were significantly higher when nasal packs were removed after 24 hours. It is recommended that patient could be managed with lesser duration of packs after episode of epistaxis to avoid inconvenience. (author)

  1. Application of direct digital radiography of nasal bone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Dengfa; Wang Haijun; Zhang Ailian; Wang Yulin

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To research the application value of direct digital radiograph (DDR ) in nasal bone imaging. Methods: One hundred cases were examined by DDR, 30 cases of them were examined by two methods both DDR and conventional radiography. All digital images were post-processed with 'MUSICA' (Multi-Scale Image Contrast Amplification), incision and largamente, analyzed and diagnosed by experienced two radiologists and two technicians. Results: One hundred cases of nasal bone, soft tissue of nose were showed excellent in DDR, and satisfactory cases were 95 and 92, respectively. Forty-six cases of nasal bone fractures were found. Thirty cases were examined by both DDR and conventional radiography, images of nasal bone, soft tissue of nose were showed, satisfactory cases were 28 in DDR; and satisfactory cases were 6 (χ 2 =20.05, P 2 =15.06, P 2 =5.14, P<0.05) in conventional and digital radiography, respectively. Conclusion: DDR images of nasal bone, soft tissue of nose was excellent, more fractures were discovered than conventional radiography. Image quality of DDR is better than conventional radiography in nasal bone imaging. (authors)

  2. Nasal mucosal blood flow after intranasal allergen challenge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmberg, K.; Bake, B.; Pipkorn, U.

    1988-01-01

    The nasal mucosal blood flow in patients with allergic rhinitis was determined at nasal allergen challenges with the 133 Xenon washout method. Determinations were made in 12 subjects before and 15 minutes after challenge with diluent and increasing doses of allergen. The time course was followed in eight subjects by means of repeated measurements during 1 hour after a single allergen dose. Finally, the blood flow was measured after unilateral allergen challenge in the contralateral nasal cavity. A dose-dependent decrease in blood flow was found after nasal challenge with increasing doses of allergens, whereas challenge with diluent alone did not induce any changes. The highest allergen dose, which also induced pronounced nasal symptoms, resulted in a decrease in blood flow of 25% (p less than 0.001). The time-course study demonstrated a maximum decrease in blood flow 10 to 20 minutes after challenge and then a gradual return to baseline. Unilateral allergen challenge resulted in a decrease in blood flow in the contralateral, unchallenged nasal cavity, suggesting that part of the allergen-induced changes in blood flow were reflex mediated

  3. Control of nasal vasculature and airflow resistance in the dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lung, M A; Phipps, R J; Wang, J C; Widdicombe, J G

    1984-01-01

    Nasal vascular and airflow resistances have been measured in dogs, simultaneously on both sides separately. Vascular resistance was measured either by constant flow perfusion of the terminal branch of the maxillary artery (which supplies, via the sphenopalatine artery, the nasal septum, most of the turbinates and the nasal sinuses) or by measuring blood flow through this artery, maintained by the dog's own blood pressure. Airflow resistance was assessed by inserting balloon-tipped endotracheal catheters into the back of each nasal cavity via the nasopharynx, and measuring transnasal pressure at constant airflow through each side of the nose simultaneously. Preliminary experiments indicated that there was 5-10% collateral anastomosis between the two sides. Close-arterial injection of drugs showed different patterns of response. Adrenaline, phenylephrine, chlorpheniramine and low doses of prostaglandin F2 alpha increased vascular resistance and lowered airway resistance. Salbutamol, methacholine and histamine lowered vascular resistance and increased airway resistance. Dobutamine decreased airway resistance with a small increase in vascular resistance. Prostaglandins E1, E2 and F2 alpha (high dose) decreased both vascular and airway resistances. Substance P, eledoisin-related peptide and vasoactive intestinal polypeptide lowered vascular resistance with little change in airway resistance. The results are interpreted in terms of possible drug actions on precapillary resistance vessels, sinusoids and venules, and arteriovenous anastomoses. It is concluded that nasal airway resistance cannot be correlated with vascular resistance or blood flow, since the latter has a complex and ill-defined relationship with nasal vascular blood volume. PMID:6204040

  4. Nasal reaction to changes in whole body temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundqvist, G R; Pedersen, O F; Hilberg, O; Nielsen, B

    1993-11-01

    The changes in nasal patency following a 1.5 degrees C decrease or increase in whole body temperature were measured in 8 healthy young males, during and after 30 min of immersion in a 15 degrees C cold or a 40 degrees C warm bath, breathing air at the same temperature, in a cross-over experimental design. The nasal reactions were traced by consecutive measurements of changes in nasal cavity volumes by acoustic rhinometry. Swelling of the mucosa during cooling and an almost maximal shrinkage of the mucosa during heating were indicated by respectively a decrease and an increase in nasal cavity volumes. The reactions were determined predominantly by the whole body thermal balance, but were also influenced by the temperature of the inhaled air, either enhanced, reduced or temporarily reversed. The greatest change occurred in the nasal cavity, left or right, which differed most from the final state at the beginning of exposure due to the actual state of nasal cycle.

  5. Routine use of humidification with nasal continuous positive airway pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worsnop, C J; Miseski, S; Rochford, P D

    2010-09-01

    Heated humidification can reduce nasal symptoms caused by continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) treatment, but its routine use has not been studied over the medium term in a randomized controlled trial. The aim of this study is to determine if heated humidification would reduce nasal symptoms and improve adherence with CPAP treatment in all patients with sleep apnoea irrespective of whether they had nasal symptoms initially. A randomized, parallel group design. Patients were treated for 3 months with a Fisher & Paykel HC201 pump with built-in heated humidification, or with the heater disabled and without water. Adherence was measured with a timer built into the pumps. Nasal symptoms were measured with a 10-cm visual analogue scale. There were 25 in the humidification group and 29 in the non-humidification group. After 12 weeks mean (standard deviation) adherence with CPAP was 4.7 (2.4) and 4.5 (2.2) hours per night respectively. Nasal symptoms that were reduced were nose blocked* 6 (12), 18 (26); sneezing* 4 (8), 15 (25); dry nose* 8 (12), 24 (33); stuffy nose* 7 (14), 22(31); dry mouth* 13 (18), 33(36); and runny nose* 6 (17), 14 (29). Parameters marked with an asterisk '*' had P humidification with CPAP in all patients with sleep apnoea reduced nasal symptoms, but did not improve adherence. © 2010 The Authors. Internal Medicine Journal © 2010 Royal Australasian College of Physicians.

  6. Nasalance and nasality at experimental velopharyngeal openings in palatal prosthesis: a case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    LIMA-GREGIO, Aveliny Mantovan; MARINO, Viviane Cristina de Castro; PEGORARO-KROOK, Maria Inês; BARBOSA, Plinio Almeida; AFERRI, Homero Carneiro; DUTKA, Jeniffer de Cassia Rillo

    2011-01-01

    The use of prosthetic devices for correction of velopharyngeal insufficiency (VPI) is an alternative treatment for patients with conditions that preclude surgery and for those individuals with a hypofunctional velopharynx (HV) with a poor prognosis for the surgical repair of VPI. Understanding the role and measuring the outcome of prosthetic treatment of velopharyngeal dysfunction requires the use of tools that allow for documenting pre- and post-treatment outcomes. Experimental openings in speech bulbs have been used for simulating VPI in studies documenting changes in aerodynamic, acoustic and kinematics aspects of speech associated with the use of palatal prosthetic devices. The use of nasometry to document changes in speech associated with experimental openings in speech bulbs, however, has not been described in the literature. Objective This single-subject study investigated nasalance and nasality at the presence of experimental openings drilled through the speech bulb of a patient with HV. Material and Methods Nasometric recordings of the word "pato" were obtained under 4 velopharyngeal conditions: no-opening (control condition), no speech bulb, speech bulb with a 20 mm2 opening, and speech bulb with 30 mm2 opening. Five speech-language pathologists performed auditory-perceptual ratings while the subject read an oral passage under all conditions. Results Kruskal-Wallis test showed significant difference among conditions (p=0.0002), with Scheffé post hoc test indicating difference from the no-opening condition. Conclusion The changes in nasalance observed after drilling holes of known sizes in a speech bulb suggest that nasometry reflect changes in transfer of sound energy related to different sizes of velopharyngeal opening. PMID:22230996

  7. [Pyodermatitis-pyostomatitis vegetans with nasal involvement].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peuvrel, L; Barbarot, S; Gagey-Caron, V; Tessier, M-H; Cassagnau, E; Stalder, J-F

    2008-11-01

    Pyodermatitis-pyostomatitis vegetans (PPV) is a rare chronic disorder often associated with inflammatory bowel disease. We report an isolated case involving the oral, labial and nasal mucosa. A 28-year-old man, in good general condition, presented with a 2-year history of painless stomatitis. The physical examination revealed pustular and exophytic lesions of the jugal, gingival and palatine mucosa on an erythematous background, as well as some pustular and crusted lesions of the lower lip and nostrils. Histopathological analysis revealed epithelial hyperplasia and a suprabasal cleft with some signs of acantholysis and numerous neutrophils and eosinophils. Direct and indirect immunofluorescence assay was negative. There was no associated bowel disease. We concluded on a diagnosis of PPV of younger subjects. The lesions disappeared with oral corticosteroids but with steroid dependency. PPV is a rare dermatosis associated in more than 75% of cases with inflammatory bowel disease, usually ulcerative colitis. Lesions of the oral mucosa are a constant finding and are characterised by aseptic pustules on an erythematous background. Skin lesions are pustular and more or less exophytic. To our knowledge, there have been no reports to date of intranasal lesions of PPV.

  8. Effect of formulation- and administration-related variables on deposition pattern of nasal spray pumps evaluated using a nasal cast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kundoor, Vipra; Dalby, Richard N

    2011-08-01

    To systematically evaluate the effect of formulation- and administration-related variables on nasal spray deposition using a nasal cast. Deposition pattern was assessed by uniformly coating a transparent nose model with Sar-Gel®, which changes from white to purple on contact with water. Sprays were subsequently discharged into the cast, which was then digitally photographed. Images were quantified using Adobe® Photoshop. The effects of formulation viscosity (which influences droplet size), simulated administration techniques (head orientation, spray administration angle, spray nozzle insertion depth), spray pump design and metering volume on nasal deposition pattern were investigated. There was a significant decrease in the deposition area associated with sprays of increasing viscosity. This appeared to be mediated by an increase in droplet size and a narrowing of the spray plume. Administration techniques and nasal spray pump design also had a significant effect on the deposition pattern. This simple color-based method provides quantitative estimates of the effects that different formulation and administration variables may have on the nasal deposition area, and provides a rational basis on which manufacturers of nasal sprays can base their patient instructions or post approval changes when it is impractical to optimize these using a clinical study.

  9. Characterization of the nasal and oral microbiota of detection dogs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anitha Isaiah

    Full Text Available Little is known about physiological factors that affect the sense of olfaction in dogs. The objectives of this study were to describe the canine nasal and oral microbiota in detection dogs. We sought to determine the bacterial composition of the nasal and oral microbiota of a diverse population of detection canines. Nasal and oral swabs were collected from healthy dogs (n = 81 from four locations-Alabama, Georgia, California, and Texas. Nasal and oral swabs were also collected from a second cohort of detection canines belonging to three different detection job categories: explosive detection dogs (SP-E; n = 22, patrol and narcotics detection dogs (P-NDD; n = 15, and vapor wake dogs (VWD-E; n = 9. To understand if the nasal and oral microbiota of detection canines were variable, sample collection was repeated after 7 weeks in a subset of dogs. DNA was extracted from the swabs and used for 454-pyrosequencing of the16S rRNA genes. Nasal samples had a significantly lower diversity than oral samples (P<0.01. Actinobacteria and Proteobacteria were higher in nasal samples, while Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes, Fusobacteria, and Tenericutes were higher in oral samples. Bacterial diversity was not significantly different based on the detection job. No significant difference in beta diversity was observed in the nasal samples based on the detection job. In oral samples, however, ANOSIM suggested a significant difference in bacterial communities based on job category albeit with a small effect size (R = 0.1079, P = 0.02. Analysis of the composition of bacterial communities using LEfSe showed that within the nasal samples, Cardiobacterium and Riemerella were higher in VWD-E dogs, and Sphingobacterium was higher in the P-NDD group. In the oral samples Enterococcus and Capnocytophaga were higher in the P-NDD group. Gemella and Aggregatibacter were higher in S-PE, and Pigmentiphaga, Chryseobacterium, Parabacteroides amongst others were higher within the VWD-E group

  10. Characterization of the nasal and oral microbiota of detection dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaiah, Anitha; Hoffmann, Aline Rodrigues; Kelley, Russ; Mundell, Paul; Steiner, Jörg M; Suchodolski, Jan S

    2017-01-01

    Little is known about physiological factors that affect the sense of olfaction in dogs. The objectives of this study were to describe the canine nasal and oral microbiota in detection dogs. We sought to determine the bacterial composition of the nasal and oral microbiota of a diverse population of detection canines. Nasal and oral swabs were collected from healthy dogs (n = 81) from four locations-Alabama, Georgia, California, and Texas. Nasal and oral swabs were also collected from a second cohort of detection canines belonging to three different detection job categories: explosive detection dogs (SP-E; n = 22), patrol and narcotics detection dogs (P-NDD; n = 15), and vapor wake dogs (VWD-E; n = 9). To understand if the nasal and oral microbiota of detection canines were variable, sample collection was repeated after 7 weeks in a subset of dogs. DNA was extracted from the swabs and used for 454-pyrosequencing of the16S rRNA genes. Nasal samples had a significantly lower diversity than oral samples (P<0.01). Actinobacteria and Proteobacteria were higher in nasal samples, while Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes, Fusobacteria, and Tenericutes were higher in oral samples. Bacterial diversity was not significantly different based on the detection job. No significant difference in beta diversity was observed in the nasal samples based on the detection job. In oral samples, however, ANOSIM suggested a significant difference in bacterial communities based on job category albeit with a small effect size (R = 0.1079, P = 0.02). Analysis of the composition of bacterial communities using LEfSe showed that within the nasal samples, Cardiobacterium and Riemerella were higher in VWD-E dogs, and Sphingobacterium was higher in the P-NDD group. In the oral samples Enterococcus and Capnocytophaga were higher in the P-NDD group. Gemella and Aggregatibacter were higher in S-PE, and Pigmentiphaga, Chryseobacterium, Parabacteroides amongst others were higher within the VWD-E group. Our initial

  11. Nasal Immunization Confers High Avidity Neutralizing Antibody Response and Immunity to Primary and Recurrent Genital Herpes in Guinea Pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persson, Josefine; Zhang, Yuan; Olafsdottir, Thorunn A.; Thörn, Karolina; Cairns, Tina M.; Wegmann, Frank; Sattentau, Quentin J.; Eisenberg, Roselyn J.; Cohen, Gary H.; Harandi, Ali M.

    2016-01-01

    Genital herpes is one of the most prevalent sexually transmitted infections in both the developing and developed world. Following infection, individuals experience life-long latency associated with sporadic ulcerative outbreaks. Despite many efforts, no vaccine has yet been licensed for human use. Herein, we demonstrated that nasal immunization with an adjuvanted HSV-2 gD envelope protein mounts significant protection to primary infection as well as the establishment of latency and recurrent genital herpes in guinea pigs. Nasal immunization was shown to elicit specific T cell proliferative and IFN-γ responses as well as systemic and vaginal gD-specific IgG antibody (Ab) responses. Furthermore, systemic IgG Abs displayed potent HSV-2 neutralizing properties and high avidity. By employing a competitive surface plasmon resonance (SPR) analysis combined with a battery of known gD-specific neutralizing monoclonal Abs (MAbs), we showed that nasal immunization generated IgG Abs directed to two major discontinuous neutralizing epitopes of gD. These results highlight the potential of nasal immunization with an adjuvanted HSV-2 envelope protein for induction of protective immunity to primary and recurrent genital herpes. PMID:28082979

  12. Nasal Immunization Confers High Avidity Neutralizing Antibody Response and Immunity to Primary and Recurrent Genital Herpes in Guinea Pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persson, Josefine; Zhang, Yuan; Olafsdottir, Thorunn A; Thörn, Karolina; Cairns, Tina M; Wegmann, Frank; Sattentau, Quentin J; Eisenberg, Roselyn J; Cohen, Gary H; Harandi, Ali M

    2016-01-01

    Genital herpes is one of the most prevalent sexually transmitted infections in both the developing and developed world. Following infection, individuals experience life-long latency associated with sporadic ulcerative outbreaks. Despite many efforts, no vaccine has yet been licensed for human use. Herein, we demonstrated that nasal immunization with an adjuvanted HSV-2 gD envelope protein mounts significant protection to primary infection as well as the establishment of latency and recurrent genital herpes in guinea pigs. Nasal immunization was shown to elicit specific T cell proliferative and IFN-γ responses as well as systemic and vaginal gD-specific IgG antibody (Ab) responses. Furthermore, systemic IgG Abs displayed potent HSV-2 neutralizing properties and high avidity. By employing a competitive surface plasmon resonance (SPR) analysis combined with a battery of known gD-specific neutralizing monoclonal Abs (MAbs), we showed that nasal immunization generated IgG Abs directed to two major discontinuous neutralizing epitopes of gD. These results highlight the potential of nasal immunization with an adjuvanted HSV-2 envelope protein for induction of protective immunity to primary and recurrent genital herpes.

  13. An investigation into the usefulness of a rostrocaudal nasal radiographic view in the dog

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.M. Kirberger

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available A rostrocaudal (RCd nasal view was developed in large breed mesaticephalic dogs using a complete, subsequently sectioned, skull and cadaver specimens to optimise the radiographic technique and evaluate normal anatomic features. Gelatin was placed in one nasal passage of the cadaver specimens to mimic the effects of nasal pathology. The latter specimens and 18 clinical cases with suspected nasal disease were evaluated to determine the usefulness of the RCd view compared to standard nasal views. An optimal RCd view was obtained with the dog in dorsal recumbency and the head symmetrically positioned with the hard palate perpendicular to the table using a table top technique with 8 : 1 grid, collimating to the nasal region and centring the primary beam on the philtrum. The dorsolateral aspects of the maxillary bone, the nasal bones, septal sulcus of the vomer, mucosa lined nasal septum and conchae could be seen. A centrodorsal more radiolucent area representing the ethmoid bone region was also visible. Gelatin soft tissue opacification of the nasal passage could be seen more clearly in RCd nasal view than in occlusal dorsoventral view. In clinical cases the RCd view was useful to build up a 3-dimensional image of nasal passage pathology as well as to detect nasal septum and osseous nasal border pathology not visible in other views. This view is particularly useful in cases where cross-sectional imaging modalities are not available or where the nasal investigation is limited by cost considerations.

  14. Nasal inflammation in sleep apnoea patients using CPAP and effect of heated humidification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koutsourelakis, I; Vagiakis, E; Perraki, E; Karatza, M; Magkou, C; Kopaka, M; Roussos, C; Zakynthinos, S

    2011-03-01

    Nasal continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) can cause undesirable nasal symptoms, such as congestion to obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) patients, whose symptoms can be attenuated by the addition of heated humidification. However, neither the nature of nasal symptoms nor the effect of heated humidification on nasal pathophysiology and pathology are convincingly known. 20 patients with OSA on nasal CPAP who exhibited symptomatic nasal obstruction were randomised to receive either 3 weeks of CPAP treatment with heated humidification or 3 weeks of CPAP treatment with sham-heated humidification, followed by 3 weeks of the opposite treatment, respectively. Nasal symptom score, nasal resistance, nasal lavage interleukin-6, interleukin-12 and tumour necrosis factor-α and nasal mucosa histopathology were assessed at baseline and after each treatment arm. Heated humidification in comparison with sham-heated humidification was associated with decrease in nasal symptomatology, resistance and lavage cytokines, and attenuation of inflammatory cell infiltration and fibrosis of the nasal mucosa. In conclusion, nasal obstruction of OSA patients on CPAP treatment is inflammatory in origin and the addition of heated humidification decreases nasal resistance and mucosal inflammation.

  15. Magnetic resonance imaging and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations of rabbit nasal airflows for the development of hybrid CFD/PBPK models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corley, R A; Minard, K R; Kabilan, S; Einstein, D R; Kuprat, A P; Harkema, J R; Kimbell, J S; Gargas, M L; Kinzell, John H

    2009-05-01

    The percentages of total airflows over the nasal respiratory and olfactory epithelium of female rabbits were calculated from computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations of steady-state inhalation. These airflow calculations, along with nasal airway geometry determinations, are critical parameters for hybrid CFD/physiologically based pharmacokinetic models that describe the nasal dosimetry of water-soluble or reactive gases and vapors in rabbits. CFD simulations were based upon three-dimensional computational meshes derived from magnetic resonance images of three adult female New Zealand White (NZW) rabbits. In the anterior portion of the nose, the maxillary turbinates of rabbits are considerably more complex than comparable regions in rats, mice, monkeys, or humans. This leads to a greater surface area to volume ratio in this region and thus the potential for increased extraction of water soluble or reactive gases and vapors in the anterior portion of the nose compared to many other species. Although there was considerable interanimal variability in the fine structures of the nasal turbinates and airflows in the anterior portions of the nose, there was remarkable consistency between rabbits in the percentage of total inspired airflows that reached the ethmoid turbinate region (approximately 50%) that is presumably lined with olfactory epithelium. These latter results (airflows reaching the ethmoid turbinate region) were higher than previous published estimates for the male F344 rat (19%) and human (7%). These differences in regional airflows can have significant implications in interspecies extrapolations of nasal dosimetry.

  16. Effect of solubility enhancement on nasal absorption of meloxicam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horváth, Tamás; Ambrus, Rita; Völgyi, Gergely; Budai-Szűcs, Mária; Márki, Árpád; Sipos, Péter; Bartos, Csilla; Seres, Adrienn B; Sztojkov-Ivanov, Anita; Takács-Novák, Krisztina; Csányi, Erzsébet; Gáspár, Róbert; Szabó-Révész, Piroska

    2016-12-01

    Besides the opioids the standard management of the World Health Organization suggests NSAIDs (non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs) alone or in combination to enhance analgesia in malignant and non-malignant pain therapy. The applicability of NSAIDs in a nasal formulation is a new approach in pharmaceutical technology. In order to enhance the nasal absorption of meloxicam (MX) as an NSAID, its salt form, meloxicam potassium monohydrate (MXP), registered by Egis Plc., was investigated in comparison with MX. The physico-chemical properties of the drugs (structural analysis, solubility and dissolution rate) and the mucoadhesivity of nasal formulations were controlled. In vitro and in vivo studies were carried out to determine the nasal applicability of MXP as a drug candidate in pain therapy. It can be concluded that MX and MXP demonstrated the same equilibrium solubility at the pH5.60 of the nasal mucosa (0.017mg/ml); nonetheless, MXP indicated faster dissolution and a higher permeability through the synthetic membrane. The animal studies justified the short T max value (15min) and the high AUC of MXP, which is important in acute pain therapy. It can be assumed that the low mucoadhesivity of MXP spray did not increase the residence time in the nasal cavity, and the elimination from the nasal mucosa was therefore faster than in the case of MX. Further experiments are necessary to prove the therapeutic relevance of this MXP-containing innovative intranasal formulation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Transcellular sodium transport in cultured cystic fibrosis human nasal epithelium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willumsen, Niels J.; Boucher, Richard C.

    1991-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) airway epithelia exhibit raised transepithelial Na+ transport rates, as determined by open-circuit isotope fluxes and estimates of the amiloride-sensitive equivalent short-circuit current (Ieq). To study the contribution of apical and basolateral membrane paths to raised Na+ ...

  18. Effects of nasal corticosteroids on boosts of systemic allergen-specific IgE production induced by nasal allergen exposure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelia Egger

    Full Text Available Allergen exposure via the respiratory tract and in particular via the nasal mucosa boosts systemic allergen-specific IgE production. Intranasal corticosteroids (INCS represent a first line treatment of allergic rhinitis but their effects on this boost of allergen-specific IgE production are unclear.Here we aimed to determine in a double-blind, placebo-controlled study whether therapeutic doses of an INCS preparation, i.e., nasal fluticasone propionate, have effects on boosts of allergen-specific IgE following nasal allergen exposure.Subjects (n = 48 suffering from grass and birch pollen allergy were treated with daily fluticasone propionate or placebo nasal spray for four weeks. After two weeks of treatment, subjects underwent nasal provocation with either birch pollen allergen Bet v 1 or grass pollen allergen Phl p 5. Bet v 1 and Phl p 5-specific IgE, IgG1-4, IgM and IgA levels were measured in serum samples obtained at the time of provocation and one, two, four, six and eight weeks thereafter.Nasal allergen provocation induced a median increase to 141.1% of serum IgE levels to allergens used for provocation but not to control allergens 4 weeks after provocation. There were no significant differences regarding the boosts of allergen-specific IgE between INCS- and placebo-treated subjects.In conclusion, the application of fluticasone propionate had no significant effects on the boosts of systemic allergen-specific IgE production following nasal allergen exposure.http://clinicaltrials.gov/NCT00755066.

  19. Molecular identity and prevalence of Cryptococcus spp. nasal carriage in asymptomatic feral cats in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danesi, Patrizia; Furnari, Carmelo; Granato, Anna; Schivo, Alice; Otranto, Domenico; Capelli, Gioia; Cafarchia, Claudia

    2014-10-01

    Cryptococcosis is a life-threatening fungal disease that infects humans and animals worldwide. Inhalation of fungal particles from an environmental source can cause primary infection of the respiratory system. As animals can be considered a sentinel for human diseases, the aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and molecular identity of Cryptococcus spp. in the nasal cavity of feral cats. Cats from 162 urban and rural feral cat colonies were sampled over 3 years. Of 766 cats from which nasal swabs were obtained, Cryptococcus spp. were recovered from 95 (12.6%), including 37 C. magnus (4.8%), 16 C. albidus (2.0%), 15 C. carnescens (1.9%), 12 C. neoformans (1.6%), as well as C. oeirensis (n = 3), C. victoriae (n = 3), C. albidosimilis (n = 2), Filobasidium globisporum (n = 2), C. adeliensis (n = 1), C. flavescens (n = 1), C. dimnae (n = 1), C. saitoi (n = 1), and C. wieringae (n = 1) with prevalence feral cats may carry C. neoformans and other Cryptococcus species in their sinonasal cavity. Genotyping of the specific cryptococcal isolates provides a better understanding of the epidemiology of these yeasts. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The International Society for Human and Animal Mycology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Rare occupational cause of nasal septum perforation: Nickel exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolek, Ertugrul Cagri; Erden, Abdulsamet; Kulekci, Cagri; Kalyoncu, Umut; Karadag, Omer

    2017-10-06

    Many etiologies are held accountable for nasal septum perforations. Topical nasal drug usage, previous surgeries, trauma, nose picking, squamous cell carcinoma, some rheumatological disorders such as granulomatosis with polyangiitis (Wegener granulomatosis), some infectious diseases such as syphilis and leprosy are among the causes of the perforations. Occupational heavy metal exposures by inhalation rarely may also cause nasal septum perforation. Here, we present a 29-year-old patient without any known diseases, who is a worker at a metallic coating and nickel-plating factory, referred for investigation of his nasal cartilage septum perforation from an otorhinolaryngology clinic. The patient questioning, physical examination and laboratory assessment about rheumatic and infectious diseases were negative. There was a metallic smell in the breath during the physical examination. The analysis showed serum nickel level at 31 μg/l and urine nickel at 18 μg/l (84.11 μg/g creatinine). Other possible serum and urine heavy metal levels were within normal ranges. Nickel exposure is usually together with other heavy metals (chromium or cadmium), it is rarely alone. Nickel ingested by inhalation usually leads to respiratory problems such as reduced olfactory acuity, ulcers, septum perforation or tumors of the nasal sinuses. This case demonstrates the importance of occupational anamnesis and awareness of diagnosis. Int J Occup Med Environ Health 2017;30(6):963-967. This work is available in Open Access model and licensed under a CC BY-NC 3.0 PL license.

  1. Reconstruction of Nasal Skin Cancer Defects with Local Flaps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. C. Salgarelli

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Reconstruction of nasal defects must preserve the integrity of complex facial functions and expressions, as well as facial symmetry and a pleasing aesthetic outcome. The reconstructive modality of choice will depend largely on the location, size, and depth of the surgical defect. Individualized therapy is the best course, and numerous flaps have been designed to provide coverage of a variety of nasal-specific defects. We describe our experience in the aesthetic reconstruction of nasal skin defects following oncological surgery. The use of different local flaps for nasal skin cancer defects is reported in 286 patients. Complications in this series were one partial flap dehiscence that healed by secondary intention, two forehead flaps, and one bilobed flap with minimal rim necrosis that resulted in an irregular scar requiring revision. Aesthetic results were deemed satisfactory by all patients and the operating surgeons. The color and texture matches were aesthetically good, and the nasal contour was distinct in all patients. All scars were inconspicuous and symmetrical. No patient had tenting or a flat nose.

  2. Does gently clearing the nasal passage affect odor identification?

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    Mitchell G. Spring

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Identifying scents in a wine’s bouquet is considered one of the most important steps in the process of wine tasting. An individual’s ability to successfully do this is dependent on the sense of smell; thus, altering the nasal microenvironment could have a powerful effect on the wine tasting experience. In the present study, we examined olfactory performance in healthy participants who cleared their nasal cavity before odorant presentations. Fifty undergraduate participants were assessed with a standardized test of olfaction requiring the recognition of a battery of odors. Half of these participants cleared mucus from their nasal cavities (by gently blowing their noses prior to the assessment. No difference was found in performance between those who cleared their nasal passages and those who did not. Further, data were not different than known population data from the test. These data suggest that gently clearing the nasal cavity before presentation of odorants bears no effect on the ability to perceive those odor qualities.

  3. Use of aesthetic rhinoplasty procedures in reconstructive nasal surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghassemi, Alireza; Rübben, Albert; Bohluli, Behnam; Hölzle, Frank; Ghassemi, Mehrangiz

    2015-01-01

    Resection of cancer often involves the excision of underlying hard tissue, and some procedures in aesthetic rhinoplasty can be used in reconstructive nasal surgery to increase the margin of safety while still achieving an acceptable aesthetic and functional outcome. We have used techniques from aesthetic rhinoplasty to shape the nasal framework. Osteotomy and formation of the tip were used in 17 patients with defects (ranging from 1 to 3.5 cm in size) from the nasal root to the tip of the nose. After the underlying bony or cartilaginous framework, or both, had been removed, the resulting open roof deformity had to be corrected by osteotomy of the bony nasal wall and the tip shaped by excision and suturing, including insertion of the tip graft and columellar strut graft. After this, and narrowing of the nose, the defect was smaller and could be closed with local tissue without tension. There were no deformities in the contour, and patency of the airway was maintained. Patients were satisfied with both the aesthetic and functional results. Although the margin of safety was increased, shaping the nasal framework reduced the size of the defect, which allowed tension-free closure with a local flap. The operation requires a thorough knowledge of procedures used in aesthetic rhinoplasty. Copyright © 2014 The British Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Isotonic saline nasal irrigation in clinical practice: a literature review

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    Sabrina Costa Lima

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: Nasal instillation of saline solution has been used as part of the treatment of patients with upper respiratory tract diseases. Despite its use for a number of years, factors such as the amount of saline solution to be used, degree of salinity, method and frequency of application have yet to be fully explained. Objective: Review the reported outcomes of saline nasal irrigation in adults with allergic rhinitis, acute or chronic sinusitis and after functional endoscopic sinus surgery (FESS, and provide evidence to assist physiotherapists in decision making in clinical practice. Methods: A search was conducted of the Pubmed and Cochrane Library databases between 2007 and 2014. A combination of the following descriptors was used as a search strategy: nasal irrigation, nasal lavage, rhinitis, sinusitis, saline, saline solution. Results: Eight clinical trials were included, analyzed according to participant diagnosis. Conclusion: The evidence found was heterogeneous, but contributed to elucidating uncertainties regarding the use of nasal lavage in the clinical practice of physical therapy, such as the protocols used.

  5. Risk of contamination of nasal sprays in otolaryngologic practice

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    Akkuzu Babur

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Reusable nasal-spray devices are frequently used in otolaryngologic examinations, and there is an increasing concern about the risk of cross-contamination from these devices. The aim of our study was to determine, by means of microbiologic analysis, the safety of a positive-displacement or pump-type atomizer after multiple uses. Methods A reusable nasal spray bottle, pump, and tips were used in the nasal physical examination of 282 patients admitted to a tertiary otolaryngology clinic. The effectiveness of 2 different methods of prophylaxis against microbiologic contamination (the use of protective punched caps or rinsing the bottle tip with alcohol was compared with that of a control procedure. Results Although there was no statistically significant difference in positive culture rates among the types of nasal spray bottles tested, methicillin-resistant coagulase-negative staphylococci were isolated in 4 of 198 cultures. Conclusion Given these findings, we concluded that additional precautions (such as the use of an autoclave between sprays, disposable tips, or disposable devices are warranted to avoid interpatient cross-contamination from a reusable nasal spray device.

  6. Gradual approach to refinement of the nasal tip: surgical results

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    Thiago Bittencourt Ottoni de Carvalho

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The complexity of the nasal tip structures and the impact of surgical maneuvers make the prediction of the final outcome very difficult. Therefore, no single technique is enough to correct the several anatomical presentations, and adequate preoperative planning represents the basis of rhinoplasty. Objective: To present results of rhinoplasty, through the gradual surgical approach to nasal tip definition based on anatomical features, and to evaluate the degree of patient satisfaction after the surgical procedure. Methods: Longitudinal retrospective cohort study of the medical charts of 533 patients of both genders who underwent rhinoplasty from January of 2005 to January of 2012 was performed. Cases were allocated into seven groups: (1 no surgery on nasal tip; (2 interdomal breakup; (3 cephalic trim; (4 domal suture; (5 shield-shaped graft; (6 vertical dome division; (7 replacement of lower lateral cartilages. Results: Group 4 was the most prevalent. The satisfaction rate was 96% and revision surgery occurred in 4% of cases. Conclusion: The protocol used allowed the implementation of a gradual surgical approach to nasal tip definition with the nasal anatomical characteristics, high rate of patient satisfaction with the surgical outcome, and low rate of revision.

  7. Extranasopharyngeal angiofibroma of nasal septum. A controversial entity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasca, I; Ceroni Compadretti, G

    2008-01-01

    Summary The term extranasopharyngeal angiofibroma has been applied to vascular, fibrous nodules occurring outside the nasopharynx. The maxillary sinus is the most common site involved, while the nasal septum represents an extremely rare localization. Computerized tomography scan and magnetic resonance imaging are used to determine the tumour site and its extension. Surgical excision of the mass is the treatment of choice, and recurrence is rare. Typically, clinical characteristics of extranasopharyngeal angiofibromas do not conform with that of nasopharyngeal angiofibromas and, for this reason, these tumours must be regarded as a separate entity. Due to these different features, extranasopharyngeal angiofibromas can present a diagnostic challenge and a meticulous evaluation with a high index of suspicion is essential in establishing the correct diagnosis and treatment. We report the case of a 57-year-old female with a 1-year history of a slowly progressing right nasal obstruction due to the presence of a whitish mass adhering to the posterior nasal septum. The patient was succesfully treated surgically. Histopathological findings were compatible with a diagnosis of angiofibroma. Extranasopharyngeal angiofibroma must be taken into consideration in the differential diagnosis of nasal vascular tumours and nasal septum should be regarded as a potential, though exceptional, localization of these neoplasms. PMID:19205598

  8. Rare occupational cause of nasal septum perforation: Nickel exposure

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    Ertugrul Cagri Bolek

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Many etiologies are held accountable for nasal septum perforations. Topical nasal drug usage, previous surgeries, trauma, nose picking, squamous cell carcinoma, some rheumatological disorders such as granulomatosis with polyangiitis (Wegener granulomatosis, some infectious diseases such as syphilis and leprosy are among the causes of the perforations. Occupational heavy metal exposures by inhalation rarely may also cause nasal septum perforation. Here, we present a 29-year-old patient without any known diseases, who is a worker at a metallic coating and nickel-plating factory, referred for investigation of his nasal cartilage septum perforation from an otorhinolaryngology clinic. The patient questioning, physical examination and laboratory assessment about rheumatic and infectious diseases were negative. There was a metallic smell in the breath during the physical examination. The analysis showed serum nickel level at 31 μg/l and urine nickel at 18 μg/l (84.11 μg/g creatinine. Other possible serum and urine heavy metal levels were within normal ranges. Nickel exposure is usually together with other heavy metals (chromium or cadmium, it is rarely alone. Nickel ingested by inhalation usually leads to respiratory problems such as reduced olfactory acuity, ulcers, septum perforation or tumors of the nasal sinuses. This case demonstrates the importance of occupational anamnesis and awareness of diagnosis. Int J Occup Med Environ Health 2017;30(6:963–967

  9. Effects of radiation on nasal mucosa of guinea pig

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao Mang; Hu Sunhong; Liu Yuehui

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To study histopathological changes in nasal mucosa of guinea pigs following a series of irradiation. Methods: A total of 60 healthy guinea pigs were divided into two groups randomly: the irradiation group (n=30) and the control group (n=30). The animals of the irradiation group were exposed nasally to linear accelerator X-rays at 5.0 Gy once a week for three weeks. At 1 d, 1 w, 2 w, 4 w, 10 w and half year after X-irradiation five animals per one group were sacrificed randomly, at each time point. Their middle nasal turbinate mucosa was observed under optical microscope and electron microscope, and were analysed by image analysis for histopathological transformation. Results: In the irradiation group, the early histopathological transformation was acute inflammatory reaction, at the fourth week the mucosa began to repair, which ended at the sixth month. But after repaired, some parts of the repaired mucosa were lined with squamous epithelium instead of the normal nasal mucosa. The rate of the cilia-covered area was only 52.9% at the sixth month. Conclusion: The nasal mucosa injury and the squamous metaplasia could form a pathological basis of dysfunction after irradiation

  10. Reconstruction of Nasal Skin Cancer Defects with Local Flaps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salgarelli, A. C.; Bellini, P.; Multinu, A.; Consolo, U.; Magnoni, C.; Francomano, M.; Fantini, F.; Seidenari, S.

    2011-01-01

    Reconstruction of nasal defects must preserve the integrity of complex facial functions and expressions, as well as facial symmetry and a pleasing aesthetic outcome. The reconstructive modality of choice will depend largely on the location, size, and depth of the surgical defect. Individualized therapy is the best course, and numerous flaps have been designed to provide coverage of a variety of nasal-specific defects. We describe our experience in the aesthetic reconstruction of nasal skin defects following oncological surgery. The use of different local flaps for nasal skin cancer defects is reported in 286 patients. Complications in this series were one partial flap dehiscence that healed by secondary intention, two forehead flaps, and one bilobed flap with minimal rim necrosis that resulted in an irregular scar requiring revision. Aesthetic results were deemed satisfactory by all patients and the operating surgeons. The color and texture matches were aesthetically good, and the nasal contour was distinct in all patients. All scars were inconspicuous and symmetrical. No patient had tenting or a flat nose.

  11. Aspergilosis nasal en un perro: reporte de un caso

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    Camilo Padilla Peñuela

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available La aspergilosis nasal es una de las principales causas de afección crónica de las fosas nasales en el canino. La sinología clínica es típica en toda enfermedad nasal crónica. Se presenta sobre todo epistaxis y ocasionalmente dolor. La evaluación rinoscópica de la zona permite encontrar hallazgos asociados con la patología y tomar muestras para citología y cultivo. La terapéutica sistémica con antifúngicos orales ha sido de utilidad variable, pero actualmente se ha remplazado con la medicación tópica directa en el área afectada. Este artículo describe el caso clínico de un canino, macho de cuatro años de edad, que fue presentado a consulta por secreción nasal mucosanguinolenta unilateral con una semana de evolución. El paciente se venía tratando en otro centro veterinario con ciclonamina y vitamina K por un posible trastorno en la coagulación. Después de una serie de exámenes que incluyeron rinoscopia y cultivo para hongos, se diagnosticó aspergilosis nasal. Se realizaron dos aplicaciones de clotrimazol intranasal que permitieron la resolución de los signos clínicos.

  12. Nasal changes after orthognathic surgery for patients with prognathism and Class III malocclusion: Analysis using three-dimensional photogrammetry

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    Saran Worasakwutiphong

    2015-02-01

    Conclusion: After the surgery, characteristic nasal changes occurred with an increase of nasolabial angle and nostril show, but a preserved nasal width. The majority of patients did not perceive adverse nasal changes.

  13. Humidification of inspired oxygen is increased with pre-nasal cannula, compared to intranasal cannula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dellweg, Dominic; Wenze, Markus; Hoehn, Ekkehard; Bourgund, Olaf; Haidl, Peter

    2013-08-01

    Oxygen therapy is usually combined with a humidification device, to prevent mucosal dryness. Depending on the cannula design, oxygen can be administered pre- or intra-nasally (administration of oxygen in front of the nasal ostia vs cannula system inside the nasal vestibulum). The impact of cannula design on intra-nasal humidity, however, has not been investigated to date. First, to develop a system, that samples air from the nasal cavity and analyzes the humidity of these samples. Second, to investigate nasal humidity during pre-nasal and intra-nasal oxygen application, with and without humidification. We first developed and validated a sampling and analysis system to measure humidity from air samples. By means of this system we measured inspiratory air samples from 12 subjects who received nasal oxygen with an intra-nasal and pre-nasal cannula at different flows, with and without humidification. The sampling and analysis system showed good correlation to a standard hygrometer within the tested humidity range (r = 0.99, P humidification (P = .001, P humidification. With the addition of humidification we observed no significant change in humidity at any flow, and independent of pre- or intranasal oxygen administration. Pre-nasal administration of dry oxygen achieves levels of intranasal humidity similar to those achieved by intranasal administration in combination with a bubble through humidifier. Pre-nasal oxygen simplifies application and may reduce therapy cost.

  14. Utilidad del colgajo frontal en la reconstrucción nasal Usefulness of the forehead flap in the nasal reconstruction

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    Julio César Gálvez Chávez

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCCIÓN. La nariz constituye el centro estético de la cara y cualquier deformidad en ella afecta de modo importante a la armonía facial. Este estudio tuvo como objetivo caracterizar las experiencias en reconstrucción nasal con colgajo frontal en pacientes con defectos anatómicos de la nariz, como consecuencia fundamentalmente de una cirugía oncológica. MÉTODOS. Se realizó un estudio descriptivo, prospectivo, para caracterizar la experiencia de la reconstrucción nasal con colgajo frontal en pacientes con defectos nasales, atendidos en el Hospital «Hermanos Ameijeiras» y en el Instituto Nacional de Oncología y Radiobiología, entre junio de 1999 y mayo de 2007. RESULTADOS. Destacó que el motivo más frecuente de reconstrucción fue la lesión neoplásica, con igual número de pacientes afectados por carcinoma basocelular y epidermoide. El ala nasal fue la zona más afectada y se presentó recidiva tumoral en 5 pacientes. En todos los casos se pudo crear una cubierta externa al defecto y el diseño oblicuo fue el más utilizado. Se reconstruyó la cubierta interna nasal fundamentalmente con injerto de piel total y el soporte nasal, mayormente con injertos cartilaginosos de la concha auricular. Todos los colgajos frontales se mantuvieron vitales después de su desconexión en el segundo tiempo quirúrgico. El cierre directo de la zona donante fue el más utilizado y en algunos casos se logró con la utilización de expansión tisular. Se realizó un tercer tiempo de remodelación en los pacientes que lo necesitaron. Las complicaciones no afectaron al resultado final de la reconstrucción. CONCLUSIONES. Se demostró la utilidad y vigencia del colgajo frontal en la reconstrucción nasal.ABSTRACT INTRODUCTION. The nose is the aesthetic center of the face and any deformity in it significantly affects facial harmony. This study was aimed at characterizing the experiences in nasal reconstruction with forehead flap in patients with

  15. REVIEW OF NASAL CHANGES WITH MAXILLARY ORTHOGNATHIC SURGERY

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    Leila KHAMASHTA-LEDEZMA

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This article reviews the literature on nasal changes with maxillary orthognathic surgery. Understanding such changes is vital for surgical planning and for obtaining appropriate informed consent, and there are medico-legal implications. During orthognathic surgical planning a prediction of the effects of the different surgical movements is possible and this forms part of the basis of the planning stage. The predicted changes need to be identified and their desirability or not for each individual patient determined. Some techniques for managing undesirable nasal changes are discussed, including adjunct measures to minimize these potential effects (e.g. cinch sutures, and additional surgical procedures to manage the undesired nasal changes once they are produced.

  16. Nasal Filters For Relief From Atopic Dermatitis Caused by Inhalants

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    J S Pasricha

    1989-01-01

    Full Text Available Nasal filter is a simple device consisting of a net mounted in a frame made to fit inside the nostrils. These filters thus are not visible from outside. If a person uses the nasal filters the .u particulate material from the air that the person breathes gets removed and in case the person is allergic to an inhalant antigen, he stops having the allergic symptoms. We tried nasal filters on two females patients aged 32 and 7 years respectively, having topics dermatitis the age of I year, caused by an inhalant (indicated by seasonal aggravations, and spontaneous recovery during brief visits to other towns. Unrig a follow-up of 2 1/2 and 2 years respectively, both the patients experienced almost 80-90% relief from the dermatitis and required only animal treatment.

  17. Infection and HLA-G Molecules in Nasal Polyposis

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    Roberta Rizzo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Sinonasal polyposis (SNP is a chronic inflammatory pathology with an unclear aetiopathogenesis. Human papillomavirus (HPV infection is one candidate for the development of SNP for its epithelial cell trophism, hyperproliferative effect, and the induction of immune-modulatory molecules as HLA-G. We enrolled 10 patients with SNP without concomitant allergic diseases (SNP-WoAD, 10 patients with SNP and suffering from allergic diseases (SNP-WAD, and 10 control subjects who underwent rhinoplasty. We analyzed the presence of high- and low-risk HPV DNA and the expression of membrane HLA-G (mHLA-G and IL-10 receptor (IL-10R and of soluble HLA-G (sHLA-G and IL-10 by polyp epithelial cells. The results showed the presence of HPV-11 in 50% of SNP-WoAD patients (OR:5.5, all characterized by a relapsing disease. HPV-11 infection was absent in nonrelapsing SNP-WoAD patients, in SNP-WAD patients and in controls, supporting the hypothesis that HPV-11 increases risk of relapsing disease. HPV-11 positive SNP-WoAD patients presented with mHLA-G and IL-10R on epithelial cells from nasal polyps and showed secretion of sHLA-G and IL-10 in culture supernatants. No HLA-G expression was observed in HPV negative polyps. These data highlight new aspects of polyposis aetiopathogenesis and suggest HPV-11 and HLA-G/IL-10 presence as prognostic markers in the follow-up of SNP-WoAD.

  18. Comparison of nasal Midazolam with Ketamine versus nasal Midazolam as a premedication in children

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    Sonal S Khatavkar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: T his study was done to compare effects of intranasal midazolam and intranasal midazolam with ketamine for premedication of children aged 1-12 yrs undergoing intermediate and major surgeries. Aims: Midazolam and Ketamine have already been used as premedicants in children. Our aim was to find out advantage of combination of midazolam with ketamine over midazolam by nasal route. Methods: Sixty children of age group 1-12 yrs of American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA grade 1 and 2 were selected. Group A- midazolam (0.2 mg/kg, Group B- midazolam (0.15 mg/kg + ketamine 1 mg/kg. Both groups received drug intranasally 30 min before surgery in recovery room with monitored anesthesia care. Onset of sedation, sedation score, emotional reaction, intravenous cannula acceptance, and mask acceptance were studied. Statistical Analysis: Unpaired t test and chi square test. Results: Sedation score, anxiolysis, attitude, reaction to intravenous cannulation, face mask acceptance, and emotional reaction were significantly better in midazolam with ketamine group. Intra operatively, in both groups, pulse rate, oxygen saturation, and respiratory rate had no significant difference; also, post operatively, no significant difference was observed in above parameters, post operative analgesia was significantly better in midazolam with ketamine group. Conclusions: Intra nasal premedication allows rapid and predictable sedation in children. Midazolam as well as combination of Midazolam with ketamine gives good level of sedation and comfort. But quality of sedation, analgesia, and comfort is significantly better in midazolam with ketamine group. No significant side effects were observed in both groups.

  19. Detecting Nasal Vowels in Speech Interfaces Based on Surface Electromyography.

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    João Freitas

    Full Text Available Nasality is a very important characteristic of several languages, European Portuguese being one of them. This paper addresses the challenge of nasality detection in surface electromyography (EMG based speech interfaces. We explore the existence of useful information about the velum movement and also assess if muscles deeper down in the face and neck region can be measured using surface electrodes, and the best electrode location to do so. The procedure we adopted uses Real-Time Magnetic Resonance Imaging (RT-MRI, collected from a set of speakers, providing a method to interpret EMG data. By ensuring compatible data recording conditions, and proper time alignment between the EMG and the RT-MRI data, we are able to accurately estimate the time when the velum moves and the type of movement when a nasal vowel occurs. The combination of these two sources revealed interesting and distinct characteristics in the EMG signal when a nasal vowel is uttered, which motivated a classification experiment. Overall results of this experiment provide evidence that it is possible to detect velum movement using sensors positioned below the ear, between mastoid process and the mandible, in the upper neck region. In a frame-based classification scenario, error rates as low as 32.5% for all speakers and 23.4% for the best speaker have been achieved, for nasal vowel detection. This outcome stands as an encouraging result, fostering the grounds for deeper exploration of the proposed approach as a promising route to the development of an EMG-based speech interface for languages with strong nasal characteristics.

  20. Alar setback technique: a controlled method of nasal tip deprojection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foda, H M

    2001-11-01

    To describe an alar cartilage-modifying technique aimed at decreasing nasal tip projection in cases with overdeveloped alar cartilages and to compare it with other deprojection techniques used to correct such deformity. Selected case series. University and private practice settings in Alexandria, Egypt. Twenty patients presenting for rhinoplasty who had overprojected nasal tips primarily due to overdeveloped alar cartilages. All cases were primary cases except for one patient, who had undergone 2 previous rhinoplasties. An external rhinoplasty approach was used to set back the alar cartilages by shortening their medial and lateral crura. The choice of performing a high or low setback depended on the preexisting lobule-to-columella ratio. Following the setback, the alar cartilages were reconstructed in a fashion that increased the strength and stability of the tip complex. Subjective evaluation included clinical examination, analysis of preoperative and postoperative photographs, and patient satisfaction. Objective evaluation of nasal tip projection, using the Goode ratio and the nasofacial angle, was performed preoperatively and repeated at least 6 months postoperatively. A low setback was performed in 16 cases (80%) and a high setback in 4 (20%). The mean follow-up period was 18 months (range, 6-36 months). The technique effectively deprojected the nasal tip as evidenced by the considerable postoperative decrease in values of the Goode ratio and the nasofacial angle. No complications were encountered and no revision surgical procedures were required. The alar setback technique has many advantages; it results in precise predictable amounts of deprojection, controls the degree of tip rotation, preserves the natural contour of the nasal tip, respects the tip support mechanisms, increases the strength and stability of nasal tip complex, preserves or restores the normal lobule-to-columella proportion, and does not lead to alar flaring. However, the technique requires

  1. A study of nasal cavity volume by magnetic resonance imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tosa, Yasuyoshi [Showa Univ., Tokyo (Japan). School of Medicine

    1992-04-01

    The nasal cavity volume in 69 healthy volunteers from 8 to 23 years old (17 males and 52 females) was studied using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Merits of MRI such as no radiation exposure, less artifact due to bone and air and measurement of intravascular blood flow; and demerits such as contraindication in users of heart pace-makers or magnetic clips, contraindication in people with claustrophobia and influence of environmental magnetic fields must be considered. A Magunetom M10 (Siemens), a superconduction device with 1.0 Tesla magnetic flux density was used. Enhanced patterns of T[sub 1], and pulse lines were photographed at 600 msec TR (repetition time) and 19 msec TE (echo time) using SE (spin echo) and short SE (spin echo), and 3 or 4 mm slices. Photographs were made of the piriform aperture, choana, superior-middle-inferior concha including the nasal meatus, the frontal sinus, maxillary sinus, cribriform plate, and upper surface of the palate. The line connecting the maximum depression point in the nasal root and the pontomedullary junction was selected by sagittal median section, because this corresponds well with the CM (canthomeatal) line which is useful in CT (computed tomography). The transverse section of the nasal cavity volume was traced by display console with an accessory MRI device and calculated by integration of the slice width. The increase of height and body weight neared a plateau at almost 16 years, whereas increase of nasal cavity volume continued until about 20 years. Pearson's coefficient of correlation and regression line were significant. There were no significant differences in these parameters between male and female groups. Comparatively strong correlation between nasal cavity volume, and age, height and body weight was statistically evident. (author).

  2. The efficacy of mupirocin ointment and chlorhexidine body scrubs in the eradication of nasal carriage of Staphylococcus aureus among patients undergoing long-term hemodialysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. Watanakunakorn; J. Brandt; P. Durkin; S. Santore; B. Bota; C. J. Stahl

    1992-01-01

    textabstractPatients undergoing long-term hemodialysis have a high prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus nasal carriage, which may lead to serious infections. Mupirocin ointment has been used intranasally to eradicate S. aureus carriage in health human volunteers and health care workers.

  3. Nasal secretions from patients with polyps and healthy individuals, collected with a new aspiration system: evaluation of total protein and immunoglobulin concentrations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biewenga, J.; Stoop, A. E.; Baker, H. E.; Swart, S. J.; Nauta, J. J.; van Kamp, G. J.; van der Baan, S.

    1991-01-01

    This study was designed, first, to test a new system for aspiration of human nasal secretions and, secondly, to evaluate protein and immunoglobulin concentrations in these secretions at different levels of secretory activity. The direct aspiration system combines the advantages of minimal irritation

  4. The use of a camera-enabled mobile phone to triage patients with nasal bone injuries.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Barghouthi, Taleb

    2012-03-01

    To identify the accuracy of a camera-enabled mobile phone in assessing patients with nasal bone injuries and to determine if treatment in the form of manipulation of the nasal bones and therefore outpatient attendance was necessary.

  5. The Phosphodiesterase 4 Inhibitor Prevents Antigen-induced Biphasic Nasal Obstruction in Brown Norway Rats

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    Hirokazu Kawasaki

    2005-01-01

    Conclusions: The present study provides a simple model of allergic biphasic nasal obstruction in BN rats, and also suggests that the PDE4 inhibitor may alleviate nasal obstruction in patients with allergic rhinitis.

  6. NORMAL GENE EXPRESSION IN MALE F344 RAT NASAL TRANSITIONAL/RESPIRATORY EPITHELIUM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abstract The nasal epithelium is an important target site for chemically-induced toxicity and carcinogenicity in rodents. Gene expression profiles were determined in order to provide normal baseline data for nasal transitional/respiratory epithelium from healthy rats. Ce...

  7. Nasal biopsies of children exposed to air pollutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderón-Garcidueñas, L; Rodriguez-Alcaraz, A; Valencia-Salazar, G; Mora-Tascareño, A; García, R; Osnaya, N; Villarreal-Calderón, A; Devlin, R B; Van Dyke, T

    2001-01-01

    Southwest Metropolitan Mexico City (SWMMC) atmosphere is a complex mixture of air pollutants, including ozone, particulate matter, and aldehydes. Children in SWMMC are exposed chronically and sequentially to numerous toxicants, and they exhibit significant nasal damage. The objective of this study was to assess p53 accumulation by immunohistochemistry in nasal biopsies of SWMMC children. We evaluated 111 biopsies from 107 children (83 exposed SWMMC children and 24 control children residents in a pollutant-compliant Caribbean island). Complete clinical histories and physical examinations, including an ear-nose-throat (ENT) exam were done. There was a significant statistical difference in the upper and lower respiratory symptomatology and ENT findings between control and exposed children (p < 0.001). Control children gave no respiratory symptomatology in the 3 months prior to the study; their biopsies exhibited normal ciliated respiratory epithelium and were p53-negative. SWMMC children complained of epistaxis, nasal obstruction. and crusting. Irregular areas of whitish-gray recessed mucosa over the inferior and middle turbinates were seen in 25% of SWMMC children, and their nasal biopsies displayed basal cell hyperplasia, decreased numbers of ciliated and goblet cells, neutrophilic epithelial infiltrates, squamous metaplasia. and mild dysplasia. Four of 21 SWMMC children with grossly abnormal mucosal changes exhibited strong transmural nuclear p53 staining in their nasal biopsies (p 0.005, odds ratio 26). In the context of lifetime exposures to toxic and potentially carcinogenic air pollutants, p53 nasal induction in children could potentially represent. a) a checkpoint response to toxic exposures, setting up a selective condition for p53 mutation, or b) a p53 mutation has already occurred as a result of such selection. Because the biological significance of p53 nuclear accumulation in the nasal biopsies of these children is not clear at this point, we strongly

  8. Preoperative CT evaluation on nasal cavity for transsphenoidal approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saeki, Naokatsu; Yamaura, Akira; Hoshi, Seiichiro; Sunada, Souichi; Sunami, Kenro

    1997-01-01

    Preoperative bone CT scans sliced parallel to the surgical plane were evaluated in 32 cases of transsphenoidal surgery. This method predicted patients with narrow nasal cavity, and helped to determine the rhinological maneuvers for providing a wider operative field. In addition, it helps to plan the need and extent of sella floor removal in re-operated cases. There was relatively little difference in the width and length of the nasal cavity between acromegalic and non-acromegalic patients. Hence, bone CT scans are useful in the preoperative evaluation of patients undergoing transsphenoidal surgery. (author)

  9. Nasal heterotopia versus pilocytic astrocytoma: A narrow border.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellouze, N; Born, J; Hoyoux, C; Michotte, A; Retz, C; Tebache, M; Piette, C

    2015-08-01

    Failure of the anterior neuropore can lead to three main types of anomalies: nasal dermal sinus, encephalocele and nasal glioma or heterotopia. In this report, we describe a case of intracranial and extracranial glial heterotopia that probably resulted from a common failure of anterior neuropore development. We describe the prenatal radiological assessment based on ultrasound and MRI results, and consider their limitation for early fetal diagnosis. We also discuss the embryogenesis and the possible pathogenic mechanisms involved. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. Mometasone furoate nasal spray for the treatment of asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meteran, Howraman; Backer, Vibeke

    2016-01-01

    are the key stone in the treatment of both diseases. Mometasone furoate is a potent synthetic steroid with a very high receptor affinity and a low bioavailability and shown to be superior compared to other inhaled corticosteroids. It is not clear whether the use of mometasone furoate nasal spray (MFNS......) is associated with an improvement in asthma control. AREAS COVERED: This current paper reviews the current knowledge on the effect of mometasone furoate nasal spray in the treatment of asthma and includes clinical trials in which both subjective and objective outcomes are assessed. EXPERT OPINION: To date, only...

  11. Nasal cycle dominance and hallucinations in an adult schizophrenic female.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shannahoff-Khalsa, David; Golshan, Shahrokh

    2015-03-30

    Nasal dominance, at the onset of hallucinations, was studied as a marker of both the lateralized ultradian rhythm of the autonomic nervous system and the tightly coupled ultradian rhythm of alternating cerebral hemispheric dominance in a single case study of a schizophrenic female. Over 1086 days, 145 hallucination episodes occurred with left nostril dominance significantly greater than the right nostril dominant phase of the nasal cycle. A right nostril breathing exercise, that primarily stimulates the left hemisphere, reduces symptoms more quickly for hallucinations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Nasal Cancer in the Northamptonshire Boot and Shoe Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acheson, E. D.; Cowdell, R. H.; Jolles, B.

    1970-01-01

    A survey of the incidence of nasal cancer in Northamptonshire during the period 1953 to 1967 is reported. Of the 46 patients with nasal cancer ascertained during the 15-year period 21 (19 males and 2 females) had been employed at some time in the boot and shoe industry. Five other cases diagnosed either before 1953 or after 1967 in persons who had worked in the boot and shoe industry in Northamptonshire were ascertained from various sources. The incidence of nasal cancer (all histological types considered together) was significantly higher in male boot and shoe operatives in Northamptonshire than in males of all occupational classes in the Cancer Register areas selected for comparison and in males working in other occupations in Northamptonshire. The excess incidence has recently given rise to the occurrence of between 1 and 2 new cases per annum in the Northamptonshire boot and shoe industry. The cases within the Northamptonshire industry occurred almost entirely in the relatively small number of workers who are exposed to the dust of the materials used in the manufacture of footwear. Possibly there are two carcinogenic factors in the industry—one related to the production of nasal adenocarcinoma, and the other to squamous and possibly other types of carcinoma in the nasal cavity and sinuses. This requires further study. Our best estimate of the latent period for the adenocarcinoma cases was 54·6 years, which is substantially longer than for the patients with squamous, transitional, and anaplastic tumours (41·7 years). We have no evidence to answer the question whether the facts are still present in the industrial environment, though undoubtedly the standards of hygiene in the industry has improved substantially since these men were first exposed. There is probably an increased risk of nasal adenocarcinoma in the footwear repairing industry, but this requires further study. Our evidence suggests that snuff taking should be considered as a possible contributory

  13. Clival chordoma manifesting as nasal bleeding. A case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kitai, Ryuhei; Yoshida, Kazuhiko; Kubota, Toshihiko; Sato, Kazufumi; Handa, Yuji; Kasahara, Kazuma [University of Fukui, Department of Neurosurgery, Fukui (Japan); Nakajima, Hirofumi [Tsuruga Municipal Hospital, Department of Neurosurgery, Fukui (Japan)

    2005-05-01

    Chordoma is a rare cartilaginous tumor, for which bleeding presentation is unusual. We report a case of rare hemorrhaged clival chordoma, which was diagnosed correctly by magnetic resonance imaging. A 32-year-old man presented with nasal bleeding. The tumor was totally removed via a trans-sphenoidal approach, from which the surgical specimen confirmed chordoma. Epistaxis seemed to be caused by the spreading of the intratumoral hemorrhage into the sphenoid sinus. This case demonstrates the importance of an exact differential diagnostic evaluation, including chordoma, by use of modern imaging techniques for nasal bleeding. (orig.)

  14. Clival chordoma manifesting as nasal bleeding. A case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitai, Ryuhei; Yoshida, Kazuhiko; Kubota, Toshihiko; Sato, Kazufumi; Handa, Yuji; Kasahara, Kazuma; Nakajima, Hirofumi

    2005-01-01

    Chordoma is a rare cartilaginous tumor, for which bleeding presentation is unusual. We report a case of rare hemorrhaged clival chordoma, which was diagnosed correctly by magnetic resonance imaging. A 32-year-old man presented with nasal bleeding. The tumor was totally removed via a trans-sphenoidal approach, from which the surgical specimen confirmed chordoma. Epistaxis seemed to be caused by the spreading of the intratumoral hemorrhage into the sphenoid sinus. This case demonstrates the importance of an exact differential diagnostic evaluation, including chordoma, by use of modern imaging techniques for nasal bleeding. (orig.)

  15. Alphamimetic effects at the nasal mucosa in the MR tomogram

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benammar-Englmaier, M.; Hallermeier, J.K.; Englmaier, B.

    1990-01-01

    The effect of xylometazolin spray (OTRIVEN) on the nasal mucosa was tested on persons with and without clinical signs of rhinitis and sinusitis. MRI is an excellent means to show the decongestive effect. The reaction is chiefly seen at the inferior and middle nasal concha and becomes manifest in a few minutes. No significant effect is noticeable at the maxillary sinus mucosa and infiltrated ethmoidal sinus. Generally, it is possible to show and examine the pharmacological effects that change the size and the liquid consistency of organs. (orig.) [de

  16. Genome-wide association study reveals a locus for nasal carriage of Staphylococcus aureus in Danish crossbred pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skallerup, Per; Gongora, Carmen Espinosa; Jørgensen, Claus Bøttcher

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Staphylococcus aureus is an important human opportunistic pathogen residing on skin and mucosae of healthy people. Pigs have been identified as a source of human colonization and infection with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and novel measures are needed to control......-pathogen interaction seems to be independent of S. aureus genotype. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest it may be possible to select pigs genetically resistant to S. aureus nasal colonization as a tool to control transmission of livestock-associated MRSA to humans....

  17. Lesao nasal precoce pelo uso da pronga nasal em recem-nascidos prematuros de muito baixo peso: estudo piloto

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathalie Tiemi Ota

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Analisar, em recém-nascidos de muito baixo peso e com indicação de ventilação não invasiva via pronga nasal, a incidência do aparecimento precoce de lesão nasal. MÉTODOS: Série de casos prospectiva de nascidos com idade gestacional <37 semanas, peso <1.500g e idade pós-natal <29 dias. Os pacientes foram avaliados desde a instalação da pronga nasal até o 3o dia de uso, três vezes ao dia. Foram analisadas as condições clínicas dos pacientes, características do dispositivo e de sua aplicação. A análise inicial foi descritiva, verificando-se a prevalência de lesão nasal bem como os fatores a ela associados. Os dados categóricos foram analisados por qui-quadrado ou exato de Fisher e os dados numéricos, por teste t ou Mann-Whitney. RESULTADOS: Dezoito recém-nascidos foram incluídos, dos quais 12 (idade gestacional de 29,8±3,1 semanas, peso ao nascer de 1.070±194g e Score for Neonatal Acute Phisiology - Perinatal Extension (SNAPPE de 15,4±17,5 evoluíram com lesão nasal (Grupo Lesão e 6 (idade gestacional de 28,0±1,9 semanas, peso de 1.003±317g e SNAPPE de 26,2±7,5 não apresentaram lesão nasal (Grupo Sem Lesão. No Grupo Lesão, houve maior frequência do gênero masculino (75% versus 17%, a lesão apareceu em média após 18 horas e predominantemente no período notur no (75%. CONCLUSÃO: A incidência de lesão nasal em prematuros submetidos à ventilação não invasiva via pronga nasal foi elevada, sendo possível planejar estudo dos fatores associados, com base neste piloto.

  18. Reevaluation of nasal swab method for dose estimation at nuclear emergency accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, Yuji; Fukutsu, Kumiko; Kurihara, Osamu; Akashi, Makoto

    2008-01-01

    ICRP Publication 66 human respiratory tract model has been used extensively over in exposure dose assessment. It is well known that respiratory deposition efficiency of inhaled aerosol and its deposition region strongly depend on the particle size. In most of exposure accidents, however, nobody knows a size of inhaled aerosol. And thus two default aerosol sizes of 5μ in AMAD for the workers and 1μ in AMAD for the public are given as being representative in the ICRP model, but both sizes are not linked directly to the maximum dose. In this study, the most hazardous size to our health effects and how to estimate an intake activity was discussed from a viewpoint of emergency medicine. In exposure accident of alpha emitter such as Pu-239, lung monitor and bioassay measurements are not the best methods for rapid estimation with high sensitivity, so that an applicability of nasal swab method has been investigated. A computer software, LUDEP, was used in the calculation of respiratory deposition. It showed that the effective dose per unit intake activity strongly depended on the inhaled aerosol size. In case of Pu-239 dioxide aerosols, it was confirmed that the maximum of dose conversion factor was observed around 0.01μ. It means that this 0.01μ is the most hazardous size at exposure accident of Pu-239. From analysis of the relationship between AI and ET l deposition, it was found that the dose conversion factor from the activity deposited in ET l region also was affected by the aerosol size. The usage of the ICRP's default size in nasal swab method might cause obvious underestimation of the intake activity. Dose estimation based on nasal swab method is possible from safety side at nuclear emergency, and the availability in quantity should be reevaluated for emergency medicine considering of chelating agent administration. (author)

  19. Characterisation of nasal Staphylococcus delphini and Staphylococcus pseudintermedius isolates from healthy donkeys in Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gharsa, H; Slama, K Ben; Gómez-Sanz, E; Gómez, P; Klibi, N; Zarazaga, M; Boudabous, A; Torres, C

    2015-07-01

    Staphylococcus intermedius group (SIG) bacteria can colonise the nares of some animals but are also emerging pathogens in humans and animals. To analyse SIG nasal carriage in healthy donkeys destined for food consumption in Tunisia and to characterise recovered isolates. Nasal swabs from 100 healthy donkeys were tested for SIG recovery, and isolates were identified by biochemical and molecular methods. Antimicrobial susceptibility of isolates was tested and detection of antimicrobial resistance and virulence genes was performed. Isolates were typed at the clonal level by multilocus sequence typing and SmaI pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. Staphylococcus delphini and Staphylococcus pseudintermedius (included in SIG) were obtained in 19% and 2% of the tested samples, respectively, and one isolate per sample was characterised. All isolates were meticillin susceptible and mecA negative. Most S. delphini and S. pseudintermedius isolates showed susceptibility to all antimicrobials tested, with the exception of 2 isolates resistant to tetracycline (tet(M) gene) or fusidic acid. The following toxin genes were identified (percentage of isolates): lukS-I (100%), lukF-I (9.5%), siet (100%), se-int (90%), seccanine (19%) and expA (9.5%). Thirteen different pulsed-field gel electrophoresis profiles were identified among the 21 SIG isolates. Additionally, the following 9 different sequence types (STs) were detected by multilocus sequence typing, 6 of them new: ST219 (6 isolates), ST12 (5 isolates), ST220 (3 isolates), ST13, ST50, ST193, ST196, ST218 and ST221 (one isolate each). Staphylococcus delphini and S. pseudintermedius are common nasal colonisers of donkeys, generally susceptible to the antimicrobials tested; nevertheless, these SIG isolates contain virulence genes, including the recently described exfoliative gene (expA) and several enterotoxin genes, with potential implications for public health. This is the first description of S. delphini in Tunisia. The

  20. Molecular characterization and antimicrobial susceptibility of nasal Staphylococcus aureus isolates from a Chinese medical college campus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jimei Du

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus colonization and infection occur more commonly among persons living or working in crowded conditions, but characterization of S. aureus colonization within medical communities in China is lacking. A total of 144 (15.4%, 144/935 S. aureus isolates, including 28 (3.0%, 28/935 MRSA isolates, were recovered from the nares of 935 healthy human volunteers residing on a Chinese medical college campus. All S. aureus isolates were susceptible to vancomycin, quinupristin/dalfopristin and linezolid but the majority were resistant to penicillin (96.5%, ampicillin/sulbactam (83.3% and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (93.1%. 82%, (23/28 of the MRSA isolates and 66% (77/116 of the MSSA isolates were resistant to multiple antibiotics, and 3 MRSA isolates were resistant to mupirocin--an agent commonly used for nasal decolonization. 16 different sequence types (STs, as well as SCCmec genes II, III, IVd, and V, were represented among MRSA isolates. We also identified, for the first time, two novel STs (ST1778 and ST1779 and 5 novel spa types for MRSA. MRSA isolates were distributed in different sporadic clones, and ST59-MRSA-VId- t437 was found within 3 MRSA isolates. Moreover, one isolate with multidrug resistance belonging to ST398-MRSA-V- t571 associated with animal infections was identified, and 3 isolates distributed in three different clones harbored PVL genes. Collectively, these data indicate a high prevalence of nasal MRSA carriage and molecular heterogeneity of S. aureus isolates among persons residing on a Chinese medical college campus. Identification of epidemic MRSA clones associated with community infection supports the need for more effective infection control measures to reduce nasal carriage and prevent dissemination of MRSA to hospitalized patients and health care workers in this community.

  1. Efeito do exercício físico sobre o volume nasal Effects of physical exercise in nasal volume

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marconi Teixeira Fonseca

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available A variação da permeabilidade nasal tem sido demonstrada usando-se várias técnicas de exame. As estruturas nasais geram uma resistência que representa cerca de 50% da resistência respiratória total. O exercício físico é um dos fatores que pode causar um efeito vasoconstritor sobre a mucosa nasal. OBJETIVO: O objetivo deste estudo é avaliar o grau de mudança do volume nasal após exercício físico e o tempo de retorno aos níveis basais. MATERIAIS E MÉTODOS: Dezenove indivíduos foram submetidos à realização de teste físico em bicicleta ergométrica. O volume nasal foi obtido através da rinometria acústica, realizada em repouso, após o fim do exercício físico, e nos minutos décimo e vigésimo de seu final. RESULTADOS: Os resultados rinométricos mostram um aumento estatisticamente significativo do volume nasal (p The nasal permeability has been demonstrated using several exams. Nasal structures produces a resistance to the nasal air flux that represents over 50% of the total respiratory resistance. Physical exercises is a factor that brings a vasoconstrictor effect over nasal mucosa. AINS: Evaluate the improvement degree of nasal volume after aerobic physical exercises and time to return to previous levels. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Nineteen heathly subjects were submitted to aerobic exercise in ergometric bike. The nasal volume was obtained by Acoustic Rhinometry perfomed in rest, after aerobic exercise, 10o and 20o minutes after the aerobic exercise. RESULTS: Rhynometrics results shows a statically and significant increase of nasal volume (p<0,001. The nasal volume, in twenty minutes, returns nearby the rest levels. CONCLUSIONS: Aerobic exercises, generally, increases the nasal volume. However, the increase of nasal volume was transitory, and occurs a major reduction of increase in the first ten minutes after the exercises ends, and perform a greater vasoconstrictor effect over nasal mucosa, Twenty minutes after the physical

  2. First case of feline leishmaniosis caused by genotype E in a cat with a concurrent nasal squamous cell carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Maia

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Case summary This is the first clinical report of feline viscerocutaneous leishmaniosis caused by Leishmania infantum genotype E associated with an invasive squamous cell carcinoma (SCC in a domestic cat from Portugal. Initially, the cat presented a single cutaneous lesion in the right nostril. A fine-needle aspiration was performed and Leishmania amastigotes were observed without the presence of cells compatible with neoplasia. Systemic treatment with allopurinol was started. One year later, the cat presented a crateriform non-encapsulated and badly delineated mass in the nasal planum, with naso-oral fistulation and nasal destruction. Histologically, the skin mass consisted on an ulcerative plaque-like lesion with a nasal SCC. Leishmania infantum MON-1 parasites were detected by histopathology, culture and PCR of the skin mass, submandibular and popliteal lymph nodes, liver and spleen. Restriction enzyme analysis revealed genotype E, previously identified in humans and dogs living in the same region. Relevance and novel information This is, to the best of our knowledge, the first clinical report of feline viscerocutaneous leishmaniosis caused by L infantum genotype E. The detection and isolation of parasites from a cat that are genetically identical to the ones obtained from humans and dogs with visceral leishmaniosis highlights the need to clarify whether cats play a role in the epidemiology of this parasitic zoonosis. From a clinical point of view, this case reinforces the importance of including leishmaniosis in the differential diagnoses of feline pathology, especially in cats with cutaneous lesions.

  3. Does nasal echolocation influence the modularity of the mammal skull?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santana, S E; Lofgren, S E

    2013-11-01

    In vertebrates, changes in cranial modularity can evolve rapidly in response to selection. However, mammals have apparently maintained their pattern of cranial integration throughout their evolutionary history and across tremendous morphological and ecological diversity. Here, we use phylogenetic, geometric morphometric and comparative analyses to test the hypothesis that the modularity of the mammalian skull has been remodelled in rhinolophid bats due to the novel and critical function of the nasal cavity in echolocation. We predicted that nasal echolocation has resulted in the evolution of a third cranial module, the 'nasal dome', in addition to the braincase and rostrum modules, which are conserved across mammals. We also test for similarities in the evolution of skull shape in relation to habitat across rhinolophids. We find that, despite broad variation in the shape of the nasal dome, the integration of the rhinolophid skull is highly consistent with conserved patterns of modularity found in other mammals. Across their broad geographical distribution, cranial shape in rhinolophids follows two major divisions that could reflect adaptations to dietary and environmental differences in African versus South Asian distributions. Our results highlight the potential of a relatively simple modular template to generate broad morphological and functional variation in mammals. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2013 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  4. Investigation of nasal colonization of health care workers by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Investigation of nasal colonization of health care workers by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus with using new generation real-time PCR assay: Discussing of risks. Y Zer, I Karaoglan, M Namýduru, I Balci, ID Karagoz, M Ozaslan, HI Kilic, A Suner ...

  5. Traditional open surgery for advanced benign nasal tumours in an ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    During the past decade open nasal surgery has been overtaken by endoscopic resection in the management of benign sinonasal tumours in the advanced countries. However, due to limited availability of endoscopic surgical facilities and training in most parts of sub-Saharan Africa, open surgery still seems popular.

  6. Self-Collected Nasal Swabs for Respiratory Virus Surveillance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Michael L.; Nguyen, Matthew; Kirlin, Beth; Madziwa, Lawrence

    2015-01-01

    We tested whether 135 patients reporting acute respiratory illness (ARI) could self-collect nasal swab specimens and ship them for laboratory testing. Most subjects (78.2%) collected and shipped their specimens without errors; 10.5% excluded ≥1 packing components; 12.9% made ≥1 packing errors. Self-swabbing at home is feasible for confirming ARI etiology. PMID:26613095

  7. Carcinome hybride de la fosse nasale | Ben Mhamed | Journal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hybrid carcinoma is a rare neoplasm, accounting for less than 0.1% of all registered tumors in salivary glands. Up to now, only one case of hybrid carcinoma of the nasal cavity has been described. In this report, we describe a case of hybrid carcinoma composed of epithelial-myoepithelial carcinoma with an adenoid cystic ...

  8. inverted papilloma of the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1971-05-08

    May 8, 1971 ... Although the inverted papilloma of the nasal cavity has been studied for over 100 years, the clinical approach to this lesion remains ill-defined and wide recognition of the problems involved is still not evident. This may be attributed to the infrequency of the condition, the ease with which it may be mistaken ...

  9. Traditional open surgery for advanced benign nasal tumours in an ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The indications were simple nasal polyps 17(45%), mucocoele 10(26%), inverted paplloma 8(21%), invasive fungal sinusitis 2(5%) and ossifying fibroma 1(2%). Postoperatively, recurrence was 1/17(6%) caldwel-Luc surgery and 1/9 (11%) lateral rhinotomy for inverted papilloma. Facial scar was seen in 21/38(55%) but the ...

  10. A possible role of stem cells in nasal polyposis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klimek, L.; Koennecke, M.; Mullol, J.; Hellings, P. W.; Wang, D. Y.; Fokkens, W.; Gevaert, P.; Wollenberg, B.

    2017-01-01

    Since its discovery, the understanding of stem/progenitor cells raised dramatically in the last decade. Their regenerative potential is important to develop new therapeutic applications, but the identification advanced much faster than our understanding of stem/progenitor cells. In nasal polyposis,

  11. High flow nasal cannula for respiratory support in preterm infants.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Wilkinson, Dominic

    2011-01-01

    High flow nasal cannulae (HFNC) are small, thin, tapered cannulae used to deliver oxygen or blended oxygen and air at flow rates of > 1 L\\/min. HFNC can be used to provide high concentrations of oxygen and may deliver positive end-expiratory pressure.

  12. Original Article Nasal polyps - clinical profile and management in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ETN

    may be presenting complaint of cystic fibrosis 7. In this study, most of the subjects (91%) with nasal polyps were between second and sixth decades of life with an average age of 34 years. Fifty –one percent were found to be between third and fourth decades of life A male predominance in this study is in consonance with ...

  13. Spindle Cell Carcinoma of Nasal Cavity- A Case Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittal, Abhishek; Nagpal, Tapan

    2016-01-01

    Spindle Cell Carcinoma (SpCC), also known as Sarcomatoid Carcinoma, is a rare and peculiar biphasic malignant neoplasm that occurs mainly in the upper aero-digestive tract, mostly in larynx. SCC accounts for 3% of all squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs) in the head and neck region. It is a rare variant of SCC which shows spindled or pleomorphic tumour cells simulating a true sarcoma. We present a case report of SpCC nasal cavity in a 50-year-old female patient, presented with intermittent epistaxis from left nasal cavity. On physical examination, the patient had an ulcero-exophytic type of mass in the left nasal cavity and a smooth bulge on the left side of anterior hard palate. Patient underwent excision of nasal mass along with partial palatectomy by facial degloving approach and reconstruction of palate with naso-labial flap. The postoperative histopathological report showed SCC. Surgery forms the mainstay of treatment. Radiotherapy and Chemotherapy is warranted in order to improve treatment results. As only few cases have been reported, we report a case of this rare entity to contribute for better understanding and awareness of this rare malignancy. PMID:27190843

  14. Nasal septum configuration as a basis for novel septal splints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furbish, Nina; Kühnel, Thomas S

    2017-03-01

    The objective is to use anatomical determinations of nasal septum shape and surface area in adults as a design basis for silastic septal splints of universal size and fit and offering maximum possible surface coverage. The objective is also to devise a method of securing the septal splints, so that surface pressure on septal mucosa is distributed as evenly as possible while not interfering with capillary perfusion. Nasal septum area was determined in 21 Caucasian body donors, and nasal septum thickness was measured in 20 CT scans. Septal splints of universal size and shape were prepared from silastic sheeting. The holding force of various neodymium-iron-boron (NdFeB) magnets, and the surface pressure exerted by magnet-containing septal splints was calculated. These septal splints of novel design offer a satisfactory fit in routine clinical practice. The splints can be securely attached with built-in NdFeB magnets, and surface pressure can be distributed evenly across the nasal septum while not interfering with mucosal tissue perfusion. With their simple intranasal insertion, these magnet-containing septal splints of universal size and optimised shape offer maximum possible septum coverage following septoplasty/septorhinoplasty. The absence of interference with septal tissue perfusion means that they are likely to be associated with fewer postoperative complications and better outcomes.

  15. Prevalence of nasal portal of Staphylococcus aureus in disabled children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clotilde Molin

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Colonization of the nasal mucosa by Staphylococcus aureus set a carrier state. Which is recognized as a potential source of infection and a high risk factor for subsequent invasive infections. The prevalence of nasal carriage of this germ in disabled children in Paraguay is not known, thus contributing to the knowledge of their frequency and evaluate the profile of sensitivity to common antimicrobials was conducted this study, from May to July 2015.  Objective: to determine the prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus nasal carriage and profile of antimicrobial resistance in disabled children. Materials and Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study in which 80 nasal swabs of children, who attended the service laboratory of SENADIS (Secretaria Nacional por los Derechos Humanos de las Personas con Discapacidad. The identification and sensitivity of germ was accomplished by conventional testing.  Results: 80 pediatric patients, 46 boys and 34 girls. 18 isolates of Staphylococcus aureus were obtained, corresponding to a prevalence of 22,5%. Susceptibility testing indicated that 14 strains were MSSA (Methicillin – Sensitive Staphylococcus aureus and 4 RMSA ( Methicillin- resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Conclusion: The prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus in a population with its own characteristics provides valuable data for the epidemiology, reflecting the need for continued vigilance and take steps to reduce associated infections. The detection of RMAR evidences their progress; it is important to evaluate the empirical treatment to primary care.

  16. Nasal mucociliary transportability of male and female smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uzeloto, Juliana Souza; Ramos, Dionei; C F Freire, Ana Paula; G D Christofaro, Diego; Mara C Ramos, Ercy

    Female smoker's present increased susceptibility to several diseases when compared to the opposite gender. However, there are no studies showing differences in nasal mucociliary transport behavior between male and female smokers. To compare the nasal mucociliary transportability in male and female smokers and non-smokers, taking into consideration age, anthropometric data, smoking load and pulmonary function. The analysis included 139 individuals (33 men and 37 women smokers and 32 men and 37 women non-smokers). All participants answered an initial interview to obtain personal data and smoking load. Anthropometric data and carbon monoxide in the exhaled air were assessed. Individuals also performed pulmonary function test and Saccharin Transit Time test. To compare saccharin transit time values between men and women, smokers and non-smokers, stratification of all independent variables was performed (sociodemographic, smoking and respiratory variables) into two categories: below and above the median values. There was no difference between men and women, smokers and non-smokers, regarding nasal mucociliary transportability. Significant differences were only observed between non-smokers. Among those with less forced vital capacity values (smokers), FCV and FEV1 (men non-smokers) and FEF 25-75% (women non-smokers) on saccharin transit time values. Based on the findings of this study, nasal mucociliary transport in male and female adult smokers, apparently healthy, are similar. Copyright © 2017 Associação Brasileira de Otorrinolaringologia e Cirurgia Cérvico-Facial. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  17. The New Star, the New Nose: Tycho Brahe's Nasal Prosthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østermark-Johansen, Lene

    2017-01-01

    Tycho Brahe’s loss of part of his nose in a duel has become an important part of his afterlife. The exact nature of his nasal prosthesis–of brass, gold, or silver–remains an enigma, not even solved at his exhumation in 2010. This essay discusses the materiality of Brahe’s new nose...

  18. High resolution visualization and analysis of nasal spray drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inthavong, Kiao; Fung, Man Chiu; Tong, Xuwen; Yang, William; Tu, Jiyuan

    2014-08-01

    Effective nasal drug delivery of new-generation systemic drugs requires efficient devices that can achieve targeted drug delivery. It has been established that droplet size, spray plume, and droplet velocity are major contributors to drug deposition. Continual effort is needed to better understand and characterise the physical mechanisms underpinning droplet formation from nasal spray devices. High speed laser photography combined with an in-house designed automated actuation system, and a highly precise traversing unit, measurements and images magnified in small field-of-view regions within the spray was performed. The qualitative results showed a swirling liquid sheet at the near-nozzle region as the liquid is discharged before ligaments of fluid are separated off the liquid sheet. Droplets are formed and continue to deform as they travel downstream at velocities of up to 20 m/s. Increase in actuation pressure produces more rapid atomization and discharge time where finer droplets are produced. The results suggest that device designs should consider reducing droplet inertia to penetrate the nasal valve region, but find a way to deposit in the main nasal passage and not escape through to the lungs.

  19. Solitary chemoreceptor cell proliferation in adult nasal epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulbransen, Brian D; Finger, Thomas E

    2005-03-01

    Nasal trigeminal chemosensitivity in mice and rats is mediated in part by solitary chemoreceptor cells (SCCs) in the nasal epithelium (Finger et al., 2003). Many nasal SCCs express the G-protein alpha-gustducin as well as other elements of the bitter-taste signaling cascade including phospholipase Cbeta2, TRPM5 and T2R bitter-taste receptors. While some populations of sensory cells are replaced throughout life (taste and olfaction), others are not (hair cells and carotid body chemoreceptors). These experiments were designed to test whether new SCCs are generated within the epithelium of adult mice. Wild type C57/B6 mice were injected with the thymidine analog 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) to label dividing cells. At various times after injection (1-40 days), the mice were perfused with 4% paraformaldehyde and prepared for dual-label immunocytochemistry. Double labeled cells were detected as early as 3 days post BrdU injection and remained for as long as 12 days post-injection suggesting that SCCs do undergo turnover like the surrounding nasal epithelium. No BrdU labeled cells were detected after 24 days suggesting relatively rapid replacement of the SCCs.

  20. Conjunctival effects of a selective nasal pollen provocation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Callebaut, I.; Spielberg, L.; Hox, V.; Bobic, S.; Jorissen, M.; Stalmans, I.; Scadding, G.; Ceuppens, J. L.; Hellings, P. W.

    2010-01-01

    Several clinical and experimental observations suggest that allergen deposition in the nose may partially be responsible for the induction of conjunctival symptoms in allergic rhinitis. The aims of this study were to evaluate the induction of conjunctival symptoms by selective nasal allergen

  1. Radiology of a rare foreign body in the nasal cavity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoendorf, J.; Jungehuelsing, M. [Dept. of Otorhinolaryngology, Koeln (Germany)

    2000-08-01

    We report a 76-year-old man referred because of incessant epistaxis. During presurgical investigation a radiodense mass was detected in the left nasal cavity, which turned out to be an iodoform-soaked gauze pack put in by a general practitioner some weeks previously and simply forgotten. (orig.)

  2. Radiology of a rare foreign body in the nasal cavity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schoendorf, J.; Jungehuelsing, M.

    2000-01-01

    We report a 76-year-old man referred because of incessant epistaxis. During presurgical investigation a radiodense mass was detected in the left nasal cavity, which turned out to be an iodoform-soaked gauze pack put in by a general practitioner some weeks previously and simply forgotten. (orig.)

  3. A Correlation Of Symptomatology With Nasal Smear Eosinophilia In ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There is also low correlation of total symptom score with family history of atopy (r = 0.06). There is positive correlation of total symptom score with number of provocative agents identified (r = 0.34). There is low positive correlation of nasal smear eosinophilia with total symptom score (r = 0.030) and itchy nose score (r = 0.038) ...

  4. An audit of paediatric nasal foreign bodies in Ilorin, Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ARTICLE. Nasal foreign bodies are common problems in children,1,2 ... Various methods of foreign body removal, employed by both ... syringe has also been found effective in creating positive .... anaesthesia, with a hypopharyngeal pack in place to prevent ... There is a need for public health education to alert parents.

  5. European Position Paper on Rhinosinusitis and Nasal Polyps 2012

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fokkens, Wytske J.; Lund, Valerie J.; Mullol, Joachim; Bachert, Claus; Alobid, Isam; Baroody, Fuad; Cohen, Noam; Cervin, Anders; Douglas, Richard; Gevaert, Philippe; Georgalas, Christos; Goossens, Herman; Harvey, Richard; Hellings, Peter; Hopkins, Claire; Jones, Nick; Joos, Guy; Kalogjera, Livije; Kern, Bob; Kowalski, Marek; Price, David; Riechelmann, Herbert; Schlosser, Rodney; Senior, Brent; Thomas, Mike; Toskala, Elina; Voegels, Richard; Wang, De Yun; Wormald, Peter John

    2012-01-01

    The European Position Paper on Rhinosinusitis and Nasal Polyps 2012 is the update of similar evidence based position papers published in 2005 and 2007.The document contains chapters on definitions and classification, we now also proposed definitions for difficult to treat rhinosinusitis, control of

  6. Translating the human microbiome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brown, J.; Vos, de W.M.; Distefano, P.S.; Doré, J.; Huttenhower, C.; Knight, R.; Lawley, T.D.; Raes, J.; Turnbaugh, P.

    2013-01-01

    Over the past decade, an explosion of descriptive analyses from initiatives, such as the Human Microbiome Project (HMP) and the MetaHIT project, have begun to delineate the human microbiome. Inhabitants of the intestinal tract, nasal passages, oral cavities, skin, gastrointestinal tract and

  7. Cause rare d'une perforation de la cloison nasale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahidi, Ali; Hemmaoui, Bouchaïb; Itoua, Wulfran Rosaire; Errami, Noureddine; Benariba, Fouad

    2014-01-01

    Les perforations de la cloison nasale constituent une pathologie fréquente en ORL. Leurs causes sont multiples et restent dominées par les traumatismes chirurgicaux. Les étiologies infectieuses et notamment la tuberculose sont rares. Nous présentons le cas d'une patiente ayant bénéficié d'une méatotomie bilatérale et chez laquelle une perforation de la cloison nasale a été découverte lors d'un examen systématique à un an de son intervention. D'abord considérée comme une complication de la chirurgie, la biopsie des berges de la perforation a permis de déterminer son origine tuberculeuse. La présentation clinique des perforations de la cloison nasale n'est pas spécifique. Elles sont souvent asymptomatiques et de découverte fortuite. Les traumatismes notamment chirurgicaux sont le plus siuvent en cause. L′orogine tuberculeuse resta très rare. Le diagnostic de certitude de tuberculose repose sur la biopsie des berges de cette perforation. Le but de ce travail est de mettre en avant l'intérêt de la biopsie dans le diagnostic de la tuberculose de la cloison nasale. Cette biopsie doit être systématique même en cas d'antécédents de chirurgie endonasale qui est le plus souvent en cause dans les perforations de la cloison nasale. PMID:24932334

  8. Nasal base narrowing: the combined alar base excision technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foda, Hossam M T

    2007-01-01

    To evaluate the role of the combined alar base excision technique in narrowing the nasal base and correcting excessive alar flare. The study included 60 cases presenting with a wide nasal base and excessive alar flaring. The surgical procedure combined an external alar wedge resection with an internal vestibular floor excision. All cases were followed up for a mean of 32 (range, 12-144) months. Nasal tip modification and correction of any preexisting caudal septal deformities were always completed before the nasal base narrowing. The mean width of the external alar wedge excised was 7.2 (range, 4-11) mm, whereas the mean width of the sill excision was 3.1 (range, 2-7) mm. Completing the internal excision first resulted in a more conservative external resection, thus avoiding any blunting of the alar-facial crease. No cases of postoperative bleeding, infection, or keloid formation were encountered, and the external alar wedge excision healed with an inconspicuous scar that was well hidden in the depth of the alar-facial crease. Finally, the risk of notching of the alar rim, which can occur at the junction of the external and internal excisions, was significantly reduced by adopting a 2-layered closure of the vestibular floor (P = .01). The combined alar base excision resulted in effective narrowing of the nasal base with elimination of excessive alar flare. Commonly feared complications, such as blunting of the alar-facial crease or notching of the alar rim, were avoided by using simple modifications in the technique of excision and closure.

  9. NUTRITIONAL STATUS, VITAMIN D AND NASAL COLONIZATION IN SPINAL SURGERY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Benone dos Santos

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: Evaluate the nutritional status, vitamin D, the serum albumin, and the nasal colonization by bacteria in a Brazilian population sample that included specifically patients undergoing spine surgery Methods: The serum albumin and vitamin D tests were performed on blood samples; nasal microbiological research was performed by swab and demographic information was collected. We studied the correlation between the tests and gender and age groups of patients. Results: Seventy-five patients were included. Of this total, 74 patients underwent testing of albumin levels, 64 of vitamin D and 41 underwent nasal swab. The mean of serum albumin was 3.76 g/dl (SD = 0.53 g/dl; 70.3% of subjects were considered normal and 29.7% showed hypoalbuminemia. Regarding vitamin D, the mean was 16.64 ng/ml (SD: 7.43 ng/ml; 64.1% of patients were considered deficient, 32.8% insufficient, and 3.1% were considered normal. There was significant difference between albumin and age (p=0.007, being that the greater the age, the lower the albumin. Hypoalbuminemia was significantly more frequent over 60 years (p<0.001. There was no correlation between vitamin D or nasal swab and age (p=0.603 and 0.725, respectively. The correlation between the tests and gender showed no significant difference in any of the parameters. Conclusion: The serum albumin and vitamin D levels and results of nasal swab were presented for a Brazilian sample of patients undergoing spine surgery. It was found correlation between hypoalbuminemia (inferring malnutrition and age group of patients. Almost all the patients had some degree of vitamin D deficiency, with no correlation with age.

  10. Stability of extemporaneously prepared preservative-free prochlorperazine nasal spray.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yellepeddi, Venkata K

    2018-01-01

    The stability of an extemporaneously prepared preservative-free prochlorperazine 5-mg/mL nasal spray was evaluated. The preservative-free prochlorperazine nasal spray was prepared by adding 250 mg of prochlorperazine edisylate to 50 mL of citrate buffer in a low-density polyethylene nasal spray bottle. A stability-indicating high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method was developed and validated using the major degradant prochlorperazine sulfoxide and by performing forced-degradation studies. For chemical stability studies, 3 100-μL samples of the preservative-free prochlorperazine from 5 nasal spray bottles stored at room temperature were collected at days 0, 20, 30, 45, and 60 and were assayed in triplicate using the stability-indicating HPLC method. Microbiological testing involved antimicrobial effectiveness testing based on United States Pharmacopeia ( USP ) chapter 51 and quantitative microbiological enumeration of aerobic bacteria, yeasts, and mold based on USP chapter 61. Samples for microbiological testing were collected at days 0, 30, and 60. The stability-indicating HPLC method clearly identified the degradation product prochlorperazine sulfoxide without interference from prochlorperazine. All tested solutions retained over 90% of the initial prochlorperazine concentration for the 60-day study period. There were no detectable changes in color, pH, and viscosity in any sample. There was no growth of bacteria, yeast, and mold for 60 days in all samples tested. An extemporaneously prepared preservative-free nasal spray solution of prochlorperazine edisylate 5 mg/mL was physically, chemically, and microbiologically stable for 60 days when stored at room temperature in low-density polyethylene bottles. Copyright © 2018 by the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. [Microcirculation of the nasal mucosa during use of balloon tamponade].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klinger, M; Siegert, R

    1997-03-01

    Nasal packings are commonly accepted in the treatment of severe epistaxis. Cuffed catheters are known to cause damage to the nasal mucosa most likely by interfering with tissue perfusion. In this study the effect of different pressure levels on local perfusion of septal mucosa is investigated. In 15 healthy subjects the blood flow in septal mucosa was measured by laser doppler flowmetry by positioning a cuffed epistaxis catheter into the nasal cavity with a laser probe attached to it. Increasing pressure was administered by injecting saline solution while continuously recording intraluminal pressure, perfusion, and filling volume. The local pressure affecting the septal mucosa at the moment of stalling perfusion was determined by subtracting the extranasal cuff pressure from the current intranasal cuff pressure at same inflation volumes. Microcirculation of the septal mucosa stopped when the local pressure exceeded a value of Pmean = 42 mmHg. Individual variations (n = 15) were small (s = 9 mmHg). The intraluminal cuff pressure was measured to be about ten times higher due to the retraction force of the cuff. Spontaneous oscillations of the blood flow were reduced with increasing pressure to the blood vessels. Filling volumes up to 3.2 ml were sufficient to stop perfusion. Cuffed nasal packings stop the blood flow in nasal mucosa even at low local pressures. Depending on the material characteristics of different cuffs the pressure to dilate the cuff may, however, be several times higher than the actual local pressure. This effect may cause problems in the proper use of cuffed catheters. Laser doppler flowmetry proved to be helpful in determining reproducible perfusion values.

  12. Extranasopharyngeal angiofibroma of the posterior nasal septum: a rare clinical entity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atmaca, Sinan; Bayraktar, Cem; Yıldız, Levent

    2013-01-01

    Angiofibroma of extranasopharyngeal origin is very rare. Although it is usually originated from any mucosal structure in the head and neck region, maxilla is the most common involvement site. The nasal septum is an exceptional anatomic site of an angiofibroma. Surgery is the best treatment modality and recurrence is very rare. Nasal septal angiofibromas must be considered in the differential diagnosis of nasal vascular masses arising from the nasal septum. In this article, we report a 37-year-old male case with nasal septal angiofibroma who underwent surgical resection of the tumor. This is the 16th case in the literature.

  13. Extraskeletal primary Ewing's scrcoma in the nasal cavity: A case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Bo Young; Park, Seok Won; Km, Eo Jin; Choi, Jong Sun; Lee, Eun Ja [Dongguk University College of Medicine, Ilsan Hospital, Goyang (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-08-15

    Ewing's sarcoma presents a rare tumor of the head and neck, and even rarer in the nasal cavity and/or paranasal sinuses. We report the case of Ewing's sarcoma in the nasal cavity, as presented with nasal obstruction and epistaxis. The CT and MRI examination reveals a mass in the left nasal cavity with extension to contralateral side, ethmoidal sinus, and nasopharynx. We provide an overview of Ewing's sarcoma in the nasal cavity and discuss radiologic findings of this unusual case.

  14. Effect of early correction of nasal septal deformity in unilateral cleft lip and palate on inferior turbinate hypertrophy and nasal patency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Valentina; Piccin, Ottavio; Burgio, Luca; Summo, Valeria; Antoniazzi, Elisa; Morselli, Paolo G

    2018-05-01

    A relatively neglected aspect of cleft lip nasal deformity is the effect of septal deviation and inferior turbinate hypertrophy (ITH) on the functional airway. In particular, ITH in the noncleft side can be especially problematic, because it reduces the healthy nasal area, creating bilateral nasal obstruction that might affect the growth of the maxillofacial skeleton. Although these anatomic and functional changes are documented, few recommendations have been developed regarding the proper approach to ITH. The aim of the present study was to asses the ITH severity and determine the degree of nasal airway patency in patients who have undergone primary correction of the nasal septum during lip repair compared to patients operated on without primary septal correction. The study population included two groups. One group consisted of twenty unilateral cleft lip palate UCLP patients who have previously undergone primary rhinoseptoplasty as part of their treatment plan. The control group consisted of twenty UCLP patients operated on without rhinoseptal correction. The Nasal Obstructive Symptom Evaluation (NOSE) scale and nasal endoscopy were used to assess nasal obstruction. The overall untreated group reported severe symptoms across all NOSE scale dimensions more frequently than children who have undergone primary rhinoseptoplasty. The difference was statistically significant for each dimensions (p cleft lip repair results in a statistically significant reduction in IT size and improvement of nasal patency. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Combined endovascular and surgical treatment of melanoma of the nasal cavity: a case report; Melanoma de fosas nasales. Tratamiento combinado endovascular y quirurgico. A proposito de un caso

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romero, A.; Delgado, F.; Ramos, M.; Bravo, F. [Hospital Universitario Reina Sofia. Cordoba (Spain)

    2000-07-01

    Melanoma of the nasal cavity is a rare tumor with a worse prognosis than cutaneous melanoma. It usually presents as nasal obstruction and/or epistaxis. The observation of a pigmented mass in the nasal cavity is highly suggestive of this lesion. Computed tomography shows a mass with nonspecific features. In magnetic resonance studies, it has a characteristics signal consisting of hyperintensity of T1-weighted images and hypointensity on T2-weighted images, depending on the amount of melanin. The treatment of choice is surgical resection. We present a case of melanoma of the nasal cavity in which endovascular embolization of the tumor was performed prior to surgical treatment. (Author) 11 refs.

  16. Response of Preterm Infants to 2 Noninvasive Ventilatory Support Systems: Nasal CPAP and Nasal Intermittent Positive-Pressure Ventilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silveira, Carmen Salum Thomé; Leonardi, Kamila Maia; Melo, Ana Paula Carvalho Freire; Zaia, José Eduardo; Brunherotti, Marisa Afonso Andrade

    2015-12-01

    Noninvasive ventilation (NIV) in preterm infants is currently applied using intermittent positive pressure (2 positive-pressure levels) or in a conventional manner (one pressure level). However, there are no studies in the literature comparing the chances of failure of these NIV methods. The aim of this study was to evaluate the occurrence of failure of 2 noninvasive ventilatory support systems in preterm neonates over a period of 48 h. A randomized, prospective, clinical study was conducted on 80 newborns (gestational age CPAP and 40 infants with nasal intermittent positive-pressure ventilation (NIPPV). The occurrence of apnea, progression of respiratory distress, nose bleeding, and agitation was defined as ventilation failure. The need for intubation and re-intubation after failure was also observed. There were no significant differences in birth characteristics between groups. Ventilatory support failure was observed in 25 (62.5%) newborns treated with nasal CPAP and in 12 (30%) newborns treated with NIPPV, indicating an association between NIV failure and the absence of intermittent positive pressure (odds ratio [OR] 1.22, P CPAP failure. After failure, 25% (OR 0.33) of the newborns receiving nasal CPAP and 12.5% (OR 0.14) receiving NIPPV required invasive mechanical ventilation. Ventilatory support failure was significantly more frequent when nasal CPAP was used. Copyright © 2015 by Daedalus Enterprises.

  17. Piglet nasal microbiota at weaning may influence the development of Glässer's disease during the rearing period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correa-Fiz, Florencia; Fraile, Lorenzo; Aragon, Virginia

    2016-05-26

    The microbiota, the ensemble of microorganisms on a particular body site, has been extensively studied during the last few years, and demonstrated to influence the development of many diseases. However, these studies focused mainly on the human digestive system, while the populations in the respiratory tract have been poorly assessed, especially in pigs. The nasal mucosa of piglets is colonized by an array of bacteria, many of which are unknown. Among the early colonizers, Haemophilus parasuis also has clinical importance, since it is also the etiological agent of Glässer's disease. This disease produces economical losses in all the countries with pig production, and the factors influencing its development are not totally understood. Hence, the purpose of this work was to characterize the nasal microbiota composition of piglets, and its possible role in Glässer's disease development. Seven farms from Spain (4 with Glässer's disease and 3 control farms without any respiratory disease) and three farms from UK (all control farms) were studied. Ten piglets from each farm were sampled at 3-4 weeks of age before weaning. The total DNA extracted from nasal swabs was used to amplify the 16S RNA gene for sequencing in Illumina MiSeq. Sequencing data was quality filtered and analyzed using QIIME software. The diversity of the nasal microbiota was low in comparison with other body sites, showing a maximum number of operational taxonomic units (OTUs) per pig of 1,603, clustered in five phyla. Significant differences were found at various taxonomical levels, when the microbiota was compared regarding the farm health status. Healthy status was associated to higher species richness and diversity, and UK farms demonstrated the highest diversity. The composition of the nasal microbiota of healthy piglets was uncovered and different phylotypes were shown to be significantly altered in animals depending on the clinical status of the farm of origin. Several OTUs at genus level were

  18. Change in the nose areas in children with mouth breathing after nasal cleansing and massage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo, Ana Carolina Cardoso de; Gomes, Adriana de Oliveira Camargo; Cunha, Daniele Andrade da; Lima, Sandro Júnior Henrique; Lima, Wigna Rayssa Pereira; Cunha, Renata Andrade da; Silva, Hilton Justino da

    2016-01-01

    To analyze the changes occurred in the nasal cavity geometry, before and after nasal cleansing, through nasal aeration and acoustic rhinometry in children with oral breathing. Twenty children aged four to 12 years were included in the study. The gathering of participants was conducted at the Multifunctional Laboratory of the Speech Pathology Department of the Federal University of Pernambuco - UFPE. The following procedures were conducted: Identification Index of Signs and Symptoms of Oral Breathing; marking of nasal expiratory airflow using the graded mirror of Altmann, and examination of the Nasal Geometry by Acoustic Rhinometry. The same procedures were performed after nasal massage and cleansing with saline solution. Significant change was observed in the areas with respect to the nasal airflow on both sides after nasal cleansing and massage. As for nasal geometry, measured by acoustic rhinometry, comparison between the nostrils showed that the effect of cleansing and massage was discrete. Nasal aeration measures showed sensitivity to the cleansing and massage technique and measures of nasal geometry confirmed its effect on respiratory physiology.

  19. Novel nano-cellulose excipient for generating non-Newtonian droplets for targeted nasal drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Paul M; Traini, Daniela; Ong, Hui Xin; Granieri, Angelo; Zhu, Bing; Scalia, Santo; Song, Jie; Spicer, Patrick T

    2017-10-01

    Thickening polymers have been used as excipients in nasal formulations to avoid nasal run-off (nasal drip) post-administration. However, increasing the viscosity of the formulation can have a negative impact on the quality of the aerosols generated. Therefore, the study aims to investigate the use of a novel smart nano-cellulose excipient to generate suitable droplets for nasal drug delivery that simultaneously has only marginally increased viscosity while still reducing nasal drips. Nasal sprays containing nano-cellulose at different concentrations were investigated for the additive's potential as an excipient. The formulations were characterized for their rheological and aerosol properties. This was then compared to conventional nasal spray formulation containing the single-component hydroxyl-propyl methyl cellulose (HPMC) viscosity enhancing excipient. The HPMC-containing nasal formulations behave in a Newtonian manner while the nano-cellulose formulations have a yield stress and shear-thinning properties. At higher excipient concentrations and shear rates, the nano-cellulose solutions have significantly lower viscosities compared to the HPMC solution, resulting in improved droplet formation when actuated through conventional nasal spray. Nano-cellulose materials could potentially be used as a suitable excipient for nasal drug delivery, producing consistent aerosol droplet size, and enhanced residence time within the nasal cavity with reduced run-offs compared to conventional polymer thickeners.

  20. Detection of helicobacter pylori in nasal polyps using rapid urease test and ELISA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masood Kaviani

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Nasal polyposis is an inflammatory condition of unknown etiology. Recently concerns regarding gastroesophageal reflux or helicobacter pylori as a possible pathologic cause of nasal polyps have been increasing. The present study was planned to investigate the presence of helicobacter pylori in nasal polyps. Materials and Methods: This case-control study was undertaken enrolling 37 patients with nasal polyps who had undergone nasal endoscopic sinus surgery and 38 control subjects. Biopsy specimens of nasal polyps and inferior turbinates were assessed by rapid urease test. Blood samples of both study and control subjects were evaluated for anti H.pylori IgG by ELISA. H. pylori status was regarded positive, if both tests were positive. Results: Seropositivity was more common in the patients with nasal polyps (66.2% than control subjects (36.8% (P

  1. A novel polyomavirus from the nasal cavity of a giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Dunwu; Shan, Tongling; Liu, Zhijian; Deng, Xutao; Zhang, Zhihe; Bi, Wenlei; Owens, Jacob Robert; Feng, Feifei; Zheng, Lisong; Huang, Feng; Delwart, Eric; Hou, Rong; Zhang, Wen

    2017-10-27

    Polyomaviruses infect a wide variety of mammalian and avian hosts with a broad spectrum of outcomes including asymptomatic infection, acute systemic disease, and tumor induction. Viral metagenomics and general PCR methods were used to detected viral nucleic acid in the samples from a diseased and healthy giant pandas. A novel polyomavirus, the giant panda polyomavirus 1 (GPPyV1) from the nasal cavity of a dead giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) was characterized. The GPPyV1 genome is 5144 bp in size and reveals five putative open-reading frames coding for the classic small and large T antigens in the early region, and the VP1, VP2 and VP3 capsid proteins in the late region. Phylogenetic analyses of the large T antigen of the GPPyV1 indicated GPPyV1 belonged to a putative new species within genus Deltapolyomavirus, clustering with four human polyomavirus species. The GPPyV1 VP1 and VP2 clustered with genus Alphapolyomavirus. Our epidemiologic study indicated that this novel polyomavirus was also detected in nasal swabs and fecal samples collected from captive healthy giant pandas. A novel polyomavirus was detected in giant pandas and its complete genome was characterized, which may cause latency infection in giant pandas.

  2. Evaluation of an autoclave resistant anatomic nose model for the testing of nasal swabs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartolitius, Lennart; Frickmann, Hagen; Warnke, Philipp; Ottl, Peter; Podbielski, Andreas

    2014-09-01

    A nose model that allows for the comparison of different modes of sample acquisition as well as of nasal swab systems concerning their suitability to detect defined quantities of intranasal microorganisms, and further for training procedures of medical staff, was evaluated. Based on an imprint of a human nose, a model made of a silicone elastomer was formed. Autoclave stability was assessed. Using an inoculation suspension containing Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis, the model was compared with standardized glass plate inoculations. Effects of inoculation time, mode of sampling, and sample storage time were assessed. The model was stable to 20 autoclaving cycles. There were no differences regarding the optimum coverage from the nose and from glass plates. Optimum sampling time was 1 h after inoculation. Storage time after sampling was of minor relevance for the recovery. Rotating the swab around its own axis while circling the nasal cavity resulted in best sampling results. The suitability of the assessed nose model for the comparison of sampling strategies and systems was confirmed. Without disadvantages in comparison with sampling from standardized glass plates, the model allows for the assessment of a correct sampling technique due to its anatomically correct shape.

  3. PLGA/DPPC/trimethylchitosan spray-dried microparticles for the nasal delivery of ropinirole hydrochloride: in vitro, ex vivo and cytocompatibility assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karavasili, Christina [Laboratory of Pharmaceutical Technology, Department of Pharmacy, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54124 (Greece); Bouropoulos, Nikolaos [Department of Materials Science, University of Patras, 26504 Rio, Patras (Greece); Foundation for Research and Technology, Hellas-Institute of Chemical Engineering and High Temperature, P.O. Box 1414, 26504 Patras (Greece); Sygellou, Lamprini [Foundation for Research and Technology, Hellas-Institute of Chemical Engineering and High Temperature, P.O. Box 1414, 26504 Patras (Greece); Amanatiadou, Elsa P.; Vizirianakis, Ioannis S. [Laboratory of Pharmacology, Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, GR-54124 Thessaloniki (Greece); Fatouros, Dimitrios G., E-mail: dfatouro@pharm.auth.gr [Laboratory of Pharmaceutical Technology, Department of Pharmacy, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54124 (Greece)

    2016-02-01

    In the present study we investigated polymer-lipid microparticles loaded with ropinirole hydrochloride (RH) for nasal delivery. RH microparticles were further evaluated by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM), ζ-potential measurements, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and x-ray diffraction (XRD). In vitro release studies were performed in simulated nasal electrolyte solution (SNES) pH 5.5 at 35 °C. Ex vivo permeation studies were conducted across sheep nasal mucosa. Cytocompatibility was tested in cultured human airway epithelial cells (Calu-3). SEM studies revealed spheroid microparticles in the range of 2.09 μm to 2.41 μm. The presence of trimethylchitosan (TMC) induced a slight shift towards less negative ζ-potential values. Surface chemistry (XPS) revealed the presence of dipalmitoylphospatidylcholine (DPPC) and poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) onto microparticles' surface, further corroborating the FT-IR and XRD findings. In vitro release studies showed that the microparticle composition can partly modulate the release of RH. Ex vivo studies demonstrated a 2.35-folded enhancement of RH permeation when RH was co-formulated with TMC of low molecular weight, compared to the control. All formulations tested were found to be non-toxic to cells. The results suggest that polymer-lipid microparticles may be a promising carrier for the nasal delivery of RH. - Highlights: • Development of microparticles comprising PLGA/DPPC/TMC for nasal drug delivery. • Physicochemical characterization showed that DPPC dominated microparticles' surface. • Microparticles enhanced permeation of ropinirole across sheep nasal epithelium. • The cytotoxicity assay with Calu-3 cells demonstrated satisfactory cell viability.

  4. PLGA/DPPC/trimethylchitosan spray-dried microparticles for the nasal delivery of ropinirole hydrochloride: in vitro, ex vivo and cytocompatibility assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karavasili, Christina; Bouropoulos, Nikolaos; Sygellou, Lamprini; Amanatiadou, Elsa P.; Vizirianakis, Ioannis S.; Fatouros, Dimitrios G.

    2016-01-01

    In the present study we investigated polymer-lipid microparticles loaded with ropinirole hydrochloride (RH) for nasal delivery. RH microparticles were further evaluated by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM), ζ-potential measurements, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and x-ray diffraction (XRD). In vitro release studies were performed in simulated nasal electrolyte solution (SNES) pH 5.5 at 35 °C. Ex vivo permeation studies were conducted across sheep nasal mucosa. Cytocompatibility was tested in cultured human airway epithelial cells (Calu-3). SEM studies revealed spheroid microparticles in the range of 2.09 μm to 2.41 μm. The presence of trimethylchitosan (TMC) induced a slight shift towards less negative ζ-potential values. Surface chemistry (XPS) revealed the presence of dipalmitoylphospatidylcholine (DPPC) and poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) onto microparticles' surface, further corroborating the FT-IR and XRD findings. In vitro release studies showed that the microparticle composition can partly modulate the release of RH. Ex vivo studies demonstrated a 2.35-folded enhancement of RH permeation when RH was co-formulated with TMC of low molecular weight, compared to the control. All formulations tested were found to be non-toxic to cells. The results suggest that polymer-lipid microparticles may be a promising carrier for the nasal delivery of RH. - Highlights: • Development of microparticles comprising PLGA/DPPC/TMC for nasal drug delivery. • Physicochemical characterization showed that DPPC dominated microparticles' surface. • Microparticles enhanced permeation of ropinirole across sheep nasal epithelium. • The cytotoxicity assay with Calu-3 cells demonstrated satisfactory cell viability.

  5. Low-dose oxytocin delivered intranasally with Breath Powered device affects social-cognitive behavior: a randomized four-way crossover trial with nasal cavity dimension assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintana, D S; Westlye, L T; Rustan, Ø G; Tesli, N; Poppy, C L; Smevik, H; Tesli, M; Røine, M; Mahmoud, R A; Smerud, K T; Djupesland, P G; Andreassen, O A

    2015-07-14

    Despite the promise of intranasal oxytocin (OT) for modulating social behavior, recent work has provided mixed results. This may relate to suboptimal drug deposition achieved with conventional nasal sprays, inter-individual differences in nasal physiology and a poor understanding of how intranasal OT is delivered to the brain in humans. Delivering OT using a novel 'Breath Powered' nasal device previously shown to enhance deposition in intranasal sites targeted for nose-to-brain transport, we evaluated dose-dependent effects on social cognition, compared response with intravenous (IV) administration of OT, and assessed nasal cavity dimensions using acoustic rhinometry. We adopted a randomized, double-blind, double-dummy, crossover design, with 16 healthy male adults completing four single-dose treatments (intranasal 8 IU (international units) or 24 IU OT, 1 IU OT IV and placebo). The primary outcome was social cognition measured by emotional ratings of facial images. Secondary outcomes included the pharmacokinetics of OT, vasopressin and cortisol in blood and the association between nasal cavity dimensions and emotional ratings. Despite the fact that all the treatments produced similar plasma OT increases compared with placebo, there was a main effect of treatment on anger ratings of emotionally ambiguous faces. Pairwise comparisons revealed decreased ratings after 8 IU OT in comparison to both placebo and 24 IU OT. In addition, there was an inverse relationship between nasal valve dimensions and anger ratings of ambiguous faces after 8-IU OT treatment. These findings provide support for a direct nose-to-brain effect, independent of blood absorption, of low-dose OT delivered from a Breath Powered device.

  6. Doenças da cavidade nasal em ruminantes no Brasil Diseases of the nasal cavity of ruminants in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roseane de A Portela

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho descreve as doenças das fossas nasais diagnosticadas em ruminantes no Hospital Veterinário da Universidade Federal de Campina Grande, em Patos, Paraíba, nos anos de 2003-2009. No período foram registrados três diagnósticos de doenças das fossas nasais de bovinos, três em caprinos e nove em ovinos (de um total de 404 diagnósticos em bovinos, 330 em caprinos e 338 em ovinos. Descrevem-se um caso de rinite atópica em bovinos, sete surtos de conidiobolomicose e dois de pitiose rinofacial em ovinos, dois casos de prototecose e um de aspergilose nasal em caprinos e um mixoma e um fibrossarcoma em bovinos. Adicionalmente, é realizada uma revisão de outras doenças das fossas nasais de ruminantes descritas em outras regiões do Brasil, incluindo oestrose, rinosporidiose, carcinoma epidermóide e tumor etmoidal enzoótico.This paper reports diseases of the nasal cavity diagnosed in ruminants in the Veterinary Hospital of the Federal University of Campina Grande, in Patos, state of Paraiba, northeastern Brazil, from 2003 to 2009. During that period three cases or outbreaks of diseases of the nasal cavity were reported in cattle, three in goats and nine in sheep (out of 404 diseases diagnosed in cattle, 330 in goats, and 338 in sheep. At all are reported one case of atopic rhinitis in cattle, seven outbreaks of conidiobolomycosis and two outbreaks of rhinofacial pythiosis in sheep, two cases of protothecosis and one of nasal aspergillosis in goats, and a myxoma and a fibrosarcoma in cattle. Additionally, other diseases of the nasal cavity reported in Brazil are reviewed, including oestrosis, rhinosporidiosis, squamous cell carcinoma, and enzootic ethmoidal tumor.

  7. Nasal symptoms and clinical findings in adult patients treated for unilateral cleft lip and palate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morén, Staffan; Mani, Maria; Lundberg, Kristina; Holmström, Mats

    2013-10-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate self-experienced nasal symptoms among adults treated for UCLP and the association to clinical findings, and to evaluate whether palate closure in one-stage or two-stages affected the symptoms or clinical findings. All people with UCLP born between 1960-1987, treated at Uppsala University Hospital, were considered for participation in this cross-sectional population study with long-term follow-up. Eighty-three patients (76% participation rate) participated, a mean of 37 years after the first operation. Fifty-two patients were treated with one-stage palate closure and 31 with two-stage palate closure. An age-matched group of 67 non-cleft controls completed the same study protocol, which included a questionnaire regarding nasal symptoms, nasal inspection, anterior rhinoscopy, and nasal endoscopy. Patients reported a higher frequency of nasal symptoms compared with the control group, e.g., nasal obstruction (81% compared with 60%) and mouth breathing (20% compared with 5%). Patients also rated their nasal symptoms as having a more negative impact on their daily life and physical activities than controls. Nasal examination revealed higher frequencies of nasal deformities among patients. No positive correlation was found between nasal symptoms and severity of findings at nasal examination. No differences were identified between patients treated with one-stage and two-stage palate closure regarding symptoms or nasal findings. Adult patients treated for UCLP suffer from more nasal symptoms than controls. However, symptoms are not associated with findings at clinical nasal examination or method of palate closure.

  8. Topical nasal steroid treatment does not improve CPAP compliance in unselected patients with OSAS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strobel, Werner; Schlageter, Manuel; Andersson, Morgan; Miedinger, David; Chhajed, Prashant N; Tamm, Michael; Leuppi, Jörg D

    2011-02-01

    Continuous positive airways pressure (CPAP) for treatment of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) can produce troublesome nasal symptoms (i.e. congestion, rhinorrhea) that may reduce the compliance of CPAP. Topical nasal steroids are often prescribed to reduce these side effects, although scientific data are scarce supporting any benefits of this treatment for CPAP-induced nasal side effects. To study whether a topical nasal steroid can reduce CPAP-induced nasal symptoms and improve CPAP adherence during the initial phase of OSA treatment. A randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled study with fluticasone propionate 100 μg/nasal cavity twice daily Treatment was started 10 days prior to and continued throughout the first 4 weeks of CPAP. 63 patients who were selected for CPAP treatment participated. Nasal symptoms were recorded, nasal patency was assessed and lung function was measured with a peak flow meter. The patients' adherence to CPAP was recorded by the CPAP device. Total nasal symptoms increased from baseline to 4 wks after CPAP use for both nasal treatments (p < 0.05). No differences in total nasal symptoms between treatments were seen (p = 1), and no differences in nasal peak flow values after treatment were seen (p = 0.11). Moreover, there were no differences in CPAP use between the treatments. Fluticasone propionate as a nasal topical steroid does not reduce CPAP-induced unwanted nasal side effects, and has no beneficial effect on CPAP compliance during the first four weeks of treatment in unselected patients with OSAS. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Effects of heated humidification and topical steroids on compliance, nasal symptoms, and quality of life in patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome using nasal continuous positive airway pressure.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ryan, Silke

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: Nasal side effects are common in patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) starting on nasal continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) therapy. We tested the hypothesis that heated humidification or nasal topical steroids improve compliance, nasal side effects and quality of life in this patient group. METHODS: 125 patients with the established diagnosis of OSAS (apnea\\/hypopnea index > or = 10\\/h), who tolerated CPAP via a nasal mask, and who had a successful CPAP titration were randomized to 4 weeks of dry CPAP, humidified CPAP or CPAP with additional topical nasal steroid application (fluticasone, GlaxoWellcome). Groups were similar in all demographic variables and in frequency of nasal symptoms at baseline. Outcome measures were objective compliance, quality of life (short form 36), subjective sleepiness (Epworth Sleepiness Scale score) and nasal symptoms such as runny, dry or blocked nose, sneezing and headaches; all variables assessed using a validated questionnaire and by direct interview. RESULTS: There was no difference in compliance between groups after 4 weeks (dry: 5.21 +\\/- 1.66 h\\/night, fluticasone: 5.66 +\\/- 1.68, humidifier: 5.21 +\\/- 1.84; p = 0.444). Quality of life and subjective sleepiness improved in all groups, but there were no differences in the extent of improvement. Nasal Symptoms were less frequently reported in the humidifier group (28%) than in the remaining groups (dry: 70%, fluticasone: 53%, p = 0.002). However, the addition of fluticasone resulted in increased frequency of sneezing. CONCLUSION: The addition of a humidifier, but not nasal steroids decreases the frequency of nasal symptoms in unselected OSAS patients initiating CPAP therapy; however compliance and quality of life remain unaltered.

  10. NASAL MUCOUS MEMBRANE MICROFLORA IN PATIENTS WITH POLYPOUS RHINOSINUSITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. A. Kolenchukova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Nasal mucous membrane microbiocenosis Research amongst patients with polypous rhinosinusitis is conducted. Patients with polypous rhinosinusitis (PRS, n = 58 aged from 18 till 64 years and group of control (n = 156. For an microflora assessment of nasal mucous membrane during an exacerbation of a disease carried out crops of microorga nisms on nutrient differential and diagnostic agars. When studying the microflora received from nasal mucous membrane 407 cultures of microorganisms at PRS were revealed. In control group of 174 microorganisms cultures are revealed. Among isolates were established 6 genera of 9 species of bacteria at PRS against 6 genera and 8 species in group of control. Microflora quantitative structure research of nasal mucous membrane at PRS of rather control group considerable prevalence of the microorganisms belonging to the sorts Staphylococcus and Streptococcus, and also to Enterobacteriaceae was revealed. It is also revealed increase S. pneumoniae. When determining specific accessory of the microorganisms relating to the Staphylococcus genera in PRS group concerning control the increase in total number of the strains of S. aureus relating to coagulase-positive and S. haemolyticus, S. epidermidis relating to coagulase-negative staphylococcus was established. A big variety the coagulase-negative of Staphylococcus is also revealed: S. epidermidis, S. haemolyticus, S. hominis, S. cohnii, S. capitis, S. hyicius and S. xylosus. In control group of such types as S. capitis and S. hyicius it isn’t revealed. Thus at a polypous rhinosinusitis nasal mucous membrane the expressed dysbacteriosis takes place. The analysis of frequency of occurrence of the microorganisms belonging to different childbirth showed that in PRS group bacteria of the sort Streptococcus and this Nesseria, and also S. pneumoniae, S. pyogenes were most often allocated concerning control. The frequency prevalence analysis of the gene ra Staphylococcus related

  11. Regional aerosol deposition in human upper airways

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swift, D.L.

    1992-11-01

    Laboratory experimental studies were carried out to investigate the factors influencing the deposition of aerosols ranging in size from 1 nm to 10 [mu]m in the human nasal, oral, pharyngeal and laryngeal airways. These experimental studies were performed in replicate upper airway physical models and in human volunteer subjects. New replicate models of the oral passage of an infant, the oral passage of an adult at two openings and the combined nasal and oral airways of an adult were constructed during the period, adding to the existing models of adult, child and infant nasal and oral airways models. Deposition studies in the adult oral and adult nasal models were performed under simulated cyclic flow conditions with 1 nm particles to compare with previously measured constant flow studies. Similar studies with inertial particles (1--10 [mu]m diameter) were performed with the adult nasal model; in both instances, results with cyclic flow were similar to constant flow results using a simple average flow rate based on inspiratory volume and time of inspiration. Human subject studies were performed with particle sizes 5--20 nm for nasal inspiration; preliminary analysis shows good agreement with model studies at several representative flow rates. Nasal inspiratory inertial deposition of 1--4 [mu]m diameter particles was measured in several adults as a function of airway dimensions; dimensional changes of the valve area by decongestion did not produce concomitant deposition changes.

  12. Novel treatment using topical malachite green for nasal phaeohyphomycosis caused by a new Cladophialophora species in a cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Ian J; Walton, Stuart A; Shmalberg, Justin; Harris, Autumn

    2018-01-01

    A 1.5-year-old castrated male domestic shorthair cat presented with a 2 month history of progressive nasal swelling and hyporexia. Minimal improvement prior to referral was achieved with a course of antibiotics and glucocorticoids. Cytology of an ulcerative lesion on the dorsal aspect of the nose was consistent with a diagnosis of phaeohyphomycosis. The cat achieved static disease for 6 weeks following initiation of itraconazole but developed epistaxis at 9 weeks. CT of the head demonstrated nasal and frontal sinus involvement. Nasal biopsy and culture identified infection with a Cladophialophora species not previously reported to cause disease. Initial response to a combination of itraconazole and terbinafine was noted, but owing to severe thrombocytopenia this combination was discontinued. Voriconazole was used but discontinued because of adverse side effects. Posaconazole treatment was offered throughout the clinical course but rejected owing to financial constraints and an uncertain response to medical therapy. Rhinotomy with debulking of diseased tissue and topical malachite green treatment was performed. Following the procedure itraconazole was continued and the cat has had no recurrence for over 1 year. Infections by Cladophialophora species have been reported in veterinary species, including cats. The specific fungal organism isolated from this cat has not been previously reported to cause disease in humans or animals and has only been described in the mangroves of Brazil. Furthermore, this is the first report to describe the use of topical malachite green as a treatment for refractory phaeohyphomycosis.

  13. Validity of in vitro tests on aqueous spray pumps as surrogates for nasal deposition, absorption, and biologic response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suman, Julie D; Laube, Beth L; Dalby, Richard

    2006-01-01

    This research investigated the impact of the full range of in vitro spray characterization tests described in the FDA Draft Bioequivalence Guidance on nasal deposition pattern, pharmacokinetics, and biological response to nicotine administered by two aqueous nasal spray pumps in human volunteers. Nicotine was selected as a model drug (even though it is not locally acting) based on its ability to alter cardiac function and available plasma assay. Significant differences in pump performance-including mean volume diameters, spray angle, spray width, and ovality ratios-were observed between the two pumps. There were no significant differences in deposition pattern, or pharmacokinetic or pharmacodynamic response to the nasally administered nicotine. Although there were statistical differences in the in vitro tests between the two pumps, these differences did not result in significant alterations in the site of droplet deposition within the nose, the rate and extent of nicotine absorption, or the physiologic response it induced. These results suggest that current measures of in vitro performance, particularly spray angle and spray pattern (ovality), may not be clinically relevant. Additional research is needed to define what spray pump characteristics are likely to produce differences in deposition pattern and drug response.

  14. Equivalence of self- and staff-collected nasal swabs for the detection of viral respiratory pathogens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manas K Akmatov

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The need for the timely collection of diagnostic biosamples during symptomatic episodes represents a major obstacle to large-scale studies on acute respiratory infection (ARI epidemiology. This may be circumvented by having the participants collect their own nasal swabs. We compared self- and staff-collected swabs in terms of swabbing quality and detection of viral respiratory pathogens. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We conducted a prospective study among employees of our institution during the ARI season 2010/2011 (December-March. Weekly emails were sent to the participants (n = 84, reminding them to come to the study center in case of new symptoms. The participants self-collected an anterior nasal swab from one nostril, and trained study personnel collected one from the other nostril. The participants self-collected another two swabs (one from each nostril on a subsequent day. Human β-actin DNA concentration was determined in the swabs as a quality control. Viral respiratory pathogens were detected by multiplex RT-PCR (Seeplex RV15 kit, Seegene, Eschborn, Germany. Of 84 participants, 56 (67% reported at least one ARI episode, 18 participants two, and one participant three. Self-swabbing was highly accepted by the participants. The amount of β-actin DNA per swab was higher in the self- than in the staff-collected swabs (p = 0.008. β-actin concentration was lower in the self-swabs collected on day 1 than in those collected on a subsequent day (p<0.0001. A respiratory viral pathogen was detected in 31% (23/75 of staff- and in 35% (26/75 of self-collected swabs (p = 0.36. With both approaches, the most frequently identified pathogens were human rhinoviruses A/B/C (12/75 swabs, 16% and human coronavirus OC43 (4/75 swabs, 5%. There was almost perfect agreement between self- and staff-collected swabs in terms of pathogen detection (agreement = 93%, kappa = 0.85, p<0.0001. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Nasal self

  15. Staphylococcus aureus nasal carriage in health care workers: First report from a major public hospital in Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boncompain, Carina Andrea; Suárez, Cristian Alejandro; Morbidoni, Héctor Ricardo

    Staphylococcus aureus causes numerous mild to severe infections in humans, both in health facilities and in the community. Patients and health care workers (HCWs) may disseminate strains during regular medical examinations or hospitalization. The aim of this study was to determine the nasal carriage rate of methicillin-susceptible and methicillin-resistant S. aureus among health care workers at Hospital Provincial del Centenario, a public general hospital in Rosario, Argentina. A transversal study was conducted on 320 health care workers. Nasal swabs were taken and presumptive S. aureus colonies were isolated. Bacterial identity and methicillin resistance status were confirmed by amplification of the nuc and mec genes. Chi square test and Fisher exact test were used for statistical analysis. Of 320 HCWs, 96 (30%) were nasal carriers of S. aureus, 20 of whom (6.3%) carried methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) and 76 (23.7%) methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA). Carriage was within thepublished values for physicians (30%) and higher for technicians (57%). Accompanying resistance (62/96, 64.6%) was detected, including resistance to fluoroquinolones (23/96, 24%), aminoglucosides (13/96, 13.5%) or to macrolides (33/96, 34.4%). All the strains were susceptible to vancomycin whereas only 3.1% (3/96), all of them on MSSA strains, were resistant to mupirocin. This study is the first one of its kind in Argentina and one of the few performed in South America, to highlight the relevance of nasal carriage of MRSA and MSSA in health care personnel and brings to light the need for consensus recommendations for regular S. aureus carriage screening as well as for decolonization strategies. Copyright © 2017 Asociación Argentina de Microbiología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  16. The nasopharynx, the paranasal sinuses, and nasal cavity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mancuso, A.A.

    1985-01-01

    In considering malignancies of the head and neck region, a number of sites mutually lend themselves to the presentation of diagnostic imaging and treatment. Some of these sites are the nasopharynx, the paranasal sinuses, and the nasal cavity, which are primarily concerned with the intake of air and are, in essence, the beginning of the respiratory tract. Because of its function, the tract is exposed to many environmental antigens and pollutants. For example, carcinoma of the nasopharynx is especially common among southern Chinese and seems to be related to environmental rather than genetic factors. However, the Epstein-Barr virus is associated with nasopharyngeal carcinomas in all races. The incidence of carcinomas of the nasal cavity and the paranasal sinuses has been found to be increased in furniture workers and appears to be related to wood dust inhalation

  17. Infrasellar craniopharyngioma of the posterior nasal septum: a rare entity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiun, Kian Chai; Tang, Ing Ping; Vikneswaran, Tharumalingam; Nurshaline Pauline, H Kipli

    2012-02-01

    To report an unusual location of infrasellar craniopharyngioma in a peadiatric patient. A six-year-old boy presented with persistent bilateral nasal obstruction for one year. Clinical examination revealed a posterior choanal mass arising from septum and the finding was confirmed by paranasal sinuses computed tomography scan. He then underwent wide local excision. Histopathological examination confirmed the diagnosis of craniopharyngioma (adamantinomatous type). There were no signs and symptoms of recurrence after a year of followup. Infracranial craniopharyngioma without sellar involvement is extremely rare. Persistent nasal obstruction without endocrine dysfunction is the common presentation. Radiological imaging is important to diagnose and assess the extent. The mainstay of treatment for infrasellar craniopharyngioma is surgery. Regular follow up is mandatory.

  18. Severe complication of posterior nasal packing: Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinto, José Antônio

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Severe Epistaxis is common in patients with head trauma, especially when associated with multiple fractures of the face and skull base. Several methods of controlling bleeding that can be imposed. The anterior nasal tapenade associated with posterior Foley catheter is one of the most widespread, and the universal availability of necessary materials or their apparent ease of execution. Methods: Case report on control of severe epistaxis after severe TBI, with posterior nasal packing by Foley catheter and control tomography showing multiple fractures of the skull base and penetration of the probe into the brain parenchyma. Conclusion: This is a rare but possible complication in the treatment of severe nose bleeds associated with fracture of the skull base. This brief report highlights risks related to the method and suggests some care to prevent complications related through a brief literature review.

  19. Severe complication of posterior nasal packing: Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, José Antônio; Cintra, Pedro Paulo Vivacqua da Cunha; Sônego, Thiago Branco; Leal, Carolina de Farias Aires; Artico, Marina Spadari; Soares, Josemar Dos Santos

    2012-10-01

     Severe Epistaxis is common in patients with head trauma, especially when associated with multiple fractures of the face and skull base. Several methods of controlling bleeding that can be imposed. The anterior nasal tapenade associated with posterior Foley catheter is one of the most widespread, and the universal availability of necessary materials or their apparent ease of execution.  Case report on control of severe epistaxis after severe TBI, with posterior nasal packing by Foley catheter and control tomography showing multiple fractures of the skull base and penetration of the probe into the brain parenchyma.  This is a rare but possible complication in the treatment of severe nose bleeds associated with fracture of the skull base. This brief report highlights risks related to the method and suggests some care to prevent complications related through a brief literature review.

  20. [Acute asthma attacks introduced by anesthesia before nasal endoscopic surgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lü, Xiaofei; Han, Demin; Zhou, Bing; Ding, Bin

    2004-05-01

    In order to pay our attention to the perioperative treatment before nasal endoscopic surgery. Three patients with asthma accompanied chronic sinusitis were analyzed systemically, who had undergone acute attacks of asthma introduced by anesthesia. Anesthetic drugs and instruments can lead to acute attacks of asthma, because sinusitis with asthma means allergic airway inflammation, broncho-hyperreactivity and lower compensatory pulmonary function. Then all of the 3 cases had missed the preoperative treatment. Anesthetic drugs and instruments can lead to acute attacks of asthma. The perioperative treatment before nasal endoscopic surgery is very important for the prevention of the occurrences of this severe complication. Except emergency, the operation should be can celled for avoiding the acute attack of asthma introduced by anesthesia.

  1. Forensic facial reconstruction: Nasal projection in Brazilian adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tedeschi-Oliveira, Silvia Virginia; Beaini, Thiago Leite; Melani, Rodolfo Francisco Haltenhoff

    2016-09-01

    The nose has a marked cognitive influence on facial image; however, it loses its shape during cadaveric decomposition. The known methods of estimating nasal projection using Facial Reconstruction are lacking in practicality and reproducibility. We attempted to relate the points Rhinion, Pronasale and Prosthion by studying the angle formed by straight lines that connect them. Two examiners measured this angle with the help of analysis and image-processing software, Image J, directly from cephalometric radiographs. The sample consisted of 300 males, aged between 24 and 77 years, and 300 females, aged 24 to 69 years. The proposed angle ranged from 80° to 100° in both sexes and all ages. It was considered possible to use a 90° angle from projections of the Rhinion and Prosthion points in order to determine the Pronasale position, as well as to estimate the nasal projection of Brazilian adults. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Le mélanome malin de la fosse nasale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rekik, Wafa; Goucha, Aida; Hamdane, Mohamed Moncef; Debbabi, Boutheina; EL May, Ahmed; Gammoudi, Amor

    2012-01-01

    Le mélanome muqueux primitif de la fosse nasale est une tumeur maligne très agressive, rare, constituant 1% de l’ensemble des mélanomes. Sa symptomatologie est non spécifique et son diagnostic est anatomo-pathologique, appuyé par l’immunohistochimie. Son traitement est essentiellement chirurgical basé sur une résection large de la tumeur. Le pronostic est défavorable, caractérisé par des récidives et des métastases fréquentes et un taux de survie bas. Nous rapportons dans ce travail un nouveau cas de mélanome malin primitif de la fosse nasale, tout en précisant les caractéristiques de cette tumeur. PMID:23024827

  3. Case report 367: Hemangioma of the nasal bone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pope, T.L. Jr.; Keats, T.E.; Fechner, R.E.

    1986-01-01

    In summary, an 18-year-old young woman presented with an expanding lesion of the nasal bone(s), with a prior history of gradual swelling of the nose. A past history of trauma sustained when she was struck by a tennis ball dated approximately five years before the current presentation. Plain film roentgenograms and a tomographic study showed an expanding lesion of the nasal bone(s) which had the appearance of benignity; the lesion was well demarcated with a narrow zone of transition. The lesional tissue contained small bony opacities in the form of circles and linear and curvilinear strands. The neoplasm was surgically excised and proved to be a benign hemangioma. (orig./SHA)

  4. Langerhans cells and subsets of lymphocytes in the nasal mucosa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hellquist-Dahl, B; Olsen, K E; Irander, K

    1991-01-01

    Langerhans cells and different lymphocytes were studied in the nasal mucosa of 39 woodwork teachers and a control group of 14 healthy subjects. Ten of the woodwork teachers were sensitized as determined by skin prick test. A panel of different monoclonal antibodies was applied on the frozen nasal...... mucosal specimens. Intraepithelial CD1-positive dendritic cells were found in all specimens. However, there was no difference between the number of these Langerhans cells found in the study group and the number found in the controls. In every specimen the intraepithelial lymphocyte population...... was dominated by T lymphocytes, and there were relatively few B cells. Similarly the ratio between CD4- and CD8-positive lymphocytes in the study group and the controls was the same. In all specimens there was a dominance of T suppressor/cytotoxic cells compared with T helper/inducer cells. The study confirms...

  5. Interpretation of nasal swab measurements following suspected releases of actinide aerosols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klumpp, John Allan; Bertelli, Luiz; Waters, Tom L.

    2017-01-01

    For radionuclides such as plutonium and americium, detection of removable activity in the nose (i.e., nasal swab measurements) are frequently used to determine whether follow-up bioassay measurements are warranted following a potential intake. For this paper, the authors analyzed 429 nasal swab measurements taken following incidents or suspicious circumstances (such as an air monitor alarming) at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) for which the dose was later evaluated using in vitro bioassay. Nasal swab measurements were found to be very poor predictors of dose and should not be used as such in the field. However, nasal swab measurements can be indicative of whether a reliably detectable committed effective dose (CED) occurred. About 14% of nasal swab measurements between 1.25 and 16.7 Bq corresponded to CEDs greater than 1 mSv, so in general, positive nasal swabs always indicate that follow-up bioassay should be performed (positive nasal swabs less than 1.25 Bq are considered separately). This probability increased significantly for nasal swabs greater than 16.7 Bq. Only about 3% of nasal swabs with no detectable activity (NDA) corresponded to reliably detectable CEDs. As a result, a nasal swab with NDA is therefore necessary, but not sufficient, to negate the need for a follow-up bioassay if it was collected following other workplace indicators of a potential intake.

  6. The effect of mouth leak and humidification during nasal non-invasive ventilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuggey, Justin M; Delmastro, Monica; Elliott, Mark W

    2007-09-01

    Poor mask fit and mouth leak are associated with nasal symptoms and poor sleep quality in patients receiving domiciliary non-invasive ventilation (NIV) through a nasal mask. Normal subjects receiving continuous positive airways pressure demonstrate increased nasal resistance following periods of mouth leak. This study explores the effect of mouth leak during pressure-targeted nasal NIV, and whether this results in increased nasal resistance and consequently a reduction in effective ventilatory support. A randomised crossover study of 16 normal subjects was performed on separate days. Comparison was made of the effect of 5 min of mouth leak during daytime nasal NIV with and without heated humidification. Expired tidal volume (V(T)), nasal resistance (R(N)), and patient comfort were measured. Mean change (Delta) in V(T) and R(N) were significantly less following mouth leak with heated humidification compared to the without (DeltaV(T) -36+/-65 ml vs. -88+/-50 ml, phumidification (5.3+/-0.4 vs. 6.2+/-0.4, phumidification. In normal subjects, heated humidification during nasal NIV attenuates the adverse effects of mouth leak on effective tidal volume, nasal resistance and improves overall comfort. Heated humidification should be considered as part of an approach to patients who are troubled with nasal symptoms, once leak has been minimised.

  7. Nasal reconstruction with silicone using customised impression technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanath Shetty

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Facial defects can result from a variety of reasons including trauma, burns, infections, congenital disorders, and neoplasms which require surgical correction or prosthetic rehabilitation or both. Prosthetic replacement using various materials is the treatment of choice when other surgical options are not possible. This report presents a case of acquired nasal defect secondary to a surgically operated adenoid cystic carcinoma using silicone as the material of choice.

  8. Lip-nasal aesthetics following Le Fort I osteotomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, H M

    1988-02-01

    Forty-one patients undergoing Le Fort I osteotomy for superior and/or anterior repositioning of the maxilla were prospectively studied for changes in soft-tissue morphology of the nasomaxillary region. Nasal parameters studied were changes in interalar rim width and nasal tip projection. It was observed that alar rim width increases with anterior and/or superior repositioning of the maxilla, but increases in nasal tip projection occur only when there is an anterior vector of maxillary movement. These nasal changes could not be quantitatively correlated to magnitude of maxillary movement. Lip changes studied were the horizontal displacement at the vermilion border and subnasale versus that of the incisal edge and point A, respectively, when the maxilla is sagittally advanced and the vertical shortening of the lip versus that of the incisal edge when the maxilla is shortened. Using linear regression analysis, horizontal displacement of the upper lip at the vermilion border was 0.82 +/- 0.13 mm for every 1 mm of maxillary advancement at the incisal edge (p less than 0.001) and 0.51 +/- 0.13 at the subnasale for every 1 mm of maxillary advancement at point A (p less than 0.001). Eighty percent of patients undergoing maxillary intrusive procedures had lip shortening ranging from 20 to 50 percent of the vertical maxillary reduction. Surprisingly, no statistically significant correlation could be demonstrated for lip shortening versus extent of vertical maxillary reduction. Previous literature in disagreement with these findings is discussed. Guidelines for treatment planning utilizing these data are suggested.

  9. A test for Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease using nasal brushings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orrú, Christina D; Bongianni, Matilde; Tonoli, Giovanni; Ferrari, Sergio; Hughson, Andrew G; Groveman, Bradley R; Fiorini, Michele; Pocchiari, Maurizio; Monaco, Salvatore; Caughey, Byron; Zanusso, Gianluigi

    2014-08-07

    Definite diagnosis of sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in living patients remains a challenge. A test that detects the specific marker for Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, the prion protein (PrP(CJD)), by means of real-time quaking-induced conversion (RT-QuIC) testing of cerebrospinal fluid has a sensitivity of 80 to 90% for the diagnosis of sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. We have assessed the accuracy of RT-QuIC analysis of nasal brushings from olfactory epithelium in diagnosing sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in living patients. We collected olfactory epithelium brushings and cerebrospinal fluid samples from patients with and patients without sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease and tested them using RT-QuIC, an ultrasensitive, multiwell plate-based fluorescence assay involving PrP(CJD)-seeded polymerization of recombinant PrP into amyloid fibrils. The RT-QuIC assays seeded with nasal brushings were positive in 30 of 31 patients with Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (15 of 15 with definite sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, 13 of 14 with probable sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, and 2 of 2 with inherited Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease) but were negative in 43 of 43 patients without Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, indicating a sensitivity of 97% (95% confidence interval [CI], 82 to 100) and specificity of 100% (95% CI, 90 to 100) for the detection of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. By comparison, testing of cerebrospinal fluid samples from the same group of patients had a sensitivity of 77% (95% CI, 57 to 89) and a specificity of 100% (95% CI, 90 to 100). Nasal brushings elicited stronger and faster RT-QuIC responses than cerebrospinal fluid (PCreutzfeldt-Jakob disease and indicated substantial prion seeding activity lining the nasal vault. (Funded by the Intramural Research Program of the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases and others.).

  10. A Test for Creutzfeldt–Jakob Disease Using Nasal Brushings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orrú, Christina D.; Bongianni, Matilde; Tonoli, Giovanni; Ferrari, Sergio; Hughson, Andrew G.; Groveman, Bradley R.; Fiorini, Michele; Pocchiari, Maurizio; Monaco, Salvatore; Caughey, Byron; Zanusso, Gianluigi

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Definite diagnosis of sporadic Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease in living patients remains a challenge. A test that detects the specific marker for Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease, the prion protein (PrPCJD), by means of real-time quaking-induced conversion (RT-QuIC) testing of cerebrospinal fluid has a sensitivity of 80 to 90% for the diagnosis of sporadic Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease. We have assessed the accuracy of RT-QuIC analysis of nasal brushings from olfactory epithelium in diagnosing sporadic Creutzfeldt– Jakob disease in living patients. METHODS We collected olfactory epithelium brushings and cerebrospinal fluid samples from patients with and patients without sporadic Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease and tested them using RT-QuIC, an ultrasensitive, multiwell plate–based fluorescence assay involving PrPCJD-seeded polymerization of recombinant PrP into amyloid fibrils. RESULTS The RT-QuIC assays seeded with nasal brushings were positive in 30 of 31 patients with Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease (15 of 15 with definite sporadic Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease, 13 of 14 with probable sporadic Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease, and 2 of 2 with inherited Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease) but were negative in 43 of 43 patients without Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease, indicating a sensitivity of 97% (95% confidence interval [CI], 82 to 100) and specificity of 100% (95% CI, 90 to 100) for the detection of Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease. By comparison, testing of cerebrospinal fluid samples from the same group of patients had a sensitivity of 77% (95% CI, 57 to 89) and a specificity of 100% (95% CI, 90 to 100). Nasal brushings elicited stronger and faster RT-QuIC responses than cerebrospinal fluid (PCreutzfeldt–Jakob disease and indicated substantial prion seeding activity lining the nasal vault. (Funded by the Intramural Research Program of the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases and others.) PMID:25099576

  11. [Neodymium magnet injury causing nasal fracture: a case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aykan, Andaç; Güzey, Serbülent; Avşar, Sedat; Öztürk, Serdar

    2015-05-01

    In parallel with technological developments, small size but strong magnets are commonly used in modern devices. In terms of foreign body injuries, magnet injuries are quite rare. However, due to their unique characteristics, there are some difficulties in their management. The magnetic field generated by the magnet affects the surgical instruments and make treatment difficult. In this case report, a nasal injury due to neodymium magnet and our alternative approach for its management was reported.

  12. Mucociliary clearance, airway inflammation and nasal symptoms in urban motorcyclists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tereza C.S. Brant

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: There is evidence that outdoor workers exposed to high levels of air pollution exhibit airway inflammation and increased airway symptoms. We hypothesized that these workers would experience increased airway symptoms and decreased nasal mucociliary clearance associated with their exposure to air pollution. METHODS: In total, 25 non-smoking commercial motorcyclists, aged 18-44 years, were included in this study. These drivers work 8-12 hours per day, 5 days per week, driving on urban streets. Nasal mucociliary clearance was measured by the saccharine transit test; airway acidification was measured by assessing the pH of exhaled breath condensate; and airway symptoms were measured by the Sino-nasal Outcome Test-20 questionnaire. To assess personal air pollution exposure, the subjects used a passive-diffusion nitrogen dioxide (NO2 concentration-monitoring system during the 14 days before each assessment. The associations between NO2 and the airway outcomes were analyzed using the Mann-Whitney test and the Chi-Square test. Clinicaltrials.gov: NCT01976039. RESULTS: Compared with clearance in healthy adult males, mucociliary clearance was decreased in 32% of the motorcyclists. Additionally, 64% of the motorcyclists had airway acidification and 92% experienced airway symptoms. The median personal NO2 exposure level was 75 mg/m3 for these subjects and a significant association was observed between NO2 and impaired mucociliary clearance (p = 0.036. CONCLUSION: Non-smoking commercial motorcyclists exhibit increased airway symptoms and airway acidification as well as decreased nasal mucociliary clearance, all of which are significantly associated with the amount of exposure to air pollution.

  13. Saccade performance in the nasal and temporal hemifields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jóhannesson, Ómar Ingi; Ásgeirsson, Árni Gunnar; Kristjánsson, Árni

    2012-01-01

    There are numerous asymmetries in anatomy between the nasal and temporal hemiretinae, which have been connected to various asymmetries in behavioral performance. These include asymmetries in Vernier acuity, saccade selection, and attentional function, in addition to some evidence for latency...... is surprising in light of previous findings of attentional asymmetries, it may reflect that cortical input to midbrain eye control centers mitigates any retinal and retinotectal asymmetry....

  14. A decrease in nasal CO2 stimulates breathing in the tegu lizard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coates, E L; Furilla, R A; Ballam, G O; Bartlett, D

    1991-10-01

    Tegu lizards decrease ventilatory frequency (f) when constant CO2, as low as 0.4%, is delivered to the nasal cavities. In contrast, CO2, as high as 6%, pulsed into the nasal cavities during the expiratory phase of the breathing cycle does not alter f. The purpose of the present study was to investigate further the effect of nasal CO2 pattern on f in tegu lizards. Specifically, we tested: (1) whether f was affected by CO2 delivered to the nasal cavities during the inspiratory phase of the breathing cycle, and (2) whether pulsed decreases in nasal CO2 from 4% to 2% and from 4% to 0% would remove the f inhibition caused by constant nasal CO2. Ventilation was measured using a pneumotachograph and pressure transducer in-line with an endotracheal T-tube inserted through the glottis. CO2 was delivered to the nasal cavities through small tubes inserted into the external nares. Ventilatory frequency was not significantly altered when 4% CO2 was pulsed into the nasal cavities during inspiration. Dropping the CO2 in the nasal cavities from 4% to 0% at either 15 cycles/min (0.25 Hz) or for one cycle stimulated breathing. There was no significant difference between the f response to a drop in CO2 from 4% to 0% and that to a drop in CO2 from 4% to 2%. The failure to link the phasic CO2 ventilatory response to a phase in the respiratory cycle indicates that the nasal CO2 receptors do not participate in the breath-by-breath regulation of breathing in these lizards. The observation that small decreases in nasal CO2 abolished the f inhibition caused by constant nasal CO2 provides further evidence for the ability of the nasal CO2 receptors to distinguish between pulsed and constant CO2.

  15. Insulin delivery through nasal route using thiolated microspheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nema, Tarang; Jain, Ashish; Jain, Aviral; Shilpi, Satish; Gulbake, Arvind; Hurkat, Pooja; Jain, Sanjay K

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the potential of developed thiolated microspheres for insulin delivery through nasal route. In the present study, cysteine was immobilized on carbopol using EDAC. A total of 269.93 µmol free thiol groups per gram polymer were determined. The prepared nonthiolated and thiolated microspheres were studied for particle shape, size, drug content, swellability, mucoadhesion and in vitro insulin release. The thiolated microspheres exhibited higher mucoadhesion due to formation of covalent bonds via disulfide bridges with the mucus gel layer. Drug permeation through goat nasal mucosa of nonthiolated and thiolated microspheres were found as 52.62 ± 2.4% and 78.85 ± 3.1% in 6 h, respectively. Thiolated microspheres bearing insulin showed better reduction in blood glucose level (BGL) in comparison to nonthiolated microspheres as 31.23 ± 2.12% and 75.25 ± 0.93% blood glucose of initial BGL were observed at 6 h after nasal delivery of thiolated and nonthiolated microspheres in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rabbits.

  16. Blindness associated with nasal/paranasal lymphoma in a stallion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sano, Yuto; Okamoto, Minoru; Ootsuka, Youhei; Matsuda, Kazuya; Yusa, Shigeki; Taniyama, Hiroyuki

    2017-03-23

    A 29-year-old stallion presented with bilateral blindness following the chronic purulent nasal drainage. The mass occupied the right caudal nasal cavity and right paranasal sinuses including maxillary, palatine and sphenoidal sinuses, and the right-side turbinal and paranasal septal bones, and cribriform plate of ethmoid bone were destructively replaced by the mass growth. The right optic nerve was invaded and involved by the mass, and the left optic nerve and optic chiasm were compressed by the mass which was extended and invaded the skull base. Histologically, the optic nerves and optic chiasm were degenerated, and the mass was diagnosed as lymphoma which was morphologically and immunohistochemically classified as a diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. Based on these findings, the cause of the blindness in the stallion was concluded to be due to the degeneration of the optic nerves and chiasm associated with lymphoma occurring in the nasal and paranasal cavities. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of the equine blindness with optic nerve degeneration accompanied by lymphoma.

  17. Keratoacanthoma of the Nasal Septum Secondary to Ranibizumab Use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason E. Cohn

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Keratoacanthoma (KA is a benign epithelial tumor that typically presents as a firm, cone-shaped, flesh-colored nodule with a central horn-filled crater. KA is considered to be a low-grade variant of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC. We report a rare case of a 72-year-old male who presented with a KA involving the nasal septum, possibly related to ranibizumab use. A flesh-colored lesion on the right anterior nasal septum lesion was visualized on examination. Histologic examination revealed a well-circumscribed, dome-shaped central crater filled with keratin, well-differentiated squamous epithelium with ground-glass cytoplasm with pushing margins, and intraepithelial microabscesses establishing the diagnosis of KA. KA of the nasal septum has only been reported once in the literature. This case is unusual because it normally presents on sun-exposed areas. Additionally, this patient was taking ranibizumab, a vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF inhibitor for macular degeneration. Despite ranibizumab not being directly linked to precancerous and cancerous skin lesions, agents in this medication class have been. Although it is difficult to prove associations in this isolated case, the role of ranibizumab causing cutaneous lesions should be further investigated.

  18. Nasal nicotine solution: a potential aid to giving up smoking?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, M A; Jarvis, M J; Feyerabend, C; Fernö, O

    1983-01-01

    A nasal solution was developed containing 2 mg nicotine for use as a kind of liquid snuff. Its absorption was studied in three subjects. An average peak of plasma nicotine concentrations of 86.9 nmol/l (14.1 ng/ml) was reached seven and a half minutes after taking the solution. This compared with an average peak of 158.4 nmol/l (25.7 ng/ml) one and a half minutes after completing (but seven and a half minutes after starting) a middle tar cigarette (1.4 mg nicotine) and an average peak of 52.4 nmol/l (8.5 ng/ml) after chewing nicotine gum (2 mg nicotine) for 30 minutes. The more rapid and efficient absorption of nicotine from the nasal nicotine solution than from nicotine chewing gum suggests that it might prove a useful aid to giving up smoking. Nasal nicotine solution might be particularly useful in smokers for whom the gum is less suitable on account of dentures or peptic ulcers or who experience nausea and dyspeptic symptoms from the gum. PMID:6402202

  19. Hydrogel nanoparticles and nanocomposites for nasal drug/vaccine delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salatin, Sara; Barar, Jaleh; Barzegar-Jalali, Mohammad; Adibkia, Khosro; Milani, Mitra Alami; Jelvehgari, Mitra

    2016-09-01

    Over the past few years, nasal drug delivery has attracted more and more attentions, and been recognized as the most promising alternative route for the systemic medication of drugs limited to intravenous administration. Many experiments in animal models have shown that nanoscale carriers have the ability to enhance the nasal delivery of peptide/protein drugs and vaccines compared to the conventional drug solution formulations. However, the rapid mucociliary clearance of the drug-loaded nanoparticles can cause a reduction in bioavailability percentage after intranasal administration. Thus, research efforts have considerably been directed towards the development of hydrogel nanosystems which have mucoadhesive properties in order to maximize the residence time, and hence increase the period of contact with the nasal mucosa and enhance the drug absorption. It is most certain that the high viscosity of hydrogel-based nanosystems can efficiently offer this mucoadhesive property. This update review discusses the possible benefits of using hydrogel polymer-based nanoparticles and hydrogel nanocomposites for drug/vaccine delivery through the intranasal administration.

  20. Nasal glial heterotopia or congenital hemangioma? A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lartizien, R; Durand, C; Blaise, S; Morand, B

    2017-10-01

    Nasal glial heterotopia (NGH) is a rare benign tumor of the median line. We describe the case of a child presenting a lateral nasal mass. The characteristics of the prenatal ultrasound and the postnatal clinical examination argued in favor of a congenital hemangioma (CH). The MRI performed at 6 weeks of life suggested glial heterotopia. This diagnosis was confirmed by the pathological analysis. Congenital hemangiomas and nasal glial heterotopies have similar clinical presentations. Prenatal ultrasound diagnosis between NGH and CH is difficult. Fetal MRI is not yet highly specific for these two lesions, but it can eliminate an intracerebral connection in cases of NGH. Postnatal exams are more specific. Flow on the Doppler exam is rapid for CH and slow for NGH. On MRI, these two lesions appear as a hypersignal on T2-weighted sequences, but less intense for NGH than for CH. Distinguishing between NGH and CH can be difficult. This does not have a direct incidence on treatment because it is surgical in both cases. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. Lymphoepithelial carcinoma of the nasal cavity mimicking juvenile angiofibroma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young Hyo; Kim, Beom Joon; Jang, Tae Young

    2012-10-01

    Juvenile angiofibroma, nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) and lymphoepithelial carcinoma of the nasal cavity (LEC NC) all could be found as a hyper-vascular mass in the nasopharynx area. Performing biopsy for histopathologic confirmation is necessary in the case of NPC or LEC NC but could be fatal in the case of angiofibroma. In our case, a 21-year-old male who was suffering from unilateral nasal stuffiness and frequent epistaxis had a mass with an easily bleeding tendency in his right nasal cavity. Juvenile angiofibroma was suspected by clinical and radiologic examinations. We performed preoperative angiography and the feeding vessel from the right internal maxillary artery was obliterated with polyvinyl alcohol nanoparticle. The mass was completely removed endoscopically, and there was profound hemorrhage in spite of the preoperative embolization. The mass turned out to be LEC NC by postoperative histopathologic examination. To avoid this misdiagnosis, the authors suggest that we should perform biopsy under rigid endoscopy 24h after angiographic embolization. If the result of frozen biopsy is juvenile angiofibroma, we could perform surgery another 24h later. If the result is nasopharyngeal carcinoma or LEC NC, we could avoid unnecessary surgical removal and perform radiotherapy. In terms of treatment strategies, we suggest endoscopic removal of gross tumor and postoperative combination of chemoradiotherapy as the more curative regimen with less complications related with radiotherapy. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Nasal rhinosporidiosis: differential diagnosis of fungal sinusitis and inverted papilloma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crosara, Paulo Fernando Tormin Borges

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Clinical case report of rhinosporidiosis, a rare and chronic granulomatous disease, caused by Rhinosporidium seeberi. Objective: To include this disease in the differential diagnoses of polypoid lesions of the nasal mass. Report: A male patient from the North of Brazil evolved a three-year papilomatous polypoid lesion of the left nasal cavity. He was submitted to sinusectomy with resection of the entire lesion, located in ethmoid bulla and uncinated process. Inverted papilloma or fungal sinusitis were differential diagnoses. The histopathological examination revealed a strong infestation by numerous fungal structures with sporangia shape full of sporangiospores. The microorganisms were positive for colorations of Grocott, PAS and Mayer's Mucicarmin; opposite from Coccidioides immitis, which presents no contrast by the mucicarmin. We didn't choose complimentary treatment and after one year of follow-up he presents with no sign of recurrence. Final Comments: Rhinosporidiosis must be considered to be a nasal polypoid lesion differential diagnosis. In the intranasal lesions diagnosis we should keep in mind the patient's origin. The anatomopathological study is mandatory to set the diagnosis. In the rhinosporidiosis, the surgical exeresis can be a curative treatment.

  3. Failure patterns following cobalt irradiation in dogs with nasal carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thrall, D.E.; Heidner, G.L.; Novotney, C.A.; McEntee, M.C.; Page, R.L.

    1993-01-01

    The pattern of tumor recurrence was assessed in 24 dogs receiving cobalt radiation therapy for nasal carcinoma. Dogs were evaluated using nasal cavity computed tomography prior to treatment, and at 1, 3, 6 and 12 months after treatment, and at 6-month intervals thereafter if still alive. Dogs were treated with various combinations of total dose, and fraction size. Total doses were normalized to equivalent doses given in 3.0 Gy fractions. The extent of tumor regression or duration of tumor control were not dependent on absolute total dose, normalized total dose, or tumor type. The median duration of local control in all dogs was 312 days. Marked tumor regression was observed in 11 of the 24 dogs. Median duration of local control was significantly longer in dogs with marked tumor regression in comparison to dogs without tumor regression; 389 vs. 161 days respectively. When tumor recurrence was documented in dogs having tumor regression, the location of the recurrence was in the nasal cavity. No tumor recurred in a sinus or periorbital region, and only one geographic miss was detected. Tumor recurrence in the irradiated volume, including dogs with and without marked regression, was documented in 13 of the 24 dogs. The high local failure rate, coupled with the recurrence pattern in these dogs, suggests there may be an opportunity for improvement in local control through use of shrinking field techniques

  4. The incompressibility assumption in computational simulations of nasal airflow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cal, Ismael R; Cercos-Pita, Jose Luis; Duque, Daniel

    2017-06-01

    Most of the computational works on nasal airflow up to date have assumed incompressibility, given the low Mach number of these flows. However, for high temperature gradients, the incompressibility assumption could lead to a loss of accuracy, due to the temperature dependence of air density and viscosity. In this article we aim to shed some light on the influence of this assumption in a model of calm breathing in an Asian nasal cavity, by solving the fluid flow equations in compressible and incompressible formulation for different ambient air temperatures using the OpenFOAM package. At low flow rates and warm climatological conditions, similar results were obtained from both approaches, showing that density variations need not be taken into account to obtain a good prediction of all flow features, at least for usual breathing conditions. This agrees with most of the simulations previously reported, at least as far as the incompressibility assumption is concerned. However, parameters like nasal resistance and wall shear stress distribution differ for air temperatures below [Formula: see text]C approximately. Therefore, density variations should be considered for simulations at such low temperatures.

  5. Nasal continuous positive airway pressure treatment: current realities and future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berthon-Jones, M; Lawrence, S; Sullivan, C E; Grunstein, R

    1996-11-01

    Nasal continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) is a highly effective treatment for obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. The apnea/hypopnea index (AHI) is reduced 10-fold, but the patient dropout rate is up to 30%, and usage is typically 20/hour were recruited, with written informed consent. Subjects slept for a diagnostic night, followed by a treatment night, in the laboratory, using the AutoSet system with full polysomnographic monitoring of respiratory and sleep variables. Arousals were scored using ASDA criteria. Hypopneas were scored when there was a 50% reduction in ventilation for > 10 seconds, associated with a 4% drop in oxygen saturation. For comparison, the ASDA arousal index in 16 normal subjects (without nasal CPAP) is provided. Results are given as mean +/- standard error of the mean. AHI was reduced from 55 +/- 3 to 1.5 +/- 0.35 events/hour (p < 0.0001). The arousal index was reduced from 65 +/- 3 to 18 +/- 2 events/hour (p < 0.0001), identical to the value in the 16 healthy normal subjects. There was a 158% +/- 21% increase in slow-wave sleep (p = 0.01) and a 186% +/- 27% increase in rapid eye movement sleep (p = 0.013). The AutoSet self-adjusting nasal CPAP system adequately treats obstructive sleep apnea syndrome on the first night under laboratory conditions.

  6. An outbreak of Burkholderia stabilis colonization in a nasal ward.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lijun; Wang, Mei; Zhang, Junyi; Wu, Wei; Lu, Yuan; Fan, Yanyan

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this study was to describe an outbreak of Burkholderia stabilis colonization among patients in a nasal ward. Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) was used for the molecular typing of B. stabilis isolates. Microbiological records were reviewed to delineate the colonization outbreak period. One hundred seventy-one cultures of environment and equipment samples from the nasal ward were performed to trace the source of contamination. Infection control measures were taken in order to end the outbreak. All B. stabilis isolates were identified as a new MLST type, ST821. A total of 53 patients carried this B. stabilis in the nasal ward between March and September 2013, which was defined as the outbreak period. The source of the colonization was not determined because all environment cultures were negative for Burkholderia cepacia complex. No further B. stabilis carriers have been found in the ward since the implementation of interventions. Attention must be paid to asymptomatic colonization in order to identify outbreaks early. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  7. Oral to nasal tube exchange under fibroscopic view: a new technique for nasal intubation in a predicted difficult airway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monclus, Enric; Garcés, Antonio; Artés, David; Mabrock, Maged

    2008-07-01

    For a predicted difficult airway, oral intubation techniques are well established in pediatric anesthesia, but nasotracheal intubation remains a problem. There are many reports concerning this, but the risk of bleeding, added to the lack of cooperation make this procedure difficult and hazardous. We describe a modification of the nasal intubation technique in two stages. First an oral intubation and then exchanging the oral for a nasal tube, in the case of a 13-year-old boy affected by an advanced stage of cherubism. Oral intubation using a laryngeal mask technique has already been reported, but problems appear during the exchange procedure and even more when direct laryngoscopy is impossible. Fiberscopic control of the exchange, and the introduction of a Cook Exchange Catheter into the trachea through the oral tube before withdrawal, permits oxygenation of the patient and acts as a guide for oral tube reintroduction if required.

  8. Regional aerosol deposition in human upper airways

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swift, D.L.

    1991-11-01

    During the current report experimental studies of upper respiratory deposition of radon progeny aerosols and stimulant aerosols were carried out in replicate casts of nasal and oral passages of adults and children. Additionally, preliminary studies of nasal passage deposition of unattached Po{sup 218} particles was carried out in four human subjects. Data on nasal inspiratory deposition in replicate models of adults and infants from three collaborating laboratories were compared and a best-fit curve of deposition efficiency for both attached and unattached particles was obtained, showing excellent inter-laboratory agreement. This curve demonstrates that nasal inspiratory deposition of radon progeny is weakly dependent upon flow rate over physiologically realistic ranges of flow, does not show a significant age effect, and is relatively independent of nasal passage dimensions for a given age range. Improved replicate models of the human adult oral passage extending to the mid-trachea were constructed for medium and higher flow mouth breathing states; these models were used to assess the deposition of unattached Po{sup 218} particles during oronasal breathing in the oral passage and demonstrated lower deposition efficiency than the nasal passage. Measurements of both Po{sup 218} particle and attached fraction particle size deposition were performed in replicate nasal passage of a four week old infant. 5 refs., 1 fig.

  9. Regional aerosol deposition in human upper airways

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swift, D.L.

    1991-01-01

    During the current report experimental studies of upper respiratory deposition of radon progeny aerosols and stimulant aerosols were carried out in replicate casts of nasal and oral passages of adults and children. Additionally, preliminary studies of nasal passage deposition of unattached Po 218 particles was carried out in four human subjects. Data on nasal inspiratory deposition in replicate models of adults and infants from three collaborating laboratories were compared and a best-fit curve of deposition efficiency for both attached and unattached particles was obtained, showing excellent inter-laboratory agreement. This curve demonstrates that nasal inspiratory deposition of radon progeny is weakly dependent upon flow rate over physiologically realistic ranges of flow, does not show a significant age effect, and is relatively independent of nasal passage dimensions for a given age range. Improved replicate models of the human adult oral passage extending to the mid-trachea were constructed for medium and higher flow mouth breathing states; these models were used to assess the deposition of unattached Po 218 particles during oronasal breathing in the oral passage and demonstrated lower deposition efficiency than the nasal passage. Measurements of both Po 218 particle and attached fraction particle size deposition were performed in replicate nasal passage of a four week old infant. 5 refs., 1 fig

  10. Clinical Practice Guideline: Improving Nasal Form and Function after Rhinoplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii, Lisa E; Tollefson, Travis T; Basura, Gregory J; Rosenfeld, Richard M; Abramson, Peter J; Chaiet, Scott R; Davis, Kara S; Doghramji, Karl; Farrior, Edward H; Finestone, Sandra A; Ishman, Stacey L; Murphy, Robert X; Park, John G; Setzen, Michael; Strike, Deborah J; Walsh, Sandra A; Warner, Jeremy P; Nnacheta, Lorraine C

    2017-02-01

    Objective Rhinoplasty, a surgical procedure that alters the shape or appearance of the nose while preserving or enhancing the nasal airway, ranks among the most commonly performed cosmetic procedures in the United States, with >200,000 procedures reported in 2014. While it is difficult to calculate the exact economic burden incurred by rhinoplasty patients following surgery with or without complications, the average rhinoplasty procedure typically exceeds $4000. The costs incurred due to complications, infections, or revision surgery may include the cost of long-term antibiotics, hospitalization, or lost revenue from hours/days of missed work. The resultant psychological impact of rhinoplasty can also be significant. Furthermore, the health care burden from psychological pressures of nasal deformities/aesthetic shortcomings, surgical infections, surgical pain, side effects from antibiotics, and nasal packing materials must also be considered for these patients. Prior to this guideline, limited literature existed on standard care considerations for pre- and postsurgical management and for standard surgical practice to ensure optimal outcomes for patients undergoing rhinoplasty. The impetus for this guideline is to utilize current evidence-based medicine practices and data to build unanimity regarding the peri- and postoperative strategies to maximize patient safety and to optimize surgical results for patients. Purpose The primary purpose of this guideline is to provide evidence-based recommendations for clinicians who either perform rhinoplasty or are involved in the care of a rhinoplasty candidate, as well as to optimize patient care, promote effective diagnosis and therapy, and reduce harmful or unnecessary variations in care. The target audience is any clinician or individual, in any setting, involved in the management of these patients. The target patient population is all patients aged ≥15 years. The guideline is intended to focus on knowledge gaps, practice

  11. Quantitative expression of osteopontin in nasal mucosa of patients with allergic rhinitis: effects of pollen exposure and nasal glucocorticoid treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O'Neil Serena E

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Osteopontin (OPN is a multifunctional cytokine that has been primarily investigated in Th1 diseases. Recently, it has also been implicated in Th2-mediated allergic diseases, such as asthma. The expression of OPN in allergic rhinitis (AR is currently unknown, as is the effect of intranasal glucocorticosteroids (GCs on that expression. Methods Subjects with AR were randomised to receive treatment with fluticasone propionate (FP (n = 12 or a placebo (n = 16 over the grass pollen season and nasal biopsies were taken prior to, and during the season. OPN expression in the nasal mucosa was examined with immunohistochemistry. Healthy non-AR controls (n = 5 were used as a comparator. Results OPN expression was detected in epithelial cells, subepithelial infiltrating/inflammatory cells and cells lining the vessels and glands of all subjects. Comparison of the pre- and peak-pollen season biopsy sections in placebo treated patients revealed no increase in OPN expression during the grass pollen season (5.7% vs 6.4%. Treatment with a local glucocorticosteroid did not alter the expression of OPN during pollen exposure (6.2% vs 6.7%. Conclusion OPN has been increasingly associated with the pathogenesis of various Th2-mediated diseases. However, our finding that the OPN expression in the nasal mucosa of AR patients is not significantly affected by allergen exposure and is comparable to that of the healthy controls, suggests that intracellular OPN is not directly involved in the pathogenesis of allergic rhinitis.

  12. Reduction of nasal Staphylococcus aureus carriage in health care professionals by treatment with a nonantibiotic, alcohol-based nasal antiseptic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steed, Lisa L; Costello, Justin; Lohia, Shivangi; Jones, Taylor; Spannhake, Ernst W; Nguyen, Shaun

    2014-08-01

    Antibiotics used to reduce nasal colonization by Staphylococcus aureus in patients before admission are inappropriate for carriage reduction on a regular basis within a hospital community. Effective nonantibiotic alternatives for daily use in the nares will allow reduction of this bacterial source to be addressed. Our study tested the effectiveness of a nonantibiotic, alcohol-based antiseptic in reducing nasal bacterial carriage in health care professionals (HCPs) at an urban hospital center. HCPs testing positive for vestibular S aureus colonization were treated 3 times during the day with topical antiseptic or control preparations. Nasal S aureus and total bacterial colonization levels were determined before and at the end of a 10-hour workday. Seventy-eight of 387 HCPs screened (20.2%) tested positive for S aureus infection. Of 39 subjects who tested positive for S aureus infection who completed the study, 20 received antiseptic and 19 received placebo treatment. Antiseptic treatment reduced S aureus colony forming units from baseline by 99% (median) and 82% (mean) (P antiseptic was effective in reducing S aureus and total bacterial carriage, suggesting the usefulness of this approach as a safe, effective, and convenient alternative to antibiotic treatment. Copyright © 2014 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. The birth of plastic surgery: the story of nasal reconstruction from the Edwin Smith Papyrus to the twenty-first century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitaker, Iain S; Karoo, Richard O; Spyrou, George; Fenton, Oliver M

    2007-07-01

    The nose is the central and most prominent feature on the human face; and on its shape, size, and appearance depends the relative facial beauty of the person. The objective of this article was to give a succinct and interesting account of the development of nasal reconstruction from antiquity to the present day. The authors present the story of nasal reconstruction, including those contributions not often cited in the English literature using articles sourced from MEDLINE, ancient manuscripts, original quotes, techniques, and illustrations. The story of rhinoplasty is one of peaks of achievement by individuals such as Sushruta, Branca, Tagliocozzi, Roe, and Joseph. Since Roe introduced the concept of cosmetic rhinoplasty, the evolution of nasal reconstructive techniques has reached such a level that the expectation is not only to restore form and function, but also to achieve excellent cosmetic appearance. Although repair of nasal injuries is the oldest form of reconstructive surgery, being cited in Egyptian papyrus inscriptions such as the Edwin Smith Papyrus dating back to 2500 to 3000 BC, its complexity continues to challenge surgeons today. This article is dedicated to those individuals who have devoted their lives and work to the advancement of the field of plastic surgery for the benefit of mankind.

  14. High Flow Nasal Cannula Therapy for Improving Obstructive Sleep Apnea: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Se Joong Kim

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Although continuous positive airway pressure is the treatment of choice for obstructive sleep apnea, its compliance is low. Therefore, alternative therapeutic strategies are often required. High flow nasal cannula therapy uses an air compressor to deliver a constant flow of oxygen via the nasal cannula at a maximum of 60 L/m. It can produce positive end expiratory pressure and increase end expiratory pharyngeal pressure, which can help to alleviate upper airway obstruction. This is a case report of high flow nasal cannula therapy for a 71 year-old man. He had an obstructive sleep apnea and severe desaturation but failed to use continuous positive airway pressure. He underwent titration with high flow nasal cannula under polysomnography. Using high flow nasal cannula at an airflow of 45 L/m, his apnea-hypopnea, respiratory arousal and oxygen desaturation were improved. Importantly, he is very compliant with high flow nasal cannula therapy.

  15. An unusual co-presentation of rhinolithiasis and squamous cell carcinoma in the nasal cavity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özdemir, Süleyman; Görgülü, Orhan; Akbaş, Yücel; Selçuk, Tahsin; Sayar, Hamide; Tarkan, Özgür

    2012-07-01

    Rhinoliths are nasal stones that result from mineralisation of salts around an endogenous or exogenous nidus within the nasal cavity. They are uncommon nasal masses and usually unilateral and single, situated in the floor of the nose. The patient typically presents with nasal obstruction, facial pain and foul-smelling nasal secretion. To the best of our knowledge, the occurrence of squamous cell carcinoma with rhinolithiasis has not been previously reported in the English-language literature. In this article, we present a 63-year-old man, who had unilateral rhinolithiasis with squamous cell carcinoma within the nasal cavity. Copyright © 2011 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Reconstruction of Nasal Cleft Deformities Using Expanded Forehead Flaps: A Case Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramanathan, Manikandhan; Sneha, Pendem; Parameswaran, Ananthnarayanan; Jayakumar, Naveen; Sailer, Hermann F

    2014-12-01

    Reconstruction of the nasal clefts is a challenging task considering the nasal anatomic complexity and their possible association with craniofacial defects. The reconstruction of these defects needs extensive amounts of soft tissue that warrant the use of forehead flaps. Often presence of cranial defects and low hairline compromise the amount of tissue available for reconstruction warrenting tissue expansion. To evaluate the efficacy of tissue expansion in reconstruction of congenital nasal clefts. 9 patients with congenital nasal clefts involving multiple sub units were taken up for nasal reconstruction with expanded forehead flaps. The average amount of expansion needed was 200 ml. The reconstruction was performed in 3 stages. Expanded forehead flaps proved to be best modality for reconstruction providing the skin cover needed for ala, columella and dorsum with minimal scarring at the donor site. Expansion of the forehead flap is a viable option for multiple sub unit reconstruction in congenital nasal cleft deformities.

  17. Single-stage osseointegrated implants for nasal prosthodontic rehabilitation: A clinical report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Carvalho, Bruna M D F; Freitas-Pontes, Karina M; de Negreiros, Wagner A; Verde, Marcus A R L

    2015-08-01

    Malignant tumors in the nasal region may be treated by means of invasive surgical procedures, with large facial losses. Nasal prostheses, retained by osseointegrated facial implants, instead of plastic surgery, will, in most patients, offer good biomechanical and cosmetic results. This clinical report describes the prosthetic rehabilitation of a patient with nasal cancer who had the entire nasal vestibule removed in a single-stage surgical procedure in order to shorten the rehabilitation time. The nasal prosthesis was built on a 3-magnet bar and was made of platinum silicone with intrinsic pigmentation, thereby restoring the patient's appearance and self-esteem. The authors concluded that single-stage implants may reduce the rehabilitation time to as little as 1 month, and the correct use of materials and techniques may significantly improve the nasal prosthesis. Copyright © 2015 Editorial Council for the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Nasal continuous positive airway pressure inhibits gastroesophageal reflux in newborn lambs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djamal Djeddi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Using esophageal pHmetry, nasal CPAP (nCPAP has been shown to decrease acid gastroesophageal reflux (GER in adult humans. Although both GER (mainly non-acid and nCPAP use are very frequent in newborns, the effect of nCPAP on GER in early life is unknown. Having recently shown that the newborn lamb is a unique model for studying neonatal GER, our main objective was to assess the effect of nCPAP on GER in newborn lambs. METHODS: Eight newborn lambs, aged 2-3 days, were studied. Continuous esophageal pH-Impedance monitoring and polysomnography were performed for six hours during both spontaneous breathing and nCPAP application at 6 cmH2O (nCPAP(6, in a randomized order. Results were compared in the two experimental conditions, as well as without CPAP during the following 6 hours. RESULTS: i nCPAP(6 virtually abolished GER [mean ± SD reflux number for 6 h = 9.1 ± 8.6 without nCPAP(6 vs. 0.6 ± 1 with nCPAP(6, P<0.05]; ii GER number was also reduced during the 6 h-period following nCPAP(6 application (18 ± 16 without nCPAP(6 vs. 7 ± 8.1 with nCPAP(6, P<0.05; iii nCPAP(6 decreased the depth and duration of lower esophageal sphincter relaxation. CONCLUSIONS: nCPAP inhibits GER in the newborn lamb. Further clinical studies using different levels of nasal CPAP are needed to confirm this result in human infants.

  19. The relationship of cranial, orbital and nasal cavity size with the morphology of the supraorbital region in modern Homo sapiens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowaczewska, Wioletta; Łapicka, Urszula; Cieślik, Agata; Biecek, Przemysław

    2017-09-01

    Morphological variation of the supraorbital region (SR) in human crania has been investigated and its potential sources suggested, along with the importance of the size of the facial skeleton, neurocranium, and orbit for the formation of this region. However, previous studies have not indicated whether facial size exhibits a stronger association with SR robusticity than neurocranial size or sex; moreover, the association between orbital volume and SR robusticity has been analysed only in non-human primate skulls. In this study we investigate whether the size of the facial skeleton, neurocranium, two measures of relative orbital size (orbital volume and estimated orbital aperture area), the relative size of the nasal cavity, and the relative estimated area of the anterior nasal cavity opening are related to SR robusticity; we also examine which of these analysed relationships is strongest, as well as independent of the influence of the other traits, in a geographically diverse modern human cranial sample. The results of Spearman's rank and partial rank correlations (encompassing models including or excluding sex and geographic origin) show a relationship between most of the above-mentioned variables and SR robusticity, with the exception of the estimated relative area of the orbital opening (in the case of the results of Spearman's rank correlations) and the traits of the nasal cavity. Of all the analysed traits, sex appears to be the most important for the formation of SR robusticity and, of two measures of cranial size, neurocranial size was the most significant. The strong relationship between SR robusticity and relative orbital volume was observed in models without the geographic origin factor. The results concerning analysed models suggest the influence of this factor on this relationship; however, to explain this influence, further studies are needed.

  20. Effects of Heated Humidification and Topical Steroids on Compliance, Nasal Symptoms, and Quality of Life in Patients with Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome Using Nasal Continuous Positive Airway Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Silke; Doherty, Liam S.; Nolan, Geraldine M.; McNicholas, Walter T.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Nasal side effects are common in patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) starting on nasal continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) therapy. We tested the hypothesis that heated humidification or nasal topical steroids improve compliance, nasal side effects and quality of life in this patient group. Methods: 125 patients with the established diagnosis of OSAS (apnea/hypopnea index ≥ 10/h), who tolerated CPAP via a nasal mask, and who had a successful CPAP titration were randomized to 4 weeks of dry CPAP, humidified CPAP or CPAP with additional topical nasal steroid application (fluticasone, GlaxoWellcome). Groups were similar in all demographic variables and in frequency of nasal symptoms at baseline. Outcome measures were objective compliance, quality of life (short form 36), subjective sleepiness (Epworth Sleepiness Scale score) and nasal symptoms such as runny, dry or blocked nose, sneezing and headaches; all variables assessed using a validated questionnaire and by direct interview. Results: There was no difference in compliance between groups after 4 weeks (dry: 5.21 ± 1.66 h/night, fluticasone: 5.66 ± 1.68, humidifier: 5.21 ± 1.84; p = 0.444). Quality of life and subjective sleepiness improved in all groups, but there were no differences in the extent of improvement. Nasal Symptoms were less frequently reported in the humidifier group (28%) than in the remaining groups (dry: 70%, fluticasone: 53%, p = 0.002). However, the addition of fluticasone resulted in increased frequency of sneezing. Conclusion: The addition of a humidifier, but not nasal steroids decreases the frequency of nasal symptoms in unselected OSAS patients initiating CPAP therapy; however compliance and quality of life remain unaltered. Citation: Ryan S; Doherty LS; Nolan GM; McNicholas WT. Effects of heated humidification and topical steroids on compliance, nasal symptoms, and quality of life in patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome using nasal