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Sample records for human multipotent stem

  1. Characterizing the radioresponse of pluripotent and multipotent human stem cells.

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    Mary L Lan

    Full Text Available The potential capability of stem cells to restore functionality to diseased or aged tissues has prompted a surge of research, but much work remains to elucidate the response of these cells to genotoxic agents. To more fully understand the impact of irradiation on different stem cell types, the present study has analyzed the radioresponse of human pluripotent and multipotent stem cells. Human embryonic stem (ES cells, human induced pluripotent (iPS cells, and iPS-derived human neural stem cells (iPS-hNSCs cells were irradiated and analyzed for cell survival parameters, differentiation, DNA damage and repair and oxidative stress at various times after exposure. While irradiation led to dose-dependent reductions in survival, the fraction of surviving cells exhibited dose-dependent increases in metabolic activity. Irradiation did not preclude germ layer commitment of ES cells, but did promote neuronal differentiation. ES cells subjected to irradiation exhibited early apoptosis and inhibition of cell cycle progression, but otherwise showed normal repair of DNA double-strand breaks. Cells surviving irradiation also showed acute and persistent increases in reactive oxygen and nitrogen species that were significant at nearly all post-irradiation times analyzed. We suggest that stem cells alter their redox homeostasis to adapt to adverse conditions and that radiation-induced oxidative stress plays a role in regulating the function and fate of stem cells within tissues compromised by radiation injury.

  2. Mesenchymal origin of multipotent human testis-derived stem cells in human testicular cell cultures

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    Chikhovskaya, J. V.; van Daalen, S. K. M.; Korver, C. M.; Repping, S.; van Pelt, A. M. M.

    2014-01-01

    In contrast to mouse germ cell-derived pluripotent stem cells, the pluripotent state of human testis-derived embryonic stem cell (ESC)-like that spontaneously arise in primary testicular cell cultures remains controversial. Recent studies have shown that these cells closely resemble multipotent

  3. Methods for Derivation of Multipotent Neural Crest Cells Derived from Human Pluripotent Stem Cells.

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    Avery, John; Dalton, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    Multipotent, neural crest cells (NCCs) produce a wide range of cell types during embryonic development. This includes melanocytes, peripheral neurons, smooth muscle cells, osteocytes, chondrocytes, and adipocytes. The protocol described here allows for highly efficient differentiation of human pluripotent stem cells to a neural crest fate within 15 days. This is accomplished under feeder-free conditions, using chemically defined medium supplemented with two small molecule inhibitors that block glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3) and bone morphogenic protein (BMP) signaling. This technology is well suited as a platform to understand in greater detail the pathogenesis of human disease associated with impaired neural crest development/migration.

  4. Immunological characteristics of human mesenchymal stem cells and multipotent adult progenitor cells.

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    Jacobs, Sandra A; Roobrouck, Valerie D; Verfaillie, Catherine M; Van Gool, Stefaan W

    2013-01-01

    Somatic, also termed adult, stem cells are highly attractive biomedical cell candidates because of their extensive replication potential and functional multilineage differentiation capacity. They can be used for drug and toxicity screenings in preclinical studies, as in vitro model to study differentiation or for regenerative medicine to aid in the repair of tissues or replace tissues that are lost upon disease, injury or ageing. Multipotent adult progenitor cells (MAPCs) and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are two types of adult stem cells derived from bone marrow that are currently being used clinically for tissue regeneration and for their immunomodulatory and trophic effects. This review will give an overview of the phenotypic and functional differences between human MAPCs and MSCs, with a strong emphasis on their immunological characteristics. Finally, we will discuss the clinical studies in which MSCs and MAPCs are already used.

  5. Human multipotent adipose-derived stem cells differentiate into functional brown adipocytes

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    Elabd, Christian; Chiellini, Chiara; Carmona, Mamen

    2009-01-01

    adipose-derived stem (hMADS) cells exhibit a normal karyotype and high self-renewal ability; they are known to differentiate into cells that exhibit the key properties of human white adipocytes, that is, uncoupling protein two expression, insulin-stimulated glucose uptake, lipolysis in response to beta......In contrast to the earlier contention, adult humans have been shown recently to possess active brown adipose tissue with a potential of being of metabolic significance. Up to now, brown fat precursor cells have not been available for human studies. We have shown previously that human multipotent......-agonists and atrial natriuretic peptide, and release of adiponectin and leptin. Herein, we show that, upon chronic exposure to a specific PPARgamma but not to a PPARbeta/delta or a PPARalpha agonist, hMADS cell-derived white adipocytes are able to switch to a brown phenotype by expressing both uncoupling protein one...

  6. Monitoring the Bystander Killing Effect of Human Multipotent Stem Cells for Treatment of Malignant Brain Tumors

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    Cindy Leten

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Tumor infiltrating stem cells have been suggested as a vehicle for the delivery of a suicide gene towards otherwise difficult to treat tumors like glioma. We have used herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase expressing human multipotent adult progenitor cells in two brain tumor models (hU87 and Hs683 in immune-compromised mice. In order to determine the best time point for the administration of the codrug ganciclovir, the stem cell distribution and viability were monitored in vivo using bioluminescence (BLI and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI. Treatment was assessed by in vivo BLI and MRI of the tumors. We were able to show that suicide gene therapy using HSV-tk expressing stem cells can be followed in vivo by MRI and BLI. This has the advantage that (1 outliers can be detected earlier, (2 GCV treatment can be initiated based on stem cell distribution rather than on empirical time points, and (3 a more thorough follow-up can be provided prior to and after treatment of these animals. In contrast to rodent stem cell and tumor models, treatment success was limited in our model using human cell lines. This was most likely due to the lack of immune components in the immune-compromised rodents.

  7. Multipotency and cardiomyogenic potential of human adipose-derived stem cells from epicardium, pericardium, and omentum.

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    Wystrychowski, Wojciech; Patlolla, Bhagat; Zhuge, Yan; Neofytou, Evgenios; Robbins, Robert C; Beygui, Ramin E

    2016-06-13

    Acute myocardial infarction (MI) leads to an irreversible loss of proper cardiac function. Application of stem cell therapy is an attractive option for MI treatment. Adipose tissue has proven to serve as a rich source of stem cells (ADSCs). Taking into account the different morphogenesis, anatomy, and physiology of adipose tissue, we hypothesized that ADSCs from different adipose tissue depots may exert a diverse multipotency and cardiogenic potential. The omental, pericardial, and epicardial adipose tissue samples were obtained from organ donors and patients undergoing heart transplantation at our institution. Human foreskin fibroblasts were used as the control group. Isolated ADSCs were analyzed for adipogenic and osteogenic differentiation capacity and proliferation potential. The immunophenotype and constitutive gene expression of alkaline phosphatase (ALP), GATA4, Nanog, and OCT4 were analyzed. DNA methylation inhibitor 5-azacytidine was exposed to the cells to stimulate the cardiogenesis. Finally, reprogramming towards cardiomyocytes was initiated with exogenous overexpression of seven transcription factors (ESRRG, GATA4, MEF2C, MESP1, MYOCD, TBX5, ZFPM2) previously applied successfully for fibroblast transdifferentiation toward cardiomyocytes. Expression of cardiac troponin T (cTNT) and alpha-actinin (Actn2) was analyzed 3 weeks after initiation of the cardiac differentiation. The multipotent properties of isolated plastic adherent cells were confirmed with expression of CD29, CD44, CD90, and CD105, as well as successful differentiation toward adipocytes and osteocytes; with the highest osteogenic and adipogenic potential for the epicardial and omental ADSCs, respectively. Epicardial ADSCs demonstrated a lower doubling time as compared with the pericardium and omentum-derived cells. Furthermore, epicardial ADSCs revealed higher constitutive expression of ALP and GATA4. Increased Actn2 and cTNT expression was observed after the transduction of seven

  8. Multipotent Basal Stem Cells, Maintained in Localized Proximal Niches, Support Directed Long-Ranging Epithelial Flows in Human Prostates

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    Mohammad Moad

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Sporadic mitochondrial DNA mutations serve as clonal marks providing access to the identity and lineage potential of stem cells within human tissues. By combining quantitative clonal mapping with 3D reconstruction of adult human prostates, we show that multipotent basal stem cells, confined to discrete niches in juxta-urethral ducts, generate bipotent basal progenitors in directed epithelial migration streams. Basal progenitors are then dispersed throughout the entire glandular network, dividing and differentiating to replenish the loss of apoptotic luminal cells. Rare lineage-restricted luminal stem cells, and their progeny, are confined to proximal ducts and provide only minor contribution to epithelial homeostasis. In situ cell capture from clonal maps identified delta homolog 1 (DLK1 enrichment of basal stem cells, which was validated in functional spheroid assays. This study establishes significant insights into niche organization and function of prostate stem and progenitor cells, with implications for disease.

  9. Multipotent Mesenchymal Stem Cells from Human Subacromial Bursa: Potential for Cell Based Tendon Tissue Engineering

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    Song, Na; Armstrong, April D.; Li, Feng; Ouyang, Hongsheng

    2014-01-01

    Rotator cuff injuries are a common clinical problem either as a result of overuse or aging. Biological approaches to tendon repair that involve use of scaffolding materials or cell-based approaches are currently being investigated. The cell-based approaches are focused on applying multipotent mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) mostly harvested from bone marrow. In the present study, we focused on characterizing cells harvested from tissues associated with rotator cuff tendons based on an assumption that these cells would be more appropriate for tendon repair. We isolated MSCs from bursa tissue associated with rotator cuff tendons and characterized them for multilineage differentiation in vitro and in vivo. Human bursa was obtained from patients undergoing rotator cuff surgery and cells within were isolated using collagenase and dispase digestion. The cells isolated from the tissues were characterized for osteoblastic, adipogenic, chondrogenic, and tenogenic differentiation in vitro and in vivo. The results showed that the cells isolated from bursa tissue exhibited MSCs characteristics as evidenced by the expression of putative cell surface markers attributed to MSCs. The cells exhibited high proliferative capacity and differentiated toward cells of mesenchymal lineages with high efficiency. Bursa-derived cells expressed markers of tenocytes when treated with bone morphogenetic protein-12 (BMP-12) and assumed aligned morphology in culture. Bursa cells pretreated with BMP-12 and seeded in ceramic scaffolds formed extensive bone, as well as tendon-like tissue in vivo. Bone formation was demonstrated by histological analysis and immunofluorescence for DMP-1 in tissue sections made from the scaffolds seeded with the cells. Tendon-like tissue formed in vivo consisted of parallel collagen fibres typical of tendon tissues. Bursa-derived cells also formed a fibrocartilagenous tissue in the ceramic scaffolds. Taken together, the results demonstrate a new source of MSCs with a

  10. Therapeutic application of multipotent stem cells

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    Mirzaei, Hamed; Sahebkar, Amirhossein; Sichani, Laleh Shiri

    2018-01-01

    Cell therapy is an emerging fields in the treatment of various diseases such as cardiovascular, pulmonary, hepatic, and neoplastic diseases. Stem cells are an integral tool for cell therapy. Multipotent stem cells are an important class of stem cells which have the ability to self-renew through...... been showed that multipotent stem cells exert their therapeutic effects via inhibition/activation of a sequence of cellular and molecular pathways. Although the advantages of multipotent stem cells are numerous, further investigation is still necessary to clarify the biology and safety of these cells...... before they could be considered as a potential treatment for different types of diseases. This review summarizes different features of multipotent stem cells including isolation, differentiation, and therapeutic applications....

  11. Comparative transcriptomics of human multipotent stem cells during adipogenesis and osteoblastogenesis

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    Prokesch Andreas

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A reciprocal relationship between bone and fat development in osteoporosis is clinically well established. Some of the key molecular regulators involved in this tissue replacement process have been identified. The detailed mechanisms governing the differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSC – the key cells involved – are however only now beginning to emerge. In an attempt to address the regulation of the adipocyte/osteoblast balance at the level of gene transcription in a comprehensive and unbiased manner, we performed a large-scale gene expression profiling study using a unique cellular model, human multipotent adipose tissue-derived stem cells (hMADS. Results The analysis of 1606 genes that were found to be differentially expressed between adipogenesis and osteoblastogenesis revealed gene repression to be most prevalent prior to commitment in both lineages. Computational analyses suggested that this gene repression is mediated by miRNAs. The transcriptional activation of lineage-specific molecular processes in both cases occurred predominantly after commitment. Analyses of the gene expression data and promoter sequences produced a set of 65 genes that are candidates for genes involved in the process of adipocyte/osteoblast commitment. Four of these genes were studied in more detail: LXRα and phospholipid transfer protein (PLTP for adipogenesis, the nuclear receptor COUP-TF1 and one uncharacterized gene, TMEM135 for osteoblastogenesis. PLTP was secreted during both early and late time points of hMADS adipocyte differentiation. LXRα, COUP-TF1, and the transmembrane protein TMEM135 were studied in primary cultures of differentiating bone marrow stromal cells from healthy donors and were found to be transcriptionally activated in the corresponding lineages. Conclusion Our results reveal gene repression as a predominant early mechanism before final cell commitment. We were moreover able to identify 65 genes as

  12. Hypoxia Upregulates Mitotic Cyclins Which Contribute to the Multipotency of Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells by Expanding Proliferation Lifespan.

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    Lee, Janet; Kim, Hyun-Soo; Kim, Su-Min; Kim, Dong-Ik; Lee, Chang-Woo

    2018-02-21

    Hypoxic culture is widely recognized as a method to efficiently expand human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) without loss of stem cell properties. However, the molecular basis of how hypoxia priming benefits MSC expansion remains unclear. In this report, our systemic quantitative proteomic and RT-PCR analyses revealed the involvement of hypoxic conditioning activated genes in the signaling process of the mitotic cell cycle. Introduction of screened two mitotic cyclins, CCNA2 and CCNB1, significantly extended the proliferation lifespan of MSCs in normoxic condition. Our results provide important molecular evidence that multipotency of human MSCs by hypoxic conditioning is determined by the mitotic cell cycle duration. Thus, the activation of mitotic cyclins could be a potential strategy to the application of stem cell therapy.

  13. Anti-L-NGFR and -CD34 monoclonal antibodies identify multipotent mesenchymal stem cells in human adipose tissue.

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    Quirici, Nadia; Scavullo, Cinzia; de Girolamo, Laura; Lopa, Silvia; Arrigoni, Elena; Deliliers, Giorgio Lambertenghi; Brini, Anna T

    2010-06-01

    Stem cells hold great promise in tissue engineering for repairing tissues damaged by disease or injury. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are multipotent cells able to proliferate and differentiate into multiple mesodermal tissues such as bone, cartilage, muscle, tendon, and fat. We have previously reported that the low-affinity nerve growth factor receptor (L-NGFR or CD271) defines a subset of cells with high proliferative, clonogenic, and multipotential differentiation ability in adult bone marrow (BM). It has been recently shown that adipose tissue is an alternative source of adult multipotent stem cells and human adipose-derived stem cells, selected by plastic adherence (PA hASCs), have been extensively characterized for their functional potentials in vitro. In this study, immunoselected L-NGFR(+) and CD34(+) subpopulations have been analyzed and compared with the PA hASCs. Phenotypic profile of freshly purified subpopulations showed an enrichment in the expression of some stem cell markers; indeed, a great percentage of L-NGFR(+) cells co-expressed CD34 and CD117 antigens, whereas the endothelial-committed progenitor markers KDR and P1H12 were mainly expressed on CD34(+) cells. Differently from PA hASCs, the immunoseparated fractions showed high increments in cell proliferation, and the fibroblast colony-forming activity (CFU-F) was maintained throughout the time of culture. Furthermore, the immunoselected populations showed a greater differentiative potential toward adipocytes, osteoblasts, and chondrocyte-like cells, compared to PA hASCs. Our data suggest that both CD34(+) and L-NGFR(+) hASCs can be considered alternative candidates for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine applications.

  14. Multipotent Differentiation of Human Dental Pulp Stem Cells: a Literature Review.

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    Nuti, N; Corallo, C; Chan, B M F; Ferrari, M; Gerami-Naini, B

    2016-10-01

    The advent of regenerative medicine has brought us the opportunity to regenerate, modify and restore human organs function. Stem cells, a key resource in regenerative medicine, are defined as clonogenic, self-renewing, progenitor cells that can generate into one or more specialized cell types. Stem cells have been classified into three main groups: embryonic stem cells (ESCs), induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) and adult/postnatal stem cells (ASCs). The present review focused the attention on ASCs, which have been identified in many perioral tissues such as dental pulp, periodontal ligament, follicle, gingival, alveolar bone and papilla. Human dental pulp stem cells (hDPSCs) are ectodermal-derived stem cells, originating from migrating neural crest cells and possess mesenchymal stem cell properties. During last decade, hDPSCs have received extensive attention in the field of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine due to their accessibility and ability to differentiate in several cell phenotypes. In this review, we have carefully described the potential of hDPSCs to differentiate into odontoblasts, osteocytes/osteoblasts, adipocytes, chondrocytes and neural cells.

  15. OCT4A contributes to the stemness and multi-potency of human umbilical cord blood-derived multipotent stem cells (hUCB-MSCs)

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    Seo, Kwang-Won; Lee, Sae-Rom; Bhandari, Dilli Ram; Roh, Kyoung-Hwan; Park, Sang-Bum; So, Ah-Young; Jung, Ji-Won; Seo, Min-Soo [Adult Stem Cell Research Center, College of Veterinary Medicine, Seoul National University 151-742, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Laboratory of Stem Cell and Tumor Biology, Department of Veterinary Public Health, College of Veterinary Medicine, and BK21 Program for Veterinary Science, Seoul National University 151-742, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Soo-Kyung [Adult Stem Cell Research Center, College of Veterinary Medicine, Seoul National University 151-742, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Laboratory of Biotechnology, College of Veterinary Medicine, and BK21 Program for Veterinary Science, Seoul National University 151-742, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Yong-Soon [Adult Stem Cell Research Center, College of Veterinary Medicine, Seoul National University 151-742, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Laboratory of Stem Cell and Tumor Biology, Department of Veterinary Public Health, College of Veterinary Medicine, and BK21 Program for Veterinary Science, Seoul National University 151-742, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Kyung-Sun, E-mail: kangpub@snu.ac.kr [Adult Stem Cell Research Center, College of Veterinary Medicine, Seoul National University 151-742, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Laboratory of Stem Cell and Tumor Biology, Department of Veterinary Public Health, College of Veterinary Medicine, and BK21 Program for Veterinary Science, Seoul National University 151-742, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-06-19

    The OCT4A gene, a POU homeodomain transcription factor, has been shown to be expressed in embryonic stem cells (ESC) as well as hUCB-MSCs. In this study, the roles played by OCT4A in hUCB-MSCs were determined by stably inhibiting OCT4A with lenti-viral vector-based small hairpin RNA (shRNA). A decreased rate of cell proliferation was observed in OCT4-inhibited hUCB-MSCs. Down-regulation of CCNA2 expression in OCT4-inhibited hUCB-MSCs was confirmed by RT-PCR and real-time RT-PCR analysis in three genetically independent hUCB-MSC clones. Adipogenic differentiation was also suppressed in OCT4-inhibited hUCB-MSCs. The up-regulation of DTX1 and down-regulation of HDAC1, 2, and 4 expressions may be related to this differentiation deformity. The expression of other transcription factors, including SOX2, REX1 and c-MYC, was also affected by OCT4 inhibition in hUCB-MSCs. In conclusion, these finding suggest that OCT4A performs functionally conserved roles in hUCB-MSCs, making its expression biologically important for ex vivo culture of hUCB-MSCs.

  16. OCT4A contributes to the stemness and multi-potency of human umbilical cord blood-derived multipotent stem cells (hUCB-MSCs).

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    Seo, Kwang-Won; Lee, Sae-Rom; Bhandari, Dilli Ram; Roh, Kyoung-Hwan; Park, Sang-Bum; So, Ah-Young; Jung, Ji-Won; Seo, Min-Soo; Kang, Soo-Kyung; Lee, Yong-Soon; Kang, Kyung-Sun

    2009-06-19

    The OCT4A gene, a POU homeodomain transcription factor, has been shown to be expressed in embryonic stem cells (ESC) as well as hUCB-MSCs. In this study, the roles played by OCT4A in hUCB-MSCs were determined by stably inhibiting OCT4A with lenti-viral vector-based small hairpin RNA (shRNA). A decreased rate of cell proliferation was observed in OCT4-inhibited hUCB-MSCs. Down-regulation of CCNA2 expression in OCT4-inhibited hUCB-MSCs was confirmed by RT-PCR and real-time RT-PCR analysis in three genetically independent hUCB-MSC clones. Adipogenic differentiation was also suppressed in OCT4-inhibited hUCB-MSCs. The up-regulation of DTX1 and down-regulation of HDAC1, 2, and 4 expressions may be related to this differentiation deformity. The expression of other transcription factors, including SOX2, REX1 and c-MYC, was also affected by OCT4 inhibition in hUCB-MSCs. In conclusion, these finding suggest that OCT4A performs functionally conserved roles in hUCB-MSCs, making its expression biologically important for ex vivo culture of hUCB-MSCs.

  17. Multipotent nestin-positive stem cells reside in the stroma of human eccrine and apocrine sweat glands and can be propagated robustly in vitro.

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    Sabine Nagel

    Full Text Available Human skin harbours multiple different stem cell populations. In contrast to the relatively well-characterized niches of epidermal and hair follicle stem cells, the localization and niches of stem cells in other human skin compartments are as yet insufficiently investigated. Previously, we had shown in a pilot study that human sweat gland stroma contains Nestin-positive stem cells. Isolated sweat gland stroma-derived stem cells (SGSCs proliferated in vitro and expressed Nestin in 80% of the cells. In this study, we were able to determine the precise localization of Nestin-positive cells in both eccrine and apocrine sweat glands of human axillary skin. We established a reproducible isolation procedure and characterized the spontaneous, long-lasting multipotent differentiation capacity of SGSCs. Thereby, a pronounced ectodermal differentiation was observed. Moreover, the secretion of prominent cytokines demonstrated the immunological potential of SGSCs. The comparison to human adult epidermal stem cells (EpiSCs and bone marrow stem cells (BMSCs revealed differences in protein expression and differentiation capacity. Furthermore, we found a coexpression of the stem cell markers Nestin and Iα6 within SGSCs and human sweat gland stroma. In conclusion the initial results of the pilot study were confirmed, indicating that human sweat glands are a new source of unique stem cells with multilineage differentiation potential, high proliferation capacity and remarkable self renewal. With regard to the easy accessibility of skin tissue biopsies, an autologous application of SGSCs in clinical therapies appears promising.

  18. Neural stem/progenitor cells from the adult human spinal cord are multipotent and self-renewing and differentiate after transplantation.

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    Andrea J Mothe

    Full Text Available Neural stem/progenitor cell (NSPC transplantation is a promising therapy for spinal cord injury (SCI. However, little is known about NSPC from the adult human spinal cord as a donor source. We demonstrate for the first time that multipotent and self-renewing NSPC can be cultured, passaged and transplanted from the adult human spinal cord of organ transplant donors. Adult human spinal cord NSPC require an adherent substrate for selection and expansion in EGF (epidermal growth factor and FGF2 (fibroblast growth factor enriched medium. NSPC as an adherent monolayer can be passaged for at least 9 months and form neurospheres when plated in suspension culture. In EGF/FGF2 culture, NSPC proliferate and primarily express nestin and Sox2, and low levels of markers for differentiating cells. Leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF promotes NSPC proliferation and significantly enhances GFAP expression in hypoxia. In differentiating conditions in the presence of serum, these NSPC show multipotentiality, expressing markers of neurons, astrocytes, and oligodendrocytes. Dibutyryl cyclic AMP (dbcAMP significantly enhances neuronal differentiation. We transplanted the multipotent NSPC into SCI rats and show that the xenografts survive, are post-mitotic, and retain the capacity to differentiate into neurons and glia.Together, these findings reveal that multipotent self-renewing NSPC cultured and passaged from adult human spinal cords of organ transplant donors, respond to exogenous factors that promote selective differentiation, and survive and differentiate after transplantation into the injured spinal cord.

  19. Efficient derivation of multipotent neural stem/progenitor cells from non-human primate embryonic stem cells.

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    Hiroko Shimada

    Full Text Available The common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus is a small New World primate that has been used as a non-human primate model for various biomedical studies. We previously demonstrated that transplantation of neural stem/progenitor cells (NS/PCs derived from mouse and human embryonic stem cells (ESCs and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs promote functional locomotor recovery of mouse spinal cord injury models. However, for the clinical application of such a therapeutic approach, we need to evaluate the efficacy and safety of pluripotent stem cell-derived NS/PCs not only by xenotransplantation, but also allotransplantation using non-human primate models to assess immunological rejection and tumorigenicity. In the present study, we established a culture method to efficiently derive NS/PCs as neurospheres from common marmoset ESCs. Marmoset ESC-derived neurospheres could be passaged repeatedly and showed sequential generation of neurons and astrocytes, similar to that of mouse ESC-derived NS/PCs, and gave rise to functional neurons as indicated by calcium imaging. Although marmoset ESC-derived NS/PCs could not differentiate into oligodendrocytes under default culture conditions, these cells could abundantly generate oligodendrocytes by incorporating additional signals that recapitulate in vivo neural development. Moreover, principal component analysis of microarray data demonstrated that marmoset ESC-derived NS/PCs acquired similar gene expression profiles to those of fetal brain-derived NS/PCs by repeated passaging. Therefore, marmoset ESC-derived NS/PCs may be useful not only for accurate evaluation by allotransplantation of NS/PCs into non-human primate models, but are also applicable to analysis of iPSCs established from transgenic disease model marmosets.

  20. Human Serum is as Efficient as Fetal Bovine Serum in Supporting Proliferation and Differentiation of Human Multipotent Stromal (Mesenchymal) Stem Cells In Vitro and In Vivo

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    Aldahmash, Abdullah; Haack-Sørensen, Mandana; Al-Nbaheen, May

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Human multipotent stromal (skeletal, mesenchymal) stem cells (hMSC) are employed in an increasing number of clinical trials for tissue regeneration of age-related degenerative diseases. However, routine use of fetal bovine sera (FBS) for their in vitro expansion is not optimal and may...... pose a health risk for patients. METHODS: We carried out a side-by-side comparison of the effects of allogenic pooled human serum (HuS) versus FBS on hMSC proliferation and differentiation in vitro and in vivo. As a model for hMSC, we employed telomerase-immortalized hMSC; hMSC-TERT cell line. RESULTS....... FBS. hMSC-TERT or primary bone marrow derived hMSC induced to osteoblastic or adipocytic differentiation in the presence of HuS or FBS showed comparable levels of gene expression and protein production of osteoblastic markers (CBFA1/Runx2, alkaline phosphastase, collagen type I and osteocalcin...

  1. Human multipotent mesenchymal stem cells improve healing after collagenase tendon injury in the rat.

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    Machova Urdzikova, Lucia; Sedlacek, Radek; Suchy, Tomas; Amemori, Takashi; Ruzicka, Jiri; Lesny, Petr; Havlas, Vojtech; Sykova, Eva; Jendelova, Pavla

    2014-04-09

    Mesenchymal stromal cells attract much interest in tissue regeneration because of their capacity to differentiate into mesodermal origin cells, their paracrine properties and their possible use in autologous transplantations. The aim of this study was to investigate the safety and reparative potential of implanted human mesenchymal stromal cells (hMSCs), prepared under Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP) conditions utilizing human mixed platelet lysate as a culture supplement, in a collagenase Achilles tendon injury model in rats. Eighty-one rats with collagenase-induced injury were divided into two groups. The first group received human mesenchymal stromal cells injected into the site of injury 3 days after lesion induction, while the second group received saline. Biomechanical testing, morphometry and semiquantitative immunohistochemistry of collagens I, II and III, versican and aggrecan, neovascularization, and hMSC survival were performed 2, 4, and 6 weeks after injury. Human mesenchymal stromal cell-treated rats had a significantly better extracellular matrix structure and a larger amount of collagen I and collagen III. Neovascularization was also increased in hMSC-treated rats 2 and 4 weeks after tendon injury. MTCO2 (Cytochrome c oxidase subunit II) positivity confirmed the presence of hMSCs 2, 4 and 6 weeks after transplantation. Collagen II deposits and alizarin red staining for bone were found in 6 hMSC- and 2 saline-treated tendons 6 weeks after injury. The intensity of anti-versican and anti-aggrecan staining did not differ between the groups. hMSCs can support tendon healing through better vascularization as well as through larger deposits and better organization of the extracellular matrix. The treatment procedure was found to be safe; however, cartilage and bone formation at the implantation site should be taken into account when planning subsequent in vivo and clinical trials on tendinopathy as an expected adverse event.

  2. Perivascular ancestors of adult multipotent stem cells

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    M. Corselli (Mirko); C.W. Chen; M. Crisan (Mihaela); L. Lazzari (Lorenza); B. Péault (Bruno)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractIndependent studies by numerous investigators have shown that it is possible to harvest multipotent progenitor cells from diverse dissociated and cultured fetal, perinatal, and principally adult developed tissues. Despite the increasingly recognized medical value of these progenitor

  3. Modulation of human multipotent and pluripotent stem cells using surface nanotopographies and surface-immobilised bioactive signals: A review.

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    Wang, Peng-Yuan; Thissen, Helmut; Kingshott, Peter

    2016-11-01

    The ability to control the interactions of stem cells with synthetic surfaces is proving to be effective and essential for the quality of passaged stem cells and ultimately the success of regenerative medicine. The stem cell niche is crucial for stem cell self-renewal and differentiation. Thus, mimicking the stem cell niche, and here in particular the extracellular matrix (ECM), in vitro is an important goal for the expansion of stem cells and their applications. Here, surface nanotopographies and surface-immobilised biosignals have been identified as major factors that control stem cell responses. The development of tailored surfaces having an optimum nanotopography and displaying suitable biosignals is proposed to be essential for future stem cell culture, cell therapy and regenerative medicine applications. While early research in the field has been restricted by the limited availability of micro- and nanofabrication techniques, new approaches involving the use of advanced fabrication and surface immobilisation methods are starting to emerge. In addition, new cell types such as induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) have become available in the last decade, but have not been fully understood. This review summarises significant advances in the area and focuses on the approaches that are aimed at controlling the behavior of human stem cells including maintenance of their self-renewal ability and improvement of their lineage commitment using nanotopographies and biosignals. More specifically, we discuss developments in biointerface science that are an important driving force for new biomedical materials and advances in bioengineering aiming at improving stem cell culture protocols and 3D scaffolds for clinical applications. Cellular responses revolve around the interplay between the surface properties of the cell culture substrate and the biomolecular composition of the cell culture medium. Determination of the precise role played by each factor, as well as the

  4. Paradoxical adverse culture conditions do not hamper the growth of human multipotent vascular wall-mesenchymal stem cells.

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    Carmen eCiavarella

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs with multilineage potential and anti-inflammatory property can be isolated from different human tissues, representing promising candidates in regenerative medicine. Despite the common criteria of characterization, many factors contribute to MSC heterogeneity (i.e. tissue origin, coexistence of cell subsets at different stage of differentiation, epigenetic and no standard methods have been approved to characterize MSCs in cell culture.Aim: The present study aimed to test whether MSCs resist adverse chemical and physical culture conditions, surviving MSC subpopulations are endowed with the stemness abilities; to characterize MMP expression in AAA-MSCs under the adverse experimental conditions. Methods and results: MSCs enzymatically isolated from human abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA-MSCs were exposed to media acidification, hypoxia, starving, drying and hypothermia through the following strategies: 1 low-density seeding in closed flasks; 2 exposure to a chemical hypoxia inducer, cobalt chloride; 3 exposure to a dry environment with growing medium deprivation and culture at 4°C. None of these conditions affected MSC viability and stemness profile, as evidenced by NANOG, OCT-4 and Sox-2 mRNA expression in surviving cells. A significant MMP-9 decrease, especially when AAA-MSCs were exposed to hypothermia, was associated with stress resistant stem cells.Conclusions: AAA-MSCs survive to extremely adverse culture conditions, keeping their morphology and stemness features. Besides MMP-9 role in pathological tissue remodeling, this protease may be related to MSC survival. Future studies on MSCs derived from other tissues will be necessary to refine our culture protocol, which can represent an empirical method to demonstrate MSC stemness,, with potential implications for their clinical use.

  5. Establishment of a Human Blood-Brain Barrier Co-culture Model Mimicking the Neurovascular Unit Using Induced Pluri- and Multipotent Stem Cells

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    Antje Appelt-Menzel

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available In vitro models of the human blood-brain barrier (BBB are highly desirable for drug development. This study aims to analyze a set of ten different BBB culture models based on primary cells, human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs, and multipotent fetal neural stem cells (fNSCs. We systematically investigated the impact of astrocytes, pericytes, and NSCs on hiPSC-derived BBB endothelial cell function and gene expression. The quadruple culture models, based on these four cell types, achieved BBB characteristics including transendothelial electrical resistance (TEER up to 2,500 Ω cm2 and distinct upregulation of typical BBB genes. A complex in vivo-like tight junction (TJ network was detected by freeze-fracture and transmission electron microscopy. Treatment with claudin-specific TJ modulators caused TEER decrease, confirming the relevant role of claudin subtypes for paracellular tightness. Drug permeability tests with reference substances were performed and confirmed the suitability of the models for drug transport studies.

  6. A qualitative and quantitative analysis of autologous human multipotent adult stem cells derived from three anatomic areas by marrow aspiration: tibia, anterior ilium, and posterior ilium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marx, Robert E; Tursun, Ramzey

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this article was to compare the yields of stromal multipotent stem cells (CD34+ and CD105+) and hematopoetic multipotent stem cells (CD44+) obtained from different areas via bone marrow aspiration (BMA). Sixty 60-mL bone marrow aspirates were taken from the tibial plateau, the anterior ilium, and the posterior ilium using a single point-of-care BMA technique and a single BMA concentration (BMAC) device. A 1-mL portion of each sample was used to determine CD stem cell concentrations and the nucleated cell count. The remaining BMA was centrifuged to separate the more mature red blood cell precursors from the stem cells and then concentrate the latter into a BMAC. The BMAC yield of 10 mL was analyzed with flow cytometry and nucleated cell counts to derive a concentration factor for the BMAC. The yield of total nucleated cells was equal between the anterior and posterior ilium and more than twice that obtained from the tibial plateau. The CD44+ and CD105+ cell yields were also nearly equal between the anterior and posterior ilium but more than twice that of the tibial plateau; however, the ratios between the three different stem cell types in BMAC obtained from the different areas suggest varying potentials for tissue development. The ilium is the preferred donor site for obtaining autologous stem cells at the point of care. The tibial plateau yielded only half as much bone marrow multipotent/progenitor stem cells as did the anterior and posterior ilium. The composition of the BMAC from each site suggests that the potential for differentiation into various cell types changes depending on the source of bone marrow, but that BMAC represents 6.5 ± 1.0 concentration factor from BMA.

  7. Assessment of Effects of Si-Ca-P Biphasic Ceramic on the Osteogenic Differentiation of a Population of Multipotent Adult Human Stem Cells

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    Patricia Ros-Tárraga

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available A new type of bioceramic with osteogenic properties, suitable for hard tissue regeneration, was synthesised. The ceramic was designed and obtained in the Nurse’s A-phase-silicocarnotite subsystem. The selected composition was that corresponding to the eutectoid 28.39 wt % Nurse’s A-phase-71.61 wt % silicocarnotite invariant point. We report the effect of Nurse’s A-phase-silicocarnotite ceramic on the capacity of multipotent adult human mesenchymal stem cells (ahMSCs cultured under experimental conditions, known to adhere, proliferate and differentiate into osteoblast lineage cells. The results at long-term culture (28 days on the material confirmed that the undifferentiated ahMSCs cultured and in contact with the material surface adhered, spread, proliferated, and produced a mineralised extracellular matrix on the studied ceramic, and finally acquired an osteoblastic phenotype. These findings indicate that it underwent an osteoblast differentiation process. All these findings were more significant than when cells were grown on plastic, in the presence and absence of this osteogenic supplement, and were more evident when this supplement was present in the growth medium (GM. The ceramic evaluated herein was bioactive, cytocompatible and capable of promoting the proliferation and differentiation of undifferentiated ahMSCs into osteoblasts, which may be important for bone integration into the clinical setting.

  8. Development and characterization of a clinically compliant xeno-free culture medium in good manufacturing practice for human multipotent mesenchymal stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chase, Lucas G; Yang, Sufang; Zachar, Vladimir; Yang, Zheng; Lakshmipathy, Uma; Bradford, Jolene; Boucher, Shayne E; Vemuri, Mohan C

    2012-10-01

    Human multipotent mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) therapies are currently being tested in clinical trials for Crohn's disease, multiple sclerosis, graft-versus-host disease, type 1 diabetes, bone fractures, cartilage damage, and cardiac diseases. Despite remarkable progress in clinical trials, most applications still use traditional culture media containing fetal bovine serum or serum-free media that contain serum albumin, insulin, and transferrin. The ill-defined and variable nature of traditional culture media remains a challenge and has created a need for better defined xeno-free culture media to meet the regulatory and long-term safety requirements for cell-based therapies. We developed and tested a serum-free and xeno-free culture medium (SFM-XF) using human bone marrow- and adipose-derived MSCs by investigating primary cell isolation, multiple passage expansion, mesoderm differentiation, cellular phenotype, and gene expression analysis, which are critical for complying with translation to cell therapy. Human MSCs expanded in SFM-XF showed continual propagation, with an expected phenotype and differentiation potential to adipogenic, chondrogenic, and osteogenic lineages similar to that of MSCs expanded in traditional serum-containing culture medium (SCM). To monitor global gene expression, the transcriptomes of bone marrow-derived MSCs expanded in SFM-XF and SCM were compared, revealing relatively similar expression profiles. In addition, the SFM-XF supported the isolation and propagation of human MSCs from primary human marrow aspirates, ensuring that these methods and reagents are compatible for translation to therapy. The SFM-XF culture system allows better expansion and multipotentiality of MSCs and serves as a preferred alternative to serum-containing media for the production of large scale, functionally competent MSCs for future clinical applications.

  9. Endogenous collagen influences differentiation of human multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fernandes, H.; Mentink, A.; Bank, R.; Stoop, R.; Blitterswijk, C. van; Boer, J. de

    2010-01-01

    Human multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells (hMSCs) are multipotent cells that, in the presence of appropriate stimuli, can differentiate into different lineages such as the osteogenic, chondrogenic, and adipogenic lineages. In the presence of ascorbic acid, MSCs secrete an extracellular matrix

  10. Endogenous Collagen Influences Differentiation of Human Multipotent Mesenchymal Stromal Cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fernandes, H.A.M.; Mentink-Leusink, Anouk; Bank, Ruud; Stoop, Reinout; van Blitterswijk, Clemens; de Boer, Jan

    2010-01-01

    Human multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells (hMSCs) are multipotent cells that, in the presence of appropriate stimuli, can differentiate into different lineages such as the osteogenic, chondrogenic, and adipogenic lineages. In the presence of ascorbic acid, MSCs secrete an extracellular matrix

  11. Endogenous Collagen Influences Differentiation of Human Multipotent Mesenchymal Stromal Cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fernandes, Hugo; Mentink, Anouk; Bank, Ruud; Stoop, Reinout; van Blitterswijk, Clemens; de Boer, Jan

    Human multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells (hMSCs) are multipotent cells that, in the presence of appropriate stimuli, can differentiate into different lineages such as the osteogenic, chondrogenic, and adipogenic lineages. In the presence of ascorbic acid, MSCs secrete an extracellular matrix

  12. The Histone H2B Monoubiquitination Regulatory Pathway Is Required for Differentiation of Multipotent Stem Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karpiuk, Oleksandra; Najafova, Zeynab; Kramer, Frank

    2012-01-01

    understood. We show that histone H2B monoubiquitination (H2Bub1) significantly increases during differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) and various lineage-committed precursor cells and in diverse organisms. Furthermore, the H2B ubiquitin ligase RNF40 is required for the induction......Extensive changes in posttranslational histone modifications accompany the rewiring of the transcriptional program during stem cell differentiation. However, the mechanisms controlling the changes in specific chromatin modifications and their function during differentiation remain only poorly...... during the transition from an inactive to an active chromatin conformation. Thus, these data indicate that H2Bub1 is required for maintaining multipotency of hMSCs and plays a central role in controlling stem cell differentiation....

  13. Deriving multipotent stem cells from mouse spermatogonial stem cells: a new tool for developmental and clinical research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Rooij, Dirk G.; Mizrak, S. Canan

    2008-01-01

    In recent years, embryonic stem (ES) cell-like cells have been obtained from cultured mouse spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs). These advances have shown that SSCs can transition from being the stem cell-producing cells of spermatogenesis to being multipotent cells that can differentiate into

  14. Identification of Multipotent Progenitors that Emerge Prior to Hematopoietic Stem Cells in Embryonic Development

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    Matthew A. Inlay

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Hematopoiesis in the embryo proceeds in a series of waves, with primitive erythroid-biased waves succeeded by definitive waves, within which the properties of hematopoietic stem cells (multilineage potential, self-renewal, and engraftability gradually arise. Whereas self-renewal and engraftability have previously been examined in the embryo, multipotency has not been thoroughly addressed, especially at the single-cell level or within well-defined populations. To identify when and where clonal multilineage potential arises during embryogenesis, we developed a single-cell multipotency assay. We find that, during the initiation of definitive hematopoiesis in the embryo, a defined population of multipotent, engraftable progenitors emerges that is much more abundant within the yolk sac (YS than the aorta-gonad-mesonephros (AGM or fetal liver. These experiments indicate that multipotent cells appear in concert within both the YS and AGM and strongly implicate YS-derived progenitors as contributors to definitive hematopoiesis.

  15. Induction of hair follicle dermal papilla cell properties in human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived multipotent LNGFR(+)THY-1(+) mesenchymal cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veraitch, Ophelia; Mabuchi, Yo; Matsuzaki, Yumi; Sasaki, Takashi; Okuno, Hironobu; Tsukashima, Aki; Amagai, Masayuki; Okano, Hideyuki; Ohyama, Manabu

    2017-01-01

    The dermal papilla (DP) is a specialised mesenchymal component of the hair follicle (HF) that plays key roles in HF morphogenesis and regeneration. Current technical difficulties in preparing trichogenic human DP cells could be overcome by the use of highly proliferative and plastic human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs). In this study, hiPSCs were differentiated into induced mesenchymal cells (iMCs) with a bone marrow stromal cell phenotype. A highly proliferative and plastic LNGFR(+)THY-1(+) subset of iMCs was subsequently programmed using retinoic acid and DP cell activating culture medium to acquire DP properties. The resultant cells (induced DP-substituting cells [iDPSCs]) exhibited up-regulated DP markers, interacted with human keratinocytes to up-regulate HF related genes, and when co-grafted with human keratinocytes in vivo gave rise to fibre structures with a hair cuticle-like coat resembling the hair shaft, as confirmed by scanning electron microscope analysis. Furthermore, iDPSCs responded to the clinically used hair growth reagent, minoxidil sulfate, to up-regulate DP genes, further supporting that they were capable of, at least in part, reproducing DP properties. Thus, LNGFR(+)THY-1(+) iMCs may provide material for HF bioengineering and drug screening for hair diseases. PMID:28220862

  16. Metabolomics, milk-oriented microbiota (MOM and multipotent stem cells: the future of research on breast milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vassilios Fanos

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The more we learn about human milk, the more we are forced to admit to our extraordinary ignorance about this liquid, considered miraculous from ancient times.This editorial deals with three themes of great importance today: metabolomics, milk-oriented microbiota (MOM and multipotent stem cells.Metabolomics, also called the "new clinical biochemistry”, is an approach based on the systematic study of the complete set of metabolites in a biological sample, in our case milk. Very few papers have been published on this topic.The human milk is anything but sterile! Today we know that it contains a quantity of bacteria (microbiota of 50 genera and 200 species. The composition of human milk microbiota is highly individualized and unique for each mother and can have important effects on the colonization of the intestine and the short- and long-term health of the child. We speak of MOM.Finally, we also know that human milk contains stem cells whose function is not yet fully known. It appears that the stem cells of human milk pass through the intestinal barrier as well as that of the brain and migrate to settle in the brain and other organs and apparata, among which surely the thymus, pancreas and liver. Once they reach the neonatal tissue of destination, they appear to differentiate to assimilate and integrate in the tissue. For example, at the level of the brain stem cells from human milk may differentiate have become oligodendrocytes, astrocytes and neurons.Perhaps from the integration of knowledge in these three fields we could take further significant steps towards the understanding of the miracles of human milk.

  17. Neurotrophin-induced migration and neuronal differentiation of multipotent astrocytic stem cells in vitro.

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    Martha Douglas-Escobar

    Full Text Available Hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy (HIE affects 2-3 per 1000 full-term neonates. Up to 75% of newborns with severe HIE die or have severe neurological handicaps. Stem cell therapy offers the potential to replace HIE-damaged cells and enhances the autoregeneration process. Our laboratory implanted Multipotent Astrocytic Stem Cells (MASCs into a neonatal rat model of hypoxia-ischemia (HI and demonstrated that MASCs move to areas of injury in the cortex and hippocampus. However, only a small proportion of the implanted MASCs differentiated into neurons. MASCs injected into control pups did not move into the cortex or differentiate into neurons. We do not know the mechanism by which the MASCs moved from the site of injection to the injured cortex. We found neurotrophins present after the hypoxic-ischemic milieu and hypothesized that neurotrophins could enhance the migration and differentiation of MASCs. Using a Boyden chamber device, we demonstrated that neurotrophins potentiate the in vitro migration of stem cells. NGF, GDNF, BDNF and NT-3 increased stem cell migration when compared to a chemokinesis control. Also, MASCs had increased differentiation toward neuronal phenotypes when these neurotrophins were added to MASC culture tissue. Due to this finding, we believed neurotrophins could guide migration and differentiation of stem cell transplants after brain injury.

  18. Reconstitution of experimental neurogenic bladder dysfunction using skeletal muscle-derived multipotent stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitta, Masahiro; Tamaki, Tetsuro; Tono, Kayoko; Okada, Yoshinori; Masuda, Maki; Akatsuka, Akira; Hoshi, Akio; Usui, Yukio; Terachi, Toshiro

    2010-05-15

    BACKGROUND.: Postoperative neurogenic bladder dysfunction is a major complication of radical hysterectomy for cervical cancer and is mainly caused by unavoidable damage to the bladder branch of the pelvic plexus (BBPP) associated with colateral blood vessels. Thus, we attempted to reconstitute disrupted BBPP and blood vessels using skeletal muscle-derived multipotent stem cells that show synchronized reconstitution capacity of vascular, muscular, and peripheral nervous systems. METHODS.: Under pentobarbital anesthesia, intravesical pressure by electrical stimulation of BBPP was measured as bladder function. The distal portion of BBPP with blood vessels was then cut unilaterally (experimental neurogenic bladder model). Measurements were performed before, immediately after, and at 4 weeks after transplantation as functional recovery. Stem cells were obtained from the right soleus and gastrocnemius muscles after enzymatic digestion and cell sorting as CD34/45 (Sk-34) and CD34/45 (Sk-DN). Suspended cells were autografted around the damaged region, whereas medium alone and CD45 cells were transplanted as control groups. To determine the morphological contribution of the transplanted cells, stem cells obtained from green fluorescent protein transgenic mouse muscles were transplanted into a nude rat model and were examined by immunohistochemistry and immunoelectron microscopy. RESULTS.: At 4 weeks after surgery, the transplantation group showed significantly higher functional recovery ( approximately 80%) than the two controls ( approximately 28% and 24%). The transplanted cells showed an incorporation into the damaged peripheral nerves and blood vessels after differentiation into Schwann cells, perineurial cells, vascular smooth muscle cells, pericytes, and fibroblasts around the bladder. CONCLUSION.: Transplantation of multipotent Sk-34 and Sk-DN cells is potentially useful for the reconstitution of damaged BBPP.

  19. Conversion of vascular endothelial cells into multipotent stem-like cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medici, Damian; Shore, Eileen M.; Lounev, Vitali Y.; Kaplan, Frederick S.; Kalluri, Raghu; Olsen, Bjorn R.

    2011-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells can give rise to several cell types, but variations depending on isolation method and tissue source have led to controversies about their usefulness in clinical medicine. Here we show that vascular endothelial cells can transform into multipotent stem-like cells by an ALK2 receptor-dependent mechanism. In lesions from patients with Fibrodysplasia Ossificans Progressiva, a disease where heterotopic ossification occurs as a result of activating ALK2 mutations, or from a mutant ALK2 transgenic mouse model, chondrocytes and osteoblasts express endothelial markers. Tie2-Cre lineage tracing also suggests an endothelial origin of these cells. Expressing mutant ALK2 in endothelial cells, or treatment with the ALK2 ligands TGF-β2 or BMP4, causes endothelial-mesenchymal transition and acquisition of a stem cell-like phenotype. In selective media, these cells differentiate into osteoblasts, chondrocytes, or adipocytes. The process is inhibited by ALK2-specific siRNA. Conversion of endothelial cells to stem-like cells may provide a novel approach to tissue engineering. PMID:21102460

  20. Multipotent mesenchymal stem cells with immunosuppressive activity can be easily isolated from dental pulp

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pierdomenico, Laura; Bonsi, Laura; Calvitti, Mario

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are currently being investigated in preclinical and clinical settings because of their multipotent differentiative capacity or, alternatively, their immunosuppressive function. The aim of this study was to evaluate dental pulp (DP...... characteristics of DP-MSCs may prompt future studies aimed at using these cells in the treatment or prevention of T-cell alloreactivity in hematopoietic or solid organ allogeneic transplantation....... was then tested by coculturing PHA-stimulated allogeneic T cells with or without MSCs for 3 days. RESULTS: BM-MSCs could be differentiated in vitro into osteogenic, chondrogenic and adipogenic lineages. DP-MSCs showed osteogenic and adipocytic differentiation, but did not differentiate into chondrocytes. Although...

  1. Low physiologic oxygen tensions reduce proliferation and differentiation of human multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Handgretinger Rupert

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC can be isolated from various tissues including bone marrow. Here, MSC participate as bone lining cells in the formation of the hematopoietic stem cell niche. In this compartment, the oxygen tension is low and oxygen partial pressure is estimated to range from 1% to 7%. We analyzed the effect of low oxygen tensions on human MSC cultured with platelet-lysate supplemented media and assessed proliferation, morphology, chromosomal stability, immunophenotype and plasticity. Results After transferring MSC from atmospheric oxygen levels of 21% to 1%, HIF-1α expression was induced, indicating efficient oxygen reduction. Simultaneously, MSC exhibited a significantly different morphology with shorter extensions and broader cell bodies. MSC did not proliferate as rapidly as under 21% oxygen and accumulated in G1 phase. The immunophenotype, however, was unaffected. Hypoxic stress as well as free oxygen radicals may affect chromosomal stability. However, no chromosomal abnormalities in human MSC under either culture condition were detected using high-resolution matrix-based comparative genomic hybridization. Reduced oxygen tension severely impaired adipogenic and osteogenic differentiation of human MSC. Elevation of oxygen from 1% to 3% restored osteogenic differentiation. Conclusion Physiologic oxygen tension during in vitro culture of human MSC slows down cell cycle progression and differentiation. Under physiological conditions this may keep a proportion of MSC in a resting state. Further studies are needed to analyze these aspects of MSC in tissue regeneration.

  2. In Vivo Tracking of Murine Adipose Tissue-Derived Multipotent Adult Stem Cells and Ex Vivo Cross-Validation

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    Chiara Garrovo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Stem cells are characterized by the ability to renew themselves and to differentiate into specialized cell types, while stem cell therapy is believed to treat a number of different human diseases through either cell regeneration or paracrine effects. Herein, an in vivo and ex vivo near infrared time domain (NIR TD optical imaging study was undertaken to evaluate the migratory ability of murine adipose tissue-derived multipotent adult stem cells [mAT-MASC] after intramuscular injection in mice. In vivo NIR TD optical imaging data analysis showed a migration of DiD-labelled mAT-MASC in the leg opposite the injection site, which was confirmed by a fibered confocal microendoscopy system. Ex vivo NIR TD optical imaging results showed a systemic distribution of labelled cells. Considering a potential microenvironmental contamination, a cross-validation study by multimodality approaches was followed: mAT-MASC were isolated from male mice expressing constitutively eGFP, which was detectable using techniques of immunofluorescence and qPCR. Y-chromosome positive cells, injected into wild-type female recipients, were detected by FISH. Cross-validation confirmed the data obtained by in vivo/ex vivo TD optical imaging analysis. In summary, our data demonstrates the usefulness of NIR TD optical imaging in tracking delivered cells, giving insights into the migratory properties of the injected cells.

  3. Reversine increases multipotent human mesenchymal cells differentiation potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conforti, E; Arrigoni, E; Piccoli, M; Lopa, S; de Girolamo, L; Ibatici, A; Di Matteo, A; Tettamanti, G; Brini, A T; Anastasia, L

    2011-01-01

    Among different human stem cell sources, adult mesenchymal stem cells from bone marrow (BMSCs), and more recently from adipose tissues (ASCs), have shown their capability to differentiate into a variety of different cell types, including osteoblasts, adipocytes, and muscle cells. However, mesenchymal stem cell differentiation toward certain cell types (including skeletal and cardiac muscle), while shown to be achievable, still suffers of low yields and needs to be greatly improved before any therapeutic application could be foreseen. A possible way of achieving this goal is by using a chemical-pharmacological approach to increase stem cell plasticity. Along this line, we envisioned the possibility of pre-treating BMSCs and ASCs with reversine, a synthetic purine that has been shown to induce adult cells de-differentiation. In the current study we tested reversine effects on both BMSCs and ASCs to increase their differentiation toward osteoblasts, smooth and skeletal muscle cells. Reversine pre-treatment, at very low concentration (50 nM), caused a marked increase in the differentiation yields of both BMSCs and ASCs.

  4. Miracles and mysteries of breast milk: from Egyptians to the 3 M’s (Metabolomics, Microbiomics, Multipotent stem cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vassilios Fanos

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The ancient Egyptians considered breast milk the nectar of Gods that could give life, strength and ensure a very long existence. Nowadays, it is well known that breast milk is a dynamic bioactive mixture that is tailored upon the needs of the neonates. In fact breast milk contains nutritional substances (such as lipids, carbohydrates, proteins, vitamins and minerals, bioactive substances (such as hormones, cytokines, chemokines, immunoglobulins, leucocytes and, according to the newest works, bacteria (microbiome of maternal milk and multipotent stem cells.Metabolomics is one of the newest “omics” sciences that make it possible to have a snapshot of the metabolic state of an individual or a biufluid. Now about 10 papers have been published in the last 3 years on metabolomics in human milk.Human breast milk was mistakenly thought to be sterile for almost a century, but nowadays using the modern technologies it is well known that it is “contaminated”: in fact investigators we know that bacteria can be found in breast milk speaks about maternal milk microbiota. A breastfed baby is thought to ingest up to 10 milions of live bacteria per day.  There are as much as 600 species of bacteria in maternal milk.The possible future applications of stem cells found in are potentially endless: a tailored regenerative medicine with less ethical problems and better outcomes for the patients could be developed.

  5. Repair of ischemic heart disease with novel bone marrow-derived multipotent stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Namho; Thorne, Tina; Losordo, Douglas W; Yoon, Young-sup

    2005-07-01

    Congestive heart failure is a growing, worldwide epidemic. The major causes of heart failure are related to irreversible damage resulting from myocardial infarction (heart attack). The long-standing axiom has been that the myocardium has a limited capacity for self-repair or regeneration; and the irreversible loss of cardiac muscle and accompanying contraction and fibrosis of myocardial scar tissue, sets into play a series of events, namely, progressive ventricular remodeling of nonischemic myocardium that ultimately leads to progressive heart failure. The loss of cardiomyocyte survival cues is associated with diverse pathways for heart failure, underscoring the importance of maintaining the number of viable cardiomyocytes during heart failure progression. Currently, no medication or procedure used clinically has shown efficacy in replacing the myocardial scar with functioning contractile tissue. Therefore, given the major morbidity and mortality associated with myocardial infarction and heart failure, new approaches have been sought to address the principal pathophysiologic deficits responsible for these conditions, resulting from the loss of cardiomyocytes and viable blood vessels. Recently, the identification of stem cells from bone marrow capable of contributing to tissue regeneration has ignited significant interest in the possibility that cell therapy could be employed therapeutically for the repair of damaged myocardium. In this review, we will discuss the currently available bone marrow-derived stem progenitor cells for myocardial repair and focus on the advantages of using recently identified novel bone marrow-derived multipotent stem cells (BMSC).

  6. In vitro differentiation of human skin-derived multipotent stromal cells into putative endothelial-like cells

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    Vishnubalaji Radhakrishnan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Multipotent stem cells have been successfully isolated from various tissues and are currently utilized for tissue-engineering and cell-based therapies. Among the many sources, skin has recently emerged as an attractive source for multipotent cells because of its abundance. Recent literature showed that skin stromal cells (SSCs possess mesoderm lineage differentiation potential; however, the endothelial differentiation and angiogenic potential of SSC remains elusive. In our study, SSCs were isolated from human neonatal foreskin (hNFSSCs and adult dermal skin (hADSSCs using explants cultures and were compared with bone marrow (hMSC-TERT and adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hADMSCs for their potential differentiation into osteoblasts, adipocytes, and endothelial cells. Results Concordant with previous studies, both MSCs and SSCs showed similar morphology, surface protein expression, and were able to differentiate into osteoblasts and adipocytes. Using an endothelial induction culture system combined with an in vitro matrigel angiogenesis assay, hNFSSCs and hADSSCs exhibited the highest tube-forming capability, which was similar to those formed by human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC, with hNFSSCs forming the most tightly packed, longest, and largest diameter tubules among the three cell types. CD146 was highly expressed on hNFSSCs and HUVEC followed by hADSSCs, and hMSC-TERT, while its expression was almost absent on hADMSCs. Similarly, higher vascular density (based on the expression of CD31, CD34, vWF, CD146 and SMA was observed in neonatal skin, followed by adult dermal skin and adipose tissue. Thus, our preliminary data indicated a plausible relationship between vascular densities, and the expression of CD146 on multipotent cells derived from those tissues. Conclusions Our data is the first to demonstrate that human dermal skin stromal cells can be differentiated into endothelial lineage. Hence, SSCs

  7. Simple surface engineering of polydimethylsiloxane with polydopamine for stabilized mesenchymal stem cell adhesion and multipotency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuah, Yon Jin; Koh, Yi Ting; Lim, Kaiyang; Menon, Nishanth V.; Wu, Yingnan; Kang, Yuejun

    2015-01-01

    Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) has been extensively exploited to study stem cell physiology in the field of mechanobiology and microfluidic chips due to their transparency, low cost and ease of fabrication. However, its intrinsic high hydrophobicity renders a surface incompatible for prolonged cell adhesion and proliferation. Plasma-treated or protein-coated PDMS shows some improvement but these strategies are often short-lived with either cell aggregates formation or cell sheet dissociation. Recently, chemical functionalization of PDMS surfaces has proved to be able to stabilize long-term culture but the chemicals and procedures involved are not user- and eco-friendly. Herein, we aim to tailor greener and biocompatible PDMS surfaces by developing a one-step bio-inspired polydopamine coating strategy to stabilize long-term bone marrow stromal cell culture on PDMS substrates. Characterization of the polydopamine-coated PDMS surfaces has revealed changes in surface wettability and presence of hydroxyl and secondary amines as compared to uncoated surfaces. These changes in PDMS surface profile contribute to the stability in BMSCs adhesion, proliferation and multipotency. This simple methodology can significantly enhance the biocompatibility of PDMS-based microfluidic devices for long-term cell analysis or mechanobiological studies. PMID:26647719

  8. Mutual interaction between human multipotent adult progenitor cells and NK cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Sandra A; Plessers, Jeroen; Pinxteren, Jef; Roobrouck, Valerie D; Verfaillie, Catherine M; Van Gool, Stefaan W

    2014-01-01

    Human multipotent adult progenitor cells (hMAPCs) are isolated from bone marrow with a more extensive expansion capacity compared to human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) and with the ability to differentiate into endothelium. Like hMSCs, hMAPCs inhibit T-cell proliferation induced by alloantigens. In this study, we tested the interaction between hMAPCs and natural killer (NK) cells. We assessed the susceptibility of hMAPCs to NK cell-mediated lysis and the immunomodulation of hMAPCs on NK cell function during IL-2-driven stimulation and the cytolytic effector phase. Human MAPCs express the ligands PVR and ULBP-2/5/6, which are recognized by activating NK cell receptors. However, they also express MHC class I molecules, which induce inhibitory signals in NK cells. Freshly isolated NK cells at different effector:target ratios did not kill hMAPCs as assessed by an MTT and (51)Cr-release assay, while hMAPCs impaired the cytotoxic activity of resting NK cells against the NK-sensitive K562 leukemia cell line. By contrast, IL-2-stimulated NK cells were capable of killing hMAPCs, and preactivated NK cells were not influenced during their cytotoxic effector function against K562 cells by hMAPCs. When added during the 6-day preactivation phase with IL-2, hMAPCs dose-dependently reduced NK cell proliferation in an IDO-dependent manner, but they did not influence the induction of cytotoxic capacity by IL-2. This study indicates that human MAPCs mutually interact with NK cells.

  9. Vascular wall-resident CD44+ multipotent stem cells give rise to pericytes and smooth muscle cells and contribute to new vessel maturation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Klein

    Full Text Available Here, we identify CD44(+CD90(+CD73(+CD34(-CD45(- cells within the adult human arterial adventitia with properties of multipotency which were named vascular wall-resident multipotent stem cells (VW-MPSCs. VW-MPSCs exhibit typical mesenchymal stem cell characteristics including cell surface markers in immunostaining and flow cytometric analyses, and differentiation into adipocytes, chondrocytes and osteocytes under culture conditions. Particularly, TGFß1 stimulation up-regulates smooth muscle cell markers in VW-MPSCs. Using fluorescent cell labelling and co-localisation studies we show that VW-MPSCs differentiate to pericytes/smooth muscle cells which cover the wall of newly formed endothelial capillary-like structures in vitro. Co-implantation of EGFP-labelled VW-MPSCs and human umbilical vein endothelial cells into SCID mice subcutaneously via Matrigel results in new vessels formation which were covered by pericyte- or smooth muscle-like cells generated from implanted VW-MPSCs. Our results suggest that VW-MPSCs are of relevance for vascular morphogenesis, repair and self-renewal of vascular wall cells and for local capacity of neovascularization in disease processes.

  10. Sphere-Derived Multipotent Progenitor Cells Obtained From Human Oral Mucosa Are Enriched in Neural Crest Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Shigehiro; Yamaguchi, Satoshi; Sato, Yutaka; Harada, Kiyoshi

    2016-01-01

    isolation of neural crest progenitor cells from oral mucosa using this system. Human OMSCs form spheres that exhibit self-renewal capabilities and multipotency, and are enriched with neural crest-derived cells. These oral mucosa sphere-forming cells can generate ectopic bone tissue in vivo. Therefore, the results of the present study show that the sphere culture system can be applied, without the need for complex isolation techniques, to produce multipotent spheres with the properties of neural crest stem cells. Furthermore, a convenient strategy is demonstrated for the isolation and culture of human OMSCs that could have clinical applications. ©AlphaMed Press.

  11. Human Adult Dental Pulp Stem Cells Enhance Poststroke Functional Recovery Through Non‐Neural Replacement Mechanisms

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Leong, Wai Khay; Henshall, Tanya L; Arthur, Agnes; Kremer, Karlea L; Lewis, Martin D; Helps, Stephen C; Field, John; Hamilton-Bruce, Monica A; Warming, Scott; Manavis, Jim; Vink, Robert; Gronthos, Stan; Koblar, Simon A

    2012-01-01

    Human adult dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs), derived from third molar teeth, are multipotent and have the capacity to differentiate into neurons under inductive conditions both in vitro and following transplantation into the avian embryo...

  12. Sensitive Tumorigenic Potential Evaluation of Adult Human Multipotent Neural Cells Immortalized by hTERT Gene Transduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kee Hang; Nam, Hyun; Jeong, Da Eun; Kim, Sung Soo; Song, Hye Jin; Pyeon, Hee Jang; Kang, Kyeongjin; Hong, Seung-Cheol; Nam, Do-Hyun; Joo, Kyeung Min

    2016-01-01

    Stem cells and therapeutic genes are emerging as a new therapeutic approach to treat various neurodegenerative diseases with few effective treatment options. However, potential formation of tumors by stem cells has hampered their clinical application. Moreover, adequate preclinical platforms to precisely test tumorigenic potential of stem cells are controversial. In this study, we compared the sensitivity of various animal models for in vivo stem cell tumorigenicity testing to identify the most sensitive platform. Then, tumorigenic potential of adult human multipotent neural cells (ahMNCs) immortalized by the human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) gene was examined as a stem cell model with therapeutic genes. When human glioblastoma (GBM) cells were injected into adult (4-6-week-old) Balb/c-nu, adult NOD/SCID, adult NOG, or neonate (1-2-week-old) NOG mice, the neonate NOG mice showed significantly faster tumorigenesis than that of the other groups regardless of intracranial or subcutaneous injection route. Two kinds of ahMNCs (682TL and 779TL) were primary cultured from surgical samples of patients with temporal lobe epilepsy. Although the ahMNCs were immortalized by lentiviral hTERT gene delivery (hTERT-682TL and hTERT-779TL), they did not form any detectable masses, even in the most sensitive neonate NOG mouse platform. Moreover, the hTERT-ahMNCs had no gross chromosomal abnormalities on a karyotype analysis. Taken together, our data suggest that neonate NOG mice could be a sensitive animal platform to test tumorigenic potential of stem cell therapeutics and that ahMNCs could be a genetically stable stem cell source with little tumorigenic activity to develop regenerative treatments for neurodegenerative diseases.

  13. Proof of region-specific multipotent progenitors in human breast epithelia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fridriksdottir, Agla J; Villadsen, René; Morsing, Mikkel

    2017-01-01

    The human breast parenchyma consists of collecting ducts and terminal duct lobular units (TDLUs). The TDLU is the site of origin of most breast cancers. The reason for such focal susceptibility to cancer remains poorly understood. Here, we take advantage of a region-specific heterogeneity...... bipotent and multipotent progenitors in ducts and TDLUs, respectively. We propose that focal breast cancer susceptibility, at least in part, originates from region-specific myoepithelial progenitors....

  14. Slow and sustained nitric oxide releasing compounds inhibit multipotent vascular stem cell proliferation and differentiation without causing cell death

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curtis, Brandon M.; Leix, Kyle Alexander [Department of Chemistry, Central Michigan University, Mount Pleasant, MI 48859 (United States); Ji, Yajing [Department of Biomedical Science and Medicine, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Glaves, Richard Samuel Elliot [Department of Biology, Central Michigan University, Mount Pleasant, MI 48859 (United States); Ash, David E. [Department of Chemistry, Central Michigan University, Mount Pleasant, MI 48859 (United States); Mohanty, Dillip K., E-mail: Mohan1dk@cmich.edu [Department of Chemistry, Central Michigan University, Mount Pleasant, MI 48859 (United States)

    2014-07-18

    Highlights: • Multipotent vascular stem cells (MVSCs) proliferate and differentiate. • Nitric oxide inhibits proliferation of MVSCs. • Nitric oxide inhibits MVSC differentiation to mesenchymal-like stem cells (MSCs). • Smooth muscle cells (SMCs) neither de-differentiate nor proliferate. - Abstract: Atherosclerosis is the leading cause of cerebral and myocardial infarction. It is believed that neointimal growth common in the later stages of atherosclerosis is a result of vascular smooth muscle cell (SMC) de-differentiation in response to endothelial injury. However, the claims of the SMC de-differentiation theory have not been substantiated by monitoring the fate of mature SMCs in response to such injuries. A recent study suggests that atherosclerosis is a consequence of multipotent vascular stem cell (MVSC) differentiation. Nitric oxide (NO) is a well-known mediator against atherosclerosis, in part because of its inhibitory effect on SMC proliferation. Using three different NO-donors, we have investigated the effects of NO on MVSC proliferation. Results indicate that NO inhibits MVSC proliferation in a concentration dependent manner. A slow and sustained delivery of NO proved to inhibit proliferation without causing cell death. On the other hand, larger, single-burst NO concentrations, inhibits proliferation, with concurrent significant cell death. Furthermore, our results indicate that endogenously produced NO inhibits MVSC differentiation to mesenchymal-like stem cells (MSCs) and subsequently to SMC as well.

  15. Thyroid Follicle Formation and Thyroglobulin Expression in Multipotent Endodermal Stem Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latif, Rauf; Davies, Terry F.

    2013-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to assess the impact of transcriptional induction on thyroid follicular cell (TFC) differentiation from endodermally matured embryonic stem (ES) cells. The thyroid transcription factors—NKx2 homeobox 1 (NKx2-1, formerly called TTF-1) and Paired box gene 8 (Pax8)—are known to associate biochemically and synergistically in the activation of thyroid functional genes including the sodium/iodide symporter (NIS), thyrotropin (TSH) receptor (TSHR), thyroglobulin (Tg), and thyroid peroxidase (TPO) genes. In this study, we investigated the ability of ectopically expressed Pax8 and NKx2-1 to further the induction and differentiation of murine ES cells into potential TFCs. Methods ES cells were stably transfected with either the Pax8 gene, the NKx2-1 gene, or both genes to study the induction of NIS, TSHR, Tg, and TPO genes as assessed using both quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and protein expression. The derived cells were cultured with or without the presence of activin A to allow their differentiation into multipotent endodermal cells. Results The four thyroid-specific genes NIS, TSHR, Tg, and TPO were all significantly activated by expressing both transcription factors within the same ES cell. In contrast, significant but much lower transcriptional activity of the TSHR, Tg, and TPO genes was detected in cells expressing just NKx2-1, and only the NIS and TSHR genes responded to Pax8 alone. No Tg protein expression could be detected prior to their development into endodermal derivatives. However, after further differentiation of postembryoid body ES cells with activin A and TSH into endodermal cell lines, those cells with dual transfection of Pax8 and NKx2-1 demonstrated greatly enhanced expression of the NIS, TSHR, Tg, and TPO genes to such a degree that it was similar to that found in control thyroid cells. Furthermore, these same cells formed three-dimensional neofollicles in vitro and

  16. Process development of human multipotent stromal cell microcarrier culture using an automated high‐throughput microbioreactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanga, Mariana P.; Heathman, Thomas R. J.; Coopman, Karen; Nienow, Alvin W.; Williams, David J.; Hewitt, Christopher J.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Microbioreactors play a critical role in process development as they reduce reagent requirements and can facilitate high‐throughput screening of process parameters and culture conditions. Here, we have demonstrated and explained in detail, for the first time, the amenability of the automated ambr15 cell culture microbioreactor system for the development of scalable adherent human mesenchymal multipotent stromal/stem cell (hMSC) microcarrier culture processes. This was achieved by first improving suspension and mixing of the microcarriers and then improving cell attachment thereby reducing the initial growth lag phase. The latter was achieved by using only 50% of the final working volume of medium for the first 24 h and using an intermittent agitation strategy. These changes resulted in >150% increase in viable cell density after 24 h compared to the original process (no agitation for 24 h and 100% working volume). Using the same methodology as in the ambr15, similar improvements were obtained with larger scale spinner flask studies. Finally, this improved bioprocess methodology based on a serum‐based medium was applied to a serum‐free process in the ambr15, resulting in >250% increase in yield compared to the serum‐based process. At both scales, the agitation used during culture was the minimum required for microcarrier suspension, NJS. The use of the ambr15, with its improved control compared to the spinner flask, reduced the coefficient of variation on viable cell density in the serum containing medium from 7.65% to 4.08%, and the switch to serum free further reduced these to 1.06–0.54%, respectively. The combination of both serum‐free and automated processing improved the reproducibility more than 10‐fold compared to the serum‐based, manual spinner flask process. The findings of this study demonstrate that the ambr15 microbioreactor is an effective tool for bioprocess development of hMSC microcarrier cultures and that a combination

  17. Cochlear epithelial of dog fetuses: a new source of multipotent stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Ana Carolina M; Borghesi, Jéssica; Mario, Lara Carolina; Anunciação, Adriana Raquel A; Mess, Andrea Maria; Carreira, Ana Claudia O; Favaron, Phelipe O; Miglino, Maria Angélica

    2017-02-01

    Hearing loss caused by the damage of cochlea sensory cells or neurons is a common human disease, but also affects dogs and other animals. To test their progenitor nature as potential value for future therapies, we characterized cells derived from the cochlear epithelium in dog fetuses. In total, 8 fetuses of 35-40 days of gestation, derived from castration campaigns, were investigated. Cells were analysed by the MTT colorimetric assay and in regard to cell cycle, differentiation capacities, immunophenotypes and qPCR analysis. In culture, cells had a fibroblast-like morphology. Phenotypic immunocharacterization showed positive staining for mesenchymal stem cell and pluripotency markers and were negative for hematopoietic cell markers. Cells possessed differentiation capacity for the three main cell lineages: osteogenic, adipogenic and chondrogenic, altogether indicating their nature as mesenchymal stem cells. Thus, cells derived from fetal cochlear tissues indeed may provide valuable sources of progenitor cells for cell therapy of canine deafness and other diseases.

  18. The small population of PIG-A mutant cells in myelodysplastic syndromes do not arise from multipotent hematopoietic stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pu, Jeffrey J; Hu, Rong; Mukhina, Galina L; Carraway, Hetty E; McDevitt, Michael A; Brodsky, Robert A

    2012-08-01

    Patients with paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria harbor clonal glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchor deficient cells arising from a multipotent hematopoietic stem cell acquiring a PIG-A mutation. Many patients with aplastic anemia and myelodysplastic syndromes also harbor small populations of glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchor deficient cells. Patients with aplastic anemia often evolve into paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria; however, myelodysplastic syndromes seldom evolve into paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria. Here, we investigate the origin and clonality of small glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchor deficient cell populations in aplastic anemia and myelodysplastic syndromes. We used peripheral blood flow cytometry to identify glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchor deficient blood cells, a proaerolysin-resistant colony forming cell assay to select glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchor deficient progenitor cells, a novel T-lymphocyte enrichment culture assay with proaerolysin selection to expand glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchor deficient T lymphocytes, and PIG-A gene sequencing assays to identify and analyze PIG-A mutations in patients with aplastic anemia and myelodysplastic syndromes. Twelve of 15 aplastic anemia patients were found to harbor a small population of glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchor deficient granulocytes; 11 of them were found to harbor a small population of glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchor deficient erythrocytes, 10 patients were detected to harbor glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchor deficient T lymphocytes, and 3 of them were detected only after T-lymphocyte enrichment in proaerolysin selection. PIG-A mutation analyses on 3 patients showed that all of them harbored a matching PIG-A mutation between CFU-GM and enriched T lymphocytes. Two of 26 myelodysplastic syndromes were found to harbor small populations of glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchor deficient granulocytes and erythrocytes transiently. Bone marrow derived CD34(+) cells from 4

  19. Reversal of type 1 diabetes via islet β cell regeneration following immune modulation by cord blood-derived multipotent stem cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Yong

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Inability to control autoimmunity is the primary barrier to developing a cure for type 1 diabetes (T1D. Evidence that human cord blood-derived multipotent stem cells (CB-SCs can control autoimmune responses by altering regulatory T cells (Tregs and human islet β cell-specific T cell clones offers promise for a new approach to overcome the autoimmunity underlying T1D. Methods We developed a procedure for Stem Cell Educator therapy in which a patient's blood is circulated through a closed-loop system that separates lymphocytes from the whole blood and briefly co-cultures them with adherent CB-SCs before returning them to the patient's circulation. In an open-label, phase1/phase 2 study, patients (n = 15 with T1D received one treatment with the Stem Cell Educator. Median age was 29 years (range: 15 to 41, and median diabetic history was 8 years (range: 1 to 21. Results Stem Cell Educator therapy was well tolerated in all participants with minimal pain from two venipunctures and no adverse events. Stem Cell Educator therapy can markedly improve C-peptide levels, reduce the median glycated hemoglobin A1C (HbA1C values, and decrease the median daily dose of insulin in patients with some residual β cell function (n = 6 and patients with no residual pancreatic islet β cell function (n = 6. Treatment also produced an increase in basal and glucose-stimulated C-peptide levels through 40 weeks. However, participants in the Control Group (n = 3 did not exhibit significant change at any follow-up. Individuals who received Stem Cell Educator therapy exhibited increased expression of co-stimulating molecules (specifically, CD28 and ICOS, increases in the number of CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ Tregs, and restoration of Th1/Th2/Th3 cytokine balance. Conclusions Stem Cell Educator therapy is safe, and in individuals with moderate or severe T1D, a single treatment produces lasting improvement in metabolic control. Initial results indicate Stem Cell

  20. Myocardial regeneration by activation of multipotent cardiac stem cells in ischemic heart failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbanek, Konrad; Torella, Daniele; Sheikh, Farooq; de Angelis, Antonella; Nurzynska, Daria; Silvestri, Furio; Beltrami, C. Alberto; Bussani, Rossana; Beltrami, Antonio P.; Quaini, Federico; Bolli, Roberto; Leri, Annarosa; Kajstura, Jan; Anversa, Piero

    2005-06-01

    In this study, we tested whether the human heart possesses a cardiac stem cell (CSC) pool that promotes regeneration after infarction. For this purpose, CSC growth and senescence were measured in 20 hearts with acute infarcts, 20 hearts with end-stage postinfarction cardiomyopathy, and 12 control hearts. CSC number increased markedly in acute and, to a lesser extent, in chronic infarcts. CSC growth correlated with the increase in telomerase-competent dividing CSCs from 1.5% in controls to 28% in acute infarcts and 14% in chronic infarcts. The CSC mitotic index increased 29-fold in acute and 14-fold in chronic infarcts. CSCs committed to the myocyte, smooth muscle, and endothelial cell lineages increased 85-fold in acute infarcts and 25-fold in chronic infarcts. However, p16INK4a-p53-positive senescent CSCs also increased and were 10%, 18%, and 40% in controls, acute infarcts, and chronic infarcts, respectively. Old CSCs had short telomeres and apoptosis involved 0.3%, 3.8%, and 9.6% of CSCs in controls, acute infarcts, and chronic infarcts, respectively. These variables reduced the number of functionally competent CSCs from 26,000/cm3 of viable myocardium in acute to 7,000/cm3 in chronic infarcts, respectively. In seven acute infarcts, foci of spontaneous myocardial regeneration that did not involve cell fusion were identified. In conclusion, the human heart possesses a CSC compartment, and CSC activation occurs in response to ischemic injury. The loss of functionally competent CSCs in chronic ischemic cardiomyopathy may underlie the progressive functional deterioration and the onset of terminal failure. cardiac progenitor cells | human heart | myocardial infarction

  1. Rho/MRTF-A-Induced Integrin Expression Regulates Angiogenesis in Differentiated Multipotent Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs are known to undergo endothelial differentiation in response to treatment with vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF, but their angiogenic ability is poorly characterized. In the present study, we aimed to further investigate the role of Rho/MRTF-A in angiogenesis by MSCs and the effect of the Rho/MRTF-A pathway on the expression of integrins α1β1 and α5β1, which are known to mediate physiological and pathological angiogenesis. Our results showed that increased expression of α1, α5, and β1 was observed during angiogenesis of differentiated MSCs, and the Rho/MRTF-A signaling pathway was demonstrated to be involved in regulating the expression of integrins α1, α5, and β1. Luciferase reporter assay and ChIP assay determined that MRTF-A could bind to and transactivate the integrin α1 and α5 promoters. Treatment with the Rho inhibitor C3 transferase, the Rho-associated protein kinase (ROCK inhibitor Y27632 or with shMRTF-A inhibited both the upregulation of α1, α5, and β1 as well as angiogenesis. Furthermore, in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs, MRTF-A deletion led to marked reductions in cell migration and vessel network formation compared with the control. These data demonstrate that Rho/MRTF-A signaling is an important mediator that controls integrin gene expression during MSC-mediated angiogenic processes.

  2. Multipotent neural stem cells generate glial cells of the central complex through transit amplifying intermediate progenitors in Drosophila brain development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viktorin, Gudrun; Riebli, Nadia; Popkova, Anna; Giangrande, Angela; Reichert, Heinrich

    2011-08-15

    The neural stem cells that give rise to the neural lineages of the brain can generate their progeny directly or through transit amplifying intermediate neural progenitor cells (INPs). The INP-producing neural stem cells in Drosophila are called type II neuroblasts, and their neural progeny innervate the central complex, a prominent integrative brain center. Here we use genetic lineage tracing and clonal analysis to show that the INPs of these type II neuroblast lineages give rise to glial cells as well as neurons during postembryonic brain development. Our data indicate that two main types of INP lineages are generated, namely mixed neuronal/glial lineages and neuronal lineages. Genetic loss-of-function and gain-of-function experiments show that the gcm gene is necessary and sufficient for gliogenesis in these lineages. The INP-derived glial cells, like the INP-derived neuronal cells, make major contributions to the central complex. In postembryonic development, these INP-derived glial cells surround the entire developing central complex neuropile, and once the major compartments of the central complex are formed, they also delimit each of these compartments. During this process, the number of these glial cells in the central complex is increased markedly through local proliferation based on glial cell mitosis. Taken together, these findings uncover a novel and complex form of neurogliogenesis in Drosophila involving transit amplifying intermediate progenitors. Moreover, they indicate that type II neuroblasts are remarkably multipotent neural stem cells that can generate both the neuronal and the glial progeny that make major contributions to one and the same complex brain structure. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. The adult Drosophila malphigian tubules are maintained by multipotent stem cells | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    All animals must excrete the waste products of metabolism. Excretion is performed by the kidney in vertebrates and by the Malpighian tubules in Drosophila. The mammalian kidney has an inherent ability for recovery and regeneration after ischemic injury. Stem cells and progenitor cells have been proposed to be responsible for repair and regeneration of injured renal tissue. In Drosophila, the Malpighian tubules are thought to be very stable and no stem cells have been identified.

  4. Tailless-like (TLX) protein promotes neuronal differentiation of dermal multipotent stem cells and benefits spinal cord injury in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tao; Ren, Xiaobao; Xiong, Jianqiong; Zhang, Lei; Qu, Jifu; Xu, Wenyue

    2011-04-01

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) remains a formidable challenge in the clinic. In the current study, we examined the effects of the TLX gene on the proliferation and neuronal differentiation of dermal multipotent stem cells (DMSCs) in vitro and the potential of these cells to improve SCI in rats in vivo. DMSCs were stably transfected with TLX-expressing plasmid (TLX/DMSCs). Cell proliferation was examined using the MTT assay, and neuronal differentiation was characterized by morphological observation combined with immunocytochemical/immunofluorescent staining. The in vivo functions of these cells were evaluated by transplantation into rats with SCI, followed by analysis of hindlimb locomotion and post-mortem histology. Compared to parental DMSCs, TLX/DMSCs showed enhanced proliferation and preferential differentiation into NF200-positive neurons in contrast to GFAP-positive astrocytes. When the undifferentiated cells were transplanted into rats with SCI injury, TLX/DMSCs led to significant improvement in locomotor recovery and healing of SCI, as evidenced by reduction in scar tissues and cavities, increase in continuous nerve fibers/axons and enrichment of NF200-positive neurons on the histological level. In conclusion, TLX promotes the proliferation and neuronal differentiation of DMSCs and thus, may serve as a promising therapy for SCI in the clinic.

  5. Gene expression profiling supports the hypothesis that human ovarian surface epithelia are multipotent and capable of serving as ovarian cancer initiating cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matyunina Lilya V

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Accumulating evidence suggests that somatic stem cells undergo mutagenic transformation into cancer initiating cells. The serous subtype of ovarian adenocarcinoma in humans has been hypothesized to arise from at least two possible classes of progenitor cells: the ovarian surface epithelia (OSE and/or an as yet undefined class of progenitor cells residing in the distal end of the fallopian tube. Methods Comparative gene expression profiling analyses were carried out on OSE removed from the surface of normal human ovaries and ovarian cancer epithelial cells (CEPI isolated by laser capture micro-dissection (LCM from human serous papillary ovarian adenocarcinomas. The results of the gene expression analyses were randomly confirmed in paraffin embedded tissues from ovarian adenocarcinoma of serous subtype and non-neoplastic ovarian tissues using immunohistochemistry. Differentially expressed genes were analyzed using gene ontology, molecular pathway, and gene set enrichment analysis algorithms. Results Consistent with multipotent capacity, genes in pathways previously associated with adult stem cell maintenance are highly expressed in ovarian surface epithelia and are not expressed or expressed at very low levels in serous ovarian adenocarcinoma. Among the over 2000 genes that are significantly differentially expressed, a number of pathways and novel pathway interactions are identified that may contribute to ovarian adenocarcinoma development. Conclusions Our results are consistent with the hypothesis that human ovarian surface epithelia are multipotent and capable of serving as the origin of ovarian adenocarcinoma. While our findings do not rule out the possibility that ovarian cancers may also arise from other sources, they are inconsistent with claims that ovarian surface epithelia cannot serve as the origin of ovarian cancer initiating cells.

  6. Nicotine induces mitochondrial fission through mitofusin degradation in human multipotent embryonic carcinoma cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirata, Naoya; Yamada, Shigeru [Division of Pharmacology, National Institute of Health Sciences (Japan); Asanagi, Miki [Division of Pharmacology, National Institute of Health Sciences (Japan); Faculty of Engineering, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Yokohama National University (Japan); Sekino, Yuko [Division of Pharmacology, National Institute of Health Sciences (Japan); Kanda, Yasunari, E-mail: kanda@nihs.go.jp [Division of Pharmacology, National Institute of Health Sciences (Japan)

    2016-02-05

    Nicotine is considered to contribute to the health risks associated with cigarette smoking. Nicotine exerts its cellular functions by acting on nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs), and adversely affects normal embryonic development. However, nicotine toxicity has not been elucidated in human embryonic stage. In the present study, we examined the cytotoxic effects of nicotine in human multipotent embryonal carcinoma cell line NT2/D1. We found that exposure to 10 μM nicotine decreased intracellular ATP levels and inhibited proliferation of NT2/D1 cells. Because nicotine suppressed energy production, which is a critical mitochondrial function, we further assessed the effects of nicotine on mitochondrial dynamics. Staining with MitoTracker revealed that 10 μM nicotine induced mitochondrial fragmentation. The levels of the mitochondrial fusion proteins, mitofusins 1 and 2, were also reduced in cells exposed to nicotine. These nicotine effects were blocked by treatment with mecamylamine, a nonselective nAChR antagonist. These data suggest that nicotine degrades mitofusin in NT2/D1 cells and thus induces mitochondrial dysfunction and cell growth inhibition in a nAChR-dependent manner. Thus, mitochondrial function in embryonic cells could be used to assess the developmental toxicity of chemicals.

  7. Cell-free embryonic stem cell extract-mediated derivation of multipotent stem cells from NIH3T3 fibroblasts for functional and anatomical ischemic tissue repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajasingh, Johnson; Lambers, Erin; Hamada, Hiromichi; Bord, Evelyn; Thorne, Tina; Goukassian, Ilona; Krishnamurthy, Prasanna; Rosen, Kenneth M; Ahluwalia, Deepali; Zhu, Yan; Qin, Gangjian; Losordo, Douglas W; Kishore, Raj

    2008-06-06

    The oocyte-independent source for the generation of pluripotent stem cells is among the ultimate goals in regenerative medicine. We report that on exposure to mouse embryonic stem cell (mESC) extracts, reversibly permeabilized NIH3T3 cells undergo dedifferentiation followed by stimulus-induced redifferentiation into multiple lineage cell types. Genome-wide expression profiling revealed significant differences between NIH3T3 control and ESC extract-treated NIH3T3 cells including the reactivation of ESC-specific transcripts. Epigenetically, ESC extracts induced CpG demethylation of Oct4 promoter, hyperacetylation of histones 3 and 4, and decreased lysine 9 (K-9) dimethylation of histone 3. In mouse models of surgically induced hindlimb ischemia or acute myocardial infarction transplantation of reprogrammed NIH3T3 cells significantly improved postinjury physiological functions and showed anatomic evidence of engraftment and transdifferentiation into skeletal muscle, endothelial cell, and cardiomyocytes. These data provide evidence for the generation of functional multipotent stem-like cells from terminally differentiated somatic cells without the introduction of retroviral mediated transgenes or ESC fusion.

  8. Isolation, Characterization, and Multipotent Differentiation of Mesenchymal Stem Cells Derived from Meniscal Debris

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    Weili Fu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to culture and characterize mesenchymal stem cells derived from meniscal debris. Cells in meniscal debris from patients with meniscal injury were isolated by enzymatic digestion, cultured in vitro to the third passage, and analyzed by light microscopy to observe morphology and growth. Third-passage cultures were also analyzed for immunophenotype and ability to differentiate into osteogenic, adipogenic, and chondrogenic lineages. After 4-5 days in culture, cells showed a long fusiform shape and adhered to the plastic walls. After 10–12 days, cell clusters and colonies were observed. Third-passage cells showed uniform morphology and good proliferation. They expressed CD44, CD90, and CD105 but were negative for CD34 and CD45. Cultures induced to differentiate via osteogenesis became positive for Alizarin Red staining as well as alkaline phosphatase activity. Cultures induced to undergo adipogenesis were positive for Oil Red O staining. Cultures induced to undergo chondrogenesis were positive for staining with Toluidine Blue, Alcian Blue, and type II collagen immunohistochemistry, indicating cartilage-specific matrix. These results indicate that the cells we cultured from meniscal debris are mesenchymal stem cells capable of differentiating along three lineages. These stem cells may be valuable source for meniscal regeneration.

  9. Preferential and comprehensive reconstitution of severely damaged sciatic nerve using murine skeletal muscle-derived multipotent stem cells.

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    Tetsuro Tamaki

    Full Text Available Loss of vital functions in the somatic motor and sensory nervous systems can be induced by severe peripheral nerve transection with a long gap following trauma. In such cases, autologous nerve grafts have been used as the gold standard, with the expectation of activation and proliferation of graft-concomitant Schwann cells associated with their paracrine effects. However, there are a limited number of suitable sites available for harvesting of nerve autografts due to the unavoidable sacrifice of other healthy functions. To overcome this problem, the potential of skeletal muscle-derived multipotent stem cells (Sk-MSCs was examined as a novel alternative cell source for peripheral nerve regeneration. Cultured/expanded Sk-MSCs were injected into severely crushed sciatic nerve corresponding to serious neurotmesis. After 4 weeks, engrafted Sk-MSCs preferentially differentiated into not only Schwann cells, but also perineurial/endoneurial cells, and formed myelin sheath and perineurium/endoneurium, encircling the regenerated axons. Increased vascular formation was also observed, leading to a favorable blood supply and waste product excretion. In addition, engrafted cells expressed key neurotrophic and nerve/vascular growth factor mRNAs; thus, endocrine/paracrine effects for the donor/recipient cells were also expected. Interestingly, skeletal myogenic capacity of expanded Sk-MSCs was clearly diminished in peripheral nerve niche. The same differentiation and tissue reconstitution capacity of Sk-MSCs was sufficiently exerted in the long nerve gap bridging the acellular conduit, which facilitated nerve regeneration/reconnection. These effects represent favorable functional recovery in Sk-MSC-treated mice, as demonstrated by good corduroy walking. We also demonstrated that these differentiation characteristics of the Sk-MSCs were comparable to native peripheral nerve-derived cells, whereas the therapeutic capacities were largely superior in Sk

  10. Reconstruction of Multiple Facial Nerve Branches Using Skeletal Muscle-Derived Multipotent Stem Cell Sheet-Pellet Transplantation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kosuke Saito

    Full Text Available Head and neck cancer is often diagnosed at advanced stages, and surgical resection with wide margins is generally indicated, despite this treatment being associated with poor postoperative quality of life (QOL. We have previously reported on the therapeutic effects of skeletal muscle-derived multipotent stem cells (Sk-MSCs, which exert reconstitution capacity for muscle-nerve-blood vessel units. Recently, we further developed a 3D patch-transplantation system using Sk-MSC sheet-pellets. The aim of this study is the application of the 3D Sk-MSC transplantation system to the reconstitution of facial complex nerve-vascular networks after severe damage. Mouse experiments were performed for histological analysis and rats were used for functional examinations. The Sk-MSC sheet-pellets were prepared from GFP-Tg mice and SD rats, and were transplanted into the facial resection model (ST. Culture medium was transplanted as a control (NT. In the mouse experiment, facial-nerve-palsy (FNP scoring was performed weekly during the recovery period, and immunohistochemistry was used for the evaluation of histological recovery after 8 weeks. In rats, contractility of facial muscles was measured via electrical stimulation of facial nerves root, as the marker of total functional recovery at 8 weeks after transplantation. The ST-group showed significantly higher FNP (about three fold scores when compared to the NT-group after 2-8 weeks. Similarly, significant functional recovery of whisker movement muscles was confirmed in the ST-group at 8 weeks after transplantation. In addition, engrafted GFP+ cells formed complex branches of nerve-vascular networks, with differentiation into Schwann cells and perineurial/endoneurial cells, as well as vascular endothelial and smooth muscle cells. Thus, Sk-MSC sheet-pellet transplantation is potentially useful for functional reconstitution therapy of large defects in facial nerve-vascular networks.

  11. Preferential and Comprehensive Reconstitution of Severely Damaged Sciatic Nerve Using Murine Skeletal Muscle-Derived Multipotent Stem Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamaki, Tetsuro; Hirata, Maki; Soeda, Shuichi; Nakajima, Nobuyuki; Saito, Kosuke; Nakazato, Kenei; Okada, Yoshinori; Hashimoto, Hiroyuki; Uchiyama, Yoshiyasu; Mochida, Joji

    2014-01-01

    Loss of vital functions in the somatic motor and sensory nervous systems can be induced by severe peripheral nerve transection with a long gap following trauma. In such cases, autologous nerve grafts have been used as the gold standard, with the expectation of activation and proliferation of graft-concomitant Schwann cells associated with their paracrine effects. However, there are a limited number of suitable sites available for harvesting of nerve autografts due to the unavoidable sacrifice of other healthy functions. To overcome this problem, the potential of skeletal muscle-derived multipotent stem cells (Sk-MSCs) was examined as a novel alternative cell source for peripheral nerve regeneration. Cultured/expanded Sk-MSCs were injected into severely crushed sciatic nerve corresponding to serious neurotmesis. After 4 weeks, engrafted Sk-MSCs preferentially differentiated into not only Schwann cells, but also perineurial/endoneurial cells, and formed myelin sheath and perineurium/endoneurium, encircling the regenerated axons. Increased vascular formation was also observed, leading to a favorable blood supply and waste product excretion. In addition, engrafted cells expressed key neurotrophic and nerve/vascular growth factor mRNAs; thus, endocrine/paracrine effects for the donor/recipient cells were also expected. Interestingly, skeletal myogenic capacity of expanded Sk-MSCs was clearly diminished in peripheral nerve niche. The same differentiation and tissue reconstitution capacity of Sk-MSCs was sufficiently exerted in the long nerve gap bridging the acellular conduit, which facilitated nerve regeneration/reconnection. These effects represent favorable functional recovery in Sk-MSC-treated mice, as demonstrated by good corduroy walking. We also demonstrated that these differentiation characteristics of the Sk-MSCs were comparable to native peripheral nerve-derived cells, whereas the therapeutic capacities were largely superior in Sk-MSCs. Therefore, Sk-MSCs can

  12. Abnormal differentiation of Sandhoff disease model mouse-derived multipotent stem cells toward a neural lineage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasuhiro Ogawa

    Full Text Available In Sandhoff disease (SD, the activity of the lysosomal hydrolytic enzyme, β-hexosaminidase (Hex, is lost due to a Hexb gene defect, which results in the abnormal accumulation of the substrate, GM2 ganglioside (GM2, in neuronal cells, causing neuronal loss, microglial activation, and astrogliosis. We established induced pluripotent stem cells from the cells of SD mice (SD-iPSCs. In the present study, we investigated the occurrence of abnormal differentiation and development of a neural lineage in the asymptomatic phase of SD in vitro using SD mouse fetus-derived neural stem cells (NSCs and SD-iPSCs. It was assumed that the number of SD mouse fetal brain-derived NSCs was reduced and differentiation was promoted, resulting in the inhibition of differentiation into neurons and enhancement of differentiation into astrocytes. The number of SD-iPSC-derived NSCs was also reduced, suggesting that the differentiation of NSCs was promoted, resulting in the inhibition of differentiation into neurons and enhancement of that into astrocytes. This abnormal differentiation of SD-iPSCs toward a neural lineage was reduced by the glucosylceramide synthase inhibitor, miglustat. Furthermore, abnormal differentiation toward a neural lineage was reduced in SD-iPSCs with Hexb gene transfection. Therefore, differentiation ability along the time axis appears to be altered in SD mice in which the differentiation ability of NSCs is promoted and differentiation into neurons is completed earlier, while the timing of differentiation into astrocytes is accelerated. These results clarified that the abnormal differentiation of SD-iPSCs toward a neural lineage in vitro was shown to reflect the pathology of SD.

  13. Efficient generation of hepatic cells from multipotent adult mouse germ-line stem cells using an OP9 co-culture system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streckfuss-Bömeke, Katrin; Jende, Jörg; Cheng, I-Fen; Hasenfuss, Gerd; Guan, Kaomei

    2014-02-01

    On the basis of their self-renewal capacity and their ability to differentiate into derivatives of all three germ layers, germ line-derived multipotent adult stem cells (maGSCs) from mouse testis might serve as one of preferable sources for pluripotent stem cells in regenerative medicine. In our study, we aimed for an efficient hepatic differentiation protocol that is applicable for both maGSCs and embryonic stem cells (ESCs). We attempted to accomplish this goal by using a new established co-culture system with OP9 stroma cells for direct differentiation of maGSCs and ESCs into hepatic cells. We found that the hepatic differentiation of maGSCs was induced by the OP9 co-culture system in comparison to the gelatin culture. Furthermore, we showed that the combination of OP9 co-culture with activin A resulted in the increased expression of endodermal and early hepatic markers Gata4, Sox17, Foxa2, Hnf4, Afp, and Ttr compared to differentiated cells on gelatin or on OP9 alone. Moreover, the hepatic progenitors were capable of differentiating further into mature hepatic cells, demonstrated by the expression of liver-specific markers Aat, Alb, Tdo2, Krt18, Krt8, Krt19, Cps1, Sek, Cyp7a1, Otc, and Pah. A high percentage of maGSC-derived hepatic progenitors (51% AFP- and 61% DLK1-positive) and mature hepatic-like cells (26% ALB-positive) were achieved using this OP9 co-culture system. These generated hepatic cells successfully demonstrated in vitro functions associated with mature hepatocytes, including albumin and urea secretion, glycogen storage, and uptake of low-density lipoprotein. The established co-culture system for maGSCs into functional hepatic cells might serve as a suitable model to delineate the differentiation process for the generation of high numbers of mature hepatocytes in humans without genetic manipulations and make germ line-derived stem cells a potential autologous and alternative cell source for hepatic transplants in metabolic liver disorders.

  14. Human Stromal (Mesenchymal) Stem Cells from Bone Marrow, Adipose Tissue and Skin Exhibit Differences in Molecular Phenotype and Differentiation Potential

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Al-Nbaheen, May; Vishnubalaji, Radhakrishnan; Ali, Dalia

    2013-01-01

    Human stromal (mesenchymal) stem cells (hMSCs) are multipotent stem cells with ability to differentiate into mesoderm-type cells e.g. osteoblasts and adipocytes and thus they are being introduced into clinical trials for tissue regeneration. Traditionally, hMSCs have been isolated from bone marro...

  15. The effect of PKC activation and inhibition on osteogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, J.; Someren, Eugene; Mentink, Anouk; Licht, R.; Dechering, Koen; van Blitterswijk, Clemens; de Boer, Jan

    2010-01-01

    Human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) are being considered for several areas of clinical therapy, due to their multipotent nature. For instance, osteogenic hMSCs are applied in bone tissue engineering, but current differentiation protocols need further optimization before they can be clinically

  16. Accumulation of multipotent progenitors with a basal differentiation bias during aging of human mammary epithelia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garbe, James C; Pepin, Francois; Pelissier, Fanny A

    2012-01-01

    Women older than 50 years account for 75% of new breast cancer diagnoses, and the majority of these tumors are of a luminal subtype. Although age-associated changes, including endocrine profiles and alterations within the breast microenvironment, increase cancer risk, an understanding of the cell...... and to changes in the functional spectrum of multipotent progenitors, which together increase the potential for malignant transformation. Together, our findings provide a cellular basis to explain the observed vulnerability to breast cancer that increases with age....

  17. Real-time imaging of bHLH transcriptional factors reveals their dynamic control in the multipotency and fate choice of neural stem cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Itaru eImayoshi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The basic-helix-loop-helix (bHLH transcription factors Ascl1/Mash1, Hes1, and Olig2 regulate the fate choice of neurons, astrocytes, and oligodendrocytes, respectively; however, these factors are coexpressed in self-renewing multipotent neural stem cells (NSCs even before cell fate determination. This fact raises the possibility these fate determination factors are differentially expressed between self-renewing and differentiating NSCs with unique expression dynamics. Real-time imaging analysis utilizing fluorescent proteins is a powerful strategy for monitoring expression dynamics. Fusion with fluorescent reporters makes it possible to analyze the dynamic behavior of specific proteins in living cells. However, it is technically challenging to conduct long-term imaging of proteins, particularly those with low expression levels, because a high-sensitivity and low-noise imaging system is required, and very often bleaching of fluorescent proteins and cell toxicity by prolonged laser exposure are problematic. Furthermore, to analyze the functional roles of the dynamic expression of cellular proteins, it is essential to image reporter fusion proteins that are expressed at comparable levels to their endogenous expression. In this review, we introduce our recent reports about the dynamic control of bHLH transcription factors in multipotency and fate choice of NSCs, focusing on real-time imaging of fluorescent reporters fused with bHLH transcription factors. Our imaging results indicate that bHLH transcription factors are expressed in an oscillatory manner by NSCs, and that one of them becomes dominant during fate choice. We propose that the multipotent state of NSCs correlates with the oscillatory expression of several bHLH transcription factors, whereas the differentiated state correlates with the sustained expression of a single bHLH transcription factor.

  18. Flow cytometric characterization of culture expanded multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) from horse adipose tissue: towards the definition of minimal stemness criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascucci, L; Curina, G; Mercati, F; Marini, C; Dall'Aglio, C; Paternesi, B; Ceccarelli, P

    2011-12-15

    In the last decades, multipotent mesenchymal progenitor cells have been isolated from many adult tissues of different species. The International Society for Cellular Therapy (ISCT) has recently established that multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) is the currently recommended designation. In this study, we used flow cytometry to evaluate the expression of several molecules related to stemness (CD90, CD44, CD73 and STRO-1) in undifferentiated, early-passaged MSCs isolated from adipose tissue of four donor horses (AdMSCs). The four populations unanimously expressed high levels of CD90 and CD44. On the contrary, they were unexpectedly negative to CD73. A small percentage of the cells, finally, showed the expression of STRO-1. This last result might be due to the existence of a small subpopulation of STRO-1+ cells or to a poor cross-reactivity of the antibody. A remarkable donor-to-donor consistency and reproducibility of these findings was demonstrated. The data presented herein support the idea that equine AdMSCs may be easily isolated and selected by adherence to tissue culture plastic and exhibit a surface profile characterized by some peculiar differences in comparison to those described in other species. Continued characterization of these cells will help to clarify several aspects of their biology and may ultimately enable the isolation of specific, purified subpopulations. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Genome-wide transcriptomic alterations induced by ethanol treatment in human dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs)

    OpenAIRE

    Omar Khalid; Kim, Jeffrey J.; Lewei Duan; Michael Hoang; David Elashoff; Yong Kim

    2014-01-01

    Human dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) isolated from adult dental pulp are multipotent mesenchymal stem cells that can be directed to differentiate into osteogenic/odontogenic cells and also trans-differentiate into neuronal cells. The utility of DPSC has been explored in odontogenic differentiation for tooth regeneration. Alcohol abuse appears to lead to periodontal disease, tooth decay and mouth sores that are potentially precancerous. Persons who abuse alcohol are at high risk of having seri...

  20. Human Umbilical Cord Blood Serum: Effective Substitute of Fetal Bovine Serum for Culturing of Human Multipotent Mesenchymal Stromal Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanov, Yu A; Balashova, E E; Volgina, N E; Kabaeva, N V; Dugina, T N; Sukhikh, G T

    2017-02-01

    Optimal conditions for culturing of multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells in the presence of pooled umbilical cord blood serum were determined. It was found that umbilical cord blood serum in a concentration range of 1-10% effectively supported high viability and proliferative activity of cells with unaltered phenotype and preserved multilineage differentiation capacity. The proposed approach allows avoiding the use of xenogenic animal sera for culturing of multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells and creates prerequisites for designing and manufacturing safe cellular and/or acellular products for medical purposes.

  1. Power-Assisted Liposuction Versus Tissue Resection for the Isolation of Adipose Tissue-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells: Phenotype, Senescence, and Multipotency at Advanced Passages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barzelay, Aya; Levy, Ran; Kohn, Emmanulle; Sella, Meirav; Shani, Nir; Meilik, Benjamin; Entin-Meer, Michal; Gur, Eyal; Loewenstein, Anat; Barak, Adiel

    2015-09-01

    Adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ASCs) can be isolated from subcutaneous fat harvested by tissue resection or liposuction. The authors compared ASCs isolated by tissue resection or power-assisted liposuction (PAL) to determine whether either surgical procedure yielded ASCs with improved purity and competence that was preserved for several passages. For this experimental study, ASCs were isolated from fat harvested by tissue resection or PAL from six patients who underwent abdominoplasty. ASCs were counted to determine cell yields, and viabilities were assessed with an amine-reactive dye and by fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS). Cell phenotypes were determined by immunostaining and FACS, and doubling times were calculated. Senescence ratios of the cells were detected by gene profiling and by assaying β-galactosidase activity. Multipotency was evaluated by induced differentiation analyses. No significant differences were observed in cell numbers or viabilities of ASCs isolated following either surgical method of fat harvesting. Both populations of cultured ASCs expressed markers of mesenchymal stem cells and preserved this expression pattern through the third passage. PAL and tissue resection yielded ASCs with similar division rates, similar senescence ratios into the fourth passage, and similar capacities to differentiate into osteocytes or adipocytes. Fat harvested by PAL or tissue resection yielded uniform cultures of ASCs with high division rates, low senescence ratios, and multipotency preserved into passages 3 and 4. Because PAL is less invasive, it may be preferable for the isolation of ASCs. © 2015 The American Society for Aesthetic Plastic Surgery, Inc. Reprints and permission: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells enhance insulin secretion from human islets via N-cadherin interaction and prolong function of transplanted encapsulated islets in mice

    OpenAIRE

    Montanari, Elisa; Meier, Raphael P. H.; Mahou, Redouan; Seebach, Jörg D.; Wandrey, Christine; Gerber-Lemaire, Sandrine; Buhler, Leo H.; Gonelle-Gispert, Carmen

    2017-01-01

    Background Multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) enhance viability and function of islets of Langerhans. We aimed to examine the interactions between human MSC and human islets of Langerhans that influence the function of islets. Methods Human MSC and human islets (or pseudoislets, obtained after digestion and reaggregation of islet cells) were cocultured with or without cellular contact and glucose-stimulated insulin secretion assays were performed to assess cell function. The expressi...

  3. Human mesenchymal stem cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdallah, Basem; Kassem, Moustapha

    2008-01-01

    introduced into clinical medicine in variety of applications and through different ways of administration. Here, we discuss approaches for isolation, characterization and directing differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSC). An update of the current clinical use of the cells is also provided....

  4. The response of human mesenchymal stem cells to osteogenic signals and its impact on bone tissue engineering.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siddappa, R.; Fernandes, H.A.M.; Liu, J.; van Blitterswijk, Clemens; de Boer, Jan

    2007-01-01

    Bone tissue engineering using human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) is a multidisciplinary field that aims to treat patients with trauma, spinal fusion and large bone defects. Cell-based bone tissue engineering encompasses the isolation of multipotent hMSCs from the bone marrow of the patient, in

  5. Efficient generation of multipotent mesenchymal stem cells from umbilical cord blood in stroma-free liquid culture.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rowayda Peters

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Haematopoiesis is sustained by haematopoietic (HSC and mesenchymal stem cells (MSC. HSC are the precursors for blood cells, whereas marrow, stroma, bone, cartilage, muscle and connective tissues derive from MSC. The generation of MSC from umbilical cord blood (UCB is possible, but with low and unpredictable success. Here we describe a novel, robust stroma-free dual cell culture system for long-term expansion of primitive UCB-derived MSC. METHODS AND FINDINGS: UCB-derived mononuclear cells (MNC or selected CD34(+ cells were grown in liquid culture in the presence of serum and cytokines. Out of 32 different culture conditions that have been tested for the efficient expansion of HSC, we identified one condition (DMEM, pooled human AB serum, Flt-3 ligand, SCF, MGDF and IL-6; further denoted as D7 which, besides supporting HSC expansion, successfully enabled long-term expansion of stromal/MSC from 8 out of 8 UCB units (5 MNC-derived and 3 CD34(+ selected cells. Expanded MSC displayed a fibroblast-like morphology, expressed several stromal/MSC-related antigens (CD105, CD73, CD29, CD44, CD133 and Nestin but were negative for haematopoietic cell markers (CD45, CD34 and CD14. MSC stemness phenotype and their differentiation capacity in vitro before and after high dilution were preserved throughout long-term culture. Even at passage 24 cells remained Nestin(+, CD133(+ and >95% were positive for CD105, CD73, CD29 and CD44 with the capacity to differentiate into mesodermal lineages. Similarly we show that UCB derived MSC express pluripotency stem cell markers despite differences in cell confluency and culture passages. Further, we generated MSC from peripheral blood (PB MNC of 8 healthy volunteers. In all cases, the resulting MSC expressed MSC-related antigens and showed the capacity to form CFU-F colonies. CONCLUSIONS: This novel stroma-free liquid culture overcomes the existing limitation in obtaining MSC from UCB and PB enabling so far unmet

  6. Encapsulating Non-Human Primate Multipotent Stromal Cells in Alginate via High Voltage for Cell-Based Therapies and Cryopreservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gryshkov, Oleksandr; Pogozhykh, Denys; Hofmann, Nicola; Pogozhykh, Olena; Mueller, Thomas; Glasmacher, Birgit

    2014-01-01

    Alginate cell-based therapy requires further development focused on clinical application. To assess engraftment, risk of mutations and therapeutic benefit studies should be performed in an appropriate non-human primate model, such as the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus). In this work we encapsulated amnion derived multipotent stromal cells (MSCs) from Callithrix jacchus in defined size alginate beads using a high voltage technique. Our results indicate that i) alginate-cell mixing procedure and cell concentration do not affect the diameter of alginate beads, ii) encapsulation of high cell numbers (up to 10×106 cells/ml) can be performed in alginate beads utilizing high voltage and iii) high voltage (15–30 kV) does not alter the viability, proliferation and differentiation capacity of MSCs post-encapsulation compared with alginate encapsulated cells produced by the traditional air-flow method. The consistent results were obtained over the period of 7 days of encapsulated MSCs culture and after cryopreservation utilizing a slow cooling procedure (1 K/min). The results of this work show that high voltage encapsulation can further be maximized to develop cell-based therapies with alginate beads in a non-human primate model towards human application. PMID:25259731

  7. Prospect of Human Pluripotent Stem Cell-Derived Neural Crest Stem Cells in Clinical Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Zhu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Neural crest stem cells (NCSCs represent a transient and multipotent cell population that contributes to numerous anatomical structures such as peripheral nervous system, teeth, and cornea. NCSC maldevelopment is related to various human diseases including pigmentation abnormalities, disorders affecting autonomic nervous system, and malformations of teeth, eyes, and hearts. As human pluripotent stem cells including human embryonic stem cells (hESCs and human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs can serve as an unlimited cell source to generate NCSCs, hESC/hiPSC-derived NCSCs can be a valuable tool to study the underlying mechanisms of NCSC-associated diseases, which paves the way for future therapies for these abnormalities. In addition, hESC/hiPSC-derived NCSCs with the capability of differentiating to various cell types are highly promising for clinical organ repair and regeneration. In this review, we first discuss NCSC generation methods from human pluripotent stem cells and differentiation mechanism of NCSCs. Then we focus on the clinical application potential of hESC/hiPSC-derived NCSCs on peripheral nerve injuries, corneal blindness, tooth regeneration, pathological melanogenesis, Hirschsprung disease, and cardiac repair and regeneration.

  8. Neural crest-derived cells with stem cell features can be traced back to multiple lineages in the adult skin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.E. Wong (Christine); S. Paratore (Sabrina); M.T. Dours-Zimmermann (María); T. Rochat (Thierry); T. Pietri (Thomas); U. Suter (Ueli); D. Zimmermann (Dieter); S. Dufour (Sylvie); J.P. Thiery (Joachim); D.N. Meijer (Dies); C. Beermann (Christopher); Y. Barrandon (Yann); L. Sommer (Lukas)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractGiven their accessibility, multipotent skin-derived cells might be useful for future cell replacement therapies. We describe the isolation of multipotent stem cell-like cells from the adult trunk skin of mice and humans that express the neural crest stem cell markers p75 and Sox10 and

  9. Derivation of Insulin Producing Cells From Human Endometrial Stromal Stem Cells and Use in the Treatment of Murine Diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Santamaria, Xavier; Massasa, Efi E; Feng, Yuzhe; Wolff, Erin; Taylor, Hugh S

    2011-01-01

    Pancreatic islet cell transplantation is an effective approach to treat type 1 diabetes, however the shortage of cadaveric donors and limitations due to rejection require alternative solutions. Multipotent cells derived from the uterine endometrium have the ability to differentiate into mesodermal and ectodermal cellular lineages, suggesting the existence of mesenchymal stem cells in this tissue. We differentiated human endometrial stromal stem cells (ESSC) into insulin secreting cells using ...

  10. In Vitro Generation of Vascular Wall-Resident Multipotent Stem Cells of Mesenchymal Nature from Murine Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Steens

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The vascular wall (VW serves as a niche for mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs. In general, tissue-specific stem cells differentiate mainly to the tissue type from which they derive, indicating that there is a certain code or priming within the cells as determined by the tissue of origin. Here we report the in vitro generation of VW-typical MSCs from induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs, based on a VW-MSC-specific gene code. Using a lentiviral vector expressing the so-called Yamanaka factors, we reprogrammed tail dermal fibroblasts from transgenic mice containing the GFP gene integrated into the Nestin-locus (NEST-iPSCs to facilitate lineage tracing after subsequent MSC differentiation. A lentiviral vector expressing a small set of recently identified human VW-MSC-specific HOX genes then induced MSC differentiation. This direct programming approach successfully mediated the generation of VW-typical MSCs with classical MSC characteristics, both in vitro and in vivo.

  11. In Vitro Generation of Vascular Wall-Resident Multipotent Stem Cells of Mesenchymal Nature from Murine Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steens, Jennifer; Zuk, Melanie; Benchellal, Mohamed; Bornemann, Lea; Teichweyde, Nadine; Hess, Julia; Unger, Kristian; Görgens, André; Klump, Hannes; Klein, Diana

    2017-04-11

    The vascular wall (VW) serves as a niche for mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). In general, tissue-specific stem cells differentiate mainly to the tissue type from which they derive, indicating that there is a certain code or priming within the cells as determined by the tissue of origin. Here we report the in vitro generation of VW-typical MSCs from induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), based on a VW-MSC-specific gene code. Using a lentiviral vector expressing the so-called Yamanaka factors, we reprogrammed tail dermal fibroblasts from transgenic mice containing the GFP gene integrated into the Nestin-locus (NEST-iPSCs) to facilitate lineage tracing after subsequent MSC differentiation. A lentiviral vector expressing a small set of recently identified human VW-MSC-specific HOX genes then induced MSC differentiation. This direct programming approach successfully mediated the generation of VW-typical MSCs with classical MSC characteristics, both in vitro and in vivo. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Regeneration of Skin Surface by Multipotent Mesenchymal Stem Cells of Adipose Tissue in Laboratory Animals with Infected Wounds

    OpenAIRE

    Sahab, A. Haydar; S. Tretyak; Nedzved, M K; Baranov, E.V.; Nadyrov, E; Lobanok, H.H.; Vasilevich, I.B.; Welcome, M.O.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents results of experimental studies in laboratory animals with a simulated infected wound, for which mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) derived from adipose tissue were used in its treatment. The following peculiarities of MSCs for regeneration of skin defects are established: faster arrest of inflammation, accelerated wound healing processes, as well as observed stimulation of growth of skin appendages. The results of this study may serve the basis for further research from develo...

  13. Hypoxia-controlled EphA3 marks a human endometrium-derived multipotent mesenchymal stromal cell that supports vascular growth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine To

    Full Text Available Eph and ephrin proteins are essential cell guidance cues that orchestrate cell navigation and control cell-cell interactions during developmental tissue patterning, organogenesis and vasculogenesis. They have been extensively studied in animal models of embryogenesis and adult tissue regeneration, but less is known about their expression and function during human tissue and organ regeneration. We discovered the hypoxia inducible factor (HIF-1α-controlled expression of EphA3, an Eph family member with critical functions during human tumour progression, in the vascularised tissue of regenerating human endometrium and on isolated human endometrial multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells (eMSCs, but not in other highly vascularised human organs. EphA3 affinity-isolation from human biopsy tissue yielded multipotent CD29+/CD73+/CD90+/CD146+ eMSCs that can be clonally propagated and respond to EphA3 agonists with EphA3 phosphorylation, cell contraction, cell-cell segregation and directed cell migration. EphA3 silencing significantly inhibited the ability of transplanted eMSCs to support neovascularisation in immunocompromised mice. In accord with established roles of Eph receptors in mediating interactions between endothelial and perivascular stromal cells during mouse development, our findings suggest that HIF-1α-controlled expression of EphA3 on human MSCs functions during the hypoxia-initiated early stages of adult blood vessel formation.

  14. Mesenchymal stem cells/multipotent stromal cells (MSCs) are glycolytic and thus glucose is a limiting factor of in vitro models of MSC starvation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuschke, Austin; Rodrigues, Melanie; Wells, Albin W; Sylakowski, Kyle; Wells, Alan

    2016-12-01

    Mesenchymal stem/multipotent stromal cells (MSCs) contribute to tissue repair but are challenged during wound healing when the blood supply is disrupted, thereby limiting nutrient delivery. Survival mechanisms against 'starvation' include autophagy, which we previously found to enhance differentiation efficiency. MSC response to models of in vitro nutrient deprivation are of great interest for improving MSC survival and therapeutic efficacy; however, the rate-limiting nutrients are unknown. MSC responses to culture nutrient and/or serum deprivations were assessed through light microscopy, cell survival, and measurements of metabolic levels. Glucose uptake was determined through conditioned media analyses over 3 days of culture. The Seahorse XF24 Flux analysis system was used to determine oxygen consumption and extracellular acidification for glycolytic metabolism. MSC autophagic response to these conditions was assessed via immunoblots for LC3-I and LC3-II, markers of autophagosome turnover. We more closely examined limiting nutritional factors to MSC survival in vitro, finding that glucose is rapidly utilized/depleted whereas amino acids and other required nutrients were used sparingly. This finding concurred with metabolic analyses that showed a primarily glycolytic character to the MSCs at steady state. MSC autophagy, previously linked to MSC function through a unique accumulated autophagosome phenotype, also responded quickly to changes in glucose concentration, with drastic LC3-II changes within 24 h of glucose concentration shifts. Our results demonstrated a rapid uptake of glucose in MSC cultures that was due to a highly glycolytic phenotype for the cells; MSC starvation with serum or other nutrients appears to have a less notable effect on the cells. These findings highlight the importance of glucose and glucose metabolism on MSC function. The conditions and cellular responses outlined here may be essential in modeling MSC nutrient deprivation.

  15. Co-transplantation of multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells in allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallekleiv, Merete; Larun, Lillebeth; Bruserud, Øystein; Hatfield, Kimberley Joanne

    2016-02-01

    Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is a potentially curative treatment option for patients with hematological malignancies. Co-transplantation of multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) during allogeneic HSCT has been explored to enhance engraftment and decrease the risk of graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). We aimed to identify, evaluate and summarize the findings of all relevant controlled clinical studies to determine the potential benefits of MSC infusion during allogeneic HSCT, with regard to the outcomes engraftment, GVHD, post-transplant relapse and survival. We conducted a systematic search of electronic databases for relevant controlled clinical studies. Studies included patients of all ages with hematological malignancies receiving allogeneic HSCT with or without infusion of MSCs within a 24-h time frame of transplantation. Nine studies met our inclusion criteria, including three randomized, one non-randomized and five historically controlled trials, representing a total of 309 patients. Our meta-analyses did not reveal any statistically significant differences in donor engraftment or GVHD. A review of data regarding relapse and overall survival may result in a positive attitude toward intervention with MSCs, but due to heterogeneous reporting, it is difficult to draw any strict conclusions. None of the studies had overall serious risks of bias, but the quality of the evidence is low. Meta-analysis did not reveal any statistically significant effects of MSC co-transplantation, but the results must be interpreted with caution because of the weak study design and small study populations. We discuss further needs to explore the potential effects of MSCs in a HSCT setting. Copyright © 2015 International Society for Cellular Therapy. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Tunable Surface Repellency Maintains Stemness and Redox Capacity of Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balikov, Daniel A; Crowder, Spencer W; Boire, Timothy C; Lee, Jung Bok; Gupta, Mukesh K; Fenix, Aidan M; Lewis, Holley N; Ambrose, Caitlyn M; Short, Philip A; Kim, Chang Soo; Burnette, Dylan T; Reilly, Matthew A; Murthy, N Sanjeeva; Kang, Mi-Lan; Kim, Won Shik; Sung, Hak-Joon

    2017-07-12

    Human bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) hold great promise for regenerative medicine due to their multipotent differentiation capacity and immunomodulatory capabilities. Substantial research has elucidated mechanisms by which extracellular cues regulate hMSC fate decisions, but considerably less work has addressed how material properties can be leveraged to maintain undifferentiated stem cells. Here, we show that synthetic culture substrates designed to exhibit moderate cell-repellency promote high stemness and low oxidative stress-two indicators of naïve, healthy stem cells-in commercial and patient-derived hMSCs. Furthermore, the material-mediated effect on cell behavior can be tuned by altering the molar percentage (mol %) and/or chain length of poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG), the repellant block linked to hydrophobic poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) in the copolymer backbone. Nano- and angstrom-scale characterization of the cell-material interface reveals that PEG interrupts the adhesive PCL domains in a chain-length-dependent manner; this prevents hMSCs from forming mature focal adhesions and subsequently promotes cell-cell adhesions that require connexin-43. This study is the first to demonstrate that intrinsic properties of synthetic materials can be tuned to regulate the stemness and redox capacity of hMSCs and provides new insight for designing highly scalable, programmable culture platforms for clinical translation.

  17. Isolation, Characterization, and Transduction of Endometrial Decidual Tissue Multipotent Mesenchymal Stromal/Stem Cells from Menstrual Blood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filippo Rossignoli

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Mesenchymal stromal/stem cells (MSCs reveal progenitor cells-like features including proliferation and differentiation capacities. One of the most historically recognized sources of MSC has been the bone marrow, while other sources recently include adipose tissue, teeth, bone, muscle, placenta, liver, pancreas, umbilical cord, and cord blood. Frequently, progenitor isolation requires traumatic procedures that are poorly feasible and associated with patient discomfort. In the attempt to identify a more approachable MSC source, we focused on endometrial decidual tissue (EDT found within menstrual blood. Based also on recent literature findings, we hypothesized that EDT may contain heterogeneous populations including some having MSC-like features. Thus, we here sought to isolate EDT-MSC processing menstrual samples from multiple donors. Cytofluorimetric analyses revealed that resulting adherent cells were expressing mesenchymal surface markers, including CD56, CD73, CD90, CD105 and CD146, and pluripotency markers such as SSEA-4. Moreover, EDT-MSC showed a robust clonogenic potential and could be largely expanded in vitro as fibroblastoid elements. In addition, differentiation assays drove these cells towards osteogenic, adipogenic, and chondrogenic lineages. Finally, for the first time, we were able to gene modify these progenitors by a retroviral vector carrying the green fluorescent protein. From these data, we suggest that EDT-MSC could represent a new promising tool having potential within cell and gene therapy applications.

  18. Neural metabolite changes in corpus striatum after rat multipotent mesenchymal stem cells transplanted in hemiparkinsonian rats by magnetic resonance spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Wenyu; Zheng, Zhijuan; Zhuang, Wenxin; Chen, Dandan; Wang, Xiaocui; Sun, Xihe; Wang, Xin

    2013-12-01

    To investigate the biochemical changes in striatum after rat bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) were transplanted into hemiparkinsonian rats and to further confirm the therapeutic effects of rat MSCs for Parkinson's disease (PD). 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine (BrdU)-labeled MSCs were transplanted into the corpus striatum of the 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)-injected side of six PD model rats. Before and 8 weeks after MSC transplantation, ethological changes in PD rats were assessed. The expression of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) in substantia nigra (SN) and striatum were measured using immunohistochemical methods. The differentiation of MSCs was detected by double immunofluorescence techniques. The concentrations of neural metabolites of N-acetylaspartate (NAA), choline (Cho) and creatine (Cr) were measured by ¹H-magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS). Relative concentrations of NAA/Cr and Cho/Cr were calculated. The behavior of PD rats in rotarod tests improved, and there were statistical differences in TH-positive cells in SN and TH-positive terminals in striatum after the transplantation of BrdU-labeled MSCs. Transplanted MSCs differentiated into MAP-2-positive neurons. Especially compared with pre-MSC transplantation, the neural metabolite NAA/Cr ratio of the 6-OHDA-injected side of the striatum increased (P rats.

  19. Genome-wide transcriptomic alterations induced by ethanol treatment in human dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar Khalid

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Human dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs isolated from adult dental pulp are multipotent mesenchymal stem cells that can be directed to differentiate into osteogenic/odontogenic cells and also trans-differentiate into neuronal cells. The utility of DPSC has been explored in odontogenic differentiation for tooth regeneration. Alcohol abuse appears to lead to periodontal disease, tooth decay and mouth sores that are potentially precancerous. Persons who abuse alcohol are at high risk of having seriously deteriorated teeth, gums and compromised oral health in general. It is currently unknown if alcohol exposure has any impact on adult stem cell maintenance, stem cell fate determination and plasticity, and stem cell niche environment. Here we provide detailed experimental methods, analysis and information associated with our data deposited into Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO under GSE57255. Our data provide transcriptomic changes that are occurring by EtOH treatment of DPSCs at 24-hour and 48-hour time point.

  20. Genome-wide transcriptomic alterations induced by ethanol treatment in human dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalid, Omar; Kim, Jeffrey J; Duan, Lewei; Hoang, Michael; Elashoff, David; Kim, Yong

    2014-12-01

    Human dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) isolated from adult dental pulp are multipotent mesenchymal stem cells that can be directed to differentiate into osteogenic/odontogenic cells and also trans-differentiate into neuronal cells. The utility of DPSC has been explored in odontogenic differentiation for tooth regeneration. Alcohol abuse appears to lead to periodontal disease, tooth decay and mouth sores that are potentially precancerous. Persons who abuse alcohol are at high risk of having seriously deteriorated teeth, gums and compromised oral health in general. It is currently unknown if alcohol exposure has any impact on adult stem cell maintenance, stem cell fate determination and plasticity, and stem cell niche environment. Here we provide detailed experimental methods, analysis and information associated with our data deposited into Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) under GSE57255. Our data provide transcriptomic changes that are occurring by EtOH treatment of DPSCs at 24-hour and 48-hour time point.

  1. Efficient and Fast Differentiation of Human Neural Stem Cells from Human Embryonic Stem Cells for Cell Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinxin Han

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Stem cell-based therapies have been used for repairing damaged brain tissue and helping functional recovery after brain injury. Aberrance neurogenesis is related with brain injury, and multipotential neural stem cells from human embryonic stem (hES cells provide a great promise for cell replacement therapies. Optimized protocols for neural differentiation are necessary to produce functional human neural stem cells (hNSCs for cell therapy. However, the qualified procedure is scarce and detailed features of hNSCs originated from hES cells are still unclear. In this study, we developed a method to obtain hNSCs from hES cells, by which we could harvest abundant hNSCs in a relatively short time. Then, we examined the expression of pluripotent and multipotent marker genes through immunostaining and confirmed differentiation potential of the differentiated hNSCs. Furthermore, we analyzed the mitotic activity of these hNSCs. In this report, we provided comprehensive features of hNSCs and delivered the knowledge about how to obtain more high-quality hNSCs from hES cells which may help to accelerate the NSC-based therapies in brain injury treatment.

  2. Reconstitution of the complete rupture in musculotendinous junction using skeletal muscle-derived multipotent stem cell sheet-pellets as a “bio-bond”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroyuki Hashimoto

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background. Significant and/or complete rupture in the musculotendinous junction (MTJ is a challenging lesion to treat because of the lack of reliable suture methods. Skeletal muscle-derived multipotent stem cell (Sk-MSC sheet-pellets, which are able to reconstitute peripheral nerve and muscular/vascular tissues with robust connective tissue networks, have been applied as a “bio-bond”. Methods. Sk-MSC sheet-pellets, derived from GFP transgenic-mice after 7 days of expansion culture, were detached with EDTA to maintain cell–cell connections. A completely ruptured MTJ model was prepared in the right tibialis anterior (TA of the recipient mice, and was covered with sheet-pellets. The left side was preserved as a contralateral control. The control group received the same amount of the cell-free medium. The sheet-pellet transplantation (SP group was further divided into two groups; as the short term (4–8 weeks and long term (14–18 weeks recovery group. At each time point after transplantation, tetanic tension output was measured through the electrical stimulation of the sciatic nerve. The behavior of engrafted GFP+ tissues and cells was analyzed by fluorescence immunohistochemistry. Results. The SP short term recovery group showed average 64% recovery of muscle mass, and 36% recovery of tetanic tension output relative to the contralateral side. Then, the SP long term recovery group showed increased recovery of average muscle mass (77% and tetanic tension output (49%. However, the control group showed no recovery of continuity between muscle and tendon, and demonstrated increased muscle atrophy, with coalescence to the tibia during 4–8 weeks after operation. Histological evidence also supported the above functional recovery of SP group. Engrafted Sk-MSCs primarily formed the connective tissues and muscle fibers, including nerve-vascular networks, and bridged the ruptured tendon–muscle fiber units, with differentiation into skeletal

  3. Safety reporting on implantation of autologous adipose tissue-derived stem cells with platelet-rich plasma into human articular joints

    OpenAIRE

    Pak, Jaewoo; Chang, Jae-Jin; Lee, Jung Hun; Lee, Sang Hee

    2013-01-01

    Background Adipose tissue-derived stem cells (ADSCs), a type of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), have great potential as therapeutic agents in regenerative medicine. Numerous animal studies have documented the multipotency of ADSCs, showing their capabilities to differentiate into tissues such as muscle, bone, cartilage, and tendon. However, the safety of autologous ADSC injections into human joints is only beginning to be understood and the data are lacking. Methods Between 2009 and 2010, 91 p...

  4. Exploring the human mesenchymal stem cell tubule communication network through electron microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valente, Sabrina; Rossi, Roberta; Resta, Leonardo; Pasquinelli, Gianandrea

    2015-04-01

    Cells use several mechanisms to transfer information to other cells. In this study, we describe micro/nanotubular connections and exosome-like tubule fragments in multipotent mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) from human arteries. Scanning and transmission electron microscopy allowed characterization of sinusoidal microtubular projections (700 nm average size, 200 µm average length, with bulging mitochondria and actin microfilaments); short, uniform, variously shaped nanotubular projections (100 nm, bidirectional communication); and tubule fragments (50 nm). This is the first study demonstrating that MSCs from human arteries constitutively interact through an articulate and dynamic tubule network allowing long-range cell to cell communication.

  5. Human stromal (mesenchymal) stem cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aldahmash, Abdullah; Zaher, Walid; Al-Nbaheen, May

    2012-01-01

    Human stromal (mesenchymal) stem cells (hMSC) represent a group of non-hematopoietic stem cells present in the bone marrow stroma and the stroma of other organs including subcutaneous adipose tissue, placenta, and muscles. They exhibit the characteristics of somatic stem cells of self......-renewal and multi-lineage differentiation into mesoderm-type of cells, e.g., to osteoblasts, adipocytes, chondrocytes and possibly other cell types including hepatocytes and astrocytes. Due to their ease of culture and multipotentiality, hMSC are increasingly employed as a source for cells suitable for a number...

  6. Enhanced Biological Functions of Human Mesenchymal Stem-Cell Aggregates Incorporating E-Cadherin-Modified PLGA Microparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yan; Mao, Hongli; Gao, Chao; Li, Suhua; Shuai, Qizhi; Xu, Jianbin; Xu, Ke; Cao, Lei; Lang, Ren; Gu, Zhongwei; Akaike, Toshihiro; Yang, Jun

    2016-08-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have emerged as a promising source of multipotent cells for various cell-based therapies due to their unique properties, and formation of 3D MSC aggregates has been explored as a potential strategy to enhance therapeutic efficacy. In this study, poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) microparticles modified with human E-cadherin fusion protein (hE-cad-PLGA microparticles) have been fabricated and integrated with human MSCs to form 3D cell aggregates. The results show that, compared with the plain PLGA, the hE-cad-PLGA microparticles distribute within the aggregates more evenly and further result in a more significant improvement of cellular proliferation and secretion of a series of bioactive factors due to the synergistic effects from the bioactive E-cadherin fragments and the PLGA microparticles. Meanwhile, the hE-cad-PLGA microparticles incorporated in the aggregates upregulate the phosphorylation of epidermal growth factor receptors and activate the AKT and ERK1/2 signaling pathways in the MSCs. Additionally, the E-cadherin/β-catenin cellular membrane complex in the MSCs is markedly stimulated by the hE-cad-PLGA microparticles. Therefore, engineering 3D cell aggregates with hE-cad-PLGA microparticles can be a promising method for ex vivo multipotent stem-cell expansion with enhanced biological functions and may offer a novel route to expand multipotent stem-cell-based clinical applications. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Human multipotent mesenchymal stem cells improve healing after collagenase tendon injury in the rat

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Machová-Urdzíková, Lucia; Sedláček, R.; Suchý, T.; Amemori, Takashi; Růžička, Jiří; Lesný, P.; Havlas, V.; Syková, Eva; Jendelová, Pavla

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 13, č. 42 (2014) ISSN 1475-925X R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP304/10/0326; GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0109 Institutional support: RVO:68378041 Keywords : Achilles tendon * mesenchymal stromal cells * osteogenesis Subject RIV: FI - Traumatology, Orthopedics Impact factor: 1.427, year: 2014

  8. Maintenance of human embryonic stem cells in mesenchymal stem cell-conditioned media augments hematopoietic specification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos-Mejía, Verónica; Fernández, Agustín F; Ayllón, Verónica; Real, Pedro J; Bueno, Clara; Anderson, Per; Martín, Francisco; Fraga, Mario F; Menendez, Pablo

    2012-06-10

    The realization of human embryonic stem cells (hESC) as a model for human developmental hematopoiesis and in potential cell replacement strategies relies on an improved understanding of the extrinsic and intrinsic factors regulating hematopoietic-specific hESC differentiation. Human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) are multipotent cells of mesodermal origin that form a part of hematopoietic stem cell niches and have an important role in the regulation of hematopoiesis through production of secreted factors and/or cell-to-cell interactions. We have previously shown that hESCs may be successfully maintained feeder free using hMSC-conditioned media (MSC-CM). Here, we hypothesized that hESCs maintained in MSC-CM may be more prone to differentiation toward hematopoietic lineage than hESCs grown in standard human foreskin fibroblast-conditioned media. We report that specification into hemogenic progenitors and subsequent hematopoietic differentiation and clonogenic progenitor capacity is robustly enhanced in hESC lines maintained in MSC-CM. Interestingly, co-culture of hESCs on hMSCs fully abrogates hematopoietic specification of hESCs, thus suggesting that the improved hematopoietic differentiation is mediated by MSC-secreted factors rather than by MSC-hESC physical interactions. To investigate the molecular mechanism involved in this process, we analyzed global (LINE-1) methylation and genome-wide promoter DNA methylation. hESCs grown in MSC-CM showed a decrease of 17% in global DNA methylation and a promoter DNA methylation signature consisting of 45 genes commonly hypomethylated and 102 genes frequently hypermethylated. Our data indicate that maintenance of hESCs in MSC-CM robustly augments hematopoietic specification and that the process seems mediated by MSC-secreted factors conferring a DNA methylation signature to undifferentiated hESCs which may influence further predisposition toward hematopoietic specification.

  9. Serum-free human MSC medium supports consistency in human but not in equine adipose-derived multipotent mesenchymal stromal cell culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubert, Susanna; Brehm, Walter; Hillmann, Aline; Burk, Janina

    2017-09-19

    For clinical applications of multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs), serum-free culture is preferable to standardize cell products and prevent contamination with pathogens. In contrast to human MSCs, knowledge on serum-free culture of large animal MSCs is limited, despite its relevance for preclinical studies and development of veterinary cellular therapeutics. This study aimed to evaluate the suitability of a commercially available serum-free human MSC medium for culturing equine adipose-derived MSCs in comparison with human adipose MSCs. Enzyme-free isolation by explant technique and expansion of equine and human cells in the serum-free medium were feasible. However, serum-free culture altered the morphology and complicated handling of equine MSCs, with cell aggregation and spontaneous detachment of multilayers, compared to culture in standard medium supplemented with fetal bovine serum. Furthermore, proliferation and the surface immunophenotype of equine cells were more variable compared to the controls and appeared to depend on the lot of the serum-free medium. Particularly the expression of CD90 was different between experimental groups (P cultured in serum-free medium (5.21-83.40%) compared to standard medium (86.20-99.50%). Additionally, small subpopulations expressing MSC exclusion markers such as CD14 (0.28-11.60%), CD34 (0.00-9.87%), CD45 (0.35-10.50%), or MHCII (0.00-3.67%) were found in equine samples after serum-free culture. In contrast, human samples displayed a more consistent morphology and a consistent CD29+ (98.60-99.90%), CD73+ (94.60-98.40%), CD90+ (99.60-99.90%), and CD105+ (97.40-99.80%) immunophenotype after culture in serum-free medium. The obtained data demonstrate that the serum-free medium was suitable for human MSC culture but did not lead to entirely satisfactory results in equine MSCs. This underlines that requirements regarding serum-free culture conditions are species-specific, indicating a need for serum-free media to be

  10. Stem cell maintenance by manipulating signaling pathways: past, current and future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xi; Ye, Shoudong; Ying, Qi-Long

    2015-01-01

    Pluripotent stem cells only exist in a narrow window during early embryonic development, whereas multipotent stem cells are abundant throughout embryonic development and are retainedin various adult tissues and organs. While pluripotent stem cell lines have been established from several species, including mouse, rat, and human, it is still challenging to establish stable multipotent stem cell lines from embryonic or adult tissues. Based on current knowledge, we anticipate that by manipulating extrinsic and intrinsic signaling pathways, most if not all types of stem cells can be maintained in a long-term culture. In this article, we summarize current culture conditions established for the long-term maintenance of authentic pluripotent and multipotent stem cells and the signaling pathways involved. We also discuss the general principles of stem cell maintenance and propose several strategies on the establishment of novel stem cell lines through manipulation of signaling pathways. [BMB Reports 2015; 48(12): 668-676] PMID:26497581

  11. Osteoarthritis-derived chondrocytes are a potential source of multipotent progenitor cells for cartilage tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oda, Tomoyuki; Sakai, Tadahiro; Hiraiwa, Hideki; Hamada, Takashi; Ono, Yohei; Nakashima, Motoshige; Ishizuka, Shinya; Matsukawa, Tetsuya; Yamashita, Satoshi; Tsuchiya, Saho; Ishiguro, Naoki

    2016-10-21

    The natural healing capacity of damaged articular cartilage is poor, rendering joint surface injuries a prime target for regenerative medicine. While autologous chondrocyte or mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) implantation can be applied to repair cartilage defects in young patients, no appropriate long-lasting treatment alternative is available for elderly patients with osteoarthritis (OA). Multipotent progenitor cells are reported to present in adult human articular cartilage, with a preponderance in OA cartilage. These facts led us to hypothesize the possible use of osteoarthritis-derived chondrocytes as a cell source for cartilage tissue engineering. We therefore analyzed chondrocyte- and stem cell-related markers, cell growth rate, and multipotency in OA chondrocytes (OACs) and bone marrow-derived MSCs, along with normal articular chondrocytes (ACs) as a control. OACs demonstrated similar phenotype and proliferation rate to MSCs. Furthermore, OACs exhibited multilineage differentiation ability with a greater chondrogenic differentiation ability than MSCs, which was equivalent to ACs. We conclude that chondrogenic capacity is not significantly affected by OA, and OACs could be a potential source of multipotent progenitor cells for cartilage tissue engineering. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Multipotency of melanoblasts isolated from murine skin depends on the notch signal

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Watanabe, Natsuki; Motohashi, Tsutomu; Nishioka, Masahiro; Kawamura, Norito; Hirobe, Tomohisa; Kunisada, Takahiro

    2016-01-01

    .... We previously showed that MBs isolated from mouse skin were multipotent, generating neurons (Ns) and glial cells (Gs) together with Ms. Using Sox10‐IRES‐Venus mice and mouse embryonic stem cells, we investigated how MBs expressed their multipotency...

  13. Telomere Attrition Occurs during Ex Vivo Expansion of Human Dental Pulp Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaroslav Mokry

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We provide a detailed characteristic of stem cells isolated and expanded from the human dental pulp. Dental pulp stem cells express mesenchymal cell markers STRO-1, vimentin, CD29, CD44, CD73, CD90, CD166, and stem cell markers Sox2, nestin, and nucleostemin. They are multipotent as shown by their osteogenic and chondrogenic potential. We measured relative telomere length in 11 dental pulp stem cell lines at different passages by quantitative real-time PCR. Despite their large proliferative capacity, stable viability, phenotype, and genotype over prolonged cultivation, human dental pulp stem cells suffer from progressive telomere shortening over time they replicate in vitro. Relative telomere length (T/S was inversely correlated with cumulative doubling time. Our findings indicate that excessive ex vivo expansion of adult stem cells should be reduced at minimum to avoid detrimental effects on telomere maintenance and measurement of telomere length should become a standard when certificating the status and replicative age of stem cells prior therapeutic applications.

  14. Multipotent adult progenitor cells on an allograft scaffold facilitate the bone repair process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda LoGuidice

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Multipotent adult progenitor cells are a recently described population of stem cells derived from the bone marrow stroma. Research has demonstrated the potential of multipotent adult progenitor cells for treating ischemic injury and cardiovascular repair; however, understanding of multipotent adult progenitor cells in orthopedic applications remains limited. In this study, we evaluate the osteogenic and angiogenic capacity of multipotent adult progenitor cells, both in vitro and loaded onto demineralized bone matrix in vivo, with comparison to mesenchymal stem cells, as the current standard. When compared to mesenchymal stem cells, multipotent adult progenitor cells exhibited a more robust angiogenic protein release profile in vitro and developed more extensive vasculature within 2 weeks in vivo. The establishment of this vascular network is critical to the ossification process, as it allows nutrient exchange and provides an influx of osteoprogenitor cells to the wound site. In vitro assays confirmed the multipotency of multipotent adult progenitor cells along mesodermal lineages and demonstrated the enhanced expression of alkaline phosphatase and production of calcium-containing mineral deposits by multipotent adult progenitor cells, necessary precursors for osteogenesis. In combination with a demineralized bone matrix scaffold, multipotent adult progenitor cells demonstrated enhanced revascularization and new bone formation in vivo in an orthotopic defect model when compared to mesenchymal stem cells on demineralized bone matrix or demineralized bone matrix–only control groups. The potent combination of angiogenic and osteogenic properties provided by multipotent adult progenitor cells appears to create a synergistic amplification of the bone healing process. Our results indicate that multipotent adult progenitor cells have the potential to better promote tissue regeneration and healing and to be a functional cell source for use in

  15. Simultaneous Measurement of Human Hematopoietic Stem and Progenitor Cells In Blood Using Multi-color Flow Cytometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cimato, Thomas R.; Furlage, Rosemary L.; Conway, Alexis; Wallace, Paul K.

    2016-01-01

    Hematopoietic stem cells are the source of all inflammatory cell types. Discovery of specific cell surface markers unique to human hematopoietic stem (HSC) and progenitor (HSPC) cell populations has facilitated studies of their development from stem cells to mature cells. The specific marker profiles of HSCs and HSPCs can be used to understand their role in human inflammatory diseases. The goal of this study is to simultaneously measure HSCs and HSPCs in normal human venous blood using multi-color flow cytometry. Our secondary aim is to determine how G-CSF mobilization alters the quantity of each HSC and HSPC population. Here we show that cells within the CD34+ fraction of human venous blood contains cells with the same cell surface markers found in human bone marrow samples. Mobilization with G-CSF significantly increases the quantity of total CD34+ cells, blood borne HSCs, multipotent progenitors, common myeloid progenitors, and megakaryocyte erythroid progenitors as a percentage of total MNCs analyzed. The increase in blood borne common lymphoid and granulocyte macrophage progenitors with G-CSF treatment did not reach significance. G-CSF treatment predominantly increased the numbers of HSCs and multipotent progenitors in the total CD34+ cell population; common myeloid progenitors and megakaryocyte erythroid progenitors were enriched relative to total MNCs analyzed, but not relative to total CD34+ cells. Our findings illustrate the utility of multi-color flow cytometry to quantify circulating HSCs and HSPCs in venous blood samples from human subjects. PMID:26663713

  16. Human stem cell ethics: beyond the embryo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugarman, Jeremy

    2008-06-05

    Human embryonic stem cell research has elicited powerful debates about the morality of destroying human embryos. However, there are important ethical issues related to stem cell research that are unrelated to embryo destruction. These include particular issues involving different types of cells used, the procurement of such cells, in vivo use of stem cells, intellectual property, and conflicts of interest.

  17. Three-dimensional spheroid culture of human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells promotes cell yield and stemness maintenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yi; Guo, Gang; Li, Li; Chen, Fei; Bao, Ji; Shi, Yu-Jun; Bu, Hong

    2015-05-01

    Mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) transplantation is a promising treatment of many diseases. However, conventional techniques with cells being cultured as a monolayer result in slow cell proliferation and insufficient yield to meet clinical demands. Three-dimensional (3D) culture systems are gaining attention with regard to recreating a complex microenvironment and to understanding the conditions experienced by cells. Our aim is to establish a novel 3D system for the culture of human umbilical cord MSCs (hUC-MSCs) within a real 3D microenvironment but with no digestion or passaging. Primary hUC-MSCs were isolated and grown in serum-free medium (SFM) on a suspension Rocker system. Cell characteristics including proliferation, phenotype and multipotency were recorded. The therapeutic effects of 3D-cultured hUC-MSCs on carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced acute liver failure in mouse models were examined. In the 3D Rocker system, hUC-MSCs formed spheroids in SFM and maintained high viability and active proliferation. Compared with monolayer culture, the 3D-culture system yielded more hUC-MSCs cells within the same volume. The spheroids expressed higher levels of stem cell markers and displayed stronger multipotency. After transplantation into mouse, 3D hUC-MSCs significantly promoted the secretion of interferon-γ and interleukin-6 but inhibited that of tumor necrosis factor-α, thereby alleviating liver necrosis and promoting regeneration following CCl4 injury. The 3D culture of hUC-MSCs thus promotes cell yield and stemness maintenance and represents a promising strategy for hUC-MSCs expansion on an industrial scale with great potential for cell therapy and biotechnology.

  18. Proteomic characterisation reveals active Wnt-signalling by human multipotent stromal cells as a key regulator of beta cell survival and proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuljanin, Miljan; Bell, Gillian I; Sherman, Stephen E; Lajoie, Gilles A; Hess, David A

    2017-10-01

    Novel strategies to stimulate the expansion of beta cell mass in situ are warranted for diabetes therapy. The aim of this study was to elucidate the secretome of human bone marrow (BM)-derived multipotent stromal cells (MSCs) with documented islet regenerative paracrine function. We hypothesised that regenerative MSCs will secrete a unique combination of protein factors that augment islet regeneration. Human BM-derived MSCs were examined for glucose-lowering capacity after transplantation into streptozotocin-treated NOD/severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) mice and segregated into samples with regenerative (MSC(R)) vs nonregenerative (MSC(NR)) capacity. Secreted proteins associated with islet regenerative function were identified using stable isotope labelling with amino acids in cell culture (SILAC)-based quantitative proteomics. To functionally validate the importance of active Wnt signalling, we stimulated the Wnt-signalling pathway in MSC(NR) samples during ex vivo expansion using glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3) inhibition (CHIR99201), and the conditioned culture media (CM) generated was tested for the capacity to support cultured human islet cell survival and proliferation in vitro. MSC(R) showed increased secretion of proteins associated with cell growth, matrix remodelling, immunosuppressive and proangiogenic properties. In contrast, MSC(NR) uniquely secreted proteins known to promote inflammation and negatively regulate angiogenesis. Most notably, MSC(R) maintained Wnt signalling via Wnt5A/B (~2.5-fold increase) autocrine activity during ex vivo culture, while MSC(NR) repressed Wnt signalling via Dickkopf-related protein (DKK)1 (~2.5-fold increase) and DKK3 secretion. Inhibition of GSK3 activity in MSC(NR) samples increased the accumulation of nuclear β-catenin and generated CM that augmented beta cell survival (13% increases) and proliferation when exposed to cultured human islets. Maintenance of active Wnt signalling within human MSCs promotes the

  19. Pluripotency of Stem Cells from Human Exfoliated Deciduous Teeth for Tissue Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinicius Rosa

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous teeth (SHED are highly proliferative pluripotent cells that can be retrieved from primary teeth. Although SHED are isolated from the dental pulp, their differentiation potential is not limited to odontoblasts only. In fact, SHED can differentiate into several cell types including neurons, osteoblasts, adipocytes, and endothelial cells. The high plasticity makes SHED an interesting stem cell model for research in several biomedical areas. This review will discuss key findings about the characterization and differentiation of SHED into odontoblasts, neurons, and hormone secreting cells (e.g., hepatocytes and islet-like cell aggregates. The outcomes of the studies presented here support the multipotency of SHED and their potential to be used for tissue engineering-based therapies.

  20. Expression of Pluripotency Markers in Nonpluripotent Human Neural Stem and Progenitor Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vincent, P.; Benedikz, Eirikur; Uhlén, Per

    2017-01-01

    cells (CD133+/CD24lo), the capacity of sphere formation, or high cell proliferation rates. The rate of cell death among NPCs expressing pluripotency-associated genes was also similar to that of other NPCs. Live cell imaging showed that NANOG- and REX1-expressing NPCs continuously changed morphology......Nonpluripotent neural progenitor cells (NPCs) derived from the human fetal central nervous system were found to express a number of messenger RNA (mRNA) species associated with pluripotency, such as NANOG, REX1, and OCT4. The expression was restricted to small subpopulations of NPCs. In contrast...... to pluripotent stem cells, there was no coexpression of the pluripotency-associated genes studied. Although the expression of these genes rapidly declined during the in vitro differentiation of NPCs, we found no evidence that the discrete expression was associated with the markers of multipotent neural stem...

  1. Potential Biomedical Application of Enzymatically Treated Alginate/Chitosan Hydrosols in Sponges—Biocompatible Scaffolds Inducing Chondrogenic Differentiation of Human Adipose Derived Multipotent Stromal Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Zimoch-Korzycka

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Current regenerative strategies used for cartilage repair rely on biomaterial functionality as a scaffold for cells that may have potential in chondrogenic differentiation. The purpose of the research was to investigate the biocompatibility of enzymatically treated alginate/chitosan hydrosol sponges and their suitability to support chondrogenic differentiation of human adipose derived multipotent stromal cells (hASCs. The alginate/chitosan and enzyme/alginate/chitosan sponges were formed from hydrosols with various proportions and were used as a biomaterial in this study. Sponges were tested for porosity and wettability. The porosity of each sponge was higher than 80%. An equal dose of alginate and chitosan in the composition of sponges improved their swelling ability. It was found that equal concentrations of alginate and chitosan in hydrosols sponges assure high biocompatibility properties that may be further improved by enzymatic treatment. Importantly, the high biocompatibility of these biomaterials turned out to be crucial in the context of hydrosols’ pro-chondrogenic function. After exposure to the chondrogenic conditions, the hASCs in N/A/C and L/A/C sponges formed well developed nodules and revealed increased expression of collagen type II, aggrecan and decreased expression of collagen type I. Moreover, in these cultures, the reactive oxygen species level was lowered while superoxide dismutase activity increased. Based on the obtained results, we conclude that N/A/C and L/A/C sponges may have prospective application as hASCs carriers for cartilage repair.

  2. Stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous tooth exhibit stromal-derived inducing activity and lead to generation of neural crest cells from human embryonic stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karbalaie, Khadijeh; Tanhaei, Somayyeh; Rabiei, Farzaneh; Kiani-Esfahani, Abbas; Masoudi, Najmeh Sadat; Nasr-Esfahani, Mohammad Hossein; Baharvand, Hossein

    2015-01-01

    The neural crest is a transient structure of early vertebrate embryos that generates neural crest cells (NCCs). These cells can migrate throughout the body and produce a diverse array of mature tissue types. Due to the ethical and technical problems surrounding the isolation of these early human embryo cells, researchers have focused on in vitro studies to produce NCCs and increase their knowledge of neural crest development. In this experimental study, we cultured human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) on stromal stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous teeth (SHED) for a two-week period. We used different approaches to characterize these differentiated cells as neural precursor cells (NPCs) and NCCs. In the first co-culture week, hESCs appeared as crater-like structures with marginal rosettes. NPCs derived from these structures expressed the early neural crest marker p75 in addition to numerous other genes associated with neural crest induction such as SNAIL, SLUG, PTX3 and SOX9. Flow cytometry analysis showed 70% of the cells were AP2/P75 positive. Moreover, the cells were able to self-renew, sustain multipotent differentiation potential, and readily form neurospheres in suspension culture. SHED, as an adult stem cell with a neural crest origin, has stromal-derived inducing activity (SDIA) and can be used as an NCC inducer from hESCs. These cells provide an invaluable resource to study neural crest differentiation in both normal and disordered human neural crest development.

  3. Effects of GSK3 inhibitors on in vitro expansion and differentiation of human adipose-derived stem cells into adipocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peraldi Pascal

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Multipotent stem cells exist within adipose tissue throughout life. An abnormal recruitment of these adipose precursor cells could participate to hyperplasia of adipose tissue observed in severe obesity or to hypoplasia of adipose tissue observed in lipodystrophy. Therefore, pharmacological molecules that control the pool of stem cells in adipose tissue are of great interest. Glycogen Synthase Kinase (GSK 3 has been previously described as involved in differentiation of preadipose cells and might be a potential therapeutic target to modulate proliferation and differentiation of adipocyte precursors. However, the impact of GSK3 inhibition on human adipose-derived stem cells remained to be investigated. The aim of this study was to investigate GSK3 as a possible target for pharmacological inhibition of stem cell adipogenesis. To reach this goal, we studied the effects of pharmacological inhibitors of GSK3, i.e. lithium chloride (LiCl and BIO on proliferation and adipocyte differentiation of multipotent stem cells derived from human adipose tissue. Results Our results showed that GSK3 inhibitors inhibited proliferation and clonogenicity of human stem cells, strongly suggesting that GSK3 inhibitors could be potent regulators of the pool of adipocyte precursors in adipose tissue. The impact of GSK3 inhibition on differentiation of hMADS cells was also investigated. Adipogenic and osteogenic differentiations were inhibited upon hMADS treatment with BIO. Whereas a chronic treatment was required to inhibit osteogenesis, a treatment that was strictly restricted to the early step of differentiation was sufficient to inhibit adipogenesis. Conclusion These results demonstrated the feasibility of a pharmacological approach to regulate adipose-derived stem cell function and that GSK3 could represent a potential target for controlling adipocyte precursor pool under conditions where fat tissue formation is impaired.

  4. Isolation, characterization, and differentiation of multipotent neural progenitor cells from human cerebrospinal fluid in fetal cystic myelomeningocele.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marotta, Mario; Fernández-Martín, Alejandra; Oria, Marc; Fontecha, Cesar G; Giné, Carles; Martínez-Ibáñez, Vicente; Carreras, Elena; Belfort, Michael A; Pelizzo, Gloria; Peiró, Jose L

    2017-07-01

    Despite benefits of prenatal in utero repair of myelomeningocele, a severe type of spina bifida aperta, many of these patients will still suffer mild to severe impairment. One potential source of stem cells for new regenerative medicine-based therapeutic approaches for spinal cord injury repair is neural progenitor cells (NPCs) in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). To this aim, we extracted CSF from the cyst surrounding the exposed neural placode during the surgical repair of myelomeningocele in 6 fetuses (20 to 26weeks of gestation). In primary cultured CSF-derived cells, neurogenic properties were confirmed by in vitro differentiation into various neural lineage cell types, and NPC markers expression (TBR2, CD15, SOX2) were detected by immunofluorescence and RT-PCR analysis. Differentiation into three neural lineages was corroborated by arbitrary differentiation (depletion of growths factors) or explicit differentiation as neuronal, astrocyte, or oligodendrocyte cell types using specific induction mediums. Differentiated cells showed the specific expression of neural differentiation markers (βIII-tubulin, GFAP, CNPase, oligo-O1). In myelomeningocele patients, CSF-derived cells could become a potential source of NPCs with neurogenic capacity. Our findings support the development of innovative stem-cell-based therapeutics by autologous transplantation of CSF-derived NPCs in damaged spinal cords, such as myelomeningocele, thus promoting neural tissue regeneration in fetuses. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Isolation, characterization, and differentiation of multipotent neural progenitor cells from human cerebrospinal fluid in fetal cystic myelomeningocele

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Marotta

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Despite benefits of prenatal in utero repair of myelomeningocele, a severe type of spina bifida aperta, many of these patients will still suffer mild to severe impairment. One potential source of stem cells for new regenerative medicine-based therapeutic approaches for spinal cord injury repair is neural progenitor cells (NPCs in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF. To this aim, we extracted CSF from the cyst surrounding the exposed neural placode during the surgical repair of myelomeningocele in 6 fetuses (20 to 26 weeks of gestation. In primary cultured CSF-derived cells, neurogenic properties were confirmed by in vitro differentiation into various neural lineage cell types, and NPC markers expression (TBR2, CD15, SOX2 were detected by immunofluorescence and RT-PCR analysis. Differentiation into three neural lineages was corroborated by arbitrary differentiation (depletion of growths factors or explicit differentiation as neuronal, astrocyte, or oligodendrocyte cell types using specific induction mediums. Differentiated cells showed the specific expression of neural differentiation markers (βIII-tubulin, GFAP, CNPase, oligo-O1. In myelomeningocele patients, CSF-derived cells could become a potential source of NPCs with neurogenic capacity. Our findings support the development of innovative stem-cell-based therapeutics by autologous transplantation of CSF-derived NPCs in damaged spinal cords, such as myelomeningocele, thus promoting neural tissue regeneration in fetuses.

  6. Epigenetic signatures associated with different levels of differentiation potential in human stem cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Aranda

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The therapeutic use of multipotent stem cells depends on their differentiation potential, which has been shown to be variable for different populations. These differences are likely to be the result of key changes in their epigenetic profiles. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: to address this issue, we have investigated the levels of epigenetic regulation in well characterized populations of pluripotent embryonic stem cells (ESC and multipotent adult stem cells (ASC at the trancriptome, methylome, histone modification and microRNA levels. Differences in gene expression profiles allowed classification of stem cells into three separate populations including ESC, multipotent adult progenitor cells (MAPC and mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC. The analysis of the PcG repressive marks, histone modifications and gene promoter methylation of differentiation and pluripotency genes demonstrated that stem cell populations with a wider differentiation potential (ESC and MAPC showed stronger representation of epigenetic repressive marks in differentiation genes and that this epigenetic signature was progressively lost with restriction of stem cell potential. Our analysis of microRNA established specific microRNA signatures suggesting specific microRNAs involved in regulation of pluripotent and differentiation genes. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our study leads us to propose a model where the level of epigenetic regulation, as a combination of DNA methylation and histone modification marks, at differentiation genes defines degrees of differentiation potential from progenitor and multipotent stem cells to pluripotent stem cells.

  7. Reversal of type 1 diabetes via islet β cell regeneration following immune modulation by cord blood-derived multipotent stem cells

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zhao, Yong; Jiang, Zhaoshun; Zhao, Tingbao; Ye, Mingliang; Hu, Chengjin; Yin, Zhaohui; Li, Heng; Zhang, Ye; Diao, Yalin; Li, Yunxiang; Chen, Yingjian; Sun, Xiaoming; Fisk, Mary Beth; Skidgel, Randal; Holterman, Mark; Prabhakar, Bellur; Mazzone, Theodore

    2012-01-01

    .... We developed a procedure for Stem Cell Educator therapy in which a patient's blood is circulated through a closed-loop system that separates lymphocytes from the whole blood and briefly co-cultures...

  8. A porous membrane-mediated isolation of mesenchymal stem cells from human embryonic stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Ki-Sung; Bae, Daekyeong; Choi, Youngsok; Kang, Sun-Woong; Moon, Sung-Hwan; Lee, Hoon Taek; Chung, Hyung-Min

    2015-03-01

    Pluripotent human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) acquire mesenchymal characteristics during the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) process. Here, we report a simple and an efficient isolation method for mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) from hESCs undergoing EMT using a commercialized porous membrane transwell culture insert. Suspension culture of hESC colonies results in the formation of embryoid bodies, which adhered on the upper compartment of 8 μm porous membrane in the presence of EMG2-MV media. The population migrating through the permeable membrane to the lower compartment not only exhibited EMT markers but also expressed high levels of a panel of typical MSC surface antigen markers, and demonstrated multipotent differentiation capability. In addition, they have a prolonged proliferation capacity without characteristics and chromosomal changes. Furthermore, the isolated MSCs significantly enhanced cardiac functions in a rat model of myocardial infarction (MI) as measured by the left ventricle wall thickness (MI control, 32.9%±3.2% vs. hESCs-MSCs, 38.7%±2.4%), scar length (MI control, 46.1%±2.5% vs. hESCs-MSCs, 41.8%±1.3%), fibrosis area (MI control, 34.3%±1.6% vs. hESCs-MSCs, 28.9%±3.5%), and capillary density. Our findings demonstrate an ease with which hESCs-MSCs can be effectively isolated using the porous membrane, which overcomes the lack of availability of MSCs for therapeutic applications in various diseased animal models.

  9. Islet neogenesis potential of human adult stem cells and its applications in cell replacement therapy for diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhonde RR

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available In recent years regenerative biology has reached to greater heights due to its therapeutic potential in treating degenerative diseases; as they are not curable by modern medicine. With the advent of research in stem cells and developmental biology the regenerative potential of adult resident stem cells is becoming clearer. The long term objective of regenerative medicine or cell therapy is to treat patients with their own stem cells. These stem cells could be derived from the diseased organs such as skin, liver, pancreas etc. or from reservoirs of multipotent stem cells such as bone marrow or cord blood.Manipulating the ability of tissue resident stem cells as well as from multipotent reservoirs such as bone marrow, umbilical cord and cord blood to give rise to endocrine cells may open new avenues in the treatment of diabetes. A better understanding of stem cell biology would almost certainly allow for the establishment of efficient and reliable cell transplantation experimental programs in the clinic. We show here that multipotent mesenchymal stem cells can be isolated from various sources such as the bone marrow, placenta, umbilical cord. Upon stimulation with specific growth factors they differentiate into islet like clusters (ILCs. When ILCs obtained from the above mentioned sources were transplanted in experimental diabetic mice, restoration of normoglycemia was observed within three weeks of transplantation with concomitant increase in the body weight. These euglycemic mice exhibited normal glucose tolerance test indicating normal utilization of glucose. Allthough the MSCs isolated from all the sources had the same characteristics; they showed significant differences in their islet differentiation potential. ILCs isolated for the human bone marrow did not show any pancreatic hormones in vitro, but upon transplantation they matured into insulin and somatostatin producing hormones. Placental MSCs as well as ILCs showed insulin trascripts

  10. Molecular regulation of human hematopoietic stem cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Galen, P.L.J.

    2014-01-01

    Peter van Galen focuses on understanding the determinants that maintain the stem cell state. Using human hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) as a model, processes that govern self-renewal and tissue regeneration were investigated. Specifically, a role for microRNAs in balancing the human HSC

  11. Term amniotic membrane is a high throughput source for multipotent mesenchymal stem cells with the ability to differentiate into endothelial cells in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasquinelli Gianandrea

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Term Amniotic membrane (AM is a very attractive source of Mesenchymal Stem Cells (MSCs due to the fact that this fetal tissue is usually discarded without ethical conflicts, leading to high efficiency in MSC recovery with no intrusive procedures. Here we confirmed that term AM, as previously reported in the literature, is an abundant source of hMSCs; in particular we further investigated the AM differentiation potential by assessing whether these cells may also be committed to the angiogenic fate. In agreement with the recommendation of the International Society for Cellular Therapy, the mesenchymal cells herein investigated were named Amniotic Membrane-human Mesenchymal Stromal Cells (AM-hMSC. Results The recovery of hMSCs and their in vitro expansion potential were greater in amniotic membrane than in bone marrow stroma. At flow cytometry analysis AM-hMSCs showed an immunophenotypical profile, i.e., positive for CD105, CD73, CD29, CD44, CD166 and negative for CD14, CD34, CD45, consistent with that reported for bone marrow-derived MSCs. In addition, amniotic membrane-isolated cells underwent in vitro osteogenic (von Kossa stain, adipogenic (Oil Red-O stain, chondrogenic (collagen type II immunohistochemichal detection and myogenic (RT-PCR MyoD and Myogenin expression as well as desmin immunohistochemical detection differentiation. In angiogenic experiments, a spontaneous differentiation into endothelial cells was detected by in vitro matrigel assay and this behaviour has been enhanced through Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF induction. According to these findings, VEGF receptor 1 and 2 (FLT-1 and KDR were basally expressed in AM-hMSCs and the expression of endothelial-specific markers like FLT-1 KDR, ICAM-1 increased after exposure to VEGF together with the occurrence of CD34 and von Willebrand Factor positive cells. Conclusion The current study suggests that AM-hMSCs may emerge as a remarkable tool for the cell

  12. Inhibitory role of reactive oxygen species in the differentiation of multipotent vascular stem cells into vascular smooth muscle cells in rats: a novel aspect of traditional culture of rat aortic smooth muscle cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Haibo; Wang, Hui; Wu, Weiwei; Qi, Lei; Shao, Lei; Wang, Fang; Lai, Yimu; Leach, Desiree; Mathis, Bryan; Janicki, Joseph S; Wang, Xing Li; Tang, Dongqi; Cui, Taixing

    2015-10-01

    Proliferative or synthetic vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) are widely accepted to be mainly derived from the dedifferentiation or phenotypic modulation of mature contractile VSMCs, i.e., a phenotype switch from a normally quiescent and contractile type into a proliferative or synthetic form. However, this theory has been challenged by recent evidence that synthetic VSMCs predominantly originate instead from media-derived multipotent vascular stem cells (MVSCs). To test these hypotheses further, we re-examine whether the conventional rat aortic SMC (RASMC) culture involves the VSMC differentiation of MVSCs or the dedifferentiation of mature VSMCs and the potential mechanism for controlling the synthetic phenotype of RASMCs. We enzymatically isolated RASMCs and cultured the cells in both a regular growth medium (RGM) and a stem cell growth medium (SCGM). Regardless of culture conditions, only a small portion of freshly isolated RASMCs attaches, survives and grows slowly during the first 7 days of primary culture, while expressing both SMC- and MVSC-specific markers. RGM-cultured cells undergo a process of synthetic SMC differentiation, whereas SCGM-cultured cells can be differentiated into not only synthetic SMCs but also other somatic cells. Notably, compared with the RGM-cultured differentiated RASMCs, the SCGM-cultured undifferentiated cells exhibit the phenotype of MVSCs and generate greater amounts of reactive oxygen species (ROS) that act as a negative regulator of differentiation into synthetic VSMCs. Knockdown of phospholipase A2, group 7 (Pla2g7) suppresses ROS formation in the MVSCs while enhancing SMC differentiation of MVSCs. These results suggest that cultured synthetic VSMCs can be derived from the SMC differentiation of MVSCs with ROS as a negative regulator.

  13. Putative Stem Cells in Human Dental Pulp with Irreversible Pulpitis-An Exploratory Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Z.; Pan, J.; Wright, JT; Bencharit, S.; Zhang, S.; Everett, ET; Teixeira, FB; Preisser, JS

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Although human dental pulp stem cells isolated from healthy teeth have been extensively characterized, it is unknown whether stem cells also exist in clinically compromised teeth with irreversible pulpitis. Here we explored whether cells retrieved from clinically compromised dental pulp have stem cell-like properties. Methods Pulp cells were isolated from healthy teeth (control group) and from teeth with clinically diagnosed irreversible pulpitis (diseased group). Cell proliferation, stem cell marker STRO-1 expression and cell odonto-osteo-genic differentiation competence were compared. Results Cells from the diseased group demonstrated decreased colony formation capacity and a slightly decreased cell proliferation rate but had similar STRO-1 expression, and exhibited a similar percentage of positive ex vivo osteogenic induction and dentin sialophosphoprotein expression from STRO-1-enriched pulp cells. Conclusion Our study provides preliminary evidence that clinically compromised dental pulp may contain putative cells with certain stem cell properties. Further characterization of these cells will provide insight regarding whether they could serve as a source of endogenous multipotent cells in tissue regeneration based dental pulp therapy. PMID:20416426

  14. Neuronal differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells: changes in the expression of the Alzheimer's disease-related gene seladin-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benvenuti, Susanna; Saccardi, Riccardo; Luciani, Paola; Urbani, Serena; Deledda, Cristiana; Cellai, Ilaria; Francini, Fabio; Squecco, Roberta; Rosati, Fabiana; Danza, Giovanna; Gelmini, Stefania; Greeve, Isabell; Rossi, Matteo; Maggi, Roberto; Serio, Mario; Peri, Alessandro

    2006-08-01

    Seladin-1 (SELective Alzheimer's Disease INdicator-1) is an anti-apoptotic gene, which is down-regulated in brain regions affected by Alzheimer's disease (AD). In addition, seladin-1 catalyzes the conversion of desmosterol into cholesterol. Disruption of cholesterol homeostasis in neurons may increase cell susceptibility to toxic agents. Because the hippocampus and the subventricular zone, which are affected in AD, are the unique regions containing stem cells with neurogenic potential in the adult brain, it might be hypothesized that this multipotent cell compartment is the predominant source of seladin-1 in normal brain. In the present study, we isolated and characterized human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSC) as a model of cells with the ability to differentiate into neurons. hMSC were then differentiated toward a neuronal phenotype (hMSC-n). These cells were thoroughly characterized and proved to be neurons, as assessed by molecular and electrophysiological evaluation. Seladin-1 expression was determined and found to be significantly reduced in hMSC-n compared to undifferentiated cells. Accordingly, the total content of cholesterol was decreased after differentiation. These original results demonstrate for the first time that seladin-1 is abundantly expressed by stem cells and appear to suggest that reduced expression in AD might be due to an altered pool of multipotent cells.

  15. Multiparametric Phenotypic Screening System for Profiling Bioactive Compounds Using Human Fetal Hippocampal Neural Stem/Progenitor Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabata, Yoshikuni; Murai, Norio; Sasaki, Takeo; Taniguchi, Sachie; Suzuki, Shuichi; Yamazaki, Kazuto; Ito, Masashi

    2015-10-01

    Stem cell research has been progressing rapidly, contributing to regenerative biology and regenerative medicine. In this field, small-molecule compounds affecting stem cell proliferation/differentiation have been explored to understand stem cell biology and support regenerative medicine. In this study, we established a multiparametric screening system to detect bioactive compounds affecting the cell fate of human neural stem/progenitor cells (NSCs/NPCs), using human fetal hippocampal NSCs/NPCs, HIP-009 cells. We examined effects of 410 compounds, which were collected based on mechanisms of action (MOAs) and chemotypes, on HIP-009's cell fate (self-renewal, neuronal and astrocytic differentiation) and morphology by automated multiparametric assays and profiled induced cellular phenotypes. We found that this screening classified compounds with the same MOAs into subgroups according to additional pharmacological effects (e.g., mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 [mTORC1] inhibitors and mTORC1/mTORC2 dual inhibitors among mTOR inhibitors). Moreover, it identified compounds that have off-target effects under matrix analyses of MOAs and structure similarities (e.g., neurotropic effects of amitriptyline among tri- and tetracyclic compounds). Therefore, this automated, medium-throughput and multiparametric screening system is useful for finding compounds that affect the cell fate of human NSCs/NPCs for supporting regenerative medicine and to fingerprint compounds based on human stem cells' multipotency, leading to understanding of stem cell biology. © 2015 Society for Laboratory Automation and Screening.

  16. Are MSCs Angiogenic Cells?New Insights on Human Nestin-positive Bone Marrow-derived Multipotent Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone ePacini

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Recent investigations have made considerable progress in the understanding of tissue regeneration driven by mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs. Data indicate the anatomical location of MSC as residing in the perivascular space of blood vessels dispersed across the whole body. This histological localization suggests that MSCs contribute to the formation of new blood vessels in vivo. Indeed, MSCs can release angiogenic factors and protease to facilitate blood vessel formation and in vitro are able to promote/support angiogenesis. However, the direct differentiation of MCSs into endothelial cells is still matter of debate. Most of the conflicting data might arise from the presence of multiple subtypes of cells with heterogeneous morph-functional features within the MSC cultures. According to this scenario, we hypothesize that the presence of the recently described Mesodermal Progenitor Cells (MPCs within the MSCs cultures is responsible for their variable angiogenic potential. Indeed, MPCs are Nestin-positive CD31-positive cells exhibiting angiogenic potential that differentiate in MSC upon proper stimuli. The ISCT criteria do not account for the presence of MPC within MSC culture generating confusion in the interpretation of MSC angiogenic potential. In conclusion, the discovery of MPC gives new insight in defining MSC ancestors in human bone marrow, and indicates the tunica intima as a further, and previously overlooked, possible additional source of MSC.

  17. Term Amniotic membrane is a high throughput source for multipotent Mesenchymal Stem Cells with the ability to differentiate into endothelial cells in vitro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alviano, Francesco; Fossati, Valentina; Marchionni, Cosetta

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Term Amniotic membrane (AM) is a very attractive source of Mesenchymal Stem Cells (MSCs) due to the fact that this fetal tissue is usually discarded without ethical conflicts, leading to high efficiency in MSC recovery with no intrusive procedures. Here we confirmed that term AM...... profile, i.e., positive for CD105, CD73, CD29, CD44, CD166 and negative for CD14, CD34, CD45, consistent with that reported for bone marrow-derived MSCs. In addition, amniotic membrane-isolated cells underwent in vitro osteogenic (von Kossa stain), adipogenic (Oil Red-O stain), chondrogenic (collagen type...

  18. The Marine Sponge-Derived Inorganic Polymers, Biosilica and Polyphosphate, as Morphogenetically Active Matrices/Scaffolds for the Differentiation of Human Multipotent Stromal Cells: Potential Application in 3D Printing and Distraction Osteogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohong Wang

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The two marine inorganic polymers, biosilica (BS, enzymatically synthesized from ortho-silicate, and polyphosphate (polyP, a likewise enzymatically synthesized polymer consisting of 10 to >100 phosphate residues linked by high-energy phosphoanhydride bonds, have previously been shown to display a morphogenetic effect on osteoblasts. In the present study, the effect of these polymers on the differential differentiation of human multipotent stromal cells (hMSC, mesenchymal stem cells, that had been encapsulated into beads of the biocompatible plant polymer alginate, was studied. The differentiation of the hMSCs in the alginate beads was directed either to the osteogenic cell lineage by exposure to an osteogenic medium (mineralization activation cocktail; differentiation into osteoblasts or to the chondrogenic cell lineage by incubating in chondrocyte differentiation medium (triggering chondrocyte maturation. Both biosilica and polyP, applied as Ca2+ salts, were found to induce an increased mineralization in osteogenic cells; these inorganic polymers display also morphogenetic potential. The effects were substantiated by gene expression studies, which revealed that biosilica and polyP strongly and significantly increase the expression of bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP-2 and alkaline phosphatase (ALP in osteogenic cells, which was significantly more pronounced in osteogenic versus chondrogenic cells. A differential effect of the two polymers was seen on the expression of the two collagen types, I and II. While collagen Type I is highly expressed in osteogenic cells, but not in chondrogenic cells after exposure to biosilica or polyP, the upregulation of the steady-state level of collagen Type II transcripts in chondrogenic cells is comparably stronger than in osteogenic cells. It is concluded that the two polymers, biosilica and polyP, are morphogenetically active additives for the otherwise biologically inert alginate polymer. It is proposed that

  19. 3 CFR - Guidelines for Human Stem Cell Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 3 The President 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Guidelines for Human Stem Cell Research Presidential Documents Other Presidential Documents Memorandum of July 30, 2009 Guidelines for Human Stem Cell Research..., scientifically worthy human stem cell research, including human embryonic stem cell research, to the extent...

  20. Multipotent progenitor cells in gingival connective tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fournier, Benjamin P J; Ferre, François C; Couty, Ludovic; Lataillade, Jean-Jacques; Gourven, Murielle; Naveau, Adrien; Coulomb, Bernard; Lafont, Antoine; Gogly, Bruno

    2010-09-01

    The gum has an exceptional capacity for healing. To examine the basis for this property and explore the potential of conferring it to organs with inferior healing capacity, we sought the presence of progenitor cells in gingival connective tissue. Colony-forming units of fibroblast-enriched cells from gingival fibroblast cultures were assessed for expression of membrane markers of mesenchymal stem cells; capacity to differentiate into osteoblasts, chondroblasts, and adipocytes; and engraftment efficiency after in vivo transfer. On the basis of their ability to differentiate into several lineages, proliferate from single cells, induce calcium deposits, and secrete collagen in vivo after transfer on hydroxyapatite carriers, we suggest that this population represents gingival multipotent progenitor cells. The discovery of progenitor cells in gingival connective tissue may help improve our understanding of how the wounded gum is capable of almost perfect healing and opens the prospect of cellular therapy for wound healing using readily available cells at limited risk to the patient.

  1. Stem cells in the human breast

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Ole William; Polyak, Kornelia

    2010-01-01

    The origins of the epithelial cells participating in the development, tissue homeostasis, and cancer of the human breast are poorly understood. However, emerging evidence suggests a role for adult tissue-specific stem cells in these processes. In a hierarchical manner, these generate the two main...... mammary cell lineages, producing an increasing number of cells with distinct properties. Understanding the biological characteristics of human breast stem cells and their progeny is crucial in attempts to compare the features of normal stem cells and cancer precursor cells and distinguish these from...... nonprecursor cells and cells from the bulk of a tumor. A historical overview of research on human breast stem cells in primary tissue and in culture reveals the progress that has been made in this area, whereas a focus on the cell-of-origin and reprogramming that occurs during neoplastic conversion provides...

  2. Pigment Cell Progenitors in Zebrafish Remain Multipotent through Metamorphosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Ajeet Pratap; Dinwiddie, April; Mahalwar, Prateek; Schach, Ursula; Linker, Claudia; Irion, Uwe; Nüsslein-Volhard, Christiane

    2016-08-08

    The neural crest is a transient, multipotent embryonic cell population in vertebrates giving rise to diverse cell types in adults via intermediate progenitors. The in vivo cell-fate potential and lineage segregation of these postembryonic progenitors is poorly understood, and it is unknown if and when the progenitors become fate restricted. We investigate the fate restriction in the neural crest-derived stem cells and intermediate progenitors in zebrafish, which give rise to three distinct adult pigment cell types: melanophores, iridophores, and xanthophores. By inducing clones in sox10-expressing cells, we trace and quantitatively compare the pigment cell progenitors at four stages, from embryogenesis to metamorphosis. At all stages, a large fraction of the progenitors are multipotent. These multipotent progenitors have a high proliferation ability, which diminishes with fate restriction. We suggest that multipotency of the nerve-associated progenitors lasting into metamorphosis may have facilitated the evolution of adult-specific traits in vertebrates. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Experimental induction of reparative morphogenesis and adaptive reserves in the ischemic myocardium using multipotent mesenchymal bone marrow-derived stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mykhaylichenko, V Yu; Kubyshkin, A V; Samarin, S A; Fomochkina, I I; Anisimova, L V

    2016-06-01

    Current experimental research has proven the efficacy of transplantation bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) in the treatment of myocardial infarction (MI). The one of the main purposes of research was to evaluate the comparative data of the MSC transplantation with (5-azacytidine) and without commitment and to assess the post transplantation effects. The efficiency of intravenous cardiomyoplasty by infusion of MSC was evaluated in female Wistar-Kyoto rats with myocardial infarction model using echocardiography, morphological study, morphometry, immunohistostaining, data from in situ hybridization, and by measurement of blood serum levels of nitric oxide, endothelin-1, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2). The transplanted MSC were detected in all layers of the myocardium; MCS actively participate in the formation of blood vessels and connective tissue in the scar zone. There was no observable differentiation of male MSC into cardiomyocytes in female rats with MI. However, MSC transplantation leads to significant improvement in vascularization in the area of MI, elevation blood serum levels of nitric oxide, VEGF, and FGF2. No significant differences were identified morphologically between the two groups of animals after transplantation with unmodified MSC or commited MSC (5-azaC). Intravenous transplantation of MSC without commitment in rats with MI improves the contractile function of the heart, the morphology of the myocardium, and should be recommended for further clinical investigation as an alternative approach to deal with heart diseases. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Metformin Decreases Reactive Oxygen Species, Enhances Osteogenic Properties of Adipose-Derived Multipotent Mesenchymal Stem Cells In Vitro, and Increases Bone Density In Vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Marycz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to its pleiotropic effects, the commonly used drug metformin has gained renewed interest among medical researchers. While metformin is mainly used for the treatment of diabetes, recent studies suggest that it may have further application in anticancer and antiaging therapies. In this study, we investigated the proliferative potential, accumulation of oxidative stress factors, and osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation potential of mouse adipose-derived stem cells (MuASCs isolated from mice treated with metformin for 8 weeks. Moreover, we investigated the influence of metformin supplementation on mice bone density and bone element composition. The ASCs isolated from mice who were treated with metformin for 8 weeks showed highest proliferative potential, generated a robust net of cytoskeletal projections, had reduced expression of markers associated with cellular senescence, and decreased amount of reactive oxygen species in comparison to control group. Furthermore, we demonstrated that these cells possessed greatest osteogenic differentiation potential, while their adipogenic differentiation ability was reduced. We also demonstrated that metformin supplementation increases bone density in vivo. Our result stands as a valuable source of data regarding the in vivo influence of metformin on ASCs and bone density and supports a role for metformin in regenerative medicine.

  5. Human hair genealogies and stem cell latency

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    Tavaré Simon

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Stem cells divide to reproduce themselves and produce differentiated progeny. A fundamental problem in human biology has been the inability to measure how often stem cells divide. Although it is impossible to observe every division directly, one method for counting divisions is to count replication errors; the greater the number of divisions, the greater the numbers of errors. Stem cells with more divisions should produce progeny with more replication errors. Methods To test this approach, epigenetic errors (methylation in CpG-rich molecular clocks were measured from human hairs. Hairs exhibit growth and replacement cycles and "new" hairs physically reappear even on "old" heads. Errors may accumulate in long-lived stem cells, or in their differentiated progeny that are eventually shed. Results Average hair errors increased until two years of age, and then were constant despite decades of replacement, consistent with new hairs arising from infrequently dividing bulge stem cells. Errors were significantly more frequent in longer hairs, consistent with long-lived but eventually shed mitotic follicle cells. Conclusion Constant average hair methylation regardless of age contrasts with the age-related methylation observed in human intestine, suggesting that error accumulation and therefore stem cell latency differs among tissues. Epigenetic molecular clocks imply similar mitotic ages for hairs on young and old human heads, consistent with a restart with each new hair, and with genealogies surreptitiously written within somatic cell genomes.

  6. Long-term evaluation of osteoarthritis sheep knee, treated with TGF-β3 and BMP-6 induced multipotent stem cells.

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    Ude, C C; Shamsul, B S; Ng, M H; Chen, H C; Ohnmar, Htwe; Amaramalar, S N; Rizal, A R; Johan, A; Norhamdan, M Y; Azizi, M; Aminuddin, B S; Ruszymah, B H I

    2018-01-29

    Hyaline articular cartilage, which protects the bones of diarthrodial joints from forces associated with load bearing, frictions, and impacts has very limited capacities for self-repair. Over the years, the trend of treatments has shifted to regenerations and researchers have been on the quest for a lasting regeneration. We evaluated the treatment of osteoarthritis by chondrogenically induced ADSCs and BMSCs for a long time functional recovery. Osteoarthritis was induced at the right knee of sheep by complete resection of ACL and medial meniscus. Stem cells from sheep were induced to chondrogenic lineage. Test sheep received 5 mls single doses of 2 × 10 7 autologous PKH26-labelled ADSCs or BMSCs, while controls received basal medium. Functional recovery of the knees was evaluated via electromyography. Induced ADSCs had 625, 255, 393, 908, 409, 157 and 1062 folds increases of collagen I, collagen II, aggrecan, SOX9, cartilage oligomeric protein, chondroadherin and fibromodullin compare to uninduced cells, while BMSCs had 702, 657, 321, 276, 337, 233 and 1163 respectively; p = .001. Immunocytochemistry was positive for these chondrogenic markers. 12 months post-treatment, controls scored 4 in most regions using ICRS, while the treated had 8; P = .001. Regenerated cartilages were positive to PKH26 and demonstrated the presence of condensing cartilages on haematoxylin and eosin; and Safranin O. OA degenerations caused significant amplitude shift from right to left hind limb. After treatments, controls persisted with significant decreases; while treated samples regained balance. Both ADSCs and BMSCs had increased chondrogenic gene expressions using TGF-β3 and BMP-6. The treated knees had improved cartilage scores; PKH26 can provide elongated tracking, while EMG results revealed improved joint recoveries. These could be suitable therapies for osteoarthritis. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. Characterization of porcine multipotent stem/stromal cells derived from skin, adipose, and ovarian tissues and their differentiation in vitro into putative oocyte-like cells.

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    Song, Seung-Hee; Kumar, Basavarajappa Mohana; Kang, Eun-Ju; Lee, Yeon-Mi; Kim, Tae-Ho; Ock, Sun-A; Lee, Sung-Lim; Jeon, Byeong-Gyun; Rho, Gyu-Jin

    2011-08-01

    The present study evaluated the alkaline phosphatase activity, cell cycle stage, expression of markers and early transcriptional factors, and in vitro differentiation into selected cell lineages of porcine stem/stromal cells (SCs) isolated from skin (SSCs), adipose, and ovarian (OSCs) tissues. Skin and adipose SCs were isolated from a 6-month-old miniature pig, whereas OSCs were isolated from a newly born piglet. Isolated cells exhibited fibroblast-like cell population with significant renewal capacity and formed colonies by cells out-growth. All cells were positive for alkaline phosphatase activity and showed a relatively lower population at G0/G1 phase of the cell cycle. SCs derived from all tissues were strongly positive for cell surface markers, such as CD29, CD44, CD90, and vimentin. Further, relatively lower expression of cytokeratin and immunophenotype markers, such as major histocompatibility complex II (MHCII) and swine leukocyte antigen (SLA), was also observed. SCs derived from all tissues positively expressed the transcription factors, such as Oct-3/4, Nanog, and Sox-2. After induction, all SCs successfully differentiated into osteocytes and adipocytes and expressed the lineage specific marker genes. Further, cells from all tissues exhibited their potential for in vitro oogenesis with morphological changes and expression of markers during the germ-cell formation, namely Oct-4, growth differentiation factor 9b, c-Mos, Vasa, deleted in azoospermia-like gene, zona pellucida C, and follicle stimulating hormone receptor. Apart from basic features and selected lineage potential among all types of cells, OSCs possessed a greater ability to differentiate into the germ cell lineage in vitro.

  8. Human skin-derived stem cells migrate throughout forebrain and differentiate into astrocytes after injection into adult mouse brain.

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    Belicchi, Marzia; Pisati, Federica; Lopa, Raffaella; Porretti, Laura; Fortunato, Francesco; Sironi, Manuela; Scalamogna, Mario; Parati, Eugenio A; Bresolin, Nereo; Torrente, Yvan

    2004-08-15

    Recent evidence indicates that neural stem cell properties can be found among a mammalian skin-derived multipotent population. A major barrier in the further characterization of the human skin-derived neural progenitors is the inability to isolate this population based on expression of cell surface markers. Our work has been devoted to purified human skin-derived stem cells that are capable of neural differentiation, based on the presence or absence of the AC133 cell surface marker. The enriched skin-derived AC133(+) cells express the CD34 and Thy-1 antigens. These cells cultured in a growth medium containing epidermal growth factor (EGF) and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) proliferate, forming spheres, and differentiate in vitro into neurons, astrocytes, and rarely into oligodendrocytes. Single cells from sphere cultures initiated from human purified AC133(+) cells were replated as single cells and were able to generate new spheres, demonstrating the self-renewing ability of these stem cell populations. Brain engraftment of cells obtained from human purified AC133(+)-derived spheres generated different neural phenotypes: immature neurons and a most abundant population of well differentiated astrocytes. The AC133-derived astrocytes assumed perivascular locations in the frontal cortex. No donor-derived oligodendrocytes were found in the transplanted mouse brains. Several donor small, rounded cells that expressed endothelial markers were found close to the host vessel and near the subventricular zone. Thus, mammalian skin AC133-derived cells behave as a multipotent population with the capacity to differentiate into neural lineages in vitro and, prevalently, endothelium and astrocytes in vivo, demonstrating the great plasticity of these cells and suggesting potential clinical application. Copyright 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  9. A human memory T-cell subset with stem cell-like properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gattinoni, Luca; Lugli, Enrico; Ji, Yun; Pos, Zoltan; Paulos, Chrystal M.; Quigley, Máire F.; Almeida, Jorge R.; Gostick, Emma; Yu, Zhiya; Carpenito, Carmine; Wang, Ena; Douek, Daniel C.; Price, David A.; June, Carl H.; Marincola, Francesco M.; Roederer, Mario; Restifo, Nicholas P.

    2011-01-01

    Immunological memory is thought to depend upon a stem cell-like, self-renewing population of lymphocytes capable of differentiating into effector cells in response to antigen re-exposure. Here we describe a long-lived human memory T-cell population that displays enhanced self-renewal and multipotent capacity to derive central memory, effector memory and effector T cells. These cells, specific for multiple viral and self-tumor antigens, were found within a CD45RO−, CCR7+, CD45RA+, CD62L+, CD27+, CD28+ and IL-7Rα+ T-cell compartment characteristic of naïve T cells. However, they expressed increased levels of CD95, IL-2Rβ, CXCR3, and LFA-1, and exhibited numerous functional attributes distinctive of memory cells. Compared to known memory populations, these lymphocytes displayed increased proliferative capacity, more efficiently reconstituted immunodeficient hosts and mediated superior anti-tumor responses in a humanized mouse model. The identification of a human stem cell-like memory T-cell population is of direct relevance to the design of vaccines and T-cell therapies. PMID:21926977

  10. A human memory T cell subset with stem cell-like properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gattinoni, Luca; Lugli, Enrico; Ji, Yun; Pos, Zoltan; Paulos, Chrystal M; Quigley, Máire F; Almeida, Jorge R; Gostick, Emma; Yu, Zhiya; Carpenito, Carmine; Wang, Ena; Douek, Daniel C; Price, David A; June, Carl H; Marincola, Francesco M; Roederer, Mario; Restifo, Nicholas P

    2011-09-18

    Immunological memory is thought to depend on a stem cell-like, self-renewing population of lymphocytes capable of differentiating into effector cells in response to antigen re-exposure. Here we describe a long-lived human memory T cell population that has an enhanced capacity for self-renewal and a multipotent ability to derive central memory, effector memory and effector T cells. These cells, specific to multiple viral and self-tumor antigens, were found within a CD45RO(-), CCR7(+), CD45RA(+), CD62L(+), CD27(+), CD28(+) and IL-7Rα(+) T cell compartment characteristic of naive T cells. However, they expressed large amounts of CD95, IL-2Rβ, CXCR3, and LFA-1, and showed numerous functional attributes distinctive of memory cells. Compared with known memory populations, these lymphocytes had increased proliferative capacity and more efficiently reconstituted immunodeficient hosts, and they mediated superior antitumor responses in a humanized mouse model. The identification of a human stem cell-like memory T cell population is of direct relevance to the design of vaccines and T cell therapies.

  11. In vitro culture of Keratinocytes from human umbilical cord blood mesenchymal stem cells: the Saigonese culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Cong Toai; Huynh, Duy Thao; Gargiulo, Ciro; Nguyen, Phuong Thao; Tran, Thi Thanh Thuy; Huynh, Minh Tuan; Nguyen, Thanh Tung; Filgueira, Luis; Strong, D Micheal

    2011-05-01

    There have been many attempts to acquire and culture human keratinocytes for clinical purposes including from keratotome slices in media with fetal calf serum (FCS) or pituitary extract (PE), from skin specimens in media with feeder layers, from suction blister epidermal roofs' in serum-free culture and from human umbilical cord blood (hUCB) mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in media with skin feeder layers. Conversely this study was designed to investigate whether keratinocytes could be obtained directly from hUCB MSCs in vitro. It is widely established that mesenchymal stem cells from human umbilical cord blood have multipotent capacity and the ability to differentiate into disparate cell lineages hUCB MSCs were directly induced to differentiate into keratinocytes by using a specific medium composed of primary culture medium (PCM) and serum free medium (SFM) in a ratio 1:9 for a period of 7 days and tested by immunostain p63 and K1-K10. Cells thus cultured were positive in both tests, confirming the possibility to directly obtain keratinocytes from MSCs hUCB in vitro.

  12. Expression of GD2 and GD3 Gangliosides in Human Embryonic Neural Stem Cells

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    Makoto Yanagisawa

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available NSCs (neural stem cells are undifferentiated neural cells endowed with a high potential for proliferation and a capacity for self-renewal with retention of multipotency to differentiate into neurons and glial cells. It has been recently reported that GD3, a b-series ganglioside, is a marker molecule for identifying and isolating mouse NSCs. However, the expression of gangliosides in human NSCs is largely unknown. In the present study, we analysed the expression of gangliosides, GD2 and GD3, in human NSCs that were isolated from human brains at gestational week 17 in the form of neurospheres, which are floating clonal aggregates formed by NSCs in vitro. Employing immunocytochemistry, we found that human NSCs were strongly reactive to anti-GD2 antibody and relatively weakly reactive to anti-GD3 antibody. Treatment of these cells with an organic solvent such as 100% methanol, which selectively removes glycolipids from plasma membrane, abolished the immunoreactivity with those antibodies, indicating that the reactivity was due to GD2 and GD3, but not to GD2-/GD3-like glycoproteins or proteoglycans. The immunoreactivity of human NSCs to antibody against SSEA-1 (stage-specific embryonic antigen-1, a well-known carbohydrate antigen of NSCs, was not decreased by the treatment with 100% methanol, indicating that SSEA-1 is mainly carried by glycoproteins and/or proteoglycans in human NSCs. Our study suggests that GD2 and GD3 can be marker gangliosides for identifying human NSCs.

  13. Expansion on stromal cells preserves the undifferentiated state of human hematopoietic stem cells despite compromised reconstitution ability.

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    Mattias Magnusson

    Full Text Available Lack of HLA-matched hematopoietic stem cells (HSC limits the number of patients with life-threatening blood disorders that can be treated by HSC transplantation. So far, insufficient understanding of the regulatory mechanisms governing human HSC has precluded the development of effective protocols for culturing HSC for therapeutic use and molecular studies. We defined a culture system using OP9M2 mesenchymal stem cell (MSC stroma that protects human hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HSPC from differentiation and apoptosis. In addition, it facilitates a dramatic expansion of multipotent progenitors that retain the immunophenotype (CD34+CD38-CD90+ characteristic of human HSPC and proliferative potential over several weeks in culture. In contrast, transplantable HSC could be maintained, but not significantly expanded, during 2-week culture. Temporal analysis of the transcriptome of the ex vivo expanded CD34+CD38-CD90+ cells documented remarkable stability of most transcriptional regulators known to govern the undifferentiated HSC state. Nevertheless, it revealed dynamic fluctuations in transcriptional programs that associate with HSC behavior and may compromise HSC function, such as dysregulation of PBX1 regulated genetic networks. This culture system serves now as a platform for modeling human multilineage hematopoietic stem/progenitor cell hierarchy and studying the complex regulation of HSC identity and function required for successful ex vivo expansion of transplantable HSC.

  14. Calcium signaling in human pluripotent stem cells.

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    Apáti, Ágota; Berecz, Tünde; Sarkadi, Balázs

    2016-03-01

    Human pluripotent stem cells provide new tools for developmental and pharmacological studies as well as for regenerative medicine applications. Calcium homeostasis and ligand-dependent calcium signaling are key components of major cellular responses, including cell proliferation, differentiation or apoptosis. Interestingly, these phenomena have not been characterized in detail as yet in pluripotent human cell sates. Here we review the methods applicable for studying both short- and long-term calcium responses, focusing on the expression of fluorescent calcium indicator proteins and imaging methods as applied in pluripotent human stem cells. We discuss the potential regulatory pathways involving calcium responses in hPS cells and compare these to the implicated pathways in mouse PS cells. A recent development in the stem cell field is the recognition of so called "naïve" states, resembling the earliest potential forms of stem cells during development, as well as the "fuzzy" stem cells, which may be alternative forms of pluripotent cell types, therefore we also discuss the potential role of calcium homeostasis in these PS cell types. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Neural Stem Cell or Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell-derived GABA-ergic Progenitor Cell Grafting in an Animal Model of Chronic Temporal Lobe Epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upadhya, Dinesh; Hattiangady, Bharathi; Shetty, Geetha A.; Zanirati, Gabriele; Kodali, Maheedhar; Shetty, Ashok K.

    2016-01-01

    Grafting of neural stem cells (NSCs) or GABA-ergic progenitor cells (GPCs) into the hippocampus could offer an alternative therapy to hippocampal resection in patients with drug-resistant chronic epilepsy, which afflicts >30% of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) cases. Multipotent, self-renewing NSCs could be expanded from multiple regions of the developing and adult brain, human embryonic stem cells (hESCs), and human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs). On the other hand, GPCs could be generated from the medial and lateral ganglionic eminences of the embryonic brain and from hESCs and hiPSCs. To provide comprehensive methodologies involved in testing the efficacy of transplantation of NSCs and GPCs in a rat model of chronic TLE, NSCs derived from the rat medial ganglionic eminence (MGE) and MGE-like GPCs derived from hiPSCs are taken as examples in this unit. The topics comprise description of the required materials, reagents and equipment, methods for obtaining rat MGE-NSCs and hiPSC-derived MGE-like GPCs in culture, generation of chronically epileptic rats, intrahippocampal grafting procedure, post-grafting evaluation of the effects of grafts on spontaneous recurrent seizures and cognitive and mood impairments, analyses of the yield and the fate of graft-derived cells, and the effects of grafts on the host hippocampus. PMID:27532817

  16. Adhesive and mechanical regulation of mesenchymal stem cell differentiation in human bone marrow and periosteum-derived progenitor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eyckmans, Jeroen; Lin, Grace L; Chen, Christopher S

    2012-11-15

    It has previously been demonstrated that cell shape can influence commitment of human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hBMCs) to adipogenic, osteogenic, chondrogenic, and other lineages. Human periosteum-derived cells (hPDCs) exhibit multipotency similar to hBMCs, but hPDCs may offer enhanced potential for osteogenesis and chondrogenesis given their apparent endogenous role in bone and cartilage repair in vivo. Here, we examined whether hPDC differentiation is regulated by adhesive and mechanical cues comparable to that reported for hBMC differentiation. When cultured in the appropriate induction media, hPDCs at high cell seeding density demonstrated enhanced levels of adipogenic or chondrogenic markers as compared with hPDCs at low cell seeding density. Cell seeding density correlated inversely with projected area of cell spreading, and directly limiting cell spreading with micropatterned substrates promoted adipogenesis or chondrogenesis while substrates promoting cell spreading supported osteogenesis. Interestingly, cell seeding density influenced differentiation through both changes in cell shape and non-shape-mediated effects: density-dependent adipogenesis and chondrogenesis were regulated primarily by cell shape whereas non-shape effects strongly influenced osteogenic potential. Inhibition of cytoskeletal contractility by adding the Rho kinase inhibitor Y27632 further enhanced adipogenic differentiation and discouraged osteogenic differentiation of hPDCs. Together, our results suggest that multipotent lineage decisions of hPDCs are impacted by cell adhesive and mechanical cues, though to different extents than hBMCs. Thus, future studies of hPDCs and other primary stem cell populations with clinical potential should consider varying biophysical metrics for more thorough optimization of stem cell differentiation.

  17. Adhesive and mechanical regulation of mesenchymal stem cell differentiation in human bone marrow and periosteum-derived progenitor cells

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    Jeroen Eyckmans

    2012-08-01

    It has previously been demonstrated that cell shape can influence commitment of human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hBMCs to adipogenic, osteogenic, chondrogenic, and other lineages. Human periosteum-derived cells (hPDCs exhibit multipotency similar to hBMCs, but hPDCs may offer enhanced potential for osteogenesis and chondrogenesis given their apparent endogenous role in bone and cartilage repair in vivo. Here, we examined whether hPDC differentiation is regulated by adhesive and mechanical cues comparable to that reported for hBMC differentiation. When cultured in the appropriate induction media, hPDCs at high cell seeding density demonstrated enhanced levels of adipogenic or chondrogenic markers as compared with hPDCs at low cell seeding density. Cell seeding density correlated inversely with projected area of cell spreading, and directly limiting cell spreading with micropatterned substrates promoted adipogenesis or chondrogenesis while substrates promoting cell spreading supported osteogenesis. Interestingly, cell seeding density influenced differentiation through both changes in cell shape and non-shape-mediated effects: density-dependent adipogenesis and chondrogenesis were regulated primarily by cell shape whereas non-shape effects strongly influenced osteogenic potential. Inhibition of cytoskeletal contractility by adding the Rho kinase inhibitor Y27632 further enhanced adipogenic differentiation and discouraged osteogenic differentiation of hPDCs. Together, our results suggest that multipotent lineage decisions of hPDCs are impacted by cell adhesive and mechanical cues, though to different extents than hBMCs. Thus, future studies of hPDCs and other primary stem cell populations with clinical potential should consider varying biophysical metrics for more thorough optimization of stem cell differentiation.

  18. Differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells from human amniotic fluid to cardiomyocyte‑like cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markmee, Runchana; Aungsuchawan, Sirinda; Narakornsak, Suteera; Tancharoen, Waleephan; Bumrungkit, Kanokkarn; Pangchaidee, Nataporn; Pothacharoen, Peraphan; Puaninta, Chaniporn

    2017-11-01

    Ischemic heart disease (IHD) is a major factor influencing worldwide mortality rates. Furthermore, IHD has become a significant health problem among the Thai population. Stem cell therapy using mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) is an alternative therapeutic method that has been applied to improve the quality of life of patients. Amniotic fluid (AF) contains a heterogeneous cell population, including MSCs, which are multipotent stem cells that have the capability to differentiate into mesenchymal lineages. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the MSC characteristics of human (h)AF and determine its potency regarding cardiogenic differentiation. MSC characterization following flow cytometric analysis revealed that the cells expressed MSC markers, cluster of differentiation (CD)44, CD90, human leukocyte antigen‑ABC and CD73. The results of the alamar blue assay demonstrated that cell proliferation rate continuously increased from the early cultivation phase up to 5‑fold during days 1 to 5 of cell culturing. The highest rate of cell proliferation was observed on day 17 with a 30‑fold increase compared with that on day 1. During the cardiogenic induction stage, morphological changes were observed between day 0 and day 21, and it was revealed that the hAF derived‑MSCs in the cardiogenic‑induced group exhibited myotube‑like morphology after 7 days of cell culturing. Following cardiogenic induction, immunohistochemistry staining was performed on day 21, and reverse transcription‑quantitative polymerase chain reaction on day 7 and 21. These steps were performed to detect the protein and gene expression levels of cardiac specific proteins (GATA4, cardiac troponin T, Nkx2.5 and Connexin43). The results of the present study indicated that hAF‑MSCs possess the potential to differentiate into cardiomyocyte‑like cells. Thus, it was concluded that hAF may be a suitable source of MSCs for stem cell therapy and tissue engineering.

  19. Biomineralized matrices dominate soluble cues to direct osteogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells through adenosine signaling.

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    Kang, Heemin; Shih, Yu-Ru V; Varghese, Shyni

    2015-03-09

    Stem cell differentiation is determined by a repertoire of signals from its microenvironment, which includes the extracellular matrix (ECM) and soluble cues. The ability of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), a common precursor for the skeletal system, to differentiate into osteoblasts and adipocytes in response to their local cues plays an important role in skeletal tissue regeneration and homeostasis. In this study, we investigated whether a bone-specific calcium phosphate (CaP) mineral environment could induce osteogenic differentiation of human MSCs, while inhibiting their adipogenic differentiation, in the presence of adipogenic-inducing medium. We also examined the mechanism through which the mineralized matrix suppresses adipogenesis of hMSCs to promote their osteogenic differentiation. Our results show that hMSCs cultured on mineralized matrices underwent osteogenic differentiation despite being cultured in the presence of adipogenic medium, which indicates the dominance of matrix-based cues of the mineralized matrix in directing osteogenic commitment of stem cells. Furthermore, the mineralized matrix-driven attenuation of adipogenesis was reversed with the inhibition of A2b adenosine receptor (A2bR), implicating a role of adenosine signaling in mineralized environment-mediated inhibition of adipogenesis. Such synthetic matrices with an intrinsic ability to direct differentiation of multipotent adult stem cells toward a targeted phenotype while inhibiting their differentiation into other lineages not only will be a powerful tool in delineating the role of complex microenvironmental cues on stem cell commitment but also will contribute to functional tissue engineering and their translational applications.

  20. Autophagy in human embryonic stem cells.

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    Thien Tra

    Full Text Available Autophagy (macroautophagy is a degradative process that involves the sequestration of cytosolic material including organelles into double membrane vesicles termed autophagosomes for delivery to the lysosome. Autophagy is essential for preimplantation development of mouse embryos and cavitation of embryoid bodies. The precise roles of autophagy during early human embryonic development, remain however largely uncharacterized. Since human embryonic stem cells constitute a unique model system to study early human embryogenesis we investigated the occurrence of autophagy in human embryonic stem cells. We have, using lentiviral transduction, established multiple human embryonic stem cell lines that stably express GFP-LC3, a fluorescent marker for the autophagosome. Each cell line displays both a normal karyotype and pluripotency as indicated by the presence of cell types representative of the three germlayers in derived teratomas. GFP expression and labelling of autophagosomes is retained after differentiation. Baseline levels of autophagy detected in cultured undifferentiated hESC were increased or decreased in the presence of rapamycin and wortmannin, respectively. Interestingly, autophagy was upregulated in hESCs induced to undergo differentiation by treatment with type I TGF-beta receptor inhibitor SB431542 or removal of MEF secreted maintenance factors. In conclusion we have established hESCs capable of reporting macroautophagy and identify a novel link between autophagy and early differentiation events in hESC.

  1. The Effect of Culture on Human Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cells: Focus on DNA Methylation Profiles

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    Angela Bentivegna

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (hBM-MSCs are the best characterized multipotent adult stem cells. Their self-renewal capacity, multilineage differentiation potential, and immunomodulatory properties have indicated that they can be used in many clinical therapies. In a previous work we studied the DNA methylation levels of hBM-MSC genomic DNA in order to delineate a kind of methylation signature specific for early and late passages of culture. In the present work we focused on the modification of the methylation profiles of the X chromosome and imprinted loci, as sites expected to be more stable than whole genome. We propose a model where cultured hBM-MSCs undergo random modifications at the methylation level of most CGIs, nevertheless reflecting the original methylation status. We also pointed out global genome-wide demethylation connected to the long-term culture and senescence. Modification at CGIs promoters of specific genes could be related to the decrease in adipogenic differentiation potential. In conclusion, we showed important changes in CGIs methylation due to long-term in vitro culture that may affect the differentiation potential of hBM-MSCs. Therefore it is necessary to optimize the experimental conditions for in vitro expansion in order to minimize these epigenetic changes and to standardize safer procedures.

  2. Expression of Pluripotency Markers in Nonpluripotent Human Neural Stem and Progenitor Cells.

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    Vincent, Per Henrik; Benedikz, Eirikur; Uhlén, Per; Hovatta, Outi; Sundström, Erik

    2017-06-15

    Nonpluripotent neural progenitor cells (NPCs) derived from the human fetal central nervous system were found to express a number of messenger RNA (mRNA) species associated with pluripotency, such as NANOG, REX1, and OCT4. The expression was restricted to small subpopulations of NPCs. In contrast to pluripotent stem cells, there was no coexpression of the pluripotency-associated genes studied. Although the expression of these genes rapidly declined during the in vitro differentiation of NPCs, we found no evidence that the discrete expression was associated with the markers of multipotent neural stem cells (CD133+/CD24lo), the capacity of sphere formation, or high cell proliferation rates. The rate of cell death among NPCs expressing pluripotency-associated genes was also similar to that of other NPCs. Live cell imaging showed that NANOG- and REX1-expressing NPCs continuously changed morphology, as did the nonexpressing cells. Depletion experiments showed that after the complete removal of the subpopulations of NANOG- and REX1-expressing NPCs, the expression of these genes appeared in other NPCs within a few days. The percentage of NANOG- and REX1-expressing cells returned to that observed before depletion. Our results are best explained by a model in which there is stochastic transient expression of pluripotency-associated genes in proliferating NPCs.

  3. Human mesenchymal stem cells self-renew and differentiate according to a deterministic hierarchy.

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    Rahul Sarugaser

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Mesenchymal progenitor cells (MPCs have been isolated from a variety of connective tissues, and are commonly called "mesenchymal stem cells" (MSCs. A stem cell is defined as having robust clonal self-renewal and multilineage differentiation potential. Accordingly, the term "MSC" has been criticised, as there is little data demonstrating self-renewal of definitive single-cell-derived (SCD clonal populations from a mesenchymal cell source. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we show that a tractable MPC population, human umbilical cord perivascular cells (HUCPVCs, was capable of multilineage differentiation in vitro and, more importantly, contributed to rapid connective tissue healing in vivo by producing bone, cartilage and fibrous stroma. Furthermore, HUCPVCs exhibit a high clonogenic frequency, allowing us to isolate definitive SCD parent and daughter clones from mixed gender suspensions as determined by Y-chromosome fluorescent in situ hybridization. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Analysis of the multilineage differentiation capacity of SCD parent clones and daughter clones enabled us to formulate a new hierarchical schema for MSC self-renewal and differentiation in which a self-renewing multipotent MSC gives rise to more restricted self-renewing progenitors that gradually lose differentiation potential until a state of complete restriction to the fibroblast is reached.

  4. MePR: A Novel Human Mesenchymal Progenitor Model with Characteristics of Pluripotency

    OpenAIRE

    Miceli, Marco; Franci, Gianluigi; Dell?Aversana, Carmela; Ricciardiello, Francesca; Petraglia, Francesca; Carissimo, Annamaria; Perone, Lucia; Maruotti, Giuseppe Maria; Savarese, Marco; Martinelli, Pasquale; Cancemi, Massimo; Altucci, Lucia

    2013-01-01

    Human embryo stem cells or adult tissues are excellent models for discovery and characterization of differentiation processes. The aims of regenerative medicine are to define the molecular and physiological mechanisms that govern stem cells and differentiation. Human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) are multipotent adult stem cells that are able to differentiate into a variety of cell types under controlled conditions both in vivo and in vitro, and they have the remarkable ability of self-renew...

  5. LNGFR(+)THY-1(+) human pluripotent stem cell-derived neural crest-like cells have the potential to develop into mesenchymal stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouchi, Takehito; Morikawa, Satoru; Shibata, Shinsuke; Fukuda, Kimiko; Okuno, Hironobu; Fujimura, Takumi; Kuroda, Tatsuo; Ohyama, Manabu; Akamatsu, Wado; Nakagawa, Taneaki; Okano, Hideyuki

    2016-12-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are defined as non-hematopoietic, plastic-adherent, self-renewing cells that are capable of tri-lineage differentiation into bone, cartilage or fat in vitro. Thus, MSCs are promising candidates for cell-based medicine. However, classifications of MSCs have been defined retrospectively; moreover, this conventional criterion may be inaccurate due to contamination with other hematopoietic lineage cells. Human MSCs can be enriched by selection for LNGFR and THY-1, and this population may be analogous to murine PDGFRα(+)Sca-1(+) cells, which are developmentally derived from neural crest cells (NCCs). Murine NCCs were labeled by fluorescence, which provided definitive proof of neural crest lineage, however, technical considerations prevent the use of a similar approach to determine the origin of human LNGFR(+)THY-1(+) MSCs. To further clarify the origin of human MSCs, human embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) were used in this study. Under culture conditions required for the induction of neural crest cells, human ESCs and iPSCs-derived cells highly expressed LNGFR and THY-1. These LNGFR(+)THY-1(+) neural crest-like cells, designated as LT-NCLCs, showed a strong potential to differentiate into both mesenchymal and neural crest lineages. LT-NCLCs proliferated to form colonies and actively migrated in response to serum concentration. Furthermore, we transplanted LT-NCLCs into chick embryos, and traced their potential for survival, migration and differentiation in the host environment. These results suggest that LNGFR(+)THY-1(+) cells identified following NCLC induction from ESCs/iPSCs shared similar potentials with multipotent MSCs. Copyright © 2016 International Society of Differentiation. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Activation of protein kinase A and exchange protein directly activated by cAMP promotes adipocyte differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jia, Bingbing; Madsen, Lise; Petersen, Rasmus Koefoed

    2012-01-01

    Human mesenchymal stem cells are primary multipotent cells capable of differentiating into several cell types including adipocytes when cultured under defined in vitro conditions. In the present study we investigated the role of cAMP signaling and its downstream effectors, protein kinase A (PKA......) and exchange protein directly activated by cAMP (Epac) in adipocyte conversion of human mesenchymal stem cells derived from adipose tissue (hMADS). We show that cAMP signaling involving the simultaneous activation of both PKA- and Epac-dependent signaling is critical for this process even in the presence...... of the strong adipogenic inducers insulin, dexamethasone, and rosiglitazone, thereby clearly distinguishing the hMADS cells from murine preadipocytes cell lines, where rosiglitazone together with dexamethasone and insulin strongly promotes adipocyte differentiation. We further show that prostaglandin I(2) (PGI...

  7. Modeling human infertility with pluripotent stem cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Di Chen

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Human fertility is dependent upon the correct establishment and differentiation of the germline. This is because no other cell type in the body is capable of passing a genome and epigenome from parent to child. Terminally differentiated germline cells in the adult testis and ovary are called gametes. However, the initial specification of germline cells occurs in the embryo around the time of gastrulation. Most of our knowledge regarding the cell and molecular events that govern human germline specification involves extrapolating scientific principles from model organisms, most notably the mouse. However, recent work using next generation sequencing, gene editing and differentiation of germline cells from pluripotent stem cells has revealed that the core molecular mechanisms that regulate human germline development are different from rodents. Here, we will discuss the major molecular pathways required for human germline differentiation and how pluripotent stem cells have revolutionized our ability to study the earliest steps in human embryonic lineage specification in order to understand human fertility.

  8. A cell junction pathology of neural stem cells leads to abnormal neurogenesis and hydrocephalus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodríguez, Esteban M; Guerra, María M; Vío, Karin; González, César; Ortloff, Alexander; Bátiz, Luis F; Rodríguez, Sara; Jara, María C; Muñoz, Rosa I; Ortega, Eduardo; Jaque, Jaime; Guerra, Francisco; Sival, Deborah A; den Dunnen, Wilfred F A; Jiménez, Antonio J; Domínguez-Pinos, María D; Pérez-Fígares, José M; McAllister, James P; Johanson, Conrad

    2012-01-01

    Most cells of the developing mammalian brain derive from the ventricular (VZ) and the subventricular (SVZ) zones. The VZ is formed by the multipotent radial glia/neural stem cells (NSCs) while the SVZ harbors the rapidly proliferative neural precursor cells (NPCs). Evidence from human and animal

  9. Comparison of mesenchymal-like stem/progenitor cells derived from supernumerary teeth with stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sunray; An, Soyoun; Kang, Tae Hoon; Kim, Kyung Hye; Chang, Nicole Hyesoo; Kang, Seongman; Kwak, Chang Kon; Park, Hyun-Sook

    2011-11-01

    Dental tissue has been the focus of attention as an easily accessible postnatal tissue source of high-quality stem cells. Since the first report on the dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) from permanent third molar teeth, stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous teeth (SHED) were identified as a population distinct from DPSCs. In this study, we compared DPSCs from supernumerary teeth and SHED in three age- and sex-matched patients. Dental samples were obtained from the three patients, who were 6 years old and male, with the parental consent of the three donors, and then isolated cells from dental pulp for comparative analysis between supernumerary DPSCs and SHED. Colony-forming unit fibroblast levels and the proliferation rate of supernumerary DPSCs were slightly lower than that of SHED. The expression of cell surface antigens in supernumerary DPSCs and SHED were almost identical. Cells were mainly expressing endogenous mesodermal and ectodermal lineage markers. Differentiation capacity to osteogenic, adipogenic and chondrogenic lineage was similar in the SHED and supernumerary DPSCs. Migration assay revealed that both supernumerary DPSCs and SHED rapidly migrated toward wounded areas. Supernumerary DPSCs were altered in cell growth after storage for 2 years. Specially, the population doubling time of supernumerary DPSCs increased while that of SHED remained nearly unchanged. Both supernumerary teeth and deciduous teeth share many characteristics, such as highly proliferative clonogenic cells with a similar immunophenotype to that of mesenchymal stem cells, although they are inferior to SHED for long-term banking. Our findings suggest that supernumerary teeth are also easily accessible and noninvasive sources of postnatal stem cells with multipotency and regenerative capacity.

  10. Nanotubes impregnated human olfactory bulb neural stem cells promote neuronal differentiation in Trimethyltin-induced neurodegeneration rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marei, Hany E; Elnegiry, Ahmed A; Zaghloul, Adel; Althani, Asma; Afifi, Nahla; Abd-Elmaksoud, Ahmed; Farag, Amany; Lashen, Samah; Rezk, Shymaa; Shouman, Zeinab; Cenciarelli, Carlo; Hasan, Anwarul

    2017-12-01

    Neural stem cells (NSCs) are multipotent self-renewing cells that could be used in cellular-based therapy for a wide variety of neurodegenerative diseases including Alzheimer's diseases (AD), Parkinson's disease (PD), amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), and multiple sclerosis (MS). Being multipotent in nature, they are practically capable of giving rise to major cell types of the nervous tissue including neurons, astrocytes, and oligodendrocytes. This is in marked contrast to neural progenitor cells which are committed to a specific lineage fate. In previous studies, we have demonstrated the ability of NSCs isolated from human olfactory bulb (OB) to survive, proliferate, differentiate, and restore cognitive and motor deficits associated with AD, and PD rat models, respectively. The use of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) to enhance the survivability and differentiation potential of NSCs following their in vivo engraftment have been recently suggested. Here, in order to assess the ability of CNTs to enhance the therapeutic potential of human OBNSCs for restoring cognitive deficits and neurodegenerative lesions, we co-engrafted CNTs and human OBNSCs in TMT-neurodegeneration rat model. The present study revealed that engrafted human OBNSCS-CNTs restored cognitive deficits, and neurodegenerative changes associated with TMT-induced rat neurodegeneration model. Moreover, the CNTs seemed to provide a support for engrafted OBNSCs, with increasing their tendency to differentiate into neurons rather than into glia cells. The present study indicate the marked ability of CNTs to enhance the therapeutic potential of human OBNSCs which qualify this novel therapeutic paradigm as a promising candidate for cell-based therapy of different neurodegenerative diseases. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Human embryonic stem cells and patent protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radovanović Sanja M.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Given the importance of biotechnological research in modern diagnostics and therapeutics, on the one hand, and stimulative function of a patent, on the other hand, this work deals with the question of the possibility of pa-tent protection of human embryonic stem cells. Taking into account that this is a biotechnological invention, the key question that this paper highlights is the interpretation of the provisions of their patentability. Namely, thanks to the advanced methods of isolation, purification and preparation for implementation, modern patent systems do not exclude a priori living organisms from patent protection. Therefore, the analysis of representative administrative decisions or court rulings sought to define the criteria that would be applied in order to give patent protection to a certain biotechnological invention (stem cells while others do not.

  12. Molecular aging and rejuvenation of human muscle stem cells

    OpenAIRE

    Carlson, Morgan E; Suetta, Charlotte; Conboy, Michael J.; Aagaard, Per; Mackey, Abigail; Kjaer, Michael; Conboy, Irina

    2009-01-01

    Very little remains known about the regulation of human organ stem cells (in general, and during the aging process), and most previous data were collected in short-lived rodents. We examined whether stem cell aging in rodents could be extrapolated to genetically and environmentally variable humans. Our findings establish key evolutionarily conserved mechanisms of human stem cell aging. We find that satellite cells are maintained in aged human skeletal muscle, but fail to activate in response ...

  13. Overexpressed human heme Oxygenase-1 decreases adipogenesis in pigs and porcine adipose-derived stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Eun Jung; Koo, Ok Jae; Lee, Byeong Chun

    2015-11-27

    Adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ADSC) are multipotent, which means they are able to differentiate into several lineages in vivo and in vitro under proper conditions. This indicates it is possible to determine the direction of differentiation of ADSC by controlling the microenvironment. Heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1), a type of antioxidant enzyme, attenuates adipogenicity and obesity. We produced transgenic pigs overexpressing human HO-1 (hHO-1-Tg), and found that these animals have little fatty tissue when autopsied. To determine whether overexpressed human HO-1 suppresses adipogenesis in pigs, we analyzed body weight increases of hHO-1-Tg pigs and wild type (WT) pigs of the same strain, and induced adipogenic differentiation of ADSC derived from WT and hHO-1-Tg pigs. The hHO-1-Tg pigs had lower body weights than WT pigs from 16 weeks of age until they died. In addition, hHO-1-Tg ADSC showed reduced adipogenic differentiation and expression of adipogenic molecular markers such as PPARγ and C/EBPα compared to WT ADSC. These results suggest that HO-1 overexpression reduces adipogenesis both in vivo and in vitro, which could support identification of therapeutic targets of obesity and related metabolic diseases. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Ethical issues in stem cell research and therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Nancy Mp; Perrin, Jacob

    2014-07-07

    Rapid progress in biotechnology has introduced a host of pressing ethical and policy issues pertaining to stem cell research. In this review, we provide an overview of the most significant issues with which the stem cell research community should be familiar. We draw on a sample of the bioethics and scientific literatures to address issues that are specific to stem cell research and therapy, as well as issues that are important for stem cell research and therapy but also for translational research in related fields, and issues that apply to all clinical research and therapy. Although debate about the moral status of the embryo in human embryonic stem cell research continues to have relevance, the discovery of other highly multipotent stem cell types and alternative methods of isolating and creating highly multipotent stem cells has raised new questions and concerns. Induced pluripotent stem cells hold great promise, but care is needed to ensure their safety in translational clinical trials, despite the temptation to move quickly from bench to bedside. A variety of highly multipotent stem cells - such as mesenchymal stem/stromal cells and stem cells derived from amniotic fluid, umbilical cord blood, adipose tissue, or urine - present the opportunity for widespread biobanking and increased access. With these increased opportunities, however, come pressing policy issues of consent, control, and justice. The imperatives to minimize risks of harm, obtain informed consent, reduce the likelihood of the therapeutic misconception, and facilitate sound translation from bench to bedside are not unique to stem cell research; their application to stem cell research and therapy nonetheless merits particular attention. Because stem cell research is both scientifically promising and ethically challenging, both the application of existing ethical frameworks and careful consideration of new ethical implications are necessary as this broad and diverse field moves forward.

  15. Human Embryonic Stem Cell Research Debates: A Confucian Argument

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    D. F.-C. Tsai

    2005-01-01

    Human embryonic stem cell research can bring about major biomedical breakthroughs and thus contribute enormously to human welfare, yet it raises serious moral problems because it involves using human...

  16. Human haematopoietic stem cells express Oct4 pseudogenes and lack the ability to initiate Oct4 promoter-driven gene expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Strain Alastair J

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The transcription factor Oct4 is well defined as a key regulator of embryonic stem (ES cell pluripotency. In recent years, the role of Oct4 has purportedly extended to the self renewal and maintenance of multipotency in adult stem cell (ASC populations. This profile has arisen mainly from reports utilising reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR based methodologies and has since come under scrutiny following the discovery that many developmental genes have multiple pseudogenes associated with them. Six known pseudogenes exist for Oct4, all of which exhibit very high sequence homology (three >97%, and for this reason the generation of artefacts may have contributed to false identification of Oct4 in somatic cell populations. While ASC lack a molecular blueprint of transcription factors proposed to be involved with 'stemness' as described for ES cells, it is not unreasonable to assume that similar gene patterns may exist. The focus of this work was to corroborate reports that Oct4 is involved in the regulation of ASC self-renewal and differentiation, using a combination of methodologies to rule out pseudogene interference. Haematopoietic stem cells (HSC derived from human umbilical cord blood (UCB and various differentiated cell lines underwent RT-PCR, product sequencing and transfection studies using an Oct4 promoter-driven reporter. In summary, only the positive control expressed Oct4, with all other cell types expressing a variety of Oct4 pseudogenes. Somatic cells were incapable of utilising an exogenous Oct4 promoter construct, leading to the conclusion that Oct4 does not appear involved in the multipotency of human HSC from UCB.

  17. Potency of Stem Cells

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Potency of Stem Cells. Totipotent Stem Cells (Zygote + first 2 divisions). -Can form placenta, embryo, and any cell of the body. Pluripotent (Embryonic Stem Cells). -Can form any cell of the body but can not form placenta, hence no embryo. Multipotent (Adult stem cells).

  18. Regulatory networks define phenotypic classes of human stem cell lines

    OpenAIRE

    Müller, Franz-Josef; Laurent, Louise C.; Kostka, Dennis; Ulitsky, Igor; Williams, Roy; Lu, Christina; Park, In-Hyun; Rao, Mahendra?S.; Shamir, Ron; Schwartz, Philip H.; Schmidt, Nils O.; Loring, Jeanne F.

    2008-01-01

    Stem cells are defined as self-renewing cell populations that can differentiate into multiple distinct cell types. However, hundreds of different human cell lines from embryonic, fetal, and adult sources have been called stem cells, even though they range from pluripotent cells, typified by embryonic stem cells, which are capable of virtually unlimited proliferation and differentiation, to adult stem cell lines, which can generate a far more limited repertory of differentiated cell types. The...

  19. Engraftment potential of human placenta-derived mesenchymal stem cells after in utero transplantation in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chie-Pein; Liu, Shu-Hsiang; Huang, Jian-Pei; Aplin, John D; Wu, Yi-Hsin; Chen, Pei-Chun; Hu, Cing-Siang; Ko, Chun-Chuan; Lee, Ming-Yi; Chen, Chia-Yu

    2009-01-01

    Human placental mesenchymal stem cells (hPMCs) are thought to be multipotent, but their fate after in utero transplantation is not known. hPMCs isolated from term placenta were assessed for their phenotype markers, mutilineage capacity, and immunomodulatory properties. Their engraftment potential was analyzed in a pregnant rat model after in utero transplantation at embryonic day 17. Immunohistochemistry, tracing of labeled cells, fluorescence in situ hybridization and real-time PCR were used to assess post-transplant chimerism. In vitro, lineage-negative, CD34-negative hPMCs differentiated into osteocytes, adipocytes, hepatocytes and endothelial cells with tube formation, and actively suppressed the rat lymphocyte proliferative response to allogeneic lymphocyte stimulation (P transplantation into pregnant rats, a low level of engraftment was achieved in various fetal tissues. Engraftment occurred in more than 60% of the fetal rats. Cells persisted for at least 12 weeks after delivery and evidence was obtained to suggest differentiation into specific lineages, including hepatocytes and hematopoietic cells. However, a greater number of hPMCs migrated to the placenta than to the fetus, thus limiting the degree of cell engraftment in fetal organs. We conclude that hPMCs are mutipotent cells that can be engrafted long-term in immunocompetent rats after in utero transplantation.

  20. Oxidative Stress and Heme Oxygenase-1 Regulated Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells Differentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Vanella

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the effect of increased expression of HO-1 protein and increased levels of HO activity on differentiation of bone-marrow-derived human MSCs. MSCs are multipotent cells that proliferate and differentiate into many different cell types including adipocytes and osteoblasts. HO, the rate-limiting enzyme in heme catabolism, plays an important role during MSCs differentiation. HO catalyzes the stereospecific degradation of heme to biliverdin, with the concurrent release of iron and carbon monoxide. Upregulation of HO-1 expression and increased HO activity are essential for MSC growth and differentiation to the osteoblast lineage consistent with the role of HO-1 in hematopoietic stem cell differentiation. HO-1 participates in the MSC differentiation process shifting the balance of MSC differentiation in favor of the osteoblast lineage by decreasing PPARγ and increasing osteogenic markers such as alkaline phosphatase and BMP-2. In this paper, we define HO-1 as a target molecule in the modulation of adipogenesis and osteogenesis from MSCs and examine the role of the HO system in diabetes, inflammation, osteoporosis, hypertension, and other pathologies, a burgeoning area of research.

  1. Prospective Isolation of Murine and Human Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cells Based on Surface Markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yo Mabuchi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs are currently defined as multipotent stromal cells that undergo sustained in vitro growth and can give rise to cells of multiple mesenchymal lineages, such as adipocytes, chondrocytes, and osteoblasts. The regenerative and immunosuppressive properties of MSCs have led to numerous clinical trials exploring their utility for the treatment of a variety of diseases (e.g., acute graft-versus-host disease, Crohn’s disease, multiple sclerosis, osteoarthritis, and cardiovascular diseases including heart failure and myocardial infarction. On the other hand, conventionally cultured MSCs reflect heterogeneous populations that often contain contaminating cells due to the significant variability in isolation methods and the lack of specific MSC markers. This review article focuses on recent developments in the MSC research field, with a special emphasis on the identification of novel surface markers for the in vivo localization and prospective isolation of murine and human MSCs. Furthermore, we discuss the physiological importance of MSC subtypes in vivo with specific reference to data supporting their contribution to HSC niche homeostasis. The isolation of MSCs using selective markers (combination of PDGFRα and Sca-1 is crucial to address the many unanswered questions pertaining to these cells and has the potential to enhance their therapeutic potential enormously.

  2. Improving washing strategies of human mesenchymal stem cells using negative mode expanded bed chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunha, Bárbara; Silva, Ricardo J S; Aguiar, Tiago; Serra, Margarida; Daicic, John; Maloisel, Jean-Luc; Clachan, John; Åkerblom, Anna; Carrondo, Manuel J T; Peixoto, Cristina; Alves, Paula M

    2016-01-15

    The use of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSC) in clinical applications has been increasing over the last decade. However, to be applied in a clinical setting hMSC need to comply with specific requirements in terms of identity, potency and purity. This study reports the improvement of established tangential flow filtration (TFF)-based washing strategies, further increasing hMSC purity, using negative mode expanded bed adsorption (EBA) chromatography with a new multimodal prototype matrix based on core-shell bead technology. The matrix was characterized and a stable, expanded bed could be obtained using standard equipment adapted from what is used for conventional packed bed chromatography processes. The effect of different expansion rates on cell recovery yield and protein removal capacity was assessed. The best trade-off between cell recovery (89%) and protein clearance (67%) was achieved using an intermediate expansion bed rate (1.4). Furthermore, we also showed that EBA chromatography can be efficiently integrated on the already established process for the downstream processing (DSP) of hMSC, where it improved the washing efficiency more than 10-fold, recovering approximately 70% of cells after global processing. This strategy showed not to impact cell viability (>95%), neither hMSC's characteristics in terms of morphology, immunophenotype, proliferation, adhesion capacity and multipotent differentiation potential. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Long-Term Culture of Self-renewing Pancreatic Progenitors Derived from Human Pluripotent Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamie Trott

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Pluripotent stem cells have been proposed as an unlimited source of pancreatic β cells for studying and treating diabetes. However, the long, multi-step differentiation protocols used to generate functional β cells inevitably exhibit considerable variability, particularly when applied to pluripotent cells from diverse genetic backgrounds. We have developed culture conditions that support long-term self-renewal of human multipotent pancreatic progenitors, which are developmentally more proximal to the specialized cells of the adult pancreas. These cultured pancreatic progenitor (cPP cells express key pancreatic transcription factors, including PDX1 and SOX9, and exhibit transcriptomes closely related to their in vivo counterparts. Upon exposure to differentiation cues, cPP cells give rise to pancreatic endocrine, acinar, and ductal lineages, indicating multilineage potency. Furthermore, cPP cells generate insulin+ β-like cells in vitro and in vivo, suggesting that they offer a convenient alternative to pluripotent cells as a source of adult cell types for modeling pancreatic development and diabetes.

  4. Genome editing: a robust technology for human stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrasekaran, Arun Pandian; Song, Minjung; Ramakrishna, Suresh

    2017-09-01

    Human pluripotent stem cells comprise induced pluripotent and embryonic stem cells, which have tremendous potential for biological and therapeutic applications. The development of efficient technologies for the targeted genome alteration of stem cells in disease models is a prerequisite for utilizing stem cells to their full potential. Genome editing of stem cells is possible with the help of synthetic nucleases that facilitate site-specific modification of a gene of interest. Recent advances in genome editing techniques have improved the efficiency and speed of the development of stem cells for human disease models. Zinc finger nucleases, transcription activator-like effector nucleases, and clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated system are powerful tools for editing DNA at specific loci. Here, we discuss recent technological advances in genome editing with site-specific nucleases in human stem cells.

  5. Drosophila E-cadherin functions in hematopoietic progenitors to maintain multipotency and block differentiation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongjuan Gao

    Full Text Available A fundamental question in stem cell biology concerns the regulatory strategies that control the choice between multipotency and differentiation. Drosophila blood progenitors or prohemocytes exhibit key stem cell characteristics, including multipotency, quiescence, and niche dependence. As a result, studies of Drosophila hematopoiesis have provided important insights into the molecular mechanisms that control these processes. Here, we show that E-cadherin is an important regulator of prohemocyte fate choice, maintaining prohemocyte multipotency and blocking differentiation. These functions are reminiscent of the role of E-cadherin in mammalian embryonic stem cells. We also show that mis-expression of E-cadherin in differentiating hemocytes disrupts the boundary between these cells and undifferentiated prohemocytes. Additionally, upregulation of E-cadherin in differentiating hemocytes increases the number of intermediate cell types expressing the prohemocyte marker, Patched. Furthermore, our studies indicate that the Drosophila GATA transcriptional co-factor, U-shaped, is required for E-cadherin expression. Consequently, E-cadherin is a downstream target of U-shaped in the maintenance of prohemocyte multipotency. In contrast, we showed that forced expression of the U-shaped GATA-binding partner, Serpent, repressed E-cadherin expression and promoted lamellocyte differentiation. Thus, U-shaped may maintain E-cadherin expression by blocking the inhibitory activity of Serpent. Collectively, these observations suggest that GATA:FOG complex formation regulates E-cadherin levels and, thereby, the choice between multipotency and differentiation. The work presented in this report further defines the molecular basis of prohemocyte cell fate choice, which will provide important insights into the mechanisms that govern stem cell biology.

  6. Transplantation dose alters the dynamics of human neural stem cell engraftment, proliferation and migration after spinal cord injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katja M. Piltti

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The effect of transplantation dose on the spatiotemporal dynamics of human neural stem cell (hNSC engraftment has not been quantitatively evaluated in the central nervous system. We investigated changes over time in engraftment/survival, proliferation, and migration of multipotent human central nervous system-derived neural stem cells (hCNS-SCns transplanted at doses ranging from 10,000 to 500,000 cells in spinal cord injured immunodeficient mice. Transplant dose was inversely correlated with measures of donor cell proliferation at 2 weeks post-transplant (WPT and dose-normalized engraftment at 16 WPT. Critically, mice receiving the highest cell dose exhibited an engraftment plateau, in which the total number of engrafted human cells never exceeded the initial dose. These data suggest that donor cell expansion was inversely regulated by target niche parameters and/or transplantation density. Investigation of the response of donor cells to the host microenvironment should be a key variable in defining target cell dose in pre-clinical models of CNS disease and injury.

  7. Transplantation dose alters the dynamics of human neural stem cell engraftment, proliferation and migration after spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piltti, Katja M; Avakian, Sabrina N; Funes, Gabriella M; Hu, Antoinette; Uchida, Nobuko; Anderson, Aileen J; Cummings, Brian J

    2015-09-01

    The effect of transplantation dose on the spatiotemporal dynamics of human neural stem cell (hNSC) engraftment has not been quantitatively evaluated in the central nervous system. We investigated changes over time in engraftment/survival, proliferation, and migration of multipotent human central nervous system-derived neural stem cells (hCNS-SCns) transplanted at doses ranging from 10,000 to 500,000 cells in spinal cord injured immunodeficient mice. Transplant dose was inversely correlated with measures of donor cell proliferation at 2 weeks post-transplant (WPT) and dose-normalized engraftment at 16 WPT. Critically, mice receiving the highest cell dose exhibited an engraftment plateau, in which the total number of engrafted human cells never exceeded the initial dose. These data suggest that donor cell expansion was inversely regulated by target niche parameters and/or transplantation density. Investigation of the response of donor cells to the host microenvironment should be a key variable in defining target cell dose in pre-clinical models of CNS disease and injury. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. Cell proliferation-inducing protein 52/mitofilin is a surface antigen on undifferentiated human dental pulp stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Hyo-In; Lee, Tae-Hyong; Jang, Young-Joo

    2015-06-01

    Dental pulp is a soft tissue located inside the hard part of a tooth and it contains a stem cell population that can regenerate damaged dentin and/or pulp itself. Human dental pulp stem cells (hDPSCs) are multipotent adult stem cells that have the potential to be differentiated into a variety of cell types. Although cells cultured primarily from pulp tissue show heterogeneous phenotypes and variable efficiency in their dentinogenic differentiation, proper selection markers, which are specific to hDPSCs, are essential for the osteo/dentinogenic study of human dental pulp cells. We had previously screened a set of undifferentiation-specific cell surface antibodies of hDPSCs through decoy immunization. In this study, we show that one of these surface monoclonal antibodies, 3C4, is bound to intact pulp cells in a highly undifferentiation-specific manner. The surface antigen protein bound specifically to 3C4 antibody was identified through direct immunoprecipitation and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry as the cell proliferation-inducing protein 52/Mitofilin, which is a protein of the inner mitochondrial membrane and is a possible antagonist to maintaining mitochondrial activation during differentiation. The expression of mitofilin/3C4 antigen dramatically decreased during differentiation, and the depletion of mitofilin/3C4 antigen induced the expression of osteogenic/dentinogenic markers earlier than during normal differentiation. The 3C4-positive cells isolated by a magnetic-activated cell sorting system were differentiated with a higher efficiency than 3C4-negative cells. These results indicate that finding mitochondria-related stem cell markers is valuable to be able to identify and isolate primitive stem cells.

  9. Human and feline adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells have comparable phenotype, immunomodulatory functions, and transcriptome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Kaitlin C; Fierro, Fernando A; Ko, Emily Mills; Walker, Naomi J; Arzi, Boaz; Tepper, Clifford G; Dahlenburg, Heather; Cicchetto, Andrew; Kol, Amir; Marsh, Lyndsey; Murphy, William J; Fazel, Nasim; Borjesson, Dori L

    2017-03-20

    Adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ASCs) are a promising cell therapy to treat inflammatory and immune-mediated diseases. Development of appropriate pre-clinical animal models is critical to determine safety and attain early efficacy data for the most promising therapeutic candidates. Naturally occurring diseases in cats already serve as valuable models to inform human clinical trials in oncologic, cardiovascular, and genetic diseases. The objective of this study was to complete a comprehensive side-by-side comparison of human and feline ASCs, with an emphasis on their immunomodulatory capacity and transcriptome. Human and feline ASCs were evaluated for phenotype, immunomodulatory profile, and transcriptome. Additionally, transwells were used to determine the role of cell-cell contact in ASC-mediated inhibition of lymphocyte proliferation in both humans and cats. Similar to human ASCs, feline ASCs were highly proliferative at low passages and fit the minimal criteria of multipotent stem cells including a compatible surface protein phenotype, osteogenic capacity, and normal karyotype. Like ASCs from all species, feline ASCs inhibited mitogen-activated lymphocyte proliferation in vitro, with or without direct ASC-lymphocyte contact. Feline ASCs mimic human ASCs in their mediator secretion pattern, including prostaglandin E2, indoleamine 2,3 dioxygenase, transforming growth factor beta, and interleukin-6, all augmented by interferon gamma secretion by lymphocytes. The transcriptome of three unactivated feline ASC lines were highly similar. Functional analysis of the most highly expressed genes highlighted processes including: 1) the regulation of apoptosis; 2) cell adhesion; 3) response to oxidative stress; and 4) regulation of cell differentiation. Finally, feline ASCs had a similar gene expression profile to noninduced human ASCs. Findings suggest that feline ASCs modulate lymphocyte proliferation using soluble mediators that mirror the human ASC secretion

  10. Stable expression of neurogenin 1 induces LGR5, a novel stem cell marker, in an immortalized human neural stem cell line HB1.F3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satoh, Jun-ichi; Obayashi, Shinya; Tabunoki, Hiroko; Wakana, Taeko; Kim, Seung U

    2010-04-01

    Neural stem cells (NSC) with self-renewal and multipotent properties serve as an ideal cell source for transplantation to treat spinal cord injury, stroke, and neurodegenerative diseases. To efficiently induce neuronal lineage cells from NSC for neuron replacement therapy, we should clarify the intrinsic genetic programs involved in a time- and place-specific regulation of human NSC differentiation. Recently, we established an immortalized human NSC clone HB1.F3 to provide an unlimited NSC source applicable to genetic manipulation for cell-based therapy. To investigate a role of neurogenin 1 (Ngn1), a proneural basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factor, in human NSC differentiation, we established a clone derived from F3 stably overexpressing Ngn1. Genome-wide gene expression profiling identified 250 upregulated genes and 338 downregulated genes in Ngn1-overexpressing F3 cells (F3-Ngn1) versus wild-type F3 cells (F3-WT). Notably, leucine-rich repeat-containing G protein-coupled receptor 5 (LGR5), a novel stem cell marker, showed an 167-fold increase in F3-Ngn1, although transient overexpression of Ngn1 did not induce upregulation of LGR5, suggesting that LGR5 is not a direct transcriptional target of Ngn1. KeyMolnet, a bioinformatics tool for analyzing molecular relations on a comprehensive knowledgebase, suggests that the molecular network of differentially expressed genes involves the complex interaction of networks regulated by multiple transcription factors. Gene ontology (GO) terms of development and morphogenesis are enriched in upregulated genes, while those of extracellular matrix and adhesion are enriched in downregulated genes. These results suggest that stable expression of a single gene Ngn1 in F3 cells induces not simply neurogenic but multifunctional changes that potentially affect the differentiation of human NSC via a reorganization of complex gene regulatory networks.

  11. Fetal and adult multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells are killed by different pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Götherström, Cecilia; Lundqvist, Andreas; Duprez, Ida Rasmusson; Childs, Richard; Berg, Louise; le Blanc, Katarina

    2011-03-01

    Multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells, also known as mesenchymal stem cells (MSC), can be isolated from adult and fetal tissues. Recently, there has been considerable interest in MSC because they have features favorable for transplantation, namely their multipotency and non-immunogenic properties. We analyzed how human MSC derived from first-trimester fetal liver and adult bone marrow interact with naive and activated innate natural killer (NK) cells. NK cell function was studied by measuring killing of MSC, as well as degranulation (CD107a) induced by MSC. To assess the importance of NK cell killing, expression of surface epitopes was analyzed by flow cytometry on MSC before and after stimulation with interferon (IFN)γ. Fetal and adult MSC express several ligands to activating NK cell receptors as well as low levels of HLA class I, with large inter-individual variation. Naive peripheral blood NK cells did not lyse fetal or adult MSC, whereas interleukin (IL)2 activated allogeneic as well as autologous NK cells did. Pre-incubation of MSC with IFN-γ increased their levels of HLA class I, protecting them from NK cell recognition. Fetal and adult MSC were preferably killed via the tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) and Fas ligand (FasL) pathways, respectively. Blocking NKG2D reduced NK cell degranulation in both fetal and adult MSC. Fetal and adult MSC differ in their interactions with NK cells. Both fetal and adult MSC are susceptible to lysis by activated NK cells, which may have implications for the use of MSC in cell therapy.

  12. Human embryonic stem cells: preclinical perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarda Kanchan

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs have been extensively discussed in public and scientific communities for their potential in treating diseases and injuries. However, not much has been achieved in turning them into safe therapeutic agents. The hurdles in transforming hESCs to therapies start right with the way these cells are derived and maintained in the laboratory, and goes up-to clinical complications related to need for patient specific cell lines, gender specific aspects, age of the cells, and several post transplantation uncertainties. The different types of cells derived through directed differentiation of hESC and used successfully in animal disease and injury models are described briefly. This review gives a brief outlook on the present and the future of hESC based therapies, and talks about the technological advances required for a safe transition from laboratory to clinic.

  13. High-efficiency generation of induced pluripotent mesenchymal stem cells from human dermal fibroblasts using recombinant proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Fanfan; Zhang, Guoqiang; Yu, Ling; Feng, Yanye; Li, Xianghui; Zhang, Zhijun; Wang, Yongting; Sun, Dapeng; Pradhan, Sriharsa

    2016-07-30

    Induced pluripotent mesenchymal stem cells (iPMSCs) are novel candidates for drug screening, regenerative medicine, and cell therapy. However, introduction of transcription factor encoding genes for induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) generation which could be used to generate mesenchymal stem cells is accompanied by the risk of insertional mutations in the target cell genome. We demonstrate a novel method using an inactivated viral particle to package and deliver four purified recombinant Yamanaka transcription factors (Sox2, Oct4, Klf4, and c-Myc) resulting in reprogramming of human primary fibroblasts. Whole genome bisulfite sequencing was used to analyze genome-wide CpG methylation of human iPMSCs. Western blot, quantitative PCR, immunofluorescence, and in-vitro differentiation were used to assess the pluripotency of iPMSCs. The resulting reprogrammed fibroblasts show high-level expression of stem cell markers. The human fibroblast-derived iPMSC genome showed gains in DNA methylation in low to medium methylated regions and concurrent loss of methylation in previously hypermethylated regions. Most of the differentially methylated regions are close to transcription start sites and many of these genes are pluripotent pathway associated. We found that DNA methylation of these genes is regulated by the four iPSC transcription factors, which functions as an epigenetic switch during somatic reprogramming as reported previously. These iPMSCs successfully differentiate into three embryonic germ layer cells, both in vitro and in vivo. Following multipotency induction in our study, the delivered transcription factors were degraded, leading to an improved efficiency of subsequent programmed differentiation. Recombinant transcription factor based reprogramming and derivatization of iPMSC offers a novel high-efficiency approach for regenerative medicine from patient-derived cells.

  14. Functional Cardiomyocytes Derived From Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zhang, Jianhua; Wilson, Gisela F; Soerens, Andrew G; Koonce, Chad H; Yu, Junying; Palecek, Sean P; Thomson, James A; Kamp, Timothy J

    2009-01-01

    Human induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells hold great promise for cardiovascular research and therapeutic applications, but the ability of human iPS cells to differentiate into functional cardiomyocytes has not yet been demonstrated...

  15. Human carcinoma-associated mesenchymal stem cells promote ovarian cancer chemotherapy resistance via a BMP4/HH signaling loop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffman, Lan G; Choi, Yun-Jung; McLean, Karen; Allen, Benjamin L; di Magliano, Marina Pasca; Buckanovich, Ronald J

    2016-02-09

    The tumor microenvironment is critical to cancer growth and therapy resistance. We previously characterized human ovarian carcinoma-associated mesenchymal stem cells (CA-MSCs). CA-MSCs are multi-potent cells that can differentiate into tumor microenvironment components including fibroblasts, myofibroblasts and adipocytes. We previously reported CA-MSCs, compared to normal MSCs, express high levels of BMP proteins and promote tumor growth by increasing numbers of cancer stem-like cells (CSCs). We demonstrate here that ovarian tumor cell-secreted Hedgehog (HH) induces CA-MSC BMP4 expression. CA-MSC-derived BMP4 reciprocally increases ovarian tumor cell HH expression indicating a positive feedback loop. Interruption of this loop with a HH pathway inhibitor or BMP4 blocking antibody decreases CA-MSC-derived BMP4 and tumor-derived HH preventing enrichment of CSCs and reversing chemotherapy resistance. The impact of HH inhibition was only seen in CA-MSC-containing tumors, indicating the importance of a humanized stroma. These results are reciprocal to findings in pancreatic and bladder cancer, suggesting HH signaling effects are tumor tissue specific warranting careful investigation in each tumor type. Collectively, we define a critical positive feedback loop between CA-MSC-derived BMP4 and ovarian tumor cell-secreted HH and present evidence for the further investigation of HH as a clinical target in ovarian cancer.

  16. Development of a rapid culture method to induce adipocyte differentiation of human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ninomiya, Yuichi [Translational Research Center, Saitama International Medical, Saitama Medical University, 1397-1 Yamane, Hidaka, Saitama 350-1298 (Japan); Sugahara-Yamashita, Yzumi; Nakachi, Yutaka; Tokuzawa, Yoshimi; Okazaki, Yasushi [Division of Functional Genomics and Systems Medicine, Research Center for Genomic Medicine, Saitama Medical University, Saitama 350-1241 (Japan); Nishiyama, Masahiko, E-mail: yamacho@saitama-med.ac.jp [Translational Research Center, Saitama International Medical, Saitama Medical University, 1397-1 Yamane, Hidaka, Saitama 350-1298 (Japan)

    2010-04-02

    Human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) derived from bone marrow are multipotent stem cells that can regenerate mesenchymal tissues such as adipose, bone or muscle. It is thought that hMSCs can be utilized as a cell resource for tissue engineering and as human models to study cell differentiation mechanisms, such as adipogenesis, osteoblastogenesis and so on. Since it takes 2-3 weeks for hMSCs to differentiate into adipocytes using conventional culture methods, the development of methods to induce faster differentiation into adipocytes is required. In this study we optimized the culture conditions for adipocyte induction to achieve a shorter cultivation time for the induction of adipocyte differentiation in bone marrow-derived hMSCs. Briefly, we used a cocktail of dexamethasone, insulin, methylisobutylxanthine (DIM) plus a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor {gamma} agonist, rosiglitazone (DIMRo) as a new adipogenic differentiation medium. We successfully shortened the period of cultivation to 7-8 days from 2-3 weeks. We also found that rosiglitazone alone was unable to induce adipocyte differentiation from hMSCs in vitro. However, rosiglitazone appears to enhance hMSC adipogenesis in the presence of other hormones and/or compounds, such as DIM. Furthermore, the inhibitory activity of TGF-{beta}1 on adipogenesis could be investigated using DIMRo-treated hMSCs. We conclude that our rapid new culture method is very useful in measuring the effect of molecules that affect adipogenesis in hMSCs.

  17. Insights in spatio-temporal characterization of human fetal neural stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Ibáñez, Raquel; Guardia, Inés; Pardo, Mónica; Herranz, Cristina; Zietlow, Rike; Vinh, Ngoc-Nga; Rosser, Anne; Canals, Josep M

    2017-05-01

    Primary human fetal cells have been used in clinical trials of cell replacement therapy for the treatment of neurodegenerative disorders such as Huntington's disease (HD). However, human fetal primary cells are scarce and difficult to work with and so a renewable source of cells is sought. Human fetal neural stem cells (hfNSCs) can be generated from human fetal tissue, but little is known about the differences between hfNSCs obtained from different developmental stages and brain areas. In the present work we characterized hfNSCs, grown as neurospheres, obtained from three developmental stages: 4-5, 6-7 and 8-9weeks post conception (wpc) and four brain areas: forebrain, cortex, whole ganglionic eminence (WGE) and cerebellum. We observed that, as fetal brain development proceeds, the number of neural precursors is diminished and post-mitotic cells are increased. In turn, primary cells obtained from older embryos are more sensitive to the dissociation process, their viability is diminished and they present lower proliferation ratios compared to younger embryos. However, independently of the developmental stage of derivation proliferation ratios were very low in all cases. Improvements in the expansion rates were achieved by mechanical, instead of enzymatic, dissociation of neurospheres but not by changes in the seeding densities. Regardless of the developmental stage, neurosphere cultures presented large variability in the viability and proliferation rates during the initial 3-4 passages, but stabilized achieving significant expansion rates at passage 5 to 6. This was true also for all brain regions except cerebellar derived cultures that did not expand. Interestingly, the brain region of hfNSC derivation influences the expansion potential, being forebrain, cortex and WGE derived cells the most expandable compared to cerebellar. Short term expansion partially compromised the regional identity of cortical but not WGE cultures. Nevertheless, both expanded cultures were

  18. Human omental-derived adipose stem cells increase ovarian cancer proliferation, migration, and chemoresistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowicka, Aleksandra; Marini, Frank C; Solley, Travis N; Elizondo, Paula B; Zhang, Yan; Sharp, Hadley J; Broaddus, Russell; Kolonin, Mikhail; Mok, Samuel C; Thompson, Melissa S; Woodward, Wendy A; Lu, Karen; Salimian, Bahar; Nagrath, Deepak; Klopp, Ann H

    2013-01-01

    Adipose tissue contains a population of multipotent adipose stem cells (ASCs) that form tumor stroma and can promote tumor progression. Given the high rate of ovarian cancer metastasis to the omental adipose, we hypothesized that omental-derived ASC may contribute to ovarian cancer growth and dissemination. We isolated ASCs from the omentum of three patients with ovarian cancer, with (O-ASC4, O-ASC5) and without (O-ASC1) omental metastasis. BM-MSCs, SQ-ASCs, O-ASCs were characterized with gene expression arrays and metabolic analysis. Stromal cells effects on ovarian cancer cells proliferation, chemoresistance and radiation resistance was evaluated using co-culture assays with luciferase-labeled human ovarian cancer cell lines. Transwell migration assays were performed with conditioned media from O-ASCs and control cell lines. SKOV3 cells were intraperitionally injected with or without O-ASC1 to track in-vivo engraftment. O-ASCs significantly promoted in vitro proliferation, migration chemotherapy and radiation response of ovarian cancer cell lines. O-ASC4 had more marked effects on migration and chemotherapy response on OVCA 429 and OVCA 433 cells than O-ASC1. Analysis of microarray data revealed that O-ASC4 and O-ASC5 have similar gene expression profiles, in contrast to O-ASC1, which was more similar to BM-MSCs and subcutaneous ASCs in hierarchical clustering. Human O-ASCs were detected in the stroma of human ovarian cancer murine xenografts but not uninvolved ovaries. ASCs derived from the human omentum can promote ovarian cancer proliferation, migration, chemoresistance and radiation resistance in-vitro. Furthermore, clinical O-ASCs isolates demonstrate heterogenous effects on ovarian cancer in-vitro.

  19. Human omental-derived adipose stem cells increase ovarian cancer proliferation, migration, and chemoresistance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Nowicka

    Full Text Available Adipose tissue contains a population of multipotent adipose stem cells (ASCs that form tumor stroma and can promote tumor progression. Given the high rate of ovarian cancer metastasis to the omental adipose, we hypothesized that omental-derived ASC may contribute to ovarian cancer growth and dissemination.We isolated ASCs from the omentum of three patients with ovarian cancer, with (O-ASC4, O-ASC5 and without (O-ASC1 omental metastasis. BM-MSCs, SQ-ASCs, O-ASCs were characterized with gene expression arrays and metabolic analysis. Stromal cells effects on ovarian cancer cells proliferation, chemoresistance and radiation resistance was evaluated using co-culture assays with luciferase-labeled human ovarian cancer cell lines. Transwell migration assays were performed with conditioned media from O-ASCs and control cell lines. SKOV3 cells were intraperitionally injected with or without O-ASC1 to track in-vivo engraftment.O-ASCs significantly promoted in vitro proliferation, migration chemotherapy and radiation response of ovarian cancer cell lines. O-ASC4 had more marked effects on migration and chemotherapy response on OVCA 429 and OVCA 433 cells than O-ASC1. Analysis of microarray data revealed that O-ASC4 and O-ASC5 have similar gene expression profiles, in contrast to O-ASC1, which was more similar to BM-MSCs and subcutaneous ASCs in hierarchical clustering. Human O-ASCs were detected in the stroma of human ovarian cancer murine xenografts but not uninvolved ovaries.ASCs derived from the human omentum can promote ovarian cancer proliferation, migration, chemoresistance and radiation resistance in-vitro. Furthermore, clinical O-ASCs isolates demonstrate heterogenous effects on ovarian cancer in-vitro.

  20. Persistent oxidative stress in human neural stem cells exposed to low fluences of charged particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janet E. Baulch

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to the space radiation environment poses risks for a range of deleterious health effects due to the unique types of radiation encountered. Galactic cosmic rays are comprised of a spectrum of highly energetic nuclei that deposit densely ionizing tracks of damage along the particle trajectory. These tracks are distinct from those generated by the more sparsely ionizing terrestrial radiations, and define the geometric distribution of the complex cellular damage that results when charged particles traverse the tissues of the body. The exquisite radiosensitivity of multipotent neural stem and progenitor cells found within the neurogenic regions of the brain predispose the central nervous system to elevated risks for radiation induced sequelae. Here we show that human neural stem cells (hNSC exposed to different charged particles at space relevant fluences exhibit significant and persistent oxidative stress. Radiation induced oxidative stress was found to be most dependent on total dose rather than on the linear energy transfer of the incident particle. The use of redox sensitive fluorogenic dyes possessing relative specificity for hydroxyl radicals, peroxynitrite, nitric oxide (NO and mitochondrial superoxide confirmed that most irradiation paradigms elevated reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS and RNS, respectively in hNSC over a 1 week interval following exposure. Nitric oxide synthase (NOS was not the major source of elevated nitric oxides, as the use of NOS inhibitors had little effect on NO dependent fluorescence. Our data provide extensive evidence for the capability of low doses of charged particles to elicit marked changes in the metabolic profile of irradiated hNSC. Radiation induced changes in redox state may render the brain more susceptible to the development of neurocognitive deficits that could affect an astronaut’s ability to perform complex tasks during extended missions in deep space.

  1. [Clinical applications of stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous teeth in stem cell therapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiaoxia, Li; Jiaozi, Fangteng; Shi, Yu; Yuming, Zhao; Lihong, Ge

    2017-10-01

    Stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous teeth (SHED) are one category of dental stem cells. They belong to ectodermal mesenchymal stem cells. As an ideal stem cell source, SHED possess great potential in stem cell therapy. This review demonstrates the biological characteristics and advantages of SHED in stem cell therapy and discusses its multiple functions in tissue regeneration and repair, including multiple differentiation potentiality, cell secretion of cytokines, and immunomodulatory ability. Furthermore, this article introduces the main findings regarding the potential clinical applications of SHED to a variety of diseases. This article demonstrates research progress in dentin-pulp regeneration, maxillofacial bone regeneration, and treatment of nervous system and immune system diseases with SHED for stem cell transplantation.

  2. Investigation of dental pulp stem cells isolated from discarded human teeth extracted due to aggressive periodontitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Hai-Hua; Chen, Bo; Zhu, Qing-Lin; Kong, Hui; Li, Qi-Hong; Gao, Li-Na; Xiao, Min; Chen, Fa-Ming; Yu, Qing

    2014-11-01

    Recently, human dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) isolated from inflamed dental pulp tissue have been demonstrated to retain some of their pluripotency and regenerative potential. However, the effects of periodontal inflammation due to periodontitis and its progression on the properties of DPSCs within periodontally compromised teeth remain unknown. In this study, DPSCs were isolated from discarded human teeth that were extracted due to aggressive periodontitis (AgP) and divided into three experimental groups (Groups A, B and C) based on the degree of inflammation-induced bone resorption approaching the apex of the tooth root before tooth extraction. DPSCs derived from impacted or non-functional third molars of matched patients were used as a control. Mesenchymal stem cell (MSC)-like characteristics, including colony-forming ability, proliferation, cell cycle, cell surface antigens, multi-lineage differentiation capability and in vivo tissue regeneration potential, were all evaluated in a patient-matched comparison. It was found that STRO-1- and CD146-positive DPSCs can be isolated from human teeth, even in very severe cases of AgP. Periodontal inflammation and its progression had an obvious impact on the characteristics of DPSCs isolated from periodontally affected teeth. Although all the isolated DPSCs in Groups A, B and C showed decreased colony-forming ability and proliferation rate (P cells did not necessarily show significantly diminished in vitro multi-differentiation potential. Only DPSCs from Group A and the Control group formed dentin-like matrix in vivo when cell-seeded biomaterials were transplanted directly into an ectopic transplantation model. However, when cell-seeded scaffolds were placed in the root fragments of human teeth, all the cells formed significant dentin- and pulp-like tissues. The ability of DPSCs to generate dental tissues decreased when the cells were isolated from periodontally compromised teeth (P stem cells with certain MSC properties

  3. HIV-1 and recombinant gp120 affect the survival and differentiation of human vessel wall-derived mesenchymal stem cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasquinelli Gianandrea

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background HIV infection elicits the onset of a progressive immunodeficiency and also damages several other organs and tissues such as the CNS, kidney, heart, blood vessels, adipose tissue and bone. In particular, HIV infection has been related to an increased incidence of cardiovascular diseases and derangement in the structure of blood vessels in the absence of classical risk factors. The recent characterization of multipotent mesenchymal cells in the vascular wall, involved in regulating cellular homeostasis, suggests that these cells may be considered a target of HIV pathogenesis. This paper investigated the interaction between HIV-1 and vascular wall resident human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs. Results MSCs were challenged with classical R5 and X4 HIV-1 laboratory strains demonstrating that these strains are able to enter and integrate their retro-transcribed proviral DNA in the host cell genome. Subsequent experiments indicated that HIV-1 strains and recombinant gp120 elicited a reliable increase in apoptosis in sub-confluent MSCs. Since vascular wall MSCs are multipotent cells that may be differentiated towards several cell lineages, we challenged HIV-1 strains and gp120 on MSCs differentiated to adipogenesis and endotheliogenesis. Our experiments showed that the adipogenesis is increased especially by upregulated PPARγ activity whereas the endothelial differentiation induced by VEGF treatment was impaired with a downregulation of endothelial markers such as vWF, Flt-1 and KDR expression. These viral effects in MSC survival and adipogenic or endothelial differentiation were tackled by CD4 blockade suggesting an important role of CD4/gp120 interaction in this context. Conclusions The HIV-related derangement of MSC survival and differentiation may suggest a direct role of HIV infection and gp120 in impaired vessel homeostasis and in genesis of vessel damage observed in HIV-infected patients.

  4. Widespread Chromatin Accessibility at Repetitive Elements Links Stem Cells with Human Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas C. Gomez

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Chromatin regulation is critical for differentiation and disease. However, features linking the chromatin environment of stem cells with disease remain largely unknown. We explored chromatin accessibility in embryonic and multipotent stem cells and unexpectedly identified widespread chromatin accessibility at repetitive elements. Integrating genomic and biochemical approaches, we demonstrate that these sites of increased accessibility are associated with well-positioned nucleosomes marked by distinct histone modifications. Differentiation is accompanied by chromatin remodeling at repetitive elements associated with altered expression of genes in relevant developmental pathways. Remarkably, we found that the chromatin environment of Ewing sarcoma, a mesenchymally derived tumor, is shared with primary mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs. Accessibility at repetitive elements in MSCs offers a permissive environment that is exploited by the critical oncogene responsible for this cancer. Our data demonstrate that stem cells harbor a unique chromatin landscape characterized by accessibility at repetitive elements, a feature associated with differentiation and oncogenesis.

  5. Comparison of the glycosphingolipids of human-induced pluripotent stem cells and human embryonic stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Säljö, Karin; Barone, Angela; Vizlin-Hodzic, Dzeneta; Johansson, Bengt R; Breimer, Michael E; Funa, Keiko; Teneberg, Susann

    2017-04-01

    High expectations are held for human-induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSC) since they are established from autologous tissues thus overcoming the risk of allogeneic immune rejection when used in regenerative medicine. However, little is known regarding the cell-surface carbohydrate antigen profile of hiPSC compared with human embryonic stem cells (hESC). Here, glycosphingolipids were isolated from an adipocyte-derived hiPSC line, and hiPSC and hESC glycosphingolipids were compared by concurrent characterization by binding assays with carbohydrate-recognizing ligands and mass spectrometry. A high similarity between the nonacid glycosphingolipids of hiPSC and hESC was found. The nonacid glycosphingolipids P1 pentaosylceramide, x2 pentaosylceramide and H type 1 heptaosylceramide, not previously described in human pluripotent stem cells (hPSC), were characterized in both hiPSC and hESC. The composition of acid glycosphingolipids differed, with increased levels of GM3 ganglioside, and reduced levels of GD1a/GD1b in hiPSC when compared with hESC. In addition, the hESC glycosphingolipids sulf-globopentaosylceramide and sialyl-globotetraosylceramide were lacking in hiPSC. Neural stem cells differentiating from hiPSC had a reduced expression of sialyl-lactotetra, whereas expression of the GD1a ganglioside was significantly increased. Thus, while sialyl-lactotetra is a marker of undifferentiated hPSC, GD1a is a novel marker of neural differentiation. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Nucleosome Organization in Human Embryonic Stem Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puya G Yazdi

    Full Text Available The fundamental repeating unit of eukaryotic chromatin is the nucleosome. Besides being involved in packaging DNA, nucleosome organization plays an important role in transcriptional regulation and cellular identity. Currently, there is much debate about the major determinants of the nucleosome architecture of a genome and its significance with little being known about its role in stem cells. To address these questions, we performed ultra-deep sequencing of nucleosomal DNA in two human embryonic stem cell lines and integrated our data with numerous epigenomic maps. Our analyses have revealed that the genome is a determinant of nucleosome organization with transcriptionally inactive regions characterized by a "ground state" of nucleosome profiles driven by underlying DNA sequences. DNA sequence preferences are associated with heterogeneous chromatin organization around transcription start sites. Transcription, histone modifications, and DNA methylation alter this "ground state" by having distinct effects on both nucleosome positioning and occupancy. As the transcriptional rate increases, nucleosomes become better positioned. Exons transcribed and included in the final spliced mRNA have distinct nucleosome profiles in comparison to exons not included at exon-exon junctions. Genes marked by the active modification H3K4m3 are characterized by lower nucleosome occupancy before the transcription start site compared to genes marked by the inactive modification H3K27m3, while bivalent domains, genes associated with both marks, lie exactly in the middle. Combinatorial patterns of epigenetic marks (chromatin states are associated with unique nucleosome profiles. Nucleosome organization varies around transcription factor binding in enhancers versus promoters. DNA methylation is associated with increasing nucleosome occupancy and different types of methylations have distinct location preferences within the nucleosome core particle. Finally, computational

  7. Human Stem Cell Derived Cardiomyocytes: An Alternative ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chemical spills and associated deaths in the US has increased 2.6-fold and 16-fold from 1983 to 2012, respectfully. In addition, the number of chemicals to which humans are exposed to in the environment has increased almost 10-fold from 2001 to 2013 within the US. Internationally, a WHO report on the global composite impact of chemicals on health reported that 16% of the total burden of cardiovascular disease was attributed to environmental chemical exposure with 2.5 million deaths per year. Clearly, the cardiovascular system, at all its various developmental and life stages, represents a critical target organ system that can be adversely affected by existing and emerging chemicals (e.g., engineered nanomaterials) in a variety of environmental media. The ability to assess chemical cardiac risk and safety is critically needed but extremely challenging due to the number and categories of chemicals in commerce, as indicated. This presentation\\session will evaluate the use of adult human stem cell derived cardiomyocytes, and existing platforms, as an alternative model to evaluate environmental chemical cardiac toxicity as well as provide key information for the development of predictive adverse outcomes pathways associated with environmental chemical exposures. (This abstract does not represent EPA policy) Rapid and translatable chemical safety screening models for cardiotoxicity current status for informing regulatory decisions, a workshop sponsored by the Society

  8. A Simplified and Systematic Method to Isolate, Culture, and Characterize Multiple Types of Human Dental Stem Cells from a Single Tooth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakkar, Mohammed; Liu, Younan; Fang, Dongdong; Stegen, Camille; Su, Xinyun; Ramamoorthi, Murali; Lin, Li-Chieh; Kawasaki, Takako; Makhoul, Nicholas; Pham, Huan; Sumita, Yoshinori; Tran, Simon D

    2017-01-01

    This chapter describes a simplified method that allows the systematic isolation of multiple types of dental stem cells such as dental pulp stem cells (DPSC), periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSC), and stem cells of the apical papilla (SCAP) from a single tooth. Of specific interest is the modified laboratory approach to harvest/retrieve the dental pulp tissue by minimizing trauma to DPSC by continuous irrigation, reduction of frictional heat from the bur rotation, and reduction of the bur contact time with the dentin. Also, the use of a chisel and a mallet will maximize the number of live DPSC for culture. Steps demonstrating the potential for multiple cell differentiation lineages of each type of dental stem cell into either osteocytes, adipocytes, or chondrocytes are described. Flow cytometry, with a detailed strategy for cell gating and analysis, is described to verify characteristic markers of human mesenchymal multipotent stromal cells (MSC) from DPSC, PDLSC, or SCAP for subsequent experiments in cell therapy and in tissue engineering. Overall, this method can be adapted to any laboratory with a general setup for cell culture experiments.

  9. Molecular aging and rejuvenation of human muscle stem cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlson, Morgan E; Suetta, Charlotte; Conboy, Michael J

    2009-01-01

    Very little remains known about the regulation of human organ stem cells (in general, and during the aging process), and most previous data were collected in short-lived rodents. We examined whether stem cell aging in rodents could be extrapolated to genetically and environmentally variable humans....... Our findings establish key evolutionarily conserved mechanisms of human stem cell aging. We find that satellite cells are maintained in aged human skeletal muscle, but fail to activate in response to muscle attrition, due to diminished activation of Notch compounded by elevated transforming growth...... factor beta (TGF-beta)/phospho Smad3 (pSmad3). Furthermore, this work reveals that mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)/phosphate extracellular signal-regulated kinase (pERK) signalling declines in human muscle with age, and is important for activating Notch in human muscle stem cells. This molecular...

  10. Interferon-gamma improves impaired dentinogenic and immunosuppressive functions of irreversible pulpitis-derived human dental pulp stem cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonoda, Soichiro; Yamaza, Haruyoshi; Ma, Lan; Tanaka, Yosuke; Tomoda, Erika; Aijima, Reona; Nonaka, Kazuaki; Kukita, Toshio; Shi, Songtao; Nishimura, Fusanori; Yamaza, Takayoshi

    2016-01-01

    Clinically, irreversible pulpitis is treated by the complete removal of pulp tissue followed by replacement with artificial materials. There is considered to be a high potential for autologous transplantation of human dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) in endodontic treatment. The usefulness of DPSCs isolated from healthy teeth is limited. However, DPSCs isolated from diseased teeth with irreversible pulpitis (IP-DPSCs) are considered to be suitable for dentin/pulp regeneration. In this study, we examined the stem cell potency of IP-DPSCs. In comparison with healthy DPSCs, IP-DPSCs expressed lower colony-forming capacity, population-doubling rate, cell proliferation, multipotency, in vivo dentin regeneration, and immunosuppressive activity, suggesting that intact IP-DPSCs may be inadequate for dentin/pulp regeneration. Therefore, we attempted to improve the impaired in vivo dentin regeneration and in vitro immunosuppressive functions of IP-DPSCs to enable dentin/pulp regeneration. Interferon gamma (IFN-γ) treatment enhanced in vivo dentin regeneration and in vitro T cell suppression of IP-DPSCs, whereas treatment with tumor necrosis factor alpha did not. Therefore, these findings suggest that IFN-γ may be a feasible modulator to improve the functions of impaired IP-DPSCs, suggesting that autologous transplantation of IFN-γ-accelerated IP-DPSCs might be a promising new therapeutic strategy for dentin/pulp tissue engineering in future endodontic treatment. PMID:26775677

  11. Interferon-gamma improves impaired dentinogenic and immunosuppressive functions of irreversible pulpitis-derived human dental pulp stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonoda, Soichiro; Yamaza, Haruyoshi; Ma, Lan; Tanaka, Yosuke; Tomoda, Erika; Aijima, Reona; Nonaka, Kazuaki; Kukita, Toshio; Shi, Songtao; Nishimura, Fusanori; Yamaza, Takayoshi

    2016-01-18

    Clinically, irreversible pulpitis is treated by the complete removal of pulp tissue followed by replacement with artificial materials. There is considered to be a high potential for autologous transplantation of human dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) in endodontic treatment. The usefulness of DPSCs isolated from healthy teeth is limited. However, DPSCs isolated from diseased teeth with irreversible pulpitis (IP-DPSCs) are considered to be suitable for dentin/pulp regeneration. In this study, we examined the stem cell potency of IP-DPSCs. In comparison with healthy DPSCs, IP-DPSCs expressed lower colony-forming capacity, population-doubling rate, cell proliferation, multipotency, in vivo dentin regeneration, and immunosuppressive activity, suggesting that intact IP-DPSCs may be inadequate for dentin/pulp regeneration. Therefore, we attempted to improve the impaired in vivo dentin regeneration and in vitro immunosuppressive functions of IP-DPSCs to enable dentin/pulp regeneration. Interferon gamma (IFN-γ) treatment enhanced in vivo dentin regeneration and in vitro T cell suppression of IP-DPSCs, whereas treatment with tumor necrosis factor alpha did not. Therefore, these findings suggest that IFN-γ may be a feasible modulator to improve the functions of impaired IP-DPSCs, suggesting that autologous transplantation of IFN-γ-accelerated IP-DPSCs might be a promising new therapeutic strategy for dentin/pulp tissue engineering in future endodontic treatment.

  12. Age-Related Changes in the Regenerative Potential of Adipose-Derived Stem Cells Isolated from the Prominent Fat Pads in Human Lower Eyelids.

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    Xinhai Ye

    Full Text Available The existence of multipotent adipose-derived stem cells isolated from human orbital fat (OF tissue has shown great therapeutic potential in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. But the use of stem cells for therapeutic applications is influenced by their proliferative and differentiation potentials, which may be affected by the age of the donor. So far there is little knowledge about the effects of donor age on the biological properties of human orbital adipose-derived stem cells (OASCs. The intraorbital fat protrusion in the lower eyelids occurs as an aging process, and the protruded fat is routinely removed during aesthetic surgeries. Based on the ease of OF harvest and the availability of OASCs, we investigated in this study the relationship between age and the differentiation and proliferation potentials of human OASCs. Human orbital adipose samples were harvested from young (with normal lower eyelid appearance and old donors (having protruded fat pads in the lower eyelids. The morphological properties of orbital adipocytes were assessed and the fat cell size displayed a decreasing trend with advancing age. OASCs were isolated from the fat samples, expanded in vitro and cultured under appropriate inducive conditions. Compared to the young cells, although no difference was found in the cell yield and phenotype expression, aged OASCs showed fewer progenitor cell numbers, reduced proliferative rates, increased senescent features and decreased differentiation potentials towards adipogenic, osteogenic and chondrogenic lineages. Our data suggested that using autologous OASCs from elderly patients for potential therapeutic purposes might be restricted.

  13. Transplantation of placenta-derived mesenchymal stem cell-induced neural stem cells to treat spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhi; Zhao, Wei; Liu, Wei; Zhou, Ye; Jia, Jingqiao; Yang, Lifeng

    2014-12-15

    Because of their strong proliferative capacity and multi-potency, placenta-derived mesenchymal stem cells have gained interest as a cell source in the field of nerve damage repair. In the present study, human placenta-derived mesenchymal stem cells were induced to differentiate into neural stem cells, which were then transplanted into the spinal cord after local spinal cord injury in rats. The motor functional recovery and pathological changes in the injured spinal cord were observed for 3 successive weeks. The results showed that human placenta-derived mesenchymal stem cells can differentiate into neuron-like cells and that induced neural stem cells contribute to the restoration of injured spinal cord without causing transplant rejection. Thus, these cells promote the recovery of motor and sensory functions in a rat model of spinal cord injury. Therefore, human placenta-derived mesenchymal stem cells may be useful as seed cells during the repair of spinal cord injury.

  14. Phosphorylation dynamics during early differentiation of human embryonic stem cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Hoof, Dennis; Muñoz, Javier; Braam, Stefan R

    2009-01-01

    Pluripotent stem cells self-renew indefinitely and possess characteristic protein-protein networks that remodel during differentiation. How this occurs is poorly understood. Using quantitative mass spectrometry, we analyzed the (phospho)proteome of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) during...

  15. Phosphorylation dynamics during early differentiation of human embryonic stem cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hoof, D.; Munoz, J.; Braam, S.R.; Pinkse, M.W.H.; Linding, R.; Heck, A.J.R.; Mummery, C.L.; Krijgsveld, J.

    2009-01-01

    Pluripotent stem cells self-renew indefinitely and possess characteristic protein-protein networks that remodel during differentiation. How this occurs is poorly understood. Using quantitative mass spectrometry, we analyzed the (phospho)proteome of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) during

  16. Exploitation of herpesvirus immune evasion strategies to modify the immunogenicity of human mesenchymal stem cell transplants.

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    Anabel S de la Garza-Rodea

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs are multipotent cells residing in the connective tissue of many organs and holding great potential for tissue repair. In culture, human MSCs (hMSCs are capable of extensive proliferation without showing chromosomal aberrations. Large numbers of hMSCs can thus be acquired from small samples of easily obtainable tissues like fat and bone marrow. MSCs can contribute to regeneration indirectly by secretion of cytokines or directly by differentiation into specialized cell types. The latter mechanism requires their long-term acceptance by the recipient. Although MSCs do not elicit immune responses in vitro, animal studies have revealed that allogeneic and xenogeneic MSCs are rejected. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We aim to overcome MSC immune rejection through permanent down-regulation of major histocompatibility complex (MHC class I proteins on the surface of these MHC class II-negative cells through the use of viral immune evasion proteins. Transduction of hMSCs with a retroviral vector encoding the human cytomegalovirus US11 protein resulted in strong inhibition of MHC class I surface expression. When transplanted into immunocompetent mice, persistence of the US11-expressing and HLA-ABC-negative hMSCs at levels resembling those found in immunodeficient (i.e., NOD/SCID mice could be attained provided that recipients' natural killer (NK cells were depleted prior to cell transplantation. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our findings demonstrate the potential utility of herpesviral immunoevasins to prevent rejection of xenogeneic MSCs. The observation that down-regulation of MHC class I surface expression renders hMSCs vulnerable to NK cell recognition and cytolysis implies that multiple viral immune evasion proteins are likely required to make hMSCs non-immunogenic and thereby universally transplantable.

  17. Human embryonic stem cells and microenvironment

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    Banu İskender

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs possess a great potential in the field of regenerative medicine by their virtue of pluripotent potential with indefinite proliferation capabilities. They can self renew themselves and differentiate into three embryonic germ layers. Although they are conventionally grown on mitotically inactivated mouse feeder cells, there are in vitro culture systems utilizing feeder cells of human origin in order to prevent cross-species contamination. Recently established in vitro culture systems suggested that direct interaction with feeder cells is not necessary but rather attachment to a substrate is required to ensure long-term, efficient hESC culture in vitro. This substrate is usually composed of a mixture of extracellular matrix components representing in vivo natural niche. In hESC biology, the mechanism of interaction of hESCs with extracellular matrix molecules remained insufficiently explored area of research due to their transient nature of interaction with the in vivo niche. However, an in vitro culture system established using extracellular matrix molecules may provide a safer alternative to culture systems with feeder cells while paving the way to Good Manufacturing Practice-GMP production of hESCs for therapeutic purposes. Therefore, it is essential to study the interaction of extracellular matrix molecules with hESCs in order to standardize in vitro culture systems for large-scale production of hESCs in a less labor-intensive way. This would not only provide valuable information regarding the mechanisms that control pluripotency but also serve to dissect the molecular signaling pathways of directed differentiation for prospective therapeutic applications in the future. J Clin Exp Invest 2014; 5 (3: 486-495

  18. Transcriptional Networks in Single Perivascular Cells Sorted from Human Adipose Tissue Reveal a Hierarchy of Mesenchymal Stem Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, W Reef; Moldovan, Nicanor I; Moldovan, Leni; Livak, Kenneth J; Datta, Krishna; Goswami, Chirayu; Corselli, Mirko; Traktuev, Dmitry O; Murray, Iain R; Péault, Bruno; March, Keith

    2017-05-01

    Adipose tissue is a rich source of multipotent mesenchymal stem-like cells, located in the perivascular niche. Based on their surface markers, these have been assigned to two main categories: CD31 - /CD45 - /CD34 + /CD146 - cells (adventitial stromal/stem cells [ASCs]) and CD31 - /CD45 - /CD34 - /CD146 + cells (pericytes [PCs]). These populations display heterogeneity of unknown significance. We hypothesized that aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) activity, a functional marker of primitivity, could help to better define ASC and PC subclasses. To this end, the stromal vascular fraction from a human lipoaspirate was simultaneously stained with fluorescent antibodies to CD31, CD45, CD34, and CD146 antigens and the ALDH substrate Aldefluor, then sorted by fluorescence-activated cell sorting. Individual ASCs (n = 67) and PCs (n = 73) selected from the extremities of the ALDH-staining spectrum were transcriptionally profiled by Fluidigm single-cell quantitative polymerase chain reaction for a predefined set (n = 429) of marker genes. To these single-cell data, we applied differential expression and principal component and clustering analysis, as well as an original gene coexpression network reconstruction algorithm. Despite the stochasticity at the single-cell level, covariation of gene expression analysis yielded multiple network connectivity parameters suggesting that these perivascular progenitor cell subclasses possess the following order of maturity: (a) ALDH br ASC (most primitive); (b) ALDH dim ASC; (c) ALDH br PC; (d) ALDH dim PC (least primitive). This order was independently supported by specific combinations of class-specific expressed genes and further confirmed by the analysis of associated signaling pathways. In conclusion, single-cell transcriptional analysis of four populations isolated from fat by surface markers and enzyme activity suggests a developmental hierarchy among perivascular mesenchymal stem cells supported by markers and coexpression

  19. Emerging Safety of Intramedullary Transplantation of Human Neural Stem Cells in Chronic Cervical and Thoracic Spinal Cord Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levi, Allan D; Okonkwo, David O; Park, Paul; Jenkins, Arthur L; Kurpad, Shekar N; Parr, Ann M; Ganju, Aruna; Aarabi, Bizhan; Kim, Dong; Casha, Steven; Fehlings, Michael G; Harrop, James S; Anderson, Kim D; Gage, Allyson; Hsieh, Jane; Huhn, Stephen; Curt, Armin; Guzman, Raphael

    2017-05-24

    Human central nervous system stem cells (HuCNS-SC) are multipotent adult stem cells with successful engraftment, migration, and region-appropriate differentiation after spinal cord injury (SCI). To present data on the surgical safety profile and feasibility of multiple intramedullary perilesional injections of HuCNS-SC after SCI. Intramedullary free-hand (manual) transplantation of HuCNS-SC cells was performed in subjects with thoracic (n = 12) and cervical (n = 17) complete and sensory incomplete chronic traumatic SCI. Intramedullary stem cell transplantation needle times in the thoracic cohort (20 M HuCNS-SC) were 19:30 min and total injection time was 42:15 min. The cervical cohort I (n = 6), demonstrated that escalating doses of HuCNS-SC up to 40 M range were well tolerated. In cohort II (40 M, n = 11), the intramedullary stem cell transplantation needle times and total injection time was 26:05 ± 1:08 and 58:14 ± 4:06 min, respectively. In the first year after injection, there were 4 serious adverse events in 4 of the 12 thoracic subjects and 15 serious adverse events in 9 of the 17 cervical patients. No safety concerns were considered related to the cells or the manual intramedullary injection. Cervical magnetic resonance images demonstrated mild increased T2 signal change in 8 of 17 transplanted subjects without motor decrements or emerging neuropathic pain. All T2 signal change resolved by 6 to 12 mo post-transplant. A total cell dose of 20 M cells via 4 and up to 40 M cells via 8 perilesional intramedullary injections after thoracic and cervical SCI respectively proved safe and feasible using a manual injection technique.

  20. Platelet lysate consisting of a natural repair proteome supports human mesenchymal stem cell proliferation and chromosomal stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crespo-Diaz, Ruben; Behfar, Atta; Butler, Greg W; Padley, Douglas J; Sarr, Michael G; Bartunek, Jozef; Dietz, Allan B; Terzic, Andre

    2011-01-01

    With favorable regenerative and immunotolerant profiles, patient-derived human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) are increasingly considered in cell therapy. Derived from bone marrow (BM) and standardized with culture in fetal bovine serum (FBS), translation of hMSC-based approaches is impeded by protracted expansion times, risk of xenogenic response, and exposure to zoonoses. Here, human platelet lysate adherent to good manufacturing practices (GMP-hPL) provided a nonzoonotic adjuvant that enhanced the capacity of BM-hMSC to proliferate. The nurturing benefit of GMP-hPL was generalized to hMSC from adipose tissue evaluated as an alternative to bone marrow. Long-term culture in GMP-hPL maintained the multipotency of hMSC, while protecting against clonal chromosomal instability detected in the FBS milieu. Proteomic dissection identified TGF-β, VEGF, PDGF, FGF, and EGF as highly ranked effectors of hPL activity, revealing a paradigm of healing that underlies platelet lysate adjuvancy. Thus, GMP-adherent human platelet lysate accelerates hMSC proliferation with no chromosomal aberrancy, through an innate repair paradigm.

  1. Successful isolation, in vitro expansion and characterization of stem cells from Human Dental Pulp

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    Preethy SP

    2010-01-01

    acids (5 .Cell counting was done by Trypan Blue dye exclusion method and the cells were seeded in 6 well culture plates. The plates with cells were incubated at 37˚C with 5% CO2 for varying periods from 14 days-28 days. The cells were observed daily and media change was done every three days. RESULTS: Viable Dental Pulp tissue-cells were obtained after transportation of up to 48 hrs and the in vitro growth of cells was initially slow but colonies were identified from the 10th day onwards. The cells were harvested at different intervals of 14-28 days for each sample based on their growth and subjected to H & E staining .The H & E staining of the cultured cells of all the samples showed positive resultsCONCLUSION: We are able to transport extracted teeth and derive viable dental pulp tissue cells after enzymatic digestion and multiply them in culture after a maximum of 48 hrs after transportation. The cells could be grown in culture with a morphology resembling dental pulp stem cells while in culture expansion and in H&E studies. Further characterization of the cells is necessary to confirm their Stemness. References1.Gronthos S, Mankani M, Brahim J, Robey PG, Shi S. Postnatal human dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs in vitro and in vivo. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 20002.Nosrat IV, Widenfalk J, Olson L, Nosrat CA. Dental pulp cells produce neurotrophic factors, interact with trigeminal neurons in vitro, and rescue motoneurons after spinal cord injury. Dev Biol. 2001 Oct 3.Iohara K, Zheng L, Ito M, Tomokiyo A, Matsushita K, Nakashima M. Side population cells isolated from porcine dental pulp tissue with self-renewal and multipotency for dentinogenesis, chondrogenesis, adipogenesis, and neurogenesis. Stem Cells. 2006 Nov4.Gandia C, Armiñan A, García-Verdugo JM, Lledó E, Ruiz A, Miñana MD, Sanchez-Torrijos J, Payá R, Mirabet V, Carbonell-Uberos F, Llop M, Montero JA, Sepúlveda P. Human dental pulp stem cells improve left ventricular function, induce angiogenesis, and reduce

  2. New perspectives in human stem cell therapeutic research

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    Trounson Alan

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Human stem cells are in evaluation in clinical stem cell trials, primarily as autologous bone marrow studies, autologous and allogenic mesenchymal stem cell trials, and some allogenic neural stem cell transplantation projects. Safety and efficacy are being addressed for a number of disease state applications. There is considerable data supporting safety of bone marrow and mesenchymal stem cell transplants but the efficacy data are variable and of mixed benefit. Mechanisms of action of many of these cells are unknown and this raises the concern of unpredictable results in the future. Nevertheless there is considerable optimism that immune suppression and anti-inflammatory properties of mesenchymal stem cells will be of benefit for many conditions such as graft versus host disease, solid organ transplants and pulmonary fibrosis. Where bone marrow and mesenchymal stem cells are being studied for heart disease, stroke and other neurodegenerative disorders, again progress is mixed and mostly without significant benefit. However, correction of multiple sclerosis, at least in the short term is encouraging. Clinical trials on the use of embryonic stem cell derivatives for spinal injury and macular degeneration are beginning and a raft of other clinical trials can be expected soon, for example, the use of neural stem cells for killing inoperable glioma and embryonic stem cells for regenerating β islet cells for diabetes. The change in attitude to embryonic stem cell research with the incoming Obama administration heralds a new co-operative environment for study and evaluation of stem cell therapies. The Californian stem cell initiative (California Institute for Regenerative Medicine has engendered global collaboration for this new medicine that will now also be supported by the US Federal Government. The active participation of governments, academia, biotechnology, pharmaceutical companies, and private investment is a powerful consortium for

  3. Monitoring the biology stability of human umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells during long-term culture in serum-free medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Gecai; Yue, Aihuan; Ruan, Zhongbao; Yin, Yigang; Wang, Ruzhu; Ren, Yin; Zhu, Li

    2014-12-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are multipotent adult stem cells that have an immunosuppressive effect. The biological stability of MSCs in serum-free medium during long-term culture in vitro has not been elucidated clearly. The morphology, immunophenotype and multi-lineage potential were analyzed at passages 3, 5, 10, 15, 20, and 25 (P3, P5, P10, P15, P20, and P25, respectively). The cell cycle distribution, apoptosis, and karyotype of human umbilical cord-derived (hUC)-MSCs were analyzed at P3, P5, P10, P15, P20, and P25. From P3 to P25, the three defining biological properties of hUC-MSCs [adherence to plastic, specific surface antigen expression, multipotent differentiation potential] met the standards proposed by the International Society for Cellular Therapy for definition of MSCs. The cell cycle distribution analysis at the P25 showed that the percentage of cells at G0/G1 was increased, compared with the cells at P3 (P Cells at P25 displayed an increase in the apoptosis rate (to 183 %), compared to those at P3 (P cell apoptotic rates were not statistically significant (P > 0.05). There were no detectable chromosome eliminations, displacements, or chromosomal imbalances, as assessed by the karyotyping guidelines of the International System for Human Cytogenetic Nomenclature (ISCN, 2009). Long-term culture affects the biological stability of MSCs in serum-free MesenCult-XF medium. MSCs can be expanded up to the 25th passage without chromosomal changes by G-band. The best biological activity period and stability appeared between the third to 20th generations.

  4. Comparison of Mesenchymal Stem Cell Source Differentiation Toward Human Pediatric Aortic Valve Interstitial Cells within 3D Engineered Matrices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Bin; Hockaday, Laura A.; Das, Shoshana; Xu, Charlie

    2015-01-01

    Living tissue-engineered heart valves (TEHV) would be a major benefit for children who require a replacement with the capacity for growth and biological integration. A persistent challenge for TEHV is accessible human cell source(s) that can mimic native valve cell phenotypes and matrix remodeling characteristics that are essential for long-term function. Mesenchymal stem cells derived from bone marrow (BMMSC) or adipose tissue (ADMSC) are intriguing cell sources for TEHV, but they have not been compared with pediatric human aortic valve interstitial cells (pHAVIC) in relevant 3D environments. In this study, we compared the spontaneous and induced multipotency of ADMSC and BMMSC with that of pHAVIC using different induction media within three-dimensional (3D) bioactive hybrid hydrogels with material modulus comparable to that of aortic heart valve leaflets. pHAVIC possessed some multi-lineage differentiation capacity in response to induction media, but limited to the earliest stages and much less potent than either ADMSC or BMMSC. ADMSC expressed cell phenotype markers more similar to pHAVIC when conditioned in basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) containing HAVIC growth medium, while BMMSC generally expressed similar extracellular matrix remodeling characteristics to pHAVIC. Finally, we covalently attached bFGF to PEG monoacrylate linkers and further covalently immobilized in the 3D hybrid hydrogels. Immobilized bFGF upregulated vimentin expression and promoted the fibroblastic differentiation of pHAVIC, ADMSC, and BMMSC. These findings suggest that stem cells retain a heightened capacity for osteogenic differentiation in 3D culture, but can be shifted toward fibroblast differentiation through matrix tethering of bFGF. Such a strategy is likely important for utilizing stem cell sources in heart valve tissue engineering applications. PMID:25594437

  5. Establishment and molecular characterization of mesenchymal stem cell lines derived from human visceral & subcutaneous adipose tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potdar, Pd; Sutar, Jp

    2010-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), are multipotent stem cells that can differentiate into osteoblasts, chondrocytes, myocytes and adipocytes. We utilized adipose tissue as our primary source, since it is a rich source of MSCs as well as it can be harvested using a minimally invasive surgical procedure. Both visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue (VSAT, SCAT respectively) samples were cultured using growth medium without using any substratum for their attachment. We observed growth of mesenchymal like cells within 15 days of culturing. In spite of the absence of any substratum, the cells adhered to the bottom of the petri dish, and spread out within 2 hours. Presently VSAT cells have reached at passage 10 whereas; SCAT cells have reached at passage 14. Morphologically MSCs obtained from visceral adipose tissue were larger in shape than subcutaneous adipose tissue. We checked these cells for presence or absence of specific stem cell molecular markers. We found that VSAT and SCAT cells confirmed their MSC phenotype by expression of specific MSC markers CD 105 and CD 13 and absence of CD34 and CD 45 markers which are specific for haematopoietic stem cells. These cells also expressed SOX2 gene confirming their ability of self-renewal as well as expressed OCT4, LIF and NANOG for their properties for pluripotency & plasticity. Overall, it was shown that adipose tissue is a good source of mesenchymal stem cells. It was also shown that MSCs, isolated from adipose tissue are multipotent stem cells that can differentiate into osteoblasts, chondrocytes, cardiomyocytes, adipocytes and liver cells which may open a new era for cell based regenerative therapies for bone, cardiac and liver disorders.

  6. Establishment and Molecular Characterization of Mesenchymal Stem Cell Lines Derived From Human Visceral & Subcutaneous Adipose Tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyoti Prakash Sutar

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs, are multipotent stem cells that can differentiate into osteoblasts, chondrocytes, myocytes and adipocytes. We utilized adipose tissue as our primary source, since it is a rich source of MSCs as well as it can be harvested using a minimally invasive surgical procedure. Both visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue (VSAT, SCAT respectively samples were cultured using growth medium without using any substratum for their attachment. We observed growth of mesenchymal like cells within 15 days of culturing. In spite of the absence of any substratum, the cells adhered to the bottom of the petri dish, and spread out within 2 hours. Presently VSAT cells have reached at passage 10 whereas; SCAT cells have reached at passage 14. Morphologically MSCs obtained from visceral adipose tissue were larger in shape than subcutaneous adipose tissue. We checked these cells for presence or absence of specific stem cell molecular markers. We found that VSAT and SCAT cells confirmed their MSC phenotype by expression of specific MSC markers CD 105 and CD13 and absence of CD34 and CD 45 markers which are specific for haematopoietic stem cells. These cells also expressed SOX2 gene confirming their ability of self-renewal as well as expressed OCT4, LIF and NANOG for their properties for pluripotency & plasticity. Overall, it was shown that adipose tissue is a good source of mesenchymal stem cells. It was also shown that MSCs, isolated from adipose tissue are multipotent stem cells that can differentiate into osteoblasts, chondrocytes, cardiomyocytes, adipocytes and liver cells which may open a new era for cell based regenerative therapies for bone, cardiac and liver disorders.

  7. Giant Panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) Buccal Mucosa Tissue as a Source of Multipotent Progenitor Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prescott, Hilary M A; Manning, Craig; Gardner, Aaron; Ritchie, William A; Pizzi, Romain; Girling, Simon; Valentine, Iain; Wang, Chengdong; Jahoda, Colin A B

    2015-01-01

    Since the first mammal was cloned, the idea of using this technique to help endangered species has aroused considerable interest. However, several issues limit this possibility, including the relatively low success rate at every stage of the cloning process, and the dearth of usable tissues from these rare animals. iPS cells have been produced from cells from a number of rare mammalian species and this is the method of choice for strategies to improve cloning efficiency and create new gametes by directed differentiation. Nevertheless information about other stem cell/progenitor capabilities of cells from endangered species could prove important for future conservation approaches and adds to the knowledge base about cellular material that can be extremely limited. Multipotent progenitor cells, termed skin-derived precursor (SKP) cells, can be isolated directly from mammalian skin dermis, and human cheek tissue has also been shown to be a good source of SKP-like cells. Recently we showed that structures identical to SKPs termed m-SKPs could be obtained from monolayer/ two dimensional (2D) skin fibroblast cultures. Here we aimed to isolate m-SKPs from cultured cells of three endangered species; giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca); red panda (Ailurus fulgens); and Asiatic lion (Panthera leo persica). m-SKP-like spheres were formed from the giant panda buccal mucosa fibroblasts; whereas dermal fibroblast (DF) cells cultured from abdominal skin of the other two species were unable to generate spheres. Under specific differentiation culture conditions giant panda spheres expressed neural, Schwann, adipogenic and osteogenic cell markers. Furthermore, these buccal mucosa derived spheres were shown to maintain expression of SKP markers: nestin, versican, fibronectin, and P75 and switch on expression of the stem cell marker ABCG2. These results demonstrate that giant panda cheek skin can be a useful source of m-SKP multipotent progenitors. At present lack of sample numbers

  8. Giant Panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca Buccal Mucosa Tissue as a Source of Multipotent Progenitor Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilary M A Prescott

    Full Text Available Since the first mammal was cloned, the idea of using this technique to help endangered species has aroused considerable interest. However, several issues limit this possibility, including the relatively low success rate at every stage of the cloning process, and the dearth of usable tissues from these rare animals. iPS cells have been produced from cells from a number of rare mammalian species and this is the method of choice for strategies to improve cloning efficiency and create new gametes by directed differentiation. Nevertheless information about other stem cell/progenitor capabilities of cells from endangered species could prove important for future conservation approaches and adds to the knowledge base about cellular material that can be extremely limited. Multipotent progenitor cells, termed skin-derived precursor (SKP cells, can be isolated directly from mammalian skin dermis, and human cheek tissue has also been shown to be a good source of SKP-like cells. Recently we showed that structures identical to SKPs termed m-SKPs could be obtained from monolayer/ two dimensional (2D skin fibroblast cultures. Here we aimed to isolate m-SKPs from cultured cells of three endangered species; giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca; red panda (Ailurus fulgens; and Asiatic lion (Panthera leo persica. m-SKP-like spheres were formed from the giant panda buccal mucosa fibroblasts; whereas dermal fibroblast (DF cells cultured from abdominal skin of the other two species were unable to generate spheres. Under specific differentiation culture conditions giant panda spheres expressed neural, Schwann, adipogenic and osteogenic cell markers. Furthermore, these buccal mucosa derived spheres were shown to maintain expression of SKP markers: nestin, versican, fibronectin, and P75 and switch on expression of the stem cell marker ABCG2. These results demonstrate that giant panda cheek skin can be a useful source of m-SKP multipotent progenitors. At present lack of

  9. Intra-Arterial Administration of Multipotent Mesenchymal Stromal Cells Promotes Functional Recovery of the Brain After Traumatic Brain Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silachev, D N; Plotnikov, E Yu; Babenko, V A; Danilina, T I; Zorov, L D; Pevzner, I B; Zorov, D B; Sukhikh, G T

    2015-08-01

    We compared the efficiency of delivery of multipotent mesenchymal stem cells into the brain after their intravenous and intra-arterial injection. Analysis of the therapeutic effects of cells after experimental traumatic brain injury revealed improvement of the neurological status and motor functions of the damaged hemisphere, the effect being more pronounced after intraarterial injection of cells. Intra-arterial administration was followed by rapid infiltration of the cells into the brain tissue and their number considerably surpassed that after intravenous infusion. Targeted delivery of multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells into the brain after their injection into the carotid arteries substantially potentiated their neuroprotective effects in traumatic brain injury.

  10. C/EBPα Is Required for Long-Term Self-Renewal and Lineage Priming of Hematopoietic Stem Cells and for the Maintenance of Epigenetic Configurations in Multipotent Progenitors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasemann, Marie S; Lauridsen, Felicia K B; Waage, Johannes

    2014-01-01

    Transcription factors are key regulators of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) and act through their ability to bind DNA and impact on gene transcription. Their functions are interpreted in the complex landscape of chromatin, but current knowledge on how this is achieved is very limited. C/EBPα is a......Transcription factors are key regulators of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) and act through their ability to bind DNA and impact on gene transcription. Their functions are interpreted in the complex landscape of chromatin, but current knowledge on how this is achieved is very limited. C...

  11. Three dimensional cellular microarray platform for human neural stem cell differentiation and toxicology

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    Luciana Meli

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available We developed a three-dimensional (3D cellular microarray platform for the high-throughput (HT analysis of human neural stem cell (hNSC growth and differentiation. The growth of an immortalized hNSC line, ReNcell VM, was evaluated on a miniaturized cell culture chip consisting of 60 nl spots of cells encapsulated in alginate, and compared to standard 2D well plate culture conditions. Using a live/dead cell viability assay, we demonstrated that the hNSCs are able to expand on-chip, albeit with lower proliferation rates and viabilities than in conventional 2D culture platforms. Using an in-cell, on-chip immunofluorescence assay, which provides quantitative information on cellular levels of proteins involved in neural fate, we demonstrated that ReNcell VM can preserve its multipotent state during on-chip expansion. Moreover, differentiation of the hNSCs into glial progeny was achieved both off- and on-chip six days after growth factor removal, accompanied by a decrease in the neural progenitor markers. The versatility of the platform was further demonstrated by complementing the cell culture chip with a chamber system that allowed us to screen for differential toxicity of small molecules to hNSCs. Using this approach, we showed differential toxicity when evaluating three neurotoxic compounds and one antiproliferative compound, and the null effect of a non-toxic compound at relevant concentrations. Thus, our 3D high-throughput microarray platform may help predict, in vitro, which compounds pose an increased threat to neural development and should therefore be prioritized for further screening and evaluation.

  12. Three dimensional cellular microarray platform for human neural stem cell differentiation and toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meli, Luciana; Barbosa, Hélder S C; Hickey, Anne Marie; Gasimli, Leyla; Nierode, Gregory; Diogo, Maria Margarida; Linhardt, Robert J; Cabral, Joaquim M S; Dordick, Jonathan S

    2014-07-01

    We developed a three-dimensional (3D) cellular microarray platform for the high-throughput (HT) analysis of human neural stem cell (hNSC) growth and differentiation. The growth of an immortalized hNSC line, ReNcell VM, was evaluated on a miniaturized cell culture chip consisting of 60nl spots of cells encapsulated in alginate, and compared to standard 2D well plate culture conditions. Using a live/dead cell viability assay, we demonstrated that the hNSCs are able to expand on-chip, albeit with lower proliferation rates and viabilities than in conventional 2D culture platforms. Using an in-cell, on-chip immunofluorescence assay, which provides quantitative information on cellular levels of proteins involved in neural fate, we demonstrated that ReNcell VM can preserve its multipotent state during on-chip expansion. Moreover, differentiation of the hNSCs into glial progeny was achieved both off- and on-chip six days after growth factor removal, accompanied by a decrease in the neural progenitor markers. The versatility of the platform was further demonstrated by complementing the cell culture chip with a chamber system that allowed us to screen for differential toxicity of small molecules to hNSCs. Using this approach, we showed differential toxicity when evaluating three neurotoxic compounds and one antiproliferative compound, and the null effect of a non-toxic compound at relevant concentrations. Thus, our 3D high-throughput microarray platform may help predict, in vitro, which compounds pose an increased threat to neural development and should therefore be prioritized for further screening and evaluation. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. Non-virally engineered human adipose mesenchymal stem cells produce BMP4, target brain tumors, and extend survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangraviti, Antonella; Tzeng, Stephany Y; Gullotti, David; Kozielski, Kristen L; Kim, Jennifer E; Seng, Michael; Abbadi, Sara; Schiapparelli, Paula; Sarabia-Estrada, Rachel; Vescovi, Angelo; Brem, Henry; Olivi, Alessandro; Tyler, Betty; Green, Jordan J; Quinones-Hinojosa, Alfredo

    2016-09-01

    There is a need for enabling non-viral nanobiotechnology to allow safe and effective gene therapy and cell therapy, which can be utilized to treat devastating diseases such as brain cancer. Human adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hAMSCs) display high anti-glioma tropism and represent a promising delivery vehicle for targeted brain tumor therapy. In this study, we demonstrate that non-viral, biodegradable polymeric nanoparticles (NPs) can be used to engineer hAMSCs with higher efficacy (75% of cells) than leading commercially available reagents and high cell viability. To accomplish this, we engineered a poly(beta-amino ester) (PBAE) polymer structure to transfect hAMSCs with significantly higher efficacy than Lipofectamine™ 2000. We then assessed the ability of NP-engineered hAMSCs to deliver bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP4), which has been shown to have a novel therapeutic effect by targeting human brain tumor initiating cells (BTIC), a source of cancer recurrence, in a human primary malignant glioma model. We demonstrated that hAMSCs genetically engineered with polymeric nanoparticles containing BMP4 plasmid DNA (BMP4/NP-hAMSCs) secrete BMP4 growth factor while maintaining their multipotency and preserving their migration and invasion capacities. We also showed that this approach can overcome a central challenge for brain therapeutics, overcoming the blood brain barrier, by demonstrating that NP-engineered hAMSCs can migrate to the brain and penetrate the brain tumor after both intranasal and systemic intravenous administration. Critically, athymic rats bearing human primary BTIC-derived tumors and treated intranasally with BMP4/NP-hAMSCs showed significantly improved survival compared to those treated with control GFP/NP-hAMCSs. This study demonstrates that synthetic polymeric nanoparticles are a safe and effective approach for stem cell-based cancer-targeting therapies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Conversion of Human Fibroblasts to Stably Self-Renewing Neural Stem Cells with a Single Zinc-Finger Transcription Factor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebrahim Shahbazi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Direct conversion of somatic cells into neural stem cells (NSCs by defined factors holds great promise for mechanistic studies, drug screening, and potential cell therapies for different neurodegenerative diseases. Here, we report that a single zinc-finger transcription factor, Zfp521, is sufficient for direct conversion of human fibroblasts into long-term self-renewable and multipotent NSCs. In vitro, Zfp521-induced NSCs maintained their characteristics in the absence of exogenous factor expression and exhibited morphological, molecular, developmental, and functional properties that were similar to control NSCs. In addition, the single-seeded induced NSCs were able to form NSC colonies with efficiency comparable with control NSCs and expressed NSC markers. The converted cells were capable of surviving, migrating, and attaining neural phenotypes after transplantation into neonatal mouse and adult rat brains, without forming tumors. Moreover, the Zfp521-induced NSCs predominantly expressed rostral genes. Our results suggest a facilitated approach for establishing human NSCs through Zfp521-driven conversion of fibroblasts.

  15. Novel Adult Stem Cells for Peripheral Nerve Regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    301–313 (2008). 20. Medici , D. et al. Conversion of vascular endothelial cells into multipotent stem- like cells. Nat. Med. 16, 1400–1406 (2010). 21...2006). 23. Medici , D. et al. Conversion of vascular endothelial cells into multipotent stem- like cells. Nat. Med. 17, 514 (2011). 24. Lee, G. et al

  16. Electrical Guidance of Human Stem Cells in the Rat Brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun-Feng Feng

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Limited migration of neural stem cells in adult brain is a roadblock for the use of stem cell therapies to treat brain diseases and injuries. Here, we report a strategy that mobilizes and guides migration of stem cells in the brain in vivo. We developed a safe stimulation paradigm to deliver directional currents in the brain. Tracking cells expressing GFP demonstrated electrical mobilization and guidance of migration of human neural stem cells, even against co-existing intrinsic cues in the rostral migration stream. Transplanted cells were observed at 3 weeks and 4 months after stimulation in areas guided by the stimulation currents, and with indications of differentiation. Electrical stimulation thus may provide a potential approach to facilitate brain stem cell therapies.

  17. Human intestinal tissue with adult stem cell properties derived from pluripotent stem cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Forster, Ryan; Chiba, Kunitoshi; Schaeffer, Lorian; Regalado, Samuel G; Lai, Christine S; Gao, Qing; Kiani, Samira; Farin, Henner F; Clevers, Hans; Cost, Gregory J; Chan, Andy; Rebar, Edward J; Urnov, Fyodor D; Gregory, Philip D; Pachter, Lior; Jaenisch, Rudolf; Hockemeyer, Dirk

    2014-01-01

    Genetically engineered human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) have been proposed as a source for transplantation therapies and are rapidly becoming valuable tools for human disease modeling. However, many applications are limited due to the lack of robust differentiation paradigms that allow for the

  18. Three-Dimensional Spheroid Culture of Human Gingiva-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells Enhances Mitigation of Chemotherapy-Induced Oral Mucositis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qunzhou; Nguyen, Andrew L.; Shi, Shihong; Hill, Colin; Wilder-Smith, Petra; Krasieva, Tatiana B.

    2012-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are capable of regenerative and immunomodulatory functions in cell-based therapies in a variety of human diseases and injuries; however, their therapeutic efficacy and potential side effects remain major obstacles in clinical applications. We report here a 3D spheroid culture approach to optimize stem cell properties and therapeutic effects of human gingiva-derived mesenchymal stem cells (GMSCs) in mitigation of experimental oral mucositis. Under growth condition of ultra-low attachment, GMSCs spontaneously aggregated into 3D spheroids and exhibited distinct early stem cell phenotype characterized by elevated expression Stro-1 and CXC chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR-4) as well as OCT-4 and Nanog, 2 important transcriptional factors relevant to stem cell properties, and decreased expression of MSC-associated markers, including CD29, CD90, and CD105. Functionally, spheroid GMSCs are capable of enhanced multipotency and augmented secretion of several chemokines and cytokines relevant to cell migration, survival, and angiogenesis. More importantly, spheroid GMSCs expressed increased levels of reactive oxygen species, hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1 and -2α, and manganese superoxide dismutase, which correlated with improved resistance to oxidative stress-induced apoptosis. Using an in vivo murine model of chemotherapy-induced oral mucositis, we demonstrated that spheroid-derived GMSCs possessed better therapeutic efficacy than their adherent cells in reversing body weight loss and promoting the regeneration of disrupted epithelial lining of the mucositic tongues. These findings suggest that 3D spheroid culture allows early stemness preservation and potentially precondition GMSCs for enhanced mitigation of oral mucositis. PMID:21689066

  19. Immunomodulatory properties of human multipotent stromal cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Melief, Sara Marie

    2014-01-01

    The application of MSC as therapeutic agent to treat a variety of immune related diseases is currently under investigation in preclinical and clinical studies. Although promising results have been reported, more insight in the basic MSC biology and in the mechanisms by which MSC modulate the immune

  20. Vascular potential of human pluripotent stem cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardiovascular disease is the number one cause of death and disability in the US. Understanding the biological activity of stem and progenitor cells, and their ability to contribute to the repair, regeneration and remodeling of the heart and blood vessels affected by pathological processes is an ess...

  1. Human Intestinal Tissue with Adult Stem Cell Properties Derived from Pluripotent Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan Forster

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Genetically engineered human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs have been proposed as a source for transplantation therapies and are rapidly becoming valuable tools for human disease modeling. However, many applications are limited due to the lack of robust differentiation paradigms that allow for the isolation of defined functional tissues. Here, using an endogenous LGR5-GFP reporter, we derived adult stem cells from hPSCs that gave rise to functional human intestinal tissue comprising all major cell types of the intestine. Histological and functional analyses revealed that such human organoid cultures could be derived with high purity and with a composition and morphology similar to those of cultures obtained from human biopsies. Importantly, hPSC-derived organoids responded to the canonical signaling pathways that control self-renewal and differentiation in the adult human intestinal stem cell compartment. This adult stem cell system provides a platform for studying human intestinal disease in vitro using genetically engineered hPSCs.

  2. Derivation of human embryonic stem cells in defined conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludwig, Tenneille E; Levenstein, Mark E; Jones, Jeffrey M; Berggren, W Travis; Mitchen, Erika R; Frane, Jennifer L; Crandall, Leann J; Daigh, Christine A; Conard, Kevin R; Piekarczyk, Marian S; Llanas, Rachel A; Thomson, James A

    2006-02-01

    We have previously reported that high concentrations of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) support feeder-independent growth of human embryonic stem (ES) cells, but those conditions included poorly defined serum and matrix components. Here we report feeder-independent human ES cell culture that includes protein components solely derived from recombinant sources or purified from human material. We describe the derivation of two new human ES cell lines in these defined culture conditions.

  3. Comparative studies on proliferation, molecular markers and differentiation potential of mesenchymal stem cells from various tissues (adipose, bone marrow, ear skin, abdominal skin, and lung) and maintenance of multipotency during serial passages in miniature pig.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ah-Young; Lee, Jienny; Kim, Chan-Lan; Lee, Keum Sil; Lee, So-Hyun; Gu, Na-Yeon; Kim, Jeong-Min; Lee, Byeong Chun; Koo, Ok Jae; Song, Jae-Young; Cha, Sang-Ho

    2015-06-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have the ability to differentiate into multi-lineage cells, which confers great promise for use in regenerative medicine. In this study, MSCs were isolated from adipose tissue, bone marrow, ear skin, lung, and abdominal skin of miniature pigs (mpMSCs), and the optimal medium (DMEM/F12-Glutamax) was selected for the culturing of mpMSCs. As a result, proliferation of the mpMSCs derived from all tissues was steadily increased when cultured with DMEM/F12-Glutamax during 14 consecutive passages. The cells harbored MSC surface markers (CD34-, CD45-, CD29+, CD44+, CD90+, and CD105+), whose levels of expression differed among the tissue sources and declined over sub-passaging. In addition, the expression of stemness markers (Oct4, Sox2, and Nanog) and differentiation into mesoderm (adipocytes, chondrocytes, and osteoblasts) were clearly represented at early passage; however, expression of stemness markers decreased, and differentiation potential was lost over sequential sub-passaging, which should be considered in the selection of mpMSC for MSC-based application. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. The ethics of patenting human embryonic stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Audrey R

    2009-09-01

    Just as human embryonic stem cell research has generated controversy about the uses of human embryos for research and therapeutic applications, human embryonic stem cell patents raise fundamental ethical issues. The United States Patent and Trademark Office has granted foundational patents, including a composition of matter (or product) patent to the Wisconsin Alumni Research Foundation (WARF), the University of Wisconsin-Madison's intellectual property office. In contrast, the European Patent Office rejected the same WARF patent application for ethical reasons. This article assesses the appropriateness of these patents placing the discussion in the context of the deontological and consequentialist ethical issues related to human embryonic stem cell patenting. It advocates for a patent system that explicitly takes ethical factors into account and explores options for new types of intellectual property arrangements consistent with ethical concerns.

  5. Human pluripotent stem cells: an emerging model in developmental biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Zengrong; Huangfu, Danwei

    2013-02-01

    Developmental biology has long benefited from studies of classic model organisms. Recently, human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs), including human embryonic stem cells and human induced pluripotent stem cells, have emerged as a new model system that offers unique advantages for developmental studies. Here, we discuss how studies of hPSCs can complement classic approaches using model organisms, and how hPSCs can be used to recapitulate aspects of human embryonic development 'in a dish'. We also summarize some of the recently developed genetic tools that greatly facilitate the interrogation of gene function during hPSC differentiation. With the development of high-throughput screening technologies, hPSCs have the potential to revolutionize gene discovery in mammalian development.

  6. Induced pluripotent stem cell lines derived from human somatic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Junying; Vodyanik, Maxim A; Smuga-Otto, Kim; Antosiewicz-Bourget, Jessica; Frane, Jennifer L; Tian, Shulan; Nie, Jeff; Jonsdottir, Gudrun A; Ruotti, Victor; Stewart, Ron; Slukvin, Igor I; Thomson, James A

    2007-12-21

    Somatic cell nuclear transfer allows trans-acting factors present in the mammalian oocyte to reprogram somatic cell nuclei to an undifferentiated state. We show that four factors (OCT4, SOX2, NANOG, and LIN28) are sufficient to reprogram human somatic cells to pluripotent stem cells that exhibit the essential characteristics of embryonic stem (ES) cells. These induced pluripotent human stem cells have normal karyotypes, express telomerase activity, express cell surface markers and genes that characterize human ES cells, and maintain the developmental potential to differentiate into advanced derivatives of all three primary germ layers. Such induced pluripotent human cell lines should be useful in the production of new disease models and in drug development, as well as for applications in transplantation medicine, once technical limitations (for example, mutation through viral integration) are eliminated.

  7. A Novel Class of Human Cardiac Stem Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Moccetti, Tiziano; Leri, Annarosa; Goichberg, Polina; Rota, Marcello; Anversa, Piero

    2015-01-01

    Following the recognition that hematopoietic stem cells improve the outcome of myocardial infarction in animal models, bone marrow mononuclear cells, CD34-positive cells and mesenchymal stromal cells have been introduced clinically. The intracoronary or intramyocardial injection of these cell classes has been shown to be safe and to produce a modest but significant enhancement in systolic function. However, the identification of resident cardiac stem cells in the human heart (hCSCs) has creat...

  8. Alloimmune Responses of Humanized Mice to Human Pluripotent Stem Cell Therapeutics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nigel G. Kooreman

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available There is growing interest in using embryonic stem cell (ESC and induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC derivatives for tissue regeneration. However, an increased understanding of human immune responses to stem cell-derived allografts is necessary for maintaining long-term graft persistence. To model this alloimmunity, humanized mice engrafted with human hematopoietic and immune cells could prove to be useful. In this study, an in-depth analysis of graft-infiltrating human lymphocytes and splenocytes revealed that humanized mice incompletely model human immune responses toward allogeneic stem cells and their derivatives. Furthermore, using an “allogenized” mouse model, we show the feasibility of reconstituting immunodeficient mice with a functional mouse immune system and describe a key role of innate immune cells in the rejection of mouse stem cell allografts.

  9. Isolation and characterization of stem cells derived from human third molar tooth germs of young adults: implications in neo-vascularization, osteo-, adipo- and neurogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yalvac, M E; Ramazanoglu, M; Rizvanov, A A; Sahin, F; Bayrak, O F; Salli, U; Palotás, A; Kose, G T

    2010-04-01

    A number of studies have reported in the last decade that human tooth germs contain multipotent cells that give rise to dental and peri-odontal structures. The dental pulp, third molars in particular, have been shown to be a significant stem cell source. In this study, we isolated and characterized human tooth germ stem cells (hTGSCs) from third molars and assessed the expression of developmentally important transcription factors, such as oct4, sox2, klf4, nanog and c-myc, to determine their pluri-potency. Flow-cytometry analysis revealed that hTGSCs were positive for CD73, CD90, CD105 and CD166, but negative for CD34, CD45 and CD133, suggesting that these cells are mesenchymal-like stem cells. Under specific culture conditions, hTGSCs differentiated into osteogenic, adipogenic and neurogenic cells, as well as formed tube-like structures in Matrigel assay. hTGSCs showed significant levels of expression of sox2 and c-myc messenger RNA (mRNA), and a very high level of expression of klf4 mRNA when compared with human embryonic stem cells. This study reports for the first time that hTGSCs express developmentally important transcription factors that could render hTGSCs an attractive candidate for future somatic cell re-programming studies to differentiate germs into various tissue types, such as neurons and vascular structures. In addition, these multipotential hTGSCs could be important stem cell sources for autologous transplantation.

  10. Research on human placenta-derived mesenchymal stem cells ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PCR) technology, amplified hVEGF165 gene fragments from human leukemia cells HL-60. hVEGF165 gene was reconstructed in pIRES2-EGFP and transferred into the human placenta-derived mesenchymal stem cells (HPMSCs) by ...

  11. Isolation and in vitro expansion of human colonic stem cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jung, P.; Sato, T.; Merlos-Suarez, A.; Barriga, F.M.; Iglesias, M.; Rossell, D.; Auer, H.; Gallardo, M.; Blasco, M.A.; Sancho, E.; Clevers, H.; Batlle, E.

    2011-01-01

    Here we describe the isolation of stem cells of the human colonic epithelium. Differential cell surface abundance of ephrin type-B receptor 2 (EPHB2) allows the purification of different cell types from human colon mucosa biopsies. The highest EPHB2 surface levels correspond to epithelial colonic

  12. Advances in culture and manipulation of human pluripotent stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, X; Villa-Diaz, L G; Krebsbach, P H

    2013-11-01

    Recent advances in the understanding of pluripotent stem cell biology and emerging technologies to reprogram somatic cells to a stem cell-like state are helping bring stem cell therapies for a range of human disorders closer to clinical reality. Human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) have become a promising resource for regenerative medicine and research into early development because these cells are able to self-renew indefinitely and are capable of differentiation into specialized cell types of all 3 germ layers and trophoectoderm. Human PSCs include embryonic stem cells (hESCs) derived from the inner cell mass of blastocyst-stage embryos and induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) generated via the reprogramming of somatic cells by the overexpression of key transcription factors. The application of hiPSCs and the finding that somatic cells can be directly reprogrammed into different cell types will likely have a significant impact on regenerative medicine. However, a major limitation for successful therapeutic application of hPSCs and their derivatives is the potential xenogeneic contamination and instability of current culture conditions. This review summarizes recent advances in hPSC culture and methods to induce controlled lineage differentiation through regulation of cell-signaling pathways and manipulation of gene expression as well as new trends in direct reprogramming of somatic cells.

  13. Revised roles of ISL1 in a hES cell-based model of human heart chamber specification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quaranta, Roberto; Fell, Jakob; Rühle, Frank; Rao, Jyoti; Piccini, Ilaria; Araúzo-Bravo, Marcos J.; Verkerk, Arie O.; Stoll, Monika; Greber, Boris

    2018-01-01

    The transcription factor ISL1 is thought to be key for conveying the multipotent and proliferative properties of cardiac precursor cells. Here, we investigate its function upon cardiac induction of human embryonic stem cells. We find that ISL1 does not stabilize the transient cardiac precursor cell

  14. Gastric cancer stem cells: A novel therapeutic target

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Shree Ram

    2013-01-01

    Gastric cancer remains one of the leading causes of global cancer mortality. Multipotent gastric stem cells have been identified in both mouse and human stomachs, and they play an essential role in the self-renewal and homeostasis of gastric mucosa. There are several environmental and genetic factors known to promote gastric cancer. In recent years, numerous in vitro and in vivo studies suggest that gastric cancer may originate from normal stem cells or bone marrow–derived mesenchymal cells, and that gastric tumors contain cancer stem cells. Cancer stem cells are believed to share a common microenvironment with normal niche, which play an important role in gastric cancer and tumor growth. This mini-review presents a brief overview of the recent developments in gastric cancer stem cell research. The knowledge gained by studying cancer stem cells in gastric mucosa will support the development of novel therapeutic strategies for gastric cancer. PMID:23583679

  15. Icariin combined with human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells significantly improve the impaired kidney function in chronic renal failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wen; Wang, Li; Chu, Xiaoqian; Cui, Huantian; Bian, Yuhong

    2017-04-01

    At present, the main therapy for chronic renal failure (CRF) is dialysis and renal transplantation, but neither obtains satisfactory results. Human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells (huMSCs) are isolated from the fetal umbilical cord which has a high self-renewal and multi-directional differentiation potential. Icariin (ICA), a kidney-tonifying Chinese Medicine can enhance the multipotency of huMSCs. Therefore, this work seeks to employ the use of ICA-treated huMSCs for the treatment of chronic renal failure. Blood urea nitrogen and creatinine (Cr) analyses showed amelioration of functional parameters in ICA-treated huMSCs for the treatment of CRF rats at 3, 7, and 14 days after transplantation. ICA-treated huMSCs can obviously increase the number of cells in injured renal tissues at 3, 7, and 14 days after transplantation by optical molecular imaging system. Hematoxylin-eosin staining demonstrated that ICA-treated huMSCs reduced the levels of fibrosis in CRF rats at 14 days after transplantation. Superoxide dismutase and Malondialdehyde analyses showed that ICA-treated huMSCs reduced the oxidative damage in CRF rats. Moreover, transplantation with ICA-treated huMSCs decreased inflammatory responses, promoted the expression of growth factors, and protected injured renal tissues. Taken together, our findings suggest that ICA-treated huMSCs could improve the kidney function in CRF rats.

  16. Chimeric animal models in human stem cell biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glover, Joel C; Boulland, Jean-Luc; Halasi, Gabor; Kasumacic, Nedim

    2009-01-01

    The clinical use of stem cells for regenerative medicine is critically dependent on preclinical studies in animal models. In this review we examine some of the key issues and challenges in the use of animal models to study human stem cell biology-experimental standardization, body size, immunological barriers, cell survival factors, fusion of host and donor cells, and in vivo imaging and tracking. We focus particular attention on the various imaging modalities that can be used to track cells in living animals, comparing their strengths and weaknesses and describing technical developments that are likely to lead to new opportunities for the dynamic assessment of stem cell behavior in vivo. We then provide an overview of some of the most commonly used animal models, their advantages and disadvantages, and examples of their use for xenotypic transplantation of human stem cells, with separate reviews of models involving rodents, ungulates, nonhuman primates, and the chicken embryo. As the use of human somatic, embryonic, and induced pluripotent stem cells increases, so too will the range of applications for these animal models. It is likely that increasingly sophisticated uses of human/animal chimeric models will be developed through advances in genetic manipulation, cell delivery, and in vivo imaging.

  17. Primary cilia: the chemical antenna regulating human adipose-derived stem cell osteogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josephine C Bodle

    Full Text Available Adipose-derived stem cells (ASC are multipotent stem cells that show great potential as a cell source for osteogenic tissue replacements and it is critical to understand the underlying mechanisms of lineage specification. Here we explore the role of primary cilia in human ASC (hASC differentiation. This study focuses on the chemosensitivity of the primary cilium and the action of its associated proteins: polycystin-1 (PC1, polycystin-2 (PC2 and intraflagellar transport protein-88 (IFT88, in hASC osteogenesis. To elucidate cilia-mediated mechanisms of hASC differentiation, siRNA knockdown of PC1, PC2 and IFT88 was performed to disrupt cilia-associated protein function. Immunostaining of the primary cilium structure indicated phenotypic-dependent changes in cilia morphology. hASC cultured in osteogenic differentiation media yielded cilia of a more elongated conformation than those cultured in expansion media, indicating cilia-sensitivity to the chemical environment and a relationship between the cilium structure and phenotypic determination. Abrogation of PC1, PC2 and IFT88 effected changes in both hASC proliferation and differentiation activity, as measured through proliferative activity, expression of osteogenic gene markers, calcium accretion and endogenous alkaline phosphatase activity. Results indicated that IFT88 may be an early mediator of the hASC differentiation process with its knockdown increasing hASC proliferation and decreasing Runx2, alkaline phosphatase and BMP-2 mRNA expression. PC1 and PC2 knockdown affected later osteogenic gene and end-product expression. PC1 knockdown resulted in downregulation of alkaline phosphatase and osteocalcin gene expression, diminished calcium accretion and reduced alkaline phosphatase enzymatic activity. Taken together our results indicate that the structure of the primary cilium is intimately associated with the process of hASC osteogenic differentiation and that its associated proteins are critical

  18. Mesenchymal Stem Cell-Induced DDR2 Mediates Stromal-Breast Cancer Interactions and Metastasis Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria E. Gonzalez

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Increased collagen deposition by breast cancer (BC-associated mesenchymal stem/multipotent stromal cells (MSC promotes metastasis, but the mechanisms are unknown. Here, we report that the collagen receptor discoidin domain receptor 2 (DDR2 is essential for stromal-BC communication. In human BC metastasis, DDR2 is concordantly upregulated in metastatic cancer and multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells. In MSCs isolated from human BC metastasis, DDR2 maintains a fibroblastic phenotype with collagen deposition and induces pathological activation of DDR2 signaling in BC cells. Loss of DDR2 in MSCs impairs their ability to promote DDR2 phosphorylation in BC cells, as well as BC cell alignment, migration, and metastasis. Female ddr2-deficient mice homozygous for the slie mutation show inefficient spontaneous BC metastasis. These results point to a role for mesenchymal stem cell DDR2 in metastasis and suggest a therapeutic approach for metastatic BC.

  19. File list: ALL.Oth.50.AllAg.Multipotent_otic_progenitor [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Oth.50.AllAg.Multipotent_otic_progenitor mm9 All antigens Others Multipotent otic progeni...ncedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/ALL.Oth.50.AllAg.Multipotent_otic_progenitor.bed ...

  20. Stem Cells: A Renaissance in Human Biology Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jun; Izpisua Belmonte, Juan Carlos

    2016-06-16

    The understanding of human biology and how it relates to that of other species represents an ancient quest. Limited access to human material, particularly during early development, has restricted researchers to only scratching the surface of this inherently challenging subject. Recent technological innovations, such as single cell "omics" and human stem cell derivation, have now greatly accelerated our ability to gain insights into uniquely human biology. The opportunities afforded to delve molecularly into scarce material and to model human embryogenesis and pathophysiological processes are leading to new insights of human development and are changing our understanding of disease and choice of therapy options. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Property Of Human Dental Pulp Stem Cells And Peripheral Blood Hematopoietic Stem Cells That Differentiated Both Group To Cardiac Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Jabari F; Mohammadnejad J; Yavari K

    2013-01-01

    Dental pulp is the soft live tissue inside a tooth. Dental pulp contains stem cells, known as Dental Pulp Stem Cells. The finest Dental Pulp Stem Cells are found in a baby teeth or milk teeth. The stem cells from the milk teeth are ‘mesenchymal’ type of cells. cells that have the ability to generate a wide variety of cell types like chondrocytes, osteoblasts and adipocytes. To isolate high-quality human dental pulp stem cells from accessible resources is an important goal for stem-cell resear...

  2. Human skeletal muscle-derived stem cells retain stem cell properties after expansion in myosphere culture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei, Yan [Department of Otolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery Charite-Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Berlin (Germany); Department of Otolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, The Third Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University, Guang Zhou (China); Li, Yuan [Department of Otolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, The Third Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University, Guang Zhou (China); Chen, Chao; Stoelzel, Katharina [Department of Otolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery Charite-Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Berlin (Germany); Kaufmann, Andreas M. [Clinic for Gynecology CCM/CBF, Charite-Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Berlin (Germany); Albers, Andreas E., E-mail: andreas.albers@charite.de [Department of Otolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery Charite-Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Berlin (Germany)

    2011-04-15

    Human skeletal muscle contains an accessible adult stem-cell compartment in which differentiated myofibers are maintained and replaced by a self-renewing stem cell pool. Previously, studies using mouse models have established a critical role for resident stem cells in skeletal muscle, but little is known about this paradigm in human muscle. Here, we report the reproducible isolation of a population of cells from human skeletal muscle that is able to proliferate for extended periods of time as floating clusters of rounded cells, termed 'myospheres' or myosphere-derived progenitor cells (MDPCs). The phenotypic characteristics and functional properties of these cells were determined using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), flow cytometry and immunocytochemistry. Our results showed that these cells are clonogenic, express skeletal progenitor cell markers Pax7, ALDH1, Myod, and Desmin and the stem cell markers Nanog, Sox2, and Oct3/4 significantly elevated over controls. They could be maintained proliferatively active in vitro for more than 20 weeks and passaged at least 18 times, despite an average donor-age of 63 years. Individual clones (4.2%) derived from single cells were successfully expanded showing clonogenic potential and sustained proliferation of a subpopulation in the myospheres. Myosphere-derived cells were capable of spontaneous differentiation into myotubes in differentiation media and into other mesodermal cell lineages in induction media. We demonstrate here that direct culture and expansion of stem cells from human skeletal muscle is straightforward and reproducible with the appropriate technique. These cells may provide a viable resource of adult stem cells for future therapies of disease affecting skeletal muscle or mesenchymal lineage derived cell types.

  3. Stem cells in dentistry--review of literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dziubińska, P; Jaskólska, M; Przyborowska, P; Adamiak, Z

    2013-01-01

    Stem cells have been successfully isolated from a variety of human and animal tissues, including dental pulp. This achievement marks progress in regenerative dentistry. This article reviews the latest improvements made in regenerative dental medicine with the involvement of stem cells. Although, various types of multipotent somatic cells can be applied in dentistry, two types of cells have been investigated in this review. Dental pulp cells are classified as: DPSCs, SCAPs and SHEDs.The third group includes two types of cell associated with the periodontium: PDL and DFPC. This review aims to systematize basic knowledge about cellular engineering in dentistry.

  4. Nuclear Nox4 Role in Stemness Power of Human Amniotic Fluid Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tullia Maraldi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Human amniotic fluid stem cells (AFSC are an attractive source for cell therapy due to their multilineage differentiation potential and accessibility advantages. However the clinical application of human stem cells largely depends on their capacity to expand in vitro, since there is an extensive donor-to-donor heterogeneity. Reactive oxygen species (ROS and cellular oxidative stress are involved in many physiological and pathophysiological processes of stem cells, including pluripotency, proliferation, differentiation, and stress resistance. The mode of action of ROS is also dependent on the localization of their target molecules. Thus, the modifications induced by ROS can be separated depending on the cellular compartments they affect. NAD(PH oxidase family, particularly Nox4, has been known to produce ROS in the nucleus. In the present study we show that Nox4 nuclear expression (nNox4 depends on the donor and it correlates with the expression of transcription factors involved in stemness regulation, such as Oct4, SSEA-4, and Sox2. Moreover nNox4 is linked with the nuclear localization of redox sensitive transcription factors, as Nrf2 and NF-κB, and with the differentiation potential. Taken together, these results suggest that nNox4 regulation may have important effects in stem cell capability through modulation of transcription factors and DNA damage.

  5. Human dental pulp stem cells: Applications in future regenerative medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potdar, Pravin D; Jethmalani, Yogita D

    2015-01-01

    Stem cells are pluripotent cells, having a property of differentiating into various types of cells of human body. Several studies have developed mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) from various human tissues, peripheral blood and body fluids. These cells are then characterized by cellular and molecular markers to understand their specific phenotypes. Dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) are having a MSCs phenotype and they are differentiated into neuron, cardiomyocytes, chondrocytes, osteoblasts, liver cells and β cells of islet of pancreas. Thus, DPSCs have shown great potentiality to use in regenerative medicine for treatment of various human diseases including dental related problems. These cells can also be developed into induced pluripotent stem cells by incorporation of pluripotency markers and use for regenerative therapies of various diseases. The DPSCs are derived from various dental tissues such as human exfoliated deciduous teeth, apical papilla, periodontal ligament and dental follicle tissue. This review will overview the information about isolation, cellular and molecular characterization and differentiation of DPSCs into various types of human cells and thus these cells have important applications in regenerative therapies for various diseases. This review will be most useful for postgraduate dental students as well as scientists working in the field of oral pathology and oral medicine. PMID:26131314

  6. Human dental pulp stem cells: Applications in future regenerative medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potdar, Pravin D; Jethmalani, Yogita D

    2015-06-26

    Stem cells are pluripotent cells, having a property of differentiating into various types of cells of human body. Several studies have developed mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) from various human tissues, peripheral blood and body fluids. These cells are then characterized by cellular and molecular markers to understand their specific phenotypes. Dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) are having a MSCs phenotype and they are differentiated into neuron, cardiomyocytes, chondrocytes, osteoblasts, liver cells and β cells of islet of pancreas. Thus, DPSCs have shown great potentiality to use in regenerative medicine for treatment of various human diseases including dental related problems. These cells can also be developed into induced pluripotent stem cells by incorporation of pluripotency markers and use for regenerative therapies of various diseases. The DPSCs are derived from various dental tissues such as human exfoliated deciduous teeth, apical papilla, periodontal ligament and dental follicle tissue. This review will overview the information about isolation, cellular and molecular characterization and differentiation of DPSCs into various types of human cells and thus these cells have important applications in regenerative therapies for various diseases. This review will be most useful for postgraduate dental students as well as scientists working in the field of oral pathology and oral medicine.

  7. Dissection of a stem cell hierarchy in the human breast

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rubner Fridriksdottir, Agla Jael

    where senescence is bypassed. These findings identify an adult human breast ductal stem cell activity and the earliest descendants thereof. Further characterization of the ductal stem cell niche, especially in terms of possible interaction with surrounding stromal cells (Sigurdsson and Fridriksdottir et......The human breast is a unique organ in that it undergoes most of its development after birth under the control of systemic hormones. Throughout the reproductive life of women, the breast gland undergoes changes in morphogenesis as evidenced by continuous cell proliferation, differentiation...... and apoptosis during each menstrual cycle. These changes are most prominent during pregnancy, lactation and involution after breast feeding. These highly dynamic changes are thought to rely on the presence of a breast epithelial stem cell population (reviewed in (Fridriksdottir et al. 2005)). Nevertheless...

  8. Human adipose-derived stem cells: definition, isolation, tissue-engineering applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nae, S; Bordeianu, I; Stăncioiu, A T; Antohi, N

    2013-01-01

    Recent researches have demonstrated that the most effective repair system of the body is represented by stem cells - unspecialized cells, capable of self-renewal through successive mitoses, which have also the ability to transform into different cell types through differentiation. The discovery of adult stem cells represented an important step in regenerative medicine because they no longer raises ethical or legal issues and are more accessible. Only in 2002, stem cells isolated from adipose tissue were described as multipotent stem cells. Adipose tissue stem cells benefits in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine are numerous. Development of adipose tissue engineering techniques offers a great potential in surpassing the existing limits faced by the classical approaches used in plastic and reconstructive surgery. Adipose tissue engineering clinical applications are wide and varied, including reconstructive, corrective and cosmetic procedures. Nowadays, adipose tissue engineering is a fast developing field, both in terms of fundamental researches and medical applications, addressing issues related to current clinical pathology or trauma management of soft tissue injuries in different body locations.

  9. Arrangement of collagen fibers in human placental stem villi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sati, Leyla; Demir, Ayse Yasemin; Sarikcioglu, Levent; Demir, Ramazan

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the arrangements and related localization patterns of different collagen types in the stroma of placental stem villi by immunohistochemistry and electron microscopy. A total of 14 normal human term placental tissue samples were studied. Immunohistochemistry was performed in order to localize collagen types I, III, IV, V and cytokeratin 7 on tissue sections. Parallel tissue samples were examined by transmission electron microscopy. Semi-quantitative analysis of immunolabeling intensities was also performed to determine the distribution of fibers in stem villi stroma. All collagen types, especially collagen type V, were strongly immunopositive in the triangular areas of the stem villi stroma. However, there was no collagen type I or type III immunolabeling in the sub-trophoblastic regions. Membrane collagen type IV immunolabeling was also observed in the stroma of stem villi. Ultrastructurally, collagen fibers showed different configurations in cross, longitudinal, circular, oblique and parallel directions compared to the villous axis. We conclude that the organization of collagen fiber bundles in stem villi shows a very specific arrangement: a compact coat formed by fibrillar bundles between the vascular wall and extravascular stroma of stem villi correlated with the functional activity.

  10. Mesenchymal stem cell like (MSCl) cells generated from human embryonic stem cells support pluripotent cell growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varga, Nora [Membrane Research Group of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Semmelweis University, Budapest (Hungary); Vereb, Zoltan; Rajnavoelgyi, Eva [Department of Immunology, Medical and Health Science Centre, University of Debrecen, Debrecen (Hungary); Nemet, Katalin; Uher, Ferenc; Sarkadi, Balazs [Membrane Research Group of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Semmelweis University, Budapest (Hungary); Apati, Agota, E-mail: apati@kkk.org.hu [Membrane Research Group of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Semmelweis University, Budapest (Hungary)

    2011-10-28

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer MSC like cells were derived from hESC by a simple and reproducible method. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Differentiation and immunosuppressive features of MSCl cells were similar to bmMSC. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer MSCl cells as feeder cells support the undifferentiated growth of hESC. -- Abstract: Mesenchymal stem cell like (MSCl) cells were generated from human embryonic stem cells (hESC) through embryoid body formation, and isolated by adherence to plastic surface. MSCl cell lines could be propagated without changes in morphological or functional characteristics for more than 15 passages. These cells, as well as their fluorescent protein expressing stable derivatives, efficiently supported the growth of undifferentiated human embryonic stem cells as feeder cells. The MSCl cells did not express the embryonic (Oct4, Nanog, ABCG2, PODXL, or SSEA4), or hematopoietic (CD34, CD45, CD14, CD133, HLA-DR) stem cell markers, while were positive for the characteristic cell surface markers of MSCs (CD44, CD73, CD90, CD105). MSCl cells could be differentiated toward osteogenic, chondrogenic or adipogenic directions and exhibited significant inhibition of mitogen-activated lymphocyte proliferation, and thus presented immunosuppressive features. We suggest that cultured MSCl cells can properly model human MSCs and be applied as efficient feeders in hESC cultures.

  11. Nanotopography Promotes Pancreatic Differentiation of Human Embryonic Stem Cells and Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jong Hyun; Kim, Hyung Woo; Cha, Kyoung Je; Han, Jiyou; Jang, Yu Jin; Kim, Dong Sung; Kim, Jong-Hoon

    2016-03-22

    Although previous studies suggest that nanotopographical features influence properties and behaviors of stem cells, only a few studies have attempted to derive clinically useful somatic cells from human pluripotent stem cells using nanopatterned surfaces. In the present study, we report that polystyrene nanopore-patterned surfaces significantly promote the pancreatic differentiation of human embryonic and induced pluripotent stem cells. We compared different diameters of nanopores and showed that 200 nm nanopore-patterned surfaces highly upregulated the expression of PDX1, a critical transcription factor for pancreatic development, leading to an approximately 3-fold increase in the percentage of differentiating PDX1(+) pancreatic progenitors compared with control flat surfaces. Furthermore, in the presence of biochemical factors, 200 nm nanopore-patterned surfaces profoundly enhanced the derivation of pancreatic endocrine cells producing insulin, glucagon, or somatostatin. We also demonstrate that nanopore-patterned surface-induced upregulation of PDX1 is associated with downregulation of TAZ, suggesting the potential role of TAZ in nanopore-patterned surface-mediated mechanotransduction. Our study suggests that appropriate cytokine treatments combined with nanotopographical stimulation could be a powerful tool for deriving a high purity of desired cells from human pluripotent stem cells.

  12. Expansion of human cord blood hematopoietic stem cells for transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Song; Chu, Pat; Hwang, William; Lodish, Harvey

    2010-10-08

    A recent Science paper reported a purine derivative that expands human cord blood hematopoietic stem cells in culture (Boitano et al., 2010) by antagonizing the aryl hydrocarbon receptor. Major problems need to be overcome before ex vivo HSC expansion can be used clinically. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Wnt signaling inhibits osteogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer, Jan; Siddappa, R.; Gaspar, Claudia; van Apeldoorn, Aart A.; Fodde, Riccardo; van Blitterswijk, Clemens

    2004-01-01

    Human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) from the bone marrow represent a potential source of pluripotent cells for autologous bone tissue engineering. We previously discovered that over activation of the Wnt signal transduction pathway by either lithium or Wnt3A stimulates hMSC proliferation while

  14. Arrangement of collagen fibers in human placental stem villi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sati, Leyla; Demir, Ayse Yasemin; Sarikcioglu, Levent; Demir, Ramazan

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the arrangements and related localization patterns of different collagen types in the stroma of placental stem villi by immunohistochemistry and electron microscopy. A total of 14 normal human term placental tissue samples were studied. Immunohistochemistry

  15. Rapid neurogenesis through transcriptional activation in human stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busskamp, Volker; Lewis, Nathan E; Guye, Patrick; Ng, Alex H M; Shipman, Seth L; Byrne, Susan M; Sanjana, Neville E; Murn, Jernej; Li, Yinqing; Li, Shangzhong; Stadler, Michael; Weiss, Ron; Church, George M

    2014-11-17

    Advances in cellular reprogramming and stem cell differentiation now enable ex vivo studies of human neuronal differentiation. However, it remains challenging to elucidate the underlying regulatory programs because differentiation protocols are laborious and often result in low neuron yields. Here, we overexpressed two Neurogenin transcription factors in human-induced pluripotent stem cells and obtained neurons with bipolar morphology in 4 days, at greater than 90% purity. The high purity enabled mRNA and microRNA expression profiling during neurogenesis, thus revealing the genetic programs involved in the rapid transition from stem cell to neuron. The resulting cells exhibited transcriptional, morphological and functional signatures of differentiated neurons, with greatest transcriptional similarity to prenatal human brain samples. Our analysis revealed a network of key transcription factors and microRNAs that promoted loss of pluripotency and rapid neurogenesis via progenitor states. Perturbations of key transcription factors affected homogeneity and phenotypic properties of the resulting neurons, suggesting that a systems-level view of the molecular biology of differentiation may guide subsequent manipulation of human stem cells to rapidly obtain diverse neuronal types. © 2014 The Authors. Published under the terms of the CC BY 4.0 license.

  16. Improved genetic manipulation of human embryonic stem cells.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Braam, S.R.; Denning, C.; van den Brink, S.; Kats, P.; Hochstenbach, R.; Passier, R.; Mummery, C.L.

    2008-01-01

    Low efficiency of transfection limits the ability to genetically manipulate human embryonic stem cells (hESCs), and differences in cell derivation and culture methods require optimization of transfection protocols. We transiently transferred multiple independent hESC lines with different growth

  17. STEM and the Arts and Humanities: Debunking a False Dichotomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartzell, Richard

    2017-01-01

    The false dichotomy that suggests schools must choose between STEM (or STEAM) and the humanities would not merit the time it takes to write an article if not for a dangerous crescendo of backlash clouding the senses of boards and administrations around the independent school world. In this article, the author, an upper school principal of Taipei…

  18. Human embryonic stem cell transplantation to repair the infarcted myocardium

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Leor, Jonathan; Gerecht, Sharon; Cohen, Smadar; Miller, Liron; Holbova, Radka; Ziskind, Anna; Shachar, Michal; Feinberg, Micha S; Guetta, Esther; Itskovitz-Eldor, Joseph

    2007-01-01

    To test the hypothesis that human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) can be guided to form new myocardium by transplantation into the normal or infarcted heart, and to assess the influence of hESC-derived cardiomyocytes (hESCMs...

  19. Fibroblast Growth Factor 2 Regulates High Mobility Group A2 Expression in Human Bone Marrow-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalomoiris, Stefanos; Cicchetto, Andrew C; Lakatos, Kinga; Nolta, Jan A; Fierro, Fernando A

    2016-09-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are an excellent source for numerous cellular therapies due to their simple isolation, low immunogenicity, multipotent differentiation potential and regenerative secretion profile. However, over-expanded MSCs show decreased therapeutic efficacy. This shortcoming may be circumvented by identifying methods that promote self-renewal of MSCs in culture. HMGA2 is a DNA-binding protein that regulates self-renewal in multiple types of stem cells through chromatin remodeling, but its impact on human bone marrow-derived MSCs is not known. Using an isolation method to obtain pure MSCs within 9 days in culture, we show that expression of HMGA2 quickly decreases during early expansion of MSCs, while let-7 microRNAs (which repress HMGA2) are simultaneously increased. Remarkably, we demonstrate that FGF-2, a growth factor commonly used to promote self-renewal in MSCs, rapidly induces HMGA2 expression in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. The signaling pathway involves FGF-2 receptor 1 (FGFR1) and ERK1/2, but acts independent from let-7. By silencing HMGA2 using shRNAs, we demonstrate that HMGA2 is necessary for MSC proliferation. However, we also show that over-expression of HMGA2 does not increase cell proliferation, but rather abrogates the mitogenic effect of FGF-2, possibly through inhibition of FGFR1. In addition, using different methods to assess in vitro differentiation, we show that modulation of HMGA2 inhibits adipogenesis, but does not affect osteogenesis of MSCs. Altogether, our results show that HMGA2 expression is associated with highly proliferating MSCs, is tightly regulated by FGF-2, and is involved in both proliferation and adipogenesis of MSCs. J. Cell. Biochem. 117: 2128-2137, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Generation of neuropeptidergic hypothalamic neurons from human pluripotent stem cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merkle, Florian T.; Maroof, Asif; Wataya, Takafumi; Sasai, Yoshiki; Studer, Lorenz; Eggan, Kevin; Schier, Alexander F.

    2015-01-01

    Hypothalamic neurons orchestrate many essential physiological and behavioral processes via secreted neuropeptides, and are relevant to human diseases such as obesity, narcolepsy and infertility. We report the differentiation of human pluripotent stem cells into many of the major types of neuropeptidergic hypothalamic neurons, including those producing pro-opiolemelanocortin, agouti-related peptide, hypocretin/orexin, melanin-concentrating hormone, oxytocin, arginine vasopressin, corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) or thyrotropin-releasing hormone. Hypothalamic neurons can be generated using a ‘self-patterning’ strategy that yields a broad array of cell types, or via a more reproducible directed differentiation approach. Stem cell-derived human hypothalamic neurons share characteristic morphological properties and gene expression patterns with their counterparts in vivo, and are able to integrate into the mouse brain. These neurons could form the basis of cellular models, chemical screens or cellular therapies to study and treat common human diseases. PMID:25670790

  1. Computational Modeling of a Transcriptional Switch Underlying B-Lymphocyte Lineage Commitment of Hematopoietic Multipotent Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Salerno

    Full Text Available Despite progresses in identifying the cellular mechanisms at the basis of the differentiation of hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells, little is known about the regulatory circuitry at the basis of lineage commitment of hematopoietic multipotent progenitors. To address this issue, we propose a computational approach to give further insights in the comprehension of this genetic mechanism. Differently from T lymphopoiesis, however, there is at present no mathematical model describing lineage restriction of multipotent progenitors to early B-cell precursors. Here, we provide a first model-constructed on the basis of current experimental evidence from literature and of publicly available microarray datasets-of the genetic regulatory network driving the cellular fate determination at the stage of lymphoid lineage commitment, with particular regard to the multipotent-B-cell progenitor transition. By applying multistability analysis methods, we are able to assess the capability of the model to capture the experimentally observed switch-like commitment behavior. These methods allow us to confirm the central role of zinc finger protein 521 (ZNF521 in this process, that we had previously reported, and to identify a novel putative functional interaction for ZNF521, which is essential to realize such characteristic behavior. Moreover, using the devised model, we are able to rigorously analyze the mechanisms underpinning irreversibility of the physiological commitment step and to devise a possible reprogramming strategy, based on the combined modification of the expression of ZNF521 and EBF1.

  2. Mapping the calcitonin receptor in human brain stem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bower, Rebekah L; Eftekhari, Sajedeh; Waldvogel, Henry J

    2016-01-01

    understanding of these hormone systems by mapping CTR expression in the human brain stem, specifically the medulla oblongata. Widespread CTR-like immunoreactivity was observed throughout the medulla. Dense CTR staining was noted in several discrete nuclei, including the nucleus of the solitary tract...... receptors (AMY) are a heterodimer formed by the coexpression of CTR with receptor activity-modifying proteins (RAMPs). CTR with RAMP1 responds potently to both amylin and CGRP. The brain stem is a major site of action for circulating amylin and is a rich site of CGRP binding. This study aimed to enhance our...

  3. Nanoscale Mechanical Stimulation of Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Nikukar

    2014-05-01

    We observed significant responses after 1 and 2-week stimulations in cell number, cell shapes and phenotypical markers. Microarray was performed for all groups. Cell count showed normal cell growth with stimulation. However, cell surface area, cell perimeter, and arboration after 1-week stimulation showed significant increases. Immunofluorescent studies have showed significant increase in osteocalcin production after stimulation. Conclusions: Nanoscale mechanical vibration showed significant changes in human mesenchymal stem cell behaviours. Cell morphology changed to become more polygonal and increased expression of the osteoblast markers were noted. These findings with gene regulation changes suggesting nanoscale mechanostimulation has stimulated osteoblastogenesis.  Keywords:  Mesenchymal, Nanoscale, Stem Cells.

  4. Ethics, politics, and human embryo stem cell research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macklin, R

    2000-01-01

    Three reports on ethical aspects of research involving human embryonic stem cells were issued in the final months of 1999. Two were from governmental agencies or commissions: the National Institutes of Health and the National Bioethics Advisory Commission. The third report was issued by the American Association for the Advancement of Science and the Institute for Civil Society. All three reports endorse the use of federal funds for embryonic stem cell research, but other differences distinguish these reports. This article describes the differences and provides an ethical analysis of the main arguments.

  5. Human umbilical cord Wharton's jelly stem cells undergo enhanced chondrogenic differentiation when grown on nanofibrous scaffolds and in a sequential two-stage culture medium environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, Chui-Yee; Subramanian, Arjunan; Gauthaman, Kalamegam; Venugopal, Jayarama; Biswas, Arijit; Ramakrishna, Seeram; Bongso, Ariff

    2012-03-01

    The current treatments used for osteoarthritis from cartilage damage have their disadvantages of donor site morbidity, complicated surgical interventions and risks of infection and graft rejection. Recent advances in tissue engineering have offered much promise in cartilage repair but the best cell source and in vitro system have not as yet been optimised. Human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (hBMSCs) have thus far been the cell of choice. However, we derived a unique stem cell from the human umbilical cord Wharton's jelly (hWJSC) that has properties superior to hBMSCs in terms of ready availability, prolonged stemness characteristics in vitro, high proliferation rates, wide multipotency, non-tumorigenicity and tolerance in allogeneic transplantation. We observed enhanced cell attachment, cell proliferation and chondrogenesis of hWJSCs over hBMSCs when grown on PCL/Collagen nanoscaffolds in the presence of a two-stage sequential complex/chondrogenic medium for 21 days. Improvement of these three parameters were confirmed via inverted optics, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), MTT assay, pellet diameters, Alcian blue histology and staining, glycosaminglycans (GAG) and hyaluronic acid production and expression of key chondrogenic genes (SOX9, Collagen type II, COMP, FMOD) using immunohistochemistry and real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). In separate experiments we demonstrated that the 16 ng/ml of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) present in the complex medium may have contributed to driving chondrogenesis. We conclude that hWJSCs are an attractive stem cell source for inducing chondrogenesis in vitro when grown on nanoscaffolds and exposed sequentially first to complex medium and then followed by chondrogenic medium.

  6. Measurement of human embryonic stem cell in the growing cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, X.; Zhao, L.; Oh, Steve K. W.; Chong, W. K.; Ong, J. K.; Chen, Allen K.; Choo, Andre B. H.

    2008-09-01

    A measurement and imaging system has been developed for in-line continuous measurement of live, unmodified, human embryonic stem cells (hESC). The measurement will not affect cell growth, structure, sterility and suitability for clinical use. The stem cell imaging system (SCIS) can be used to support the optimization of automated stem cell growth for invitro study and for high-volume bio-manufacture. This paper present the experimental and analysis for the optimization of system parameters. A non-linear lighting is developed to obtain a clear images. The individual cluster can be traced from day one to day two. The whole system is calibrated with measurement microscope and haemacytometer. The measurement accuracy is better than 90%.

  7. Modelling Neurodegenerative Diseases Using Human Pluripotent Stem Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hall, Vanessa Jane

    2016-01-01

    Neurodegenerative diseases are being modelled in-vitro using human patient-specific, induced pluripotent stem cells and transgenic embryonic stem cells to determine more about disease mechanisms, as well as to discover new treatments for patients. Current research in modelling Alzheimer’s disease......, frontotemporal dementia and Parkinson’s disease using pluripotent stem cells is described, along with the advent of gene-editing, which has been the complimentary tool for the field. Current methods used to model these diseases are predominantly dependent on 2D cell culture methods. Outcomes reveal that only...... some of the phenotype can be observed in-vitro, but these phenotypes, when compared to the patient, correlate extremely well. Many studies have found novel molecular mechanisms involved in the disease and therefore elucidate new potential targets for reversing the phenotype. Future research...

  8. Human cloning, stem cell research. An Islamic perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Aqeel, Aida I

    2009-12-01

    The rapidly changing technologies that involve human subjects raise complex ethical, legal, social, and religious issues. Recent advances in the field of cloning and stem cell research have introduced new hopes for the treatment of serious diseases. But this promise has raised many complex questions. This field causes debate and challenge, not only among scientists but also among ethicists, religious scholars, governments, and politicians. There is no consensus on the morality of human cloning, even within specific religious traditions. In countries in which religion has a strong influence on political decision making, the moral status of the human embryo is at the center of the debate. Because of the inevitable consequences of reproductive cloning, it is prohibited in Islam. However, stem cell research for therapeutic purposes is permissible with full consideration, and all possible precautions in the pre-ensoulment stages of early fetus development, if the source is legitimate.

  9. The safety of human pluripotent stem cells in clinical treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonson, Oscar E; Domogatskaya, Anna; Volchkov, Pavel; Rodin, Sergey

    2015-01-01

    Human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) have practically unlimited proliferation potential and a capability to differentiate into any cell type in the human body. Since the first derivation in 1998, they have been an attractive source of cells for regenerative medicine. Numerous ethical, technological, and regulatory complications have been hampering hPSC use in clinical applications. Human embryonic stem cells (ESCs), parthenogenetic human ESCs, human nuclear transfer ESCs, and induced pluripotent stem cells are four types of hPSCs that are different in many clinically relevant features such as propensity to epigenetic abnormalities, generation methods, and ability for development of autologous cell lines. Propensity to genetic mutations and tumorigenicity are common features of all pluripotent cells that complicate hPSC-based therapies. Several recent advances in methods of derivation, culturing, and monitoring of hPSCs have addressed many ethical concerns and technological challenges in development of clinical-grade hPSC lines. Generation of banks of such lines may be useful to minimize immune rejection of hPSC-derived allografts. In this review, we discuss different sources of hPSCs available at the moment, various safety risks associated with them, and possible solutions for successful use of hPSCs in the clinic. We also discuss ongoing clinical trials of hPSC-based treatments.

  10. Human serum promotes osteogenic differentiation of human dental pulp stem cells in vitro and in vivo

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pisciotta, Alessandra; Riccio, Massimo; Carnevale, Gianluca; Beretti, Francesca; Gibellini, Lara; Maraldi, Tullia; Cavallini, Gian Maria; Ferrari, Adriano; Bruzzesi, Giacomo; De Pol, Anto

    2012-01-01

    Human dental pulp is a promising alternative source of stem cells for cell-based tissue engineering in regenerative medicine, for the easily recruitment with low invasivity for the patient and for the...

  11. Treatment of spinal cord injury: a review of engineering using neural and mesenchymal stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortazavi, Martin M; Harmon, Olivia A; Adeeb, Nimer; Deep, Aman; Tubbs, R Shane

    2015-01-01

    Over time, various treatment modalities for spinal cord injury have been trialed, including pharmacological and nonpharmacological methods. Among these, replacement of the injured neural and paraneural tissues via cellular transplantation of neural and mesenchymal stem cells has been the most attractive. Extensive experimental studies have been done to identify the safety and effectiveness of this transplantation in animal and human models. Herein, we review the literature for studies conducted, with a focus on the human-related studies, recruitment, isolation, and transplantation, of these multipotent stem cells, and associated outcomes. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Human hematopoietic stem cell adherence to cytokines and matrix molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, M W; Briddell, R; Walter, A W; Bruno, E; Hoffman, R

    1992-07-01

    The hematopoietic microenvironment is a complex structure in which stem cells, progenitor cells, stromal cells, growth factors, and extracellular matrix (ECM) molecules each interact to direct the coordinate regulation of blood cell development. While much is known concerning the individual components of this microenvironment, little is understood of the interactions among these various components or, in particular, the nature of those interactions responsible for the regional localization of specific developmental signals. We hypothesized that cytokines act together with ECM molecules to anchor stem cells within the microenvironment, thus modulating their function. In order to analyze matrix-cytokine-stem cell interactions, we developed an ECM model system in which purified stem cell populations and plastic-immobilized individual proteins are used to assess the role of various matrix molecules and/or cytokines in human hematopoietic cell development. Analysis of these interactions revealed that a single ECM protein, thrombospondin, in conjunction with a single cytokine (e.g., c-kit ligand), constitutes a developmental signal that synergistically modulates hematopoietic stem cell function.

  13. Widespread Chromatin Accessibility at Repetitive Elements Links Stem Cells with Human Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Nicholas C; Hepperla, Austin J; Dumitru, Raluca; Simon, Jeremy M; Fang, Fang; Davis, Ian J

    2016-11-01

    Chromatin regulation is critical for differentiation and disease. However, features linking the chromatin environment of stem cells with disease remain largely unknown. We explored chromatin accessibility in embryonic and multipotent stem cells and unexpectedly identified widespread chromatin accessibility at repetitive elements. Integrating genomic and biochemical approaches, we demonstrate that these sites of increased accessibility are associated with well-positioned nucleosomes marked by distinct histone modifications. Differentiation is accompanied by chromatin remodeling at repetitive elements associated with altered expression of genes in relevant developmental pathways. Remarkably, we found that the chromatin environment of Ewing sarcoma, a mesenchymally derived tumor, is shared with primary mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). Accessibility at repetitive elements in MSCs offers a permissive environment that is exploited by the critical oncogene responsible for this cancer. Our data demonstrate that stem cells harbor a unique chromatin landscape characterized by accessibility at repetitive elements, a feature associated with differentiation and oncogenesis. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Derivation of Stromal (Skeletal, Mesenchymal) Stem-like cells from Human Embryonic Stem Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mahmood, Amer; Harkness, Linda; Abdallah, Basem

    2012-01-01

    Derivation of bone forming cells (osteoblasts) from human embryonic stem cells (hESC) is a pre-requisite for their use in clinical applications. However, there is no standard protocol for differentiating hESC into osteoblastic cells. The aim of this study was to identify the emergence of a human...... stromal (mesenchymal, skeletal) stem cell (hMSC)-like population, known to be osteoblastic cell precursors and to test their osteoblastic differentiation capacity in ex vivo cultures and in vivo. We cultured hESC in a feeder-free environment using serum replacement and as suspension aggregates (embryoid...... bodies; hEBs). Over a 20 day developmental period, the hEBs demonstrated increasing enrichment for cells expressing hMSC markers: CD29, CD44, CD63, CD56, CD71, CD73, CD105, CD106 and CD166 as revealed by immunohistochemical staining and flow cytometry (FACS) analysis. Ex vivo differentiation of h...

  15. Male germline stem cells in non-human primates

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    S. Sharma

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Over the past few decades, several studies have attempted to decipher the biology of mammalian germline stem cells (GSCs. These studies provide evidence that regulatory mechanisms for germ cell specification and migration are evolutionarily conserved across species. The characteristics and functions of primate GSCs are highly distinct from rodent species; therefore the findings from rodent models cannot be extrapolated to primates. Due to limited availability of human embryonic and testicular samples for research purposes, two non-human primate models (marmoset and macaque monkeys are extensively employed to understand human germline development and differentiation. This review provides a broader introduction to the in vivo and in vitro germline stem cell terminology from primordial to differentiating germ cells. Primordial germ cells (PGCs are the most immature germ cells colonizing the gonad prior to sex differentiation into testes or ovaries. PGC specification and migratory patterns among different primate species are compared in the review. It also reports the distinctions and similarities in expression patterns of pluripotency markers (OCT4A, NANOG, SALL4 and LIN28 during embryonic developmental stages, among marmosets, macaques and humans. This review presents a comparative summary with immunohistochemical and molecular evidence of germ cell marker expression patterns during postnatal developmental stages, among humans and non-human primates. Furthermore, it reports findings from the recent literature investigating the plasticity behavior of germ cells and stem cells in other organs of humans and monkeys. The use of non-human primate models would enable bridging the knowledge gap in primate GSC research and understanding the mechanisms involved in germline development. Reported similarities in regulatory mechanisms and germ cell expression profile in primates demonstrate the preclinical significance of monkey models for development of

  16. Dragons, Ladybugs, and Softballs: Girls' STEM Engagement with Human-Centered Robotics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomoll, Andrea; Hmelo-Silver, Cindy E.; Šabanovic, Selma; Francisco, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    Early experiences in science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) are important for getting youth interested in STEM fields, particularly for girls. Here, we explore how an after-school robotics club can provide informal STEM experiences that inspire students to engage with STEM in the future. Human-centered robotics, with its emphasis on the…

  17. Integrating human stem cell expansion and neuronal differentiation in bioreactors

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    Serra, Margarida; Brito, Catarina; Costa, Eunice M; Sousa, Marcos FQ; Alves, Paula M

    2009-01-01

    Background Human stem cells are cellular resources with outstanding potential for cell therapy. However, for the fulfillment of this application, major challenges remain to be met. Of paramount importance is the development of robust systems for in vitro stem cell expansion and differentiation. In this work, we successfully developed an efficient scalable bioprocess for the fast production of human neurons. Results The expansion of undifferentiated human embryonal carcinoma stem cells (NTera2/cl.D1 cell line) as 3D-aggregates was firstly optimized in spinner vessel. The media exchange operation mode with an inoculum concentration of 4 × 105 cell/mL was the most efficient strategy tested, with a 4.6-fold increase in cell concentration achieved in 5 days. These results were validated in a bioreactor where similar profile and metabolic performance were obtained. Furthermore, characterization of the expanded population by immunofluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry showed that NT2 cells maintained their stem cell characteristics along the bioreactor culture time. Finally, the neuronal differentiation step was integrated in the bioreactor process, by addition of retinoic acid when cells were in the middle of the exponential phase. Neurosphere composition was monitored and neuronal differentiation efficiency evaluated along the culture time. The results show that, for bioreactor cultures, we were able to increase significantly the neuronal differentiation efficiency by 10-fold while reducing drastically, by 30%, the time required for the differentiation process. Conclusion The culture systems developed herein are robust and represent one-step-forward towards the development of integrated bioprocesses, bridging stem cell expansion and differentiation in fully controlled bioreactors. PMID:19772662

  18. One-step derivation of cardiomyocytes and mesenchymal stem cells from human pluripotent stem cells.

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    Wei, Heming; Tan, Grace; Manasi; Qiu, Suhua; Kong, Geraldine; Yong, Pearly; Koh, Caihong; Ooi, Ting Huay; Lim, Sze Yun; Wong, Philip; Gan, Shu Uin; Shim, Winston

    2012-09-01

    Cardiomyocytes (CMs) and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are important cell types for cardiac repair post myocardial infarction. Here we proved that both CMs and MSCs can be simultaneously generated from human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) via a pro-mesoderm differentiation strategy. Two hiPSC lines, hiPSC (1) and hiPSC (2) were generated from human dermal fibroblasts using OCT-4, SOX-2, KLF-4, c-Myc via retroviral-based reprogramming. H9 human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) served as control. CMs and MSCs were co-generated from hiPSCs and hESCs via embryoid body-dependent cardiac differentiation protocol involving a serum-free and insulin-depleted medium containing a p38 MAPK inhibitor, SB 203580. Comparing to bone marrow and umbilical cord blood-derived MSCs, hiPSC-derived MSCs (iMSCs) expressed common MSC markers and were capable of adipogenesis, osteogenesis and chondrogenesis. Moreover, iMSCs continuously proliferated for more than 32 population doublings without cellular senescence and showed superior pro-angiogenic and wound healing properties. In summary, we generated a large number of homogenous MSCs in conjunction with CMs in a low-cost and efficient one step manner. Functionally competent CMs and MSCs co-generated from hiPSCs may be useful for autologous cardiac repair. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Chemically Defined and Xeno-Free Cryopreservation of Human Adipose-Derived Stem Cells

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    López, Melany; Bollag, Roni J.; Yu, Jack C.; Isales, Carlos M.; Eroglu, Ali

    2016-01-01

    The stromal compartment of adipose tissue harbors multipotent cells known as adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs). These cells can differentiate into various lineages including osteogenic, chrondrogenic, adipogenic, and neurogenic; this cellular fraction may be easily obtained in large quantities through a clinically safe liposuction procedure. Therefore, ASCs offer exceptional opportunities for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. However, current practices involving ASCs typically use fetal bovine serum (FBS)-based cryopreservation solutions that are associated with risks of immunological reactions and of transmitting infectious diseases and prions. To realize clinical applications of ASCs, serum- and xeno-free defined cryopreservation methods are needed. To this end, an animal product-free chemically defined cryopreservation medium was formulated by adding two antioxidants (reduced glutathione and ascorbic acid 2-phosphate), two polymers (PVA and ficoll), two permeating cryoprotectants (ethylene glycol and dimethylsulfoxide), a disaccharide (trehalose), and a calcium chelator (EGTA) to HEPES-buffered DMEM/F12. To limit the number of experimental groups, the concentration of trehalose, both polymers, and EGTA was fixed while the presence of the permeating CPAs and antioxidants was varied. ASCs suspended either in different versions of the defined medium or in the conventional undefined cryopreservation medium (10% dimethylsulfoxide+10% DMEM/F12+80% serum) were cooled to -70°C at 1°C/min before being plunged into liquid nitrogen. Samples were thawed either in air or in a water bath at 37°C. The presence of antioxidants along with 3.5% concentration of each penetrating cryoprotectant improved the freezing outcome to the level of the undefined cryopreservation medium, but the plating efficiency was still lower than that of unfrozen controls. Subsequently, increasing the concentration of both permeating cryoprotectants to 5% further improved the plating

  20. Therapeutic isolation and expansion of human skeletal muscle-derived stem cells for the use of muscle-nerve-blood vessel reconstitution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetsuro eTamaki

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Skeletal muscle makes up 40-50% of body mass, and is thus considered to be a good adult stem cell source for autologous therapy. Although, several stem/progenitor cells have been fractionated from mouse skeletal muscle showing a high potential for therapeutic use, it is unclear whether this is the case in human. Differentiation and therapeutic potential of human skeletal muscle-derived cells (Sk-Cs was examined. Samples (5-10 g were obtained from the abdominal and leg muscles of 36 patients (age, 17-79 years undergoing prostate cancer treatment or leg amputation surgery. All patients gave informed consent. Sk-Cs were isolated using conditioned collagenase solution, and were then sorted as CD34-/CD45-/CD29+ (Sk-DN/29+ and CD34+/CD45- (Sk-34 cells, in a similar manner as for the previous mouse Sk-Cs. Both cell fractions were appropriately expanded using conditioned culture medium for about 2 weeks. Differentiation potentials were then examined during cell culture and in vivo transplantation into the severely damaged muscles of athymic nude mice and rats. Interestingly, these two cell fractions could be divided into highly myogenic (Sk-DN/29+ and multipotent stem cell (Sk-34 fractions, in contrast to mouse Sk-Cs, which showed comparable capacities in both cells. At 6 weeks after the separate transplantation of both cell fractions, the former showed an active contribution to muscle fiber regeneration, but the latter showed vigorous engraftment to the interstitium associated with differentiation into Schwann cells, perineurial/endoneurial cells, and vascular endothelial cells and pericytes, which corresponded to previous observations with mouse SK-Cs. Importantly, mixed cultures of both cells resulted the reduction of tissue reconstitution capacities in vivo, whereas co-transplantation after separate expansion showed favorable results. Therefore, human Sk-Cs are potentially applicable to therapeutic autografts and show multiple differentiation

  1. Biology and relevance of human acute myeloid leukemia stem cells.

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    Thomas, Daniel; Majeti, Ravindra

    2017-03-23

    Evidence of human acute myeloid leukemia stem cells (AML LSCs) was first reported nearly 2 decades ago through the identification of rare subpopulations of engrafting cells in xenotransplantation assays. These AML LSCs were shown to reside at the apex of a cellular hierarchy that initiates and maintains the disease, exhibiting properties of self-renewal, cell cycle quiescence, and chemoresistance. This cancer stem cell model offers an explanation for chemotherapy resistance and disease relapse and implies that approaches to treatment must eradicate LSCs for cure. More recently, a number of studies have both refined and expanded our understanding of LSCs and intrapatient heterogeneity in AML using improved xenotransplant models, genome-scale analyses, and experimental manipulation of primary patient cells. Here, we review these studies with a focus on the immunophenotype, biological properties, epigenetics, genetics, and clinical associations of human AML LSCs and discuss critical questions that need to be addressed in future research. © 2017 by The American Society of Hematology.

  2. Epigenetic stability, adaptability, and reversibility in human embryonic stem cells

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    Tompkins, Joshua D.; Hall, Christine; Chen, Vincent Chang-yi; Li, Arthur Xuejun; Wu, Xiwei; Hsu, David; Couture, Larry A.; Riggs, Arthur D.

    2012-01-01

    The stability of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) is of critical importance for both experimental and clinical applications. We find that as an initial response to altered culture conditions, hESCs change their transcription profile for hundreds of genes and their DNA methylation profiles for several genes outside the core pluripotency network. After adaption to conditions of feeder-free defined and/or xeno-free culture systems, expression and DNA methylation profiles are quite stable for a...

  3. The Osteogenic Potential of Human Non-differentiated and Pre-differentiated Mesenchymal Stem Cells Combined with an Osteoconductive Scaffold – Early Stage Healing

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    Luboš Tuček

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Despite the huge research into stem cells and their regenerative properties for bone healing, there are still unanswered questions including the recipient’s respond to the presence of the stem cells, the fate of stem cells inside the bone defect and the possible advantage in utilizing pre-differentiated cells. To address these problems, we used human multipotent mesenchymal stromal/stem cells (MSCs, GMP Grade, in a rat model of bone formation. In a “bioreactor concept” approach seven Wistar rats were implanted with 0.2 g of synthetic bone scaffold seeded with 2 × 106 MSCs, seven Wistar rats were implanted with 0.2 g of synthetic bone scaffold seeded with 1 × 106 predifferentiated osteoblasts and 1 × 106 pre-differentiated endothelial cells and 14 Wistar rats were implanted with 0.2 g of synthetic bone scaffold without seeded cells into an intramuscular pocket on the left side of their back. The right side of each rat was used as a control, and 0.2 g of synthetic bone scaffold was implanted into the intramuscular pocket alone. To see the early stage healing the samples were harvested 14 days after the implantation, MSCs were detected by positive DAPI and MTCO2 staining in 43% of all the samples implanted with MSCs, and no inflammation signs were present in any implanted animal. New vessels could be found in both groups implanted with MSCs, but not in the control group of animals. However, hematoxylin-eosin staining could not detect newly created bone within the implant in any of the groups. These results were in line with COLL1 staining, where we could detect positive staining only in three cases, all of which were implanted with un-differentiated MSCs. According to our findings, there were no benefits of using the pre-differentiated of MSC.

  4. The Osteogenic Potential of Human Nondifferentiated and Pre-differentiated Mesenchymal Stem Cells Combined with an Osteoconductive Scaffold - Early Stage Healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuček, Luboš; Kočí, Zuzana; Kárová, Kristýna; Doležalová, Helena; Suchánek, Jakub

    Despite the huge research into stem cells and their regenerative properties for bone healing, there are still unanswered questions including the recipient's respond to the presence of the stem cells, the fate of stem cells inside the bone defect and the possible advantage in utilizing pre-differentiated cells. To address these problems, we used human multipotent mesenchymal stromal/stem cells (MSCs), GMP Grade, in a rat model of bone formation. In a "bioreactor concept" approach seven Wistar rats were implanted with 0.2 g of synthetic bone scaffold seeded with 2 × 106 MSCs, seven Wistar rats were implanted with 0.2 g of synthetic bone scaffold seeded with 1 × 106 predifferentiated osteoblasts and 1 × 106 pre-differentiated endothelial cells and 14 Wistar rats were implanted with 0.2 g of synthetic bone scaffold without seeded cells into an intramuscular pocket on the left side of their back. The right side of each rat was used as a control, and 0.2 g of synthetic bone scaffold was implanted into the intramuscular pocket alone. To see the early stage healing the samples were harvested 14 days after the implantation, MSCs were detected by positive DAPI and MTCO2 staining in 43% of all the samples implanted with MSCs, and no inflammation signs were present in any implanted animal. New vessels could be found in both groups implanted with MSCs, but not in the control group of animals. However, hematoxylin-eosin staining could not detect newly created bone within the implant in any of the groups. These results were in line with COLL1 staining, where we could detect positive staining only in three cases, all of which were implanted with un-differentiated MSCs. According to our findings, there were no benefits of using the pre-differentiated of MSC.

  5. Effect of Reishi polysaccharides on human stem/progenitor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wan-Yu; Yang, Wen-Bin; Wong, Chi-Huey; Shih, Daniel Tzu-Bi

    2010-12-15

    The polysaccharide fraction of Ganoderma lucidum (F3) was found to benefit our health in many ways by influencing the activity of tissue stem/progenitor cells. In this study, F3 was found to promote the adipose tissue MSCs' aggregation and chondrosphere formation, with the increase of CAM (N-CAM, I-CAM) expressions and autokine (BMP-2, IL-11, and aggrecan) secretions, in an in vitro chondrogenesis assay. In a stem cell expansion culture, it possesses the thrombopoietin (TPO) and GM-CSF like functions to enhance the survival/renewal abilities of primitive hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HSCs). F3 was found to promote the dendrite growth of blood mononuclear cells (MNCs) and the expression of cell adhesion molecules in the formation of immature dendritic cells (DC). On the other hand, F3 exhibited inhibitory effects on blood endothelial progenitor (EPC) colony formation, with concomitant reduction of cell surface endoglin (CD105) and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-3 (VEGFR-3) marker expressions, in the presence of angiogenic factors. A further cytokine array analysis revealed that F3 indeed inhibited the angiogenin synthesis and enhanced IL-1, MCP-1, MIP-1, RANTES, and GRO productions in the blood EPC derivation culture. Collectively, we have demonstrated that the polysaccharide fraction of G. lucidum F3 exhibits cytokine and chemokine like functions which are beneficial to human tissue stem/progenitor cells by modulating their CAM expressions and biological activities. These findings provide us a better the observation that F3 glycopolysaccharides indeed possesses anti-angiogenic and immune-modulating functions and promotes hematopoietic stem/progenitor cell homing for better human tissue protection, reducing disease progression and health. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Generation of folliculogenic human epithelial stem cells from induced pluripotent stem cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ruifeng; Zheng, Ying; Burrows, Michelle; Liu, Shujing; Wei, Zhi; Nace, Arben; Guo, Wei; Kumar, Suresh; Cotsarelis, George; Xu, Xiaowei

    2014-01-01

    Epithelial stem cells (EpSCs) in the hair follicle bulge are required for hair follicle growth and cycling. The isolation and propagation of human EpSCs for tissue engineering purposes remains a challenge. Here we develop a strategy to differentiate human iPSCs (hiPSCs) into CD200+/ITGA6+ EpSCs that can reconstitute the epithelial components of the hair follicle and interfollicular epidermis. The hiPSC-derived CD200+/ITGA6+ cells show a similar gene expression signature as EpSCs directly isolated from human hair follicles. Human iPSC-derived CD200+/ITGA6+ cells are capable of generating all hair follicle lineages including the hair shaft, and the inner and outer root sheaths in skin reconstitution assays. The regenerated hair follicles possess a KRT15+ stem cell population and produce hair shafts expressing hair-specific keratins. These results suggest an approach for generating large numbers of human EpSCs for tissue engineering and new treatments for hair loss, wound healing and other degenerative skin disorders.

  7. Induction of Regulatory T Cells and Its Regulation with Insulin-like Growth Factor/Insulin-like Growth Factor Binding Protein-4 by Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyagawa, Ippei; Nakayamada, Shingo; Nakano, Kazuhisa; Yamagata, Kaoru; Sakata, Kei; Yamaoka, Kunihiro; Tanaka, Yoshiya

    2017-09-01

    Human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are multipotent and exert anti-inflammatory effects, but the underlying mechanism remains to be elucidated. In the current study, we investigated the regulatory mechanism of regulatory T cell (Treg) induction through the growth factors released by human MSCs. Human naive CD4 + T cells were stimulated with anti-CD3/28 Abs and cocultured with human MSC culture supernatant for 48 h. The proliferation and cytokine production of CD4 + T cells and surface molecule expression on CD4 + T cells were evaluated. The proliferation of anti-CD3/28 Abs-stimulated CD4 + T cells was suppressed by the addition of human MSC culture supernatant; in addition, the production of IL-10 and IL-4 increased. The human MSC culture supernatant induced CD4 + FOXP3 + Tregs that expressed CD25, CTLA-4, glucocorticoid-induced TNFR-related protein, insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1R, and IGF-2R, showing antiproliferative activity against CD4 + T cells. In addition, the induction of Tregs by human MSC culture supernatant was enhanced by the addition of IGF and suppressed by the inhibition of IGF-1R. In contrast, a significant amount of IGF binding protein (IGFBP)-4, an inhibitor of IGF action, was detected in the human MSC culture supernatant. After neutralization of IGFBP-4 in the human MSC culture supernatant by anti-IGFBP-4 Ab, Treg numbers increased significantly. Thus, our results raise the possibility that human MSC actions also involve a negative-regulatory mechanism that suppresses Treg proliferation by releasing IGFBP-4. The results of this study suggest that regulation of IGF may be important for treatments using human MSCs. Copyright © 2017 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  8. Derivation of Ethnically Diverse Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell Lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Eun Ah; Tomov, Martin L; Suhr, Steven T; Luo, Jiesi; Olmsted, Zachary T; Paluh, Janet L; Cibelli, Jose

    2015-10-20

    The human genome with all its ethnic variations contributes to differences in human development, aging, disease, repair, and response to medical treatments and is an exciting area of research and clinical study. The availability of well-characterized ethnically diverse stem cell lines is limited and has not kept pace with other advances in stem cell research. Here we derived xenofree ethnically diverse-human induced pluripotent stem cell (ED-iPSC) lines from fibroblasts obtained from individuals of African American, Hispanic-Latino, Asian, and Caucasian ethnic origin and have characterized the lines under a uniform platform for comparative analysis. Derived ED-iPSC lines are low passage number and evaluated in vivo by teratoma formation and in vitro by high throughput microarray analysis of EB formation and early differentiation for tri-lineage commitment to endoderm, ectoderm and mesoderm. These new xenofree ED-iPSC lines represent a well-characterized valuable resource with potential for use in future research in drug discovery or clinical investigations.

  9. Directed Differentiation of Human Pluripotent Stem Cells to Microglia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douvaras, Panagiotis; Sun, Bruce; Wang, Minghui; Kruglikov, Ilya; Lallos, Gregory; Zimmer, Matthew; Terrenoire, Cecile; Zhang, Bin; Gandy, Sam; Schadt, Eric; Freytes, Donald O; Noggle, Scott; Fossati, Valentina

    2017-06-06

    Microglia, the immune cells of the brain, are crucial to proper development and maintenance of the CNS, and their involvement in numerous neurological disorders is increasingly being recognized. To improve our understanding of human microglial biology, we devised a chemically defined protocol to generate human microglia from pluripotent stem cells. Myeloid progenitors expressing CD14/CX3CR1 were generated within 30 days of differentiation from both embryonic and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). Further differentiation of the progenitors resulted in ramified microglia with highly motile processes, expressing typical microglial markers. Analyses of gene expression and cytokine release showed close similarities between iPSC-derived (iPSC-MG) and human primary microglia as well as clear distinctions from macrophages. iPSC-MG were able to phagocytose and responded to ADP by producing intracellular Ca2+ transients, whereas macrophages lacked such response. The differentiation protocol was highly reproducible across several pluripotent stem cell lines. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. A Novel Class of Human Cardiac Stem Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moccetti, Tiziano; Leri, Annarosa; Goichberg, Polina; Rota, Marcello; Anversa, Piero

    2015-01-01

    Following the recognition that hematopoietic stem cells improve the outcome of myocardial infarction in animal models, bone marrow mononuclear cells, CD34-positive cells, and mesenchymal stromal cells have been introduced clinically. The intracoronary or intramyocardial injection of these cell classes has been shown to be safe and to produce a modest but significant enhancement in systolic function. However, the identification of resident cardiac stem cells in the human heart (hCSCs) has created great expectation concerning the potential implementation of this category of autologous cells for the management of the human disease. Although phase 1 clinical trials have been conducted with encouraging results, the search for the most powerful hCSC for myocardial regeneration is in its infancy. This manuscript discusses the efforts performed in our laboratory to characterize the critical biological variables that define the growth reserve of hCSCs. Based on the theory of the immortal DNA template, we propose that stem cells retaining the old DNA represent 1 of the most powerful cells for myocardial regeneration. Similarly, the expression of insulin-like growth factor-1 receptors in hCSCs recognizes a cell phenotype with superior replicating reserve. However, the impressive recovery in ventricular hemodynamics and anatomy mediated by clonal hCSCs carrying the "mother" DNA underscores the clinical relevance of this hCSC class for the treatment of human heart failure.

  11. Retinoic acid regulates hematopoietic development from human pluripotent stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rönn, Roger E; Guibentif, Carolina; Moraghebi, Roksana; Chaves, Patricia; Saxena, Shobhit; Garcia, Bradley; Woods, Niels-Bjarne

    2015-02-10

    The functions of retinoic acid (RA), a potent morphogen with crucial roles in embryogenesis including developmental hematopoiesis, have not been thoroughly investigated in the human setting. Using an in vitro model of human hematopoietic development, we evaluated the effects of RA signaling on the development of blood and on generated hematopoietic progenitors. Decreased RA signaling increases the generation of cells with a hematopoietic stem cell (HSC)-like phenotype, capable of differentiation into myeloid and lymphoid lineages, through two separate mechanisms: by increasing the commitment of pluripotent stem cells toward the hematopoietic lineage during the developmental process and by decreasing the differentiation of generated blood progenitors. Our results demonstrate that controlled low-level RA signaling is a requirement in human blood development, and we propose a new interpretation of RA as a regulatory factor, where appropriate control of RA signaling enables increased generation of hematopoietic progenitor cells from pluripotent stem cells in vitro. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Directed Differentiation of Human Pluripotent Stem Cells to Microglia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panagiotis Douvaras

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Microglia, the immune cells of the brain, are crucial to proper development and maintenance of the CNS, and their involvement in numerous neurological disorders is increasingly being recognized. To improve our understanding of human microglial biology, we devised a chemically defined protocol to generate human microglia from pluripotent stem cells. Myeloid progenitors expressing CD14/CX3CR1 were generated within 30 days of differentiation from both embryonic and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs. Further differentiation of the progenitors resulted in ramified microglia with highly motile processes, expressing typical microglial markers. Analyses of gene expression and cytokine release showed close similarities between iPSC-derived (iPSC-MG and human primary microglia as well as clear distinctions from macrophages. iPSC-MG were able to phagocytose and responded to ADP by producing intracellular Ca2+ transients, whereas macrophages lacked such response. The differentiation protocol was highly reproducible across several pluripotent stem cell lines.

  13. Angiopoietin-like 5 and IGFBP2 stimulate ex vivo expansion of human cord blood hematopoietic stem cells as assayed by NOD/SCID transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Cheng Cheng; Kaba, Megan; Iizuka, Satoru; Huynh, HoangDinh; Lodish, Harvey F

    2008-04-01

    Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) are the basis of bone marrow transplantation and are attractive target cells for hematopoietic gene therapy, but these important clinical applications have been severely hampered by difficulties in ex vivo expansion of HSCs. In particular, the use of cord blood for adult transplantation is greatly limited by the number of HSCs. Previously we identified angiopoietin-like proteins and IGF-binding protein 2 (IGFBP2) as new hormones that, together with other factors, can expand mouse bone marrow HSCs in culture. Here, we measure the activity of multipotent human severe combined immunodeficient (SCID)-repopulating cells (SRCs) by transplantation into the nonobese diabetic SCID (NOD/SCID) mice; secondary transplantation was performed to evaluate the self-renewal potential of SRCs. A serum-free medium containing SCF, TPO, and FGF-1 or Flt3-L cannot significantly support expansion of the SRCs present in human cord blood CD133+ cells. Addition of either angiopoietin-like 5 or IGF-binding protein 2 to the cultures led to a sizable expansion of HSC numbers, as assayed by NOD/SCID transplantation. A serum-free culture containing SCF, TPO, FGF-1, angiopoietin-like 5, and IGFBP2 supports an approximately 20-fold net expansion of repopulating human cord blood HSCs, a number potentially applicable to several clinical processes including HSC transplantation.

  14. Role of human cardiac biopsy derived conditioned media in modulating bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells toward cardiomyocyte-like cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anupama Kakkar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs are multipotent and can be easily cultured and expanded. Therefore, these are considered to be an attractive therapeutic tool for cardiac repair. These have been found to have tremendous potential to transdifferentiate to cardiac lineage both in vitro and in vivo. A number of chemicals and growth factors have been explored for the same. However, the effect of the paracrine factors released by cardiac tissue has not been studied much. Materials and Methods: In the present study, we have examined the differentiation capacity of conditioned media (CM derived from human cardiac tissue on human bone marrow-derived MSCs (BM-MSCs. BM-MSCs after characterization were induced by culture supernatant collected from human cardiac tissue (21 days. Parallel cultures treated with 5-azacytidine (AZA (30 days, were taken as controls. Results: MSCs treated with CM formed “muscle island” like structure and were found to be positive for cardiac-specific markers - myosin light chain-2v and cardiac troponin I proteins. However, uninduced BM-MSCs did not show positivity for any of these markers and maintained fibroblastic morphology. Conclusion: These findings demonstrate that cardiac CM is capable of effective induction of morphological and molecular changes in MSCs toward cardiac features. However, differentiation efficiency is less than that of 5-AZA and the mode of action and the components of CM are still to be known.

  15. A Comparison of Culture Characteristics between Human Amniotic Mesenchymal Stem Cells and Dental Stem Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusoff, Nurul Hidayat; Alshehadat, Saaid Ayesh; Azlina, Ahmad; Kannan, Thirumulu Ponnuraj; Hamid, Suzina Sheikh Abdul

    2015-04-01

    In the past decade, the field of stem cell biology is of major interest among researchers due to its broad therapeutic potential. Stem cells are a class of undifferentiated cells that are able to differentiate into specialised cell types. Stem cells can be classified into two main types: adult stem cells (adult tissues) and embryonic stem cells (embryos formed during the blastocyst phase of embryological development). This review will discuss two types of adult mesenchymal stem cells, dental stem cells and amniotic stem cells, with respect to their differentiation lineages, passage numbers and animal model studies. Amniotic stem cells have a greater number of differentiation lineages than dental stem cells. On the contrary, dental stem cells showed the highest number of passages compared to amniotic stem cells. For tissue regeneration based on animal studies, amniotic stem cells showed the shortest time to regenerate in comparison with dental stem cells.

  16. Expression of stem cell markers in the human fetal kidney.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sally Metsuyanim

    Full Text Available In the human fetal kidney (HFK self-renewing stem cells residing in the metanephric mesenchyme (MM/blastema are induced to form all cell types of the nephron till 34(th week of gestation. Definition of useful markers is crucial for the identification of HFK stem cells. Because wilms' tumor, a pediatric renal cancer, initiates from retention of renal stem cells, we hypothesized that surface antigens previously up-regulated in microarrays of both HFK and blastema-enriched stem-like wilms' tumor xenografts (NCAM, ACVRIIB, DLK1/PREF, GPR39, FZD7, FZD2, NTRK2 are likely to be relevant markers. Comprehensive profiling of these putative and of additional stem cell markers (CD34, CD133, c-Kit, CD90, CD105, CD24 in mid-gestation HFK was performed using immunostaining and FACS in conjunction with EpCAM, an epithelial surface marker that is absent from the MM and increases along nephron differentiation and hence can be separated into negative, dim or bright fractions. No marker was specifically localized to the MM. Nevertheless, FZD7 and NTRK2 were preferentially localized to the MM and emerging tubules (50% of HFK cells and predominantly co-express EpCAM(bright, indicating they are mostly markers of differentiation. Furthermore, localization of NCAM exclusively in the MM and in its nephron progenitor derivatives but also in stroma and the expression pattern of significantly elevated renal stem/progenitor genes Six2, Wt1, Cited1, and Sall1 in NCAM(+EpCAM(- and to a lesser extent in NCAM(+EpCAM(+ fractions confirmed regional identity of cells and assisted us in pinpointing the presence of subpopulations that are putative MM-derived progenitor cells (NCAM(+EpCAM(+FZD7(+, MM stem cells (NCAM(+EpCAM(-FZD7(+ or both (NCAM(+FZD7(+. These results and concepts provide a framework for developing cell selection strategies for human renal cell-based therapies.

  17. Establishment of Cancer Stem Cell Cultures from Human Conventional Osteosarcoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmini, Gaia; Zonefrati, Roberto; Mavilia, Carmelo; Aldinucci, Alessandra; Luzi, Ettore; Marini, Francesca; Franchi, Alessandro; Capanna, Rodolfo; Tanini, Annalisa; Brandi, Maria Luisa

    2016-10-14

    The current improvements in therapy against osteosarcoma (OS) have prolonged the lives of cancer patients, but the survival rate of five years remains poor when metastasis has occurred. The Cancer Stem Cell (CSC) theory holds that there is a subset of tumor cells within the tumor that have stem-like characteristics, including the capacity to maintain the tumor and to resist multidrug chemotherapy. Therefore, a better understanding of OS biology and pathogenesis is needed in order to advance the development of targeted therapies to eradicate this particular subset and to reduce morbidity and mortality among patients. Isolating CSCs, establishing cell cultures of CSCs, and studying their biology are important steps to improving our understanding of OS biology and pathogenesis. The establishment of human-derived OS-CSCs from biopsies of OS has been made possible using several methods, including the capacity to create 3-dimensional stem cell cultures under nonadherent conditions. Under these conditions, CSCs are able to create spherical floating colonies formed by daughter stem cells; these colonies are termed "cellular spheres". Here, we describe a method to establish CSC cultures from primary cell cultures of conventional OS obtained from OS biopsies. We clearly describe the several passages required to isolate and characterize CSCs.

  18. Human Brain Stem Structures Respond Differentially to Noxious Heat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander eRitter

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Concerning the physiological correlates of pain, the brain stem is considered to be one core region that is activated by noxious input. In animal studies, different slopes of skin heating (SSH with noxious heat led to activation in different columns of the midbrain periaqueductal grey (PAG. The present study aimed at finding a method for differentiating structures in PAG and other brain stem structures, which are associated with different qualities of pain in humans according to the structures that were associated with different behavioral significances to noxious thermal stimulation in animals. Brain activity was studied by fMRI in healthy subjects in response to steep and shallow SSH with noxious heat. We found differential activation to different SSH in the PAG and the rostral ventromedial medulla (RVM. In a second experiment we demonstrate that the different SSH were associated with different pain qualities. Our experiments provide evidence that brainstem structures, i.e. the PAG and the RVM, become differentially activated by different SSH. Therefore, different SSH can be utilized when brain stem structures are investigated and when it is aimed to activate these structures differentially. Moreover, percepts of first pain were elicited by shallow SSH whereas percepts of second pain were elicited by steep SSH. The stronger activation of these brain stem structures to SSH, eliciting percepts of second vs. first pain, might be of relevance for activating different coping strategies in response to the noxious input with the two types of SSH.

  19. Authentication and banking of human pluripotent stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Josephson, Richard; Auerbach, Jonathan

    2009-12-01

    Pluripotent human stem cell lines from embryos or reprogrammed adult cells are not all alike. Cell lines differ widely in their propensity for differentiation, their chromosomal integrity and epigenetic state, immunological profiles, and their availability for research. It is important that all pluripotent cell lines be protected from loss by being properly banked and authenticated, which will also protect current experimental data by enabling its future reproducibility. This unit considers basic guidelines for banking and authentication of pluripotent stem cells that should be easily implementable within any laboratory. Cell Banking is the disciplined preservation of a cell stock in the originally obtained state, as well as stocks representing the baseline state for experimental efforts. Each of these stocks must be authenticated appropriately. Authentication of pluripotent lines verifies five properties: the unique identity of the line, its sterility or freedom from contaminating microorganisms and pathogens, the integrity and stability of its genome, its expression of typical markers of the stem cell phenotype, and its pluripotency upon differentiation. This unit lists and compares several assays to verify each of these stem cell line properties. Thanks to recent advances in molecular biology and the availability of state-of-the-art assays from service providers, the time and material costs of banking and authentication are not excessive for the typical research laboratory. Copyright 2009 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  20. 75 FR 13137 - National Institutes of Health Guidelines for Human Stem Cell Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-18

    ... on a revision to the definition of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) in the ``National Institutes of Health Guidelines for Human Stem Cell Research'' (Guidelines). Due to a technical problem, comments... . Comments may also be mailed to: NIH Stem Cell Guidelines, MSC 7997, 9000 Rockville Pike, Bethesda, Maryland...

  1. 75 FR 8085 - National Institutes of Health Guidelines for Human Stem Cell Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-23

    ... revision to the definition of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) in the ``National Institutes of Health Guidelines for Human Stem Cell Research'' (Guidelines). On July 7, 2009, NIH issued Guidelines ( http...-funded stem cell research, to establish policy and procedures under which the NIH will fund such research...

  2. Mapping the stem cell state: eight novel human embryonic stem and embryonal carcinoma cell antibodies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wright, A; Andrews, N; Bardsley, K

    2011-01-01

    The antigenic profile of human embryonic stem (ES) and embryonal carcinoma (EC) cells has served as a key element of their characterization, with a common panel of surface and intracellular markers now widely used. Such markers have been used to identify cells within the 'undifferentiated state...... of reactivity for all antibodies against both ES and EC cells, suggesting that these markers will afford recognition of unique sub-states within the undifferentiated stem cell compartment....... and EC cells, and herein describe their characterization. The reactivity of these antibodies against a range of cell lines is reported, as well as their developmental regulation, basic biochemistry and reactivity in immunohistochemistry of testicular germ cell tumours. Our data reveal a range...

  3. Towards expansion of human hair follicle stem cells in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, J H; Mohebi, P; Farkas, D L; Tajbakhsh, J

    2011-06-01

    Multipotential human hair follicle stem cells can differentiate into various cell lineages and thus are investigated here as potential autologous sources for regenerative medicine. Towards this end, we have attempted to expand these cells, directly isolated from minimal amounts of hair follicle explants, to numbers more suitable for stem-cell therapy. Two types of human follicle stem cells, commercially available and directly isolated, were cultured using an in-house developed medium. The latter was obtained from bulge areas of hair follicles by mechanical and enzymatic dissociation, and was magnetically enriched for its CD200(+) fraction. Isolated cells were cultured for up to 4 weeks, on different supports: blank polystyrene, laminin- and Matrigel(TM) -coated surfaces. Two-fold expansion was found, highlighting the slow-cycling nature of these cells. Flow cytometry characterization revealed: magnetic enrichment increased the proportion of CD200(+) cells from initially 43.3% (CD200+, CD34: 25.8%; CD200+, CD34+: 17.5%) to 78.2% (CD200+, CD34: 41.5%; CD200+, CD34+: 36.7%). Enriched cells seemed to have retained and passed on their morphological and molecular phenotypes to their progeny, as isolated CD200(+) presenting cells expanded in our medium to a population with 80% of cells being CD200(+): 51.5% (CD200(+), CD34(-)) and 29.6% (CD200(+), CD34(+)). This study demonstrates the possibility of culturing human hair follicle stem cells without causing any significant changes to phenotypes of the cells. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  4. Molecular Imaging and Stem Cell Research

    OpenAIRE

    Yoon-Young Jang; Zhaohui Ye; Linzhao Cheng

    2011-01-01

    During the last decade, there has been enormous progress in understanding both multipotent stem cells such as hematopoietic stem cells and pluripotent stem cells such as embryonic stem cells and induced pluripotent stem cells. However, it has been challenging to study developmental potentials of these stem cells because they reside in complex cellular environments and aspects of their distribution, migration, engraftment, survival, proliferation, and differentiation often could not be suffici...

  5. Gastrointestinal stem cell up-to-date.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirvulet, V

    2015-01-01

    Cellular and tissue regeneration in the gastrointestinal tract depends on stem cells with properties of self-renewal, clonogenicity, and multipotency. Progress in stem cell research and the identification of potential gastric, intestinal, colonic stem cells new markers and the signaling pathways provide hope for the use of stem cells in regenerative medicine and treatments for disease. This review provides an overview of the different types of stem cells, focusing on tissue-restricted adult stem cells.

  6. Skeletogenic phenotype of human Marfan embryonic stem cells faithfully phenocopied by patient-specific induced-pluripotent stem cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quarto, Natalina; Leonard, Brian; Li, Shuli; Marchand, Melanie; Anderson, Erica; Behr, Barry; Francke, Uta; Reijo-Pera, Renee; Chiao, Eric; Longaker, Michael T.

    2012-01-01

    Marfan syndrome (MFS) is a heritable connective tissue disorder caused by mutations in the gene coding for FIBRILLIN-1 (FBN1), an extracellular matrix protein. MFS is inherited as an autosomal dominant trait and displays major manifestations in the ocular, skeletal, and cardiovascular systems. Here we report molecular and phenotypic profiles of skeletogenesis in tissues differentiated from human embryonic stem cells and induced pluripotent stem cells that carry a heritable mutation in FBN1. We demonstrate that, as a biological consequence of the activation of TGF-β signaling, osteogenic differentiation of embryonic stem cells with a FBN1 mutation is inhibited; osteogenesis is rescued by inhibition of TGF-β signaling. In contrast, chondrogenesis is not perturbated and occurs in a TGF-β cell-autonomous fashion. Importantly, skeletal phenotypes observed in human embryonic stem cells carrying the monogenic FBN1 mutation (MFS cells) are faithfully phenocopied by cells differentiated from induced pluripotent-stem cells derived independently from MFS patient fibroblasts. Results indicate a unique phenotype uncovered by examination of mutant pluripotent stem cells and further demonstrate the faithful alignment of phenotypes in differentiated cells obtained from both human embryonic stem cells and induced pluripotent-stem cells, providing complementary and powerful tools to gain further insights into human molecular pathogenesis, especially of MFS. PMID:22178754

  7. Isolation and characterization of two kinds of stem cells from the same human skin back sample with therapeutic potential in spinal cord injury.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaowen Zong

    Full Text Available BACKGROUNDS AND OBJECTIVE: Spinal cord injury remains to be a challenge to clinicians and it is attractive to employ autologous adult stem cell transplantation in its treatment, however, how to harvest cells with therapeutic potential easily and how to get enough number of cells for transplantation are challenging issues. In the present study, we aimed to isolate skin-derived precursors (SKPs and dermal multipotent stem cells (dMSCs simultaneously from single human skin samples from patients with paraplegia. METHODS: Dissociated cells were initially generated from the dermal layer of skin samples from patients with paraplegia and cultured in SKPs proliferation medium. Four hours later, many cells adhered to the base of the flask. The suspended cells were then transferred to another flask for further culture as SKPs, while the adherent cells were cultured in dMSCs proliferation medium. Twenty-four hours later, the adherent cells were harvested and single-cell colonies were generated using serial dilution method. [(3H]thymidine incorporation assay, microchemotaxis Transwell chambers assay, RT-PCR and fluorescent immunocytochemistry were employed to examine the characterizations of the isolated cells. RESULTS: SKPs and dMSCs were isolated simultaneously from a single skin sample. SKPs and dMSCs differed in several respects, including in terms of intermediate protein expression, proliferation capacities, and differentiation tendencies towards mesodermal and neural progenies. However, both SKPs and dMSCs showed high rates of differentiation into neurons and Schwann cells under appropriate inducing conditions. dMSCs isolated by this method showed no overt differences from dMSCs isolated by routine methods. CONCLUSIONS: Two kinds of stem cells, namely SKPs and dMSCs, can be isolated simultaneously from individual human skin sample from paraplegia patients. Both of them show ability to differentiate into neural cells under proper inducing conditions

  8. Endothelial cells derived from human embryonic stem cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levenberg, Shulamit; Golub, Justin S.; Amit, Michal; Itskovitz-Eldor, Joseph; Langer, Robert

    2002-04-01

    Human embryonic stem cells have the potential to differentiate into various cell types and, thus, may be useful as a source of cells for transplantation or tissue engineering. We describe here the differentiation steps of human embryonic stem cells into endothelial cells forming vascular-like structures. The human embryonic-derived endothelial cells were isolated by using platelet endothelial cell-adhesion molecule-1 (PECAM1) antibodies, their behavior was characterized in vitro and in vivo, and their potential in tissue engineering was examined. We show that the isolated embryonic PECAM1+ cells, grown in culture, display characteristics similar to vessel endothelium. The cells express endothelial cell markers in a pattern similar to human umbilical vein endothelial cells, their junctions are correctly organized, and they have high metabolism of acetylated low-density lipoprotein. In addition, the cells are able to differentiate and form tube-like structures when cultured on matrigel. In vivo, when transplanted into SCID mice, the cells appeared to form microvessels containing mouse blood cells. With further studies, these cells could provide a source of human endothelial cells that could be beneficial for potential applications such as engineering new blood vessels, endothelial cell transplantation into the heart for myocardial regeneration, and induction of angiogenesis for treatment of regional ischemia.

  9. Epigenetic regulation of embryonic stem cell marker miR302C in human chondrosarcoma as determinant of antiproliferative activity of proline-rich polypeptide 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galoian, Karina; Qureshi, Amir; D'Ippolito, Gianluca; Schiller, Paul C; Molinari, Marco; Johnstone, Andrea L; Brothers, Shaun P; Paz, Ana C; Temple, H T

    2015-08-01

    Metastatic chondrosarcoma of mesenchymal origin is the second most common bone malignancy and does not respond either to chemotherapy or radiation; therefore, the search for new therapies is relevant and urgent. We described recently that tumor growth inhibiting cytostatic proline-rich polypeptide 1, (PRP-1) significantly upregulated tumor suppressor miRNAs, downregulated onco-miRNAs in human chondrosarcoma JJ012 cell line, compared to chondrocytes culture. In this study we hypothesized the existence and regulation of a functional marker in cancer stem cells, correlated to peptides antiproliferative activity. Experimental results indicated that among significantly downregulated miRNA after PRP-1treatment was miRNAs 302c*. This miRNA is a part of the cluster miR302‑367, which is stemness regulator in human embryonic stem cells and in certain tumors, but is not expressed in adult hMSCs and normal tissues. PRP-1 had strong inhibitory effect on viability of chondrosarcoma and multilineage induced multipotent adult cells (embryonic primitive cell type). Unlike chondrosarcoma, in glioblastoma, PRP-1 does not have any inhibitory activity on cell proliferation, because in glioblastoma miR-302-367 cluster plays an opposite role, its expression is sufficient to suppress the stemness inducing properties. The observed correlation between the antiproliferative activity of PRP-1 and its action on downregulation of miR302c explains the peptides opposite effects on the upregulation of proliferation of adult mesenchymal stem cells, and the inhibition of the proliferation of human bone giant-cell tumor stromal cells, reported earlier. PRP-1 substantially downregulated the miR302c targets, the stemness markers Nanog, c-Myc and polycomb protein Bmi-1. miR302c expression is induced by JMJD2-mediated H3K9me2 demethylase activity in its promoter region. JMJD2 was reported to be a positive regulator for Nanog. Our experimental results proved that PRP-1 strongly inhibited H3K9 activity

  10. Concise review: programming human pluripotent stem cells into blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Easterbrook, Jennifer; Fidanza, Antonella; Forrester, Lesley M

    2016-06-01

    Blood disorders are treated with cell therapies including haematopoietic stem cell (HSC) transplantation as well as platelet and red blood cell transfusions. However the source of cells is entirely dependent on donors, procedures are susceptible to transfusion-transmitted infections and serious complications can arise in recipients due to immunological incompatibility. These problems could be alleviated if it was possible to produce haematopoietic cells in vitro from an autologous and renewable cell source. The production of haematopoietic cells in the laboratory from human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) may provide a route to realize this goal but it has proven challenging to generate long-term reconstituting HSCs. To date, the optimization of differentiation protocols has mostly relied on the manipulation of extrinsic signals to mimic the in vivo environment. We review studies that have taken an alternative approach to modulate intrinsic signals by enforced expression of transcription factors. Single and combinations of multiple transcription factors have been used in a variety of contexts to enhance the production of haematopoietic cells from human pluripotent stem cells. This programming approach, together with the recent advances in the production and use of synthetic transcription factors, holds great promise for the production of fully functional HSCs in the future. © 2016 The Authors. British Journal of Haematology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Regenerative medicine in dental and oral tissues: Dental pulp mesenchymal stem cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janti Sudiono

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background. Regenerative medicine is a new therapeutic modality using cell, stem cell and tissue engineering technologies. Purpose. To describe the regenerative capacity of dental pulp mesenchymal stem cell. Review. In dentistry, stem cell and tissue engineering technologies develop incredibly and attract great interest, due to the capacity to facilitate innovation in dental material and regeneration of dental and oral tissues. Mesenchymal stem cells derived from dental pulp, periodontal ligament and dental follicle, can be isolated, cultured and differentiated into various cells, so that can be useful for regeneration of dental, nerves, periodontal and bone tissues. Tissue engineering is a technology in reconstructive biology, which utilizes mechanical, cellular, or biological mediators to facilitate regeneration or reconstruction of a particular tissue. The multipotency, high proliferation rates and accessibility, make dental pulp as an attractive source of mesenchymal stem cells for tissue regeneration. Revitalized dental pulp and continued root development is the focus of regenerative endodontic while biological techniques that can restore lost alveolar bone, periodontal ligament, and root cementum is the focus of regenerative periodontic. Conclucion. Dentin-derived morphogens such as BMP are known to be involved in the regulation of odontogenesis. The multipotency and angiogenic capacity of DPSCs as the regenerative capacity of human dentin / pulp complex indicated that dental pulp may contain progenitors that are responsible for dentin repair. The human periodontal ligament is a viable alternative source for possible primitive precursors to be used in stem cell therapy.

  12. [Xenogeneic protein free cultivation of mesenchymal multipotent stromal cells].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stehlík, D; Pytlík, R; Rychtrmocová, H; Veselá, R; Kopečný, Z; Trč, T

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the standard laboratory method of cultivation of mesenchymal multipotent stromal cells (MSC) and a novel technique of rapid MSC expansion focused on simple clinical use. Bone marrow mononuclear cells of donors were cultured for 14 days by the standard and the new cultivation method. The standard method (STD) was based on an alpha MEM medium supplemented with foetal calf serum (FCS). The new animal protein-free method (CLI) was based on the clinical grade medium CellgroTM, pooled human serum and human recombinant growth factors (EGF, PDGF-BB, M-CSF, FGF-2) supplemented with dexamethasone, insulin and ascorbic acid. The cell product was analyzed by flow cytometry. Furthermore, the cell products of STD and CLI methods were differentiated in vitro, and histochemical and immunohistochemical analyses, electron microscopy and elemental analysis were performed. Some cells were seeded on biodegradable scaffolds, in vivo implanted into immunodeficient mice for 6 weeks and evaluated by histological methods. Yields of the CLI method after 14 days of cultivation were 40-fold higher than those obtained by the STD technique (psystem cultivation in good manufacturing practice (GMP) conditions. It seems to be easily transferable to good clinical practice compared to other protocols and should extend the possibilities of cell therapy and tissue engineering of cartilage and bone. The new method is protected by Czech patent 301 148 and by Europian patent EP 1999250 according to Czech and international laws.

  13. Nanotechnology & human stem cells: Applications in cardiogenesis and neurogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomov, Martin L.

    Human stem cell research holds an unprecedented promise to revolutionize the way we approach medicine and healthcare in general, moving us from a position of mostly addressing the symptoms to a state where treatments can focus on removing the underlying causes of a condition. Stem cell research can shed light into normal developmental pathways, as we are beginning to replicate them in a petri dish and can also be used to model diseases and abnormal conditions. Direct applications can range from finding cures for single or multigene diseases to demonstrating that we can replace these genes with a normal copy. We can even begin to model lifelong conditions such as aging by iPSC technology by relying on fetal, young, adult, and centenarian populations to provide insights into the process. We have also begun to understand the microenvironment in which specific cell populations reside. Being able to replicate the chemical, physical mechanical, and spatial needs of those cells, research groups are successfully generating full organs using cadaver scaffolds of heart and kidney, and there is promising research to reach the same success with other organs, such as the liver, and pancreas. Advances in those areas open an enormous potential to study organs, organoids, organ valves, tubes or other functional elements such as beating cardiomyocytes in vitro. There is also the need to evaluate the whole genome of induced and differentiated cells, with its myriad of interacting pathways. Bioinformatics can help our understanding of embryogenesis, organ differentiation and function. It can also help optimize our stem cell and bio-scaffold tools to advance closer to functional organs and tissues. Such a combination approach will also include pluripotency evaluation and multi-lineage differentiation, as well as platforms that may assist in cell therapies: 3D structures, micro-ribbons, directed patterning to name a few. There is now a clearer path forward with stem cell research than

  14. Nanomechanics of human adipose-derived stem cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jungmann, Pia M; Mehlhorn, Alexander T; Schmal, Hagen

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Human adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) show gene expression of chondrogenic markers after three-dimensional cultivation. However, hypertrophy and osteogenic transdifferentiation are still limiting clinical applications. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of small...... stem cells by single-cell elasticity measurements using atomic force microscopy. Results were matched with single-cell size measurements (diameter and volume) and quantitative real time-polymerase chain reaction for osteogenic and hypertrophic (alkaline phosphatase [ALP], collagen type X) as well...... a significantly lower deformability than chondrocytes (Young's modulus: 294.4 vs. 225.1 Pa; ANOVA: pstem cell elasticity to chondrocyte values (221.7 Pa). All other chondrogenic differentiated ASCs presented intermediate elasticity (BMP-2 stimulation: 269.1 Pa...

  15. Human finger-prick induced pluripotent stem cells facilitate the development of stem cell banking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Hong-Kee; Toh, Cheng-Xu Delon; Ma, Dongrui; Yang, Binxia; Liu, Tong Ming; Lu, Jun; Wong, Chee-Wai; Tan, Tze-Kai; Li, Hu; Syn, Christopher; Tan, Eng-Lee; Lim, Bing; Lim, Yoon-Pin; Cook, Stuart A; Loh, Yuin-Han

    2014-05-01

    Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) derived from somatic cells of patients can be a good model for studying human diseases and for future therapeutic regenerative medicine. Current initiatives to establish human iPSC (hiPSC) banking face challenges in recruiting large numbers of donors with diverse diseased, genetic, and phenotypic representations. In this study, we describe the efficient derivation of transgene-free hiPSCs from human finger-prick blood. Finger-prick sample collection can be performed on a "do-it-yourself" basis by donors and sent to the hiPSC facility for reprogramming. We show that single-drop volumes of finger-prick samples are sufficient for performing cellular reprogramming, DNA sequencing, and blood serotyping in parallel. Our novel strategy has the potential to facilitate the development of large-scale hiPSC banking worldwide.

  16. Phenotypical and functional characteristics of mesenchymal stem cells from bone marrow: comparison of culture using different media supplemented with human platelet lysate or fetal bovine serum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Azouna, Nesrine; Jenhani, Faouzi; Regaya, Zohra; Berraeis, Lamia; Ben Othman, Tarek; Ducrocq, Elfi; Domenech, Jorge

    2012-02-14

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are multipotent cells able to differentiate into several mesenchymal lineages, classically derived from bone marrow (BM) but potentially from umbilical cord blood (UCB). Although they are becoming a good tool for regenerative medicine, they usually need to be expanded in fetal bovine serum (FBS)-supplemented media. Human platelet lysate (HPL) has recently been proposed as substitute for safety reasons, but it is not yet clear how this supplement influences the properties of expanded MSCs. In the present study, we compared the effect of various media combining autologous HPL with or without FBS on phenotypic, proliferative and functional (differentiation, cytokine secretion profile) characteristics of human BM-derived MSCs. Despite less expression of adipogenic and osteogenic markers, MSCs cultured in HPL-supplemented media fully differentiated along osteoblastic, adipogenic, chondrogenic and vascular smooth muscle lineages. The analyses of particular specific proteins expressed during osteogenic differentiation (calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) and parathormone receptor (PTHR)) showed their decrease at D0 before any induction for MSC cultured with HPL mostly at high percentage (10%HPL). The cytokine dosage showed a clear increase of proliferation capacity and interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-8 secretion. This study shows that MSCs can be expanded in media supplemented with HPL that can totally replace FBS. HPL-supplemented media not only preserves their phenotype as well as their differentiation capacity, but also shortens culture time by increasing their growth rate.

  17. The contribution of human/non-human animal chimeras to stem cell research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonya Levine

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Chimeric animals are made up of cells from two separate zygotes. Human/non-human animal chimeras have been used for a number of research purposes, including human disease modeling. Pluripotent stem cell (PSC research has relied upon the chimera approach to examine the developmental potential of stem cells, to determine the efficacy of cell replacement therapies, and to establish a means of producing human organs. Based on ethical issues, this work has faced pushback from various sources including funding agencies. We discuss here the essential role these studies have played, from gaining a better understanding of human biology to providing a stepping stone to human disease treatments. We also consider the major ethical issues, as well as the current status of support for this work in the United States.

  18. Persistent donor cell gene expression among human induced pluripotent stem cells contributes to differences with human embryonic stem cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhumur Ghosh

    Full Text Available Human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs generated by de-differentiation of adult somatic cells offer potential solutions for the ethical issues surrounding human embryonic stem cells (hESCs, as well as their immunologic rejection after cellular transplantation. However, although hiPSCs have been described as "embryonic stem cell-like", these cells have a distinct gene expression pattern compared to hESCs, making incomplete reprogramming a potential pitfall. It is unclear to what degree the difference in tissue of origin may contribute to these gene expression differences. To answer these important questions, a careful transcriptional profiling analysis is necessary to investigate the exact reprogramming state of hiPSCs, as well as analysis of the impression, if any, of the tissue of origin on the resulting hiPSCs. In this study, we compare the gene profiles of hiPSCs derived from fetal fibroblasts, neonatal fibroblasts, adipose stem cells, and keratinocytes to their corresponding donor cells and hESCs. Our analysis elucidates the overall degree of reprogramming within each hiPSC line, as well as the "distance" between each hiPSC line and its donor cell. We further identify genes that have a similar mode of regulation in hiPSCs and their corresponding donor cells compared to hESCs, allowing us to specify core sets of donor genes that continue to be expressed in each hiPSC line. We report that residual gene expression of the donor cell type contributes significantly to the differences among hiPSCs and hESCs, and adds to the incompleteness in reprogramming. Specifically, our analysis reveals that fetal fibroblast-derived hiPSCs are closer to hESCs, followed by adipose, neonatal fibroblast, and keratinocyte-derived hiPSCs.

  19. DNA damage responses in human induced pluripotent stem cells and embryonic stem cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Momcilovic

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Induced pluripotent stem (iPS cells have the capability to undergo self-renewal and differentiation into all somatic cell types. Since they can be produced through somatic cell reprogramming, which uses a defined set of transcription factors, iPS cells represent important sources of patient-specific cells for clinical applications. However, before these cells can be used in therapeutic designs, it is essential to understand their genetic stability.Here, we describe DNA damage responses in human iPS cells. We observe hypersensitivity to DNA damaging agents resulting in rapid induction of apoptosis after γ-irradiation. Expression of pluripotency factors does not appear to be diminished after irradiation in iPS cells. Following irradiation, iPS cells activate checkpoint signaling, evidenced by phosphorylation of ATM, NBS1, CHEK2, and TP53, localization of ATM to the double strand breaks (DSB, and localization of TP53 to the nucleus of NANOG-positive cells. We demonstrate that iPS cells temporary arrest cell cycle progression in the G(2 phase of the cell cycle, displaying a lack of the G(1/S cell cycle arrest similar to human embryonic stem (ES cells. Furthermore, both cell types remove DSB within six hours of γ-irradiation, form RAD51 foci and exhibit sister chromatid exchanges suggesting homologous recombination repair. Finally, we report elevated expression of genes involved in DNA damage signaling, checkpoint function, and repair of various types of DNA lesions in ES and iPS cells relative to their differentiated counterparts.High degrees of similarity in DNA damage responses between ES and iPS cells were found. Even though reprogramming did not alter checkpoint signaling following DNA damage, dramatic changes in cell cycle structure, including a high percentage of cells in the S phase, increased radiosensitivity and loss of DNA damage-induced G(1/S cell cycle arrest, were observed in stem cells generated by induced pluripotency.

  20. Adiponectin enhances osteogenic differentiation in human adipose-derived stem cells by activating the APPL1-AMPK signaling pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Tong; Wu, Yu-wei; Lu, Hui; Guo, Yuan [Second Dental Center, Peking University School and Hospital of Stomatology, Beijing (China); National Engineering Laboratory for Digital and Material Technology of Stomatology, Peking University School and Hospital of Stomatology, Beijing (China); Tang, Zhi-hui, E-mail: tang_zhihui@live.cn [Second Dental Center, Peking University School and Hospital of Stomatology, Beijing (China); National Engineering Laboratory for Digital and Material Technology of Stomatology, Peking University School and Hospital of Stomatology, Beijing (China)

    2015-05-29

    Human adipose-derived stem cells (hASCs) are multipotent progenitor cells with multi-lineage differentiation potential including osteogenesis and adipogenesis. While significant progress has been made in understanding the transcriptional control of hASC fate, little is known about how hASC differentiation is regulated by the autocrine loop. The most abundant adipocytokine secreted by adipocytes, adiponectin (APN) plays a pivotal role in glucose metabolism and energy homeostasis. Growing evidence suggests a positive association between APN and bone formation yet little is known regarding the direct effects of APN on hASC osteogenesis. Therefore, this study was designed to investigate the varied osteogenic effects and regulatory mechanisms of APN in the osteogenic commitment of hASCs. We found that APN enhanced the expression of osteoblast-related genes in hASCs, such as osteocalcin, alkaline phosphatase, and runt-related transcription factor-2 (Runx2, also known as CBFa1), in a dose- and time-dependent manner. This was further confirmed by the higher expression levels of alkaline phosphatase and increased formation of mineralization nodules, along with the absence of inhibition of cell proliferation. Importantly, APN at 1 μg/ml was the optimal concentration, resulting in maximum deposition of calcium nodules, and was significant superior to bone morphogenetic protein 2. Mechanistically, we found for the first time that APN increased nuclear translocation of the leucine zipper motif (APPL)-1 as well as AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) phosphorylation, which were reversed by pretreatment with APPL1 siRNA. Our results indicate that APN promotes the osteogenic differentiation of hASCs by activating APPL1-AMPK signaling, suggesting that manipulation of APN is a novel therapeutic target for controlling hASC fate. - Highlights: • Adiponectin enhances osteogenic differentiation in human adipose-derived stem cells. • The knock-down of APPL1 block the enhancement of

  1. Human Pluripotent Stem Cells to Engineer Blood Vessels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Xin Yi; Elliott, Morgan B; Macklin, Bria; Gerecht, Sharon

    2017-11-01

    Development of pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) is a remarkable scientific advancement that allows scientists to harness the power of regenerative medicine for potential treatment of disease using unaffected cells. PSCs provide a unique opportunity to study and combat cardiovascular diseases, which continue to claim the lives of thousands each day. Here, we discuss the differentiation of PSCs into vascular cells, investigation of the functional capabilities of the derived cells, and their utilization to engineer microvascular beds or vascular grafts for clinical application. Graphical Abstract Human iPSCs generated from patients are differentiated toward ECs and perivascular cells for use in disease modeling, microvascular bed development, or vascular graft fabrication.

  2. Raman microscopy of individual living human embryonic stem cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Novikov, Sergey M.; Beermann, Jonas; Bozhevolnyi, Sergey I.

    2010-01-01

    We demonstrate the possibility of mapping the distribution of different biomolecules in living human embryonic stem cells grown on glass substrates, without the need for fluorescent markers. In our work we improve the quality of measurements by finding a buffer that gives low fluorescence, growing...... cells on glass substrates (whose Raman signals are relatively weak compared to that of the cells) and having the backside covered with gold to improve the image contrast under direct white light illumination. The experimental setup used for Raman microscopy is the commercially available confocal...

  3. Cryopreservation of Human Pluripotent Stem Cells in Defined Medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Weiwei; Chen, Guokai

    2014-01-01

    This protocol describes a cryopreservation procedure using an enzyme-free dissociation method to harvest cells and preserve cells in albumin-free chemically defined E8 medium for human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs). The dissociation by EDTA/PBS produces small cell aggregates that allow high survival efficiency in passaging and cryopreservation. The preservation in E8 medium eliminates serum or other animal products, and is suitable for the increasing demand for high quality hPSCs in translational research. In combination with the special feature of EDTA/PBS dissociation, this protocol allows efficient cryopreservation in more time-saving manner. PMID:25366897

  4. Insulin-like growth factor 1 promotes the proliferation and committed differentiation of human dental pulp stem cells through MAPK pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Taohong; Wu, Yongzheng; Mu, Chao; Liu, Genxia; Yan, Ming; Xu, Xiangqin; Wu, Huayin; Du, Jinyin; Yu, Jinhua; Mu, Jinquan

    2016-12-01

    Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) is a broad-spectrum growth-promoting factor that plays a key role in natural tooth development. Human dental pulp stem cells (hDPSCs) are multipotent and can influence the reparative regeneration of dental pulp and dentin. This study was designed to evaluate the effects of IGF-1 on the proliferation and differentiation of human dental pulp stem cells. HDPSCs were isolated and purified from human dental pulps. The proliferation and osteo/odontogenic differentiation of hDPSCs treated with 100ng/ml exogenous IGF-1 were subsequently investigated. MTT assays revealed that IGF-1 enhanced the proliferation of hDPSCs. ALP activity in IGF-1-treated group was obviously enhanced compared to the control group from days 3 to 9. Alizarin red staining revealed that the IGF-1-treated cells contained a greater number of mineralization nodules and had higher calcium concentrations. Moreover, western blot and qRT-PCR analyses demonstrated that the expression levels of several osteogenic genes (e.g., RUNX2, OSX, and OCN) and an odontoblast-specific marker (DSPP) were significantly up-regulated in IGF-1-treated hDPSCs as compared with untreated cells (P<0.01). Interestingly, the expression of phospho-ERK and phospho-p38 were also up-regulated, indicating that the MAPK signaling pathway is activated during the differentiation of hDPSCs. IGF-1 can promote the proliferation and osteo/odontogenic differentiation of hDPSCs by activating MAPK pathways. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Using Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells to Model Skeletal Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barruet, Emilie; Hsiao, Edward C

    2016-01-01

    Musculoskeletal disorders affecting the bones and joints are major health problems among children and adults. Major challenges such as the genetic origins or poor diagnostics of severe skeletal disease hinder our understanding of human skeletal diseases. The recent advent of human induced pluripotent stem cells (human iPS cells) provides an unparalleled opportunity to create human-specific models of human skeletal diseases. iPS cells have the ability to self-renew, allowing us to obtain large amounts of starting material, and have the potential to differentiate into any cell types in the body. In addition, they can carry one or more mutations responsible for the disease of interest or be genetically corrected to create isogenic controls. Our work has focused on modeling rare musculoskeletal disorders including fibrodysplasia ossificans progressive (FOP), a congenital disease of increased heterotopic ossification. In this review, we will discuss our experiences and protocols differentiating human iPS cells toward the osteogenic lineage and their application to model skeletal diseases. A number of critical challenges and exciting new approaches are also discussed, which will allow the skeletal biology field to harness the potential of human iPS cells as a critical model system for understanding diseases of abnormal skeletal formation and bone regeneration.

  6. The N-glycome of human embryonic stem cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olonen Anne

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Complex carbohydrate structures, glycans, are essential components of glycoproteins, glycolipids, and proteoglycans. While individual glycan structures including the SSEA and Tra antigens are already used to define undifferentiated human embryonic stem cells (hESC, the whole spectrum of stem cell glycans has remained unknown. We undertook a global study of the asparagine-linked glycoprotein glycans (N-glycans of hESC and their differentiated progeny using MALDI-TOF mass spectrometric and NMR spectroscopic profiling. Structural analyses were performed by specific glycosidase enzymes and mass spectrometric fragmentation analyses. Results The data demonstrated that hESC have a characteristic N-glycome which consists of both a constant part and a variable part that changes during hESC differentiation. hESC-associated N-glycans were downregulated and new structures emerged in the differentiated cells. Previously mouse embryonic stem cells have been associated with complex fucosylation by use of SSEA-1 antibody. In the present study we found that complex fucosylation was the most characteristic glycosylation feature also in undifferentiated hESC. The most abundant complex fucosylated structures were Lex and H type 2 antennae in sialylated complex-type N-glycans. Conclusion The N-glycan phenotype of hESC was shown to reflect their differentiation stage. During differentiation, hESC-associated N-glycan features were replaced by differentiated cell-associated structures. The results indicated that hESC differentiation stage can be determined by direct analysis of the N-glycan profile. These results provide the first overview of the N-glycan profile of hESC and form the basis for future strategies to target stem cell glycans.

  7. A nanofibrous electrospun patch to maintain human mesenchymal cell stemness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandolfi, L; Furman, N Toledano; Wang, Xin; Lupo, C; Martinez, J O; Mohamed, M; Taraballi, F; Tasciotti, E

    2017-03-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been extensively investigated in regenerative medicine because of their crucial role in tissue healing. For these properties, they are widely tested in clinical trials, usually injected in cell suspension or in combination with tridimensional scaffolds. However, scaffolds can largely affect the fates of MSCs, inducing a progressive loss of functionality overtime. The ideal scaffold must delay MSCs differentiation until paracrine signals from the host induce their change. Herein, we proposed a nanostructured electrospun gelatin patch as an appropriate environment where human MSCs (hMSCs) can adhere, proliferate, and maintain their stemness. This patch exhibited characteristics of a non-linear elastic material and withstood degradation up to 4 weeks. As compared to culture and expansion in 2D, hMSCs on the patch showed a similar degree of proliferation and better maintained their progenitor properties, as assessed by their superior differentiation capacity towards typical mesenchymal lineages (i.e. osteogenic and chondrogenic). Furthermore, immunohistochemical analysis and longitudinal non-invasive imaging of inflammatory response revealed no sign of foreign body reaction for 3 weeks. In summary, our results demonstrated that our biocompatible patch favored the maintenance of undifferentiated hMSCs for up to 21 days and is an ideal candidate for tridimensional delivery of hMSCs. The present work reports a nanostructured patch gelatin-based able to maintain in vitro hMSCs stemness features. Moreover, hMSCs were able to differentiate toward osteo- and chondrogenic lineages once induces by differentiative media, confirming the ability of this patch to support stem cells for a potential in vivo application. These attractive properties together with the low inflammatory response in vivo make this patch a promising platform in regenerative medicine.

  8. Separate Developmental Programs for HLA-A and -B Cell Surface Expression during Differentiation from Embryonic Stem Cells to Lymphocytes, Adipocytes and Osteoblasts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sabir, Hardee J; Nehlin, Jan O; Qanie, Diyako

    2013-01-01

    -A, but not -B) is seen on some multipotent stem cells, and this raises the question how this is in other stem cells and how it changes during differentiation. In this study, we have used flow cytometry to investigate the cell surface expression of HLA-A and -B on human embryonic stem cells (hESC), human......A major problem of allogeneic stem cell therapy is immunologically mediated graft rejection. HLA class I A, B, and Cw antigens are crucial factors, but little is known of their respective expression on stem cells and their progenies. We have recently shown that locus-specific expression (HLA...... hematopoietic stem cells (hHSC), human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSC) and their fully-differentiated progenies such as lymphocytes, adipocytes and osteoblasts. hESC showed extremely low levels of HLA-A and no -B. In contrast, multipotent hMSC and hHSC generally expressed higher levels of HLA-A and clearly HLA...

  9. Sourcing human embryos for embryonic stem cell lines: Problems & perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajvi H Mehta

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The ability to successfully derive human embryonic stem cells (hESC lines from human embryos following in vitro fertilization (IVF opened up a plethora of potential applications of this technique. These cell lines could have been successfully used to increase our understanding of human developmental biology, transplantation medicine and the emerging science of regenerative medicine. The main source for human embryos has been ′discarded′ or ′spare′ fresh or frozen human embryos following IVF. It is a common practice to stimulate the ovaries of women undergoing any of the assisted reproductive technologies (ART and retrieve multiple oocytes which subsequently lead to multiple embryos. Of these, only two or maximum of three embryos are transferred while the rest are cryopreserved as per the decision of the couple. In case a couple does not desire to ′cryopreserve′ their embryos then all the embryos remaining following embryo transfer can be considered ′spare′ or if a couple is no longer in need of the ′cryopreserved′ embryos then these also can be considered as ′spare′. But, the question raised by the ethicists is, "what about ′slightly′ over-stimulating a woman to get a few extra eggs and embryos? The decision becomes more difficult when it comes to ′discarded′ embryos. As of today, the quality of the embryos is primarily assessed based on morphology and the rate of development mainly judged by single point assessment. Despite many criteria described in the literature, the quality assessment is purely subjective. The question that arises is on the decision of ′discarding′ embryos. What would be the criteria for discarding embryos and the potential ′use′ of ESC derived from the ′abnormal appearing′ embryos? This paper discusses some of the newer methods to procure embryos for the derivation of embryonic stem cell lines which will respect the ethical concerns but still provide the source material.

  10. Osteogenic Potency of Nacre on Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, David W.; Kwon, Hyuk-Jae; Jung, Han-Sung

    2015-01-01

    Nacre seashell is a natural osteoinductive biomaterial with strong effects on osteoprogenitors, osteoblasts, and osteoclasts during bone tissue formation and morphogenesis. Although nacre has shown, in one study, to induce bridging of new bone across large non-union bone defects in 8 individual human patients, there have been no succeeding human surgical studies to confirm this outstanding potency. But the molecular mechanisms associated with nacre osteoinduction and the influence on bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSC’s), skeletal stem cells or bone marrow stromal cells remain elusive. In this study we highlight the phenotypic and biochemical effects of Pinctada maxima nacre chips and the global nacre soluble protein matrix (SPM) on primary human bone marrow-derived stromal cells (hBMSCs) in vitro. In static co-culture with nacre chips, the hBMSCs secreted Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) at levels that exceeded bone morphogenetic protein (rhBMP-2) treatment. Concentrated preparation of SPM applied to Stro-1 selected hBMSC’s led to rapid ALP secretions, at concentrations exceeding the untreated controls even in osteogenic conditions. Within 21 days the same population of Stro-1 selected hBMSCs proliferated and secreted collagens I–IV, indicating the premature onset of an osteoblast phenotype. The same SPM was found to promote unselected hBMSC differentiation with osteocalcin detected at 7 days, and proliferation increased at 7 days in a dose-dependent manner. In conclusion, nacre particles and nacre SPM induced the early stages of human bone cell differentiation, indicating that they may be promising soluble factors with osteoinductive capacity in primary human bone cell progenitors such as, hBMSC’s. PMID:25666352

  11. Imperative Role of Dental Pulp Stem Cells in Regenerative Therapies: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabir, Ramchandra; Gupta, Manish; Aggarwal, Avanti; Sharma, Deepak; Sarin, Anurag; Kola, Mohammed Zaheer

    2014-01-01

    Stem cells are primitive cells that can differentiate and regenerate organs in different parts of the body such as heart, bones, muscles and nervous system. This has been a field of great clinical interest with immense possibilities of using the stem cells in regeneration of human organ those are damaged due to disease, developmental defects and accident. The knowledge of stem cell technology is increasing quickly in all medical specialties and in dental field too. Stem cells of dental origin appears to hold the key to various cell-based therapies in regenerative medicine, but most avenues are in experimental stages and many procedures are undergoing standardization and validation. Long-term preservation of SHED cells or DPSC is becoming a popular consideration, similar to the banking of umbilical cord blood. Dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) are the adult multipotent cells that reside in the cell rich zone of the dental pulp. The multipotent nature of these DPSCs may be utilized in both dental and medical applications. A systematic review of the literature was performed using various internet based search engines (PubMed, Medline Plus, Cochrane, Medknow, Ebsco, Science Direct, Hinari, WebMD, IndMed, Embase) using keywords like “dental pulp stem cells”, “regeneration”, “medical applications”, “tissue engineering”. DPSCs appears to be a promising innovation for the re-growth of tissues however, long term clinical studies need to be carried out that could establish some authentic guidelines in this perspective. PMID:24665194

  12. Imperative role of dental pulp stem cells in regenerative therapies: A systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramchandra Kabir

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Stem cells are primitive cells that can differentiate and regenerate organs in different parts of the body such as heart, bones, muscles and nervous system. This has been a field of great clinical interest with immense possibilities of using the stem cells in regeneration of human organ those are damaged due to disease, developmental defects and accident. The knowledge of stem cell technology is increasing quickly in all medical specialties and in dental field too. Stem cells of dental origin appears to hold the key to various cell-based therapies in regenerative medicine, but most avenues are in experimental stages and many procedures are undergoing standardization and validation. Long-term preservation of SHED cells or DPSC is becoming a popular consideration, similar to the banking of umbilical cord blood. Dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs are the adult multipotent cells that reside in the cell rich zone of the dental pulp. The multipotent nature of these DPSCs may be utilized in both dental and medical applications. A systematic review of the literature was performed using various internet based search engines (PubMed, Medline Plus, Cochrane, Medknow, Ebsco, Science Direct, Hinari, WebMD, IndMed, Embase using keywords like "dental pulp stem cells", "regeneration", "medical applications", "tissue engineering". DPSCs appears to be a promising innovation for the re-growth of tissues however, long term clinical studies need to be carried out that could establish some authentic guidelines in this perspective.

  13. Labeling and Imaging Mesenchymal Stem Cells with Quantum Dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are multipotent cells with the potential to differentiate into bone, cartilage, adipose and muscle cells. Adult derived MSCs are being actively investigated because of their potential to be utilized for therapeutic cell-based transplantation. Methods...

  14. Investigating the mincing method for isolation of adipose-derived stem cells from pregnant women fat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuan-Sheng; Chen, Pao-Jen; Wu, Li-Wei; Chou, Pei-Wen; Sun, Li-Yi; Chiou, Tzyy-Wen

    2017-12-12

    The success of stem cell application in regenerative medicine, usually require a stable source of stem or progenitor cells. Fat tissue represents a good source of stem cells because it is rich in stem cells and there are fewer ethical issues related to the use of such stem cells, unlike embryonic stem cells. Therefore, there has been increased interest in adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) for tissue engineering applications. Here, we aim to provide an easy processing method for isolating adult stem cells from human adipose tissue harvested from the subcutaneous fat of the abdominal wall during gynecologic surgery. We used a homogenizer to mince fat and compared the results with those obtained from the traditional cut method involving a sterile scalpel and forceps. Our results showed that our method provides another stable and quality source of stem cells that could be used in cases with a large quantity of fat. Furthermore, we found that pregnancy adipose-derived stem cells (P-ADSCs) could be maintained in vitro for extended periods with a stable population doubling and low senescence levels. P-ADSCs could also differentiate in vitro into adipogenic, osteogenic, chondrogenic, and insulin-producing cells in the presence of lineage-specific induction factors. In conclusion, like human lipoaspirates, adipose tissues obtained from pregnant women contain multipotent cells with better proliferation and showed great promise for use in both stem cell banking studies as well as in stem cell therapy.

  15. Mesenchymal stem cell isolation and characterization from human spinal ligaments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asari, Toru; Furukawa, Ken-Ichi; Tanaka, Sunao; Kudo, Hitoshi; Mizukami, Hiroki; Ono, Atsushi; Numasawa, Takuya; Kumagai, Gentaro; Motomura, Shigeru; Yagihashi, Soroku; Toh, Satoshi

    2012-01-27

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have a fibroblast-like morphology, multilineage potential, long-term viability and capacity for self-renewal. While several articles describe isolating MSCs from various human tissues, there are no reports of isolating MSCs from human spinal ligaments, and their localization in situ. If MSCs are found in human spinal ligaments, they could be used to investigate hypertrophy or ossification of spinal ligaments. To isolate and characterize MSCs from human spinal ligaments, spinal ligaments were harvested aseptically from eight patients during surgery for lumbar spinal canal stenosis and ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament. After collagenase digestion, nucleated cells were seeded at an appropriate density to avoid colony-to-colony contact. Cells were cultured in osteogenic, adipogenic or chondrogenic media to evaluate their multilineage differentiation potential. Immunophenotypic analysis of cell surface markers was performed by flow cytometry. Spinal ligaments were processed for immunostaining using MSC-related antibodies. Cells from human spinal ligaments could be extensively expanded with limited senescence. They were able to differentiate into osteogenic, adipogenic or chondrogenic cells. Flow cytometry revealed that their phenotypic characteristics met the minimum criteria of MSCs. Immunohistochemistry revealed the localization of CD90-positive cells in the collagenous matrix of the ligament, and in adjacent small blood vessels. We isolated and expanded MSCs from human spinal ligaments and demonstrated localization of MSCs in spinal ligaments. These cells may play an indispensable role in elucidating the pathogenesis of numerous spinal diseases. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. HEXIM1 induces differentiation of human pluripotent stem cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Ding

    Full Text Available Hexamethylene bisacetamide inducible protein 1 (HEXIM1 is best known as the inhibitor of positive transcription elongation factor b (P-TEFb, which is composed of cyclin-dependent kinase 9 (CDK9/cyclin T1. P-TEFb is an essential regulator for the transcriptional elongation by RNA polymerase II. A genome-wide study using human embryonic stem cells shows that most mRNA synthesis is regulated at the stage of transcription elongation, suggesting a possible role for P-TEFb/HEXIM1 in the gene regulation of stem cells. In this report, we detected a marked increase in HEXIM1 protein levels in the differentiated human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs induced by LY294002 treatment. Since no changes in CDK9 and cyclin T1 were observed in the LY294002-treated cells, increased levels of HEXIM1 might lead to inhibition of P-TEFb activity. However, treatment with a potent P-TEFb inhibiting compound, flavopiridol, failed to induce hPSC differentiation, ruling out the possible requirement for P-TEFb kinase activity in hPSC differentiation. Conversely, differentiation was observed when hPSCs were incubated with hexamethylene bisacetamide, a HEXIM1 inducing reagent. The involvement of HEXIM1 in the regulation of hPSCs was further supported when overexpression of HEXIM1 concomitantly induced hPSC differentiation. Collectively, our study demonstrates a novel role of HEXIM1 in regulating hPSC fate through a P-TEFb-independent pathway.

  17. Pluripotent stem cell transcription factors during human odontogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Cunha, Juliana Malta; da Costa-Neves, Adriana; Kerkis, Irina; da Silva, Marcelo Cavenaghi Pereira

    2013-09-01

    Stem cells are capable of generating various cell lines and can be obtained from adult or embryonic tissues for clinical therapies. Stem cells from deciduous dental pulp are among those that are easily obtainable from adult tissues and have been widely studied because of their ability to differentiate into a variety of cell lines in the presence of various chemical mediators. We have analyze the expression of several proteins related to the differentiation and proliferative potential of cell populations that compose the tooth germ of human fetuses. We evaluate 20 human fetuses of both genders. After being paraffin-embedded, cap and bell stages of tooth germ development were subjected to immunohistochemistry for the following markers: Oct-4, Nanog, Stat-3 and Sox-2. The studied antibodies showed nuclear or cytoplasmic immunnostaining within various anatomical structures and with various degrees of expression, indicating the action of these proteins during tooth development. We conclude that the interrelationship between these transcription factors is complex and associated with self-renewal and cell differentiation. Our results suggest that the expression of Oct-4, Nanog, Sox-2 and Stat-3 are related to differentiation in ameloblasts and odontoblasts.

  18. DNA Methylation Dynamics of Human Hematopoietic Stem Cell Differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farlik, Matthias; Halbritter, Florian; Müller, Fabian; Choudry, Fizzah A; Ebert, Peter; Klughammer, Johanna; Farrow, Samantha; Santoro, Antonella; Ciaurro, Valerio; Mathur, Anthony; Uppal, Rakesh; Stunnenberg, Hendrik G; Ouwehand, Willem H; Laurenti, Elisa; Lengauer, Thomas; Frontini, Mattia; Bock, Christoph

    2016-12-01

    Hematopoietic stem cells give rise to all blood cells in a differentiation process that involves widespread epigenome remodeling. Here we present genome-wide reference maps of the associated DNA methylation dynamics. We used a meta-epigenomic approach that combines DNA methylation profiles across many small pools of cells and performed single-cell methylome sequencing to assess cell-to-cell heterogeneity. The resulting dataset identified characteristic differences between HSCs derived from fetal liver, cord blood, bone marrow, and peripheral blood. We also observed lineage-specific DNA methylation between myeloid and lymphoid progenitors, characterized immature multi-lymphoid progenitors, and detected progressive DNA methylation differences in maturing megakaryocytes. We linked these patterns to gene expression, histone modifications, and chromatin accessibility, and we used machine learning to derive a model of human hematopoietic differentiation directly from DNA methylation data. Our results contribute to a better understanding of human hematopoietic stem cell differentiation and provide a framework for studying blood-linked diseases. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Skeletal (stromal) stem cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdallah, Basem M; Kermani, Abbas Jafari; Zaher, Walid

    2015-01-01

    Skeletal (marrow stromal) stem cells (BMSCs) are a group of multipotent cells that reside in the bone marrow stroma and can differentiate into osteoblasts, chondrocytes and adipocytes. Studying signaling pathways that regulate BMSC differentiation into osteoblastic cells is a strategy....../preadipocyte factor 1 (Dlk1/Pref-1), the Wnt co-receptor Lrp5 and intracellular kinases. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Stem Cells and Bone....

  20. Efficient Generation of Hypothalamic Neurons from Human Pluripotent Stem Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Liheng; Egli, Dieter; Leibel, Rudolph L

    2016-07-01

    The hypothalamus comprises neuronal clusters that are essential for body weight regulation and other physiological functions. Insights into the complex cellular physiology of this region of the brain are critical to understanding the pathogenesis of obesity, but human hypothalamic cells are largely inaccessible for direct study. Here we describe a technique for generation of arcuate-like hypothalamic neurons from human pluripotent stem (hPS) cells. Early activation of SHH signaling and inhibition of BMP and TGFβ signaling, followed by timed inhibition of NOTCH, can efficiently differentiate hPS cells into NKX2.1+ hypothalamic progenitors. Subsequent incubation with BDNF induces the differentiation and maturation of pro-opiomelanocortin and neuropeptide Y neurons, which are major cell types in the arcuate hypothalamus. These neurons have molecular and cellular characteristics consistent with arcuate neurons. © 2016 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  1. Effects of Intermittent Administration of Parathyroid Hormone (1-34 on Bone Differentiation in Stromal Precursor Antigen-1 Positive Human Periodontal Ligament Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoxiao Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Periodontitis is the most common cause of tooth loss and bone destruction in adults worldwide. Human periodontal ligament stem cells (hPDLSCs may represent promising new therapeutic biomaterials for tissue engineering applications. Stromal precursor antigen-1 (STRO-1 has been shown to have roles in adherence, proliferation, and multipotency. Parathyroid hormone (PTH has been shown to enhance proliferation in osteoblasts. Therefore, in this study, we aimed to compare the functions of STRO-1(+ and STRO-1(− hPDLSCs and to investigate the effects of PTH on the osteogenic capacity of STRO-1(+ hPDLSCs in order to evaluate their potential applications in the treatment of periodontitis. Our data showed that STRO-1(+ hPDLSCs expressed higher levels of the PTH-1 receptor (PTH1R than STRO-1(− hPDLSCs. In addition, intermittent PTH treatment enhanced the expression of PTH1R and osteogenesis-related genes in STRO-1(+ hPDLSCs. PTH-treated cells also exhibited increased alkaline phosphatase activity and mineralization ability. Therefore, STRO-1(+ hPDLSCs represented a more promising cell resource for biomaterials and tissue engineering applications. Intermittent PTH treatment improved the capacity for STRO-1(+ hPDLSCs to repair damaged tissue and ameliorate the symptoms of periodontitis.

  2. Transcriptome coexpression map of human embryonic stem cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mattson Mark P

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human embryonic stem (ES cells hold great promise for medicine and science. The transcriptome of human ES cells has been studied in detail in recent years. However, no systematic analysis has yet addressed whether gene expression in human ES cells may be regulated in chromosomal domains, and no chromosomal domains of coexpression have been identified. Results We report the first transcriptome coexpression map of the human ES cell and the earliest stage of ES differentiation, the embryoid body (EB, for the analysis of how transcriptional regulation interacts with genomic structure during ES self-renewal and differentiation. We determined the gene expression profiles from multiple ES and EB samples and identified chromosomal domains showing coexpression of adjacent genes on the genome. The coexpression domains were not random, with significant enrichment in chromosomes 8, 11, 16, 17, 19, and Y in the ES state, and 6, 11, 17, 19 and 20 in the EB state. The domains were significantly associated with Giemsa-negative bands in EB, yet showed little correlation with known cytogenetic structures in ES cells. Different patterns of coexpression were revealed by comparative transcriptome mapping between ES and EB. Conclusion The findings and methods reported in this investigation advance our understanding of how genome organization affects gene expression in human ES cells and help to identify new mechanisms and pathways controlling ES self-renewal or differentiation.

  3. Variations in Humanized and Defined Culture Conditions Supporting Derivation of New Human Embryonic Stem Cell Lines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fletcher, Judy M; Ferrier, Patricia M; Gardner, John O

    2006-01-01

    The evolution of "humanized" (i.e., free of animal sourced reagents) and ultimately chemically defined culture systems for human embryo stem cell (hESC) isolation and culture is of importance to improving their efficacy and safety in research and therapeutic applications. This can be achieved...... serum-free medium (SFM) containing only human sourced and recombinant protein. Further, outgrowth of embryonic cells from whole blastocysts in both media could be achieved for up to 1 week without reliance on feeder cells. All variant conditions sustained undifferentiated cell status, a stable karyotype......, with a transitional requirement for human feeder cells. This represents another sequential step in the generation of therapeutic grade stem cells with reduced risk of zoonotic pathogen transmission....

  4. Spermidine promotes human hair growth and is a novel modulator of human epithelial stem cell functions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuval Ramot

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Rapidly regenerating tissues need sufficient polyamine synthesis. Since the hair follicle (HF is a highly proliferative mini-organ, polyamines may also be important for normal hair growth. However, the role of polyamines in human HF biology and their effect on HF epithelial stem cells in situ remains largely unknown. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We have studied the effects of the prototypic polyamine, spermidine (0.1-1 µM, on human scalp HFs and human HF epithelial stem cells in serum-free organ culture. Under these conditions, spermidine promoted hair shaft elongation and prolonged hair growth (anagen. Spermidine also upregulated expression of the epithelial stem cell-associated keratins K15 and K19, and dose-dependently modulated K15 promoter activity in situ and the colony forming efficiency, proliferation and K15 expression of isolated human K15-GFP+ cells in vitro. Inhibiting the rate-limiting enzyme of polyamine synthesis, ornithine decarboyxlase (ODC, downregulated intrafollicular K15 expression. In primary human epidermal keratinocytes, spermidine slightly promoted entry into the S/G2-M phases of the cell cycle. By microarray analysis of human HF mRNA extracts, spermidine upregulated several key target genes implicated e.g. in the control of cell adherence and migration (POP3, or endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondrial functions (SYVN1, NACA and SLC25A3. Excess spermidine may restrict further intrafollicular polyamine synthesis by inhibiting ODC gene and protein expression in the HF's companion layer in situ. CONCLUSIONS: These physiologically and clinically relevant data provide the first direct evidence that spermidine is a potent stimulator of human hair growth and a previously unknown modulator of human epithelial stem cell biology.

  5. Generation of human induced pluripotent stem cell lines from human dermal fibroblasts using a non-integration system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyung-Ok Uhm

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available We generated human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs from dermal fibroblasts using a Sendai virus (SeV-based gene delivery method. The generated hiPSC line, KSCBi002-A, has a normal karyotype (46,XY. The pluripotency and differentiation capacity were characterized by comparison with those of a human embryonic stem cell line. This cell line is registered and available from the National Stem Cell Bank, Korea National Institute of Health.

  6. Characteristics of human amniotic fluid mesenchymal stem cells and their tropism to human ovarian cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liru Li

    Full Text Available The mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs derived from amniotic fluid (AF have become an attractive stem cells source for cell-based therapy because they can be harvested at low cost and avoid ethical disputes. In human research, stem cells derived from AF gradually became a hot research direction for disease treatment, specifically for their plasticity, their reduced immunogenicity and their tumor tropism regardless of the tumor size, location and source. Our work aimed to obtain and characterize human amniotic fluid mesenchymal stem cells (AFMSCs and detect their ovarian cancer tropsim in nude mice model. Ten milliliters of twenty independent amniotic fluid samples were collected from 16-20 week pregnant women who underwent amniocentesis for fetal genetic determination in routine prenatal diagnosis in the first affiliated hospital of Harbin medical university. We successfully isolated the AFMSCs from thirteen of twenty amniotic fluid samples. AFMSCs presented a fibroblastic-like morphology during the culture. Flow cytometry analyses showed that the cells were positive for specific stem cell markers CD73,CD90, CD105, CD166 and HLA-ABC (MHC class I, but negative for CD 45,CD40, CD34, CD14 and HLA-DR (MHC class II. RT-PCR results showed that the AFMSCs expressed stem cell marker OCT4. AFMSCs could differentiate into bone cells, fat cells and chondrocytes under certain conditions. AFMSCs had the high motility to migrate to ovarian cancer site but didn't have the tumorigenicity. This study enhances the possibility of AFMSCs as drug carrier in human cell-based therapy. Meanwhile, the research emphasis in the future can also put in targeting therapy of ovarian cancer.

  7. Chemically Defined and Xeno-Free Cryopreservation of Human Adipose-Derived Stem Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melany López

    Full Text Available The stromal compartment of adipose tissue harbors multipotent cells known as adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs. These cells can differentiate into various lineages including osteogenic, chrondrogenic, adipogenic, and neurogenic; this cellular fraction may be easily obtained in large quantities through a clinically safe liposuction procedure. Therefore, ASCs offer exceptional opportunities for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. However, current practices involving ASCs typically use fetal bovine serum (FBS-based cryopreservation solutions that are associated with risks of immunological reactions and of transmitting infectious diseases and prions. To realize clinical applications of ASCs, serum- and xeno-free defined cryopreservation methods are needed. To this end, an animal product-free chemically defined cryopreservation medium was formulated by adding two antioxidants (reduced glutathione and ascorbic acid 2-phosphate, two polymers (PVA and ficoll, two permeating cryoprotectants (ethylene glycol and dimethylsulfoxide, a disaccharide (trehalose, and a calcium chelator (EGTA to HEPES-buffered DMEM/F12. To limit the number of experimental groups, the concentration of trehalose, both polymers, and EGTA was fixed while the presence of the permeating CPAs and antioxidants was varied. ASCs suspended either in different versions of the defined medium or in the conventional undefined cryopreservation medium (10% dimethylsulfoxide+10% DMEM/F12+80% serum were cooled to -70°C at 1°C/min before being plunged into liquid nitrogen. Samples were thawed either in air or in a water bath at 37°C. The presence of antioxidants along with 3.5% concentration of each penetrating cryoprotectant improved the freezing outcome to the level of the undefined cryopreservation medium, but the plating efficiency was still lower than that of unfrozen controls. Subsequently, increasing the concentration of both permeating cryoprotectants to 5% further improved the

  8. Trophoblast lineage cells derived from human induced pluripotent stem cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Ying, E-mail: ying.chen@hc.msu.edu [Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Biology, Michigan State University, 333 Bostwick NE, Grand Rapids, MI 49503 (United States); Wang, Kai; Chandramouli, Gadisetti V.R. [Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Biology, Michigan State University, 333 Bostwick NE, Grand Rapids, MI 49503 (United States); Knott, Jason G. [Developmental Epigenetics Laboratory, Department of Animal Science, Michigan State University (United States); Leach, Richard, E-mail: Richard.leach@hc.msu.edu [Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Biology, Michigan State University, 333 Bostwick NE, Grand Rapids, MI 49503 (United States); Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Women’s Health, Spectrum Health Medical Group (United States)

    2013-07-12

    Highlights: •Epithelial-like phenotype of trophoblast lineage cells derived from human iPS cells. •Trophoblast lineage cells derived from human iPS cells exhibit trophoblast function. •Trophoblasts from iPS cells provides a proof-of-concept in regenerative medicine. -- Abstract: Background: During implantation, the blastocyst trophectoderm attaches to the endometrial epithelium and continues to differentiate into all trophoblast subtypes, which are the major components of a placenta. Aberrant trophoblast proliferation and differentiation are associated with placental diseases. However, due to ethical and practical issues, there is almost no available cell or tissue source to study the molecular mechanism of human trophoblast differentiation, which further becomes a barrier to the study of the pathogenesis of trophoblast-associated diseases of pregnancy. In this study, our goal was to generate a proof-of-concept model for deriving trophoblast lineage cells from induced pluripotency stem (iPS) cells from human fibroblasts. In future studies the generation of trophoblast lineage cells from iPS cells established from patient’s placenta will be extremely useful for studying the pathogenesis of individual trophoblast-associated diseases and for drug testing. Methods and results: Combining iPS cell technology with BMP4 induction, we derived trophoblast lineage cells from human iPS cells. The gene expression profile of these trophoblast lineage cells was distinct from fibroblasts and iPS cells. These cells expressed markers of human trophoblasts. Furthermore, when these cells were differentiated they exhibited invasive capacity and placental hormone secretive capacity, suggesting extravillous trophoblasts and syncytiotrophoblasts. Conclusion: Trophoblast lineage cells can be successfully derived from human iPS cells, which provide a proof-of-concept tool to recapitulate pathogenesis of patient placental trophoblasts in vitro.

  9. Radiation-induced bystander effects in cultured human stem cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mykyta V Sokolov

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The radiation-induced "bystander effect" (RIBE was shown to occur in a number of experimental systems both in vitro and in vivo as a result of exposure to ionizing radiation (IR. RIBE manifests itself by intercellular communication from irradiated cells to non-irradiated cells which may cause DNA damage and eventual death in these bystander cells. It is known that human stem cells (hSC are ultimately involved in numerous crucial biological processes such as embryologic development; maintenance of normal homeostasis; aging; and aging-related pathologies such as cancerogenesis and other diseases. However, very little is known about radiation-induced bystander effect in hSC. To mechanistically interrogate RIBE responses and to gain novel insights into RIBE specifically in hSC compartment, both medium transfer and cell co-culture bystander protocols were employed.Human bone-marrow mesenchymal stem cells (hMSC and embryonic stem cells (hESC were irradiated with doses 0.2 Gy, 2 Gy and 10 Gy of X-rays, allowed to recover either for 1 hr or 24 hr. Then conditioned medium was collected and transferred to non-irradiated hSC for time course studies. In addition, irradiated hMSC were labeled with a vital CMRA dye and co-cultured with non-irradiated bystander hMSC. The medium transfer data showed no evidence for RIBE either in hMSC and hESC by the criteria of induction of DNA damage and for apoptotic cell death compared to non-irradiated cells (p>0.05. A lack of robust RIBE was also demonstrated in hMSC co-cultured with irradiated cells (p>0.05.These data indicate that hSC might not be susceptible to damaging effects of RIBE signaling compared to differentiated adult human somatic cells as shown previously. This finding could have profound implications in a field of radiation biology/oncology, in evaluating radiation risk of IR exposures, and for the safety and efficacy of hSC regenerative-based therapies.

  10. Radiation-Induced Bystander Effects in Cultured Human Stem Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokolov, Mykyta V.; Neumann, Ronald D.

    2010-01-01

    Background The radiation-induced “bystander effect” (RIBE) was shown to occur in a number of experimental systems both in vitro and in vivo as a result of exposure to ionizing radiation (IR). RIBE manifests itself by intercellular communication from irradiated cells to non-irradiated cells which may cause DNA damage and eventual death in these bystander cells. It is known that human stem cells (hSC) are ultimately involved in numerous crucial biological processes such as embryologic development; maintenance of normal homeostasis; aging; and aging-related pathologies such as cancerogenesis and other diseases. However, very little is known about radiation-induced bystander effect in hSC. To mechanistically interrogate RIBE responses and to gain novel insights into RIBE specifically in hSC compartment, both medium transfer and cell co-culture bystander protocols were employed. Methodology/Principal Findings Human bone-marrow mesenchymal stem cells (hMSC) and embryonic stem cells (hESC) were irradiated with doses 0.2 Gy, 2 Gy and 10 Gy of X-rays, allowed to recover either for 1 hr or 24 hr. Then conditioned medium was collected and transferred to non-irradiated hSC for time course studies. In addition, irradiated hMSC were labeled with a vital CMRA dye and co-cultured with non-irradiated bystander hMSC. The medium transfer data showed no evidence for RIBE either in hMSC and hESC by the criteria of induction of DNA damage and for apoptotic cell death compared to non-irradiated cells (p>0.05). A lack of robust RIBE was also demonstrated in hMSC co-cultured with irradiated cells (p>0.05). Conclusions/Significance These data indicate that hSC might not be susceptible to damaging effects of RIBE signaling compared to differentiated adult human somatic cells as shown previously. This finding could have profound implications in a field of radiation biology/oncology, in evaluating radiation risk of IR exposures, and for the safety and efficacy of hSC regenerative

  11. Potential applications of keratinocytes derived from human embryonic stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Movahednia, Mohammad M; Kidwai, Fahad K; Jokhun, Doorgesh S; Squier, Christopher A; Toh, Wei Seong; Cao, Tong

    2016-01-01

    Although skin grafting is one of the most advanced cell therapy technique, wide application of skin substitutes is hampered by the difficulty in securing sufficient amount of epidermal substitute. Additionally, in understanding the progression of skin aging and disease, and in screening the cosmetic and pharmaceutical products, there is lack of a satisfactory human skin-specific in vitro model. Recently, human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) have been proposed as an unlimited and reliable cell source to obtain almost all cell types present in the human body. This review focuses on the potential off-the-shelf use of hESC-derived keratinocytes for future clinical applications as well as a powerful in vitro skin model to study skin function and integrity, host-pathogen interactions and disease pathogenesis. Furthermore, we discuss the industrial applications of hESC-derived keratinized multi-layer epithelium which provides a human-like test platform for understanding disease pathogenesis, evaluation of new therapeutic modalities and assessment of the safety and efficacy of skin cosmetics and therapeutics. Overall, we conclude that the hESC-derived keratinocytes have great potential for clinical, research and industrial applications. Copyright © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Biological Effects of Culture Substrates on Human Pluripotent Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yohei Hayashi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, as human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs have been commonly cultured in feeder-free conditions, a number of cell culture substrates have been applied or developed. However, the functional roles of these substrates in maintaining hPSC self-renewal remain unclear. Here in this review, we summarize the types of these substrates and their effect on maintaining hPSC self-renewal. Endogenous extracellular matrix (ECM protein expression has been shown to be crucial in maintaining hPSC self-renewal. These ECM molecules interact with integrin cell-surface receptors and transmit their cellular signaling. We discuss the possible effect of integrin-mediated signaling pathways on maintaining hPSC self-renewal. Activation of integrin-linked kinase (ILK, which transmits ECM-integrin signaling to AKT (also known as protein kinase B, has been shown to be critical in maintaining hPSC self-renewal. Also, since naïve pluripotency has been widely recognized as an alternative pluripotent state of hPSCs, we discuss the possible effects of culture substrates and integrin signaling on naïve hPSCs based on the studies of mouse embryonic stem cells. Understanding the role of culture substrates in hPSC self-renewal and differentiation enables us to control hPSC behavior precisely and to establish scalable or microfabricated culture technologies for regenerative medicine and drug development.

  13. Purified Human Dental Pulp Stem Cells Promote Osteogenic Regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasui, T; Mabuchi, Y; Toriumi, H; Ebine, T; Niibe, K; Houlihan, D D; Morikawa, S; Onizawa, K; Kawana, H; Akazawa, C; Suzuki, N; Nakagawa, T; Okano, H; Matsuzaki, Y

    2016-02-01

    Human dental pulp stem/progenitor cells (hDPSCs) are attractive candidates for regenerative therapy because they can be easily expanded to generate colony-forming unit-fibroblasts (CFU-Fs) on plastic and the large cell numbers required for transplantation. However, isolation based on adherence to plastic inevitably changes the surface marker expression and biological properties of the cells. Consequently, little is currently known about the original phenotypes of tissue precursor cells that give rise to plastic-adherent CFU-Fs. To better understand the in vivo functions and translational therapeutic potential of hDPSCs and other stem cells, selective cell markers must be identified in the progenitor cells. Here, we identified a dental pulp tissue-specific cell population based on the expression profiles of 2 cell-surface markers LNGFR (CD271) and THY-1 (CD90). Prospectively isolated, dental pulp-derived LNGFR(Low+)THY-1(High+) cells represent a highly enriched population of clonogenic cells--notably, the isolated cells exhibited long-term proliferation and multilineage differentiation potential in vitro. The cells also expressed known mesenchymal cell markers and promoted new bone formation to heal critical-size calvarial defects in vivo. These findings suggest that LNGFR(Low+)THY-1(High+) dental pulp-derived cells provide an excellent source of material for bone regenerative strategies. © International & American Associations for Dental Research 2015.

  14. Inducible immortality in hTERT-human mesenchymal stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piper, Samantha L; Wang, Miqi; Yamamoto, Akira; Malek, Farbod; Luu, Andrew; Kuo, Alfred C; Kim, Hubert T

    2012-12-01

    Human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) are attractive candidates for tissue engineering and cell-based therapy because of their multipotentiality and availability in adult donors. However, in vitro expansion and differentiation of these cells is limited by replicative senescence. The proliferative capacity of hMSCs can be enhanced by ectopic expression of telomerase, allowing for long-term culture. However, hMSCs with constitutive telomerase expression demonstrate unregulated growth and even tumor formation. To address this problem, we used an inducible Tet-On gene expression system to create hMSCs in which ectopic telomerase expression can be induced selectively by the addition of doxycycline (i-hTERT hMSCs). i-hTERT hMSCs have inducible hTERT expression and telomerase activity, and are able to proliferate significantly longer than wild type hMSCs when hTERT expression is induced. They stop proliferating when hTERT expression is turned off and can be rescued when expression is re-induced. They retain multipotentiality in vitro even at an advanced age. We also used a selective inhibitor of telomere elongation to show that the mechanism driving immortalization of hMSCs by hTERT is dependent upon maintenance of telomere length. Thanks to their extended lifespan, preserved multipotentiality and controlled growth, i-hTERT hMSCs may prove to be a useful tool for the development and testing of novel stem cell therapies. Copyright © 2012 Orthopaedic Research Society.

  15. Tracking the mechanical dynamics of human embryonic stem cell chromatin

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    Hinde Elizabeth

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A plastic chromatin structure has emerged as fundamental to the self-renewal and pluripotent capacity of embryonic stem (ES cells. Direct measurement of chromatin dynamics in vivo is, however, challenging as high spatiotemporal resolution is required. Here, we present a new tracking-based method which can detect high frequency chromatin movement and quantify the mechanical dynamics of chromatin in live cells. Results We use this method to study how the mechanical properties of chromatin movement in human embryonic stem cells (hESCs are modulated spatiotemporally during differentiation into cardiomyocytes (CM. Notably, we find that pluripotency is associated with a highly discrete, energy-dependent frequency of chromatin movement that we refer to as a ‘breathing’ state. We find that this ‘breathing’ state is strictly dependent on the metabolic state of the cell and is progressively silenced during differentiation. Conclusions We thus propose that the measured chromatin high frequency movements in hESCs may represent a hallmark of pluripotency and serve as a mechanism to maintain the genome in a transcriptionally accessible state. This is a result that could not have been observed without the high spatial and temporal resolution provided by this novel tracking method.

  16. Survivin Selectively Modulates Genes Deregulated in Human Leukemia Stem Cells

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    Seiji Fukuda

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available ITD-Flt3 mutations are detected in leukemia stem cells (LSCs in acute myeloid leukemia (AML patients. While antagonizing Survivin normalizes ITD-Flt3-induced acute leukemia, it also impairs hematopoietic stem cell (HSC function, indicating that identification of differences in signaling pathways downstream of Survivin between LSC and HSC are crucial to develop selective Survivin-based therapeutic strategies for AML. Using a Survivin-deletion model, we identified 1,096 genes regulated by Survivin in ITD-Flt3-transformed c-kit+, Sca-1+, and lineageneg (KSL cells, of which 137 are deregulated in human LSC. Of the 137, 124 genes were regulated by Survivin exclusively in ITD-Flt3+ KSL cells but not in normal CD34neg KSL cells. Survivin-regulated genes in LSC connect through a network associated with the epidermal growth factor receptor signaling pathway and falls into various functional categories independent of effects on apoptosis. Pathways downstream of Survivin in LSC that are distinct from HSC can be potentially targeted for selective anti-LSC therapy.

  17. Slow Cooling Cryopreservation Optimized to Human Pluripotent Stem Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazaki, Takamichi; Suemori, Hirofumi

    2016-01-01

    Human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) have the potential for unlimited expansion and differentiation into cells that form all three germ layers. Cryopreservation is one of the key processes for successful applications of hPSCs, because it allows semi-permanent preservation of cells and their easy transportation. Most animal cell lines, including mouse embryonic stem cells, are standardly cryopreserved by slow cooling; however, hPSCs have been difficult to preserve and their cell viability has been extremely low whenever cryopreservation has been attempted.Here, we investigate the reasons for failure of slow cooling in hPSC cryopreservation. Cryopreservation involves a series of steps and is not a straightforward process. Cells may die due to various reasons during cryopreservation. Indeed, hPSCs preserved by traditional methods often suffer necrosis during the freeze-thawing stages, and the colony state of hPSCs prior to cryopreservation is a major factor contributing to cell death.It has now become possible to cryopreserve hPSCs using conventional cryopreservation methods without any specific equipment. This review summarizes the advances in this area and discusses the optimization of slow cooling cryopreservation for hPSC storage.

  18. Engineering Biomaterials for Feeder-Free Maintenance of Human Pluripotent Stem Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Kisuk; Lee, Joan; Cho, Seung-Woo

    2012-01-01

    Human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) are capable of differentiating into any type of somatic cell, a characteristic that imparts significant therapeutic potential. Human embryonic stem cells and induced pluripotent stem cells are types of hPSCs. Although hPSCs have high therapeutic potential, their clinical relevance is limited by the requirement for animal feeder layers, which maintain their pluripotency and self-renewal. hPSCs grown on animal feeder cells are at high risk for pathogen conta...

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  19. Allogenic banking of dental pulp stem cells for innovative therapeutics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collart-Dutilleul, Pierre-Yves; Chaubron, Franck; De Vos, John; Cuisinier, Frédéric J

    2015-01-01

    Medical research in regenerative medicine and cell-based therapy has brought encouraging perspectives for the use of stem cells in clinical trials. Multiple types of stem cells, from progenitors to pluripotent stem cells, have been investigated. Among these, dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) are mesenchymal multipotent cells coming from the dental pulp, which is the soft tissue within teeth. They represent an interesting adult stem cell source because they are recovered in large amount in dental pulps with non-invasive techniques compared to other adult stem cell sources. DPSCs can be obtained from discarded teeth, especially wisdom teeth extracted for orthodontic reasons. To shift from promising preclinical results to therapeutic applications to human, DPSCs must be prepared in clinical grade lots and transformed into advanced therapy medicinal products (ATMP). As the production of patient-specific stem cells is costly and time-consuming, allogenic biobanking of clinical grade human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-typed DPSC lines provides efficient innovative therapeutic products. DPSC biobanks represent industrial and therapeutic innovations by using discarded biological tissues (dental pulps) as a source of mesenchymal stem cells to produce and store, in good manufacturing practice (GMP) conditions, DPSC therapeutic batches. In this review, we discuss about the challenges to transfer biological samples from a donor to HLA-typed DPSC therapeutic lots, following regulations, GMP guidelines and ethical principles. We also present some clinical applications, for which there is no efficient therapeutics so far, but that DPSCs-based ATMP could potentially treat. PMID:26328017

  20. Genome editing of human pluripotent stem cells to generate human cellular disease models

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    Kiran Musunuru

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Disease modeling with human pluripotent stem cells has come into the public spotlight with the awarding of the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for 2012 to Drs John Gurdon and Shinya Yamanaka for the discovery that mature cells can be reprogrammed to become pluripotent. This discovery has opened the door for the generation of pluripotent stem cells from individuals with disease and the differentiation of these cells into somatic cell types for the study of disease pathophysiology. The emergence of genome-editing technology over the past few years has made it feasible to generate and investigate human cellular disease models with even greater speed and efficiency. Here, recent technological advances in genome editing, and its utility in human biology and disease studies, are reviewed.

  1. In vitro regeneration of kidney from pluripotent stem cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osafune, Kenji, E-mail: osafu@cira.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Center for iPS Cell Research and Application (CiRA), Kyoto University, 53 Kawahara-cho, Shogoin, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8507 (Japan); PRESTO, Japan Science and Technology Agency (JST), 4-1-8 Honcho, Kawaguchi, Saitama 332-0012 (Japan); JST Yamanaka iPS Cell Special Project, Japan Science and Technology Agency (JST), 4-1-8 Honcho, Kawaguchi, Saitama 332-0012 (Japan)

    2010-10-01

    Although renal transplantation has proved a successful treatment for the patients with end-stage renal failure, the therapy is hampered by the problem of serious shortage of donor organs. Regenerative medicine using stem cells, including cell transplantation therapy, needs to be developed to solve the problem. We previously identified the multipotent progenitor cells in the embryonic mouse kidney that can give rise to several kinds of epithelial cells found in adult kidney, such as glomerular podocytes and renal tubular epithelia. Establishing the method to generate the progenitors from human pluripotent stem cells that have the capacity to indefinitely proliferate in vitro is required for the development of kidney regeneration strategy. We review the current status of the research on the differentiation of pluripotent stem cells into renal lineages and describe cues to promote this research field.

  2. Human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived models to investigate human cytomegalovirus infection in neural cells.

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    Leonardo D'Aiuto

    Full Text Available Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV infection is one of the leading prenatal causes of congenital mental retardation and deformities world-wide. Access to cultured human neuronal lineages, necessary to understand the species specific pathogenic effects of HCMV, has been limited by difficulties in sustaining primary human neuronal cultures. Human induced pluripotent stem (iPS cells now provide an opportunity for such research. We derived iPS cells from human adult fibroblasts and induced neural lineages to investigate their susceptibility to infection with HCMV strain Ad169. Analysis of iPS cells, iPS-derived neural stem cells (NSCs, neural progenitor cells (NPCs and neurons suggests that (i iPS cells are not permissive to HCMV infection, i.e., they do not permit a full viral replication cycle; (ii Neural stem cells have impaired differentiation when infected by HCMV; (iii NPCs are fully permissive for HCMV infection; altered expression of genes related to neural metabolism or neuronal differentiation is also observed; (iv most iPS-derived neurons are not permissive to HCMV infection; and (v infected neurons have impaired calcium influx in response to glutamate.

  3. Human embryonic stem cell registries: value, challenges and opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luong, Mai X; Smith, Kelly P; Stein, Gary S

    2008-10-15

    The accelerating pace of human embryonic stem cell (hESC) research has created an urgent need for the development of hESC registries, information repositories intended to gather, organize and disseminate hESC information. Although of enormous value to this evolving field, registries face significant challenges to their development. These challenges include addressing the legal and ethical issues surrounding hESC derivation as well as complex intellectual property concerns. In addition to these issues, registries must develop tools to efficiently gather, validate and present many different types of hESC information from a variety of sources. Given the pace and regulatory complexities of this field, it is important that registries develop cooperative mechanisms to avoid duplication and more efficiently support hESC research. (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  4. Human stem cell modeling in neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegscheid, Michelle L; Anastasaki, Corina; Gutmann, David H

    2017-04-06

    The future of precision medicine is heavily reliant on the use of human tissues to identify the key determinants that account for differences between individuals with the same disorder. This need is exemplified by the neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) neurogenetic condition. As such, individuals with NF1 are born with a germline mutation in the NF1 gene, but may develop numerous distinct neurological problems, ranging from autism and attention deficit to brain and peripheral nerve sheath tumors. Coupled with accurate preclinical mouse models, the availability of NF1 patient-derived induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) provides new opportunities to define the critical factors that underlie NF1-associated nervous system disease pathogenesis and progression. In this review, we discuss the generation and potential applications of iPSC technology to the study of NF1. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Genetic engineering of human embryonic stem cells with lentiviral vectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Chen; Tang, Dong-Qi; Xie, Chang-Qing; Zhang, Li; Xu, Ke-Feng; Thompson, Winston E; Chou, Wayne; Gibbons, Gary H; Chang, Lung-Ji; Yang, Li-Jun; Chen, Yuqing E

    2005-08-01

    Human embryonic stem (hES) cells present a valuable source of cells with a vast therapeutic potential. However, the low efficiency of directed differentiation of hES cells remains a major obstacle in their uses for regenerative medicine. While differentiation may be controlled by the genetic manipulation, effective and efficient gene transfer into hES cells has been an elusive goal. Here, we show stable and efficient genetic manipulations of hES cells using lentiviral vectors. This method resulted in the establishment of stable gene expression without loss of pluripotency in hES cells. In addition, lentiviral vectors were effective in conveying the expression of an U6 promoter-driven small interfering RNA (siRNA), which was effective in silencing its specific target. Taken together, our results suggest that lentiviral gene delivery holds great promise for hES cell research and application.

  6. Berberine: A Potential Multipotent Natural Product to Combat Alzheimer’s Disease

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    Hong-Fang Ji

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available With the accelerated aging of human society Alzheimer’s disease (AD has become one of the most threatening diseases in the elderly. However, there is no efficient therapeutic agent to combat AD. Berberine is a natural isoquinoline alkaloid that possesses a wide range of pharmacological effects. In the present paper, we review the multiple activities of berberine, including antioxidant, acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase inhibitory, monoamine oxidase inhibitory, amyloid-b peptide level-reducing and cholesterol-lowering activities, which suggest that berberine may act as a promising multipotent agent to combat AD.

  7. Isolation and Characterization of Human Umbilical Cord Wharton’s jelly Stem Cells

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    Saber Zahri

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objectives: Stem cells are fundamental supporter of multicellular tissue. They allow blood, bone, gametes, epithelia, nervous system, muscle, and other tissues to be replaced by fresh cells throughout life. In recent years human Wharton’s jelly stem cells (WJSCs have gained attention. They express a number of surface markers characteristic of mesenchymal stem cells. In this study, human Wharton’s jelly stem cells were isolated using explant method. To show the stemness property of these cells, three CD markers including CD105, CD44 and CD34 were tested.   Methods: The umbilical cord samples were collected by Caesarian section at Arta Hospital in Ardabil. Cords were transferred in sterile conditions and stem cells were isolated using explant method. After log phase, cells were passaged then growth characteristics and CD105, CD44 and CD34 markers investigated by RT-PCR.   Results: Separation of human Wharton’s jelly stem cells were started after 7 days. WJSCs in culture revealed two distinct cell population named Type 1 and Type 2. RT-PCR results showed that WJSCs were CD105+, CD44+ and CD34-.   Conclusion: Human umbilical cord stem cells could be an alternative source instead bone marrow stem cells for cell therapy and tissue engineering. These cells have a fibroblastic appearance. Following the lag phase and into log phase respectively, cells grow easily in culture and retain stemness properties in higher passages.

  8. Human adipose tissue stem cells: relevance in the pathophysiology of obesity and metabolic diseases and therapeutic applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cignarelli, Angelo; Perrini, Sebastio; Ficarella, Romina; Peschechera, Alessandro; Nigro, Pasquale; Giorgino, Francesco

    2012-12-10

    Stem cells are unique cells exhibiting self-renewing properties and the potential to differentiate into multiple specialised cell types. Totipotent or pluripotent stem cells are generally abundant in embryonic or fetal tissues, but the use of discarded embryos as sources of these cells raises challenging ethical problems. Adult stem cells can also differentiate into a wide variety of cell types. In particular, adult adipose tissue contains a pool of abundant and accessible multipotent stem cells, designated as adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs), that are able to replicate as undifferentiated cells, to develop as mature adipocytes and to differentiate into multiple other cell types along the mesenchymal lineage, including chondrocytes, myocytes and osteocytes, and also into cells of endodermal and neuroectodermal origin, including beta-cells and neurons, respectively. An impairment in the differentiation potential and biological functions of ASCs may contribute to the development of obesity and related comorbidities. In this review, we summarise different aspects of the ASCs with special reference to the isolation and characterisation of these cell populations, their relation to the biochemical features of the adipose tissue depot of origin and to the metabolic characteristics of the donor subject and discuss some prospective therapeutic applications.

  9. Genetic and epigenetic stability of human spermatogonial stem cells during long-term culture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nickkholgh, Bita; Mizrak, S. Canan; van Daalen, Saskia K. M.; Korver, Cindy M.; Sadri-Ardekani, Hooman; Repping, Sjoerd; van Pelt, Ans M. M.

    2014-01-01

    To determine the genetic and epigenetic stability of human spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs) during long-term culture. Experimental basic science study. Reproductive biology laboratory. Cryopreserved human testicular tissue from two prostate cancer patients with normal spermatogenesis. None.

  10. Astrocytes derived from trisomic human embryonic stem cells express markers of astrocytic cancer cells and premalignant stem-like progenitors

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    Iverson Linda E

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Trisomic variants of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs arise spontaneously in culture. Although trisomic hESCs share many properties with diploid hESCs, they also exhibit features of cancer stem cells. Since most hESC-based therapies will utilize differentiated derivatives, it is imperative to investigate the potential of trisomic hESCs to undergo malignant transformation during differentiation prior to their use in the clinical setting. Methods Diploid and trisomic hESCs were differentiated into astrocytic progenitors cells (APCs, RNA extracted and hybridized to human exon-specific microarrays. Global gene expression profiles of diploid and trisomic APCs were compared to that of an astrocytoma cell line and glioblastoma samples, analyzed by others, using the same microarray platform. Results Bioinformatic analysis of microarray data indicates that differentiated trisomic APCs exhibit global expression profiles with similarities to the malignant astrocytoma cell line. An analogous trend is observed in comparison to glioblastoma samples indicating that trisomic APCs express markers of astrocytic cancer cells. The analysis also allowed identification of transcripts predicted to be differentially expressed in brain tumor stem cells. These data indicate that in vitro differentiation of trisomic hESCs along astrocytic pathways give rise to cells exhibiting properties of premalignant astrocytic stem/progenitor cells. Conclusions Given their occult nature, opportunities to study premalignant stem/progenitor cells in human have been few. The ability to propagate and direct the differentiation of aneuploid hESCs provides a powerful in vitro system for investigating biological properties of human cells exhibiting features of premalignant stem cells. This in vitro culture system can be used to elucidate changes in gene expression occurring enroute to malignant transformation and to identify molecular markers of cancer stem

  11. Generation of functional podocytes from human induced pluripotent stem cells

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    Osele Ciampi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Generating human podocytes in vitro could offer a unique opportunity to study human diseases. Here, we describe a simple and efficient protocol for obtaining functional podocytes in vitro from human induced pluripotent stem cells. Cells were exposed to a three-step protocol, which induced their differentiation into intermediate mesoderm, then into nephron progenitors and, finally, into mature podocytes. After differentiation, cells expressed the main podocyte markers, such as synaptopodin, WT1, α-Actinin-4, P-cadherin and nephrin at the protein and mRNA level, and showed the low proliferation rate typical of mature podocytes. Exposure to Angiotensin II significantly decreased the expression of podocyte genes and cells underwent cytoskeleton rearrangement. Cells were able to internalize albumin and self-assembled into chimeric 3D structures in combination with dissociated embryonic mouse kidney cells. Overall, these findings demonstrate the establishment of a robust protocol that, mimicking developmental stages, makes it possible to derive functional podocytes in vitro.

  12. Drug discovery via human-derived stem cell organoids

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    Fangkun Liu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Patient-derived cell lines and animal models have proven invaluable for the understanding of human intestinal diseases and for drug development although both inherently comprise disadvantages and caveats. Many genetically determined intestinal diseases occur in specific tissue microenvironments that are not adequately modeled by monolayer cell culture. Likewise, animal models incompletely recapitulate the complex pathologies of intestinal diseases of humans and fall short in predicting the effects of candidate drugs. Patient-derived stem cell organoids are new and effective models for the development of novel targeted therapies. With the use of intestinal organoids from patients with inherited diseases, the potency and toxicity of drug candidates can be evaluated better. Moreover, owing to the novel CRISPR/Cas9 genome-editing technologies, researchers can use organoids to precisely modulate human genetic status and identify pathogenesis-related genes of intestinal diseases. Therefore, here we discuss how patient-derived organoids should be grown and how advanced genome-editing tools may be applied to research on modeling of cancer and infectious diseases. We also highlight practical applications of organoids ranging from basic studies to drug screening and precision medicine.

  13. Secretome analysis of human oligodendrocytes derived from neural stem cells.

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    Woo Kyung Kim

    Full Text Available In this study, we investigated the secretome of human oligodendrocytes (F3.Olig2 cells generated from human neural stem cells by transduction with the gene encoding the Olig2 transcription factor. Using mRNA sequencing and protein cytokine arrays, we identified a number of biologically important secretory proteins whose expression has not been previously reported in oligodendrocytes. We found that F3.Olig2 cells secrete IL-6, PDGF-AA, GRO, GM-CSF, and M-CSF, and showed prominent expression of their corresponding receptors. Co-expression of ligands and receptors suggests that autocrine signaling loops may play important roles in both differentiation and maintenance of oligodendrocytes. We also found that F3.Olig2 cells secrete matrix metalloproteinases and matrix metalloproteinase-associated proteins associated with functional competence of oligodendrocytes. The results of our secretome analysis provide insights into the functional and molecular details of human oligodendrocytes. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first systematic analysis of the secretome of oligodendrocytes.

  14. Specification of Transplantable Astroglial Subtypes from Human Pluripotent Stem Cells

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    Krencik, Robert; Weick, Jason P.; Liu, Yan; Zhang, Zhijian; Zhang, Su-Chun

    2011-01-01

    Functionally diversified neuronal populations have now been efficiently generated from human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs). However, directed differentiation of hPSCs to functional astroglial subtypes remains elusive. In this study, hPSCs were successfully directed to nearly uniform populations of immature astrocytes in large quantities (>90% S100β+ and GFAP+). The immature human astrocytes exhibit similar gene expression patterns as primary astrocytes, display functional properties such as glutamate uptake and promotion of synaptogenesis, and become mature astrocytes by forming connections with blood vessels following transplantation into the mouse brain. Furthermore, hPSC-derived neuroepithelia, patterned to rostral-caudal and dorsal-ventral identities with the same morphogens used for neuronal subtype specification, generate immature astrocytes that carry distinct homeodomain transcription factors and display phenotypic differences. These human astroglial progenitors and immature astrocytes will be instrumental for studying astrocytes in brain development and function, for revealing their roles in disease processes, and for developing novel treatments for neurological disorders. PMID:21602806

  15. Interferon Gamma-treated Dental Pulp Stem Cells Promote Human Mesenchymal Stem Cell Migration In Vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strojny, Chelsee; Boyle, Michael; Bartholomew, Amelia; Sundivakkam, Premanand; Alapati, Satish

    2015-08-01

    Chronic inflammation disrupts dental pulp regeneration by disintegrating the recruitment process of progenitors for repair. Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) share the common features with dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs). The aim of the study was to investigate the migration of BM-MSCs toward DPSCs in response to inflammatory chemoattractants. Additionally, our studies also delineated the signaling mechanisms from BM-MSCs in mediating the proliferation and differentiation of DPSCs in vitro. Human DPSCs and BM-MSCs between passages 2 and 4 were used and were grown in odontogenic differentiation medium. Mineralization was determined by alizarin red staining analysis. Migration was assessed using crystal violet staining in cells grown in Boyden chamber Transwell inserts (Corning Inc Foundation, Tewksbury, MA). The mineralization potential of DPSCs was evaluated using alkaline phosphatase activity assay. Real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis was performed to assess the gene expression profile of chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand (Cxcl) 3, 5, 6, 10, 11, 12, 14, and 16; stromal cell-derived factor (SDF) α; vascular endothelial growth factor; and fibroblast growth factor. Interferon gamma (FN-γ) treatment significantly abrogated the differentiation potential of DPSCs as shown by using alizarin red and alkaline phosphatase activity analysis. An increase in the migration of BM-MSCs was documented when cocultured with IFN-γ-treated DPSCs. RNA expression studies showed an increase in the levels of Cxcl6 and Cxcl12 in BM-MSCs when cocultured with IFN-γ-treated DPSCs. Additionally, an up-regulation of proangiogenic factors vascular endothelial growth factor and fibroblast growth factor were observed in DPSCs exposed to IFN-γ. Our findings indicate that inflamed IFN-γ-treated DPSCs release factors (presumably Cxcl6 and 12) that contribute to the homing of MSCs. This model might provide a potential research tool for studying MSC-DPSC cross talk and

  16. Generation and Characterization of Erythroid Cells from Human Embryonic Stem Cells and Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells: An Overview

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    Kai-Hsin Chang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Because of the imbalance in the supply and demand of red blood cells (RBCs, especially for alloimmunized patients or patients with rare blood phenotypes, extensive research has been done to generate therapeutic quantities of mature RBCs from hematopoietic stem cells of various sources, such as bone marrow, peripheral blood, and cord blood. Since human embryonic stem cells (hESCs and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs can be maintained indefinitely in vitro, they represent potentially inexhaustible sources of donor-free RBCs. In contrast to other ex vivo stem-cell-derived cellular therapeutics, tumorigenesis is not a concern, as RBCs can be irradiated without marked adverse effects on in vivo function. Here, we provide a comprehensive review of the recent publications relevant to the generation and characterization of hESC- and iPSC-derived erythroid cells and discuss challenges to be met before the eventual realization of clinical usage of these cells.

  17. Identification of Predictive Gene Markers for Multipotent Stromal Cell Proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellayr, Ian H; Marklein, Ross A; Lo Surdo, Jessica L; Bauer, Steven R; Puri, Raj K

    2016-06-01

    Multipotent stromal cells (MSCs) are known for their distinctive ability to differentiate into different cell lineages, such as adipocytes, chondrocytes, and osteocytes. They can be isolated from numerous tissue sources, including bone marrow, adipose tissue, skeletal muscle, and others. Because of their differentiation potential and secretion of growth factors, MSCs are believed to have an inherent quality of regeneration and immune suppression. Cellular expansion is necessary to obtain sufficient numbers for use; however, MSCs exhibit a reduced capacity for proliferation and differentiation after several rounds of passaging. In this study, gene markers of MSC proliferation were identified and evaluated for their ability to predict proliferative quality. Microarray data of human bone marrow-derived MSCs were correlated with two proliferation assays. A collection of 24 genes were observed to significantly correlate with both proliferation assays (|r| >0.70) for eight MSC lines at multiple passages. These 24 identified genes were then confirmed using an additional set of MSCs from eight new donors using reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR). The proliferative potential of the second set of MSCs was measured for each donor/passage for confluency fraction, fraction of EdU+ cells, and population doubling time. The second set of MSCs exhibited a greater proliferative potential at passage 4 in comparison to passage 8, which was distinguishable by 15 genes; however, only seven of the genes (BIRC5, CCNA2, CDC20, CDK1, PBK, PLK1, and SPC25) demonstrated significant correlation with MSC proliferation regardless of passage. Our analyses revealed that correlation between gene expression and proliferation was consistently reduced with the inclusion of non-MSC cell lines; therefore, this set of seven genes may be more strongly associated with MSC proliferative quality. Our results pave the way to determine the quality of an MSC population for a

  18. Computational analysis of expression of human embryonic stem cell-associated signatures in tumors

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    Wang Xiaosheng

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The cancer stem cell model has been proposed based on the linkage between human embryonic stem cells and human cancer cells. However, the evidences supporting the cancer stem cell model remain to be collected. In this study, we extensively examined the expression of human embryonic stem cell-associated signatures including core genes, transcription factors, pathways and microRNAs in various cancers using the computational biology approach. Results We used the class comparison analysis and survival analysis algorithms to identify differentially expressed genes and their associated transcription factors, pathways and microRNAs among normal vs. tumor or good prognosis vs. poor prognosis phenotypes classes based on numerous human cancer gene expression data. We found that most of the human embryonic stem cell- associated signatures were frequently identified in the analysis, suggesting a strong linkage between human embryonic stem cells and cancer cells. Conclusions The present study revealed the close linkage between the human embryonic stem cell associated gene expression profiles and cancer-associated gene expression profiles, and therefore offered an indirect support for the cancer stem cell theory. However, many interest issues remain to be addressed further.

  19. The Use of Technetium-99m for Intravital Tracing of Transplanted Multipotent Stromal Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silachev, D N; Kondakov, A K; Znamenskii, I A; Kurashvili, Yu B; Abolenskaya, A V; Antipkin, N R; Danilina, T I; Manskikh, V N; Gulyaev, M V; Pirogov, Yu A; Plotnikov, E Yu; Zorov, D B; Sukhikh, G T

    2016-11-01

    We studied the possibility of in vivo tracing of multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells labeled with a radiophermaceutic preparation based on metastable isotope Technetium-99m and injected to rats with modeled traumatic brain injury. Accumulation of labeled cells occurred primarily in the liver and lungs. The cells distribution in internal organs greatly varied depending on the administration route. Cell injection into the carotid artery led to their significant accumulation in the damaged brain hemisphere, while intravenous injection was followed by diffuse cell distribution in all brain structures. Scintigraphy data were confirmed by magnetic resonance imaging and histological staining of cells. Visualization of stem cells labeled with Technetium-99m-based preparation by scintigraphy is an objective and highly informative method allowing real-time in vivo cell tracing in the body.

  20. Multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells in liver cancer: implications for tumor biology and therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernanda, Pratika Y; Pedroza-Gonzalez, Alexander; Sprengers, Dave; Peppelenbosch, Maikel P; Pan, Qiuwei

    2014-12-01

    Remodeling of tumor microenvironment is a hallmark in the pathogenesis of liver cancer. Being a pivotal part of tumor stroma, multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs), also known as mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), are recruited and enriched in liver tumors. Owing to their tumor tropism, MSCs are now emerging as vehicles for anticancer drug/gene delivery against liver cancer. However, the exact impact of MSCs on liver cancer remains elusive, as a variety of effects of these cells that have been reported included a plethora of tumor-promoting effects and anti-oncogenic properties. This review aims to dissect the mechanistic insight regarding this observed discrepancy in different experimental settings of liver cancer. Furthermore, we call for caution using MSCs to treat liver cancer or even premalignant liver diseases, before conclusive evidence for safety and efficacy having been obtained. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Human stem cells as a model of motoneuron development and diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yan; Zhang, Su-Chun

    2010-01-01

    Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) and human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) possess potentiality to produce all cell and tissue types of the human body. Under chemically defined culture systems, hESCs and hiPSCs have been efficiently directed to functional spinal motoneurons and astrocytes. The differentiation process faithfully recapitulates the developmental process predicted from studies in vertebrate animals and human specimens, suggesting the usefulness of stem cell differentiation systems in understanding human cellular development. Motoneurons and astrocytes differentiated from genetically altered hESCs or disease hiPSCs exhibit predicted phenotypes. They thus offer a simplified dynamic model for analyzing pathological processes that lead to human motoneuron degeneration, which in turn may serve as a template for pharmaceutical screening. In addition, the human stem cell-derived motoneurons and astrocytes, including those specifically derived from a patient, may become a source for cell therapy. PMID:20536934

  2. [Development of human embryonic stem cell platforms for human health-safety evaluation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Guang-yan; Cao, Tong; Zou, Xiao-hui; Zhang, Xue-hui; Fu, Xin; Peng, Shuang-qing; Deng, Xu-liang; Li, Sheng-lin; Liu, He; Xiao, Ran; Ouyang, Hong-wei; Peng, Hui; Chen, Xiao; Zhao, Zeng-ming; Wang, Xiao-ying; Fang, Hai-qin; Lu, Lu; Ren, Yu-lan; Xu, Ming-ming

    2016-02-18

    The human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) serve as a self-renewable, genetically-healthy, pluripotent and single source of all body cells, tissues and organs. Therefore, it is considered as the good standard for all human stem cells by US, Europe and international authorities. In this study, the standard and healthy human mesenchymal progenitors, ligament tissues, cardiomyocytes, keratinocytes, primary neurons, fibroblasts, and salivary serous cells were differentiated from hESCs. The human cellular health-safety of NaF, retinoic acid, 5-fluorouracil, dexamethasone, penicillin G, adriamycin, lead acetate PbAc, bisphenol A-biglycidyl methacrylate (Bis-GMA) were evaluated selectively on the standardized platforms of hESCs, hESCs-derived cardiomyocytes, keratinocytes, primary neurons, and fibroblasts. The evaluations were compared with those on the currently most adopted cellular platforms. Particularly, the sensitivity difference of PM2.5 toxicity on standardized and healthy hESCs derived fibroblasts, currently adopted immortalized human bronchial epithelial cells Beas-2B and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were evaluated. The RESULTS showed that the standardized hESCs cellular platforms provided more sensitivity and accuracy for human cellular health-safety evaluation.

  3. Characterization of p75 neurotrophin receptor expression in human dental pulp stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Wenru; Kremer, Karlea L; Kaidonis, Xenia; Ludlow, Victoria E; Rogers, Mary-Louise; Xie, Jianling; Proud, Christopher G; Koblar, Simon A

    2016-10-01

    Human adult dental pulp stem cells (DPSC) are a heterogeneous stem cell population, which are able to differentiate down neural, chondrocyte, osteocyte and adipocyte lineages. We studied the expression pattern of p75 neurotrophin receptors (p75NTR), a marker of neural stem cells, within human DPSC populations from eight donors. p75NTR are expressed at low levels (cell marker), SOX2 (cell pluripotency marker) and nestin (neural stem cell marker) in comparison to p75(-) DPSC. Our results suggest that p75(+) hDPSC may denote a subpopulation with greater neurogenic potential. Copyright © 2016 ISDN. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Evaluating effects of L-carnitine on human bone-marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujisawa, Koichi; Takami, Taro; Fukui, Yumi; Quintanilha, Luiz Fernando; Matsumoto, Toshihiko; Yamamoto, Naoki; Sakaida, Isao

    2017-05-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are multipotent cells showing potential for use in regenerative medicine. Culture techniques that are more stable and methods for the more efficient production of MSCs with therapeutic efficacy are needed. We evaluate the effects of growing bone marrow (Bm)-derived MSCs in the presence of L-carnitine, which is believed to promote lipid metabolism and to suppress apoptosis. The presence of L-carnitine decreased the degree of drug-induced apoptosis and suppressed adipogenic differentiation. Metabolomic analysis by means of the exhaustive investigation of metabolic products showed that, in addition to increased β-oxidation and the expression of all carnitine derivatives other than deoxycarnitine (an intermediate in carnitine synthesis), polysaturated and polyunsaturated acids were down-regulated. An integrated analysis incorporating both serial analysis of gene expression and metabolomics revealed increases in cell survival, suggesting the utility of carnitine. The addition of carnitine elevated the oxygen consumption rate by BmMSCs that had been cultured for only a few generations and those that had become senescent following repeated replication indicating that mitochondrial activation occurred. Our exhaustive analysis of the effects of various carnitine metabolites thus suggests that the addition of L-carnitine to BmMSCs during expansion enables efficient cell production.

  5. Optimization of treatment with recombinant FGF-2 for proliferation and differentiation of human dental stem cells, mesenchymal stem cells, and osteoblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Tae-Hyung; Kim, Won-Tae; Ryu, Chun Jeih; Jang, Young-Joo

    2015-08-01

    Basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF or FGF-2) is widely used to modulate the proliferation and differentiation of certain cell types. An expression and purification system for recombinant human FGF-2 in Escherichia coli was established for the purpose of securing a continuous supply of this protein. The purified recombinant FGF-2 significantly increased the population of human embryonic stem cells. The optimal concentrations of FGF-2 for cell proliferative induction in various adult stem cells including human dental pulp stem cells, full term human periodontal ligament stem cells, human gingival fibroblasts, mesenchymal stem cells, and osteogenic oseosarcoma were established in a dose-dependent manner. When cells were treated with recombinant FGF-2 for 6 days before osteogenic induction, the mRNA expression of the bone markers was upregulated in cells originated from human dental pulp tissue, indicating that pretreatment with FGF-2 during culture increase stem cell/progenitor population and osteogenic potential.

  6. Human pluripotent stem cells: Towards therapeutic development for the treatment of lifestyle diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishio, Miwako; Nakahara, Masako; Yuo, Akira; Saeki, Kumiko

    2016-02-26

    There are two types of human pluripotent stem cells: Embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), both of which launched themselves on clinical trials after having taken measures to overcome problems: Blocking rejections by immunosuppressants regarding ESCs and minimizing the risk of tumorigenicity by depleting exogenous gene components regarding iPSCs. It is generally assumed that clinical applications of human pluripotent stem cells should be limited to those cases where there are no alternative measures for treatments because of the risk in transplanting those cells to living bodies. Regarding lifestyle diseases, we have already several therapeutic options, and thus, development of human pluripotent stem cell-based therapeutics tends to be avoided. Nevertheless, human pluripotent stem cells can contribute to the development of new therapeutics in this field. As we will show, there is a case where only a short-term presence of human pluripotent stem-derived cells can exert long-term therapeutic effects even after they are rejected. In those cases, immunologically rejections of ESC- or allogenic iPSC-derived cells may produce beneficial outcomes by nullifying the risk of tumorigenesis without deterioration of therapeutic effects. Another utility of human pluripotent stem cells is the provision of an innovative tool for drug discovery that are otherwise unavailable. For example, clinical specimens of human classical brown adipocytes (BAs), which has been attracting a great deal of attention as a new target of drug discovery for the treatment of metabolic disorders, are unobtainable from living individuals due to scarcity, fragility and ethical problems. However, BA can easily be produced from human pluripotent stem cells. In this review, we will contemplate potential contribution of human pluripotent stem cells to therapeutic development for lifestyle diseases.

  7. A lateral flow biosensor for the detection of human pluripotent stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Wei; Yu, Luxin; Fang, Zhiyuan; Lie, Puchang; Zeng, Lingwen

    2013-05-15

    A lateral flow biosensor based on immunoassay has been developed for the detection of human stem cells for the first time. Antibody specific for a human stem cell surface antigen, SSEA-4, is coated onto gold nanoparticles, whereas antibody against another human pluripotent stem cell surface antigen, SSEA-3, is immobilized on the test zone of the NC membrane. Target cells bind to the antibody coated on the gold nanoparticles to form nanoparticles-stem cell complexes, and the complexes are then captured by another antibody immobilized on the test zone to form a red line for visual detection. This biosensor has been successfully applied to human embryonic stem cells and induced pluripotent stem cells. It is capable of detecting a minimum of 10,000 human embryonic stem cells by the naked eye and 7000 cells with a portable strip reader within 20 min. This approach has also shown excellent specificity to distinguish other types of cells. The biosensor shows great promise for specific and handy detection of human pluripotent stem cells. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Human embryonic stem cells as models for aneuploid chromosomal syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biancotti, Juan-Carlos; Narwani, Kavita; Buehler, Nicole; Mandefro, Berhan; Golan-Lev, Tamar; Yanuka, Ofra; Clark, Amander; Hill, David; Benvenisty, Nissim; Lavon, Neta

    2010-09-01

    Syndromes caused by chromosomal aneuploidies are widely recognized genetic disorders in humans and often lead to spontaneous miscarriage. Preimplantation genetic screening is used to detect chromosomal aneuploidies in early embryos. Our aim was to derive aneuploid human embryonic stem cell (hESC) lines that may serve as models for human syndromes caused by aneuploidies. We have established 25 hESC lines from blastocysts diagnosed as aneuploid on day 3 of their in vitro development. The hESC lines exhibited morphology and expressed markers typical of hESCs. They demonstrated long-term proliferation capacity and pluripotent differentiation. Karyotype analysis revealed that two-third of the cell lines carry a normal euploid karyotype, while one-third remained aneuploid throughout the derivation, resulting in eight hESC lines carrying either trisomy 13 (Patau syndrome), 16, 17, 21 (Down syndrome), X (Triple X syndrome), or monosomy X (Turner syndrome). On the basis of the level of single nucleotide polymorphism heterozygosity in the aneuploid chromosomes, we determined whether the aneuploidy originated from meiotic or mitotic chromosomal nondisjunction. Gene expression profiles of the trisomic cell lines suggested that all three chromosomes are actively transcribed. Our analysis allowed us to determine which tissues are most affected by the presence of a third copy of either chromosome 13, 16, 17 or 21 and highlighted the effects of trisomies on embryonic development. The results presented here suggest that aneuploid embryos can serve as an alternative source for either normal euploid or aneuploid hESC lines, which represent an invaluable tool to study developmental aspects of chromosomal abnormalities in humans.

  9. Concise reviews: Characteristics and potential applications of human dental tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Junjun; Yu, Fang; Sun, Yao; Jiang, Beizhan; Zhang, Wenjun; Yang, Jianhua; Xu, Guo-Tong; Liang, Aibin; Liu, Shangfeng

    2015-03-01

    Recently, numerous types of human dental tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been isolated and characterized, including dental pulp stem cells, stem cells from exfoliated deciduous teeth, periodontal ligament stem cells, dental follicle progenitor cells, alveolar bone-derived MSCs, stem cells from apical papilla, tooth germ progenitor cells, and gingival MSCs. All these MSC-like cells exhibit self-renewal, multilineage differentiation potential, and immunomodulatory properties. Several studies have demonstrated the potential advantages of dental stem cell-based approaches for regenerative treatments and immunotherapies. This review outlines the properties of various dental MSC-like populations and the progress toward their use in regenerative therapy. Several dental stem cell banks worldwide are also introduced, with a view toward future clinical application. © 2014 AlphaMed Press.

  10. The role of Lmx1a in the differentiation of human embryonic stem cells into midbrain dopamine neurons in culture and after transplantation into a Parkinson's disease model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Jingli; Donaldson, Angela; Yang, Ming; German, Michael S; Enikolopov, Grigori; Iacovitti, Lorraine

    2009-01-01

    Recent studies have provided important insight into the homeoprotein LIM homeobox transcription factor 1alpha (Lmx1a) and its role in the commitment of cells to a midbrain dopamine (mDA) fate in the developing mouse. We show here that Lmx1a also plays a pivotal role in the mDA differentiation of human embryonic stem (hES) cells. Thus, as indicated by small interfering RNA experiments, the transient early expression of Lmx1a is necessary for the coordinated expression of all other dopamine (DA)-specific phenotypic traits as hES cells move from multipotent human neural progenitor cells (hNPs) to more restricted precursor cells in vitro. Moreover, only Lmx1a-specified hNPs have the potential to differentiate into bona fide mDA neurons after transplantation into the 6-hydroxydopamine-treated rat striatum. In contrast, cortical human neuronal precursor cells (HNPCs) and mouse subventricular zone cells do not express Lmx1a or become mDA neurons even when placed in an environment that fosters their DA differentiation in vitro or in vivo. These findings suggest that Lmx1a may be critical to the development of mDA neurons from hES cells and that, along with other key early DA markers (i.e., Aldh1a1), may prove to be extremely useful for the selection of appropriately staged and suitably mDA-specified hES cells for cell replacement in Parkinson's disease.

  11. Stem Cell: Past, Present and Future- A Review Article | Avasthi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    having the potency to differentiate into wide range of adult cells. Self renewal and totipotency are characteristic of stem cells. Though totipotency is shown by very early embryonic stem cells, the adult stem cells possess multipotency and differential plasticity which can be exploited for future generation of therapeutic options.

  12. Tissue-specific designs of stem cell hierarchies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visvader, Jane E; Clevers, Hans

    Recent work in the field of stem cell biology suggests that there is no single design for an adult tissue stem cell hierarchy, and that different tissues employ distinct strategies to meet their self-renewal and repair requirements. Stem cells may be multipotent or unipotent, and can exist in

  13. Generation of human female reproductive tract epithelium from human embryonic stem cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louie Ye

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Recent studies have identified stem/progenitor cells in human and mouse uterine epithelium, which are postulated to be responsible for tissue regeneration and proliferative disorders of human endometrium. These progenitor cells are thought to be derived from Müllerian duct (MD, the primordial female reproductive tract (FRT. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We have developed a model of human reproductive tract development in which inductive neonatal mouse uterine mesenchyme (nMUM is recombined with green fluorescent protein (GFP-tagged human embryonic stem cells (hESCs; GFP-hESC (ENVY. We demonstrate for the first time that hESCs can be differentiated into cells with a human FRT epithelial cell phenotype. hESC derived FRT epithelial cells emerged from cultures containing MIXL1(+ mesendodermal precursors, paralleling events occurring during normal organogenesis. Following transplantation, nMUM treated embryoid bodies (EBs generated epithelial structures with a typical MD phenotype that expressed the MD markers PAX2, HOXA10. Functionally, the hESCs derived FRT epithelium responded to exogenous estrogen by proliferating and secreting uterine-specific glycodelin A (GdA. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These data show nMUM can induce differentiation of hESC to form the FRT epithelium. This may provide a model to study early developmental events of the human FRT.

  14. 78 FR 25091 - Submission for OMB Review; 30-Day Comment Request: Request for Human Embryonic Stem Cell Line To...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-29

    ... for Human Embryonic Stem Cell Line To Be Approved for Use in NIH-Funded Research SUMMARY: Under the... be requested in writing. Proposed Collection: Request for Human Embryonic Stem Cell Line to be... used by applicants to request that human embryonic stem cell lines be approved for use in NIH-funded...

  15. 78 FR 13688 - Proposed Collection; 60-Day Comment Request: Request for Human Embryonic Stem Cell Line To Be...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-28

    ... Human Embryonic Stem Cell Line To Be Approved for Use in NIH Funded Research SUMMARY: In compliance with... Information Collection: The form is used by applicants to request that human embryonic stem cell lines be... within 60 days of the date of this publication. Proposed Collection: Request for Human Embryonic Stem...

  16. Quantitative Analysis of Human Pluripotency and Neural Specification by In-Depth (PhosphoProteomic Profiling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilyas Singec

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Controlled differentiation of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs can be utilized for precise analysis of cell type identities during early development. We established a highly efficient neural induction strategy and an improved analytical platform, and determined proteomic and phosphoproteomic profiles of hESCs and their specified multipotent neural stem cell derivatives (hNSCs. This quantitative dataset (nearly 13,000 proteins and 60,000 phosphorylation sites provides unique molecular insights into pluripotency and neural lineage entry. Systems-level comparative analysis of proteins (e.g., transcription factors, epigenetic regulators, kinase families, phosphorylation sites, and numerous biological pathways allowed the identification of distinct signatures in pluripotent and multipotent cells. Furthermore, as predicted by the dataset, we functionally validated an autocrine/paracrine mechanism by demonstrating that the secreted protein midkine is a regulator of neural specification. This resource is freely available to the scientific community, including a searchable website, PluriProt.

  17. Strand displacement amplification for ultrasensitive detection of human pluripotent stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Wei; Mao, Yiping; Zhao, Shiming; Lu, Xuewen; Liang, Xingguo; Zeng, Lingwen

    2015-06-30

    Human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs), such as embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), provide a powerful model system for studies of cellular identity and early mammalian development, which hold great promise for regenerative medicine. It is necessary to develop a convenient method to discriminate hPSCs from other cells in clinics and basic research. Herein, a simple and reliable biosensor for stem cell detection was established. In this biosensor system, stage-specific embryonic antigen-3 (SSEA-3) and stage-specific embryonic antigen-4 (SSEA-4) were used to mark human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs). Antibody specific for SSEA-3 was coated onto magnetic beads for hPSCs enrichment, and antibody specific for SSEA-4 was conjugated with carboxyl-modified tDNA sequence which was used as template for strand displacement amplification (SDA). The amplified single strand DNA (ssDNA) was detected with a lateral flow biosensor (LFB). This biosensor is capable of detecting a minimum of 19 human embryonic stem cells by a strip reader and 100 human embryonic stem cells by the naked eye within 80min. This approach has also shown excellent specificity to distinguish hPSCs from other types of cells, showing that it is promising for specific and handy detection of human pluripotent stem cells. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. State of the Art in Stem Cell Research: Human Embryonic Stem Cells, Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells, and Transdifferentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Maria de Peppo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Stem cells divide by asymmetric division and display different degrees of potency, or ability to differentiate into various specialized cell types. Owing to their unique regenerative capacity, stem cells have generated great enthusiasm worldwide and represent an invaluable tool with unprecedented potential for biomedical research and therapeutic applications. Stem cells play a central role in the understanding of molecular mechanisms regulating tissue development and regeneration in normal and pathological conditions and open large possibilities for the discovery of innovative pharmaceuticals to treat the most devastating diseases of our time. Not least, their intrinsic characteristics allow the engineering of functional tissues for replacement therapies that promise to revolutionize the medical practice in the near future. In this paper, the authors present the characteristics of pluripotent stem cells and new developments of transdifferentiation technologies and explore some of the biomedical applications that this emerging technology is expected to empower.

  19. Human colonic fibroblasts regulate stemness and chemotherapy resistance of colon cancer stem cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Colak, S.; Medema, J. P.

    2016-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that cancers are heterogeneous and contain a hierarchical organization consisting of cancer stem cells and their differentiated cell progeny. These cancer stem cells are at the core of the tumor as they represent the clonogenic cells within a tumor. Moreover, these cells

  20. [Progress in the research of germ cell from human embryonic stem cells].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xin; Cai, Zhi-Ming; Gui, Yao-Ting

    2006-01-01

    As the development of spontaneous differentiation of germ cells and gametogenesis from mouse embryonic stem cells (mES) in vitro, hES (human embryonic stem cells) also have potential to differentiated into germ cells in theory. This review focuses on the stem cells niches and genes regulating the hES differentiation toward germ cells, as well as the recent advance and application on the reproductive medicine and therapy of infertility.

  1. Cloned, CD117 selected human amniotic fluid stem cells are capable of modulating the immune response.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily C Moorefield

    Full Text Available Amniotic fluid stem (AFS cells are broadly multipotent, can be expanded extensively in culture, are not tumorigenic and can be readily cryopreserved for cell banking. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC show immunomodulatory activity and secrete a wide spectrum of cytokines and chemokines that suppress inflammatory responses, block mixed lymphocyte reactions (MLR and other immune reactions, and have proven therapeutic against conditions such as graft-versus-host disease. AFS cells resemble MSCs in many respects including surface marker expression and differentiation potential. We therefore hypothesized that AFS cells may exhibit similar immunomodulatory capabilities. We present data to demonstrate that direct contact with AFS cells inhibits lymphocyte activation. In addition, we show that cell-free supernatants derived from AFS cells primed with total blood monocytes or IL-1β, a cytokine released by monocytes and essential in mediation of the inflammatory response, also inhibited lymphocyte activation. Further investigation of AFS cell-free supernatants by protein array revealed secretion of multiple factors in common with MSCs that are known to be involved in immune regulation including growth related oncogene (GRO and monocyte chemotactic protein (MCP family members as well as interleukin-6 (IL-6. AFS cells activated by PBMCs released several additional cytokines as compared to BM-MSCs, including macrophage inflammatory protein-3α (MIP-3α, MIP-1α and Activin. AFS cells also released higher levels of MCP-1 and lower levels of MCP-2 compared to BM-MSCs in response to IL-1β activation. This suggests that there may be some AFS-specific mechanisms of inhibition of lymphocyte activation. Our results indicate that AFS cells are able to suppress inflammatory responses in vitro and that soluble factors are an essential component in the communication between lymphocytes and AFS cells. Their extensive self-renewal capacity, possibility for banking and

  2. New frontiers in human cell biology and medicine: can pluripotent stem cells deliver?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Lawrence S B

    2012-11-12

    Human pluripotent stem cells provide enormous opportunities to treat disease using cell therapy. But human stem cells can also drive biomedical and cell biological discoveries in a human model system, which can be directly linked to understanding disease or developing new therapies. Finally, rigorous scientific studies of these cells can and should inform the many science and medical policy issues that confront the translation of these technologies to medicine. In this paper, I discuss these issues using amyotrophic lateral sclerosis as an example.

  3. Isolation and functional interrogation of adult human prostate epithelial stem cells at single cell resolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Yang Hu

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Using primary cultures of normal human prostate epithelial cells, we developed a novel prostasphere-based, label-retention assay that permits identification and isolation of stem cells at a single cell level. Their bona fide stem cell nature was corroborated using in vitro and in vivo regenerative assays and documentation of symmetric/asymmetric division. Robust WNT10B and KRT13 levels without E-cadherin or KRT14 staining distinguished individual stem cells from daughter progenitors in spheroids. Following FACS to isolate label-retaining stem cells from label-free progenitors, RNA-seq identified unique gene signatures for the separate populations which may serve as useful biomarkers. Knockdown of KRT13 or PRAC1 reduced sphere formation and symmetric self-renewal highlighting their role in stem cell maintenance. Pathways analysis identified ribosome biogenesis and membrane estrogen-receptor signaling enriched in stem cells with NF-ĸB signaling enriched in progenitors; activities that were biologically confirmed. Further, bioassays identified heightened autophagy flux and reduced metabolism in stem cells relative to progenitors. These approaches similarly identified stem-like cells from prostate cancer specimens and prostate, breast and colon cancer cell lines suggesting wide applicability. Together, the present studies isolate and identify unique characteristics of normal human prostate stem cells and uncover processes that maintain stem cell homeostasis in the prostate gland.

  4. Safety reporting on implantation of autologous adipose tissue-derived stem cells with platelet-rich plasma into human articular joints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pak, Jaewoo; Chang, Jae-Jin; Lee, Jung Hun; Lee, Sang Hee

    2013-12-01

    Adipose tissue-derived stem cells (ADSCs), a type of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), have great potential as therapeutic agents in regenerative medicine. Numerous animal studies have documented the multipotency of ADSCs, showing their capabilities to differentiate into tissues such as muscle, bone, cartilage, and tendon. However, the safety of autologous ADSC injections into human joints is only beginning to be understood and the data are lacking. Between 2009 and 2010, 91 patients were treated with autologous ADSCs with platelet-rich plasma (PRP) for various orthopedic conditions. Stem cells in the form of stromal vascular fraction (SVF) were injected with PRP into various joints (n = 100). All patients were followed for symptom improvement with visual analog score (VAS) at one month and three months. Approximately one third of the patients were followed up with third month magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the injected sites. All patients were followed up by telephone questionnaires every six months for up to 30 months. The mean follow-up time for all patients was 26.62 ± 0.32 months. The follow-up time for patients who were treated in 2009 and early 2010 was close to three years. The relative mean VAS of patients at the end of one month follow-up was 6.55 ± 0.32, and at the end of three months follow-up was 4.43 ± 0.41. Post-procedure MRIs performed on one third of the patients at three months failed to demonstrate any tumor formation at the implant sites. Further, no tumor formation was reported in telephone long-term follow-ups. However, swelling of injected joints was common and was thought to be associated with death of stem cells. Also, tenosinovitis and tendonitis in elderly patients, all of which were either self-limited or were remedied with simple therapeutic measures, were common as well. Using both MRI tracking and telephone follow ups in 100 joints in 91 patients treated, no neoplastic complications were detected at any ADSC implantation sites

  5. Proteomic cornerstones of hematopoietic stem cell differentiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klimmeck, Daniel; Hansson, Jenny; Raffel, Simon

    2012-01-01

    Regenerative tissues such as the skin epidermis, the intestinal mucosa or the hematopoietic system are organized in a hierarchical manner with stem cells building the top of this hierarchy. Somatic stem cells harbor the highest self-renewal activity and generate a series of multipotent progenitors...... which differentiate into lineage committed progenitors and subsequently mature cells. In this report, we applied an in-depth quantitative proteomic approach to analyze and compare the full proteomes of ex vivo isolated and FACS-sorted populations highly enriched for either multipotent hematopoietic stem...... evaluation, 893 proteins were found differentially expressed between multipotent and myeloid committed cells. The differential protein content in these cell populations points to a distinct structural organization of the cytoskeleton including remodeling activity. In addition, we found a marked difference...

  6. The pro-inflammatory peptide LL-37 promotes ovarian tumor progression through recruitment of multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffelt, Seth B; Marini, Frank C; Watson, Keri; Zwezdaryk, Kevin J; Dembinski, Jennifer L; LaMarca, Heather L; Tomchuck, Suzanne L; Honer zu Bentrup, Kerstin; Danka, Elizabeth S; Henkle, Sarah L; Scandurro, Aline B

    2009-03-10

    Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells or multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) have been shown to engraft into the stroma of several tumor types, where they contribute to tumor progression and metastasis. However, the chemotactic signals mediating MSC migration to tumors remain poorly understood. Previous studies have shown that LL-37 (leucine, leucine-37), the C-terminal peptide of human cationic antimicrobial protein 18, stimulates the migration of various cell types and is overexpressed in ovarian, breast, and lung cancers. Although there is evidence to support a pro-tumorigenic role for LL-37, the function of the peptide in tumors remains unclear. Here, we demonstrate that neutralization of LL-37 in vivo significantly reduces the engraftment of MSCs into ovarian tumor xenografts, resulting in inhibition of tumor growth as well as disruption of the fibrovascular network. Migration and invasion experiments conducted in vitro indicated that the LL-37-mediated migration of MSCs to tumors likely occurs through formyl peptide receptor like-1. To assess the response of MSCs to the LL-37-rich tumor microenvironment, conditioned medium from LL-37-treated MSCs was assessed and found to contain increased levels of several cytokines and pro-angiogenic factors compared with controls, including IL-1 receptor antagonist, IL-6, IL-10, CCL5, VEGF, and matrix metalloproteinase-2. Similarly, Matrigel mixed with LL-37, MSCs, or the combination of the two resulted in a significant number of vascular channels in nude mice. These data indicate that LL-37 facilitates ovarian tumor progression through recruitment of progenitor cell populations to serve as pro-angiogenic factor-expressing tumor stromal cells.

  7. Nemotic human dental pulp fibroblasts promote human dental pulp stem cells migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Shafei; Wang, Yafei; Jiang, Wenkai; Jia, Qian; Li, Jie; Wang, Wei; Wang, Haijing; Ding, Yonglin; Wang, Ping; Liu, Jun; Ni, Longxing

    2013-06-10

    Dental pulp inflammation has long been perceived as a negative factor leading to pulp disruption. Previous studies have suggested that the inflammatory reaction might be a prerequisite for the burst of progenitors implicated in pulp repair. To investigate the migration of human dental pulp stem cells (hDPSCs) in response to human dental pulp fibroblasts (HDPFs) nemosis, an in vitro model of nemosis-induced inflammation in three-dimensional culture was used in this study. We observed HDPF spheroid formation and that cell-cell adhesion between HDPFs leads to necrosis. Cell death detection and cell counting kit-8 assays showed reduced live cell numbers and increased levels of cell membrane leakage in HDPF spheroids. HDPFs spheroids expressed cyclooxygenase-2 and released an increasing amount of prostaglandin E2 and interleukin-8, indicating inflammation in response to nemosis. The Transwell assays showed that the conditioned medium from HDPFs spheroids significantly induced hDPSCs migration more than the medium from the monolayer. Taken together, these results indicate that HDPFs spheroids induce nemosis and contribute to the migration of hDPSCs. This model might provide a potential research tool for studying interactions between fibroblasts and stem cells, and studies concerning nemosis-targeted stem cells might help treat pulp inflammation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Women in STEM and Human Information Behavior: Implications for LIS Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Rebecca

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports preliminary data from research that seeks to inform the readers about the way that human information behavior and the use of scholarly resources impacts on women in the STEM fields. By focusing on the information behavior and information needs of women in STEM, this could lead to an increased use of academic library resources…

  9. Mesenchymal stem cells in human placental chorionic villi reside in a vascular Niche

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Castrechini, N. M.; Murthi, P.; Gude, N. M.; Erwich, J. J. H. M.; Gronthos, S.; Zannettino, A.; Brennecke, S. R.; Kalionis, B.; Brennecke, S.P.

    The chorionic villi of human term placentae are a rich source of mesenchymal stem cells (PMSCs) The stem cell "niche" within the chorionic villi regulates how PMSCs participate in placental tissue generation, maintenance and repair, but the anatomic location of the niche has not been defined A

  10. Procedures for Derivation and Characterisation of Human Embryonic Stem Cells from Odense, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harkness, Linda; Kassem, Moustapha

    2012-01-01

    In 1998, a development occurred in stem cell biology with the fi rst report of the derivation of a human embryonic stem cell (hESC) line. Since then a number of techniques have been used to derive and characterise hESCs. Here, we describe the derivation methods used by our laboratory for isolation...

  11. CCL2 enhances pluripotency of human induced pluripotent stem cells by activating hypoxia related genes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hasegawa, Yuki; Tang, Dave; Takahashi, Naoko; Hayashizaki, Yoshihide; Forrest, Alistair R. R.; Suzuki, Harukazu; Kawaji, Hideya; Rehli, Michael; Baillie, J. Kenneth; de Hoon, Michiel J. L.; Haberle, Vanja; Lassmann, Timo; Kulakovskiy, Ivan V.; Lizio, Marina; Itoh, Masayoshi; Andersson, Robin; Mungall, Christopher J.; Meehan, Terrence F.; Schmeier, Sebastian; Bertin, Nicolas; Jørgensen, Mette; Dimont, Emmanuel; Arner, Erik; Schmidl, Christian; Schaefer, Ulf; Medvedeva, Yulia A.; Plessy, Charles; Vitezic, Morana; Severin, Jessica; Semple, Colin A.; Ishizu, Yuri; Young, Robert S.; Francescatto, Margherita; Alam, Intikhab; Albanese, Davide; Altschuler, Gabriel M.; Arakawa, Takahiro; Archer, John A. C.; Arner, Peter; Babina, Magda; Baker, Sarah; Balwierz, Piotr J.; Beckhouse, Anthony G.; Pradhan-Bhatt, Swati; Blake, Judith A.; Blumenthal, Antje; Bodega, Beatrice; Bonetti, Alessandro; Briggs, James; Brombacher, Frank; Burroughs, A. Maxwell; Califano, Andrea; Cannistraci, Carlo V.; Carbajo, Daniel; Chen, Yun; Chierici, Marco; Ciani, Yari; Clevers, Hans C.; Dalla, Emiliano; Davis, Carrie A.; Detmar, Michael; Diehl, Alexander D.; Dohi, Taeko; Drabløs, Finn; Edge, Albert S. B.; Edinger, Matthias; Ekwall, Karl; Endoh, Mitsuhiro; Enomoto, Hideki; Fagiolini, Michela; Fairbairn, Lynsey; Fang, Hai; Farach-Carson, Mary C.; Faulkner, Geoffrey J.; Favorov, Alexander V.; Fisher, Malcolm E.; Frith, Martin C.; Fujita, Rie; Fukuda, Shiro; Furlanello, Cesare; Furuno, Masaaki; Furusawa, Jun-ichi; Geijtenbeek, Teunis B.; Gibson, Andrew; Gingeras, Thomas; Goldowitz, Daniel; Gough, Julian; Guhl, Sven; Guler, Reto; Gustincich, Stefano; Ha, Thomas J.; Hamaguchi, Masahide; Hara, Mitsuko; Harbers, Matthias; Harshbarger, Jayson; Hasegawa, Akira; Hashimoto, Takehiro; Herlyn, Meenhard; Hitchens, Kelly J.; Ho Sui, Shannan J.; Hofmann, Oliver M.; Hoof, Ilka; Hori, Fumi; Huminiecki, Lukasz; Iida, Kei; Ikawa, Tomokatsu; Jankovic, Boris R.; Jia, Hui; Joshi, Anagha; Jurman, Giuseppe; Kaczkowski, Bogumil; Kai, Chieko; Kaida, Kaoru; Kaiho, Ai; Kajiyama, Kazuhiro; Kanamori-Katayama, Mutsumi; Kasianov, Artem S.; Kasukawa, Takeya; Katayama, Shintaro; Kato, Sachi; Kawaguchi, Shuji; Kawamoto, Hiroshi; Kawamura, Yuki I.; Kawashima, Tsugumi; Kempfle, Judith S.; Kenna, Tony J.; Kere, Juha; Khachigian, Levon M.; Kitamura, Toshio; Klinken, S. Peter; Knox, Alan J.; Kojima, Miki; Kojima, Soichi; Kondo, Naoto; Koseki, Haruhiko; Koyasu, Shigeo; Krampitz, Sarah; Kubosaki, Atsutaka; Kwon, Andrew T.; Laros, Jeroen F. J.; Lee, Weonju; Lennartsson, Andreas; Li, Kang; Lilje, Berit; Lipovich, Leonard; Mackay-sim, Alan; Manabe, Ri-ichiroh; Mar, Jessica C.; Marchand, Benoit; Mathelier, Anthony; Mejhert, Niklas; Meynert, Alison; Mizuno, Yosuke; Morais, David A. de Lima; Morikawa, Hiromasa; Morimoto, Mitsuru; Moro, Kazuyo; Motakis, Efthymios; Motohashi, Hozumi; Mummery, Christine L.; Murata, Mitsuyoshi; Nagao-Sato, Sayaka; Nakachi, Yutaka; Nakahara, Fumio; Nakamura, Toshiyuki; Nakamura, Yukio; Nakazato, Kenichi; van Nimwegen, Erik; Ninomiya, Noriko; Nishiyori, Hiromi; Noma, Shohei; Nozaki, Tadasuke; Ogishima, Soichi; Ohkura, Naganari; Ohmiya, Hiroko; Ohno, Hiroshi; Ohshima, Mitsuhiro; Okada-Hatakeyama, Mariko; Okazaki, Yasushi; Orlando, Valerio; Ovchinnikov, Dmitry A.; Pain, Arnab; Passier, Robert; Patrikakis, Margaret; Persson, Helena; Piazza, Silvano; Prendergast, James G. D.; Rackham, Owen J. L.; Ramilowski, Jordan A.; Rashid, Mamoon; Ravasi, Timothy; Rizzu, Patrizia; Roncador, Marco; Roy, Sugata; Rye, Morten B.; Saijyo, Eri; Sajantila, Antti; Saka, Akiko; Sakaguchi, Shimon; Sakai, Mizuho; Sato, Hiroki; Satoh, Hironori; Savvi, Suzana; Saxena, Alka; Schneider, Claudio; Schultes, Erik A.; Schulze-Tanzil, Gundula G.; Schwegmann, Anita; Sengstag, Thierry; Sheng, Guojun; Shimoji, Hisashi; Shimoni, Yishai; Shin, Jay W.; Simon, Christophe; Sugiyama, Daisuke; Sugiyama, Takaaki; Suzuki, Masanori; Suzuki, Naoko; Swoboda, Rolf K.; 't Hoen, Peter A. C.; Tagami, Michihira; Takai, Jun; Tanaka, Hiroshi; Tatsukawa, Hideki; Tatum, Zuotian; Thompson, Mark; Toyoda, Hiroo; Toyoda, Tetsuro; Valen, Eivind; van de Wetering, Marc; van den Berg, Linda M.; Verardo, Roberto; Vijayan, Dipti; Vorontsov, Ilya E.; Wasserman, Wyeth W.; Watanabe, Shoko; Wells, Christine A.; Winteringham, Louise N.; Wolvetang, Ernst; Wood, Emily J.; Yamaguchi, Yoko; Yamamoto, Masayuki; Yoneda, Misako; Yonekura, Yohei; Yoshida, Shigehiro; Zabierowski, Suzan E.; Zhang, Peter G.; Zhao, Xiaobei; Zucchelli, Silvia; Summers, Kim M.; Daub, Carsten O.; Kawai, Jun; Heutink, Peter; Hide, Winston; Freeman, Tom C.; Lenhard, Boris; Bajic, Vladimir B.; Taylor, Martin S.; Makeev, Vsevolod J.; Sandelin, Albin; Hume, David A.; Carninci, Piero

    2014-01-01

    Standard culture of human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) requires basic Fibroblast Growth Factor (bFGF) to maintain the pluripotent state, whereas hiPSC more closely resemble epiblast stem cells than true naive state ES which requires LIF to maintain pluripotency. Here we show that

  12. Human stem cells as a model for cardiac differentiation and disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beqqali, A.; van Eldik, W.; Mummery, C.; Passier, R.

    2009-01-01

    Studies on identification, derivation and characterization of human stem cells in the last decade have led to high expectations in the field of regenerative medicine. Although it is clear that for successful stem cell-based therapy several obstacles have to be overcome, other opportunities lay ahead

  13. Generative models: Human embryonic stem cells and multiple modeling relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagan, Melinda Bonnie

    2016-04-01

    Model organisms are at once scientific models and concrete living things. It is widely assumed by philosophers of science that (1) model organisms function much like other kinds of models, and (2) that insofar as their scientific role is distinctive, it is in virtue of representing a wide range of biological species and providing a basis for generalizations about those targets. This paper uses the case of human embryonic stem cells (hESC) to challenge both assumptions. I first argue that hESC can be considered model organisms, analogous to classic examples such as Escherichia coli and Drosophila melanogaster. I then discuss four contrasts between the epistemic role of hESC in practice, and the assumptions about model organisms noted above. These contrasts motivate an alternative view of model organisms as a network of systems related constructively and developmentally to one another. I conclude by relating this result to other accounts of model organisms in recent philosophy of science. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. From STEM to STEAM: Toward a Human-Centered Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boy, Guy A.

    2013-01-01

    The 20th century was based on local linear engineering of complicated systems. We made cars, airplanes and chemical plants for example. The 21st century has opened a new basis for holistic non-linear design of complex systems, such as the Internet, air traffic management and nanotechnologies. Complexity, interconnectivity, interaction and communication are major attributes of our evolving society. But, more interestingly, we have started to understand that chaos theories may be more important than reductionism, to better understand and thrive on our planet. Systems need to be investigated and tested as wholes, which requires a cross-disciplinary approach and new conceptual principles and tools. Consequently, schools cannot continue to teach isolated disciplines based on simple reductionism. Science; Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) should be integrated together with the Arts1 to promote creativity together with rationalization, and move to STEAM (with an "A" for Arts). This new concept emphasizes the possibility of longer-term socio-technical futures instead of short-term financial predictions that currently lead to uncontrolled economies. Human-centered design (HCD) can contribute to improving STEAM education technologies, systems and practices. HCD not only provides tools and techniques to build useful and usable things, but also an integrated approach to learning by doing, expressing and critiquing, exploring possible futures, and understanding complex systems.

  15. Isolation of Mesenchymal Stem Cells from Human Deciduous Teeth Pulp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Aileen I.; Hong, Hsiang-Hsi; Fu, Jen-Fen; Chang, Chih-Chun; Wang, I-Kuan; Huang, Wen-Hung; Weng, Cheng-Hao; Hsu, Ching-Wei

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to identify predictors of success rate of mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) isolation from human deciduous teeth pulp. A total of 161 deciduous teeth were extracted at the dental clinic of Chang Gung Memorial Hospital. The MSCs were isolated from dental pulps using a standard protocol. In total, 128 colonies of MSCs were obtained and the success rate was 79.5%. Compared to teeth not yielding MSCs successfully, those successfully yielding MSCs were found to have less severe dental caries (no/mild-to-moderate/severe: 63.3/24.2/12.5% versus 12.5/42.4/42.4%, P pulpitis (no/yes: 95.3/4.7% versus 51.5/48.5%, P pulpitis (OR = 9.111, 95% CI = 2.921–28.420, P pulpitis expressed longer colony doubling time than pulps without pulpitis. Furthermore, there were higher expressions of proinflammatory cytokines, interleukin- (IL-) 6 and monocyte chemoattractant protein- (MCP-) 1, P pulpitis was relatively unsuitable for MSC processing and isolation. PMID:28377925

  16. Epigenetic stability, adaptability, and reversibility in human embryonic stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tompkins, Joshua D; Hall, Christine; Chen, Vincent Chang-yi; Li, Arthur Xuejun; Wu, Xiwei; Hsu, David; Couture, Larry A; Riggs, Arthur D

    2012-07-31

    The stability of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) is of critical importance for both experimental and clinical applications. We find that as an initial response to altered culture conditions, hESCs change their transcription profile for hundreds of genes and their DNA methylation profiles for several genes outside the core pluripotency network. After adaption to conditions of feeder-free defined and/or xeno-free culture systems, expression and DNA methylation profiles are quite stable for additional passaging. However, upon reversion to the original feeder-based culture conditions, numerous transcription changes are not reversible. Similarly, although the majority of DNA methylation changes are reversible, highlighting the plasticity of DNA methylation, a few are persistent. Collectively, this indicates these cells harbor a memory of culture history. For culture-induced DNA methylation changes, we also note an intriguing correlation: hypomethylation of regions 500-2440 bp upstream of promoters correlates with decreased expression, opposite to that commonly seen at promoter-proximal regions. Lastly, changes in regulation of G-coupled protein receptor pathways provide a partial explanation for many of the unique transcriptional changes observed during hESC adaptation and reverse adaptation.

  17. Controversial issue: is it safe to employ mesenchymal stem cells in cell-based therapies?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lepperdinger, Günter; Brunauer, Regina; Jamnig, Angelika

    2008-01-01

    The prospective clinical use of multipotent mesenchymal stromal stem cells (MSC) holds enormous promise for the treatment of a large number of degenerative and age-related diseases. However, the challenges and risks for cell-based therapies are multifaceted. The risks for patients receiving stem...... cells, which have been expanded in vitro in the presence of xenogenic compounds, can hardly be anticipated and methods for the culture and manipulation of "safe" MSC ex vivo are being investigated. During in vitro expansion, stem cells experience a long replicative history and are thus subject to damage...... from intracellular and extracellular influences. While murine MSC are prone to cellular transformation in culture, human MSC do not transform. One reason for this striking difference is that during long-term culture, human MSC finally become replicatively senescent. In consequence, this greatly...

  18. precursor cells from human cord blood-derived mesenchymal stem ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ONOS

    2010-09-06

    Sep 6, 2010 ... The loss of skin pigmentation can induce compromised cutaneous immunity, which can result in conditions such as vitiligo. In this study, we evaluated various agents that are able to induce the differentiation of stem cells into melanocytes. We found that a mixture of forskolin (FK), stem cell factor. (SCF) and ...

  19. Tissue distribution and engraftment of human mesenchymal stem cells immortalized by human telomerase reverse transcriptase gene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentzon, J F; Stenderup, K; Hansen, F D

    2005-01-01

    Engraftment of mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) in peripheral tissues for replenishing of local stem cell function has been proposed as a therapeutic approach to degenerative diseases. We have previously reported the development of an immortalized human telomerase reverse transcriptase transduced MSC...... line (hMSC-TERT). In the present study, we co-transduced hMSC-TERT with enhanced green fluorescent protein gene, and studied tissue distribution, engraftment, and cell survival after intracardiac and intravenous injections in immunodeficient mice. The pattern of organ distribution suggested...... that infused cells were efficiently arrested in microvasculature during first-pass, but only for a fraction of the infused cells was arrest followed by vascular emigration and tissue engraftment. Few engrafted cells in lungs, heart, and kidney glomeruli remained after 4 weeks. These observations are consistent...

  20. L-carnitine Effectively Induces hTERT Gene Expression of Human Adipose Tissue-derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells Obtained from the Aged Subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farahzadi, Raheleh; Mesbah-Namin, Seyed Alireza; Zarghami, Nosratollah; Fathi, Ezzatollah

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives Human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) are attractive candidates for cell therapy and regenerative medicine due to their multipotency and ready availability, but their application can be complicated by the factors such as age of the donors and senescence-associated growth arrest during culture conditions. The latter most likely reflects the fact that aging of hMSCs is associated with a rise in intracellular reactive oxygen species, loss of telomerase activity, decrease in human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) expression and finally eroded telomere ends. Over-expression of telomerase in hMSCs leads to telomere elongation and may help to maintain replicative life–span of these cells. The aim of this study was to evaluate of the effect of L-carnitine (LC) as an antioxidant on the telomerase gene expression and telomere length in aged adipose tissue-derived hMSCs. Methods For this purpose, cells were isolated from healthy aged volunteers and their viabilities were assessed by MTT assay. Quantitative gene expression of hTERT and absolute telomere length measurement were also performed by real-time PCR in the absence and presence of different doses of LC (0.1, 0.2 and 0.4 mM). Results The results indicated that LC could significantly increase the hTERT gene expression and telomere length, especially in dose of 0.2 mM of LC and in 48 h treatment for the aged adipose tissue-derived hMSCs samples. Conclusion It seems that LC would be a good candidate to improve the lifespan of the aged adipose tissue-derived hMSCs due to over-expression of telomerase and lengthening of the telomeres. PMID:27426092

  1. Comparison of the early response of human embryonic stem cells and human induced pluripotent stem cells to ionizing radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suchorska, Wiktoria Maria; Augustyniak, Ewelina; Łukjanow, Magdalena

    2017-04-01

    Despite the well-demonstrated efficacy of stem cell (SC) therapy, this approach has a number of key drawbacks. One important concern is the response of pluripotent SCs to treatment with ionizing radiation (IR), given that SCs used in regenerative medicine will eventually be exposed to IR for diagnostic or treatment‑associated purposes. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to examine and compare early IR‑induced responses of pluripotent SCs to assess their radioresistance and radiosensitivity. In the present study, 3 cell lines; human embryonic SCs (hESCs), human induced pluripotent SCs (hiPSCs) and primary human dermal fibroblasts (PHDFs); were exposed to IR at doses ranging from 0 to 15 gray (Gy). Double strand breaks (DSBs), and the gene expression of the following DNA repair genes were analyzed: P53; RAD51; BRCA2; PRKDC; and XRCC4. hiPSCs demonstrated greater radioresistance, as fewer DSBs were identified, compared with hESCs. Both pluripotent SC lines exhibited distinct gene expression profiles in the most common DNA repair genes that are involved in homologous recombination, non‑homologous end‑joining and enhanced DNA damage response following IR exposure. Although hESCs and hiPSCs are equivalent in terms of capacity for pluripotency and differentiation into 3 germ layers, the results of the present study indicate that these 2 types of SCs differ in gene expression following exposure to IR. Consequently, further research is required to determine whether hiPSCs and hESCs are equally safe for application in clinical practice. The present study contributes to a greater understanding of DNA damage response (DDR) mechanisms activated in pluripotent SCs and may aid in the future development of safe SC‑based clinical protocols.

  2. Defining human mesenchymal stem cell efficacy in vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lennon Donald P

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Allogeneic human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs can suppress graft versus host disease (GvHD and have profound anti-inflammatory and regenerative capacity in stroke, infarct, spinal cord injury, meniscus regeneration, tendinitis, acute renal failure, and heart disease in human and animal models of disease. There is significant clinical hMSC variability in efficacy and the ultimate response in vivo. The challenge in hMSC based therapy is defining the efficacy of hMSC in vivo. Models which may provide insight into hMSC bioactivity in vivo would provide a means to distinguish hMSCs for clinical utility. hMSC function has been described as both regenerative and trophic through the production of bioactive factors. The regenerative component involves the multi-potentiality of hMSC progenitor differentiation. The secreted factors generated by the hMSCs are milieu and injury specific providing unique niches for responses in vivo. These bioactive factors are anti-scarring, angiogenic, anti-apoptotic as well as regenerative. Further, from an immunological standpoint, hMSC's can avoid host immune response, providing xenographic applications. To study the in vivo immuno-regulatory effectiveness of hMSCs, we used the ovalbumin challenge model of acute asthma. This is a quick 3 week in vivo pulmonary inflammation model with readily accessible ways of measuring effectiveness of hMSCs. Our data show that there is a direct correlation between the traditional ceramic cube score to hMSCs attenuation of cellular recruitment due to ovalbumin challenge. The results from these studies verify the in vivo immuno-modulator effectiveness of hMSCs and support the potential use of the ovalbumin model as an in vivo model of hMSC potency and efficacy. Our data also support future directions toward exploring hMSCs as an alternative therapeutic for the treatment of airway inflammation associated with asthma.

  3. Novel Stem Cell Therapies for Applications to Wound Healing and Tissue Repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grada, Ayman; Falanga, Vincent

    2016-10-26

    The number of individuals with chronic cutaneous wounds has been increasing worldwide due to an aging population, diabetes, obesity, and cardiovascular disease. In the United States, almost seven million Americans have chronic skin ulcers. Many therapeutic approaches have been used. However, the treatment outcomes are not always ideal because of failure to achieve complete wound closure in around 60% of cases, scarring, and high rate of recurrence. Therefore, there is a need for more effective therapies. Stem cells offer promising possibilities. Pre-clinical studies have shown that bone- or adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have a competitive advantage over other types of stem cells due to their better defined multipotent differentiating potential, paracrine effects, immunomodulatory properties, and safety. However, large controlled clinical trials are needed to examine the capabilities of MSCs in humans and to assess their safety profile. In this review, we highlight emerging treatments in tissue regeneration and repair and provide some perspectives on how to translate current knowledge about stem cells-both multipotent and pluripotent-into viable clinical approaches for treating patients with difficult to heal wounds.

  4. Doxycycline Enhances Survival and Self-Renewal of Human Pluripotent Stem Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Mi-Yoon; Rhee, Yong-Hee; Yi, Sang-Hoon; Lee, Su-Jae; Kim, Rae-Kwon; Kim, Hyongbum; Park, Chang-Hwan; Lee, Sang-Hun

    2014-01-01

    Summary We here report that doxycycline, an antibacterial agent, exerts dramatic effects on human embryonic stem and induced pluripotent stem cells (hESC/iPSCs) survival and self-renewal. The survival-promoting effect was also manifest in cultures of neural stem cells (NSCs) derived from hESC/iPSCs. These doxycycline effects are not associated with its antibacterial action, but mediated by direct activation of a PI3K-AKT intracellular signal. These findings indicate doxycycline as a useful supplement for stem cell cultures, facilitating their growth and maintenance. PMID:25254347

  5. Identification and classification of human neural stem cells by infrared spectroscopic imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiner, G.; Küchler, S.; Koch, E.; Salzer, R.; Schackert, G.; Kirsch, M.

    2009-02-01

    Human neural stem were cultivated and characterized using infrared spectroscopic imaging. A classification algorithm based on linear discriminate analysis was developed to distinguish the differentiation of the stem cells to neurons, astrocytes and stem cells without labeling. The classification is based upon spectral features which mainly arise from proteins, nucleic acids. A spectral training set was formed with spectra from cells which were identified by a subsequently staining according to a standard histological protocol. Differentiated cells could be classified with a high accuracy whereas not differentiated stem cells did exhibit some misclassifications

  6. Recapitulation of Human Retinal Development from Human Pluripotent Stem Cells Generates Transplantable Populations of Cone Photoreceptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anai Gonzalez-Cordero

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Transplantation of rod photoreceptors, derived either from neonatal retinae or pluripotent stem cells (PSCs, can restore rod-mediated visual function in murine models of inherited blindness. However, humans depend more upon cone photoreceptors that are required for daylight, color, and high-acuity vision. Indeed, macular retinopathies involving loss of cones are leading causes of blindness. An essential step for developing stem cell-based therapies for maculopathies is the ability to generate transplantable human cones from renewable sources. Here, we report a modified 2D/3D protocol for generating hPSC-derived neural retinal vesicles with well-formed ONL-like structures containing cones and rods bearing inner segments and connecting cilia, nascent outer segments, and presynaptic structures. This differentiation system recapitulates human photoreceptor development, allowing the isolation and transplantation of a pure population of stage-matched cones. Purified human long/medium cones survive and become incorporated within the adult mouse retina, supporting the potential of photoreceptor transplantation for treating retinal degeneration.

  7. In vitro Culture of Naïve Human Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cells: A Stemness Based Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Bidisha; Das, Bikul

    2017-01-01

    Human bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) resides in their niches in close proximity to hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs). These naïve MSCs have tremendous potential in regenerative therapeutics, and may also be exploited by cancer and infectious disease agents. Hence, it is important to study the physiological and pathological roles of naïve MSC. However, our knowledge of naïve MSCs is limited by lack of appropriate isolation and in vitro culture methods. Established culture methods use serum rich media, and serial passaging for retrospective isolation of MSCs. These primed MSCs may not reflect the true physiological and pathological roles of naive MSCs (Figure 1). Therefore, there is a strong need for direct isolation and in vitro culture of naïve MSCs to study their stemness (self-renewal and undifferentiated state) and developmental ontogeny. We have taken a niche-based approach on stemness to better maintain naïve MSCs in vitro. In this approach, stemness is broadly divided as niche dependent (extrinsic), niche independent (intrinsic) and niche modulatory (altruistic or competitive). Using this approach, we were able to maintain naïve CD271+/CD133+ BM-MSCs for 2 weeks. Furthermore, this in vitro culture system helped us to identify naïve MSCs as a protective niche site for Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the causative organism of pulmonary tuberculosis. In this review, we discuss the in vitro culture of primed vs. naïve human BM derived MSCs with a special focus on how a stemness based approach could facilitate the study of naïve BM-MSCs. PMID:28884113

  8. In vitro Culture of Naïve Human Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cells: A Stemness Based Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Bidisha; Das, Bikul

    2017-01-01

    Human bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) resides in their niches in close proximity to hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs). These naïve MSCs have tremendous potential in regenerative therapeutics, and may also be exploited by cancer and infectious disease agents. Hence, it is important to study the physiological and pathological roles of naïve MSC. However, our knowledge of naïve MSCs is limited by lack of appropriate isolation and in vitro culture methods. Established culture methods use serum rich media, and serial passaging for retrospective isolation of MSCs. These primed MSCs may not reflect the true physiological and pathological roles of naive MSCs (Figure 1). Therefore, there is a strong need for direct isolation and in vitro culture of naïve MSCs to study their stemness (self-renewal and undifferentiated state) and developmental ontogeny. We have taken a niche-based approach on stemness to better maintain naïve MSCs in vitro. In this approach, stemness is broadly divided as niche dependent (extrinsic), niche independent (intrinsic) and niche modulatory (altruistic or competitive). Using this approach, we were able to maintain naïve CD271+/CD133+ BM-MSCs for 2 weeks. Furthermore, this in vitro culture system helped us to identify naïve MSCs as a protective niche site for Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the causative organism of pulmonary tuberculosis. In this review, we discuss the in vitro culture of primed vs. naïve human BM derived MSCs with a special focus on how a stemness based approach could facilitate the study of naïve BM-MSCs.

  9. Dental stem cells: recent progresses in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botelho, João; Cavacas, Maria Alzira; Machado, Vanessa; Mendes, José João

    2017-12-01

    Since the disclosure of adult mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), there have been an intense investigation on the characteristics of these cells and their potentialities. Dental stem cells (DSCs) are MSC-like populations with self-renewal capacity and multidifferentiation potential. Currently, there are five main DSCs, dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs), stem cells from exfoliated deciduous teeth (SHED), stem cells from apical papilla (SCAP), periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSCs) and dental follicle precursor cells (DFPCs). These cells are extremely accessible, prevail during all life and own an amazing multipotency. In the past decade, DPSCs and SHED have been thoroughly studied in regenerative medicine and tissue engineering as autologous stem cells therapies and have shown amazing therapeutic abilities in oro-facial, neurologic, corneal, cardiovascular, hepatic, diabetic, renal, muscular dystrophy and auto-immune conditions, in both animal and human models, and most recently some of them in human clinical trials. In this review, we focus the characteristics, the multiple roles of DSCs and its potential translation to clinical settings. These new insights of the apparently regenerative aptitude of these DSCs seems quite promising to investigate these cells abilities in a wide variety of pathologies. Key messages Dental stem cells (DSCs) have a remarkable self-renewal capacity and multidifferentiation potential; DSCs are extremely accessible and prevail during all life; DSCs, as stem cells therapies, have shown amazing therapeutic abilities in oro-facial, neurologic, corneal, cardiovascular, hepatic, diabetic, renal, muscular dystrophy and autoimmune conditions; DSCs are becoming extremely relevant in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine.

  10. Isolation and morphology of Stem Cells from Deciduous Tooth (SHED) and Human Dental Pulp Stem Cells (hDPSC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariffin, Shahrul Hisham Zainal; Manogaran, Thanaletchumi; Abidin, Intan Zarina Zainol; Senafi, Sahidan; Wahab, Rohaya Megat Abdul

    2016-11-01

    Dental pulp is a tissue obtained from pulp chamber of deciduous and permanent tooth which contain stem cells. Stem cell isolation procedure is performed to obtain cells from tissue using enzymatic digestion. The aim of this study is to isolate and observe the morphology of stem cells during passage 0 and passage 3. Dental pulp from deciduous and permanent tooth was enzymatically digested using collagenase Type I and cells obtained were cultured in DMEM-KO that contains 10% fetal bovine serum, 1% antibiotic-antimycotic solution and 0.001× GlutaMax®. During culture, cell morphology was observed under the microscope on day 3, 16 and 33 and captured using cellB software. Giemsa staining was conducted on cells at passage 3. Cells attached at the bottom of the flask on day 3 and started forming small colonies. Cells became confluent after approximately 4 weeks. Both Stem Cells from Deciduous Tooth (SHED) and Human Dental Pulp Stem Cells (hDPSC) exhibited fibroblast-like morphology during passage 0 and passage 3. Meanwhile, Giemsa staining at passage 3 revealed single intact nucleus surrounded by fibroblastic cytoplasm structure. It can be concluded that SHED and hDPSC showed consistent fibroblast-like morphology throughout culture period.

  11. Femtosecond laser pulses for chemical-free embryonic and mesenchymal stem cell differentiation

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mthunzi, P

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available . Femtosecond (fs) laser pulses have been reported to non-invasively deliver exogenous materials, including foreign genetic species into both multipotent and pluripotent stem cells successfully. Through this multi-photon facilitated technique, directly...

  12. Reprogramming Malignant Cancer Cells toward a Benign Phenotype following Exposure to Human Embryonic Stem Cell Microenvironment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arena, Vincenzo; Arena, Manuel; Arena, Goffredo Orazio

    2017-01-01

    The embryonic microenvironment is well known to be non-permissive for tumor development because early developmental signals naturally suppress the expression of proto-oncogenes. In an analogous manner, mimicking an early embryonic environment during embryonic stem cell culture has been shown to suppress oncogenic phenotypes of cancer cells. Exosomes derived from human embryonic stem cells harbor substances that mirror the content of the cells of origin and have been reported to reprogram hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells via horizontal transfer of mRNA and proteins. However, the possibility that these embryonic stem cells-derived exosomes might be the main effectors of the anti-tumor effect mediated by the embryonic stem cells has not been explored yet. The present study aims to investigate whether exosomes derived from human embryonic stem cells can reprogram malignant cancer cells to a benign stage and reduce their tumorigenicity. We show that the embryonic stem cell-conditioned medium contains factors that inhibit cancer cell growth and tumorigenicity in vitro and in vivo. Moreover, we demonstrate that exosomes derived from human embryonic stem cells display anti-proliferation and pro-apoptotic effects, and decrease tumor size in a xenograft model. These exosomes are also able to transfer their cargo into target cancer cells, inducing a dose-dependent increase in SOX2, OCT4 and Nanog proteins, leading to a dose-dependent decrease of cancer cell growth and tumorigenicity. This study shows for the first time that human embryonic stem cell-derived exosomes play an important role in the tumor suppressive activity displayed by human embryonic stem cells. PMID:28068409

  13. GMP-grade human fetal liver-derived mesenchymal stem cells for clinical transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larijani, Bagher; Aghayan, Hamid-Reza; Goodarzi, Parisa; Arjmand, Babak

    2015-01-01

    Stem cell therapy seems a promising avenue in regenerative medicine. Within various stem cells, mesenchymal stem cells have progressively used for cellular therapy. Because of the age-related decreasing in the frequency and differentiating capacity of adult MSCs, fetal tissues such as fetal liver, lung, pancreas, spleen, etc. have been introduced as an alternative source of MSCs for cellular therapy. On the other hand, using stem cells as advanced therapy medicinal products, must be performed in compliance with cGMP as a quality assurance system to ensure the safety, quality, and identity of cell products during translation from the basic stem cell sciences into clinical cell transplantation. In this chapter the authors have demonstrated the manufacturing of GMP-grade human fetal liver-derived mesenchymal stem cells.

  14. Microvesicles Derived From Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells Restore Alveolar Fluid Clearance in Human Lungs Rejected for Transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gennai, S; Monsel, A; Hao, Q; Park, J; Matthay, M A; Lee, J W

    2015-09-01

    The need to increase the donor pool for lung transplantation is a major public health issue. We previously found that administration of mesenchymal stem cells "rehabilitated" marginal donor lungs rejected for transplantation using ex vivo lung perfusion. However, the use of stem cells has some inherent limitation such as the potential for tumor formation. In the current study, we hypothesized that microvesicles, small anuclear membrane fragments constitutively released from mesenchymal stem cells, may be a good alternative to using stem cells. Using our well established ex vivo lung perfusion model, microvesicles derived from human mesenchymal stem cells increased alveolar fluid clearance (i.e. ability to absorb pulmonary edema fluid) in a dose-dependent manner, decreased lung weight gain following perfusion and ventilation, and improved airway and hemodynamic parameters compared to perfusion alone. Microvesicles derived from normal human lung fibroblasts as a control had no effect. Co-administration of microvesicles with anti-CD44 antibody attenuated these effects, suggesting a key role of the CD44 receptor in the internalization of the microvesicles into the injured host cell and its effect. In summary, microvesicles derived from human mesenchymal stem cells were as effective as the parent mesenchymal stem cells in rehabilitating marginal donor human lungs. © Copyright 2015 The American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons.

  15. Imaging gene expression in human mesenchymal stem cells: from small to large animals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willmann, Jürgen K; Paulmurugan, Ramasamy; Rodriguez-Porcel, Martin

    2009-01-01

    To evaluate the feasibility of reporter gene imaging in implanted human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in porcine myocardium by using clinical positron emission tomography (PET)-computed tomography (CT) scanning....

  16. From bench to bedside: use of human adipose-derived stem cells

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Feisst, Vaughan; Meidinger, Sarah; Locke, Michelle B

    2015-01-01

    Since the discovery of adipose-derived stem cells (ASC) in human adipose tissue nearly 15 years ago, significant advances have been made in progressing this promising cell therapy tool from the laboratory bench to bedside usage...

  17. Femtosecond optical transfection as a tool for genetic manipulation of human embryonic stem cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Mapa, M. L.; Gardner, J.; Bradburn, H.; King, J.; Dholakia, K.; Gunn-Moore, F.

    2013-03-01

    We demonstrate the use