WorldWideScience

Sample records for human milk concentrations

  1. Iron concentrations in breast milk and selected maternal factors of human milk bank donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mello-Neto, Julio; Rondó, Patrícia H C; Morgano, Marcelo A; Oshiiwa, Marie; Santos, Mariana L; Oliveira, Julicristie M

    2010-05-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between iron concentration in mature breast milk and characteristics of 136 donors of a Brazilian milk bank. Iron, vitamin A, zinc, and copper concentrations were assessed in human milk and maternal blood. Data were collected on maternal anthropometrics, obstetric, socioeconomic, demographic, and lifestyle factors. Iron, zinc, and copper in milk and zinc and copper in blood were detected by spectrophotometry. Vitamin A in milk and blood was determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. Hemoglobin was measured by electronic counting and serum iron and ferritin by colorimetry and chemoluminescence, respectively. Transferrin and ceruloplasmin were determined by nephelometry. According to multivariate linear regression analysis, iron in milk was positively associated with vitamin A in milk and with smoking but negatively associated with timing of breast milk donation (P milk of Brazilian donors may be influenced by nutritional factors and smoking.

  2. Systematic review of the concentrations of oligosaccharides in human milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurl, Stephan; Munzert, Manfred; Boehm, Günther; Matthews, Catherine; Stahl, Bernd

    2017-11-01

    Oligosaccharides are the third largest solid component in human milk. These diverse compounds are thought to have numerous beneficial functions in infants, including protection against infectious diseases. The structures of more than 100 oligosaccharides in human milk have been elucidated so far. The aim of this review was to identify the main factors that affect the concentrations of oligosaccharides in human milk and to determine whether it is possible to calculate representative and reliable mean concentrations. A comprehensive literature search on oligosaccharide concentrations in human milk was performed in 6 electronic databases: BIOSIS, Current Contents Search, Embase, Lancet Titles, MEDLINE and PubMed. The initial search resulted in 1363 hits. After the elimination of duplicates, the literature was screened. The application of strict inclusion criteria resulted in 21 articles selected. Oligosaccharide concentrations, both mean values and single values, reported in the literature were sorted by gestational age, secretor status of mothers, and defined lactation periods. Mean concentrations, including confidence limits, of 33 neutral and acidic oligosaccharides reported could be calculated. Concentrations of oligosaccharides in human milk show variations that are dependent on both the secretor type of the mother and the lactation period as examined by analyses of variance. In addition, large interlaboratory variations in the data were observed. Worldwide interlaboratory quantitative analyses of identical milk samples would be required to identify the most reliable methods of determining concentrations of oligosaccharides in human milk. The data presented here contribute to the current knowledge about the composition and quantities of oligosaccharides in human milk and may foster greater understanding of the biological functions of these compounds. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Life Sciences Institute.

  3. Selenium and vitamin E concentrations in human milk and formula milk from Hungary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sziklai-Laszlo, I.; Majchrzak, D.; Elmadfa, I.; Cser, M.A.

    2009-01-01

    The metabolic roles of vitamin E and selenium are closely related, and to a very great extent, each can compensate for the deficiency of the other. The aim of the study was to determine and compare the Se and vitamin E (α- and γ-tocopherol) contents of breast milk and commercially available infant formulas in Hungary. The Se content was measured by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA), while the α-, and γ-tocopherol concentrations were determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The mean Se concentration was 17.4±2.8 μg/L in transitional and 13.8±2.3 μg/L in mature milk. It was found that, all of the starter (ST), the follow-on (FO) and the specialized formulas (SF) had lower Se content than breast milk. Transitional breast milk resulted in a higher Se intake (14 μg/day) than mature milk (11 μg/day). The daily Se intakes in Hungarian infants were within the Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) range. The natural vitamin E contents of human milk were similar during the early and late lactation. Mature breast milk had 3.30±1.13 mg/L α-TE concentration and this was significantly higher than that of in ST (1.98±1.57), and FO (1.77±0.78), or in SF ready to feed preparations (1.03±0.74). The present study suggests that the formulas for the optimal development of young infants, should contain concentrations of these antioxidants on a level which is comparable to that of the human milk. (author)

  4. Holder pasteurization affects S100B concentrations in human milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peila, Chiara; Coscia, Alessandra; Bertino, Enrico; Li Volti, Giovanni; Galvano, Fabio; Visser, Gerard H A; Gazzolo, Diego

    2018-02-01

    Donor milk (DM) represents an important nutrition source for high-risk newborns. Holder pasteurization (HoP) is the most recommended procedure for DM treatment, providing a good compromise between microbiological safety and biological quality. HoP was previously shown to affect DM cytokines, growth factors and hormones levels, whilst no data concerning the possible effects of HoP on neurobiomarkers (NB) are available. Therefore, our study investigated whether the concentration in DM of a well-known NB involved in brain development/damage, namely S100B, changes due to HoP. We conducted a pretest-test study in 11 mothers, whose DM samples were sub-divided into two parts: the first was immediately frozen (-80 °C); the second was pasteurized with Holder method before freezing. S100B DM levels were measured using a commercially available immunoluminometric assay. S100B protein was detected in all milk samples. Results showed significant differences between groups (p pasteurization stresses and the need to develop new storage techniques to preserve the biological quality of human milk.

  5. Effects of pasteurization on adiponectin and insulin concentrations in donor human milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ley, Sylvia H; Hanley, Anthony J; Stone, Debbie; O'Connor, Deborah L

    2011-09-01

    Although pasteurization is recommended before distributing donor human milk in North America, limited data are available on its impact on metabolic hormones in milk. We aimed to investigate the effects of pasteurization on adiponectin and insulin concentrations in donor human milk. The study investigates concentrations of components in donor human milk before and after Holder pasteurization. After the guidelines of the Human Milk Bank Association of North America, human milk samples were pooled to produce 17 distinct batches (4 individuals per batch) and pasteurized at 62.5°C for 30 min. Adiponectin, insulin, energy, fat, total protein, and glucose concentrations were measured pre- and postpasteurization. Pasteurization reduced milk adiponectin and insulin by 32.8 and 46.1%, respectively (both p Pasteurization effects on milk hormone concentrations remained significant after adjusting for fat and energy (beta ± SEE: -4.11 ± 1.27, p = 0.003 for adiponectin; -70.0 ± 15.0, p pasteurization reduced adiponectin and insulin concentrations in donor human milk. In view of emerging knowledge on the importance of milk components, continued work to find the optimal pasteurization process that mitigates risks but promotes retention of bioactive components is needed.

  6. Serum lutein concentrations in healthy term infants fed human milk or infant formula with lutein

    OpenAIRE

    Bettler, Jodi; Zimmer, J. Paul; Neuringer, Martha; DeRusso, Patricia A.

    2009-01-01

    Background Lutein is a carotenoid that may play a role in eye health. Human milk typically contains higher concentrations of lutein than infant formula. Preliminary data suggest there are differences in serum lutein concentrations between breastfed and formula-fed infants. Aim of the study To measure the serum lutein concentrations among infants fed human milk or formulas with and without added lutein. Methods A prospective, double-masked trial was conducted in healthy term formula-fed infant...

  7. Vitamin concentrations in human milk vary with time within feed, circadian rhythm, and single-dose supplementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Importance: Human milk is the subject of many nutrition studies but methods for representative sample collection are not established. Our recently improved, validated methods for analyzing micronutrients in human milk now enable systematic study of factors affecting their concentration. Objective...

  8. Vitamin E concentration in human milk and associated factors: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Mayara S R; Dimenstein, Roberto; Ribeiro, Karla D S

    2014-01-01

    To systematize information about vitamin E concentration in human milk and the variables associated with this composition in order to find possible causes of deficiency, supporting strategies to prevent it in postpartum women and infants. Studies published between 2004 and 2014 that assayed alpha-tocopherol in human milk of healthy women by high performance liquid chromatography were evaluated. The keywords used were "vitamin E", "alpha-tocopherol", "milk, human", "lactation", and equivalents in Portuguese, in the BIREME, CAPES, PubMed, SciELO, ISI Web of Knowledge, HighWire Press, Ingenta, and Brazilian Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations databases. Of the 41 publications found on the subject, 25 whose full text was available and met the inclusion criteria were selected. The alpha-tocopherol concentrations found in milk were similar in most populations studied. The variable phase of lactation was shown to influence vitamin E content in milk, which is reduced until the mature milk appears. Maternal variables parity, anthropometric nutritional status, socioeconomic status, and habitual dietary intake did not appear to affect the alpha-tocopherol levels in milk. However, the influence of the variables maternal age, gestational age, biochemical nutritional status in alpha-tocopherol, and maternal supplementation with vitamin E had conflicting results in the literature. Alpha-tocopherol concentration in milk decreases during lactation, until the mature milk appears. To confirm the influence of some maternal and child variables on milk vitamin E content, further studies with adequate design are needed. Copyright © 2014 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  9. Lutein concentration in human milk during early lactation and its relationship with dietary lutein intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cena, Hellas; Castellazzi, Anna Maria; Pietri, Amedeo; Roggi, Carla; Turconi, Giovanna

    2009-10-01

    The present study aimed to estimate the lutein concentration in human milk during early lactation and its relationship with dietary lutein intake measured through the administration of a short FFQ. A cross-sectional study in which an FFQ was administered twice: on day 3 (T0) and day 30 (T1) postpartum; meanwhile two breast milk samples were collected. Maternal plasma samples were obtained at T0. The comparison of dietary lutein intakes and likewise lutein concentrations in breast milk at T0 and T1 were analysed with Student's t test. Pearson's correlation coefficient was used to determine the association between dietary lutein intake and lutein concentration in milk and plasma, respectively, as well as the correlation between breast milk and plasma lutein concentrations at T0. Pavia, northern Italy. Twenty-one pregnant women, age range 24-42 years, were recruited during their last trimester on a voluntary basis. Both breast milk and plasma lutein concentrations were significantly correlated with dietary lutein intake (r = 0.86, P = 0.0001 and r = 0.94, P = 0.0001, respectively). There was a clear significant correlation between milk and plasma lutein concentrations (r = 0.87, P = 0.0001). Mature milk lutein concentration, although significantly reduced at T1 (P lutein intake (r = 0.82, P = 0.0001). Even though milk lutein concentration decreased during early lactation, it remained significantly correlated with daily lutein intake. Therefore, while awaiting further research, dietary recommendations advising intake of fresh fruit and vegetables rich in lutein, throughout the whole duration of pregnancy and lactation, are extremely useful.

  10. Serum lutein concentrations in healthy term infants fed human milk or infant formula with lutein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bettler, Jodi; Zimmer, J Paul; Neuringer, Martha; DeRusso, Patricia A

    2010-02-01

    Lutein is a carotenoid that may play a role in eye health. Human milk typically contains higher concentrations of lutein than infant formula. Preliminary data suggest there are differences in serum lutein concentrations between breastfed and formula-fed infants. To measure the serum lutein concentrations among infants fed human milk or formulas with and without added lutein. A prospective, double-masked trial was conducted in healthy term formula-fed infants (n = 26) randomized between 9 and 16 days of age to study formulas containing 20 (unfortified), 45, 120, and 225 mcg/l of lutein. A breastfed reference group was studied (n = 14) and milk samples were collected from their mothers. Primary outcome was serum lutein concentration at week 12. Geometric mean lutein concentration of human milk was 21.1 mcg/l (95% CI 14.9-30.0). At week 12, the human milk group had a sixfold higher geometric mean serum lutein (69.3 mcg/l; 95% CI 40.3-119) than the unfortified formula group (11.3 mcg/l; 95% CI 8.1-15.8). Mean serum lutein increased from baseline in each formula group except the unfortified group. Linear regression equation indicated breastfed infants had a greater increase in serum lutein (slope 3.7; P milk lutein than formula-fed infants (slope 0.9; P lutein concentrations than infants who consume formula unfortified with lutein. These data suggest approximately 4 times more lutein is needed in infant formula than in human milk to achieve similar serum lutein concentrations among breastfed and formula fed infants.

  11. Effect of Digestion and Storage of Human Milk on Free Fatty Acid Concentration and Cytotoxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penn, Alexander H.; Altshuler, Angelina E.; Small, James W.; Taylor, Sharon F.; Dobkins, Karen R.; Schmid-Schönbein, Geert W.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Fat is digested in the intestine into free fatty acids (FFAs), which are detergents and therefore toxic to cells at micromolar concentration. The mucosal barrier protects cells in the adult intestine, but this barrier may not be fully developed in premature infants. Lipase-digested infant formula, but not fresh human milk, has elevated FFAs and is cytotoxic to intestinal cells, and therefore could contribute to intestinal injury in necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC). But even infants exclusively fed breast milk may develop NEC. Our objective was to determine if stored milk and milk from donor milk banks (DM) could also become cytotoxic, especially after digestion. Methods We exposed cultured rat intestinal epithelial cells or human neutrophils to DM and milk collected fresh and stored at 4 or −20 °C for up to 12 weeks and then treated for 2 hours (37°C) with 0.1 or 1 mg/ml pancreatic lipase and/or trypsin and chymotrypsin. Results DM and milk stored 3 days (at 4 or −20 °C) and then digested were cytotoxic. Storage at −20 °C for 8 and 12 weeks resulted in an additional increase in cytotoxicity. Protease digestion decreased, but did not eliminate cell death. Conclusions Current storage practices may allow milk to become cytotoxic and contribute to intestinal damage in NEC. PMID:24840512

  12. Analysis of serotonin concentrations in human milk by high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiba, Takeshi; Maeda, Tomoji; Tairabune, Tomohiko; Tomita, Takashi; Sanbe, Atsushi; Takeda, Rika; Kikuchi, Akihiko; Kudo, Kenzo

    2017-03-25

    Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) plays an important role in milk volume homeostasis in the mammary gland during lactation; 5-HT in milk may also affect infant development. However, there are few reports on 5-HT concentrations in human breast milk. To address this issue, we developed a simple method based on high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection (HPLC-FD) for measuring 5-HT concentrations in human breast milk. Breast milk samples were provided by four healthy Japanese women. Calibration curves for 5-HT in each sample were prepared with the standard addition method between 5 and 1000 ng/ml, and all had correlation coefficients >0.999. The recovery of 5-HT was 96.1%-101.0%, with a coefficient of variation of 3.39%-8.62%. The range of 5-HT concentrations estimated from the calibration curves was 11.1-51.1 ng/ml. Thus, the HPLC-FD method described here can effectively extract 5-HT from human breast milk with high reproducibility. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. INFLUENCE OF SHORT-TERM DIETARY MEASURES ON DIOXIN CONCENTRATIONS IN HUMAN-MILK

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    PLUIM, HJ; BOERSMA, ER; KRAMER, [No Value; OLIE, K; VANDERSLIKKE, JW; KOPPE, JG

    Breast-feeding may expose infants to high levels of toxic chlorinated dioxins. To diminish intake of these lipophilic compounds by the baby, two diets were tested for their ability to reduce concentrations of dioxins in human milk. The diets were a low-fat/high-carbohydrate/low-dioxin diet (about

  14. Comparison of dioxin and PCB concentrations in human breast milk samples from Hong Kong and the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soechitram, S.D.; Chan, S.M.; Nelson, E.A.; Brouwer, A.; Sauer, P.J.

    2003-01-01

    The adverse effects of dioxins and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) on human health are of increasing concern. These lipophilic compounds are concentrated through the food chain and are present in human milk. This study compares PCB levels in human milk samples from Hong Kong and Dutch mothers. Ten

  15. Analysis of the influence of pasteurization, freezing/thawing, and offer processes on human milk's macronutrient concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Alan Araujo; Soares, Fernanda Valente Mendes; Pimenta, Hellen Porto; Abranches, Andrea Dunshee; Moreira, Maria Elisabeth Lopes

    2011-08-01

    The macronutrient concentrations of human milk could be influenced by the various processes used in human milk bank. To determine the effect of various process (Holder pasteurization, freezing and thawing and feeding method) on the macronutrient concentration of human milk. The samples of donated fresh human milk were studied before and after each process (Holder pasteurization, freezing and thawing and feeding method) until their delivery to newborn infants. Fifty-seven raw human milk samples were analyzed in the first step (pasteurization) and 228 in the offer step. Repeated measurements of protein, fat and lactose amounts were made in samples of human milk using an Infrared analyzer. The influence of repeated processes on the mean concentration of macronutrients in donor human milk was analyzed by repeated measurements ANOVA, using R statistical package. The most variable macronutrient concentration in the analyzed samples was fat (reduction of 59%). There was a significant reduction of fat and protein mean concentrations following pasteurization (5.5 and 3.9%, respectively). The speed at which the milk was thawed didn't cause a significant variation in the macronutrients concentrations. However, the continuous infusion delivery significantly reduced the fat concentration. When the influence of repeated processes was analyzed, the fat and protein concentrations varied significantly (reduction of 56.6% and 10.1% respectively) (Pmilk is submitted before delivery to newborn infants cause a reduction in the fat and protein concentration. The magnitude of this decrease is higher on the fat concentration and it needs to be considered when this processed milk is used to feed preterm infants. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. 21 CFR 131.115 - Concentrated milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Concentrated milk. 131.115 Section 131.115 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION MILK AND CREAM Requirements for Specific Standardized Milk and Cream § 131.115...

  17. Association of Maternal Diet With Zinc, Copper, and Iron Concentrations in Transitional Human Milk Produced by Korean Mothers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ji-Myung; Lee, Ji-Eun; Cho, Mi Sook; Kang, Bong Soo; Choi, Hyeon

    2016-01-01

    The aims of this study were to evaluate zinc, copper, and iron concentrations in the transitory milk of Korean lactating mothers and to investigate the relationship between these concentrations and maternal diet. Human milk samples were collected between 5 and 15 days postpartum from 96 healthy, lactating mothers in postpartum care centers in Seoul, Korea. Dietary intake during lactation was determined based on a 3-day dietary record. The mean zinc, copper, and iron concentrations in the human milk samples collected were 3.88 ± 1.74 mg/L, 0.69 ± 0.25 mg/L, and 5.85 ± 8.53 mg/L, respectively. The mothers who consumed alcoholic beverages during pregnancy had tended to have lower concentrations of zinc and copper, as well as significantly lower concentrations of iron, in their milk (p < 0.047). In contrast, the mothers who took daily supplements had much higher iron concentrations in their milk (p = 0.002). Dietary intakes of zinc, copper, and iron during lactation did not affect the concentrations of zinc, copper, and iron in the milk samples analyzed. Intakes of vitamin C, selenium, and iodine were associated with the concentration of copper in the milk samples analyzed, and consumption of food categorized as 'meat and meat products' was positively associated with the concentration of zinc. Consumption of rice was the top contributor to the concentrations of all three minerals. In conclusion, associations between maternal diet and nutrient concentrations in transitory human milk can provide useful information, particularly in regard to infant growth. PMID:26839873

  18. Cytokines in human milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garofalo, Roberto

    2010-02-01

    Epidemiologic studies conducted in the past 30 years to investigate the protective functions of human milk strongly support the notion that breastfeeding prevents infantile infections, particularly those affecting the gastrointestinal and respiratory tracts. However, more recent clinical and experimental observations also suggest that human milk not only provides passive protection, but also can directly modulate the immunological development of the recipient infant. The study of this remarkable defense system in human milk has been difficult because of its biochemical complexity, the small concentration of certain bioactive components, the compartmentalization of some of these agents, the dynamic quantitative and qualitative changes of milk during lactation, and the lack of specific reagents to quantify these agents. However, a host of bioactive substances, including hormones, growth factors, and immunological factors such as cytokines, have been identified in human milk. Cytokines are pluripotent polypeptides that act in autocrine/paracrine fashions by binding to specific cellular receptors. They operate in networks and orchestrate the development and functions of immune system. Several different cytokines and chemokines have been discovered in human milk in the past years, and the list is growing very rapidly. This article will review the current knowledge about the increasingly complex network of chemoattractants, activators, and anti-inflammatory cytokines present in human milk and their potential role in compensating for the developmental delay of the neonate immune system. Copyright 2010. Published by Mosby, Inc.

  19. Preterm human milk macronutrient concentration is independent of gestational age at birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maly, Jan; Burianova, Iva; Vitkova, Veronika; Ticha, Eva; Navratilova, Martina; Cermakova, Eva

    2018-01-20

    To evaluate the amount of macronutrients in aggregate of human milk samples after preterm delivery during the first 2 months of lactation. Analysis of the donated single milk samples, gained by complete emptying of the whole breast at the same daytime between 24+0 and 35+6 gestational age (GA), was designed as prospective observational cohort trial. Two milk samples were analysed every postnatal week up to the discharge from the hospital, week 9 or loss of lactation. 24-Hour milk collection was not done. Analysis was performed using the MIRIS Human Milk Analyser (MIRIS AB, Uppsala, Sweden). A set of 1917 human milk samples donated by 225 mothers after preterm labour was analysed. Group A (24-30 GA) contains 969 milk samples; group B (31-35 GA) contains 948 milk samples. No difference in milk composition between the groups was identified. Median of true protein content decreased from 1.6 g/dL in group A and 1.5 g/dL in group B in the first week of life, to 1.1 g/dL in both groups at the end of week 3, and then remained stable up to week 9. Content of carbohydrates and fat was stable during the whole observation, with interindividual differences. Human milk does not differ as a function of degree of prematurity. Protein content of preterm human milk is low and decreases during the first 3 weeks of lactation. Recommended daily protein intake cannot be achieved with routine fortification in majority of milk samples. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  20. A comparison of lutein and zeaxanthin concentrations in formula and human milk samples from Northern Ireland mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jewell, V C; Mayes, C B D; Tubman, T R J; Northrop-Clewes, C A; Thurnham, D I

    2004-01-01

    Two carotenoids, lutein and zeaxanthin are found in the retinal pigment epithelium of the eye where they are believed to protect it against oxidative and light damage. The amounts of these carotenoids consumed by premature infants are not known. The objective of the investigation was to measure these carotenoids in human and formulae milks. In all, 28 human milk samples were obtained at various times between days 1 and 41 of lactation from 13 mothers. Six formula milks commonly used in hospitals were also analysed. Mothers who provided the milk samples had infants in the neonatal ward at the Royal Maternity Hospital, Belfast. Median lutein and zeaxanthin concentrations in human milk were 4.79 (range 0.42-9.98) nmol/g fat and 0.55 (0.00-1.70) nmol/g fat, respectively. Five of the six formula milks also contained lutein and zeaxanthin with concentrations that varied over a wide range (0.7-9.7 and 0.1-1.2 nmol/g fat, respectively). Carotenoid concentrations usually decreased with the duration of lactation. Some formula milks that were specially formulated for premature infants contained high concentrations of the lutein and zeaxanthin and the source may be egg yolk. These studies were supported by the University of Ulster and the Northern Ireland Mother and Baby Appeal.

  1. Higher Leptin but Not Human Milk Macronutrient Concentration Distinguishes Normal-Weight from Obese Mothers at 1-Month Postpartum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Luca, Arnaud; Frasquet-Darrieux, Marine; Gaud, Marie-Agnès; Christin, Patricia; Boquien, Clair-Yves; Millet, Christine; Herviou, Manon; Darmaun, Dominique; Robins, Richard J; Ingrand, Pierre; Hankard, Régis

    2016-01-01

    Exclusively breastfed infants born to obese mothers have previously been shown to gain less weight by 1-month postpartum than infants of normal-weight mothers. Our hypothesis is that human milk composition and volume may differ between obese and normal-weight mothers. To compare human milk leptin, macronutrient concentration, and volume in obese and normal-weight mothers. Mother and infant characteristics were studied as secondary aims. This cross-sectional observational study compared 50 obese mothers matched for age, parity, ethnic origin, and educational level with 50 normal-weight mothers. Leptin, macronutrient human milk concentration, and milk volume were determined at 1 month in exclusively breastfed infants. Mother characteristics and infant growth were recorded. Human milk leptin concentration was higher in obese mothers than normal-weight mothers (4.8±2.7 vs. 2.5±1.5 ng.mL-1, pobese and normal-weight mothers in protein, lipid, carbohydrate content, and volume, nor in infant weight gain. Leptin concentration was higher in the milk of obese mothers than that of normal-weight mothers, but macronutrient concentration was not. It remains to be established whether the higher leptin content impacts on infant growth beyond the 1-month of the study period.

  2. Subclinical mastitis (SCM) and proinflammatory cytokines are associated with mineral and trace element concentrations in human breast milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chen; Solomons, Noel W; Scott, Marilyn E; Koski, Kristine G

    2018-03-01

    The possibility that either subclinical mastitis (SCM), an inflammatory condition of the breast, or elevations in breast milk proinflammatory cytokines alter breast milk mineral and trace element composition in humans has not been investigated. In this cross-sectional study, breast milk samples (n=108) were collected from Guatemalan Mam-Mayan mothers at one of three stages of lactation (transitional, early and established), and categorized as SCM (Na:K >0.6) or non-SCM (Na:K ≤0.6). Milk concentrations of 12 minerals (calcium, copper, iron, magnesium, manganese, phosphorus, potassium, rubidium, selenium, sodium, strontium, and zinc) and 4 proinflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, TNF-α) were measured by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), Lachat analyzer or Luminex multiplex bead cytokine assay. SCM was more prevalent during transitional (30%) than early (15.6%) and established (8.9%) lactation. Analysis of variance revealed that breast milk minerals differed by stage of lactation and SCM status. Breast milk minerals with the exception of magnesium were lower in established lactation, whereas SCM was associated with higher selenium and lower phosphorus. Regression models that controlled for lactation stage also confirmed that SCM was associated with lower milk phosphorus and higher milk selenium concentrations. Furthermore, cytokine concentrations were independently associated with several mineral concentrations: IL-1β with higher phosphorus and iron, IL-6 with higher calcium, magnesium, copper and manganese, IL-8 with higher calcium and zinc, and TNF-α with lower iron and manganese. We conclude that milk mineral and trace element concentrations are affected not only by the presence of SCM but also by proinflammatory cytokines in breast milk. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  3. Association between lutein intake and lutein concentrations in human milk samples from lactating mothers in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyesook; Yi, Hyunju; Jung, Ji A; Chang, Namsoo

    2018-02-01

    This study aimed to determine the lutein content of breast milk and its association with maternal lutein intake among lactating mothers in South Korea. Milk samples were obtained from 98 healthy lactating women (mean age; 32.5 ± 3.5 years). Dietary intake data were collected by a food record method for three consecutive days. Maternal lutein intake was estimated by using the lutein database. Lutein concentrations in human milk were analyzed using a high-performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet detection method. The mean values of the daily lutein intakes and breast milk lutein concentrations in lactating mothers were 4.70 ± 3.11 mg/day (median 3.87) and 3.50 ± 3.71 µg/dl (median 2.45), respectively. Breast milk lutein concentrations were positively associated with the dietary lutein intake of lactating mothers after adjustment for lactating women's age, BMI, dietary energy intake, type of breastfeeding, and infants' age (β = 0.3629, P = 0.0056). Considering that lutein in milk can be associated with dietary lutein intake, knowledge about infant requirement is needed to define the adequate lutein levels in human milk.

  4. [Cow's milk protein allergy through human milk].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denis, M; Loras-Duclaux, I; Lachaux, A

    2012-03-01

    Cow's milk protein allergy (CMPA) is the first allergy that affects infants. In this population, the incidence rate reaches 7.5%. The multiplicity and aspecificity of the symptoms makes its diagnosis sometimes complicated, especially in the delayed type (gastrointestinal, dermatological, and cutaneous). CMPA symptoms can develop in exclusively breastfed infants with an incidence rate of 0.5%. It, therefore, raises questions about sensitization to cow's milk proteins through breast milk. Transfer of native bovine proteins such as β-lactoglobulin into the breast milk is controversial: some authors have found bovine proteins in human milk but others point to cross-reactivity between human milk proteins and cow's milk proteins. However, it seems that a small percentage of dietary proteins can resist digestion and become potentially allergenic. Moreover, some authors suspect the transfer of some of these dietary proteins from the maternal bloodstream to breast milk, but the mechanisms governing sensitization are still being studied. Theoretically, CMPA diagnosis is based on clinical observations, prick-test or patch-test results, and cow's milk-specific IgE antibody concentration. A positive food challenge test usually confirms the diagnosis. No laboratory test is available to make a certain diagnosis, but the detection of eosinophil cationic protein (ECP) in the mother's milk, for example, seems to be advantageous since it is linked to CMA. Excluding cow's milk from the mother's diet is the only cure when she still wants to breastfeed. Usually, cow's milk proteins are reintroduced after 6 months of exclusion. Indeed, the prognosis for infants is very good: 80% acquire a tolerance before the age of 3 or 4 years. Mothers should not avoid dairy products during pregnancy and breastfeeding as preventive measures against allergy. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. Relationship between atmospheric pollution in the residential area and concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in human breast milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulkrabova, Jana; Stupak, Michal; Svarcova, Andrea; Rossner, Pavel; Rossnerova, Andrea; Ambroz, Antonin; Sram, Radim; Hajslova, Jana

    2016-08-15

    Human milk is an important source of beneficial nutrients and antibodies for newborns and infants and, under certain circumstances, its analysis may provide information on mothers' and infants' exposure to various contaminants. In the presented study, we have introduced the new analytical approach for analysis of 24 highly occurring polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in this indicator matrix. The sample preparation procedure is based on an ethyl acetate extraction of milk; the transfer of analytes into an organic layer is enhanced by addition of inorganic salts, i.e. sodium chloride and magnesium sulphate. Following the clean-up of a crude extract on silica SPE columns, gas chromatography coupled to triple quadrupole mass spectrometry is used for PAH identification and quantitation. The average recoveries of targeted PAHs from spiked samples were in the range of 68-110% with repeatabilities below 30% and method quantitation limits ranging from 0.03 to 0.3ng/g lipid weight. This newly validated method was successfully applied for analyses of 324 human milk samples collected from nonsmoking women during two sampling periods (summer and winter) in two residential areas in the Czech Republic differing in atmospheric pollution by PAHs. From 24 targeted analytes 17 were detected at least in one sample. Phenantherene, fluoranthrene, pyrene and fluorene were the most abundant compounds found at average concentration of 13.81, 1.80, 0.86, and 2.01ng/g lipid weight respectively. Comparing the data from two sampling periods, in both areas higher concentrations were measured in samples collected during winter. Also in the highly industrialized locality with heavily contaminated air PAH amounts in milk were higher than in the control locality. These first data on PAH concentrations in human milk collected in the Czech Republic are comparable with measurements for nonsmoking women reported earlier in the United States but significantly lower than results from China, Turkey

  6. Human Milk Banking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haiden, Nadja; Ziegler, Ekhard E

    2016-01-01

    Human milk banks play an essential role by providing human milk to infants who would otherwise not be able to receive human milk. The largest group of recipients are premature infants who derive very substantial benefits from it. Human milk protects premature infants from necrotizing enterocolitis and from sepsis, two devastating medical conditions. Milk banks collect, screen, store, process, and distribute human milk. Donating women usually nurse their own infants and have a milk supply that exceeds their own infants' needs. Donor women are carefully selected and are screened for HIV-1, HIV-2, human T-cell leukemia virus 1 and 2, hepatitis B, hepatitis C, and syphilis. In the milk bank, handling, storing, processing, pooling, and bacterial screening follow standardized algorithms. Heat treatment of human milk diminishes anti-infective properties, cellular components, growth factors, and nutrients. However, the beneficial effects of donor milk remain significant and donor milk is still highly preferable in comparison to formula. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  7. Characterisation of the Metabolites of 1,8-Cineole Transferred into Human Milk: Concentrations and Ratio of Enantiomers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirsch, Frauke; Buettner, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    1,8-Cineole is a widely distributed odorant that also shows physiological effects, but whose human metabolism has hitherto not been extensively investigated. The aim of the present study was, thus, to characterise the metabolites of 1,8-cineole, identified previously in human milk, after the oral intake of 100 mg of this substance. Special emphasis was placed on the enantiomeric composition of the metabolites since these data may provide important insights into potential biotransformation pathways, as well as potential biological activities of these substances, for example on the breastfed child. The volatile fraction of the human milk samples was therefore isolated via Solvent Assisted Flavour Evaporation (SAFE) and subjected to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The absolute concentrations of each metabolite were determined by matrix calibration with an internal standard, and the ratios of enantiomers were analysed on chiral capillaries. The concentrations varied over a broad range, from traces in the upper ng/kg region up to 40 µg/kg milk, with the exception of the main metabolite α2-hydroxy-1,8-cineole that showed concentrations of 100–250 µg/kg. Also, large inter- and intra-individual variations were recorded for the enantiomers, with nearly enantiomerically pure α2-hydroxy- and 3-oxo-1,8-cineole, while all other metabolites showed ratios of ~30:70 to 80:20. PMID:24957890

  8. Cow's Milk Contamination of Human Milk Purchased via the Internet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keim, Sarah A; Kulkarni, Manjusha M; McNamara, Kelly; Geraghty, Sheela R; Billock, Rachael M; Ronau, Rachel; Hogan, Joseph S; Kwiek, Jesse J

    2015-05-01

    The US Food and Drug Administration recommends against feeding infants human milk from unscreened donors, but sharing milk via the Internet is growing in popularity. Recipient infants risk the possibility of consuming contaminated or adulterated milk. Our objective was to test milk advertised for sale online as human milk to verify its human origin and to rule out contamination with cow's milk. We anonymously purchased 102 samples advertised as human milk online. DNA was extracted from 200 μL of each sample. The presence of human or bovine mitochondrial DNA was assessed with a species-specific real-time polymerase chain reaction assay targeting the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) dehydrogenase subunit 5 gene. Four laboratory-created mixtures representing various dilutions of human milk with fluid cow's milk or reconstituted infant formula were compared with the Internet samples to semiquantitate the extent of contamination with cow's milk. All Internet samples amplified human DNA. After 2 rounds of testing, 11 samples also contained bovine DNA. Ten of these samples had a level of bovine DNA consistent with human milk mixed with at least 10% fluid cow's milk. Ten Internet samples had bovine DNA concentrations high enough to rule out minor contamination, suggesting a cow's milk product was added. Cow's milk can be problematic for infants with allergy or intolerance. Because buyers cannot verify the composition of milk they purchase, all should be aware that it might be adulterated with cow's milk. Pediatricians should be aware of the online market for human milk and the potential risks. Copyright © 2015 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  9. Adipokines in human breast milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kratzsch, Juergen; Bae, Yoon Ju; Kiess, Wieland

    2018-01-01

    The review describes the molecular characteristics of so far detected breast milk adipokines and ranks their breast milk level compared to the respective levels in maternal and infant blood. Moreover, analytical knowledge for measurements of breast milk adipokines will be delineated. Next, we summarized data about two main potential influencing factors on adipokine concentration in breast milk, maternal weight and pasteurization of milk. Finally, associations between adipokines in breast milk and weight gain in infants as well as the putative mechanisms for effects of breast milk adipokines on food intake and weight gain in later life will debated. Our findings suggest that a source of adipokines in human breast milk cannot be uniformly defined. In dependence on the ratio between serum and breast milk levels the major quantity of these proteins may be derived from peripheral tissues, from the breast tissue itself or from both. Thus, leptin and in part adiponectin levels in breast milk are dependent on a plenty of influencing factors with an important relevance of maternal anthropometric characteristics There is some evidence that leptin, adiponectin and ghrelin levels in breast milk may be associated with growth gain of infants and even with increased risk for being overweight during infancy or childhood. We hypothesize that a dysregulation in adipokine homeostasis in early life could promote obesity and metabolic disturbance in later life. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Human milk banking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Hare, Esther Marie; Wood, Angela; Fiske, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    Forms of human milk banking and donation have been present for more than a century worldwide, but, since 1985, the Human Milk Banking Association of North America (HM BANA) has established guidelines to make the use of donor's breast milk safe and the second best form of feeding to maternal breast milk for a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) infant. The Indiana Mother's Human Milk Bank provides an extensive and meticulous process of selecting breast milk donors. The process begins with a phone interview with a potential donor and includes the review of the donor's medical records, blood laboratory screening, medication and dietary intake, as well as consent from the donor's pediatrician. The milk bank follows steps of collecting, storing, and receiving the breast milk in accordance with the guidelines of the HM BANA. Pasteurization is the method used to ensure the proper heating and cooling of breast milk. Despite the rigorous pasteurization method, the donor's breast milk will not lose most of the important beneficial components needed for sick or ill NICU infants. Every batch of pasteurized breast milk will be cultured for any possible contamination and shipped to NICUs after it has been cleared by laboratory testing.

  11. Effect of the Various Steps in the Processing of Human Milk in the Concentrations of IgA, IgM, and Lactoferrin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arroyo, Gerardo; Ortiz Barrientos, Kevin Alexander; Lange, Karla; Nave, Federico; Miss Mas, Gabriela; Lam Aguilar, Pamela; Soto Galindo, Miguel Angel

    2017-09-01

    Human milk immune components are unique and important for the development of the newborn. Milk processing at the Human Milk Banks (HMB), however, causes partial destruction of immune proteins. The objective of this study was to determine the effects that heating during the milk processing procedure at the HMB had on the concentrations of IgA, IgM, and lactoferrin at three critical points in time. Fifty milk samples (150 mL) were collected from voluntary donors at the HMB at the Hospital Nacional Pedro de Bethancourt, located in Antigua Guatemala. Samples from three critical points in time during the milk processing procedure were selected for analysis: freezing/thawing I, freezing/thawing II, and pasteurization. IgA, IgM, and lactoferrin concentrations were determined during each critical point and compared with a baseline concentration. After milk processing, IgA, IgM, and lactoferrin mean concentrations were reduced by 30.0%, 36.0%, and 70.0%, respectively (p milk processing on the immune proteins that were evaluated in this study demonstrated a significant reduction.

  12. High concentration of human lactoferrin in milk of rhLf-transgenic cows relieves signs of bovine experimental Staphylococcus chromogenes intramammary infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simojoki, Heli; Hyvönen, Paula; Orro, Toomas; Pyörälä, Satu

    2010-08-15

    Six transgenic cows producing recombinant human lactoferrin (rhLf) in their milk and five normal cows at the same lactation stage were experimentally infected with Staphylococcus chromogenes to study the effect of a high concentration of lactoferrin in milk. Coagulase-negative staphylococci such as S. chromogenes have become very common as agents causing mild or subclinical mastitis. All transgenic cows became infected but showed no clinical signs, unlike the control cows, which developed mild clinical mastitis. Transgenic cows eliminated bacteria faster from the quarters than did the controls. Local clinical signs were milder, and the inflammatory reaction assessed by NAGase activity in the milk and by the concentration of milk amyloid A was lower in the transgenic cows. The mild response probably reflected the rapid elimination of bacteria. The milk concentration of rhLf remained constant throughout the study period, but the total concentration of bovine lactoferrin in the milk peaked in both groups at 46h post-challenge. Three cows, all in the control group, exhibited systemic acute phase response as increased concentrations of serum amyloid A in the blood circulation. Transgenic cows with a high concentration of human lactoferrin in their milk seemed to be protected from clinical disease and from prolonged inflammatory reaction, but not from experimental intramammary infection induced by S. chromogenes. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Human milk composition and infant growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Kamilla Gehrt; Christensen, Sophie Hilario; Lind, Mads Vendelbo

    2018-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review highlights relevant studies published between 2015 and 2017 on human milk composition and the association with infant growth. RECENT FINDINGS: High-quality studies investigating how human milk composition is related to infant growth are sparse. Recent observational...... studies show that human milk concentrations of protein, fat, and carbohydrate likely have important influence on infant growth and body composition. Furthermore, some observational studies examining human milk oligosaccharides and hormone concentrations suggest functional relevance to infant growth....... For human milk micronutrient concentrations and microbiota content, and other bioactive components in human milk, the association with infant growth is still speculative and needs further investigation. The included studies in this review are all limited in their methodological design and methods but have...

  14. Arsenic, Cadmium, Lead, and Aluminium Concentrations in Human Milk at Early Stages of Lactation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hai-Hsuan Chao

    2014-04-01

    Conclusion: According to our findings, frequent routine sampling of breast milk is worthwhile. Prevention strategies including behavior modification and education on proper nutrition should be provided to women who are at high risk of toxicant exposure. In summary, breastfeeding is still generally encouraged and recommended.

  15. Transfer of estradiol to human milk. [Radioimmunoassay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nilsson, S.; Nygren, K.G.; Johansson, E.D.B.

    1978-11-15

    A radioimmunoassay for the measurement of estradiol in human milk is evaluated. The detection limit was found to be 25 pg of estradiol per milliliter of milk. In milk samples collected from four lactating women during three to four months and from one pregnant and lactating woman, the concentration of estradiol was found to be below the detection limit of the assay. When six lactating women were given vaginal suppositories containing 50 or 100 mg of estradiol, it was possible to estimate the estradiol concentration in milk. A ratio of transfer of estradiol from plasma to milk during physiologic conditions is calculated to be less than 100 : 10.

  16. Transfer of estradiol to human milk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nilsson, S.; Nygren, K.G.; Johansson, E.D.B.

    1978-01-01

    A radioimmunoassay for the measurement of estradiol in human milk is evaluated. The detection limit was found to be 25 pg of estradiol per milliliter of milk. In milk samples collected from four lactating women during three to four months and from one pregnant and lactating woman, the concentration of estradiol was found to be below the detection limit of the assay. When six lactating women were given vaginal suppositories containing 50 or 100 mg of estradiol, it was possible to estimate the estradiol concentration in milk. A ratio of transfer of estradiol from plasma to milk during physiologic conditions is calculated to be less than 100 : 10

  17. Trefoil factors in human milk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Else Marie; Nexø, Ebba; Wendt, A

    2008-01-01

    We measured concentrations of the gastrointestinal protective peptides Trefoil factors in human milk. By the use of in-house ELISA we detected high amounts of TFF3, less TFF1 and virtually no TFF2 in human breast milk obtained from 46 mothers with infants born extremely preterm (24-27 wk gestation......), preterm (28-37 wk gestation), and full term (38-42 wk gestation). Samples were collected during the first, second, third to fourth weeks and more than 4 wks postpartum. Median (range) TFF1 [TFF3] concentrations in human milk were 320 (30-34000) [1500 (150-27,000)] pmol/L in wk 1, 120 (30-720) [310 (50......-7100)] pmol/L in wk 2, 70 (20-670) [120 (20-650)] pmol/L in wks 3 to 4, and 60 (30-2500) [80 (20-540)] pmol/L in > 4 wks after delivery. The lowest concentrations of TFF1 and TFF3 were found later than 2 wks after birth. In conclusion, TFF was present in term and preterm human milk with rapidly declining...

  18. Identification, quantification, and relative concentrations of carotenoids and their metabolites in human milk and serum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khachik, F; Spangler, C J; Smith, J C; Canfield, L M; Steck, A; Pfander, H

    1997-05-15

    Thirty-four carotenoids, including 13 geometrical isomers and eight metabolites, in breast milk and serum of three lactating mothers have been separated, identified, quantified, and compared by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-photodiode array (PDA) detection-mass spectrometry (MS). Among the metabolites were two oxidation products of lycopene and four of lutein/ zeaxanthin. In addition, two metabolites of lutein, formed as a result of dehydration of this dihydroxycarotenoid under acidic conditions similar to those of the stomach, have also been identified in plasma and breast milk. The oxidative metabolites of lycopene with a novel five-membered-ring end group have been identified as epimeric 2,6-cyclolycopene-1,5-diols by comparison of their HPLC-UV/visible-MS profiles with those of fully characterized (1H- and 13C-NMR spectroscopy) synthetic compounds. The HPLC procedures employed also detected vitamin A, two forms of vitamin E (gamma- and alpha-tocopherol), and two non-carotenoid food components, i.e., piperine and caffeine, in serum and breast milk.

  19. Concentration of free amino acids in human milk of women with gestational diabetes mellitus and healthy women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Katharina; Bancher-Todesca, Dagmar; Graf, Thorsten; Garo, Fritz; Roth, Erich; Kautzky-Willer, Alexandra; Worda, Christof

    2013-02-01

    It is generally agreed that breastfeeding has a positive effect on the metabolic situation in diabetic mothers. However, negative long-term effects are described for breastfed offspring of diabetic women. It is unknown if the composition of free amino acids (FAAs) in breastmilk of women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) differs from that in milk of healthy women. We studied the amount of FAAs in breastmilk of women with GDM and women with normal glucose tolerance (NGT). Human milk samples of 68 women (21 GDM and 47 NGT) were analyzed. Contents of FAAs in milk samples, obtained within the first 4 days after delivery (colostrum) and 6 weeks later (mature milk), were analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography. Total amounts of FAAs in colostrum and in mature milk were compared between the groups. The impact of maternal age, body mass index (BMI), gestational age at birth, birth weight, and diagnosis of GDM on the total amount of FAAs was evaluated. Overall, the total amount of FAAs increased significantly from colostrum to mature milk in both groups (pmilk (1,560 μmol/L vs. 1,730 μmol/L and 2,440 μmol/L vs. 2,723 μmol/L, respectively). No significant influence on the total amount of FAAs at both measurements of maternal age, BMI, gestational age at birth, birth weight, and diagnosis of GDM could be observed by regression analyses. The content of FAAs of human milk does not significantly differ between women with GDM and women with NGT.

  20. Relationship between atmospheric pollution in the residential area and concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in human breast milk

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pulkrabová, J.; Stupák, M.; Švarcová, A.; Rössner ml., Pavel; Rössnerová, Andrea; Ambrož, Antonín; Šrám, Radim; Hajslová, J.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 562, aug (2016), s. 640-647 ISSN 0048-9697 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA13-13458S Institutional support: RVO:68378041 Keywords : PAHs * human milk * GC-MS/MS * infants Subject RIV: DN - Health Impact of the Environment Quality Impact factor: 4.900, year: 2016

  1. Detecting Candida albicans in human milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrill, Jimi Francis; Pappagianis, Demosthenes; Heinig, M Jane; Lönnerdal, Bo; Dewey, Kathryn G

    2003-01-01

    Procedures for diagnosis of mammary candidosis, including laboratory confirmation, are not well defined. Lactoferrin present in human milk can inhibit growth of Candida albicans, thereby limiting the ability to detect yeast infections. The inhibitory effect of various lactoferrin concentrations on the growth of C. albicans in whole human milk was studied. The addition of iron to the milk led to a two- to threefold increase in cell counts when milk contained 3.0 mg of lactoferrin/ml and markedly reduced the likelihood of false-negative culture results. This method may provide the necessary objective support needed for diagnosis of mammary candidosis.

  2. Cow's milk proteins in human milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coscia, A; Orrù, S; Di Nicola, P; Giuliani, F; Rovelli, I; Peila, C; Martano, C; Chiale, F; Bertino, E

    2012-01-01

    Cow's milk proteins (CMPs) are among the best characterized food allergens. Cow's milk contains more than twenty five different proteins, but only whey proteins alpha-lactalbumin, beta-lactoglobulin, bovine serum albumin (BSA), and lactoferrin, as well as the four caseins, have been identified as allergens. Aim of this study was to investigate by proteomics techniques cow's milk allergens in human colostrum of term and preterm newborns' mothers, not previously detected, in order to understand if such allergens could be cause of sensitization during lactation. Term colostrum samples from 62 healthy mothers and preterm colostrum samples from 11 healthy mothers were collected for this purpose. The most relevant finding was the detection of the intact bovine alpha-S1-casein in both term and preterm colostrum. Using this method, which allows direct proteins identification, beta-lactoglobulin was not detected in any of colostrum samples. According to our results bovine alpha 1 casein that is considered a major cow's milk allergen is readily secreted in human milk: further investigations are needed in order to clarify if alpha-1-casein has a major role in sensitization or tolerance to cow's milk of exclusively breastfed predisposed infants.

  3. Human milk donation is an alternative to human milk bank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Ho-Torng; Fong, Tze-Vun; Hassan, Nurulhuda Mat; Wong, Hoi-Ling; Rai, Jasminder Kaur; Khalid, Zorina

    2012-04-01

    Human milk bank is a source of human milk supply in many neonatal intensive care units. However, there are some hospitals without this facility because of financial or religious impediments, such as the Muslim community. We introduced human milk donation as an alternative to human milk banking based on Islamic principles. The suitable donor is a healthy rooming-in mother whose expressed breastmilk is in excess of her baby's demand. The milk is used after 72 hours of freezing at -20°C. The donor must fulfill the criteria for selection of donors and be nonreactive to human immunodeficiency virus and syphilis. Once the recipient's family and the donor state their desire for the human milk donation, a meeting with both parties is made. Unpasteurized frozen-thawed donor's milk will be provided to the recipient after written consents are obtained from both parties. This study was carried out in the Duchess of Kent Hospital (Sandakan, Sabah, Malaysia) between January 2009 and December 2010. A total of 48 babies received donated breastmilk. Forty-two infants were from the special care nursery, and the remaining six were from the pediatric ward. Eighty-eight percent of the donors and 77% of the recipients were Muslims. Sixty percent of the infants who received donated human milk were premature. Two infants died because of the underlying nature of their disease. Human milk donation is an option for hospitals without a human milk bank or in the Muslim community.

  4. Urea concentration in sheep’s milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasmina Havranek

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Determining urea concentration in milk is a useful indicator for controlling supply of proteins to organisms, as well as the relationship of energy and protein in the food, thus it is finding more and more ways of practical use. The concentration of urea in milk, along with the feeding process, is influenced by a number of other factors such as: breed, stage and sequence of lactation, body mass, daily production and chemical structure of milk, number of somatic cells, season, milking.The goal of the research was to establish the influence of the breed (Island of Krk, East Frisian, lactation stage (beginning, middle and the end and the herd (3 to the concentration of urea in milk during lactation.For each breed there has been established daily quantity of milk, protein share and the concentration of urea in milk.Statistical analysis of data was conducted by using General Linear Models procedure, SAS program system (1999.The breed of sheep considerably (P<0.001 influenced daily quantity of milk, protein share and the concentration of urea in the milk.East Frisian sheep produced on average almost double the daily quantities of milk (1070 mL compared to the Krk sheep (588 mL.Protein share and the urea concentration in Krk sheep milk were higher (5.99 % and 35.97 mg/100 mL then in the milk of East Frisian sheep (5.12 % and 33.31 mg/100 mL.For both breeds the significant influence of lactation stage to the daily milk quantity has been established (0.001, that is also for the urea concentration in the milk of Krk sheep (0.001, as well as protein share in the milk of East Frisian sheep (0.001.Herd influence significantly affected daily milk quantities (0.001 and concentration of urea in the milk (0.05.The defining of the urea concentration in sheep milk should be occasionally carried out in the Republic of Croatia to establish the standard physiological values typical for the particular sheep breed.

  5. Effect of human milk and colostrum on Entamoeba histolytica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akisu, Ciler; Aksoy, Umit; Cetin, Hasan; Ustun, Sebnem; Akisu, Mete

    2004-03-01

    Many defense factors of the mother's colostrum or milk protect infants from intestinal, respiratory and systemic infections. In the present study, we investigated the effect of colostrum and mature human milk on E. histolytica parasites in vitro. Samples of human milk were collected from 5 healthy lactating mothers. The medium with human milk at concentrations of 2%, 5% and 10% was obtained. The lethal effect of E. histolytica on the medium supplemented with different concentrations of both colostrum and mature human milk was significant during the first 30 min. We also detected that the results of colostrum and mature human milk were similar. No statistically significant differences were found between same concentrations of colostrum and mature human milk at the same times. Colostrum and mature human milk have significant lethal effect on E. histolytica and protect against its infection in breast fed children.

  6. Concentrate composition for automatic milking systems - effect on milking frequency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Jørgen; Weisbjerg, Martin Riis; Hvelplund, Torben

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the potential of affecting milking frequency in an Automatic Milking System (AMS) by changing ingredient composition of the concentrate fed in the AMS. In six experiments, six experimental concentrates were tested against a Standard concentrate all...... supplied in the amounts of 5 kg/cow/day. Fifteen cows were fed the experimental concentrate and another 15 cows the Standard concentrate for 14 days and then for the next 14 days the cows were fed the opposite diets to be their own control. The change from one mixture to the next was done over only one day...

  7. Qualitative and Quantitative Analyses of Glycogen in Human Milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsui-Yatsuhashi, Hiroko; Furuyashiki, Takashi; Takata, Hiroki; Ishida, Miyuki; Takumi, Hiroko; Kakutani, Ryo; Kamasaka, Hiroshi; Nagao, Saeko; Hirose, Junko; Kuriki, Takashi

    2017-02-22

    Identification as well as a detailed analysis of glycogen in human milk has not been shown yet. The present study confirmed that glycogen is contained in human milk by qualitative and quantitative analyses. High-performance anion exchange chromatography (HPAEC) and high-performance size exclusion chromatography with a multiangle laser light scattering detector (HPSEC-MALLS) were used for qualitative analysis of glycogen in human milk. Quantitative analysis was carried out by using samples obtained from the individual milks. The result revealed that the concentration of human milk glycogen varied depending on the mother's condition-such as the period postpartum and inflammation. The amounts of glycogen in human milk collected at 0 and 1-2 months postpartum were higher than in milk collected at 3-14 months postpartum. In the milk from mothers with severe mastitis, the concentration of glycogen was about 40 times higher than that in normal milk.

  8. Vitamin D metabolites in human milk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weisman, Y.; Bawnik, J.C.; Eisenberg, Z.; Spirer, Z.

    1982-01-01

    The concentrations of unconjugated 25-OHD, 24, 25(OH)2D, and 1,25(OH)2D were measured in human milk by competitive protein-binding radioassays following successive preparative Sephadex LH-20 chromatography and HPLC. The mean (+/- SE) concentration of 25-OHD was 0.37 +/- 0.03 ng/ml, of 24,25(OH)2D was 24.8 +/- 1.9 pg/ml, and of 1,25(OH)2D was 2.2 +/-0.1 pg/ml. The concentration of 25-OHD3 in milk as determined by HPLC and UV detection at 254 nm was 0.27 +/- 0.08 ng/ml. The milk concentrations of vitamin D metabolites did not correlate with the maternal serum 25-OHD levels. The total amounts of unconjugated vitamin D metabolites correspond to the known low bioassayable vitamin D antirachitic activity in human milk

  9. Composition and Variation of Macronutrients, Immune Proteins, and Human Milk Oligosaccharides in Human Milk From Nonprofit and Commercial Milk Banks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meredith-Dennis, Laura; Xu, Gege; Goonatilleke, Elisha; Lebrilla, Carlito B; Underwood, Mark A; Smilowitz, Jennifer T

    2018-02-01

    When human milk is unavailable, banked milk is recommended for feeding premature infants. Milk banks use processes to eliminate pathogens; however, variability among methods exists. Research aim: The aim of this study was to compare the macronutrient (protein, carbohydrate, fat, energy), immune-protective protein, and human milk oligosaccharide (HMO) content of human milk from three independent milk banks that use pasteurization (Holder vs. vat techniques) or retort sterilization. Randomly acquired human milk samples from three different milk banks ( n = 3 from each bank) were analyzed for macronutrient concentrations using a Fourier transform mid-infrared spectroscopy human milk analyzer. The concentrations of IgA, IgM, IgG, lactoferrin, lysozyme, α-lactalbumin, α antitrypsin, casein, and HMO were analyzed by mass spectrometry. The concentrations of protein and fat were significantly ( p < .05) less in the retort sterilized compared with the Holder and vat pasteurized samples, respectively. The concentrations of all immune-modulating proteins were significantly ( p < .05) less in the retort sterilized samples compared with vat and/or Holder pasteurized samples. The total HMO concentration and HMOs containing fucose, sialic acid, and nonfucosylated neutral sugars were significantly ( p < .05) less in retort sterilized compared with Holder pasteurized samples. Random milk samples that had undergone retort sterilization had significantly less immune-protective proteins and total and specific HMOs compared with samples that had undergone Holder and vat pasteurization. These data suggest that further analysis of the effect of retort sterilization on human milk components is needed prior to widespread adoption of this process.

  10. Measurement of some radiologically and nutritionally important trace elements in human milk and commercially available milk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nair, Suma; Sathyapriya, R.S.; Nair, M.G.; Ravi, Prabhat; Bhati, Sharda

    2011-01-01

    Milk is considered to be a complete food and an almost indispensable part of the diets of infants and children. In this paper we present the concentration of some radiologically and nutritionally important trace elements such as Th, Cs, Co, Rb, Fe, Ca and Zn present in human milk and commercially available milk. The trace elements in human and other milk samples were determined using instrumental neutron activation analysis technique. The results show that higher concentrations of Th, Cs, Ca and Rb were found in ordinary milk samples in comparison with the human milk samples. Whereas, a higher concentrations of Fe and Co were observed in human milk samples. These data will be useful for the nutritional and biokinetic studies of these elements in infants and children of different age groups. (author)

  11. Concentrations of 17beta-estradiol in Holstein whole milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pape-Zambito, D A; Magliaro, A L; Kensinger, R S

    2007-07-01

    Some individuals have expressed concern about estrogens in food because of their potential to promote growth of estrogen-sensitive human cancer cells. Researchers have reported concentrations of estrogen in milk but few whole milk samples have been analyzed. Because estrogen associates with the fat phase of milk, the analysis of whole milk is an important consideration. The objectives of this study, therefore, were to quantify 17beta-estradiol (E2) in whole milk from dairy cows and to determine whether E2 concentrations in milk from cows in the second half of pregnancy were greater than that in milk from cows in the first half of pregnancy or in nonpregnant cows. Milk samples and weights were collected during a single morning milking from 206 Holstein cows. Triplicate samples were collected and 2 samples were analyzed for fat, protein, lactose, and somatic cell counts (SCC); 1 sample was homogenized and analyzed for E2. The homogenized whole milk (3 mL) was extracted twice with ethyl acetate and once with methanol. The extract was reconstituted in benzene:methanol (9:1, vol/vol) and run over a Sephadex LH-20 column to separate E2 from cholesterol and estrone before quantification using radioimmunoassay. Cows were classified as not pregnant (NP, n = 138), early pregnant (EP, 1 to 140 d pregnant, n = 47), or midpregnant (MP, 141 to 210 d pregnant, n = 21) at the time of milk sampling based on herd health records. Mean E2 concentration in whole milk was 1.4 +/- 0.2 pg/mL and ranged from nondetectable to 22.9 pg/mL. Milk E2 concentrations averaged 1.3, 0.9, and 3.0 pg/mL for NP, EP, and MP cows, respectively. Milk E2 concentrations for MP cows were greater and differed from those of NP and EP cows. Milk composition was normal for a Holstein herd in that log SCC values and percentages of fat, protein, and lactose averaged 4.9, 3.5, 3.1, and 4.8, respectively. Estradiol concentration was significantly correlated (r = 0.20) with percentage fat in milk. Mean milk yield was

  12. Enzymes in Human Milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dallas, David C; German, J Bruce

    2017-01-01

    Milk proteins are a complex and diverse source of biological activities. Beyond their function, intact milk proteins also act as carriers of encrypted functional sequences that, when released as peptides, exert biological functions, including antimicrobial and immunomodulatory activity, which could contribute to the infant's competitive success. Research has now revealed that the release of these functional peptides begins within the mammary gland itself. A complex array of proteases produced in mother's milk has been shown to be active in the milk, releasing these peptides. Moreover, our recent research demonstrates that these milk proteases continue to digest milk proteins within the infant's stomach, possibly even to a larger extent than the infant's own proteases. As the neonate has relatively low digestive capacity, the activity of milk proteases in the infant may provide important assistance to digesting milk proteins. The coordinated release of these encrypted sequences is accomplished by selective proteolytic action provided by an array of native milk proteases and infant-produced enzymes. The task for scientists is now to discover the selective advantages of this protein-protease-based peptide release system. © 2017 Nestec Ltd., Vevey/S. Karger AG, Basel.

  13. Storage of Human Breast Milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gamze Can

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Storage of human breast milk by freezing or refrigeration of milk has been recommended especially at some social circumstances of most mothers who are regularly separated from their infants because of work. The greatest fear that has hindered the prospects of in - vitro storage of breast milk for any considerable period of time is the possibility of bacterial contamination and growth of infectious pathogens in the stored milk, there by rendering them unsafe for human consumption. The storage container can influence the cell content of milk, as the cells adhere to the walls of a glass container but not to polyethylene or polypropylene containers. Bacteriological examination of refrigerated milks has proven their safety for human consumption for even up to 72 h. For a storage over longer periods up to 1 month, freezing at - 20 0C could be recommended, but the most preferred method, especially for longer storage would be fresh freezing at - 70 0C, if affordable or available. The nutrient value of human milk is essentially unchanged, but the immunological properties are reduced by various storage techniques. Boiling and microwave radiation have not been recommended. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2007; 6(5.000: 375-379

  14. Proper Handling and Storage of Human Milk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... maintain the safety and quality of expressed breast milk for the health of the baby. These are general guidelines for storing human milk at different temperatures. Various factors (milk volume, room ...

  15. Membrane distillation for milk concentration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moejes, S.N.; Romero Guzman, Maria; Hanemaaijer, J.H.; Barrera, K.H.; Feenstra, L.; Boxtel, van A.J.B.

    2015-01-01

    Membrane distillation is an emerging technology to concentrate liquid products while producing high quality water as permeate. Application for desalination has been studied extensively the past years, but membrane distillation has also potential to produce concentrated food products like

  16. Concentração de vitamina A no leite humano maduro Vitamin A concentration in mature human milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gisele Souza

    2012-12-01

    ência devem ser estendidas a todas as gestantes e puérperas, independentemente das condições sociodemográficas e do grau de conhecimento de nutrição, visando melhorar a saúde do binômio mãe/filho.OBJECTIVE: To quantify vitamin A levels in mature milk of 196 nursing women who were treated at the Maternity School of Rio de Janeiro and to evaluate its correlation with sociodemographic variables and degree of nutrition knowledge. METHODS: To quantify retinol concentrations, 10 mL of mature milk were collected by manual expression of one breast, 2 hours after the last feed, in the morning period. Values below 1.05 µmol/L and 2.3 µmol/L were considered inadequate to meet satisfactory intake and to constitute vitamin A liver reserve, respectively. The following variables were also assessed: sex, age, familiar income, maternal education, basic sanitation conditions, number of people in the household, maternal age, prenatal care, and degree of nutrition knowledge. RESULTS: Among the 196 lactating mothers analyzed, the average vitamin A concentration observed in mature milk was 1.76±0.85 µmol/L and prevalence of vitamin A deficiency was observed in 20.5% mothers. There was no significant difference between vitamin A levels in maternal milk and the variables socioeconomic status and nutrition knowledge. Only 38.9% of lactating women presented enough vitamin A concentrations in milk for the infants' liver reserves (2.3 µmol/L. CONCLUSIONS: These findings reveal high prevalence of inadequate vitamin A nutritional status of mothers and infants, consistent with the national prevalence reported in women of childbearing age and Brazilian children, and that the intervention measures to fight this shortage should be extended to all pregnant and postpartum women, regardless of sociodemographic conditions and degree of nutrition knowledge, in order to improve the health of mother and child.

  17. Trace elements in human milk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parr, R M [International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria). Div. of Life Sciences

    1983-06-01

    Trace elements are those elements having a concentration lower than 10 ppm in body fluids or tissues. A total of 24 elements, both trace and minor elements, present in human milk have been analysed in this study, employing neutron activation analysis and absorption spectroscopy. The analyses have been carried out collaboratively by several different laboratories and the Agency which has also served as a coordinating centre. Although the evaluation of the results, altogether 8500 separate values, is still in progress, enough evidence is already available, however, to show some very interesting differences between different study areas and, in some cases, between different socio-economic groups within a single country. The main value of these data will probably be to throw new light on the nutritional requirements of young babies for trace elements.

  18. Human milk benefits and breastfeeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fani Anatolitou

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Human milk is uniquely superior for infant feeding and represents the perfect example of individualization in Pediatrics. Human milk is not a uniform body fluid but a secretion of the mammary gland of changing composition. Foremilk differs from hindmilk, and colostrum is strikingly different from transitional and mature milk. Milk changes with time of day and during the course of lactation. Extensive research has demonstrated health, nutritional, immunologic, developmental, psychological, social, economic and environmental benefits of human milk. Breastfeeding results in improved infant and maternal health outcomes in both the industrialized and developing world. Some specific topics will be discussed such as the preventive effect of human milk on infections, overweight, obesity and diabetes, malignant disease, neurodevelopmental outcomes, reduction of necrotizing enterocolitis. Important health benefits of breastfeeding and lactation are also described for mothers. Finally, contraindications to breastfeeding and supplementation of breastfed infants are presented. Interventions to promote breastfeeding are relatively simple and inexpensive. Infant feeding should not be regarded as a lifestyle choice but rather as a basic health issue.

  19. Comprehensive and quantitative profiling of lipid species in human milk, cow milk and a phospholipid-enriched milk formula by GC and MS/MSALL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sokol, Olena; Ulven, Trond; Færgeman, Nils J.

    2015-01-01

    a comparative lipid analysis of human milk, cow milk, and Lacprodan® PL-20, a phospholipid-enriched milk protein concentrate for infant formula. The GC analysis showed that human milk and Lacprodan have a similar FA profile with higher levels of unsaturated FAs as compared to cow milk. In-depth lipidomic...... analysis by MS/MSALL revealed that each type of milk sample comprised distinct composition of molecular lipid species. Lipid class composition showed that the human and cow milk contain a higher proportion of triacylglycerols (TAGs) as compared to Lacprodan. Notably, the MS/MSALL analysis demonstrated...... that the similar FA profile of human milk and Lacprodan determined by GC analysis is attributed to the composition of individual TAG species in human milk and glycerophospholipid species in Lacprodan. Moreover, the analysis of TAG molecules in Lacprodan and cow milk showed a high proportion of short-chain FAs...

  20. A longitudinal study of human milk composition in the second year postpartum: implications for human milk banking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrin, Maryanne T; Fogleman, April D; Newburg, David S; Allen, Jonathan C

    2017-01-01

    While the composition of human milk has been studied extensively in the first year of lactation, there is a paucity of data regarding human milk composition beyond one year postpartum. Policies vary at milk banks around the world regarding how long lactating women are eligible to donate their milk. The primary purpose of this study is to describe longitudinal changes in human milk composition in the second year postpartum to support the development of evidence based guidelines regarding how long lactating women can donate human milk to a milk bank. Nineteen lactating women in North Carolina provided monthly milk samples from 11 months to 17 months postpartum (N = 131), and two non-profit milk banks provided (N = 33) pooled, unpasteurized milk samples from 51 approved donors less than one year postpartum. There was a significant increase (P < 0.05) in the concentration of total protein, lactoferrin, lysozyme, Immunoglobulin A, oligosaccharides and sodium in longitudinal samples of mother's milk between 11 and 17 months postpartum, while zinc and calcium concentrations declined, and no changes were observed in lactose, fat, iron and potassium. Human milk in the second year postpartum contained significantly higher concentrations of total protein, lactoferrin, lysozyme and Immunoglobulin A, than milk bank samples, and significantly lower concentrations of zinc, calcium, iron and oligosaccharides. Accepting milk bank donations beyond one year postpartum is a potential strategy for increasing the supply of donor milk, but may require mineral fortification. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Probiotic Yoghurts From Ultrafiltered Concentrated Milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kozludzhova Siyka

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, yoghurts from ultrafiltered concentrated whole milk with a volume reduction ratio 0, 2 and 3 with three different probiotic yoghurt starters were obtained. Their physiological, microbiological and rheological properties were examined. The concentrated probiotic yoghurts had high concentration of viable cells of the probiotic strain Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus (over 1010cfu/cm3. For the preparation of concentrated probiotic yoghurts the most appropriate volume reduction ratio was 2. The probiotic yoghurts with starters MZ2 and 1CM had the best structure. The concentrated probiotic yoghurts with all starters are functional foods.

  2. Milk of human kindness?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arbuthnott, Felicity; Webb, Tony.

    1988-01-01

    Instances where food contaminated above EEC (European Economic Community) limits has been exported to developing countries are quoted. The contamination is mainly from the Chernobyl accident and the foods concerned are dairy products, powdered milk, whey powder, flour and meat, mostly from Europe. In some cases the food has been sent as part of an aid programme. Evidence of deliberate mixing of food (eg milk powder) with uncontaminated stock to reduce the contamination levels has been found. Pressure has sometimes been applied to the developing countries to accept the food but much has been sent back to the country of origin. Suggestions that the developing countries have analysed levels incorrectly are not compatible with assertions that developing countries are competent to administer and control nuclear energy programmes and other nuclear technology. (U.K.)

  3. Impact of pasteurization on the antibacterial properties of human milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Gysel, Marjan; Cossey, Veerle; Fieuws, Steffen; Schuermans, Annette

    2012-08-01

    Growing evidence favours the use of human milk for the feeding of preterm newborns based on its many beneficial effects. Despite the many benefits, human milk has been associated as a possible vehicle of transmission for a number of infections. Although pasteurization of human milk can diminish the risk of neonatal infection, it also significantly reduces the concentrations of immunological components in human milk due to thermal damage. In order to evaluate the impact of pasteurization on the antibacterial properties of human milk, we aimed to compare the capacity of raw and pasteurized human milk to inhibit bacterial proliferation. Therefore, a single milk sample was collected from ten healthy lactating mothers. Each sample was divided into two aliquots; one aliquot was pasteurized, while the other was kept raw. Both aliquots were inoculated either with Escherichia coli or Staphylococcus aureus and incubated at 37 °C during 8 h. Viable colony counts from the inoculated samples were performed at regular time points to compare the bacterial growth in both forms of breast milk. Relative to the tryptic soy broth control sample, both raw and pasteurized milk samples exhibited an inhibitory effect on the growth of E. coli and S. aureus. Compared with the raw portion, growth inhibition was significantly lower in the pasteurized milk at every time point beyond T0 (after 2, 4 and 8 h of incubation) (p = 0.0003 for E. coli and p pasteurization adversely affects the antibacterial properties of human milk.

  4. Allergenicity of milk of different animal species in relation to human milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Pastuszka

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Protein content in cow milk (with over 20 proteins, and peptides may also occur as a result of enzymatic hydrolysis ranges from 2.5% to 4.2% and is about 1.5-2 times higher than in human milk. Its most important allergens are considered to be β-lactoglobulin (absent in human milk and αs1-casein. The most similar in composition to human milk is horse and donkey milk. It contains considerably more whey proteins (35-50% than cow milk (about 20%, and the concentration of the most allergenic casein fraction αs1 is 1.5-2.5 g/l. In comparison, the content of αs1-casein in cow milk is about 10 g/l. β-lactoglobulin present in donkey milk is a monomer, while in milk of ruminants it is a dimer. Like human milk, it contains a substantial amount of lactose (about 7%, which determines its flavour and facilitates calcium absorption. The high lysozyme content (about 1 g/l gives it antibacterial properties (compared to trace amounts in ruminants. Camel milk is also more digestible and induces fewer allergic reactions, because it lacks β-lactoglobulin, and its β-casein has a different structure. It also contains (compared to cow milk more antibacterial substances such as lysozyme, lactoferrin and immunoglobulins, and furthermore the number of immunoglobulins is compatible with human ones. Goat milk components have a higher degree of assimilability as compared to cow milk. Its main protein is β-casein, with total protein content depending on the αs1-casein genetic variant. Goats with the ‘0’ variant do not synthesize this allergenic protein. Clinical and immunochemical studies indicate, however, that it cannot be a substitute for cow milk without the risk of an anaphylactic reaction.

  5. Analyzing B-vitamins in Human Milk: Methodological Approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampel, Daniela; Allen, Lindsay H

    2016-01-01

    According to the World Health Organization (WHO), infants should be exclusively breastfed for the first six months of life. However, there is insufficient information about the concentration of nutrients in human milk. For some nutrients, including B-vitamins, maternal intake affects their concentration in human milk but the extent to which inadequate maternal diets affect milk B-vitamin content is poorly documented. Little is known about infant requirements for B-vitamins; recommendations are generally set as Adequate Intakes (AI) calculated on the basis of the mean volume of milk (0.78 L/day) consumed by infants exclusively fed with human milk from well-nourished mothers during the first six months, and the concentration of each vitamin in milk based on reported values. Methods used for analyzing B-vitamins, commonly microbiological, radioisotope dilution or more recently chromatographic, coupled with UV, fluorometric and MS detection, have rarely been validated for the complex human milk matrix. Thus the validity, accuracy, and sensitivity of analytical methods is important for understanding infant requirements for these nutrients, the maternal intakes needed to support adequate concentrations in breast milk. This review summarizes current knowledge on methods used for analyzing the B-vitamins thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, vitamin B-6 and pantothenic acid, vitamin B-12, folate, biotin, and choline in human milk, their chemical and physical properties, the different forms and changes in concentration during lactation, and the effects of deficiency on the infant.

  6. Transfer of radionuclides from the environment to human milk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eaman, M.

    1986-06-01

    The author reviews literature from an on-line bibliographic search and describes what is known about radionuclide and elemental transfer from the environment to human milk. Included in the review are factors affecting elemental transfer, element concentrations observed in human milk, as well as sampling and analytical methods used. Recommendations are given for the development of a field survey. 59 refs

  7. Human periodontal ligament cell viability in milk and milk substitutes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Robert M; Liewehr, Frederick R; West, Leslie A; Patton, William R; McPherson, James C; Runner, Royce R

    2003-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the efficacy of several milk substitutes compared to whole milk in maintaining the viability of human periodontal ligament (PDL) cells on avulsed teeth. PDL cells were obtained from freshly extracted, healthy third molars and cultured in Eagle's minimal essential media (EMEM). The cells were plated onto 24-well culture plates and allowed to attach for 24 h. EMEM was replaced with refrigerated whole milk (positive control), reconstituted powdered milk, evaporated milk, or one of two baby formulas (Similac or Enfamil). Tap water served as the negative control. Tissue culture plates were incubated with the experimental media at 37 degrees C for 1, 2, 4, or 8 h. Cell viability was determined by a cell proliferation assay (CellTiter 96 AQ Assay), with absorbance read at 450 nM. A two-way ANOVA (p effect on PDL cell viability between any of the materials and whole milk. At 2 h, Enfamil and Similac performed significantly better than whole milk, whereas evaporated milk performed worse. At 4 h, Enfamil performed better than whole milk, whereas all other milk substitutes performed worse. At 8 h, all substitutes performed worse than whole milk. These results suggest that Enfamil, which is supplied in powder form that does not require special storage and has a shelf life of 18 months, is a more effective storage medium for avulsed teeth than pasteurized milk for at least 4 h.

  8. New perspectives in human milk banks

    OpenAIRE

    Enrico Bertino; Claudia Rossi; Paola Di Nicola; Chiara Peila; Elena Maggiora; Liliana Vagliano; Alessandra Coscia

    2015-01-01

    Mother’s own milk (MOM) is the first choice in preterm infant feeding, and when it is not available or is insufficient, donor human milk (DHM) is recommended. It has been shown that feeding preterm infants with human milk is less related to major morbidities, enhances feeding tolerance and prevents metabolic syndrome in childhood. As The Committee on Nutrition of the European Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition (ESPGHAN) states, specific guidelines for Human Milk...

  9. Detection of cow's milk proteins and minor components in human milk using proteomics techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coscia, A; Orrù, S; Di Nicola, P; Giuliani, F; Varalda, A; Peila, C; Fabris, C; Conti, A; Bertino, E

    2012-10-01

    Cow's milk proteins (CMPs) are the best characterized food allergens. The aim of this study was to investigate cow's milk allergens in human colostrum of term and preterm newborns' mothers, and other minor protein components by proteomics techniques, more sensitive than other techniques used in the past. Sixty-two term and 11 preterm colostrum samples were collected, subjected to a treatment able to increase the concentration of the most diluted proteins and simultaneously to reduce the concentration of the proteins present at high concentration (Proteominer Treatment), and subsequently subjected to the steps of proteomic techniques. The most relevant finding in this study was the detection of the intact bovine alpha-S1-casein in human colostrum, then bovine alpha-1-casein could be considered the cow's milk allergen that is readily secreted in human milk and could be a cause of sensitization to cow's milk in exclusively breastfed predisposed infants. Another interesting result was the detection, at very low concentrations, of proteins previously not described in human milk (galectin-7, the different isoforms of the 14-3-3 protein and the serum amyloid P-component), probably involved in the regulation of the normal cell growth, in the pro-apoptotic function and in the regulation of tissue homeostasis. Further investigations are needed to understand if these families of proteins have specific biological activity in human milk.

  10. Human Milk MicroRNA and Total RNA Differ Depending on Milk Fractionation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsaweed, Mohammed; Hepworth, Anna R; Lefèvre, Christophe; Hartmann, Peter E; Geddes, Donna T; Hassiotou, Foteini

    2015-10-01

    MicroRNA have been recently discovered in human milk signifying potentially important functions for both the lactating breast and the infant. Whilst human milk microRNA have started to be explored, little data exist on the evaluation of sample processing, and analysis to ensure that a full spectrum of microRNA can be obtained. Human milk comprises three main fractions: cells, skim milk, and lipids. Typically, the skim milk fraction has been measured in isolation despite evidence that the lipid fraction may contain more microRNA. This study aimed to standardize isolation of microRNA and total RNA from all three fractions of human milk to determine the most appropriate sampling and analysis procedure for future studies. Three different methods from eight commercially available kits were tested for their efficacy in extracting total RNA and microRNA from the lipid, skim, and cell fractions of human milk. Each fraction yielded different concentrations of RNA and microRNA, with the highest quantities found in the cell and lipid fractions, and the lowest in skim milk. The column-based phenol-free method was the most efficient extraction method for all three milk fractions. Two microRNAs were expressed and validated in the three milk fractions by qPCR using the three recommended extraction kits for each fraction. High expression levels were identified in the skim and lipid milk factions for these microRNAs. These results suggest that careful consideration of both the human milk sample preparation and extraction protocols should be made prior to embarking upon research in this area. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Cellular Biochemistry Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Monitoring of PBDEs concentration in umbilical cord blood and breast milk from Korean population and estimating the effects of various parameters on accumulation in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Un-Jung; Lee, In-Seok; Kim, Hyung Sik; Oh, Jeong-Eun

    2011-10-01

    In this study, we investigated concentration, congener distribution pattern, and effects of potential environmental factors that affect PBDE accumulation. We also estimated correlation between PBDE concentration and health status or thyroid function by analyzing 90 cord blood and 21 breast milk samples obtained from Korean population. Seven from tri- to hepta-BDEs were analyzed by solid phase extraction-high-resolution gas chromatography/high-resolution mass spectrometry (SPE-HRGC/HRMS). The total concentration of 7 PBDEs in cord blood was 2.786-94.64 ng g(-1) lipid and that in breast milk was 1.076-8.664 ng g(-1) lipid. Tetra-BDE (#47) was the predominant type of PBDE and was present at concentrations of over 40% in both sample types. A weak correlation was observed between the concentration of BDE28 and 153 and thyroid hormone concentration only in the breast milk samples. In children, a weak negative correlation was observed between free thyroxine (FT4) concentration and BDE28 concentration (0.302, pmilk during pregnancy and dietary habits such as green tea drinking (0.541, p=0.025) and Trichiuridae intake (0.565, p=0.015). Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Trace elements and protein in human milk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abusamra, Y.I.H.

    1995-01-01

    The trace elements Zn, Fe, Cu, Mn, Ni and Pb and some related major elements which are Ca, Cl K and total protein contents of human samples from ninety mothers were examined in this study. Samples were collected from Khartoum, Khartoum North and Omdurman, from the second day of delivery up to the third month where the milk reaches a relatively stable levels. These samples representing different stages of lactation which are colostrum ( 1-3 days ), tranitional ( up to 14 days ) and mature milk. The principle aim of this study is to measure the trace elements and protein contents in relation to stage of lactation and to compare with the literature. Atomic absorption spectroscopy and X-ray fluorescence were used to measure trace elements in the samples. The methods were found to be quite reliable as proved by the analysis of the standard reference material HM-1. Whereas neutron activation analysis was used for measurements of total protein. Colostrum was found to have the highest amounts of trace elements and protein. Fe mean concentration was 273 g/dm 3 at colostrum stage and it decreased to 146 g/dm 3 in mature milk ( 49% ). Zn decreased from 6000 g/dm 3 in colostrum to 1300 g/dm 3 in mature stage ( 78% ). Mn was 12g/dm 3 in colostrum, and it decreased to 2.9 g/dm 3 in mature milk ( 75% ). Cu decreased from 370 g/dm 3 to 117 g/dm 3 ( 68% ). Ni decreased from 24 g/dm 3 to 8.8 g/dm 3 ( 63% ) and Pb from 12 g/dm 3 to 2.6 g/dm 3 ( 76% ). Total protein was 37.3% of the dry milk in colostrum and it was 12.2% in mature milk. (author). 75 refs., 25 tabs., 30 figs

  13. Human milk metagenome: a functional capacity analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Human milk contains a diverse population of bacteria that likely influences colonization of the infant gastrointestinal tract. Recent studies, however, have been limited to characterization of this microbial community by 16S rRNA analysis. In the present study, a metagenomic approach using Illumina sequencing of a pooled milk sample (ten donors) was employed to determine the genera of bacteria and the types of bacterial open reading frames in human milk that may influence bacterial establishment and stability in this primal food matrix. The human milk metagenome was also compared to that of breast-fed and formula-fed infants’ feces (n = 5, each) and mothers’ feces (n = 3) at the phylum level and at a functional level using open reading frame abundance. Additionally, immune-modulatory bacterial-DNA motifs were also searched for within human milk. Results The bacterial community in human milk contained over 360 prokaryotic genera, with sequences aligning predominantly to the phyla of Proteobacteria (65%) and Firmicutes (34%), and the genera of Pseudomonas (61.1%), Staphylococcus (33.4%) and Streptococcus (0.5%). From assembled human milk-derived contigs, 30,128 open reading frames were annotated and assigned to functional categories. When compared to the metagenome of infants’ and mothers’ feces, the human milk metagenome was less diverse at the phylum level, and contained more open reading frames associated with nitrogen metabolism, membrane transport and stress response (P milk metagenome also contained a similar occurrence of immune-modulatory DNA motifs to that of infants’ and mothers’ fecal metagenomes. Conclusions Our results further expand the complexity of the human milk metagenome and enforce the benefits of human milk ingestion on the microbial colonization of the infant gut and immunity. Discovery of immune-modulatory motifs in the metagenome of human milk indicates more exhaustive analyses of the functionality of the human

  14. Human Milk Hyaluronan Enhances Innate Defense of the Intestinal Epithelium*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, David R.; Rho, Hyunjin K.; Kessler, Sean P.; Amin, Ripal; Homer, Craig R.; McDonald, Christine; Cowman, Mary K.; de la Motte, Carol A.

    2013-01-01

    Breast-feeding is associated with enhanced protection from gastrointestinal disease in infants, mediated in part by an array of bioactive glycan components in milk that act through molecular mechanisms to inhibit enteric pathogen infection. Human milk contains hyaluronan (HA), a glycosaminoglycan polymer found in virtually all mammalian tissues. We have shown that synthetic HA of a specific size range promotes expression of antimicrobial peptides in intestinal epithelium. We hypothesize that hyaluronan from human milk also enhances innate antimicrobial defense. Here we define the concentration of HA in human milk during the first 6 months postpartum. Importantly, HA isolated from milk has a biological function. Treatment of HT-29 colonic epithelial cells with human milk HA at physiologic concentrations results in time- and dose-dependent induction of the antimicrobial peptide human β-defensin 2 and is abrogated by digestion of milk HA with a specific hyaluronidase. Milk HA induction of human β-defensin 2 expression is also reduced in the presence of a CD44-blocking antibody and is associated with a specific increase in ERK1/2 phosphorylation, suggesting a role for the HA receptor CD44. Furthermore, oral administration of human milk-derived HA to adult, wild-type mice results in induction of the murine Hβ D2 ortholog in intestinal mucosa and is dependent upon both TLR4 and CD44 in vivo. Finally, treatment of cultured colonic epithelial cells with human milk HA enhances resistance to infection by the enteric pathogen Salmonella typhimurium. Together, our observations suggest that maternally provided HA stimulates protective antimicrobial defense in the newborn. PMID:23950179

  15. Concentrations of persistent organochlorine compounds in human milk and placenta are higher in Denmark than in Finland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shen, H.; Main, K.M.; Andersson, A.M.

    2008-01-01

    , oxychlordane (OXC), cis-heptachloroepoxide (c-HE) and 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(4-chlorophenyl)ethane (p,p'-DDT) were the other main organochlorines detected. Danish samples had significantly higher concentrations of p,p'-DDE, p,p'-DDT, beta-HCH, HCB, dieldrin, c-HE and OXC than did the Finnish samples. Levels...

  16. Cortisol in human milk predicts child BMI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn-Holbrook, Jennifer; Le, Tran Bao; Chung, Anna; Davis, Elysia Poggi; Glynn, Laura M

    2016-12-01

    Breastfeeding has been linked to lower rates of childhood obesity. Human milk contains cortisol, known to regulate glucose storage and metabolism. The aim of this study was to to test the hypothesis that early exposure to cortisol in human breast milk helps to modulate infant body mass index (BMI) trajectories over the first 2 years of life. Growth curve modeling was used to examine whether infant exposure to cortisol in human milk at 3 months predicted changes in child body mass index percentile (BMIP) at 6, 12, and 24 months of age in 51 breastfeeding mother-child pairs. Infants exposed to higher milk cortisol levels at 3 months were less likely to exhibit BMIP gains over the first 2 years of life, compared with infants exposed to lower milk cortisol. By age 2, infants exposed to higher milk cortisol levels had lower BMIPs than infants exposed to lower milk cortisol. Milk cortisol was a stronger predictor of BMIP change in girls than boys. Cortisol exposure through human milk may help to program metabolic functioning and childhood obesity risk. Further, because infant formula contains only trace amounts of glucocorticoids, these findings suggest that cortisol in milk is a novel biological pathway through which breastfeeding may protect against later obesity. © 2016 The Obesity Society.

  17. Population PK modelling and simulation based on fluoxetine and norfluoxetine concentrations in milk: a milk concentration-based prediction model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanoshima, Reo; Bournissen, Facundo Garcia; Tanigawara, Yusuke; Kristensen, Judith H; Taddio, Anna; Ilett, Kenneth F; Begg, Evan J; Wallach, Izhar; Ito, Shinya

    2014-10-01

    Population pharmacokinetic (pop PK) modelling can be used for PK assessment of drugs in breast milk. However, complex mechanistic modelling of a parent and an active metabolite using both blood and milk samples is challenging. We aimed to develop a simple predictive pop PK model for milk concentration-time profiles of a parent and a metabolite, using data on fluoxetine (FX) and its active metabolite, norfluoxetine (NFX), in milk. Using a previously published data set of drug concentrations in milk from 25 women treated with FX, a pop PK model predictive of milk concentration-time profiles of FX and NFX was developed. Simulation was performed with the model to generate FX and NFX concentration-time profiles in milk of 1000 mothers. This milk concentration-based pop PK model was compared with the previously validated plasma/milk concentration-based pop PK model of FX. Milk FX and NFX concentration-time profiles were described reasonably well by a one compartment model with a FX-to-NFX conversion coefficient. Median values of the simulated relative infant dose on a weight basis (sRID: weight-adjusted daily doses of FX and NFX through breastmilk to the infant, expressed as a fraction of therapeutic FX daily dose per body weight) were 0.028 for FX and 0.029 for NFX. The FX sRID estimates were consistent with those of the plasma/milk-based pop PK model. A predictive pop PK model based on only milk concentrations can be developed for simultaneous estimation of milk concentration-time profiles of a parent (FX) and an active metabolite (NFX). © 2014 The British Pharmacological Society.

  18. Elemental composition of human and animal milk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iyengar, G.V.

    1982-09-01

    A review is presented of the elemental composition of human and animal milk with special reference to trace elements determined through nuclear techniques, particularly neutron activation analysis (NAA). In the joint IAEA/WHO research project, 16 of the 24 elements under investigation have been analysed by NAA with the aid of advanced research nuclear reactors. Literature data are discussed and tabulated in 50 separate tables (one for each element) mainly for the period after 1950. Each table uses a standard format comprising 10 columns indicating (1) source of milk (e.g. human or animal), (2) status of the milk (colostrum, transitional or mature), (3) country of origin, (4) year of data publication, (5) mean concentration, (6) range of single values or standard deviation of the mean, (7) number of samples analysed, (8) analytical technique employed, (9) literature source of the data, and (10) relevant remarks, if any. The most abundant data refer to the minor elements Ca, Cl, K, Mg, N, Na, P and S and to the trace elements Cu, Fe and Zn. Fewer data are available for Cd, Hg, I, Mn, Pb and Se. For the remaining elements, including such biologically important trace elements as As, Co, Cr, F, Mo, Ni, Si and Sn, very few reliable data so far appear to exist

  19. Novel brominated flame retardants in food composites and human milk from the Chinese Total Diet Study in 2011: Concentrations and a dietary exposure assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Zhixiong; Zhang, Lei; Li, Jingguang; Zhao, Yunfeng; Sun, Zhiwei; Zhou, Xianqing; Wu, Yongning

    2016-11-01

    On the basis of the fifth Chinese total diet study (TDS) performed in 2011, the dietary exposure of the Chinese population to novel brominated flame retardants (NBFRs) was assessed. Six NBFRs were determined in 80 composite samples from four animal origin food groups and 29 pooled human milk samples. Based on gas chromatography-negative chemical ionization mass spectrometry (GC-NCI/MS) analysis, the levels of the total NBFRs ranged from human milk samples. Decabromodiphenyl ethane (DBDPE), with mean levels of 9.03ng/g lw in food composites and 8.06ng/g lw in human milk, was the most abundant compound in the total NBFRs. No obvious spatial distribution patterns in China were observed in food samples or human milk. The average estimated daily intake (EDI) of total NBFRs via food consumption for a "standard Chinese man" was 4.77ng/kg bodyweight (bw)/day, with a range of 0.681 to 18.9ng/kgbw/day. Meat and meat products were the main dietary source of NBFRs, although levels of NBFRs in aquatic food were found to be the highest among the four food groups. The average EDI of total NBFRs for nursing infants was 38.4ng/kgbw/day, with a range of 17.4 to 113ng/kgbw/day, which was approximately eight-fold higher than the EDI for adults, suggesting the heavy body burden of NBFRs on nursing infants. The levels and EDI of DBDPE in the present study were similar to or higher than those of legacy BFRs (i.e., PBDEs and HBCD) in the TDS 2007, indicating that DBDPE, as a main alternative to PBDEs, might have become the primary BFR used in China. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Caesium contamination in human milk and transfer factor from diet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Risica, S.; Campos Venuti, G.; Rogani, A.; Baronciani, D.; Petrone, M.

    1992-01-01

    A study on caesium contamination in human milk, as a consequence of the Chernobyl fallout, was conducted in 1989 on a group of women from one of the areas of northern Italy most heavily affected by the radioactive fallout. Their diet was studied, and the caesium intake was calculated by using the mean food activity concentration in that area. The caesium transfer factor was evaluated both as the ratio of caesium concentration in mother's milk to the daily intake, and by using a simplified milk compartment model. (author)

  1. Human milk pasteurization: benefits and risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Deborah L; Ewaschuk, Julia B; Unger, Sharon

    2015-05-01

    Recent findings substantiate that the optimal method of nourishing preterm, very low birth weight infants (VLBW, born pasteurized donor milk. The availability of donor milk for VLBW infants during initial hospitalization continues to increase with the launch of new milk banks in North America. The majority of North American neonatal ICUs now have written policies governing the provision of donor milk. The purpose of this review is to summarize recent evidence regarding the risks and benefits of pasteurization of human milk and outcomes associated with its provision to VLBW preterm infants. Studies investigating the impact of collection, storage and pasteurization on the bacteriostatic, immunologic and nutritional aspects of human milk continue to be published, generally revealing a partial, but not complete reduction in bioactivity. Risk of contamination of pasteurized donor human milk with pathogenic agents is mitigated through pasteurization. New pasteurization methods aiming to maintain the safety of pooled human milk while better preserving bioactivity are under investigation. Provision of a human milk-derived diet to preterm VLBW infants is associated with improved outcomes.

  2. Selenium in human milk: An Australian study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cumming, F.J.; Fardy, J.J.; Woodward, D.R.

    1991-01-01

    The aims of this Australian study were to determine (total) selenium concentration in breast milk and in maternal blood, and to assess the relationship between the two. The authors also aimed to assess the infants' selenium intake. Twenty lactating women from Brisbane (Queensland) participated in the study, at 6-12 weeks post-partum. Small samples (approximately 10 ml) of breast-milk were manually expressed at the beginning and end of a mid-morning feed, from the first breast offered at that feed. Venous blood samples (10 ml) were also collected from the mothers. Milk and blood samples were analyzed by neutron activation analysis. Babies' milk intake over a 24-hour period was estimated using a modified test-weighing technique. Infant selenium intakes were calculated directly for each infant, using his/her mother's milk selenium level and his/her own 24-hour breast milk intake. The mean selenium concentration in maternal blood was 101 (±SD 19) ng/g and in maternal serum 81 (±15) ng/g. Breast milk selenium concentrations (11.9 ± 3.5 ng/g) were fairly low by international standards. There was no correlation between selenium concentrations in milk and blood (or serum). The infants' 24-hour breast-milk intakes were 856 ± 172 g, and their selenium intakes were 10.7 ± 4.1 μg per day

  3. The study of 226Ra concentration in Teheran's pasteurized milk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khademi, B.; Sekhavat, A.; Movahed Shari'atpanahi, J.

    1975-01-01

    A study of 226 88 Ra concentration in pasteurized milk distributed in Tehran during 1970-72 was accomplished. The Ash resulting from the milk was 4.5 to 5.5 gr., which might be due to poor nourishment of the animals. These results are compared with the Ra concentration in France and Puerto Rico

  4. Major advances in concentrated and dry milk products, cheese, and milk fat-based spreads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henning, D R; Baer, R J; Hassan, A N; Dave, R

    2006-04-01

    Advances in dairy foods and dairy foods processing since 1981 have influenced consumers and processors of dairy products. Consumer benefits include dairy products with enhanced nutrition and product functionality for specific applications. Processors convert raw milk to finished product with improved efficiencies and have developed processing technologies to improve traditional products and to introduce new products for expanding the dairy foods market. Membrane processing evolved from a laboratory technique to a major industrial process for milk and whey processing. Ultra-filtration and reverse osmosis have been used extensively in fractionation of milk and whey components. Advances in cheese manufacturing methods have included mechanization of the making process. Membrane processing has allowed uniform composition of the cheese milk and starter cultures have become more predictable. Cheese vats have become larger and enclosed as well as computer controlled. Researchers have learned to control many of the functional properties of cheese by understanding the role of fat and calcium distribution, as bound or unbound, in the cheese matrix. Processed cheese (cheese, foods, spreads, and products) maintain their importance in the industry as many product types can be produced to meet market needs and provide stable products for an extended shelf life. Cheese delivers concentrated nutrients of milk and bio-active peptides to consumers. The technologies for the production of concentrated and dried milk and whey products have not changed greatly in the last 25 yr. The size and efficiencies of the equipment have increased. Use of reverse osmosis in place of vacuum condensing has been proposed. Modifying the fatty acid composition of milkfat to alter the nutritional and functional properties of dairy spread has been a focus of research in the last 2 decades. Conjugated linoleic acid, which can be increased in milkfat by alteration of the cow's diet, has been reported to have

  5. [Comparison of organic component and di-n-butyl phthalate between human milk and cow milk products].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hui-jie; Cao, Jia; Shu, Wei-qun

    2011-01-01

    To explore types of organic components and pollution level of di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) between human milk and cow milk products. Forty healthy postpartum women with an average age of (27.44 ± 3.43) years old were selected, and a 5 ml sample of breast milk were collected. Four different brands of fresh cow milk and 1 brand of milk powder were randomly selected in the market. A total of 15 samples were collected with 3 from each brand, and the qualitative analysis of types of organic components and quantitative analysis of DBP were conducted by gas-chromatography and mass-spectrometry (GC/MS) method. A total of 176 different types of organic components were detected in 40 samples of human milk (averaged at (10.58 ± 4.16) types per sample); 37 different types were detected in 12 samples of fresh cow milk (averaged at (8.67 ± 1.61) types per sample); while 31 types of organic components were detected in 3 samples of milk powder (averaged at (12.67 ± 0.58) types per sample). It was obvious that the types of organic components in milk powder were significantly higher than the other two groups (t = 2.09, 4.00, P milk and cow milk was 9-octadecenoic acid (45.00% (18/40) in human milk; 53.33% (8/15) in cow milk). DBP concentrations were (57.78 ± 35.42) µg/L, (20.76 ± 6.60) µg/L and (0.45 ± 0.05) mg/kg (equal to (66.78 ± 7.60) µg/L) in human milk, fresh cow milk and milk powder, respectively. The DBP concentration in fresh cow milk was significantly lower than those in human milk and milk powder (t = 37.02, 46.02, P milk and cow milk contain different types of organic pollutants, some of which have toxic effects on reproduction and human development.

  6. The effect of UV-C pasteurization on bacteriostatic properties and immunological proteins of donor human milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christen, Lukas; Lai, Ching Tat; Hartmann, Ben; Hartmann, Peter E; Geddes, Donna T

    2013-01-01

    Human milk possesses bacteriostatic properties, largely due to the presence of immunological proteins. Heat treatments such as Holder pasteurization reduce the concentration of immunological proteins in human milk and consequently increase the bacterial growth rate. This study investigated the bacterial growth rate and the immunological protein concentration of ultraviolet (UV-C) irradiated, Holder pasteurized and untreated human milk. Samples (n=10) of untreated, Holder pasteurized and UV-C irradiated human milk were inoculated with E. coli and S. aureus and the growth rate over 2 hours incubation time at 37°C was observed. Additionally, the concentration of sIgA, lactoferrin and lysozyme of untreated and treated human milk was analyzed. The bacterial growth rate of untreated and UV-C irradiated human milk was not significantly different. The bacterial growth rate of Holder pasteurized human milk was double compared to untreated human milk (ppasteurization, resulting in bacteriostatic properties similar to those of untreated human milk.

  7. Human milk for the premature infant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Underwood, Mark A.

    2012-01-01

    Synopsis Premature infants are a heterogeneous group with widely differing needs for nutrition and immune protection with risk of growth failure, developmental delays, necrotizing enterocolitis, and late-onset sepsis increasing with decreasing gestational age and birth weight. Human milk from women delivering prematurely has more protein and higher levels of many bioactive molecules compared to milk from women delivering at term. Human milk must be fortified for small premature infants to achieve adequate growth. Mother’s own milk improves growth and neurodevelopment and decreases the risk of necrotizing enterocolitis and late-onset sepsis and should therefore be the primary enteral diet of premature infants. Donor milk is a valuable resource for premature infants whose mothers are unable to provide an adequate supply of milk, but presents significant challenges including the need for pasteurization, nutritional and biochemical deficiencies and a limited supply. PMID:23178065

  8. Production of human lactoferrin in animal milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, I L; Georgieva, S G; Gurskiy, Ya G; Krasnov, A N; Deykin, A V; Popov, A N; Ermolkevich, T G; Budzevich, A I; Chernousov, A D; Sadchikova, E R

    2012-06-01

    Genetic constructs containing the human lactoferrin (hLf) gene were created within a joint program of Russian and Belorussian scientists. Using these constructs, transgenic mice were bred (the maximum hLf concentration in their milk was 160 g/L), and transgenic goats were also generated (up to 10 g/L hLf in their milk). Experimental goatherds that produced hLf in their milk were also bred, and the recombinant hLf was found to be identical to the natural protein in its physical and chemical properties. These properties included electrophoretic mobility, isoelectric point, recognition by polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies, circular dichroic spectra, interaction with natural ligands (DNA, lipopolysaccharides, and heparin), the binding of iron ions, the sequence of the 7 terminal amino acids, and its biological activity. The latter was assessed by the agglutination of Micrococcus luteus protoplasts, bactericidal activity against Escherichia coli and Listeria monocytogenes , and fungicidal activity against Candida albicans . We also demonstrated a significant increase in the activity of antibiotics when used in combination with Lf.

  9. Iodine concentration of milk-alternative drinks available in the UK in comparison with cows' milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bath, Sarah C; Hill, Sarah; Infante, Heidi Goenaga; Elghul, Sarah; Nezianya, Carolina J; Rayman, Margaret P

    2017-10-01

    Iodine deficiency is present in certain groups of the UK population, notably in pregnant women; this is of concern as iodine is required for fetal brain development. UK milk is rich in iodine and is the principal dietary iodine source. UK sales of milk-alternative drinks are increasing but data are lacking on their iodine content. As consumers may replace iodine-rich milk with milk-alternative drinks, we aimed to measure the iodine concentration of those available in the UK. Using inductively coupled plasma-MS, we determined the iodine concentration of seven types of milk-alternative drink (soya, almond, coconut, oat, rice, hazelnut and hemp) by analysing forty-seven products purchased in November/December 2015. For comparison, winter samples of conventional (n 5) and organic (n 5) cows' milk were included. The median iodine concentration of all of the unfortified milk-alternative drinks (n 44) was low, at 7·3 μg/kg, just 1·7 % of our value for winter conventional cows' milk (median 438 μg/kg). One brand (not the market leader), fortified its soya, oat and rice drinks with iodine and those drinks had a higher iodine concentration than unfortified drinks, at 280, 287 and 266 μg/kg, respectively. The iodine concentration of organic milk (median 324 μg/kg) was lower than that of conventional milk. Although many milk-alternative drinks are fortified with Ca, at the time of this study, just three of forty-seven drinks were fortified with iodine. Individuals who consume milk-alternative drinks that are not fortified with iodine in place of cows' milk may be at risk of iodine deficiency unless they consume alternative dietary iodine sources.

  10. Concentrations of buparvaquone in milk and tissue of dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDougall, S; Hillerton, J E; Pegram, D

    2016-11-01

    To determine the concentration of the anti-theilerial drug buparvaquone in the milk and tissue of dairy cattle following treatment with two different formulations, and to assess the effect of clinical theileriosis on the concentration of buparvaquone in milk. Healthy lactating dairy cows (n=25) were injected once (Day 0) I/M with 2.5 mg/kg of one of two formulations of buparvaquone (Butalex; n=12 or Bupaject; n=13). Milk samples were collected from all cows daily until Day 35. Five cows were slaughtered on each of Days 56, 119, 147, 203 and 328, and samples of liver, muscle and injection site tissue collected. Milk samples were also collected from cows (n=14) clinically affected with theileriosis for up to 21 days after treatment with buparvaquone. Milk and tissue samples were analysed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry; limits of detection (LOD) were 0.00018 mg/kg for muscle and 0.00023 mg/L for milk. Concentrations of buparvaquone in milk and tissues were log10-transformed for analysis using multivariate models. In healthy cows, concentrations of buparvaquone in milk declined with time post-treatment (pcows at Day 35. Concentration in milk was higher one day after treatment in cows treated with Butalex than in cows treated with Bupaject, but not different thereafter (p=0.007). Concentrations of buparvaquone in muscle were below the LOD for four of five animals at Day 119 and for all animals by Day 147, but were above the LOD at the injection site of one cow, and in the liver of three cows at Day 328. Tissue concentrations did not differ with formulation nor was there a formulation by time interaction (p>0.3). Concentrations of buparvaquone in the milk of clinically affected animals were not different from those of healthy animals at 1 and 21 days post-treatment (p=0.72). Between 21 and 25 days post-treatment concentrations were below the LOD in 9/14 milk samples from clinically affected cows. Detectable concentrations of buparvaquone were found in

  11. Human Milk Composition: Nutrients and Bioactive Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballard, Olivia; Morrow, Ardythe L.

    2013-01-01

    Synopsis The composition of human milk is the biologic norm for infant nutrition. Human milk also contains many hundreds to thousands of distinct bioactive molecules that protect against infection and inflammation and contribute to immune maturation, organ development, and healthy microbial colonization. Some of these molecules, e.g., lactoferrin, are being investigated as novel therapeutic agents. A dynamic, bioactive fluid, human milk changes in composition from colostrum to late lactation, and varies within feeds, diurnally, and between mothers. Feeding infants with expressed human milk is increasing. Pasteurized donor milk is now commonly provided to high risk infants and most mothers in the U.S. express and freeze their milk at some point in lactation for future infant feedings. Many milk proteins are degraded by heat treatment and freeze-thaw cycles may not have the same bioactivity after undergoing these treatments. This article provides an overview of the composition of human milk, sources of its variation, and its clinical relevance. PMID:23178060

  12. Activity concentrations of iodine-131 and radiocesium in milk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabitsch, H.; Kahr, G.; Oswald, K.

    1991-12-01

    We have measured the activity concentrations of iodine-131 and radiocesium in pasteurized fresh milk following the Chernobyl accident. Average monthly concentrations of radiocesium are given until December 1991. Samples originated from the local dairy (Milchhof Graz, Austria) and the measured activities in milk represent a large part of the total intake in the population of Graz. Observed activities are also compared with the activity levels obtained after the earlier nuclear contaminations. From the data of our measurements for radiocesium we have estimated the internal effective dose equivalent due to the intake of contaminated milk during the first year after the fallout. Results indicate that the averaged consumer rates for milk, usually used for predictions of dose, were too high. We have also observed great differences in the activity levels of raw milk and the activities in milk consumed by the population. (authors)

  13. [Human milk, immune responses and health effects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Løland, Beate Fossum; Baerug, Anne B; Nylander, Gro

    2007-09-20

    Besides providing optimal nutrition to infants, human milk contains a multitude of immunological components. These components are important for protection against infections and also support the development and maturation of the infant's own immune system. This review focuses on the function of some classical immunocomponents of human milk. Relevant studies are presented that describe health benefits of human milk for the child and of lactation for the mother. Relevant articles were found mainly by searching PubMed. Humoral and cellular components of human milk confer protection against infections in the respiratory--, gastrointestinal--and urinary tract. Human milk also protects premature children from neonatal sepsis and necrotizing enterocolitis. There is evidence that human milk may confer long-term benefits such as lower risk of certain autoimmune diseases, inflammatory bowel disease and probably some malignancies. Human milk possibly affects components of the metabolic syndrome. Recent studies demonstrate long-term health benefits of lactation also for the mother. A reduced incidence of breast cancer is best documented. An increasing number of studies indicate protection against ovarian cancer, rheumatoid arthritis and type II diabetes.

  14. "EFFECT OF PROGESTOGEN-ONLY CONTRACEPTIVES ON HUMAN MILK COMPOSITION"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sh. Ghazizadeh P. Pasalar

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Different contraceptive methods are used by breastfeeding mothers. To investigate the effects of progestogen - only contraceptives on human milk components, a non-randomized, follow-up study was carried out in Iran (Varamin on 140 breastfeeding women, 51 of whom used progestogenonly contraception including progestogen-only pills (POP or depo-medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA, and 89 used non-hormonal contraception methods, starting at 6 weeks after delivery. Human milk components were compared between the groups after 26 weeks. There were no statistically significant differences between groups, in terms of protein, sodium, calcium, phosphorus and potassium concentration of milk, but triglycerides in the hormonal group and magnesium in the non-hormonal group were higher than the other group (P< 0.05. It seems that progestogen-only methods (POP and DMPA do not have an adverse effect on human milk composition, and are safe contraceptives during lactation.

  15. Chemical Contaminants in Raw and Pasteurized Human Milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartle, Jennifer C; Cohen, Ronald S; Sakamoto, Pauline; Barr, Dana Boyd; Carmichael, Suzan L

    2018-05-01

    Environmental contaminants ranging from legacy chemicals like p,p'-dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) to emerging chemicals like phthalates are ubiquitous. Research aims/questions: This research aims to examine the presence and co-occurrence of contaminants in human milk and effects of pasteurization on human milk chemical contaminants. We analyzed human milk donated by 21 women to a milk bank for 23 chemicals, including the persistent organic pollutants (POPs) polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), and dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) isomers that are known to sequester in adipose tissue, along with the current-use and nonpersistent pesticides chlorpyrifos and permethrin, phthalates, and bisphenol A (BPA). Human milk was analyzed raw and pasteurized for these chemicals using gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry for the POPs and high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry for non-POPs. Within the different chemical classes, PBDE47, PCB153, ppDDE, and MEHHP (phthalate metabolite) had the highest median concentrations and were observed in all samples. We also observed chlorpyrifos and BPA in all samples and permethrin in 90% of the samples tested. Only two chemicals, chlorpyrifos and permethrin, were susceptible to substantial degradation from pasteurization, a standard method for processing donated human milk. We detected 19 of 23 chemicals in all of our prepasteurized milk and 18 of 23 chemicals in all of our pasteurized milk. Pasteurization did not affect the presence of most of the chemicals. Future research should continue to explore human milk for potential chemical contamination and as a means to surveil exposures among women and children.

  16. Determination of seven trace elements in human milk, powdered cow's milk and infant foods by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grimanis, A.P.; Vassilaki-Grimani, M.; Alexiou, D.; Papadatos, C.

    1979-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to apply neutron activation analysis to the determination of seven trace elements (Co, Cr, Cu, Se, Zn, Rb and As) in colostrum, transitional and mature human milk as well as in powdered cow's milk and commercial infant foods, and thus to find out whether non-breast-fed infants received the same or different amounts of these trace elements as breast-fed ones. Ranges and averages for trace elements in mature human milk, expressed as microgrammes per gramme wet weight, varied as follows: Cr 0.018-0.040 and 0.027; Co 0.0013-0.0030 and 0.0020; Cu 0.38-0.50 and 0.46; Se 0.011-0.022 and 0.015; Zn 1.4-1.7 and 1.5; Rb 0.60-0.66 and 0.63; and As 0.0016-0.0060 and 0.0032. The mean concentrations of the essential trace elements Zn, Se, Cu, Cr and Co in colostrum were, respectively, 3.7, 3.2, 2.4, 1.8 and 1.7 times higher than those in mature human milk. No significant differences in Rb and As concentrations were found between colostrum and mature milk. Average values of Zn and Cu in transitional human milk were, respectively, 3.4 and 1.5 times higher than in mature milk. No significant differences for the rest of the elements were found between these two milk samples. The two milk formulas, half-cream and humanized, contained higher mean concentrations of Zn, Rb and As and similar or lower concentrations of Cr, Co and Se than mature human milk. Half-cream is deficient in Cu; mature human milk contains about 9 times more Cu than the half-cream cow's milk. Humanized milk contains a similar mean concentration of Cu as the mature milk. All examined infant foods contained similar or higher concentrations of all elements determined than did the mature human milk

  17. Nitric Oxide Metabolites and Asymmetric Dimethylarginine Concentrations in Breast Milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakan Öztürk

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Nitric oxide plays a preventive role in the development of necrotizing enterocolitis. Oral nitrite and nitrate intake has gained importance with the discovery of the conversion of nitrite to nitric oxide in acidic medium out of the synthesis of nitric oxide from L-arginine. Objective of this study was to examine the breast milk concentrations of nitric oxide and asymmetric dimethylarginine which is a competitive inhibitor of nitric oxide and to compare these concentrations in terms of gestational age and maturity of breast milk. Study Design: Forty-one women were included in the study. Milk samples were collected from 3 groups of mothers as term, late preterm and preterm on the postpartum days 3, 7 and 28. Results: When breast milk concentrations of nitric oxide were compared according to the postnatal day of the milk independently from gestational age; nitric oxide concentration was higher in the colostrum than in the transition milk and mature milk (p=0,035; p=0,001; respectively. For the comparison of asymmetric dimethylarginine concentrations among these groups and days; no statistically significant difference was observed in terms of gestational age and maturity of the milk (p=0.865, p=0.115; respectively. Conclusion: The highest nitric oxide concentration was found in the colostrum, suggesting that colostrum is a valuable food for newborns. Plasma concentrations of asymmetric dimethylarginine were negatively correlated with nitric oxide and did not show a correlation with breast milk, suggesting that asymmetric dimethylargininedoesn’t make nitric oxide inhibition in breast milk.

  18. Human milk proresolving mediators stimulate resolution of acute inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnardottir, Hildur; Orr, Sarah K; Dalli, Jesmond; Serhan, Charles N

    2016-05-01

    Human milk contains nutrients and bioactive products relevant to infant development and immunological protection. Here, we investigated the proresolving properties of milk using human milk lipid mediator isolates (HLMIs) and determined their impact on resolution programs in vivo and with human macrophages. HLMIs reduced the maximum neutrophil numbers (14.6±1.2 × 10(6)-11.0±1.0 × 10(6) cells per exudate) and shortened the resolution interval (Ri; 50% neutrophil reduction) by 54% compared with peritonitis. Using rigorous liquid-chromatography tandem-mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS)-based lipid mediator (LM) metabololipidomics, we demonstrated that human milk possesses a proresolving LM-specialized proresolving mediator (LM-SPM) signature profile, containing SPMs (e.g. resolvins (Rv), protectins (PDs), maresins (MaRs), and lipoxins (LXs)) at bioactive levels (pico-nanomolar concentrations) that enhanced human macrophage efferocytosis and bacterial containment. SPMs identified in human milk included D-series Rvs (e.g., RvD1, RvD2, RvD3, AT-RvD3, and RvD4), PD1, MaR1, E-series Rvs (e.g. RvE1, RvE2, and RvE3), and LXs (LXA4 and LXB4). Of the SPMs identified in human milk, RvD2 and MaR1 (50 ng per mouse) individually shortened Ri by ∼75%. Milk from mastitis gave higher leukotriene B4 and prostanoids and lower SPM levels. Taken together, these findings provide evidence that human milk has proresolving actions via comprehensive LM-SPM profiling, describing a potentially novel mechanism in maternal-infant biochemical imprinting.

  19. Effect of continuous milking on immunoglobulin concentrations in bovine colostrum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verweij, J.J.; Koets, A.P.; Eisenberg, S.W.F.

    2014-01-01

    Continuous milking is defined as a dairy cattle management system without a planned dry period for cows in late gestation. Continuous milking has been described to reduce health problems common in periparturient cattle, but may affect colostrum immunoglobulin (Ig) concentration and subsequently calf

  20. Pasteurization of goat milk using a low cost solar concentrator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franco, Judith; Saravia, Luis; Javi, Veronica; Caso, Ricardo; Fernandez, Carlos [INENCO - UNSa, Av. Bolivia 5150, 4400, Salta (Argentina)

    2008-11-15

    This paper presents the design of a system for pasteurizing goat milk as a part of a process for artisan elaboration of cheese. The system consists in a Fresnel type concentrator used for cooking large amounts of food with a vaporizer located in the focus. The steam bubbles into the isolated container where the milk is cooked by a double boiler. When the desired temperature is reached, the steam flow is closed and the milk remains in this condition for 30 min into the closed container. Pasteurizing of 10 l of milk is done in about 1 h. The project considers guidelines for achieving a successful process. (author)

  1. Comprehensive and quantitative profiling of lipid species in human milk, cow milk and a phospholipid-enriched milk formula by GC and MS/MSALL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokol, Elena; Ulven, Trond; Færgeman, Nils J; Ejsing, Christer S

    2015-06-01

    Here we present a workflow for in-depth analysis of milk lipids that combines gas chromatography (GC) for fatty acid (FA) profiling and a shotgun lipidomics routine termed MS/MS ALL for structural characterization of molecular lipid species. To evaluate the performance of the workflow we performed a comparative lipid analysis of human milk, cow milk, and Lacprodan® PL-20, a phospholipid-enriched milk protein concentrate for infant formula. The GC analysis showed that human milk and Lacprodan have a similar FA profile with higher levels of unsaturated FAs as compared to cow milk. In-depth lipidomic analysis by MS/MS ALL revealed that each type of milk sample comprised distinct composition of molecular lipid species. Lipid class composition showed that the human and cow milk contain a higher proportion of triacylglycerols (TAGs) as compared to Lacprodan. Notably, the MS/MS ALL analysis demonstrated that the similar FA profile of human milk and Lacprodan determined by GC analysis is attributed to the composition of individual TAG species in human milk and glycerophospholipid species in Lacprodan. Moreover, the analysis of TAG molecules in Lacprodan and cow milk showed a high proportion of short-chain FAs that could not be monitored by GC analysis. The results presented here show that complementary GC and MS/MS ALL analysis is a powerful approach for characterization of molecular lipid species in milk and milk products. : Milk lipid analysis is routinely performed using gas chromatography. This method reports the total fatty acid composition of all milk lipids, but provides no structural or quantitative information about individual lipid molecules in milk or milk products. Here we present a workflow that integrates gas chromatography for fatty acid profiling and a shotgun lipidomics routine termed MS/MS ALL for structural analysis and quantification of molecular lipid species. We demonstrate the efficacy of this complementary workflow by a comparative analysis of

  2. A model to secure a stable iodine concentration in milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gisken Trøan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dairy products account for approximately 60% of the iodine intake in the Norwegian population. The iodine concentration in cow's milk varies considerably, depending on feeding practices, season, and amount of iodine and rapeseed products in cow fodder. The variation in iodine in milk affects the risk of iodine deficiency or excess in the population. Objective: The first goal of this study was to develop a model to predict the iodine concentration in milk based on the concentration of iodine and rapeseed or glucosinolate in feed, as a tool to securing stable iodine concentration in milk. A second aim was to estimate the impact of different iodine levels in milk on iodine nutrition in the Norwegian population. Design: Two models were developed on the basis of results from eight published and two unpublished studies from the past 20 years. The models were based on different iodine concentrations in the fodder combined with either glucosinolate (Model 1 or rapeseed cake/meal (Model 2. To illustrate the impact of different iodine concentrations in milk on iodine intake, we simulated the iodine contribution from dairy products in different population groups based on food intake data in the most recent dietary surveys in Norway. Results: The models developed could predict iodine concentration in milk. Cross-validation showed good fit and confirmed the explanatory power of the models. Our calculations showed that dairy products with current iodine level in milk (200 µg/kg cover 68, 49, 108 and 56% of the daily iodine requirements for men, women, 2-year-old children, and pregnant women, respectively. Conclusions: Securing a stable level of iodine in milk by adjusting iodine concentration in different cow feeds is thus important for preventing excess intake in small children and iodine deficiency in pregnant and non-pregnant women.

  3. Variation in macronutrients in human bank milk: Influencing factors and implications for human milk banking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michaelsen, K F; Skafte, Ester Lis; Badsberg, Jens Henrik

    1990-01-01

    . There was a large variation in the concentration of energy-yielding macronutrients. The contents of P, F, C, and E in the samples with the highest values (97.5 percentile) were 2.3-, 4.8-, 1.2-, and 2.3-fold, respectively, above the contents in the samples with the lowest values (2.5 percentile). The P content...... decreased exponentially during the 1st 8 months, followed by an increase during the following months. The F content decreased during the 1st 4 months, followed by an almost linear increase. The possible influence of different maternal characteristics on the macronutrient content of the milk was examined...... with a high P content, we have developed a "high-protein" milk with a P content of about 12 g/L (true protein) and an E content of about 725 kcal/L. Thus, by continuous monitoring of macronutrient content in human bank milk it is possible to develop a "high-protein" milk with sufficient P and E content...

  4. Microorganisms in human milk: lights and shadows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Civardi, Elisa; Garofoli, Francesca; Tzialla, Chryssoula; Paolillo, Piermichele; Bollani, Lina; Stronati, Mauro

    2013-10-01

    Human milk has been traditionally considered germ free, however, recent studies have shown that it represents a continuous supply of commensal and potentially probiotic bacteria to the infant gut. Mammary microbioma may exercise anti-infective, anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory and metabolic properties. Moreover human milk may be a source of pathogenic microorganism during maternal infection, if contaminated during expression or in case of vaccination of the mother. The non-sterility of breast milk can, thus, be seen as a protective factor, or rarely, as a risk factor for the newborn.

  5. Human milk inactivates pathogens individually, additively, and synergistically.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaacs, Charles E

    2005-05-01

    Breast-feeding can reduce the incidence and the severity of gastrointestinal and respiratory infections in the suckling neonate by providing additional protective factors to the infant's mucosal surfaces. Human milk provides protection against a broad array of infectious agents through redundancy. Protective factors in milk can target multiple early steps in pathogen replication and target each step with more than one antimicrobial compound. The antimicrobial activity in human milk results from protective factors working not only individually but also additively and synergistically. Lipid-dependent antimicrobial activity in milk results from the additive activity of all antimicrobial lipids and not necessarily the concentration of one particular lipid. Antimicrobial milk lipids and peptides can work synergistically to decrease both the concentrations of individual compounds required for protection and, as importantly, greatly reduce the time needed for pathogen inactivation. The more rapidly pathogens are inactivated the less likely they are to establish an infection. The total antimicrobial protection provided by human milk appears to be far more than can be elucidated by examining protective factors individually.

  6. Factors Influencing the Concentration of Certain Liposoluble Components in Cow and Goat Milk: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anamaria COZMA

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Milk fat contains a large number of fatty acids (FA and other liposoluble components that exhibit various effects on human health. The present article reviews some of the factors affecting FA, vitamin A and cholesterol concentrations in milk from dairy cow and goat. Milk fat composition is linked to many factors, both intrinsic (animal species, breed, lactation stage and extrinsic (environmental. The effect of animal species on milk fat composition is important, as reflected by higher concentrations of short- and medium-chain FA, vitamin A and cholesterol in goat than in cow milk. In a given ruminant species, the effects linked to breed are significant but limited and they can only be achieved over long periods of time. The lactation stage has an important effect on milk FA composition, mainly linked to body fat mobilisation in early lactation, but it only lasts a few weeks each year. Furthermore, changes in feeding have a marked influence on milk fat composition. Changing the forages in the diet of ruminants, pasture in particular, or supplementing lipids to the diet, represent an efficient mean to modify milk fat composition by decreasing saturated FA and cholesterol, and increasing cis-9,trans-11-CLA and vitamin A. Nutrition therefore constitutes a natural strategy to rapidly modulate milk FA, vitamin A and cholesterol composition, with the overall aim of improving the long-term health of consumers.

  7. Human milk glycoconjugates that inhibit pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newburg, D S

    1999-02-01

    Breast-fed infants have lower incidence of diarrhea, respiratory disease, and otitis media. The protection by human milk has long been attributed to the presence of secretory IgA. However, human milk contains large numbers and amounts of complex carbohydrates, including glycoproteins, glycolipids, glycosaminoglycans, mucins, and especially oligosaccharides. The oligosaccharides comprise the third most abundant solid constituent of human milk, and contain a myriad of structures. Complex carbohydrate moieties of glycoconjugates and oligosaccharides are synthesized by the many glycosyltransferases in the mammary gland; those with homology to cell surface glycoconjugate pathogen receptors may inhibit pathogen binding, thereby protecting the nursing infant. Several examples are reviewed: A fucosyloligosaccharide inhibits the diarrheagenic effect of stable toxin of Escherichia coli. A different fucosyloligosaccharide inhibits infection by Campylobacter jejuni. Binding of Streptococcus pneumoniae and of enteropathogenic E. coli to their respective receptors is inhibited by human milk oligosaccharides. The 46-kD glycoprotein, lactadherin, inhibits rotavirus binding and infectivity. Low levels of lactadherin in human milk are associated with a higher incidence of symptomatic rotavirus in breast-fed infants. A mannosylated glycopeptide inhibits binding by enterohemorrhagic E. coli. A glycosaminoglycan inhibits binding of gp120 to CD4, the first step in HIV infection. Human milk mucin inhibits binding by S-fimbriated E. coli. The ganglioside, GM1, reduces diarrhea production by cholera toxin and labile toxin of E. coli. The neutral glycosphingolipid, Gb3, binds to Shigatoxin. Thus, many complex carbohydrates of human milk may be novel antipathogenic agents, and the milk glycoconjugates and oligosaccharides may be a major source of protection for breastfeeding infants.

  8. Transfer of radionuclides into human milk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steiner, M.; Wirth, E.

    1998-01-01

    Up until now the potential radiation exposure to breast-fed babies due to contaminated human milk has not been taken into account, when deriving international limit values and reference levels for radionuclides in foodstuffs, in air at monitored work places or for exposures in the medical field. It was the aim of the research project 'Transfer of radionuclides into human milk' to quantify the transfer of incorporated radionuclides into mother's milk, and develop simple models to estimate the radiation exposure of babies through the ingestion of human milk. The study focused on considerations of the radiation exposure due to the ingestion of contaminated foodstuffs by the mother, the inhalation of radionuclides at monitored work places, and the administration of radiopharmaceuticals to breast-feeding mothers. The blocking of infant thyroid glands by stable iodine in the case of accidental releases of radioiodine was considered as well. (orig.) [de

  9. Characteristics and potential functions of human milk adiponectin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newburg, David S; Woo, Jessica G; Morrow, Ardythe L

    2010-02-01

    Adiponectin is a protein hormone produced by adipose tissue, whose circulating levels are inversely related to adiposity and inflammation. Adiponectin circulates as oligomers, from the low-molecular-weight trimer to the high-molecular-weight octodecamer (18 mer). Each oligomer has distinct biological activities, which include enhancement of insulin sensitivity and metabolic control and suppression of inflammation. Adiponectin occurs in human milk at higher concentrations than leptin. The adiponectin in human milk is almost entirely of the high-molecular-weight form, the form with the highest activity in controlling many types of metabolic processes. Human adiponectin fed to infant mice is transported across the intestinal mucosa into the serum. An inverse relationship between adiponectin levels in milk and adiposity (weight-for-height) of the breast-fed infant was observed and could be due to modulation of infant metabolism by milk adiponectin and may be related to the observed protection against obesity by breast-feeding. Human milk may be a medium whereby the hormonal milieu (in response to internal factors and the environment) of the mother can be used to communicate with the breast-fed infant to modify infant metabolic processes. Transmission of information from mother to infant through milk may allow adaptation to fluctuating environmental conditions. Copyright 2010 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Mercury and cadmium concentrations in milk in Puerto Rico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chellappan, S.; Pedersen, K.B.; Plaza, H.

    1975-01-01

    Milk samples were analyzed statistically for Hg and Cd by thermal neutron activation (NAA). A Ge(Li) detector and a 4096 channel pulse-height analyzer were used. Mean values of the concentrations of Hg and Cd in milk are tabulated with their standard deviations. Observed variations in Cd and Hg concentrations were small; however NAA was found to be relatively insensitive for the determination of Cd. A significant peak was not observed in the energy range used for the determination. (JGB)

  11. Quality of human milk expressed in a human milk bank and at home.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Mayla S; Oliveira, Angela M de M; Hattori, Wallisen T; Abdallah, Vânia O S

    2017-08-30

    To evaluate the quality of the human milk expressed at home and at a human milk bank. This a retrospective, analytical, and observational study, performed by assessing titratable acidity records and the microbiological culture of 100 human milk samples expressed at home and at a human milk bank, in 2014. For the statistical analysis, generalized estimating equations (GEE) and the chi-squared test were used. When comparing the two sample groups, no significant difference was found, with 98% and 94% of the samples being approved among those collected at the milk bank and at home, respectively. No main interaction effect between local and titratable acidity records (p=0.285) was observed, and there was no statistically significant difference between the expected and observed values for the association between the collection place and the microbiological culture results (p=0.307). The quality of human milk expressed at home and at the milk bank are in agreement with the recommended standards, confirming that the expression of human milk at home is as safe as expression at the human milk bank, provided that the established hygiene, conservation, storage, and transport standards are followed. Copyright © 2017 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  12. [Contamination of human milk with aerobic flora: Evaluation of losses for a human milk bank].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewitte, C; Courdent, P; Charlet, C; Dumoulin, D; Courcol, R; Pierrat, V

    2015-05-01

    In France, human milk banks pasteurize milk for the mother's own hospitalized baby (personalized milk) and for donation. There is specific legislation regulating the activity of human milk banks with bacterial screening of donor milk before and after pasteurization. Milk should be tested for Staphylococcus aureus and total aerobic flora. Any sample of milk positive for aerobic flora and/or S. aureus before and/or after pasteurization should be discarded. The real pathogenicity of the total aerobic flora is actually debated as well as the usefulness of systematic postpasteurization screening. The aim of this study was to quantify milk losses related to prepasteurization contamination by total aerobic flora in a regional milk bank, to identify losses due to contamination with S. aureus or aerobic flora, and to analyze differences between centers. This was a prospective observational study conducted in the regional human milk bank of the Nord-Pas-de-Calais area in France. Data were collected from six major centers providing 80% of the milk collected between June 2011 and June 2012. Variables were the volumes of personalized milk collected by each center, volumes of contaminated milk, and the type of bacteria identified. During the study period, the regional human milk bank treated 4715 L (liters) of personalized milk and 508 L (10.8%) were discarded due to bacteriological screening. Among these 508 L, 43% were discarded because of a prepasteurization contamination with aerobic flora, 55% because of a prepasteurization contamination with S. aureus, and 2% because of other pathogenic bacteria. Postpasteurization tests were positive in 25 samples (0.5%). Only five of these 25 samples were positive before pasteurization and in all cases with S. aureus. A total of 218 L were destroyed because of prepasteurization contamination with total aerobic flora, while the postpasteurization culture was sterile. There was a great difference between centers in the percentage of

  13. Intestinal mucus protects Giardia lamblia from killing by human milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zenian, A J; Gillin, F D

    1987-02-01

    We have previously shown that nonimmune human milk kills Giardia lamblia trophozoites in vitro. Killing requires a bile salt and the activity of the milk bile salt-stimulated lipase. We now show that human small-intestinal mucus protects trophozoites from killing by milk. Parasite survival increased with mucus concentration, but protection was overcome during longer incubation times or with greater milk concentrations. Trophozoites preincubated with mucus and then washed were not protected. Protective activity was associated with non-mucin CsCl density gradient fractions. Moreover, it was heat-stable, non-dialyzable, and non-lipid. Whereas whole mucus inhibited milk lipolytic activity, protective mucus fractions did not inhibit the enzyme. Furthermore, mucus partially protected G. lamblia trophozoites against the toxicity of oleic acid, a fatty acid which is released from milk triglycerides by lipase. These studies show that mucus protects G. lamblia both by inhibiting lipase activity and by decreasing the toxicity of products of lipolysis. The ability of mucus to protect G. lamblia from toxic lipolytic products may help to promote intestinal colonization by this parasite.

  14. Experiences of Women Who Donated Human Milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candelaria, Laura M; Spatz, Diane L; Giordano, Noreen

    2018-03-01

    To examine the experiences of women who donated breast milk to a hospital-based milk bank regulated under the policies and procedures set forth by the Human Milk Banking Association of North America (HMBANA). Qualitative, phenomenological design. The Mothers' Milk Bank in a children's hospital in the Northeastern region of the United States. Twelve HMBANA-approved milk donors older than 21 years with infants hospitalized in the NICU. Edmund Husserl's design of interpretive phenomenology and Colaizzi's method of data analysis were used for this study. Participants were interviewed using a face-to-face, semistructured interview format. Four themes represented the experience of donating breast milk: Ripple of Hope and Help, Dynamic Interplay of Nurturance, Standing on the Shoulders of Others, and Sharing Their Stories. Donors felt proud and accomplished to provide hope for other infants and families. Nurses were crucial in facilitating and motivating donors and making donation achievable in a supportive environment. Donors felt compelled to share their experiences to teach and motivate others to donate. For our participants, donation of human milk was a positive, valuable, and nurturing experience. Donors reported feelings of increased self-esteem during donation that motivated them to "give back" and continue. The support of a well-trained nursing staff is essential for donors to meet their personal goals. Copyright © 2018 AWHONN, the Association of Women’s Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Systematic Review of the Human Milk Microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzstevens, John L; Smith, Kelsey C; Hagadorn, James I; Caimano, Melissa J; Matson, Adam P; Brownell, Elizabeth A

    2017-06-01

    Human milk-associated microbes are among the first to colonize the infant gut and may help to shape both short- and long-term infant health outcomes. We performed a systematic review to characterize the microbiota of human milk. Relevant primary studies were identified through a comprehensive search of PubMed (January 1, 1964, to June 31, 2015). Included studies were conducted among healthy mothers, were written in English, identified bacteria in human milk, used culture-independent methods, and reported primary results at the genus level. Twelve studies satisfied inclusion criteria. All varied in geographic location and human milk collection/storage/analytic methods. Streptococcus was identified in human milk samples in 11 studies (91.6%) and Staphylococcus in 10 (83.3%); both were predominant genera in 6 (50%). Eight of the 12 studies used conventional ribosomal RNA (rRNA) polymerase chain reaction (PCR), of which 7 (87.5%) identified Streptococcus and 6 (80%) identified Staphylococcus as present. Of these 8 studies, 2 (25%) identified Streptococcus and Staphylococcus as predominant genera. Four of the 12 studies used next-generation sequencing (NGS), all of which identified Streptococcus and Staphylococcus as present and predominant genera. Relative to conventional rRNA PCR, NGS is a more sensitive method to identify/quantify bacterial genera in human milk, suggesting the predominance of Streptococcus and Staphylococcus may be underestimated in studies using older methods. These genera, Streptococcus and Staphylococcus, may be universally predominant in human milk, regardless of differences in geographic location or analytic methods. Primary studies designed to evaluate the effect of these 2 genera on short- and long-term infant outcomes are warranted.

  16. Glyphosate and aminomethylphosphonic acid are not detectable in human milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuire, Michelle K; McGuire, Mark A; Price, William J; Shafii, Bahman; Carrothers, Janae M; Lackey, Kimberly A; Goldstein, Daniel A; Jensen, Pamela K; Vicini, John L

    2016-05-01

    Although animal studies have shown that exposure to glyphosate (a commonly used herbicide) does not result in glyphosate bioaccumulation in tissues, to our knowledge there are no published data on whether it is detectable in human milk and therefore consumed by breastfed infants. We sought to determine whether glyphosate and its metabolite aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA) could be detected in milk and urine produced by lactating women and, if so, to quantify typical consumption by breastfed infants. We collected milk (n = 41) and urine (n = 40) samples from healthy lactating women living in and around Moscow, Idaho and Pullman, Washington. Milk and urine samples were analyzed for glyphosate and AMPA with the use of highly sensitive liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry methods validated for and optimized to each sample matrix. Our milk assay, which was sensitive down to 1 μg/L for both analytes, detected neither glyphosate nor AMPA in any milk sample. Mean ± SD glyphosate and AMPA concentrations in urine were 0.28 ± 0.38 and 0.30 ± 0.33 μg/L, respectively. Because of the complex nature of milk matrixes, these samples required more dilution before analysis than did urine, thus decreasing the sensitivity of the assay in milk compared with urine. No difference was found in urine glyphosate and AMPA concentrations between subjects consuming organic compared with conventionally grown foods or between women living on or near a farm/ranch and those living in an urban or suburban nonfarming area. Our data provide evidence that glyphosate and AMPA are not detectable in milk produced by women living in this region of the US Pacific Northwest. By extension, our results therefore suggest that dietary glyphosate exposure is not a health concern for breastfed infants. This study was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02670278. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  17. Persistent pesticides in human breast milk and chryptorchidism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgaard, Ida N.; Skakkebæk, Niels E.; Toppari, Jorma

    2006-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Prenatal exposure to some pesticides can adversely affect male reproductive health in animals. We investigated a possible human association between maternal exposure to 27 organochlorine compounds used as pesticides and cryptorchidism among male children. DESIGN: Within a prospective...... birth cohort, we performed a case-control study; 62 milk samples from mothers of cryptorchid boys and 68 from mothers of healthy boys were selected. Milk was collected as individual pools between 1 and 3 months postpartum and analyzed for 27 organochlorine pesticides. RESULTS: Eight organochlorine......-endosulfan, cis-HE, chlordane (cis-, trans-) oxychlordane, methoxychlor, OCS, and dieldrin] were measured in higher median concentrations in case milk than in control milk. Apart from trans-chlordane (p = 0.012), there were no significant differences between cryptorchid and healthy boys for individual chemicals...

  18. Immune Defence Factors In Human Milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar Sanjeev

    1985-01-01

    Full Text Available Scientific evidence is accumulating to prove the nutritional, anti-infective, anti-fertility, psychosomal and economic advantages of breast-feeding. A number of studies have shown that breast milk protects against diarrheal, respiratory and other infections. Its value in protecting against allergy has also been established. This article reviews the studies on various immune defence factors present in the human milk. The available scientific knowledge makes a very strong case in favour of promoting breast-feeding.

  19. Vitamin D content in human breast milk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Við Streym, Susanna; Højskov, Carsten S; Møller, Ulla Kristine

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Parents are advised to avoid the direct sun exposure of their newborns. Therefore, the vitamin D status of exclusively breastfed newborns is entirely dependent on the supply of vitamin D from breast milk. OBJECTIVES: We explored concentrations of ergocalciferol (vitamin D2......) and cholecalciferol (vitamin D3) (vitamin D) and 25-hydroxivitamin D2 plus D3 (25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D]) in foremilk and hindmilk during the first 9 mo of lactation and identified indexes of importance to the concentrations. DESIGN: We collected blood and breast-milk samples from mothers at 2 wk (n = 107), 4 mo......, (n = 90), and 9 mo (n = 48) postpartum. Blood samples from infants were collected 4 and 9 mo after birth. We measured concentrations of vitamin D metabolites in blood and milk samples with the use of liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. RESULTS: Concentrations of vitamin D and 25(OH)D...

  20. Comparison of the protein and fatty acid fraction of Balkan donkey and human milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasmina Gubić

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare the protein and fatty acid fractions of Balkan donkey and human milk in the early lactation stage (40 and 90 day. This study revealed that donkey milk contains αs1-casein (1.38-1.89 g/L and higher concentration of β-casein (0.1-0.55 g/L in comparison to human milk. The concentration of α-lactalbumin increased during the lactation phases from 40 to 90 days in both types of milk. Donkey milk contained β-lactoglobulin in low concentrations which decreased to 90th day of lactation. Donkey milk was particularly rich in two whey proteins, lactoferrin and lysozyme, which were found to have molecular weight of approximately 76 kDa and 14.9-15.4 kDa, respectively. The content of lysozyme in donkey milk ranged from 2.39 to 2.97 g/L, while human milk contained 30-50 times lower concentrations of lysozyme in comparison to donkey milk. Thus, donkey milk contained also a higher concentration of lactoferrin (0.012-0.25 g/L than it was found in the human milk. Lysozyme and lactoferrin content in donkey milk increased during the period from 40th to 90th day of lactation. The percentage of total SFA, MUFA and PUFA was similar in donkey and human milk. The content of essential fatty acids increased during 40-90 days of lactation and was approximately 2.5 times higher in comparison to human milk.

  1. Epigenetic effects of human breast milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verduci, Elvira; Banderali, Giuseppe; Barberi, Salvatore; Radaelli, Giovanni; Lops, Alessandra; Betti, Federica; Riva, Enrica; Giovannini, Marcello

    2014-04-24

    A current aim of nutrigenetics is to personalize nutritional practices according to genetic variations that influence the way of digestion and metabolism of nutrients introduced with the diet. Nutritional epigenetics concerns knowledge about the effects of nutrients on gene expression. Nutrition in early life or in critical periods of development, may have a role in modulating gene expression, and, therefore, have later effects on health. Human breast milk is well-known for its ability in preventing several acute and chronic diseases. Indeed, breastfed children may have lower risk of neonatal necrotizing enterocolitis, infectious diseases, and also of non-communicable diseases, such as obesity and related-disorders. Beneficial effects of human breast milk on health may be associated in part with its peculiar components, possible also via epigenetic processes. This paper discusses about presumed epigenetic effects of human breast milk and components. While evidence suggests that a direct relationship may exist of some components of human breast milk with epigenetic changes, the mechanisms involved are still unclear. Studies have to be conducted to clarify the actual role of human breast milk on genetic expression, in particular when linked to the risk of non-communicable diseases, to potentially benefit the infant's health and his later life.

  2. Epigenetic Effects of Human Breast Milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elvira Verduci

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available A current aim of nutrigenetics is to personalize nutritional practices according to genetic variations that influence the way of digestion and metabolism of nutrients introduced with the diet. Nutritional epigenetics concerns knowledge about the effects of nutrients on gene expression. Nutrition in early life or in critical periods of development, may have a role in modulating gene expression, and, therefore, have later effects on health. Human breast milk is well-known for its ability in preventing several acute and chronic diseases. Indeed, breastfed children may have lower risk of neonatal necrotizing enterocolitis, infectious diseases, and also of non-communicable diseases, such as obesity and related-disorders. Beneficial effects of human breast milk on health may be associated in part with its peculiar components, possible also via epigenetic processes. This paper discusses about presumed epigenetic effects of human breast milk and components. While evidence suggests that a direct relationship may exist of some components of human breast milk with epigenetic changes, the mechanisms involved are still unclear. Studies have to be conducted to clarify the actual role of human breast milk on genetic expression, in particular when linked to the risk of non-communicable diseases, to potentially benefit the infant’s health and his later life.

  3. Detection of Volatile Metabolites of Garlic in Human Breast Milk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheffler, Laura; Sauermann, Yvonne; Zeh, Gina; Hauf, Katharina; Heinlein, Anja; Sharapa, Constanze; Buettner, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    The odor of human breast milk after ingestion of raw garlic at food-relevant concentrations by breastfeeding mothers was investigated for the first time chemo-analytically using gas chromatography−mass spectrometry/olfactometry (GC-MS/O), as well as sensorially using a trained human sensory panel. Sensory evaluation revealed a clear garlic/cabbage-like odor that appeared in breast milk about 2.5 h after consumption of garlic. GC-MS/O analyses confirmed the occurrence of garlic-derived metabolites in breast milk, namely allyl methyl sulfide (AMS), allyl methyl sulfoxide (AMSO) and allyl methyl sulfone (AMSO2). Of these, only AMS had a garlic-like odor whereas the other two metabolites were odorless. This demonstrates that the odor change in human milk is not related to a direct transfer of garlic odorants, as is currently believed, but rather derives from a single metabolite. The formation of these metabolites is not fully understood, but AMSO and AMSO2 are most likely formed by the oxidation of AMS in the human body. The excretion rates of these metabolites into breast milk were strongly time-dependent with large inter-individual differences. PMID:27275838

  4. Study of dielectric properties of adulterated milk concentration and freshness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jitendra Murthy, V.; Sai Kiranmai, N.; Kumar, Sanjeev

    2017-08-01

    The knowledge of dielectric properties may hold a potential to develop a new technique for quality evaluation of milk. The dielectric properties of water diluted cow’s milk with milk concentration from 70 percent to 100 percent stored during 36hour storage at 22°C and 144 hour at 5°C were measured at room temperature for frequencies ranging from 10 to 4500 MHz and at low, high & at microwave frequencies using X band bench and open-ended coaxial-line probe technology, along with electrical conductivity. The raw milk had the lowest dielectric constant (ɛ‧) when the frequency was higher than about 20M.Hz, and had the highest loss (ɛ″) or decepation factor tan (δ) at each frequency. The penetration depth (dp) increased with decreasing frequency, water content and storage time, which was large enough to detect dielectric properties changes in milk samples and provide large scale RF pasteurization processes. The loss factor can be an indicator in predicting milk concentration and freshness.

  5. New perspectives in human milk banks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrico Bertino

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Mother’s own milk (MOM is the first choice in preterm infant feeding, and when it is not available or is insufficient, donor human milk (DHM is recommended. It has been shown that feeding preterm infants with human milk is less related to major morbidities, enhances feeding tolerance and prevents metabolic syndrome in childhood. As The Committee on Nutrition of the European Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition (ESPGHAN states, specific guidelines for Human Milk Banks (HMB are needed to guarantee the best possible compromise between microbiological safety and nutritional/biological quality of human milk (HM. Currently, Holder pasteurization (HoP: pasteurization process at 62.5-63°C for 30 minutes is recommended by all international guidelines: this method inactivates bacterial and viral pathogens but it also affects some nutritional and biological properties of human milk. New methods to ameliorate the biological quality and safety of DHM are under investigation in the last years. High Pressure Processing (HPP is a non- thermal process used in food industries: this technology inactivates pathogenic microorganisms by applying hydrostatic high pressure, however further researches are required before applying this technology in milk banking. Ultraviolet-C irradiation (UV-C is another non-thermal method capable of reducing vegetative bacteria in human milk and it also seems to preserve higher levels of immunological proteins than HoP. High-temperature short-time pasteurization (HTST: flash pasteurization, 72°C for 5-15 seconds currently is available only at industrial level, but it could represent an alternative to HoP seeming to maintain the protein profile and some of the key active components of DHM. Further researches are needed to define the optimal treatment of DHM. Proceedings of the 11th International Workshop on Neonatology and Satellite Meetings · Cagliari (Italy · October 26th-31st, 2015 · From the womb

  6. Human milk donation: what do you know about it?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Katie; Spatz, Diane

    2007-01-01

    The American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) strongly endorses that human milk is species specific and the optimal nutrition for infants, and that banked human milk is a suitable alternative. After the death of an infant, breast milk often is disposed of without consideration of donation because the public and healthcare providers are unaware of human milk banks. In the United States, 10 human milk banks operate under strict guidelines established by the Human Milk Banking Association of North America. Donors are screened, and milk is pasteurized while preserving many of the beneficial components of breast milk. It is imperative that healthcare providers become educated regarding human milk banking because of the increase in informal sharing of breast milk via the Internet. Breast milk that has not been screened and treated has the risk of transmitting infections such as hepatitis and HIV. Healthcare providers should be familiar with the selection criteria for suitable donors and how to approach families when the death of an infant is imminent. Human milk banks are able to provide human milk to adopted, preterm, or ill infants whose mothers are unable to provide their own milk.

  7. Potassium in milk and milk products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sombrito, E.Z.; Nuguid, Z.F.S.; Tangonan, M.C.

    1989-01-01

    The amount of potassium in imported processed milk was determined by gamma spectral analysis. The results show that the potassium content of diluted infant formula milk is closest to the reported mean concentration of potassium in human milk while other milk types have potassium values similar to the potassium content of cow milk. (Auth.). 2 figs., 5 refs

  8. Occurrence of bifidobacteria in human milk

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rada, V.; Nevoral, J.; Flajšmanová, K.; Ročková, Š.; Krčmová, I.; Grmanová, M.; Vlková, E.; Nováková, I.; Killer, Jiří; Kopečný, Jan

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 66, č. 2 (2011), s. 123-126 ISSN 0026-3788 Grant - others:Ministerstvo zdravotnictví ČR(CZ) NR8310 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50450515 Keywords : Human milk Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 0.350, year: 2011

  9. Nonprofit Human Milk Banking in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Updegrove, Kimberly

    2013-01-01

    Human milk, widely understood to be beneficial for infants, can be lifesaving for preterm neonates, especially in reducing the risk of necrotizing enterocolitis. Donor human milk (DHM) is an option when mothers are unable to provide milk or have an inadequate supply for their infants. Nonprofit donor human milk banks are established to provide safe, processed human milk from milk donated by healthy lactating mothers who have undergone a rigorous screening process. These milk banks, operating under the auspices of the Human Milk Banking Association of North America, obtain, process, and dispense human milk under strict guidelines set by the association. Increasing the supply of donor human milk to meet a dramatic increase in demand poses a significant challenge for nonprofit milk banks. Efforts to increase supply nationwide include education of providers, use of social media to engage potential donors, and outreach to news media. In parallel, milk banks are establishing regional depots to collect donations, and additional milk banks are being developed. This article describes the current nonprofit milk bank industry in the United States, its challenges, and its future prospects. © 2013 by the American College of Nurse‐Midwives.

  10. Human Milk Glycoproteins Protect Infants Against Human Pathogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bo

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Breastfeeding protects the neonate against pathogen infection. Major mechanisms of protection include human milk glycoconjugates functioning as soluble receptor mimetics that inhibit pathogen binding to the mucosal cell surface, prebiotic stimulation of gut colonization by favorable microbiota, immunomodulation, and as a substrate for bacterial fermentation products in the gut. Human milk proteins are predominantly glycosylated, and some biological functions of these human milk glycoproteins (HMGPs) have been reported. HMGPs range in size from 14 kDa to 2,000 kDa and include mucins, secretory immunoglobulin A, bile salt-stimulated lipase, lactoferrin, butyrophilin, lactadherin, leptin, and adiponectin. This review summarizes known biological roles of HMGPs that may contribute to the ability of human milk to protect neonates from disease. PMID:23697737

  11. Mercury and cadmium concentrations in milk in Puerto Rico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chellapan, S.; Pedersen, K.B.; Plaza, H.

    1976-01-01

    Milk was collected over a four-month period from three representative sectors of Puerto Rico. Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) performed on the samples showed that the mercury concentration was slightly higher than safe upper limit set by the World Health Organization on food products. The values reported here for mercury concentrations are very similar to those found for dairy products in the Toronto area of Canada in 1970, but considerably higher than some reported from the United States in 1964. Mean cadmium concentrations were found to be higher than the values reported in the literature. Some variations in cadmium concentrations were observed areawide as well as a function of time. MURTHY et al reported the cadmium concentration in milk to be 0.018 to 0.03 ppm in the United States in the year 1967; this is about one sixth of the concentrations found in this study for Puerto Rico. In addition to INAA atomic absorption photospectrometry was used on a smaller number of samples to verify the concentration levels of cadmium. For this determination nine milk samples and two blanks were analyzed. The concentrations were found to vary between 0.01 and 0.06 ppm. These values are in better agreement with the values reported for the United States than are the ones obtained from using INAA; however, their spread is much greater. (T.G.)

  12. Human milk banks: lights and shadows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arianna Aceti

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Breastfeeding is the most appropriate source of nutrition also for preterm infants. When mother’s own milk is not available, donor human milk (DHM, provided from a human milk bank (HMB, or formula can be used. Infants fed DHM grow at a slower rate than formula-fed infants. However, DHM has the advantage over formula to retain some of the bioactive properties of naïve human milk. Given the wide variability of DHM content and its generally low macronutrient content, individualised fortification represents a more valid option than standard fortification in order to meet the high nutritional requirements of preterm infants. Pasteurization is necessary to reduce bacterial count in DHM. Holder pasteurization, which is recommended in most HMB guidelines, has several limitations, because it impairs macronutrient and functional components of DHM. Alternative methods of pasteurization, which would be capable of retaining the bioactive properties of DHM with the highest level of microbiological safety, are currently under investigation. Proceedings of the 10th International Workshop on Neonatology · Cagliari (Italy · October 22nd-25th, 2014 · The last ten years, the next ten years in Neonatology Guest Editors: Vassilios Fanos, Michele Mussap, Gavino Faa, Apostolos Papageorgiou 

  13. Serum immunoglobulin A concentration in infancy, but not human milk immunoglobulin A, is associated with subsequent atopic manifestations in children and adolescents: a 20-year prospective follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesonen, M; Kallio, M J T; Siimes, M A; Savilahti, E; Ranki, A

    2011-05-01

    Serum and secretory IgA concentrations have been suggested to be inversely associated with allergic symptoms in children. Furthermore, low maternal milk IgA concentration has been suggested to be associated with the development of cow's milk allergy. Our aim was to explore whether the serum IgA concentrations in infancy and the IgA concentration of maternal milk predict atopic manifestations in childhood and up to age 20 years. A cohort of 200 unselected full-term newborns was prospectively followed up from birth to age 20 years with measurement of serum total IgA at ages 2 and 6 months. The mothers were encouraged to maintain exclusive breastfeeding for as long as possible. Total IgA concentration of maternal milk was measured at birth (colostrum, n=169) and at 2 (n=167) and 6 (n=119) months of lactation. The children were re-assessed at ages 5, 11 and 20 years for the occurrence of allergic symptoms, with skin prick testing and measurement of serum IgE. Children and adolescents with respiratory allergic symptoms and sensitization had a higher serum IgA concentration at age 2 months than the non-atopic subjects. Colostrum and breast milk IgA concentrations were not associated with the development of allergic symptoms in the recipient infant. However, maternal milk IgA concentration at 6 months of lactation was inversely associated with elevated serum total IgE and positive skin prick test to tree pollen in the offspring at age 20 years. Increased serum IgA concentration at age 2 months is associated with the development of subsequent allergic symptoms and sensitization in childhood and adolescence. Maternal milk IgA concentrations are not associated with subsequent allergic symptoms in the recipient infant. The present study provides novel information on the role of IgA in the development of respiratory allergy and sensitization. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  14. Adaptive models for online estimation of individual milk yield response to concentrate intake and milking interval length of dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    André, G.; Engel, B.; Berentsen, P.B.M.; Oude Lansink, A.G.J.M.

    2011-01-01

    Automated feeding and milking of dairy cows enables the application of individual cow settings for concentrate supply and milking frequency. Currently, general settings are used, based on knowledge about energy and nutrient requirements in relation to milk production at the group level. Individual

  15. Bile salt-stimulated lipase of human milk: characterization of the enzyme from preterm and term milk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freed, L.M.; Hamosh, P.; Hamosh, M.

    1986-01-01

    The bile salt-stimulated lipase (BSSL) of human milk is an important digestive enzyme in the newborn whose pancreatic function is immature. Milk from mothers delivering premature infants (preterm milk) has similar levels of BSSL activity to that of mothers of term infants (term milk). This study has determined whether the BSSL in preterm milk has the same characteristics as that in term milk. Milk samples were collected during the first 12 wk of lactation from seven mothers of infants born at 26-30 wk (very preterm, VPT), 31-37 wk (preterm, PT) and 37-42 wk (term, T) gestation. BSSL activity was measured using 3 H-triolein emulsion as substrate. Time course, bile salt and enzyme concentration, pH and pH stability were studied, as well as inhibition of BSSL by eserine. The characteristics of BSSL from preterm and term milk were identical as were comparisons between colostrum and mature milk BSSL. BSSL from all milk sources had a neutral-to-alkaline pH optimum (pH 7.3-8.9), was stable at low pH for 60 min, and was 95-100% inhibited by eserine (greater than or equal to 0.6 mM). BSSL activity, regardless of enzyme source, was bile-salt dependent and was stimulated only by primary bile salts (taurocholate, glycocholate). The data indicate that the BSSL in milks of mothers delivering as early as 26 wk gestation is identical to that in term milk

  16. Chemical Biomarkers of Human Breast Milk Pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benedetta Marchi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Human milk is, without question, the best source of nutrition for infants containing the optimal balance of fats, carbohydrates and proteins for developing babies. Breastfeeding provides a range of benefits for growth, immunity and development building a powerful bond between mother and her child. Recognition of the manifold benefits of breast milk has led to the adoption of breast-feeding policies by numerous health and professional organizations such as the World Health Organization and American Academy of Pediatrics.In industrially developed as well as in developing nations, human milk contamination by toxic chemicals such as heavy metals, dioxins and organohalogen compounds, however, is widespread and is the consequence of decades of inadequately controlled pollution. Through breastfeeding, the mother may transfer to the suckling infant potentially toxic chemicals to which the mother has previously been exposed.In the present review, environmental exposure, acquisition and current levels of old and emerging classes of breast milk pollutants are systematically presented. Although scientific evidences indicated that the advantages of breast-feeding outweigh any risks from contaminants, it is important to identify contaminant trends, to locate disproportionately exposed populations, and to take public health measures to improve chemical BM pollution as possible.

  17. Short communication: Factors affecting vitamin B12 concentration in milk of commercial dairy herds: An exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duplessis, M; Pellerin, D; Cue, R I; Girard, C L

    2016-06-01

    Only bacteria can synthesize vitamin B12, and this requires adequate Co supply. The natural source of vitamin B12 in human diets comes from animal products, especially those from ruminants. This study aimed to describe variability regarding vitamin B12 concentration in milk among and within commercial dairy herds in early lactation. A secondary objective was to explore potential causes for this variability such as genetic variation and diet characteristics. In total, 399 dairy cows (135 primiparous and 264 multiparous; 386 Holstein and 13 Jersey cows) in 15 commercial herds were involved. Milk samples were taken at 27.4±4.1 and 55.4±4.1d in milk. Neither parity (primiparous vs. multiparous) nor sampling time affected milk concentrations of vitamin B12. Nevertheless, vitamin B12 concentration in milk was highly variable among and within dairy herds. The lowest vitamin B12 concentration in milk of cows was observed in the Jersey herd. Among herds, vitamin B12 concentration in milk ranged from 2,309 to 3,878 pg/mL; one glass (250mL) of milk from those herds would provide between 23 and 40% of the vitamin B12 recommended daily allowance. Among individual cows, however, this provision varied between 16 and 57% of the recommendation. In spite of the limited size of the studied population, the heritability value was 0.23, suggesting that genetic selection could modify milk vitamin B12 concentration. We observed a positive relationship between milk vitamin B12 concentration and dietary acid detergent fiber content and a negative relationship between milk concentration of vitamin B12 and dietary crude protein content. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. High-Temperature Short-Time Pasteurization System for Donor Milk in a Human Milk Bank Setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Escuder-Vieco

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Donor milk is the best alternative for the feeding of preterm newborns when mother's own milk is unavailable. For safety reasons, it is usually pasteurized by the Holder method (62.5°C for 30 min. Holder pasteurization results in a microbiological safe product but impairs the activity of many biologically active compounds such as immunoglobulins, enzymes, cytokines, growth factors, hormones or oxidative stress markers. High-temperature short-time (HTST pasteurization has been proposed as an alternative for a better preservation of some of the biological components of human milk although, at present, there is no equipment available to perform this treatment under the current conditions of a human milk bank. In this work, the specific needs of a human milk bank setting were considered to design an HTST equipment for the continuous and adaptable (time-temperature combination processing of donor milk. Microbiological quality, activity of indicator enzymes and indices for thermal damage of milk were evaluated before and after HTST treatment of 14 batches of donor milk using different temperature and time combinations and compared to the results obtained after Holder pasteurization. The HTST system has accurate and simple operation, allows the pasteurization of variable amounts of donor milk and reduces processing time and labor force. HTST processing at 72°C for, at least, 10 s efficiently destroyed all vegetative forms of microorganisms present initially in raw donor milk although sporulated Bacillus sp. survived this treatment. Alkaline phosphatase was completely destroyed after HTST processing at 72 and 75°C, but γ-glutamil transpeptidase showed higher thermoresistance. Furosine concentrations in HTST-treated donor milk were lower than after Holder pasteurization and lactulose content for HTST-treated donor milk was below the detection limit of analytical method (10 mg/L. In conclusion, processing of donor milk at 72°C for at least 10 s in

  19. High-Temperature Short-Time Pasteurization System for Donor Milk in a Human Milk Bank Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escuder-Vieco, Diana; Espinosa-Martos, Irene; Rodríguez, Juan M; Corzo, Nieves; Montilla, Antonia; Siegfried, Pablo; Pallás-Alonso, Carmen R; Fernández, Leónides

    2018-01-01

    Donor milk is the best alternative for the feeding of preterm newborns when mother's own milk is unavailable. For safety reasons, it is usually pasteurized by the Holder method (62.5°C for 30 min). Holder pasteurization results in a microbiological safe product but impairs the activity of many biologically active compounds such as immunoglobulins, enzymes, cytokines, growth factors, hormones or oxidative stress markers. High-temperature short-time (HTST) pasteurization has been proposed as an alternative for a better preservation of some of the biological components of human milk although, at present, there is no equipment available to perform this treatment under the current conditions of a human milk bank. In this work, the specific needs of a human milk bank setting were considered to design an HTST equipment for the continuous and adaptable (time-temperature combination) processing of donor milk. Microbiological quality, activity of indicator enzymes and indices for thermal damage of milk were evaluated before and after HTST treatment of 14 batches of donor milk using different temperature and time combinations and compared to the results obtained after Holder pasteurization. The HTST system has accurate and simple operation, allows the pasteurization of variable amounts of donor milk and reduces processing time and labor force. HTST processing at 72°C for, at least, 10 s efficiently destroyed all vegetative forms of microorganisms present initially in raw donor milk although sporulated Bacillus sp. survived this treatment. Alkaline phosphatase was completely destroyed after HTST processing at 72 and 75°C, but γ-glutamil transpeptidase showed higher thermoresistance. Furosine concentrations in HTST-treated donor milk were lower than after Holder pasteurization and lactulose content for HTST-treated donor milk was below the detection limit of analytical method (10 mg/L). In conclusion, processing of donor milk at 72°C for at least 10 s in this HTST system

  20. High-Temperature Short-Time Pasteurization System for Donor Milk in a Human Milk Bank Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escuder-Vieco, Diana; Espinosa-Martos, Irene; Rodríguez, Juan M.; Corzo, Nieves; Montilla, Antonia; Siegfried, Pablo; Pallás-Alonso, Carmen R.; Fernández, Leónides

    2018-01-01

    Donor milk is the best alternative for the feeding of preterm newborns when mother's own milk is unavailable. For safety reasons, it is usually pasteurized by the Holder method (62.5°C for 30 min). Holder pasteurization results in a microbiological safe product but impairs the activity of many biologically active compounds such as immunoglobulins, enzymes, cytokines, growth factors, hormones or oxidative stress markers. High-temperature short-time (HTST) pasteurization has been proposed as an alternative for a better preservation of some of the biological components of human milk although, at present, there is no equipment available to perform this treatment under the current conditions of a human milk bank. In this work, the specific needs of a human milk bank setting were considered to design an HTST equipment for the continuous and adaptable (time-temperature combination) processing of donor milk. Microbiological quality, activity of indicator enzymes and indices for thermal damage of milk were evaluated before and after HTST treatment of 14 batches of donor milk using different temperature and time combinations and compared to the results obtained after Holder pasteurization. The HTST system has accurate and simple operation, allows the pasteurization of variable amounts of donor milk and reduces processing time and labor force. HTST processing at 72°C for, at least, 10 s efficiently destroyed all vegetative forms of microorganisms present initially in raw donor milk although sporulated Bacillus sp. survived this treatment. Alkaline phosphatase was completely destroyed after HTST processing at 72 and 75°C, but γ-glutamil transpeptidase showed higher thermoresistance. Furosine concentrations in HTST-treated donor milk were lower than after Holder pasteurization and lactulose content for HTST-treated donor milk was below the detection limit of analytical method (10 mg/L). In conclusion, processing of donor milk at 72°C for at least 10 s in this HTST system

  1. Gastrointestinal-active oligosaccharides from human milk and functional foods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Albrecht, S.A.

    2011-01-01

    Keywords: human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs), galacto-oligosaccharides (GOS), konjac glucomannan (KGM), breast milk, baby feces, gastrointestinal metabolization, blood-group specific conjugates, CE-LIF-MSn

    Oligosaccharides, as present in human milk or supplemented to food, are

  2. Human Milk Analysis Using Mid-Infrared Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groh-Wargo, Sharon; Valentic, Jennifer; Khaira, Sharmeel; Super, Dennis M; Collin, Marc

    2016-04-01

    The composition of human milk is known to vary with length of gestation, stage of lactation, and other factors. Human milk contains all nutrients required for infant health but requires fortification to meet the needs of low-birth-weight infants. Without a known nutrient profile of the mother's milk or donor milk fed to a baby, the composition of the fortified product is only an estimate. Human milk analysis has the potential to improve the nutrition care of high-risk newborns by increasing the information about human milk composition. Equipment to analyze human milk is available, and the technology is rapidly evolving. This pilot study compares mid-infrared (MIR) spectroscopy to reference laboratory milk analysis. After obtaining informed consent, we collected human milk samples from mothers of infants weighing milk obtained by MIR vs reference laboratory analysis. MIR analysis appears to provide an accurate assessment of macronutrient content in expressed human milk from mothers of preterm infants. The small sample size of this study limits confidence in the results. Measurement of lactose is confounded by the presence of oligosaccharides. Human milk analysis is a potentially useful tool for establishing an individualized fortification plan. © 2015 American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition.

  3. ELECTROLYTE AND MINERAL COMPOSITION OF TERM DONOR HUMAN MILK BEFORE AND AFTER PASTEURIZATION AND OF RAW MILK OF PRETERM MOTHERS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Codo, Carla Regina Bianchi; Caldas, Jamil Pedro de Siqueira; Peixoto, Rafaella Regina Alves; Sanches, Vitor Lacerda; Guiraldelo, Tamara Cristina; Cadore, Solange; Marba, Sérgio Tadeu Martins

    2018-02-22

    To determine and compare the concentrations of electrolytes and minerals in three different types of maternal milk samples: term donor milk before pasteurization, term donor milk after pasteurization and raw milk of mothers of preterm newborns at bedside. Descriptive cross-sectional study. Concentrations of calcium (Ca), phosphorous (P), magnesium (Mg), sodium (Na) and potassium (K) were measured in random samples of three human breast milk groups. Samples were analyzed using acid mineralization assisted by microwave radiation and further analysis by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry. Concentrations were expressed in mg/L, described as mean and standard deviation. The one-way ANOVA and Tukey's post-test were applied to determine the variability between the means of each group. Significance level was set at 5%. There was a significant reduction in the content of Ca (259.4±96.8 vs. 217.0±54.9; p=0.003), P (139.1±51.7 vs. 116.8±33.3; p=0.004) and K (580.8±177.1 vs. 470.9±109.4; ppasteurization. Samples of raw milk presented higher contents of Na than the donated milk (twice). The elements P and Ca would only reach the daily intake levels recommended by the European Society of Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition if at least 60 mL of milk could be offered every 3 hours. Mg levels were not different between the three groups. There was a significant reduction in Ca, P and K levels in samples after pasteurization. The Na value in raw milk, collected at bedside, was higher than in the samples of donor's milk before pasteurization.

  4. Human breast milk immunology: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paramasivam, K; Michie, C; Opara, E; Jewell, A P

    2006-01-01

    Breast feeding has been shown to enhance the development of the immune system of the newborn as well as provide protection against enteric and respiratory infections. It has been suggested that implementation of breast feeding programs has the potential to save hundreds of thousands of lives worldwide. Human milk is a bodily fluid which, apart from being an excellent nutritional source for the growing infant, also contains a variety of immune components such as antibodies, growth factors, cytokines, antimicrobial compounds, and specific immune cells. These help to support the immature immune system of the newborn baby, and protect it against infectious risks during the postnatal period while its own immune system matures. This article reviews some of the factors in human breast milk that give it these important properties.

  5. Donor human milk for preterm infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arslanoglu, Sertac; Corpeleijn, Willemijn; Moro, Guido

    2013-01-01

    guidelines. Storage and processing of human milk reduces some biological components, which may diminish its health benefits. From a nutritional point of view, DHM, like HM, does not meet the requirements of preterm infants, necessitating a specific fortification regimen to optimize growth. Future research......The Committee on Nutrition of the European Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition aims to document the existing evidence of the benefits and common concerns deriving from the use of donor human milk (DHM) in preterm infants. The comment also outlines gaps in knowledge...... and gives recommendations for practice and suggestions for future research directions. Protection against necrotizing enterocolitis is the major clinical benefit deriving from the use of DHM when compared with formula. Limited data also suggest unfortified DHM to be associated with improved feeding...

  6. Characteristics of the regional human milk bank in Poland - donors, recipients and nutritional value of human milk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbarska, Olga; Zielińska, Monika; Pawlus, Beata; Wesołowska, Aleksandra

    In case of shortage of breast milk despite proper lactation care or the poor state of the mother’s health, breast milk from human milk bank is recommended for feeding preterm infants This study retrospectively evaluated the first year of the operation of the Regional Human Milk Bank Data concerning donors was collected in the human milk bank during the cooperation. The clinical characteristics of the recipients was made on the basis of medical documentation from the Holy Family Hospital in Warsaw, Poland. Analysis of nutritional value was performed with the human milk analyzer (MIRIS AB) In the first year of activity, 45 voluntary donors established cooperation, donating from 650 to 32030 ml of human milk. The content of nutrients in milk provided by donors was variable - protein 0.4-1.5 g / 100 ml, fat 1.1-7.4 g / 100 ml, carbohydrates 6.3-7.9 g / 100 ml. The average length of using donated human milk was 4 days and the average volume of milk for one infant was 282 ml The donor profiles have a significant impact on the milk composition form HMB. The nutritional value can be improved by recruitment donors from mothers that gave birth prematurely and by beginning donation at earlier stages of lactation as soon as lactation is stabilized. In case of shortage of mothers own milk the immediate implementation of donors milk as a short-term support can significantly reduce the food intolerance incidence in the group of prematurely born infants

  7. Characteristics of the first human milk bank in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Fang-Yuan; Cheng, Shao-Wen; Wu, Tsung-Zu; Fang, Li-Jung

    2013-02-01

    The benefits of feeding human milk to infants, even in prematurity, have been well documented. Well-organized donor milk processing has made the milk bank a good source of nutrition for premature or sick infants if their own mother's milk is not sufficient or suitable. The Taipei City Hospital Milk Bank was established in 2005 and is the first nonprofit human milk bank to operate in Taiwan. The milk bank has adopted standards of practice laid down by the Human Milk Banking Association of North America and United Kingdom Association for Milk Banking. The clinical characteristics of the eligible milk donors, the recipients, and the donor milk were reviewed retrospectively. In the past 6 years, 816 eligible donors donated a total or 13,900 L (mean 17.03 L/donor) of breast milk. The mean age of these donors was 31.3 years, and 79.7% of them had college education. Most had term delivery (91.2%), with mean birth weight of their babies being 3120 g; 68.9% of the donors were primiparas. A total of 551 infants had received bank milk, with these indications: prematurity (65.4%), malabsorption (7.6%), feeding intolerance (7.2%), maternal illness (5.1%) and post-surgery (4.6%). The pass rate of raw donor milk was around 72.1%. The most common reasons to discard raw milk were Gram-negative rods contamination (72.8%) and ≥10 colony-forming units/mL of coagulase-negative Staphylococcus (62.3%). Only 0.63% of donor milk post pasteurization showed bacterial growth. Proper management and operation of a human milk bank can support breastfeeding, and provide a safe alternative to artificial formula for feeding preterm or ill infants in Taiwan. Sustainability of the milk bank needs more propagation and financial support by health authorities. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. Effect of human milk prostaglandins and lactoferrin on respiratory syncytial virus and rotavirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grover, M; Giouzeppos, O; Schnagl, R D; May, J T

    1997-03-01

    The effect of lactoferrin and prostaglandins E and F2 alpha on the growth of rotavirus and respiratory syncytial virus in cell culture was investigated. Lactoferrin inhibited the growth of respiratory syncytial virus at a concentration tenfold lower than that normally present in human milk. The prostaglandins had no effect on either virus growth, even at a concentration of 100-fold more than that found in human milk. Lactoferrin may have some antiviral properties in human milk in addition to its known antibacterial functions.

  9. Dioxins/furans and PCBs in Canadian human milk: 2008-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawn, Dorothea F K; Sadler, Amy R; Casey, Valerie A; Breton, François; Sun, Wing-Fung; Arbuckle, Tye E; Fraser, William D

    2017-10-01

    Human milk was collected between 2008 and 2011 as part of the Maternal - Infant Research on Environmental Chemicals (MIREC) study that was initiated to establish Canadian national estimates of maternal and infant exposure to a broad suite of environmental contaminants (e.g., persistent organic pollutants [POPs], trace elements, phthalates, etc.). Among the 1017 human milk samples collected, 298 were analysed for polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). World Health Organization (WHO) toxic equivalency concentrations (WHO TEQ 2005 ) for PCDD/F+dioxin-like (DL) PCB ranged from 2.2pg TEQ 2005 g -1 lipid to 27pg TEQ 2005 g -1 lipid. The relative contribution of PCDDs to the overall WHO TEQ 2005 (PCDD/F+DL PCB) has decreased from earlier investigations into POP levels in Canadian human milk. Significantly higher PCB concentrations were observed in milk from women born in Europe relative to those born in Canada (pmilk ∑PCB concentrations (p=0.018), with elevated concentrations observed in milk from women >30years relative to those milk from primiparous women (p=0.019) and those >30years relative to those milk since the last sampling of human milk was performed. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Persistent organochlorines in human breast milk collected from primiparae in Dalian and Shenyang, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunisue, Tatsuya; Someya, Masayuki; Kayama, Fujio; Jin Yihe; Tanabe, Shinsuke

    2004-01-01

    The present study determined the concentrations of organochlorines (OCs) such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane and its metabolites (DDTs), hexachlorocyclohexane isomers (HCHs), chlordane compounds (CHLs), hexachlorobenzene (HCB) and tris(4-chlorophenyl)methane (TCPMe) in human breast milk collected from primiparae in Dalian and Shenyang, northeastern China during 2002. In addition, dioxins and related compounds in pooled samples of human breast milk from Dalian and Shenyang were also analyzed. OCs were detected in all the human breast milk samples analyzed in this study. The predominant contaminants in human breast milk were HCHs, DDTs and HCB, and the levels were relatively higher than those in other countries. On the other hand, concentrations of dioxins and related compounds, PCBs, and CHLs were relatively low. Concentrations of OCs in human breast milk from Dalian, which is located along the coast of Bo Hai Strait, were significantly higher than those from Shenyang, implying that the residents in Dalian might be mainly exposed to these contaminants from seafood. When the relationship between concentrations of OCs in human breast milk and age of primiparae was examined, no significant correlation was observed. This might be caused by the limited sample numbers and narrow range of mother's age and/or recent ban of DDT and HCH production and use. Significant correlation between concentrations of TCPMe and DDTs in human breast milk suggested that technical DDT might be a source of TCPMe in the Chinese population. When daily intakes of DDTs and HCHs to infants through human breast milk were estimated, human breast milk from Dalian showed significantly higher contribution than Shenyang, implying that infants in Dalian might be at higher risk by these contaminants

  11. [Characteristics of the Chinese human milk banks' operation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-02

    Objective: To assess the operation status of human milk banks in the mainland of China. Method: This retrospective study included a consecutive series of 14 human milk banks in the mainland of China from March 2013 to December 2016. The opened date, condition of donated breast milk, characteristics of donors and clinical application of donated breast milk were analyzed. Result: There were 14 human milk banks successively founded in mainland China from March 2013 to December 2016. The number of human milk banks, the amount of donated breast milk, the number of eligible donors and the times of donation had increased each year. Howere, the operation status among these milk banks varied greatly. Among them, one human milk bank has newly opened without relevant data, 6 banks could accept frozen breast milk, and the remaining 7 banks could only collect breast milk by the nurses in the bank. Among the 3 121 eligible donors, 1 404 (45.0%) donated less than 3 times, 2 553 (81.8%) aged 25 to 35 years, 2 828 (90.6%) had term delivery, 2 409 (77.2%) began donation one month after birth, 1 798 (57.6%) were company employees and housewives and 1 891 (60.6%) had bachelor or higher degree. The use of donor breast milk, the number of recipients and the average received amount of breast milk every person varied greatly among these banks. Conclusion: The human milk banking developed quickly in the mainland of China. Howere, the number of donors and the amount of donated breast milk which could not meet the clinical demands should be improved. And it was urgent to establish the standards or guidelines of the human milk banking as soon as possible in China.

  12. Mineral balance studies in very low birth weight infants fed human milk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schanler, R.J.; Abrams, S.A.; Garza, C.

    1988-01-01

    Mineral homeostasis often is disrupted in the very low birth weight (VLBW) infant fed either human milk or commercial formula that contains insufficient quantities of available calcium (Ca) and phosphorus (P). Alterations in mineral homeostasis include abnormal patterns of serum (Ca and P concentrations and alkaline phosphatase activity) and urine (Ca and P) biochemical markers, low net Ca and P retentions in comparison with intrauterine estimates of mineral accretion, and decreased bone mineral content. A two-phase study was conducted in our laboratory to test for these alterations in mineral homeostasis. In phase 1, VLBW infants fed a preparation of fortified human milk (either human milk-derived fortifier I or II or cow milk-derived fortifier) or cow milk-based formula specially designed for VLBW infants were evaluated during their hospitalization. In phase 2, after hospitalization, these infants were evaluated during the first 6 months of life when fed either their mother's milk or routine formula exclusively. The bioavailability of Ca and P from the tested preparations varied widely. Although the fortification of human milk resulted in both an improved biochemical pattern and net retention of Ca and P, optimal intrauterine mineral accretion was not achieved in any group tested. Longitudinal assessments of bone mineralization, by single photon absorptiometry, demonstrated that human milk-fed former VLBW infants had reduced bone mineral content. These investigations suggest that former VLBW infants fed human milk exclusively may be at risk for Ca and P deficiencies

  13. Are fat acids of human milk impacted by pasteurization and freezing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borgo, Luiz Antônio; Coelho Araújo, Wilma Maria; Conceição, Maria Hosana; Sabioni Resck, Inês; Mendonça, Márcio Antonio

    2014-10-03

    The Human Milk Bank undergo human milk to pasteurization, followed by storage in a freezer at -18° C for up to six months to thus keep available the stocks of this product in maternal and infant hospitals. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of processing on the lipid fraction of human milk. A sample of human milk was obtained from a donor and was subdivided into ten sub-samples that was subjected to the following treatments: LC = raw milk; T0 = milk after pasteurization; T30 = milk after pasteurization and freezing for 30 days; T60 = milk after pasteurization and freeze for 60 days, and so on every 30 days until T240 = milk after pasteurization and freezing for 240 days, with 3 repetitions for each treatment. Lipids were extracted, methylated and fatty acid profiles determined by gas chromatography. The fatty acids were characterized by nuclear magnetic resonance and functional groups were identified by infrared spectroscopy. There were variations in the concentration of fatty acids. For unsaturated fatty acids there was increasing trend in their concentrations. The IR and NMR analyze characterized and identified functional groups presents in fatty acids. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  14. Nutritional adequacy of a novel human milk fortifier from donkey milk in feeding preterm infants: study protocol of a randomized controlled clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coscia, Alessandra; Bertino, Enrico; Tonetto, Paola; Peila, Chiara; Cresi, Francesco; Arslanoglu, Sertac; Moro, Guido E; Spada, Elena; Milani, Silvano; Giribaldi, Marzia; Antoniazzi, Sara; Conti, Amedeo; Cavallarin, Laura

    2018-01-09

    Fortification of human milk is a standard practice for feeding very low birth weight infants. However, preterm infants often still experience suboptimal growth and feeding intolerance. New fortification strategies and different commercially available fortifiers have been developed. Commercially available fortifiers are constituted by a blend of ingredients from different sources, including plant oils and bovine milk proteins, thus presenting remarkable differences in the quality of macronutrients with respect to human milk. Based on the consideration that donkey milk has been suggested as a valid alternative for children allergic to cow's milk proteins, due to its biochemical similarity to human milk, we hypothesized that donkey milk could be a suitable ingredient for developing an innovative human milk fortifier. The aim of the study is to evaluate feeding tolerance, growth and clinical short and long-term outcomes in a population of preterm infants fed with a novel multi-component fortifier and a protein concentrate derived from donkey milk, in comparison to an analogous population fed with traditional fortifier and protein supplement containing bovine milk proteins. The study has been designed as a randomized, controlled, single-blind clinical trial. Infants born milk-based multicomponent fortifier and protein supplement, or a combination of a novel multicomponent fortifier and protein supplement derived from donkey milk. The fortification protocol followed is the same for the two groups, and the two diets were designed to be isoproteic and isocaloric. Weight, length and head circumference are measured; feeding tolerance is assessed by a standardized protocol. The occurrence of sepsis, necrotizing enterocolitis and adverse effects are monitored. This is the first clinical study investigating the use of a human milk fortifier derived from donkey milk for the nutrition of preterm infants. If donkey milk derived products will be shown to improve the feeding

  15. Bovine milk in human nutrition--a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haug, Anna; Høstmark, Arne T; Harstad, Odd M

    2007-09-25

    Milk and milk products are nutritious food items containing numerous essential nutrients, but in the western societies the consumption of milk has decreased partly due to claimed negative health effects. The content of oleic acid, conjugated linoleic acid, omega-3 fatty acids, short- and medium chain fatty acids, vitamins, minerals and bioactive compounds may promote positive health effects. Full-fat milk has been shown to increase the mean gastric emptying time compared to half-skimmed milk, thereby increasing the gastrointestinal transit time. Also the low pH in fermented milk may delay the gastric emptying. Hence, it may be suggested that ingesting full-fat milk or fermented milk might be favourable for glycaemic (and appetite?) regulation. For some persons milk proteins, fat and milk sugar may be of health concern. The interaction between carbohydrates (both natural milk sugar and added sugar) and protein in milk exposed to heat may give products, whose effects on health should be further studied, and the increasing use of sweetened milk products should be questioned. The concentration in milk of several nutrients can be manipulated through feeding regimes. There is no evidence that moderate intake of milk fat gives increased risk of diseases.

  16. Relationships Among Microbial Communities, Maternal Cells, Oligosaccharides, and Macronutrients in Human Milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Janet E; Price, William J; Shafii, Bahman; Yahvah, Katherine M; Bode, Lars; McGuire, Mark A; McGuire, Michelle K

    2017-08-01

    Human milk provides all essential nutrients necessary for early life and is rich in nonnutrients, maternally derived (host) cells, and bacteria, but almost nothing is known about the interplay among these components. Research aim: The primary objective of this research was to characterize relationships among macronutrients, maternal cells, and bacteria in milk. Milk samples were collected from 16 women and analyzed for protein, lipid, fatty acid, lactose, and human milk oligosaccharide concentrations. Concentrations of maternal cells were determined using microscopy, and somatic cell counts were enumerated. Microbial ecologies were characterized using culture-independent methods. Absolute and relative concentrations of maternal cells were mostly consistent within each woman as were relative abundances of bacterial genera, and there were many apparent relationships between these factors. For instance, relative abundance of Serratia was negatively associated with somatic cell counts ( r = -.47, p < .0001) and neutrophil concentration ( r = -.38, p < .0006). Concentrations of several oligosaccharides were correlated with maternally derived cell types as well as somatic cell counts; for example, lacto-N-tetraose and lacto-N-neotetraose were inversely correlated with somatic cell counts ( r = -.64, p = .0082; r = -.52, p = .0387, respectively), and relative abundance of Staphylococcus was positively associated with total oligosaccharide concentration ( r = .69, p = .0034). Complex relationships between milk nutrients and bacterial community profile, maternal cells, and milk oligosaccharides were also apparent. These data support the possibility that profiles of maternally derived cells, nutrient concentrations, and the microbiome of human milk might be interrelated.

  17. Mastitis Modifies the Biogenic Amines Profile in Human Milk, with Significant Changes in the Presence of Histamine, Putrescine and Spermine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Perez

    Full Text Available Biogenic amines (BAs are low molecular weight nitrogenous organic compounds with different biological activities. Putrescine, spermidine and spermine are essential for the development of the gut and immune system of newborns, and are all found in human milk. Little is known, however, about the role of histamine, tyramine or cadaverine in breast milk. Nor is it known whether mastitis alters the BA composition of milk. The BA profile of human milk, and the influence of mastitis on BA concentrations, were therefore investigated. Putrescine, spermidine and spermine were the main BAs detected. In mastitis-affected milk, the concentrations of putrescine, spermine and histamine were higher.

  18. Impact of Neonatal Intensive Care Unit Admission on Bacterial Colonization of Donated Human Milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmekkawi, Amir; O'Connor, Deborah L; Stone, Debbie; Yoon, Eugene W; Larocque, Michael; McGeer, Allison; Unger, Sharon

    2018-05-01

    Unpasteurized human donor milk typically contains a variety of bacteria. The impact of neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) admission of the donor's infant and duration of lactation on bacterial contamination of human milk is unknown. Research aim: This study aimed (a) to describe the frequency/concentration of skin commensal bacteria and pathogens in unpasteurized human donor milk and (b) to assess the impact of NICU admission and (c) the duration of milk expression on bacterial colonization of donated milk. The authors conducted a retrospective cohort study of human milk donated to the Rogers Hixon Ontario Human Milk Bank from January 2013 to June 2014. Milk samples from each donor were cultured every 2 weeks. The study included 198 donor mothers, of whom 63 had infants admitted to the NICU. Of 1,289 cultures obtained, 1,031 (80%) had detectable bacterial growth and 363 (28%) yielded bacterial growth in excess of 10 7 cfu/L, a local threshold for allowable bacteria prior to pasteurization. The mean (standard deviation) donation period per donor was 13.0 (7.5) weeks. Milk from mothers with NICU exposure had significantly higher concentrations of commensals, but not pathogens, at every time period compared with other mothers. For every 1-month increase in donation from all donors, the odds ratio of presence of any commensal in milk increased by 1.13 (95% confidence interval [1.03, 1.23]) and any pathogen by 1.31 (95% confidence interval [1.20, 1.43]). Commensal bacteria were more abundant in donor milk expressed from mothers exposed to neonatal intensive care. Bacterial contamination increased over the milk donation period.

  19. Enzymatic production of human milk oligosaccharides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holck, Jesper; Jers, Carsten; Michalak, Malwina

    2014-01-01

    Human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) are a group of complex glycans that are abundant in human breastmilk. Breastfeeding infants is linked to several beneficial effects like promotion of bifidogenic growth,anti‐adhesive effects by blocking pathogens, and sialylated HMOs are moreover involved...... in infant brain development. Only trace amounts of these oligosaccharides are present in bovine milk‐based infantformula. In order to produce genuine HMOs, this project explores a sustainable way to develop anenzymatic process capable of converting certain kinds of food materials into the desired products....

  20. The macronutrients in human milk change after storage in various containers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yu-Chuan; Chen, Chao-Huei; Lin, Ming-Chih

    2012-06-01

    The concentrations of macronutrients in human milk can be influenced by various processes, such as storage, freezing, and thawing, that are performed by lactating working mothers and breast milk banks. We evaluated the impact of various containers on the nutrient concentrations in human milk. A total of 42 breast milk samples from 18 healthy lactating mothers were collected. A baseline macronutrient concentration was determined for each sample. Then, the breast milk samples were divided and stored in nine different commercial milk containers. After freezing at -20°C for 2 days, the milk samples were thawed and analyzed again. A midinfrared human milk analyzer (HMA) was used to measure the protein, fat, and carbohydrate contents. There was a significant decrease in the fat content following the storage, freezing, and thawing processes, ranging from 0.27-0.30 g/dL (p=0.02), but no significant decrease in energy content (p=0.069) was noted in the nine different containers. There were statistically significant increases in protein and carbohydrate concentrations in all containers (p=0.021 and 0.001, respectively), however there were no significant differences between the containers in terms of fat, protein, carbohydrate, or energy contents. Human milk, when subjected to storage, freezing, and thawing processes, demonstrated a significant decrease in fat content (up to 9% reduction) in various containers. It is better for infants to receive milk directly from the mother via breastfeeding. More studies are warranted to evaluate the effects of milk storage on infant growth and development. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. Effect of Technological Treatments on Human-Like Leptin Level in Bovine Milk for Human Consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magistrelli, Damiano; Rosi, Fabia

    2014-07-23

    In this experiment, raw milk and commercially available full-cream UHT milk, semi-skimmed UHT milk, skimmed UHT milk, full-cream pasteurized milk, semi-skimmed pasteurized milk and infant formulas for babies between 6 and 12 months of age were analyzed by RIA, with a method using an antibody directed against human leptin and human leptin as reference standard. Raw milk and full-cream UHT milk did not differ for human-like leptin. Leptin content of full-cream pasteurized milk was not different to that of full-cream UHT milk, but it was 14% lower ( p raw milk. Human-like leptin level of semi-skimmed UHT milk was not different to that of semi-skimmed pasteurized milk, but it was 30% lower ( p pasteurized milks. In skimmed UHT milk, leptin was 40% lower ( p milk. Leptin was correlated ( p milks. Results suggest that the heat treatment (pasteurization or UHT) is not a modifier of human-like leptin content of edible commercial bovine milks, whereas the skimming process significantly reduces milk leptin level.

  2. Effect of Technological Treatments on Human-Like Leptin Level in Bovine Milk for Human Consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damiano Magistrelli

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In this experiment, raw milk and commercially available full-cream UHT milk, semi-skimmed UHT milk, skimmed UHT milk, full-cream pasteurized milk, semi-skimmed pasteurized milk and infant formulas for babies between 6 and 12 months of age were analyzed by RIA, with a method using an antibody directed against human leptin and human leptin as reference standard. Raw milk and full-cream UHT milk did not differ for human-like leptin. Leptin content of full-cream pasteurized milk was not different to that of full-cream UHT milk, but it was 14% lower (p < 0.05 than that observed in raw milk. Human-like leptin level of semi-skimmed UHT milk was not different to that of semi-skimmed pasteurized milk, but it was 30% lower (p < 0.0001 than those of full-cream UHT and full-cream pasteurized milks. In skimmed UHT milk, leptin was 40% lower (p < 0.0001 than in full-cream UHT milk. Leptin was correlated (p < 0.001 with lipid content. Leptin level of infant formulas was not different to that of skimmed milks. Results suggest that the heat treatment (pasteurization or UHT is not a modifier of human-like leptin content of edible commercial bovine milks, whereas the skimming process significantly reduces milk leptin level.

  3. Turkish Women's Knowledge, Attitudes, and Behaviors on Wet-Nursing, Milk Sharing and Human Milk Banking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ergin, Ahmet; Uzun, S Utku

    2018-04-01

    Purpose The aim of this study was to determine Turkish women's knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors on wet-nursing, milk sharing, and human milk banking in a primary care setting located in a semi-rural area. Description Donated human milk is a feasible option for feeding infants and children. Currently, there is a debate on the topic starts with the preparations to launch a human milk bank in a large city in Turkey. Several previous papers reported women's opinions in large hospital based studies. Little is known about women's views and practice on donated human milk in the rural areas of Turkey. Assessment The study sample was recruited among married women aged 15-49 years who had given birth within the past 5 years and who were in a family health center for any reason in Honaz, Denizli, Turkey. A total of 240 women were included in the study. The data were collected by questionnaire created by the researchers and consisting of two parts: sociodemographic characteristics, and women's knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors on wet-nursing, milk sharing and human milk banking. Results Thirty women (12.5%) had had a wet-nurse; 20 women (8.7%) wet-nursed babies before; and 17 (7.2%) of the women's children had a wet-nurse. If necessary, 80.9 and 78.3% were willing to accept to do wet-nursing and milk sharing, respectively. 150 (62.5%) heard of human milk banks; 55 (22.9%) approved of the establishment of milk banks. However, only 46 women (19.1%) were willing to donate to the bank. Possibility of marriages between milk siblings (76.8%) was the main reason for not considering the donation. Women's education was another factor affecting their opinion on breast milk sharing and donation to human milk banks. Less educated women were sympathetic to milk sharing (p = 0.02), however, more educated mothers had a propensity to donate to milk banks (p = 0.02). Conclusion Wet-nursing decreased over the years in Turkey, but still an ongoing small child feeding method

  4. The suitability of locally produced milk for human consumption ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The basic premise of this paper is that the supply of milk and milk products from the Guildford Dairy Institute (GDI) at Egerton University (EU) in Kenya decreased drastically over the recent past as a result of a nearly six-fold increase in the human population in the area. A drop of 40 % of milk production from the university ...

  5. Fatty acid profile in milk from goats, Capra aegagrus hircus, exposed to perchlorate and its relationship with perchlorate residues in human milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Qiuqiong; Smith, Ernest E; Kirk, Andrea B; Liu, Fujun; Boylan, Lee Mallory; McCarty, Michael E; Hart, Sybil; Dong, Linxia; Cobb, George P; Jackson, W Andrew; Anderson, Todd A

    2007-10-01

    Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in milk are vital for normal growth and development of infant mammals. Changes in fatty acid composition were observed in milk fat from goats dosed with perchlorate (0.1 and 1 mg/kg body weight/day) for 31 days, but the effect was not persistent. Adaptation may be induced in these goats to compensate for the perchlorate effect. In an analysis of fatty acid composition in human milk samples, a weak negative correlation was observed between perchlorate concentrations and total PUFA in 38 human milk samples.

  6. Adequacy of human milk viscosity to respond to infants with dysphagia: experimental study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariangela Bartha de Mattos de Almeida

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Neonatal nutrition is an important subject in health in the short, medium and long term. In preterm newborns, nutrition assumes a predominant role for the child's overall development. Babies with uncoordinated swallowing or respiration may not have the necessary oral abilities to suck the mother's breast and will need to implement different feeding practices; one of them is changing the consistency of the milk offered. Objectives: Determine viscosity variations of untreated human and pasteurized milk without and with thickening to adapt the diet to the needs of dysphagic infants hospitalized in the Neonatal Intensive Cara Unit (NICU. Material and Methods: The authors altered the viscosity of natural infant powdered milk and, after thickening, determined and adopted a thickening standard for human milk. Untreated human and pasteurized milk was thickened in concentrations of 2%, 3%, 5% and 7% and the viscosity were determined every 20 minutes for a period of 60 minutes at a temperature of 37ºC. Results: The infant lactose formula thickened at concentrations of 2% and 3% produced viscosities of 8.97cP and 27.73 cP, respectively. The increases were significantly different after 1 hour. Inversely, untreated human milk at 2%, 3%, 5% and 7% produced diminished viscosity over time; the changes were more accentuated in the first 20 minutes. In pasteurized human milk, the 2% concentration had no variation in viscosity, but with the 3%, 5% and 7% concentrations, there was a significant decrease in the first 20 minutes with stability observed in the subsequent times. Conclusion: In powdered milk, the viscosity increases over time; the viscosity in human milk diminishes. The results point out the importance not only of considering the concentration of the thickener but also the time being administered after its addition to effectively treat dysphagic infants.

  7. Rare-earth elements in human colostrum milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poniedziałek, Barbara; Rzymski, Paweł; Pięt, Małgorzata; Niedzielski, Przemysław; Mleczek, Mirosław; Wilczak, Maciej; Rzymski, Piotr

    2017-11-01

    Rare-earth elements (REEs) are used in a growing number of applications, and their release to environment has increased over the decades. Knowledge of REEs in human milk and factors that could possibly influence their concentration is scarce. This study evaluated the concentrations of 16 REEs (Ce, Eu, Er, Gd, La, Nd, Pr, Sc, Sm, Dy, Ho, Lu, Tb, Tm, Y, and Yb) in human colostrum milk collected from Polish women (n = 100) with the ICP-OES technique. The concentrations (mean ± SD) of Pr (41.9 ± 13.2 μg L -1 ), Nd (11.0 ± 4.0 μg L -1 ), La (7.1 ± 5.2 μg L -1 ), and Er (2.2 ± 0.8 μg L -1 ) were found above detection limits. The total mean ± SD concentration of detected REEs was 60.9 ± 17.8 μg L -1 . Current smokers displayed significantly increased Nd concentrations compared to women who had never smoked. No other associations between REEs in colostrum milk and age, diet in pregnancy (food supplement use and frequency of fish, meat, and vegetable consumption) or place of living (urban/rural) were found. This study adds to general understanding of the occurrence and turnover of REEs in women and human fluids.

  8. Triglycerides, fatty acids, sterols, mono- and disaccharides and sugar alcohols in human milk and current types of infant formula milk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huisman, M; vanBeusekom, CM; Nijeboer, HJ; Muskiet, FAJ; Boersma, ER

    Objective: To investigate differences in the fatty acid composition, sterols, minor carbohydrates and sugar alcohols between human and formula milk. Design: We analyzed the concentrations of triglycerides, sterols, di- and monosaccharides and sugar alcohols, as well as the fatty acid composition of

  9. Environmental chemicals in human milk: a review of levels, infant exposures and health, and guidance for future research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LaKind, Judy S.; Amina Wilkins, A.; Berlin, Cheston M.

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this review is to introduce the reader to various science and policy aspects of the topic of environmental chemicals in human milk. Although information on environmental chemicals in human milk has been available since the 1950s, it is only relatively recently that public awareness of the issue has grown. This review on environmental chemicals in human milk provides a resource summarizing what is currently known about levels and trends of environmental chemicals in human milk, potential infant exposures, and benefits of breast-feeding relative to the risks of exposures to environmental chemicals. The term 'environmental chemicals', as it pertains to human milk, refers to many classes of exogenous chemicals that may be detected in human milk. For example, pharmaceutical agents and alcohol are environmental chemicals that have been found in human milk. Other chemicals, such as heavy metals and volatile organic compounds, have also been detected in human milk. Most research on environmental chemicals in human milk has concentrated on persistent, bioaccumulative, and toxic (PBT) chemicals. In this review, a description of human milk is provided, including a brief review of endogenous substances in human milk. Determinants of levels of PBTs are discussed, as are models that have been developed to predict levels of PBTs in human milk and associated body burdens in breast-feeding infants. Methodologies for human milk sampling and analysis, and concepts for consideration in interpretation and communication of study results, as developed by the Technical Workshop on Human Milk Surveillance and Research for Environmental Chemicals in the United States are described. Studies which have compared the health risks and benefits associated with breast-feeding and formula-feeding are discussed

  10. Human milk sharing practices in the U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmquist, Aunchalee E L; Doehler, Kirsten

    2016-04-01

    The primary objective of this study is to describe human milk sharing practices in the U.S. Specifically, we examine milk sharing social networks, donor compensation, the prevalence of anonymous milk sharing interactions, recipients' concerns about specific milk sharing risks, and lay screening behaviors. Data on human milk sharing practices were collected via an online survey September 2013-March 2014. Chi-square analyses were used to test the association between risk perception and screening practices. A total of 867 (661 donors, 206 recipients) respondents were included in the analyses. Most (96.1%) reported sharing milk face-to-face. Only 10% of respondents reported giving or receiving milk through a non-profit human milk bank, respectively. There were no reports of anonymous purchases of human milk. A small proportion of recipients (4.0%) reported that their infant had a serious medical condition. Screening of prospective donors was common (90.7%) but varied with social relationship and familiarity. Likewise, concern about specific milk sharing risks was varied, and risk perception was significantly associated (P-values = 0.01 or less) with donor screening for all risk variables except diet. Understanding lay perceptions of milk sharing risk and risk reduction strategies that parents are using is an essential first step in developing public health interventions and clinical practices that promote infant safety. © 2015 The Authors. Maternal & Child Nutrition published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. CALCIUM AND MAGNESIUM CONCENTRATION OF BREAST MILK IN RELATION WITH AGE AND PARITY OF NURSING WOMEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zofia Goc

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was determination of the concentration of calcium and magnesium in human milk (n=150 taken from nursing women who lived permanently in Malopolska district (South Poland. Milk samples were classified into groups taking into account women’ age and parity. According to the various age of the women milk samples were segregated into three groups: 20-25 years old, 26-31 years old and 32-37 years old. Included parity milk samples were spitted into two groups: the first group consisted of women who were primiparous (1 baby, the second group included women who were multiparous (≥2 babies. Milk samples were taken between the 7th and 14th day of the postpartum in each age group. The samples were taken by manual expression every morning. The analyses of metals were done by flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry (FAAS, after all samples had been collected. The mean concentration of cooper in milk taken from women of first age group (20-25 years old was 209.44±15.10 mg/L, in second group (26-31 years old was 238.65±13.34 mg/L and in the oldest group (32-37 years old was 261.44±17.16 mg/L. The mean concentration of magnesium in the same group of age was 42.12±3.793 mg/L, 47.51±2.728 mg/L and 45.43±3.840 mg/L, respectively. The mean concentration of calcium in milk taken from primiparous was 223.17±10.50mg/L, in multiparous was 266.37±16.20 mg/L. Whereas, the mean concentration of magnesium in transitional milk taken from the same group was 44.12±2.58 mg/L and 47.412±3.16 mg/L, respectively. Statistical analyses showed that there were statistically significant differences between calcium level in milk taken from the youngest group and the concentration of this metal in milk from the oldest group (p=0.032. Also, when comparing women’s parity, significant differences were found in the concentration of calcium (p=0.022. However, the differences in magnesium levels between tested groups were no statistically significant

  12. High Levels of Chemokine C-C Motif Ligand 20 in Human Milk and Its Production by Oral Keratinocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lourenço, Alan G; Komesu, Marilena C; Duarte, Geraldo; Del Ciampo, Luiz A; Mussi-Pinhata, Marisa M; Yamamoto, Aparecida Y

    2017-03-01

    Chemokine C-C motif ligand 20 (CCL20) is implicated in the formation and function of mucosal lymphoid tissues. Although CCL20 is secreted by many normal human tissues, no studies have evaluated the presence of CCL20 in human milk or its production by oral keratinocytes stimulated by human milk. To evaluate the presence of CCL20 in breast milk and verify CCL20 secretion in vitro by oral keratinocytes stimulated with human and bovine milk, as well as its possible association with breast milk lactoferrin levels. The levels of CCL20 and lactoferrin were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in human milk at three different stages of maturation from 74 healthy breastfeeding mothers. In vitro, oral keratinocytes were stimulated with human and bovine milk, and CCL20 was measured in their supernatant. High concentrations of CCL20 were detected in the human breast milk samples obtained during the first week (1,777.07 pg/mL) and second week postpartum (1,523.44 pg/mL), with a significantly low concentration in samples at 3-6 weeks postpartum (238.42 pg/mL; p stimulated higher CCL20 secretion by oral keratinocytes compared with bovine milk (p stimulation had no association with breast milk lactoferrin concentration. CCl20 is present at high levels in human milk, predominantly in the first and second week postpartum, but at significantly lower levels at 3-6 weeks postpartum. Human milk is capable of stimulating CCL20 secretion by oral keratinocytes, and this induction had no association with breast milk lactoferrin concentration.

  13. Human milk: medicine for premature babies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilton, Sioned

    2011-12-01

    Following years of research there have been some significant developments in the understanding and subsequent support being offered to Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) families. In addition, ground breaking advances in the treatment of premature infants, with specific interest in the role of human milk, are now available. New information was presented by leading international researcher, Professor Meier, at an international symposium earlier this year. This article seeks to share this insightful information and provide support to those working in or around the NICU.

  14. Induction of cytochrome P450 1A by cow milk-based formula: a comparative study between human milk and formula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Haibo; Rajesan, Ratheishan; Harper, Patricia; Kim, Richard B; Lonnerdal, Bo; Yang, Mingdong; Uematsu, Satoko; Hutson, Janine; Watson-MacDonell, Jo; Ito, Shinya

    2005-09-01

    During the treatment of neonatal apnea, formula-fed infants, compared to breastfed infants, show nearly three-fold increase in clearance of caffeine, a substrate of cytochrome P450 1A (CYP1A) and in part CYP3A4. However, human milk is known to contain higher concentrations of environmental pollutants than infant formula, which are potent CYP1A inducers. To gain insight into the mechanism underlying this apparent contradiction, we characterized CYP1A and CYP3A4 induction by human milk and cow milk-based infant formula. The mRNA and protein expression of CYP1A1/1A2 were significantly induced by cow milk-based formula, but not by human milk, in HepG2 cells. Luciferase reporter assay demonstrated that cow milk-based formula but not human milk activated aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) significantly. The cotreatment of 3,4-dimethoxyflavone, an AhR antagonist, abolished the formula-induced CYP1A expression. In addition, AhR activation by dibenzo[a,h]anthracene, a potent AhR agonist, was significantly suppressed by infant formula and even more by human milk. In contrast, CYP3A4 mRNA expression was only mildly induced by formula and human milk. Consistently, neither formula nor human milk substantially activated pregnane X receptor (PXR). Effects of whey and soy protein-based formulas on the AhR-CYP1A and the PXR-CYP3A4 pathways were similar to those of cow milk-based formula. In conclusion, infant formula, but not human milk, enhances in vitro CYP1A expression via an AhR-mediated pathway, providing a potential mechanistic basis for the increased caffeine elimination in formula-fed infants.

  15. Loss of triglycerides and carotenoids in human milk after processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tacken, K J M; Vogelsang, A; van Lingen, R A; Slootstra, J; Dikkeschei, B D; van Zoeren-Grobben, D

    2009-11-01

    Human milk (HM) is considered to be the best nutrition for preterm infants. However, storage, heating or tube feeding can cause a decline in essential nutrients, which can lead to the loss of antioxidant vitamins, resulting in an increased risk for oxygen radical diseases. Recently we found that carotenoids, present in human milk, can play a role in the antioxidant protection of preterm infants. In this study we evaluated the effect of processing HM and infant formula on the triglycerides and carotenoid concentrations. The triglyceride, alpha- and beta-carotene, lutein and lycopene concentrations of 30 samples of mature HM of mothers who delivered a term infant and 10 samples of infant formula were measured after refrigeration, freezing, microwave heating and tube feeding with and without exposure to normal light and phototherapy, imitating the clinical feeding routine in the NICU. After tube feeding triglyceride, lutein and beta-carotene concentrations decreased with 33%, 35% and 26% respectively. The decrease in triglycerides in HM accounts for 16% of the total caloric intake of neonates. Triglyceride and carotenoid concentrations in HM remained stable after refrigeration, freezing or low temperature microwave heating, except for lutein which decreased after refrigeration and freezing. In infant formula no differences were found. Mature human milk can be stored safely in a freezer and heated in a microwave oven without loss of fat or carotenoids. The clinically important loss of fat during tube feeding is probably the most important contributing factor to the decrease in lutein and beta-carotene in tube feeding, with only a small role for peroxidation during light-exposure.

  16. Persistent Pesticides in Human Breast Milk and Cryptorchidism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damgaard, Ida N.; Skakkebæk, Niels E.; Toppari, Jorma; Virtanen, Helena E.; Shen, Heqing; Schramm, Karl-Werner; Petersen, Jørgen H.; Jensen, Tina K.; Main, Katharina M.

    2006-01-01

    Introduction Prenatal exposure to some pesticides can adversely affect male reproductive health in animals. We investigated a possible human association between maternal exposure to 27 organochlorine compounds used as pesticides and cryptorchidism among male children. Design Within a prospective birth cohort, we performed a case–control study; 62 milk samples from mothers of cryptorchid boys and 68 from mothers of healthy boys were selected. Milk was collected as individual pools between 1 and 3 months postpartum and analyzed for 27 organochlorine pesticides. Results Eight organochlorine pesticides were measurable in all samples (medians; nanograms per gram lipid) for cases/controls: 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(4-chlorophenyl)ethylene (p,p′-DDE): 97.3/83.8; β-hexachlorocyclohexane (β-HCH): 13.6/12.3; hexachlorobenzene (HCB): 10.6/8.8; α -endosulfan: 7.0/6.7; oxychlordane: 4.5/4.1; 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(4-chlorophenyl)ethane (p,p′-DDT): 4.6/4.0; dieldrin: 4.1/3.1; cis-heptachloroepoxide (cis-HE): 2.5/2.2. Five compounds [octachlorostyrene (OCS); pentachlorobenzene, 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(4-chlorophenyl)ethane (p,p′-DDD); o,p′-DDT; mirex] were measurable in most samples (detection rates 90.8–99.2%) but in lower concentrations. For methoxychlor, cis-chlordane, pentachloroanisole (PCA), γ -HCH, 1,1-dichloro-2-(2-chlorophenyl)-2,2(4-chlorophenyl)ethane, trans-chlordane, α -HCH, and o,p′-DDE, both concentrations and detection rates were low (26.5–71.5%). Heptachlor, HCH (δ, ɛ ), aldrin, β-endosulfan and trans-heptachloroepoxide were detected at negligible concentrations and low detection rates and were not analyzed further. Seventeen of 21 organochlorine pesticides [p,p′-DDT, p,p′-DDE, p,p′-DDD, o,p′-DDT, HCH (α , β, γ ), HCB, PCA, α -endosulfan, cis-HE, chlordane (cis-, trans-) oxychlordane, methoxychlor, OCS, and dieldrin] were measured in higher median concentrations in case milk than in control milk. Apart from trans-chlordane (p = 0

  17. Copper absorption from human milk, cow's milk, and infant formulas using a suckling rat model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loennerdal, B.B.; Bell, J.G.; Keen, C.L.

    1985-01-01

    Since copper deficiency is known to occur during infancy, it becomes important to assess copper uptake from various infant diets. The authors have investigated the uptake of copper from human milk, cow's milk, cow's milk formulas, cereal/milk formula and soy formula, compensating for the decay of 64 Cu and using the suckling rat as a model. Radiocopper was added to the diet in trace amounts. Ultracentrifugation, ultrafiltration, and gel filtration were used to show that the added 64 Cu bound to milk fractions and individual binding compounds in a manner analogous to the distribution of native copper, thus validating the use of extrinsically labeled diets. Labeled diets were intubated into 14-day-old suckling rats. Animals were killed after 6 h and tissues removed and counted. Liver copper uptake was 25% from human milk, 23% from cow's milk formula, 18% from cow's milk, 17% from premature (cow's milk based) infant formula, 17% from cereal/milk formula and 10% from soy formula. These results show that the rat pup model may provide a rapid, inexpensive, and sensitive method to assay bioavailability of copper from infant foods

  18. Peptidome analysis of human skim milk in term and preterm milk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wan, Jun; Cui, Xian-wei; Zhang, Jun; Fu, Zi-yi; Guo, Xi-rong; Sun, Li-Zhou; Ji, Chen-bo

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •A method was developed for preparation of peptide extracts from human milk. •Analysis of the extracts by LC–MS/MS resulted in the detection of 1000–3000 peptide-like features. •419 Peptides were identified by LC–MS/MS from 34 proteins. •Isotope dimethyl labeling analysis revealed 41 peptides differentially expressed. -- Abstract: The abundant proteins in human milk have been well characterized and are known to provide nutritional, protective, and developmental advantages to both term and preterm infants. Due to the difficulties associated with detection technology of the peptides, the expression of the peptides present in human milk is not known widely. In recent years, peptidome analysis has received increasing attention. In this report, the analysis of endogenous peptides in human milk was done by mass spectrometry. A method was also developed by our researchers, which can be used in the extraction of peptide from human milk. Analysis of the extracts by LC–MS/MS resulted in the detection of 1000–3000 Da peptide-like features. Out of these, 419 peptides were identified by MS/MS. The identified peptides were found to originate from 34 proteins, of which several have been reported. Analysis of the peptides’ cleavage sites showed that the peptides are cleaved with regulations. This may reflect the protease activity and distribution in human body, and also represent the biological state of the tissue and provide a fresh source for biomarker discovery. Isotope dimethyl labeling analysis was also used to test the effects of premature delivery on milk protein composition in this study. Differences in peptides expression between breast milk in term milk (38–41 weeks gestation) and preterm milk (28–32 weeks gestation) were investigated in this study. 41 Peptides in these two groups were found expressed differently. 23 Peptides were present at higher levels in preterm milk, and 18 were present at higher levels in term milk

  19. Peptidome analysis of human skim milk in term and preterm milk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wan, Jun; Cui, Xian-wei [Nanjing Maternal and Child Health Medical Institute, Nanjing Medical University Affiliated Nanjing Maternal and Child Health Hospital (China); Zhang, Jun [Department of Pediatric Center, the Second Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing Medical University (China); Fu, Zi-yi [Nanjing Maternal and Child Health Medical Institute, Nanjing Medical University Affiliated Nanjing Maternal and Child Health Hospital (China); Guo, Xi-rong [Nanjing Maternal and Child Health Medical Institute, Nanjing Medical University Affiliated Nanjing Maternal and Child Health Hospital (China); Institute of Pediatrics, Nanjing Medical University (China); Sun, Li-Zhou, E-mail: lizhou_sun121@hotmail.com [Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, First Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing Medical University (China); Ji, Chen-bo, E-mail: chenboji@njmu.edu.cn [Nanjing Maternal and Child Health Medical Institute, Nanjing Medical University Affiliated Nanjing Maternal and Child Health Hospital (China)

    2013-08-16

    Highlights: •A method was developed for preparation of peptide extracts from human milk. •Analysis of the extracts by LC–MS/MS resulted in the detection of 1000–3000 peptide-like features. •419 Peptides were identified by LC–MS/MS from 34 proteins. •Isotope dimethyl labeling analysis revealed 41 peptides differentially expressed. -- Abstract: The abundant proteins in human milk have been well characterized and are known to provide nutritional, protective, and developmental advantages to both term and preterm infants. Due to the difficulties associated with detection technology of the peptides, the expression of the peptides present in human milk is not known widely. In recent years, peptidome analysis has received increasing attention. In this report, the analysis of endogenous peptides in human milk was done by mass spectrometry. A method was also developed by our researchers, which can be used in the extraction of peptide from human milk. Analysis of the extracts by LC–MS/MS resulted in the detection of 1000–3000 Da peptide-like features. Out of these, 419 peptides were identified by MS/MS. The identified peptides were found to originate from 34 proteins, of which several have been reported. Analysis of the peptides’ cleavage sites showed that the peptides are cleaved with regulations. This may reflect the protease activity and distribution in human body, and also represent the biological state of the tissue and provide a fresh source for biomarker discovery. Isotope dimethyl labeling analysis was also used to test the effects of premature delivery on milk protein composition in this study. Differences in peptides expression between breast milk in term milk (38–41 weeks gestation) and preterm milk (28–32 weeks gestation) were investigated in this study. 41 Peptides in these two groups were found expressed differently. 23 Peptides were present at higher levels in preterm milk, and 18 were present at higher levels in term milk.

  20. The functional biology of human milk oligosaccharides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bode, Lars

    2015-11-01

    Human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) are a group of complex sugars that are highly abundant in human milk, but currently not present in infant formula. More than a hundred different HMOs have been identified so far. The amount and composition of HMOs are highly variable between women, and each structurally defined HMO might have a distinct functionality. HMOs are not digested by the infant and serve as metabolic substrates for select microbes, contributing to shape the infant gut microbiome. HMOs act as soluble decoy receptors that block the attachment of viral, bacterial or protozoan parasite pathogens to epithelial cell surface sugars, which may help prevent infectious diseases in the gut and also the respiratory and urinary tracts. HMOs are also antimicrobials that act as bacteriostatic or bacteriocidal agents. In addition, HMOs alter host epithelial and immune cell responses with potential benefits for the neonate. The article reviews current knowledge as well as future challenges and opportunities related to the functional biology of HMOs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Nutrient-enriched formula milk versus human breast milk for preterm infants following hospital discharge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, G; Fahey, T; McGuire, W

    2007-10-17

    Preterm infants are often growth-restricted at hospital discharge. Feeding infants after hospital discharge with nutrient-enriched formula milk instead of human breast milk might facilitate "catch-up" growth and improve development. To determine the effect of feeding nutrient-enriched formula compared with human breast milk on growth and development of preterm infants following hospital discharge. The standard search strategy of the Cochrane Neonatal Review Group was used. This included searches of the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL, The Cochrane Library, Issue 2, 2007), MEDLINE (1966 - May 2007), EMBASE (1980 - May 2007), CINAHL (1982 - May 2007), conference proceedings, and previous reviews. Randomised or quasi-randomised controlled trials that compared feeding preterm infants following hospital discharge with nutrient-enriched formula compared with human breast milk. The standard methods of the Cochrane Neonatal Review Group were used, with separate evaluation of trial quality and data extraction by two review authors. No eligible trials were identified. There are no data from randomised controlled trials to determine whether feeding preterm infants following hospital discharge with nutrient-enriched formula milk versus human breast milk affects growth and development. Mothers who wish to breast feed, and their health care advisors, would require very clear evidence that feeding with a nutrient-enriched formula milk had major advantages for their infants before electing not to feed (or to reduce feeding) with maternal breast milk. If evidence from trials that compared feeding preterm infants following hospital discharge with nutrient-enriched versus standard formula milk demonstrated an effect on growth or development, then this might strengthen the case for undertaking trials of nutrient-enriched formula milk versus human breast milk.

  2. Plasma carotenoid concentrations of infants are increased by feeding a milk-based infant formula supplemented with carotenoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackey, Amy D; Albrecht, Daniel; Oliver, Jeffery; Williams, Timberly; Long, Amy C; Price, Pamela T

    2013-06-01

    Human milk is the gold standard of infant nutrition and is a source of important substances, including carotenoids. Infant formulas are designed to mimic the composition and/or performance of human milk, although currently carotenoids are not routinely added to US infant formulas. The aim of this study was to assess plasma concentrations of β-carotene, lutein and lycopene 56 days after feeding infants milk-based infant formula without (CTRL) or with different concentrations of added carotenoids (L1 and L2). Plasma carotenoid concentrations increased in infants fed carotenoid-supplemented formulas as compared with the control formula with no added carotenoids. At study day 56, infants fed the supplemented formulas (L1 and L2) had mean plasma lutein, β-carotene and lycopene concentrations that were within the range of a concurrent group of human milk-fed infants (HM). Anthropometric measurements were comparable among all study groups. Plasma carotenoid concentrations of infants fed the supplemented formulas were within the range of the HM group and are consistent with reported plasma carotenoid ranges in human milk-fed infants. The experimental formulas were well tolerated and anthropometric measurements were comparable among all study groups. © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  3. The effect of simulated flash heating pasteurisation and Holder pasteurisation on human milk oligosaccharides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, Brodie; Coutsoudis, Anna; Autran, Chloe; Amundson Mansen, Kimberly; Israel-Ballard, Kiersten; Bode, Lars

    2017-08-01

    Human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) have important protective functions in human milk. A low-cost remote pasteurisation temperature-monitoring system has been designed using FoneAstra, a cell phone-based networked sensing system to monitor simulated flash heat pasteurisation. To compare the pasteurisation effect on HMOs of the FoneAstra FH method with the current Sterifeed Holder method used by human milk banks. Donor human milk samples (n = 48) were obtained from a human milk bank and pasteurised using the two pasteurisation methods. HMOs were purified from samples and labelled before separation using high-performance liquid chromatography. Concentrations of total HMOs, sialylated and fucosylated HMOs and individual HMOs using the two pasteurisation methods were compared using repeated-measures ANOVA. The study demonstrated no difference in total concentration of HMOs between the two pasteurisation methods and a small but significant increase in the total concentration of HMOs regardless of pasteurisation methods compared with controls (unpasteurised samples) (pmilk and therefore is a possible alternative for providing safely sterilised human milk for low- and middle-income countries.

  4. Validation of a dilute and shoot method for quantification of 12 elements by inductively coupled plasma tandem mass spectrometry in human milk and in cow milk preparations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubascoux, Stéphane; Andrey, Daniel; Vigo, Mario; Kastenmayer, Peter; Poitevin, Eric

    2018-09-01

    Nutritional information about human milk is essential as early human growth and development have been closely linked to the status and requirements of several macro- and micro-elements. However, methods addressing whole mineral profiling in human milk have been scarce due in part to their technical complexities to accurately and simultaneously measure the concentration of micro- and macro-trace elements in low volume of human milk. In the present study, a single laboratory validation has been performed using a "dilute and shoot" approach for the quantification of sodium (Na), magnesium (Mg), phosphorus (P), potassium (K), calcium (Ca), manganese (Mn), iron (Fe), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), selenium (Se), molybdenum (Mo) and iodine (I), in both human milk and milk preparations. Performances in terms of limits of detection and quantification, of repeatability, reproducibility and trueness have been assessed and verified using various reference or certified materials. For certified human milk sample (NIST 1953), recoveries obtained for reference or spiked values are ranged from 93% to 108% (except for Mn at 151%). This robust method using new technology ICP-MS/MS without high pressure digestion is adapted to both routinely and rapidly analyze human milk micro-sample (i.e. less than 250 μL) in the frame of clinical trials but also to be extended to the mineral profiling of milk preparations like infant formula and adult nutritionals. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  5. Lactational Stage of Pasteurized Human Donor Milk Contributes to Nutrient Limitations for Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina J. Valentine

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background. Mother’s own milk is the first choice for feeding preterm infants, but when not available, pasteurized human donor milk (PDM is often used. Infants fed PDM have difficulties maintaining appropriate growth velocities. To assess the most basic elements of nutrition, we tested the hypotheses that fatty acid and amino acid composition of PDM is highly variable and standard pooling practices attenuate variability; however, total nutrients may be limiting without supplementation due to late lactational stage of the milk. Methods. A prospective cross-sectional sampling of milk was obtained from five donor milk banks located in Ohio, Michigan, Colorado, Texas-Ft Worth, and California. Milk samples were collected after Institutional Review Board (#07-0035 approval and informed consent. Fatty acid and amino acid contents were measured in milk from individual donors and donor pools (pooled per Human Milk Banking Association of North America guidelines. Statistical comparisons were performed using Kruskal–Wallis, Spearman’s, or Multivariate Regression analyses with center as the fixed factor and lactational stage as co-variate. Results. Ten of the fourteen fatty acids and seventeen of the nineteen amino acids analyzed differed across Banks in the individual milk samples. Pooling minimized these differences in amino acid and fatty acid contents. Concentrations of lysine and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA were not different across Banks, but concentrations were low compared to recommended levels. Conclusions. Individual donor milk fatty acid and amino acid contents are highly variable. Standardized pooling practice reduces this variability. Lysine and DHA concentrations were consistently low across geographic regions in North America due to lactational stage of the milk, and thus not adequately addressed by pooling. Targeted supplementation is needed to optimize PDM, especially for the preterm or volume restricted infant.

  6. Donor human milk versus mother's own milk in preterm VLBWIs: a case control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuliani, F; Prandi, G; Coscia, A; Cresi, F; Di Nicola, P; Raia, M; Sabatino, G; Occhi, L; Bertino, E

    2012-01-01

    As for term infants, over the past decades there has been increasing evidence of the benefits of human milk in the feeding of Very Low Birth Weight Infants (VLBWI), influencing not only short-term health outcomes but also long-term neurodevelopmental, metabolic outcomes, and growth. Mother's own milk is the first choice for all neonates including preterm infants, when it is unavailable or in short supply, pasteurized donor breast milk offers a safe alternative and is considered the next best choice. The main aim of this case-control retrospective analysis was to evaluate short term advantages of mother's own milk as a sole diet compared to donor milk as a sole diet, in terms of growth, antiinfectious properties, feeding tolerance, NEC and ROP prevention in a population of VLBWI born in a tertiary center. We did not find significant differences in clinical outcome from mother's own milk compared with pasteurized donor milk. Only a slight and statistically not significant difference in growth could be observed, in favour of maternal milk. We conclude that the maximum effort should always be put in supporting and promoting breastfeeding and donor milk used not only as an alternative to mother's milk but also as a breastfeeding promotion and support strategy.

  7. The human milk project: a quality improvement initiative to increase human milk consumption in very low birth weight infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Laura; Auer, Christine; Smith, Carrie; Schoettker, Pamela J; Pruett, Raymond; Shah, Nilesh Y; Kotagal, Uma R

    2012-08-01

    Human milk has well-established health benefits for preterm infants. We conducted a multidisciplinary quality improvement effort aimed at providing at least 500 mL of human milk/kg in the first 14 days of life to very low birth weight (VLBW) (milk program, and twice-daily physician evaluation of infants' ability to tolerate feedings. The number of infants receiving at least 500 mL of human milk/kg in their first 14 days of life increased from 50% to 80% within 11 months of implementation, and this increase has been sustained for 4 years. Infants who met the feeding goal because they received donor milk increased each year. Since September 2007, infants have received, on average, 1,111 mL of human milk/kg. Approximately 4% of infants did not receive any human milk. Respiratory instability was the most frequent physiological reason given by clinicians for not initiating or advancing feedings in the first 14 days of life. Our quality improvement initiative resulted in a higher consumption of human milk in VLBW infants in the first 14 days of life. Other clinicians can use these described quality improvement methods and techniques to improve their VLBW babies' consumption of human milk.

  8. A retrospective study of PBDEs and PCBs in human milk from the Faroe Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grandjean Philippe

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Persistent organic pollutants (POPs in wildlife and humans remain a cause of global concern, both in regard to traditional POPs, such as the polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs, and emerging POPs, such as the polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs. To determine the time related concentrations, we analyzed human milk for these substances at three time points between 1987 and 1999. Polychlorobiphenylols (OH-PCBs, the dominating class of PCB metabolites, some of which are known to be strongly retained in human blood, were also included in the assessment. Methods We obtained milk from the Faroe Islands, where the population is exposed to POPs from their traditional diet (which may include pilot whale blubber. In addition to three pools, nine individual samples from the last time point were also analyzed. After cleanup, partitioning of neutral and acidic compounds, and separation of chemical classes, the analyses were carried out by gas chromatography and/or gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Results Compared to other European populations, the human milk had high PCB concentrations, with pool concentrations of 2300 ng/g fat 1987, 1600 ng/g fat in 1994, and 1800 ng/g fat in 1999 (based on the sum of eleven major PCB congeners. The nine individual samples showed great variation in PCB concentrations. The OH-PCBs were present in trace amounts only, at levels of approximately 1% of the PCB concentrations. The PBDE concentrations showed a clear increase over time, and their concentrations in human milk from 1999 are among the highest reported so far from Europe, with results of individual samples ranging from 4.7 to 13 ng/g fat Conclusion Although remote from pollution sources, the Faroe Islands show high concentrations of POPs in human milk, particularly PCBs, but also PBDEs. The PBDEs show increasing concentrations over time. The OH-PCB metabolites are poorly transferred to human milk, which likely is related to their acidic character.

  9. Milk nutritional composition and its role in human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Paula C

    2014-06-01

    Dairy and milk consumption are frequently included as important elements in a healthy and balanced diet. It is the first food for mammals and provides all the necessary energy and nutrients to ensure proper growth and development, being crucial in respect to bone mass formation. However, several controversies arise from consumption of dairy and milk products during adulthood, especially because it refers to milk from other species. Despite these controversies, epidemiologic studies confirm the nutritional importance of milk in the human diet and reinforce the possible role of its consumption in preventing several chronic conditions like cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), some forms of cancer, obesity, and diabetes. Lactose malabsorption symptoms and cow milk protein allergy are generally considered to be the adverse reactions to milk consumption. The present article reviews the main aspects of milk nutritional composition and establishes several associations between its nutritious role, health promotion, and disease prevention. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. S100B Protein concentration in milk-formulas for preterm and term infants. Correlation with industrial preparation procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nigro, Francesco; Gagliardi, Luigi; Ciotti, Sabina; Galvano, Fabio; Pietri, Amedeo; Tina, Gabriella Lucia; Cavallaro, Daniela; La Fauci, Luca; Iacopino, Leonardo; Bognanno, Matteo; Li Volti, Giovanni; Scacco, Antonio; Michetti, Fabrizio; Gazzolo, Diego

    2008-05-01

    Human milk S100B protein possesses important neurotrophic properties. However, in some conditions human milk is substituted by milk formulas. The aims of the present study were: to assess S100B concentrations in milk formulas, to verify any differences in S100B levels between preterm and term infant formulas and to evaluate the impact of industrial preparation at predetermined phases on S100B content. Two different set of samples were tested: (i) commercial preterm (n = 36) and term (n = 36) infant milk formulas; ii) milk preterm (n = 10) and term infant (n = 10) formulas sampled at the following predetermined industrial preparation time points: skimmed cow milk (Time 0); after protein sources supplementation (Time 1); after pasteurization (Time 2); after spray-drying (Time 3). Our results showed that S100B concentration in preterm formulas were higher than in term ones (p 0.05) at Time 2, whereas a significant (p pasteurization but not spry-drying. New feeding strategies in preterm and term infants are therefore warranted in order to preserve S100B protein during industrial preparation.

  11. Higher milk fat content is associated with higher 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration in early childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderhout, Shelley M; Birken, Catherine S; Parkin, Patricia C; Lebovic, Gerald; Chen, Yang; O'Connor, Deborah L; Maguire, Jonathon L

    2016-05-01

    Current guidelines for cow's milk consumption in children older than age 2 years suggest 1% or 2% milk to reduce the risk of obesity. Given that milk is the main dietary source of vitamin D for North American children and that vitamin D is fat soluble, we hypothesized 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentration to be positively associated with the fat content of milk. The objective was to determine the relationship between the fat content of milk consumed and the serum 25(OH)D concentration; our secondary objective was to explore the role that the volume of milk consumed played in this relationship. We completed a cross-sectional study of children aged 12-72 months in the TARGetKids! research network. Multivariable linear regression was used to test the association between milk fat content and child 25(OH)D, adjusted for clinically relevant covariates. The interaction between volume of milk and fat content was examined. Two thousand eight hundred fifty-seven children were included in the analysis. The fat content of milk was positively associated with 25(OH)D (p = 0.03), and the interaction between the volume of milk consumed and the milk fat content was statistically significant (p = 0.005). Children who drank 1% milk needed 2.46 cups (95% confidence interval (CI) 2.38-2.54) of milk to have a 25(OH)D concentration similar to that of children who drank 1 cup of homogenized milk (3.25% fat). Children who consumed 1% milk had 2.05 (95% CI 1.73-2.42) times higher odds of having a 25(OH)D concentration <50 nmol/L compared with children who consumed homogenized milk. In conclusion, recommendations for children to drink lower-fat milk (1% or 2%) may compromise serum 25(OH)D levels and may require study to ensure optimal childhood health.

  12. THE EFFECT OF BLOOD AND MILK SERUM ZINC CONCENTRATION ON MILK SOMATIC CELL COUNT IN DAIRY COWS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Davidov

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of blood and milk zinc concentration on somatic cell count and occurrence of subclinical mastitis cases. The study was performed on thirty Holstein cows approximate same body weight, ages 3 to 5 years, with equally milk production. Blood samples were taken after the morning milking from the caudal vein and milk from all four quarters was taken before morning milking. All samples of blood and milk were taken to determined zinc, using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. 37.67% (11/30 cows have blood serum zinc concentration below 7µmol/l, and 63.33% or 19/30 cows have blood serum zinc concentration higher then 13µmol/l. Also 30% (9/30 cows have somatic cell count lower then 400.000/ml which indicate absence of subclinical mastitis, but 70% (21/30 cows have somatic cell count higher then 400.000/ml which indicate subclinical mastitis. Results indicate that cows with level of zinc in blood serum higher then 13 µmol/l have lower somatic cell count. Cows with lower zinc blood serum concentration then 7 µmol/l have high somatic cell count and high incidence of subclinical mastitis. According to results in this research there is no significant effect of milk serum zinc concentration on somatic cell count in dairy cows.

  13. Cytokines, chemokines, and colony-stimulating factors in human milk: the 1997 update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garofalo, R P; Goldman, A S

    1998-01-01

    Epidemiologic studies conducted over the past 30 years to investigate the protective functions of human milk strongly support the notion that breast-feeding prevents infantile infections, particularly those affecting the gastrointestinal and respiratory tracts. However, more recent clinical and experimental observations also suggest that human milk not only provides passive protection, but also can directly modulate the immunological development of the recipient infant. The study of this remarkable defense system in human milk has been difficult due to its biochemical complexity, the small concentration of certain bioactive components, the compartmentalization of some of these agents, the dynamic quantitative and qualitative changes of milk during lactation, and the lack of specific reagents to quantify these agents. Nevertheless, a host of bioactive substances including hormones, growth factors, and immunological factors such as cytokines have been identified in human milk. Cytokines are pluripotent polypeptides that act in autocrine/paracrine fashions by binding to specific cellular receptors. They operate in networks and orchestrate the development and functions of the immune system. Several different cytokines and chemokines have been discovered in human milk over the past years, and the list is growing very rapidly. This article will review the current knowledge about the increasingly complex network of chemoattractants, activators, and anti-inflammatory cytokines present in human milk and their potential role in compensating for the developmental delay of the neonate immune system.

  14. Quantitation of vitamin K in human milk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canfield, L.M.; Hopkinson, J.M.; Lima, A.F.; Martin, G.S.; Sugimoto, K.; Burr, J.; Clark, L.; McGee, D.L.

    1990-01-01

    A quantitative method was developed for the assay of vitamin K in human colostrum and milk. The procedure combines preparative and analytical chromatography on silica gel in a nitrogen atmosphere followed by reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Two HPLC steps were used: gradient separation with ultraviolet (UV) detection followed by isocratic separation detected electrochemically. Due to co-migrating impurities, UV detection alone is insufficient for identification of vitamin K. Exogenous vitamin K was shown to equilibrate with endogenous vitamin K in the samples. A statistical method was incorporated to control for experimental variability. Vitamin K1 was analyzed in 16 pooled milk samples from 7 donors and in individual samples from 15 donors at 1 month post-partum. Vitamin K1 was present at 2.94 +/- 1.94 and 3.15 +/- 2.87 ng/mL in pools and in individuals, respectively. Menaquinones, the bacterial form of the vitamin, were not detected. The significance of experimental variation to studies of vitamin K in individuals is discussed

  15. Why human milk is more nutritious than cow milk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voorhoeve, Niels; Allan, Douglas C.; Moret, M. A.; Zebende, G. F.; Phillips, J. C.

    2018-05-01

    The evolution of milk, the key infant nutrient, is analyzed using a novel thermodynamic molecular method. The method is general, and it has many advantages compared to conventional molecular dynamics simulations. It is much simpler, and it connects amino acid sequences directly to function, often without knowing detailed "folded" globular structures. It emphasizes synchronized critical fluctuations due to long-range correlations in globular curvatures. The titled question has not been answered, or even discussed successfully, by other molecular methods.

  16. Comparison of DDT and its metabolites concentrations in cow milk from agricultural and industrial areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuba, Jarosław; Tomza-Marciniak, Agnieszka; Pilarczyk, Bogumiła; Tarasewicz, Natalia; Pilarczyk, Renata; Ligocki, Marek

    2015-01-01

    The risk of pesticidal intoxication in humans is severe, especially because of the strongly negative impact on human health. The consequences of the exposure to these substances may include cancerogenesis or endocrine abnormalities resulting for example in decreased fertility. Therefore, the aim of our study was to evaluate the content of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and its metabolites in cow milk from two regions of Poland, varying by level of industrialization. Samples were collected from agricultural (n = 25) and industrial (n = 25) areas, and the concentrations of DDT and its metabolites were evaluated by gas chromatography. Residues of DDT were detected in all the milk samples tested, mostly in the samples from the agricultural area, where a total DDT median concentration reached 0.336 μg L(-1). In the milk samples from the industrial area, the median concentration was lower, at 0.131 μg L(-1). 4,4'-DDT was the main metabolite, constituting 83% of total DDT metabolites. Although none of the samples exceeded the level above which they should be considered dangerous, the results showed that the problem of DDT had not diminished and so should be constantly monitored.

  17. A retrospective time trend study of PBDEs and PCBs in human milk from the Faroe Islands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faengstroem, B.; Strid, A.; Athanassiadis, I.; Bergman, Aa. [Dept. of Environmental Chemistry, Stockholm Univ. (Sweden); Grandjean, P. [Inst. of Public Health, Univ. of Southern Denmark, Odense (Denmark); Weihe, P. [Faroese Hospital System, Torshavn (Denmark)

    2004-09-15

    The Faroe Islands are located quite far from the European continent and from industrial sources of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). However, the Faroese population may be exposed to these substances through contaminated food, via goods and products in their homes, and in their work environment. High trophic level marine species, including pilot whale and seabirds, such as fulmars, have been shown to accumulate high concentrations of organohalogen substances (OHS) like PCBs and PBDEs. Possibly due to dietary differences, wide differences exist in regard to PCB exposures among the Faroese. In a birth cohort from 1987, milk pools contained relatively high PCB concentrations between 1.9-2.5 {mu}g/g lipid weight (l.w.). In another cohort from 1994, serum from pregnant Faroese women was analyzed for PCB and OH-PCBs, with results ranging from 0.15 to 22 {mu}g/g l.w. and 0.02 to 1.8 {mu}g/g l.w., respectively. In a time trend study for PBDEs and PCBs in human milk from Sweden from the early 1970s to 1997, the PBDE concentrations showed a significant increase while the PCB levels showed a decrease. Human milk samples from 1997 to 2000 indicate a decrease for the PBDEs, mainly due to reduced concentrations of BDE-47. A similar trend has been seen in human milk from Japan. In Norway, PBDE in human milk increased from 1986 to 2001, with similar concentration levels as reported in Sweden and Japan. In the United States the PBDE levels reported in human milk are about 4 times higher than those seen in Europe and Japan. The aim of the present study was to determine PBDE and PCB concentrations in a temporal trend study with samples from 1987-1999 in human milk samples from the Faroe Islands.

  18. Determination of iodine in human milk and urine | Ayodele | Ife ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Physiological concentrations of iodine were determined in milk and urine. Recovery studies are reported along with results for the analysis of milk and urine samples. Iodine contents ranged from 10 - 110 (mean 52.88 ± 22.60mg/l) and 10 - 90 (mean 27.64 ±16.70) g/l in milk and urine respectively. A significant difference is ...

  19. Radiochemical neutron activation analysis for trace elements evaluation of human milk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gill, K.P.; Zaidi, J.H.; Ahmad, S.

    2003-01-01

    The principal objective pursued in this study is to establish the base-line data on the status of elemental composition in human milk from Pakistani subjects of Rawalpindi/Islamabad area. Radiochemical neutron activation analysis (RNAA) methodology was developed and successfully employed to determine the concentration of 18 minor and trace elements (essential, toxic and nonessential) in human milk. This methodology has significantly improved the detection limits of most of these elements due to suppression of Compton background. The data provide the base-line values of these elements in human milk of low- and medium-income group subjects of the region. The results obtained show good compatibility with the data reported by the WHO on elemental composition of human milk from different geological regions. (orig.)

  20. Food allergy in breastfeeding babies. Hidden allergens in human milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Muñoz, M F; Pineda, F; García Parrado, G; Guillén, D; Rivero, D; Belver, T; Quirce, S

    2016-07-01

    Food allergy is a rare disorder among breastfeeding babies. Our aim was to identify responsible allergens in human milk. We studied babies developing allergic symptoms at the time they were breastfeeding. Skin prick tests (SPT) were performed with breast milk and food allergens. Specific IgE was assessed and IgE Immunoblotting experiments with breast milk were carried out to identify food allergens. Clinical evolution was evaluated after a maternal free diet. Five babies had confirmed breast milk allergy. Peanut, white egg and/or cow's milk were demonstrated as the hidden responsible allergens. No baby returned to develop symptoms once mother started a free diet. Three of these babies showed tolerance to other food allergens identified in human milk. A maternal free diet should be recommended only if food allergy is confirmed in breastfed babies.

  1. Effect of Milk Allowance on Concentrate Intake, Ruminal Environment, and Ruminal Development in Milk-Fed Holstein Calves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Niels Bastian; Sehested, Jakob; Jensen, Søren Krogh

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the present experiment was to test the hypothesis that a barley-based concentrate would induce an acidic ruminal environment in young calves and that increased milk allowance would alleviate this condition.......The aim of the present experiment was to test the hypothesis that a barley-based concentrate would induce an acidic ruminal environment in young calves and that increased milk allowance would alleviate this condition....

  2. Ultraviolet-C Irradiation: A Novel Pasteurization Method for Donor Human Milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christen, Lukas; Lai, Ching Tat; Hartmann, Ben; Hartmann, Peter E; Geddes, Donna T

    2013-01-01

    Holder pasteurization (milk held at 62.5°C for 30 minutes) is the standard treatment method for donor human milk. Although this method of pasteurization is able to inactivate most bacteria, it also inactivates important bioactive components. Therefore, the objective of this study was to investigate ultraviolet irradiation as an alternative treatment method for donor human milk. Human milk samples were inoculated with five species of bacteria and then UV-C irradiated. Untreated and treated samples were analysed for bacterial content, bile salt stimulated lipase (BSSL) activity, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, and fatty acid profile. All five species of bacteria reacted similarly to UV-C irradiation, with higher dosages being required with increasing concentrations of total solids in the human milk sample. The decimal reduction dosage was 289±17 and 945±164 J/l for total solids of 107 and 146 g/l, respectively. No significant changes in the fatty acid profile, BSSL activity or ALP activity were observed up to the dosage required for a 5-log10 reduction of the five species of bacteria. UV-C irradiation is capable of reducing vegetative bacteria in human milk to the requirements of milk bank guidelines with no loss of BSSL and ALP activity and no change of FA.

  3. Anti-complement activities of human breast-milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogundele, M O

    1999-08-01

    It has long been observed that the human milk possesses significant anti-inflammatory properties, while simultaneously protecting the infant against many intestinal and respiratory pathogens. There is, however, a paucity of information on the degree and extent of this anti-inflammatory activity. In the present study, the inhibitory effects of different fractions of human milk on serum complement activity were analysed. Colostrum and milk samples from healthy voluntary lactating donors at different postpartum ages were obtained and pooled normal human serum was used as source of complement in a modified CH50 assay. Inherent complement activity in human milk was also investigated by measuring the deposition of an activated C3 fragment on a serum-sensitive bacteria, and by haemolytic assays. Most whole- and defatted-milk samples consistently showed a dose-dependent inhibition of the serum complement activity. This inhibition was greater in mature milk compared to transitional milk samples. It was enhanced by inactivation of milk complement, and diminished by centrifugation of milk samples, which partly removed fat and larger protein components including casein micelles. Inherent complement activity in human milk was also demonstrated by haemolysis of sensitised sheep erythrocytes and deposition of C3 fragments on solid-phase bacteria. These activities were highest in the colostrum and gradually decreased as lactation proceeded. Several natural components abundant in the fluid phase of the human breast-milk have been shown to be inhibitors of complement activation in vitro. Their physiological significance probably reside in their ability to prevent inflammatory-induced tissue damage of the delicate immature gastrointestinal tract of the new-born as well as the mammary gland itself, which may arise from ongoing complement activation.

  4. Comparison of the cariogenicity of cola, honey, cow milk, human milk, and sucrose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, William H; Lawrence, Ruth A

    2005-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine and compare the cariogenicity of various fluids that are frequently fed to infants and toddlers. We chose to examine sucrose, cola drink, honey, human milk, cow milk, and water because some of these have been associated with development of early childhood caries, although direct experimental evidence is lacking. We used our desalivated rat model because the approach mimics the situation found in infants, whereby the flow of saliva is interrupted through mechanical effects of a nipple. The animals received basic nutrition by gavage, and the fluids being tested were available ad libitum. Thus, the only substances that came in contact with teeth were the test fluids. The investigation continued for 14 days. Cola, sucrose, and honey were by far the most cariogenic. In addition, cola and honey induced considerable erosion. Human milk was significantly more cariogenic than cow milk probably because of its lower mineral content and higher level of lactose. Our data show that the use of honey, cola, and sucrose water in nursing bottles should be discouraged. Although human milk is more cariogenic than cow milk, it is no more cariogenic than are common infant formulas. Protracted exposure to human milk or formula through allowing an infant to sleep on the nipple should be discouraged, and the need for oral hygiene after tooth eruption should be emphasized.

  5. [Breast is best--human milk for premature infants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riskin, Arieh; Bader, David

    2003-03-01

    Nutrition for preterm babies is aimed at achieving expected intrauterine growth and accretion of nutrients. Early trophic feedings should be started as soon as possible for gastrointestinal priming. Mother's (breast) milk is the best food for preterm babies. Its advantages are in host defence, nutritional components and suitability for gut absorption, as well as its psychological and developmental value. The limitations of human milk for preterm babies, mainly in protein and minerals, can be compensated for by using powdered human milk fortifier. Sucking skills usually mature around 34 weeks, corrected gestational age. Thus, small preemies are initially fed by orogastric tubes, meaning that expressed breast milk is used. Support of lactation in mothers of preemies mandates protection of the mother and child bonding process and early skin to skin contact ("kangeroo care"). Methods for storage of expressed breast milk and the recommended length of storage are discussed. Milk bank mandates pasteurization and freezing of the donors' milk. Most of the nutritional and immunological advantages of human milk are preserved after such treatments. Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infections in preterm infants, that were acquired from mother's expressed breast milk, are not uncommon, and require further attention.

  6. Identification of Probiotic Strains from Human Milk in Breastfed Infants with Respiratory Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neamtu Bogdan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Isolation and industrial exploitation of probiotics from human milk is a goal for worldwide milk biotechnology centres because of their modulation effect on the immune system in infants and adults. In the proposed study we have analysed fermentation patterns of Lactobacilli isolated from human milk, the reliability of API 50 CH carbohydrate fermentation system and a possible link between lactose concentrations and fermentation profiles on carbohydrates. We had succesfully identified three species of Lactobacillus (paracasei ssp paracasei, fermentum, acidophilus and one unsatisfactory identification of Lactoccocus lactis ssp lactis. These strains had different carbohydrate fermentation patterns but with common characteristics and showed no statistically significant correlations between their carbohydrate metabolic trends and lactose concentrations in the milk samples.

  7. Osteopontin Levels in Human Milk vary Across Countries and within Lactation Period

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, Signe; Jacobsen, Lotte Neergaard; Ze, Xiaolei

    2018-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Osteopontin (OPN) is a multifunctional protein expressed in many cell types, tissues and body fluids with the highest concentrations found in milk; significantly higher in human than in bovine milk. Intervention studies have indicated beneficial effects of supplementing infant formula...... with bovine OPN. In this multicenter study, we determined the OPN content in human milk samples from 629 Chinese, Danish, Japanese and Korean mothers. METHODS: At each study site, milk samples were collected and analyzed for OPN and protein concentration using ELISA and infrared spectroscopy, respectively....../L in Korean to 266.2 mg/L in Chinese mothers (p mothers delivering more than one sample, multilevel (mixed model) linear regression analysis showed...

  8. New human milk fortifiers for the preterm infant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrico Bertino

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Given its unique nutritional and functional advantages, human milk (HM should be considered as the first choice for the nutrition of all infants, including preterm newborns. Since its protein, mineral and energy contents are not suitable to meet the high needs of very-low-birth-weight (VLBW infants, HM should be fortified for these components. Fortification of HM is an important nutritional intervention in order to provide appropriate nutritional intake and appropriate growth. The standard fortification strategy has yielded inadequate protein intakes, resulting in slower growth as compared to preterm formulas. Improvement of outcomes depends on new fortification strategies, considering the large variability of HM composition. Individualized fortification, either targeted or adjustable, has been shown to be effective and practical in attaining adequate protein intakes and growth.Most commercially available multi-nutrient fortifiers and protein concentrates are derived from bovine milk (BM, which has a protein composition very different from that of HM. The use of BM proteins has been recently questioned for possible association with intestinal inflammation in VLBW infants. Recently, one HM-based fortifier was shown to be associated with lower necrotizing enterocolitis rates and lower mortality in extremely premature infants, compared to BM-based products. Other milk sources are currently under evaluation: a randomized, controlled, single-blind clinical trial, coordinated by the Neonatal Unit of the University of Turin in collaboration with the Italian National Research Council of Turin and the University of Cagliari, is being carried out to evaluate the adequacy of fortifiers derived from donkey milk for the nutrition of preterm infants.

  9. Influence of Prolonged Storage Process, Pasteurization, and Heat Treatment on Biologically-active Human Milk Proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jih-Chin Chang

    2013-12-01

    Conclusion: Various freezing/heating/pasteurization processes applied to human milk prior to delivery to neonates could affect the concentration of immunomodulatory proteins, especially lactoferrin, secretory immunoglobulin A, and lysozyme. Leptin was unaffected by the various handling processes tested. Fresh milk was found to be the best food for neonates. Further studies are warranted to evaluate the functional activity of these proteins and their effects on infants' immunological status.

  10. Effect of maternal Chlorella supplementation on carotenoid concentration in breast milk at early lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagayama, Junya; Noda, Kiyoshi; Uchikawa, Takuya; Maruyama, Isao; Shimomura, Hiroshi; Miyahara, Michiyoshi

    2014-08-01

    Breast milk carotenoids provide neonates with a source of vitamin A and potentially, oxidative stress protection and other health benefits. Chlorella, which has high levels of carotenoids such as lutein, zeaxanthin and β-carotene, is an effective dietary source of carotenoids for humans. In this study, the effect of maternal supplementation with Chlorella on carotenoid levels in breast milk at early lactation was investigated. Ten healthy, pregnant women received 6 g of Chlorella daily from gestational week 16-20 until the day of delivery (Chlorella group); ten others did not (control group). Among the carotenoids detected in breast milk, lutein, zeaxanthin and β-carotene concentrations in the Chlorella group were 2.6-fold (p = 0.001), 2.7-fold (p = 0.001) and 1.7-fold (p = 0.049) higher, respectively, than those in the control group. Our study shows that Chlorella intake during pregnancy is effective in improving the carotenoid status of breast milk at early lactation.

  11. Improved extraction procedure for carotenoids from human milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweigert, F J; Hurtienne, A; Bathe, K

    2000-05-01

    An improved method for the extraction of the major carotenoids from human milk is described. Carotenoids were extracted from milk first with ethanol and n-hexane. Then, polar xanthophylls were extracted from n-hexane into ethanol/water. The remaining n-hexane was evaporated, the residue combined with the ethanolic milk fraction and the mixture briefly saponified. Carotenoids were extracted from the hydrolysate with n-hexane, combined with the polar xanthophylls from the non-saponified ethanol/water-extract and separated by HPLC. Using this method we were able to significantly improve the recovery of xanthophylls such as lutein and zeaxanthin from human milk. The recovery rate of all carotenoids was > 90%. This method might not only be of value for milk but should be especially useful in the extraction of carotenoids from human tissues such as the adipose tissue.

  12. Influence of prolonged storage process, pasteurization, and heat treatment on biologically-active human milk proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Jih-Chin; Chen, Chao-Huei; Fang, Li-Jung; Tsai, Chi-Ren; Chang, Yu-Chuan; Wang, Teh-Ming

    2013-12-01

    The bioactive proteins in human milk may be influenced by prolonged storage process, pasteurization, and heat treatment. This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of these procedures. Three forms of human milk - freshly expressed, frozen at -20°C for a prolonged duration, and pasteurized milk - were collected from 14 healthy lactating mothers and a milk bank. The concentrations of major bioactive proteins (secretory immunoglobulin A, lactoferrin, lysozyme, and leptin) were quantified using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kits. Changes in these proteins by heat treatment at 40°C or 60°C for 30 minutes were further evaluated. The mean concentrations of lactoferrin and secretory immunoglobulin A were significantly reduced by 66% and 25.9%, respectively, in pasteurized milk compared with those in freshly-expressed milk. Heat treatment at 40°C or 60°C did not cause significant changes in lactoferrin and secretory immunoglobulin A, but there was an apparent increase in lysozyme (p = 0.016). There were no significant differences in leptin level among these three forms of milk prior to (p = 0.153) or after heat treatment (p = 0.053). Various freezing/heating/pasteurization processes applied to human milk prior to delivery to neonates could affect the concentration of immunomodulatory proteins, especially lactoferrin, secretory immunoglobulin A, and lysozyme. Leptin was unaffected by the various handling processes tested. Fresh milk was found to be the best food for neonates. Further studies are warranted to evaluate the functional activity of these proteins and their effects on infants' immunological status. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. Benefits of donor human milk for preterm infants: current evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertino, Enrico; Giuliani, Francesca; Occhi, Luciana; Coscia, Alessandra; Tonetto, Paola; Marchino, Federica; Fabris, Claudio

    2009-10-01

    It's undoubted that optimum nutrition for term infants is breastfeeding, exclusive for the first six months, then followed by a complementary diet and carried on, if possible, for the first year of life or even more. During the last decades several data confirmed the great advantages of fresh mother's milk use also for feeding very low and extremely low birthweight preterm infants. When mother's milk is unavailable or in short supply, pasteurized donor breast milk is widely used in neonatal intensive care units. Pasteurization partially affects nutritional and immunological properties of breast milk, however it is known that pasteurized milk maintains some biological properties and clinical benefits. The substantial benefits of mother's own milk feeding of preterm infants are supported by strong evidence. However, there is increasing evidence also on specific benefits of donor breast milk. Future research is needed to compare formula vs. nutrient fortified donor breast milk, to compare formula and DM as supplements to maternal milk rather than as sole diet and to compare effects of different methods of heat treatments on donor human milk quality.

  14. Cariogenic potential of cows', human and infant formula milks and effect of fluoride supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peres, Regina Celia Rocha; Coppi, Luciane Cristina; Volpato, Maria Cristina; Groppo, Francisco Carlos; Cury, Jaime Aparecido; Rosalen, Pedro Luiz

    2009-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the cariogenicity of cows', human and infant formula milks, supplemented or not with fluoride, in rats. Sixty female Wistar rats were desalivated and infected with Streptococcus sobrinus 6715.Animals were divided into six groups: group 1, sterilised deionised distilled water (SDW; negative control); group 2, 5 % sucrose added to SDW (positive control); group 3, human milk; group 4, cows' milk; group 5, Ninho(R) formula reconstituted with SDW; group 6, Ninho(R) formula reconstituted with 10 parts per million F and SDW. At day 21 the animals were killed and their jaws removed to quantify total cultivable microbiota, Strep. sobrinus and dental caries. The concentration of carbohydrate and fluoride in the milks was analysed. The Kruskal-Wallis test (alpha = 5 %) was used to analyse the data. The caries score by the milk formula was as high as that provoked by sucrose. Regarding smooth-surface caries, human milk was statistically more cariogenic than cows' milk, which did not differ from the SDW and the Ninho(R) with fluoride (P>0.05). Groups 2-6 showed higher Strep. sobrinus counts when compared with the negative control group (P 0.05). HPLC analysis showed that infant formula had 9.3 % sucrose and 3.6 % reducing sugars. The infant formula should be considered cariogenic due to the sugars found in it, but fluoride supplementation reduced its cariogenic effect. The human milk was more cariogenic than the cows' milk but not as much as the formula milk.

  15. Characteristics of the First Human Milk Bank in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang-Yuan Chang

    2013-02-01

    Conclusion: Proper management and operation of a human milk bank can support breastfeeding, and provide a safe alternative to artificial formula for feeding preterm or ill infants in Taiwan. Sustainability of the milk bank needs more propagation and financial support by health authorities.

  16. De novo synthesis of milk triglycerides in humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mammary gland (MG) de novo lipogenesis contributes significantly to milk fat in animals but little is known in humans. Objective: To test the hypothesis that the incorporation of 13C carbons from [U-13C]glucose into fatty acids (FA) and glycerol in triglycerides (TG) will be greater: 1) in milk tha...

  17. Infrared analysis for determining macronutrients in human milk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michaelsen, K F; Pedersen, S B; Skafte, L

    1988-01-01

    Infrared (IR) analysis is widely used for routine analysis of cow milk in dairies. The aim of this study was to evaluate the precision and accuracy of an IR analyzer (Milko-scan 104) for measuring protein, fat, carbohydrate, and, indirectly, the energy content of human milk. The results of the IR...

  18. Bacteriological monitoring of unheated human milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, D C; Poll, R A; Roberts, C

    1979-10-01

    To assess the bacteriological quality of unpooled expressed breast milk, a pilot bottle sample of each donation was examined before the milk was given to the neonate. Provided the milk did not contain greater than 2500 organisms/ml or potential pathogens it was used unheated. Milk containing between 2500 and 5000 organisms/ml and no potential pathogens was used after pasteurisation. Using these criteria, 67% of 460 donations were acceptable. However, because the bacteriological quality varied, 45% of domiciliary donations were discarded compared with only 29% of those from hospital.

  19. Rennet-induced gelation of concentrated milk in the presence of sodium caseinate: differences between milk concentration using ultrafiltration and osmotic stressing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnankutty Nair, P; Corredig, M

    2015-01-01

    Concentrating milk is a common unit operation in the dairy industry. With the reduction of water, the particles interact more frequently with each other and the functionality of the casein micelles may depend on the interactions occurring during concentration. The objective of this research was to investigate the effect of concentration on the renneting properties of the casein micelles by comparing 2 concentration methods: ultrafiltration and osmotic stressing. Both methods selectively concentrate the protein fraction of milk, while the composition of the soluble phase is unaltered. To evaluate possible differences in the rearrangements of the casein micelles during concentration, renneting properties were evaluated with or without the addition of soluble caseins, added either before or after concentration. The results indicate that casein micelles undergo rearrangements during concentration and that shear during membrane filtration may play a role in affecting the final properties of the milk. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Breast Milk and Hair Testing to Detect Illegal Drugs, Nicotine, and Caffeine in Donors to a Human Milk Bank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escuder-Vieco, Diana; Garcia-Algar, Óscar; Joya, Xavier; Marchei, Emilia; Pichini, Simona; Pacifici, Roberta; Pallás-Alonso, Carmen Rosa

    2016-08-01

    The use of illegal drugs and tobacco is an exclusion criteria for accepting a nursing mother as a milk donor. The detection window for human milk testing is typically a few hours. Hair testing has been considered the gold standard to assess chronic exposure to these toxic substances. The aim of this study was to determine the levels of illegal drugs, nicotine, and caffeine in breast milk and hair samples from donors to assess whether these substances were being used during the donation period and the months leading up to it. Thirty-six samples of hair and breast milk were obtained from 36 donors. The tests performed identified nicotine, caffeine, morphine, cocaine, cannabis, amphetamines, codeine, methadone, and other substances derived therefrom. No illegal drugs were found in any of the samples analyzed. Nicotine and cotinine were found in 33.3% (12/36) of all hair samples. Among these 12 samples, 10 had cotinine concentrations consistent with cutoff values for unexposed nonsmokers, 1 had concentrations consistent with cutoff values for passive smokers, and 1 had concentrations consistent with cutoff values for active smokers. Caffeine was found in 77.7% of the hair samples and in 50% of the donor milk samples. The correlation for caffeine between donor milk and hair samples was r = 0.288, P = .0881. Donors do not use illegal drugs during either the donation period or the months leading up to it. They are occasionally exposed to tobacco smoke and almost all of them consume caffeine. © The Author(s) 2016.

  1. Transfer of radionuclides from the environment to human milk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiu, N.; Dean, J.; Veska, E.

    1988-03-01

    This report gives detailed procedures for: collecting, storing and shipping human milk samples; complete decomposition of human milk samples by nitric acid-perchloric acid oxidation; and sequential separation and determinations of lead 210, radium 226, thorium 230, natural thorium and natural uranium from decomposed human milk solutions. This sequential separation method is capable of detecting 0.025 Bq of radium 226, thorium 230 and thorium 232 and 0.05 Bq of lead 210. Recoveries are approximately 70% for radium 226 and 90% for thorium 230, thorium 232 and lead 210. This report also outlines a proposed field study program

  2. Caco-2 accumulation of lutein is greater from human milk than from infant formula despite similar bioaccessibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipkie, Tristan E; Banavara, Dattatreya; Shah, Bhavini; Morrow, Ardythe L; McMahon, Robert J; Jouni, Zeina E; Ferruzzi, Mario G

    2014-10-01

    Clinical evidence suggests that the bioavailability of lutein is lower from infant formula than from human milk. The purpose of this study was to assess characteristics of human milk and lutein-fortified infant formula that may impact carotenoid delivery. Carotenoid bioaccessibility and intestinal absorption were modeled by in vitro digestion coupled with Caco-2 human intestinal cell culture. Twelve human milk samples were assessed from 1-6 months postpartum, and 10 lutein-fortified infant formula samples from three lutein sources in both ready-to-use and reconstituted powder forms. The relative bioaccessibility of lutein was not different (p > 0.05) between human milk (29 ± 2%) and infant formula (36 ± 4%). However, lutein delivery was 4.5 times greater from human milk than infant formula when including Caco-2 accumulation efficiency. Caco-2 accumulation of lutein was increasingly efficient with decreasing concentration of lutein from milk. Carotenoid bioaccessibility and Caco-2 accumulation were not affected by lactation stage, total lipid content, lutein source, or form of infant formula (powder vs. liquid). These data suggest that the bioavailability of carotenoids is greater from human milk than infant formula primarily due to intestinal absorptive processes, and that absorption of lutein is potentiated by factors from human milk especially at low lutein concentration. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Human milk bank under the perspective of the donating woman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valdecyr Herdy Alves

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aims at signifying the values related to the act of milk donation which emerges in the symbolic imaginary traumas of nursing mother’s values and understanding the meaning of the imaginary value structures which are revealed in the action of the donating women. This is a descriptive study with eleven nursing mothers of a bank of human milk of a university hospital through the systematized observation and individual interview. The concerning of the nursing mothers with a transforming action, willing to donate their milk, believing that this is a way for the transformation of the world. The values engendered in the action of donation of human milk emerge from the symbolic domains of acting of the health professionals, characterizing the imaginary myth of the nursing mothers. The donations require practices which reinforce the social imaginary during the care to health offered by the Milk Bank.

  4. Concentrations of danofloxacin 18% solution in plasma, milk and tissues after subcutaneous injection in dairy cows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mestorino, N.; Marchetti, M.L.; Turic, E.; Pesoa, J.; Errecalde, J.

    2009-01-01

    Danofloxacin is a fluoroquinolone developed for use in veterinary medicine. Its concentrations and pharmacokinetic profile in plasma, milk and tissues of lactating dairy cows were determined, and its milk withdrawal time (WT) calculated. Twenty-one dairy cows received a single subcutaneous administration of 18% mesylate danofloxacin salt (6 mg kg -1 ). Plasma and milk samples were obtained at different times until 48 h. Groups of three animals were sacrificed at different post-administration times and tissue samples (mammary gland, uterus, duodenum, jejunum, ileum, colon and mesenteric lymph nodes) obtained. Danofloxacin concentrations were determined by liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection. The milk WT was calculated by the Time to Safe Concentration method (Software WTM 1.4, EMEA). Danofloxacin was rapidly absorbed and its distribution from plasma to all sampled tissues and milk was extensive. Milk and tissues concentrations were several times above those found in plasma. Plasma area under the curve (AUCp) was 9.69 μg h mL -1 and its elimination half life (T β 1/2 ) was 12.53 h. AUC values for the various tissues and milk greatly exceeded AUCp. T β 1/2 from milk and tissues ranged between 4.57 and 21.91 h and the milk withdrawal time was 73.48 h. The reported results support the potential use of danofloxacin in the treatment of mastitis and other infections in milk cows with 3 days of withdrawal

  5. Prevalence and factors associated with breast milk donation in banks that receive human milk in primary health care units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Mota Xavier de Meneses

    2017-07-01

    Conclusions: Encouragement to breast milk donation, and information and help provided by primary health care unit professionals to breastfeeding were shown to be important for the practice of human milk donation.

  6. The effect of vitamin concentrates on the flavor of pasteurized fluid milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, E B; Schiano, A N; Jo, Y; Barbano, D M; Drake, M A

    2017-06-01

    Fluid milk consumption in the United States continues to decline. As a result, the level of dietary vitamin D provided by fluid milk in the United States diet has also declined. Undesirable flavor(s)/off flavor(s) in fluid milk can negatively affect milk consumption and consumer product acceptability. The objectives of this study were to identify aroma-active compounds in vitamin concentrates used to fortify fluid milk, and to determine the influence of vitamin A and D fortification on the flavor of milk. The aroma profiles of 14 commercial vitamin concentrates (vitamins A and D), in both oil-soluble and water-dispersible forms, were evaluated by sensory and instrumental volatile compound analyses. Orthonasal thresholds were determined for 8 key aroma-active compounds in skim and whole milk. Six representative vitamin concentrates were selected to fortify skim and 2% fat pasteurized milks (vitamin A at 1,500-3,000 IU/qt, vitamin D at 200-1,200 IU/qt, vitamin A and D at 1,000/200-6,000/1,200 IU/qt). Pasteurized milks were evaluated by sensory and instrumental volatile compound analyses and by consumers. Fat content, vitamin content, and fat globule particle size were also determined. The entire experiment was done in duplicate. Water-dispersible vitamin concentrates had overall higher aroma intensities and more detected aroma-active compounds than oil-soluble vitamin concentrates. Trained panelists and consumers were able to detect flavor differences between skim milks fortified with water-dispersible vitamin A or vitamin A and D, and unfortified skim milks. Consumers were unable to detect flavor differences in oil-soluble fortified milks, but trained panelists documented a faint carrot flavor in oil-soluble fortified skim milks at higher vitamin A concentrations (3,000-6,000 IU). No differences were detected in skim milks fortified with vitamin D, and no differences were detected in any 2% milk. These results demonstrate that vitamin concentrates may contribute to

  7. Human milk oligosaccharides inhibit growth of group B Streptococcus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lin, Ann E; Autran, Chloe A; Szyszka, Alexandra; Escajadillo, Tamara; Huang, Mia; Godula, Kamil; Prudden, Anthony R; Boons, Geert-Jan; Lewis, Amanda L; Doran, Kelly S; Nizet, Victor; Bode, Lars

    2017-01-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae (group B Streptococcus, GBS) is a leading cause of invasive bacterial infections in newborns, typically acquired vertically during childbirth secondary to maternal vaginal colonization. Human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) have important nutritional and biological activities

  8. Manganese binding proteins in human and cow's milk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loennerdal, B.; Keen, C.L.; Hurley, L.S.

    1985-01-01

    Manganese nutrition in the neonatal period is poorly understood, due in part to a lack of information on the amount of manganese in infant foods and its bioavailability. Since the molecular localization of an element in foods is one determinant of its subsequent bioavailability, a study was made of the binding of manganese in human and cow's milk. An extrinsic label of 54 Mn was shown to equilibrate isotopically with native manganese in milks and formulas. Milk samples were separated into fat, casein and whey by ultracentrifugation. In human milk, the major part (71%) of manganese was found in whey, 11% in casein and 18% in the lipid fraction. In contrast, in cow's milk, 32% of total manganese was in whey, 67% in casein and 1% in lipid. Within the human whey fraction, most of the manganese was bound to lactoferrin, while in cow's whey, manganese was mostly complexed to ligands with molecular weights less than 200. The distribution of manganese in formulas was closer to that of human milk than of cow's milk. The bioavailability of manganese associated with lactoferrin, casein and low molecular weight complexes needs to be assessed

  9. Interleukin-8 and Its Receptors in Human Milk from Mothers of Full-Term and Premature Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polat, Adem; Tunc, Turan; Erdem, Galip; Yerebasmaz, Neslihan; Tas, Ahmet; Beken, Serdar; Basbozkurt, Gokalp; Saldir, Mehmet; Zenciroglu, Aysegul; Yaman, Halil

    2016-06-01

    In addition to its nutritional benefits, human milk also has bioactive elements. Limited immunological functions of newborns are supported and altered by the immunological elements of mother milk. Chemokines are of importance among these immune factors. Interleukin-8 (IL-8) has been demonstrated in mother's milk, and its receptors, CXC chemokine receptors (CXCR)-1 and CXCR-2, were detected on cells, responsible for immunological reactions and mammary glandular cells. The soluble forms of these receptors are yet to be described in human milk. In this study, it was aimed to assess the IL-8 levels and the concentrations of its receptors in colostrum and mature mother's milk in regard to preterm and term delivery. The results of this study indicated a decline in IL-8 levels with the lactation stage, but no difference was observed between term and preterm mother's milk. Regarding the CXCR-1 and CXCR-2, the concentrations of these receptors were similar in both colostrum and mature milk. Furthermore, there was not any significant difference between term and preterm mother's milk. In conclusion, this is the first study to investigate the concentrations of CXCR-1 and CXCR-2 with the levels of IL-8 in colostrum and mature human milk of term and preterm newborns. The alterations in IL-8 levels were similar in some of the studies reported. CXCR-1 and CXCR-2 levels did not demonstrate any significant difference. Further studies are required to investigate the soluble forms of these receptors and their relation to IL-8 with larger cohort.

  10. Evaluation of energy status of dairy cows using milk fat, protein and urea concentrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirovski Danijela

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Energy status of dairy cows may be estimated using results for concentrations of fat, protein and urea (MUN in milk samples obtained from bulk tank or individual cows. Using individual cow milk samples is recommended on dairy farms in our geografical region due to the unhomogenity of cows in the herds in respect to their genetic potential for milk production. Depression of milk fat occurs as a consequence of heat stress, underfeeding of peripartal cows, overfeeding concentrate with reduced ration fiber levels or overfeeding with dietary fat. High milk fat content is usually combined with severe negative energy balance. Nutrition and feeding practices have great impact on milk protein level. A deficiency of crude protein in the ration may depress protein in milk. Feeding excessive dietary protein does not significantly increase milk protein. MUN analyses point out potential problems in feeding program on dairy farm. High MUN values may reflect excessive dietary crude protein and/or low rumen degradable non fiber carbohydrates intake. Also, MUN levels is impacted by heat stress since its value is increased during the summer season. Low MUNs indicate a possible dietary protein deficiency. Additionally, low MUNs concentration may indicate excess in dietary nonstructural carbohydrates. On the bases on the interrelationships between protein and urea concentrations, as well as protein and fat concentrations in individual milk sample, estimation of energy balance of dairy cows may be done more accurately.

  11. Study on viscosity modification of human and formula milk for infants with dysphagia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariangela Bartha de Mattos Almeida

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Purpose: to analyze the modification of the viscosity of human milk and infant formula. Methods: three studies were performed to assess the viscosity and effect of time on infant formula with a thickener, at concentrations of 2, 3, and 5%, as well as raw and pasteurized human milk at concentrations of 2, 3, 5, and 7% at 37ºC, for 60 minutes. Rice cereal was used as a thickening agent. The viscosity was evaluated using a Ford Cup-type viscometer, and the samples were analyzed at 20-minute intervals. Significant differences were assessed using the ANOVA test. Results: no significant differences in viscosity were observed over time in concentrations of 2, 3, and 5%. There was a difference in the viscosity between human milk and infant formula, in concentrations of 2% and 5%, 2% and 7%, 3% and 5%, and 3% and 7%, independently of the time intervals evaluated. Conclusion: the findings of this study demonstrate the need for different concentrations of the thickening agent for human milk and infant formula. Rice cereal is a suitable therapeutic option for newborns presented with dysphagia in concentrations of 2, 3, 5, and 7%, due to its effect on the viscosity and flow reduction, provided that the feeding time is considered.

  12. Investigation on main source of dioxin analogues in human breast milk (second report)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyata, H.; Nakao, T.; Aozasa, O.; Ohta, S. [Setsunan Univ., Hirakata (Japan); Iwamatsu, T. [Teijin Eco Science, Co. Ltd., Matsuyama (Japan); Fujimine, Y. [Otsuka Pharmaceutical Co. Ltd., Tokushima (Japan); Fukui, S. [Fukui Lactation Consultation, Amagasaki (Japan)

    2004-09-15

    In many countries, the breast milk sample has been used as a suitable indicator in order to examine human exposure level to Dioxins. In general, the breast milk level is considered to be reflecting to their accumulation level in the body. In addition, it is considered that ca. 60% of the accumulation amount of Dioxins is excreted to the baby through breast milk by nursing for a year. However, are these things true? In 1989, Frust et al. reported a time course of concentrations of Dioxins (abbreviated as Dioxins) in breast milk of one German during a period of 1 - 60 weeks after delivery. In the case of PCDFs, the level of 10 - 13 weeks after delivery was remarkably higher than that of 5 weeks. In addition, the PCBs level on the 10 to 13 weeks was also higher in comparison with on the 1 week. Thus, their pollution levels did not always decrease with a passing of time after childbirth. This suggests that all Dioxins in breast milk might be not derived from their storage in the body. Therefore, in 2001, we investigated the time alteration on the pollution level of Dioxins in breast milk from nine mothers and on their infants' daily intake of Dioxins by nursing. Consequently, it was revealed that the average daily intake of PCDD/DFs (PCDDs + PCDFs) was roughly constant during a period of 5 to 180 days after delivery. If all PCDD/DFs in breast milk are derived from only their body storage, the pollution level in milk must decrease in a linear course during a period of 5 to 180 days after delivery. However, thus linear decrease of pollution level was not observed in all tested mothers. These results indicated that PCDD/DFs in milk might be also delivered from other sources except for their storage in the body. Therefore, in this study, we tried to investigate the source of Dioxins in human breast milk.

  13. CONCENTRATION OF SELECTED ELEMENTS IN RAW AND ULTRA HEAT TREATED COW MILK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukáčová Anetta

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The potential presence of toxic metals in food is being recognized as a priority by standards organizations and constitutes an analytical challenge. The toxic metal content of milk and dairy products is due to several factors: environmental conditions, the manufacturing process and the possible contamination during several steps of the manufacturing processes. The aim of this study was to evaluate samples of raw milk with fat contents 3.8% obtained at randomly from animal farms in around Nitra, western Slovakia region and ultra – heat treated cow milk (UHT with fat contents 1.5% commercially available from local market in Nitra. Samples of milk were analysed for metal contents using atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS. UHT milk showed higher levels of cadmium, nickel and iron. Higher levels of zinc, copper were detected in raw milk. Significant differences in the concentration of copper between raw and UHT cow milk were found.

  14. Does fermented milk possess antihypertensive effect in humans?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Usinger, Lotte; Ibsen, Hans; Jensen, Lars T

    2009-01-01

    The putative antihypertensive effect of milk after fermentation by lactic bacteria has attracted attention over the past 20 years. Research on fermented milk and hypertension has mainly focused on the content of peptides with in-vitro angiotensin converting enzyme-inhibitor effect. However......, fermented milk products contain several proteins, peptides and minerals, all with possible different antihypertensive modes of actions. The burden of cardiovascular events in industrialized countries caused by hypertension is considerable. Diet modifications are one way to lower blood pressure......, and fermented milk could be a feasible way. In this review, interventional human studies of the possible antihypertensive effect of fermented milk are evaluated. The results are diverging, and the antihypertensive effect is still debatable. Additionally, present knowledge of bioavailability and in-vivo actions...

  15. Behind human milk and breastfeeding: not only food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pecoraro, Luca; Agostoni, Carlo; Pepaj, Orsiol; Pietrobelli, Angelo

    2017-12-26

    After birth, breastfeeding should not be considered only a normal and physiological event; in fact, it encloses both physical and the psychological aspects. Human milk cannot be compared to any formula milk. Specifically, human milk has immunological and nutritional properties and it is considered the best available option which guarantees an adequate growth and an optimal development of a child. Differences in term of mediators and hormones have been shown between infants who were breastfed and ones who were not. A key point is represented by unmeasurable environmental and psycho-affective factors. So, it may be simplistic to consider human milk only as a nutrient; since it encompasses much more. The aim of our commentary is to review clinical studies about breastfeeding, analysing its consequences on the neuro-developmental achievement, growth and risk of obesity within a holistic view.

  16. Quantification of lactose content in human and cow's milk using UPLC-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusch, Gerhard; Choi, Arum; Rochow, Niels; Fusch, Christoph

    2011-12-01

    A sensitive, accurate, and specific quantitative UPLC-MS/MS method was developed for lactose measurement of cow's and human milk and validated with cow's milk samples certified by an external laboratory. The new method employs only a dilution of raw cow's and human milk for simple preparation with no need to remove protein and fat prior to analysis with UPLC-MS/MS. It was operated in negative mode to detect lactose molecules and labeled (13)C(12)-lactose with the highest sensitivity. The principle advantages of the new LC-MS/MS method were: completed lactose determination in 5 min, absolute recovery of 97-107%, lower limit of detection milk. The mean lactose concentration of 51 human milk samples was measured as 56.8 ± 5.5 g/L ranging from 43 to 65 g/L. The described method represents validated lactose analysis with high accuracy and precision for a routine lactose determination in raw human milk. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Variability and reliability of POP concentrations in multiple breast milk samples collected from the same mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakimoto, Risa; Ichiba, Masayoshi; Matsumoto, Akiko; Nakai, Kunihiko; Tatsuta, Nozomi; Iwai-Shimada, Miyuki; Ishiyama, Momoko; Ryuda, Noriko; Someya, Takashi; Tokumoto, Ieyasu; Ueno, Daisuke

    2018-01-13

    Risk assessment of infant using a realistic persistent organic pollutant (POP) exposure through breast milk is essential to devise future regulation of POPs. However, recent investigations have demonstrated that POP levels in breast milk collected from the same mother showed a wide range of variation daily and monthly. To estimate the appropriate sample size of breast milk from the same mother to obtain reliable POP concentrations, breast milk samples were collected from five mothers living in Japan from 2006 to 2012. Milk samples from each mother were collected 3 to 6 times a day through 3 to 7 days consecutively. Food samples as the duplicated method were collected from two mothers during the period of breast milk sample collection. Those were employed for POP (PCBs, DDTs, chlordanes, and HCB) analysis. PCB concentrations detected in breast milk samples showed a wide range of variation which was maximum 63 and 60% of relative standard deviation (RSD) in lipid and wet weight basis, respectively. The time course trend of those variations among the mothers did not show any typical pattern. A larger amount of PCB intake through food seemed to affect 10 h after those concentrations in breast milk in lipid weight basis. Intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) analyses indicated that the appropriate sample size for good reproducibility of POP concentrations in breast milk required at least two samples for lipid and wet weight basis.

  18. Immunomodulatory constituents of human breast milk and immunity from bronchiolitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chunyu; Liu, Yanbo; Jiang, Yanfang; Xu, Naijun; Lei, Jie

    2017-01-14

    The mother's immune status can be achieved by genetic and breastfeeding impact descendants of the immune system. The study aimed to determine whether a mother's immune status and breastfeeding practices were related to development of bronchiolitis in her infant. The frequency of T, B and natural kill (NK) cells in patients' blood and their mothers' breast milk was determined using flow cytometry. The concentrations of serum and breast milk IgG and IgD in individual patients and healthy control were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The relationships between immunocytes, immunoglobulin and respiratory score (RS) were analyzed by Spearman's rank correlation test. The mothers of bronchiolitis patients had lower IgG concentrations in their breast milk when compared to the mothers of healthy children. There was no significant difference in the frequency of T cells, B cells, and NK cells in samples of breast milk. However, significant decreases of CD3+, CD8+ T cells, as well as significant increases of CD4+ T cells and CD19+ B cells were found in the serum of bronchiolitis infants. There were positive correlation relationships between RS and CD3+, CD4+ T cells, IgG and IgD concentrations. Our data suggested that the mothers of bronchiolitis patients had lower IgG concentration in their breast milk. The breast milk IgG might be absorbed by the breastfeeding infants, which could play important role in resistance of bronchiolitis.

  19. A review of human milk banking and public health policy in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lording, Roslyn J

    2006-11-01

    Breastmilk is the perfect food for human infants. It is markedly different from, and uniquely superior to, artificial baby milk. Human milk banks are services which collect, screen, process and distribute donated breastmilk. Recipients are generally ill and premature infants whose mothers are unable to breastfeed them. This review of human milk banking in Australian public health policy draws from local and international research. This history of human milk banking and contemporary Australian policies, pertaining to breastfeeding and milk banking, are examined. Human milk banking is noted to be largely invisible from national breastfeeding policies. The barriers to establishing human milk banks in the Australian context are explored. Strategies which have helped generate support for human milk banking are discussed. International research has demonstrated the cost-effectiveness of banked donor milk. It is time for human milk banking to become an integral component of Australian breastfeeding policies, viewed as one of several initiatives to protect and support breastfeeding.

  20. Comprehensive Proteomic Analysis of Human Milk-derived Extracellular Vesicles Unveils a Novel Functional Proteome Distinct from Other Milk Components*

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Herwijnen, Martijn J.C.; Zonneveld, Marijke I.; Goerdayal, Soenita; Nolte – 't Hoen, Esther N.M.; Garssen, Johan; Stahl, Bernd; Maarten Altelaar, A.F.; Redegeld, Frank A.; Wauben, Marca H.M.

    2016-01-01

    Breast milk contains several macromolecular components with distinctive functions, whereby milk fat globules and casein micelles mainly provide nutrition to the newborn, and whey contains molecules that can stimulate the newborn's developing immune system and gastrointestinal tract. Although extracellular vesicles (EV) have been identified in breast milk, their physiological function and composition has not been addressed in detail. EV are submicron sized vehicles released by cells for intercellular communication via selectively incorporated lipids, nucleic acids, and proteins. Because of the difficulty in separating EV from other milk components, an in-depth analysis of the proteome of human milk-derived EV is lacking. In this study, an extensive LC-MS/MS proteomic analysis was performed of EV that had been purified from breast milk of seven individual donors using a recently established, optimized density-gradient-based EV isolation protocol. A total of 1963 proteins were identified in milk-derived EV, including EV-associated proteins like CD9, Annexin A5, and Flotillin-1, with a remarkable overlap between the different donors. Interestingly, 198 of the identified proteins are not present in the human EV database Vesiclepedia, indicating that milk-derived EV harbor proteins not yet identified in EV of different origin. Similarly, the proteome of milk-derived EV was compared with that of other milk components. For this, data from 38 published milk proteomic studies were combined in order to construct the total milk proteome, which consists of 2698 unique proteins. Remarkably, 633 proteins identified in milk-derived EV have not yet been identified in human milk to date. Interestingly, these novel proteins include proteins involved in regulation of cell growth and controlling inflammatory signaling pathways, suggesting that milk-derived EVs could support the newborn's developing gastrointestinal tract and immune system. Overall, this study provides an expansion of

  1. Human Milk: Mother Nature’s Prototypical Probiotic Food?1234

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuire, Michelle K; McGuire, Mark A

    2015-01-01

    The concept of “probiotic” is generally attributed to Dr. Ilya Mechnikov, who hypothesized that longevity could be enhanced by manipulating gastrointestinal microbes using naturally fermented foods. In 2001, a report of the FAO and WHO (2001 Oct, http://www.who.int/foodsafety/publications/fs_-management/en/probiotics.pdf) proposed a more restrictive definition of probiotic, as follows: “a live micro-organism which, when administered in adequate amounts, confers a health benefit on the host.” As such, answering the fundamental question posed here—“Is human milk a probiotic?”—requires first grappling with the concept and meaning of the term probiotic. Nonetheless, one must also be convinced that human milk contains bacteria. Indeed, there are scores of publications providing evidence of a paradigm shift in this regard. Variation in the human-milk microbiome may be associated with maternal weight, mode of delivery, lactation state, gestation age, antibiotic use, and maternal health. Milk constituents (e.g., fatty acids and complex carbohydrates) might also be related to the abundance of specific bacterial taxa in milk. Whether these bacteria affect infant health is likely, but more studies are needed to test this hypothesis. In summary, a growing literature suggests that human milk, like all other fluids produced by the body, indeed contains viable bacteria. As such, and recognizing the extensive literature relating breastfeeding to optimal infant health, we propose that human milk should be considered a probiotic food. Determining factors that influence which bacteria are present in milk and if and how they influence the mother’s and/or the recipient infant’s health remain basic science and public health realms in which almost nothing is known. PMID:25593150

  2. Organochlorine concentrations in breast milk and prevalence of allergic disorders in Japanese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyake, Yoshihiro; Tanaka, Keiko; Masuzaki, Yuko; Sato, Nobuyuki; Ikeda, Yoshirou; Chisaki, Youichi; Arakawa, Masashi

    2011-10-01

    Persistent organic pollutants have been shown to have immunomodulating effects in humans. However, epidemiological evidence regarding the relationships between organochlorine compound exposure and allergic disorders coming from studies of children has been limited and inconsistent. The current cross-sectional study examined the associations between the concentrations of β-hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE), and trans-nonachlordane in breast milk and the prevalence of allergic disorders in 124 adult Japanese women. The definition of wheeze and asthma was based on criteria from the European Community Respiratory Health Survey whereas that of eczema and rhinoconjunctivitis was based on criteria from the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood. Adjustment was made for age, smoking, family history of allergic disorders, and education. The prevalence values of wheeze, asthma, eczema, and rhinoconjunctivitis in the past 12 months were 9.7%, 4.8%, 13.7%, and 29.8%, respectively. The median concentrations of β-HCH, HCB, p,p'-DDE, and trans-nonachlordane in breast milk were 28.3, 7.0, 71.6, and 23.9 ng g(-1) lipid, respectively (range, 4.5-253, 2.1-14.5, 7.5-362, and 1.8-130 ng g(-1) lipid, respectively). When the exposures were treated as continuous variables, no significant associations were found between concentrations of HCB, β-HCH, p,p'-DDE, or trans-nonachlordane and the prevalence of wheeze, asthma, eczema, or rhinoconjunctivitis. Our results suggest that concentrations of β-HCH, HCB, p,p'-DDE, and trans-nonachlordane in breast milk are not evidently associated with the prevalence of wheeze, asthma, eczema, or rhinoconjunctivitis in young female Japanese adults. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. The possible role of human milk nucleotides as sleep inducers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Cristina L; Cubero, Javier; Sánchez, Javier; Chanclón, Belén; Rivero, Montserrat; Rodríguez, Ana B; Barriga, Carmen

    2009-02-01

    Breast-milk contains a potent mixture of diverse components, such as the non-protein nitrogen fraction which includes nucleotides, whose variation in levels is evident throughout lactation. In addition, these substances play an important role in sleep homeostasis. In the present study, human milk samples were analyzed using a capillary electrophoresis system. The rhythmicity of each nucleotide was studied by cosinor analysis. It was found that the nucleotides 5'AMP, 5'GMP, 5'CMP, and 5'IMP have significant (P inducing the 'hypnotic' action of breast-milk at night in the infant.

  4. Influence of milk urea concentration on fractional urea disappearance rate from milk to blood plasma in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spek, J W; Dijkstra, J; Bannink, A

    2016-05-01

    The relationship between milk urea nitrogen (MUN; mg of N/dL) and urinary N excretion is affected, among others, by diurnal dynamics in MUN, which in turn is largely influenced by feed intake pattern and characteristics of urea transfer from blood plasma to milk and vice versa. This study aimed to obtain insight in urea transfer characteristics within the mammary gland and from the mammary gland to blood plasma in dairy cows at various concentrations of plasma urea nitrogen (PUN; mg of N/dL) and MUN. Urea transfer from milk to blood plasma and urea transfer within the mammary gland itself was evaluated in a 4×4 Latin square design using 4 lactating multiparous Holstein-Friesian cows (milk production of 39.8±4.70kg/d and 90±3.9 d in milk). Treatments consisted of 4 primed continuous intravenous urea infusions of 0, 5, 10, and 15g of urea/h. Boluses of [(15)N(15)N]urea were injected in cistern milk at 20, 60, and 100 min before the 1700h milking. Milk was collected in portions of approximately 2 L at the 1700h milking. Milk samples were analyzed for urea and enrichment of (15)N-urea. Results from one cow were discarded because of leakage of milk from the teats after injection of boluses of [(15)N(15)N]urea. Increasing urea infusion rate linearly increased PUN from 11.4 (0g of urea/h) to 25.9mg/dL (15g of urea/h) and MUN from 10.3 (0g of urea/h) to 23.5 (15g of urea/h) mg of N/dL. The percentage of injected [(15)N(15)N]urea recovered from milk at the time of injection was not affected by urea infusion rate and varied between 65.1 and 73.0%, indicating that a substantial portion of injected [(15)N(15)N]urea was not accounted for by collected milk. The estimated fractional disappearance rate of (15)N-urea from milk to blood (Kurea; per hour) linearly increased from 0.429 (0g of urea/h) to 0.641 per hour (15g of urea/h). Cistern injected [(15)N(15)N]urea diffused within 20 min after injection toward alveoli milk. Calculations with the average Kurea estimated in this

  5. "Chrono-functional milk": The difference between melatonin concentrations in night-milk versus day-milk under different night illumination conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asher, A; Shabtay, A; Brosh, A; Eitam, H; Agmon, R; Cohen-Zinder, M; Zubidat, A E; Haim, A

    2015-01-01

    Pineal melatonin (MLT) is produced at highest levels during the night, under dark conditions. We evaluated differences in MLT-concentration by comparing daytime versus night time milk samples, from two dairy farms with different night illumination conditions: (1) natural dark (Dark-Night); (2) short wavelength Artificial Light at Night (ALAN, Night-Illuminated). Samples were collected from 14 Israeli Holstein cows from each commercial dairy farm at 04:30 h ("Night-milk") 12:30 h ("Day-milk") and analyzed for MLT-concentration. In order to study the effects of night illumination conditions on cows circadian rhythms, Heart Rate (HR) daily rhythms were recorded. MLT-concentrations of Night-milk samples from the dark-night group were significantly (p Night-illuminated conditions (30.70 ± 1.79 and 17.81 ± 0.33 pg/ml, respectively). Interestingly, night illumination conditions also affected melatonin concentrations at daytime where under Dark-Night conditions values are significantly (p Night-Illuminated conditions, (5.36 ± 0.33 and 3.30 ± 0.18 pg/ml, respectively). There were no significant differences between the two treatments in the milk yield and milk composition except somatic cell count (SCC), which was significantly lower (p = 0.02) in the Dark-Night group compared with the Night-Illuminated group. Cows in both groups presented a significant (p night illuminated cows feeding and milking time are the "time keeper", while in the Dark-night cows, HR rhythms were entrained by the light/dark cycle. The higher MLT-concentration in Dark-night cows with the lower SCC values calls upon farmers to avoid exposure of cows to ALAN. Therefore, under Dark-night conditions milk quality will improve by lowering SCC values where separation between night and day of such milk can produce chrono-functional milk, naturally rich with MLT.

  6. Effects of Extended Freezer Storage on the Integrity of Human Milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahrabi, Ali Faraghi; Handa, Deepali; Codipilly, Champa N; Shah, Syed; Williams, Janet E; McGuire, Mark A; Potak, Debra; Aharon, Grace Golda; Schanler, Richard J

    2016-10-01

    To examine the integrity (pH, bacterial counts, host defense factors, nutrient contents, and osmolality) of freshly expressed and previously refrigerated human milk subjected to long-term freezer storage. Mothers donated 100 mL of freshly expressed milk. Samples were divided into baseline, storage at -20°C (fresh frozen) for 1, 3, 6, and 9 months, and prior storage at +4°C for 72 hours (refrigerated frozen) before storage at -20°C for 1 to 9 months. Samples were analyzed for pH, total bacterial colony count, gram-positive and gram-negative colony counts, and concentrations of total protein, fat, nonesterified fatty acids, lactoferrin, secretory IgA, and osmolality. Milk pH, total bacterial colony count, and Gram-positive colony counts decreased significantly with freezer storage (P negative colony count decreased significantly over time (P human milk for 9 months at -20°C is associated with decreasing pH and bacterial counts, but preservation of key macronutrients and immunoactive components, with or without prior refrigeration for 72 hours. These data support current guidelines for freezer storage of human milk for up to 9 months for both freshly expressed and refrigerated milk. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Antimicrobial activity and mechanism of PDC213, an endogenous peptide from human milk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Yazhou; Zhou, Yahui; Liu, Xiao; Zhang, Fan; Yan, Linping; Chen, Ling; Wang, Xing; Ruan, Hongjie; Ji, Chenbo; Cui, Xianwei; Wang, Jiaqin

    2017-01-01

    Human milk has always been considered an ideal source of elemental nutrients to both preterm and full term infants in order to optimally develop the infant's tissues and organs. Recently, hundreds of endogenous milk peptides were identified in human milk. These peptides exhibited angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition, immunomodulation, or antimicrobial activity. Here, we report the antimicrobial activity and mechanism of a novel type of human antimicrobial peptide (AMP), termed PDC213 (peptide derived from β-Casein 213-226 aa). PDC213 is an endogenous peptide and is present at higher levels in preterm milk than in full term milk. The inhibitory concentration curve and disk diffusion tests showed that PDC213 had obvious antimicrobial against S. aureus and Y. enterocolitica, the common nosocomial pathogens in neonatal intensive care units (NICUs). Fluorescent dye methods, electron microscopy experiments and DNA-binding activity assays further indicated that PDC213 can permeabilize bacterial membranes and cell walls rather than bind intracellular DNA to kill bacteria. Together, our results suggest that PDC213 is a novel type of AMP that warrants further investigation. - Highlights: • PDC213 is an endogenous peptide presenting higher levels in preterm milk. • PDC213 showed obvious antimicrobial against S. aereus and Y. enterocolitica. • PDC213 can permeabilize bacterial membranes and cell walls to kill bacterias. • PDC213 is a novel type of antimicrobial peptides worthy further investigation.

  8. Contributions by emissions from nuclear installations to concentrations of radionuclides in milk

    CERN Document Server

    Green, N

    1983-01-01

    A year-long study has been carried out to determine whether milk produced near nuclear sites contains concentrations of radionuclides that can be attributed to discharges from the installations, and, as a consequence, whether there is enhanced exposure of those members of the public who consume this milk. Eight creameries were chosen and monthly samples of milk were taken for analysis. The concentrations of caesium-137 and strontium-90 were measured and compared with results from a national survey conducted as part of the Board's environmental radioactivity surveillance programme. No effect attributable to discharges from the nuclear establishments was identified. The activity concentrations ranged between 0.1 and 3 times the national average; the variation relates mainly to rainfall in the area, although other factors may also have an effect. However, milk contributes only a small fraction of the total dietary intake of caesium-137 and strontium-90, and so the exposure of persons consuming the milk varies on...

  9. Benefits of human milk in preterm infant feeding

    OpenAIRE

    Enrico Bertino; Paola Di Nicola; Francesca Giuliani; Chiara Peila; Elena Cester; Cristina Vassia; Alice Pirra; Paola Tonetto; Alessandra Coscia

    2012-01-01

    Mother’s own milk is widely recognized as the optimal feeding not only for term but also for preterm infants. Evidence documents short and long-term metabolic, immunologic and neurodevelopmental advantages of breastfeeding when compared to formula. Moreover benefits of breastfeeding on psychological and relational aspects have to be considered. In order to meet the unique nutritional requirements of preterm infants and preserve the singular benefit of breastfeeding, human milk should be forti...

  10. Effect of zinc from zinc sulfate on trace mineral concentrations of milk in Varamini ewes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zali, A.; Ganjkhanlou, M.

    2009-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of feeding supplemental zinc (zinc sulfate) in different levels (15, 30, or 45 mg/kg) on trace mineral concentrations in milk of ewes. Thirty lactating Varaminni ewes were assigned to three experimental groups according to their live body weights, milk

  11. Diurnal variations in milk macro-mineral concentrations in Holstein dairy cows in Urmia, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahram Nozad

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Milk samples from high and low milk producer Holstein cows, were obtained during the morning and afternoon milking over a one week period. Overall, 1064 samples were tested within 14 times sampling in Urmia, Iran. Milk macro-mineral concentrations in the morning milking and in low producers were greater than in the afternoon and in high producers. The highest and lowest concentrations were observed in Na+ and Mg++, respectively. Mean milk values between low and high producers in the morning, afternoon and daily milking times were different (p < 0.05. The individual comparison of milk parameters between both groups in the different milking times were also different (p < 0.05. The results of correlation among macro-minerals in the morning, afternoon and overall milking showed significant and positive correlations among all macro-minerals except for Na+ and K+, in which there was a significant negative correlation (p < 0.05. The highest and lowest correlations were found between Ca++ and inorganic phosphorus (IP (r=0.37, p < 0.05 and Na+ and IP (r=0.10, p < 0.05, respectively. It is concluded that the concentration of macro-minerals in different producers varied between milking times. The sodium concentration was the highest while Mg++ was the lowest among macro-minerals. The correlation between Ca++/ IP was the highest, while Na+/K+ revealed a negative correlation. Therefore, by organizing the appropriate macro-minerals in the ration, it would be possible to achieve an optimal purpose from animal husbandry.

  12. Retinol, carotenoids, and tocopherols in the milk of lactating adolescents and relationships with plasma concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Azeredo, Vilma B; Trugo, Nadia M F

    2008-02-01

    We determined the concentrations of retinol, carotenoids, and tocopherols in breast milk of adolescents and evaluated their associations with plasma levels and with maternal characteristics (period of lactation, body mass index, age of menarche, and years postmenarche). This was a single cross-sectional survey of retinol, carotenoid, and tocopherol composition of milk and plasma of lactating adolescent mothers (n = 72; 30-120 d postpartum) attending public daycare clinics in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Milk and plasma components were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography. Nutrient concentrations (micromoles per liter, mean +/- SE) in plasma and milk were, respectively, retinol 2.1 +/- 0.5 and 0.62 +/- 0.44, beta-carotene 0.18 +/- 0.19 and 0.016 +/- 0.017, alpha-carotene 0.05 +/- 0.04 and 0.0035 +/- 0.002, lutein plus zeaxanthin 0.15 +/- 0.11 and 0.025 +/- 0.024, lycopene 0.1 +/- 0.11 and 0.016 +/- 0.025, alpha-tocopherol 10.8 +/- 5.3 and 2.7 +/- 1.8, gamma-tocopherol 2.6 +/- 2.3 and 0.37 +/- 0.15. The milk/plasma molar ratios of retinol and tocopherols were two times higher than those of carotenoids. Significant correlations (P milk and plasma nutrient levels were observed for beta-carotene (r = 0.41), alpha-carotene (r = 0.60), and lutein plus zeaxanthin (r = 0.57), but not for lycopene, retinol, and tocopherols. Nutrient concentrations in plasma and in milk were not associated with the maternal characteristics investigated. Concentrations of the nutrients studied, especially retinol and alpha-tocopherol, in mature milk of lactating adolescents were, in general, lower than in milk of adult lactating women. Milk concentrations were associated with plasma concentrations only for beta-carotene, alpha-carotene, and lutein plus zeaxanthin.

  13. Assessment of phytochemical content in human milk during different stages of lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Brian J; Jouni, Zeina E; Ferruzzi, Mario G

    2013-01-01

    The present study reports the presence of several carotenoids and flavonoids in human milk samples. Samples were collected from 17 women who delivered healthy term babies (≥ 37 wk of gestation) at 1-, 4-, and 13-wk postpartum intervals. Epicatechin (63.7-828.5 nmol/L), epicatechin gallate (55.7-645.6 nmol/L), epigallocatechin gallate (215.1-2364.7 nmol/L), naringenin (64.1-722.0 nmol/L), kaempferol (7.8-71.4 nmol/L), hesperetin (74.8-1603.1 nmol/L), and quercetin (32.5-108.6 nmol/L) were present in human milk samples with high inter-/intraindividual variability. With the exception of kaempferol, the mean flavonoid content in human milk was not statistically different among lactation stages. In contrast, carotenoids α-carotene (59.0-23.2 nmol/L), β-carotene (164.3-88.0 nmol/L), α-cryptoxanthin (30.6-13.5 nmol/L), β-cryptoxanthin (57.4-24.8 nmol/L), zeaxanthin (46.3-21.4 nmol/L), lutein (121.2-56.4 nmol/L), and lycopene (119.9-49.5 nmol/L) significantly decreased from weeks 1 to 13 of lactation. The observed differences in the relative concentrations of the two phytochemical classes in human milk may be a result of several factors, including dietary exposure, stability in the milk matrix, efficiency of absorption/metabolism, and transfer from plasma to human milk. These data support the notion that flavonoids, as with carotenoids, are dietary phytochemicals present in human milk and potentially available to breast-fed infants. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Method for the quantification of current use and persistent pesticides in cow milk, human milk and baby formula using gas chromatography tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xianyu; Panuwet, Parinya; Hunter, Ronald E; Riederer, Anne M; Bernoudy, Geneva C; Barr, Dana Boyd; Ryan, P Barry

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this study was to develop an analytical method for the quantification of organochlorine (OC), organophosphate (OP), carbamate, and pyrethroid insecticide residues in cow milk, human milk, and baby formula. A total of 25 compounds were included in this method. Sample extraction procedures combined liquid-liquid extraction, freezing-lipid filtration, dispersive primary-secondary amine cleanup, and solid-phase extraction together for effective extraction and elimination of matrix interferences. Target compounds were analyzed using gas chromatography with electron impact ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (GC-EI-MS/MS) in the multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode. Average extraction recoveries obtained from cow milk samples fortified at two different concentrations (10 ng/mL and 25 ng/mL), ranged from 34% to 102%, with recoveries for the majority of target compounds falling between 60% and 80%. Similar ranges were found for formula fortified at 25 ng/mL. The estimated limits of detection for most target analytes were in the low pg/mL level (range 3-1600 pg/mL). The accuracies and precisions were within the range of 80-120% and less than 15%, respectively. This method was tested for its viability by analyzing 10 human milk samples collected from anonymous donors, 10 cow milk samples and 10 baby formula samples purchased from local grocery stores in the United States. Hexachlorobenzene, p,p-dicofol, o,p-DDE, p,p-DDE, and chlorpyrifos were found in all samples analyzed. We found detectable levels of permethrin, cyfluthrin, and fenvalerate in some of the cow milk samples but not in human milk or baby formula samples. Some of the pesticides, such as azinphos-methyl, heptachlor epoxide, and the pesticide synergist piperonyl butoxide, were detected in some of the cow milk and human milk samples but not in baby formula samples. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. Does dietary iodine regulate oxidative stress and adiponectin levels in human breast milk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez-Repiso, Carolina; Velasco, Inés; Garcia-Escobar, Eva; Garcia-Serrano, Sara; Rodríguez-Pacheco, Francisca; Linares, Francisca; Ruiz de Adana, Maria Soledad; Rubio-Martin, Elehazara; Garrido-Sanchez, Lourdes; Cobos-Bravo, Juan Francisco; Priego-Puga, Tatiana; Rojo-Martinez, Gemma; Soriguer, Federico; García-Fuentes, Eduardo

    2014-02-10

    Little is known about the association between iodine and human milk composition. In this study, we investigated the association between iodine and different markers of oxidative stress and obesity-related hormones in human breast milk. This work is composed of two cross-sectional studies (in lactating women and in the general population), one prospective and one in vitro. In the cross-sectional study in lactating women, the breast milk iodine correlated negatively with superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase, and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activities, and with adiponectin levels. An in vitro culture of human adipocytes with 1 μM potassium iodide (KI, dose similar to the human breast milk iodine concentration) produced a significant decrease in adiponectin, GSH-Px, SOD1, and SOD2 mRNA expression. However, after 2 months of treatment with KI in the prospective study, a positive correlation was found between 24-h urinary iodine and serum adiponectin. Our observations lead to the hypothesis that iodine may be a factor directly involved in the regulation of oxidative stress and adiponectin levels in human breast milk.

  16. The effect of concentrate allocation on traffic and milk production of pasture-based cows milked by an automatic milking system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lessire, F; Froidmont, E; Shortall, J; Hornick, J L; Dufrasne, I

    2017-11-01

    Increased economic, societal and environmental challenges facing agriculture are leading to a greater focus on effective way to combine grazing and automatic milking systems (AMS). One of the fundamental aspects of robotic milking is cows' traffic to the AMS. Numerous studies have identified feed provided, either as fresh grass or concentrate supplement, as the main incentive for cows to return to the robot. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of concentrate allocation on voluntary cow traffic from pasture to the robot during the grazing period, to highlight the interactions between grazed pasture and concentrate allocation in terms of substitution rate and the subsequent effect on average milk yield and composition. Thus, 29 grazing cows, milked by a mobile robot, were monitored for the grazing period (4 months). They were assigned to two groups: a low concentrate (LC) group (15 cows) and a high concentrate (HC) group (14 cows) receiving 2 and 4 kg concentrate/cow per day, respectively; two allocations per day of fresh pasture were provided at 0700 and 1600 h. The cows had to go through the AMS to receive the fresh pasture allocation. The effect of concentrate level on robot visitation was calculated by summing milkings, refusals and failed milkings/cow per day. The impact on average daily milk yield and composition was also determined. The interaction between lactation number and month was used as an indicator of pasture availability. Concentrate allocation increased significantly robot visitations in HC (3.60±0.07 visitations/cow per day in HC and 3.10±0.07 visitations/cow per day in LC; Pcow per day were similar in both groups (LC: 2.37±0.02/day and HC: 2.39±0.02/day; Ns). The average daily milk yield over the grazing period was enhanced in HC (22.39±0.22 kg/cow per day in HC and 21.33±0.22 kg/cow per day in LC; Pcows.

  17. Longitudinal Survey of Carotenoids in Human Milk from Urban Cohorts in China, Mexico, and the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipkie, Tristan E; Morrow, Ardythe L; Jouni, Zeina E; McMahon, Robert J; Ferruzzi, Mario G

    2015-01-01

    Emerging evidence indicates that carotenoids may have particular roles in infant nutrition and development, yet data on the profile and bioavailability of carotenoids from human milk remain sparse. Milk was longitudinally collected at 2, 4, 13, and 26 weeks postpartum from twenty mothers each in China, Mexico, and the USA in the Global Exploration of Human Milk Study (n = 60 donors, n = 240 samples). Maternal and neonatal plasma was analyzed for carotenoids from the USA cohort at 4 weeks postpartum. Carotenoids were analyzed by HPLC and total lipids by Creamatocrit. Across all countries and lactation stages, the top four carotenoids were lutein (median 114.4 nmol/L), β-carotene (49.4 nmol/L), β-cryptoxanthin (33.8 nmol/L), and lycopene (33.7 nmol/L). Non-provitamin A carotenoids (nmol/L) and total lipids (g/L) decreased (p0.05) with lactation stage. Total carotenoid content and lutein content were greatest from China, yet lycopene was lowest from China (pLutein, β-cryptoxanthin, and β-carotene, and lycopene concentrations in milk were significantly correlated to maternal plasma and neonatal plasma concentrations (pmilk and neonatal plasma (p>0.3). This enhanced understanding of neonatal exposure to carotenoids during development may help guide dietary recommendations and design of human milk mimetics.

  18. The Comparison of Effect of Human Milk and Powdered Milk on the Shigella dysenteriae Invasion in Cell Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdeye Azadi Aghdam

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Shigella species are the common etiologic agents of bacterial dysentery. Many epidemiological studies have shown that breastfeeding may protect infants against intestinal infections. Among the components of milk, glycosylated proteins inhibit the adhesion of enteric pathogens in the laboratory. Immunoglobulins mainly secretory immunoglobulin A, glycosylated compounds, and oligosaccharides of breast milk are associated with protection against different intestinal pathogens. Objectives: This study aimed to evaluate the effect of different proteins of breast milk and powdered milk on the invasion of Shigella colonies. Materials and Methods: To accomplish this goal, breast milk samples were provided from two donors in the first 6 months of breastfeeding and powdered milk with different brands were obtained from the market. Then the proteins were extracted by precipitation using ammonium sulfate and dialysis using dialysis bag and protein bands were separated through SDS-PAGE electrophoresis. Finally, the obtained milk proteins through Hela cells culture were tested and evaluated for the adhesion and invasion of the Shigella. Results: Our results revealed that the adhesion and invasion of Shigella stains were more inhibited by low concentrations of breast milk proteins in comparison with powdered milk. This concentration was about 2.75 mg/mL for the proteins of breast milk and 0.5 mg/mL for the proteins of powdered milk and this inhibition in different dilutions of breast milk was 71.21% and those of powdered milk was 27.19% in average. There was a significant difference between breast milk and powdered milk (P < 0.5 considering their inhibitory behavior. Conclusion: The results revealed that the components of breast milk inhibit the adhesion and consequently invasion of Shigella and inhibit bacterial dysentery.

  19. Soluble CD14 in human breast milk and its role in innate immune responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal, K; Labéta, M O; Schiffrin, E J; Donnet-Hughes, A

    2001-10-01

    Immune factors secreted in milk are important for health in the neonatal gut. We have detected the bacterial pattern recognition receptor, soluble CD14 (sCD14) in human breast milk at different times during lactation. The molecule occurs in a single form in milk, in contrast to human serum, in which there are two isoforms. Produced by mammary epithelial cells, milk sCD14 mediates secretion of innate immune response molecules such as interleukin-8, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and epithelial neutrophil activator-78 by CD14-negative intestinal epithelial cells exposed to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or bacteria. Although present at low concentrations in milk, LPS-binding protein may be implicated in the biological effects observed. Our findings support the premise that milk sCD14 acts as a 'sentinel' molecule and immune modulator in homeostasis and in the defense of the neonatal intestine. In so doing, it may prevent the immune and inflammatory conditions of the gut to which non-breastfed infants are predisposed.

  20. Determination of phthalate monoesters in human milk, consumer milk, and infant formula by tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Gerda Krog; Main, Katharina M; Andersson, Anna-Maria

    2005-01-01

    these phthalates were present, albeit at different concentrations. Median values (microg L(-1)) obtained were 0.11 (mMP), 0.95 (mEP), 3.5 (mBP), 0.8 (mBzP), 9.5 (mEHP), and 101 (mNP). We also analysed seven samples of consumer milk and ten samples of infant formula. Only mBP and mEHP were detected in these samples......Daily exposure of humans to phthalates may be a health risk because animal experiments have shown these compounds can affect the differentiation and function of the reproductive system. Because milk is the main source of nutrition for infants, knowledge of phthalate levels is important for exposure...

  1. Human Milk Macronutrients Content: Effect of Advanced Maternal Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubetzky, Ronit; Sever, Orna; Mimouni, Francis B; Mandel, Dror

    2015-11-01

    Little is known about the effect of advanced maternal age upon macronutrients of human milk. This study was designed to study contents of macronutrients (fat, lactose, and protein) in human milk collected in the first 2 weeks of life in older (≥35 years) compared with younger (Macronutrient contents were measured at 72 hours, 7 days, and 14 days after delivery using infrared transmission spectroscopy. The groups did not differ in terms of maternal prepregnancy weight, height, and diet or infant birth weight or gestational age. They differed significantly in terms of maternal age and maternal weight after pregnancy. Fat content in colostrum and carbohydrate content in mature milk were significantly higher in the older mothers group. Moreover, carbohydrates in mature milk correlated positively with maternal age. Fat content at an infant age of 7 days and 2 weeks was not affected by maternal age. There was no significant relationship between maternal body weight for height (or body mass index) and energy, protein, fat or lactose content at any stage. Fat content of colostrum and carbohydrate content of mature milk obtained from mothers with advanced age are elevated compared with those of younger mothers. Moreover, there is a positive correlation between maternal age and carbohydrate content in mature milk. The biological significance of our findings is yet to be determined.

  2. An Adoptive Mother Who Became a Human Milk Donor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores-Antón, Beatriz; García-Lara, Nadia Raquel; Pallás-Alonso, Carmen Rosa

    2017-05-01

    Inducing lactation in the absence of pregnancy (nonpuerperal lactation) is not always successful and, in many cases, only partial breastfeeding is achieved. Different protocols have been described, but scientific evidence and research are lacking in this area. The authors describe the case of a woman with a history of a miscarriage, for whom the lactation induction process was so effective that she became a milk donor even before she received her adopted child. She had not previously used hormone treatment. She was given domperidone as a galactogogue for 1 month. The pumping protocol began with a double electric breast pump combined with manual pumping 6 months before her child was delivered, and 3 months later, she was accepted as a donor by our milk bank. This highlights the importance of regular stimulation as a milk production mechanism. This is the first case of human milk donation in an adoptive mother described in the literature.

  3. Determination of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) concentrations in milk chocolate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurst, W J; Tarka, S M; Dobson, G; Reid, C M

    2001-03-01

    The fatty acids from a series of milk-chocolate-based confectionery samples were analyzed as methyl esters by GC to determine the presence and amount of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA). A single peak corresponding to the 9-cis,11-trans isomer and ranging from less than 0.1% to nearly 0.2% of the total fatty acids, corresponding to up to 0.3 mg per g of chocolate, was observed. One of the chocolate extracts and a milk extract were subjected to silver ion HPLC and GC-MS in order to confirm the identity of the major isomer and tentatively identity minor isomers.

  4. Direct evidence of milk consumption from ancient human dental calculus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warinner, C; Hendy, J; Speller, C; Cappellini, E; Fischer, R; Trachsel, C; Arneborg, J; Lynnerup, N; Craig, O E; Swallow, D M; Fotakis, A; Christensen, R J; Olsen, J V; Liebert, A; Montalva, N; Fiddyment, S; Charlton, S; Mackie, M; Canci, A; Bouwman, A; Rühli, F; Gilbert, M T P; Collins, M J

    2014-11-27

    Milk is a major food of global economic importance, and its consumption is regarded as a classic example of gene-culture evolution. Humans have exploited animal milk as a food resource for at least 8500 years, but the origins, spread, and scale of dairying remain poorly understood. Indirect lines of evidence, such as lipid isotopic ratios of pottery residues, faunal mortality profiles, and lactase persistence allele frequencies, provide a partial picture of this process; however, in order to understand how, where, and when humans consumed milk products, it is necessary to link evidence of consumption directly to individuals and their dairy livestock. Here we report the first direct evidence of milk consumption, the whey protein β-lactoglobulin (BLG), preserved in human dental calculus from the Bronze Age (ca. 3000 BCE) to the present day. Using protein tandem mass spectrometry, we demonstrate that BLG is a species-specific biomarker of dairy consumption, and we identify individuals consuming cattle, sheep, and goat milk products in the archaeological record. We then apply this method to human dental calculus from Greenland's medieval Norse colonies, and report a decline of this biomarker leading up to the abandonment of the Norse Greenland colonies in the 15(th) century CE.

  5. S100B protein, brain-derived neurotrophic factor, and glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor in human milk.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruisong Li

    Full Text Available Human milk contains a wide variety of nutrients that contribute to the fulfillment of its functions, which include the regulation of newborn development. However, few studies have investigated the concentrations of S100B protein, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF, and glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF in human milk. The associations of the concentrations of S100B protein, BDNF, and GDNF with maternal factors are not well explored.To investigate the concentrations of S100B protein, BDNF, and GDNF in human milk and characterize the maternal factors associated with their levels in human milk, human milk samples were collected at days 3, 10, 30, and 90 after parturition. Levels of S100B protein, BDNF, and GDNF, and their mRNAs in the samples were detected. Then, these concentrations were compared with lactation and other maternal factors. S100B protein levels in human milk samples collected at 3, 10, 30, and 90 d after parturition were 1249.79±398.10, 1345.05±539.16, 1481.83±573.30, and 1414.39±621.31 ng/L, respectively. On the other hand, the BDNF concentrations in human milk samples were 10.99±4.55, 13.01±5.88, 13.35±6.43, and 2.83±5.47 µg/L, while those of GDNF were 10.90±1.65, 11.38±1., 11.29±3.10, and 11.40±2.21 g/L for the same time periods. Maternal post-pregnancy body mass index was positively associated with S100B levels in human milk (r = 0.335, P = 0.030<0.05. In addition, there was a significant correlation between the levels of S100B protein and BDNF (z = 2.09, P = 0.037<0.05. Delivery modes were negatively associated with the concentration of GDNF in human milk.S100B protein, BDNF, and GDNF are present in all samples of human milk, and they may be responsible for the long term effects of breast feeding.

  6. The Effect of Simulated Flash-Heat Pasteurization on Immune Components of Human Milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brodie Daniels

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available A pasteurization temperature monitoring system has been designed using FoneAstra, a cellphone-based networked sensing system, to monitor simulated flash-heat (FH pasteurization. This study compared the effect of the FoneAstra FH (F-FH method with the Sterifeed Holder method currently used by human milk banks on human milk immune components (immunoglobulin A (IgA, lactoferrin activity, lysozyme activity, interleukin (IL-8 and IL-10. Donor milk samples (N = 50 were obtained from a human milk bank, and pasteurized. Concentrations of IgA, IL-8, IL-10, lysozyme activity and lactoferrin activity were compared to their controls using the Student’s t-test. Both methods demonstrated no destruction of interleukins. While the Holder method retained all lysozyme activity, the F-FH method only retained 78.4% activity (p < 0.0001, and both methods showed a decrease in lactoferrin activity (71.1% Holder vs. 38.6% F-FH; p < 0.0001 and a decrease in the retention of total IgA (78.9% Holder vs. 25.2% F-FH; p < 0.0001. Despite increased destruction of immune components compared to Holder pasteurization, the benefits of F-FH in terms of its low cost, feasibility, safety and retention of immune components make it a valuable resource in low-income countries for pasteurizing human milk, potentially saving infants’ lives.

  7. The Effect of Simulated Flash-Heat Pasteurization on Immune Components of Human Milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, Brodie; Schmidt, Stefan; King, Tracy; Israel-Ballard, Kiersten; Amundson Mansen, Kimberly; Coutsoudis, Anna

    2017-02-22

    A pasteurization temperature monitoring system has been designed using FoneAstra, a cellphone-based networked sensing system, to monitor simulated flash-heat (FH) pasteurization. This study compared the effect of the FoneAstra FH (F-FH) method with the Sterifeed Holder method currently used by human milk banks on human milk immune components (immunoglobulin A (IgA), lactoferrin activity, lysozyme activity, interleukin (IL)-8 and IL-10). Donor milk samples ( N = 50) were obtained from a human milk bank, and pasteurized. Concentrations of IgA, IL-8, IL-10, lysozyme activity and lactoferrin activity were compared to their controls using the Student's t -test. Both methods demonstrated no destruction of interleukins. While the Holder method retained all lysozyme activity, the F-FH method only retained 78.4% activity ( p pasteurization, the benefits of F-FH in terms of its low cost, feasibility, safety and retention of immune components make it a valuable resource in low-income countries for pasteurizing human milk, potentially saving infants' lives.

  8. Diagnostic importance of the concentration of milk amyloid A in quarter milk samples from dairy cows with mastitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan Vasiľ

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute phase proteins have been used as biomarkers of inflammation. Their concentrations increase in milk from cows with latent and subclinical mastitis. The aim of our study was to evaluate milk amyloid A (MAA as indicator of udder inflammation. We used 24 dairy cows from a herd with 120 Slovak Pied cattle. In addition to bacteriological examination, the following indicators were determined in all quarter milk samples. On the basis of results of clinical examination, Californian mastitis test (CMT, and number of Somatic cell count (SCC, four groups of quarter milk samples were formed. The levels of MAA in both subgroups of Group 1 (healthy cows, divided by the number of SCC - IA (n = 10, IB (n = 15, determined at repeated samplings, differed significantly from the initial levels (P 2 = 0.272, was detected between SCC, and MAA in Group 2 (n = 27 at individual collections (P P 2 = 0.525 was detected between SCC and MAA in this group. The obtained results allowed us to conclude that MAA in milk can act as a marker of inflammation of the udder only in the initial, asymptomatic stages of dairy cow mastitis. The experiment was one of first studies with MAA in Slovak Pied cattle.

  9. Concentrations of retinol and tocopherols in the milk of cows supplemented with conjugated linoleic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gessner, D K; Most, E; Schlegel, G; Kupczyk, K; Schwarz, F J; Eder, K

    2015-12-01

    This study was performed to investigate the hypothesis that supplementation of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) changes the concentrations of retinol and tocopherols in the milk of cows. To investigate this hypothesis, Holstein cows received daily from 3 weeks ante-partum to 14 weeks post-partum either 172 g of a CLA-free rumen-protected control fat (control group, n = 20) or the same amount of a rumen-protected CLA fat, supplying 4.3 g of cis-9, trans-11 CLA and 3.8 g of trans-10, cis-12 CLA per d (CLA group, n = 20). Milk samples (collected at weeks 1, 3, 5, 8 and 11 of lactation) were analysed for retinol, α- and γ-tocopherol concentrations. Milk of cows supplemented with CLA had higher concentrations of retinol (+34%), α-tocopherol (+44%) and γ-tocopherol (+21%) than milk of control cows (p tocopherol and γ-tocopherol, respectively, p tocopherols, concentrations of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances, determined in milk of week 5, were lower in cows of the CLA group than in control cows, indicative of a lower susceptibility of milk lipids to peroxidation. Plasma concentrations of retinol and α-tocopherol, determined at 1 and 5 weeks post-partum, were not different between the two groups of cows. In conclusion, this study shows that supplementing dairy cows with a moderate amount of CLA causes an increase of the concentrations of vitamins A and E in the milk and results in an increased output of those vitamins via milk. These effects might be beneficial with respect to the nutritional value of dairy products and the susceptibility of milk fat to oxidative deterioration. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  10. [Nutritional epigenetics and epigenetic effects of human breast milk].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukoyanova, O L; Borovik, T E

    The article provides an overview of the current literature on nutritional epigenetics. There are currently actively studied hypothesis that nutrition especially in early life or in critical periods of the development, may have a role in modulating gene expression, and, therefore, have later effects on health in adults. Nutritional epigenetics concerns knowledge about the possible effects of nutrients on gene expression. Human breast milk is well-known for its ability in preventing necrotizing enterocolitis, infectious diseases, and also non-communicable diseases, such as obesity and related disorders. This paper discusses about presumed epigenetic effects of human breast milk and some its components. While evidence suggests that a direct relationship may exist of some components of human breast milk with epigenetic changes, the mechanisms involved are stillunclear.

  11. Effects of feeding dairy cows different legume-grass silages on milk phytoestrogen concentration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Höjer, A; Adler, S; Purup, Stig

    2012-01-01

    interval of legume-grass silage on phytoestrogen intake and milk phytoestrogen concentrations. In one experiment, 15 Swedish Red dairy cows were fed 2- or 3-cut red clover-grass silage, or 2-cut birdsfoot trefoil-grass silage. In a second experiment, 16 Norwegian Red dairy cows were fed short-term ley...... red clover-grass silage diet (1,494μg/kg of milk). Because of the metabolism of biochanin A, genistein, and prunetin, their concentrations in milk and the apparent recovery were low. Coumestrol was detected in only short-term and long-term ley silage mixtures, and its milk concentration was low....... Concentrations of secoisolariciresinol and matairesinol were higher in 2-cut birdsfoot trefoil-grass and long-term ley silage mixtures, those with legume species other than red clover, and the highest grass proportions. The 2-cut birdsfoot trefoil-grass silage diet also resulted in higher enterolactone...

  12. Prevalence and factors associated with breast milk donation in banks that receive human milk in primary health care units,

    OpenAIRE

    Meneses, Tatiana Mota Xavier de; Oliveira, Maria Inês Couto de; Boccolini, Cristiano Siqueira

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Objective: To estimate the prevalence and to analyze factors associated with breast milk donation at primary health care units in order to increase the human milk bank reserves. Methods: Cross-sectional study carried out in 2013 in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. A representative sample of 695 mothers of children younger than 1 year attended to at the nine primary health care units with human milk donation services were interviewed. A hierarchical approach was used to obtain adjusted preva...

  13. Prevalence and factors associated with breast milk donation in banks that receive human milk in primary health care units

    OpenAIRE

    Tatiana Mota Xavier de Meneses; Maria Inês Couto de Oliveira; Cristiano Siqueira Boccolini

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Objective: To estimate the prevalence and to analyze factors associated with breast milk donation at primary health care units in order to increase the human milk bank reserves. Methods: Cross-sectional study carried out in 2013 in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. A representative sample of 695 mothers of children younger than 1 year attended to at the nine primary health care units with human milk donation services were interviewed. A hierarchical approach was used to obtain adjusted preva...

  14. The nutritive and immunoprotective quality of human milk beyond 1 year postpartum: are lactation-duration-based donor exclusions justified?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrin, Maryanne Tigchelaar; Fogleman, April; Allen, Jonathan C

    2013-08-01

    Donor human milk is critical for the fragile preterm infant who does not have access to his or her mother's milk, improving survival rates and quality of survival and decreasing hospital stay. Despite the opening of donor milk banks around the world, shortages continue as demand for donor milk exceeds supply. One potential means of increasing supply is by reducing exclusion criteria that prohibit mothers from donating milk based on duration of lactation. Minimal research has been done on the composition of human milk during the second year of lactation, with most research focusing on the nutritive compounds and not the immunoprotective compounds. Several immunoprotective compounds, including lysozyme, lactoferrin, secretory immunoglobulin A, and oligosaccharides, are abundant in human milk compared to bovine-based infant formula and are partially or fully retained during Holder pasteurization, making them an important differentiating feature of donor milk. A PubMed search was conducted to review studies in human milk composition during the second year of lactation. Limitations of existing research include sample collection protocols, small study sizes, and use of populations that may have been at risk for nutritional deficiencies. Stable concentrations of several components were reported including protein, lactose, iron, copper, lactoferrin, and secretory immunoglobulin A. Lysozyme concentration increased during extended lactation, while zinc and calcium concentrations declined into the second year. Conflicting findings were reported on fat content, and no information was available regarding oligosaccharide content. More research is needed to create evidence-based guidelines regarding the nutritive and immunoprotective value of donor milk throughout the course of lactation.

  15. Human milk, a concrete risk for infection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanari, M; Sogno Valin, P; Natale, F; Capretti, M G; Serra, L

    2012-10-01

    Breastfeeding should be considered a public health issue and the reference normative standards for infant feeding at least to the 6th month of life, with continuation of breastfeeding for 1 year or longer as mutually desired by mother and infant. Numerous studies demonstrate that breastfeeding results in improved infant and maternal health. Moreover the reduction of the risk of severe retinopathy of prematurity, sepsis and necrotizing enterocolitis is particularly evident in preterm infants. There are a limited number of medical conditions in which breastfeeding is contraindicated, including some maternal infectious diseases. During breastfeeding the baby can be infected by mother's pathogens with several routes of transmission that can be considered, such as respiratory secretions and droplets (e.g. Adenovirus, Influenza virus, Respiratory Syncytial Virus, Haemophilus, Mycoplasma) direct contact with lesions in the breast and nipple (e.g. HSV 1-2, VZV, Treponema) and breast milk. Frequently, in case of infection, different routes of transmission are contemporary implicated. The basic assumption is that breastfeeding is rarely contraindicated during maternal infections, a few exceptions are HTVL-I and HIV in industrialized country. The theoretic risk for transmission trough breast milk should be discussed and balanced with the benefits of breast milk, so the mother and parents can make an informed decision concerning infant feeding.

  16. Mothers' knowledge of and attitudes toward human milk banking in South Australia: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackenzie, Catherine; Javanparast, Sara; Newman, Lareen

    2013-05-01

    The beneficial effects of breastfeeding for mothers and babies are well recognized. When maternal breast milk is not available in sufficient quantity, donor breast milk is recommended as an alternate source of nutrition, particularly in preterm and other high-risk infants. Australia lags behind the rest of the developed world in establishing and promoting human milk banks; there is no human milk bank in South Australia and little is known concerning mothers' perceptions of using human milk banks in that state. This study explored mothers' knowledge of and attitudes toward human milk banks, to inform the development of human milk banking policies and guidelines in South Australia should a milk bank be established. In-depth semistructured interviews were conducted with 12 mothers who were breastfeeding and/or had preterm or sick babies. In addition, 2 focus groups were conducted-1 with breastfeeding mothers as potential donors (n = 5) and the other with mothers of preterm or high-risk infants (n = 4)-to answer questions raised by early analysis of the individual interview data. Breastfeeding mothers, as potential donors, unanimously supported donating their breast milk to a human milk bank, provided it would be easy (especially if required to drop off milk) and not overly time consuming. Mothers of preterm or sick infants would use a human milk bank if they were assured the milk was safe and appropriate for their babies. Study participants would welcome having access to a human milk bank for both donating and receiving milk in South Australia.

  17. Direct evidence of milk consumption from ancient human dental calculus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Warinner, C.; Hendy, J.; Speller, C.

    2014-01-01

    directly to individuals and their dairy livestock. Here we report the first direct evidence of milk consumption, the whey protein β-lactoglobulin (BLG), preserved in human dental calculus from the Bronze Age (ca. 3000 BCE) to the present day. Using protein tandem mass spectrometry, we demonstrate that BLG...... is a species-specific biomarker of dairy consumption, and we identify individuals consuming cattle, sheep, and goat milk products in the archaeological record. We then apply this method to human dental calculus from Greenland's medieval Norse colonies, and report a decline of this biomarker leading up...

  18. Quantitation of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 in breast milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, M K; Kuhn, L; West, J; Semrau, K; Decker, D; Thea, D M; Aldrovandi, G M

    2003-06-01

    The distribution and stability of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) in breast milk (BM) components remain largely unknown. Inhibitory effects, if any, of BM on HIV RNA and DNA PCR amplification are poorly understood. We have addressed these issues by using virus-spiked BM samples from HIV-negative women. BM samples from HIV-negative women were spiked with HIV-1 virions or cells containing a single integrated copy of HIV DNA (8E5/LAV). After incubation under different experimental conditions, viral RNA was detected by the Roche Amplicor UltraSensitive assay in whole-milk, skim milk, and lipid fractions. We found excellent correlation between HIV-1 input copy and recovery in whole milk (r = 0.965, P milk (r = 0.972, P 0.982). The effects of incubation duration and temperature and repeated freeze-thaw cycles on HIV RNA recovery were analyzed. HIV RNA levels were remarkably stable in whole milk after three freeze-thaw cycles and for up to 30 h at room temperature. Our findings improve the understanding of the dynamics of HIV detection in BM and the conditions for BM sample collection, storage, and processing.

  19. Rapid milk group classification by 1H NMR analysis of Le and H epitopes in human milk oligosaccharide donor samples

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Leeuwen, Sander S; Schoemaker, Ruud J W; Gerwig, Gerrit J; van Leusen-van Kan, Ellen J M; Dijkhuizen, Lubbert; Kamerling, Johannis P

    Human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) are a major constituent of human breast milk and play an important role in reducing the risk of infections in infants. The structures of these HMOs show similarities with blood group antigens in protein glycosylation, in particular in relation to fucosylation in

  20. Caesium transfer to placenta, urine and human milk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Risica, S.; Rogani, A.; Tancredi, F.; Grisanti, A.; Grisanti, G.; Baronciani, D.; Del Prete, A.; Zanini, R.

    1997-01-01

    After the Chernobyl accident few measurements on radioactive contamination of maternal milk, placenta and urine of nursing mothers were carried out. Two previous studies on breast milk contamination were conducted in different Italian areas by the Physics Department of the National Institute of Health (Laboratorio di Fisica, Istituto Superiore di Sanita). In the first study conducted in collaboration with the Epidemiological Unit of the Lazio District, I-131, Cs-134 and Cs-137 concentrations were measured in mixed breast milk samples pooled from 5-10 women in the first week after delivery, from May 1986 to December 1987, in the Rome area. The second research was conducted, in collaboration with the Lecco Hospital, in 1989 on a group of women living in the Como Lake area (Lombardia), which was one of the areas of Northern Italy most heavily affected by Chernobyl fallout, because of intensive rainfall in the first few days after the accident. The specific diet and caesium content in maternal milk were studied recruiting pregnant women at the ''respiratory autogen training'' course. In this case, Cs-l37, Cs-134 and K-40 concentration in placenta and urine of the mothers under study had also been measured. Aim of this paper is to discuss these data and investigate the relationship between Cs-137 contamination of maternal milk, placenta and urine as a contribution to a better understanding of caesium metabolism in pregnant and nursing women

  1. Benefits of human milk in preterm infant feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrico Bertino

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Mother’s own milk is widely recognized as the optimal feeding not only for term but also for preterm infants. Evidence documents short and long-term metabolic, immunologic and neurodevelopmental advantages of breastfeeding when compared to formula. Moreover benefits of breastfeeding on psychological and relational aspects have to be considered. In order to meet the unique nutritional requirements of preterm infants and preserve the singular benefit of breastfeeding, human milk should be fortified to allow adequate growth and bone mineralization. Best fortification models are still object of research, in order to obtain a balance between the risk of undernutrition and the metabolic risks of a too rapid catch-up growth. When mother milk is unavailable or in short supply, donor milk (DM represents the second best alternative and although some nutritional elements are inactivated by the pasteurization process, it still has documented advantages compared to formula. The demonstrated benefits of human milk (HM highlight the importance of health care professional education in the support of breastfeeding.

  2. B-Vitamin Levels in Human Milk among Different Lactation Stages and Areas in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Xiangnan; Yang, Zhenyu; Shao, Bing; Yin, Shi-An; Yang, Xiaoguang

    2015-01-01

    To determine the contents of B-vitamins in human milk in China, we analyzed 1778 human milk samples from the sample bank of the National High Technique R & D Program (863 Projects) which was a cross-sectional survey and covered 6419 human milk samples from healthy lactating mothers who were at different stages of lactation (0-330 days postpartum) in 11 provinces of China. The contents of free forms of six B-vitamins in these human milk samples were analyzed by using UPLC-MS/MS. The median concentrations of free form of 6 B-vitamins in colostrums, transitional milk, 15-180 d mature milk and 181-330 d mature milk were respectively as follows: thiamin 5.0 µg/L, 6.7 µg/L, 21.1 µg/L and 40.7 µg/L; riboflavin 29.3 µg/L, 40.6 µg/L, 33.6 µg/L and 29.6 µg/L; niacin 470.7 µg/L, 661.3 µg/L, 687.0 µg/L and 571.3 µg/L; vitamin B-6 4.6 µg/L, 16.1 µg/L, 62.7 µg/L and 80.7 µg/L; flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) 808.7 µg/L, 1162.8 µg/L, 1023.9 µg/L and 1057.2 µg/L; pantothenic acid 1770.9 µg/L, 2626.8 µg/L, 2213.0 µg/L and 1895.5 µg/L. The contents of 6 B-vitamins varied significantly among the different lactation stages and different areas (coastal area vs inland area, rural area vs urban area). The present study indicated that the concentrations of B-vitamins in colostrum were generally much lower than those in transitional milk and mature milk. Further studies are warranted for their roles and significance on B-vitamins in colostrum in nutrition and metabolism of neonates.

  3. Stability of Cortisol and Cortisone in Human Breast Milk During Holder Pasteurization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Voorn, Bibian; de Waard, Marita; Dijkstra, Lisette R.; Heijboer, Annemieke C.; Rotteveel, Joost; van Goudoever, Johannes B.; Finken, Martijn J. J.

    2017-01-01

    Human donor milk is the feeding of choice for preterm infants, when own mother's milk is not available. Holder pasteurization is necessary to secure the safety of donor milk, although it can affect milk quality by reduction of nutritional and bioactive components. Recently, research has focused on

  4. Effect of human milk on blood and bone marrow cells in a malnourished mice model; comparative study with cow milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Isabel; Salva, Susana; Zelaya, Hortensia; Villena, Julio; Agüero, Graciela

    2013-11-01

    It has been demonstrated that the alterations caused by nutrient deficiency can be reverted by adequate nutritional repletion. To perform comparative studies between human and cow milks in order to evaluate the impact of both milks on the recovery of blood and bone marrow cells affected in malnourished mice. Weaned mice were malnourished after consuming a protein free diet for 21 days. Malnourished mice received cow or human milk (CM or HM) for 7 or 14 consecutive days. During the period of administration of milk, the mice consumed the protein free diet ad libitum. The malnourished control (MNC) group received only protein free diet whereas the wellnourished control (WNC) mice consumed the balanced conventional diet. Both milks normalized serum albumin levels and improved thymus weight. Human milk was less effective than cow milk to increase body weight and serum transferrin levels. In contrast, human milk was more effective than cow milk to increase the number of leukocytes (WNC: 6.90 ± 1.60a; MNC: 2.80 ± 0.90b; CM 7d: 3.74 ± 1.10b; HM 7d: 7.16 ± 1.90a; CM 14d: 4.35 ± 1.20b; HM 14d: 6.75 ± 1.20a (109/L); p milks induced an increment in mitotic pool cells in bone marrow and α-naphthyl butyrate esterase positive cells in peripheral blood. They also normalized phagocytic function in blood neutrophils and oxidative burst in peritoneal cells. Both milks were equally effective to exert favorable effects on the number of the bone marrow cells and the functions of the blood and peritoneal cells involved in immune response. However, only human milk normalized the number of leukocytes and increased the number of neutrophils in peripheral blood. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2013. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  5. Milk protein concentration, estimated breeding value for fertility, and reproductive performance in lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, John M; Auldist, Martin J; Douglas, Meaghan L; Macmillan, Keith L

    2017-07-01

    Milk protein concentration in dairy cows has been positively associated with a range of measures of reproductive performance, and genetic factors affecting both milk protein concentration and reproductive performance may contribute to the observed phenotypic associations. It was of interest to assess whether these beneficial phenotypic associations are accounted for or interact with the effects of estimated breeding values for fertility. The effects of a multitrait estimated breeding value for fertility [the Australian breeding value for daughter fertility (ABV fertility)] on reproductive performance were also of interest. Interactions of milk protein concentration and ABV fertility with the interval from calving date to the start of the herd's seasonally concentrated breeding period were also assessed. A retrospective single cohort study was conducted using data collected from 74 Australian seasonally and split calving dairy herds. Associations between milk protein concentration, ABV fertility, and reproductive performance in Holstein cows were assessed using random effects logistic regression. Between 52,438 and 61,939 lactations were used for analyses of 4 reproductive performance measures. Milk protein concentration was strongly and positively associated with reproductive performance in dairy cows, and this effect was not accounted for by the effects of ABV fertility. Increases in ABV fertility had important additional beneficial effects on the probability of pregnancy by wk 6 and 21 of the herd's breeding period. For cows calved before the start of the breeding period, the effects of increases in both milk protein concentration and ABV fertility were beneficial regardless of their interval from calving to the start of the breeding period. These findings demonstrate the potential for increasing reproductive performance through identifying the causes of the association between milk protein concentration and reproductive performance and then devising management

  6. Purification and characterization of osteopontin from human milk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Steen; Justesen, Steen Just; Johnsen, Anders H

    2003-01-01

    biological source is missing. A four-step procedure was used to purify OPN from human milk, based on its crystal growth inhibitory activity, including anion exchange chromatography, the elimination of casein, hydroxyapatite chromatography, and negative affinity chromatography. Purified OPN was further...

  7. Organochlorine Pesticides And Pcbs In Human Breast Milk ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    One hundred and Fifty (150) samples of human breast milk (colostrums) collected from donors patronizing a postnatal center in Nigeria were analyzed for the levels of lindane, total DDT and total PCBs residues. Donors were stratified with respect to factors that may affect accumulation of these compounds such as age, ...

  8. Milk Oligosaccharides Inhibit Human Rotavirus Infectivity in MA104 Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laucirica, Daniel R; Triantis, Vassilis; Schoemaker, Ruud; Estes, Mary K; Ramani, Sasirekha

    2017-09-01

    Background: Oligosaccharides in milk act as soluble decoy receptors and prevent pathogen adhesion to the infant gut. Milk oligosaccharides reduce infectivity of a porcine rotavirus strain; however, the effects on human rotaviruses are less well understood. Objective: In this study, we determined the effect of specific and abundant milk oligosaccharides on the infectivity of 2 globally dominant human rotavirus strains. Methods: Four milk oligosaccharides-2'-fucosyllactose (2'FL), 3'-sialyllactose (3'SL), 6'-sialyllactose (6'SL), and galacto-oligosaccharides-were tested for their effects on the infectivity of human rotaviruses G1P[8] and G2P[4] through fluorescent focus assays on African green monkey kidney epithelial cells (MA104 cells). Oligosaccharides were added at different time points in the infectivity assays. Infections in the absence of oligosaccharides served as controls. Results: When compared with infections in the absence of glycans, all oligosaccharides substantially reduced the infectivity of both human rotavirus strains in vitro; however, virus strain-specific differences in effects were observed. Compared with control infections, the maximum reduction in G1P[8] infectivity was seen with 2'FL when added after the onset of infection (62% reduction, P rotaviruses in MA104 cells, primarily through an effect on the virus. Although breastfed infants are directly protected, the addition of specific oligosaccharides to infant formula may confer these benefits to formula-fed infants. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  9. Presence of functional, autoreactive human milk-specific IgE in infants with cow's milk allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Järvinen, K M; Geller, L; Bencharitiwong, R; Sampson, H A

    2012-02-01

    Occasionally, exclusively breastfed infants with cow's milk allergy (CMA) remain symptomatic despite strict maternal milk avoidance. To determine whether or not persistence of symptoms could be due to sensitization against endogenous human milk proteins with a high degree of similarity to bovine allergens. Ten peptides representing known bovine milk IgE-binding epitopes [α-lactalbumin (ALA), β- and κ-casein] and the corresponding, highly homologous human milk peptides were labelled with sera from 15 breastfed infants with CMA, aged 3 weeks to 12 months, and peptide (epitope)-specific IgE antibodies were assessed. Nine of the 15 breastfed infants became asymptomatic during strict maternal avoidance of milk and other major food allergens; six infants remained symptomatic until weaned. Ten older children, aged 5-15 years, with CMA were also assessed. The functional capacity of specific IgE antibodies was assessed by measuring β-hexosaminidase release from rat basophilic leukaemia cells passively sensitized and stimulated with human and bovine ALA. A minimum of one human milk peptide was recognized by IgE antibodies from 9 of 15 (60%) milk-allergic infants, and the majority of older children with CMA. Genuine sensitization to human milk peptides in the absence of IgE to bovine milk was occasionally seen. There was a trend towards specific IgE being detected to more human milk peptides in those infants who did not respond to the maternal milk elimination diet than in those who did (P = 0.099). Functional IgE antibody to human ALA was only detected in infants not responding to the maternal diet. Endogenous human milk epitopes are recognized by specific IgE from the majority of infants and children with CMA. Such autoreactive, human milk-specific IgE antibodies appear to have functional properties in vitro. Their role in provoking allergic symptoms in infants exclusively breastfed by mothers strictly avoiding dietary milk remains unclear. © 2011 Blackwell

  10. Applying quantitative metabolomics based on chemical isotope labeling LC-MS for detecting potential milk adulterant in human milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mung, Dorothea; Li, Liang

    2018-02-25

    There is an increasing demand for donor human milk to feed infants for various reasons including that a mother may be unable to provide sufficient amounts of milk for their child or the milk is considered unsafe for the baby. Selling and buying human milk via the Internet has gained popularity. However, there is a risk of human milk sold containing other adulterants such as animal or plant milk. Analytical tools for rapid detection of adulterants in human milk are needed. We report a quantitative metabolomics method for detecting potential milk adulterants (soy, almond, cow, goat and infant formula milk) in human milk. It is based on the use of a high-performance chemical isotope labeling (CIL) LC-MS platform to profile the metabolome of an unknown milk sample, followed by multivariate or univariate comparison of the resultant metabolomic profile with that of human milk to determine the differences. Using dansylation LC-MS to profile the amine/phenol submetabolome, we could detect an average of 4129 ± 297 (n = 9) soy metabolites, 3080 ± 470 (n = 9) almond metabolites, 4256 ± 136 (n = 18) cow metabolites, 4318 ± 198 (n = 9) goat metabolites, 4444 ± 563 (n = 9) infant formula metabolites, and 4020 ± 375 (n = 30) human metabolites. This high level of coverage allowed us to readily differentiate the six different types of samples. From the analysis of binary mixtures of human milk containing 5, 10, 25, 50 and 75% other type of milk, we demonstrated that this method could be used to detect the presence of as low as 5% adulterant in human milk. We envisage that this method could be applied to detect contaminant or adulterant in other types of food or drinks. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Nitrite and nitrate concentrations and metabolism in breast milk, infant formula, and parenteral nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jesica A; Ninnis, Janet R; Hopper, Andrew O; Ibrahim, Yomna; Merritt, T Allen; Wan, Kim-Wah; Power, Gordon G; Blood, Arlin B

    2014-09-01

    Dietary nitrate and nitrite are sources of gastric NO, which modulates blood flow, mucus production, and microbial flora. However, the intake and importance of these anions in infants is largely unknown. Nitrate and nitrite levels were measured in breast milk of mothers of preterm and term infants, infant formulas, and parenteral nutrition. Nitrite metabolism in breast milk was measured after freeze-thawing, at different temperatures, varying oxygen tensions, and after inhibition of potential nitrite-metabolizing enzymes. Nitrite concentrations averaged 0.07 ± 0.01 μM in milk of mothers of preterm infants, less than that of term infants (0.13 ± 0.02 μM) (P milk. Concentrations in parenteral nutrition were equivalent to or lower than those of breast milk. Freeze-thawing decreased nitrite concentration ~64%, falling with a half-life of 32 minutes at 37°C. The disappearance of nitrite was oxygen-dependent and prevented by ferricyanide and 3 inhibitors of lactoperoxidase. Nitrite concentrations in breast milk decrease with storage and freeze-thawing, a decline likely mediated by lactoperoxidase. Compared to adults, infants ingest relatively little nitrite and nitrate, which may be of importance in the modulation of blood flow and the bacterial flora of the infant GI tract, especially given the protective effects of swallowed nitrite. © 2013 American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition.

  12. The Effect of Holder Pasteurization on Activin A Levels in Human Milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peila, Chiara; Coscia, Alessandra; Bertino, Enrico; Li Volti, Giovanni; Galvano, Fabio; Barbagallo, Ignazio; Visser, Gerard H A; Gazzolo, Diego

    2016-11-01

    There is evidence that mother's own milk is the best nutrient in terms of multiorgan protection and infection prevention. However, when maternal milk is scarce, the solution can be represented by donor milk (DM), which requires specific storage procedures such as Holder Pasteurization (HoP). HoP is not free from side effects since it is widely known that it causes qualitative/quantitative changes in milk composition, particularly in the protein content. Therefore, the aim of this study is to investigate the effects of HoP on Activin A, a neurobiomarker known to play an important role in the development and protection of the central nervous system. In 24 mothers who delivered preterm (n = 12) and term (n = 12) healthy newborns, we conducted a pretest/test study where the milk donors acted as their own controls. Each sample was divided into two parts: the first was frozen at -80°C (Group 1); the second was Holder-pasteurized before freezing at -80°C (Group 2). Activin A was quantified using an ELISA test. Activin A was detected in all samples. There were no significant differences (p > 0.05) between the two groups, also when the analysis was stratified for gestational age at delivery and milk maturation degree (p > 0.05, for both). The present findings on the absence of any side effects of HoP on the milk concentration of Activin A offer additional support to the efficacy of HoP in DM storage. Our data open up to further investigations on neurobiomarkers' assessment in human milk and their preanalytical stability according to storage procedures.

  13. Short communication: immediate and deferred milk production responses to concentrate supplements in cows grazing fresh pasture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roche, J R; Kay, J K; Rius, A G; Grala, T M; Sheahan, A J; White, H M; Phyn, C V C

    2013-04-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the increase in milk production from supplementation that occurred after supplementation ceased. This portion of the total response (i.e., the deferred response), although accepted, is generally not accounted for in short-term component research projects, but it is important in determining the economic impact of supplementary feeding. Fifty-nine multiparous Holstein-Friesian dairy cows were offered a generous allowance of spring pasture [>45 kg of dry matter (DM)/cow per day) and were supplemented with 0, 3, or 6 kg (DM)/d of pelleted concentrate (half of the allowance at each milking event) in a complete randomized design. Treatments were imposed for the first 12 wk of lactation. Treatments were balanced for cow age (5.4 ± 1.68 yr), calving date (July 27 ± 26.0 d), and genetic merit for milk component yield. During the period of supplementation, milk yield and the yield of milk components increased (1.19 kg of milk, 0.032 kg of fat, 0.048 kg of protein, and 0.058 kg of lactose/kg of concentrate DM consumed), but neither body condition score nor body weight was affected. After concentrate supplementation ceased and cows returned to a common diet of fresh pasture, milk and milk component yields remained greater for 3 wk in the cows previously supplemented. During this 3-wk period, cows that previously received 3 and 6 kg of concentrate DM per day produced an additional 2.3 and 4.5 kg of milk/d, 0.10 and 0.14 kg of fat/d, 0.10 and 0.14 kg of protein/d, and 0.10 and 0.19 kg of lactose/d, respectively, relative to unsupplemented cows. This is equivalent to an additional 0.19 kg of milk, 0.006 kg of fat, 0.006 kg of protein, and 0.008 kg of lactose per 1 kg of concentrate DM previously consumed, which would not be accounted for in the immediate response. As a result of this deferred response to supplements, the total milk production benefit to concentrate supplements is between 7% (lactose yield) and 32% (fat yield) greater

  14. Human milk fortification strategies for improved in-hospital growth of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Human milk is the preferred feed for preterm infants, yet it may need to be fortified for optimal growth and development. Standard fortification of human milk seldom meets the recommended intake of protein, leading to inadequate post-natal growth. This article aims to critically review different human milk fortification ...

  15. Serum phenylalanine in preterm newborns fed different diets of human milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Débora M. Thomaz

    2014-09-01

    Conclusion: The observed results demonstrated that human milk with fortifiers derived from human milk acted as a good substratum for preterm infant feeding both in the evaporated or the lyophilized form, without significant increases in plasma phenylalanine levels in comparison to human milk with commercial fortifier.

  16. Effect of pasteurization on selected immune components of donated human breast milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewaschuk, J B; Unger, S; O'Connor, D L; Stone, D; Harvey, S; Clandinin, M T; Field, C J

    2011-09-01

    Pasteurized, donated milk is increasingly provided to preterm infants in the absence of mother's own milk. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of pasteurization on the concentration of selected components in donated human breast milk. Donated milk from 34 mothers was pooled into 17 distinct batches (4 mothers per batch). Aliquots of each batch were then Holder pasteurized (62.5 °C for 30 min). Interferon-γ (IFN-γ), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12p70 and IL-13 were measured in a multiplex enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF), heparin-binding epidermal-like growth factor (HB-EGF) and hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) were measured by ELISA. Lipids were assessed by gas chromatography and gangliosides by the resorcinol-HCl reaction. IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-10 and HGF were significantly reduced by pasteurization (PPasteurization significantly reduced the concentration of several immunoactive compounds present in breast milk, but did not have an impact on others.

  17. Effects of various forms of mastitis, in the progesterone concentrations of cow milk and milk fat, as determined by RIA and EIA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoedemaker, M.

    1982-01-01

    The progesterone concentration in milk fat was determined in milk samples taken from 39 cows with a corpus luteum and an average blood plasma progesterone concentration of 15.35 ± 6.26 nmole/l. The samples were collected mornings and evenings from each of the four quarters at the end of milking. 29 animals had healthy as well as diseased udder quarters. In 10 animals all four quarters were affected. There was no statistically significant difference in the progesterone concentration in the milk and in the milk fat, between the normal and affected secretion. There was also no correlation between the various forms of mastitis, causative agent, secretion findings or leucocyte content and the clinical finding in the udder quarter. Of a total of 156 samples investigated with the milk progesterone test (normal as well as affected secretion), 9 samples contained less than 5 ng progesterone/ml milk, which was set as the lower limit for evidence of the presence of an active corpus luteum. Using this lower limit, 5.8% were false negative results when compared with the actual status of the ovary. Eight of the nine secretion samples with less than 5 ng progesterone/ml milk from cows with an active corpus luteum, were from udder quarters affected with mastitis. It is probable that there is a causal relationship between the mastitis and the low progesterone content in the milk. The milk fat progesterone determination was carried out by means of the RIA and EIA. A comparison of the progesterone concentration in the milk fat and in the milk from the milk samples taken in the morning and evening demonstrated no statistically significant differences. (orig.) [de

  18. A comparative study of minor and trace elements in human, animal and commercial milk samples by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garg, A.N.; Weginwar, R.G.; Chutke, N.L.

    1993-01-01

    Human, animal (cow, buffalo and goat) and commercial milk powders (for infants and adults) have been analyzed for 5 minor (Na, K, Mg, Cl and P) and 13 trace elements (Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Cu, Zn, Cd, Hg, As, Se, Sb, Cs and Br) by instrumental and radiochemical neutron activation. Milk standards NIST SRM 1549 and IAEA A-11 along with diet standards RM 8431a and IAEA H-9 were also analyzed for quality assurance. The method involves thermal neutron irradiation for 10 m, 1 h, 6 h and 1 week in a reactor followed by high resolution γ-spectrometry. Concentrations of Fe, Co, Zn, Sb and Se were also determined by radiochemical solvent extraction. Mean concentrations of Na, K, Mg, P, Cl, Fe, Mn and Cu in human milk (colostrum) are comparable with that of a WHO/IAEA study. It has, however, lower contents of toxic trace elements (Cr, Cd, Hg, Br, Se, Sb and As) compared to breast tissue from the same area. Cow milk is richer in Na, K, Cl, Mn and Se but it has comparable amounts of Mg, Zn, Br, Fe and Sb with respect to breast milk. Significant differences have been observed for elemental concentrations of Na, K, P and Fe in commercial formula milk powders for infants and adults. Infant's milk powders contain all the nutrient elements in balanced amounts required for the higher growth rate of a child. (author) 41 refs.; 2 figs.; 3 tabs

  19. Associations between Maternal Body Composition and Appetite Hormones and Macronutrients in Human Milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kugananthan, Sambavi; Gridneva, Zoya; Lai, Ching T; Hepworth, Anna R; Mark, Peter J; Kakulas, Foteini; Geddes, Donna T

    2017-03-09

    Human milk (HM) appetite hormones and macronutrients may mediate satiety in breastfed infants. This study investigated associations between maternal adiposity and concentrations of HM leptin, adiponectin, protein and lactose, and whether these concentrations and the relationship between body mass index and percentage fat mass (%FM) in a breastfeeding population change over the first year of lactation. Lactating women ( n = 59) provided milk samples ( n = 283) at the 2nd, 5th, 9th and/or 12th month of lactation. Concentrations of leptin, adiponectin, total protein and lactose were measured. Maternal %FM was measured using bioimpedance spectroscopy. Higher maternal %FM was associated with higher leptin concentrations in both whole (0.006 ± 0.002 ng/mL, p = 0.008) and skim HM (0.005 ± 0.002 ng/mL, p = 0.007), and protein (0.16 ± 0.07 g/L, p = 0.028) concentrations. Adiponectin and lactose concentrations were not associated with %FM (0.01 ± 0.06 ng/mL, p = 0.81; 0.08 ± 0.11 g/L, p = 0.48, respectively). Whole milk concentrations of adiponectin and leptin did not differ significantly over the first year of lactation. These findings suggest that the level of maternal adiposity during lactation may influence the early appetite programming of breastfed infants by modulating concentrations of HM components.

  20. Associations between Maternal Body Composition and Appetite Hormones and Macronutrients in Human Milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sambavi Kugananthan

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Human milk (HM appetite hormones and macronutrients may mediate satiety in breastfed infants. This study investigated associations between maternal adiposity and concentrations of HM leptin, adiponectin, protein and lactose, and whether these concentrations and the relationship between body mass index and percentage fat mass (%FM in a breastfeeding population change over the first year of lactation. Lactating women (n = 59 provided milk samples (n = 283 at the 2nd, 5th, 9th and/or 12th month of lactation. Concentrations of leptin, adiponectin, total protein and lactose were measured. Maternal %FM was measured using bioimpedance spectroscopy. Higher maternal %FM was associated with higher leptin concentrations in both whole (0.006 ± 0.002 ng/mL, p = 0.008 and skim HM (0.005 ± 0.002 ng/mL, p = 0.007, and protein (0.16 ± 0.07 g/L, p = 0.028 concentrations. Adiponectin and lactose concentrations were not associated with %FM (0.01 ± 0.06 ng/mL, p = 0.81; 0.08 ± 0.11 g/L, p = 0.48, respectively. Whole milk concentrations of adiponectin and leptin did not differ significantly over the first year of lactation. These findings suggest that the level of maternal adiposity during lactation may influence the early appetite programming of breastfed infants by modulating concentrations of HM components.

  1. Milk pasteurization: efficiency of the HTST process according to its bacterial concentration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ari Ajzental

    1993-12-01

    Full Text Available The efficiency of milk pasteurization (HTST related to its standard plate count (SPC values were assessed in 41 milk samples using a laboratory designed pasteurizing equipment. Based on results, it is demonstrated that efficiency of the process is affected by its bacterial concentration, where lower SPC values mean decrease in efficiency and that the performance of the process is not affected in presence of high SPC values in raw product.

  2. Prevalence and factors associated with breast milk donation in banks that receive human milk in primary health care units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meneses, Tatiana Mota Xavier de; Oliveira, Maria Inês Couto de; Boccolini, Cristiano Siqueira

    To estimate the prevalence and to analyze factors associated with breast milk donation at primary health care units in order to increase the human milk bank reserves. Cross-sectional study carried out in 2013 in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. A representative sample of 695 mothers of children younger than 1 year attended to at the nine primary health care units with human milk donation services were interviewed. A hierarchical approach was used to obtain adjusted prevalence ratios (APR) by Poisson regression with robust variance. The final model included the variables associated with breast milk donation (p≤0.05). 7.3% of the mothers had donated breast milk. Having been encouraged to donate breast milk by healthcare professionals, relatives, or friends (APR=7.06), receiving information on breast milk expression by the primary health care unit (APR=3.65), and receiving help from the unit professionals to breastfeed (APR=2.24) were associated with a higher prevalence of donation. Admission of the newborn to the neonatal unit was associated with a lower prevalence of donation (APR=0.09). Encouragement to breast milk donation, and information and help provided by primary health care unit professionals to breastfeeding were shown to be important for the practice of human milk donation. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda.

  3. Prevalence and factors associated with breast milk donation in banks that receive human milk in primary health care units,

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Mota Xavier de Meneses

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: To estimate the prevalence and to analyze factors associated with breast milk donation at primary health care units in order to increase the human milk bank reserves. Methods: Cross-sectional study carried out in 2013 in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. A representative sample of 695 mothers of children younger than 1 year attended to at the nine primary health care units with human milk donation services were interviewed. A hierarchical approach was used to obtain adjusted prevalence ratios (APR by Poisson regression with robust variance. The final model included the variables associated with breast milk donation (p ≤ 0.05. Results: 7.3% of the mothers had donated breast milk. Having been encouraged to donate breast milk by healthcare professionals, relatives, or friends (APR = 7.06, receiving information on breast milk expression by the primary health care unit (APR = 3.65, and receiving help from the unit professionals to breastfeed (APR = 2.24 were associated with a higher prevalence of donation. Admission of the newborn to the neonatal unit was associated with a lower prevalence of donation (APR = 0.09. Conclusions: Encouragement to breast milk donation, and information and help provided by primary health care unit professionals to breastfeeding were shown to be important for the practice of human milk donation.

  4. Human milk adiponectin affects infant weight trajectory during the second year of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Jessica G; Guerrero, M Lourdes; Guo, Fukun; Martin, Lisa J; Davidson, Barbara S; Ortega, Hilda; Ruiz-Palacios, Guillermo M; Morrow, Ardythe L

    2012-04-01

    Serum adiponectin (APN) is associated with lower childhood obesity, and APN concentration in human milk is associated with slower growth during active breast-feeding. We examined infant weight gain in the second year of life after exposure to high or low levels of mother's milk APN. Breast-feeding mother-infant pairs were recruited in Mexico City and studied for 2 years; 192 infants with at least 12 months' follow-up were analyzed. Monthly milk samples were assayed for APN; mothers were classified as producing high or low levels of milk APN. Infant and maternal serum APN were assessed during year 1. Infant anthropometry was measured monthly (year 1) or bimonthly (year 2), and World Health Organization z scores were calculated. Longitudinal adjusted models assessed weight-for-age and weight-for-length z score trajectories from 1 to 2 years. Maternal serum APN modestly correlated with milk APN (r=0.37, Pmilk APN experienced increasing weight-for-age and weight-for-length z scores between age 1 and 2 years in contrast to low milk APN exposure (P for group × time=0.02 and 0.054, respectively), adjusting for growth in the first 6 months and other covariates. In contrast, infant serum APN in year 1 was not associated with the rate of weight gain in year 2. High human milk APN exposure was associated with accelerated weight trajectory during the second year of life, suggesting its role in catch-up growth after slower weight gain during the first year of life.

  5. Evolutionary modifications of human milk composition: evidence from long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid composition of anthropoid milks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milligan, Lauren A; Bazinet, Richard P

    2008-12-01

    Brain growth in mammals is associated with increased accretion of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) in brain phospholipids. The period of maximum accumulation is during the brain growth spurt. Humans have a perinatal brain growth spurt, selectively accumulating docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and other LCPUFA from the third trimester through the second year of life. The emphasis on rapid postnatal brain growth and LCPUFA transfer during lactation has led to the suggestion that human milk LCPUFA composition may be unique. Our study tests this hypothesis by determining fatty acid composition for 11 species of captive anthropoids (n=53; Callithrix jacchus, Cebus apella, Gorilla gorilla, Hylobates lar, Leontopithecus rosalia, Macaca mulatta, Pan troglodytes, Pan paniscus, Pongo pygmaeus, Saimiri boliviensis, and Symphalangus syndactylus). Results are compared to previously published data on five species of wild anthropoids (n=28; Alouatta paliatta, Callithrix jacchus, Gorilla beringei, Leontopithecus rosalia, and Macaca sinica) and human milk fatty acid profiles. Milk LCPUFA profiles of captive anthropoids (consuming diets with a preformed source of DHA) are similar to milk from women on a Western diet, and those of wild anthropoids are similar to milk from vegan women. Collectively, the range of DHA percent composition values from nonhuman anthropoid milks (0.03-1.1) is nearly identical to that from a cross-cultural analysis of human milk (0.06-1.4). Humans do not appear to be unique in their ability to secrete LCPUFA in milk but may be unique in their access to dietary LCPUFA.

  6. Inactivation of high-risk human papillomaviruses by Holder pasteurization: implications for donor human milk banking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donalisio, Manuela; Cagno, Valeria; Vallino, Marta; Moro, Guido E; Arslanoglu, Sertac; Tonetto, Paola; Bertino, Enrico; Lembo, David

    2014-01-01

    Several studies have recently reported the detection of oncogenic human papillomaviruses (HPV) in human milk of a minority of lactating mothers. These findings raised safety concerns in the context of human donor milk banking given the potential risk of HPV transmission to recipient infants. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the Holder pasteurization, a procedure currently in use in human donor milk banks for milk pasteurization, completely inactivates high-risk and low-risk HPV. HPV pseudoviruses (PsV) were generated, spiked into cell culture medium or donor human milk and subjected to thermal inactivation. HPV PsV infectivity and morphological integrity was analyzed by cell-based assay and by electron microscopy, respectively. The Holder pasteurization completely inactivated the infectivity of high-risk (types 16 and 18) and low-risk (type 6) HPV both in cell culture medium and in human milk causing PsV particle disassembly. The results presented here indicate that the Holder pasteurization is an efficient procedure to inactivate high-risk and low-risk HPV thus preventing the potential risk of their transmission through human donor milk.

  7. Nutrient Fortification of Human Donor Milk Affects Intestinal Function and Protein Metabolism in Preterm Pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sun, Jing; Li, Yanqi; Nguyen, Duc Ninh

    2018-01-01

    (BC) may be an alternative nutrient fortifier, considering its high content of protein and milk bioactive factors. Objective: We investigated whether BC was superior to an FF product based on processed bovine milk and vegetable oil to fortify donor human milk (DHM) for preterm pigs, used as a model......) and DHM with or without FF or BC fortification (+4.6 g protein ⋅ kg-1 ⋅ d-1). Results: DPM-fed pigs showed higher growth (10-fold), protein synthesis (+15-30%), villus heights, lactase and peptidase activities (+30%), and reduced intestinal cytokines (-50%) relative to DHM pigs (all P ....05). Fortification increased protein synthesis (+20-30%), but with higher weight gain and lower urea and cortisol concentrations for DHM+BC compared with DHM+FF pigs (2- to 3-fold differences, all P ≤ 0.06). DHM+FF pigs showed more diarrhea and reduced lactase and peptidase activities, hexose uptake, and villus...

  8. Comprehensive Proteomic Analysis of Human Milk-derived Extracellular Vesicles Unveils a Novel Functional Proteome Distinct from Other Milk Components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Herwijnen, Martijn J C; Zonneveld, Marijke I; Goerdayal, Soenita; Nolte-'t Hoen, Esther N M; Garssen, Johan; Stahl, Bernd; Maarten Altelaar, A F; Redegeld, Frank A; Wauben, Marca H M

    2016-11-01

    Breast milk contains several macromolecular components with distinctive functions, whereby milk fat globules and casein micelles mainly provide nutrition to the newborn, and whey contains molecules that can stimulate the newborn's developing immune system and gastrointestinal tract. Although extracellular vesicles (EV) have been identified in breast milk, their physiological function and composition has not been addressed in detail. EV are submicron sized vehicles released by cells for intercellular communication via selectively incorporated lipids, nucleic acids, and proteins. Because of the difficulty in separating EV from other milk components, an in-depth analysis of the proteome of human milk-derived EV is lacking. In this study, an extensive LC-MS/MS proteomic analysis was performed of EV that had been purified from breast milk of seven individual donors using a recently established, optimized density-gradient-based EV isolation protocol. A total of 1963 proteins were identified in milk-derived EV, including EV-associated proteins like CD9, Annexin A5, and Flotillin-1, with a remarkable overlap between the different donors. Interestingly, 198 of the identified proteins are not present in the human EV database Vesiclepedia, indicating that milk-derived EV harbor proteins not yet identified in EV of different origin. Similarly, the proteome of milk-derived EV was compared with that of other milk components. For this, data from 38 published milk proteomic studies were combined in order to construct the total milk proteome, which consists of 2698 unique proteins. Remarkably, 633 proteins identified in milk-derived EV have not yet been identified in human milk to date. Interestingly, these novel proteins include proteins involved in regulation of cell growth and controlling inflammatory signaling pathways, suggesting that milk-derived EVs could support the newborn's developing gastrointestinal tract and immune system. Overall, this study provides an expansion of

  9. Preparation of recombinant proteins in milk to improve human and animal health

    OpenAIRE

    Soler , Eric; Thépot , Dominique; Rival-Gervier , Sylvie; JOLIVET , Geneviève; Houdebine , Louis-Marie

    2006-01-01

    International audience; Milk is a very abundant source of proteins for animal and human consumption. Milk composition can be modified using transgenesis, including exogenous gene addition and endogenous gene inactivation. The study of milk protein genes has provided researchers with regulatory regions capable of efficiently and specifically driving the expression of foreign genes in milk. The projects underway are aimed at modifying milk composition, improving its nutritional value, reducing ...

  10. The Norwegian human milk study HUMIS variations in levels of chlorinated pesticides, PCBs and PBDEs in Norwegian breast milk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polder, A.; Loeken, K. [The Norwegian School of Veterinary Science, Oslo (Norway); Thomsen, C.; Becher, G.; Eggesboe, M. [Norwegian Inst. of Public Health, Oslo (Norway); Skaare, J.U. [National Veterinary Inst., Oslo (Norway)

    2004-09-15

    Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), polychlorinated, -dibenzo-pdioxins (PCDDs), -dibenzofurans (PCDFs), -biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are among the persistent organic pollutants (POPs) that have been found to accumulate in human breast milk. Because nursing children are exposed to these chemicals through the contaminated breast milk, health authorities worldwide are concerned for the infants' intake and therefore human milk monitoring programs are performed in many countries. While restrictions and bans resulted in a decline of organochlorines (OCs) in human milk during the last decades, an increasing trend has been found for PBDEs. The main goals of ''The Norwegian Human Milk Study, HUMIS'' are: to elucidate the human exposure in Norway to POPs, to identify dietary habits and other lifestyle factors that are associated with high levels of POPs in human milk, and to study the impact of exposure to the these contaminants on child health. This study reports preliminary results of recent levels of POPs in human milk in 4 different counties in Norway.

  11. What’s normal? Oligosaccharide concentrations and profiles in milk produced by healthy women vary geographically12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meehan, Courtney L; McGuire, Mark A; Foster, James; Sellen, Daniel W; Kamau-Mbuthia, Elizabeth W; Kamundia, Egidioh W; Mbugua, Samwel; Moore, Sophie E; Prentice, Andrew M; Kvist, Linda J; Otoo, Gloria E; Brooker, Sarah L; Price, William J; Shafii, Bahman; Placek, Caitlyn; Lackey, Kimberly A; Robertson, Bianca; Ruíz, Lorena; Pareja, Rossina G; Bode, Lars

    2017-01-01

    Background: Human milk is a complex fluid comprised of myriad substances, with one of the most abundant substances being a group of complex carbohydrates referred to as human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs). There has been some evidence that HMO profiles differ in populations, but few studies have rigorously explored this variability. Objectives: We tested the hypothesis that HMO profiles differ in diverse populations of healthy women. Next, we examined relations between HMO and maternal anthropometric and reproductive indexes and indirectly examined whether differences were likely related to genetic or environmental variations. Design: In this cross-sectional, observational study, milk was collected from a total of 410 healthy, breastfeeding women in 11 international cohorts and analyzed for HMOs by using high-performance liquid chromatography. Results: There was an effect of the cohort (P 4 times higher in milk collected in Sweden than in milk collected in rural Gambia (mean ± SEM: 473 ± 55 compared with 103 ± 16 nmol/mL, respectively; P < 0.05), and disialyllacto-N-tetraose (DSLNT) concentrations ranged from 216 ± 14 nmol/mL (in Sweden) to 870 ± 68 nmol/mL (in rural Gambia) (P < 0.05). Maternal age, time postpartum, weight, and body mass index were all correlated with several HMOs, and multiple differences in HMOs [e.g., lacto-N-neotetrose and DSLNT] were shown between ethnically similar (and likely genetically similar) populations who were living in different locations, which suggests that the environment may play a role in regulating the synthesis of HMOs. Conclusions: The results of this study support our hypothesis that normal HMO concentrations and profiles vary geographically, even in healthy women. Targeted genomic analyses are required to determine whether these differences are due at least in part to genetic variation. A careful examination of sociocultural, behavioral, and environmental factors is needed to determine their roles in this regard. This

  12. The economics of feeding concentrate to partially-milked Sanga cows in the dry season

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karikari, P.K.; Asare, K.; Okantah, S.A.

    2002-01-01

    An experiment was carried for 120 days during the dry season of 1998/99, to assess the sustainability of dry season feed supplementation in an emerging peri-urban dairy production system in the Kumasi district of Ghana. Fifty three Sanga cows were divided into four treatment groups T1, T2, T3 and T4, and were fed 0, 1, 1.5 and 2 kg respectively, of a home-made concentrate supplement containing 18% crude protein. The treatment groups contained 12, 14, 12 and 15 cows, respectively. The cows were milked once a day in the mornings and allowed to suckle during the day. Daily partial milk yield was 1.7, 2.1, 2.6 and 2.7 L for cows supplemented with 0, 1, 1.5 and 2 kg concentrate, respectively. Cows fed 1.5 kg concentrate generated the highest net income from milk sales. They produced 53% more milk and 16% more milk revenue than the control cows. Their-daily partial milk yield was not significantly different (P > 0.05) from that of cows fed 2 kg concentrate supplement, but was significantly higher (P<0.05) than that from other groups. It was found that feeding 2 kg concentrate supplement a day to Sanga cows in the Kumasi district may not be economical even though milk yield may be increased. It is suggested that given the large variability observed in individual cow performance, selection of more productive cows or culling of less productive ones could be used in conjunction with feed supplementation to improve the productivity of Sanga cows in less endowed environments. (author)

  13. Fluoride Concentration in Water, Cow Milk and Cow Urine from Smallholder Dairy Farms in Kiambu- Kenya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gikunju, J.K.; Maitho, T.E.; Kyule, M.N.; Mitema, E.S.; Mugera, G.M.

    1999-01-01

    Kiambu district is situated in central part of Kenya. most of the available land is suitable for agricultural use. majority of the farmers are small scale or subsistence farmers and they are involve in a variety of livestock activities e.g. dairy production, pig production and others in combination or as separate operations. excessive fluoride ingestion can cause specific dental and skeletal lesions and in severe cases adversely influence the health and productivity performance of domestic animals.therefore a study was designed to investigate the levels of flouride in urine, milk and water samples from small scale dairy farms in Kiambu. Water, cow urine and milk samples were collected in clean plastic containers from 84 small scale farms belonging to 6 dairy farmers co-operative societies (DFCs). The DFCs in this study were Kiambaa, Lari, Nderi, Kikuyu, Chania and Limuru. The fluoride concentration in water milk and urine were analysed using the potentiometric method of fluoride ion specific electrode. overall urine contained the highest fluoride concentration while milk contained the lowest fluoride levels. Fluoride levels in water, milk and urine were significantly different, (P>0.05). The mean fluoride concentration in water from all societies was 0.29 ppm while the mean fluoride concentration in milk 0.05 ppm. urine samples had the highest fluoride concentration, (1.5 ppm). The cooperative specific mean fluoride concentrations arranged in descending order were as follow: Nderi (2.8 ppm), Kikuyu (2.4 ppm), Kiambaa(1.9 ppm), Chania (1.6 ppm), Limuru (1.3 ppm) and Lari (1.0 ppm). The maximum fluoride concentration encountered in water in this study was 3.4 ppm, however adverse productivity has been reported in dairy animals consuming as low as 2.15 ppm in drinking water. The mean milk production in in kilograms per day per cow ranged from 2.5 to 6.9 when all six dairy co-operative societies were taken into consideration. this is far below the expected production

  14. Legacy and alternative halogenated flame retardants in human milk in Europe: Implications for children's health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Čechová, Eliška; Vojta, Šimon; Kukučka, Petr; Kočan, Anton; Trnovec, Tomáš; Murínová, Ľubica Palkovičová; de Cock, Marijke; van de Bor, Margot; Askevold, Joakim; Eggesbø, Merete; Scheringer, Martin

    2017-11-01

    In this study, 10 polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and 19 alternative halogenated flame retardants (AFRs) were determined in >450 human milk samples across three European countries, representing northern, western and eastern Europe. This study provides first insights into the occurrence of selected AFRs in mother milk samples and compares them among three European countries. Sums of median concentrations of the most frequently detected PBDEs were 2.16, 0.88 and 0.45ngg -1 lipid weight (lw) in Norway, the Netherlands and Slovakia, respectively. The sum of the concentrations of AFRs ranged from 0.14 to 0.25ngg -1 lw in all countries, which was 2 to 15 times less compared to Σ 7 PBDEs. The Penta-BDE replacement, bis(2-ethylhexyl) tetrabromophthalate, BEH-TEBP, was present at the greatest concentrations of any of the AFRs and in some samples exceeded concentrations of BDE 47 and BDE 153. Four AFRs including bromobenzenes (hexabromobenzene, pentabromobenzene, pentabromotoluene) and another Penta-BDE replacement (2-ethylhexyl-2,3,4,5-tetrabromobenzoate, EH-TBB) were detected in >42% of all human milk samples. Because of the potential developmental neurotoxicity of the halogenated flame retardants, infant dietary intakes via breastfeeding were estimated; in four cases the intakes of BDE 47 exceeded the reference dose indicating that the present concentrations may pose a risk for children. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Persistent organic pollutants in human breast milk from Asian countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanabe, Shinsuke; Kunisue, Tatsuya

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we concisely reviewed the contamination of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) such as polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), dibenzofurans (PCDFs), biphenyls (PCBs), dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane and its metabolites (DDTs), hexachlorocyclohexane isomers (HCHs), chlordane compounds (CHLs), hexachlorobenzene (HCB) in human breast milk collected from Asian countries such as Japan, China, Philippines, Vietnam, Cambodia, India, Malaysia, and Indonesia during 1999-2003. Dioxins, PCBs, CHLs in Japanese, and DDTs in Vietnamese, Chinese, Cambodian, Malaysian, and HCHs in Chinese, Indian, and HCB in Chinese breast milk were predominant. In India, levels of dioxins and related compounds (DRCs) in the mothers living around the open dumping site were notably higher than those from the reference site and other Asian developing countries, indicating that significant pollution sources of DRCs are present in the dumping site of India and the residents there have been exposed to relatively higher levels of these contaminants possibly via bovine milk. - Contamination aspects of POPs in human breast milk from Asian countries were characterized

  16. Human milk use in Australian hospitals, 1949-1985.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorley, Virginia

    2012-07-01

    This paper will draw mainly on the experiences of fourteen women to explore the use of expressed human milk by hospitals in Australia from the postwar period through to 1985. The purpose is to provide a snapshot of common practices before the decline of human milk banking and other uses of expressed breastmilk in Australian hospitals, thus providing a source for future comparison against the more rigorous, uniform practices being instituted in the new milk banks of the early-21st century. The ten mothers included were a convenience sample drawn from the author's networks, with recruitment continuing till a range of hospital types and a majority of states were included. Three of the mothers also had experience as trainee midwives and midwives, and four midwives contributed their experiences as staff members, only. The hospitals ranged from large teaching hospitals to small private hospitals and were in metropolitan, regional and country locations. The practices included routine expression and expression for specific purposes, whether for the mother's own baby or to donate. Some hospitals pooled the donor milk for premature or sick babies.

  17. Persistent organic pollutants in human breast milk from Asian countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanabe, Shinsuke [Center for Marine Environmental Studies (CMES), Ehime University, Bunkyo-cho 2-5, Matsuyama 790 8577, Ehime Prefecture (Japan)]. E-mail: shinsuke@agr.ehime-u.ac.jp; Kunisue, Tatsuya [Center for Marine Environmental Studies (CMES), Ehime University, Bunkyo-cho 2-5, Matsuyama 790 8577, Ehime Prefecture (Japan)

    2007-03-15

    In this paper, we concisely reviewed the contamination of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) such as polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), dibenzofurans (PCDFs), biphenyls (PCBs), dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane and its metabolites (DDTs), hexachlorocyclohexane isomers (HCHs), chlordane compounds (CHLs), hexachlorobenzene (HCB) in human breast milk collected from Asian countries such as Japan, China, Philippines, Vietnam, Cambodia, India, Malaysia, and Indonesia during 1999-2003. Dioxins, PCBs, CHLs in Japanese, and DDTs in Vietnamese, Chinese, Cambodian, Malaysian, and HCHs in Chinese, Indian, and HCB in Chinese breast milk were predominant. In India, levels of dioxins and related compounds (DRCs) in the mothers living around the open dumping site were notably higher than those from the reference site and other Asian developing countries, indicating that significant pollution sources of DRCs are present in the dumping site of India and the residents there have been exposed to relatively higher levels of these contaminants possibly via bovine milk. - Contamination aspects of POPs in human breast milk from Asian countries were characterized.

  18. Production of Conjugated Linoleic and Conjugated α-Linolenic Acid in a Reconstituted Skim Milk-Based Medium by Bifidobacterial Strains Isolated from Human Breast Milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Antonia Villar-Tajadura

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Eight bifidobacterial strains isolated from human breast milk have been tested for their abilities to convert linoleic acid (LA and α-linolenic acid (LNA to conjugated linoleic acid (CLA and conjugated α-linolenic acid (CLNA, respectively. These bioactive lipids display important properties that may contribute to the maintenance and improvement human health. Three selected Bifidobacterium breve strains produced CLA from LA and CLNA from LNA in MRS (160–170 and 210–230 μg mL−1, resp. and, also, in reconstituted skim milk (75–95 and 210–244 μg mL−1, resp.. These bifidobacterial strains were also able to simultaneously produce both CLA (90–105 μg mL−1 and CLNA (290–320 μg mL−1 in reconstituted skim milk. Globally, our findings suggest that these bifidobacterial strains are potential candidates for the design of new fermented dairy products naturally containing very high concentrations of these bioactive lipids. To our knowledge, this is the first study describing CLNA production and coproduction of CLA and CLNA by Bifidobacterium breve strains isolated from human milk in reconstituted skim milk.

  19. Pasteurization Procedures for Donor Human Milk Affect Body Growth, Intestinal Structure, and Resistance against Bacterial Infections in Preterm Pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yanqi; Nguyen, Duc Ninh; de Waard, Marita; Christensen, Lars; Zhou, Ping; Jiang, Pingping; Sun, Jing; Bojesen, Anders Miki; Lauridsen, Charlotte; Lykkesfeldt, Jens; Dalsgaard, Trine Kastrup; Bering, Stine Brandt; Sangild, Per Torp

    2017-06-01

    Background: Holder pasteurization (HP) destroys multiple bioactive factors in donor human milk (DM), and UV-C irradiation (UVC) is potentially a gentler method for pasteurizing DM for preterm infants. Objective: We investigated whether UVC-treated DM improves gut maturation and resistance toward bacterial infections relative to HP-treated DM. Methods: Bacteria, selected bioactive components, and markers of antioxidant capacity were measured in unpasteurized donor milk (UP), HP-treated milk, and UVC-treated milk (all from the same DM pool). Fifty-seven cesarean-delivered preterm pigs (91% gestation; ratio of males to females, 30:27) received decreasing volumes of parental nutrition (average 69 mL · kg -1 · d -1 ) and increasing volumes of the 3 DM diets ( n = 19 each, average 89 mL · kg -1 · d -1 ) for 8-9 d. Body growth, gut structure and function, and systemic bacterial infection were evaluated. Results: A high bacterial load in the UP (6×10 5 colony forming units/mL) was eliminated similarly by HP and UVC treatments. Relative to HP-treated milk, both UVC-treated milk and UP showed greater activities of lipase and alkaline phosphatase and concentrations of lactoferrin, secretory immunoglobulin A, xanthine dehydrogenase, and some antioxidant markers (all P < 0.05). The pigs fed UVC-treated milk and pigs fed UP showed higher relative weight gain than pigs fed HP-treated milk (5.4% and 3.5%), and fewer pigs fed UVC-treated milk had positive bacterial cultures in the bone marrow (28%) than pigs fed HP-treated milk (68%) ( P < 0.05). Intestinal health was also improved in pigs fed UVC-treated milk compared with those fed HP-treated milk as indicated by a higher plasma citrulline concentration (36%) and villus height (38%) ( P < 0.05) and a tendency for higher aminopeptidase N (48%) and claudin-4 (26%) concentrations in the distal intestine ( P < 0.08). The gut microbiota composition was similar among groups except for greater proportions of Enterococcus in pigs

  20. BLOOD SELENIUM CONCENTRATION AFFECT MASTITIS AND MILK QUALITY IN DAIRY COWS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davidov Ivana

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Milk quality is usually defined in terms of mastitis. Milk with somatic cell count low then 400.000/ml and visibly normal (no clots is considered high quality. Thirty Holstein cows were used in the study to determine affect blood serum selenium concentration on mastitis and milk quality. Cows received ad libitum access to potable water and daily 0.3 mg/kg inorganic selenium supplementation in food. Blood and milk samples were taken at first and sixth lactating month. Mean selenium blood serum concentrations were found to be lower within first lactating month, and then increased in the sixth lactating month. Average somatic cell count at first lactating month was 450.000/ml of milk and at sixth lactating month was 355.000/ml. On the basis of these results it can be conclude that selenium have importance in proper functioning of the mammary glands of cows, and in reducing mastitis and in improving milk quality.

  1. Innate recognition of bacteria in human milk is mediated by a milk-derived highly expressed pattern recognition receptor, soluble CD14.

    OpenAIRE

    Lab?ta, MO; Vidal, K; Nores, JE; Arias, M; Vita, N; Morgan, BP; Guillemot, JC; Loyaux, D; Ferrara, P; Schmid, D; Affolter, M; Borysiewicz, LK; Donnet-Hughes, A; Schiffrin, EJ

    2000-01-01

    Little is known about innate immunity to bacteria after birth in the hitherto sterile fetal intestine. Breast-feeding has long been associated with a lower incidence of gastrointestinal infections and inflammatory and allergic diseases. We found in human breast milk a 48-kD polypeptide, which we confirmed by mass spectrometry and sequencing to be a soluble form of the bacterial pattern recognition receptor CD14 (sCD14). Milk sCD14 (m-sCD14) concentrations were up to 20-fold higher than serum ...

  2. Innate Recognition of Bacteria in Human Milk Is Mediated by a Milk-Derived Highly Expressed Pattern Recognition Receptor, Soluble Cd14

    OpenAIRE

    Labéta, Mario O.; Vidal, Karine; Nores, Julia E. Rey; Arias, Mauricio; Vita, Natalio; Morgan, B. Paul; Guillemot, Jean Claude; Loyaux, Denis; Ferrara, Pascual; Schmid, Daniel; Affolter, Michael; Borysiewicz, Leszek K.; Donnet-Hughes, Anne; Schiffrin, Eduardo J.

    2000-01-01

    Little is known about innate immunity to bacteria after birth in the hitherto sterile fetal intestine. Breast-feeding has long been associated with a lower incidence of gastrointestinal infections and inflammatory and allergic diseases. We found in human breast milk a 48-kD polypeptide, which we confirmed by mass spectrometry and sequencing to be a soluble form of the bacterial pattern recognition receptor CD14 (sCD14). Milk sCD14 (m-sCD14) concentrations were up to 20-fold higher than serum ...

  3. Assessment of levels of mercury in human breast milk in Obuasi Municipality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asamoah-Antwi, Dinah

    2016-07-01

    This study was conducted to assess the levels of mercury in breast milk and its potential health risk to the breastfed infants in Obuasi Municipality. Forty eight (48) individual breast milk samples were collected from mothers in selected health facilities in Obuasi town and it’s environ. Total mercury concentrations were determined in the breast milk samples using advanced mercury analyser (AMA254 Altec s.r.o, in the Czech Republic). Methylmercury levels were determined using high performance liquid chromatography linked to inductively couple plasma mass spectrometry (HPLC-ICP-MS) with isotope dilution. The mean concentrations of Total Hg and Methyl Hg in the breast milk were 0.4043 and 0.1829 μg/L respectively. Total mercury and methylmercury concentrations ranged from 0.080 to 2.320 μg/L and 0.008 to 0.734 μg/L respectively. The estimated intake obtained in this study was lower than the reference dose established by the US EPA (0.3μg/kg/day). However the hazard quotients evaluated showed that the one month old infants had hazard quotient above the 0.2, therefore indicating that there is a potential risk for such infants and need to be managed. It was also found that (65.3%) of the mothers had no knowledge of the exposure route to mercury and it toxicity to humans. (au)

  4. The stereospecific triacylglycerol structures and fatty acid profiles of human milk and infant formulas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Straarup, Ellen Marie; Lauritzen, L.; Færk, Jan

    2006-01-01

    Background: The stereospecific structures of the triacylglycerol molecules in human milk differ from that of cow's milk and vegetable oils, which are the fat sources used in infant formula. In human milk, palmitic acid (16:0) is predominantly esterified in the sn2 position, whereas vegetable oils...

  5. Human milk peptides differentiate between the preterm and term infant and across varying lactational stages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dingess, Kelly A.; de Waard, Marita; Boeren, Sjef; Vervoort, Jacques; Lambers, Tim T.; van Goudoever, Johannes B.; Hettinga, Kasper

    2017-01-01

    Variations in endogenous peptide profiles, functionality, and the enzymes responsible for the formation of these peptides in human milk are understudied. Additionally, there is a lack of knowledge regarding peptides in donor human milk, which is used to feed preterm infants when mother's own milk is

  6. Higher concentrations of branched-chain amino acids in breast milk of obese mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Luca, Arnaud; Hankard, Régis; Alexandre-Gouabau, Marie-Cécile; Ferchaud-Roucher, Véronique; Darmaun, Dominique; Boquien, Clair-Yves

    2016-01-01

    Nutrition during fetal life and early childhood is thought to play a crucial role in the risk for developing metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular diseases in the future adult and branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) intake may play a role in the development of obesity. The aim of this study was to compare the breast milk amino acid profiles of obese and normal weight (control) breast-feeding mothers. Fifty obese and 50 control breast-feeding mothers were enrolled. Age and parity were similar in both groups. Breast milk samples were collected at the end of the first month of lactation. Free amino acid (FAA) concentrations in breast milk were determined by ultra-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Comparisons between groups were performed using a two-tailed paired t test. We analyzed 45 breast milk samples from each group. Body mass index was 34.3 ± 3.9 kg/m(2) in the obese group and 21.6 ± 1.4 kg/m(2) in the control group (P milk of obese mothers (95.5 ± 38.2 μM versus 79.8 ± 30.9 μM; P = 0.037), as was tyrosine concentration (13.8 ± 7.1 μM versus 10.6 ± 5.2 μM; P = 0.016). The mature breast milk of obese mothers contained 20% more BCAA and 30% more tyrosine than breast milk of control mothers. Whether altered breast milk FAA profile affects metabolic risk in the breast-fed child remains to be explored. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. An in situ caries study on the interplay between fluoride dose and concentration in milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippert, F; Martinez-Mier, E A; Zero, D T

    2014-07-01

    This randomized, cross-over in situ study investigated the impact of sodium fluoride dose and concentration in milk on caries lesion rehardening, fluoridation and acid resistance. Twenty-eight subjects wore two gauze-covered enamel specimens with preformed lesions placed buccally on their mandibular partial dentures for three weeks. Participants used fluoride-free dentifrice throughout the study and consumed once daily one of the five study treatments: no fluoride in 200 ml milk (0F-200), 1.5 or 3 mg fluoride in either 100 (1.5F-100; 3F-100) or 200 ml milk (1.5F-200; 3F-200). After three weeks, specimens were retrieved. Knoop hardness was used to determine rehardening and resistance to a secondary acid challenge. Enamel fluoride uptake (EFU) was determined using a microbiopsy technique. A linear fluoride dose-response was observed for all study variables which exhibited similar overall patterns. All the treatments resulted in rehardening, with 0F-200 inducing the least and 3F-100 the most. Apart from 1.5F-200, all the treatments resulted in statistically significantly more rehardening compared to 0F-200. The fluoride doses delivered in 100 ml provided directionally although not statistically significantly more rehardening than those delivered in 200 ml milk. EFU data exhibited better differentiation between treatments: all fluoridated milk treatments delivered more fluoride to lesions than 0F-200; fluoride in 100 ml demonstrated statistically significantly higher EFU than fluoride in 200 ml milk. Findings for acid resistance were also more discerning than rehardening data. The present study has provided further evidence for the anti-caries benefits of fluoridated milk. Both fluoride dose and concentration appear to impact the cariostatic properties of fluoride in milk. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Human, donkey and cow milk differently affects energy efficiency and inflammatory state by modulating mitochondrial function and gut microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinchese, Giovanna; Cavaliere, Gina; Canani, Roberto Berni; Matamoros, Sebastien; Bergamo, Paolo; De Filippo, Chiara; Aceto, Serena; Gaita, Marcello; Cerino, Pellegrino; Negri, Rossella; Greco, Luigi; Cani, Patrice D; Mollica, Maria Pina

    2015-11-01

    Different nutritional components are able, by modulating mitochondrial function and gut microbiota composition, to influence body composition, metabolic homeostasis and inflammatory state. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the effects produced by the supplementation of different milks on energy balance, inflammatory state, oxidative stress and antioxidant/detoxifying enzyme activities and to investigate the role of the mitochondrial efficiency and the gut microbiota in the regulation of metabolic functions in an animal model. We compared the intake of human milk, gold standard for infant nutrition, with equicaloric supplementation of donkey milk, the best substitute for newborns due to its nutritional properties, and cow milk, the primary marketed product. The results showed a hypolipidemic effect produced by donkey and human milk intake in parallel with enhanced mitochondrial activity/proton leakage. Reduced mitochondrial energy efficiency and proinflammatory signals (tumor necrosis factor α, interleukin-1 and lipopolysaccharide levels) were associated with a significant increase of antioxidants (total thiols) and detoxifying enzyme activities (glutathione-S-transferase, NADH quinone oxidoreductase) in donkey- and human milk-treated animals. The beneficial effects were attributable, at least in part, to the activation of the nuclear factor erythroid-2-related factor-2 pathway. Moreover, the metabolic benefits induced by human and donkey milk may be related to the modulation of gut microbiota. In fact, milk treatments uniquely affected the proportions of bacterial phyla and genera, and we hypothesized that the increased concentration of fecal butyrate in human and donkey milk-treated rats was related to the improved lipid and glucose metabolism and detoxifying activities. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Determination of PBDEs in human milk. Analysis and quality control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paepke, O.; Herrmann, T. [Ergo Research, Hamburg (Germany); Vieth, B.; Ostermann, B. [Federal Institute for Risk Assessment, Berlin (Germany)

    2004-09-15

    Polybrominated diphenylethers (PBDEs) are widely used as flame retardants in polymer materials, textiles, electronic boards and various other materials. Technical PBDE preparations are produced as mixtures of mainly penta-, octa- or decabromobiphenyl ethers. PBDEs are structurally similar to other environmental pollutants, such as dioxins and PCBs. They are lipophilic and persistent compounds and widespread in the environment. For certain congeners, bioaccumulation has been observed. Recent findings of increasing levels in humans showed that more detailed investigations of human milk (or other suitable matrices) will be required in order to evaluate the general human exposure to this group of environmental contaminants. Only a few data on PBDE levels in breast milk from Germany had been published. To fill the data gaps, in 2001 a controlled study was started to characterize the PBDE levels in human milk from Germany with special efforts to identify and quantify deca-BDE-209. 103 samples were analyzed in this study so far including 10 hidden pool samples provided by Federal Institute for Risk Assessment to ERGO laboratory (total number of samples finally will be 157 (including 14 hidden pool samples)). This paper describes the analytical procedure applied and emphasizes on the quality control procedure.

  10. Simultaneous determination of free calcium, magnesium, sodium and potassium ion concentrations in simulated milk ultrafiltrate and reconstituted skim milk using the Donnan Membrane Technique

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gao, R.; Temminghoff, E.J.M.; Leeuwen, van H.P.; Valenberg, van H.J.F.; Eisner, M.D.; Boekel, van M.A.J.S.

    2009-01-01

    This study focused on determination of free Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+ and K+ concentrations in a series of CaCl2 solutions, simulated milk ultrafiltrate and reconstituted skim milk using a recently developed Donnan Membrane Technique (DMT). A calcium ion selective electrode was used to compare the DMT

  11. Stability of Cortisol and Cortisone in Human Breast Milk During Holder Pasteurization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Voorn, Bibian; de Waard, Marita; Dijkstra, Lisette R; Heijboer, Annemieke C; Rotteveel, Joost; van Goudoever, Johannes B; Finken, Martijn J J

    2017-12-01

    Human donor milk is the feeding of choice for preterm infants, when own mother's milk is not available. Holder pasteurization is necessary to secure the safety of donor milk, although it can affect milk quality by reduction of nutritional and bioactive components. Recently, research has focused on the potential role of breast milk glucocorticoids for infant development. At this moment, it is unknown whether pasteurization affects milk glucocorticoid levels. Therefore, we assessed whether Holder pasteurization, the most frequently used method nowadays, reduces breast milk cortisol and cortisone levels, using breast milk samples from 30 women who delivered at term. We found tight correlations between pre- and postpasteurization levels of cortisol (R = 0.99) and cortisone (R = 0.98), and good agreement in Passing and Bablok regression analysis. In conclusion, cortisol and cortisone in human term breast milk are not significantly affected by Holder pasteurization.

  12. PRELIMINARY RESULTS USING ANEW METHOD TO OPTIMIZE A SPRAY DRYER PROCESS FOR PRODUCING HIGH QUALITY MILK POWDER FROM COW, GOAT AND SHE-ASS MILK CONCENTRATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Altieri

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available As quality is a very important factor in milk powder produced by drying, the optimal process must protect both nutritional and sensorial properties. Although heat damage indices (namely the insolubility index (IINS, thermal damage (IDT, protein denaturation could be used to evaluate the correct processing of milk, they are very time-consuming. Hence a chemical marker, like vitamin C, is proposed for rapid assessment of the overall damage to the quality of the produced milk powder. Trials were carried out on milk concentrates from cow, goat and she-ass so as to optimize the process performance of the spray dryer, for each kind of milk, at three inlet temperatures (120, 150, 185 °C; the feed flow rate was set at 0.5 dm3/h with outlet air RH% in the range 10-40%; raw milk was concentrated using a low pressure evaporator until an average level of 23% dry matter was reached. As expected, the thermal damage of the milk powder increased as the inlet air temperature increased; the outlet powder RH% was 96-98% poorly correlated with the mass flow rate of the concentrate inlet. Moreover, the destruction kinetic of vitamin C was found highly correlated with the thermal damage to the milk powder. At 175 °C inlet air temperature the overall thermal treatment on the she-ass milk concentrate, which is very heat-sensitive due to its high lactose content, was “weak” (IDT<80 and the milk powder of “premium or extra” quality (IINS<1.25ml and lactic acid = 0.07% < 0.15% ADMI. The titratable acidity values are uncorrelated with the process air temperature but depend uniquely from the raw milk freshness.

  13. Ingestion of Milk Containing Very Low Concentration of Antimicrobials: Longitudinal Effect on Fecal Microbiota Composition in Preweaned Calves.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Van Vleck Pereira

    Full Text Available Although antimicrobial drugs are central to combat disease in modern medicine, the use of these drugs can have undesired consequences for human and animal health. One consequence is the post-therapy excretion of pharmacological agents, such as the elimination of drug residues at very low concentrations in the milk of lactating mammals. Limited information is currently available on the impact from the exposure of the gut microbiota to drug residues using in vivo natural models. The objective of our study was to address this knowledge gap and evaluate the effect on the fecal microbiota composition from feeding preweaned dairy calves raw milk with residual concentrations of ampicillin, ceftiofur, penicillin, and oxytetracycline from birth to weaning. At birth, thirty calves were randomly assigned to a controlled feeding trial where: 15 calves were fed raw milk with no drug residues (NR, and 15 calves were fed raw milk with drug residues (DR by adding ceftiofur, penicillin, ampicillin, and oxytetracycline at final concentrations in the milk of 0.1, 0.005, 0.01, and 0.3 μg/ml, respectively. Fecal samples were rectally collected from each calf once a week starting at birth, prior to the first feeding in the trial (pre-treatment, until 6 weeks of age. Sequencing of the microbial 16S rRNA genes was conducted using the Illumina MiSeq, which provides a high resolution of the microbiota down to the genus level. Discriminant analysis showed that, except for pre-treatment samples, calves fed milk with drug residues and calves fed milk without drug residues easily discriminated at the genus level on their weekly microbial profile. However, analysis comparing the abundance of taxon between NR and DR showed significant differences only at the genus levels, and not at the phylum, class, order or family levels. These results suggest that although drug residues can result in clear discriminate gut microbial communities, they do not result in disruption of

  14. Human milk for neonatal pain relief during ophthalmoscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laiane Medeiros Ribeiro

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Ophthalmoscopy performed for the early diagnosis of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP is painful for preterm infants, thus necessitating interventions for minimizing pain. The present study aimed to establish the effectiveness of human milk, compared with sucrose, for pain relief in premature infants subjected to ophthalmoscopy for the early diagnosis of ROP. This investigation was a pilot, quasi-experimental study conducted with 14 premature infants admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU of a university hospital. Comparison between the groups did not yield a statistically significant difference relative to the crying time, salivary cortisol, or heart rate (HR. Human milk appears to be as effective as sucrose in relieving acute pain associated with ophthalmoscopy. The study’s limitations included its small sample size and lack of randomization. Experimental investigations with greater sample power should be performed to reinforce the evidence found in the present study.

  15. Copper and zinc content in human milk in Croatia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mandic, Zlatko; Mandic, Milena L.; Grgic, Jerica; Grgic, Zdravko; Klapec, Tomislav; Primorac, Ljiljana; Hasenay, Damir

    1997-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to research whether there had been any statistically significant difference in the content of Cu and Zn in human milk depending on the social status of women (refugee and non-refugee), age, number of deliveries, days after delivery, weight gained by nursing women and smoking habits, as well as whether the infants had received sufficient quantities of these elements. The elements were determined by flame atomic absorption spectroscopy. The samples were collected in the Clinical Hospital Osijek and Refugee Centre Nabrde, near Osijek, Eastern Croatia. The Cu in human milk ranged from 0.27 mg/l to 1.35 mg/l, and Zn from 0.62 mg/l to 15.0 mg/l. The mean levels of Cu and Zn for each group, formed according to the results of the questionnaire are presented too. Calculated daily dietary intake of these elements accords with the RDA

  16. Phytochemicals in Human Milk and Their Potential Antioxidative Protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Apollinaire Tsopmo

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Diets contain secondary plant metabolites commonly referred to as phytochemicals. Many of them are believed to impact human health through various mechanisms, including protection against oxidative stress and inflammation, and decreased risks of developing chronic diseases. For mothers and other people, phytochemical intake occurs through the consumption of foods such as fruits, vegetables, and grains. Research has shown that some these phytochemicals are present in the mother’s milk and can contribute to its oxidative stability. For infants, human milk (HM represents the primary and preferred source of nutrition because it is a complete food. Studies have reported that the benefit provided by HM goes beyond basic nutrition. It can, for example, reduce oxidative stress in infants, thereby reducing the risk of lung and intestinal diseases in infants. This paper summarizes the phytochemicals present in HM and their potential contribution to infant health.

  17. Evaluation of oestrus observation and conception rates in suckling beef cows using whole milk progesterone concentration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.C. Lourens

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available A 2-sample regime was used to measure whole milk progesterone concentration on the day of oestrus and insemination (Day 0 and 6 days later (Day 6 in a sample of 50 primiparous and 100 multiparous suckling beef cows. Exposure to teaser bulls and observation by cattlemen identified the occurrence of oestrus. Three sets of criteria used to define ovulatory oestrus were compared : a milk progesterone concentration less than 6 nmol / l on Day 0 ; b milk progesterone less than 6 nmol / l on Day 0 and rising to greater than 6 nmol / l on Day 6; c milk progesterone less than 6 nmol / l on Day 0 and rising to greater than 6 nmol / l on Day 6, or cow diagnosed pregnant to 1st insemination. Using only a single milk sample on Day 0 (criterion a would have resulted in the positive predictive value of heat detection being estimated at 98.7%. Using a paired measurement (criterion b resulted in a significantly lower estimate of 84.7%. The inclusion of cows that conceived despite not showing a marked rise in milk progesterone concentration (criterion c resulted in a more accurate estimate of 89.3%. Use of a 2-sample regime also allowed calculation of conception rates while eliminating the effect of heat detection errors. In the cows sampled, of those in ovulatory oestrus that were inseminated, 73.1% conceived to the 1st insemination. These results demonstrate that artificial insemination within a limited breeding season can be successful if nutrition is optimal and management is intensive. The use of a 2-sample milk progesterone test may be a valuable tool in investigating heat detection and conception problems in beef herds in which artificial insemination is used.

  18. HUMAN MILK BANK: CHALLENGES AND VISIBILITY FOR NURSING

    OpenAIRE

    Pontes, Mônica Barros de; Santos, Tânia Cristina Franco; Nogueira, André Luís Lima; Peres, Maria Angélica de Almeida; Rios, Maria Zilma; Almeida Filho, Antonio José de

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: analyze the implementation process of the human milk bank of a university hospital in the state of Espírito Santo and discuss the implications of this deployment to the regional nursing practice. Method: in this historical and social search the primary sources were interviews conducted with eight nurses, and documents from the nursing section. The thematic content analysis and the theoretical framework of Pierre Bourdieu allowed mediation of the objective and subjective ...

  19. Confirmed low prevalence of Listeria mastitis in she-camel milk delivers a safe, alternative milk for human consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osman, Kamelia M; Samir, Ahmed; Orabi, Ahmed; Zolnikov, Tara Rava

    2014-02-01

    She-camel milk is an alternative solution for people allergic to milk; unfortunately, potential harmful bacteria have not been tested in she-camel milk. Listeria monocytogenes is one harmful bacterium that causes adverse health effects if chronically or acutely ingested by humans. The purpose of this study was to estimate the prevalence, characterize the phenotypic, genetic characterization, virulence factors, and antibiopotential harmful bacteria resistance profile of Listeria isolated from the milk of she-camel. Udder milk samples were collected from 100 she-camels and screened for mastitis using the California mastitis test (46 healthy female camels, 24 subclinical mastitic animals and 30 clinical mastitic animals). Samples were then examined for the presence of pathogenic Listeria spp; if located, the isolation of Listeria was completed using the International Organization for Standards technique to test for pathogenicity. The isolates were subjected to PCR assay for virulence-associated genes. Listeria spp. were isolated from 4% of samples and only 1.0% was confirmed as L. monocytogenes. The results of this study provide evidence for the low prevalence of intramammary Listeria infection; additionally, this study concludes she-camel milk in healthy camels milked and harvested in proper hygienic conditions may be used as alternative milk for human consumption. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Lutein Supplementation Increases Breast Milk and Plasma Lutein Concentrations in Lactating Women and Infant Plasma Concentrations but Does Not Affect Other Carotenoids 1 2 3

    OpenAIRE

    Sherry, Christina L.; Oliver, Jeffery S.; Renzi, Lisa M.; Marriage, Barbara J.

    2014-01-01

    Lutein is a carotenoid that varies in breast milk depending on maternal intake. Data are lacking with regard to the effect of dietary lutein supplementation on breast milk lutein concentration during lactation and subsequent plasma lutein concentration in breast-fed infants. This study was conducted to determine the impact of lutein supplementation in the breast milk and plasma of lactating women and in the plasma of breast-fed infants 2–3 mo postpartum. Lutein is the dominant carotenoid in t...

  1. Hypaphorine is present in human milk in association with consumption of legumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Bernd O; Wu, Brian T F; Li, Stephanie S J; Monga, Vishakha; Innis, Sheila M

    2013-08-07

    In metabolomic analysis of human milk amines, we found a previously unidentified compound. This was tentatively identified as hypaphorine, an indole alkaloid composed of tryptophan and three methyls, and with neurological and glucose-lowering effects in rodents. Hypaphorine identity was confirmed by hypaphorine synthesis, and then a fluorometric method was developed to quantify hypaphorine in milk and foods. Using dietary records, we identified peanut products as probable sources of hypaphorine. Milk from 24 lactating women showed widely varying hypaphorine, with a mean ± SD 0.34 ± 0.33 μM, and the highest concentration of 1.24 μM. Peanuts showed high hypaphorine of 70 μg/g compared to 60 and 100 μg/g in dried chickpeas and lentils. Dietary challenge in lactating women with hypaphorine-rich foods demonstrated transfer of hypaphorine into milk with hypaphorine appearance peaking 5-18 h after consumption and prolonged disappearance indicative of slow excretion or metabolism. The potential functional roles of hypaphorine in human nutrition remain to be addressed.

  2. Effect of silage type and energy concentration on conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) in milk fat from dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, T.S.; Sejrsen, K.; Andersen, H.R

    2004-01-01

    40 lactating cows were fed either clovergrass or maize silage and a low or high dietary energy concentration in a 2x2 factorial design. The maize silage diets rich in starch and linoleic acid resulted in a higher content of c9t11 and t10c12 CLA in milk fat than the grass silage diets. A high energy...... concentration plus maize silage led to a pronounced shift in the biohydrogenation pathway of linoleic acid, the highest t10c12 CLA content and lowest milk fat percentage. Energy concentration had no effect on milk fat CLA content or milk fat percentage in grass silage fed cows....

  3. 131I concentrations in air, milk and antelope thyroids in southeastern Idaho

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markham, O.D.; Halford, D.K.; Bihl, D.E.

    1980-01-01

    Iodine-131 concentrations were determined in air, milk, and antelope (Antilocapra americana) thyroids from southeastern Idaho during 1972-77. Samples were collected in the vicinity of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Site which has 17 operating nuclear reactors, a fuel reprocessing plant, and a nuclear waste management facility. Samples were also collected from control areas. During the study, fallout occurred from five People's Republic of China above-ground nuclear weapon detonations. All 131 I detected in air and milk samples was attributed to fallout from the Chinese nuclear tests. 131 I was detected in low-volume air samples following only one of the five detonations while 131 I was detected in milk following four of the detonations. 131 I occurred in antelope thyroids during all five of the fallout periods and following at least one atmospheric release from facilities at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Site. Thyroids were the most sensitive indicators of 131 I in the environment followed by milk and then air. Maximum concentrations in thyroids, milk, and air were 400, 20 and 4 times higher respectively than their respective detection limits. (author)

  4. Cow and herd variation in milk urea nitrogen concentrations in lactating dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar, M; Hanigan, M D; Tucker, H A; Jones, B L; Garbade, S K; McGilliard, M L; Stallings, C C; Knowlton, K F; James, R E

    2012-12-01

    Milk urea nitrogen (MUN) is correlated with N balance, N intake, and dietary N content, and thus is a good indicator of proper feeding management with respect to protein. It is commonly used to monitor feeding programs to achieve environmental goals; however, genetic diversity also exists among cows. It was hypothesized that phenotypic diversity among cows could bias feed management decisions when monitoring tools do not consider genetic diversity associated with MUN. The objective of the work was to evaluate the effect of cow and herd variation on MUN. Data from 2 previously published research trials and a field trial were subjected to multivariate regression analyses using a mixed model. Analyses of the research trial data showed that MUN concentrations could be predicted equally well from diet composition, milk yield, and milk components regardless of whether dry matter intake was included in the regression model. This indicated that cow and herd variation could be accurately estimated from field trial data when feed intake was not known. Milk urea N was correlated with dietary protein and neutral detergent fiber content, milk yield, milk protein content, and days in milk for both data sets. Cow was a highly significant determinant of MUN regardless of the data set used, and herd trended to significance for the field trial data. When all other variables were held constant, a percentage unit change in dietary protein concentration resulted in a 1.1mg/dL change in MUN. Least squares means estimates of MUN concentrations across herds ranged from a low of 13.6 mg/dL to a high of 17.3 mg/dL. If the observed MUN for the high herd were caused solely by high crude protein feeding, then the herd would have to reduce dietary protein to a concentration of 12.8% of dry matter to achieve a MUN concentration of 12 mg/dL, likely resulting in lost milk production. If the observed phenotypic variation is due to genetic differences among cows, genetic choices could result in

  5. Characterization of Candidate probionts isolated from human breast milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalkhali, S; Mojgani, N

    2017-05-20

    This study was designed to isolate and identify the potential probionts present in 32 healthy mothers' breast milk. Microbial culture media and 16SrRNA sequencing were used to isolate and identify the bacteria and all isolates were analyzed for their antagonistic potential, resistance to acidic pH, bile salts and survival under simulated gastric and intestinal conditions. The colonization potential was further assessed based on adherence to human enterocyte-like Caco-2 cell lines. The breast milk samples harbored significant numbers of Gram positive and catalase negative (85%) bacteria. Based on 16SrRNA sequencing, these isolates were identified as Lactobacillus casei, L.gasseri, L.fermentum, L.plantarum, Pediococcus acidilactici, and Enterococcus facieum. Among the isolates, P. acidilactici was the most frequent species (71%) present in these samples. Few Gram and catalase positive isolates, Staphylococcus aureus and S.hominiis were also observed. The isolates were viable and unviable in pH 3 and 1.5, respectively, while all isolates survived in 1.0% bile salt. As putative probionts, P.acidilactici 1C showed a significantly higher percentage of adhesion to Caco-2 cells (p< 0.05)than the other two isolates L.plantarum 7A and E.facieum 2C. Bacterial strains isolated from human breast milk were shown to have probiotic properties including anti-infective protection and may be considered as future therapeutics for infants.

  6. Milk urea concentration as an indicator of ammonia emission from dairy cow barn under restricted grazing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duinkerken, van G.; Smits, M.C.J.; Andre, G.; Sebek, L.B.J.; Dijkstra, J.

    2011-01-01

    Bulk milk urea concentration was evaluated to assess its potential as an indicator of ammonia emission from a dairy cow barn in a situation with restricted grazing. An experiment was carried out with a herd of, on average, 52 Holstein-Friesian dairy cows. The cows were housed in a naturally

  7. Perfluorinated compounds in human breast milk from several Asian countries, and in infant formula and dairy milk from the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Lin; Ma, Jing; Kunisue, Tatsuya; Libelo, E Laurence; Tanabe, Shinsuke; Kannan, Kurunthachalam

    2008-11-15

    The occurrence of perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) in human blood is known to be widespread; nevertheless, the sources of exposure to humans, including infants, are not well understood. In this study, breast milk collected from seven countries in Asia was analyzed (n=184) for nine PFCs, including perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoate (PFOA). In addition, five brands of infant formula (n=21) and 11 brands of dairy milk (n=12) collected from retail stores in the United States were analyzed, for comparison with PFC concentrations previously reported for breast milk from the U.S. PFOS was the predominant PFC detected in almost all Asian breast milk samples, followed by perfluorohexanesulfonate (PFHxS) and PFOA. Median concentrations of PFOS in breast milk from Asian countries varied significantly;the lowest concentration of 39.4 pg/mL was found in India, and the highest concentration of 196 pg/mL was found in Japan. The measured concentrations were similarto or less than the concentrations previously reported from Sweden, the United States, and Germany (median, 106-166 pg/mL). PFHxS was found in more than 70% of the samples analyzed from Japan, Malaysia, Philippines, and Vietnam, at mean concentrations ranging from 6.45 (Malaysia) to 15.8 (Philippines) pg/mL PFOA was found frequently only in samples from Japan; the mean concentration for that country was 77.7 pg/mL. None of the PFCs were detected in the infant-formula or dairy-milk samples from the U.S. except a few samples that contained concentrations close to the limit of detection. The estimated average daily intake of PFOS by infants from seven Asian countries, via breastfeeding, was 11.8 +/- 10.6 ng/kg bw/ day; this value is 7-12 times higher than the estimated adult dietary intakes previously reported from Germany, Canada, and Spain. The average daily intake of PFOA by Japanese infants was 9.6 +/- 4.9 ng/kg bw/day, a value 3-10 times greater than the estimated adult dietary intakes reported from

  8. Evaluation of human milk titratable acidity before and after addition of a nutritional supplement for preterm newborns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cibelle Iáskara do Vale Pereira

    2016-09-01

    Conclusions: The study observed no significant differences in Dornic acidity of raw human milk and pasteurized human milk; however, the dilution of a human milk supplementation caused a significant increase in acidity. Further investigations are necessary on the influence of this finding on the quality of supplemented milk and its consequences on the health of preterm infants.

  9. Evaluation of home collection performed by a human milk bank in a university hospital in Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glória Menezes

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Evaluation of procedures during household milking and transport of human milk associated with their quality control. Materials and methods. 48 donors registered in the Human Milk Bank of the Clinics Hospital of the Federal University at Uberlândia. Observations were made during home visits. A checklist was elaborated according to the technical standards for human milk banks, been associated with  physical-chemical, and microbiological controls. The chi-square test, logistic regression and Spearman test (p menor que 0.05 were used for data analysis. Results. The results suggest that most donors assimilated the guidelines of the milk bank staff and procedures were satisfactorily performed. Conclusion. It could be demonstrated that milking and home collection are safe and effective ways for obtaining donated human milk.

  10. Human milk fortification strategies for improved in-hospital growth of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Practical implementation and cost- effectiveness in the ... review and critical analysis of fortification strategies of human milk for ... no published reports on the use of skim milk powder as fortifier, .... needs by analysis of maternal milk before fortification. ..... FM85 Product information leaflet for healthcare professionals. Nestle.

  11. Association of metabolic acidosis with bovine milk-based human milk fortifiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cibulskis, C C; Armbrecht, E S

    2015-02-01

    To compare the incidence of metabolic acidosis and feeding intolerance associated with powdered or acidified liquid human milk fortifier (HMF). This retrospective study evaluated infants ⩽ 32 weeks gestational age or ⩽ 1500 g birth weight who received human milk with either powdered or acidified liquid HMF (50 consecutively born infants per group). Primary outcomes tracked were metabolic acidosis (base excess less than -4 mmol l(-1) or bicarbonate less than 18 mmol l(-1)), feeding intolerance (gastric residual > 50% feed volume, > 3 loose stools or emesis per day, abdominal tenderness or distention), necrotizing enterocolitis, late-onset infection, death, length of hospital stay and ability to remain on HMF. Demographics, feeding practices, growth parameters and laboratory data were also collected. Significantly more infants who received acidified liquid HMF developed metabolic acidosis (P acidosis or feeding intolerance than those on powdered HMF (P acidosis and to be switched off HMF than those who received powdered HMF. Growth in the liquid HMF group was no different than the powdered group, despite higher protein intake.

  12. Milk does not affect the bioavailability of cocoa powder flavonoid in healthy human.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roura, Elena; Andrés-Lacueva, Cristina; Estruch, Ramon; Mata-Bilbao, M Lourdes; Izquierdo-Pulido, Maria; Waterhouse, Andrew L; Lamuela-Raventós, Rosa M

    2007-01-01

    The beneficial effects of cocoa polyphenols depend on the amount consumed, their bioavailability and the biological activities of the formed conjugates. The food matrix is one the factors than can affect their bioavailability, but previous studies have concluded rather contradictory results about the effect of milk on the bioavailability of polyphenols. The objective was to evaluate the possible interaction of milk on the absorption of (-)-epicatechin ((-)-Ec) from cocoa powder in healthy humans. 21 volunteers received three interventions in a randomized crossover design with a 1-week interval (250 ml of whole milk (M-c) (control), 40 g of cocoa powder dissolved in 250 ml of whole milk (CC-M), and 40 g of cocoa powder dissolved with 250 ml of water (CC-W)). Quantification of (-)-Ec in plasma was determined by LC-MS/MS analysis prior to a solid-phase extraction procedure. 2 h after the intake of the two cocoa beverages, (-)-Ec-glucuronide was the only (-)-Ec metabolite detected, showing a mean (SD) plasma concentration of 330.44 nmol/l (156.1) and 273.7 nmol/l (138.42) for CC-W and CC-M, respectively (p = 0.076). Cocoa powder dissolved in milk as one of the most common ways of cocoa powder consumption seems to have a negative effect on the absorption of polyphenols; however, statistical analyses have shown that milk does not impair the bioavailability of polyphenols and thus their potential beneficial effect in chronic and degenerative disease prevention. (c) 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel

  13. Randomized controlled trial of docosahexaenoic acid supplementation in midwestern U.S. human milk donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentine, Christina J; Morrow, Georgia; Pennell, Michael; Morrow, Ardythe L; Hodge, Amanda; Haban-Bartz, Annette; Collins, Kristin; Rogers, Lynette K

    2013-02-01

    Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is a long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid important for neonatal neurodevelopment and immune homeostasis. Preterm infants fed donor milk from a Midwestern source receive only 20% of the intrauterine accretion of DHA. We tested the hypothesis that DHA supplementation of donor mothers would provide preterm infants with DHA intake equivalent to fetal accretion. After Institutional Review Board approval and informed consent, human milk donors to the Mother's Milk Bank of Ohio were randomized to receive 1 g of DHA (Martek(®) [now DSM Nutritional Lipids, Columbia, MD]) or placebo soy oil. Dietary intake data were collected and analyzed by a registered dietitian. Fatty acids were measured by gas chromatography/flame ionization detection. Statistical analysis used linear mixed models. Twenty-one mothers were randomly assigned to either the DHA group (n=10) or the placebo group (n=11). Donor age was a median of 31 years in both groups with a mean lactational stage of 19 weeks. Dietary intake of DHA at baseline in both groups was a median of 23 mg/day (range, 0-194 mg), significantly (p<0.0001) less than the minimum recommended intake of 200 mg/day. The DHA content of milk increased in the DHA-supplemented group (p<0.05). The women enrolled in this study had low dietary DHA intake. Supplementation with preformed DHA at 1 g/day resulted in increased DHA concentrations in the donor milk with no adverse outcomes. Infants fed donor milk from supplemented women receive dietary DHA levels that closely mimic normal intrauterine accretion during the third trimester.

  14. "It's Somebody Else's Milk": Unraveling the Tension in Mothers of Preterm Infants Who Provide Consent for Pasteurized Donor Human Milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esquerra-Zwiers, Anita; Rossman, Beverly; Meier, Paula; Engstrom, Janet; Janes, Judy; Patel, Aloka

    2016-02-01

    Pasteurized donor human milk (DHM), rather than preterm infant formula, is recommended for premature infants when mother's milk is not available. This study explored the maternal decision-making process in providing consent for DHM feedings. In-depth semistructured interviews were conducted with 20 mothers of premature (mean gestational age = 27 weeks, birth weight = 942 grams) infants hospitalized in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) in this qualitative, descriptive study. Conventional content analysis was used to analyze the data. Although only 1 mother had any previous knowledge of DHM, all mothers provided consent for DHM because they "wanted what is best for my baby." Mothers trusted that DHM was better than formula when their infant's feeding requirements exceeded their own milk supply. However, most mothers described a tension between wanting their infants to receive only "their" milk and DHM being "somebody else's milk." This desire to be the only provider of human milk was more common than concerns about the quality and safety of DHM. The mothers' tension was mediated by trusting the NICU clinicians' recommendations, having adequate time to make an informed decision, observing the positive outcomes of DHM, and feeling empowered that they made the best decision for their infant. The experiences of these mothers reflect the importance of approaching mothers for consent only when DHM is needed, respecting mothers' beliefs and values about DHM, and providing help in mediating any tension with regard to their infants receiving "somebody else's milk." © The Author(s) 2015.

  15. Randomized trial of exclusive human milk versus preterm formula diets in extremely premature infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cristofalo, Elizabeth A; Schanler, Richard J; Blanco, Cynthia L; Sullivan, Sandra; Trawoeger, Rudolf; Kiechl-Kohlendorfer, Ursula; Dudell, Golde; Rechtman, David J; Lee, Martin L; Lucas, Alan; Abrams, Steven

    2013-12-01

    To compare the duration of parenteral nutrition, growth, and morbidity in extremely premature infants fed exclusive diets of either bovine milk-based preterm formula (BOV) or donor human milk and human milk-based human milk fortifier (HUM), in a randomized trial of formula vs human milk. Multicenter randomized controlled trial. The authors studied extremely preterm infants whose mothers did not provide their milk. Infants were fed either BOV or an exclusive human milk diet of pasteurized donor human milk and HUM. The major outcome was duration of parenteral nutrition. Secondary outcomes were growth, respiratory support, and necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC). Birth weight (983 vs 996 g) and gestational age (27.5 vs 27.7 wk), in BOV and HUM, respectively, were similar. There was a significant difference in median parenteral nutrition days: 36 vs 27, in BOV vs HUM, respectively (P = .04). The incidence of NEC in BOV was 21% (5 cases) vs 3% in HUM (1 case), P = .08; surgical NEC was significantly higher in BOV (4 cases) than HUM (0 cases), P = .04. In extremely preterm infants given exclusive diets of preterm formula vs human milk, there was a significantly greater duration of parenteral nutrition and higher rate of surgical NEC in infants receiving preterm formula. This trial supports the use of an exclusive human milk diet to nourish extremely preterm infants in the neonatal intensive care unit. Copyright © 2013 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Lead Concentrations in Raw Cow and Goat Milk Collected in Rural Areas of Croatia from 2010 to 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilandžić, Nina; Sedak, Marija; Čalopek, Bruno; Luburić, Đurđica Božić; Solomun Kolanović, Božica; Varenina, Ivana; Đokić, Maja; Kmetič, Ivana; Murati, Teuta

    2016-05-01

    A total of 249 cow and 33 goat milk samples were collected in rural areas of Croatia during the period 2010-2014. Lead concentrations in milk samples were analyzed by graphite furnace-atomic absorption spectroscopy. Mean Pb concentrations in milk ranged from (μg/kg): cow 10.8-12.2; goat 9.33-60.0. The highest Pb level of 131 μg/kg in cow milk was measured during 2014. There were no significant differences in Pb levels between cow and goat milk and also in goat milk among the analysed years. However, significant differences were found in cow milk among years. The highest Pb was determined in 2011 (157 μg/kg in goat milk). The calculated estimated weekly intakes of Pb concentrations for cow and goat milk contribute only 1.37 % and 1.84 % to the provisional tolerable weekly intake. Therefore, the consumption of milk from both species should not pose a consumer health risk.

  17. Economic analysis of the influence of milk market concentration on procurement efficiency in the defense system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihajlović Milan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Increasing efficiency during realization of procurements in the defence system imposes the requirement to analyze the market, in order to detect all of its characteristics and to make conclusions which would benefit during planning of budgetary assets by one comprehensive process. Procuring milk and milk products represents a significant part of defence system's procurements which represents that a significant segment of the consumer standard of the Serbian Army, which implies the interest of authors to point to the significance of the concentration of the supply branch on the realization of procurements on the example of this market. The aim of this paper is to display the state and actual trends on the market of production and processing of milk, define methodological framework and point to the intensity and terms of competition and their influence on procurement criteria, especially price in the defence system of the Republic of Serbia.

  18. Purification and characterization of recombinant human bile salt-stimulated lipase expressed in milk of transgenic cloned cows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Fangrong; Wang, Tao; Liu, Wenjie; Lindquist, Susanne; Hernell, Olle; Wang, Jianwu; Li, Jing; Li, Ling; Zhao, Yaofeng; Dai, Yunping; Li, Ning

    2017-01-01

    Bile salt-stimulated lipase (BSSL) is a lipolytic digestive enzyme with broad substrate specificity secreted from exocrine pancreas into the intestinal lumen in all species and from the lactating mammary gland into the milk of some species, notably humans but not cows. BSSL in breast milk facilitates digestion and absorption of milk fat and promotes growth of small for gestational age preterm infants. Thus, purified recombinant human BSSL (rhBSSL) can be used for treatment of patients with fat malabsorption and expressing rhBSSL in the milk of transgenic cloned cows would therefore be a mean to meet a medical need. In the present study, a vector pBAC-hLF-hBSSL was constructed, which efficiently expressed active rhBSSL in milk of transgenic cloned cows to a concentration of 9.8 mg/ml. The rhBSSL purified from cow milk had the same enzymatic activity, N-terminal amino acid sequence, amino acid composition and isoelectric point and similar physicochemical characteristics as human native BSSL. Our study supports the use of transgenic cattle for the cost-competitive, large-scale production of therapeutic rhBSSL. PMID:28475629

  19. Comparative analysis of human milk and infant formula derived peptides following in vitro digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, M-Y; Broadhurst, M; Liu, C-P; Gathercole, J; Cheng, W-L; Qi, X-Y; Clerens, S; Dyer, J M; Day, L; Haigh, B

    2017-04-15

    It has long been recognised that there are differences between human milk and infant formulas which lead to differences in health and nutrition for the neonate. In this study we examine and compare the peptide profile of human milk and an exemplar infant formula. The study identifies both similarities and differences in the endogenous and postdigestion peptide profiles of human milk and infant formula. This includes differences in the protein source of these peptides but also with the region within the protein producing the dominant proteins. Clustering of similar peptides around regions of high sequence identity and known bioactivity was also observed. Together the data may explain some of the functional differences between human milk and infant formula, while identifying some aspects of conserved function between bovine and human milks which contribute to the effectiveness of modern infant formula as a substitute for human milk. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. MILK WITH INCREASED CONCENTRATION OF MELATONIN PACKAGING FACTORS ON CONSUMER PURCHASE INTENTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Patricia Milagres

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The conjoint analysis of factors was used employed to develop a label for the packaging of milk with increased concentration of melatonin. Three factors were selected with three or two levels for the assembly of packaging: packaging design (“blue design with stars and pouring milk”, “white without drawing” and “blue stars with and without drawing”, name (“milk night “and” melatonin “ and informative text about getting natural melatonin by night milking, and the benefits of this compound (“with” and “without”. Twelve packaging designs were created based on a complete factorial arrangement. The designs were presented to 144 consumers who were asked to assess purchase intent of each package. For the joint analysis of factors, the ideal product or more likely to purchase for the most consumers would be blue with stars and packaging design of milk pouring, named milk night and in the presence of informational text, demonstrating that consumers like a package that brings the product and that contains information described. Therefore, the packaging has a major influence on consumer choice and can contribute positively or negatively to the acceptance of food.

  1. Florfenicol concentrations in milk of lactating cows postreated by intramuscular or intramammary routes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Ruiz B

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available intramammary administration to establish the optimum withdrawal time, therapeutic efficacy, and its influence on milk yield. Materials and method. Twelve healthy lactating Holstein cows were selected from the University of Antioquia’s teaching dairy herd (Colombia, were randomly assigned to a control (n=6 group or florfenicol (n=6 group that received 20 mg/kg of florfenicol by intramammary and intramuscular routes, with a 15 days washout period between treatments. Results. The Tmax and Cmax for the intramuscular route were 6 hoursand 2.86 mg/L respectively. The Tmax and Cmax for the intramammary route, were estimated at 0 hour and about 20000 mg/L respectively by extrapolated from regression line. The florfenicol elimination phase in milk had an average half-life of elimination (t½ of 19.8 hours and 4.9 hours for intramuscular and intramammary administration, respectively. The therapeutic efficacy only was reached by intramammary route, when minimal inhibitory concentration (M.I.C. of florfenicol by Stahphylococcus aureus, was used as reference value. There was no statistically significant difference in milk yield between treated and non-treated cows. Conclusions. According to these results, post-treatment milk withdrawal should be no less than 3 days for intramammary administration, and at least 7 days for intramuscular administration. The therapeutic efficacy only was reached by intramammary route. In addition, there was no statistically significant difference in milk yield between treated and nontreated cows.

  2. Feasibility Study on a Measurement Method and a Portable Measuring System to Estimate the Concentration of Cloxacillin and β-Lactamase in Milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Ferrari

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Antibiotics are nowadays used and abused worldwide in common veterinary practice to treat diseases, prevent infections, and promote animal’s growth. Drug resistance occurrence is a relevant phenomenon that can inactivate the antibiotic. Moreover, antibiotics used for animals are also found in milk and it poses serious health risks to humans. Another negative effect is related to milk processors since antibiotics cause detrimental effects on cheese and yogurt starter bacteria. Given its consumption as both beverage and derivatives, milk is one of the most regulated products in food industry. Nowadays several commercial tests are available to investigate antibiotics in milk, but they generally provide a qualitative result, require bulky procedure, and are time consuming. In this paper, we investigate the use of a chromogenic cephalosporin to quantify the concentration of cloxacillin—a β-lactam difficult to be detected by using “cowside” screenings which is the drug of choice in the method of mastitis control. The proposed measurement method and prototype have been demonstrated to be able to detect cloxacillin in milk at concentrations lower than the MRL set by the European Commission. Moreover, they are also able to detect the illegal practice of using β-lactamase to degrade β-lactams in milk.

  3. Levels of organochlorine pesticides in Brazilian human milk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krauss, T. [INCQS/FIOCRUZ, RJ (Brazil); Braga, A.M.C.B.; Rosa, J.M. [CESTEH/ENSP/FIOCRUZ, RJ (Brazil); Kypke, K.; Malisch, R. [State Inst. for Chemical and Veterinary Analysis of Food, Freiburg (Germany)

    2004-09-15

    Breastfeeding has been intensively encouraged, especially in developing countries, due to its beneficial properties, i.e., increase infant immune factors and resistance to chronic diseases such as asthma, diabetes or allergies. In addition, human exposure to environmental pollution has led the scientific community to study the pathways of these contaminants and the possible risks they pose to human health. Exposure to organochlorine pesticides (OCs), in special, has been the subject of great interest during recent years given their potential toxicity, resistance to degradation and bioaccumulation through the food chain. The major source of OC has been agriculture and public health campaigns to vector control. General population exposure occur mainly through the diet and human milk can be an indicator of exposure since OCs are lipophilic xenobiotics that accumulate in adipose tissue and breastfeeding is the main pathway of elimination through the fatty fraction of milk. In this study pooled samples of mothers living in the capitals of two different states of Brazil were evaluated in order to assess the trends of human exposure to persistent pollutants.

  4. How Research on Charitable Giving Can Inform Strategies to Promote Human Milk Donations to Milk Banks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Jack; Keim, Sarah A

    2015-08-01

    Many hospitalized preterm infants do not exclusively receive mother's own milk, so milk from another mother may be sought. Previous research indicated that just 1% of US women who express breast milk actually donate it for another family. Therefore, strategies to boost donation rates should be identified. We draw upon the experimental literature on charitable giving of monetary donations to offer 6 strategies to promote breast milk donations to milk banks in North America. These strategies include (1) highlighting a potential identifiable recipient of donated breast milk as opposed to highlighting groups of potential recipients; (2) emphasizing similarities between the potential donor and potential beneficiaries; (3) emphasizing similarities between the potential donor and previous donors; (4) using negative arousal to promote donations; (5) emphasizing the self-interest of those asking for breast milk donations; and (6) highlighting the specific effect of breast milk donations. Potential limitations of these strategies are discussed. © The Author(s) 2015.

  5. Structural changes induced by high-pressure processing in micellar casein and milk protein concentrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadesky, Lee; Walkling-Ribeiro, Markus; Kriner, Kyle T; Karwe, Mukund V; Moraru, Carmen I

    2017-09-01

    Reconstituted micellar casein concentrates and milk protein concentrates of 2.5 and 10% (wt/vol) protein concentration were subjected to high-pressure processing at pressures from 150 to 450 MPa, for 15 min, at ambient temperature. The structural changes induced in milk proteins by high-pressure processing were investigated using a range of physical, physicochemical, and chemical methods, including dynamic light scattering, rheology, mid-infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, proteomics, and soluble mineral analyses. The experimental data clearly indicate pressure-induced changes of casein micelles, as well as denaturation of serum proteins. Calcium-binding α S1 - and α S2 -casein levels increased in the soluble phase after all pressure treatments. Pressurization up to 350 MPa also increased levels of soluble calcium and phosphorus, in all samples and concentrations, whereas treatment at 450 MPa reduced the levels of soluble Ca and P. Experimental data suggest dissociation of calcium phosphate and subsequent casein micelle destabilization as a result of pressure treatment. Treatment of 10% micellar casein concentrate and 10% milk protein concentrate samples at 450 MPa resulted in weak, physical gels, which featured aggregates of uniformly distributed, casein substructures of 15 to 20 nm in diameter. Serum proteins were significantly denatured by pressures above 250 MPa. These results provide information on pressure-induced changes in high-concentration protein systems, and may inform the development on new milk protein-based foods with novel textures and potentially high nutritional quality, of particular interest being the soft gel structures formed at high pressure levels. The Authors. Published by the Federation of Animal Science Societies and Elsevier Inc. on behalf of the American Dairy Science Association®. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/3.0/).

  6. Human milk oligosaccharides: Every baby needs a sugar mama

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bode, Lars

    2012-01-01

    Human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) are a family of structurally diverse unconjugated glycans that are highly abundant in and unique to human milk. Originally, HMOs were discovered as a prebiotic “bifidus factor” that serves as a metabolic substrate for desired bacteria and shapes an intestinal microbiota composition with health benefits for the breast-fed neonate. Today, HMOs are known to be more than just “food for bugs”. An accumulating body of evidence suggests that HMOs are antiadhesive antimicrobials that serve as soluble decoy receptors, prevent pathogen attachment to infant mucosal surfaces and lower the risk for viral, bacterial and protozoan parasite infections. In addition, HMOs may modulate epithelial and immune cell responses, reduce excessive mucosal leukocyte infiltration and activation, lower the risk for necrotizing enterocolitis and provide the infant with sialic acid as a potentially essential nutrient for brain development and cognition. Most data, however, stem from in vitro, ex vivo or animal studies and occasionally from association studies in mother–infant cohorts. Powered, randomized and controlled intervention studies will be needed to confirm relevance for human neonates. The first part of this review introduces the pioneers in HMO research, outlines HMO structural diversity and describes what is known about HMO biosynthesis in the mother's mammary gland and their metabolism in the breast-fed infant. The second part highlights the postulated beneficial effects of HMO for the breast-fed neonate, compares HMOs with oligosaccharides in the milk of other mammals and in infant formula and summarizes the current roadblocks and future opportunities for HMO research. PMID:22513036

  7. Comparison of composition and whey protein fractions of human, camel, donkey, goat and cow milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halima El-Hatmi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare the physicochemical parameters of milk samples of five different species: cow, goat, donkey, camel and human. Also the analysis of whey protein profile in different milk samples was performed by anion-exchange fast protein liquid chromatography (FPLC while polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis was used to identify a single fraction. Camel milk was the most acid (pH 6.460±0.005 and the richest in total proteins (3.41±0.31 % and ash (0.750±0.102 %, whereas donkey milk had a neutral pH (7.03±0.02 and characterised by low proteins (1.12±0.40 % and fat (0.97±0.03 % content, being very close to human milk. Proteomic analysis of cow, goat, donkey, camel and human milk highlighted significant interspecies differences. Camel milk was similar to human milk in lacking of β-lactoglobulin and richness of α-lactalbumin. The knowledge gained from the proteomic comparison of the milk samples analysed within this study might be of relevance, both, in terms of identifying sources of hypoallergenic alternatives to bovine milk and detection of adulteration of milk samples and products.

  8. Quantitative determination of the human breast milk macronutrients by near-infrared Raman spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motta, Edlene d. C. M.; Zângaro, Renato A.; Silveira, Landulfo, Jr.

    2012-03-01

    This work proposes the evaluation of the macronutrient constitution of human breast milk based on the spectral information provided by near-infrared Raman spectroscopy. Human breast milk (5 mL) from a subject was collected during the first two weeks of breastfeeding and stocked in -20°C freezer. Raman spectra were measured using a Raman spectrometer (830 nm excitation) coupled to a fiber based Raman probe. Spectra of human milk were dominated by bands of proteins, lipids and carbohydrates in the 600-1800 cm-1 spectral region. Raman spectroscopy revealed differences in the biochemical constitution of human milk depending on the time of breastfeeding startup. This technique could be employed to develop a classification routine for the milk in Human Milk Banking (HMB) depending on the nutritional facts.

  9. Long term effects on human plasma lipoproteins of a formulation enriched in butter milk polar lipid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilsson Åke

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sphingolipids (SL, in particular sphingomyelin (SM are important components of milk fat polar lipids. Dietary SM inhibits cholesterol absorption in rats (Nyberg et al. J Nutr Biochem. 2000 and SLs decrease both cholesterol and TG concentrations in lipid- and cholesterol fed APOE*3Leiden mice (Duivenvoorden et al. Am J Clin Nutr. 2006. This human study examines effects of a butter milk formulation enriched in milk fat globule membrane material, and thereby in SLs, on blood lipids in healthy volunteers. In a four week parallel group study with 33 men and 15 women we examined the effects of an SL-enriched butter milk formulation (A and an equivalent control formulation (B on plasma lipid levels. Plasma concentrations of HDL and LDL cholesterol, triacylglycerols (TG, apolipoproteins AI and B, and lipoprotein (a were measured. The daily dose of SL in A was 975 mg of which 700 mg was SM. The participants registered food and drink intake four days before introducing the test formula and the last four days of the test period. Results A daily increase of SL intake did not significantly influence fasting plasma lipids or lipoproteins. In group B TG, cholesterol, LDL, HDL and apolipoprotein B concentrations increased, however, but not in group A after four weeks. The difference in LDL cholesterol was seen primarily in women and difference in TG primarily in men. No significant side effects were observed. Conclusion The study did not show any significant decrease on plasma lipids or lipoprotein levels of an SL-enriched formulation containing 2-3 times more SL than the normal dietary intake on cholesterol, other plasma lipids or on energy intake. The formulation A may, however, have counteracted the trend towards increased blood lipid concentrations caused by increased energy intake that was seen with the B formulation.

  10. Inhibition of human polymorphonuclear leukocyte function by components of human colostrum and mature milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickering, L K; Cleary, T G; Caprioli, R M

    1983-04-01

    To compare the effect of human colostrum (days 1 to 3 postpartum) and mature milk (days 170 +/- 24 postpartum) on the function of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNL), Ficoll-Hypaque-separated PMNL from the blood of 60 healthy volunteers were incubated with whole colostrum, colostral lipid, and colostral aqueous phase from 30 mothers, or with mature whole milk and its separated components from 30 mothers, and tested for resting and zymosan-stimulated oxidative metabolism, functional activity, and the presence of Fc receptors. Stimulated oxygen consumption, quantitative nitroblue tetrazolium dye reduction, [1-(14)C]glucose utilization, and Fc receptors were significantly (P cells or cells exposed to the aqueous phase of colostrum. In contrast, PMNL exposed to whole mature milk or to its lipid or aqueous phase caused no significant decrease in any of these parameters when compared to nonexposed cells. In assays of phagocytosis, colostral PMNL or blood PMNL exposed to colostral lipid had a significant (P < 0.001) decrease in their ability to ingest [methyl-(3)H]thymidine-labeled Staphylococcus aureus when compared to non-lipid-exposed PMNL. Blood PMNL exposed to lipid from mature milk had no decrease in ability to ingest S. aureus. Analysis of total lipid and total and individual fatty acid content revealed a uniform increase in all components in mature milk when compared to colostrum. Lipid or lipid-soluble material present in human colostrum but not mature milk causes inhibition of phagocytosis and respiratory burst-related activities of PMNL.

  11. Antioxidative Activity of Colostrum and Human Milk: Effects of Pasteurization and Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinković, Vesna; Ranković-Janevski, Milica; Spasić, Snežana; Nikolić-Kokić, Aleksandra; Lugonja, Nikoleta; Djurović, Dijana; Miletić, Srdjan; Vrvić, Miroslav M; Spasojević, Ivan

    2016-06-01

    Milk banks collect, pasteurize, and freeze/store human milk. The processing may alter redox properties of milk, but the effects have not been fully examined. We collected 10 mature milk and 10 colostrum samples and applied a battery of biochemical assays and electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy to inspect changes that milk undergoes with pasteurization and 30 days storage at -20°C. Pasteurization and storage of raw milk did not affect total nonenzymatic antioxidative capacity, but specific components and features were altered. Urate radical and ascorbyl radical emerge as products of exposure of milk to hydroxyl radical-generating system. Processing shifted the load of antioxidative activity from ascorbate to urate and lowered the capacity of milk to diminish hydroxyl radical. Pasteurization caused a significant drop in the activity of 2 major antioxidative enzymes-superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase, whereas freezing/storage of raw milk affected only superoxide dismutase. Colostrum showed drastically higher total nonenzymatic antioxidative capacity, hydroxyl radical scavenging ability, and glutathione reductase activity compared with mature milk. Pasteurization and storage affect nonenzymatic and enzymatic antioxidative agents in human milk. It appears that nonenzymatic antioxidative systems in colostrum and milk are different. The effects of processing may be partially compensated by fortification/spiking with ascorbate before use.

  12. Increase of calcium and reduction of lactose concentration in milk by treatment with kefir grains and eggshell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fina, Brenda L; Brun, Lucas R; Rigalli, Alfredo

    2016-01-01

    Dairy products are the main source of calcium (Ca), but the loss of the consumption habit contributes to low consumption in adulthood, which leads to osteoporosis and increased fracture risk. Domestic use of kefir is straightforward and the eggshell is a natural discarded source of Ca. This paper proposes the development of an enriched Ca reduced lactose milk using eggshell and kefir. During the in vitro preparation, the pH, Ca and lactose contents were measured. Ca intestinal absorption of untreated milk and milk with kefir was compared. Finally, human volunteers consumed this dairy product and 24-h urine Ca was measured. Results showed that the beverage has lower lactose and higher Ca than untreated milk and milk with kefir. Intestinal Ca absorption was not different between both milks and an increase in urinary Ca excretion was observed in humans. This study provides a methodology to prepare at home a dairy product that could contribute to improve the Ca intake in adults.

  13. Short communication: Effect of conjugated linoleic acid on concentrations of fat-soluble vitamins in milk of lactating ewes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeitz, J O; Most, E; Eder, K

    2015-10-01

    Conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) are well known as milk fat-reducing feed supplements in diets for lactating ruminants. However, their effects on milk concentrations of fat-soluble vitamins are unknown. This study was performed to investigate the hypothesis that CLA affect the concentrations of retinol and tocopherol in ewe milk. For that purpose, group-housed Merino ewes (101 ± 13.7 kg) nursing twin lambs and fed with a hay:concentrate diet were supplemented with either 45 g of a rumen-protected CLA supplement containing 3.4 g of cis-9,trans-11-CLA and 3.4 g of trans-10,cis-12-CLA (CLA group, n=11) or with 45 g of a hydrogenated vegetable fat (control group, n=12) per ewe per day during the first 6 wk of lactation. Feed intake was recorded daily (concentrate) or weekly (hay) per group. Milk spot samples were collected at the beginning of the experiment (5 ± 2.4 d postpartum) and then weekly after lambs had been separated for 2 h from their mothers. The milk fat content was determined and feed and milk were analyzed for concentrations of α-, γ-, and δ-tocopherol and for retinol by HPLC. Dietary intake of tocopherol and retinol was similar in both groups. Feeding CLA decreased milk fat concentration by 23% on average, and during the first 3 wk of the study milk tocopherol concentration tended to be increased by feeding CLA (+17%), but retinol concentrations were not influenced. When related to milk fat, CLA feeding significantly increased both milk tocopherol (+40%) and retinol (+32%) and these effects were evident during the whole experimental period corresponding to the first half of lactation. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Sphingosine basis in milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slavica Ribar

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Sphingolipids are widespread membrane components that are found in all eukaryotic cells. They are defined as compounds having a long-chain sphingoid base as the backbone. The most frequent long-chain bases in most of the mammals are D-erythro-sphinganine and sphingosine. Sphingolipids can be expected in minor quantities in all food products. Milk fat contains a number of different sphingolipid classes. Originally they were presumed to contribute to the structural integrity of membranes, but there nowadays it is confirmed that they have an important physiological role. Dietary sphingolipids have gained attention because of their possibility to inhibit colon cancer. The aim of this study was to determine the concentrations of free and total sphinganine and sphingosine in milk (human, cow's, sheep’s, goat’s, soy’s Sphingolipids were extracted from milk. Free and total sphingoid bases were obtained by alkaline and acid hydrolysis respectively. Sphinganin and sphingosine were determined by means of high-performance liquid chromatography. The results of this research illustrate the differences between the concentrations of sphingoid bases in cow’s milk with various content of milk fat. The concentrations of free sphingosine and sphinganine in cow’s milk were lower than in human milk. In sheep’s and goat’s milk, the concentrations of total sphingoid bases were higher than in human and cow’s milk. Quantity of the most sphingoid bases decreased during pasteurization.

  15. Monitoring aroma changes during human milk storage at +4 °C by sensory and quantification experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spitzer, Johanna; Klos, Katharina; Buettner, Andrea

    2013-12-01

    The effect of human milk storage in the refrigerator has been investigated with regard to sensory changes and modifications to the molecular composition of the milk odour-active volatiles. In the present study, characteristic odorants from fat oxidation, known from previous studies, as well as free fatty acids were quantified as representative marker substances by means of stable isotope dilution assays of fresh milk samples and milk samples stored at +4 °C for one and three days, respectively. Sensory evaluation showed that rancid and sweaty odour attributes were generated during storage, resulting in an unpleasant aroma profile for adults; however, odour changes were not as pronounced as those observed in our previous study for freeze storage. Fatty and buttery odour notes and a cooked milk-like smell were also generated. In total eight odorants from fat oxidation were determined and some potent odorants showed slight concentration increases. Moreover, five free fatty acids were determined and these all showed drastic concentration increases, even after storage for just one day. These investigations support our previous findings that storage recommendations for breast milk might need to be slightly reconsidered in view of potential sensory changes; on the other hand, no negative physiological effects are to be expected from these changes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  16. Pellet-free isolation of human and bovine milk extracellular vesicles by size-exclusion chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blans, Kristine; Hansen, Maria S; Sørensen, Laila V; Hvam, Michael L; Howard, Kenneth A; Möller, Arne; Wiking, Lars; Larsen, Lotte B; Rasmussen, Jan T

    2017-01-01

    Studies have suggested that nanoscale extracellular vesicles (EV) in human and bovine milk carry immune modulatory properties which could provide beneficial health effects to infants. In order to assess the possible health effects of milk EV, it is essential to use isolates of high purity from other more abundant milk structures with well-documented bioactive properties. Furthermore, gentle isolation procedures are important for reducing the risk of generating vesicle artefacts, particularly when EV subpopulations are investigated. In this study, we present two isolation approaches accomplished in three steps based on size-exclusion chromatography (SEC) resulting in effective and reproducible EV isolation from raw milk. The approaches do not require any EV pelleting and can be applied to both human and bovine milk. We show that SEC effectively separates phospholipid membrane vesicles from the primary casein and whey protein components in two differently obtained casein reduced milk fractions, with one of the fractions obtained without the use of ultracentrifugation. Milk EV isolates were enriched in lactadherin, CD9, CD63 and CD81 compared to minimal levels of the EV-marker proteins in other relevant milk fractions such as milk fat globules. Nanoparticle tracking analysis and electron microscopy reveals the presence of heterogeneous sized vesicle structures in milk EV isolates. Lipid analysis by thin layer chromatography shows that EV isolates are devoid of triacylglycerides and presents a phospholipid profile differing from milk fat globules surrounded by epithelial cell plasma membrane. Moreover, the milk EV fractions are enriched in RNA with distinct and diverging profiles from milk fat globules. Collectively, our data supports that successful milk EV isolation can be accomplished in few steps without the use of ultracentrifugation, as the presented isolation approaches based on SEC effectively isolates EV in both human and bovine milk.

  17. Relationship among iodine, bromine and chlorine concentrations in cow's milk in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohno, Shigeru; Itoh, Takashi; Morishima, Hiroshige; Honda, Yoshihide.

    1989-01-01

    In order to know the relationship among some elements in biological materials, iodine, bromine and chlorine concentrations in cow's milk samples in Japan were determined by the thermal neutron activation analysis using a low power research reactor and a Van de Graaff accelerator. The iodine contents in cow's milk samples ranged from 0.041 to 0.316 ppm with an average of 0.096 ppm. The bromine and chlorine in these samples ranged from 2.3 to 11.1 ppm and from 475 to 1650 ppm, respectively. The average concentration of the bromine was calculated to be 5.6 ppm and that of the chlorine was 853 ppm. The relationship among iodine, bromine and chlorine concentrations in cow's milk samples in Japan was studied with a regression analysis. It was suggested that the correlation has a power function as follows; Y = K(Z) -A where, Y is elemental concentration in ppm, Z is atomic number of element, A (=7.4) is exponent and K (=14.7) is a constant. (author)

  18. Effect of compounds with antibacterial activities in human milk on respiratory syncytial virus and cytomegalovirus in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portelli, J; Gordon, A; May, J T

    1998-11-01

    The effect of some antibacterial compounds present in human milk were tested for antiviral activity against respiratory syncytial virus, Semliki Forest virus and cytomegalovirus. These included the gangliosides GM1, GM2 and GM3, sialyl-lactose, lactoferrin and chondroitin sulphate A, B and C, which were all tested for their ability to inhibit the viruses in cell culture. Of the compounds tested, only the ganglioside GM2, chondroitin sulphate B and lactoferrin inhibited the absorption and growth of respiratory syncytial virus in cell culture, and none inhibited the growth of Semliki Forest virus, indicating that lipid antiviral activity was not associated with any of the gangliosides. While the concentrations of these two compounds required to inhibit respiratory syncytial virus were in excess of those present in human milk, sialyl-lactose concentrations similar to those present in human milk increased the growth of cytomegalovirus. Lactoferrin was confirmed as inhibiting both respiratory syncytial virus and cytomegalovirus growth in culture even when used at lower concentrations than those present in human milk. The antiviral activities of GM2, chondroitin sulphate B and lactoferrin were tested when added to an infant formula. Lactoferrin continued to have antiviral activity against cytomegalovirus, but a lower activity against respiratory syncytial virus; ganglioside GM2 and chondroitin sulphate B still maintained antiviral activity against respiratory syncytial virus.

  19. Human milk 90K (Mac-2 BP): possible protective effects against acute respiratory infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fornarini, B; Iacobelli, S; Tinari, N; Natoli, C; De Martino, M; Sabatino, G

    1999-01-01

    Eighty-six children fed human milk were followed prospectively from birth to 12 months of age to assess the effect of milk 90K, a secreted glycoprotein with immune-stimulatory properties, on development of acute respiratory infections (ARI). The level of human milk 90K was inversely related to episodes of ARI (r = - 0.34; P = 0.001). The average 90K level in human milk fed to children who did not develop ARI was significantly higher than in milk fed to children in whom infection occurred on multiple occasions (156.6 +/- 144.8 microg/ml versus 70.9 +/- 92.3 microg/ml; P = 0.001). These data suggest that the protective effects of human milk against ARI may be due in part to immune maturation effects by secreted 90K.

  20. A Sustainable Alternative to a Breast Milk Monitoring Program: Using NHANES Serum Data to Estimate Breast Milk PBDE Concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are high-production-volume chemicals that have been widely used as flame retardants in a variety of consumer products. PBDE concentrations in the environment, wildlife, and humans have been increasing for several decades. Concentrations in t...

  1. Ultrasonication, lyophilization, freezing and storage effects on fat loss during mechanical infusion of expressed human milk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dhar, J.; Davidson, A.G.F.; Martinez, F.E.; Barr, S.; Desai, I.D.; Nakai, S.

    1995-01-01

    Ultrasonic homogenization was extended to situations where expressed human milk needs to be stored before being administered. We investigated whether the effect of ultrasonication would persist during storage in the frozen or lyophilized form. Recovery of fat was higher in ultrasonicated and frozen milk (stored for both 1 and 4 mo), than in milk stored following ultrasonication and lyophilization. The low tat recovery from stored lyophilized milk was increased by ultrasonicating the milk after storage and reconstitution (instead of prior to storage). Protein recovery was virtually complete with both methods

  2. Human milk consumption and full enteral feeding among infants who weigh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sisk, Paula M; Lovelady, Cheryl A; Gruber, Kenneth J; Dillard, Robert G; O'Shea, T Michael

    2008-06-01

    Establishing enteral feeding is an important goal in the care of very low birth weight infants. In such infants, receipt of >/=50 mL/kg per day human milk during hospitalization has been associated with shorter time to full enteral feeding. The objective of this study was to determine whether high proportions (>/=50%) of human milk during feeding advancement are associated with shorter time to full enteral feeding and improved feeding tolerance. This was a prospective cohort study of very low birth weight infants (n = 127) who were grouped into low (/=50%; n = 93) human milk consumption groups according to their human milk proportion of enteral feeding during the time of feeding advancement. The primary outcomes of interest were ages at which 100 and 150 mL/kg per day enteral feedings were achieved. The high human milk group reached 100 mL/kg per day enteral feeding 4.5 days faster than the low human milk group. The high human milk group reached 150 mL/kg per day enteral feeding 5 days faster than the low human milk group. After adjustment for gestational age, gender, and respiratory distress syndrome, times to reach 100 and 150 mL/kg per day were significantly shorter for those in the high human milk group. Infants in the high human milk group had a greater number of stools per day; other indicators of feeding tolerance were not statistically different. In infants who weighed milk was associated with fewer days to full enteral feedings.

  3. Unpasteurized Shared Human Milk Use in Pediatric Inpatients: Health and Ethical Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbas, Kimberly H; Sussman-Karten, Karen; Kamin, Daniel; Huh, Susanna Y

    2017-06-01

    Growing evidence supporting the health benefits of human milk, particularly in the preterm population, has led to rising demand for donor human milk in NICUs and pediatric hospitals. There are no previous reports describing the use of unpasteurized shared human milk (USHM) in the hospital setting, but the use of USHM solicited from community donors through social networks appears to be common. Many pediatric hospitals permit inpatients to receive breast milk that has been screened and pasteurized by a human milk banking organization and will provide pasteurized donor human milk (PDHM) only to infants who are preterm or have specific medical conditions. These policies are designed to minimize potential adverse effects from improperly handled or screened donor milk and to target patients who would experience the greatest benefit in health outcomes with donor milk use. We explore the ethical and health implications of 2 cases of medically complex infants who did not meet criteria in our tertiary care hospital for the use of PDHM from a regulated human milk bank and were incidentally found to be using USHM. These cases raise questions about how best to balance the ethical principles of beneficence, nonmaleficence, justice, and patient autonomy in the provision of PDHM, a limited resource. Health care staff should ask about USHM use to provide adequate counseling about the risks and benefits of various feeding options in the context of an infant's medical condition. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  4. Detection of β-lactoglobulin in human breast-milk 7 days after cow milk ingestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matangkasombut, Ponpan; Padungpak, Savitree; Thaloengsok, Sasikanya; Kamchaisatian, Wasu; Sasisakulporn, Cherapat; Jotikasthira, Wanlapa; Benjaponpitak, Suwat; Manuyakorn, Wiparat

    2017-08-01

    β-lactoglobulin (BLG), a major allergen in cow milk (CM) can be detected in human breast-milk (BM) and is associated with exacerbation of symptoms in breastfed infants with cow milk protein allergy (CMPA). Currently, it is not known how long lactating mothers who consume dairy products need to withhold breastfeeding. To elucidate the kinetics of BLG in BM after maternal ingestion of a single dose of CM. Nineteen lactating mothers, four of whom had infants with CMPA, were instructed to avoid CM for 7 days before ingesting a single dose of CM and to continue to withhold CM thereafter throughout the study period. BLG was measured by ELISA in BM from 15 mothers of healthy infants before and at 3, 6 and 24 h, and 3 and 7 days after CM ingestion. Four pairs of mothers and CMPA infants were enrolled for BM challenge after the mothers had ingested CM. After CM ingestion, the level of BLG in BM increased significantly from 0.58 ng/ml (0.58 g/L) (IQR 0.38-0.88) to a peak level of 1.23 ng/ml (IQR 1.03-2.29), p < 0.001. The BLG level on day 3 (1.15 ng/ml, IQR 0.89-1.45) and day 7 (1.08 ng/ml (IQR 0.86-1.25) after CM ingestion was significantly higher than baseline (p = 0.01 and p = 0.001, respectively). BLG was detected in all BM samples from the four mothers of CMPA infants after CM ingestion, and the level was not different from that in the mothers of the 15 healthy infants. Three of the four CMPA infants developed symptoms such as maculopapular rash and hypersecretion in the airways after BM challenge. BLG can be detected in BM up to 7 days after CM ingestion. Lactating mothers should suspend breastfeeding to CMPA infants more than 7 days after CM ingestion.

  5. [Role of donor human milk feeding in preventing nosocomial infection in very low birth weight infants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Hong-Juan; Xu, Jing; Wei, Qiu-Fen

    2018-02-01

    To investigate the role of donor human milk in the prevention of nosocomial infection in very low birth weight infants. MeETHODS: A total of 105 hospitalized preterm infants with a very low birth weight were enrolled. They were classified into mother's own milk feeding group, donor human milk feeding group, and preterm formula feeding group, with 35 infants in each group. The three groups were compared in terms of incidence rates of nosocomial infection, necrotizing enterocolitis, and feeding intolerance, time to full enteral feeding, and early growth indices. Compared with the preterm formula feeding group, the donor human milk feeding group and the mother's own milk feeding group had significantly lower incidence rates of nosocomial infection and necrotizing enterocolitis and shorter time to full enteral feeding (Pmilk can be used in case of a lack of mother's own milk and may help to reduce nosocomial infection.

  6. Absolute Quantification of Human Milk Caseins and the Whey/Casein Ratio during the First Year of Lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Yalin; Weber, Darren; Xu, Wei; Durbin-Johnson, Blythe P; Phinney, Brett S; Lönnerdal, Bo

    2017-11-03

    Whey proteins and caseins in breast milk provide bioactivities and also have different amino acid composition. Accurate determination of these two major protein classes provides a better understanding of human milk composition and function, and further aids in developing improved infant formulas based on bovine whey proteins and caseins. In this study, we implemented a LC-MS/MS quantitative analysis based on iBAQ label-free quantitation, to estimate absolute concentrations of α-casein, β-casein, and κ-casein in human milk samples (n = 88) collected between day 1 and day 360 postpartum. Total protein concentration ranged from 2.03 to 17.52 with a mean of 9.37 ± 3.65 g/L. Casein subunits ranged from 0.04 to 1.68 g/L (α-), 0.04 to 4.42 g/L (β-), and 0.10 to 1.72 g/L (α-), with β-casein having the highest average concentration among the three subunits. Calculated whey/casein ratio ranged from 45:55 to 97:3. Linear regression analyses show significant decreases in total protein, β-casein, κ-casein, total casein, and a significant increase of whey/casein ratio during the course of lactation. Our study presents a novel and accurate quantitative analysis of human milk casein content, demonstrating a lower casein content than earlier believed, which has implications for improved infants formulas.

  7. Human Milk Processing: A Systematic Review of Innovative Techniques to Ensure the Safety and Quality of Donor Milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peila, Chiara; Emmerik, Nikki E; Giribaldi, Marzia; Stahl, Bernd; Ruitenberg, Joost E; van Elburg, Ruurd M; Moro, Guido E; Bertino, Enrico; Coscia, Alessandra; Cavallarin, Laura

    2017-03-01

    Pasteurization, performed at 62.5°C for 30 minutes (holder pasteurization), is currently recommended in all international human milk banks guidelines, but it affects some human milk bioactive and nutritive components. The present systematic review is aimed at critically reviewing evidence on the suitability of human milk processing techniques other than holder pasteurization, both thermal and nonthermal, to ensure microbiological safety, and on the effects of these techniques on biologically active donor milk components. A systematic review of English and non-English articles using Medline, PubMed, Embase, SCOPUS, and CAB Abstracts, with no restriction in publication date was performed. Search terms included: human, breast, donor, or banked milk, breastmilk, breast fed, breastfed, breastfeed; HTST, Flash, High Pressure, UV, ultrasonic or nonthermal; process, pasteuris, pasteuriz. Only primary research articles published in peer-reviewed journals were included, providing or not a comparison with holder pasteurized human milk, provided that the pasteurization technique was clearly described, and not intended for domestic use. Additional studies were identified by searching bibliographies of relevant articles. Twenty-six studies were identified as being relevant. Two examined both High Pressure Processing and High-Temperature-Short-Time pasteurization; 10 only examined High Pressure Processing; 10 only examined High-Temperature-Short-Time; 2 articles examined ultraviolet irradiation; 2 articles examined (thermo-)ultrasonic processing. The results indicate that data about safety for microbiological control are still scarce for most of the novel technologies, and that consensus on processing conditions is necessary for nonthermal technologies, before any conclusions on the qualitative and nutritional advantages of these techniques can be drawn.

  8. Role of Proteins and of Some Bioactive Peptides on the Nutritional Quality of Donkey Milk and Their Impact on Human Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Vincenzetti

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Donkey milk could be considered a good and safer alternative, compared to other types of milk, for infants affected by cow’s milk protein allergy, when breastfeeding is not possible. Interestingly, donkey milk has low allergenicity, mainly due to the low total casein amount, and the content of some whey proteins that act as bioactive peptides. The amount of lysozyme, an antibacterial agent, is 1.0 g/L, similar to human milk. Lactoferrin content is 0.08 g/L, with this protein being involved in the regulation of iron homoeostasis, anti-microbial and anti-viral functions, and protection against cancer development. Lactoperoxidase, another protein with antibacterial function, is present in donkey milk, but in very low quantities (0.11 mg/L. β-lactoglobulin content in donkey milk is 3.75 g/L—this protein is able to bind and transport several hydrophobic molecules. Donkey milk’s α-lactalbumin concentration is 1.8 g/L, very close to that of human milk. α-lactalbumin shows antiviral, antitumor, and anti-stress properties. Therefore, donkey milk can be considered as a set of nutraceuticals properties and a beverage suitable, not only for the growing infants, but for all ages, especially for convalescents and for the elderly.

  9. Can we define an infant's need from the composition of human milk?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stam, Jose; Sauer, Pieter J. J.; Boehm, Guenther

    Human milk is recommended as the optimal nutrient source for infants and is associated with several short- and long-term benefits for child health. When accepting that human milk is the optimal nutrition for healthy term infants, it should be possible to calculate the nutritional needs of these

  10. The lipid fraction of human milk initiates adipocyte differentiation in 3T3-L1 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujisawa, Yasuko; Yamaguchi, Rie; Nagata, Eiko; Satake, Eiichiro; Sano, Shinichiro; Matsushita, Rie; Kitsuta, Kazunobu; Nakashima, Shinichi; Nakanishi, Toshiki; Nakagawa, Yuichi; Ogata, Tsutomu

    2013-09-01

    The prevalence of childhood obesity has increased worldwide over the past decade. Despite evidence that human milk lowers the risk of childhood obesity, the mechanism is not fully understood. We investigated the direct effect of human milk on differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. 3T3-L1 preadipocytes were treated with donated human milk only or the combination of the standard hormone mixture; insulin, dexamethasone (DEX), and 3-isobututyl-1-methylxanthine (IBMX). Furthermore, the induction of preadipocyte differentiation by extracted lipids from human milk was tested in comparison to the cells treated with lipid extracts from infant formula. Adipocyte differentiation, specific genes as well as formation of lipid droplets were examined. We clearly show that lipids present in human milk initiate 3T3-L1 preadipocyte differentiation. In contrast, this effect was not observed in response to lipids present in infant formula. The initiation of preadipocyte differentiation by human milk was enhanced by adding the adipogenic hormone, DEX or insulin. The expression of late adipocyte markers in Day 7 adipocytes that have been induced into differentiation with human milk lipid extracts was comparable to those in control cells initiated by a standard adipogenic hormone cocktail. These results demonstrate that human milk contains bioactive lipids that can initiate preadipocyte differentiation in the absence of the standard adipogenic compounds via a unique pathway. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. A mixed-methods observational study of human milk sharing communities on Facebook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrin, Maryanne Tigchelaar; Goodell, L Suzanne; Allen, Jonathan C; Fogleman, April

    2014-04-01

    The Food and Drug Administration discourages the casual sharing of human milk because of the risk of pathogen transmission. No information is currently available on the prevalence of this practice. The purpose of this mixed-methods observational study is to describe the size and activity of online milk sharing communities. Data for 3 months were extracted from nine public Facebook pages that facilitate the exchange of human milk. The numbers of participants, interactions, and comments were analyzed. We observed 954 individuals participating in milk sharing. The number of interactions per individual ranged from none to 16 (mean, 1.74 ± 1.65). Top reasons that participants requested milk included "lactation problems" (69.4%) and "child health problems" (48.5%). Nearly half of donors were offering 100 ounces or more, which is the minimum to be eligible to donate to nonprofit milk banks. Milk sharing networks in the United States are active, with thousands of individuals participating in the direct exchange of raw human milk. Public health issues include increasing the supply of pasteurized donor milk for fragile infants, increasing breastfeeding support, and helping milk sharing families appropriately manage risks.

  12. Determination of the concentrations of lead in raw milk in the Valley of Toluca

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosas Vilchis, E.

    1991-01-01

    The object of the present work, undertaken under the program of Regional and Cooperative Agreement for Nuclear Science and Technology in Latin America (ARCAL IV), was to determine the amounts of lead found in raw milk using the analytic techniques of Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry (AAS), Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectrometry (ICP-AES) and X-ray Fluorescence (FRX); so as to aid in solving problems of public health originating from elevated amounts of heavy metals in foods of animal origin. A total of thirty samples of raw milk were collected in the Valley of Toluca in Mexico, where heavy metal contaminants in the environment due to effects of rapid industrialization and urbanization, are known to have entered the food chain. The methodology, consisting in destroying organic matter in the samples by calcination, and included, in the case of AAS and ICP-AES, acid digestion. In the case of FRX, lead was extracted by ammonium 1-pyrrolidine carboditioate (APDC). The equipment to be used was calibrated and both blank and working solutions prepared in order to perform quantitative analysis. The concentrations of lead which were found in all the milk samples ranged from <0.03 to 0.31 μg/ml milk. These amounts within the maximum permissible limits, 0.5 μg/ml for all types of milk, established by the FDA. In the analysis ICP-AES gave best results as to sensitivity, precision and accuracy, followed by AAS which gave reliable results. FRX failed to detect lower limits and was, therefore, less reliable. (Author)

  13. Pellet-free isolation of human and bovine milk extracellular vesicles by size-exclusion chromatography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blans, Kristine Ingrid Marie; Hansen, Maria Stenum; Sørensen, Laila V.

    2017-01-01

    -marker proteins in other relevant milk fractions such as milk fat globules. Nanoparticle tracking analysis and electron microscopy reveals the presence of heterogeneous sized vesicle structures in milk EV isolates. Lipid analysis by thin layer chromatography shows that EV isolates are devoid of triacylglycerides...... accomplished in three steps based on size-exclusion chromatography (SEC) resulting in effective and reproducible EV isolation from raw milk. The approaches do not require any EV pelleting and can be applied to both human and bovine milk. We show that SEC effectively separates phospholipid membrane vesicles...... from the primary casein and whey protein components in two differently obtained casein reduced milk fractions, with one of the fractions obtained without the use of ultracentrifugation. Milk EV isolates were enriched in lactadherin, CD9, CD63 and CD81 compared to minimal levels of the EV...

  14. Associated morbidities to congenital diaphragmatic hernia and a relationship to human milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froh, Elizabeth B; Spatz, Diane L

    2012-08-01

    The majority of what is known in the recent literature regarding human milk studies in the neonatal intensive care setting is specific to term and/or preterm infants (including very-low-birth-weight preterm infants). However, there is a lack of human milk and breastfeeding literature concerning infants with congenital anomalies, specifically infants diagnosed with congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH). By applying human milk research conducted among other populations of infants, this article highlights how human milk may have a significant impact on infants with CDH. Recent human milk studies are reviewed and then applied to the CDH population in regard to respiratory and gastrointestinal morbidities, as well as infection and length of stay. In addition, clinical implications of these relationships are discussed and suggestions for future research are presented.

  15. Synthetic Musk fragrances in Trout from Danish fish farms and human milk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duedahl-Olesen, Lene; Cederberg, Tommy Licht; Pedersen, K. H.

    2005-01-01

    Synthetic musk compounds used in detergents and cosmetics include nitro and polycyclic musk compounds. These compounds are discharged after use via domestic wastewater and sewage treatment plants to the aquatic environment. Quantitative detection of nitro musk and polycyclic musk compounds by GC....../HRMS in Danish farmed trout and human milk from primiparous mothers are reported. The polycyclic musk, HHCB, dominated the synthetic musk compounds found in trout samples from 1999 with a median concentration of 5.0 mu g/kg fresh weight (n.d.-52.6 mu g/kg fresh weight) and in trout samples collected in 2003....../kg fresh weight in 1999 and to a median less than the detection limit (0.23 mu g/kg fresh weight) in 2003. HHCB also dominated in Danish human milk samples collected in 1999 with a median concentration of 147 mu g/kg fat (38.0-422 mu g/kg fat). Human dietary intake assessment and body burden calculations...

  16. "Bed Side" Human Milk Analysis in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusch, Gerhard; Kwan, Celia; Kotrri, Gynter; Fusch, Christoph

    2017-03-01

    Human milk analyzers can measure macronutrient content in native breast milk to tailor adequate supplementation with fortifiers. This article reviews all studies using milk analyzers, including (i) evaluation of devices, (ii) the impact of different conditions on the macronutrient analysis of human milk, and (iii) clinical trials to improve growth. Results lack consistency, potentially due to systematic errors in the validation of the device, or pre-analytical sample preparation errors like homogenization. It is crucial to introduce good laboratory and clinical practice when using these devices; otherwise a non-validated clinical usage can severely affect growth outcomes of infants. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Best practice guidelines for the operation of a donor human milk bank in an Australian NICU.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, B T; Pang, W W; Keil, A D; Hartmann, P E; Simmer, K

    2007-10-01

    Until the establishment of the PREM Bank (Perron Rotary Express Milk Bank) donor human milk banking had not occurred in Australia for the past 20 years. In re-establishing donor human milk banking in Australia, the focus of the PREM Bank has been to develop a formal and consistent approach to safety and quality in processing during the operation of the human milk bank. There is currently no existing legislation in Australia that specifically regulates the operation of donor human milk banks. For this reason the PREM Bank has utilised existing and internationally recognised management practices for managing hazards during food production. These tools (specifically HACCP) have been used to guide the development of Standard Operating Procedures and Good Manufacturing Practice for the screening of donors and processing of donor human milk. Donor screening procedures are consistent with those recommended by other human milk banks operating internationally, and also consistent with the requirements for blood and tissue donation in Australia. Controlled documentation and record keep requirements have also been developed that allow complete traceability from individual donation to individual feed dispensed to recipient and maintain a record of all processing and storage conditions. These operational requirements have been developed to reduce any risk associated with feeding pasteurised donor human milk to hospitalised preterm or ill infants to acceptable levels.

  18. Influence of milk urea concentration on fractional urea disappearance rate from milk to blood plasma in dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spek, J.W.; Dijkstra, J.; Bannink, A.

    2016-01-01

    The relationship between milk urea nitrogen (MUN; mg of N/dL) and urinary N excretion is affected, among others, by diurnal dynamics in MUN, which in turn is largely influenced by feed intake pattern and characteristics of urea transfer from blood plasma to milk and vice versa. This study aimed

  19. beta. -endorphin-like and. alpha. -MSH-like immunoreactivities in human milk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferrando, T.; Rainero, I.; De Gennaro, T.; Oggero, R.; Mostert, M.; Dattola, P.; Pinessi, L. (Univ. of Turin (Italy))

    1990-01-01

    We measured with radioimmunoassay the {beta}-endorphin-like and {alpha}-MSH-like immunoreactivities in milk and plasma of 8 lactating women. Mean {beta}-endorphin concentrations ({plus minus} SD) were 16.6 {plus minus} 6.7 fmol/ml in milk and 9.9 {plus minus} 4.1 fmol/ml in plasma. {alpha}-MSH concentrations were 39.4 {plus minus} 15.5 pg/ml in milk and 18.2 {plus minus} 8.4 pg/ml in plasma. The concentrations of both peptides in milk were significantly higher than in plasma. No significant correlation between milk and plasma concentrations of these peptides was found.

  20. Human Milk Shows Immunological Advantages Over Organic Milk Samples For Infants in the Presence of Lipopolysaccharide (LPS in 3D Energy Maps Using an Organic Nanobiomimetic Memristor/Memcapacitor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S-H. DUH

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Human milk is well known for its immunological advantages of protection and support for healthy early childhood cognitive development and prevention of chronic diseases over cow milk for infants. However, little is known about how the immunological advantages are linked to reduce Pathological High Frequency Oscillation (pHFO regarding neural synapse net energy outcomes when lipopolysaccharide (LPS attacks at a clinical concentration range compared with that in cow milk in a 3D energy map. We developed a nanostructure biomimetic memristor/memcapacitor device with a dual function of chronoamperometric (CA sensing/voltage sensing for the direct quantitative evaluation of immunological advantages between human milk and organic cow milk for infants in the presence of wide LPS concentration ranges; those ranges were between 5.0 pg/mL to 500 ng/mL and from 50 ng/mL to 1 µg/mL for both a CA and a voltage method, respectively. The Detection of Limit (DOL results are as follows: 3.73×10-18 g LPS vs. 1.2×10-16 g LPS in 40 µL milk samples using the 3.11×10-7cm3 voltage sensor and the 0.031cm2 CA sensor, respectively, under antibody-free and reagent-free conditions. The 3D energy map results show that cow milk is ten-times more prone to E. Coli attack, and the positive link was revealed that Pathological High Frequency Oscillation (pHFO formations occurred over the studied LPS concentration range from 50 ng/mL up to 1000 ng/mL from Rapid Eye Movement (REM sleep frequency, fast gamma frequency to Sharp Wave-Ripple Complexes (SPW- R frequency. There had no pHFO with human milk samples at Slow Wave Sleeping (SWS, REM and SPW- R frequencies. The microbiota in the human milk samples successfully overcame the endotoxin attack from E. coli bacteria, however the pHFO only occurred at fast gamma frequency linked with the LPS level ≥ 500 ng/mL. Organic milk samples show an order of magnitude lower synapse energy density compared with human milk at SWS for with

  1. Uranium concentrations in human bone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlenker, R.A.; Oltman, B.G.

    1981-01-01

    The uranium concentration in bone from an individual injected with 239 Pu has been determined, using the fission-track method. The data are consistent with those reported about 10 years ago by Welford and Baird for New York City area residents and by Hamilton in England. They are at variance with the more recent data of Welford et al

  2. Studies on organochlorine pesticide residues in human breast milk of primparae mothers from selected areas in the Greater Accra Region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osei Tutu, A.

    2009-06-01

    A study was conducted to determine the types and levels of organochlorine pesticide residuals in the human milk samples of 42 nursing mothers from Ada and Accra. The milk samples were analyzed for 14 different organochlorine pesticides residue (Aldrin, Dieldrin, p,p'-DDT, p,p'-DDE, Endrin, Endrin Aldehyde, Endrin Ketone, Endosulphan sulfate,' Alpha Endosulphan, Gamma-HCH, Delta-HCH, Gamma Chlordane, Heptachlor and Methoxychlor) using Gas chromatography with electron capture detector. The mean concentrations for the organochlorine pesticide residues detected in the human milk samples from Accra are; Gamma-HCH (4.207µg/kg fat), Delta-HCH (13.855µg/kg fat), Heptachlor (11.791µg/kg fat), Aldrin (2.962µg/kg fat), Gamma- Chlordane (1.839µg/kg fat), Alpha-Endosulfan (4.740µg/kg fat), p,p'-DDE (23.367µg/kg fat), Dieldrin (2.407µg/kg fat), p,p'-DDT (3.085µg/kg fat), Endrin (7.669µg/kg fat), Endrin Aldehyde (7.769µg/kg fat), Endosulfan-Sulphate (99.052µg/kg fat), Endrin Ketone (63.846µg/kg fat), and Methoxychlor (20.116µg/kg fat). The mean concentrations of the various organochlorine pesticide residues detected in the human milk samples from Ada are; Gamma-HCH (5.438µg/kg fat), DeIta-HCH (6.728µg/kg fat), Heptachlor (0.682µg/kg fat), Aldrin (2.38µg/kg fat), Gamma- Chlordane (1.304µg/kg fat), Alpha-Endosulfan (2.588µg/kg fat), p,p'-DDE (24.165µg/kg fat), Dieldrin (2.222µg/kg fat), p,p'-DDT (3.468µg/kg fat), Endrin (6.339 µg/kg fat), Endosulfan-Sulphate (63.803)µg/kg fat), Endrin Ketone (11.167)µg/kg fat), and Methoxychlor (0.703µg/kg fat). The mean concentration of Endosulfan Sulfate was (99.052Iµ g/kg fat) was highest for the milk samples from Accra. Gamma chlordane recorded the least mean concentration (1.839 µg/kg fat) in the milk samples from Accra. The mean concentration of Endosulfan sulfate (63.803 µg/kg fat) was still the highest as compared to the other organochlorines analyzed for in the milk samples from Ada. Endrin Aldehyde was not

  3. Increased Milk Protein Concentration in a Rehydration Drink Enhances Fluid Retention Caused by Water Reabsorption in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Kentaro; Saito, Yuri; Ashida, Kinya; Yamaji, Taketo; Itoh, Hiroyuki; Oda, Munehiro

    2015-01-01

    A fluid-retention effect is required for beverages that are designed to prevent dehydration. That is, fluid absorbed from the intestines should not be excreted quickly; long-term retention is desirable. Here, we focused on the effect of milk protein on fluid retention, and propose a new effective oral rehydration method that can be used daily for preventing dehydration. We first evaluated the effects of different concentrations of milk protein on fluid retention by measuring the urinary volumes of rats fed fluid containing milk protein at concentrations of 1, 5, and 10%. We next compared the fluid-retention effect of milk protein-enriched drink (MPD) with those of distilled water (DW) and a sports drink (SD) by the same method. Third, to investigate the mechanism of fluid retention, we measured plasma insulin changes in rats after ingesting these three drinks. We found that the addition of milk protein at 5 or 10% reduced urinary volume in a dose-dependent manner. Ingestion of the MPD containing 4.6% milk protein resulted in lower urinary volumes than DW and SD. MPD also showed a higher water reabsorption rate in the kidneys and higher concentrations of plasma insulin than DW and SD. These results suggest that increasing milk protein concentration in a beverage enhances fluid retention, which may allow the possibility to develop rehydration beverages that are more effective than SDs. In addition, insulin-modifying renal water reabsorption may contribute to the fluid-retention effect of MPD.

  4. NMR-based metabolite profiling of human milk: A pilot study of methods for investigating compositional changes during lactation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Junfang; Domellöf, Magnus; Zivkovic, Angela M.; Larsson, Göran; Öhman, Anders; Nording, Malin L.

    2016-01-01

    Low-molecular-weight metabolites in human milk are gaining increasing interest in studies of infant nutrition. In the present study, the milk metabolome from a single mother was explored at different stages of lactation. Metabolites were extracted from sample aliquots using either methanol/water (MeOH/H_2O) extraction or ultrafiltration. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy was used for metabolite identification and quantification, and multi- and univariate statistical data analyses were used to detect changes over time of lactation. Compared to MeOH/H_2O extraction, ultrafiltration more efficiently reduced the interference from lipid and protein resonances, thereby enabling the identification and quantification of 36 metabolites. The human milk metabolomes at the early (9–24 days after delivery) and late (31–87 days after delivery) stages of lactation were distinctly different according to multi- and univariate statistics. The late lactation stage was characterized by significantly elevated concentrations of lactose, choline, alanine, glutamate, and glutamine, as well as by reduced levels of citrate, phosphocholine, glycerophosphocholine, and N-acetylglucosamine. Our results indicate that there are significant compositional changes of the human milk metabolome also in different phases of the matured lactation stage. These findings complement temporal studies on the colostrum and transitional metabolome in providing a better understanding of the nutritional variations received by an infant. - Highlights: • 36 metabolites were simultaneously quantified in human milk by NMR. • Ultrafiltration more efficiently reduces interferences than MeOH/H_2O extraction. • Compositional changes of the human milk exist during the matured lactation stage.

  5. NMR-based metabolite profiling of human milk: A pilot study of methods for investigating compositional changes during lactation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Junfang [Department of Chemistry, Umeå University (Sweden); Domellöf, Magnus [Department of Clinical Sciences, Pediatrics, Umeå University (Sweden); Zivkovic, Angela M. [Foods for Health Institute, University of California, Davis, CA (United States); Department of Nutrition, University of California, Davis, CA (United States); Larsson, Göran [Department of Medical Biochemistry and Biophysics, Unit of Research, Education and Development-Östersund, Umeå University (Sweden); Öhman, Anders, E-mail: anders.ohman01@umu.se [Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Neuroscience, Umeå University (Sweden); Nording, Malin L., E-mail: malin.nording@umu.se [Department of Chemistry, Umeå University (Sweden)

    2016-01-15

    Low-molecular-weight metabolites in human milk are gaining increasing interest in studies of infant nutrition. In the present study, the milk metabolome from a single mother was explored at different stages of lactation. Metabolites were extracted from sample aliquots using either methanol/water (MeOH/H{sub 2}O) extraction or ultrafiltration. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy was used for metabolite identification and quantification, and multi- and univariate statistical data analyses were used to detect changes over time of lactation. Compared to MeOH/H{sub 2}O extraction, ultrafiltration more efficiently reduced the interference from lipid and protein resonances, thereby enabling the identification and quantification of 36 metabolites. The human milk metabolomes at the early (9–24 days after delivery) and late (31–87 days after delivery) stages of lactation were distinctly different according to multi- and univariate statistics. The late lactation stage was characterized by significantly elevated concentrations of lactose, choline, alanine, glutamate, and glutamine, as well as by reduced levels of citrate, phosphocholine, glycerophosphocholine, and N-acetylglucosamine. Our results indicate that there are significant compositional changes of the human milk metabolome also in different phases of the matured lactation stage. These findings complement temporal studies on the colostrum and transitional metabolome in providing a better understanding of the nutritional variations received by an infant. - Highlights: • 36 metabolites were simultaneously quantified in human milk by NMR. • Ultrafiltration more efficiently reduces interferences than MeOH/H{sub 2}O extraction. • Compositional changes of the human milk exist during the matured lactation stage.

  6. The impact of maternal- and neonatal-associated factors on human milk's macronutrients and energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dritsakou, Kalliopi; Liosis, Georgios; Valsami, Georgia; Polychronopoulos, Evangelos; Skouroliakou, Maria

    2017-06-01

    To test the impact of specific maternal- and neonatal-associated factors on human milk's macronutrients and energy. This study was conducted with the use of a human milk analyzer (HMA, MIRIS, Uppsala, Sweden). Six hundred and thirty samples of raw milk and 95 samples of donor pasteurized milk were delivered from a total of 305 mothers. A significant inverse correlation of fat, protein and energy content with gestational age and birth weight was established. Fat and energy were lower in colostrum, increased in transitional milk and decreased on the 30th day's mature milk compared to transitional. The rate of protein decline from colostrum to mature milk was lower in premature deliveries compared to that of full-terms, resulting in greater contents of protein in preterm mature milk. The upmost amounts of carbohydrates were found in mature milk of preterm deliveries. A positive correlation was found between maternal age and fat contents. In women with higher post-pregnancy BMI levels greater analogies of fat and energy were presented. In women suffering diet-controlled gestational diabetes (GD), lower protein and higher fat and energy levels were found. Prematurity, maternal age, diet-controlled GD and high post-pregnancy BMI levels were found to impose statistical significant effect on milk's macronutrients and energy.

  7. STAT6-Dependent Collagen Synthesis in Human Fibroblasts Is Induced by Bovine Milk.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Kippenberger

    Full Text Available Since the domestication of the urus, 10.000 years ago, mankind utilizes bovine milk for different purposes. Besides usage as a nutrient also the external application of milk on skin has a long tradition going back to at least the ancient Aegypt with Cleopatra VII as a great exponent. In order to test whether milk has impact on skin physiology, cultures of human skin fibroblasts were exposed to commercial bovine milk. Our data show significant induction of proliferation by milk (max. 2,3-fold, EC50: 2,5% milk without toxic effects. Surprisingly, bovine milk was identified as strong inducer of collagen 1A1 synthesis at both, the protein (4-fold, EC50: 0,09% milk and promoter level. Regarding the underlying molecular pathways, we show functional activation of STAT6 in a p44/42 and p38-dependent manner. More upstream, we identified IGF-1 and insulin as key factors responsible for milk-induced collagen synthesis. These findings show that bovine milk contains bioactive molecules that act on human skin cells. Therefore, it is tempting to test the herein introduced concept in treatment of atrophic skin conditions induced e.g. by UV light or corticosteroids.

  8. Human milk peptides differentiate between the preterm and term infant and across varying lactational stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dingess, Kelly A; de Waard, Marita; Boeren, Sjef; Vervoort, Jacques; Lambers, Tim T; van Goudoever, Johannes B; Hettinga, Kasper

    2017-10-18

    Variations in endogenous peptide profiles, functionality, and the enzymes responsible for the formation of these peptides in human milk are understudied. Additionally, there is a lack of knowledge regarding peptides in donor human milk, which is used to feed preterm infants when mother's own milk is not (sufficiently) available. To assess this, 29 human milk samples from the Dutch Human Milk Bank were analyzed as three groups, preterm late lactation stage (LS) (n = 12), term early (n = 8) and term late LS (n = 9). Gestational age (GA) groups were defined as preterm (24-36 weeks) and term (≥37 weeks). LS was determined as days postpartum as early (16-36 days) or late (55-88 days). Peptides, analyzed by LC-MS/MS, and parent proteins (proteins from matched peptide sequences) were identified and quantified, after which peptide functionality and the enzymes responsible for protein cleavage were determined. A total of 16 different parent proteins were identified from human milk, with no differences by GA or LS. We identified 1104 endogenous peptides, of which, the majority were from the parent proteins β-casein, polymeric immunoglobulin receptor, α s1 -casein, osteopontin, and κ-casein. The absolute number of peptides differed by GA and LS with 30 and 41 differing sequences respectively (p milk peptides. These results explain some of the variation in endogenous peptides in human milk, leading to future targets that may be studied for functionality.

  9. Donor Human Milk for the High-Risk Infant: Preparation, Safety, and Usage Options in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    The use of donor human milk is increasing for high-risk infants, primarily for infants born weighing Pasteurized donor milk may be considered in situations in which the supply of maternal milk is insufficient. The use of pasteurized donor milk is safe when appropriate measures are used to screen donors and collect, store, and pasteurize the milk and then distribute it through established human milk banks. The use of nonpasteurized donor milk and other forms of direct, Internet-based, or informal human milk sharing does not involve this level of safety and is not recommended. It is important that health care providers counsel families considering milk sharing about the risks of bacterial or viral contamination of nonpasteurized human milk and about the possibilities of exposure to medications, drugs, or herbs in human milk. Currently, the use of pasteurized donor milk is limited by its availability and affordability. The development of public policy to improve and expand access to pasteurized donor milk, including policies that support improved governmental and private financial support for donor milk banks and the use of donor milk, is important. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  10. Human Milk Feeding as a Protective Factor for Retinopathy of Prematurity: A Meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jianguo; Shukla, Vivek V; John, Denny; Chen, Chao

    2015-12-01

    Studies have suggested that human milk feeding decreases the incidence of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP); however, conflicting results have been reported. The aim of this meta-analysis was to pool currently available data on incidence of ROP in infants fed human milk versus formula. Medline, PubMed, and EBSCO were searched for articles published through February 2015. Longitudinal studies comparing the incidence of ROP in infants who were fed human milk and formula were selected. Studies involving donor milk were not included. Two independent reviewers conducted the searches and extracted data. Meta-analysis used odds ratios (ORs), and subgroup analyses were performed. Five studies with 2208 preterm infants were included. Searches including various proportions of human milk versus formula, any-stage ROP, and severe ROP were defined to pool data for analyses. For any-stage ROP, the ORs (95% confidence intervals [CIs]) were as follows: exclusive human milk versus any formula, 0.29 (0.12 to 0.72); mainly human milk versus mainly formula, 0.51 (0.26 to 1.03); any human milk versus exclusive formula, 0.54 (0.15 to 1.96); and exclusive human milk versus exclusive formula, 0.25 (0.13 to 0.49). For severe ROP, they were 0.11 (0.04 to 0.30), 0.16 (0.06 to 0.43), 0.42 (0.08 to 2.18), and 0.10 (0.04 to 0.29), respectively. Prospective randomized studies being impossible because of ethical issues, we chose observational studies for analysis. A few studies involving subgroup analyses presented high heterogeneity. Based on current limited evidence, in very preterm newborns, human milk feeding potentially plays a protective role in preventing any-stage ROP and severe ROP. Copyright © 2015 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  11. Effects of different CMV-heat-inactivation-methods on growth factors in human breast milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goelz, Rangmar; Hihn, Eva; Hamprecht, Klaus; Dietz, Klaus; Jahn, Gerhard; Poets, Christian; Elmlinger, Martin

    2009-04-01

    Preterm infants can inoculate virulent cytomegalovirus (CMV) through their mothers' raw breast milk. Complete virus inactivation is achieved only by heat treatment, but the effect on growth factors has never been assessed systematically. Insulin-like-growth-factor-1-, IGF-2-, insulin-like-growth-factor-binding-protein-2-, and IGFBP-3-concentrations were measured, before and after heating, in 51 breast-milk-samples from 28 mothers, and epidermal-growth-factor-concentrations in a subgroup of 35 samples from 22 mothers. Two heating methods were applied: Short-term (5 s) pasteurisation at 62, 65, and 72 degrees C, and long-term Holder-Pasteurisation (30 min) at 63 degrees C. IGF-1, IGF-2, IGFBP-2, and IGFBP-3 were measured by RIA, and EGF by ELISA. Heating for 30 min decreased significantly IGF-1 by 39.4%, IGF-2 by 9.9%, IGFBP-2 by 19.1%, and IGFBP-3 by 7.0%. In contrast, IGF-1, IGF-2, IGFBP-2, and IGFBP-3 were not altered significantly when using a short heating duration of 5 s, irrespective of the level of temperature, except for IGF-2 at 62 degrees C for 5 s (p = 0.041) and IGFBP-2 at 72 degrees C for 5 s (p = 0.025). Neither long- nor short-time heating methods changed the concentration of EGF. Only short heating methods (5 s, 62-72 degrees C) can preserve, almost completely, the concentrations of IGFs in human milk, whereas Holder-Pasteurization does not.

  12. Bacterial invasion of HT29-MTX-E12 monolayers: effects of human breast milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Tim; Dymock, David; Corfield, Anthony P; Weaver, Gillian; Woodward, Mark; Berry, Monica

    2013-02-01

    The supramucosal gel, crucial for gut barrier function, might be compromised in necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC). Breast milk is associated with a reduced incidence of NEC. We compared the effects of human breast milk (BM) versus a neonatal formula, Nutriprem 1 (FF), on adherence, internalisation, and penetration of NEC-associated Escherichia coli through monolayers of mucus producing intestinal cells, HT29-MTX-E12 (E12). E12 cells were grown to confluence on membranes permeable to bacteria. E. coli, reference strain and isolated from a NEC-affected intestine, were cultured in LB broth, labelled with fluorescein and biotinylated. Bacteria were suspended in tissue culture medium (TC) or mixtures of TC with BM or FF and applied to the E12 cultures. Bacterial numbers were assessed by fluorescence. DyLight 650-labelled neutravidin, which cannot cross cell membrane, evaluated extracellular bacteria. Fluorescence of basolateral medium was measured to quantify translocation. Bacterial concentrations were compared using the Mann Whitney U test. After 1h exposure, E12 cultures adhered or internalised more NEC-derived bacteria than standard strain E. coli and more suspended in FF than BM (Pmilk was associated with relatively less adhesion and internalisation of NEC-associated E. coli to mucus covered E12s compared to formula milk. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Comparative Analysis of Whey N-Glycoproteins in Human Colostrum and Mature Milk Using Quantitative Glycoproteomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Xueyan; Song, Dahe; Yang, Mei; Yang, Ning; Ye, Qing; Tao, Dongbing; Liu, Biao; Wu, Rina; Yue, Xiqing

    2017-11-29

    Glycosylation is a ubiquitous post-translational protein modification that plays a substantial role in various processes. However, whey glycoproteins in human milk have not been completely profiled. Herein, we used quantitative glycoproteomics to quantify whey N-glycosylation sites and their alteration in human milk during lactation; 110 N-glycosylation sites on 63 proteins and 91 N-glycosylation sites on 53 proteins were quantified in colostrum and mature milk whey, respectively. Among these, 68 glycosylation sites on 38 proteins were differentially expressed in human colostrum and mature milk whey. These differentially expressed N-glycoproteins were highly enriched in "localization", "extracellular region part", and "modified amino acid binding" according to gene ontology annotation and mainly involved in complement and coagulation cascades pathway. These results shed light on the glycosylation sites, composition and biological functions of whey N-glycoproteins in human colostrum and mature milk, and provide substantial insight into the role of protein glycosylation during infant development.

  14. Probiotics in human milk and probiotic supplementation in infant nutrition: a workshop report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergmann, Henrike; Rodríguez, Juan Miguel; Salminen, Seppo; Szajewska, Hania

    2014-10-14

    Probiotics in human milk are a very recent field of research, as the existence of the human milk microbiome was discovered only about a decade ago. Current research is focusing on bacterial diversity and the influence of the maternal environment as well as the mode of delivery on human milk microbiota, the pathways of bacterial transfer to milk ducts, possible benefits of specific bacterial strains for the treatment of mastitis in mothers, and disease prevention in children. Recent advances in the assessment of early host-microbe interactions suggest that early colonisation may have an impact on later health. This review article summarises a scientific workshop on probiotics in human milk and their implications for infant health as well as future perspectives for infant feeding.

  15. Organohalogen compounds in human breast milk from Republic of Buryatia, Russia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsydenova, Oyuna V. [Center for Marine Environmental Studies (CMES), Ehime University, Bunkyo-cho 2-5, Matsuyama 790-8577 (Japan); Sudaryanto, Agus [Center for Marine Environmental Studies (CMES), Ehime University, Bunkyo-cho 2-5, Matsuyama 790-8577 (Japan); Kajiwara, Natsuko [Center for Marine Environmental Studies (CMES), Ehime University, Bunkyo-cho 2-5, Matsuyama 790-8577 (Japan); Kunisue, Tatsuya [Center for Marine Environmental Studies (CMES), Ehime University, Bunkyo-cho 2-5, Matsuyama 790-8577 (Japan); Batoev, Valeriy B. [Baikal Institute of Nature Management, Siberian Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences, Sakhyanova st. 6, Ulan-Ude 670047 (Russian Federation); Tanabe, Shinsuke [Center for Marine Environmental Studies (CMES), Ehime University, Bunkyo-cho 2-5, Matsuyama 790-8577 (Japan)]. E-mail: shinsuke@agr.ehime-u.ac.jp

    2007-03-15

    Human breast milk samples collected during 2003/04 in Buryatia, a Russian autonomous republic, were analyzed in order to assess human exposure to organohalogen compounds including organochlorine pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). When compared with available worldwide data, levels of HCB (23-880 ng/g lipid wt.), PCBs (69-680 ng/g lipid wt.), and HCHs (100-3700 ng/g lipid wt.) were relatively high, indicating elevated human exposure to these organochlorines (OCs) in Buryatia. In contrast to OCs, PBDE concentrations were low (0.46-1.7 ng/g lipid wt.). Out of 14 BDE congeners analyzed, BDE-28, BDE-47, BDE-100, BDE-153, BDE-197, and BDE-207 were detected. Estimated daily intakes (EDIs) of HCHs, HCB, CHLs, and PCBs by infants solely from human milk for 100%, 43%, 34%, and 17% of the samples, respectively, exceeded guideline thresholds. Although high EDIs raise concern for possible toxic effects of OCs, women in Buryatia are recommended to breastfeed due to numerous advantages of breastfeeding for mother and child. - People in the Republic of Buryatia, Russia are exposed to relatively high levels of HCHs, HCB and PCBs.

  16. Organohalogen compounds in human breast milk from Republic of Buryatia, Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsydenova, Oyuna V.; Sudaryanto, Agus; Kajiwara, Natsuko; Kunisue, Tatsuya; Batoev, Valeriy B.; Tanabe, Shinsuke

    2007-01-01

    Human breast milk samples collected during 2003/04 in Buryatia, a Russian autonomous republic, were analyzed in order to assess human exposure to organohalogen compounds including organochlorine pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). When compared with available worldwide data, levels of HCB (23-880 ng/g lipid wt.), PCBs (69-680 ng/g lipid wt.), and HCHs (100-3700 ng/g lipid wt.) were relatively high, indicating elevated human exposure to these organochlorines (OCs) in Buryatia. In contrast to OCs, PBDE concentrations were low (0.46-1.7 ng/g lipid wt.). Out of 14 BDE congeners analyzed, BDE-28, BDE-47, BDE-100, BDE-153, BDE-197, and BDE-207 were detected. Estimated daily intakes (EDIs) of HCHs, HCB, CHLs, and PCBs by infants solely from human milk for 100%, 43%, 34%, and 17% of the samples, respectively, exceeded guideline thresholds. Although high EDIs raise concern for possible toxic effects of OCs, women in Buryatia are recommended to breastfeed due to numerous advantages of breastfeeding for mother and child. - People in the Republic of Buryatia, Russia are exposed to relatively high levels of HCHs, HCB and PCBs

  17. Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers in Human Milk and Serum from the U.S. EPA MAMA Study: Modeled Predictions of Infant Exposure and Considerations for Risk Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchitti, Satori A.; Fenton, Suzanne E.; Mendola, Pauline; Kenneke, John F.; Hines, Erin P.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Serum concentrations of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in U.S. women are believed to be among the world’s highest; however, little information exists on the partitioning of PBDEs between serum and breast milk and how this may affect infant exposure. Objectives: Paired milk and serum samples were measured for PBDE concentrations in 34 women who participated in the U.S. EPA MAMA Study. Computational models for predicting milk PBDE concentrations from serum were evaluated. Methods: Samples were analyzed using gas chromatography isotope-dilution high-resolution mass spectrometry. Observed milk PBDE concentrations were compared with model predictions, and models were applied to NHANES serum data to predict milk PBDE concentrations and infant intakes for the U.S. population. Results: Serum and milk samples had detectable concentrations of most PBDEs. BDE-47 was found in the highest concentrations (median serum: 18.6; milk: 31.5 ng/g lipid) and BDE-28 had the highest milk:serum partitioning ratio (2.1 ± 0.2). No evidence of depuration was found. Models demonstrated high reliability and, as of 2007–2008, predicted U.S. milk concentrations of BDE-47, BDE-99, and BDE-100 appear to be declining but BDE-153 may be rising. Predicted infant intakes (ng/kg/day) were below threshold reference doses (RfDs) for BDE-99 and BDE-153 but above the suggested RfD for BDE-47. Conclusions: Concentrations and partitioning ratios of PBDEs in milk and serum from women in the U.S. EPA MAMA Study are presented for the first time; modeled predictions of milk PBDE concentrations using serum concentrations appear to be a valid method for estimating PBDE exposure in U.S. infants. Citation: Marchitti SA, Fenton SE, Mendola P, Kenneke JF, Hines EP. 2017. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers in human milk and serum from the U.S. EPA MAMA Study: modeled predictions of infant exposure and considerations for risk assessment. Environ Health Perspect 125:706–713; http://dx.doi.org/10

  18. Agent Orange Exposure and 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-Dioxin (TCDD) in Human Milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scialli, Anthony R; Watkins, Deborah K; Ginevan, Michael E

    2015-06-01

    Agent Orange was sprayed in parts of southern Vietnam during the U.S.-Vietnam war and was a mixture of two chlorophenoxy herbicides. The mixture was contaminated with 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD). TCDD and other dioxins and furans are measurable in the milk of Vietnamese women. We explored whether the TCDD in milk from these women was from Agent Orange and whether lactational exposure can be a mode of transgenerational effects of TCDD from Agent Orange. A review of the world's literature on milk concentrations of polychlorinated compounds showed the presence of TCDD and other dioxins and furans in all countries that have been assessed. The congener profile of these chemicals, that is, the proportion of different congeners in the sample, can be used to assess the source of milk contamination. Measurements in most countries, including contemporary measurements in Vietnam, are consistent with non-Agent Orange exposure sources, including industrial activities and incineration of waste. Models and supporting human data suggest that TCDD from breastfeeding does not persist in a child past adolescence and that the adult body burden of TCDD is independent of whether the individual was breast- or bottle-fed as a child. These findings suggest that exposure to Agent Orange in Vietnam did not result in persistent transgenerational exposure through human milk. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. [Clinical impact of opening a human milk bank in a neonatal unit].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez-Román, S; Bustos-Lozano, G; López-Maestro, M; Rodríguez-López, J; Orbea-Gallardo, C; Samaniego-Fernández, M; Pallás-Alonso, C R

    2014-09-01

    The benefits of donor human milk compared with artificial formulas have been well demonstrated; nevertheless the impact in the clinical practice of opening a human milk bank within a neonatal unit has not yet been studied. The main aim of this study was to analyze the impact on the clinical practice of opening a human milk bank in a neonatal unit to provide donor human milk for preterm infants ≤ 32 weeks of gestational age. A before and after study was designed, with the intervention being the opening a human milk bank. Preterm infants ≤ 32 weeks of gestational age born in the Hospital 12 Octubre from July to December 2005 and January to June 2008 (firsts 6 months after opening the human milk bank) were included. After opening the human milk bank, enteral feedings were started 31h before (Partificial formula, the exposure to formula in the first 15 days of life was reduced from 50% to 16.6%, and it's consumption during the first 28 days of life was significantly reduced. There was a higher consumption of own mother's milk during the hospital stay, and a higher rate of exclusive breastfeeding at hospital discharge (54% vs 40%). The availability of donor human milk has led to quicker progression with enteral feedings and earlier withdrawal of parenteral nutrition. It has reduced the exposure to artificial formulas, and has also increased the intake of own mother's milk during the hospital stay and the rate of exclusive breastfeeding at hospital discharge. Copyright © 2013 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  20. Structure of human milk bile salt activated lipase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baba, T.; Downs, D.; Jackson, K.W.; Tang, J.; Wang, Chi-Sun

    1991-01-01

    The structure and some functional sites of human milk bile salt activated lipase (BAL) were studied by cDNA cloning and chemical analysis of the enzyme. Eighteen cDNA clones of human BAL were identified from lactating human breast cDNA libraries in λgt11 and λgt10 with antibody and synthetic oligonucleotides as probes. The sequence of four clones was sufficient to construct a 3018-bp BAL cDNA structure. This sequence codes for an open reading frame of 742 amino acid residues. There is a putative signal sequence of 20 residues which is followed by the amino-terminal sequence of BAL, and the mature BAL contains 722 amino acid residues. The cDNA sequence also contains a 678-base 5'-untranslated sequence, a 97-base 3'-untranslated region, and a 14-base poly(A) tail. The sequence of a 1.8-kbp insert of clone G10-4A differs from that of the other cDNA in that it contains a deletion of 198 bases (1966-2163) corresponding to 66 amino acid residues. By use of BAL cDAN as probe, it was found that the major molecular species of BAL mRNA in human mammary gland HBL-100 cells had a size of 2.9 kb and two minor species had sizes of 3.8 and 5.1 kb by Northern blot analyses. These chemical studies established that the active site of human milk BAL is located at serine-194, the N-glycosylation site is present at asparagine-187, the O-glycosylation region is in the 16 repeating units near the C-terminus, and the heparin binding domain is in the N-terminal region. The authors have also determined the location of disulfide bridges as Cys64-Cys80 and Cys246-Cys257. The cyanogen bromide cleavage and the partial sequencing of CNBr peptides also confirmed the location of methionines in the polypeptide chain as well as the deduced cDNA sequence of BAL

  1. Investigation on bisphenol A levels in human milk and dairy supply chain: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercogliano, Raffaelina; Santonicola, Serena

    2018-04-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA), widely used as additive in food packaging, is an environmental and food contaminant that shows a weak estrogenic activity in general population and toxicity in the infant population. A temporary tolerable daily intake (t-TDI) of 4 μg/kg bw/day and a migration limit of 0.6 mg/kg in food from plastic materials, intended to come in contact with food, were fixed. Dietary milk is important in the human diet. The review investigated the contamination levels in human milk and along the dairy supply chain. Despite the reported levels are generally below the fixed limits, breast milk is considered a continuous low-level exposure to endocrine-active compounds for infants. In addition, BPA residues are detected in milk and dairy products posing a risk to human health. BPA enters into milk chain via multiple pathways at various points during milk production (e.g., PVC tubing used during the milking process, transfer from bulk milk to storage tanks, during milk processing). To prevent or mitigate this hazard, a specific TDI for infants is recommended and evaluation of risk factors at each phase of the dairy supply chain, in the quality systems, is recommended. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Systematic analysis and the overall toxicity evaluation of dioxins and hexachlorobenzene in human milk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saito, K.; Ogawa, M.; Takekuma, M.; Ohmura, A. [Dioxin Reasearch Group, Saitama Institute of Public Health, Saitama (Japan); Kawaguchi, M.; Ito, R.; Nakazawa, H. [Hoshi Univ., Tokyo (Japan). Dept. of Analytical Chemistry; Matsuki, Y. [Japan Food Hygiene Association, Tokyo (Japan). Inst. of Food Hygiene

    2004-09-15

    The hexachlorobenzene (HCB), a type of organochlorine pesticide (OCP), was used as a fungicide for seed, and as a wood preservative. Also, HCB exists in the by-products found in the manufacturing process of chlorinated organic chemicals, and is generated by garbage incineration. The HCB is a so-called, unintended toxic pollutant as well as dioxins, and HCB is then specified for Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs). According to a recent study, it was pointed out that HCB binds to the aryl hydrocarbon (Ah) receptor, resulting in dioxin-like effects and bioaccumulates. Therefore, the overall toxicity evaluation of dioxins and HCB in human body, especially in human milk, should be examined, because HCB is universally detected in human milk. Until now, many studies regarding the dioxins or OCPs polluted in human milk have been reported. However, there are only a few reports that analyze both dioxins and HCB in the same sample, because repeated sampling and large amounts of samples of human milk were generally difficult to acquire. Moreover, few studies are available for the overall toxicity evaluation of dioxins and HCB in human milk. The aim of the present study was to develop the systematic analysis method of dioxins and HCB, and to obtain additional information about the overall toxicity evaluation of dioxins and HCB in human milk. The correlation between the HCB residue level and each dioxin isomer in the human milk was also considered.

  3. Human Milk Composition and Preservation: Evaluation of High-pressure Processing as a Nonthermal Pasteurization Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Sílvia G; Delgadillo, Ivonne; Saraiva, Jorge A

    2016-01-01

    Human milk is seen not only as a food, but as a functional and dynamic biologic system. It provides nutrients, bioactive components, and immune factors, promoting adequate and healthy growth of newborn infants. When mothers cannot supply their children, donated breast milk is the nutrition recommended by the World Health Organization, as it is a better alternative than infant formula. However, because of the manner in which donor milk is handled in human milk banks (HMB) many of the properties ascribed to mother's own milk are diminished or destroyed. The major process responsible for these losses is Holder pasteurization. High-pressure processing (HPP) is a novel nonthermal pasteurization technology that is being increasingly applied in food industries worldwide, primarily as an alternative to thermal treatment. This is due to its capacity to inactivate microorganisms while preserving both nutritional and bioactive components of foods. This review describes human milk composition and preservation, and critically discusses HMB importance and practices, highlighting HPP as a potential nonthermal pasteurization technology for human milk preservation. HPP technology is described and the few currently existing studies of its effects in human milk are presented.

  4. Effects of dietary starch and protein levels on milk production and composition of dairy cows fed high concentrate diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Güçlü Sucak

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Twenty eight Holstein cows (averaged 41±31.5 and 82±24 days in milk, and 30.4±3.49 and 29.0±2.22 kg/d milk yield were fed a high concentrate diet (70:30 concentrate to forage to examine effects on milk production and composition. The cows were randomly assigned to receive four dietary treatments according to a 2 x 2 factorial arrangement. Factors were starch (14% and 22% and protein (15% and 18%. Wheat straw was used as forage source. The study lasted 6 weeks. Dry matter intake was not affected (P> 0.05 by the dietary treatments in the study. Milk yield increased with increased dietary protein level (P< 0.01. Milk urea nitrogen concentrations were affected by dietary protein and starch levels, but there was no interaction effect. Nitrogen efficiency (Milk N/N intake was decreased by increasing in dietary protein level (P< 0.01. In conclusion, the cows fed total mixed ration (TMR containing low level of wheat straw responded better when dietary protein increased. But, efficiency of N use and N excretion to the environment were worsened. Key words: Dairy cattle, milk composition, protein, starch, wheat straw

  5. Good performance of an immunoassay based method for nevirapine measurements in human breast milk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salado-Rasmussen, Kirsten; Persson Theilgaard, Zahra; Chiduo, Mercy

    2011-01-01

    , developed and validated for plasma use. In this study, the ARK NVP-test was evaluated for measurement of nevirapine concentrations in breast milk. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) is the method currently used to determine nevirapine in breast milk. This method, however, requires complicated...

  6. Determination of the levels of dioxin and dioxin-like compounds in the Australian population by analysis of pooled human breast milk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harden, F.; Mueller, J.F.; Toms, L.M.L.; Moore, M. [National Research Centre for Environmental Toxicology, The Univ. of Queensland, Brisbane (Australia); Burniston, D.; Symons, R. [AGAL, Sydney (Australia); Ahokas, J. [RMIT, Melbourne (Australia); Fuerst, P. [State Lab. of NRW, Muenster (Germany); Paepke, O. [ERGO Forschungsgesellschaft, Hamburg (Germany)

    2004-09-15

    Dioxin-like compounds are ubiquitously distributed and humans are exposed to them via various sources but primarily through food. They can be detected in air, water, soil, sediment and biota. These compounds are lipid soluble, poorly eliminated and thus can accumulate in human adipose tissue. They can cross the placenta and are also transferred to breast milk during the lactation process. Therefore infants are exposed ante and postnatally. Since PCDD/PCDF concentration in blood and human milk are very similar when concentrations are expressed on a lipid basis, human milk provides a good monitoring tool of exposure for a given population in a given area. Previously the WHO has co-ordinated international studies on dioxin-like compounds in breast milk. These were conducted in 1987/88, 1992/93 and 2001. In summary, these studies demonstrated that levels of dioxins in breast milk are relatively high in industrialised countries when compared to non-industrialised countries that PCDD/PCDFs were higher in human milk from mothers with their first child and that the levels decrease over a given lactation period. The present study aims to examine the levels of these compounds in primiparae women throughout Australia.

  7. Variation of milk urea in dairy cattle : a study on factors that affect the relationship between urea concentration in milk and urea excretion in urine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spek, J.W.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this thesis was to increase the applicability of milk urea nitrogen concentration (MUN) as a predictor of urinary urea nitrogen excretion (UUN) by identifying and quantifying factors that can explain variation in MUN that is not related to UUN. A literature study was conducted in

  8. Growth in VLBW infants fed predominantly fortified maternal and donor human milk diets: a retrospective cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background To determine the effect of human milk, maternal and donor, on in-hospital growth of very low birthweight (VLBW) infants. We performed a retrospective cohort study comparing in-hospital growth in VLBW infants by proportion of human milk diet, including subgroup analysis by maternal or donor milk type. Primary outcome was change in weight z-score from birth to hospital discharge. Methods Retrospective cohort study. Results 171 infants with median gestational age 27 weeks (IQR 25.4, 28.9) and median birthweight 899 g (IQR 724, 1064) were included. 97% of infants received human milk, 51% received > 75% of all enteral intake as human milk. 16% of infants were small-for-gestational age (SGA, 75% human milk had a greater negative change in weight z-score from birth to discharge compared to infants receiving human milk fortifier was related to human milk intake (p = 0.04). Among infants receiving > 75% human milk, there was no significant difference in change in weight z-score by milk type (donor −0.84, maternal −0.56, mixed −0.45, p = 0.54). Infants receiving >75% donor milk had higher rates of SGA status at discharge than those fed maternal or mixed milk (56% vs. 35% (maternal), 21% (mixed), p = 0.08). Conclusions VLBW infants can grow appropriately when fed predominantly fortified human milk. However, VLBW infants fed >75% human milk are at greater risk of poor growth than those fed less human milk. This risk may be highest in those fed predominantly donor human milk. PMID:22900590

  9. Multilocus sequence typing of bifidobacterial strains from infant's faeces and human milk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Makino, H.; Martin, R.; Ishikawa, E.; Knol, J.

    2015-01-01

    Bifidobacteria are considered to be one of the most important beneficial intestinal bacteria for infants, contributing to the priming of the mucosal immune system. These microbes can also be detected in mother's milk, suggesting a potential role of human milk in the colonisation of infant's gut.

  10. Partitioning of polar and non-polar neutral organic chemicals into human and cow milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geisler, Anett; Endo, Satoshi; Goss, Kai-Uwe

    2011-10-01

    The aim of this work was to develop a predictive model for milk/water partition coefficients of neutral organic compounds. Batch experiments were performed for 119 diverse organic chemicals in human milk and raw and processed cow milk at 37°C. No differences (milk were observed. The polyparameter linear free energy relationship model fit the calibration data well (SD=0.22 log units). An experimental validation data set including hormones and hormone active compounds was predicted satisfactorily by the model. An alternative modelling approach based on log K(ow) revealed a poorer performance. The model presented here provides a significant improvement in predicting enrichment of potentially hazardous chemicals in milk. In combination with physiologically based pharmacokinetic modelling this improvement in the estimation of milk/water partitioning coefficients may allow a better risk assessment for a wide range of neutral organic chemicals. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Serum phenylalanine in preterm newborns fed different diets of human milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomaz, Débora M; Serafin, Paula O; Palhares, Durval B; Tavares, Luciana V M; Grance, Thayana R S

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate phenylalanine plasma profile in preterm newborns fed different human milk diets. Twenty-four very-low weight preterm newborns were distributed randomly in three groups with different feeding types: Group I: banked human milk plus 5% commercial fortifier with bovine protein, Group II: banked human milk plus evaporated fortifier derived from modified human milk, Group III: banked human milk plus lyophilized fortifier derived from modified human milk. The newborns received the group diet when full diet was attained at 15 ± 2 days. Plasma amino acid analysis was performedon the first and last day of feeding. Comparison among groups was performed by statistical tests: one way ANOVA with Tukey's post-test using SPSS software, version 20.0 (IBM Corp, NY, USA), considering a significance level of 5%. Phenylalanine levels in the first and second analysis were, respectively, in Group I: 11.9 ± 1.22 and 29.72 ± 0.73; in Group II: 11.72 ± 1.04 and 13.44 ± 0.61; and in Group III: 11.3 ± 1.18 and 15.42 ± 0.83 μmol/L. The observed results demonstrated that human milk with fortifiers derived from human milk acted as a good substratum for preterm infant feeding both in the evaporated or the lyophilized form, without significant increases in plasma phenylalanine levels in comparison to human milk with commercial fortifier. Copyright © 2014 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  12. A report on operating a nationwide human milk bank in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kang Hoon Song

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : A human milk bank collects, processes, eliminates, and stores breast milk from donors and provides breast milk to those in need. The authors hereby present the experiences and the objective lessons obtained through operating a nationwide human milk bank over a period of 2 years. Methods : The characteristics of the donors and the recipients and the amounts of breast milk donated, processed, and received at the East-West Neo Medical Center Human Milk Bank were investigated from August 2007 to August 2009. Results : The donor pool consisted of 131 first-time donors and 39 repeat donors who made 341 and 127 donations, respectively. Seventy-nine percent of the donors resided in the Seoul-Kyunggi area, and 60% of the donors were in their 30s. Most information and motivation came from the Internet (66% or television (14%. A total of 2,736 L of breast milk was collected, and 1,979 L were processed. The cumulative number of recipients was 160 preterm or full-term infants and 21 adults, each group receiving the breast milk 337 and 41 times, respectively. In total, infants received 1,663 L and adults received 179 L. Conclusion : Through the present study, the role and importance of a human milk bank in collecting, pasteurizing, and storing surplus breast milk in through sanitary, medically proven methods and providing this breast milk to recipients could be appreciated and reevaluated. The authors believe that a national support system is necessary to expand this practice to a nationwide scale.

  13. Neonatal protection by an innate immune system of human milk consisting of oligosaccharides and glycans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newburg, D S

    2009-04-01

    This review discusses the role of human milk glycans in protecting infants, but the conclusion that the human milk glycans constitute an innate immune system whereby the mother protects her offspring may have general applicability in all mammals, including species of commercial importance. Infants that are not breastfed have a greater incidence of severe diarrhea and respiratory diseases than those who are breastfed. In the past, this had been attributed primarily to human milk secretory antibodies. However, the oligosaccharides are major components of human milk, and milk is also rich in other glycans, including glycoproteins, mucins, glycosaminoglycans, and glycolipids. These milk glycans, especially the oligosaccharides, are composed of thousands of components. The milk factor that promotes gut colonization by Bifidobacterium bifidum was found to be a glycan, and such prebiotic characteristics may contribute to protection against infectious agents. However, the ability of human milk glycans to protect the neonate seems primarily to be due to their inhibition of pathogen binding to their host cell target ligands. Many such examples include specific fucosylated oligosaccharides and glycans that inhibit specific pathogens. Most human milk oligosaccharides are fucosylated, and their production depends on fucosyltransferase enzymes; mutations in these fucosyltransferase genes are common and underlie the various Lewis blood types in humans. Variable expression of specific fucosylated oligosaccharides in milk, also a function of these genes (and maternal Lewis blood type), is significantly associated with the risk of infectious disease in breastfed infants. Human milk also contains major quantities and large numbers of sialylated oligosaccharides, many of which are also present in bovine colostrum. These could similarly inhibit several common viral pathogens. Moreover, human milk oligosaccharides strongly attenuate inflammatory processes in the intestinal mucosa. These

  14. Carotenoid composition of human milk during the first month postpartum and the response to beta-carotene supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gossage, Cynthia P; Deyhim, Mercedeh; Yamini, Sedigheh; Douglass, Larry W; Moser-Veillon, Phylis B

    2002-07-01

    Information is lacking regarding normal changes in milk carotenoid concentrations in healthy, well-nourished women during the first month of lactation. This study investigated milk carotenoid concentrations during days 4-32 postpartum and assessed the effects of maternal beta-carotene supplementation. Subjects (n = 21; aged 19-39 y) were randomly assigned to receive beta-carotene (30 mg/d) or placebo from days 4 to 32 postpartum. Each subject provided 8 diet records and 8 milk samples during the study. Diet records were analyzed for energy, macronutrients, vitamins A and E, and carotenoids. Milk samples were analyzed with HPLC for concentrations of carotenoids, retinol, and alpha-tocopherol. Data were analyzed by using repeated-measures analysis and orthogonal contrasts. No significant differences in average dietary intakes, body mass index, age, or parity were found between groups at baseline or after supplementation. Milk carotenoid concentrations decreased over time (P milk by day 32 postpartum. Milk lutein concentrations remained elevated throughout the study compared with values reported for mature milk, whereas plasma lutein concentrations decreased significantly over time. beta-carotene supplementation did not significantly change the milk concentrations of beta-carotene, the other carotenoids, retinol, or alpha-tocopherol. The lack of increase in milk beta-carotene despite supplementation suggests that transitional milk may be already nearly saturated with beta-carotene. The elevated milk lutein concentration and simultaneous decrease in plasma lutein suggest that lutein metabolism may be altered during early lactation.

  15. Human milk adiponectin is associated with infant growth in two independent cohorts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Jessica G; Guerrero, M Lourdes; Altaye, Mekibib; Ruiz-Palacios, Guillermo M; Martin, Lisa J; Dubert-Ferrandon, Alix; Newburg, David S; Morrow, Ardythe L

    2009-06-01

    Adiponectin, a circulating adipocyte protein, is associated with lower obesity. We have previously shown that adiponectin is present in human milk. This study determined whether higher milk adiponectin is associated with infant growth and investigated milk adiponectin's oligomeric form. This is a study of two parallel longitudinal cohorts of breastfed infants born between 1998 and 2005. Forty-five mother-infant pairs from Cincinnati, OH and 277 mother-infant pairs from Mexico City, Mexico were analyzed. All participants were healthy, term infants breastfed at least 1 month who completed 6 months of follow-up. Monthly milk samples (n = 1,379) up to 6 months were assayed for adiponectin by radioimmunoassay. Infant weight-for-age, length-for-age, and weight-for-length Z-scores up to 6 months of age were calculated using World Health Organization standards. Repeated-measures analysis was conducted. The structural form of human milk adiponectin was assessed by western blot. In the population studies, initial milk adiponectin was 24.0 +/- 8.6 microg/L and did not differ by cohort. Over the first 6 months, higher milk adiponectin was associated with lower infant weight-for-age Z-score (-0.20 +/- 0.04, p milk adiponectin was predominantly in the biologically active high-molecular-weight form. Our data suggest milk adiponectin may play a role in the early growth and development of breastfed infants.

  16. Yoghurt fermentation trials utilizing mare milk: comparison with cow milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Giangiacomo

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Mare milk shows a very interesting nutritional composition, similar to human milk. Whey protein fraction represents about 50% of total proteins, with a good amount of essential amino acids, and high lysozyme concentration (Jauregui-Adell, 1975. Mare milk contains essential fatty acids, progenitors of ω3 and ω6, higher than cow milk (Csapò et al., 1995; Curadi et al., 2002. In east european countries mare milk is utilized in dietetics and therapeutics for gastroenteric and cardiac pathologies (Sharmanov et al., 1982; Mirrakimov et al., 1986, or as a drink obtained from lactic and alcoholic fermentation (Koumiss...

  17. Effect of a different concentrate-forage sequence on digesta passage rate, faeces traits and milk features of dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Sarti

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available To ascertain the effects of a different feed sequence, which could modify digestion rate and sites as well as metabolic - endocrine status and milk features, 6 lactating dairy cows have received the same diet with a different time of concentrate administration when close to the two daily forage meals: 30’ before or 60’ after them. Cows were tied in a barn with controlled temperature, humidity and light, individually fed and monitored for: daily dry matter intake, milk yield and its features at 2 milkings, concentrate passage rate and faecal traits. The results have showed that DMI, feeding behaviour, milk yield and milk features were not significantly affected (except fat content, increased when forage was supplied as first feed. The digesta passage rate was also different: concentrate escaped more rapidly from the rumen when fed before forage or 4 hours after them. This effect has not modified the faeces, but some endocrine and /or metabolic changes can be hypothesized, because milk fat content was increased when concentrate was supplied after forage.

  18. The consequence of phototherapy exposure on oxidative stress status of expressed human milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unal, Sezin; Demirel, Nihal; Yaprak Sul, Deniz; Ulubas Isik, Dilek; Erol, Sara; Neselioglu, Salim; Erel, Ozcan; Bas, Ahmet Yagmur

    2017-09-04

    There exists evidence that phototherapy can disturb the oxidant/antioxidant balance in favor of oxidants. If phototherapy is continued during tube feeding in preterms, expressed human milk is subjected to phototherapy lights for about 20 min per feeding. We aimed to investigate the effects of phototherapy lights on oxidative/antioxidative status of expressed human milk. Milk samples of 50 healthy mothers were grouped as control and phototherapy and exposed to 20 min of day-light and phototherapy light, respectively. Total antioxidant capacity (mmol-Trolox equiv/L) and total oxidant status (mmol-H 2 O 2 /L) in expressed human milk samples were measured. Levels of antioxidant capacity of the expressed human milks in the phototherapy group were lower than those of the control group [mmol-Trolox equiv/L; median (interquartile-range): 1.30 (0.89-1.65) and 1.77 (1.51-2.06), p: antioxidant capacity of expressed human milk without any alteration in oxidative status. We think that this observation is important for the care of very low birth weighted infants who have limited antioxidant capacity and are vulnerable to oxidative stress. It may be advisable either to turn off the phototherapy or cover the tube and syringe to preserve antioxidant capacity of human milk during simultaneous tube feeding and phototherapy treatment.

  19. Homologous human milk supplement for very low birth weight preterm infant feeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grance, Thayana Regina de Souza; Serafin, Paula de Oliveira; Thomaz, Débora Marchetti Chaves; Palhares, Durval Batista

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To develop a homologous human milk supplement for very low-birth weight infant feeding, using an original and simplified methodology, to know the nutritional composition of human milk fortified with this supplement and to evaluate its suitability for feeding these infants. METHODS: For the production and analysis of human milk with the homologous additive, 25 human milk samples of 45mL underwent a lactose removal process, lyophilization and then were diluted in 50mL of human milk. Measurements of lactose, proteins, lipids, energy, sodium, potassium, calcium, phosphorus and osmolality were performed. RESULTS: The composition of the supplemented milk was: lactose 9.22±1.00g/dL; proteins 2.20±0.36g/dL; lipids 2.91±0.57g/dL; calories 71.93±8.69kcal/dL; osmolality 389.6±32.4mOsmol/kgH2O; sodium 2.04±0.45mEq/dL; potassium 1.42±0.15mEq/dL; calcium 43.44±2.98mg/dL; and phosphorus 23.69±1.24mg/dL. CONCLUSIONS: According to the nutritional contents analyzed, except for calcium and phosphorus, human milk with the proposed supplement can meet the nutritional needs of the very low-birth weight preterm infant. PMID:25662564

  20. Homologous human milk supplement for very low birth weight preterm infant feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thayana Regina de Souza Grance

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To develop a homologous human milk supplement for very low-birth weight infant feeding, using an original and simplified methodology, to know the nutritional composition of human milk fortified with this supplement and to evaluate its suitability for feeding these infants. METHODS: For the production and analysis of human milk with the homologous additive, 25 human milk samples of 45mL underwent a lactose removal process, lyophilization and then were diluted in 50mL of human milk. Measurements of lactose, proteins, lipids, energy, sodium, potassium, calcium, phosphorus and osmolality were performed. RESULTS: The composition of the supplemented milk was: lactose 9.22±1.00g/dL; proteins 2.20±0.36g/dL; lipids 2.91±0.57g/dL; calories 71.93±8.69kcal/dL; osmolality 389.6±32.4mOsmol/kgH2O; sodium 2.04±0.45mEq/dL; potassium 1.42±0.15mEq/dL; calcium 43.44±2.98mg/dL; and phosphorus 23.69±1.24mg/dL. CONCLUSIONS: According to the nutritional contents analyzed, except for calcium and phosphorus, human milk with the proposed supplement can meet the nutritional needs of the very low-birth weight preterm infant.

  1. The human milk oligosaccharides are not affected by pasteurization and freeze-drying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Won-Ho; Kim, Jaehan; Song, Seunghyun; Park, Suyeon; Kang, Nam Mi

    2017-11-06

    Human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) are known as important factors in neurologic and immunologic development of neonates. Moreover, freeze-drying seems to be a promising storage method to improve the processes of human milk banks. However, the effects of pasteurization and freeze-drying on HMOs were not evaluated yet. The purpose of this study is to analyze and compare the HMOs profiles of human milk collected before and after the pasteurization and freeze-drying. Totally nine fresh human milk samples were collected from three healthy mothers at the first, second, and third week after delivery. The samples were treated with Holder pasteurization and freeze-drying. HMOs profiles were analyzed by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) time-of-flight/time-of-flight (TOF/TOF) mass spectrometry and compared between samples collected before and after the treatments. Human milk samples showed significantly different HMO patterns between mothers. However, HMOs were not affected by lactation periods within 3 weeks after delivery (r 2  = 0.972-0.999, p pasteurization and freeze-drying were found not to affect HMO patterns in a correlation analysis (r 2  = 0.989-0.999, p pasteurization and freeze-drying of donor milks. We hope that introducing freeze-drying to the human milk banks would be encouraged by the present study. However, the storage length without composition changes of HMOs after freeze-drying needs to be evaluated in the further studies.

  2. Inactivation of Zika virus in human breast milk by prolonged storage or pasteurization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfaender, Stephanie; Vielle, Nathalie J; Ebert, Nadine; Steinmann, Eike; Alves, Marco P; Thiel, Volker

    2017-01-15

    Zika virus infection during pregnancy poses a serious risk for pregnant women as it can cause severe birth defects. Even though the virus is mainly transmitted via mosquitos, human-to-human transmission has been described. Infectious viral particles have been detected in breast milk of infected women which raised concerns regarding the safety of breastfeeding in areas of Zika virus transmission or in case of a suspected or confirmed Zika virus infection. In this study, we show that Zika virus is effectively inactivated in human breast milk after prolonged storage or upon pasteurization of milk. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Concentration of thyroid hormones and prolactin in dairy cattle serum and milk at three stages of lactation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akasha, M.A.; Anderson, R.R.; Ellersieck, M.; Nixon, D.A.

    1987-01-01

    Eighteen lactating Holstein cows were used with six each in early, mid, and late lactation. Blood samples were obtained on 7 successive d. Blood serum and milk were measured by radioimmunoassay for thyroxine, 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine, and 3,3',5'-triiodothyronine. Prolactin was also measured in serum by radioimmunoassay. Serum thyroxine increased as lactation progressed and milk production declined (50, 55, and 62 ng/ml). Serum concentrations of triiodothyronine and reverse triiodothyronine were unchanged throughout lactation. Prolactin in serum declined as lactation advanced linearly (14.4, 11.8, and 10.5 ng/ml). Concentrations of thyroxine and triiodothyronine in milk declined significantly between early and mid but not mid and late lactation. Reverse triiodothyronine in milk did not change over the lactation. Serum triiodothyronine contained 1200 to 1300 pg/ml, whereas that in milk was 200 to 300 pg/ml. Reverse triiodothyronine was over 300 pg/ml in serum and only 80 to 90 pg/ml in milk. Amounts of thyroxine and triiodothyronine available to offspring from milk were calculated to be minor sources (4 to 5%) of total requirements for maintenance of metabolic function

  4. Relationship between Milk Microbiota, Bacterial Load, Macronutrients, and Human Cells during Lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boix-Amorós, Alba; Collado, Maria C; Mira, Alex

    2016-01-01

    Human breast milk is considered the optimal nutrition for infants, providing essential nutrients and a broad range of bioactive compounds, as well as its own microbiota. However, the interaction among those components and the biological role of milk microorganisms is still uncovered. Thus, our aim was to identify the relationships between milk microbiota composition, bacterial load, macronutrients, and human cells during lactation. Bacterial load was estimated in milk samples from a total of 21 healthy mothers through lactation time by bacteria-specific qPCR targeted to the single-copy gene fusA. Milk microbiome composition and diversity was estimated by 16S-pyrosequencing and the structure of these bacteria in the fluid was studied by flow cytometry, qPCR, and microscopy. Fat, protein, lactose, and dry extract of milk as well as the number of somatic cells were also analyzed. We observed that milk bacterial communities were generally complex, and showed individual-specific profiles. Milk microbiota was dominated by Staphylococcus, Pseudomonas, Streptococcus, and Acinetobacter. Staphylococcus aureus was not detected in any of these samples from healthy mothers. There was high variability in composition and number of bacteria per milliliter among mothers and in some cases even within mothers at different time points. The median bacterial load was 10(6) bacterial cells/ml through time, higher than those numbers reported by 16S gene PCR and culture methods. Furthermore, milk bacteria were present in a free-living, "planktonic" state, but also in equal proportion associated to human immune cells. There was no correlation between bacterial load and the amount of immune cells in milk, strengthening the idea that milk bacteria are not sensed as an infection by the immune system.

  5. Long chain fatty acids and related pro-inflammatory, specialized pro-resolving lipid mediators and their intermediates in preterm human milk during the first month of lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, D T; Palac, H L; Baillif, V; Van Goethem, E; Dubourdeau, M; Van Horn, L; Martin, C R

    2017-06-01

    This study aimed to measure longitudinal quantities of the long chain fatty acids, their biologically active terminal metabolites and related intermediates