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Sample records for human meniscal attachments

  1. Human meniscal proteoglycan metabolism in long-term tissue culture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verbruggen, G.; Verdonk, R.; Veys, E. M.; van Daele, P.; de Smet, P.; van den Abbeele, K.; Claus, B.; Baeten, D.

    1996-01-01

    For the purpose of human meniscal allografting, menisci have been maintained viable in in vitro culture. The influence of long-term tissue culture on the extracellular matrix metabolism of the meniscus has been studied. Fetal calf serum (FCS) was used as a supplement for the growth factors necessary

  2. Posterior horn lateral meniscal tears simulating meniscofemoral ligament attachment in the setting of ACL tear: MRI findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Lawrence S.; Jacobson, Jon A.; Jamadar, David A.; Caoili, Elaine; Kalume-Brigido, Monica; Wojtys, Edward

    2007-01-01

    We have noted apparent far lateral meniscal attachment of the meniscofemoral ligament (MFL) with an anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) tear. This study evaluates MFL attachment and association with posterior horn lateral meniscus (PHLM) tear. Nine months of knee arthroscopy reports were reviewed to classify the PHLM and ACL as torn or normal. After excluding those with prior knee surgery, MR images were reviewed by two radiologists to determine the number of images lateral to PCL, which showed the ligaments of Humphrey and Wrisberg visible as structures separate from the PHLM. Any patient with abnormal PHLM surface signal not continuous with the MFL was excluded. MRI findings were compared with arthroscopy using Student's t test and Fisher's exact test. Of the 54 participants, 5 had PHLM tears and 49 were normal. Twenty-one had ACL tears; all those with an PHLM tear had an ACL tear. The ligament of Humphrey inserted on average 0.9 consecutive images lateral to the PCL without an PHLM tear and 4.7 with an PHLM tear; the ligament of Wrisberg inserted on average 3.0 consecutive images without an PHLM tear and 4.5 with an PHLM tear (slice thickness/gap = 3 mm/0.5 mm). There was a significant association between PHLM tear and number of images (p = 0.0028), and between ACL tear and this type of PHLM tear (p = 0.0064). Apparent far lateral meniscal extension of a meniscofemoral ligament (greater than or equal to four images lateral to the PCL) should be considered as a possible PHLM tear, especially in the setting of an ACL tear. (orig.)

  3. Analysis of meniscal degeneration and meniscal gene expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norton James H

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Menisci play a vital role in load transmission, shock absorption and joint stability. There is increasing evidence suggesting that OA menisci may not merely be bystanders in the disease process of OA. This study sought: 1 to determine the prevalence of meniscal degeneration in OA patients, and 2 to examine gene expression in OA meniscal cells compared to normal meniscal cells. Methods Studies were approved by our human subjects Institutional Review Board. Menisci and articular cartilage were collected during joint replacement surgery for OA patients and lower limb amputation surgery for osteosarcoma patients (normal control specimens, and graded. Meniscal cells were prepared from these meniscal tissues and expanded in monolayer culture. Differential gene expression in OA meniscal cells and normal meniscal cells was examined using Affymetrix microarray and real time RT-PCR. Results The grades of meniscal degeneration correlated with the grades of articular cartilage degeneration (r = 0.672; P HLA-DPA1, integrin, beta 2 (ITGB2, ectonucleotide pyrophosphatase/phosphodiesterase 1 (ENPP1, ankylosis, progressive homolog (ANKH and fibroblast growth factor 7 (FGF7, were expressed at significantly higher levels in OA meniscal cells compared to normal meniscal cells. Importantly, many of the genes that have been shown to be differentially expressed in other OA cell types/tissues, including ADAM metallopeptidase with thrombospondin type 1 motif 5 (ADAMTS5 and prostaglandin E synthase (PTGES, were found to be expressed at significantly higher levels in OA meniscal cells. This consistency suggests that many of the genes detected in our study are disease-specific. Conclusion Our findings suggest that OA is a whole joint disease. Meniscal cells may play an active role in the development of OA. Investigation of the gene expression profiles of OA meniscal cells may reveal new therapeutic targets for OA therapy and also may uncover novel

  4. Dynamic compression of human and ovine meniscal tissue compared with a potential thermoplastic elastomer hydrogel replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischenich, Kristine M; Boncella, Katie; Lewis, Jackson T; Bailey, Travis S; Haut Donahue, Tammy L

    2017-10-01

    Understanding how human meniscal tissue responds to loading regimes mimetic of daily life as well as how it compares to larger animal models is critical in the development of a functionally accurate synthetic surrogate. Seven human and eight ovine cadaveric meniscal specimens were regionally sectioned into cylinders 5 mm in diameter and 3 mm thick along with 10 polystyrene-b-polyethylene oxide block copolymer-based thermoplastic elastomer (TPE) hydrogels. Samples were compressed to 12% strain at 1 Hz for 5000 cycles, unloaded for 24 h, and then retested. No differences were found within each group between test one and test two. Human and ovine tissue exhibited no regional dependency (p Human samples relaxed quicker than ovine tissue or the TPE hydrogel with modulus values at cycle 50 not significantly different from cycle 5000. Ovine menisci were found to be similar to human menisci in relaxation profile but had significantly higher modulus values (3.44 MPa instantaneous and 0.61 MPa after 5000 cycles compared with 1.97 and 0.11 MPa found for human tissue) and significantly different power law fit coefficients. The TPE hydrogel had an initial modulus of 0.58 MPa and experienced less than a 20% total relaxation over the 5000. Significant differences in the magnitude of compressive modulus between human and ovine menisci were observed, however the relaxation profiles were similar. Although statistically different than the native tissues, modulus values of the TPE hydrogel material were similar to those of the human and ovine menisci, making it a material worth further investigation for use as a synthetic replacement. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 105A: 2722-2728, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Bonding of human meniscal and articular cartilage with photoactive 1,8-naphthalimide dyes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judy, Millard M.; Nosir, Hany R.; Jackson, Robert W.; Matthews, James Lester; Lewis, David E.; Utecht, Ronald E.; Yuan, Dongwu

    1996-05-01

    This study focused on meniscal cartilage repair by using the laser-activated photoactive 1,8- naphthalimide dye N,N'-bis-{6-[2-(2-(2- aminoethoxy)ethoxy)ethoxyethyl]amino-1H-benz (de)isoquinolin-1,3(2H)-dion-2- yl}-1,11-diamino-3,6,9-trioxaundecane. Harvested cadaveric human menisci were debrided and carved into strips 1 mm thick, 10 mm long, and 3 mm wide. Each strip was divided into two flaps, the surface painted with photoactive dye, the painted surfaces overlapped, the sample wrapped in Saran film, and the composite sandwiched between two glass slides at a pressure of approximately 3 kg/cm2. The sample then was transilluminated by argon ion laser light of 457.9-nm wavelength at a power density of 200 mW/cm2 with exposure times up to 5 h (3902 J/cm2 energy density). Essentially, the same procedures were performed for human femoral articular cartilage samples. Control experiments were conducted with laser irradiation alone and with dye alone. All the specimens were stored in isotonic saline solution for 2 h after irradiation to ensure hydration. The bond shear-strength was then tested and samples prepared for optical and electron transmission microscopy. Shear strength values of up to 1.8 kg/cm2 for meniscal tissues and 1.2 kg/cm2 for articular cartilaginous tissues were obtained for exposures of 3902 J/cm2. Shear strength values of approximately 0.9 kg/cm2 and 0.4 kg/cm2, respectively, for meniscus and cartilage were obtained with 459 J/cm2 exposure. Dye- and light-only controls exhibited 0 kg/cm2 shear strength values. Microscopy revealed close contact at the bonded surface in the laser-activated, dye-treated-specimens. This study shows that the laser-activated photoactive dyes have the capability of athermally bonding the meniscal and articular cartilage surfaces.

  6. Oxygen tension is a determinant of the matrix-forming phenotype of cultured human meniscal fibrochondrocytes.

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    Adetola B Adesida

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Meniscal cartilage displays a poor repair capacity, especially when injury is located in the avascular region of the tissue. Cell-based tissue engineering strategies to generate functional meniscus substitutes is a promising approach to treat meniscus injuries. Meniscus fibrochondrocytes (MFC can be used in this approach. However, MFC are unable to retain their phenotype when expanded in culture. In this study, we explored the effect of oxygen tension on MFC expansion and on their matrix-forming phenotype. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: MFC were isolated from human menisci followed by basic fibroblast growth factor (FGF-2 mediated cell expansion in monolayer culture under normoxia (21%O(2 or hypoxia (3%O(2. Normoxia and hypoxia expanded MFC were seeded on to a collagen scaffold. The MFC seeded scaffolds (constructs were cultured in a serum free chondrogenic medium for 3 weeks under normoxia and hypoxia. Constructs containing normoxia-expanded MFC were subsequently cultured under normoxia while those formed from hypoxia-expanded MFC were subsequently cultured under hypoxia. After 3 weeks of in vitro culture, the constructs were assessed biochemically, histologically and for gene expression via real-time reverse transcription-PCR assays. The results showed that constructs under normoxia produced a matrix with enhanced mRNA ratio (3.5-fold higher; p<0.001 of collagen type II to I. This was confirmed by enhanced deposition of collagen II using immuno-histochemistry. Furthermore, the constructs under hypoxia produced a matrix with higher mRNA ratio of aggrecan to versican (3.5-fold, p<0.05. However, both constructs had the same capacity to produce a glycosaminoglycan (GAG -specific extracellular matrix. CONCLUSIONS: Our data provide evidence that oxygen tension is a key player in determining the matrix phenotype of cultured MFC. These findings suggest that the use of normal and low oxygen tension during MFC expansion and subsequent neo

  7. MRI of meniscal bucket-handle tears

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magee, T.H.; Hinson, G.W. [Menorah Medical Center, Overland Park, KS (United States). Dept. of Radiology

    1998-09-01

    A meniscal bucket-handle tear is a tear with an attached fragment displaced from the meniscus of the knee joint. Low sensitivity of MRI for detection of bucket-handle tears (64% as compared with arthroscopy) has been reported previously. We report increased sensitivity for detecting bucket-handle tears with the use of coronal short tau inversion recovery (STIR) images. Results. By using four criteria for diagnosis of meniscal bucket-handle tears, our overall sensitivity compared with arthroscopy was 93% (28 of 30 meniscal bucket-handle tears seen at arthroscopy were detected by MRI). The meniscal fragment was well visualized in all 28 cases on coronal STIR images. The double posterior cruciate ligament sign was seen in 8 of 30 cases, the flipped meniscus was seen in 10 of 30 cases and a fragment in the intercondylar notch was seen in 18 of 30 cases. (orig.)

  8. Meniscal shear stress for punching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuijthof, Gabrielle J M; Meulman, Hubert N; Herder, Just L; van Dijk, C Niek

    2009-01-01

    Experimental determination of the shear stress for punching meniscal tissue. Meniscectomy (surgical treatment of a lesion of one of the menisci) is the most frequently performed arthroscopic procedure. The performance of a meniscectomy is not optimal with the currently available instruments. To design new instruments, the punching force of meniscal tissue is an important parameter. Quantitative data are unavailable. The meniscal punching process was simulated by pushing a rod through meniscal tissue at constant speed. Three punching rods were tested: a solid rod of Oslash; 3.00 mm, and two hollow tubes (Oslash; 3.00-2.60 mm) with sharpened cutting edges of 0.15 mm and 0.125 mm thick, respectively. Nineteen menisci acquired from 10 human cadaveric knee joints were punched (30 tests). The force and displacement were recorded from which the maximum shear stress was determined (average added with three times the standard deviation). The maximum shear stress for the solid rod was determined at 10.2 N/mm2. This rod required a significantly lower punch force in comparison with the hollow tube having a 0.15 mm cutting edge (plt;0.01). The maximum shear stress for punching can be applied to design instruments, and virtual reality training environments. This type of experiment is suitable to form a database with material properties of human tissue similar to databases for the manufacturing industry.

  9. Morphologic characterization of meniscal root ligaments in the human knee with magnetic resonance microscopy at 11.7 and 3 T

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    Chang, Eric Y.; Chung, Christine B. [VA San Diego Healthcare System, Department of Radiology, San Diego, CA (United States); University of California, San Diego Medical Center, Department of Radiology, San Diego, CA (United States); Biswas, Reni; DiCamillo, Paul; Statum, Sheronda; Tafur, Monica; Bydder, Graeme M. [University of California, San Diego Medical Center, Department of Radiology, San Diego, CA (United States)

    2014-10-15

    To determine the feasibility of using MR microscopy to characterize the root ligaments of the human knee at both ultra-high-field (11.7 T) and high-field (3 T) strengths. Seven fresh cadaveric knees were used for this study. Six specimens were imaged at 11.7 T and one specimen at 3 T using isotropic or near-isotropic voxels. Histologic correlation was performed on the posteromedial root ligament of one specimen. Meniscal root ligament shape, signal intensity, and ultrastructure were characterized. High-resolution, high-contrast volumetric images were generated from both MR systems. Meniscal root ligaments were predominantly oval in shape. Increased signal intensity was most evident at the posteromedial and posterolateral root ligaments. On the specimen that underwent histologic preparation, increased signal intensity corresponded to regions of enthesis fibrocartilage. Collagen fascicles were continuous between the menisci and root ligaments. Predominantly horizontal meniscal radial tie fibers continued into the root ligaments as vertical endoligaments. MR microscopy can be used to characterize and delineate the distinct ultrastructure of the root ligaments on both ultra-high-field- and high-field-strength MR systems. (orig.)

  10. MR imaging of meniscal tears: correlation with history of trauma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Jong Cheul; Yang, Seoung Oh; Choi, Sun Seob; Son, Seok Hyun; Lee, Yung Il; Chung, Duck Hwan; Kim, Kyung Taek; Sohn, Sung Keun; Lee, Jung Yoon

    1994-01-01

    The medial meniscus is injured much more than the lateral meniscus. Because the medial meniscus is much larger in diameter, is thinner in its periphery and narrower in body than the lateral meniscus, and dose not attach to either cruciate ligament. We evaluated correlations with sites of tear and history of trauma. We reviewed retrospectively in 43 patients with meniscal tears on MR(51 cases) and correlated them with history of trauma. The most common site of injury was the posterior horn of the medial meniscuc(32/51), but high incidence of lateral meniscal tear compared with previous reports was seen. In the cases which had history of trauma, the posterior horn of medial meniscus was most commonly injured(26/34) and 5 meniscal tears were combined with meniscal tear in the other site. The tear in the anterior horn of the medial meniscus was seen only in a patient which had history of trauma and combined with meniscal tear in the other site. But in the meniscal tears without definite history of trauma, the incidence of meniscal tear was different from the meniscal tear with history of trauma. The incidence of lateral meniscal tear(11/17) was higher than medial meniscal tear and the posterior horn of lateral meniscus was commonly injured. We concluded that the medial meniscus was commonly injured, especially posterior horn, but in the cases which had no definite history of trauma, the lateral meniscus was commonly injured. An awareness of prevalent site of meniscal injuries may be helpful in the diagnostic interpretation of MR imaging of knee

  11. Meniscal repair devices.

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    Barber, F A; Herbert, M A

    2000-09-01

    Meniscal repair devices not requiring accessory incisions are attractive. Many factors contribute to their clinical effectiveness including their biomechanical characteristics. This study compared several new meniscal repair devices with standard meniscal suture techniques. Using a porcine model, axis-of-insertion loads were applied to various meniscal sutures and repair devices. A single device or stitch was placed in a created meniscal tear and a load applied. Both loads and modes of failure were recorded. The load-to-failure data show stratification into 4 distinct statistical groups. Group A, 113 N for a double vertical stitch; group B, 80 N for a single vertical stitch; group C, 57 N for the BioStinger, 56 N for a horizontal mattress stitch, and 50 N for the T-Fix stitch; and group D, 33 N for the Meniscus Arrow (inserted by hand or gun), 32 N for the Clearfix screw, 31 N for the SDsorb staple, 30 N for the Mitek meniscal repair system, and 27 N for the Biomet staple. The failure mechanism varied. Sutures broke away from the knot. The Meniscus Arrow and BioStinger pulled through the inner rim with the crossbar intact. The Clearfix screw failed by multiple mechanisms, whereas 1 leg of the SDsorb staple always pulled out of the outer rim. The Mitek device usually failed by pullout from the inner rim. The Biomet staple always broke at the crosshead or just below it. Although the surgeon should be aware of the material properties of the repair technique chosen for a meniscal repair, this information is only an indication of device performance and may not correlate with clinical healing results.

  12. Childhood Attachment to Pets: Associations between Pet Attachment, Attitudes to Animals, Compassion, and Humane Behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roxanne D. Hawkins

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Attachment to pets has an important role in children’s social, emotional, and cognitive development, mental health, well-being, and quality of life. This study examined associations between childhood attachment to pets and caring and friendship behaviour, compassion, and attitudes towards animals. This study also examined socio-demographic differences, particularly pet ownership and pet type. A self-report survey of over one thousand 7 to 12 year-olds in Scotland, UK, revealed that the majority of children are strongly attached to their pets, but attachment scores differ depending on pet type and child gender. Analysis revealed that attachment to pets is facilitated by compassion and caring and pet-directed friendship behaviours and that attachment to pets significantly predicts positive attitudes towards animals. The findings have implications for the promotion of prosocial and humane behaviour. Encouraging children to participate in pet care behaviour may promote attachment between children and their pet, which in turn may have a range of positive outcomes for both children (such as reduced aggression, better well-being, and quality of life and pets (such as humane treatment. This study enhances our understanding of childhood pet attachment and has implications for humane education and promoting secure emotional attachments in childhood.

  13. Mycoplasma genitalium attaches to human spermatozoa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svenstrup, Helle Friis; Fedder, Jens; Abraham-Peskir, Joanna

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Mycoplasma genitalium causes urogenital diseases in men and women and is presumed to be sexually transmitted. We wanted to investigate whether spermatozoa could serve as vectors for M.genitalium in order to cause upper genital diseases in women. METHODS: By use of Nomarski light...... microscopy and transmission X-ray microscopy, the attachment of M.genitalium to spermatozoa was studied. Semen was incubated in vitro with M.genitalium. Purified, motile spermatozoa were examined for attachment of M.genitalium by immunofluorescence microscopy. RESULTS: Mycoplasma genitalium was shown...... to adhere to the head, midpiece and tail of the spermatozoa. The spermatozoa became immotile when many M.genitalium were attached. However, the motile spermatozoa were demonstrated to carry M.genitalium and in this case the mycoplasmas were seen to attach mostly to the midpiece or neck region. Occasionally...

  14. The potential of optical coherence tomography for diagnosing meniscal pathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hang-Yin Ling, Carrie; Pozzi, Antonio; Thieman, Kelley M.; Tonks, Catherine A.; Guo, Shuguang; Xie, Huikai; Horodyski, MaryBeth

    2010-04-01

    Meniscal tears are often associated with anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury and may lead to pain and discomfort in humans. Maximal preservation of meniscal tissue is highly desirable to mitigate the progression of osteoarthritis. Guidelines of which meniscal tears are amenable to repair and what part of damaged tissues should be removed are elusive and lacking consensus. Images of microstructural changes in meniscus would potentially guide the surgeons to manage the meniscal tears better, but the resolution of current diagnostic techniques is limited for this application. In this study, we demonstrated the feasibility of using optical coherence tomography (OCT) for the diagnosis of meniscal pathology. Torn medial menisci were collected from dogs with ACL insufficiency. The torn meniscus was divided into three tissue samples and scanned by OCT and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). OCT and SEM images of torn menisci were compared. Each sample was evaluated for gross and microstructural abnormalities and reduction or loss of birefringence from the OCT images. The abnormalities detected with OCT were described for each type of tear. OCT holds promise in non-destructive and fast assessment of microstructural changes and tissue birefringence of meniscal tears. Future development of intraoperative OCT may help surgeons in the decision making of meniscal treatment.

  15. The potential of optical coherence tomography for diagnosing meniscal pathology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ling, Carrie Hang-Yin; Horodyski, MaryBeth; Pozzi, Antonio; Thieman, Kelley M; Tonks, Catherine A; Guo, Shuguang; Xie, Huikai

    2010-01-01

    Meniscal tears are often associated with anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury and may lead to pain and discomfort in humans. Maximal preservation of meniscal tissue is highly desirable to mitigate the progression of osteoarthritis. Guidelines of which meniscal tears are amenable to repair and what part of damaged tissues should be removed are elusive and lacking consensus. Images of microstructural changes in meniscus would potentially guide the surgeons to manage the meniscal tears better, but the resolution of current diagnostic techniques is limited for this application. In this study, we demonstrated the feasibility of using optical coherence tomography (OCT) for the diagnosis of meniscal pathology. Torn medial menisci were collected from dogs with ACL insufficiency. The torn meniscus was divided into three tissue samples and scanned by OCT and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). OCT and SEM images of torn menisci were compared. Each sample was evaluated for gross and microstructural abnormalities and reduction or loss of birefringence from the OCT images. The abnormalities detected with OCT were described for each type of tear. OCT holds promise in non-destructive and fast assessment of microstructural changes and tissue birefringence of meniscal tears. Future development of intraoperative OCT may help surgeons in the decision making of meniscal treatment

  16. KNEE PROPRIOCEPTION FOLLOWING MENISCAL REPAIR

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    Brytsko A. A.

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Background. It is well known that meniscectomy leads to osteoarthritis of the knee and proprioception impairment. Objective. The aim of this study was to assess retrospectively the joint position sense after meniscal suture and partial medial meniscal resection and to estimate the patients’ satisfaction with knee function. Material and Methods. We evaluated the outcomes of 27 patients after meniscal repair and compared them to those of 24 patients after partial meniscal resection. We estimated the joint position sense at 30°, 45° and 60° of flexion using the Biodex system 4 Pro. All patients were assessed with the IKDC 2000 subjective knee score. Results. A statistically significant worsening in reproducing the injured joint position in comparison to the healthy limb in both groups was observed. These impairments were mostly expressed at 45° and 60° of knee flexion, and were worsening over time in the group of patients who had undergone medial meniscal resection. An average value by the IKDC 2000 scale after 24 months in the meniscorrhaphy group was 76.73 ± 11.17% and 68.93 ± 14.76% after partial medial meniscal resection. Сonclusion. The control over position of the knee is not impaired after meniscal repair. An overall satisfaction with joint function is higher in patients who undergo meniscal suture in comparison to the partial medial meniscal resection group.

  17. Oxytocin Receptor (OXTR Polymorphisms and Attachment in Human Infants

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    Frances S Chen

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Ordinary variations in human infants’ attachment behaviors—their proclivity to seek and accept comfort from caregivers—are associated with a wide range of individual differences in psychological functioning in adults. The current investigation examined variation in the oxytocin receptor (OXTR gene as one possible source of these variations in infant attachment. One hundred and seventy-six infants (77 Caucasian, 99 non-Caucasian were classified as securely or insecurely attached based on their behavior in the Strange Situation (Ainsworth et al., 1976. The A allele at OXTR rs2254298 was associated with attachment security in the non-Caucasian infants (p < .005. These findings underscore the importance of oxytocin in the development of human social behavior and support its role in social stress-regulation and the development of trust.

  18. MRI of displaced meniscal fragments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunoski, Brian; Zbojniewicz, Andrew M.; Laor, Tal

    2012-01-01

    A torn meniscus frequently requires surgical fixation or debridement as definitive treatment. Meniscal tears with associated fragment displacement, such as bucket handle and flap tears, can be difficult to recognize and accurately describe on MRI, and displaced fragments can be challenging to identify at surgery. A displaced meniscal fragment can be obscured by synovium or be in a location not usually evaluated at arthroscopy. We present a pictorial essay of meniscal tears with displaced fragments in patients referred to a pediatric hospital in order to increase recognition and accurate interpretation by the radiologist, who in turn can help assist the surgeon in planning appropriate therapy. (orig.)

  19. MRI of displaced meniscal fragments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunoski, Brian [University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Children' s Hospital of Michigan, Department of Radiology, Detroit, MI (United States); Zbojniewicz, Andrew M.; Laor, Tal [University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, OH (United States)

    2012-01-15

    A torn meniscus frequently requires surgical fixation or debridement as definitive treatment. Meniscal tears with associated fragment displacement, such as bucket handle and flap tears, can be difficult to recognize and accurately describe on MRI, and displaced fragments can be challenging to identify at surgery. A displaced meniscal fragment can be obscured by synovium or be in a location not usually evaluated at arthroscopy. We present a pictorial essay of meniscal tears with displaced fragments in patients referred to a pediatric hospital in order to increase recognition and accurate interpretation by the radiologist, who in turn can help assist the surgeon in planning appropriate therapy. (orig.)

  20. Love troubles : human attachment and biomedical enhancements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nyholm, S.

    ABSTRACT In fascinating recent work, Julian Savulescu and his various co-authors argue that human love is one of the things we can improve upon using biomedical enhancements. Is that so? This article first notes that Savulescu and his co-authors mainly treat love as a means to various other goods.

  1. Quantifying meniscal kinematics in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Brian H; Banks, Scott A; Pozzi, Antonio

    2017-11-06

    The dog has been used extensively as an experimental model to study meniscal treatments such as meniscectomy, meniscal repair, transplantation, and regeneration. However, there is very little information on meniscal kinematics in the dog. This study used MR imaging to quantify in vitro meniscal kinematics in loaded dog knees in four distinct poses: extension, flexion, internal, and external rotation. A new method was used to track the meniscal poses along the convex and posteriorly tilted tibial plateau. Meniscal displacements were large, displacing 13.5 and 13.7 mm posteriorly on average for the lateral and medial menisci during flexion (p = 0.90). The medial anterior horn and lateral posterior horns were the most mobile structures, showing average translations of 15.9 and 15.1 mm, respectively. Canine menisci are highly mobile and exhibit movements that correlate closely with the relative tibiofemoral positions. © 2017 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res. © 2017 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Neuroscience of Human Social Interactions and Adult Attachment Style

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pascal eVrticka

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Since its first description four decades ago, attachment theory has become one of the principal developmental psychological frameworks for describing the role of individual differences in the establishment and maintenance of social bonds between people. Yet, still little is known about the neurobiological underpinnings of attachment orientations and their well-established impact on a range of social and affective behaviors. In the present review, we summarize data from recent studies using cognitive and imaging approaches to characterize attachment styles and their effect on emotion and social cognition. We propose a functional neuroanatomical framework to integrate the key brain mechanisms involved in the perception and regulation of social emotional information, and their modulation by individual differences in terms of secure versus insecure (more specifically avoidant, anxious, or resolved vs. unresolved attachment traits. This framework describes how each individual’s attachment style (built through interactions between personal relationship history and predispositions may influence the encoding of approach versus aversion tendencies (safety versus threat in social encounters, implicating the activation of a network of subcortical (amygdala, hippocampus, striatum and cortical (insula, cingulate limbic areas. These basic and automatic affective mentalization mechanisms are in turn modulated by more elaborate and voluntary cognitive mentalization processes, subserving theory of mind, cognitive control, and emotion regulation capacities, implicating a distinct network (in medial prefrontal cortex, superior temporal sulcus, and temporo-parietal junction, among others. Such research does not only help better understand the neural underpinnings of human social behavior, but also provides important insights on psychopathological conditions where attachment dysregulations is likely to play an important (causal role.

  3. Use of porous polyurethanes for meniscal reconstruction and meniscal prostheses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    deGroot, JH; deVrijer, R; Pennings, AJ; Veth, RPH; Jansen, HWB

    In the past, porous materials made of an aromatic polyurethane (PU) were successfully used for meniscal reconstruction in dogs. Since aromatic PUs yield very toxic fragments upon degradation, a linear PU was synthesized by curing a poly(epsilon-caprolactone) and 1,4-trans-cyclohexane diisocyanate I

  4. Attachments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    In this attachment to the Annual report 1999 of the Nuclear Regulatory Authority of the Slovak Republic (UJD) the economic and personnel data of the UJD, used abbreviations, as well as the International nuclear event scales - INES are presented. Professional level of staff of the UJD is influenced by the education structure of its staff, when nearly 75% of the total number of staff has a university degree. A of 31.12.1999 there were 79 employees as average calculated number. Financing of the regulator in 1999 was mainly provided from the state budget, which represented 96% of all expenditures. The total volume of expenditures for UJD activity funded from the state budget achieved as of 31.12.1999 Slovak crowns (SK) 67 067 thousands. In the main category of expenditures an amount of SK 63 499 thous. was used for current activities, and the difference of SK 3 587 thous. was used for raising capital assets. Significant increase expenditures in the evaluated year compared to the 1998 was caused by a special purpose payment made by the Slovakia into the Fund for reconstruction of the Chernobyl cover (SK 19 996 thous.) funded through the budget chapter of the regulator. In the structure of current expenditures the highest share is taken by current transfers to abroad in total of SK 22 543 thous., i.e. contribution to reconstruction of Chernobyl cover made to the EBRD and contributions to the Fund of Technical Co-operation of the IAEA. For procurement of goods and services an amount of SK 19 814 thous. was spent, of which SK 7 054 thous. was used for funding science and technology tasks which were contracted out. The decision-making process in performing state supervision forced UJD to contact out various expert opinions and studies, for which UJD paid SK 2 058 thous. in total. Other expenditures in a volume of SK 10 702 thous. represent travel expenses, goods and services for UJD, rent for offices and other inevitable expenses. Salaries of staff represented SK 15 953

  5. Exploring the existence and potential underpinnings of dog-human and horse-human attachment bonds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Elyssa; DeAraugo, Jodi; Bennett, Pauleen; McGreevy, Paul

    2016-04-01

    This article reviews evidence for the existence of attachment bonds directed toward humans in dog-human and horse-human dyads. It explores each species' alignment with the four features of a typical attachment bond: separation-related distress, safe haven, secure base and proximity seeking. While dog-human dyads show evidence of each of these, there is limited alignment for horse-human dyads. These differences are discussed in the light of the different selection paths of domestic dogs and horses as well as the different contexts in which the two species interact with humans. The role of emotional intelligence in humans as a potential mediator for human-animal relationships, attachment or otherwise, is also examined. Finally, future studies, which may clarify the interplay between attachment, human-animal relationships and emotional intelligence, are proposed. Such avenues of research may help us explore the concepts of trust and bonding that are often said to occur at the dog-human and horse-human interface. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. MRI diagnosis of meniscal tears

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuga, Naoyuki; Oh, Toshihiro

    1996-01-01

    We studied the accuracy of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the knee in fifty-six patients who were also examined arthroscopically. The accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity were 96%, 100%, and 95% for medial meniscal tears, and 91%, 67%, and 100% for lateral meniscal tears respectively. Two MRIs of the medial meniscus were false-positives. These MRI findings were both meniscocapsular separation of the medial meniscus, but the arthroscopic findings were normal. One case was an ACL injury and the other PCL and MCL injury. Hemorrhage and edema of the medial capsule caused by valgus stress at injury may look like a meniscal pseudo-tear on MRI. Five MRIs of the lateral meniscus were false-negatives. All menisci showed normal signal and shape on MRI but traumatic and stable tears of the lateral meniscus were identified arthroscopically. All were associated with ACL tears and lateral condylar bone bruise. The traumatic and stable tear of the meniscus tended to be overlooked on MRI because a meniscus without degeneration shows a normal signal. (author)

  7. Success of Meniscal Repair at ACL Reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toman, Charles; Spindler, Kurt P.; Dunn, Warren R.; Amendola, Annunziata; Andrish, Jack T.; Bergfeld, John A.; Flanigan, David; Jones, Morgan; Kaeding, Christopher C.; Marx, Robert G.; Matava, Matthew J.; McCarty, Eric C.; Parker, Richard D.; Wolcott, Michelle; Vidal, Armando; Wolf, Brian R.; Huston, Laura J.; Harrell, Frank E.; Wright, Rick W.

    2013-01-01

    Background Meniscal repair is performed in an attempt to prevent posttraumatic arthritis resulting from meniscal dysfunction after meniscal tears. The socioeconomic implications of premature arthritis are significant in the young patient population. Investigations and techniques focusing on meniscus preservation and healing are now at the forefront of orthopaedic sports medicine. Hypothesis Concomitant meniscal repair with ACL reconstruction is a durable and successful procedure at two year follow-up. Study Design Case Series; Level of evidence, 4. Methods All unilateral primary ACL reconstructions entered in 2002 in a prospective cohort who had meniscal repair at the time of ACLR were evaluated. Validated patient oriented outcome instruments were completed preoperatively and then again at the two-year postoperative time point. Reoperation after the index procedure was also documented and confirmed by operative reports. Results 437 unilateral primary ACL reconstructions were performed with 86 concomitant meniscal repairs (57 medial, 29 lateral) in 84 patients during the study period. Patient follow-up was obtained on 94% (81/86) of the meniscal repairs, allowing confirmation of meniscal repair success (defined as no repeat arthroscopic procedure) or failure. The overall success rate for meniscal repairs was 96% (76/79 patients) at two-year follow-up. Conclusions Meniscal repair is a successful procedure in conjunction with ACL reconstruction. When confronted with a “repairable” meniscal tear at the time of ACL reconstruction, orthopaedic surgeons can expect an estimated >90% clinical success rate at two-year follow-up using a variety of methods as shown in our study. PMID:19465734

  8. A combination of biomolecules enhances expression of E-cadherin and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gene leading to increased cell proliferation in primary human meniscal cells: an in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillai, Mamatha M; Elakkiya, V; Gopinathan, J; Sabarinath, C; Shanthakumari, S; Sahanand, K Santosh; Dinakar Rai, B K; Bhattacharyya, Amitava; Selvakumar, R

    2016-10-01

    The present study investigates the impact of biomolecules (biotin, glucose, chondroitin sulphate, proline) as supplement, (individual and in combination) on primary human meniscus cell proliferation. Primary human meniscus cells isolated from patients undergoing meniscectomy were maintained in Dulbecco's Modified Eagle's Medium (DMEM). The isolated cells were treated with above mentioned biomolecules as individual (0-100 µg/ml) and in combinations, as a supplement to DMEM. Based on the individual biomolecule study, a unique combination of biomolecules (UCM) was finalized using one way ANOVA analysis. With the addition of UCM as supplement to DMEM, meniscal cells reached 100 % confluency within 4 days in 60 mm culture plate; whereas the cells in medium devoid of UCM, required 36 days for reaching confluency. The impact of UCM on cell viability, doubling time, histology, gene expression, biomarkers expression, extra cellular matrix synthesis, meniscus cell proliferation with respect to passages and donor's age were investigated. The gene expression studies for E-cadherin and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR∆) using RT-qPCR and immunohistochemical analysis for Ki67, CD34 and Vimentin confirmed that UCM has significant impact on cell proliferation. The extracellular collagen and glycosaminoglycan secretion in cells supplemented with UCM were found to increase by 31 and 37 fold respectively, when compared to control on the 4th day. The cell doubling time was reduced significantly when supplemented with UCM. The addition of UCM showed positive influence on different passages and age groups. Hence, this optimized UCM can be used as an effective supplement for meniscal tissue engineering.

  9. Detecting meniscal tears in primary care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snoeker, B.A.M.

    2017-01-01

    Although meniscal tears are a very common phenomenon uncertainty exists about the diagnosis and treatment of meniscal tears in primary care. This thesis aims to provide evidence for general practitioners and physical therapists regarding the diagnosis and management of patients with a suspected

  10. Meniscal Allograft Transplantation: State of the Art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trentacosta, Natasha; Graham, William C; Gersoff, Wayne K

    2016-06-01

    Meniscal allograft transplantation has evolved over the years to provide a state-of-the-art technique for the sports medicine surgeon to utilize in preserving contact mechanics and function of the knee in irreparable meniscal pathology. However, this procedure continues to spark considerable debate on proper tissue processing techniques, acceptable indications, methods of implantation, and potential long-term outcomes.

  11. Bucket handle tears of the medial meniscus: meniscal intrusion rather than meniscal extrusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlossberg, S.; Umans, H.; Flusser, G.; DiFelice, G.S.; Lerer, D.B.

    2007-01-01

    To determine the frequency of medial meniscal extrusion (MME) versus ''medial meniscal intrusion'' in the setting of bucket handle tears. Images were evaluated for previously reported risk factors for MME, including: medial meniscal root tear, radial tear, degenerative joint disease and joint effusion. Forty-one consecutive cases of bucket handle tear of the medial meniscus were reviewed by consensus by two musculoskeletal radiologists. Imaging was performed using a 1.5 GE Signa MR unit. Patient age, gender, medial meniscal root integrity, MME, medial meniscal intrusion, degenerative joint disease, effusion and anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) tear were recorded. Thirteen females and 27 males (age 12-62 years, median=30 years) were affected; one had bucket handle tear of each knee. Effusion was small in 13, moderate in 9 and large in 18. Degenerative joint disease was mild in three, moderate in two and severe in one. 26 ACL tears included three partial and three chronic. Medial meniscal root tear was complete in one case and partial thickness in two. None of the 40 cases with an intact or partially torn medial meniscal root demonstrated MME. MME of 3.1 mm was seen in the only full-thickness medial meniscal root tear, along with chronic ACL tear, moderate degenerative joint disease and large effusion. Medial meniscal intrusion of the central bucket handle fragment into the intercondylar notch was present in all 41 cases. Given an intact medial meniscal root in the setting of a ''pure'' bucket handle tear, there is no MME. (orig.)

  12. Seasonal and pandemic human influenza viruses attach better to human upper respiratory tract epithelium than avian influenza viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Riel, Debby; den Bakker, Michael A; Leijten, Lonneke M E; Chutinimitkul, Salin; Munster, Vincent J; de Wit, Emmie; Rimmelzwaan, Guus F; Fouchier, Ron A M; Osterhaus, Albert D M E; Kuiken, Thijs

    2010-04-01

    Influenza viruses vary markedly in their efficiency of human-to-human transmission. This variation has been speculated to be determined in part by the tropism of influenza virus for the human upper respiratory tract. To study this tropism, we determined the pattern of virus attachment by virus histochemistry of three human and three avian influenza viruses in human nasal septum, conchae, nasopharynx, paranasal sinuses, and larynx. We found that the human influenza viruses-two seasonal influenza viruses and pandemic H1N1 virus-attached abundantly to ciliated epithelial cells and goblet cells throughout the upper respiratory tract. In contrast, the avian influenza viruses, including the highly pathogenic H5N1 virus, attached only rarely to epithelial cells or goblet cells. Both human and avian viruses attached occasionally to cells of the submucosal glands. The pattern of virus attachment was similar among the different sites of the human upper respiratory tract for each virus tested. We conclude that influenza viruses that are transmitted efficiently among humans attach abundantly to human upper respiratory tract, whereas inefficiently transmitted influenza viruses attach rarely. These results suggest that the ability of an influenza virus to attach to human upper respiratory tract is a critical factor for efficient transmission in the human population.

  13. Is radiographic measurement of bony landmarks reliable for lateral meniscal sizing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Jung-Ro; Kim, Taik-Seon; Lim, Hong-Chul; Lim, Hyung-Tae; Yang, Jae-Hyuk

    2011-03-01

    The accuracy of meniscal measurement methods is still in debate. The authors' protocol for radiologic measurements will provide reproducible bony landmarks, and this measurement method of the lateral tibial plateau will correlate with the actual anatomic value. Controlled laboratory study. Twenty-five samples of fresh lateral meniscus with attached proximal tibia were obtained during total knee arthroplasty. Each sample was obtained without damage to the meniscus and bony attachment sites. The inclusion criterion was mild to moderate osteoarthritis in patients with mechanical axis deviation of less than 15°. Knees with lateral compartment osteoarthritic change or injured or degenerated menisci were excluded. For the lateral tibial plateau length measurements, the radiographic beam was angled 10° caudally at neutral rotation, which allowed differentiation of the lateral plateau cortical margins from the medial plateau. The transition points were identified and used for length measurement. The values of length were then compared with the conventional Pollard method and the anatomic values. The width measurement was done according to Pollard's protocol. For each knee, the percentage deviation from the anatomic dimension was recorded. Intraobserver error and interobserver error were calculated. The deviation of the authors' radiographic length measurements from anatomic dimensions was 1.4 ± 1.1 mm. The deviation of Pollard's radiographic length measurements was 4.1 ± 2.0 mm. With respect to accuracy-which represents the frequency of measurements that fall within 10% of measurements-the accuracy of authors' length was 98%, whereas for Pollard's method it was 40%. There was a good correlation between anatomic meniscal dimensions and each radiologic plateau dimensions for lateral meniscal width (R(2) = .790) and the authors' lateral meniscal length (R(2) = .823) and fair correlation for Pollard's lateral meniscal length (R(2) = .660). The reliability of each

  14. Meniscal transplantation: still experimental surgery? A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moens, K; Dhollander, A; Moens, P; Verdonk, K; Verdonk, R; Almqvist, K F; Victor, J

    2014-09-01

    The objective of this review is to give a state of affairs of meniscal transplantation, with the accent on preservation and surgical techniques. All articles were selected by performing a search on the literature by using relevant keywords. The most relevant articles were selected with close attention to the publication date. When a meniscal tear is diagnosed, suture can be an option in the vascular zone, whereas the more frequently affected avascular zone heals poorly. A meniscectomy however is not without consequences, wherefore meniscal transplantation can be seen as a therapeutic option for pain reduction and improvement of function when the meniscus is lost. The meniscal scaffold, allograft and autograft can be currently withheld as possible grafts, where the meniscal scaffolds hold great promise as an alternative to the allograft. Various fixation techniques are therefore developed, where viable, deep frozen as well as cryopreservated allografts seem to give the most promising short term results. The transplantation can be performed using an open as well as an arthroscopic technique, using soft tissue fixation, bone plugs or blocks. De primacy of one technique can't be proven. In general meniscal transplantation can be considered as an acceptable procedure. Since the outcomes of different studies are difficult to compare, an attempt should be made to limit new studies to the comparison of one aspect. We can conclude that larger, more comparative randomised controlled long-term studies are necessary to resolve which techniques can give the best long-term results.

  15. Detection of meniscal injuries using MR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lotysch, M.; Mink, J.H.; Levy, T.; Schwartz, A.; Crues, J.V. III.

    1986-01-01

    Eighty-six knees studied by MR imaging were treated operatively and the surgical-radiologic conditions were reviewed using the following grading system of meniscal signal: grade 1, globular signal within the meniscus that does not involve an articular margin; grade 2, linear signal within the meniscus that does not extend to an articular surface; grade 3, linear or globular signal extending to an articular surface. This grading system was applied to evaluate 86 knees (172 menisci). Eleven menisci had been treated operatively at an earlier period and were excluded. Of 92 grade 1 or 2 menisci, 88 were normal at surgery. Of 69 grade 3 minisci, lesions were associated with meniscal tears in 68 at surgery. MR imaging is an accurate method of evaluating meniscal surgery

  16. Snapping Knee Caused by Medial Meniscal Cyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsuyoshi Ohishi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Snapping phenomenon around the medial aspect of the knee is rare. We present this case of snapping knee caused by the sartorius muscle over a large medial meniscal cyst in a 66-year-old female. Magnetic resonance images demonstrated a large medial meniscal cyst with a horizontal tear of the medial meniscus. Arthroscopic cyst decompression with limited meniscectomy resulted in the disappearance of snapping, and no recurrence of the cyst was observed during a 2-year follow-up period.

  17. Seasonal and pandemic human influenza viruses attach better to human upper respiratory tract epithelium than avian influenza viruses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.A.J. van Riel (Debby); M.A. den Bakker (Michael); L.M.E. Leijten (Lonneke); S. Chutinimitkul (Salin); V.J. Munster (Vincent); E. de Wit (Emmie); G.F. Rimmelzwaan (Guus); R.A.M. Fouchier (Ron); A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert); T. Kuiken (Thijs)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractInfluenza viruses vary markedly in their efficiency of human-to-human transmission. This variation has been speculated to be determined in part by the tropism of influenza virus for the human upper respiratory tract. To study this tropism, we determined the pattern of virus attachment by

  18. Surface and protein analyses of normal human cell attachment on PIII-modified chitosan membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saranwong, N.; Inthanon, K.; Wongkham, W.; Wanichapichart, P.; Suwannakachorn, D.; Yu, L.D.

    2012-01-01

    Surface of chitosan membrane was modified with argon (Ar) and nitrogen (N) plasma immersion ion implantation (PIII) for human skin fibroblasts F1544 cell attachment. The modified surfaces were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Cell attachment patterns were evaluated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to quantify levels of focal adhesion kinase (FAK). The results showed that Ar PIII had an enhancement effect on the cell attachment while N-PIII had an inhibition effect. Filopodial analysis revealed more microfilament cytoplasmic spreading on the edge of cells attached on the Ar-treated membranes than N-treated membranes. Higher level FAK was found in Ar-treated membranes than that in N-treated membranes.

  19. Assessment of attachment behaviour to human caregivers in wolf pups (Canis lupus lupus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Nathaniel J; Lord, Kathryn; Arnold, Anne-Marie K; Wynne, Clive D L; Udell, Monique A R

    2015-01-01

    Previous research suggested that 16-week old dog pups, but not wolf pups, show attachment behaviour to a human caregiver. Attachment to a caregiver in dog pups has been demonstrated by differential responding to a caregiver compared to a stranger in the Ainsworth Strange Situation Test. We show here that 3-7 week old wolf pups also show attachment-like behaviour to a human caregiver as measured by preferential proximity seeking, preferential contact, and preferential greeting to a human caregiver over a human stranger in a modified and counterbalanced version of the Ainsworth Strange Situation Test. In addition, our results show that preferential responding to a caregiver over a stranger is only apparent following brief isolation. In initial episodes, wolf pups show no differentiation between the caregiver and the stranger; however, following a 2-min separation, the pups show proximity seeking, more contact, and more greeting to the caregiver than the stranger. These results suggest intensive human socialization of a wolf can lead to attachment--like responding to a human caregiver during the first two months of a wolf pup's life. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. Utility of three-dimensional method for diagnosing meniscal lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohshima, Suguru; Nomura, Kazutoshi; Hirano, Mako; Hashimoto, Noburo; Fukumoto, Tetsuya; Katahira, Kazuhiro

    1998-01-01

    MRI of the knee is a useful method for diagnosing meniscal tears. Although the spin echo method is usually used for diagnosing meniscal tears, we examined the utility of thin slice scan with the three-dimensional method. We reviewed 70 menisci in which arthroscopic findings were confirmed. In this series, sensitivity was 90.9% for medial meniscal injuries and 68.8% for lateral meniscal injuries. There were 3 meniscal tears in which we could not detect tears on preoperative MRI. We could find tears in two of these cases when re-evaluated using the same MRI. In conclusion, we can get the same diagnostic rate with the three-dimensional method compared with the spin echo method. Scan time of the three-dimensional method is 3 minutes, on the other hand that of spin echo method in 17 minutes. This slice scan with three-dimensional method is useful for screening meniscal injuries before arthroscopy. (author)

  1. Meniscal repair following meniscectomy: Mechanism and protective effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berjon, J.J.; Munuera, L.; Calvo, M.

    1990-01-01

    Meniscal repair was studied to evaluate the mechanism and its potential protective effects on the articular cartilage in an experimental model consisting of 68 knees of adult dogs on which five different types of medial meniscectomy were performed. The results were assessed by macroscopic, microangiographic, and histological methods, after a sequential follow-up period of 10-450 days. Two different mechanisms of meniscal repair were observed, depending on whether meniscal section had been performed in vascular (total meniscectomy) or avascular (subtotal or partial meniscectomy) zones. It was also observed that the repaired meniscal tissue does not prevent articular cartilage degeneration. This is more closely related to the size of the meniscal fragment preserved at meniscetomy. Due to the biomechanical importance of the meniscus and the lack of functional relevance of the repaired meniscal tissue, the most conservative approach possible to meniscectomy is recommended. (orig.)

  2. Quantifying peri-meniscal synovitis and its relationship to meniscal pathology in osteoarthritis of the knee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grainger, Andrew J. [Leeds General Infirmary, Department of Radiology, Leeds (United Kingdom); Rhodes, Laura A. [Leeds General Infirmary, Academic Unit of Medical Physics, The University of Leeds, Leeds (United Kingdom); Keenan, Anne-Maree; Emery, Paul; Conaghan, Philip G. [Leeds General Infirmary, Academic Unit of Musculoskeletal Disease, Leeds (United Kingdom)

    2007-01-15

    The objectives of this study were to validate a semiquantitative scoring system for estimating perimeniscal synovitis in osteoarthritic (OA) knees and to examine the relationship between the extent of synovitis and the degree of meniscal pathology using gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Forty-three subjects with clinically diagnosed OA knee were assessed for peri-meniscal synovitis using gadolinium-enhanced MRI. Quantitative measurements of synovitis were made by summing areas in consecutive slices within generated regions of interest, and the synovitis was also scored semi-quantitatively using a 0-3 scale. Meniscal pathology (extrusion, degeneration and tearing) was also scored semiquantitatively. Establishment of a correlative relationship was undertaken using Spearman's rho ({rho}). A total of 86 sites were assessed. The semi-quantitative synovitis score correlated well with the quantitative synovitis score ({rho}>0.9). A moderate association between medial meniscal extrusion and synovitis was demonstrated ({rho}=0.762, P<0.000), although this association was not as strong in the lateral compartment ({rho}=0.524, P<0.000). The results suggest the semiquantitative scoring system is valid for assessing perimeniscal synovitis. The relationship between meniscal pathology and adjacent synovitis requires further study. (orig.)

  3. MR imaging-based diagnosis and classification of meniscal tears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Jie C; De Smet, Arthur A; Graf, Ben K; Rosas, Humberto G

    2014-01-01

    Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging is currently the modality of choice for detecting meniscal injuries and planning subsequent treatment. A thorough understanding of the imaging protocols, normal meniscal anatomy, surrounding anatomic structures, and anatomic variants and pitfalls is critical to ensure diagnostic accuracy and prevent unnecessary surgery. High-spatial-resolution imaging of the meniscus can be performed using fast spin-echo and three-dimensional MR imaging sequences. Normal anatomic structures that can mimic a tear include the meniscal ligament, meniscofemoral ligaments, popliteomeniscal fascicles, and meniscomeniscal ligament. Anatomic variants and pitfalls that can mimic a tear include discoid meniscus, meniscal flounce, a meniscal ossicle, and chondrocalcinosis. When a meniscal tear is identified, accurate description and classification of the tear pattern can guide the referring clinician in patient education and surgical planning. For example, longitudinal tears are often amenable to repair, whereas horizontal and radial tears may require partial meniscectomy. Tear patterns include horizontal, longitudinal, radial, root, complex, displaced, and bucket-handle tears. Occasionally, meniscal tears can be difficult to detect at imaging; however, secondary indirect signs, such as a parameniscal cyst, meniscal extrusion, or linear subchondral bone marrow edema, should increase the radiologist's suspicion for an underlying tear. Awareness of common diagnostic errors can ensure accurate diagnosis of meniscal tears. Online supplemental material is available for this article. ©RSNA, 2014.

  4. MR imaging of meniscal subluxation in the knee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breitenseher, M.J.; Tratting, S.; Dobrocky, I.; Steiner, E.; Imhof, H.; Kukla, C.; Nehrer, S.

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to establish diagnostic criteria for meniscal subluxation, and to determine whether there was any connection between meniscal subluxation and other common meniscal and knee-joint abnormalities. Material and Methods: The normal position of the meniscal body was assessed in 10 asymptomatic volunteers. MR signs of meniscal subluxation were evaluated retrospectively in 60 symptomatic patients with pain the knee, impaired mobility, and/or joint swelling who had no clear diagnosis after the evaluation of case history, clinical examination, and radiography. The criterion for subluxation of the meniscus was defined as a distance of ≥3 mm between the peripheral border of the meniscus and the edge of the tibial plateau. Results: In the volunteers, the mean distance form the medial meniscus to the edge of the tibial plateau was 0.07 mm, and that from the lateral meniscus was 0 mm. In 55 symptomatic patients without meniscal subluxation, the mean distance from the meniscus to the edge of the tribial plateau was 0.27 mm. Five patients (8%) had evidence of meniscal subluxation, 4 in the medial meniscus and one in the lateral meniscus. The most commonly associated knee abnormality was joint effusion in 5 knees and osteoarthritis in 2 knees. Conclusion: Meniscal subluxation was not a rare finding with MR imaging in patients with painful knees. Meniscal subluxation was associated with other knee abnormalities such as joint effusion or osteoarthritis. (orig.)

  5. Lesão meniscal por fadiga Meniscal injury due to fatigue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilberto Luis Camanho

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: O intuito do presente estudo é de analisar um grupo de pacientes portadores de lesão meniscal decorrente da falência estrutural sem relação com trauma ou problemas degenerativos, optando por chamá-la de lesão meniscal por fadiga. MATERIAL E MÉTODO: Foram avaliados 140 pacientes com lesão meniscal sem causa aparente e, portanto, considerados portadores da lesão meniscal por fadiga. Dentre eles, 85 pacientes eram do sexo masculino e 55 do sexo feminino. O menisco medial foi o mais acometido (92% dos casos. RESULTADOS: Todas as lesões foram diagnosticadas através de exame clínico e ressonância magnética. Os pacientes foram submetidos a meniscectomia por via artroscópica e os resultados foram divididos em dois tipos: bons e maus. Foram encontrados 27% de maus resultados dos quais nove pacientes evoluíram para osteonecrose idiopática. CONCLUSÃO: Concluímos que as lesões por fadiga devem ser analisadas como lesões provocadas por falência, portanto uma patologia sindrômica que pode evoluir para uma osteonecrose idiopática..OBJECTIVE: The purpose of the present study was to review a group of patients with meniscal injuries resulting from structural failure unrelated to trauma or degenerative problems to which was given the name "meniscal injury due to fatigue". MATERIAL AND METHOD: Evaluations were made on 140 patients with meniscal injuries without any apparent cause, who were therefore considered to have meniscal injuries due to fatigue. Among these, 85 patients were male and 55 were female. The medial meniscus was the most affected site (92% of the cases. RESULTS: All these injuries were diagnosed by means of clinical examination and magnetic resonance imaging. The patients underwent meniscectomy by means of arthroscopy and the results were divided into two types: good and poor. Poor results were found in 27% of the cases, among which nine patients progressed to idiopathic osteonecrosis. CONCLUSION: We conclude that

  6. Meniscal allograft transplantation: a meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Bruycker Manolito

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This meta-analysis evaluates the mid- to long-term survival outcome of MAT (meniscal allograft transplantation. Potential prognosticators, with particular focus on chondral status and age of the patient at the time of transplantation, were also analysed. Study design: Meta-analysis. Methods: An online database search was performed using following search string: “meniscal allograft transplantation” and “outcome”. A total of 65 articles were analysed for a total of 3157 performed MAT with a mean follow-up of 5.4 years. Subjective and clinical data was analysed. Results: The subjective and objective results of 2977 patients (3157 allografts were analysed; 70% were male, 30% were female. Thirty-eight percent received an isolated MAT. All other patients underwent at least one concomitant procedure. Lysholm, Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome (KOOS, International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC and Visual Analogue Scale (VAS scores were analysed. All scores showed a good patient satisfaction at long-term follow-up. The mean overall survival rate was 80.9%. Complication rates were comparable to standard meniscal repair surgery. There was a degenerative evolution in osteoarthritis with at least one grade in 1760 radiographically analysed patients. Concomitant procedures seem to have no effect on the outcome. Age at transplantation is a negative prognosticator. The body mass index (BMI of the patient shows a slightly negative correlation with the outcome of MAT. Conclusions: MAT is a viable solution for the younger patient with chronic pain in the meniscectomised knee joint. The complications are not severe and comparable to meniscal repair. The overall failure rate at final follow-up is acceptable and the allograft heals well in most cases, but MAT cannot be seen as a definitive solution for post-meniscectomy pain. The correct approach to the chronic painful total meniscectomised knee joint thus requires consideration of all

  7. Pet ownership and older women: the relationships among loneliness, pet attachment support, human social support, and depressed mood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause-Parello, Cheryl A

    2012-01-01

    Pets can play a positive role in the both the physical and psychological health of older adults. This cross sectional study investigated the relationships among loneliness, pet attachment support, human social support, and depressed mood in a convenience sample of 159 pet-owning older women residing in the community. Participants completed loneliness, pet attachment support, human social support, and depressed mood scales. The results supported significant relationships between loneliness, pet attachment support, human social support, and depressed mood. No relationship was found between human social support and depressed mood. Pet attachment support, but not human social support, influenced the relationship between loneliness and depressed mood indicating the importance of pet attachment as a greater form of support in this sample. Clinical and social implications for nurses working with the geriatric population were identified and discussed. Copyright © 2012 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Effects of fibulin-5 on attachment, adhesion, and proliferation of primary human endothelial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preis, M.; Cohen, T.; Sarnatzki, Y.; Ben Yosef, Y.; Schneiderman, J.; Gluzman, Z.; Koren, B.; Lewis, B.S.; Shaul, Y.; Flugelman, M.Y.

    2006-01-01

    Background: Fibulin-5 is a novel extracellular protein that is thought to act as a bridging peptide between elastin fibers and cell surface integrins in blood vessel wall. Fibulin-5 binding to endothelial cell (EC) surface integrins may effect cell proliferation and cell attachment to extracellular matrix (ECM) or to artificial surfaces. In this paper, we describe the effects of fibulin-5 on attachment, adhesion, and proliferation of primary human EC. After demonstrating that fibulin-5 over-expression inhibited EC proliferation, we tested the hypothesis that co-expression of fibulin-5 and VEGF 165 will lead to unique EC phenotype that will exhibit increased adherence properties and retain its proliferation capacity. Methods and results: Fibulin-5 and VEGF 165 gene transfer to primary human saphenous vein endothelial cells was accomplished using retroviral vectors encoding the two genes. Transgene expression was verified using immunohistochemistry, Western blotting, and ELISA. Fibulin 5 over-expression tended to improve immediate EC attachment (30 min after seeding) and improved significantly adhesion (>40%) under shear stress tested 24 h after EC seeding. The effects of fibulin-5 and VEGF 165 on EC proliferation in the presence or absence of basic FGF were also tested. EC expressing fibulin-5 had reduced proliferation while VEGF 165 co-expression ameliorated this effect. Conclusion: Fibulin-5 improved EC attachment to artificial surfaces. Dual transfer of fibulin-5 and VEGF 165 resulted in EC phenotype with increased adhesion and improved proliferation. This unique EC phenotype can be useful for tissue engineering on endovascular prostheses

  9. The effect of nicotine on reproduction and attachment of human gingival fibroblasts in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peacock, M E; Sutherland, D E; Schuster, G S; Brennan, W A; O'Neal, R B; Strong, S L; Van Dyke, T E

    1993-07-01

    The ability of fibroblasts to reproduce and attach to teeth is of paramount importance in re-establishing the lost connective tissue attachment after periodontal therapy. This study examined the effect of nicotine, a major component of the particulate phase of tobacco smoke, on human gingival fibroblast (HGF) reproduction and attachment to tissue culture surfaces. Pooled HGF cultures made from explants of gingival biopsies were utilized between passages 5 and 10 and plated in 96-well plates at 1.0 x 10(4) cells per well. Cell numbers were determined using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-y)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT), which is a reflection of mitochondrial dehydrogenase activity. The concentrations of nicotine used were 0.025, 0.05, 0.1, 0.2, and 0.4 microM, the average serum concentration for a smoker being approximately 0.1 microM. The effect of continuous nicotine exposure on HGF reproduction was determined by incubating cell cultures and media containing nicotine for up to 48 hours. Residual toxicity was determined by preincubating cells with nicotine for 1 or 6 hours. HGF suspensions and increasing concentrations of nicotine were added together to determine the effect on attachment. Results showed an enhanced effect of nicotine on HGF attachment, with increasing numbers of cells attaching with increasing nicotine concentrations, compared to the control. Low concentrations of nicotine had a stimulatory effect on cell replication, while higher concentrations of nicotine appear to have no significant effect on HGF reproduction. The responses of cells to some concentrations of nicotine may persist after its removal.

  10. Attachment and growth of human keratinocytes in a serum-free environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilchrest, B A; Calhoun, J K; Maciag, T

    1982-08-01

    Using a serum-free system, we have investigated the influence of human fibronectin (HFN) and selected growth factors (GF) on the attachment and growth of normal human keratinocytes in vitro. Single-cell suspensions of keratinocytes from near-confluent primary plates, plated on 5-10 microgram/cm2 HFN, showed approximately 30-40% attachment after 2-24 hours of incubation at 37 degrees C, compared with 4-6% attachment on uncoated platic plates. Percentage of attached cells was independent of seed density, tissue donor age, in vitro culture age, or medium composition, while subsequent cellular proliferation was strongly dependent on these factors. Keratinocytes grown on an adequate HFN matrix in a previously described hormone-supplemented medium (Maciag et al., 1981a) achieved four to eight population doubling over 7-12 days at densities greater than or equal to 104 cell/cm2. Removal of most GF individually from the medium had little or no effect on growth, while removal of epidermal growth factor (EGF) alone reduced growth by 30-35% and removal of bovine brain extract (BE) alone reduced growth by approximately 90%. Conversely, EGF alone in basal medium supported approximately 10% control growth, BE alone supported 30-40% control growth, and the combination of EGF and BE approximately 70%. In addition to its major effect on proliferation in this system, BE was necessary to preserve normal keratinocyte morphology and protein production. These findings expand earlier observations that HFN facilitates keratinocyte attachment in vitro and that a brain-derived extract can exert a major positive influence on cultured keratinocytes.

  11. Meniscal configuration using magnetic resonance imaging; Configuracao meniscal pela ressonancia magnetica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandes, Arthur da Rocha C.; Turrini, Elisabete; Karoauk, Teresa C.C.; Lederman, Henrique M. [Escola Paulista de Medicina, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Diagnostico por Imagem

    1997-04-01

    The authors present a review of the normal meniscal configuration and correlation with anatomic specimens. The images were obtained by magnetic resonance imaging. The images were obtained by magnetic resonance imaging. The authors emphasize the importance of knowing the relationship between the meniscus and the adjacent anatomic structures. (author) 31 refs., 10 figs., tabs.

  12. Current perspectives on attachment and bonding in the dog–human dyad

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Elyssa; Bennett, Pauleen C; McGreevy, Paul D

    2015-01-01

    This article reviews recent research concerning dog–human relationships and how attributes that arise from them can be measured. It highlights the influence of human characteristics on dog behavior, and consequently, the dog–human bond. Of particular importance are the influences of human attitudes and personality. These themes have received surprisingly little attention from researchers. Identifying human attributes that contribute to successful dog–human relationships could assist in the development of a behavioral template to ensure dyadic potential is optimized. Additionally, this article reveals how dyadic functionality and working performance may not necessarily be mutually inclusive. Potential underpinnings of various dog–human relationships and how these may influence dogs’ perceptions of their handlers are also discussed. The article considers attachment bonds between humans and dogs, how these may potentially clash with or complement each other, and the effects of different bonds on the dog–human dyad as a whole. We review existing tools designed to measure the dog–human bond and offer potential refinements to improve their accuracy. Positive attitudes and affiliative interactions seem to contribute to the enhanced well-being of both species, as reflected in resultant physiological changes. Thus, promoting positive dog–human relationships would capitalize on these benefits, thereby improving animal welfare. Finally, this article proposes future research directions that may assist in disambiguating what constitutes successful bonding between dogs and the humans in their lives. PMID:25750549

  13. Current perspectives on attachment and bonding in the dog-human dyad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Elyssa; Bennett, Pauleen C; McGreevy, Paul D

    2015-01-01

    This article reviews recent research concerning dog-human relationships and how attributes that arise from them can be measured. It highlights the influence of human characteristics on dog behavior, and consequently, the dog-human bond. Of particular importance are the influences of human attitudes and personality. These themes have received surprisingly little attention from researchers. Identifying human attributes that contribute to successful dog-human relationships could assist in the development of a behavioral template to ensure dyadic potential is optimized. Additionally, this article reveals how dyadic functionality and working performance may not necessarily be mutually inclusive. Potential underpinnings of various dog-human relationships and how these may influence dogs' perceptions of their handlers are also discussed. The article considers attachment bonds between humans and dogs, how these may potentially clash with or complement each other, and the effects of different bonds on the dog-human dyad as a whole. We review existing tools designed to measure the dog-human bond and offer potential refinements to improve their accuracy. Positive attitudes and affiliative interactions seem to contribute to the enhanced well-being of both species, as reflected in resultant physiological changes. Thus, promoting positive dog-human relationships would capitalize on these benefits, thereby improving animal welfare. Finally, this article proposes future research directions that may assist in disambiguating what constitutes successful bonding between dogs and the humans in their lives.

  14. Magnetic resonance imaging of meniscal bucket-handle tears

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dfouni, N.; Garcia, J.; Kindynis, Ph.; Bosson, D.

    1997-01-01

    To define MR signs of meniscal bucket-handle tears and evaluate the diagnostic efficiency of this technique. Retrospective study of 30 patients with a meniscal bucket-handle tear and 30 with a different type of tear, all proven by arthroscopy. The following MR signs of a bucket-handle tear were evaluated: 'separate meniscal fragment, 'double posterior cruciate ligament', 'snake sign' and 'double anterior horn'. A correct diagnosis of a bucket-handle tear was only made in 18/30 of patients. Several of the MR signs were seen in the same patient in 17 cases. A double posterior cruciate ligament was present only in cases of medial meniscus tears. The 12 menisci without these signs, and therefore not diagnosed as bucket-handle tears, were all classified as meniscal tears on the basis of signal extending to the meniscal surface. Nine of these were not displaced into the inter-condylar notch at arthroscopy. The interobserver agreement was excellent: kappa 0.88. The diagnosis of a bucket-handle meniscal tear, if it is displaced, can be made when one or more of the four MR evaluated signs are present. Other forms of meniscal tears are only exceptionally diagnosed as bucket-handle tears. (authors)

  15. Meniscal transplantation: procedures, outcomes, and rehabilitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young J

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available James Young, Francois Tudor, Ahmed Mahmoud, Peter Myers Brisbane Orthopaedic & Sports Medicine Centre, Brisbane Private Hospital, Spring Hill, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia Abstract: Meniscal allograft transplantation (MAT is a possible treatment option for patients with joint pain after meniscectomy. It is necessary that the joint be aligned and stable. Current evidence shows that MAT improves pain and mechanical function in the mid to long term with patients reporting significantly improved outcomes at up to 15 years following surgery. Studies on survivorship showed up to 76% graft survival at 10 years. Recent studies have suggested a chondroprotective effect, but there is, at present, no evidence to support MAT in the prevention of osteoarthritis. This review article reported the current evidence for MAT showing support for fresh frozen, nonirradiated allografts. However, further research is required to determine the ideal indications for MAT, the optimal graft fixation method, and the safest rehabilitation protocol. Keywords: meniscus, meniscectomy, meniscal allograft transplantation

  16. Scaffold architecture and fibrin gels promote meniscal cell proliferation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pawelec, K. M., E-mail: pawelec.km@gmail.com, E-mail: jw626@cam.ac.uk; Best, S. M.; Cameron, R. E. [Cambridge Centre for Medical Materials, Materials Science and Metallurgy Department, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB3 0FS (United Kingdom); Wardale, R. J., E-mail: pawelec.km@gmail.com, E-mail: jw626@cam.ac.uk [Division of Trauma and Orthopaedic Surgery, Department of Surgery, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 2QQ (United Kingdom)

    2015-01-01

    Stability of the knee relies on the meniscus, a complex connective tissue with poor healing ability. Current meniscal tissue engineering is inadequate, as the signals for increasing meniscal cell proliferation have not been established. In this study, collagen scaffold structure, isotropic or aligned, and fibrin gel addition were tested. Metabolic activity was promoted by fibrin addition. Cellular proliferation, however, was significantly increased by both aligned architectures and fibrin addition. None of the constructs impaired collagen type I production or triggered adverse inflammatory responses. It was demonstrated that both fibrin gel addition and optimized scaffold architecture effectively promote meniscal cell proliferation.

  17. Current perspectives on attachment and bonding in the dog–human dyad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Payne E

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Elyssa Payne,1 Pauleen C Bennett,2 Paul D McGreevy1 1Faculty of Veterinary Science, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia; 2School of Psychological Science, La Trobe University, Bendigo, VIC, Australia Abstract: This article reviews recent research concerning dog–human relationships and how attributes that arise from them can be measured. It highlights the influence of human characteristics on dog behavior, and consequently, the dog–human bond. Of particular importance are the influences of human attitudes and personality. These themes have received surprisingly little attention from researchers. Identifying human attributes that contribute to successful dog–human relationships could assist in the development of a behavioral template to ensure dyadic potential is optimized. Additionally, this article reveals how dyadic functionality and working performance may not necessarily be mutually inclusive. Potential underpinnings of various dog–human relationships and how these may influence dogs' perceptions of their handlers are also discussed. The article considers attachment bonds between humans and dogs, how these may potentially clash with or complement each other, and the effects of different bonds on the dog–human dyad as a whole. We review existing tools designed to measure the dog–human bond and offer potential refinements to improve their accuracy. Positive attitudes and affiliative interactions seem to contribute to the enhanced well-being of both species, as reflected in resultant physiological changes. Thus, promoting positive dog–human relationships would capitalize on these benefits, thereby improving animal welfare. Finally, this article proposes future research directions that may assist in disambiguating what constitutes successful bonding between dogs and the humans in their lives. Keywords: human–animal bond, personality, attitudes, social learning, affective state, dog

  18. Isolated medial meniscal tear in a Border Collie.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridge, P A

    2006-01-01

    A three-year-old, female Border Collie was successfully treated for an isolated, torn, medial meniscus by arthroscopic meniscal tear resection. The dog returned to agility competition without recurrence of lameness.

  19. Biochemical study of human periodontal ligament: preparation of cell attachment materials induced by pulsed electromagnetic fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, K T

    1990-09-01

    The periodontium, especially the periodontal ligament and alveolar bone, are tissues constantly subjected to physical stress such as occlusion and mastication. This study was designed to explore the effect of the pulsed electromagnetic fields (PEMF) on the cell attachment and the spread of human periodontal ligament fibroblasts (HPLF) and rat osteoblasts (ROB). PEMF are categorized as one type of mechanical stress. HPLF were obtained by the explantation method described by Saito et al. They were then subcultured in Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium (D-MEM) and supplemented with 2 mg/ml dialyzed fetal calf serum protein (FCSP), 50 micrograms/ml ascorbic acid and penicillin/streptomycin after trypsinization. ROB were isolated from a two-day-old rat calvaria by the sequential bacterial collagenase digestion method described by Dziak and Brand and were subcultured in D-MEM supplemented with FCSP, ascorbic acid and penicillin/streptomycin. After the confluent HPLF were cultured with serum-free MCDB 107 medium, the quiescent HPLF were exposed with or without PEMF for 24 hr. This was followed by the collection of the control conditioned medium (C-CM) and PEMF exposed conditioned medium (PEMF-CM). The cell attachment assay was performed so that the hydrophobic 24 multiwells were coated with the whole conditioned medium or fractionated conditioned medium by a PO-60K column. After coating, heat inactivated BSA blocked nonspecific sites for cell adhesion, and 3H-TdR labeled HPLF or ROB were cultured on the precoated wells. The activity of cell attachment and spreading was determined by the radioactivity of 3H-TdR using a scintillation counter. The characters of cell attachment factors derived from HPLF were hydrophobic, heat labile and proteolytic enzyme digestible. In addition, the fractionated PEMF-CM enhanced the spreading activity of ROB. PEMF induced the 10 KDa which can enhance the HPLF and ROB spreading. Therefore, the cell attachment and spreading factors secreted by

  20. Cell Based Meniscal Repair Using an Aligned Bioactive Nanofibrous Sheath

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-07-01

    to subsequently guide tissue regeneration , for example, by seeded tissue progenitor cells . To achieve this objective, the first step is to develop...AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-15-1-0104 TITLE: Cell -Based Meniscal Repair Using an Aligned Bioactive Nanofibrous Sheath PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR...SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Cell -Based Meniscal Repair Using an Aligned Bioactive Nanofibrous Sheath 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-15-1-0104 5c. PROGRAM

  1. Inferomedial displacement of the meniscal free fragment: MR findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sorrentino, Fortunato; Iovane, Angelo; Nicosia, Antonio; Candela, Fabrizio; Midiri, Massimo; De Maria, Marcello

    2005-01-01

    Purpose. To define the accuracy of Magnetic Resonance (MR) in the diagnosis of inferomedial displacement of the meniscal fragments. Materials and methods. The MR examinations of the knee performed between December 2002 and April 2004 on 676 patients (mean age 32 years) with knee trauma and subsequently subjected to arthroscopy were retrospectively reviewed to assess the presence of bucket-handle meniscal tear and inferomedial displacement of the meniscal free fragment. The MR examinations were performed using a superconductive 0.5 T MR unit with a transmitting/receiving coil dedicated for the extremities. The MR images were acquired with SE T1 and GE T2 sequences in the sagittal, coronal and axial planes with 3 mm thickness and 1 mm gap. The images were independently reviewed by two authors blinded to the arthroscopy findings. In case of disagreement, a third author, unaware of the arthroscopic findings, gave his judgment. Results. On MR images a bucket-handle meniscal tear was identified in 54/676 patients. In 6 out of 54 patients, an inferomedial meniscal fragment displacement of the medical meniscus with associated inflammatory synovial reaction around the distal insertion of the medial homolateral collateral ligament was detected. All cases were confirmed by arthroscopy and no statistical differences between the two authors were observed. Conclusions. MR allows the detection of the inferomedial meniscal fragment displacement and a more correct planning of arthroscopy with a strong reduction of repeat interventions [it

  2. Displacement of the medial meniscus within the passive motion characteristics of the human knee joint: an RSA study in human cadaver knees.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tienen, T. van; Buma, P.; Scholten, J.G.; Kampen, A. van; Veth, R.P.H.; Verdonschot, N.J.J.

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this study was to validate an in vitro human cadaver knee-joint model for the evaluation of the meniscal movement during knee-joint flexion. The question was whether our model showed comparable meniscal displacements to those found in earlier meniscal movement studies in vivo.

  3. Links between play and dominance and attachment dimensions of dog-human relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rooney, Nicola J; Bradshaw, John W S

    2003-01-01

    It is often claimed that certain behavioral problems in domestic dogs can be triggered by the games played by dog and caregiver (owner). In this study, we examine possible links between the types of games played and dimensions of the dog-owner relationship that are generally considered to affect such problems. Fifty dog-owner partnerships were filmed during 3-min play sessions in which the owner was allowed to choose the games played. All partnerships then undertook a 1-hr test designed to measure elements of behavior commonly ascribed to "dominance" and "attachment." Principal components analysis of the data produced 2 dominance-related factors (Amenability and Confident Interactivity) and 4 factors describing aspects of attachment (Nonspecific Attention Seeking, Preference for Owner, Preference for Unfamiliar Person, and Separation-Related Behavior). Amenability, in particular, varied significantly between breeds. In the study, we then compared types of games played to each of these factors. Dogs playing rough-and-tumble scored higher for Amenability and lower on Separation-Related Behavior than did dogs playing other types of games. Dogs playing tug-of-war and fetch scored high on Confident Interactivity. Winning or losing these games had no consistent effect on their test scores. If the dog started the majority of the games, the dog was significantly less amenable and more likely to exhibit aggression. The results suggest that how dogs play reflects general attributes of their temperament and relationship with their owner. This study provides no evidence that games play a major deterministic role on dominance dimensions of dog-human relationships, but the results suggest that playing games involving considerable body contact may affect attachment dimensions.

  4. Are emotionally attached companion animal caregivers conscientious and neurotic? Factors that affect the human-companion animal relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reevy, Gretchen M; Delgado, Mikel M

    2015-01-01

    Few studies have examined how personality traits may be related to the amounts and types of attachments humans have toward companion animals (pets). In this study, 1,098 companion animal guardians (owners) completed a survey that included the Big Five Inventory, the Lexington Attachment to Pets Scale, and the Pet Attachment Questionnaire. Each participant chose whether he or she identified as a Cat Person, Dog Person, Both, or Neither. Results indicated that neuroticism, conscientiousness, choosing a dog as a favorite pet, and identifying as a Cat Person, Dog Person, or Both predicted affection for a pet. Conscientiousness, extraversion, and openness decreased avoidant attachment to pets, and neuroticism increased anxious attachment to pets. Both dogs and cats could benefit from pet owners who are conscientious, and there may be some benefits of neuroticism in pet owners. The findings of this study will advance understanding of the human-animal bond. As this understanding increases, measurements of human attachment and personality may be useful for the development of tools that could assist shelter employees and veterinarians in counseling people about pet ownership.

  5. Attachment and growth behaviour of human gingival fibroblasts on titanium and zirconia ceramic surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pae, Ahran; Kim, Hyeong-Seob; Woo, Yi-Hyung; Lee, Heesu; Kwon, Yong-Dae

    2009-01-01

    The attachment, growth behaviour and the genetic effect of human gingival fibroblasts (HGF) cultured on titanium and different zirconia surfaces were investigated. HGF cells were cultured on (1) titanium discs with a machined surface, (2) yttrium-stabilized tetragonal zirconia polycrystals (Y-TZP) with a smooth surface and (3) Y-TZP with 100 μm grooves. The cell proliferation activity was evaluated through a MTT assay at 24 h and 48 h, and the cell morphology was examined by SEM. The mRNA expression of integrin-β1, type I and III collagen, laminin and fibronectin in HGF were evaluated by RT-PCR after 24 h. From the MTT assay, the mean optical density values for the titanium and grooved zirconia surfaces after 48 h of HGF adhesion were greater than the values obtained for the smooth zirconia surfaces. SEM images showed that more cells were attached to the grooves, and the cells appeared to follow the direction of the grooves. The results of RT-PCR suggest that all groups showed comparable fibroblast-specific gene expression. A zirconia ceramic surface with grooves showed biological responses that were comparable to those obtained with HGF on a titanium surface.

  6. Morphology of muscle attachment sites in the modern human hand does not reflect muscle architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams-Hatala, E M; Hatala, K G; Hiles, S; Rabey, K N

    2016-06-23

    Muscle attachment sites (entheses) on dry bones are regularly used by paleontologists to infer soft tissue anatomy and to reconstruct behaviors of extinct organisms. This method is commonly applied to fossil hominin hand bones to assess their abilities to participate in Paleolithic stone tool behaviors. Little is known, however, about how or even whether muscle anatomy and activity regimes influence the morphologies of their entheses, especially in the hand. Using the opponens muscles from a sample of modern humans, we tested the hypothesis that aspects of hand muscle architecture that are known to be influenced by behavior correlate with the size and shape of their associated entheses. Results show no consistent relationships between these behaviorally-influenced aspects of muscle architecture and entheseal morphology. Consequently, it is likely premature to infer patterns of behavior, such as stone tool making in fossil hominins, from these same entheses.

  7. Formal Mentoring Relationships and Attachment Theory: Implications for Human Resource Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germain, Marie-Line

    2011-01-01

    An attachment theory perspective of mentoring is presented to explain the degree of functionality of a mentor-protege formal match in an organizational setting. By focusing on Bowlby's (1969/1982) behavioral system of attachment and its triarchic taxonomy of secure, avoidant, and anxious-ambivalent attachment, previous conceptualizations are…

  8. Role of MRI in predicting meniscal tear reparability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Felisaz, Paolo Florent [Universita degli Studi di Pavia, Pavia (Italy); Fondazione IRCCS Policlinico San Matteo, Istituto di Radiologia, Pavia (Italy); Alessandrino, Francesco; Perelli, Simone [Universita degli Studi di Pavia, Pavia (Italy); Zanon, Giacomo; Benazzo, Francesco [Fondazione IRCCS Policlinico San Matteo, Clinica Ortopedica e Traumatologica, Pavia (Italy); Calliada, Fabrizio; Sammarchi, Luigi [Fondazione IRCCS Policlinico San Matteo Radiologia, Diagnostica per Immagini-Istituto di Radiologia, Pavia (Italy)

    2017-10-15

    To elucidate the role of MRI in predicting meniscal tear reparability according to tear type and location in relation to vascular zones. In this retrospective study, two readers evaluated 79 pre-surgical MRIs of meniscal tears arthroscopically treated with meniscectomy or meniscal repair. Tears were classified according to type into vertical, horizontal, radial, complex, flaps and bucket handle and were considered reparable if the distance measured from the tear to the menisco-capsular junction was less than or equal to 5 mm. Predictions were compared with the surgical procedure performed in arthroscopy. We assessed the diagnostic performance of MRI, agreement between MRI and arthroscopy, and interrater agreement. Then, we conducted an ROC analysis on the distances measured by the first reader and built a multivariate logistic regression model. MRI had a sensitivity, specificity, PPV, NPV and accuracy, respectively, of 85%, 79%, 86%, 76% and 83% in predicting meniscal tear reparability. Correct predictions for the specific tear pattern were 76% for vertical, 84% for horizontal, 88% for radial, 86% for complex, 84% for flaps and 86% for bucket handle. Agreement between the two readers' predictions and arthroscopy was good (k = 0.65 and 0.61, respectively). Inter-rater agreement was almost excellent (k = 0.79). The ROC analysis revealed sensitivity and specificity of 73% and 83% with a cutoff value of <4 mm (p < 0.001). Anterior cruciate ligament injury and medial meniscal tear increased the likelihood of meniscal tear reparability. MRI can be a reliable and accurate tool to predict the reparability of meniscal tears, with higher prediction rates for bucket-handle tears. (orig.)

  9. Readability of Online Sources Regarding Meniscal Tears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodax, Jonathan D; Baird, Grayson L; McBride, Trevor; Owens, Brett D

    2017-09-01

    Meniscal injuries are extremely common, with an incidence of 8.3 per 1,000 person/years in young, active individuals. Patients often turn to the internet to glean information about their injuries, and even to guide decision making about treatment. Much research has been done demonstrating that a reading level of eighth grade or lower is appropriate for accurately communicating written information to patients, yet medical practitioners often fail to meet this requirement. To better examine the information patients receive about meniscal injuries, we set out to evaluate the reading level and content of three commonly used search terms on the three search engines with the largest market share. The authors examined the keywords "meniscus tear," "meniscus tear treatment," and "knee pain meniscus" on the three highest market share search engines. The top 10 results from each search were included, and redundancies identified. Unique Web sites were evaluated for source, word count, reading level, and content including advertisements, diagrams, photographs, nonoperative and operative options, and accurate medical information. A total of 23 unique Web sites were identified in our search, including 13 public education sources, 6 academic institutions, and 4 private physicians/groups. Average grade levels of articles ranged from 9.4 to 14.2 (mean, 11.14; standard deviation [SD] 1.46), and Flesch-Kincaid reading ease scores ranged from 23.9 to 68.7 (mean, 55.31; SD, 10.11). Pages from public sources required the highest level of readability (11.6, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 9.8-13.2), which was significantly higher than private (11.0, 95% CI: 9.3, 12.7]) and academic (10.9, 95% CI: 8.9-12.9), p  = 0.007 and p  = 0.002, respectively. Further efforts to make appropriate health information available to patients are needed. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  10. Posterior horn medial meniscal root tear: the prequel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Umans, H. [Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY (United States); Lenox Hill Radiology and Imaging Associates, New York, NY (United States); Morrison, W. [Thomas Jefferson University Hospital, Philadelphia, PA (United States); DiFelice, G.S. [Hospital for Special Surgery, New York, NY (United States); Vaidya, N. [Crystal Run Healthcare, Middletown, NY (United States); Winalski, C.S. [Cleveland Clinic, Imaging Institute, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Lerner Research Institute, Cleveland, OH (United States)

    2014-06-15

    To determine whether subarticular marrow changes deep to the posterior horn medial meniscal root anchor might predict subsequent medial meniscal root tear. Fifteen patients with MR-diagnosed posterior horn medial meniscal root (PHMMR) tear and a knee MRI antecedent to the tear were identified at three imaging centers over a 7-year period. The pre- and post-tear MR images were evaluated for marrow signal changes deep to the root anchor, meniscal root signal intensity, medial compartment articular cartilage thinning, and meniscal body extrusion. Images of 29 age- and gender-matched individuals with two MRIs of the same knee were reviewed as a control group. MRI in 11 of 15 (73 %) cases with subsequent PHMMR tear demonstrated linear subcortical marrow edema deep to the meniscal root anchor on the antecedent MRI compared to only 1 of 29 (3 %) non-tear controls (p < 0.0001). The abnormal signal resolved on post-tear MRI in all but two patients. Cyst-like changes deep to the PHMMR were present on initial MRI in three of 15 (23 %) cases and three of 29 (10 %) controls, persisting in all but one case on follow-up imaging. The PHMMR was gray on the initial MRI in seven of 15 (47 %) of cases that developed tears compared to four of 29 (14 %) controls (p < 0.0001). There was medial meniscal extrusion (MME) prior to tear in two of 15 (13 %) patients and in ten of 15 (67 %) patients after PHMMR failure. In the control group, MME was present in one (3 %) and three (10 %) of 29 subjects on the initial and follow-up MRIs, respectively. Articular cartilage loss was noted in two of 15 (15 %) cases before tear and nine of 15 (69 %) on follow-up imaging, as compared to one (3 %) and four (14 %) of 29 subjects in the control group. Subcortical marrow edema deep to the PHMMR may result from abnormal stresses and thus be a harbinger of meniscal root failure. This hypothesis is supported by resolution of these marrow signal changes after root tear. Following tear, extrusion of the

  11. Surgical interventions for meniscal tears: a closer look at the evidence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mutsaerts, Eduard L. A. R.; van Eck, Carola F.; van de Graaf, Victor A.; Doornberg, Job N.; van den Bekerom, Michel P. J.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare the outcomes of various surgical treatments for meniscal injuries including (1) total and partial meniscectomy; (2) meniscectomy and meniscal repair; (3) meniscectomy and meniscal transplantation; (4) open and arthroscopic meniscectomy and (5) various

  12. Meniscal abnormalities in soccer players: prevalence and MR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, In Sup; Lee, Jong Ik; Kwak, Byeung Kook; Shim, Hyung Jin; Lee, Jong Beum; Lee, Yong Chul; Kim, Kun Sang; Seo, Kyung Mook

    1995-01-01

    We aimed to know the prevalence of abnormal meniscal signal on MR imaging in asymptomatic soccer players and its radiologic significance. Using T1 and gradient echo T2 weighted sagittal and coronal MR image, 48 knees in twenty-four full time soccer players were evaluated for the meniscal abnormalities, the status of ligament and existence of joint effusion. Meniscal abnormalities were interpreted using grading system of Lotysch. By using Chi-square method. We analyzed the existence of joint effusion could divide the healing state and healed state of the meniscus. The prevalence of Grade 2 and more and Grade 3 were 42% and 39% of asymptomatic knees. In the 24 knees with meniscus tear, nine of the 14 asymptomatic knee showed effusion while eight of the 10 symptomatic knee did. Of 24 knees with meniscal tear, only eleven knees were related to previous history of major knee trauma. The prevalence of meniscal abnormalities on MR imaging in asymptomatic soccer players was higher (grade 3: 39%) than we expected. The joint effusion was not helpful to divide the healing state and healed state of the meniscus. So we suggest baseline MR imaging in the athletes who have been using the knee vigorously could give decisive information for the interpretation of subsequent MRI that may be performed when the players wounded

  13. Influence of the Human Resources Practices on the Employees Attachment. Empirical Study within the Companies in the Processing Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liviu ILIES

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to show a series of results obtained during a research whose objective was the elaboration of an analysis and assessment model of human resources management practices in order to identify the factors that determine the performance of the management system for the purpose of perfecting it, within the organizations in the processing industry in Romania. The study aims to show the importance of the influence that the human resources practices have on the employees attachment towards the organizations they are a part of. The research has as base quantitative methods of analysis, therefore, as a tool for gathering data was used the survey based on questionnaire, composed of sets of simple questions, using a measurement scale of the agreement of Likert type, from 1 to 5 (1 = total disagreement - 5 = total agreement. The study is based on questioning a number of 463 employees within 27 companies in the processing industry in Romania. Among the main conclusions obtained, we mention that, the perception of the questioned employees on the human resources practices within the analyzed organizations is relatively good, respectively the attachment of the employees towards the organizations is also relatively good. We have identified that there is a strong and positive association between the human resources practices and the employees attachment, therefore, the organizations questioned need to make efforts in order to improve the human resources practices for consolidating the employees attachment.

  14. Promotion of minTBP-1-PRGDN on the attachment, proliferation and collagen I synthesis of human keratocyte on titanium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin-Yu Li

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available AIM:To investigate the influence of minTBP-1-PRGDN on the attachment, proliferation and collagen I synthesis of human keratocyte on titanium (Ti surface.METHODS:The chimeric peptide RKLPDAPRGDN (minTBP-1-PRGDN was synthesized by connecting RKLPDA (minTBP-1 to the N-terminal of PRGDN , the influence of minTBP-1-PRGDN on the attachment, proliferation and collagen I synthesis of human keratocyte on Ti surface were tested using PRGDN and minTBP-1as controls. The keratocytes attached to the surface of Ti were either stained with FITC-labeled phalloidin and viewed with fluorescence microscope or quantified with alamar Blue method. The proliferation of keratocytes on Ti were quantified with 3-(4,5-dim- ethylthiazol-2-yl-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide up-taking methods. The secretion of type I collagen were determined using an ELISA kit.RESULTS:The results showed that minTBP-1-PRGDN at a concentration of 100ng/mL was the most potent peptide to enhance the attachment of human keratocytes to the surface of Ti (1.40±0.03 folds, P=0.003, to promote the proliferation (1.26±0.05 folds, P=0.014 and the synthesis of type I collagen (1.530±0.128, P=0.008. MinTBP-1 at the same concentration could only promote the attachment (1.13±0.04 folds, P=0.020 and proliferation(1.15±0.06 folds, P=0.021, while PRGDN had no significant influence (P>0.05.CONCLUSION:Our data shows that the novel chimeric peptide minTBP-1-PRGDN could promote the attachment, proliferation and type I collagen synthesis of human keratocytes on the surface of Ti.

  15. The role of biomaterials in the treatment of meniscal tears

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crystal O. Kean

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Extensive investigations over the recent decades have established the anatomical, biomechanical and functional importance of the meniscus in the knee joint. As a functioning part of the joint, it serves to prevent the deterioration of articular cartilage and subsequent osteoarthritis. To this end, meniscus repair and regeneration is of particular interest from the biomaterial, bioengineering and orthopaedic research community. Even though meniscal research is previously of a considerable volume, the research community with evolving material science, biology and medical advances are all pushing toward emerging novel solutions and approaches to the successful treatment of meniscal difficulties. This review presents a tactical evaluation of the latest biomaterials, experiments to simulate meniscal tears and the state-of-the-art materials and strategies currently used to treat tears.

  16. Meniscal tears, repairs and replacement: their relevance to osteoarthritis of the knee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDermott, Ian

    2011-04-01

    The menisci of the knee are important load sharers and shock absorbers in the joint. Meniscal tears are common, and whenever possible meniscal tears should be surgically repaired. Meniscectomy leads to a significant increased risk of osteoarthritis, and various options now exist for replacing missing menisci, including the use of meniscal scaffolds or the replacement of the entire meniscus by meniscal allograft transplantation. The field of meniscal surgery continues to develop apace, and the future may lie in growing new menisci by tissue engineering techniques.

  17. Arthroscopic Meniscal Allograft Transplantation With Soft-Tissue Fixation Through Bone Tunnels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spalding, Tim; Parkinson, Ben; Smith, Nick A; Verdonk, Peter

    2015-10-01

    Meniscal allograft transplantation improves clinical outcomes for patients with symptomatic meniscus-deficient knees. We describe an established arthroscopic technique for meniscal allograft transplantation without the need for bone fixation of the meniscal horns. After preparation of the meniscal bed, the meniscus is parachuted into the knee through a silicone cannula and the meniscal horns are fixed with sutures through bone tunnels. The body of the meniscus is then fixed with a combination of all-inside and inside-out sutures. This technique is reliable and reproducible and has clinical outcomes comparable with those of bone plug fixation techniques.

  18. MRI versus ultrasonography to assess meniscal abnormalities in acute knees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, James L; Cook, Cristi R; Stannard, James P; Vaughn, Gavin; Wilson, Nichole; Roller, Brandon L; Stoker, Aaron M; Jayabalan, Prakash; Hdeib, Moses; Kuroki, Keiichi

    2014-08-01

    While magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is often considered the "gold standard" diagnostic imaging modality for detection of meniscal abnormalities, it is associated with misdiagnosis in as high as 47% of cases, is costly, and is not readily available to a large number of patients. Ultrasonographic examination of the knee has been reported to be an effective diagnostic tool for this purpose with the potential to overcome many of the shortcomings of MRI. The purpose of this study is to determine the clinical usefulness of ultrasonography for diagnosis of meniscal pathology in patients with acute knee pain and compare its diagnostic accuracy to MRI in a clinical setting. With Institutional Review Board approval, patients (n = 71) with acute knee pain were prospectively enrolled with informed consent. Preoperative MRI (1.5 T) was performed on each affected knee using the hospital's standard equipment and protocols and read by faculty radiologists trained in musculoskeletal MRI. Ultrasonographic assessments of each affected knee were performed by one of two faculty members trained in musculoskeletal ultrasonography using a 10 to 14 MHz linear transducer. Arthroscopic evaluation of affected knees was performed by one of three faculty orthopedic surgeons to assess and record all joint pathology, which served as the reference standard for determining presence, type, and severity of meniscal pathology. All evaluators for each diagnostic modality were blinded to all other data. Data were collected and compared by a separate investigator to determine sensitivity (Sn), specificity (Sp), positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV), correct classification rate (CCR), likelihood ratios (LR[+] and LR[-]), and odds ratios. Preoperative ultrasonographic assessment of meniscal pathology was associated with Sn = 91.2%, Sp = 84.2%, PPV = 94.5%, NPV = 76.2%, CCR = 89.5%, LR(+) = 5.78, and LR(-) = 0.10. Preoperative MRI assessment of

  19. Advances and Prospects in Tissue-Engineered Meniscal Scaffolds for Meniscus Regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weimin Guo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The meniscus plays a crucial role in maintaining knee joint homoeostasis. Meniscal lesions are relatively common in the knee joint and are typically categorized into various types. However, it is difficult for inner avascular meniscal lesions to self-heal. Untreated meniscal lesions lead to meniscal extrusions in the long-term and gradually trigger the development of knee osteoarthritis (OA. The relationship between meniscal lesions and knee OA is complex. Partial meniscectomy, which is the primary method to treat a meniscal injury, only relieves short-term pain; however, it does not prevent the development of knee OA. Similarly, other current therapeutic strategies have intrinsic limitations in clinical practice. Tissue engineering technology will probably address this challenge by reconstructing a meniscus possessing an integrated configuration with competent biomechanical capacity. This review describes normal structure and biomechanical characteristics of the meniscus, discusses the relationship between meniscal lesions and knee OA, and summarizes the classifications and corresponding treatment strategies for meniscal lesions to understand meniscal regeneration from physiological and pathological perspectives. Last, we present current advances in meniscal scaffolds and provide a number of prospects that will potentially benefit the development of meniscal regeneration methods.

  20. The role of Mycobacterium avium complex fibronectin attachment protein in adherence to the human respiratory mucosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middleton, A M; Chadwick, M V; Nicholson, A G; Dewar, A; Groger, R K; Brown, E J; Wilson, R

    2000-10-01

    Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) are opportunistic respiratory pathogens that infect non-immunocompromised patients with established lung disease, although they can also cause primary infections. The ability to bind fibronectin is conserved among many mycobacterial species. We have investigated the adherence of a sputum isolate of MAC to the mucosa of organ cultures constructed with human tissue and the contribution of M. avium fibronectin attachment protein (FAP) to the process. MAC adhered to fibrous, but not globular mucus, and to extracellular matrix (ECM) in areas of epithelial damage, but not to intact extruded cells and collagen fibres. Bacteria occasionally adhered to healthy unciliated epithelium and to cells that had degenerated exposing their contents, but never to ciliated cells. The results obtained with different respiratory tissues were similar. Two ATCC strains of MAC gave similar results. There was a significant reduction (P fibrous mucus was unchanged. Immunogold labelling demonstrated fibronectin in ECM as well as in other areas of epithelial damage, but only ECM bound FAP. A Mycobacterium smegmatis strain had the same pattern of adherence to the mucosa as MAC. When the FAP gene was deleted, the strain demonstrated reduced adherence to ECM, and adherence was restored when the strain was transfected with an M. avium FAP expression construct. We conclude that MAC adheres to ECM in areas of epithelial damage via FAP and to mucus with a fibrous appearance via another adhesin. Epithelial damage exposing ECM and poor mucus clearance will predispose to MAC airway infection.

  1. Attachment, Growth, and Detachment of Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells in a Chemically Defined Medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Salzig

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The manufacture of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs for clinical applications requires an appropriate growth surface and an optimized, preferably chemically defined medium (CDM for expansion. We investigated a new protein/peptide-free CDM that supports the adhesion, growth, and detachment of an immortalized hMSC line (hMSC-TERT as well as primary cells derived from bone marrow (bm-hMSCs and adipose tissue (ad-hMSCs. We observed the rapid attachment and spreading of hMSC-TERT cells and ad-hMSCs in CDM concomitant with the expression of integrin and actin fibers. Cell spreading was promoted by coating the growth surface with collagen type IV and fibronectin. The growth of hMSC-TERT cells was similar in CDM and serum-containing medium whereas the lag phase of bm-hMSCs was prolonged in CDM. FGF-2 or surface coating with collagen type IV promoted the growth of bm-hMSCs, but laminin had no effect. All three cell types retained their trilineage differentiation capability in CDM and were detached by several enzymes (but not collagenase in the case of hMSC-TERT cells. The medium and coating did not affect detachment efficiency but influenced cell survival after detachment. CDM combined with cell-specific surface coatings and/or FGF-2 supplements is therefore as effective as serum-containing medium for the manufacture of different hMSC types.

  2. Structural knee joint pathology in patients aged 40 years or older with meniscal tears

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pihl, Kenneth; Englund, Martin; Lohmander, L S

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Recent studies have challenged the tenet that mechanical symptoms of the knee (i.e. the sensation of catching or locking) are caused by degenerative meniscal tears per se and relieved by surgery. We explored the potential associations between meniscal and other knee joint pathologies...... identified at meniscal surgery with the presence of patient-reported mechanical symptoms. Methods: This study included patients aged 40 years or older undergoing surgery for a meniscal tear from the Knee Arthroscopy Cohort Southern Denmark (KACS). Patients were consecutively recruited from February 2013...... score (KOOS), together with information on previous meniscal surgery. At arthroscopy, the operating surgeon recorded information about specific meniscal pathology (tear location, depth, type, length, meniscal tissue quality and circumferential and radial location) and other structural knee pathologies...

  3. A Cohort Study on Meniscal Lesions among Airport Baggage Handlers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Sigurd; Brauer, Charlotte; Pedersen, Ellen Bøtker

    2016-01-01

    and then decreased slowly to reach unity after approximately 30 years, adjusted for effects of potential confounders. This relation between baggage handling and meniscal lesions was present for work on the apron which involves lifting in a kneeling or squatting position, but not in the baggage hall, which only...

  4. Meniscal injuries in the young, athletically active patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulsen, Matthew R; Johnson, Darren L

    2011-02-01

    Meniscal injuries are common in young physically active individuals, particularly those who are involved in contact level 1 sports that involve frequent pivoting, such as soccer and American football. This is a unique population because of their high physical activity at a young age, and it is important that correct diagnosis and appropriate treatment are provided, as the medial and lateral menisci are essential for normal knee function. In this article, we review the anatomy and function of the meniscus, the epidemiology of meniscal tears, and mechanism(s) of injury. Important concomitant injuries are also discussed. When making a diagnosis, relevant patient history, physical examination, and appropriate imaging studies are required. Nonoperative treatment is rarely successful for treating meniscal tears in young athletes, and therefore repair of the torn menisci is often required. We also discuss partial resection (which should only be performed when repair is not possible), as well as rehabilitation protocols after repair has been performed. All of these factors associated with meniscal injuries are important for a physician when diagnosing and treating these often complex injuries.

  5. Identification, Characterization, and Utilization of Adult Meniscal Progenitor Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-11-01

    meniscal findings on knee MRI in middle-aged and elderly persons. N. Engl. J. Med. 359, 1108–1115.802 Stem Cell Reports j Vol. 3 j 789–803 j November 11...PBS, pH¼7.4) with protease inhibitors (Pierce Protease Inhibitor Tablets 88266, Thermo Fisher Scientific, Rockford, IL) at 4 1C for less than 24 h

  6. Variations of the attachment of the superior head of human lateral pterygoid muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonopoulou, Maria; Iatrou, Ioannis; Paraschos, Alexandros; Anagnostopoulou, Sophia

    2013-09-01

    The superior head of the lateral pterygoid muscle (LPM), is closely related to the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) and plays a role in the aetiology of temporomandibular disorders. Increased activity of this muscle has been implicated in the anterior displacement of the TMJ disc. However, there is uncertainty about the manner of the LPM attachment to the disc-condyle complex. The aim of this study was to investigate the exact anatomy of the attachment of the superior head of the LPM (SLPM) to the disc-condyle complex of the TMJ. Thirty-six TMJs were examined - both sides of 18 Greek cadavers (eight males and 10 females, mean age 79.6 years). Examination of the attachment of the SLPM was undertaken viewed under the dissecting microscope. Variation in the attachment of the SLPM was categorized into three types: in type I, the SLPM inserted into the condyle and the disc-capsule complex (55.5%). In type II, the SLPM only inserted into the condyle (27.8%). In type III, the SLPM inserted purely into the disc-capsule complex (16.7%). This study demonstrates that there are three different attachment types of the SLPM to the disc-condyle complex. The type III variation could be involved in the TMJ pathology. The knowledge of the variations of the SLPM attachment could be useful for precise surgical and pharmaceutical approaches. Copyright © 2012 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Sodium Lauryl Sulfate Abrogates Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infectivity by Affecting Viral Attachment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bestman-Smith, Julie; Piret, Jocelyne; Désormeaux, André; Tremblay, Michel J.; Omar, Rabeea F.; Bergeron, Michel G.

    2001-01-01

    The microbicidal activity of sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) against human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) was studied in cultured cells. Pretreatment of HIV-1NL4-3 with SLS decreased, in a concentration-dependent manner, its infectivity when using 1G5 as target cells. In the absence of a viral pretreatment period or when 1G5 cells were pretreated with SLS, the surfactant-induced inactivation of viral infectivity was less pronounced, especially at concentrations between 375 and 550 μM. SLS had no effect on HIV-1 when the virus was adsorbed to 1G5 cells by a 2-h incubation period. SLS almost completely inhibited the fusion process by decreasing the attachment of HIV-1 to target cells. SLS also inhibited the infectivity of HIV-1-based luciferase reporter viruses pseudotyped with the amphotropic murine leukemia virus envelope (which enters cells in a CD4-, CCR5-, and CXCR4-independent manner), indicating that SLS may inactivate other envelope viruses. In contrast, no effect was seen with vesicular stomatitis virus envelope glycoprotein G (which enters cells through receptor-mediated endocytosis) pretreated with up to 700 μM SLS. SLS also decreased, in a dose-dependent manner, the HIV-1-dependent syncytium formation between 1G5 and J1.1 cells after a 24-h incubation. The reduction of luciferase activity was more pronounced when J1.1 cells (which express HIV-1 proteins on their surface) were pretreated with SLS rather than 1G5 cells. Taken together, our results suggest that SLS could represent a candidate of choice for use in vaginal microbicides to prevent the sexual transmission of HIV and possibly other pathogens causing sexually transmitted diseases. PMID:11451679

  8. ABCB1 (P-glycoprotein) reduces bacterial attachment to human gastrointestinal LS174T epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowe, Andrew; Bebawy, Mary

    2012-08-15

    The aim of this project was to show elevated P-glycoprotein (P-gp) expression decreasing bacterial association with LS174T human gastrointestinal cells, and that this effect could be reversed upon blocking functional P-gp efflux. Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Lactobacillus acidophilus and numerous strains of Escherichia coli, from commensal to enteropathogenic and enterohaemorrhagic strains (O157:H7) were fluorescently labelled and incubated on LS174T cultures either with or without P-gp amplification using rifampicin. PSC-833 was used as a potent functional P-gp blocking agent. Staphylococcus and Pseudomonas displayed the greatest association with the LS174T cells. Surprisingly, lactobacilli retained more fluorescence than enteropathogenic-E. coli in this system. Irrespective of attachment differences between the bacterial species, the increase in P-gp protein expression decreased bacterial fluorescence by 25-30%. This included the GFP-labelled E. coli, and enterohaemorrhagic E. coli (O157:H7). Blocking P-gp function through the co-administration of PSC-833 increased the amount of bacteria associated with P-gp expressing LS174T cells back to control levels. As most bacteria were affected to the same degree, irrespective of pathogenicity, it is unlikely that P-gp has a direct influence on adhesion of bacteria, and instead P-gp may be playing an indirect role by secreting a bank of endogenous factors or changing the local environment to one less suited to bacterial growth in general. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Study protocol for a randomised controlled trial of meniscal surgery compared with exercise and patient education for treatment of meniscal tears in young adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skou, Soren Thorgaard; Lind, Martin; Holmich, Per

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Arthroscopic surgery is a very common orthopaedic procedure. While several trials have investigated the effect of knee arthroscopy for middle-aged and older patients with meniscal tears, there is a paucity of trials comparing meniscal surgery with non-surgical treatment for younger...... adults. The aim of this randomised controlled trial (RCT) is to investigate if early arthroscopic surgery is superior to exercise therapy and education, with the option of later surgery if needed, in improving pain, function and quality of life in younger adults with meniscal tears. METHODS AND ANALYSIS......: This is a protocol for a multicentre, parallel-group RCT conducted at six hospitals across all five healthcare regions in Denmark. 140 patients aged 18-40 years with a clinical history and symptoms consistent with a meniscal tear, verified on MRI, found eligible for meniscal surgery by an orthopaedic surgeon...

  10. Diagnostic value of self-reported mechanical symptoms for diagnosing large meniscal tears in patients aged 40 years or older with meniscal tears

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pihl, Kenneth; Englund, Martin; Lohmander, Stefan

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Meniscal tears, which are longitudinal-vertical tears (e.g. bucket-handle tears) and/or involve all three meniscal sub regions (anterior horn, body and posterior horn), are typically large and assumed to cause patient perceived mechanical knee symptoms (knee grinding or clicking and knee...... catching or locking). However, whether the presence of such mechanical symptoms is useful for diagnosing these forms of meniscus tears is unknown. Therefore, we investigated the diagnostic values of having mechanical symptoms in diagnosing a bucket-handle tear and/or a tear involving all three meniscal sub...... regions in middle-aged and older patients undergoing arthroscopic meniscal surgery. Methods: This study is a secondary analysis of Pihl et al. OARSI 2017. The study included patients aged 40 years or older undergoing surgery for a meniscal tear from Knee Arthroscopy Cohort Southern Denmark (KACS...

  11. MR imaging of displaced meniscal tears of the knee. Importance of a 'disproportional posterior horn sign'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, H.C.; Hsu, C.Y.; Shih, T.T.F.; Huang, K.M.; Li, Y.W.

    2001-01-01

    Purpose: Meniscal tears associated with displaced fragments are clinically significant. We propose the 'disproportional posterior horn sign' as a supportive criterion to identify a posterocentrally displaced meniscal fragment on MR imaging studies. If the meniscal posterior horn in the central portion appears larger than that in the peripheral section, it is considered positive for 'disproportional posterior horn sign'. Material and Methods: MR images obtained in 42 patients with 43 lesions, confirmed to have displaced meniscal tears, were included in this study. The MR images were retrospectively evaluated for the presence of the 'disproportional posterior horn sign', as well as the other known signs. Results: The 'disproportional posterior horn sign' was seen in 9 (20.9%) of 43 lesions, including 1 lateral discoid meniscal tear, 5 lateral meniscal tears and 3 medial meniscal tears. Five of them also had other signs of a displaced meniscal fragment. However, the remaining 4 cases only exhibited the 'disproportional posterior horn sign'. For the other MR signs, the 'absent bow tie sign' was detected in 40 (93%) of 43 lesions, the 'flipped meniscus sign' in 27 (62.8%) of 43 lesions, the 'double posterior cruciate ligament sign' in 17 (39.5%) of 43 lesions and the 'notch fragment sign' in 22 (51.2%) of 43 lesions. Conclusion: The 'disproportional posterior horn sign' is helpful in demonstrating a posterocentrally displaced meniscal fragment, especially when other characteristic signs are unremarkable or absent

  12. Meniscal pathology in children: differences and similarities with the adult meniscus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Francavilla, Michael L.; Restrepo, Ricardo; Zamora, Kathryn W.; Sarode, Vijaya [Department of Radiology, Miami Children' s Hospital, Miami, FL (United States); Swirsky, Stephen M. [Department of Orthopedics, Miami Children' s Hospital, Miami, FL (United States); Mintz, Douglas [Hospital for Special Surgery, New York, NY (United States)

    2014-08-15

    The normal meniscus undergoes typical developmental changes during childhood, reaching a mature adult appearance by approximately 10 years of age. In addition to recognizing normal meniscal appearances in children, identifying abnormalities - such as tears and the different types of discoid meniscus and meniscal cysts, as well as the surgical implications of these abnormalities - is vital in pediatric imaging. The reported incidence of meniscal tears in adolescents and young adults has increased because of increased sports participation and more widespread use of MRI. This review discusses the normal appearance of the pediatric meniscus, meniscal abnormalities, associated injuries, and prognostic indicators for repair. (orig.)

  13. Meniscal pathology in children: differences and similarities with the adult meniscus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Francavilla, Michael L.; Restrepo, Ricardo; Zamora, Kathryn W.; Sarode, Vijaya; Swirsky, Stephen M.; Mintz, Douglas

    2014-01-01

    The normal meniscus undergoes typical developmental changes during childhood, reaching a mature adult appearance by approximately 10 years of age. In addition to recognizing normal meniscal appearances in children, identifying abnormalities - such as tears and the different types of discoid meniscus and meniscal cysts, as well as the surgical implications of these abnormalities - is vital in pediatric imaging. The reported incidence of meniscal tears in adolescents and young adults has increased because of increased sports participation and more widespread use of MRI. This review discusses the normal appearance of the pediatric meniscus, meniscal abnormalities, associated injuries, and prognostic indicators for repair. (orig.)

  14. A Cohort Study on Meniscal Lesions among Airport Baggage Handlers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Sigurd; Brauer, Charlotte; Pedersen, Ellen Bøtker

    2016-01-01

    socioeconomic background and less knee-straining work. Baggage handlers lifted suitcases with an average weight of approximately 15 kg, in total approximately five tonnes during a 9-hour workday. The cohort was followed in the National Patient Register and Civil Registration System. The outcome was a first time......Meniscal lesions are common and may contribute to the development of knee arthrosis. A few case-control and cross-sectional studies have identified knee-straining work as risk factors for meniscal lesions, but exposure-response relations and the role of specific exposures are uncertain...... of unskilled men employed at Copenhagen Airport or in other companies in the metropolitan Copenhagen area from 1990 to 2012 (the Copenhagen Airport Cohort). The cohort at risk included 3,307 airport baggage handlers with heavy lifting and kneeling or squatting work tasks and 63,934 referents with a similar...

  15. Value of modern sonography in the assessment of meniscal lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wareluk, Pawel; Szopinski, Kazimierz T.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this prospective study was to assess the accuracy of modern ultrasonography in diagnostic imaging of meniscal tears. One hundred and sixty menisci were evaluated in 80 patients (42 females, 38 males, mean age = 36.2 years, range = 16–70 years). Inclusion criteria for the study were twofold: clinical suspicion of meniscal injury and clinical indication for arthroscopy. Knee examination was performed with the Voluson 730 Expert ultrasound system (General Electric). After sonographic examination, all patients underwent arthroscopic procedures within 1–4 days. The final diagnosis of meniscal tears was taken from surgical reports. The overall sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of sonographic examination in the assessment of meniscal tears amounted to 85.4%, 85.7%, 67.3% and 94.4%, respectively. The statistical parameters were not statistically different in medial and lateral menisci. Age, sex, body mass index (BMI), weight, physical activity, mechanism on injury, and time lapse from injury did not have a statistically significant impact on the usefulness of ultrasonography. The highest sensitivity (>90%) was obtained in medial menisci and in patients with a BMI > 25. The highest specificity (>90%) was obtained in lateral menisci, in patients after twisting injuries, in sports injuries, and in recent injuries (time lapse from the injury <1 month). The positive predictive value (PPV) of sonographic examination was higher than 90% only in recent injuries (<1 month), however, the negative predictive value of ultrasound is high, being less than 90% in males with lesions of lateral menisci and in sequelae of sports injuries

  16. Evaluation of meniscal subluxation of the knee with MR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hyun Chul; Park, Jin Gyoon; Kang, Heoung Keun; Kim, Jae Kyu; Seo, Jeong Jin; Kim, Yun Hyeon; Chung, Tae Woong

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the normal meniscal position and meniscal subluxation by means of MR imaging. The normal position of the meniscus was determined by measuring the distance between the peripheral meniscal borders and the tibial plateau, as seen on coronal, sagittal and oblique MR images of 40 normal knees. For 33 abnormal knees in which outward subluxation of the meniscus from the tibial plateau was noted, the involved site, the predisposing factor, and the frequency of meniscus tearing were analyzed. In normal knees, the peripheral border of the meniscus extruded 3mm or less from the peripheral border of the tibial plateau. Among 33 abnormal knees, in which 5mm or more outward subluxation of the meniscus was seen, 19 menisci were medial and 14 were lateral. Among the 19, the body was involved in 12, the anterior horn in six, and the posterior horn in one. With regard to the 14 lateral subluxations, involvement of the posterior horn occurred in ten, of both the body and posterior horn in two, of the anterior horn in one, and of the body in one. The common predisposing factor in medial meniscus subluxation was osteoarthritis, seen in 89% of such cases, and in lateral subluxation, anterior cruciate ligament tear, which occurred in 79% of cases. Medial meniscus tear was noted in 89% of medial meniscus subluxations and lateral meniscus tear in 43% of lateral subluxations. Meniscal subluxation was easily detected by MR imaging of the knee. The common predisposing factor in medial meniscus subluxation was osteoarthritis, and in lateral meniscus subluxation, anterior cruciate ligament tear. A torn meniscus frequently co-occurred

  17. Value of modern sonography in the assessment of meniscal lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wareluk, Pawel, E-mail: pwareluk@wum.edu.pl [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Second Faculty of Medicine, Medical University of Warsaw, ul. Kondratowicza 8, 03-242 Warsaw (Poland); Szopinski, Kazimierz T., E-mail: kszopinski@wum.edu.pl [Department of Dental and Maxillofacial Radiology, First Faculty of Medicine, Medical University of Warsaw, ul. Nowogrodzka 59, 02-006 Warsaw (Poland)

    2012-09-15

    The aim of this prospective study was to assess the accuracy of modern ultrasonography in diagnostic imaging of meniscal tears. One hundred and sixty menisci were evaluated in 80 patients (42 females, 38 males, mean age = 36.2 years, range = 16–70 years). Inclusion criteria for the study were twofold: clinical suspicion of meniscal injury and clinical indication for arthroscopy. Knee examination was performed with the Voluson 730 Expert ultrasound system (General Electric). After sonographic examination, all patients underwent arthroscopic procedures within 1–4 days. The final diagnosis of meniscal tears was taken from surgical reports. The overall sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of sonographic examination in the assessment of meniscal tears amounted to 85.4%, 85.7%, 67.3% and 94.4%, respectively. The statistical parameters were not statistically different in medial and lateral menisci. Age, sex, body mass index (BMI), weight, physical activity, mechanism on injury, and time lapse from injury did not have a statistically significant impact on the usefulness of ultrasonography. The highest sensitivity (>90%) was obtained in medial menisci and in patients with a BMI > 25. The highest specificity (>90%) was obtained in lateral menisci, in patients after twisting injuries, in sports injuries, and in recent injuries (time lapse from the injury <1 month). The positive predictive value (PPV) of sonographic examination was higher than 90% only in recent injuries (<1 month), however, the negative predictive value of ultrasound is high, being less than 90% in males with lesions of lateral menisci and in sequelae of sports injuries.

  18. MRI diagnosis in meniscal tears: a Meta analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Xiaosheng; Xu Jianrong; Hua Jia; Wang Baisong

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To perform a Meta-analysis to evaluate the overall diagnostic value of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in patients with suspected meniscal tears. Methods: All the papers concerning the diagnosis of meniscal tears using MRI in both English and Chinese published from 1998 to 2004 had been searched and reviewed, and the studies with the arthroscopy as the gold standard were adopted as eligible. Statistical analysis was performed employing SAS 8.0. Heterogeneity of the included articles was tested, which was used to select proper effect model to calculate pooled weighted sensitivity, specificity and accuracy. Summary receiver operating characteristic (SROC) analyses were performed for tears of both menisci. Finally, subgroup analysis on magnetic field strength was performed. Results: Totally 11 studies were met the inclusion criteria with a total of 1221 patients. The pooled indexes of diagnostic performance and SROC demonstrated a high discriminatory power for detecting tears of the medial and lateral menisci. The value of TPR * for medial and lateral menisci showed no significant difference (0.90, 0.86, respectively, Z=0.11, P>0.05). Subgroup analysis demonstrated no statistically significant difference on diagnostic performance for various magnetic field strength (P>0.05). Conclusion: MRI is a highly accurate diagnostic tool for detecting tears of the medial and lateral menisci. At present, there is no evidence to ascertain that higher magnetic field strength improves discriminatory power for meniscal tears. (authors)

  19. Discrimination of meniscal cell phenotypes using gene expression profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Son

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The lack of quantitative and objective metrics to assess cartilage and meniscus cell phenotypes contributes to the challenges in fibrocartilage tissue engineering. Although functional assessment of the final resulting tissue is essential, initial characterization of cell sources and quantitative description of their progression towards the natural, desired cell phenotype would provide an effective tool in optimizing cell-based tissue engineering strategies. The purpose of this study was to identify quantifiable characteristics of meniscal cells and thereby find phenotypical markers that could effectively categorize cells based on their tissue of origin (cartilage, inner, middle, and outer meniscus. The combination of gene expression ratios collagen VI/collagen II, ADAMTS-5/collagen II, and collagen I/collagen II was the most effective indicator of variation among different tissue regions. We additionally demonstrate a possible application of these quantifiable metrics in evaluating the use of serially passaged chondrocytes as a possible cell source in fibrocartilage engineering. Comparing the ratios of the passaged chondrocytes and the native meniscal cells may provide direction to optimize towards the desired cell phenotype. We have thus shown that measurable markers defining the characteristics of the native meniscus can establish a standard by which different tissue engineering strategies can be objectively assessed. Such metrics could additionally be useful in exploring the different stages of meniscal degradation in osteoarthritis and provide some insight in the disease progression.

  20. Non-covalent attachment of silver nanoclusters onto single-walled carbon nanotubes with human serum albumin as linking molecule

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodríguez-Galván, Andrés, E-mail: andres.rodriguez@nucleares.unam.mx [Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Circuito Exterior C.U., 04510 México D.F. (Mexico); Instituto de Física, Dpto. Física Experimental, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Coyoacán, México, DF 04510 (Mexico); Unidad de Investigación Biomédica en Cáncer INCan-UNAM, Instituto Nacional de Cancerología, México, DF 14080 (Mexico); Heredia, Alejandro [Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Circuito Exterior C.U., 04510 México D.F. (Mexico); Amelines-Sarria, Oscar; Rivera, Margarita [Instituto de Física, Dpto. Materia Condensada, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Coyoacán, 04510 México D.F. (Mexico); and others

    2015-03-15

    The attachment of silver nanoclusters (AgNCs) onto single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) for the formation of integrated fluorescence sites has attracted much attention due their potential applications as biological probes and nanovectors in theragnosis. Here, we report the preparation through assembly of fluorescent quasi 1-D nanomaterial based on SWNTs and silver nanoclusters (AgNCs) non-covalently attached to human serum albumin as biological linker. The fluorescent SWNT–AgNCs–HSA conjugates were characterized by atomic force microscopy, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), high angle annular dark field scanning TEM (HAADF-STEM), fluorescent and UV–vis spectroscopy. The above techniques confirmed that AgNCs were non-covalently attached onto the external surface of SWNTs. In addition, it was observed that the modification did not affect the optical properties of the synthesized AgNCs since the absorption spectra and fluorescence under UV irradiation (λ = 365 nm) remain the same. The effect of the functionalized systems was tested on mammal red blood cells (RBCs) and it was found that their structural integrity was compromised by the conjugates, limiting their biological and medical applications.

  1. Non-covalent attachment of silver nanoclusters onto single-walled carbon nanotubes with human serum albumin as linking molecule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodríguez-Galván, Andrés; Heredia, Alejandro; Amelines-Sarria, Oscar; Rivera, Margarita

    2015-01-01

    The attachment of silver nanoclusters (AgNCs) onto single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) for the formation of integrated fluorescence sites has attracted much attention due their potential applications as biological probes and nanovectors in theragnosis. Here, we report the preparation through assembly of fluorescent quasi 1-D nanomaterial based on SWNTs and silver nanoclusters (AgNCs) non-covalently attached to human serum albumin as biological linker. The fluorescent SWNT–AgNCs–HSA conjugates were characterized by atomic force microscopy, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), high angle annular dark field scanning TEM (HAADF-STEM), fluorescent and UV–vis spectroscopy. The above techniques confirmed that AgNCs were non-covalently attached onto the external surface of SWNTs. In addition, it was observed that the modification did not affect the optical properties of the synthesized AgNCs since the absorption spectra and fluorescence under UV irradiation (λ = 365 nm) remain the same. The effect of the functionalized systems was tested on mammal red blood cells (RBCs) and it was found that their structural integrity was compromised by the conjugates, limiting their biological and medical applications

  2. Attachment and growth of human bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells on regenerated antheraea pernyi silk fibroin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luan Xiying [Institute of Medical Biotechnology, Jiangsu Province Key Laboratory of Stem Cell, Suzhou University, Suzhou 215007 (China); Wang Yong [Institute of Medical Biotechnology, Jiangsu Province Key Laboratory of Stem Cell, Suzhou University, Suzhou 215007 (China); Duan Xiang [Institute of Medical Biotechnology, Jiangsu Province Key Laboratory of Stem Cell, Suzhou University, Suzhou 215007 (China); Duan Qiaoyan [Institute of Medical Biotechnology, Jiangsu Province Key Laboratory of Stem Cell, Suzhou University, Suzhou 215007 (China); Li Mingzhong [School of Materials Engineering, Suzhou University, Suzhou 215006 (China); Lu Shenzhou [School of Materials Engineering, Suzhou University, Suzhou 215006 (China); Zhang Huanxiang [Institute of Medical Biotechnology, Jiangsu Province Key Laboratory of Stem Cell, Suzhou University, Suzhou 215007 (China); Zhang Xueguang [Institute of Medical Biotechnology, Jiangsu Province Key Laboratory of Stem Cell, Suzhou University, Suzhou 215007 (China)

    2006-12-15

    Silk fibroin of the silkworm Bombyx mori has been studied extensively, while the research on Antheraea pernyi silk fibroin (A. pernyi SF) in biomaterials is only at an early stage. In this study, the attachment, morphology, growth and phenotype of human bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells (hBMSCs) cultured on the regenerated A. pernyi SF films were studied in vitro. The results indicated that the attachment of hBMSCs on the regenerated A. pernyi SF films was almost the same as that on the collagen films. MTT and cell counting analyses demonstrated that the growth of hBMSCs on the regenerated A. pernyi SF films was better than that on controls. Moreover, electron scanning microscopy and fluorescence-activated cell sorting assays showed that the regenerated A. pernyi SF supported hBMSCs growth and functional maintenance compared with the controls. These data suggest that the regenerated A. pernyi SF, like Bombyx mori silk fibroin (B. mori SF) and collagen, can support hBMSCs attachment, growth and phenotypic maintenance, and has better biocompatibilities for hBMSCs in vitro culture.

  3. Attachment and growth of human bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells on regenerated antheraea pernyi silk fibroin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luan Xiying; Wang Yong; Duan Xiang; Duan Qiaoyan; Li Mingzhong; Lu Shenzhou; Zhang Huanxiang; Zhang Xueguang

    2006-01-01

    Silk fibroin of the silkworm Bombyx mori has been studied extensively, while the research on Antheraea pernyi silk fibroin (A. pernyi SF) in biomaterials is only at an early stage. In this study, the attachment, morphology, growth and phenotype of human bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells (hBMSCs) cultured on the regenerated A. pernyi SF films were studied in vitro. The results indicated that the attachment of hBMSCs on the regenerated A. pernyi SF films was almost the same as that on the collagen films. MTT and cell counting analyses demonstrated that the growth of hBMSCs on the regenerated A. pernyi SF films was better than that on controls. Moreover, electron scanning microscopy and fluorescence-activated cell sorting assays showed that the regenerated A. pernyi SF supported hBMSCs growth and functional maintenance compared with the controls. These data suggest that the regenerated A. pernyi SF, like Bombyx mori silk fibroin (B. mori SF) and collagen, can support hBMSCs attachment, growth and phenotypic maintenance, and has better biocompatibilities for hBMSCs in vitro culture

  4. Combined osteochondral allograft and meniscal allograft transplantation: a survivorship analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Getgood, Alan; Gelber, Jonathon; Gortz, Simon; De Young, Alison; Bugbee, William

    2015-04-01

    The efficacy of meniscal allograft transplantation (MAT) and osteochondral allografting (OCA) as individual treatment modalities for select applications is well established. MAT and OCA are considered symbiotic procedures due to a complementary spectrum of indications and reciprocal contraindications. However, few outcomes of concomitant MAT and OCA have been reported. This study is a retrospective review of patients who received simultaneous MAT and OCA between 1983 and 2011. Forty-eight (twenty-nine male: nineteen female) patients with a median age of 35.8 years (15-66) received combined MAT and OCA procedures between 1983 and 2011. Forty-three patients had received previous surgery with a median of 3 procedures (1-11 procedures). The underlying diagnosis was trauma (tibial plateau fracture) in 33 % with osteoarthritis predominating in 54.2 % of cases. Thirty-one patients received a lateral meniscus, 16 received a medial meniscus and one patient received bilateral MAT. The median number of OCAs was two per patient (1-5 grafts), with a median graft area of 15 cm(2) (0.7-41 cm(2)). There were 21 unipolar, 24 bipolar (tibiofemoral) and three multifocal lesions. Thirty-six MATs constituted a compound tibial plateau OCA with native meniscus attached. At follow-up, failure was defined as any procedure resulting in removal or revision of one or more of the grafts. Patients completed the modified Merle d'Aubigné and Postel (18-point) scale, Knee Society Function (KS-F) score, and subjective International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC) scores. Patient satisfaction was also captured. Twenty-six of 48 patients (54.2 %) required reoperation, but only 11 patients (22.9 %) were noted to have failed (10 MAT and 11 OCA). The mean time to failure was 3.2 years (95 % CI 1.5-4.9 years) and 2.7 years (95 % CI 1.3-4.2 years) for MAT and OCA, respectively. The 5-year survivorship was 78 and 73 % for MAT and OCA respectively, and 69 and 68 % at 10 years. Six of

  5. Effect of topical phenytoin on cr eeping attachment of human gingiva: A pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholam Ali Najafi-Parizi DDS, MS

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND AIM:The aim ofthis study was to evaluate the effect oftopical phenytoin on creeping attachment.METHODS:In this pilot quasi-experimental study, 8 patients referring to Kerman School of Dentistry, Kerman, Iran withMiller class I or II gingival recessions were selected using convenient non-random sampling if they needed rootcoverage and met the study's inclusion criteria. The patients applied phenytoin mucoadhesive paste 1% on the surface ofthe deepithelialized gingiva of the tooth with gingival recession, twice a day for two months. Data was analyzed withpaired t-test using SPSS version 17.RESULTS:According to our findings, the width of keratinized gingiva at the baseline was 3 mm, and after 2 months itincreased to 3.1 mm. The mean baseline height and widthof gingival recession were 1.9 mm and 3 mm, respectively,and after 2 months they decreased to 1.8 mm and 2.9 mm accordingly. There was no significant difference in any of theaforementioned parameters before and after treatment (P > 0.05.CONCLUSIONS:The results of this study showed that topical application of phenytoin mucoadhesive paste can notinitiate and promote creeping attachment.

  6. ATTACHMENT AND TRANSFER

    OpenAIRE

    Pasare, Daniela

    2011-01-01

    Bowlby's concept of attachment and Freud's concept of transference are two of the most influential theories of how we construct mental representations of human relationships. The attachment’s theory offers one more strategy for the therapeutic approach. Factors that lead to a secure attachment between mother and child may also be applied to the relationship between patient and psychotherapist. Psychotherapy may help a patient create himself new attachment and relationship patterns. Creating a...

  7. Impact of type of meniscal tear on radiographic and symptomatic knee osteoarthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Englund, M; Roos, Ewa M.; Lohmander, L S

    2003-01-01

    To investigate long-term radiographic and patient-relevant outcome of isolated limited meniscectomy with regard to type of meniscal tear and extent of surgical resection.......To investigate long-term radiographic and patient-relevant outcome of isolated limited meniscectomy with regard to type of meniscal tear and extent of surgical resection....

  8. MRI follow-up of conservatively treated meniscal knee lesions in general practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.H.G. Oei (Edwin); I.M. Koster (Ingrid); J.H.J. Hensen; S.S. Boks (Simone); H.P.A. Wagemakers (Harry); B.W. Koes (Bart); D. Vroegindeweij (Dammis); S.M. Bierma-Zeinstra (Sita); M.G.M. Hunink (Myriam)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractObjective: To evaluate meniscal status change on follow-up MRI after 1 year, prognostic factors and association with clinical outcome in patients with conservatively treated knee injury. Methods: We analysed 403 meniscal horns in 101 conservatively treated patients (59 male; mean age 40

  9. In vitro synthesis of tensioned synoviocyte bioscaffolds for meniscal fibrocartilage tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warnock, Jennifer J; Baker, Lindsay; Ballard, George A; Ott, Jesse

    2013-12-03

    Meniscal injury is a common cause of lameness in the dog. Tissue engineered bioscaffolds may be a treatment option for meniscal incompetency, and ideally would possess meniscus- like extracellular matrix (ECM) and withstand meniscal tensile hoop strains. Synovium may be a useful cell source for meniscal tissue engineering because of its natural role in meniscal deficiency and its in vitro chondrogenic potential. The objective of this study is to compare meniscal -like extracellular matrix content of hyperconfluent synoviocyte cell sheets ("HCS") and hyperconfluent synoviocyte sheets which have been tensioned over wire hoops (tensioned synoviocyte bioscaffolds, "TSB") and cultured for 1 month. Long term culture with tension resulted in higher GAG concentration, higher chondrogenic index, higher collagen concentration, and type II collagen immunoreactivity in TSB versus HCS. Both HCS and TSB were immunoreactive for type I collagen, however, HCS had mild, patchy intracellular immunoreactivity while TSB had diffuse moderate immunoreactivity over the entire bisocaffold. The tissue architecture was markedly different between TSB and HCS, with TSB containing collagen organized in bands and sheets. Both HCS and TSB expressed alpha smooth muscle actin and displayed active contractile behavior. Double stranded DNA content was not different between TSB and HCS, while cell viability decreased in TSB. Long term culture of synoviocytes with tension improved meniscal- like extra cellular matrix components, specifically, the total collagen content, including type I and II collagen, and increased GAG content relative to HCS. Future research is warranted to investigate the potential of TSB for meniscal tissue engineering.

  10. Sonographic Imaging of Meniscal Subluxation in Patients with Radiographic Knee Osteoarthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Hung Ko

    2007-09-01

    Conclusion: Meniscal subluxation is a prominent feature on weight-bearing sonographic imaging in patients with radiographic osteoarthritis and could be considered as a risk factor for the development of knee osteoarthritis. By using musculoskeletal ultrasonography, one can detect this occult meniscal derangement early before the appearance of radiographic signs of osteoarthritis.

  11. Effective Treatment of an Apparent Meniscal Injury Using the Mulligan Concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex J. Rhinehart

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Present a clinic case demonstrating the effectiveness of the Mulligan Concept (MC in treating an apparent meniscal injury. The utilization of the MC in the evaluation and treatment of a 20-year-old soccer player with an apparent acute meniscal injury is presented. Background: Meniscal injuries are common knee injuries. The MC is a therapeutic intervention strategy applied as both a treatment-based evaluation and therapeutic intervention. Treatment: The patient was successfully treated in four treatment sessions using the MC. The patient experienced minimal clinically-important differences on a variety of global and regional patient-rated outcomes. Uniqueness: To the author’s knowledge, there are currently no published case reports of using the MC in clinical practice to treat an apparent meniscal pathology. Conclusion: The MC can be utilized as an evaluation and treatment technique in patients suspected of having meniscal pathology in the knee.

  12. Patient reported outcomes in patients undergoing arthroscopic partial meniscectomy for traumatic or degenerative meniscal tears

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorlund, Jonas Bloch; Englund, Martin; Christensen, Robin

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To compare patient reported outcomes from before surgery to 52 weeks after surgery between individuals undergoing arthroscopic partial meniscectomy for traumatic meniscal tears and those for degenerative meniscal tears. DESIGN: Comparative prospective cohort study. SETTING: Four public......-55, and undergoing arthroscopic partial meniscectomy for a traumatic or degenerative meniscal tear (defined by a combination of age and symptom onset). INTERVENTIONS: Both participant groups underwent arthroscopic partial meniscectomy for a meniscal tear, with operating surgeons recording relevant information......% women) with a traumatic or degenerative meniscal tear (n=141, mean age 38.7 years (standard deviation 10.9); n=256, 46.6 years (6.4); respectively) were included in the main analysis. At 52 weeks after arthroscopic partial meniscectomy, 55 (14%) patients were lost to follow-up. Statistically...

  13. Current perspectives on attachment and bonding in the dog?human dyad

    OpenAIRE

    Payne, Elyssa; Bennett, Pauleen C; McGreevy, Paul D

    2015-01-01

    Elyssa Payne,1 Pauleen C Bennett,2 Paul D McGreevy1 1Faculty of Veterinary Science, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia; 2School of Psychological Science, La Trobe University, Bendigo, VIC, Australia Abstract: This article reviews recent research concerning dog–human relationships and how attributes that arise from them can be measured. It highlights the influence of human characteristics on dog behavior, and consequently, the dog–human bond. Of particular import...

  14. Performance of PROMIS for Healthy Patients Undergoing Meniscal Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hancock, Kyle J; Glass, Natalie; Anthony, Chris A; Hettrich, Carolyn M; Albright, John; Amendola, Annunziato; Wolf, Brian R; Bollier, Matthew

    2017-06-07

    The Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS) was developed as an extensive question bank with multiple health domains that could be utilized for computerized adaptive testing (CAT). In the present study, we investigated the use of the PROMIS Physical Function CAT (PROMIS PF CAT) in an otherwise healthy population scheduled to undergo surgery for meniscal injury with the hypotheses that (1) the PROMIS PF CAT would correlate strongly with patient-reported outcome instruments that measure physical function and would not correlate strongly with those that measure other health domains, (2) there would be no ceiling effects, and (3) the test burden would be significantly less than that of the traditional measures. Patients scheduled to undergo meniscal surgery completed the PROMIS PF CAT, Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS), Marx Knee Activity Rating Scale, Short Form-36 (SF-36), and EuroQol-5 Dimension (EQ-5D) questionnaires. Correlations were defined as high (≥0.7), high-moderate (0.61 to 0.69), moderate (0.4 to 0.6), moderate-weak (0.31 to 0.39), or weak (≤0.3). If ≥15% respondents to a patient-reported outcome measure obtained the highest or lowest possible score, the instrument was determined to have a significant ceiling or floor effect. A total of 107 participants were analyzed. The PROMIS PF CAT had a high correlation with the SF-36 Physical Functioning (PF) (r = 0.82, p ceiling effects, with 0% of the participants achieving the lowest and highest score, respectively. The PROMIS PF CAT correlates strongly with currently used patient-reported outcome measures of physical function and demonstrates no ceiling effects for patients with meniscal injury requiring surgery. It may be a reasonable alternative to more burdensome patient-reported outcome measures.

  15. Meniscal position on routine MR imaging of the knee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, T.T.; Staron, R.B.; Feldman, F.; Cepel, E.

    1997-01-01

    Objective. To determine the prevalence of meniscal protrusion (i.e. location of the outer edge of a meniscus beyond the tibial articular surface), and to determine its relationship with internal derangement, joint effusion, and degenerative arthropathy. Design and patients. Sagittal and coronal MR images of 111 abnormal and 46 normal knees were evaluated for the presence of meniscal protrusion. We set 25% as the minimum amount of displacement considered abnormal because this was the smallest amount of displacement we could confidently discern. Presence of meniscal tear, anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury, joint effusion, or osteophytosis was also recorded. Results and conclusion. Normal examinations demonstrated protrusion of the medial meniscus in 6.5% of sagittal images and 15% of coronal images, and of the lateral meniscus in 2% and 13%, respectively. Fisher's exact test demonstrated a statistically significant difference between the normal and abnormal groups for the medial meniscus on both sagittal (P 0.2). A protruding medial meniscus was associated with effusion and osteophytosis (P 0.1). Posterior protrusion of the lateral meniscus was only associated with ACL injury (P<0.0001); protruding anterior horns and bodies of lateral menisci were not associated with any of the four abnormalities. It is concluded that the medial meniscus may occasionally protrude more than 25% of its width, but protrusion is more often due to effusion and osteophytes. Protrusion of the posterior horn of the lateral meniscus is associated with ACL insufficiency, while protrusion of the body and anterior horn of the lateral meniscus is a normal variant. (orig.). With 4 figs

  16. Attachment, Proliferation, and Morphological Properties of Human Dermal Fibroblasts on Ovine Tendon Collagen Scaffolds: A Comparative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busra, Fauzi Mh; Lokanathan, Yogeswaran; Nadzir, Masrina Mohd; Saim, Aminuddin; Idrus, Ruszymah Bt Hj; Chowdhury, Shiplu Roy

    2017-03-01

    Collagen type I is widely used as a biomaterial for tissue-engineered substitutes. This study aimed to fabricate different three-dimensional (3D) scaffolds using ovine tendon collagen type I (OTC-I), and compare the attachment, proliferation and morphological features of human dermal fibroblasts (HDF) on the scaffolds. This study was conducted between the years 2014 to 2016 at the Tissue Engineering Centre, UKM Medical Centre. OTC-I was extracted from ovine tendon, and fabricated into 3D scaffolds in the form of sponge, hydrogel and film. A polystyrene surface coated with OTC-I was used as the 2D culture condition. Genipin was used to crosslink the OTC-I. A non-coated polystyrene surface was used as a control. The mechanical strength of OTC-I scaffolds was evaluated. Attachment, proliferation and morphological features of HDF were assessed and compared between conditions. The mechanical strength of OTC-I sponge was significantly higher than that of the other scaffolds. OTC-I scaffolds and the coated surface significantly enhanced HDF attachment and proliferation compared to the control, but no differences were observed between the scaffolds and coated surface. In contrast, the morphological features of HDF including spreading, filopodia, lamellipodia and actin cytoskeletal formation differed between conditions. OTC-I can be moulded into various scaffolds that are biocompatible and thus could be suitable as scaffolds for developing tissue substitutes for clinical applications and in vitro tissue models. However, further study is required to determine the effect of morphological properties on the functional and molecular properties of HDF.

  17. Impact of silk fibroin-based scaffold structures on human osteoblast MG63 cell attachment and proliferation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varkey A

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Aneesia Varkey,1,2 Elakkiya Venugopal,2 Ponjanani Sugumaran,2 Gopinathan Janarthanan,1 Mamatha M Pillai,2 Selvakumar Rajendran,2 Amitava Bhattacharyya1 1Advanced Textile and Polymer Research Laboratory, 2Tissue Engineering Laboratory, PSG Institute of Advanced Studies, Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu, India Abstract: The present study was carried out to investigate the impact of various types of silk fibroin (SF scaffolds on human osteoblast-like cell (MG63 attachment and proliferation. SF was isolated from Bombyx mori silk worm cocoons after degumming. Protein concentration in the degummed SF solution was estimated using Bradford method. Aqueous SF solution was used to fabricate three different types of scaffolds, viz, electrospun nanofiber mat, sponge, and porous film. The structures of the prepared scaffolds were characterized using optical micro­scopy and field emission scanning electron microscopy. The changes in the secondary structure of the proteins and the thermal behavior of the scaffolds were determined by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and thermo-gravimetric analysis, respectively. The biodegradation rate of scaffolds was determined by incubating the scaffolds in simulated body fluid for 4 weeks. MG63 cells were seeded on the scaffolds and their attachment and proliferation onto the scaffolds were studied. The MTT assay was carried out to deduce the toxicity of the developed scaffolds. All the scaffolds were found to be biocompatible. The amount of collagen produced by the osteoblast-like cells growing on different scaffolds was estimated. Keywords: silk fibroin scaffold, electrospun nanofiber, porous film, sponge, osteoblast

  18. Attachment sites of the coracoclavicular ligaments are characterized by fibrocartilage differentiation: a study on human cadaveric tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ockert, B; Braunstein, V; Sprecher, C; Shinohara, Y; Kirchhoff, C; Milz, S

    2012-02-01

    We analyzed the immunohistochemical labeling patterns of the extracellular matrix of the coracoclavicular ligaments (CCL) in order to relate the molecular composition of the attachment sites to their mechanical environment. Ligaments were exposed from 12 fresh-frozen human cadaveric samples (four males, mean age: 48.6 ± 12.1 years). Cryosection of methanol-fixed and decalcified tissue was cut and sections were labeled with a panel of monoclonal antibodies directed against collagens, proteoglycans and proteins of vascular components. Attachment sites of both ligaments showed characteristic fibrocartilaginous labeling of collagen type II, aggrecan and link protein in all samples. Labeling for type II collagen was most conspicuous at the insertion of the coracoid process. Morphometry of adjacent samples revealed a fibrocartilage zone of 10-15% in relationship with the ligament proper, where labeling for type II collagen, aggrecan and link protein was negative. The presence of fibrocartilage at both entheses of the trapezoid and conoid ligament suggests that the CCL complex is subject to shear/compression forces. A variable fibrocartilage differentiation at the entheses of both ligaments may be related to the marked change in loading and insertion angle that the ligaments undergo during shoulder movement. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  19. Crystal structure of the Hendra virus attachment G glycoprotein bound to a potent cross-reactive neutralizing human monoclonal antibody.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Xu

    Full Text Available The henipaviruses, represented by Hendra (HeV and Nipah (NiV viruses are highly pathogenic zoonotic paramyxoviruses with uniquely broad host tropisms responsible for repeated outbreaks in Australia, Southeast Asia, India and Bangladesh. The high morbidity and mortality rates associated with infection and lack of licensed antiviral therapies make the henipaviruses a potential biological threat to humans and livestock. Henipavirus entry is initiated by the attachment of the G envelope glycoprotein to host cell membrane receptors. Previously, henipavirus-neutralizing human monoclonal antibodies (hmAb have been isolated using the HeV-G glycoprotein and a human naïve antibody library. One cross-reactive and receptor-blocking hmAb (m102.4 was recently demonstrated to be an effective post-exposure therapy in two animal models of NiV and HeV infection, has been used in several people on a compassionate use basis, and is currently in development for use in humans. Here, we report the crystal structure of the complex of HeV-G with m102.3, an m102.4 derivative, and describe NiV and HeV escape mutants. This structure provides detailed insight into the mechanism of HeV and NiV neutralization by m102.4, and serves as a blueprint for further optimization of m102.4 as a therapeutic agent and for the development of entry inhibitors and vaccines.

  20. Chondral Injuries and Irreparable Meniscal Tears Among Adolescents With Anterior Cruciate Ligament or Meniscal Tears Are More Common in Patients With Public Insurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Ariel A; Mancini, Nickolas S; Solomito, Matthew J; Nissen, Carl W; Milewski, Matthew D

    2017-07-01

    Access to health care services is a critical component of health care reform and may differ among patients with different types of insurance. Hypothesis/Purpose: The purpose was to compare adolescents with private and public insurance undergoing surgery for anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) and/or meniscal tears. We hypothesized that patients with public insurance would have a delayed presentation from the time of injury and therefore would have a higher incidence of chondral injuries and irreparable meniscal tears and lower preoperative International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC) scores than patients with private insurance. Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 3. This was a retrospective study of patients under 21 years of age undergoing ACL reconstruction and/or meniscal repair or debridement from January 2013 to March 2016 at a single pediatric sports medicine center. Patients were identified by a search of Current Procedural Terminology (CPT) codes. A chart review was performed for insurance type; preoperative diagnosis; date of injury, initial office visit, and surgery; preoperative IKDC score; intraoperative findings; and procedures. The study group consisted of 119 patients (mean age, 15.0 ± 1.7 years). Forty-one percent of patients had private insurance, while 59% had public insurance. There were 27 patients with isolated meniscal tears, 59 with combined meniscal and ACL tears, and 33 with isolated ACL tears. The mean time from injury to presentation was 56 days (range, 0-457 days) in patients with private insurance and 136 days (range, 0-1120 days) in patients with public insurance ( P = .02). Surgery occurred, on average, 35 days after the initial office visit in both groups. The mean preoperative IKDC score was 53 in both groups. Patients with meniscal tears with public insurance were more likely to require meniscal debridement than patients with private insurance (risk ratio [RR], 2.3; 95% CI, 1.7-3.1; P = .02). Patients with public insurance

  1. Micromachined Si channel width and tortuosity on human osteoblast cell attachment and proliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leber, Christopher; Choi, Hongsoo; Bose, Susmita; Bandyopadhyay, Amit

    2010-01-01

    In this study, influence of coating chemistry, channel width and tortuosity of various two-dimensional micro-channels were explored on micromachined Si using osteoblast precursor cells line 1 (OPC1). The rationale for our study is to delineate the influence of different porosity parameters on bone cell attachment and proliferation in vitro. Channel widths of 100, 200, 300, 400, and 600 μm; channel bends of 0, 1, and 2 right angles; and gold and silicon dioxide coatings on single-crystal Si were studied. Experiments were conducted with channel tops under glass covered and uncovered conditions keeping the channel depth at 220 μm. Independent samples were evaluated using SEM imaging and MTT assay to measure bone cell morphology and quantity. Images were taken of micro-channels and exterior chambers at 50x, 500x, 1000x, and 5000x magnifications. Channel and chamber cell densities were scored as follows: bare (score = 0), scattered (1), limited (2), abundant (3), and overflowing (4). Samples were then scored and statistically analyzed for major differences. In general, OPC1 cells proliferated at least 5% or better based on cell numbers under uncovered conditions than glass covered. Channel widths of 100 μm largely prohibited cell proliferation and diffusion by narrow path inhibition with the lowest average score of 1.17. Among channel bends of 0, 1, and 2 right angles, an increase in micro-channel tortuosity from 0-2 bends amplified OPC1 cell growth upwards of ∼ 6.6%. A one-way ANOVA showed significant differences in cell quantity for alternating channel tortuosity at a significance level of p < 0.05. No preference was found for gold or silicon dioxide coatings on Si for bone cell proliferation.

  2. Comparison of gait and pathology outcomes of three meniscal procedures for induction of knee osteoarthritis in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cake, M A; Read, R A; Corfield, G; Daniel, A; Burkhardt, D; Smith, M M; Little, C B

    2013-01-01

    Meniscectomy (MX) of sheep induces a well-established animal model of human osteoarthritis (OA). This study compared the clinical (lameness) and pathological outcomes of unilateral, complete medial MX vs two less traumatic and more easily performed meniscal destabilisation procedures. Four-year old wethers (n = 6/group) underwent sham operation, cranial pole release (CPR), mid-body transection (MBT) or total MX of the medial meniscus. Joints were assessed for gross pathology (cartilage erosion and osteophytes), histomorphometry, two histopathology scoring methods (modified Mankin-type and Pritzker score), and immunohistology for ADAMTS- and MMP-cleaved neoepitopes, at 12 weeks post-op. Ground reaction forces (GRFs) were determined by force plate in a subset (n = 4/group) at baseline, 2.5, 8, and 12 weeks post-op. Gross pathology scores of operated groups differed significantly from sham animals (P osteophyte formation. Similarly, histopathology scores were significantly elevated vs sham but did not differ between operated groups at P subchondral sclerosis, suggesting some residual biomechanical effect from the destabilised but intact meniscus. Few significant differences were noted between operated groups in force plate analyses, though gait abnormalities appeared to be least in CPR sheep, and most persistent (>12 weeks) in MBT animals. The well-validated ovine MX model and the simpler meniscal destabilisation procedures resulted in broadly similar joint pathology and lameness. Meniscal CPR or MBT, as easier and more clinically relevant procedures, may represent preferred models for the induction of OA and evaluation of potential disease-modifying therapies. Copyright © 2012 Osteoarthritis Research Society International. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. The influence of nanotexturing of poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) films upon human ovarian cancer cell attachment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaşayan, Gökçen; Xue, Xuan; Collier, Pamela; Clarke, Philip; Alexander, Morgan R.; Marlow, Maria

    2016-06-01

    In this study, we have produced nanotextured poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) films by using polystyrene (PS) particles as a template to make a polydimethylsiloxane mould against which PLGA is solvent cast. Biocompatible, biodegradable and nanotextured PLGA films were prepared with PS particles of diameter of 57, 99, 210, and 280 nm that produced domes of the same dimension in the PLGA surface. The effect of the particulate monolayer templating method was investigated to enable preparation of the films with uniformly ordered surface nanodomes. Cell attachment of a human ovarian cancer cell line (OVCAR3) alone and co-cultured with mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) was evaluated on flat and topographically nano-patterned surfaces. Cell numbers were observed to increase on the nanotextured surfaces compared to non-textured surfaces both with OVCAR3 cultures and OVCAR3-MSC co-cultures at 24 and 48 h time points.

  4. Further insight into the roles of the glycans attached to human blood protein C inhibitor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sun, Wei; Parry, Simon; Ubhayasekera, Wimal

    2010-01-01

    Protein C inhibitor (PCI) is a 57-kDa glycoprotein that exists in many tissues and secretions in human. As a member of the serpin superfamily of proteins it displays unusually broad protease specificity. PCI is implicated in the regulation of a wide range of processes, including blood coagulation......, fertilization, prevention of tumors and pathogen defence. It has been reported that PCI isolated from human blood plasma is highly heterogeneous, and that this heterogeneity is caused by differences in N-glycan structures, N-glycosylation occupancy, and the presence of two forms that differ by the presence...... or absence of 6 amino acids at the amino-terminus. In this study we have verified that such heterogeneity exists in PCI purified from single individuals, and that individuals of two different ethnicities possess a similar PCI pattern, verifying that the micro-heterogeneity is conserved among humans...

  5. MRI follow-up of conservatively treated meniscal knee lesions in general practice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oei, Edwin H.G.; Hunink, M.G.M. [University Medical Center Rotterdam, Program for the Assessment of Radiological Technology (ART Program), Erasmus MC, Rotterdam (Netherlands); University Medical Center Rotterdam, Department of Radiology, Erasmus MC, Rotterdam (Netherlands); University Medical Center Rotterdam, Department of Epidemiology, Erasmus MC, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Koster, Ingrid M. [University Medical Center Rotterdam, Department of Radiology, Erasmus MC, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Maasstad Ziekenhuis, Department of Radiology, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Hensen, Jan-Hein J.; Vroegindeweij, Dammis [Maasstad Ziekenhuis, Department of Radiology, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Boks, Simone S. [University Medical Center Rotterdam, Department of General Practice, Erasmus MC, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Maasstad Ziekenhuis, Department of Radiology, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Diaconessenhuis Meppel, Department of Radiology, Meppel (Netherlands); Wagemakers, Harry P.A.; Koes, Bart W.; Bierma-Zeinstra, Sita M.A. [University Medical Center Rotterdam, Department of General Practice, Erasmus MC, Rotterdam (Netherlands)

    2010-05-15

    To evaluate meniscal status change on follow-up MRI after 1 year, prognostic factors and association with clinical outcome in patients with conservatively treated knee injury. We analysed 403 meniscal horns in 101 conservatively treated patients (59 male; mean age 40 years) in general practice who underwent initial knee MRI within 5 weeks of trauma. We performed ordinal logistic regression analysis to analyse prognostic factors for meniscal change on follow-up MRI after 1 year, and we assessed the association with clinical outcome. On follow-up MRI 49 meniscal horns had deteriorated and 18 had improved. Age (odds ratio [OR] 1.3/decade), body weight (OR 1.2/10 kg), total anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) rupture on initial MRI (OR 2.4), location in the posterior horn of the medial meniscus (OR 3.0) and an initial meniscal lesion (OR 0.3) were statistically significant predictors of meniscal MRI appearance change after 1 year, which was not associated with clinical outcome. In conservatively treated patients, meniscal deterioration on follow-up MRI 1 year after trauma is predicted by higher age and body weight, initial total ACL rupture, and location in the medial posterior horn. Change in MRI appearance is not associated with clinical outcome. (orig.)

  6. Surgical interventions for meniscal tears: a closer look at the evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutsaerts, Eduard L A R; van Eck, Carola F; van de Graaf, Victor A; Doornberg, Job N; van den Bekerom, Michel P J

    2016-03-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare the outcomes of various surgical treatments for meniscal injuries including (1) total and partial meniscectomy; (2) meniscectomy and meniscal repair; (3) meniscectomy and meniscal transplantation; (4) open and arthroscopic meniscectomy and (5) various different repair techniques. The Bone, Joint and Muscle Trauma Group Register, Cochrane Database, MEDLINE, EMBASE and CINAHL were searched for all (quasi) randomized controlled clinical trials comparing various surgical techniques for meniscal injuries. Primary outcomes of interest included patient-reported outcomes scores, return to pre-injury activity level, level of sports participation and persistence of pain using the visual analogue score. Where possible, data were pooled and a meta-analysis was performed. A total of nine studies were included, involving a combined 904 subjects, 330 patients underwent a meniscal repair, 402 meniscectomy and 160 a collagen meniscal implant. The only surgical treatments that were compared in homogeneous fashion across more than one study were the arrow and inside-out technique, which showed no difference for re-tear or complication rate. Strong evidence-based recommendations regarding the other surgical treatments that were compared could not be made. This meta-analysis illustrates the lack of level I evidence to guide the surgical management of meniscal tears. Level I meta-analysis.

  7. Signs of knee osteoarthritis common in 620 patients undergoing arthroscopic surgery for meniscal tear

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pihl, Kenneth; Englund, Martin; Lohmander, L. Stefan

    2017-01-01

    Background and purpose - Recent evidence has questioned the effect of arthroscopic knee surgery for middle-aged and older patients with degenerative meniscal tears with or without concomitant radiographic knee osteoarthritis (OA). We investigated the prevalence of early or more established knee OA...... and patients' characteristics in a cohort of patients undergoing arthroscopic surgery for a meniscal tear. Patients and methods - 641 patients assigned for arthroscopy on suspicion of meniscus tear were consecutively recruited from February 2013 through January 2015. Of these, 620 patients (mean age 49 (18...... established knee OA was present in 43% of patients undergoing knee arthroscopy for meniscal tear....

  8. "Pollical palmar interosseous muscle" (musculus adductor pollicis accessorius): attachments, innervation, variations, phylogeny, and implications for human evolution and medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bello-Hellegouarch, Gaelle; Aziz, M Ashraf; Ferrero, Eva M; Kern, Michael; Francis, Nadia; Diogo, Rui

    2013-03-01

    Most atlases and textbooks dealing with human anatomy do not refer to the "pollical palmar interosseous" (PPI) muscle of Henle. In order to undertake a fresh and detailed study of this muscle and to thus better understand human comparative anatomy and evolution, we: 1) analyze the frequency of the PPI in a large sample of human hands; 2) describe the attachments, innervation and varieties of the PPI in these hands; 3) compare the data obtained with the information available in the literature; and 4) discuss the phylogenetic origin of the PPI and the implications of our observations and comparisons for medicine and for the understanding of human evolutionary history. Within the 72 hands dissected by us, the PPI is present in 67 hands (93%), commonly having a single muscular branch, originating from the medial side of the base of metacarpal I only, inserting onto the medial side of the base of the pollical proximal phalanx and/or surrounding structures (e.g., ulnar sesamoid bone, wing tendon of extensor apparatus), and passing at least partially, and usually mainly, medial to the princeps pollicis artery. A careful study of the human PPI, as well as a detailed comparison with other mammals, strongly suggest that the muscle is evolutionarily derived from the adductor pollicis, and namely from its oblique head. Therefore, we propose that PPI should be designated by the name musculus adductor pollicis accessorius, which indicates that the muscle is most likely a de novo structure derived from the adductor pollicis. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. The role of an axial MR scan on the diagnosis a meniscal tear of the knee joint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeom, Suk Keu; Kim, Baek Hyun; Hong, Suk Joo; Seol, Hae Young

    2007-01-01

    To evaluate the role of standard axial MR images for the diagnosis for meniscal tears of the knee. Forty-five patients with a prior MRI examination that underwent arthroscopic surgery of the knee due to clinical impression of a meniscal tear were included in the study group. The sequence for meniscal evaluation was an axial fat-saturated proton density-weighted image with a 4 mm slice thickness. Axial MR images were independently reviewed by two radiologists and were compared with findings of arthroscopy. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value and accuracy of the axial MR scan for the diagnosis of the meniscal tear were calculated. A total 90 menisci of 45 patients were evaluated in the axial MR scans. Forty-two patients had meniscal tears, and two of the patients had tears in both menisci; thus, a total of 44 meniscal tears were found by arthroscopy. For meniscal tears, the sensitivity of the axial plane was 76.2%, the specificity was 89.1% and the accuracy was 81.1%. False negative meniscal tears were seen in 12 cases and false positive meniscal tears were seen in 5 cases on the axial MR images. In standard knee MRI examinations, axial images may be valuable for the detection and localization of meniscal tears

  10. The Market and Institutional Value Attachments to Sustainable Return of Human Capital to Bosnia and Herzegovina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandar BOZIC

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This study explores the main characteristics of potentials and challenges of the brain grain process in a post conflict and transitional situation, by reflecting the various views and perspectives of the relevant stakeholders in the field o migration from Bosnia and Herzegovina (BiH. The focus is on highly skilled tertiary graduates’ returnees from BiH and the assessment of their skills and knowledge recognition within the labour market and public administration. The study concludes that even though it has been widely estimated that advanced countries can significantly benefit regarding country's productivity from temporary movements of tertiary migrants, societies that challenge serious human capital flow can negatively value the potential benefits of the highly skilled returnees, while their advanced skills and knowledge most likely remains unrecognized.

  11. Ebola virion attachment and entry into human macrophages profoundly effects early cellular gene expression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria Wahl-Jensen

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Zaire ebolavirus (ZEBOV infections are associated with high lethality in primates. ZEBOV primarily targets mononuclear phagocytes, which are activated upon infection and secrete mediators believed to trigger initial stages of pathogenesis. The characterization of the responses of target cells to ZEBOV infection may therefore not only further understanding of pathogenesis but also suggest possible points of therapeutic intervention. Gene expression profiles of primary human macrophages exposed to ZEBOV were determined using DNA microarrays and quantitative PCR to gain insight into the cellular response immediately after cell entry. Significant changes in mRNA concentrations encoding for 88 cellular proteins were observed. Most of these proteins have not yet been implicated in ZEBOV infection. Some, however, are inflammatory mediators known to be elevated during the acute phase of disease in the blood of ZEBOV-infected humans. Interestingly, the cellular response occurred within the first hour of Ebola virion exposure, i.e. prior to virus gene expression. This observation supports the hypothesis that virion binding or entry mediated by the spike glycoprotein (GP(1,2 is the primary stimulus for an initial response. Indeed, ZEBOV virions, LPS, and virus-like particles consisting of only the ZEBOV matrix protein VP40 and GP(1,2 (VLP(VP40-GP triggered comparable responses in macrophages, including pro-inflammatory and pro-apoptotic signals. In contrast, VLP(VP40 (particles lacking GP(1,2 caused an aberrant response. This suggests that GP(1,2 binding to macrophages plays an important role in the immediate cellular response.

  12. Development of a Cytocompatible Scaffold from Pig Immature Testicular Tissue Allowing Human Sertoli Cell Attachment, Proliferation and Functionality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maxime Vermeulen

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Cryopreservation of immature testicular tissue before chemo/radiotherapy is the only option to preserve fertility of cancer-affected prepubertal boys. To avoid reintroduction of malignant cells, development of a transplantable scaffold by decellularization of pig immature testicular tissue (ITT able to support decontaminated testicular cells could be an option for fertility restoration in these patients. We, therefore, compared decellularization protocols to produce a cytocompatible scaffold. Fragments of ITT from 15 piglets were decellularized using three protocols: sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS-Triton (ST, Triton-SDS-Triton (TST and trypsin 0.05%/ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA 0.02%-Triton (TET with varying detergent concentrations. All protocols were able to lower DNA levels. Collagen retention was demonstrated in all groups except ST 1%, and a significant decrease in glycosaminoglycans was observed in the TST 1% and TET 1% groups. When Sertoli cells (SCs were cultured with decellularized tissue, no signs of cytotoxicity were detected. A higher SC proliferation rate and greater stem cell factor secretion were observed than with SCs cultured without scaffold. ST 0.01% and TET 3% conditions offered the best compromise in terms of DNA elimination and extracellular matrix (ECM preservation, while ensuring good attachment, proliferation and functionality of human SCs. This study demonstrates the potential of using decellularized pig ITT for human testicular tissue engineering purposes.

  13. The relationship between chondromalacia patella, medial meniscal tear and medial periarticular bursitis in patients with osteoarthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Resorlu Mustafa

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the presence of bursitis in the medial compartment of the knee (pes anserine, semimembranosus-tibial collateral ligament, and medial collateral ligament bursa in osteoarthritis, chondromalacia patella and medial meniscal tears.

  14. Delay in surgery predisposes to meniscal and chondral injuries in anterior cruciate ligament deficient knees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravi Gupta

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: Surgical delay predicts an increase in medial meniscal and lateral articular injuries justifying early rather than delayed reconstruction in ACL deficient knees. Increasing age is positively related to intraarticular injuries while females are more susceptible to lateral articular injuries.

  15. MRI as an accurate tool for the diagnosis and characterization of different knee joint meniscal injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayman F. Ahmed

    2017-12-01

    Conclusion: MRI of the knee will give the orthopedic surgeons ability to select suitable treatment and arthroscopic interference for their patients. MRI has high accuracy in meniscal tears diagnosis allowing accurate grading of them.

  16. Attachment and Detachment Behavior of Human Adenovirus and Surrogates in Fine Granular Limestone Aquifer Material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, Margaret E; Sommer, Regina; Lindner, Gerhard; Farnleitner, Andreas H; Toze, Simon; Kirschner, Alexander K T; Blaschke, Alfred P; Sidhu, Jatinder P S

    2015-09-01

    The transport of human adenovirus, nanoparticles, and PRD1 and MS2 bacteriophages was tested in fine granular limestone aquifer material taken from a borehole at a managed aquifer recharge site in Adelaide, South Australia. Comparison of transport and removal of virus surrogates with the pathogenic virus is necessary to understand the differences between the virus and surrogate. Because experiments using pathogenic viruses cannot be done in the field, laboratory tests using flow-through soil columns were used. Results show that PRD1 is the most appropriate surrogate for adenovirus in an aquifer dominated by calcite material but not under high ionic strength or high pH conditions. It was also found that straining due to size and the charge of the colloid were not dominant removal mechanisms in this system. Implications of this study indicate that a certain surrogate may not represent a specific pathogen solely based on similar size, morphology, and/or surface charge. Moreover, if a particular surrogate is representative of a pathogen in one aquifer system, it may not be the most appropriate surrogate in another porous media system. This was apparent in the inferior performance of MS2 as a surrogate, which is commonly used in virus transport studies. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  17. Integrity of articular cartilage on T2 mapping associated with meniscal signal change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kai, Brian; Mann, Sumeer A.; King, Chris; Forster, Bruce B.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between T2 relaxation values (T2 RVs) within the superficial zone of articular cartilage and different types of meniscal degeneration/tear. Materials and methods: A review of 310 consecutive knee MRIs which included an 8 echo T2 relaxation sequence, in patients referred for standard clinical indications, was performed independently and in blinded fashion by 2 observers. The posterior horns of the medial and lateral menisci were each evaluated and divided into 4 subgroups: Normal (control), Grade I/II meniscal signal, Grade III meniscal signal-simple tear (Grade III-S), and Grade III meniscal signal-complex tear (Grade III-C). After exclusion criteria were applied, the medial meniscal group consisted of 65 controls and 133 patients, while the lateral meniscal group consisted of 143 controls and 55 patients. T2 RVs were measured by an observer blinded to the clinical history and MRI grading. Measurements were obtained over the superficial zone of femoral and tibial articular cartilage adjacent to the center of the posterior horn of each meniscus to ensure consistency between measurements. Analysis of covariance adjusting for age and gender was used to compare T2 RVs between patients and controls. Results: T2 RVs were significantly increased in patients with Grade III-C meniscal tears compared to controls over the medial tibial plateau (MTP; p = 0.0001) and lateral tibial plateau (LTP; p = 0.0008). T2 RVs were not increased in patients with Grade III-C meniscal tears over the medial femoral condyle (MFC; p = 0.11) or lateral femoral condyle (LFC; p = 0.99). Grade I/II meniscal signal was not associated with elevated T2 RVs over the MFC (p = 0.15), LFC (p = 0.69), MTP (p = 0.42), or LTP (p = 0.50). Grade III-S meniscal signal was not associated with elevated T2 RVs over the MFC (p = 0.54), LFC (p = 0.43), MTP (p = 0.30), or LTP (p = 0.38). Conclusion: Grade III-C meniscal tears are associated with

  18. Integrity of articular cartilage on T2 mapping associated with meniscal signal change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kai, Brian [Department of Radiology, University of British Columbia, UBC Hospital, 2211 Wesbrook Mall, Vancouver, BC, V6T 2B5 (Canada); Mann, Sumeer A. [Department of Radiology, University of Alberta, Walter Mackenzie Health Sciences Center, Edmonton, AB, T6G 2B7 (Canada); King, Chris [Department of Radiology, University of British Columbia, UBC Hospital, 2211 Wesbrook Mall, Vancouver, BC, V6T 2B5 (Canada); Forster, Bruce B., E-mail: bruce.forster@vch.ca [Department of Radiology, University of British Columbia, UBC Hospital, 2211 Wesbrook Mall, Vancouver, BC, V6T 2B5 (Canada)

    2011-09-15

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between T2 relaxation values (T2 RVs) within the superficial zone of articular cartilage and different types of meniscal degeneration/tear. Materials and methods: A review of 310 consecutive knee MRIs which included an 8 echo T2 relaxation sequence, in patients referred for standard clinical indications, was performed independently and in blinded fashion by 2 observers. The posterior horns of the medial and lateral menisci were each evaluated and divided into 4 subgroups: Normal (control), Grade I/II meniscal signal, Grade III meniscal signal-simple tear (Grade III-S), and Grade III meniscal signal-complex tear (Grade III-C). After exclusion criteria were applied, the medial meniscal group consisted of 65 controls and 133 patients, while the lateral meniscal group consisted of 143 controls and 55 patients. T2 RVs were measured by an observer blinded to the clinical history and MRI grading. Measurements were obtained over the superficial zone of femoral and tibial articular cartilage adjacent to the center of the posterior horn of each meniscus to ensure consistency between measurements. Analysis of covariance adjusting for age and gender was used to compare T2 RVs between patients and controls. Results: T2 RVs were significantly increased in patients with Grade III-C meniscal tears compared to controls over the medial tibial plateau (MTP; p = 0.0001) and lateral tibial plateau (LTP; p = 0.0008). T2 RVs were not increased in patients with Grade III-C meniscal tears over the medial femoral condyle (MFC; p = 0.11) or lateral femoral condyle (LFC; p = 0.99). Grade I/II meniscal signal was not associated with elevated T2 RVs over the MFC (p = 0.15), LFC (p = 0.69), MTP (p = 0.42), or LTP (p = 0.50). Grade III-S meniscal signal was not associated with elevated T2 RVs over the MFC (p = 0.54), LFC (p = 0.43), MTP (p = 0.30), or LTP (p = 0.38). Conclusion: Grade III-C meniscal tears are associated with

  19. Meniscal root entrapment of an osteochondritis dissecans loose body.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Christopher R; McMonagle, Joseph S; Garrett, William E

    2014-09-01

    Loose bodies are relatively common in the knee. On radiographs they can often be seen in the medial and lateral gutters, intercondylar notch, and the posterior compartment. At times an apparent loose body is not free to move in the knee because it has been covered by synovium and is no longer mobile. It is uncommon for an osteochondral loose body to become incorporated into meniscal tissue. We report a case of an apparent loose body becoming incorporated into the posterior horn and root of the medial meniscus. We are not aware that this condition has been previously reported. Because removing the entire loose body would have destabilized the posterior root of the medial meniscus, it is important to be aware of this potential occurrence.

  20. Meniscal and cruciate ligaments tears diagnosed with MR imaging versus arthroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ziemianski, A.; Kruczynski, J.; Bruszewski, J.

    1993-01-01

    MR studies of knee joints in 37 patients were performed. The clinical diagnostics was traumatic lesions of menisci or cruciate ligaments. Arthroscopy of the knee joint was performed in 21 patients. MR showed meniscal lesion in 25 patients and anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) lesions in 18 patients. Arthroscopy showed meniscal lesions in 16 of 21 patients and ACL lesions in 11 of 21 patients. MR correlated with arthroscopy in 16 of examined menisci and 15 of 21 examined ACL. (author)

  1. Specifying the Neurobiological Basis of Human Attachment: Brain, Hormones, and Behavior in Synchronous and Intrusive Mothers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atzil, Shir; Hendler, Talma; Feldman, Ruth

    2011-01-01

    The mother–infant bond provides the foundation for the infant's future mental health and adaptation and depends on the provision of species-typical maternal behaviors that are supported by neuroendocrine and motivation-affective neural systems. Animal research has demonstrated that natural variations in patterns of maternal care chart discrete profiles of maternal brain–behavior relationships that uniquely shape the infant's lifetime capacities for stress regulation and social affiliation. Such patterns of maternal care are mediated by the neuropeptide Oxytocin and by stress- and reward-related neural systems. Human studies have similarly shown that maternal synchrony—the coordination of maternal behavior with infant signals—and intrusiveness—the excessive expression of maternal behavior—describe distinct and stable maternal styles that bear long-term consequences for infant well-being. To integrate brain, hormones, and behavior in the study of maternal–infant bonding, we examined the fMRI responses of synchronous vs intrusive mothers to dynamic, ecologically valid infant videos and their correlations with plasma Oxytocin. In all, 23 mothers were videotaped at home interacting with their infants and plasma OT assayed. Sessions were micro-coded for synchrony and intrusiveness. Mothers were scanned while observing several own and standard infant-related vignettes. Synchronous mothers showed greater activations in the left nucleus accumbens (NAcc) and intrusive mothers exhibited higher activations in the right amygdala. Functional connectivity analysis revealed that among synchronous mothers, left NAcc and right amygdala were functionally correlated with emotion modulation, theory-of-mind, and empathy networks. Among intrusive mothers, left NAcc and right amygdala were functionally correlated with pro-action areas. Sorting points into neighborhood (SPIN) analysis demonstrated that in the synchronous group, left NAcc and right amygdala activations showed

  2. Specifying the neurobiological basis of human attachment: brain, hormones, and behavior in synchronous and intrusive mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atzil, Shir; Hendler, Talma; Feldman, Ruth

    2011-12-01

    The mother-infant bond provides the foundation for the infant's future mental health and adaptation and depends on the provision of species-typical maternal behaviors that are supported by neuroendocrine and motivation-affective neural systems. Animal research has demonstrated that natural variations in patterns of maternal care chart discrete profiles of maternal brain-behavior relationships that uniquely shape the infant's lifetime capacities for stress regulation and social affiliation. Such patterns of maternal care are mediated by the neuropeptide Oxytocin and by stress- and reward-related neural systems. Human studies have similarly shown that maternal synchrony--the coordination of maternal behavior with infant signals--and intrusiveness--the excessive expression of maternal behavior--describe distinct and stable maternal styles that bear long-term consequences for infant well-being. To integrate brain, hormones, and behavior in the study of maternal-infant bonding, we examined the fMRI responses of synchronous vs intrusive mothers to dynamic, ecologically valid infant videos and their correlations with plasma Oxytocin. In all, 23 mothers were videotaped at home interacting with their infants and plasma OT assayed. Sessions were micro-coded for synchrony and intrusiveness. Mothers were scanned while observing several own and standard infant-related vignettes. Synchronous mothers showed greater activations in the left nucleus accumbens (NAcc) and intrusive mothers exhibited higher activations in the right amygdala. Functional connectivity analysis revealed that among synchronous mothers, left NAcc and right amygdala were functionally correlated with emotion modulation, theory-of-mind, and empathy networks. Among intrusive mothers, left NAcc and right amygdala were functionally correlated with pro-action areas. Sorting points into neighborhood (SPIN) analysis demonstrated that in the synchronous group, left NAcc and right amygdala activations showed clearer

  3. Cartilage Degeneration, Subchondral Mineral and Meniscal Mineral Densities in Hartley and Strain 13 Guinea Pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yubo; Scannell, Brian P; Honeycutt, Patrick R; Mauerhan, David R; H, James Norton; Hanley Jr, Edward N

    2015-01-01

    Osteoarthritis is a joint disease involved in articular cartilage, subchondral bone, meniscus and synovial membrane. This study sought to examine cartilage degeneration, subchondral bone mineral density (BMD) and meniscal mineral density (MD) in male Hartley, female Hartley and female strain 13 guinea pigs to determine the association of cartilage degeneration with subchondral BMD and meniscal MD. Cartilage degeneration, subchondral BMD and meniscal MD in 12 months old guinea pigs were examined with histochemistry, X-ray densitometry and calcium analysis. We found that male Hartley guinea pigs had more severe cartilage degeneration, subchondral BMD and meniscal MD than female Hartley guinea pigs, but not female strain 13 guinea pigs. Female strain 13 guinea pigs had more severe cartilage degeneration and higher subchondral BMD, but not meniscal MD, than female Hartley guinea pigs. These findings indicate that higher subchondral BMD, not meniscal MD, is associated with more severe cartilage degeneration in the guinea pigs and suggest that abnormal subchondral BMD may be a therapeutic target for OA treatment. These findings also indicate that the pathogenesis of OA in the male guinea pigs and female guinea pigs are different. Female strain 13 guinea pig may be used to study female gender-specific pathogenesis of OA. PMID:26401159

  4. A new hydrogel for the conservative treatment of meniscal lesions: a randomized controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zorzi, Claudio; Rigotti, Stefano; Screpis, Daniele; Giordan, Nicola; Piovan, Gianluca

    2015-01-01

    this study aimed to investigate the efficacy of intra-articular (IA) administration of a hydrogel formulation obtained from a hyaluronic acid (HA) derivative (HYADD4(®)) in the management of meniscal tears and in meniscal tear repair. fifty subjects with degenerative meniscal tears were enrolled into this single-site, observer-blind, parallel-group study. Clinical evaluations were performed at baseline and after 14, 30 and 60 days. Clinical outcomes included: pain reduction (Visual Analog Scale), improvement of knee functionality (WOMAC questionnaire), reduction in length and depth of the meniscal lesion (MRI-confirmed) and SF-36 questionnaire scores. Local tolerability and safety were also investigated. a significant reduction in VAS pain (p< 0.001) in favor of HYADD4(®) was recorded at day 14 and maintained at all the follow-up assessments. Data on knee functionality were in line with the VAS pain assessment results. A significant reduction in length and depth of the meniscal lesion, assessed using MRI, was found in the HYADD4(®) group compared to the control group (p<0.001). the results of this study may indicate a new treatment option in the conservative management of patients complaining of pain due to meniscal tears. The MRI data suggest that the hydrogel formulation of HA used in this study may also play a role in the healing process of the lesion. Level I, prospective randomized clinical trial.

  5. Similar failure rate in immediate post-operative weight bearing versus protected weight bearing following meniscal repair on peripheral, vertical meniscal tears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, Bryan; Gronbeck, Kyle R; Yue, Ruixian Alexander; Tompkins, Marc A

    2017-08-16

    Post-operative weight bearing after meniscal repair is a point of debate among physicians. This study sought to evaluate whether patients adhering to an immediate WBAT rehabilitation programme have a higher failure rate compared to those adhering to a more traditional, protected, NWB status following meniscal repair. The null hypothesis was that there would be no difference in failure between the two groups. A retrospective review of meniscal repair patients greater than 5 years from surgery was performed for patients receiving meniscal repair treatment. Patients were categorized by post-surgical weight-bearing status, either NWB or WBAT, and then analysed for failure of repair. Failure was defined as re-operation on the torn meniscus. The study controlled for variables including age at surgery, sex, height, weight, and BMI, classification of tear type, acuity of the tear, repair location (medial or lateral), repair location within the meniscus, repair technique, and concomitant procedures. Re-operations were performed in 61 of 157 patients [38.9%]. There was no difference between weight-bearing groups for failure of meniscus repair (n.s.). The tears were acute vertical tears located in the posterior horn and body. For the 61 patients with re-operation, the average time to re-operation was 2.2 years with 10 [16%] > 5 years from surgery, 17 [28%] 2-5 years from surgery, and 34 [56%] bearing groups for rate of re-operation (n.s.). Weight bearing as tolerated after meniscal repair for peripheral, vertical tears does not result in a higher failure rate than traditional, non-weight bearing over a five-year follow-up period. The clinical relevance is that, based on these data, it may be appropriate to allow weight bearing as tolerated following meniscal repair of peripheral, vertical tears. Retrospective cohort study, Level III.

  6. Accuracy of 3-Tesla MR and MR arthrography in diagnosis of meniscal retear in the post-operative knee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magee, Thomas [NSI, Merritt Island, FL (United States); University of Central Florida School of Medicine, Orlando, FL (United States)

    2014-08-15

    This study assesses the accuracy of 3-Tesla (3-T) conventional MR imaging, 3-T MR arthrography, and the combined use of conventional MR and MR arthrography in the diagnosis of meniscal retears as compared with arthroscopy. The study also assess whether there are false-negative cases in which injected contrast does not extend into the meniscus despite a meniscal retear being seen on arthroscopy. One hundred consecutive knee MR arthrograms performed on patients with previous knee surgery were reviewed retrospectively. 3-T conventional MR imaging, 3-T MR arthrography, and the combined use of conventional MR and MR arthrography were assessed for meniscal retears as compared with arthroscopy. The criterion used to diagnose a meniscal retear on MR arthrogram was injected contrast tracking into the meniscus. All patients underwent second-look arthroscopy. Seventy-four patients had conventional MR findings consistent with a meniscal retear. In 83 of the 100 patients, intraarticular contrast helped in demonstrating a retear. In ten patients, there were MR findings consistent with a meniscal retear despite intra-articular contrast not tracking into the meniscus. Ninety-four of the 100 patients had meniscal retears on second-look arthroscopy. Three-Tesla conventional MR examination was 78 % sensitive and 75 % specific, MR arthrogram examination was 88 % sensitive and 100 % specific, and the combined use of MR and MR arthrogram imaging was 98 % sensitive and 75 % specific in the diagnosis of a meniscal retear. The combined use of 3-T MR and MR arthrography allows for high sensitivity and specificity in meniscal retear detection. In some patients, intraarticular contrast will not track into a meniscal retear. When MR findings are consistent with a meniscal retear but contrast does not extend into the meniscus, a meniscal retear is likely. (orig.)

  7. The Effect of Covalently-Attached ATRP-Synthesized Polymers on Membrane Stability and Cytoprotection in Human Erythrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clafshenkel, William P; Murata, Hironobu; Andersen, Jill; Creeger, Yehuda; Koepsel, Richard R; Russell, Alan J

    2016-01-01

    Erythrocytes have been described as advantageous drug delivery vehicles. In order to ensure an adequate circulation half-life, erythrocytes may benefit from protective enhancements that maintain membrane integrity and neutralize oxidative damage of membrane proteins that otherwise facilitate their premature clearance from circulation. Surface modification of erythrocytes using rationally designed polymers, synthesized via atom-transfer radical polymerization (ATRP), may further expand the field of membrane-engineered red blood cells. This study describes the fate of ATRP-synthesized polymers that were covalently attached to human erythrocytes as well as the effect of membrane engineering on cell stability under physiological and oxidative conditions in vitro. The biocompatible, membrane-reactive polymers were homogenously retained on the periphery of modified erythrocytes for at least 24 hours. Membrane engineering stabilized the erythrocyte membrane and effectively neutralized oxidative species, even in the absence of free-radical scavenger-containing polymers. The targeted functionalization of Band 3 protein by NHS-pDMAA-Cy3 polymers stabilized its monomeric form preventing aggregation in the presence of the crosslinking reagent, bis(sulfosuccinimidyl)suberate (BS3). A free radical scavenging polymer, NHS-pDMAA-TEMPO˙, provided additional protection of surface modified erythrocytes in an in vitro model of oxidative stress. Preserving or augmenting cytoprotective mechanisms that extend circulation half-life is an important consideration for the use of red blood cells for drug delivery in various pathologies, as they are likely to encounter areas of imbalanced oxidative stress as they circuit the vascular system.

  8. The Effect of Covalently-Attached ATRP-Synthesized Polymers on Membrane Stability and Cytoprotection in Human Erythrocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William P Clafshenkel

    Full Text Available Erythrocytes have been described as advantageous drug delivery vehicles. In order to ensure an adequate circulation half-life, erythrocytes may benefit from protective enhancements that maintain membrane integrity and neutralize oxidative damage of membrane proteins that otherwise facilitate their premature clearance from circulation. Surface modification of erythrocytes using rationally designed polymers, synthesized via atom-transfer radical polymerization (ATRP, may further expand the field of membrane-engineered red blood cells. This study describes the fate of ATRP-synthesized polymers that were covalently attached to human erythrocytes as well as the effect of membrane engineering on cell stability under physiological and oxidative conditions in vitro. The biocompatible, membrane-reactive polymers were homogenously retained on the periphery of modified erythrocytes for at least 24 hours. Membrane engineering stabilized the erythrocyte membrane and effectively neutralized oxidative species, even in the absence of free-radical scavenger-containing polymers. The targeted functionalization of Band 3 protein by NHS-pDMAA-Cy3 polymers stabilized its monomeric form preventing aggregation in the presence of the crosslinking reagent, bis(sulfosuccinimidylsuberate (BS3. A free radical scavenging polymer, NHS-pDMAA-TEMPO˙, provided additional protection of surface modified erythrocytes in an in vitro model of oxidative stress. Preserving or augmenting cytoprotective mechanisms that extend circulation half-life is an important consideration for the use of red blood cells for drug delivery in various pathologies, as they are likely to encounter areas of imbalanced oxidative stress as they circuit the vascular system.

  9. Meniscal allograft transplantation. Part 1: systematic review of graft biology, graft shrinkage, graft extrusion, graft sizing, and graft fixation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samitier, Gonzalo; Alentorn-Geli, Eduard; Taylor, Dean C; Rill, Brian; Lock, Terrence; Moutzouros, Vasilius; Kolowich, Patricia

    2015-01-01

    To provide a systematic review of the literature regarding five topics in meniscal allograft transplantation: graft biology, shrinkage, extrusion, sizing, and fixation. A systematic literature search was conducted using the PubMed (MEDLINE), ScienceDirect, and EBSCO-CINAHL databases. Articles were classified only in one topic, but information contained could be reported into other topics. Information was classified according to type of study (animal, in vitro human, and in vivo human) and level of evidence (for in vivo human studies). Sixty-two studies were finally included: 30 biology, 3 graft shrinkage, 11 graft extrusion, 17 graft size, and 6 graft fixation (some studies were categorized in more than one topic). These studies corresponded to 22 animal studies, 22 in vitro human studies, and 23 in vivo human studies (7 level II, 10 level III, and 6 level IV). The principal conclusions were as follows: (a) Donor cells decrease after MAT and grafts are repopulated with host cells form synovium; (b) graft preservation alters collagen network (deep freezing) and causes cell apoptosis with loss of viable cells (cryopreservation); (c) graft shrinkage occurs mainly in lyophilized and gamma-irradiated grafts (less with cryopreservation); (d) graft extrusion is common but has no clinical/functional implications; (e) overall, MRI is not superior to plain radiograph for graft sizing; (f) graft width size matching is more important than length size matching; (g) height appears to be the most important factor influencing meniscal size; (h) bone fixation better restores contact mechanics than suture fixation, but there are no differences for pullout strength or functional results; and (i) suture fixation has more risk of graft extrusion compared to bone fixation. Systematic review of level II-IV studies, Level IV.

  10. How Does Adult Attachment Affect Human Recognition of Love-related and Sex-related Stimuli: An ERP Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Juan; Chen, Xin; Liu, Jinqun; Yao, Fangshu; Huang, Jiani; Ndasauka, Yamikani; Ma, Ru; Zhang, Yuting; Lan, Jing; Liu, Lu; Fang, Xiaoyi

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, we investigated the relationship among three emotion-motivation systems (adult attachment, romantic love, and sex). We recorded event-related potentials in 37 healthy volunteers who had experienced romantic love while they viewed SEX, LOVE, FRIEND, SPORT, and NEUTRAL images. We also measured adult attachment styles, level of passionate love and sexual attitudes. As expected, results showed that, firstly, response to love-related image-stimuli and sex-related image-stimuli on the electrophysiological data significantly different on N1, N2, and positive slow wave (PSW) components. Secondly, the different adult attachment styles affected individuals’ recognition processing in response to love-related and sex-related images, especially, to sex-related images. Further analysis showed that voltages elicited by fearful attachment style individuals were significantly lower than voltages elicited by secure and dismissing attachment style individuals on sex-related images at frontal sites, on N1 and N2 components. Thirdly, from behavior data, we found that adult attachment styles were not significantly related to any dimension of sexual attitudes but were significantly related to passionate love scale (PLS) total points. Thus, the behavior results were not in line with the electrophysiological results. The present study proved that adult attachment styles might mediate individuals’ lust and attraction systems. PMID:27199830

  11. An Extracellular Cell-Attached Pullulanase Confers Branched α-Glucan Utilization in Human Gut Lactobacillus acidophilus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Møller, Marie S; Goh, Yong Jun; Rasmussen, Kasper Bøwig; Cypryk, Wojciech; Celebioglu, Hasan Ufuk; Klaenhammer, Todd R; Svensson, Birte; Abou Hachem, Maher

    2017-06-15

    Of the few predicted extracellular glycan-active enzymes, glycoside hydrolase family 13 subfamily 14 (GH13_14) pullulanases are the most common in human gut lactobacilli. These enzymes share a unique modular organization, not observed in other bacteria, featuring a catalytic module, two starch binding modules, a domain of unknown function, and a C-terminal surface layer association protein (SLAP) domain. Here, we explore the specificity of a representative of this group of pullulanases, Lactobacillus acidophilus Pul13_14 ( La Pul13_14), and its role in branched α-glucan metabolism in the well-characterized Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM, which is widely used as a probiotic. Growth experiments with L. acidophilus NCFM on starch-derived branched substrates revealed a preference for α-glucans with short branches of about two to three glucosyl moieties over amylopectin with longer branches. Cell-attached debranching activity was measurable in the presence of α-glucans but was repressed by glucose. The debranching activity is conferred exclusively by La Pul13_14 and is abolished in a mutant strain lacking a functional La Pul13_14 gene. Hydrolysis kinetics of recombinant La Pul13_14 confirmed the preference for short-branched α-glucan oligomers consistent with the growth data. Curiously, this enzyme displayed the highest catalytic efficiency and the lowest K m reported for a pullulanase. Inhibition kinetics revealed mixed inhibition by β-cyclodextrin, suggesting the presence of additional glucan binding sites besides the active site of the enzyme, which may contribute to the unprecedented substrate affinity. The enzyme also displays high thermostability and higher activity in the acidic pH range, reflecting adaptation to the physiologically challenging conditions in the human gut. IMPORTANCE Starch is one of the most abundant glycans in the human diet. Branched α-1,6-glucans in dietary starch and glycogen are nondegradable by human enzymes and constitute a

  12. Cost effectiveness of meniscal allograft for torn discoid lateral meniscus in young women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramme, Austin J; Strauss, Eric J; Jazrawi, Laith; Gold, Heather T

    2016-09-01

    A discoid meniscus is more prone to tears than a normal meniscus. Patients with a torn discoid lateral meniscus are at increased risk for early onset osteoarthritis requiring total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Optimal management for this condition is controversial given the up-front cost difference between the two treatment options: the more expensive meniscal allograft transplantation compared with standard partial meniscectomy. We hypothesize that meniscal allograft transplantation following excision of a torn discoid lateral meniscus is more cost-effective compared with partial meniscectomy alone because allografts will extend the time to TKA. A decision analytic Markov model was created to compare the cost effectiveness of two treatments for symptomatic, torn discoid lateral meniscus: meniscal allograft and partial meniscectomy. Probability estimates and event rates were derived from the scientific literature, and costs and benefits were discounted by 3%. One-way sensitivity analyses were performed to test model robustness. Over 25 years, the partial meniscectomy strategy cost $10,430, whereas meniscal allograft cost on average $4040 more, at $14,470. Partial meniscectomy postponed TKA an average of 12.5 years, compared with 17.30 years for meniscal allograft, an increase of 4.8 years. Allograft cost $842 per-year-gained in time to TKA. Meniscal allografts have been shown to reduce pain and improve function in patients with discoid lateral meniscus tears. Though more costly, meniscal allografts may be more effective than partial meniscectomy in delaying TKA in this model. Additional future long term clinical studies will provide more insight into optimal surgical options.

  13. Mechanisms underlying the attachment and spreading of human osteoblasts: from transient interactions to focal adhesions on vitronectin-grafted bioactive surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brun, Paola; Scorzeto, Michele; Vassanelli, Stefano; Castagliuolo, Ignazio; Palù, Giorgio; Ghezzo, Francesca; Messina, Grazia M L; Iucci, Giovanna; Battaglia, Valentina; Sivolella, Stefano; Bagno, Andrea; Polzonetti, Giovanni; Marletta, Giovanni; Dettin, Monica

    2013-04-01

    The features of implant devices and the reactions of bone-derived cells to foreign surfaces determine implant success during osseointegration. In an attempt to better understand the mechanisms underlying osteoblasts attachment and spreading, in this study adhesive peptides containing the fibronectin sequence motif for integrin binding (Arg-Gly-Asp, RGD) or mapping the human vitronectin protein (HVP) were grafted on glass and titanium surfaces with or without chemically induced controlled immobilization. As shown by total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy, human osteoblasts develop adhesion patches only on specifically immobilized peptides. Indeed, cells quickly develop focal adhesions on RGD-grafted surfaces, while HVP peptide promotes filopodia, structures involved in cellular spreading. As indicated by immunocytochemistry and quantitative polymerase chain reaction, focal adhesions kinase activation is delayed on HVP peptides with respect to RGD while an osteogenic phenotypic response appears within 24h on osteoblasts cultured on both peptides. Cellular pathways underlying osteoblasts attachment are, however, different. As demonstrated by adhesion blocking assays, integrins are mainly involved in osteoblast adhesion to RGD peptide, while HVP selects osteoblasts for attachment through proteoglycan-mediated interactions. Thus an interfacial layer of an endosseous device grafted with specifically immobilized HVP peptide not only selects the attachment and supports differentiation of osteoblasts but also promotes cellular migration. Copyright © 2012 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. MR accuracy and arthroscopic incidence of meniscal radial tears

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magee, Thomas; Shapiro, Marc; Williams, David [Department of Radiology, Neuroimaging Institute, 27 East Hibiscus Blvd., Melbourne, FL 32901 (United States)

    2002-12-01

    A meniscal radial tear is a vertical tear that involves the inner meniscal margin. The tear is most frequent in the middle third of the lateral meniscus and may extend outward in any direction. We report (1) the arthroscopic incidence of radial tears, (2) MR signs that aid in the detection of radial tears and (3) our prospective accuracy in detection of radial tears. Design and patients. Three musculoskeletal radiologists prospectively read 200 consecutive MR examinations of the knee that went on to arthroscopy by one orthopedic surgeon. MR images were assessed for location and MR characteristics of radial tears. MR criteria used for diagnosis of a radial tear were those outlined by Tuckman et al.: truncation, abnormal morphology and/or lack of continuity or absence of the meniscus on one or more MR images. An additional criterion used was abnormal increased signal in that area on fat-saturated proton density or T2-weighted coronal and sagittal images. Prospective MR readings were correlated with the arthroscopic findings.Results. Of the 200 consecutive knee arthroscopies, 28 patients had radial tears reported arthroscopically (14% incidence). MR readings prospectively demonstrated 19 of the 28 radial tears (68% sensitivity) when the criteria for diagnosis of a radial tear were truncation or abnormal morphology of the meniscus. With the use of the additional criterion of increased signal in the area of abnormal morphology on fat-saturated T2-weighted or proton density weighted sequences, the prospective sensitivity was 25 of 28 radial tears (89% sensitivity). There were no radial tears described in MR reports that were not demonstrated on arthroscopy (i.e., there were no false positive MR readings of radial tears in these 200 patients). Radial tears are commonly seen at arthroscopy. There was a 14% incidence in this series of 200 patients who underwent arthroscopy. Prospective detection of radial tears was 68% as compared with arthroscopy when the criteria as

  15. MR accuracy and arthroscopic incidence of meniscal radial tears

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magee, Thomas; Shapiro, Marc; Williams, David

    2002-01-01

    A meniscal radial tear is a vertical tear that involves the inner meniscal margin. The tear is most frequent in the middle third of the lateral meniscus and may extend outward in any direction. We report (1) the arthroscopic incidence of radial tears, (2) MR signs that aid in the detection of radial tears and (3) our prospective accuracy in detection of radial tears. Design and patients. Three musculoskeletal radiologists prospectively read 200 consecutive MR examinations of the knee that went on to arthroscopy by one orthopedic surgeon. MR images were assessed for location and MR characteristics of radial tears. MR criteria used for diagnosis of a radial tear were those outlined by Tuckman et al.: truncation, abnormal morphology and/or lack of continuity or absence of the meniscus on one or more MR images. An additional criterion used was abnormal increased signal in that area on fat-saturated proton density or T2-weighted coronal and sagittal images. Prospective MR readings were correlated with the arthroscopic findings.Results. Of the 200 consecutive knee arthroscopies, 28 patients had radial tears reported arthroscopically (14% incidence). MR readings prospectively demonstrated 19 of the 28 radial tears (68% sensitivity) when the criteria for diagnosis of a radial tear were truncation or abnormal morphology of the meniscus. With the use of the additional criterion of increased signal in the area of abnormal morphology on fat-saturated T2-weighted or proton density weighted sequences, the prospective sensitivity was 25 of 28 radial tears (89% sensitivity). There were no radial tears described in MR reports that were not demonstrated on arthroscopy (i.e., there were no false positive MR readings of radial tears in these 200 patients). Radial tears are commonly seen at arthroscopy. There was a 14% incidence in this series of 200 patients who underwent arthroscopy. Prospective detection of radial tears was 68% as compared with arthroscopy when the criteria as

  16. Envelope conformational changes induced by human immunodeficiency virus type 1 attachment inhibitors prevent CD4 binding and downstream entry events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Hsu-Tso; Fan, Li; Nowicka-Sans, Beata; McAuliffe, Brian; Li, Chang-Ben; Yamanaka, Gregory; Zhou, Nannan; Fang, Hua; Dicker, Ira; Dalterio, Richard; Gong, Yi-Fei; Wang, Tao; Yin, Zhiwei; Ueda, Yasutsugu; Matiskella, John; Kadow, John; Clapham, Paul; Robinson, James; Colonno, Richard; Lin, Pin-Fang

    2006-04-01

    BMS-488043 is a small-molecule human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) CD4 attachment inhibitor with demonstrated clinical efficacy. The compound inhibits soluble CD4 (sCD4) binding to the 11 distinct HIV envelope gp120 proteins surveyed. Binding of BMS-488043 and that of sCD4 to gp120 are mutually exclusive, since increased concentrations of one can completely block the binding of the other without affecting the maximal gp120 binding capacity. Similarly, BMS-488043 inhibited virion envelope trimers from binding to sCD4-immunoglobulin G (IgG), with decreasing inhibition as the sCD4-IgG concentration increased, and BMS-488043 blocked the sCD4-induced exposure of the gp41 groove in virions. In both virion binding assays, BMS-488043 was active only when added prior to sCD4. Collectively, these results indicate that obstruction of gp120-sCD4 interactions is the primary inhibition mechanism of this compound and that compound interaction with envelope must precede CD4 binding. By three independent approaches, BMS-488043 was further shown to induce conformational changes within gp120 in both the CD4 and CCR5 binding regions. These changes likely prevent gp120-CD4 interactions and downstream entry events. However, BMS-488043 could only partially inhibit CD4 binding to an HIV variant containing a specific envelope truncation and altered gp120 conformation, despite effectively inhibiting the pseudotyped virus infection. Taken together, BMS-488043 inhibits viral entry primarily through altering the envelope conformation and preventing CD4 binding, and other downstream entry events could also be inhibited as a result of these induced conformational changes.

  17. The relationship between prevalent medial meniscal intrasubstance signal changes and incident medial meniscal tears in women over a 1-year period assessed with 3.0 T MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crema, Michel D.; Hunter, David J.; Roemer, Frank W.; Li, Ling; Marra, Monica D.; Nogueira-Barbosa, Marcello H.; Hellio Le Graverand, Marie-Pierre; Wyman, Bradley T.; Guermazi, Ali

    2011-01-01

    Intrasubstance meniscal signal changes not reaching the articular surface on fast spin echo (FSE) sequences are considered to represent mucoid degeneration on MRI. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association of prevalent intrasubstance signal changes with incident tears of the medial meniscus detected on 3.0 T MRI over a 1-year period. A total of 161 women aged ≥40 years participated in a longitudinal 1-year observational study of knee osteoarthritis. MRI (3.0 T) was performed at baseline and 12-month follow-up. The anterior horn, body, and posterior horn of the medial meniscus were scored by two experienced musculoskeletal radiologists using the Boston-Leeds Osteoarthritis Knee Score (BLOKS) system. Four grades were used to describe the meniscal morphology: grade 0 (normal), grade 1 (intrasubstance signal changes not reaching the articular surface), grade 2 (single tears), and grade 3 (complex tears and maceration). Fisher's exact test and the Cochran-Armitage trend test were performed to evaluate whether baseline intrasubstance signal changes (grade 1) predict incident meniscal tears/maceration (grades 2 and/or 3) in the same subregion of the medial meniscus, when compared to subregions without pathology as the reference group (grade 0). Medial meniscal intrasubstance signal changes at baseline did not predict tears at follow-up when evaluating the anterior and posterior horns (left-sided p-values 0.06 and 0.59, respectively). No incident tears were detected in the body. We could not demonstrate an association between prevalent medial meniscal intrasubstance signal changes with incident tears over a 1-year period. (orig.)

  18. The relationship between prevalent medial meniscal intrasubstance signal changes and incident medial meniscal tears in women over a 1-year period assessed with 3.0 T MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crema, Michel D. [Boston University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Quantitative Imaging Center, Boston, MA (United States); Ribeirao Preto School of Medicine, University of Sao Paulo (USP), Department of Biomechanics, Medicine and Rehabilitation of the Locomotor Apparatus, and Department of Internal Medicine, Radiology Division, Ribeirao Preto (Brazil); Institute of Diagnostic Imaging (IDI), Ribeirao Preto (Brazil); Hunter, David J. [The University of Sydney, Sydney School of Medicine, Sydney (Australia); Roemer, Frank W. [Boston University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Quantitative Imaging Center, Boston, MA (United States); Klinikum Augsburg, Department of Radiology, Augsburg (Germany); Li, Ling [New England Baptist Hospital, Division of Research, Boston, MA (United States); Marra, Monica D. [Boston University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Quantitative Imaging Center, Boston, MA (United States); Institute of Diagnostic Imaging (IDI), Ribeirao Preto (Brazil); Nogueira-Barbosa, Marcello H. [Ribeirao Preto School of Medicine, University of Sao Paulo (USP), Department of Biomechanics, Medicine and Rehabilitation of the Locomotor Apparatus, and Department of Internal Medicine, Radiology Division, Ribeirao Preto (Brazil); Hellio Le Graverand, Marie-Pierre; Wyman, Bradley T. [Pfizer Global Research and Development, New London, CT (United States); Guermazi, Ali [Boston University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Quantitative Imaging Center, Boston, MA (United States)

    2011-08-15

    Intrasubstance meniscal signal changes not reaching the articular surface on fast spin echo (FSE) sequences are considered to represent mucoid degeneration on MRI. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association of prevalent intrasubstance signal changes with incident tears of the medial meniscus detected on 3.0 T MRI over a 1-year period. A total of 161 women aged {>=}40 years participated in a longitudinal 1-year observational study of knee osteoarthritis. MRI (3.0 T) was performed at baseline and 12-month follow-up. The anterior horn, body, and posterior horn of the medial meniscus were scored by two experienced musculoskeletal radiologists using the Boston-Leeds Osteoarthritis Knee Score (BLOKS) system. Four grades were used to describe the meniscal morphology: grade 0 (normal), grade 1 (intrasubstance signal changes not reaching the articular surface), grade 2 (single tears), and grade 3 (complex tears and maceration). Fisher's exact test and the Cochran-Armitage trend test were performed to evaluate whether baseline intrasubstance signal changes (grade 1) predict incident meniscal tears/maceration (grades 2 and/or 3) in the same subregion of the medial meniscus, when compared to subregions without pathology as the reference group (grade 0). Medial meniscal intrasubstance signal changes at baseline did not predict tears at follow-up when evaluating the anterior and posterior horns (left-sided p-values 0.06 and 0.59, respectively). No incident tears were detected in the body. We could not demonstrate an association between prevalent medial meniscal intrasubstance signal changes with incident tears over a 1-year period. (orig.)

  19. Gonococcal attachment to eukaryotic cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    James, J.F.; Lammel, C.J.; Draper, D.L.; Brown, D.A.; Sweet, R.L.; Brooks, G.F.

    1983-01-01

    The attachment of Neisseria gonorrhoeae to eukaryotic cells grown in tissue culture was analyzed by use of light and electron microscopy and by labeling of the bacteria with [ 3 H]- and [ 14 C]adenine. Isogenic piliated and nonpiliated N. gonorrhoeae from opaque and transparent colonies were studied. The results of light microscopy studies showed that the gonococci attached to cells of human origin, including Flow 2000, HeLa 229, and HEp 2. Studies using radiolabeled gonococci gave comparable results. Piliated N. gonorrhoeae usually attached in larger numbers than nonpiliated organisms, and those from opaque colonies attached more often than isogenic variants from transparent colonies. Day-to-day variation in rate of attachment was observed. Scanning electron microscopy studies showed the gonococcal attachment to be specific for microvilli of the host cells. It is concluded that more N. gonorrhoeae from opaque colonies, as compared with isogenic variants from transparent colonies, attach to eukaryotic cells grown in tissue culture

  20. Ultrasound-guided percutaneous drainage of meniscal cysts: preliminary clinical experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacMahon, P.J.; Brennan, D.D.; Duke, D.; Forde, S.; Eustace, S.J.

    2007-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate the efficacy of ultrasound-guided percutaneous drainage of symptomatic meniscal cysts. Materials and methods: Patients with lateral knee joint tenderness and swelling and confirmed meniscal cyst on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were consecutively enrolled for ultrasound-guided percutaneous cyst aspiration. Cysts were injected with local anaesthetic and steroid before completion of procedure. All 18 patients (all male, average age 33 years) were subsequently followed up (average time 10 months) and meniscal cyst symptoms assessed by questionnaire. Fischer's exact test used to analyse the data. Results: In every case the procedure was well tolerated, and each patient indicated that they would be willing to have a repeat procedure in the future. Ten patients reported complete resolution of symptoms secondary to therapeutic cyst aspiration and had resumed participation in high-performance sport. Two patients reported a satisfactory sustained response, reporting only occasional 'twinges of pain'. In the remaining six patients, symptoms returned after an initial pain-free period. The pain-free period ranged from 1-8 weeks. In this study, patient outcome did not significantly correlate with any meniscal cyst characteristic. Conclusion: Ultrasound-guided percutaneous aspiration of meniscal cysts is a well-tolerated, simple, and safe procedure. In this small patient series, it was associated with positive early results with favourable outcomes in the mid to long-term. It should be considered in patients unsuitable for surgical debridement or as an interim therapy if surgery is delayed or postponed

  1. A comparison of arthrography to clinical diagnostics for diagnosing meniscal lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neuer, H.

    1982-01-01

    A comparative investigation as to the exactness of clinical and arthrographical diagnostics was carried out on 176 patients who were clinically examined and operated on in the period of 1972-1980. Using solely clinical diagnostics, the total rate of exactness was 90,9%, the exactness regarding the internal meniscal lesion being significantly higher (94.2%) than that regarding external meniscal lesion (76.7%). Using solely arthrographic diagnostics, the total rate of exactness was 82%, the rate for internal meniscus being significantly lower (83.9%) than that obtained using clinical diagnostics. As for the external meniscus, the exactness of arthrography differs only slightly from clinical diagnostics with 74.7%. The most frequent sources of error in arthorgraphy were found to be lesions of the posterior horn at the internal meniscus. In cases of external meniscal lesions, especially when an internal meniscal lesion was existing at the same time, both examination methods failed in 5 cases. For routine diagnosing of meniscal lesions, arthrography is not necessary. An accurate clinical examination and anamnesis bring very good and exact results and should therefore be given absolute priority. (orig./MG) [de

  2. An anatomical study of normal meniscal roots with isotropic 3D MRI at 3 T

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ren Ahong; Zheng Zhuozhao; Shang Yao; Tian Chunyan

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To clarify the morphological features of normal meniscal roots on magnetic resonance (MR) imaging with an isotropic 3D proton density-weighted (PDW) sequence. Materials: 3D PDW MR was performed in sixty-two patients at 3 T before knee arthroscopy. MR images of 34 normal medial menisci and 33 intact lateral menisci confirmed by arthroscopy were retrospectively evaluated. MR signals, insertion sites, dimensions and courses of four meniscal roots were recorded. Results: The anterior root of medial meniscus (ARMM) was typically hypointense, while the posterior root of medial meniscus (PRMM) and the anterior root of lateral meniscus (ARLM) were prone to be hyperintense or showing a comblike signal, and the posterior root of lateral meniscus (PRLM) was usually hypointense or comblike on PDW MR images. ARMM and PRLM had more complex and diverse insertion patterns than ARLM and PRMM. There were significant statistical differences of the lengths, widths, heights and course angles among four meniscal roots (all P < 0.001). Conclusions: The signal intensity of each meniscal root can be hypointense, hyperintense, or comblike on 3D PDW MR images. ARMM and PRLM have more complex and diverse insertion patterns than ARLM and PRMM. The dimensions and courses of four meniscal roots all differ.

  3. Large regional differences in incidence of arthroscopic meniscal procedures in the public and private sector in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hare, Kristoffer Borbjerg; Vinther, Jesper Høeg; Lohmander, L Stefan

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: A recent study reported a large increase in the number of meniscal procedures from 2000 to 2011 in Denmark. We examined the nation-wide distribution of meniscal procedures performed in the private and public sector in Denmark since different incentives may be present and the use...... of these procedures may differ from region to region. SETTING: We included data on all patients who underwent an arthroscopic meniscal procedure performed in the public or private sector in Denmark. PARTICIPANTS: Data were retrieved from the Danish National Patient Register on patients who underwent arthroscopic...... for public and private procedures for each region. RESULTS: Incidence of meniscal procedures increased at private and at public hospitals. The private sector accounted for the largest relative and absolute increase, rising from an incidence of 1 in 2000 to 98 in 2011. In 2011, the incidence of meniscal...

  4. MRI imaging of displaced meniscal tears: Report of a case highlighting new potential pitfalls of the MRI signs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prasad, Abhishek; Brar, Rahat; Rana, Shaleen

    2014-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has been found to be an excellent imaging tool for meniscal injuries. Various MRI signs have been described to detect displaced meniscal injuries, specifically the bucket-handle tears. Although these signs are quite helpful in diagnosing meniscal tears, various pitfalls have also been reported for these signs. Double anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) sign refers to presence of a linear hypointense soft tissue anterior to the ACL, which represented the flipped bucket-handle tear of the meniscus. Disproportional posterior horn and flipped meniscus signs represent asymmetrically thickened horns of the menisci due to overlying displaced meniscal fragments. We report a case wherein MRI of the knee showed tear and displacement of the medial patellofemoral ligament (MPFL) and vastus medialis complex, medial collateral ligament (MCL), and posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) mimicking these signs. To our knowledge, internally displaced MPFL and MCLs have not been described as mimics for displaced meniscal fragments

  5. Systemic therapy and attachment narratives: Attachment Narrative Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dallos, Rudi; Vetere, Arlene

    2014-10-01

    This article outlines an integration of attachment theory with narrative theory and systemic theory and practice: Attachment Narrative Therapy (ANT). This integration offers a more powerful explanatory formulation of the development and maintenance of human distress in relationships, families and communities, and gives direction to psychotherapeutic intervention. © The Author(s) 2014.

  6. Exercise therapy versus arthroscopic partial meniscectomy for degenerative meniscal tear in middle aged patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kise, Nina Jullum; Risberg, May Arna; Stensrud, Silje

    2016-01-01

    Objective To determine if exercise therapy is superior to arthroscopic partial meniscectomy for knee function in middle aged patients with degenerative meniscal tears. Design Randomised controlled superiority trial. Setting Orthopaedic departments at two public hospitals and two physiotherapy...... clinics in Norway. Participants 140 adults, mean age 49.5 years (range 35.7-59.9), with degenerative medial meniscal tear verified by magnetic resonance imaging. 96% had no definitive radiographic evidence of osteoarthritis. Interventions 12 week supervised exercise therapy alone or arthroscopic partial....... Our results should encourage clinicians and middle aged patients with degenerative meniscal tear and no definitive radiographic evidence of osteoarthritis to consider supervised exercise therapy as a treatment option. Trial registration www.clinicaltrials.gov (NCT01002794)....

  7. Exercise therapy versus arthroscopic partial meniscectomy for degenerative meniscal tear in middle aged patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kise, Nina Jullum; Risberg, May Arna; Stensrud, Silje

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine if exercise therapy is superior to arthroscopic partial meniscectomy for knee function in middle aged patients with degenerative meniscal tears. DESIGN: Randomised controlled superiority trial. SETTING: Orthopaedic departments at two public hospitals and two physiotherapy...... clinics in Norway. PARTICIPANTS: 140 adults, mean age 49.5 years (range 35.7-59.9), with degenerative medial meniscal tear verified by magnetic resonance imaging. 96% had no definitive radiographic evidence of osteoarthritis. INTERVENTIONS: 12 week supervised exercise therapy alone or arthroscopic partial....... Our results should encourage clinicians and middle aged patients with degenerative meniscal tear and no definitive radiographic evidence of osteoarthritis to consider supervised exercise therapy as a treatment option.Trial registration www.clinicaltrials.gov (NCT01002794)....

  8. Successful anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction and meniscal repair in osteogenesis imperfecta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jae-Young; Cho, Tae-Joon; Lee, Myung Chul; Han, Hyuk-Soo

    2018-03-20

    A case of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction with meniscal repair in an osteogenesis imperfecta patient is reported. A 24-year-old female with osteogenesis imperfecta type 1a suffered from a valgus extension injury resulting in tear of ACL and medial meniscus. She underwent an arthroscopic-assisted ACL reconstruction and medial meniscus repair. Meniscal tear at the menisco-capsular junction of the posterior horn of medial meniscus was repaired with three absorbable sutures via inside-out technique. ACL reconstruction was then performed with a bone-patellar tendon-bone allograft. The patient was followed up for 1 year with intact ACL grafts and healed medial meniscus. This case report showed that successful ACL reconstruction and meniscal repair is possible in an osteogenesis imperfecta patient.Level of evidence V.

  9. MR diagnosis of meniscal tears of the knee: analysis of error patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Dyck, Pieter; Gielen, Jan; D'Anvers, Jan; Vanhoenacker, Filip; Dossche, Lieven; Van Gestel, Jozef; Parizel, Paul M

    2007-11-01

    Despite high accuracy of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for diagnosing meniscal tears, MR findings do not always agree with surgical findings. We performed a blinded, retrospective study to analyze the nature and frequency of errors in the MR diagnosis of meniscal tears. Medical records of 100 consecutive patients who underwent MR and arthroscopy of the knee at our institution were reviewed. Twelve patients underwent prior meniscal surgery. Twenty-three patients had 27 discrepancies between MR and surgical findings. These were independently reviewed by two additional musculoskeletal radiologists in a double blinded fashion. Original incorrect diagnoses were categorized as either unavoidable, interpretation error or equivocal for meniscal tear. MR accuracy was 88% for the medial and 85% for the lateral meniscus. Of 27 incorrect MR diagnoses, 12 (44%) were unavoidable, 10 (37%) equivocal and 5 (19%) interpretation errors. Of the 67 medial meniscal tears, 12 (18%) were missed. Eight (67%) of these 12 were categorized as equivocal, including three postoperative menisci. Of 30 lateral tears, 12 (40%) were missed, 7 (58%) of which were categorized as unavoidable. Of these 12, 11 (92%) showed fraying of the inner edge, which was shaved at arthroscopy (n = 8) or had stable tear treated conservatively (n = 3). There were three false-positive diagnoses, all occuring in the lateral meniscus, two of which were unavoidable and one interpretation error. Of all missed lateral meniscal tears, most are unavoidable and related to confusion between what represents fraying and what represents a tear. Unavoidable false-positive diagnoses are infrequent and may be related to incomplete arthroscopic evaluation. Subtle or equivocal findings still make MR diagnosis difficult, even for experienced radiologists.

  10. Evaluation of Meniscal Mechanics and Proteoglycan Content in a Modified Anterior Cruciate Ligament Transection Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischenich, Kristine M.; Coatney, Garrett A.; Haverkamp, John H.; Button, Keith D.; DeCamp, Charlie; Haut, Roger C.; Haut Donahue, Tammy L.

    2014-01-01

    Post-traumatic osteoarthritis (PTOA) develops as a result of traumatic loading that causes tears of the soft tissues in the knee. A modified transection model, where the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) and both menisci were transected, was used on skeletally mature Flemish Giant rabbits. Gross morphological assessments, elastic moduli, and glycosaminoglycan (GAG) coverage of the menisci were determined to quantify the amount of tissue damage 12 weeks post injury. This study is one of the first to monitor meniscal changes after inducing combined meniscal and ACL transections. A decrease in elastic moduli as well as a decrease in GAG coverage was seen. PMID:24749144

  11. C_1_8-attached membrane funnel-based spray ionization mass spectrometry for quantification of anti-diabetic drug from human plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Wan; Chen, Xiangfeng; Wong, Y.-L. Elaine; Hung, Y.-L. Winnie; Wang, Ze; Deng, Liulin; Dominic Chan, T.-W.

    2016-01-01

    In this work, sorbent-attached membrane funnel-based spray ionization mass spectrometry was explored for quantitative analysis of anti-diabetic drugs spiked in human plasma. C_1_8-attached membrane funnel was fabricated for in situ extraction and clean-up to alleviate matrix suppression effect in the ionization process. Repaglinide was used as a target analyte of anti-diabetic drugs. Under optimal working conditions, good linearity (R"2 > 0.99) was obtained in the concentration range of 1–100 ng mL"−"1. The method detection limit of target drugs spiked in the human plasma was around 0.30 ng mL"−"1. Through the application of an isotope-labeled internal standard, the signal fluctuation caused by residual background matrices was largely alleviated and the precision of measurement (RSD) was below 15%. The recovery of repaglinide for 5, 25, and 100 ng mL"−"1 of spiked human plasma matrixes ranged from 87% to 112%. The developed method was successfully applied to determine repaglinide in plasma volunteers who orally received a dose of drug association. Our results demonstrated that membrane funnel-based spray is a simple and sensitive method for rapid screening analysis of complex biological samples. - Highlights: • Sorbent attached membrane funnel based spray platform was used for drug determination in human plasma. • The matrix suppression effect of human plasma was largely eliminated. • The method was applied to determine repaglinide in plasma volunteers. • Membrane funnel-based spray is promising for analysis of biological samples.

  12. C{sub 18}-attached membrane funnel-based spray ionization mass spectrometry for quantification of anti-diabetic drug from human plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Wan [Department of Chemistry, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (Hong Kong); Chen, Xiangfeng, E-mail: xiangfchensdas@163.com [Department of Chemistry, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (Hong Kong); Shandong Analysis and Test Centre, Shandong Academy of Sciences, Jinan, Shandong (China); Wong, Y.-L. Elaine; Hung, Y.-L. Winnie; Wang, Ze; Deng, Liulin [Department of Chemistry, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (Hong Kong); Dominic Chan, T.-W., E-mail: twdchan@cuhk.edu.hk [Department of Chemistry, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (Hong Kong)

    2016-08-24

    In this work, sorbent-attached membrane funnel-based spray ionization mass spectrometry was explored for quantitative analysis of anti-diabetic drugs spiked in human plasma. C{sub 18}-attached membrane funnel was fabricated for in situ extraction and clean-up to alleviate matrix suppression effect in the ionization process. Repaglinide was used as a target analyte of anti-diabetic drugs. Under optimal working conditions, good linearity (R{sup 2} > 0.99) was obtained in the concentration range of 1–100 ng mL{sup −1}. The method detection limit of target drugs spiked in the human plasma was around 0.30 ng mL{sup −1}. Through the application of an isotope-labeled internal standard, the signal fluctuation caused by residual background matrices was largely alleviated and the precision of measurement (RSD) was below 15%. The recovery of repaglinide for 5, 25, and 100 ng mL{sup −1} of spiked human plasma matrixes ranged from 87% to 112%. The developed method was successfully applied to determine repaglinide in plasma volunteers who orally received a dose of drug association. Our results demonstrated that membrane funnel-based spray is a simple and sensitive method for rapid screening analysis of complex biological samples. - Highlights: • Sorbent attached membrane funnel based spray platform was used for drug determination in human plasma. • The matrix suppression effect of human plasma was largely eliminated. • The method was applied to determine repaglinide in plasma volunteers. • Membrane funnel-based spray is promising for analysis of biological samples.

  13. Epidemiology of isolated meniscal injury and its effect on performance in athletes from the National Basketball Association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Peter C; Starkey, Chad; Lombardo, Stephen; Vitti, Gary; Kharrazi, F Daniel

    2012-03-01

    The current incidence and outcomes of meniscal injury have not been quantified in professional athletes. To describe the incidence, risk, amount of time lost, and effect on performance for isolated meniscal injury in athletes from the National Basketball Association (NBA). Demographic factors predicting the risk of meniscal tears and the effect of injury in return to play were also investigated. Descriptive epidemiology study. A centralized database was queried to identify meniscal injuries occurring in the NBA over 21 seasons. The frequency of injury, time lost, game exposures, and incidence, rate, and risk were calculated. The preinjury and postinjury player efficiency rating (PER) was used to identify changes in player performance. We identified 129 isolated meniscal tears in NBA athletes during a 21-season span. From this number, 77 (59.7%) involved the lateral meniscus and 52 (40.3%) the medial meniscus. Injuries occurred more frequently in games. The lateral meniscus had a statistically significant higher injury rate. Both left and right knees were equally affected. The number of days missed for lateral meniscal tears and medial meniscal tears was 43.8 ± 35.7 days and 40.9 ± 29.7 days, respectively, and was not statistically different. There was a significant inverse relationship between age and rate of lateral meniscal tears, with lateral meniscal tears more likely to occur up to age 30 years; beyond that medial meniscal tears were more common. Players with a body mass index (BMI) greater than 25 had a significantly increased risk of meniscal tears compared with players with a BMI less than 25, specifically with an increased risk of lateral meniscal tears. Twenty-five players (19.4%) did not return to play. For those who did, upon returning to competition, there was no statistical change in PER from their preinjury status, and the mean number of seasons completed was 4.1 ± 3.7 seasons. The lateral meniscus is more frequently torn than the medial meniscus

  14. Longitudinal follow-up of patients with conservatively treated and arthroscopically repaired peripheral meniscal tears

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deutsch, A.L.; Mink, J.H.; Rothman, B.J.

    1989-01-01

    Tears involving the peripheral third of the meniscus represent an important subgroup of meniscal injuries due to their unique ability to heal by synovial ingrowth and vascular proliferation. Serial MR images were obtained in 14 patients with arthroscopically proved peripheral meniscal tears to assess changes in MR appearance associated with meniscal healing. Six patients were treated conservatively, and eight underwent arthroscopic repair. All patients were considered clinically stable and presumably healed based on commonly accepted orthopedic criteria. Persistent grade 3 signal was seen in all patients up to 6 months after injury. In two patients more than 14 months after repair, grade 3 signal was present but decreased. In no patient did the signal entirely resolve. The authors concluded that signal from conservatively treated and repaired meniscal tears may persist long after the tear has become asymptomatic and presumable healed. This likely reflects known histologic differences between the native meniscus and reparative fibrocartilage. Persistence of grade 3 signal should not be interpreted as reflective of nonhealing in patients with persistent symptoms or as evidence of another tear in those with recurrent symptoms

  15. Meniscal tissue regeneration in porous 50/50 copoly(L-lactide/epsilon-caprolactone) implants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Groot, J. H.; Zijlstra, F. M.; Kuipers, HW; Pennings, A. J.; Veth, RPH; Jansen, HWB

    Porous materials of a high-molecular-weight 50/50 copolymer of L-lactide and epsilon-caprolactone with different compression moduli were used for meniscal repair. In contrast to the previously used 4,4'-diphenylmethane and 1,6-trans-cyclohexane diisocyanates containing polyurethanes, degradation

  16. Meniscal replacement using a porous polymer prosthesis : A preliminary study in the dog

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veth, RPH; Jansen, HWB; Nielsen, HKL; deGroot, JH; Pennings, AJ

    A porous polyurethane prosthesis was used to replace the lateral meniscus in the dog. After an initial ingrowth of fibrous tissue, the prostheses became filled with tissue strongly resembling normal meniscal fibrocartilage. Although less severe than seen after total meniscectomy, cartilage

  17. Usefulness of turbo spin-echo MR imaging in meniscal tears of the knee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Gun Young; Choi, Chang Lak; Chung, Jin Young; Han, Tae Il; Jang, Hong Im; Kim, Ji Min; Han, Hyun Young; Song, Mun Kab; Yang, Chang Kyu

    1998-01-01

    To evaluate the usefulness and diagnostic accuracy of turbo spin-echo(TSE) proton-density and T2-weighted images of meniscal tears of the knee. We retrospectively evaluated the sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of TSE proton density and T2-weighted images of meniscal tears confirmed arthroscopically or surgically in 47 patients(98 menisci). The routine TSE parameters used in all patients were the dual echo sequence with sagittal proton density and T2-weighed images(4000/16, 90/5/2 [TR/effectiveTE/ETL/NEX]), and fat-suppressed coronal proton density and T2-weighted images. The chi-square test was used for statistical analysis. The sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of TSE proton density images for the detection of meniscal tears were 93.9%, 93.8%, and 93.9%, respectively, in the medial meniscus, and 92.9%, 91.4%, and 91.8% in the lateral. On T2-weighted images the corresponding figures were 87.9%, 8%, and 89.8%, respectively, in the medial meniscus, and 64.3%, 91.4%, and 83.7% in the lateral. With regard to sensitivity and accuracy, TSE proton density images of meniscal tears were superior to TSE T2-weighted images.=20

  18. Meniscectomy versus meniscal repair: 10 years radiological and clinical results in vertical lesions in stable knee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutz, C; Dalmay, F; Ehkirch, F P; Cucurulo, T; Laporte, C; Le Henaff, G; Potel, J F; Pujol, N; Rochcongar, G; Salledechou, E; Seil, R; Gunepin, F-X; Sonnery-Cottet, B

    2015-12-01

    Surgical management of meniscal lesion consists of either a meniscectomy or meniscal repair. Although repair offers immediate recovery after surgery, it is also associated with higher rates of revision. A meniscectomy, on the other hand is known to be associated with an early onset of osteoarthritis. The present study compared clinical and radiological results at 10 years between meniscectomy and meniscal repair in isolated vertical lesion in an otherwise stable knee. The hypothesis was that repair shows functional and radiological benefit over meniscectomy. A multi-centric retrospective comparative study of 32 patients (24 male, 8 female). Mean follow-up was 10.6 years (range, 10-13 years). There were 10 meniscal repairs (group R) and 22 meniscectomies (group M), in 17 right and 15 left knees. Mean age at surgery was 33.45±12.3 years (range, 9-47 years). There were 28 medial and 4 lateral meniscal lesions; 26 were in the red-red zone and 6 in red-white zone. Functional score: KOOS score was significantly higher in group R than M on almost all parameters: 98±4.69 versus 77.38±21.97 for symptoms (P=0.0043), 96.89±7.20 versus 78.57±18.9 for pain (P=0.0052), 99.89±0.33 versus 80.88±19.6 for daily life activities (P=0.0002), 96.11±9.83 versus 54.05±32.85 for sport and leisure (P=0.0005), but 91±16.87 versus 68.15±37.7 for quality of life (P=0.1048). Radiology score: in group R, 7 patients had no features of osteoarthritis, and 2 had grade 1 osteoarthritis. In group M, 5 patients had grade 1 osteoarthritis, 10 grade 2, 3 grade 3 and 3 grade 4. Mean quantitative score was 0 (mean, 0.22±0.44) in-group R and 2 (mean, 2.19±0.98) in group M (P<0.0001). At more than 10year's follow-up, functional scores were significantly better with meniscal repair than meniscectomy on all parameters of the KOOS scale except quality of life. Functional and radiological scores correlated closely. These results show that meniscal repair for vertical lesions in stable knees

  19. A comparative study of BioAggregate and ProRoot MTA on adhesion, migration, and attachment of human dental pulp cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Lingxin; Yang, Jingwen; Zhang, Jie; Peng, Bin

    2014-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of a novel bioceramic nanoparticular cement, BioAggregate (Innovative Bioceramix, Vancouver, BC, Canada), on the adhesion, migration, and attachment of human dental pulp cells (HDPCs) and to compare its performance with that of ProRoot mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) (Dentsply, Tulsa, OK). Primary cultured HDPCs were treated with various dilutions of BioAggregate and MTA extracts to assess the cell viability using the Cell Counting Kit-8 (Dojindo, Kumamoto, Japan). Cell adhesion assay was performed using type I collagen-coated plates. An in vitro scratch wound healing model was used to determine cell migration. Focal adhesion formation and cytoskeleton organization were further examined by double immunofluorescence labeling for vinculin and fibrous actin. To assess cell attachment, HDPCs were directly seeded onto the material surfaces and observed by scanning electron microscopy. HDPCs exposed to BioAggregate extracts showed the highest viabilities at all extract concentrations at 24 and 48 hours, whereas cells exposed to original MTA extracts displayed suppressed viabilities at 72 hours compared with the control. Treatment with BioAggregate extracts enhanced cellular adhesion and migration of HDPCs in a concentration-dependent manner, which was superior to the effects induced by MTA extracts. Immunofluorescence staining indicated that both BioAggregate and MTA optimized focal adhesion formation and stress fiber assembly. Furthermore, scanning electron microscopic analysis revealed that HDPCs attached onto BioAggregate were more flattened and exhibited better spreading than cells on MTA. BioAggregate is able to promote cellular adhesion, migration, and attachment of HDPCs, indicating its excellent cytocompatibility. Therefore, BioAggregate appears to be a possible alternative to MTA for pulp capping. Copyright © 2014 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. An evaluation of meniscal collagenous structure using optical projection tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrews, Stephen HJ; Ronsky, Janet L; Rattner, Jerome B; Shrive, Nigel G; Jamniczky, Heather A

    2013-01-01

    The collagenous structure of menisci is a complex network of circumferentially oriented fascicles and interwoven radially oriented tie-fibres. To date, examination of this micro- architecture has been limited to two-dimensional imaging techniques. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the ability of the three-dimensional imaging technique; optical projection tomography (OPT), to visualize the collagenous structure of the meniscus. If successful, this technique would be the first to visualize the macroscopic orientation of collagen fascicles in 3-D in the meniscus and could further refine load bearing mechanisms in the tissue. OPT is an imaging technique capable of imaging samples on the meso-scale (1-10 mm) at a micro-scale resolution. The technique, similar to computed tomography, takes two-dimensional images of objects from incremental angles around the object and reconstructs them using a back projection algorithm to determine three-dimensional structure. Bovine meniscal samples were imaged from four locations (outer main body, femoral surface, tibial surface and inner main body) to determine the variation in collagen orientation throughout the tissue. Bovine stifles (n = 2) were obtained from a local abattoir and the menisci carefully dissected. Menisci were fixed in methanol and subsequently cut using a custom cutting jig (n = 4 samples per meniscus). Samples were then mounted in agarose, dehydrated in methanol and subsequently cleared using benzyl alcohol benzyl benzoate (BABB) and imaged using OPT. Results indicate circumferential, radial and oblique collagenous orientations at the contact surfaces and in the inner third of the main body of the meniscus. Imaging identified fascicles ranging from 80-420 μm in diameter. Transition zones where fascicles were found to have a woven or braided appearance were also identified. The outer-third of the main body was composed of fascicles oriented predominantly in the circumferential direction. Blood vessels were

  1. Arthroscopic all-inside meniscal repair - Does the meniscus heal? A clinical and radiological follow-up examination to verify meniscal healing using a 3-T MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffelner, Thomas; Resch, Herbert; Mayer, Michael; Tauber, Mark [Department of Traumatology and Sports Injuries, Salzburg (Austria); Forstner, Rosemarie [University Hospital of Salzburg, Department of Radiology, Salzburg (Austria); Minnich, Bernd [University of Salzburg, Department of Organismic Biology, Salzburg (Austria)

    2011-02-15

    The purpose of this study was to correlate clinical and radiological results using a 3-T MRI to verify meniscal healing after arthroscopic all-inside meniscus repair. We selected 27 patients (14 men and 13 women) with an average age of 31 {+-} 9 years and retrospective clinical examinations and radiological assessments using a 3-T MRI after all-inside arthroscopic meniscal repair were conducted. Repair of the medial meniscus was performed in 19 patients and of the lateral meniscus in eight. In 17 patients (63%), we performed concomitant anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. The mean follow-up period was 4.5 {+-} 1.7 years. The Lysholm score and Tegner activity index were used for clinical evaluation. Four grades were used to classify the radiological signal alterations within the meniscus: central globular (grade 1); linear horizontal or band-like (grade 2); intrameniscal alterations and linear signal alterations communicating with the articular surface (grade 3); and complex tears (grade 4). At follow-up, the average Lysholm score was 76 {+-} 15 points, with ten of the patients placed in group 6 based on the Tegner activity index. MRI examinations revealed no signal alteration in three patients, grade 1 in 0, grade 2 in five, grade 3 in 13, and grade 4 in six. The MRI findings correlated positively with the clinical scores in 21 patients (78%). Correlation of clinical and radiological examination was performed using 3-T MRI. In spite of satisfactory clinical outcomes at follow-up, a radiological signal alteration may still be visible on MRI, which was believed to be scar tissue, but could not be proven definitively. Imaging with a 3-Tesla MRI after meniscal suture surgery provides good but no definitive reliability on meniscus healing and therefore gives no advantage compared to 1.5-T MRI, with good clinical outcome using an all-inside arthroscopic meniscal repair. 3T-MRI can not substitute diagnostic arthroscopy in patients with persistent complaints after

  2. Arthroscopic all-inside meniscal repair - Does the meniscus heal? A clinical and radiological follow-up examination to verify meniscal healing using a 3-T MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffelner, Thomas; Resch, Herbert; Mayer, Michael; Tauber, Mark; Forstner, Rosemarie; Minnich, Bernd

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to correlate clinical and radiological results using a 3-T MRI to verify meniscal healing after arthroscopic all-inside meniscus repair. We selected 27 patients (14 men and 13 women) with an average age of 31 ± 9 years and retrospective clinical examinations and radiological assessments using a 3-T MRI after all-inside arthroscopic meniscal repair were conducted. Repair of the medial meniscus was performed in 19 patients and of the lateral meniscus in eight. In 17 patients (63%), we performed concomitant anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. The mean follow-up period was 4.5 ± 1.7 years. The Lysholm score and Tegner activity index were used for clinical evaluation. Four grades were used to classify the radiological signal alterations within the meniscus: central globular (grade 1); linear horizontal or band-like (grade 2); intrameniscal alterations and linear signal alterations communicating with the articular surface (grade 3); and complex tears (grade 4). At follow-up, the average Lysholm score was 76 ± 15 points, with ten of the patients placed in group 6 based on the Tegner activity index. MRI examinations revealed no signal alteration in three patients, grade 1 in 0, grade 2 in five, grade 3 in 13, and grade 4 in six. The MRI findings correlated positively with the clinical scores in 21 patients (78%). Correlation of clinical and radiological examination was performed using 3-T MRI. In spite of satisfactory clinical outcomes at follow-up, a radiological signal alteration may still be visible on MRI, which was believed to be scar tissue, but could not be proven definitively. Imaging with a 3-Tesla MRI after meniscal suture surgery provides good but no definitive reliability on meniscus healing and therefore gives no advantage compared to 1.5-T MRI, with good clinical outcome using an all-inside arthroscopic meniscal repair. 3T-MRI can not substitute diagnostic arthroscopy in patients with persistent complaints after

  3. Attachment and proliferation of human osteoblast-like cells (MG-63) on laser-ablated titanium implant material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Györgyey, Ágnes; Ungvári, Krisztina; Kecskeméti, Gabriella; Kopniczky, Judit; Hopp, Béla; Oszkó, Albert; Pelsöczi, István; Rakonczay, Zoltán; Nagy, Katalin; Turzó, Kinga

    2013-01-01

    Demand is increasing for shortening the long (3–6 months) osseointegration period to rehabilitate patients' damaged chewing apparatus in as short a time as possible. For dental implants, as for biomaterials in general, the bio- and osseointegration processes can be controlled at molecular and cellular levels by modification of the implant surface. One of the most promising of such surface modifications is laser ablation, as demonstrated by our previous results [46]. Commercially pure (CP4) sand-blasted, acid-etched titanium disks (Denti® System Ltd., Hungary) were irradiated with a KrF excimer laser (248 nm, fluence 0.4 J/cm 2 , FWHM 18 ns, 2000 pulses), or with a Nd:YAG laser (532 nm, 1.3 J/cm 2 , 10 ns, 200 pulses) then examined by SEM, AFM, and XPS. In vitro attachment (24 h) and proliferation (72 h) of MG-63 osteoblast cells were investigated via dimethylthiazol-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT), alamarBlue (AB) assays alkaline phosphatase quantification (ALP) and SEM. SEM and AFM revealed significant changes in morphology and roughness. XPS confirmed the presence of TiO 2 on each sample; after Nd:YAG treatment a reduced state of Ti (Ti 3+ ) was also observed. MTT, AB and ALP measurements detected an increase in the number of cells between the 24- and 72 hour observations; however, laser treatment did not affect cell attachment and proliferation significantly. - Highlights: • CP4 titanium implant surfaces were modified with Nd:YAG and KrF excimer laser. • SEM and AFM revealed significant changes in morphology and roughness. • XPS confirmed the presence of TiO 2 on each sample; after Nd:YAG treatment a reduced state of Ti (Ti 3+ ) was found. • Cell proliferation experiments detected an increased number of MG-63 cells between the 24 h and 72 h observations. • Laser treatments neither disturbed, nor enhanced MG-63 cell attachment and proliferation significantly

  4. Influence of extracellular matrix proteins on human keratinocyte attachment, proliferation and transfer to a dermal wound model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, R A; Goberdhan, N J; Freedlander, E; MacNeil, S

    1996-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether prior culture of cells on ECM proteins might positively influence the performance of keratinocytes when cells are transferred to a dermal in vitro wound bed model. Keratinocytes were cultured using a method for producing cultured epithelial autografts for severely burned patients (essentially using Green's medium, a mitogen-rich medium containing fetal calf serum, cholera toxin, EGF, insulin, transferrin and triiodothyronine). Cells were cultured either on irradiated 3T3 fibroblasts (as in the standard Rheinwald and Green technique) or, alternatively, on collagen I, collagen IV, matrigel, RGD, vitronectin or fibronectin. Under these conditions matrigel, collagen I and IV enhanced initial attachment, RGD, vitronectin, fibronectin and irradiated 3T3 fibroblasts did not. Proliferation of cells was positively influenced by matrigel, collagen I and IV and irradiated 3T3 fibroblasts; of these, however, only matrigel and 3T3 fibroblasts had sustained significant effects on keratinocyte proliferation over 4 days. Cells on fibronectin showed significantly reduced proliferation. An acellular non-viable dermis was then used to mimic the homograft allodermis onto which cultured epithelial autograft sheets are grafted clinically and cells cultured on the various ECM proteins for 96 h were transferred to this in vitro wound model. None of the substrates enhanced keratinocyte performance on this model. It was concluded that under these conditions some ECM proteins can significantly affect keratinocyte attachment and, to a lesser extent, proliferation but that the culture of keratinocytes on these ECM proteins does not appear to confer any lasting benefit to the attachment of these keratinocytes to an in vitro wound-bed model.

  5. Repair of Avascular Meniscus Tears with Electrospun Collagen Scaffolds Seeded with Human Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baek, Jihye; Sovani, Sujata; Glembotski, Nicholas E; Du, Jiang; Jin, Sungho; Grogan, Shawn P; D'Lima, Darryl D

    2016-03-01

    The self-healing capacity of an injured meniscus is limited to the vascularized regions and is especially challenging in the inner avascular regions. As such, we investigated the use of human meniscus cell-seeded electrospun (ES) collagen type I scaffolds to produce meniscal tissue and explored whether these cell-seeded scaffolds can be implanted to repair defects created in meniscal avascular tissue explants. Human meniscal cells (derived from vascular and avascular meniscal tissue) were seeded on ES scaffolds and cultured. Constructs were evaluated for cell viability, gene expression, and mechanical properties. To determine potential for repair of meniscal defects, human meniscus avascular cells were seeded and cultured on aligned ES collagen scaffolds for 4 weeks before implantation. Surgical defects resembling "longitudinal tears" were created in the avascular zone of bovine meniscus and implanted with cell-seeded collagen scaffolds and cultured for 3 weeks. Tissue regeneration and integration were evaluated by histology, immunohistochemistry, mechanical testing, and magentic resonance imaging. Ex vivo implantation with cell-seeded collagen scaffolds resulted in neotissue that was significantly better integrated with the native tissue than acellular collagen scaffolds or untreated defects. Human meniscal cell-seeded ES collagen scaffolds may therefore be useful in facilitating meniscal repair of avascular meniscus tears.

  6. Effects of ulipristal acetate on human embryo attachment and endometrial cell gene expression in an in vitro co-culture system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, C; Boggavarapu, N R; Menezes, J; Lalitkumar, P G L; Gemzell-Danielsson, K

    2015-04-01

    Does ulipristal acetate (UPA) used for emergency contraception (EC) interfere with the human embryo implantation process? UPA, at the dosage used for EC, does not affect human embryo implantation process, in vitro. A single pre-ovulatory dose of UPA (30 mg) acts by delaying or inhibiting ovulation and is recommended as first choice among emergency contraceptive pills due to its efficacy. The compound has also been demonstrated to have a dose-dependent effect on the endometrium, which theoretically could impair endometrial receptivity but its direct action on human embryo implantation has not yet been studied. Effect of UPA on embryo implantation process was studied in an in vitro endometrial construct. Human embryos were randomly added to the cultures and cultured for 5 more days with UPA (n = 10) or with vehicle alone (n = 10) to record the attachment of embryos. Endometrial biopsies were obtained from healthy, fertile women on cycle day LH+4 and stromal and epithelial cells were isolated. A three-dimensional in vitro endometrial co-culture system was constructed by mixing stromal cells with collagen covered with a layer of epithelial cells and cultured in progesterone containing medium until confluence. The treatment group received 200 ng/ml of UPA. Healthy, viable human embryos were placed on both control and treatment cultures. Five days later the cultures were tested for the attachment of embryos and the 3D endometrial constructs were analysed for endometrial receptivity markers by real-time PCR. There was no significant difference in the embryo attachment rate between the UPA treated group and the control group as 5 out of 10 human embryos exposed to UPA and 7 out of 10 embryos in the control group attached to the endometrial cell surface (P = 0.650). Out of 17 known receptivity genes studied here, only 2 genes, HBEGF (P = 0.009) and IL6 (P = 0.025) had a significant up-regulation and 4 genes, namely HAND2 (P = 0.003), OPN (P = 0.003), CALCR (P = 0.016) and

  7. Attachment and proliferation of human osteoblast-like cells (MG-63) on laser-ablated titanium implant material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Györgyey, Ágnes; Ungvári, Krisztina [Department of Oral Biology and Experimental Dental Research, Faculty of Dentistry, University of Szeged, H-6720 Szeged (Hungary); Kecskeméti, Gabriella; Kopniczky, Judit [Department of Optics and Quantum Electronics, Faculty of Science and Informatics, University of Szeged, H-6720 Szeged (Hungary); Hopp, Béla [Research Group on Laser Physics, Hungarian Academy of Sciences and University of Szeged, H-6720 Szeged (Hungary); Oszkó, Albert [Department of Physical Chemistry and Materials Science, Faculty of Science and Informatics, University of Szeged, H-6720 Szeged (Hungary); Pelsöczi, István; Rakonczay, Zoltán [Department of Oral Biology and Experimental Dental Research, Faculty of Dentistry, University of Szeged, H-6720 Szeged (Hungary); Nagy, Katalin [Department of Oral Surgery, Faculty of Dentistry, University of Szeged, H-6720 Szeged (Hungary); Turzó, Kinga, E-mail: kturzo@yahoo.com [Department of Oral Biology and Experimental Dental Research, Faculty of Dentistry, University of Szeged, H-6720 Szeged (Hungary)

    2013-10-15

    Demand is increasing for shortening the long (3–6 months) osseointegration period to rehabilitate patients' damaged chewing apparatus in as short a time as possible. For dental implants, as for biomaterials in general, the bio- and osseointegration processes can be controlled at molecular and cellular levels by modification of the implant surface. One of the most promising of such surface modifications is laser ablation, as demonstrated by our previous results [46]. Commercially pure (CP4) sand-blasted, acid-etched titanium disks (Denti® System Ltd., Hungary) were irradiated with a KrF excimer laser (248 nm, fluence 0.4 J/cm{sup 2}, FWHM 18 ns, 2000 pulses), or with a Nd:YAG laser (532 nm, 1.3 J/cm{sup 2}, 10 ns, 200 pulses) then examined by SEM, AFM, and XPS. In vitro attachment (24 h) and proliferation (72 h) of MG-63 osteoblast cells were investigated via dimethylthiazol-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT), alamarBlue (AB) assays alkaline phosphatase quantification (ALP) and SEM. SEM and AFM revealed significant changes in morphology and roughness. XPS confirmed the presence of TiO{sub 2} on each sample; after Nd:YAG treatment a reduced state of Ti (Ti{sup 3+}) was also observed. MTT, AB and ALP measurements detected an increase in the number of cells between the 24- and 72 hour observations; however, laser treatment did not affect cell attachment and proliferation significantly. - Highlights: • CP4 titanium implant surfaces were modified with Nd:YAG and KrF excimer laser. • SEM and AFM revealed significant changes in morphology and roughness. • XPS confirmed the presence of TiO{sub 2} on each sample; after Nd:YAG treatment a reduced state of Ti (Ti{sup 3+}) was found. • Cell proliferation experiments detected an increased number of MG-63 cells between the 24 h and 72 h observations. • Laser treatments neither disturbed, nor enhanced MG-63 cell attachment and proliferation significantly.

  8. Middle-aged patients with an MRI-verified medial meniscal tear report symptoms commonly associated with knee osteoarthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hare, Kristoffer B.; Stefan Lohmander, L.; Kise, Nina Jullum

    2017-01-01

    Background and purpose — No consensus exists on when to perform arthroscopic partial meniscectomy in patients with a degenerative meniscal tear. Since MRI and clinical tests are not accurate in detecting a symptomatic meniscal lesion, the patient’s symptoms often play a large role when deciding...... when to perform surgery. We determined the prevalence and severity of self-reported knee symptoms in patients eligible for arthroscopic partial meniscectomy due to a degenerative meniscal tear. We investigated whether symptoms commonly considered to be related to meniscus injury were associated...... with early radiographic signs of knee osteoarthritis. Patients and methods — We included individual baseline items from the Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score collected in 2 randomized controlled trials evaluating treatment for an MRI-verified degenerative medial meniscal tears in 199 patients aged...

  9. Importance of meniscal injury diagnosis and surgical management in dogs during reconstruction of cranial cruciate ligament rupture: A retrospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seok-Beom Seo

    2017-09-01

    Conclusion: Finally based on the clinical superiority, it is recommended that meniscal injury should be checked and corrected during RCCL reconstruction for getting better clinical outcomes. [J Adv Vet Anim Res 2017; 4(3.000: 311-318

  10. Structural pathology is not related to patient-reported pain and function in patients undergoing meniscal surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Simon Tornbjerg; Nissen, Nis; Englund, Martin

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The relationship between meniscal tears and other joint pathologies with patient-reported symptoms is not clear. We investigated associations between structural knee pathologies identified at surgery with preoperative knee pain and function in patients undergoing arthroscopic meniscal...... of meniscal tears questionnaire, supplemented with information extracted from surgery reports. Following hypothesis-driven preselection of candidate variables, backward elimination regressions were performed to investigate associations between patient-reported outcomes and structural knee pathologies. RESULTS...... surgery. METHODS: This study included 443 patients from the Knee Arthroscopy Cohort Southern Denmark (KACS), a prospective cohort following patients 18 years or older undergoing arthroscopic meniscal surgery at 4 hospitals between 1 February 2013 and 31 January 2014. Patient-reported outcomes, including...

  11. MR imaging of meniscal bucket-handle tears: a review of signs and their relation to arthroscopic classification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aydingoez, Uestuen; Firat, Ahmet K.; Atay, Ahmet Oe.; Doral, Nedim M.

    2003-01-01

    Our objective was to review the MR imaging signs of meniscal bucket-handle tears and assess the relevance of these signs to the arthroscopic classification of displaced meniscal tears. Forty-five menisci in 42 patients who had a diagnosis of bucket-handle tear either on MR imaging or on subsequent arthroscopy (in which Dandy's classification of meniscal tears was used) were retrospectively analyzed for MR imaging findings of double posterior cruciate ligament (PCL), fragment within the intercondylar notch, absent bow tie, flipped meniscus, double-anterior horn, and disproportional posterior horn signs. Arthroscopy, which was considered as the gold standard, revealed 41 bucket-handle tears (either diagnosed or not diagnosed by MR imaging) in 38 patients (33 males, 5 females). There was a stastistically significant male preponderance for the occurrence of meniscal bucket-handle tears. Overall, sensitivity and positive predictive value of MR imaging for the detection of meniscal bucket-handle tears were calculated as 90%. Common MR imaging signs of meniscal bucket-handle tears in arthroscopically proven cases of such tears were the fragment in the notch and absent bow tie signs (98% frequency for each). Double-PCL, flipped meniscus, double-anterior horn, and disproportional posterior horn signs, however, were less common (32, 29, 29, and 27%, respectively). An arthroscopically proven bucket-handle tear was found in all patients who displayed at least three of the six MR imaging signs of meniscal bucket-handle tears. The presence of three or more MR imaging signs of meniscal bucket-handle tears is highly suggestive of this condition. (orig.)

  12. Large regional differences in incidence of arthroscopic meniscal procedures in the public and private sector in Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hare, Kristoffer Borbjerg; Vinther, Jesper Høeg; Lohmander, L Stefan; Thorlund, Jonas Bloch

    2015-02-24

    A recent study reported a large increase in the number of meniscal procedures from 2000 to 2011 in Denmark. We examined the nation-wide distribution of meniscal procedures performed in the private and public sector in Denmark since different incentives may be present and the use of these procedures may differ from region to region. We included data on all patients who underwent an arthroscopic meniscal procedure performed in the public or private sector in Denmark. Data were retrieved from the Danish National Patient Register on patients who underwent arthroscopic meniscus surgery as a primary or secondary procedure in the years 2000 to 2011. Hospital identification codes enabled linkage of performed procedures to specific hospitals. Yearly incidence of meniscal procedures per 100,000 inhabitants was calculated with 95% CIs for public and private procedures for each region. Incidence of meniscal procedures increased at private and at public hospitals. The private sector accounted for the largest relative and absolute increase, rising from an incidence of 1 in 2000 to 98 in 2011. In 2011, the incidence of meniscal procedures was three times higher in the Capital Region than in Region Zealand. Our study identified a large increase in the use of meniscal procedures in the public and private sector in Denmark. The increase was particularly conspicuous in the private sector as its proportion of procedures performed increased from 1% to 32%. Substantial regional differences were present in the incidence and trend over time of meniscal procedures. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  13. Biological knee reconstruction for combined malalignment, meniscal deficiency, and articular cartilage disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Joshua D; Hussey, Kristen; Wilson, Hillary; Pilz, Kyle; Gupta, Anil K; Gomoll, Andreas; Cole, Brian J

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze patient-reported outcomes in those undergoing the triad of simultaneous osteotomy, meniscal transplantation, and articular cartilage repair. Patients undergoing simultaneous meniscal transplantation, distal femoral or proximal tibial osteotomy, and articular cartilage surgery by a single surgeon (B.J.C.) were analyzed. Meniscal transplantation was performed using bone-in-slot techniques. Distal femoral and high tibial osteotomies were performed for valgus and varus malalignment, respectively. Microfracture, autologous chondrocyte implantation, and osteochondral autograft or allograft were performed for articular cartilage disease. Validated patient-reported and surgeon-measured outcomes were collected. Preoperative and postoperative outcomes and medial versus lateral disease were compared using Student t tests. Eighteen participants (mean age, 34 ± 7.8 years; symptomatic patients, 7.4 ± 5.6 years; 2.4 ± 1.0 surgical procedures before study enrollment; mean follow-up, 6.5 ± 3.2 years) were analyzed. Two thirds of participants had medial compartment pathologic conditions and one third had lateral compartment pathologic processes. At final follow-up, there were statistically significant clinically meaningful improvements in International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC) subjective classification, Lysholm score, and 4 Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS) subscores. Postoperative 12-item short form (SF-12) physical and mental component scores were not significantly different from preoperative scores. The Kellgren-Lawrence classification grade was 1.5 ± 1.1 at 2.5 ± 3.0 years after surgery. There was a significantly higher preoperative SF-12 physical composite score (PCS) in participants with lateral compartment pathologic conditions (v medial compartment conditions) (P = .011). Although there were 13 reoperations in 10 patients (55.5% reoperation rate), only one patient was converted to knee arthroplasty (5

  14. Comparison of CT and MRI in patients with tibial plateau fracture: can CT findings predict ligament tear or meniscal injury?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mui, Leonora W.; Engelsohn, Eliyahu; Umans, Hilary

    2007-01-01

    (1) To determine the accuracy of computed tomography (CT) in the evaluation of ligament tear and avulsion in patients with tibial plateau fracture. (2) To evaluate whether the presence or severity of fracture gap and articular depression can predict meniscal injury. A fellowship-trained musculoskeletal radiologist retrospectively reviewed knee CT and MRI examinations of 41 consecutive patients presenting to a level 1 trauma center with tibial plateau fractures. Fracture gap, articular depression, ligament tear and footprint avulsions were assessed on CT examinations. The MRI studies were examined for osseous and soft tissue injuries, including meniscal tear, meniscal displacement, ligament tear, and ligament avulsion. CT demonstrated torn ligaments with 80% sensitivity and 98% specificity. Only 2% of ligaments deemed intact on careful CT evaluation had partial or complete tears on MRI. Although the degree of fracture gap and articular depression was significantly greater in patients with meniscal injury compared with those without meniscal injury, ROC analysis demonstrated no clear threshold for gap or depression that yielded a combination of high sensitivity and specificity. In the acute setting, CT offers high sensitivity and specificity for depicting osseous avulsions, as well as high negative predictive value for excluding ligament injury. However, MRI remains necessary for the preoperative detection of meniscal injury. (orig.)

  15. Three-Dimensional Coculture of Meniscal Cells and Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Collagen Type I Hydrogel on a Small Intestinal Matrix-A Pilot Study Toward Equine Meniscus Tissue Engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kremer, Antje; Ribitsch, Iris; Reboredo, Jenny; Dürr, Julia; Egerbacher, Monika; Jenner, Florien; Walles, Heike

    2017-05-01

    Meniscal injuries are the most frequently encountered soft tissue injuries in the equine stifle joint. Due to the inherent limited repair potential of meniscal tissue, meniscal injuries do not only affect the meniscus itself but also lead to impaired joint homeostasis and secondary osteoarthritis. The presented study compares 3D coculture constructs of primary equine mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) and meniscus cells (MC) seeded on three different scaffolds-a cell-laden collagen type I hydrogel (Col I gel), a tissue-derived small intestinal matrix scaffold (SIS-muc) and a combination thereof-for their qualification to be applied for meniscus tissue engineering. To investigate cell attachment of primary MC and MSC on SIS-muc matrix SEM pictures were performed. For molecular analysis, lyophilized samples of coculture constructs with different cell ratios (100% MC, 100% MSC, and 50% MC and 50% MSC, 20% MC, and 80% MSC) were digested and analyzed for DNA and GAG content. Active matrix remodeling of 3D coculture models was indicated by matrix metalloproteinases detection. For comparison of tissue-engineered constructs with the histologic architecture of natural equine menisci, paired lateral and medial menisci of 15 horses representing different age groups were examined. A meniscus phenotype with promising similarity to native meniscus tissue in its GAG/DNA expression in addition to Col I, Col II, and Aggrecan production was achieved using a scaffold composed of Col I gel on SIS-muc combined with a coculture of MC and MSC. The results encourage further development of this scaffold-cell combination for meniscus tissue engineering.

  16. Compatibility of Porous Chitosan Scaffold with the Attachment and Proliferation of human Adipose-Derived Stem Cells In Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gomathysankar S

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs have potential applications in the repair and regeneration of various tissues and organs. The use of various scaffold materials as an excellent template for mimicking the extracellular matrix to induce the attachment and proliferation of different cell types has always been of interest in the field of tissue engineering because ideal biomaterials are in great demand. Chitosan, a marine polysaccharide, have wide clinical applications and it acts as a promising scaffold for cell migration and proliferation. ASCs, with their multi-differentiation potential, and chitosan, with its great biocompatibility with ASCs, were investigated in the present study. ASCs were isolated and were characterized by two different methods: immunocytochemistry and flow cytometry, using the mesenchymal stem cell markers CD90, CD105, CD73 and CD29. The ASCs were then induced to differentiate into adipogenic, osteogenic and chondrogenic lineages. These ASCs were incorporated into a porous chitosan scaffold (PCS, and their structural morphology was studied using a scanning electron microscope and hematoxylin and eosin staining. The proliferation rate of the ASCs on the PCS was assessed using a PrestoBlue viability assay. The results indicated that the PCS provides an excellent template for the adhesion and proliferation of ASCs. Thus, this study revealed that PCS is a promising biomaterial for inducing the proliferation of ASCs, which could lead to successful tissue reconstruction in the field of tissue engineering.

  17. Paternal Attachment, Parenting Beliefs and Children's Attachment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Kimberly S.

    2010-01-01

    Relationships between fathers' romantic attachment style, parenting beliefs and father-child attachment security and dependence were examined in a diverse sample of 72 fathers of young children. Paternal romantic attachment style was coded based on fathers' endorsement of a particular style represented in the Hazan and Shaver Three-Category…

  18. The agmatine-containing poly(amidoamine) polymer AGMA1 binds cell surface heparan sulfates and prevents attachment of mucosal human papillomaviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cagno, Valeria; Donalisio, Manuela; Bugatti, Antonella; Civra, Andrea; Cavalli, Roberta; Ranucci, Elisabetta; Ferruti, Paolo; Rusnati, Marco; Lembo, David

    2015-09-01

    The agmatine-containing poly(amidoamine) polymer AGMA1 was recently shown to inhibit the infectivity of several viruses, including human papillomavirus 16 (HPV-16), that exploit cell surface heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs) as attachment receptors. The aim of this work was to assess the antiviral activity of AGMA1 and its spectrum of activity against a panel of low-risk and high-risk HPVs and to elucidate its mechanism of action. AGMA1 was found to be a potent inhibitor of mucosal HPV types (i.e., types 16, 31, 45, and 6) in pseudovirus-based neutralization assays. The 50% inhibitory concentration was between 0.34 μg/ml and 0.73 μg/ml, and no evidence of cytotoxicity was observed. AGMA1 interacted with immobilized heparin and with cellular heparan sulfates, exerting its antiviral action by preventing virus attachment to the cell surface. The findings from this study indicate that AGMA1 is a leading candidate compound for further development as an active ingredient of a topical microbicide against HPV and other sexually transmitted viral infections. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  19. Development and Characterization of UHMWPE Fiber-Reinforced Hydrogels For Meniscal Replacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holloway, Julianne Leigh

    Meniscal tears are the most common orthopedic injuries to the human body. The current treatment of choice, however, is a partial meniscectomy that leads to osteoarthritis proportional to the amount of tissue removed. As a result, there is a significant clinical need to develop materials capable of restoring the biomechanical contact stress distribution to the knee after meniscectomy and preventing the onset of osteoarthritis. In this work, a fiber-reinforced hydrogel-based synthetic meniscus was developed that allows for tailoring of the mechanical properties and molding of the implant to match the size, shape, and property distribution of the native tissue. Physically cross-linked poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) hydrogels were reinforced with ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) fibers and characterized in compression (0.1-0.8 MPa) and tension (0.1-250 MPa) showing fine control over mechanical properties within the range of the human meniscus. Morphology and crystallinity analysis of PVA hydrogels showed increases in crystallinity and PVA densification, or phase separation, with freeze-thaw cycles. A comparison of freeze-thawed and aged, physically cross-linked hydrogels provided insight on both crystallinity and phase separation as mechanisms for PVA gelation. Results indicated both mechanisms independently contributed to hydrogel modulus for freeze-thawed hydrogels. In vitro swelling studies were performed using osmotic solutions to replicate the swelling pressure present in the knee. Minimal swelling was observed for hydrogels with a PVA concentration of 30-35 wt%, independently of hydrogel freeze-thaw cycles. This allows for independent tailoring of hydrogel modulus and pore structure using freeze-thaw cycles and swelling behavior using polymer concentration to match a wide range of properties needed for various soft tissue applications. The UHMWPE-PVA interface was identified as a significant weakness. To improve interfacial adhesion, a novel

  20. Trajectory of self-reported pain and function and knee extensor muscle strength in young patients undergoing arthroscopic surgery for meniscal tears

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorlund, Jonas Bloch; Østengaard, Lasse; Cardy, Nathan

    2017-01-01

    . PATIENTS AND INTERVENTION: People aged 30 years or younger undergoing surgery for a meniscal tear. OUTCOMES: and comparator: (1) Self-reported pain and function in patients undergoing meniscal surgery compared to a non-operative control group (2). Knee extensor strength in the leg undergoing surgery...... the trajectory of self-reported pain and function in patients undergoing arthroscopic surgery compared with non-operative treatments for young patients with meniscal tears. Knee extensor strength seemed to be impaired up to 12 months after surgery in young patients undergoing surgery for meniscal tears...

  1. The use of MRI in the investigation of lateral meniscal tear post medial unicompartmental knee replacement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanil H. Ajwani, MBChB, BSc (Hons, MRCS

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The evaluation of lateral knee pain in patients with a medial unicompartmental knee replacement (UKR is complex. The native lateral compartment structures are prone to the same injuries as patients with normal knees. Historical reports of lateral meniscal injury post medial UKR have argued MRI evaluation is obsolete due to artefact caused by the prosthesis. We report a case of lateral meniscal injury in a patient two years after successful medial UKR. We identified the offending pathology via utilization of MRI scanners adopting metal artefact reduction sequences (MARS. The MARS MRI protocol helps clinicians accurately and non-invasively evaluate soft tissue structures in knees with metal prostheses. It also allows surgeons to accurately counsel patients and provides a higher degree of certainty in treating the pathology.

  2. The role of meniscal tissue in joint protection in early osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdonk, Rene; Madry, Henning; Shabshin, Nogah; Dirisamer, Florian; Peretti, Giuseppe M; Pujol, Nicolas; Spalding, Tim; Verdonk, Peter; Seil, Romain; Condello, Vincenzo; Di Matteo, Berardo; Zellner, Johannes; Angele, Peter

    2016-06-01

    It is widely accepted that partial meniscectomy leads to early onset of osteoarthritis (OA). A strong correlation exists between the amount and location of the resected meniscus and the development of degenerative changes in the knee. On the other hand, osteoarthritic changes of the joint alter the structural and functional integrity of meniscal tissue. These alterations might additionally compromise the limited healing capacity of the meniscus. In young, active patients without cartilage damage, meniscus therapy including partial meniscectomy, meniscus suture, and meniscus replacement has proven beneficial effects in long-term studies. Even in an early osteoarthritic milieu, there is a relevant regenerative potential of the meniscus and the surrounding cartilage. This potential should be taken into account, and meniscal surgery can be performed with the correct timing and the proper indication even in the presence of early OA.

  3. Human recombinant cementum attachment protein (hrPTPLa/CAP) promotes hydroxyapatite crystal formation in vitro and bone healing in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montoya, Gonzalo; Arenas, Jesús; Romo, Enrique; Zeichner-David, Margarita; Alvarez, Marco; Narayanan, A Sampath; Velázquez, Ulises; Mercado, Gabriela; Arzate, Higinio

    2014-12-01

    Cementum extracellular matrix is similar to other mineralized tissues; however, this unique tissue contains molecules only present in cementum. A cDNA of these molecules, cementum attachment protein (hrPTPLa/CAP) was cloned and expressed in a prokaryotic system. This molecule is an alternative splicing of protein tyrosine phosphatase-like A (PTPLa). In this study, we wanted to determine the structural and functional characteristics of this protein. Our results indicate that hrPTPLa/CAP contains a 43.2% α-helix, 8.9% β-sheet, 2% β-turn and 45.9% random coil secondary structure. Dynamic light scattering shows that this molecule has a size distribution of 4.8 nm and aggregates as an estimated mass of 137 kDa species. AFM characterization and FE-SEM studies indicate that this protein self-assembles into nanospheres with sizes ranging from 7.0 to 27 nm in diameter. Functional studies demonstrate that hrPTPLa/CAP promotes hydroxyapatite crystal nucleation: EDS analysis revealed that hrPTPLa/CAP-induced crystals had a 1.59 ± 0.06 Ca/P ratio. Further confirmation with MicroRaman spectrometry and TEM confirm the presence of hydroxyapatite. In vivo studies using critical-size defects in rat cranium showed that hrPTPLa/CAP promoted 73% ± 2.19% and 87% ± 1.97% new bone formation at 4 and 8 weeks respectively. Although originally identified in cementum, PTPLa/CAP is very effective at inducing bone repair and healing and therefore this novel molecule has a great potential to be used for mineralized tissue bioengineering and tissue regeneration. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. The relationship between chondromalacia patella, medial meniscal tear and medial periarticular bursitis in patients with osteoarthritis

    OpenAIRE

    Resorlu Mustafa; Doner Davut; Karatag Ozan; Toprak Canan Akgun

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background This study investigated the presence of bursitis in the medial compartment of the knee (pes anserine, semimembranosus-tibial collateral ligament, and medial collateral ligament bursa) in osteoarthritis, chondromalacia patella and medial meniscal tears. Patients and methods Radiological findings of 100 patients undergoing magnetic resonance imaging with a preliminary diagnosis of knee pain were retrospectively evaluated by two radiologists. The first radiologist assessed al...

  5. Cell-Based Meniscal Repair Using an Aligned Bioactive Nanofibrous Sheath

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-01

    Engineering . Overlap: None Title: “Development of Novel Bioartificial Ligament Using Autologous Biological Scaffold and Cells” Grant#: W81XWH-13-2-0030...patient to rapid joint degeneration (i.e., osteoarthritis). Tissue engineering approaches, including the combination of cells, scaffolds, and...electrospun nano/microfibers comprising engineered scaffolds can mimic the ultrastructure of the native meniscal extracellular matrix (ECM); when seeded with

  6. Kissing contusion between the posterolateral tibial plateau and lateral femoral condyle: associated ligament and meniscal tears

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, Hyun Pyo; Lee, Jae Gue; Park, Ji Seon; Ryu, Kyung Nam

    2004-01-01

    Kissing contusion between the posterolateral tibial plateau and lateral femoral condyle is frequently found in association with a tear of the anterior cruciate liagment (ACL). The purpose of this study was to determine which ligamentous and meniscal tears are associated with kissing contusion. We retrospectively reviewed the findings depicted by 323 consecutive MR images of the knee and confirmed at arthroscopy. For the diagnosis of disruption, ligaments, medial menisci (MM) and lateral menisci (LM) were evaluated using accepted criteria. We compared the prevalence and location of meniscal and ligamentous tears between group I (44 knees with kissing contusion) and group II (279 knees without kissing contusion). For statistical analysis the chi-square test was used. ACLs were torn in all 44 knees (100%) with kissing contusion, and 78 (28%) of 279 without kissing contusion. There were ten medial collateral ligament (MCL) tears (23%) in group I, and 17 MCL tears (6%), five lateral collateral ligament (LCL) tears (2%) and ten posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) tears (4%) in group II. In group I, meniscal tears were found in 22 MM (50%) and in 19 LM (43%), while in group II, they occurred in 128 MM (46%) and 128 LM (46%), In group I, 17 (77%) of 22 MM tears and 13 (68%) of 19 LM tears were located in the posterior horn, while in group II, the corresponding figures were 97/128 (76%) and 60 of 128 (47%). The differing prevalence of ACL and MCL tears between the groups was statistically significant (p 0.05). Although kissing contusion was a highly specific sign of ACL tears, its presence was also significant among MCL tears. There was no significant difference in meniscal tears with or without kissing contusion

  7. Diagnosing Snapping Sartorius Tendon Secondary to a Meniscal Cyst Using Dynamic Ultrasound Avoids Incorrect Surgical Procedure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vipin Asopa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe a case of painful snapping in the medial aspect of the knee of a 40-year-old man, following a knee hyperflexion injury. Dynamic real-time ultrasonography determined that the snapping was due to the distal tendon of sartorius passing over a medial meniscal cyst. The patient subsequently underwent arthroscopic decompression of the cyst instead of an inappropriate hamstring tendon harvest procedure, with complete resolution of symptoms.

  8. Meniscal tears: comparison of half-Fourier technique and conventional MR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shabana, Wael; Maeseneer, Michel de; Machiels, Freddy; Ridder, Filip de; Osteaux, Michel

    2003-01-01

    Purpose: To determine whether half-Fourier MR image acquisition technique can provide similar information to that of conventional MR acquisition technique for evaluation of meniscal tears. Materials and methods: We studied 101 menisci in 52 patients who were referred for evaluation of meniscal tears. Sagittal MR images of the knee were obtained for all patients by using proton density and T2-weighted SE sequences on a 1-T clinical system. The half-Fourier technique and conventional technique were used for all patients. All other imaging parameters were identical for both sequences (TR/TE=2400/20,70; 3 mm slice thickness; 200x256 matrix; field of view, 200; one signal acquired). Both sets of images were filmed with standard window and level settings. Images were randomised and interpreted independently by two radiologists for the presence of meniscal tears. Images were also subjectively assessed for image quality using a five-point grading scale. Results: On half-Fourier images, Reader 1 interpreted 23 menisci as torn, compared to 28 for Reader 2. On conventional images, Reader 1 interpreted 24 menisci as torn, compared to 26 for Reader 2. Agreement between interpretation of the conventional and that of the half-Fourier images was 99% for Reader 1, and 98% for Reader 2. Agreement between readers for the half-Fourier images was 95%, and for the conventional images 96%. No statistically significant difference was found in the subjective evaluation of image quality between the conventional and half-Fourier images. Conclusion: The half-Fourier acquisition technique compares favourably with the conventional technique for the evaluation of meniscal tears

  9. Development of a Micronized Meniscus Extracellular Matrix Scaffold for Potential Augmentation of Meniscal Repair and Regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monibi, Farrah A; Bozynski, Chantelle C; Kuroki, Keiichi; Stoker, Aaron M; Pfeiffer, Ferris M; Sherman, Seth L; Cook, James L

    2016-12-01

    Decellularized scaffolds composed of extracellular matrix (ECM) hold promise for repair and regeneration of the meniscus, given the potential for ECM-based biomaterials to aid in stem cell recruitment, infiltration, and differentiation. The objectives of this study were to decellularize canine menisci to fabricate a micronized, ECM-derived scaffold and to determine the cytocompatibility and repair potential of the scaffold ex vivo. Menisci were decellularized with a combination of physical agitation and chemical treatments. For scaffold fabrication, decellularized menisci were cryoground into a powder and the size and morphology of the ECM particles were evaluated using scanning electron microscopy. Histologic and biochemical analyses of the scaffold confirmed effective decellularization with loss of proteoglycan from the tissue but no significant reduction in collagen content. When washed effectively, the decellularized scaffold was cytocompatible to meniscal fibrochondrocytes, synoviocytes, and whole meniscal tissue based on the resazurin reduction assay and histologic evaluation. In an ex vivo model for meniscal repair, radial tears were augmented with the scaffold delivered with platelet-rich plasma as a carrier, and compared to nonaugmented (standard-of-care) suture techniques. Histologically, there was no evidence of cellular migration or proliferation noted in any of the untreated or standard-of-care treatment groups after 40 days of culture. Conversely, cellular infiltration and proliferation were noted in scaffold-augmented repairs. These data suggest the potential for the scaffold to promote cellular survival, migration, and proliferation ex vivo. Further investigations are necessary to examine the potential for the scaffold to induce cellular differentiation and functional meniscal fibrochondrogenesis.

  10. A map of nuclear matrix attachment regions within the breast cancer loss-of-heterozygosity region on human chromosome 16q22.1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shaposhnikov, Sergey A.; Akopov, Sergey B.; Chernov, Igor P.

    2007-01-01

    There is abundant evidence that the DNA in eukaryotic cells is organized into loop domains that represent basic structural and functional units of chromatin packaging. To explore the DNA domain organization of the breast cancer loss-of-heterozygosity region on human chromosome 16q22.1, we have...... in the region are regulated and of how the structural architecture and functional organization of the DNA are related....... identified a significant portion of the scaffold/matrix attachment regions (S/MARs) within this region. Forty independent putative S/MAR elements were assigned within the 16q22.1 locus. More than 90% of these S/MARs are AT rich, with GC contents as low as 27% in 2 cases. Thirty-nine (98%) of the S...

  11. The Relationship between Chondromalacia Patella, Medial Meniscal Tear and Medial Periarticular Bursitis in Patients with Osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resorlu, Mustafa; Doner, Davut; Karatag, Ozan; Toprak, Canan Akgun

    2017-12-01

    This study investigated the presence of bursitis in the medial compartment of the knee (pes anserine, semimembranosus-tibial collateral ligament, and medial collateral ligament bursa) in osteoarthritis, chondromalacia patella and medial meniscal tears. Radiological findings of 100 patients undergoing magnetic resonance imaging with a preliminary diagnosis of knee pain were retrospectively evaluated by two radiologists. The first radiologist assessed all patients in terms of osteoarthritis, chondromalacia patella and medial meniscal tear. The second radiologist was blinded to these results and assessed the presence of bursitis in all patients. Mild osteoarthritis (grade I and II) was determined in 55 patients and severe osteoarthritis (grade III and IV) in 45 cases. At retropatellar cartilage evaluation, 25 patients were assessed as normal, while 29 patients were diagnosed with mild chondromalacia patella (grade I and II) and 46 with severe chondromalacia patella (grade III and IV). Medial meniscus tear was determined in 51 patients. Severe osteoarthritis and chondromalacia patella were positively correlated with meniscal tear (p chondromalacia patella (p = 0.023 and p = 0.479, respectively). Evaluation of lateral compartment bursae revealed lateral collateral ligament bursitis in 2 patients and iliotibial bursitis in 5 patients. We observed a greater prevalence of bursitis in the medial compartment of the knee in patients with severe osteoarthritis and medial meniscus tear.

  12. The Relationship between Chondromalacia Patella, Medial Meniscal Tear and Medial Periarticular Bursitis in Patients with Osteoarthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doner, Davut; Karatag, Ozan; Toprak, Canan Akgun

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background This study investigated the presence of bursitis in the medial compartment of the knee (pes anserine, semimembranosus-tibial collateral ligament, and medial collateral ligament bursa) in osteoarthritis, chondromalacia patella and medial meniscal tears. Patients and methods Radiological findings of 100 patients undergoing magnetic resonance imaging with a preliminary diagnosis of knee pain were retrospectively evaluated by two radiologists. The first radiologist assessed all patients in terms of osteoarthritis, chondromalacia patella and medial meniscal tear. The second radiologist was blinded to these results and assessed the presence of bursitis in all patients. Results Mild osteoarthritis (grade I and II) was determined in 55 patients and severe osteoarthritis (grade III and IV) in 45 cases. At retropatellar cartilage evaluation, 25 patients were assessed as normal, while 29 patients were diagnosed with mild chondromalacia patella (grade I and II) and 46 with severe chondromalacia patella (grade III and IV). Medial meniscus tear was determined in 51 patients. Severe osteoarthritis and chondromalacia patella were positively correlated with meniscal tear (p chondromalacia patella (p = 0.023 and p = 0.479, respectively). Evaluation of lateral compartment bursae revealed lateral collateral ligament bursitis in 2 patients and iliotibial bursitis in 5 patients. Conclusions We observed a greater prevalence of bursitis in the medial compartment of the knee in patients with severe osteoarthritis and medial meniscus tear. PMID:29333118

  13. Occupational kneeling and meniscal tears: a magnetic resonance imaging study in floor layers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rytter, Søren; Jensen, Lilli Kirkeskov; Bonde, Jens Peter

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association between occupational kneeling and degenerative meniscal tears. METHODS: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of both knees was conducted in 92 male floor layers and 49 male graphic designers (referents), with a mean age of 55.6 years (range 42-70 yrs). The prese......OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association between occupational kneeling and degenerative meniscal tears. METHODS: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of both knees was conducted in 92 male floor layers and 49 male graphic designers (referents), with a mean age of 55.6 years (range 42-70 yrs......). The presence of grade 3 MRI signal intensities indicating degenerative tears of the anterior, middle, and posterior one-third of the lateral and medial menisci was assessed on 1.5-Tesla MRI scans. The odds ratio (OR) of meniscal tears was determined among floor layers compared to graphic designers. Using...... logistic regression, models were adjusted for age, body mass index, and knee-straining sports. RESULTS: Degenerative tears were significantly more prevalent in the medial meniscus among floor layers than among graphic designers [OR 2.28, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.10-4.98] and significantly more floor...

  14. The epidermal growth factor-like domains of the human EMR2 receptor mediate cell attachment through chondroitin sulfate glycosaminoglycans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stacey, Martin; Chang, Gin-Wen; Davies, John Q.; Kwakkenbos, Mark J.; Sanderson, Ralph D.; Hamann, Jörg; Gordon, Siamon; Lin, Hsi-Hsien

    2003-01-01

    Using multivalent protein probes, an evolutionarily conserved endogenous ligand for EMR2, a human myeloid cell-restricted EGF-TM7 receptor, was identified on the surface of a number of adherent cell lines. In addition, in situ staining of the ligand has revealed specific in vivo patterns consistent

  15. Reliability and Validity of the IKDC, KOOS, and WOMAC for Patients With Meniscal Injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Graaf, Victor A; Wolterbeek, Nienke; Scholtes, Vanessa A B; Mutsaerts, Eduard L A R; Poolman, Rudolf W

    2014-06-01

    Several patient-reported outcome measurements are used to measure functional outcome after treatment of meniscal injuries. However, for comparison of study results, there is a need for a uniform and standardized approach of measuring functional outcome. Selection of the instrument should be based on the quality of its measurement properties, and only the best instrument can be justified to be used. This study aimed to determine and compare the measurement properties of the Dutch-language versions of the International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC) Subjective Knee Form, Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS), and Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Arthritis Index (WOMAC) in a homogeneous group of patients with meniscal tears. Cohort study (design); Level of evidence, 2. Patients on the waiting list for meniscal surgery and patients between 6 weeks and 6 months after meniscal surgery were included (n = 75). Patients were excluded if they received an arthroplasty or had surgery on the anterior cruciate ligament. Internal consistency (Cronbach alpha), test-retest reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient [ICC]), measurement error (SEM), smallest detectable difference (SDD), content validity, construct validity (factor analysis and hypothesis testing), and floor and ceiling effects were determined. Results for the IKDC, KOOS dimensions, and WOMAC dimensions, respectively, were as follows: Cronbach alpha = .90, .72-.95, and .84-.95; ICC = 0.93, 0.84-0.89, and 0.77-0.89; SEM = 5.3, 7.0-12.6, and 7.3-12.2; SDD = 14.6, 19.4-35.0, and 20.2-33.9; hypotheses testing confirmation = 100%, 86%, and 85%. Floor effects within the SDD from the minimum score were found for the KOOS Sports/Recreation and Quality of Life dimensions. Ceiling effects within the SDD from the maximum score were found for the KOOS Activities of Daily Living and for all WOMAC dimensions. The IKDC showed the best performance on all measurement properties, implying that the IKDC

  16. An extracellular cell-attached pullulanase confers branched α-glucan utilization in human gut Lactobacillus acidophilus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Marie Sofie; Goh, Yong Jun; Rasmussen, Kasper Bøwig

    2017-01-01

    binding modules, a domain of unknown function, and a C-terminal surface layer association protein (SLAP) domain. Here we explore the specificity of a representative of this group of pullulanases, LaPul13_14 and its role in branched α-glucans metabolism in the well characterized Lactobacillus acidophilus...... in the presence of α-glucans but was repressed by glucose. The debranching activity is conferred exclusively by LaPul13_14 and is abolished in a mutant strain lacking a functional LaPul13_14 gene. Hydrolysis kinetics of recombinant LaPul13_14 confirmed the preference for short branched α-glucan oligomers....... Branched α-1,6-glucans in dietary starch and glycogen are non-degradable by human enzymes and constitute a metabolic resource for the gut microbiota. The role of health-beneficial lactobacilli prevalent in the human small intestine in starch metabolism remains unexplored in contrast to colonic bacterial...

  17. [SPECIFIC DIAGNOSTIC SIGNIFICANCE OF "RIPPLE SIGN" OF MEDIAL FEMORAL CONDYLE UNDER ARTHROSCOPE IN MEDIAL LONGITUDINAL MENISCAL TEARS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren Shiyou; Sun, Limang; Chen, Guofei; Jiang, Changqing; Zhang, Xintao; Zhang Wentao

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the reliability of the "ripple sign" on the upper surface of the medial femoral condyle in the diagnosis of medial longitudinal meniscal tears under arthroscope. Between June 2013 and June 2014, 56 patients with knee injuries were included. There were 35 males and 21 females with an average age of 22.2 years (range, 12-38 years). The causes of injury were sports in 40 cases, falling in 10 cases, and traffic accident in 6 cases. The injury was located at the left knee in 22 cases and at the right knee in 34 cases. The disease duration was 10-40 days (mean, 20.2 days). Of 56 patients, 15 cases had simple medial meniscal injury; 41 cases had combined injuries, including anterior cruciate ligament injury in 38 cases, posterior cruciate ligament injury in 2 cases, and patellar dislocation in 1 case. The "ripple sign" was observed under arthroscope before operation. Repair of medial meniscal injury and reconstruction of cruciate ligament were performed. The positive "ripple sign" was seen under arthroscope in all patients, who were diagnosed to have longitudinal meniscal tears, including 23 cases of mild "ripple sign" , 28 cases of moderate "ripple sign", and 5 cases of severe "ripple sign". The "ripple sign" on the upper surface of the medial femoral condyle is a reliable diagnostic evidence of medial longitudinal meniscal tears.

  18. Electrospun Zein/Gelatin Scaffold-Enhanced Cell Attachment and Growth of Human Periodontal Ligament Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fanqiao Yang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Periodontitis is a widespread dental disease affecting 10 to 15% of worldwide adult population, yet the current treatments are far from satisfactory. The human periodontal ligament stem cell is a promising potential seed cell population type in cell-based therapy and tissue regeneration, which require appropriate scaffold to provide a mimic extracellular matrix. Zein, a native protein derived from corn, has an excellent biodegradability, and therefore becomes a hotspot on research and application in the field of biomaterials. However, the high hydrophobicity of zein is unfavorable for cell adhesion and thus greatly limits its use. In this study, we fabricate co-electrospun zein/gelatin fiber scaffolds in order to take full advantages of the two natural materials and electrospun fiber structure. Zein and gelatin in four groups of different mass ratios (100:00, 100:20, 100:34, 100:50, and dissolved the mixtures in 1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoro-2-propanol, then produced membranes by electrospinning. The results showed that the scaffolds were smooth and homogeneous, as shown in scanning electron micrographs. The diameter of hybrid fibers was increased from 69 ± 22 nm to 950 ± 356 nm, with the proportion of gelatin increase. The cell affinity of zein/gelatin nanofibers was evaluated by using human periodontal ligament stem cells. The data showed that hydrophilicity and cytocompatibility of zein nanofibers were improved by blended gelatin. Taken together, our results indicated that the zein/gelatin co-electrospun fibers had sufficient mechanical properties, satisfied cytocompatibility, and can be utilized as biological scaffolds in the field of tissue regeneration.

  19. Covalent heme attachment to the protein in human heme oxygenase-1 with selenocysteine replacing the His25 proximal iron ligand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yongying; Trnka, Michael J; Medzihradszky, Katalin F; Ouellet, Hugues; Wang, Yongqiang; Ortiz de Montellano, Paul R

    2009-03-01

    To characterize heme oxygenase with a selenocysteine (SeCys) as the proximal iron ligand, we have expressed truncated human heme oxygenase-1 (hHO-1) His25Cys, in which Cys-25 is the only cysteine, in the Escherichia coli cysteine auxotroph strain BL21(DE3)cys. Selenocysteine incorporation into the protein was demonstrated by both intact protein mass measurement and mass spectrometric identification of the selenocysteine-containing tryptic peptide. One selenocysteine was incorporated into approximately 95% of the expressed protein. Formation of an adduct with Ellman's reagent (DTNB) indicated that the selenocysteine in the expressed protein was in the reduced state. The heme-His25SeCys hHO-1 complex could be prepared by either (a) supplementing the overexpression medium with heme, or (b) reconstituting the purified apoprotein with heme. Under reducing conditions in the presence of imidazole, a covalent bond is formed by addition of the selenocysteine residue to one of the heme vinyl groups. No covalent bond is formed when the heme is replaced by mesoheme, in which the vinyls are replaced by ethyl groups. These results, together with our earlier demonstration that external selenolate ligands can transfer an electron to the iron [Y. Jiang, P.R. Ortiz de Montellano, Inorg. Chem. 47 (2008) 3480-3482 ], indicate that a selenyl radical is formed in the hHO-1 His25SeCys mutant that adds to a heme vinyl group.

  20. Association of MRI findings and expert diagnosis of symptomatic meniscal tear among middle-aged and older adults with knee pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshpande, Bhushan R; Losina, Elena; Smith, Savannah R; Martin, Scott D; Wright, R John; Katz, Jeffrey N

    2016-04-11

    Our aim was to examine the association between an expert clinician's impression of symptomatic meniscal tears and subsequent MRI in the context of middle-aged and older adults with knee pain. Patients older than 45 were eligible for this IRB-approved substudy if they had knee pain, had not undergone MRI and saw one of two orthopaedic surgeons experienced in the diagnosis of meniscal tear. The surgeon rated their confidence that the patient's symptoms were due to meniscal tear. The patient subsequently had a 1.5 or 3.0 T MRI within 6 months. We examined the association between presence of meniscal tear on MRI and the surgeon's confidence that the knee pain was due to meniscal tear using a χ(2) test for trend. Of 84 eligible patients, 63% were female, with a mean age of 64 years and a mean BMI of 27. The surgeon was confident that symptoms emanated from a tear among 39%. The prevalence of meniscal tear on MRI overall was 74%. Among subjects whose surgeon indicated high confidence that symptoms were due to meniscal tear, the prevalence was 80% (95% CI 63-90%). Similarly, the prevalence was 87% (95% CI 62-96%) among those whose surgeon had medium confidence and 64% (95% CI 48-77%) among those whose surgeon had low confidence (p = 0.12). Meniscal tears were frequently found on MRI even when an expert clinician was confident that a patient's knee symptoms were not due to a meniscal tear, indicating that providers should use MRI sparingly and cautiously to confirm or rule out the attribution of knee pain to meniscal tear.

  1. Anterior cruciate ligament and meniscal injuries in sports: incidence, time of practice until injury, and limitations caused after trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astur, Diego Costa; Xerez, Marcos; Rozas, João; Debieux, Pedro Vargas; Franciozi, Carlos Eduardo; Cohen, Moises

    2016-01-01

    To analyze the incidence of ACL and meniscal injuries in a population of recreational and elite athletes from Brazil and the relation of these injuries with their sports activities. This was a prospective observational study of 240 patients with ACL and/or meniscal injuries submitted to surgical treatment. Data of patients and sport modality, as well as Tegner score were registered in the first clinical evaluation. The patients were divided into three groups: (1) isolated rupture of the ACL; (2) ACL injury associated with meniscal injury; (3) isolated menisci injury. The majority of the patients belonged to group 1 (44.58%), followed by group 2 (30.2%) and 3 (25%). Most patients were soccer players. The mean time from sport practice to injury in group 1 was 17.81 years. In group 2, it was 17.3 years, and in group 3, 26.91 years. Soccer athletes presented ACL injury in 0.523/1000 h of practice and meniscal injury in 0.448/1000 h of practice. Before the injury, the mean Tegner score obtained for groups 1, 2, and 3 were 7.18, 7.34, and 6.53, respectively. After knee injury, those values were 3.07, 3.18, and 2.87, respectively. Soccer was the sport that caused the majority of lesions, regardless the group. Furthermore, patients from groups 1 and 2 had less time of practice prior to the injury (17.81 and 17.3 years) than the patients of group 3 (26.91 years). Women presented a higher risk to develop ACL and meniscal injuries in 1000 h of game/practice. Running, volleyball, and weightlifting are in ascending order of risk for ACL and/or meniscal injury. Regarding the return to sport practice, the efficiency of all athletes was impaired because of the injury.

  2. Anterior cruciate ligament and meniscal injuries in sports: incidence, time of practice until injury, and limitations caused after trauma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Costa Astur

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE: To analyze the incidence of ACL and meniscal injuries in a population of recreational and elite athletes from Brazil and the relation of these injuries with their sports activities. METHODS: This was a prospective observational study of 240 patients with ACL and/or meniscal injuries submitted to surgical treatment. Data of patients and sport modality, as well as Tegner score were registered in the first clinical evaluation. The patients were divided into three groups: (1 isolated rupture of the ACL; (2 ACL injury associated with meniscal injury; (3 isolated menisci injury. RESULTS: The majority of the patients belonged to group 1 (44.58%, followed by group 2 (30.2% and 3 (25%. Most patients were soccer players. The mean time from sport practice to injury in group 1 was 17.81 years. In group 2, it was 17.3 years, and in group 3, 26.91 years. Soccer athletes presented ACL injury in 0.523/1000 h of practice and meniscal injury in 0.448/1000 h of practice. Before the injury, the mean Tegner score obtained for groups 1, 2, and 3 were 7.18, 7.34, and 6.53, respectively. After knee injury, those values were 3.07, 3.18, and 2.87, respectively. CONCLUSION: Soccer was the sport that caused the majority of lesions, regardless the group. Furthermore, patients from groups 1 and 2 had less time of practice prior to the injury (17.81 and 17.3 years than the patients of group 3 (26.91 years. Women presented a higher risk to develop ACL and meniscal injuries in 1000 h of game/practice. Running, volleyball, and weightlifting are in ascending order of risk for ACL and/or meniscal injury. Regarding the return to sport practice, the efficiency of all athletes was impaired because of the injury.

  3. What is the best way to fix a polyurethane meniscal scaffold? A biomechanical evaluation of different fixation modes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardeman, Francois; Corten, Kristoff; Mylle, Michiel; Van Herck, Bert; Verdonk, René; Verdonk, Peter; Bellemans, Johan

    2015-01-01

    Ingrowth of meniscal tissue into a meniscal scaffold can be optimized by securely fixing the scaffold into the meniscal remnants. The purpose of this research was to test and compare commonly used suture types and suture materials to fix a meniscal scaffold. Forty fresh porcine menisci were used. All tests used the same polyurethane-based scaffold. The load to failure of horizontal, vertical and diagonal sutures with PDS 0 and with Ethibond 0, and diagonal sutures with Ultra Fast-Fix(®) and Sequent(®) to fix a meniscal scaffold were tested. Five tests were conducted for each configuration. All constructs failed in the scaffold at a mean pullout force of 50.6 N (SD 12.7). Inferior results were noted for vertical sutures (40.1 N, SD 6.3) compared to horizontal (49.8 N, SD 5.5, p = 0.0007) and diagonal (51.7 N, SD 15.6, p = 0.024) sutures and for Ethibond 0 (41.4 N, SD 6.2) compared to PDS 0 (51.3 N, SD 12.9, p = 0.001). When comparing the diagonal suture placements, only Ethibond 0 (42.9 N, SD 5.4) showed significantly inferior results compared to PDS 0 (60.1 N, SD 16.9, p = 0.03), Ultra Fast-Fix(®) (60.1 N, SD 9.3, p = 0.004) and Sequent(®) (65.8 N, SD 4.4, p < 0.0001). The most common failure mode when fixing a polyurethane-based meniscal scaffold is suture pull-through of the scaffold in the distraction mode. This happens at a rather low pullout force and might preclude the use of this scaffold clinically. Vertical sutures and Ethibond 0 multifilament braided sutures fail at lower forces, and the tested commercial devices show promising results.

  4. Usefulness of meniscal width to transverse diameter ratio on coronal MRI in the diagnosis of incomplete discoid lateral meniscus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, H.J.; Lee, S.Y.; Park, N.-H.; Chung, E.C.; Park, J.Y.; Kim, M.S.; Lee, E.J.

    2014-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate the clinical utility of the meniscal width to transverse diameter ratio (L/M ratio) of the lateral meniscus in the diagnosis of incomplete discoid lateral meniscus (IDLM) as compared with the arthroscopic diagnosis, meniscal width to tibial diameter ratio (L/T ratio) and conventional lateral meniscus width criteria. Materials and methods: This retrospective study sample included 41 patients with IDLM who underwent knee magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and arthroscopy, as well as 50 controls with normal lateral menisci. MRI examinations were interpreted independently by two radiologists, both of whom were blinded to clinical information and radiological reports. Assessment of meniscal width (L), maximal transverse diameter of the lateral meniscus (M), and transverse diameter of the tibia (T) was carried out on central coronal sections that were observed to pass through the medial collateral ligament. L/M and L/T ratios were calculated. These results were correlated with arthroscopic findings and analysed statistically using categorical regression analysis and non-parametric correlation analysis. Using arthroscopic findings as the standard of reference, sensitivity and specificity were calculated for: (1) 12, 13, 14, and 15 mm meniscal width thresholds; (2) 40%, 50%, 60%, and 70% L/M ratio thresholds; and (3) 15%, 18%, 20%, and 25% L/T ratio thresholds. Results: The mean L/M ratio of the IDLM was approximately 67% and was statistically significantly higher than the control (44%). The best diagnostic discrimination was achieved using a threshold of 50%. The mean L/T ratio of the IDLM was approximately 23% and was statistically significant. The best diagnostic discrimination was achieved using a threshold of 18%. The threshold of 13 mm of meniscal width also showed high sensitivity and high specificity. Conclusion: The use of the L/M ratio or L/T ratio in combination with meniscal width criteria may be a useful method for evaluating IDLM

  5. Prevalence of Discoid Meniscus During Arthroscopy for Isolated Lateral Meniscal Pathology in the Pediatric Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Henry B; Wise, Kelsey; LaMont, Lauren; Copley, Lawson; Wilson, Philip

    2017-06-01

    Meniscus tears in the young patient are becoming more prevalent. Knowledge of presenting characteristics and morphology can affect treatment decisions. The purpose of this study was to review and evaluate all the isolated lateral meniscus pathology that required arthroscopic treatment in a pediatric sports medicine practice and compare presenting characteristics between those with a discoid meniscus and those with normal meniscal morphology. We performed a retrospective review of all isolated lateral meniscus arthroscopic procedures from 2003 to 2012 in a high-volume pediatric sports practice. Presentation, radiographs, and intraoperative findings were reviewed. The prevalence and clinical findings of a discoid meniscus in this population and among all age groups were compared with those with a meniscus tear occurring in a normal meniscus. Two hundred and sixty-one arthroscopies were performed for symptomatic isolated lateral menisci pathology. Of these, 75% were discoid in nature; the remainder was tears occurring in normal menisci. Ninety-six of 99 patients (97%) with lateral meniscus pathology under the age of 13 had a discoid meniscus and 66% presented with no injury. There was a transition within the population at 14 years of age, with a rise in the incidence of normal meniscal body tears. Even after this transition point, meniscal pathology incidence remained notable; 59% of isolated lateral meniscus pathology in patients between the ages of 14 and 16 years old were a discoid meniscus. Magnetic resonance imaging criteria for discoid meniscus (3 consecutive sagittal cuts or coronal mid-compartment measure) were unreliable after the age of 13 years old. The ratio of complete to incomplete discoids in all age groups was 4 to 3. In conclusion, discoid menisci have a high prevalence in isolated lateral meniscus pathology requiring knee arthroscopy. Clinical presentation, imaging, characteristics, and treatment may be different among different age groups. In the

  6. Knee function and knee muscle strength in middle-aged patients with degenerative meniscal tears eligible for arthroscopic partial meniscectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stensrud, Silje; Risberg, May Arna; Roos, Ewa M.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Functional limitations exist postmeniscectomy, but preoperative data are scarce. PURPOSE: To examine knee function, knee muscle strength and performance in middle-aged patients with degenerative meniscal tears, eligible for arthroscopic partial meniscectomy. STUDY DESIGN: Cross......-sectional study. METHODS: Eighty-two participants with MRI verified degenerative meniscal tear (35% women, mean age 49 years) answered the Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS) and were tested for isokinetic knee muscle strength and lower extremity performance (one-leg hop for distance, 6 m timed...

  7. Attachment and prejudice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnelley, Katherine B; Boag, Elle M

    2018-04-16

    There is a paucity of research that examines prejudice from an attachment theory perspective. Herein we make theoretical links between attachment patterns and levels of prejudice. Perceptions of outgroup threat, which activate the attachment system, are thought to lead to fear and prejudice for those high in attachment anxiety, and to distancing and prejudice for those high in attachment avoidance. We review the literature that examines the associations between attachment patterns and prejudice; evidence from attachment priming studies suggests a causal role of attachment security in reducing prejudice. We identify several mediators of these links: empathy, negative emotions, trust, social dominance orientation, romanticism, and contact quality. Future research should manipulate potential mediators and use psychophysiological assessments of threat. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Attachment and social networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillath, Omri; C Karantzas, Gery; Lee, Juwon

    2018-02-21

    The current review covers two lines of research linking attachment and social networks. One focuses on attachment networks (the people who fulfill one's attachment needs), examining composition and age-related differences pertaining to these networks. The other line integrates attachment with social network analysis to investigate how individual differences in adult attachment are associated with the management and characteristics (e.g., density, multiplexity, and centrality) of people's social networks. We show that most people's attachment networks are small and hierarchical, with one figure being the primary attachment figure (often a mother or romantic partner, depending on age). Furthermore, attachment style predicts network characteristics and management, such that insecurity is associated with less closeness, multiplexity, centrality, and poorer management (less maintenance, more dissolution). Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. A history of meniscal surgery: from ancient times to the twenty-first century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Matteo, B; Moran, C J; Tarabella, V; Viganò, A; Tomba, P; Marcacci, M; Verdonk, R

    2016-05-01

    The science and surgery of the meniscus have evolved significantly over time. Surgeons and scientists always enjoy looking forward to novel therapies. However, as part of the ongoing effort at optimizing interventions and outcomes, it may also be useful to reflect on important milestones from the past. The aim of the present manuscript was to explore the history of meniscal surgery across the ages, from ancient times to the twenty-first century. Herein, some of the investigations of the pioneers in orthopaedics are described, to underline how their work has influenced the management of the injured meniscus in modern times. Level of evidence V.

  10. Risk factors, diagnosis and non-surgical treatment for meniscal tears

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorlund, Jonas Bloch; Juhl, Carsten Bogh; Ingelsrud, Lina Holm

    2018-01-01

    quantitatively or qualitatively, as appropriate. Strength of evidence was determined according to the Grading of Recommendations Assessment Development and Evaluation framework. Low-quality evidence suggested that overweight (degenerative tears, k=3), male sex (k=4), contact and pivoting sports (k=2...... investigated exercise versus surgery (k=2) or the effect of surgery in addition to exercise (k=5) for degenerative meniscal tears. There was moderate level of evidence for exercise improving self-reported pain (Effect Size (ES)-0.51, 95% CI -1.16 to 0.13) and function (ES -0.06, 95% CI -0.23 to 0...

  11. Biomechanical testing of new meniscal repair techniques containing ultra high-molecular weight polyethylene suture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, F Alan; Herbert, Morley A; Schroeder, F Alexander; Aziz-Jacobo, Jorge; Sutker, Michael J

    2009-09-01

    To evaluate the biomechanical characteristics of current meniscal repair techniques containing ultra high-molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) suture with and without cyclic loading. Vertical longitudinal cuts made in porcine menisci were secured with a single repair device. Noncycled and cycled (500 cycles) biomechanical tests were performed on the following groups: group 1, No. 2-0 Mersilene vertical suture (Ethicon, Somerville, NJ); group 2, No. 2-0 Orthocord vertical suture (DePuy Mitek, Westwood, MA); group 3, No. 0 Ultrabraid vertical suture (Smith & Nephew Endoscopy, Andover, MA); group 4, No. 2-0 FiberWire vertical suture (Arthrex, Naples, FL); group 5, vertically oriented mattress suture by use of an Ultra FasT-Fix device (Smith & Nephew Endoscopy) with No. 0 Ultrabraid; group 6, vertically oriented mattress suture by use of a RapidLoc A2 device (DePuy Mitek) with No. 2-0 Orthocord suture; group 7, vertically oriented stitch by use of a MaxFire device with MaxBraid PE suture (Biomet Sports Medicine, Warsaw, IN); and group 8, an obliquely oriented stitch of No. 0 UHMWPE suture inserted by use of a CrossFix device (Cayenne Medical, Scottsdale, AZ). Endpoints were failure loads, failure modes, stiffness, and cyclic displacement. Mean single-pull loads were calculated for Ultra FasT-Fix (121 N), FiberWire (110 N), MaxFire (130 N), Mersilene (84 N), Orthocord (124 N), RapidLoc A2 (86 N), CrossFix (77 N), and Ultrabraid (109 N). After 500 cyclic loads, the Orthocord (222 N) repair was stronger than the others: Ultra FasT-Fix (110 N), FiberWire (117 N), MaxFire (132 N), Mersilene (89 N), RapidLoc A2 (108 N), CrossFix (95 N), and Ultrabraid (126 N) (P Fix, RapidLoc A2, and MaxFire) were comparable to the isolated UHMWPE-containing suture repairs on single-failure load testing. UHMWPE-containing suture repairs are stronger than braided polyester suture repairs, but pure UHMWPE suture (Ultrabraid) elongated more during cycling. Orthocord suture is significantly

  12. Evaluación de desenlace: trasplante meniscal versus segunda meniscectomía

    OpenAIRE

    Manrique Otero, Diana Marcela; Moncaleano Ruiz, Viviana; Peña Cruz, Nancy Tatiana; Ramírez Trujillo, Paula; Romero Mora, Jaime Alberto

    2016-01-01

    Introducción: El incremento de pacientes sintomáticos de rodilla y la osteoartrosis en jóvenes con limitadas posibilidades terapéuticas después de una meniscectomía, genera la búsqueda de alternativas terapéuticas. A pesar que es poco utilizado en Colombia, el trasplante meniscal es una propuesta para el manejo sintomático. Según cifras norteamericanas, se practican entre 700.000 a 1.500.000 artroscopias de rodilla anualmente, el 50% termina en meniscectomía y de este un 40% persiste...

  13. Belt attachment and system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, Abraham D.; Davidson, Erick M.

    2018-03-06

    Disclosed herein is a belt assembly including a flexible belt with an improved belt attachment. The belt attachment includes two crossbars spaced along the length of the belt. The crossbars retain bearings that allow predetermined movement in six degrees of freedom. The crossbars are connected by a rigid body that attaches to the bearings. Implements that are attached to the rigid body are simply supported but restrained in pitching rotation.

  14. Electron-attachment processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christophorou, L.G.; McCorkle, D.L.; Christodoulides, A.A.

    1982-01-01

    Topics covered include: (1) modes of production of negative ions, (2) techniques for the study of electron attachment processes, (3) dissociative electron attachment to ground-state molecules, (4) dissociative electron attachment to hot molecules (effects of temperature on dissociative electron attachment), (5) molecular parent negative ions, and (6) negative ions formed by ion-pair processes and by collisions of molecules with ground state and Rydberg atoms

  15. Attachment over Time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Michael; Feiring, Candice; Rosenthal, Saul

    2000-01-01

    Examined continuity in attachment classification from infancy through adolescence and related it to autobiographical memories of childhood, divorce, and maladjustment in white middle-class children. Found no continuity in attachment classification from 1 to 18 years and no relation between infant attachment status and adolescent adjustment.…

  16. Attachment and Psychopathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Fatih Ustundag

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The type of attachment defined in the early stages of life and thought to be continuous, is a phenomenon that shapes the pattern of how a person makes contact with others. The clinical appearance of every type of attachment is different and each one has prospective and retrospective phenomenological reflections. In all stages of life and in close relationships, it can be observed if a person gets in close contact with someone else and if this relation bears supportive and protective qualities. According to attachment theorists, once it is defined as safe or unsafe during nursing period, it shows little change. Starting from Bowlby’s work, unsafe attachment type is considered as the determining factor of psychopathology in the later periods of life, while safe attachment is considered as in relation with healthy processes. The nature’s original model is safe attachment. Anxious/indecisive attachment, an unsafe attachment type, is associated with anxiety disorders and depressive disorder, while avoidant attachment is associated with behavior disorder and other extroverted pathologies. Disorganized/disoriented attachment is considered to be together with dissociative disorder. The aim of this paper is to review attachment theory and the relation between attachment and psychopathology.

  17. Special Attachments. Module 19.

    Science.gov (United States)

    South Carolina State Dept. of Education, Columbia. Office of Vocational Education.

    This module on special attachments, one in a series dealing with industrial sewing machines, their attachments, and operation, covers four topics: gauges; cording attachment; zipper foot; and hemming, shirring, and binding. For each topic these components are provided: an introduction, directions, an objective, learning activities, student…

  18. Bioactive glass induced osteogenic differentiation of human adipose stem cells is dependent on cell attachment mechanism and mitogen-activated protein kinases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Ojansivu

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Bioactive glasses (BaGs are widely utilised in bone tissue engineering (TE but the molecular response of cells to BaGs is poorly understood. To elucidate the mechanisms of cell attachment to BaGs and BaG-induced early osteogenic differentiation, we cultured human adipose stem cells (hASCs on discs of two silica-based BaGs S53P4 (23.0 Na2O - 20.0 CaO - 4.0 P2O5 - 53.0 SiO2 (wt-% and 1-06 (5.9 Na2O - 12.0 K2O - 5.3 MgO - 22.6 CaO - 4.0 P2O5 - 0.2 B2O3 - 50.0 SiO2 in the absence of osteogenic supplements. Both BaGs induced early osteogenic differentiation by increasing alkaline phosphatase activity (ALP and the expression of osteogenic marker genes RUNX2a and OSTERIX. Based on ALP activity, the slower reacting 1-06 glass was a stronger osteoinducer. Regarding the cell attachment, cells cultured on BaGs had enhanced integrinβ1 and vinculin production, and mature focal adhesions were smaller but more dispersed than on cell culture plastic (polystyrene. Focal adhesion kinase (FAK, extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK1/2 and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK-induced c-Jun phosphorylations were upregulated by glass contact. Moreover, the BaG-stimulated osteoinduction was significantly reduced by FAK and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK inhibitors, indicating an important role for FAK and MAPKs in the BaG-induced early osteogenic commitment of hASCs. Upon indirect insert culture, the ions released from the BaG discs could not reproduce the observed cellular changes, which highlighted the role of direct cell-BaG interactions in the osteopotential of BaGs. These findings gave valuable insight into the mechanism of BaG-induced osteogenic differentiation and therefore provided knowledge to aid the future design of new functional biomaterials to meet the increasing demand for clinical bone TE treatments.

  19. Attachment theory: A review of research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polovina Nada

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Research of attachment is numerous and versatile. They differ according to problems addressed, methodology applied (longitudinal studies, studies with horizontal designs, different instruments used, different methods of data analysis, and characteristics of samples involved (concerning age socio/economic status, family ecology. The research is commonly relied on the core assumptions of the theory itself, and the shared characteristic is orientation to explore complex phenomena of human experience and functioning. From the vast variety of research only those who most directly test the basic assumptions of the attachment theory are focused and addressed in the paper: representation of patterns of attachment in the childhood and adulthood, stability and change of attachment security from infancy to early adulthood, transgenerational transmission of attachment characteristics, the place and the role of attachment behavioral system in the personality development. The aim of the paper is to highlight the basic research and theory issues and directions, and illustrate them with concrete research date.

  20. Comparison of SPECT bone scintigraphy with MRI for diagnosis of meniscal tears

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tahmasebi, Mohammad-naghi; Saghari, Mohsen; Moslehi, Masoud; Gholamrezanezhad, Ali

    2005-01-01

    Scintigraphy has been considered as competitive to MRI, but limited data are available on the accuracy of single photon emission tomography (SPECT) compared with MRI for the assessment of meniscal tears. Our objective was to assess the value of SPECT in comparison to MRI. Between January 2003 and March 2004, sixteen patients were studied with both modalities and the accuracy rates of SPECT scan results, and MRI findings in the diagnosis of meniscal tears were compared. Arthroscopy was the gold standard. The respective sensitivity rate, specificity rate, and positive and negative predictive accuracies of MRI were 89%, 94%, 93%, and 79% and for SPECT those were 78%, 94%, 94%, and 88%. There was good agreement on the presence or absence of tears between two modalities (κ statistic = 0.699). SPECT and MRI are both valuable imaging techniques. SPECT is a useful alternative when MRI is unavailable or unsuitable and it is beneficial when more possible accuracy is desired (such as when MRI results are either inconclusive or conflict with other clinical data)

  1. Magnetic resonance imaging of meniscal and anterior cruciate ligament injuries of the knee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kreitner, K.F.; Herrig, A.; Grebe, P.; Runkel, M.; Regentrop, H.J.

    1998-01-01

    To categorise discrepancies in findings of the menisci and anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) between arthroscopy and MRI. Materials and methods: The MRIs of 236 patients were retrospectively analysed by an experienced radiologist without knowledge of clinical and/for operative findings. Discrepancies in arthroscopic findings were reevaluated together with the arthroscopist to determine their cause of error. Results: The diagnostic accuracies for injuries of the medial and lateral meniscus and the ACL were 92.4%, 92.4%, and 94.1%. respectively. For the menisci, causes for discrepancies in findings (n=31) were: overinterpretation of central signal intensities with contact to the meniscal surface but without disturbance of the meniscal contour as a tear (n=12), insufficient arthroscopie evaluation of the knee joint (n=11), overlooked tears on MR imaging (n=6), misinterpretation of normal anatomic structures (n=1), ''magic angle'' phenomenon (n=1), and missed tears at MRI (n=1). Causes for discrepancies for the ACL (n=18) were: nearly complete versus complete rupture either at MRI or arthroscopy and vice versa (n=9), insufficient arthroscopic evaluation (n=6), insufficient MRI technique (n=2), and overlooked tear on MR imaging (n=1). Conclusions: Discrepant findings between MRI and arthroscopy may be also due to an insufficient arthroscopic evaluation in clinical routine. The close cooperation between surgeons and radiologists improves the understanding of the methods of each other. (orig.) [de

  2. The association between reduced knee joint proprioception and medial meniscal abnormalities using MRI in knee osteoarthritis: results from the Amsterdam osteoarthritis cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Esch, M; Knoop, J; Hunter, D J; Klein, J-P; van der Leeden, M; Knol, D L; Reiding, D; Voorneman, R E; Gerritsen, M; Roorda, L D; Lems, W F; Dekker, J

    2013-05-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) of the knee is characterized by pain and activity limitations. In knee OA, proprioceptive accuracy is reduced and might be associated with pain and activity limitations. Although causes of reduced proprioceptive accuracy are divergent, medial meniscal abnormalities, which are highly prevalent in knee OA, have been suggested to play an important role. No study has focussed on the association between proprioceptive accuracy and meniscal abnormalities in knee OA. To explore the association between reduced proprioceptive accuracy and medial meniscal abnormalities in a clinical sample of knee OA subjects. Cross-sectional study in 105 subjects with knee OA. Knee proprioceptive accuracy was assessed by determining the joint motion detection threshold in the knee extension direction. The knee was imaged with a 3.0 T magnetic resonance (MR) scanner. Number of regions with medial meniscal abnormalities and the extent of abnormality in the anterior and posterior horn and body were scored according to the Boston-Leeds Osteoarthritis Knee Score (BLOKS) method. Multiple regression analyzes were used to examine whether reduced proprioceptive accuracy was associated with medial meniscal abnormalities in knee OA subjects. Mean proprioceptive accuracy was 2.9° ± 1.9°. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-detected medial meniscal abnormalities were found in the anterior horn (78%), body (80%) and posterior horn (90%). Reduced proprioceptive accuracy was associated with both the number of regions with meniscal abnormalities (P knee complaints. This is the first study showing that reduced proprioceptive accuracy is associated with medial meniscal abnormalities in knee OA. The study highlights the importance of meniscal abnormalities in understanding reduced proprioceptive accuracy in persons with knee OA. Copyright © 2013 Osteoarthritis Research Society International. All rights reserved.

  3. Human gingival fibroblasts culture in an autologous scaffold and assessing its effect on augmentation of attached gingiva in a pilot clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moien Aramoon

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND AIM: An important goal of periodontal plastic surgery is the creation of attached gingiva around the teeth. In this study, the aims were to culture gingival fibroblasts in a biodegradable scaffold and measure the width of attached gingiva after the clinical procedure. METHODS: This study was carried out on 4 patients (8 sites, with inadequate attached gingiva next to at least two teeth in contralateral quadrants of the same jaw. A biopsy of attached gingiva (epithelial + connective tissue was taken using a surgical blade. Following culture of gingival fibroblasts, 250 × 103 cells in 250 µl nutritional medium were mixed with platelet-rich in growth factor (PRGF. Periosteal fenestration technique was done on one side (control and tissue-engineered mucosal graft (test was carried out on the contralateral side in each patient. The width of keratinized tissue, probing depth (PD and width of attached gingiva were recorded at baseline and 3 months after the operation. RESULTS: An increased width of keratinized and attached tissue on all operated sites after 3 months was observed. These results showed the increased mean of the width of keratinized and attached gingiva to be 4.17 mm and 4.14 mm in test and 1.10 mm and 1.10 mm in control sites, respectively. The difference of keratinized and attached gingiva width between test and control sites was significant (P = 0.030, and P = 0.010 respectively. CONCLUSION: According to the results of this study, PRGF can be used as a scaffold to transfer gingival fibroblasts to recipient sites with significant clinical results.

  4. Development of a Chinese version of the Western Ontario Meniscal Evaluation Tool: cross-cultural adaptation and psychometric evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, W W; Wang, W; Xu, W D

    2016-08-15

    The Western Ontario Meniscal Evaluation Tool (WOMET) is a questionnaire designed to evaluate the health-related quality of life (HRQOL) of patients with meniscal pathology. Our study aims to culturally adapt and validate the WOMET into a Chinese version. We translated the WOMET into Chinese. Then, a total of 121 patients with meniscal pathology were invited to participate in this study. To assess the test-retest reliability, the Chinese version WOMET was completed twice at 7-day intervals by the participants. The construct validity was assessed using Pearson's correlation coefficient or Spearman's correlation to test for correlations among the Chinese version WOMET and the eight domains of Short Form-36 (SF-36), the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC), and the International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC) score. Responsiveness was tested by comparison of the preoperative and postoperative scores of the Chinese version WOMET. The test-retest reliability of the overall scale and different domains were all found to be excellent. The Cronbach's α was 0.90. The Chinese version WOMET correlated well with other questionnaires which suggested good construct validity. We observed no ceiling and floor effects of the Chinese version WOMET. We also found good responsiveness for the effect size, and the standardized response mean values were 0.86 and 1.11. The Chinese version of the WOMET appears to be reliable and valid in evaluating patients with meniscal pathology.

  5. Comparison of osmotic swelling influences on meniscal fibrocartilage and articular cartilage tissue mechanics in compression and shear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, An M; Levenston, Marc E

    2012-01-01

    Although the contribution of the circumferential collagen bundles to the anisotropic tensile stiffness of meniscal tissue has been well described, the implications of interactions between tissue components for other mechanical properties have not been as widely examined. This study compared the effects of the proteoglycan-associated osmotic swelling stress on meniscal fibrocartilage and articular cartilage (AC) mechanics by manipulating the osmotic environment and tissue compressive offset. Cylindrical samples were obtained from the menisci and AC of bovine stifles, equilibrated in phosphate-buffered saline solutions ranging from 0.1× to 10×, and tested in oscillatory torsional shear and unconfined compression. Biochemical analysis indicated that treatments and testing did not substantially alter tissue composition. Mechanical testing revealed tissue-specific responses to both increasing compressive offset and decreasing bath salinity. Most notably, reduced salinity dramatically increased the shear modulus of both axially and circumferentially oriented meniscal tissue explants to a much greater extent than for cartilage samples. Combined with previous studies, these findings suggest that meniscal proteoglycans have a distinct structural role, stabilizing, and stiffening the matrix surrounding the primary circumferential collagen bundles. Copyright © 2011 Orthopaedic Research Society.

  6. Meniscal T1rho and T2 measured with 3.0T MRI increases directly after running a marathon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stehling, Christoph [University of California, Musculoskeletal and Quantitative Imaging Group (MQIR), Department of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging, San Francisco, CA (United States); University of Muenster, Department of Clinical Radiology, Muenster (Germany); Luke, Anthony [University of California, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, San Francisco, CA (United States); Stahl, Robert [University of California, Musculoskeletal and Quantitative Imaging Group (MQIR), Department of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging, San Francisco, CA (United States); Ludwig Maximilians University of Munich, Department of Clinical Radiology, Munich (Germany); Baum, Thomas; Joseph, Gabby; Pan, Judong; Link, Thomas M. [University of California, Musculoskeletal and Quantitative Imaging Group (MQIR), Department of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging, San Francisco, CA (United States)

    2011-06-15

    To prospectively evaluate changes in T1rho and T2 relaxation time in the meniscus using 3.0 T MRI in asymptomatic knees of marathon runners and to compare these findings with those of age-matched healthy subjects. Thirteen marathon runners underwent 3.0 T MRI including T1rho and T2 mapping sequences before, 48-72 h after, and 3 months after competition. Ten controls were examined at baseline and after 3 months. All images were analyzed by two musculoskeletal radiologists identifying and grading cartilage, meniscal, ligamentous. and other knee abnormalities with WORMS scores. Meniscal segmentation was performed to generate T1rho and T2 maps in six compartments. No differences in morphological knee abnormalities were found before and after the marathon. However, all marathon runners showed a significant increase in T1rho and T2 values after competition in all meniscus compartments (p < 0.0001), which may indicate changes in the biochemical composition of meniscal tissue. While T2 values decreased after 3 months T1rho values remained at a high level, indicating persisting changes in the meniscal matrix composition after a marathon. T2 values in menisci have the potential to be used as biomarkers for identifying reversible meniscus matrix changes indicating potential tissue damage. T1rho values need further study, but may be a valuable marker for diagnosing early, degenerative changes in the menisci following exercise. (orig.)

  7. F2 excimer laser (157 nm) radiation modification and surface ablation of PHEMA hydrogels and the effects on bioactivity: Surface attachment and proliferation of human corneal epithelial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zainuddin; Chirila, Traian V.; Barnard, Zeke; Watson, Gregory S.; Toh, Chiong; Blakey, Idriss; Whittaker, Andrew K.; Hill, David J.T.

    2011-01-01

    Physical and chemical changes at the surface of poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) (PHEMA) hydrogels modified by ablation with an F 2 excimer laser were investigated experimentally. An important observation was that only the outer exposed surface layers of the hydrogel were affected by the exposure to 157 nm radiation. The effect of the surface changes on the tendency of cells to adhere to the PHEMA was also investigated. A 0.5 cm 2 area of the hydrogel surfaces was exposed to laser irradiation at 157 nm to fluences of 0.8 and 4 J cm -2 . The changes in surface topography were analysed by light microscopy and atomic force microscopy, while the surface chemistry was characterized by attenuated total reflection infrared and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopies. Cell-interfacial interactions were examined based on the proliferation of human corneal limbal epithelial (HLE) cells cultured on the laser-modified hydrogels, and on the unexposed hydrogels and tissue culture plastic for comparison. It was observed that the surface topography of laser-exposed hydrogels showed rippled patterns with a surface roughness increasing at the higher exposure dose. The changes in surface chemistry were affected not only by an indirect effect of hydrogen and hydroxyl radicals, formed by water photolysis, on the PHEMA, but also by the direct action of laser radiation on PHEMA if the surface layers of the gel become depleted of water. The laser treatment led to a change in the surface characteristics, with a lower concentration of ester side-chains and the formation of new oxygenated species at the surface. The surface also became more hydrophobic. Most importantly, the surface chemistry and the newly created surface topographical features were able to improve the attachment, spreading and growth of HLE cells.

  8. Effectiveness and biocompatibility of a novel biological adhesive application for repair of meniscal tear on the avascular zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Takahito; Taguchi, Tetsushi; Imade, Shinji; Kumahashi, Nobuyuki; Uchio, Yuji

    2012-12-01

    We have investigated the effectiveness and safety of a newly developed biological adhesive for repair of meniscal tear. The adhesive was composed of disuccinimidyl tartrate (DST) as a crosslinker and human serum albumin (HSA) as a hardener. To determine adequate concentration, bonding strength was measured using a tensiometer 5 min after applying the adhesive on the avascular zone tear of porcine meniscus; it was compared with the strengths of commercially available cyanoacrylate-based and fibrin-based adhesives. In vivo examination was performed using Japanese white rabbits, creating longitudinal tears on the avascular zone of meniscus and applying DST-HSA adhesive. Three months after operation the rabbits were sacrificed and tension test and histological evaluation were performed. Bonding strength was measured in three porcine meniscus groups: (i) only suturing, (ii) suturing after applying the adhesive on surface and (iii) suturing using an adhesive-soaked suture. The optimum concentrations were 0.1 mmol of DST and 42 w/v% of HAS. Bonding strength was greatest with cyanoacrylate-based adhesive, followed by DST-HSA adhesive, and fibrin-based adhesive. No inflammation was observed in the synovium or surrounding tissues 3 months after using the DST-HSA adhesive. Bonding strength was greatest with DST-HSA adhesive-soaked suturing group (77 ± 6 N), followed by suturing only group (61 ± 5 N) and surface adhesive application group (60 ± 8 N). The newly developed DST-HSA adhesive is considered safe and may be effective in enforcement of bonding of avascular zone tear of the meniscus.

  9. A biomechanical evaluation of all-inside 2-stitch meniscal repair devices with matched inside-out suture repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramappa, Arun J; Chen, Alvin; Hertz, Benjamin; Wexler, Michael; Grimaldi Bournissaint, Leandro; DeAngelis, Joseph P; Nazarian, Ara

    2014-01-01

    Many all-inside suture-based devices are currently available, including the Meniscal Cinch, FasT-Fix, Ultra FasT-Fix, RapidLoc, MaxFire, and CrossFix System. These different devices have been compared in various configurations, but to our knowledge, the Sequent meniscal repair device, which applies running sutures, has not been compared with the Ultra FasT-Fix, nor has it been compared with its suture, No. 0 Hi-Fi, using an inside-out repair technique. To assess the quality of the meniscal repair, all new devices should be compared with the gold standard: the inside-out repair. To that end, this study aims to compare the biomechanical characteristics of running sutures delivered by the Sequent meniscal repair device with 2 vertical mattress sutures applied using the Ultra FasT-Fix device and with 2 vertical mattress sutures using an inside-out repair technique with No. 0 Hi-Fi suture. Controlled laboratory study. Paired (medial and lateral), fresh-frozen porcine menisci were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 groups: Sequent (n = 17), Ultra FasT-Fix (n = 19), and No. 0 Hi-Fi inside-out repair (n = 20). Bucket-handle tears were created in all menisci and were subjected to repair according to their grouping. Once repaired, the specimens were subjected to cyclic loading (100, 300, and 500 cycles), followed by loading to failure. The Sequent and Ultra FasT-Fix device repairs and the suture repair exhibited low initial displacements. The Sequent meniscal repair device demonstrated the lowest displacement in response to cyclic loading. No. 0 Hi-Fi suture yielded the highest load to failure. With the development of the next generation of all-inside meniscal repair devices, surgeons may use these findings to select the method best suited for their patients. The Sequent meniscal repair device displays the least amount of displacement during cyclic loading but has a similar failure load to other devices.

  10. Biomechanical analysis of a salt-modified polyvinyl alcohol hydrogel for knee meniscus applications, including comparison with human donor samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Jennifer C; Curley, Colin; Tierney, Paul; Kennedy, James E

    2016-03-01

    The primary objective of this research was the biomechanical analysis of a salt-modified polyvinyl alcohol hydrogel, in order to assess its potential for use as an artificial meniscal implant. Aqueous polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) was treated with a sodium sulphate (Na2SO4) solution to precipitate out the polyvinyl alcohol resulting in a pliable hydrogel. The freeze-thaw process, a strictly physical method of crosslinking, was employed to crosslink the hydrogel. Development of a meniscal shaped mould and sample housing unit allowed the production of meniscal shaped hydrogels for direct comparison to human meniscal tissue. Results obtained show that compressive responses were slightly higher in PVA/Na2SO4 menisci, displaying maximum compressive loads of 2472N, 2482N and 2476N for samples having undergone 1, 3 and 5 freeze-thaw cycles respectively. When compared to the human meniscal tissue tested under the same conditions, an average maximum load of 2467.5N was observed. This suggests that the PVA/Na2SO4 menisci are mechanically comparable to the human meniscus. Biocompatibility analysis of PVA/Na2SO4 hydrogels revealed no acute cytotoxicity. The work described herein has innovative potential in load bearing applications, specifically as an alternative to meniscectomy as replacement of critically damaged meniscal tissue in the knee joint where repair is not viable. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Changes in rates of arthroscopy due to degenerative knee disease and traumatic meniscal tears in Finland and Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattila, Ville M; Sihvonen, Raine; Paloneva, Juha; Felländer-Tsai, Li

    2016-02-01

    Knee arthroscopy is commonly performed to treat degenerative knee disease symptoms and traumatic meniscal tears. We evaluated whether the recent high-quality randomized control trials not favoring arthroscopic surgery for degenerative knee disease affected the procedure incidence and trends in Finland and Sweden. We conducted a bi-national registry-based study including all adult (aged ≥18 years) inpatient and outpatient arthroscopic surgeries performed for degenerative knee disease (osteoarthritis (OA) and degenerative meniscal tears) and traumatic meniscal tears in Finland between 1997 and 2012, and in Sweden between 2001 and 2012. In Finland, the annual number of operations was 16,389 in 1997, reached 20,432 in 2007, and declined to 15,018 in 2012. In Sweden, the number of operations was 9,944 in 2001, reached 11,711 in 2008, and declined to 8,114 in 2012. The knee arthroscopy incidence for OA was 124 per 10(5) person-years in 2012 in Finland and it was 51 in Sweden. The incidence of knee arthroscopies for meniscal tears coded as traumatic steadily increased in Finland from 64 per 10(5) person-years in 1997 to 97 per 10(5) person-years in 2012, but not in Sweden. The incidence of arthroscopies for degenerative knee disease declined after 2008 in both countries. Remarkably, the incidence of arthroscopy for degenerative knee disease and traumatic meniscal tears is 2 to 4 times higher in Finland than in Sweden. Efficient implementation of new high-quality evidence in clinical practice could reduce the number of ineffective surgeries.

  12. Changes in rates of arthroscopy due to degenerative knee disease and traumatic meniscal tears in Finland and Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattila, Ville M; Sihvonen, Raine; Paloneva, Juha; Felländer-Tsai, Li

    2016-01-01

    Background and purpose Knee arthroscopy is commonly performed to treat degenerative knee disease symptoms and traumatic meniscal tears. We evaluated whether the recent high-quality randomized control trials not favoring arthroscopic surgery for degenerative knee disease affected the procedure incidence and trends in Finland and Sweden. Patients and methods We conducted a bi-national registry-based study including all adult (aged ≥18 years) inpatient and outpatient arthroscopic surgeries performed for degenerative knee disease (osteoarthritis (OA) and degenerative meniscal tears) and traumatic meniscal tears in Finland between 1997 and 2012, and in Sweden between 2001 and 2012. Results In Finland, the annual number of operations was 16,389 in 1997, reached 20,432 in 2007, and declined to 15,018 in 2012. In Sweden, the number of operations was 9,944 in 2001, reached 11,711 in 2008, and declined to 8,114 in 2012. The knee arthroscopy incidence for OA was 124 per 105 person-years in 2012 in Finland and it was 51 in Sweden. The incidence of knee arthroscopies for meniscal tears coded as traumatic steadily increased in Finland from 64 per 105 person-years in 1997 to 97 per 105 person-years in 2012, but not in Sweden. Interpretation The incidence of arthroscopies for degenerative knee disease declined after 2008 in both countries. Remarkably, the incidence of arthroscopy for degenerative knee disease and traumatic meniscal tears is 2 to 4 times higher in Finland than in Sweden. Efficient implementation of new high-quality evidence in clinical practice could reduce the number of ineffective surgeries. PMID:26122621

  13. Blade attachment assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Crespo, Andres Jose; Delvaux, John McConnell; Miller, Diane Patricia

    2016-05-03

    An assembly and method for affixing a turbomachine rotor blade to a rotor wheel are disclosed. In an embodiment, an adaptor member is provided disposed between the blade and the rotor wheel, the adaptor member including an adaptor attachment slot that is complementary to the blade attachment member, and an adaptor attachment member that is complementary to the rotor wheel attachment slot. A coverplate is provided, having a coverplate attachment member that is complementary to the rotor wheel attachment slot, and a hook for engaging the adaptor member. When assembled, the coverplate member matingly engages with the adaptor member, and retains the blade in the adaptor member, and the assembly in the rotor wheel.

  14. Attachment Figure's Regulation of Infant Brain and Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Regina M

    2017-01-01

    Altricial infants (i.e., requiring parental care for survival), such as humans and rats, form an attachment to their caregiver and receive the nurturing and protections needed for survival. Learning has a strong role in attachment, as is illustrated by strong attachment formed to non-biological caregivers of either sex. Here we summarize and integrate results from animal and human infant attachment research that highlights the important role of social buffering (social presence) of the stress response by the attachment figure and its effect on infant processing of threat and fear through modulation of the amygdala. Indeed, this work suggests the caregiver switches off amygdala function in rodents, although recent human research suggests a similar process in humans and nonhuman primates. This cross-species analysis helps provide insight and unique understanding of attachment and its role in the neurobiology of infant behavior within attachment.

  15. Risks and outcomes associated with disorganized/controlling patterns of attachment at age three years in the National Institute of Child Health & Human Development Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'connor, Erin; Bureau, Jean-Francois; Mccartney, Kathleen; Lyons-Ruth, Karlen

    2011-07-01

    Disorganized/controlling attachment in preschool has been found to be associated with maternal and child maladjustment, making it of keen interest in the study of psychopathology. Additional work is needed, however, to better understand disorganized/controlling attachment occurring as early as age 3 years. The primary aims of this study were to evaluate risk factors and outcomes associated with disorganized/controlling behavior at age 3 years and to evaluate the risk factors and outcomes differentiating the four subtypes of disorganized/controlling attachment. Analyses were conducted with the first two phases of the National Institute of Child Health & Human Development Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development, a prospective study of 1,364 children from birth. At 36 months of age, across the attachment-relevant domains of maternal well-being, mother-child interactions, and child social adaptation, the disorganized/controlling group evidenced the most maladaptive patterns in comparison to both secure and insecure-organized groups. At 54 months of age, the disorganized/controlling group displayed the highest levels of internalizing and externalizing behavior problems, as rated by mothers and teachers, and the lowest quality relationships with teachers. Significant differences found among the disorganized/controlling subtypes indicated that the behaviorally disorganized and controlling-punitive subtypes had more maladaptive patterns across variables than did the controlling-caregiving and controlling-mixed subtypes. Copyright © 2011 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.

  16. Novel Bioconjugation Strategy Using Elevated Hydrostatic Pressure: A Case Study for the Site-Specific Attachment of Polyethylene Glycol (PEGylation) of Recombinant Human Ciliary Neurotrophic Factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qi; Zhang, Chun; Guo, Fangxia; Li, Zenglan; Liu, Yongdong; Su, Zhiguo

    2017-11-15

    In this paper, we reported a novel strategy for the site-specific attachment of polyethylene glycol (PEGylation) of proteins using elevated hydrostatic pressure. The process was similar to the conventional one except the reactor was under elevated hydrostatic pressure. The model protein was recombinant human ciliary neurotrophic factor (rhCNTF), and the reagent was monomethoxy-polyethylene glycol-maleimide (mPEG-MAL). PEGylation with mPEG (40 kDa)-MAL at pH 7.0 under normal pressure for 5 h achieved a less than 5% yield. In comparison, when the pressure was elevated, the PEGylation yield was increased dramatically, reaching nearly 90% at 250 MPa. Furthermore, the following phenomena were observed: (1) high-hydrostatic-pressure PEGylation (HHPP) could operate at a low reactant ratio of 1:1.2 (rhCNTF to mPEG-MAL), while the conventional process needs a much-higher ratio. (2) Short and long chains of PEG gave a similar yield of 90% in HHPP, while the conventional yield for the short chain of the PEG was higher than that of the long chain. (3) The reaction pH in the range of 7.0 to 8.0 had almost no influence upon the yield of HHPP, while the PEGylation yield was significantly increased by a factor of three from pH 7.0 to 8.0 at normal pressure. Surface accessibility analysis was performed using GRASP2 software, and we found that Cys17 of rhCNTF was located at the concave patches, which may have steric hindrance for the PEG to approach. The speculated benefit of HHPP was the facilitation of target-site exposure, reducing the steric hindrance and making the reaction much easier. Structure and activity analysis demonstrated that the HHPP product was comparable to the PEGylated rhCNTF prepared through a conventional method. Overall, this work demonstrated that HHPP, as we proposed, may have application potentials in various conjugations of biomacromolecules.

  17. Attachment Theory and Mindfulness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Rose; Shapiro, Shauna; Treleaven, David

    2012-01-01

    We initiate a dialog between two central areas in the field of psychology today: attachment theory/research and mindfulness studies. The impact of the early mother-infant relationship on child development has been well established in the literature, with attachment theorists having focused on the correlation between a mother's capacity for…

  18. Attachment and psychosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korver, N.

    2014-01-01

    The main goal of this thesis was to further our understanding of current psychosocial models by introducing attachment as a relevant developmental framework. Firstly, attachment theory provides a psychosocial model for a developmental pathway to psychosis. Secondly, after expression of psychotic

  19. Attachment Security and Pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Tonny Elmose; Lahav, Yael; Defrin, Ruth

    2015-01-01

    The present study assesses for the first time, the possible disruption effect of posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) with regard to the protective role of attachment on pain, among ex-POWs. While secure attachment seems to serve as a buffer, decreasing the perception of pain, this function may...

  20. Acute and chronic response of meniscal fibrocartilage to holmium:YAG laser irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horan, Patrick J.; Popovic, Neven A.; Islinger, Richard B.; Kuklo, Timothy R.; Dick, Edward J.

    1997-05-01

    The acute and chronic (10 week) histological effects of the holmium:YAG laser during partial meniscectomy in an in vivo rabbit model were investigated. Twenty-four adult male New Zealand rabbits underwent bilateral parapatellar medial knee arthrotomies. In the right knee, a partial medial meniscectomy was done through the avascular zone using a standard surgical blade. In the left knee, an anatomically similar partial medial meniscectomy was performed using a Ho:YAG laser (Coherent, USA). This study indicates that the laser creates two zones of damage in the meniscal fibrocartilage and that the zone of thermal change may act as a barrier to healing. The zone of thermal change which is eventually debrided was thought at the time of surgery to be viable. In the laser cut menisci, the synovium appears to have greater inflammation early and to be equivalent with the scalpel cut after three weeks. At all time periods there appeared more cellular damage in the laser specimens.

  1. International Meniscus Reconstruction Experts Forum (IMREF) 2015 Consensus Statement on the Practice of Meniscal Allograft Transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Getgood, Alan; LaPrade, Robert F; Verdonk, Peter; Gersoff, Wayne; Cole, Brian; Spalding, Tim

    2016-08-25

    Meniscal allograft transplantation (MAT) has become relatively commonplace in specialized sport medicine practice for the treatment of patients with a symptomatic knee after the loss of a functional meniscus. The technique has evolved since the 1980s, and long-term results continue to improve. However, there still remains significant variation in how MAT is performed, and as such, there remains opportunity for outcome and graft survivorship to be optimized. The purpose of this article was to develop a consensus statement on the practice of MAT from key opinion leaders who are members of the International Meniscus Reconstruction Experts Forum so that a more standardized approach to the indications, surgical technique, and postoperative care could be outlined with the goal of ultimately improving patient outcomes. © 2016 The Author(s).

  2. Canine stifle stability following cranial cruciate ligament transection and medial meniscal release

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vedel, T.; Kristiansen, S.; Jensen, Bente Rona

    stifle stability was evaluated in right pelvic limbs from canine cadavers under three different test situations (intact, CrCL deficient and medial meniscal release (MMR)). Dogs were euthanized for reasons unrelated to the study, owner approval given for research use and institutional ethical approval...... to an intact stifle PTA between 95.5° and 97°. The mean maximal CTS in CrCL deficient stifles was 52.8% of intact marker separation distance, occurring at an average joint angle of 130°, equivalent to an intact PTA of 109°.After MMR, CTS initiated significantly earlier in extension, at a joint angle of 65...... meniscus, but did not cause a significant change in the maximal amount of CTS....

  3. The Attachment Imperative

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Navne, Laura Emdal; Svendsen, Mette Nordahl; Gammeltoft, Tine

    2017-01-01

    on social relations and point to the productive aspects of practices of distance and detachment. We show that while the NICU upholds an imperative of attachment independently of the infant's chances of survival, for parents, attachment is contingent on certain hesitations in relation to their infant. We...... argue that there are nuances in practices of relationmaking in need of more attention (i.e., the nexus of attachment and detachment). Refraining from touching, holding, and feeding their infants during critical periods, the parents enact detachment as integral to their practices of attachment....... Such “cuts” in parent–infant relations become steps on the way to securing the infant's survival and making kin(ship). We conclude that although infants may be articulated as “maybe‐lives” by staff, in the NICU as well as in Danish society, the ideal of attachment appears to leave little room for “maybe‐parents.”...

  4. Regional and depth variability of porcine meniscal mechanical properties through biaxial testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahlon, A; Hurtig, M B; Gordon, K D

    2015-01-01

    The menisci in the knee joint undergo complex loading in-vivo resulting in a multidirectional stress distribution. Extensive mechanical testing has been conducted to investigate the tissue properties of the knee meniscus, but the testing conditions do not replicate this complex loading regime. Biaxial testing involves loading tissue along two different directions simultaneously, which more accurately simulates physiologic loading conditions. The purpose of this study was to report mechanical properties of meniscal tissue resulting from biaxial testing, while simultaneously investigating regional variations in properties. Ten left, fresh porcine joints were obtained, and the medial and lateral menisci were harvested from each joint (twenty menisci total). Each menisci was divided into an anterior, middle and posterior region; and three slices (femoral, deep and tibial layers) were obtained from each region. Biaxial and constrained uniaxial testing was performed on each specimen, and Young's moduli were calculated from the resulting stress strain curves. Results illustrated significant differences in regional mechanical properties, with the medial anterior (Young's modulus (E)=11.14 ± 1.10 MPa), lateral anterior (E=11.54 ± 1.10 MPa) and lateral posterior (E=9.0 ± 1.2 MPa) regions exhibiting the highest properties compared to the medial central (E=5.0 ± 1.22 MPa), medial posterior (E=4.16 ± 1.13 MPa) and lateral central (E=5.6 ± 1.20 MPa) regions. Differences with depth were also significant on the lateral meniscus, with the femoral (E=12.7 ± 1.22 MPa) and tibial (E=8.6 ± 1.22 MPa) layers exhibiting the highest Young's moduli. This data may form the basis for future modeling of meniscal tissue, or may aid in the design of synthetic replacement alternatives. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Treatment of Painful, Irreparable Partial Meniscal Defects With a Polyurethane Scaffold: Midterm Clinical Outcomes and Survival Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhollander, Aad; Verdonk, Peter; Verdonk, René

    2016-10-01

    A biodegradable polyurethane scaffold was designed to fulfill a challenging clinical need in the treatment of patients with painful, irreparable partial meniscal defects. The use of an acellular polyurethane scaffold for new tissue generation in irreparable, partial meniscal defects provides both midterm pain relief and improved functionality. Case series; Level of evidence, 4. A total of 44 patients with irreparable, partial meniscal defects (29 medial and 15 lateral) were implanted with a polyurethane scaffold in a prospective, single-arm proof-of-principle study with a minimum 5-year follow-up. Clinical outcomes were measured with the visual analog scale (VAS) for pain, International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC), and Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS) at baseline and at 2- and 5-year follow-up. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was used to evaluate the meniscal implant and cartilage status of the index compartment. Kaplan-Meier time-to-treatment failure distributions were also performed. Removal of the scaffold, conversion to a meniscal transplant, or unicompartmental/total knee arthroplasty was used as endpoints. Seven patients were lost to follow-up (15.9%). The patients who participated in this study showed significant clinical improvement after surgery (mean [±SD] at baseline, 2 years, and 5 years: 56.2 ± 21.6, 24.6 ± 22.7, and 19.3 ± 26.9, respectively [VAS]; 206.5 ± 79.7, 329.8 ± 108.9, and 333.6 ± 112.2, respectively [total KOOS]). MRI of the scaffolds showed a smaller sized implant when compared with the native meniscus with an irregular surface at 2- and 5-year follow-up. A stable cartilage status of the index compartment at 5-year follow-up was demonstrated in 46.7% of patients compared with the baseline status. During the follow-up period, 62.2% of the implants survived. At final follow-up, 66.7% of the medial scaffolds were still functioning versus 53.8% of the lateral scaffolds. A polyurethane meniscal implant can

  6. PCL tibial avulsion with an associated medial meniscal tear in a child: a case report on diagnosis and management.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    2012-02-01

    Posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) injuries from tibial avulsions are rare in the paediatric setting. One would need a high index of suspicion as clinical examination may be difficult, especially in the early period. Magnetic resonance imaging is an excellent diagnostic modality for this condition and other associated injuries within the knee. We report a rare case in which the patient had a PCL avulsion off the tibial insertion site with an associated posterior horn medial meniscal tear off the posterior capsule. He was treated through open reduction and internal fixation of the avulsed fragment with suture repair of the meniscal tear. We emphasize the importance of diagnosing and managing associated intra-articular injuries when dealing with the rare condition of PCL tibial avulsion in the paediatric setting.

  7. Human pigmentation: A side effect adapted from a primitive organism′s survival, acting through cell attachment with an affinity for the keratinocyte and for elastin: Part I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanju Arianayagam

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Pigmentation featured millions of years ago and perhaps began with an amoeba frightening off a predator with some agent such as dopamine to prevent its attachment for phagocytosis by an enemy. This paper suggests that the environmental forces of grip and stick deserve greater emphasis and that mechanical forces involved in grip and stick or release from attachment, all point to control of proteases underlying pigmentation. There is an affinity for elastin as a pathway for melanin to exit its peripheral location in the epidermis into lymphatics and play a humeral role in defense mechanisms. The hair follicle follows the epidermal-dermal pattern of behavior with an affinity for elastin, a controlling function of melanin and through the bulge, an influence of mechanical forces and control by protease inhibitors.

  8. Assessing Attachment in Psychotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Talia, Alessandro; Miller-Bottome, Madeleine; Daniel, Sarah I.F.

    2017-01-01

    The authors present and validate the Patient Attachment Coding System (PACS), a transcript-based instrument that assesses clients' in-session attachment based on any session of psychotherapy, in multiple treatment modalities. One-hundred and sixty clients in different types of psychotherapy...... (cognitive–behavioural, cognitive–behavioural-enhanced, psychodynamic, relational, supportive) and from three different countries were administered the Adult Attachment Interview (AAI) prior to treatment, and one session for each client was rated with the PACS by independent coders. Results indicate strong...... inter-rater reliability, and high convergent validity of the PACS scales and classifications with the AAI. These results present the PACS as a practical alternative to the AAI in psychotherapy research and suggest that clinicians using the PACS can assess clients' attachment status on an ongoing basis...

  9. Joint line tenderness and McMurray tests for the detection of meniscal lesions: what is their real diagnostic value?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galli, Marco; Ciriello, Vincenzo; Menghi, Amerigo; Aulisa, Angelo G; Rabini, Alessia; Marzetti, Emanuele

    2013-06-01

    To assess the interobserver concordance of the joint line tenderness (JLT) and McMurray tests, and to determine their diagnostic efficiency for the detection of meniscal lesions. Prospective observational study. Orthopedics outpatient clinic, university hospital. Patients (N=60) with suspected nonacute meniscal lesions who underwent knee arthroscopy. Not applicable. Patients were examined by 3 independent observers with graded levels of experience (>10y, 3y, and 4mo of practice). The interobserver concordance was assessed by Cohen-Fleiss κ statistics. Accuracy, negative and positive predictive values for prevalence 10% to 90%, positive (LR+) and negative (LR-) likelihood ratios, and the Bayesian posttest probability with a positive or negative result were also determined. The diagnostic value of the 2 tests combined was assessed by logistic regression. Arthroscopy was used as the reference test. No interobserver concordance was determined for the JLT. The McMurray test showed higher interobserver concordance, which improved when judgments by the less experienced examiner were discarded. The whole series studied by the "best" examiner (experienced orthopedist) provided the following values: (1) JLT: sensitivity, 62.9%; specificity, 50%; LR+, 1.26; LR-, .74; (2) McMurray: sensitivity, 34.3%; specificity, 86.4%; LR+, 2.52; LR-, .76. The combination of the 2 tests did not offer advantages over the McMurray alone. The JLT alone is of little clinical usefulness. A negative McMurray test does not modify the pretest probability of a meniscal lesion, while a positive result has a fair predictive value. Hence, in a patient with a suspected meniscal lesion, a positive McMurray test indicates that arthroscopy should be performed. In case of a negative result, further examinations, including imaging, are needed. Copyright © 2013 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Radiographic joint space narrowing in osteoarthritis of the knee: relationship to meniscal tears and duration of pain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan, Wing P.; Huang, Guo-Shu; Hsu, Shu-Mei; Chang, Yue-Cune; Ho, Wei-Pin

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess, with knee radiography, joint space narrowing (JSN) and its relationship to meniscal tears, anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) ruptures, articular cartilage erosion, and duration of pain in patients with knee osteoarthritis. A total of 140 patients who had knee osteoarthritis and underwent primary total knee replacement (TKR) surgery, with unicompartmental medial tibiofemoral JSN (grade 1 or greater) and normal lateral compartments, were recruited. Polytomous logistic regression was used to assess the relationship between JSN and risk factors. All patients with JSN were categorized as grade 1 (n=14, 10.0%), grade 2 (n=64, 45.7%), or grade 3 (n=62, 44.3%). Women presented with indications for a TKR at a younger age than men (mean age, 69 vs 73 years, P<0.05). There were 123 (87.9%) meniscal tears and 58 (41.4%) partial (insufficient or attenuated ACL fibers) and 10 (7.1%) complete ACL ruptures; 115 of 134 (85.8%) patients had moderate to severe cartilage erosion. A higher grade of JSN was correlated with a higher frequency of meniscal tears [odds ratio (OR) 6.00, 95% CI 1.29-27.96 for grade 2 vs grade 1 JSN] and duration of knee pain (OR 1.25, 95% CI 1.01-1.53 for grade 3 vs grade 1 JSN). A higher grade of JSN was not correlated with a higher frequency of ACL rupture or articular cartilage erosion. A higher grade of JSN is associated with a higher frequency of meniscal tears and long duration of knee pain in patients with knee osteoarthritis. (orig.)

  11. Radiographic joint space narrowing in osteoarthritis of the knee: relationship to meniscal tears and duration of pain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chan, Wing P. [Taipei Medical University, Department of Radiology, School of Medicine, Taipei (China); Taipei Medical University-Wan Fang Hospital, Department of Radiology, Taipei (China); Huang, Guo-Shu [Tri-Service General Hospital, National Defense Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Taipei (China); Hsu, Shu-Mei [Taipei Medical University, Department of Radiology, School of Medicine, Taipei (China); National Taiwan University, Department of Public Health, Taipei (China); Chang, Yue-Cune [Tamkang University, Department of Mathematics, Taipei County (China); Ho, Wei-Pin [Taipei Medical University-Wan Fang Hospital, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Taipei (China)

    2008-10-15

    The objective of this study was to assess, with knee radiography, joint space narrowing (JSN) and its relationship to meniscal tears, anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) ruptures, articular cartilage erosion, and duration of pain in patients with knee osteoarthritis. A total of 140 patients who had knee osteoarthritis and underwent primary total knee replacement (TKR) surgery, with unicompartmental medial tibiofemoral JSN (grade 1 or greater) and normal lateral compartments, were recruited. Polytomous logistic regression was used to assess the relationship between JSN and risk factors. All patients with JSN were categorized as grade 1 (n=14, 10.0%), grade 2 (n=64, 45.7%), or grade 3 (n=62, 44.3%). Women presented with indications for a TKR at a younger age than men (mean age, 69 vs 73 years, P<0.05). There were 123 (87.9%) meniscal tears and 58 (41.4%) partial (insufficient or attenuated ACL fibers) and 10 (7.1%) complete ACL ruptures; 115 of 134 (85.8%) patients had moderate to severe cartilage erosion. A higher grade of JSN was correlated with a higher frequency of meniscal tears [odds ratio (OR) 6.00, 95% CI 1.29-27.96 for grade 2 vs grade 1 JSN] and duration of knee pain (OR 1.25, 95% CI 1.01-1.53 for grade 3 vs grade 1 JSN). A higher grade of JSN was not correlated with a higher frequency of ACL rupture or articular cartilage erosion. A higher grade of JSN is associated with a higher frequency of meniscal tears and long duration of knee pain in patients with knee osteoarthritis. (orig.)

  12. Three Tesla MRI for the diagnosis of meniscal and anterior cruciate ligament pathology: a comparison to arthroscopic findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sampson, M.J.; Jackson, M.P.; Moran, C.J.; Moran, R.; Eustace, S.J.; Shine, S.

    2008-01-01

    Aim: To assess the accuracy of 3 T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the evaluation of meniscal and anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury. Materials and methods: Sixty-one consecutive patients were identified who were referred for evaluation of suspected intra-articular pathology with a 3 T MRI and who, subsequently, underwent an arthroscopic procedure of the knee were included for the study. Two musculoskeletal radiologists interpreted the images. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value were then calculated for the MRI versus the arthroscopic findings as a reference standard. Results: The sensitivity and specificity for the overall detection of meniscal tears in this study was 84 and 93%, respectively. The results for the medial meniscus separately were 91 and 93% and for the lateral 77 and 93%. The evaluation of ACL integrity was 100% sensitive and specific. The meniscal tear type was correctly identified in 75% of cases and its location in 94%. Conclusion: This study demonstrates good results of 3 T MRI in the evaluation of the injured knee. Caution should still be given to the interpretation on MRI of a lateral meniscus tear, and it is suggested that the standard diagnostic criteria of high signal reaching the articular surface on two consecutive image sections be adhered to even at these higher field strengths

  13. Fibrochondrogenic potential of synoviocytes from osteoarthritic and normal joints cultured as tensioned bioscaffolds for meniscal tissue engineering in dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer J. Warnock

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Meniscal tears are a common cause of stifle lameness in dogs. Use of autologous synoviocytes from the affected stifle is an attractive cell source for tissue engineering replacement fibrocartilage. However, the diseased state of these cells may impede in vitro fibrocartilage formation. Synoviocytes from 12 osteoarthritic (“oaTSB” and 6 normal joints (“nTSB” were cultured as tensioned bioscaffolds and compared for their ability to synthesize fibrocartilage sheets. Gene expression of collagens type I and II were higher and expression of interleukin-6 was lower in oaTSB versus nTSB. Compared with nTSB, oaTSB had more glycosaminoglycan and alpha smooth muscle staining and less collagen I and II staining on histologic analysis, whereas collagen and glycosaminoglycan quantities were similar. In conclusion, osteoarthritic joint—origin synoviocytes can produce extracellular matrix components of meniscal fibrocartilage at similar levels to normal joint—origin synoviocytes, which makes them a potential cell source for canine meniscal tissue engineering.

  14. Implantation of autogenous meniscal fragments wrapped with a fascia sheath enhances fibrocartilage regeneration in vivo in a large harvest site defect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Yasukazu; Yasuda, Kazunori; Kondo, Eiji; Katsura, Taro; Tanabe, Yoshie; Kimura, Masashi; Tohyama, Harukazu

    2010-04-01

    Concerning meniscal tissue regeneration, many investigators have studied the development of a tissue-engineered meniscus. However, the utility still remains unknown. Implantation of autogenous meniscal fragments wrapped with a fascia sheath into the donor site meniscal defect may significantly enhance fibrocartilage regeneration in vivo in the defect. Controlled laboratory study. Seventy-five mature rabbits were used in this study. In each animal, an anterior one-third of the right medial meniscus was resected. Then, the animals were divided into the following 3 groups of 25 rabbits each: In group 1, no treatment was applied to the meniscal defect. In group 2, the defect was covered with a fascia sheath. In group 3, after the resected meniscus was fragmented into small pieces, the fragments were grafted into the defect. Then, the defect with the meniscal fragments was covered with a fascia sheath. In each group, 5 rabbits were used for histological evaluation at 3, 6, and 12 weeks after surgery, and 5 rabbits were used for biomechanical evaluation at 6 and 12 weeks after surgery. Histologically, large round cells in group 3 were scattered in the core portion of the meniscus-shaped tissue, and the matrix around these cells was positively stained by safranin O and toluisin blue at 12 weeks. The histological score of group 3 was significantly higher than that of group 1 and group 2. Biomechanically, the maximal load and stiffness of group 3 were significantly greater than those of groups 1 and 2. This study clearly demonstrated that implantation of autogenous meniscal fragments wrapped with a fascia sheath into the donor site meniscal defect significantly enhanced fibrocartilage regeneration in vivo in the defect at 12 weeks after implantation in the rabbit. This study proposed a novel strategy to treat a large defect after a meniscectomy.

  15. Meniscal Allograft Transplantation Does Not Prevent or Delay Progression of Knee Osteoarthritis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Van Der Straeten

    Full Text Available Meniscal tears are common knee injuries. Meniscal allograft transplantation (MAT has been advocated to alleviate symptoms and delay osteoarthritis (OA after meniscectomy. We investigated (1 the long-term outcome of MAT as a treatment of symptomatic meniscectomy, (2 most important factors affecting survivorship and (3 OA progression.From 1989 till 2013, 329 MAT were performed in 313 patients. Clinical and radiographic results and MAT survival were evaluated retrospectively. Failure was defined as conversion to knee arthroplasty (KA or total removal of the MAT.Mean age at surgery was 33 years (15-57; 60% were males. No-to-mild cartilage damage was found in 156 cases, moderate-to-severe damage in 130. Simultaneous procedures in 118 patients included cartilage procedures, osteotomy or ACL-reconstruction. At a mean follow-up of 6.8 years (0.2-24.3years, 5 patients were deceased and 48 lost (14.6%, 186 MAT were in situ (56.5% whilst 90 (27.4% had been removed, including 63 converted to a KA (19.2%. Cumulative allograft survivorship was 15.1% (95% CI:13.9-16.3 at 24.0 years. In patients <35 years at surgery, survival was significantly better (24.1% compared to ≥35 years (8.0% (p = 0.017. In knees with no-to-mild cartilage damage more allografts survived (43.0% compared to moderate-to-severe damage (6.6% (p = 0.003. Simultaneous osteotomy significantly deteriorated survival (0% at 24.0 years (p = 0.010. 61% of patients underwent at least one additional surgery (1-11 for clinical symptoms after MAT. Consecutive radiographs showed significant OA progression at a mean of 3.8 years (p<0.0001. Incremental Kellgren-Lawrence grade was +1,1 grade per 1000 days (2,7yrs.MAT did not delay or prevent tibiofemoral OA progression. 19.2% were converted to a knee prosthesis at a mean of 10.3 years. Patients younger than 35 with no-to-mild cartilage damage may benefit from MAT for relief of symptoms (survivorship 51.9% at 20.2 years, but patients and healthcare payers

  16. Effect of radial meniscal tear on in situ forces of meniscus and tibiofemoral relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tachibana, Yuta; Mae, Tatsuo; Fujie, Hiromichi; Shino, Konsei; Ohori, Tomoki; Yoshikawa, Hideki; Nakata, Ken

    2017-02-01

    To clarify the effect of the radial tear of the lateral meniscus on the in situ meniscus force and the tibiofemoral relationship under axial loads and valgus torques. Ten intact porcine knees were settled to a 6-degree of freedom robotic system, while the force and 3-dimensional path of the knees were recorded via Universal Force Sensor (UFS) during 3 cycles of 250-N axial load and 5-Nm valgus torque at 15°, 30°, 45°, and 60° of knee flexion. The same examination was performed on the following 3 meniscal states sequentially; 33, 66, and 100% width of radial tears at the middle segment of the lateral meniscus, while recording the force and path of the knees via UFS. Finally, all paths were reproduced after total lateral meniscectomy and the in situ force of the lateral meniscus were calculated with the principle of superposition. The radial tear of 100% width significantly decreased the in situ force of the lateral meniscus and caused tibial medial shift and valgus rotation at 30°-60° of knee flexion in both testing protocols. Under a 250-N axial load at 60° of knee flexion, the in situ force decreased to 36 ± 29 N with 100% width of radial tear, which was 122 ± 38 N in the intact state. Additionally, the tibia shifted medially by 2.1 ± 0.9 mm and valgusrotated by 2.5 ± 1.9° with the complete radial tear. However, the radial tear of 33 or 66% width had little effect on either the in situ force or the tibial position. A radial tear of 100% width involving the rim significantly decreased the in situ force of the lateral meniscus and caused medial shift and valgus rotation of the tibia, whereas a radial tear of up to 66% width produced only little change. The clinical relevance is that loss of meniscal functions due to complete radial tear can lead to abnormal stress concentration in a focal area of cartilage and can increase the risk of osteoarthritis in the future.

  17. Superego: an attachment perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Jeremy

    2011-10-01

    With the help of attachment theory and research, the paper attempts to broaden and build on classical and current views on the superego. Attachment theory's epigenetic approach and the concept of the subliminal superego are described. The superego, it is argued, is as much concerned with safety as sex. The superego is 'heir', not just to the Oedipus complex or Klein's pre-oedipal constellation, but also to the attachment relationship. Under favourable developmental conditions a 'mature superego' emerges, facilitating, in the presence of an internal secure base, maturational boundary crossings towards adult sexuality. In the light of the above, the paper reviews Lear's updating of Strachey's model of psychic change and explores the concept of transgression in relation to the 'professional superego', its development and maturation. Theoretical arguments are illustrated with clinical examples. Copyright © 2011 Institute of Psychoanalysis.

  18. Fuel rod attachment system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christiansen, D.W.

    1982-01-01

    A reusable system for removably attaching a nuclear reactor fuel rod to a support member. A locking cap is secured to the fuel rod and a locking strip is fastened to the support member or vice versa. The locking cap has two opposing fingers and shaped to form a socket having a body portion. The locking strip has an extension shaped to rigidly attach to the socket's body portion. The locking cap's fingers are resiliently deflectable. For attachment, the locking cap is longitudinally pushed onto the locking strip causing the extension to temporarily deflect open the fingers to engage the socket's body portion. For removal, the process is reversed. In an alternative embodiment, the cap is rigid and the strip is transversely resiliently compressible. (author)

  19. Love attitudes and attachment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Elena Brenlla

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Love styles described by Lee are Eros (passionate love, Ludus (game-pla- ying love, Storge (friendship love, Mania (possessive, dependent love, Pragma (logical, “shopping list” love and Agape (all-giving, selfless love. Based on those types, Hendrick and Hendrick developed a 42-ítem rating questionnaire with 7 items measuring each love style (Love Attitudes Scale. Beside, inform about frequency in love relationships and attachment style. The purpose of this study was analyze the reliability and factor structure of the Love Attitudes Scale and to investigate the association between love attitudes and the attachment style. The results (N=280 participants indicate adequate internal consistency (alfa = 0,73. The items were intercorrelated and factored. The best solution extracted six factors using varimax rotation and all six factors accounted 41% of the total variance. Secure attachment was related positively to eros. 

  20. Risk factors, diagnosis and non-surgical treatment for meniscal tears: evidence and recommendations: a statement paper commissioned by the Danish Society of Sports Physical Therapy (DSSF).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorlund, Jonas Bloch; Juhl, Carsten Bogh; Ingelsrud, Lina Holm; Skou, Søren Thorgaard

    2018-05-01

    This statement aimed at summarising and appraising the available evidence for risk factors, diagnostic tools and non-surgical treatments for patients with meniscal tears. We systematically searched electronic databases using a pragmatic search strategy approach. Included studies were synthesised quantitatively or qualitatively, as appropriate. Strength of evidence was determined according to the Grading of Recommendations Assessment Development and Evaluation framework. Low-quality evidence suggested that overweight (degenerative tears, k=3), male sex (k=4), contact and pivoting sports (k=2), and frequent occupational kneeling/squatting (k=3) were risk factors for meniscal tears. There was low to moderate quality evidence for low to high positive and negative predictive values, depending on the underlying prevalence of meniscal tears for four common diagnostic tests (k=15, n=2474). Seven trials investigated exercise versus surgery (k=2) or the effect of surgery in addition to exercise (k=5) for degenerative meniscal tears. There was moderate level of evidence for exercise improving self-reported pain (Effect Size (ES)-0.51, 95% CI -1.16 to 0.13) and function (ES -0.06, 95% CI -0.23 to 0.11) to the same extent as surgery, and improving muscle strength to a greater extent than surgery (ES -0.45, 95% CI -0.62 to -0.29). High-quality evidence showed no clinically relevant effect of surgery in addition to exercise on pain (ES 0.18, 95% 0.05 to 0.32) and function (ES, 0.13 95% CI -0.03 to 0.28) for patients with degenerative meniscal tears. No randomised trials comparing non-surgical treatments with surgery in patients younger than 40 years of age or patients with traumatic meniscal tears were identified. Diagnosis of meniscal tears is challenging as all clinical diagnostic tests have high risk of misclassification. Exercise therapy should be recommended as the treatment of choice for middle-aged and older patients with degenerative meniscal lesions. Evidence on

  1. The attachment of V79 and human periodontal ligament fibroblasts on periodontally involved root surfaces following treatment with EDTA, citric acid, or tetracycline HCL: an SEM in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra, R Viswa; Jagetia, Ganesh Chandra; Bhat, K Mahalinga

    2006-02-15

    The present in vitro study has been designed to establish and compare the effects of citric acid, EDTA, and tetracycline HCl on human periodontally diseased roots on the structure, attachment, and orientation of V79 (primary Chinese hamster lung fibroblasts) cells and human periodontal ligament fibroblasts (HPDL). Commercially available V79 cells and HPDL derived from healthy human third molars were used in this study. These fibroblasts were left in solution for seven days in order to attain confluence. Forty single-rooted teeth were obtained from patients diagnosed with periodontitis. The crown part was removed under constant irrigation and the root was split vertically into two equal halves, thus, yielding 80 specimens. Following scaling and root planing, the specimens were washed with phosphate buffered saline (PBS) and kept in 50 microg/ml gentamycin sulphate solution for 24 hours. The root pieces were then treated as follows: citric acid at pH 1, 24% EDTA, or with a 10% solution of tetracycline HCl and were then placed in V79 fibroblast cultures and HPDL cultures. The specimens were harvested after four weeks and were fixed in 2.5% glutaraldehyde in PBS before preparation for scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The behavior of V79 cells was similar to that of human periodontal ligament cells on root conditioned surfaces. V79 and HPDL showed a healthy morphology on root surfaces treated with citric acid and EDTA and a relatively unhealthy appearance on root surfaces treated with tetracycline HCl and distilled water (control group). The results suggest the use of citric acid and EDTA as root conditioning agents favorably affects the migration, attachment, and morphology of fibroblasts on human root surfaces, which may play a significant role in periodontal healing and regeneration.

  2. Annual Research Review: Attachment Disorders in Early Childhood--Clinical Presentation, Causes, Correlates, and Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeanah, Charles H.; Gleason, Mary Margaret

    2015-01-01

    Background: Though noted in the clinical literature for more than 50 years, attachment disorders have been studied systematically only recently. In part because of the ubiquity of attachments in humans, determining when aberrant behavior is best explained as an attachment disorder as opposed to insecure attachment has led to some confusion. In…

  3. Impact of Maternal Attachment Style on Mother to Infant Attachment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moghaddam Hoseini V

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Maternal attachment has the potential to affect both child development and parenting. As such, mother-infant attachment has been considered an important topic in recent years. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between maternal adult attachment style, the maternal obstetric and demographic characteristics and mother-infant attachment.Methods: In this descriptive-correlational study, 102 women who had referred to health centers in Mashhad in 2008 and who had inclusion criteriawere selected using stratified cluster sampling. After interview about obstetric and demographic characteristics, they were asked to complete the "Revised Adult Attachment Scale" and "Mother to Infant Attachment Inventory" for assessment of maternal attachment style and mother-infant attachment 4-5 weeks after delivery. Data were analyzed by Pearson Correlation, Kruskal-wallis and Mann-whitney statistical tests.Results: In this study, themean of mother-infant attachment was found to be 97.486.12 and the mean of secure adult attachment was higher than that of other styles (16.893.97. Although, there were negative significant relationship between maternal avoidant style and mother-infant attachment (p=0.037,r=-0/20, there were no relationship between maternal age and education, parity, type of delivery and mother-infant attachment.Conclusion: The results of this research show that maternal attachment style is one of the factors of mother -infant attachment.

  4. God attachment, mother attachment, and father attachment in early and middle adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sim, Tick Ngee; Yow, Amanda Shixian

    2011-06-01

    The present study examined the interplay of attachment to God, attachment to mother, and attachment to father with respect to adjustment (hope, self-esteem, depression) for 130 early and 106 middle adolescents in Singapore. Results showed that the parental attachments were generally linked (in expected directions) to adjustment. God attachment, however, had unique results. At the bivariate level, God attachment was only linked to early adolescents' self-esteem. When considered together with parental attachments (including interactions), God attachment did not emerge as the key moderator in attachment interactions and yielded some unexpected results (e.g., being positively linked to depression). These results are discussed viz-a-viz the secure base and safe haven functions that God and parental attachments may play during adolescence.

  5. Child-Parent Attachment Styles and Borderline Personality Disorder Relationship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senija Tahirovic

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Many studies have focused on the attachment styles and their impact on human functioning and relationships (Bretherton, 1992. Some attachment styles have been associated with pathological way of human overall functioning, and it has already been observed that insecure attachment style in childhood may be associated with personality dysfunction (Brennan & Shaver, 1998. The purpose of this study is to investigate how people diagnosed with borderline personality disorder (BPD describe their attachment style to the primary caregivers from their memories from childhood. This study was conducted in Germany in an inpatient psychiatric clinic. Fifteen participants represented a convenience sample, of patients already diagnosed with BPD. For this study Adult Attachment Interview (AAI was used. The AAI is a semi-structured interview focusing on the early attachment experiences and their effects based on Attachment Theory.The results indicated that people diagnosed with BPD showed both preoccupied and dismissing child-parent attachment style,however it was the dismissing attachment style that dominated in our sample. The findings supported the hypothesis that participants who showed dismissing attachment style also used positive adjectives to describe the relationship  with their primary caregiver, and those with the preoccupied attachment style used negative adjectives to describe the relationship  with their primary caregiver. Even though, study was conducted with small number of participants, the study did provide evidence that there is a relationship between BPD and attachment styles in childhood. Threfore, the study offered contribution to the already existing knowledge and research findings regarding the influence of attachment style on BPD development. Keywords: Attachment, Personality disorder, Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD, child, childhood

  6. Evaluation of changes in vertical ground reaction forces as indicators of meniscal damage after transection of the cranial cruciate ligament in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trumble, Troy N; Billinghurst, R Clark; Bendele, Alison M; McIlwraith, C Wayne

    2005-01-01

    To determine whether decreases in peak vertical force of the hind limb after transection of the cranial cruciate ligament (CrCL) would be indicative of medial meniscal damage in dogs. 39 purpose-bred adult male Walker Hounds. The right CrCL was transected arthroscopically. Force plate measurements of the right hind limb were made prior to and 2, 4, 10, and 18 weeks after transection of the CrCL. Only dogs with > or =10% decreases in peak vertical force after week 2 were considered to have potential meniscal damage. Dogs that did not have > or =10% decreases in peak vertical force at any time point after week 2 were assigned to group 1. Group 2 dogs had > or =10% decreases in peak vertical force from weeks 2 to 4 only. Group 3 and 4 dogs had > or =10% decreases in peak vertical force from weeks 4 to 10 only or from weeks 10 to 18 only, respectively. Damage to menisci and articular cartilage was graded at week 18, and grades for groups 2 to 4 were compared with those of group 1. The percentage change in peak vertical force and impulse area was significantly different in groups 2 (n = 4), 3 (4), and 4 (4) at the end of each measurement period (weeks 4, 10, and 18, respectively) than in group 1 (27). The meniscal grade for groups 2 to 4 was significantly higher than for group 1. A > or =10% decrease in peak vertical force had sensitivity of 52% and accuracy of 72% for identifying dogs with moderate to severe medial meniscal damage. In dogs with transected or ruptured CrCLs, force plate analysis can detect acute exacerbation of lameness, which may be the result of secondary meniscal damage, and provide an objective noninvasive technique that delineates the temporal pattern of medial meniscal injury.

  7. Patient-reported outcome measures for patients with meniscal tears: a systematic review of measurement properties and evaluation with the COSMIN checklist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middleton, Robert; Beard, David J; Price, Andrew J; Hopewell, Sally

    2017-01-01

    Objective Meniscal tears occur frequently in the population and the most common surgical treatment, arthroscopic partial meniscectomy, is performed in approximately two million cases worldwide each year. The purpose of this systematic review is to summarise and critically appraise the evidence for the use of patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) in patients with meniscal tears. Design A systematic review was undertaken. Data on reported measurement properties were extracted and the quality of the studies appraised according to Consensus-based Standards for the Selection of Health Measurement Instruments. Data sources A search of MEDLINE, Embase, AMED and PsycINFO, unlimited by language or publication date (last search 20 February 2017). Eligibility criteria for selecting studies Development and validation studies reporting the measurement properties of PROMs in patients with meniscal tears were included. Results 11 studies and 10 PROMs were included. The overall quality of studies was poor. For measurement of symptoms and functional status, there is only very limited evidence supporting the selection of either the Lysholm Knee Scale, International Knee Documentation Committee Subjective Knee Form or the Dutch version of the Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score. For measuring health-related quality of life, only limited evidence supports the selection of the Western Ontario Meniscal Evaluation Tool (WOMET). Of all the PROMs evaluated, WOMET has the strongest evidence for content validity. Conclusion For patients with meniscal tears, there is poor quality and incomplete evidence regarding the validity of the currently available PROMs. Further research is required to ensure these PROMs truly reflect the symptoms, function and quality of life of patients with meniscal tears. PROSPERO registration number CRD42017056847. PMID:29030413

  8. Coronal oblique imaging of the knee: Can it increase radiologists' confidence in diagnosing posterior root meniscal tears?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casagranda, B.U.; Leeman, J.; Costello, J.M.; Rafiee, B.; Harner, C.D.

    2013-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the utility of the coronal oblique sequence in the interrogation of posterior root meniscal lesions. Materials and methods: Following international review board approval, 62 consecutive knee arthroscopy cases were referred to the musculoskeletal (MSK) radiologists from the same orthopaedic surgeon for imaging/surgical correlation of the posterior meniscal roots. Of 62 cases, 45 lateral and 46 medial menisci met the inclusion criteria. Imaging evaluation was performed with standard magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) sequences, including a coronal oblique proton density sequence. Two blinded fellowship-trained MSK radiologists independently evaluated the menisci on standard sequences indicating whether a tear was identified and then specifying a confidence score using a scale of 1–3 on each study interpreted. Immediately thereafter, the coronal oblique sequence was evaluated using the same method. Statistics were performed on meniscal lesions involving the posterior horn/root junction or isolated root tears comparing confidence scores. Results: Reader A identified nine posterior horn/root junction tears and 14 isolated root tears. Following the addition of the coronal oblique sequence, confidence scores increased in three of 14 (21.4%) isolated root tears. All three final reads were concordant with arthroscopy. Reader B identified 10 posterior horn/root junction tears and 19 isolated root tears. The confidence score increased in six cases: five of 19 (26.3%) isolated root tears and one of 10 (10%) posterior horn/root junction tears. All six final reads were concordant with arthroscopy. Kappa coefficients indicated near perfect agreement. Conclusion: The coronal oblique sequence increased reader confidence in nearly 24% of the posterior root cases identified in this series

  9. Association of weight change with progression of meniscal intrasubstance degeneration over 48 months. Data from the Osteoarthritis Initiative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandao Guimaraes, Julio [University of California, Musculoskeletal and Quantitative Imaging Research Group (MQIR), Department of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging, San Francisco, CA (United States); Federal University of Sao Paulo (UNIFESP), Department of Radiology, Sao Paulo (Brazil); DASA Laboratory, Department of Radiology, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Nevitt, Michael C.; McCulloch, Charles E.; Liu, Felix [University of California, Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, San Francisco, CA (United States); Schwaiger, Benedikt J.; Gersing, Alexandra S.; Facchetti, Luca; Bucknor, Matthew D.; Chanchek, Nattagan; Joseph, Gabby B.; Link, Thomas M. [University of California, Musculoskeletal and Quantitative Imaging Research Group (MQIR), Department of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging, San Francisco, CA (United States)

    2018-03-15

    To investigate the association of weight change over 48 months with progression of meniscal intrasubstance degeneration (MID). We studied 487 subjects with MID at baseline and after 48 months using 3-T MRI with the same protocol (FSE sequences with and without fat suppression). These participants lost weight (≥3%, n = 141), had moderate weight gain (3-10%, n = 77), substantial weight gain (>10%, n = 15) or maintained stable weight (n = 254). Progression of MID to a meniscal tear was assessed using the WORMS grading system and compared among weight change groups using logistic regression. ANOVA and chi-square tests were used to study the differences in subjects' characteristics. Progression of MID increased from weight loss to substantial weight gain (p < 0.001) and was significantly more likely with both moderate weight gain (odds ratio [OR], 4.9; 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.4-8.9) and substantial weight gain (OR, 9.5; 95% CI 3.2-28.5) compared to stable weight. Results were similar in both menisci for moderate weight gain (medial: OR, 6.8; 95% CI 3.5-11.3; lateral: OR, 2.6; 95% CI 1.1-6.6) and substantial weight gain (medial: OR, 21.0; 95% CI 5.1-80.7; lateral: OR, 9.7; 95% CI 0.95-100.2). Weight gain is associated with an increased likelihood that meniscal intrasubstance degeneration will progress with the risk increasing with greater weight gain. (orig.)

  10. MR imaging of the knee following cruciate ligament reconstruction and meniscal surgery; MRT des Kniegelenks nach Kreuzband- und Meniskusoperationen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woertler, K. [Technische Univ. Muenchen, Klinikum rechts der Isar (Germany). Inst. fuer Roentgendiagnostik

    2009-03-15

    Due to the increasing number of surgical procedures performed on the knee, MR imaging of the postoperative knee has gained more and more importance. For the evaluation of anterior cruciate ligament grafts and postoperative menisci, basic knowledge of surgical techniques is essential in order to differentiate normal postoperative findings from transplant failure, retears, and complications. This article reviews technical aspects of MR imaging following knee surgery, basic principles of operative techniques for anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction and therapy of meniscal tears, normal postoperative findings, MR imaging criteria for recurrent lesions, and findings with typical complications. (orig.)

  11. Workspace appropriation and attachment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. PAVALACHE-ILIE

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This literature synthesis presents a short history of the evolution of the concepts of space appropriation and place attachment, highlighting the difficulty of their operationalisation from a cultural point of view. The next subject brought into discussion is the relation between the affective dimension of the connection between a person and the work place and the behaviours which are prone to insure the proper functioning of organizations, such as the organizational civism and the organizational commitment.

  12. Electron attachment analyzer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popp, P.; Grosse, H.J.; Leonhardt, J.; Mothes, S.; Oppermann, G.

    1984-01-01

    The invention concerns an electron attachment analyzer for detecting traces of electroaffine substances in electronegative gases, especially in air. The analyzer can be used for monitoring working places, e. g., in operating theatres. The analyzer consists of two electrodes inserted in a base frame of insulating material (quartz or ceramics) and a high-temperature resistant radiation source ( 85 Kr, 3 H, or 63 Ni)

  13. Love attitudes and attachment

    OpenAIRE

    María Elena Brenlla; Analía Brizzio; Alejandra Carreras

    2016-01-01

    Love styles described by Lee are Eros (passionate love), Ludus (game-pla- ying love), Storge (friendship love), Mania (possessive, dependent love), Pragma (logical, “shopping list” love) and Agape (all-giving, selfless love). Based on those types, Hendrick and Hendrick developed a 42-ítem rating questionnaire with 7 items measuring each love style (Love Attitudes Scale). Beside, inform about frequency in love relationships and attachment style. The purpose of this study was analyze the relia...

  14. Chemistry of bifunctional photoprobes. 3 -- Correlation between the efficiency of CH insertion by photolabile chelating agents and lifetimes of singlet nitrenes by flash photolysis: First example of photochemical attachment of 99mTc-complex with human serum albumin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pandurangi, R.S.; Lusiak, P.; Kuntz, R.R.; Volkert, W.A.; Rogowski, J.; Platz, M.S.

    1998-01-01

    Systematic functionalization of perfluoroaryl azides with chelating agents capable of complexing transition metals produces a new class of bifunctional photolabile chelating agents (BFPCAs). The strategy is shield the azide functionality from the electronic and steric influence of the electron-rich metal Pd through ester and amide bridges raised CH insertion efficiency to unprecedented levels (>92%) in a model solvent (cyclohexane). In contrast, perfluoroaryl azides attached to chelating agents via hydrazones show no significant CH insertion in cyclohexane upon photolysis. Measurements of the lifetimes of the singlet nitrenes derived from these agents by flash photolysis techniques correlate well with the efficiency of CH insertion by demonstrating longer lifetimes (10--50 times) for singlet nitrenes derived from azidotetrafluorinated esters and amides compared with the related hydrazones, which failed to yield significant CH insertion. A representative BFPCA 12 is chelated to diagnostic radionuclide 99m Tc and covalently attached to human serum albumin via photochemical activation extending the favorable bimolecular insertion characteristics of BFPCA to tracer level concentrations in buffer conditions. Flash photolysis experiments correlate singlet nitrene lifetimes with the efficiency of intermolecular insertion reactions. This work provides new photo-cross-linking technology, useful in radiodiagnostics and radiotherapy in nuclear medicine

  15. MR imaging characteristics and clinical symptoms related to displaced meniscal flap tears

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lance, Valentin; Heilmeier, Ursula R.; Joseph, Gabby B.; Steinbach, Lynne; Link, Thomas M. [University of California, Department of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging, San Francisco, CA (United States); Ma, Benjamin [University of California, Department of Orthopedic Surgery and Sports Medicine, San Francisco (United States)

    2014-11-16

    The purpose of our study was (1) to analyze the flap tear location, direction of displacement and size on magnetic resonance (MR) imaging, (2) to describe associated knee abnormalities including presence of effusion, synovitis, bone marrow edema pattern or ligamentous tear, and (3) to assess clinical findings found with flap tears, including the pain score, and determine differences between operative and nonoperative groups. A retrospective radiology database search over the last 3 years identified 238 patients with flap tears, of which ultimately 58 with isolated flap tears were included after exclusion of patients with other significant knee internal derangement, severe degenerative change or prior surgery. MR studies of the knee were analyzed by two radiologists. Imaging characteristics were correlated with associated knee abnormalities and clinical findings. Statistical analysis employed linear and logistic regression models. Inter- and intrareader reliability was calculated. The medial meniscus was the most common site of flap tears (52/60, 87 %), with inferior displacement (47/60, 78 %). The degree of tibial cartilage loss had a positive correlation with the visual analog pain scale (p = 0.03). Patients who underwent arthroscopy were younger than those who did not (p = 0.01) and more likely to have a positive clinical McMurray test (p = 0.01). Medially and inferiorly displaced flap tears are the most common tear pattern. Those undergoing arthroscopy are more likely to have positive meniscal signs on clinical examination. A greater degree of cartilage loss involving the tibia on MR imaging was associated with increasing visual analog pain scores. (orig.)

  16. MR imaging characteristics and clinical symptoms related to displaced meniscal flap tears

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lance, Valentin; Heilmeier, Ursula R.; Joseph, Gabby B.; Steinbach, Lynne; Link, Thomas M.; Ma, Benjamin

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of our study was (1) to analyze the flap tear location, direction of displacement and size on magnetic resonance (MR) imaging, (2) to describe associated knee abnormalities including presence of effusion, synovitis, bone marrow edema pattern or ligamentous tear, and (3) to assess clinical findings found with flap tears, including the pain score, and determine differences between operative and nonoperative groups. A retrospective radiology database search over the last 3 years identified 238 patients with flap tears, of which ultimately 58 with isolated flap tears were included after exclusion of patients with other significant knee internal derangement, severe degenerative change or prior surgery. MR studies of the knee were analyzed by two radiologists. Imaging characteristics were correlated with associated knee abnormalities and clinical findings. Statistical analysis employed linear and logistic regression models. Inter- and intrareader reliability was calculated. The medial meniscus was the most common site of flap tears (52/60, 87 %), with inferior displacement (47/60, 78 %). The degree of tibial cartilage loss had a positive correlation with the visual analog pain scale (p = 0.03). Patients who underwent arthroscopy were younger than those who did not (p = 0.01) and more likely to have a positive clinical McMurray test (p = 0.01). Medially and inferiorly displaced flap tears are the most common tear pattern. Those undergoing arthroscopy are more likely to have positive meniscal signs on clinical examination. A greater degree of cartilage loss involving the tibia on MR imaging was associated with increasing visual analog pain scores. (orig.)

  17. IL-10 ameliorates TNF-α induced meniscus degeneration in mature meniscal tissue in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrendt, P; Häfelein, K; Preusse-Prange, A; Bayer, A; Seekamp, A; Kurz, B

    2017-05-16

    Joint inflammation causes meniscus degeneration and can exacerbate post-traumatic meniscus injuries by extracellular matrix degradation, cellular de-differentiation and cell death. The aim of this study was to examine whether anti-inflammatory interleukin-10 exerts protective effects in an in vitro model of TNF-α-induced meniscus degeneration. Meniscus tissue was harvested from the knees of adult cows. After 24 h of equilibrium explants were simultaneously treated with bovine TNF-α and IL-10. After an incubation time of 72 h cell death was measured histomorphometrically (nuclear blebbing, NB) and release of glycosaminoglycans (GAG, DMMB assay) and nitric oxide (NO, Griess-reagent) were analysed. Transcription levels (mRNA) of matrix degrading enzymes, collagen type X (COL10A1) and nitric oxide synthetase 2 (NOS2) were measured by quantitative real time PCR. TNF-α-dependent formation of the aggrecanase-specific aggrecan neoepitope NITEGE was visualised by immunostaining. Differences between groups were calculated using a one-way ANOVA with a Bonferroni post hoc test. Administration of IL-10 significantly prevented the TNF-α-related cell death (P .001), release of NO (P .003) and NOS2 expression (P .04). Release of GAG fragments (P .001), NITEGE formation and expression of MMP3 (P .007), -13 (P .02) and ADAMTS4 (P .001) were significantly reduced. The TNF-α-dependent increase in COL10A1 expression was also antagonized by IL-10 (P .02). IL-10 prevented crucial mechanisms of meniscal degeneration induced by a key cytokine of OA, TNF-α. Administration of IL-10 might improve the biological regeneration and provide a treatment approach in degenerative meniscus injuries and in conditions of post-traumatic sports injuries.

  18. Relationships between attachment and marital satisfaction in married couples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Gallerová

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Theory of attachment strongly influences exploring of close relationships in childhood and in adulthood as well. According Bowlby attachment is "lasting relationship bond characterized by need of seeking and maintaining proximity with a person in stressful situations especially (Bowbly, 2010. Hazan a Shaver (1987 applied theory of early attachment in romantic relationships of adults. Behavior of adult human in relationships is more or less predictable by style of attachment in childhood (Feeney, 1999. Brennan, Clark a Shaver (1998 created four-dimensional model of attachment which was based on Ainsworth´s theory as well. The model was formed of two dimensions - anxiety and avoidance. The authors identified four types of attachment: secure, fearful, dismissive and preoccupied style of attachment (Brennan, Clark, & Shaver, 1998. Satisfaction in romantic relationship can be explained as a degree in which is relationship for a human enojyable. Attachment influences satisfaction in relationship in terms of meeting need of proximity and safety (Mikulincer, Florian, Cowan, & Cowan, 2002. Several researches show that safe attachment is associated with higher satisfaction in marriage and on the other hand people with insecure style of attachment show lower degree of satisfaction in relationship (Alexandrov, Cowan, & Cowan, 2005; Treboux, Crowell, & Waters, 2004. At the same time style of attachment of the partner also influences individual a lot, satisfaction does not depend only on his own style of attachment but also on attachment of his partner (Farinelli, & McEwan, 2009. The study examined relations between the relationship attachment and marital satisfaction. The goal was to explain the relationship between the adult attachment and marital satisfaction of the individual and her/his husband/wife. The research examined relationship between adult attachment and marital satisfaction as well. Quantitative questionnaire survey: The battery consisted of

  19. Antigenic Fingerprinting following Primary RSV Infection in Young Children Identifies Novel Antigenic Sites and Reveals Unlinked Evolution of Human Antibody Repertoires to Fusion and Attachment Glycoproteins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Fuentes

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV is the major cause of pneumonia among infants. Here we elucidated the antibody repertoire following primary RSV infection and traced its evolution through adolescence and adulthood. Whole genome-fragment phage display libraries (GFPDL expressing linear and conformational epitopes in the RSV fusion protein (F and attachment protein (G were used for unbiased epitope profiling of infant sera prior to and following RSV infection. F-GFPDL analyses demonstrated modest changes in the anti-F epitope repertoires post-RSV infection, while G-GFPDL analyses revealed 100-fold increase in number of bound phages. The G-reactive epitopes spanned the N- and C-terminus of the G ectodomain, along with increased reactivity to the central conserved domain (CCD. Panels of F and G antigenic sites were synthesized to evaluate sera from young children (<2 yr, adolescents (14-18 yr and adults (30-45 yr in SPR real-time kinetics assays. A steady increase in RSV-F epitope repertoires from young children to adults was observed using peptides and F proteins. Importantly, several novel epitopes were identified in pre-fusion F and an immunodominant epitope in the F-p27. In all age groups, antibody binding to pre-fusion F was 2-3 folds higher than to post-fusion form. For RSV-G, antibody responses were high following early RSV infection in children, but declined significantly in adults, using either G proteins or peptides. This study identified unlinked evolution of anti-F and anti G responses and supportive evidence for immune pressure driven evolution of RSV-G. These findings could help development of effective countermeasures including vaccines.

  20. Next Steps in Attachment Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, David C

    2012-12-01

    Thanks to the phenomenal success of attachment theory, great progress has been made in understanding child and adult relationships. The success of attachment theory opens the way to new research directions that can extend its successes even further. In particular, more work on the fundamental nature of attachment that respects recent biological research is important, as is concentrated effort on the related caregiving system.

  1. Next Steps in Attachment Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Bell, David C.

    2012-01-01

    Thanks to the phenomenal success of attachment theory, great progress has been made in understanding child and adult relationships. The success of attachment theory opens the way to new research directions that can extend its successes even further. In particular, more work on the fundamental nature of attachment that respects recent biological research is important, as is concentrated effort on the related caregiving system.

  2. Introduction: attachment theory and psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Kenneth N

    2013-11-01

    In this introduction to the JCLP: In Session 69(11) issue on attachment theory and psychotherapy, the key points of attachment theory (Bowlby, , , 1981) and its relevance to psychotherapy are briefly described. The aim of this issue is to provide case illustrations of how an attachment theory perspective and principles can expand our understanding of psychotherapy practice. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Supporting Parents with Two Essential Understandings: Attachment and Brain Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Eugenia Hepworth

    1999-01-01

    Readiness to learn is a constant state. Two critical aspects of early childhood provide parents sufficient understanding of their child's development: attachment and brain development. Children develop attachments to caregivers but need consistent parental care and love. Human brains continue to quickly grow during the first two years of life.…

  4. ATTACHMENT, RELATIONAL-NEEDS, AND PSYCHOTHERAPEUTIC PRESENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard G. Erskine

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Humans require the contactful presence of another person who is attuned and responsive to relational-needs. Insecure attachment patterns are the result of repeated disruptions in significant relationships. This article describes eight relational-needs that, when repeatedly unsatisfied, lead to insecure attachment patterns based on the fears of loss of relationship, vulnerability, violation, and invasion.The healing of insecure attachment patterns occurs through a contactful psychotherapeutic presence that occurs when the attitude, behavior and communication of the psychotherapist consistently respects and enhances the client's integrity while responding to relational-needs. The article is the Keynote Address given at the 5th International Integrative Psychotherapy Association Conference in Vichy, France, April 21, 2011.

  5. Impact of Maternal Attachment Style on Mother to Infant Attachment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V Moghaddam Hoseini

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available

    Background and Objectives: Maternal attachment has the potential to affect both child development and parenting. As such, mother-infant attachment has been considered an important topic in recent years. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between maternal adult attachment style, the maternal obstetric and demographic characteristics and mother-infant attachment.

     

    Methods: In this descriptive-correlational study, 102 women who had referred to health centers in Mashhad in 2008 and who had inclusion criteriawere selected using stratified cluster sampling. After interview about obstetric and demographic characteristics, they were asked to complete the "Revised Adult Attachment Scale" and "Mother to Infant Attachment Inventory" for assessment of maternal attachment style and mother-infant attachment 4-5 weeks after delivery. Data were analyzed by Pearson Correlation, Kruskal-wallis and Mann-whitney statistical tests.

     

    Results: In this study, themean of mother-infant attachment was found to be 97.48±6.12 and the mean of secure adult attachment was higher than that of other styles (16.89±3.97. Although, there were negative significant relationship between maternal avoidant style and mother-infant attachment (p=0.037,r=-0/20, there were no relationship between maternal age and education, parity, type of delivery and mother-infant attachment.

     

    Conclusion: The results of this research show that maternal attachment style is one of the factors of mother -infant attachment.

  6. T1-weighted vs. short-TE-long-TR images. Usefulness for knee MR examinations of ligament and meniscal lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Endo, Hideho; Wada, Mitsuyoshi; Shiotani, Seiji [Tsukuba Medical Center Hospital, Ibaraki (Japan); Niitsu, Mamoru; Itai, Yuji

    2000-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare short-TE-long-TR images with T1-weighed images in knee MR examinations. Sagittal MR images of the knee were obtained in 31 patients with knee pain. T1-weighted images were obtained by the spin-echo technique (TR/TE =350/15), and short-TE-long-TR images by fast spin-echo (TR/TE =1300/15) with an echo-train length of 5. Contrast-to-noise-ratios (CNRs) of the anterior cruciate ligament and synovial space, meniscus and articular cartilage, and meniscal lesion and normal meniscus were compared between short-TE-long-TR images and T1-weighted images. On each of the three examinations, short-TE-long-TR images provided significantly higher CNRs than T1-weighted images. It was concluded that short-TE-long-TR images can be a useful alternative to T1-weighted images in evaluating the anterior cruciate ligament and meniscal lesions. (author)

  7. Anterolateral ligament abnormalities in patients with acute anterior cruciate ligament rupture are associated with lateral meniscal and osseous injuries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dyck, Pieter van; Smet, Eline de; Gielen, Jan L.; Parizel, Paul M. [Antwerp University Hospital and University of Antwerp, Department of Radiology, Antwerp (Belgium); Clockaerts, Stefan [University College Hospitals, Department of Orthopaedics, London (United Kingdom); Vanhoenacker, Filip M. [Antwerp University Hospital and University of Antwerp, Department of Radiology, Antwerp (Belgium); Ghent University Hospital and University of Ghent, Department of Radiology, Ghent (Belgium); AZ St-Maarten, Department of Radiology, Antwerp (Belgium); Lambrecht, Valerie [Ghent University Hospital and University of Ghent, Department of Radiology, Ghent (Belgium); Wouters, Kristien [Antwerp University Hospital and University of Antwerp, Department of Biostatistics, Antwerp (Belgium)

    2016-10-15

    To determine the frequency of anterolateral ligament (ALL) injury in patients with acute anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) rupture and to analyse its associated injury patterns. Ninety patients with acute ACL rupture for which MRI was obtained within 8 weeks after the initial trauma were retrospectively identified. Two radiologists assessed the status of the ALL on MRI by consensus. The presence or absence of an ALL abnormality was compared with the existence of medial and lateral meniscal tears diagnosed during arthroscopy. Associated collateral ligament and osseous injuries were documented with MRI. Forty-one of 90 knees (46 %) demonstrated ALL abnormalities on MRI. Of 49 knees with intact ALL, 15 (31 %) had a torn lateral meniscus as compared to 25 torn lateral menisci in 41 knees (61 %) with abnormal ALL (p = 0.008). Collateral ligament (p ≤ 0.05) and osseous injuries (p = 0.0037) were more frequent and severe in ALL-injured as compared with ALL-intact knees. ALL injuries are fairly common in patients with acute ACL rupture and are statistically significantly associated with lateral meniscal, collateral ligament and osseous injuries. (orig.)

  8. T1-weighted vs. short-TE-long-TR images. Usefulness for knee MR examinations of ligament and meniscal lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endo, Hideho; Wada, Mitsuyoshi; Shiotani, Seiji; Niitsu, Mamoru; Itai, Yuji

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare short-TE-long-TR images with T1-weighed images in knee MR examinations. Sagittal MR images of the knee were obtained in 31 patients with knee pain. T1-weighted images were obtained by the spin-echo technique (TR/TE =350/15), and short-TE-long-TR images by fast spin-echo (TR/TE =1300/15) with an echo-train length of 5. Contrast-to-noise-ratios (CNRs) of the anterior cruciate ligament and synovial space, meniscus and articular cartilage, and meniscal lesion and normal meniscus were compared between short-TE-long-TR images and T1-weighted images. On each of the three examinations, short-TE-long-TR images provided significantly higher CNRs than T1-weighted images. It was concluded that short-TE-long-TR images can be a useful alternative to T1-weighted images in evaluating the anterior cruciate ligament and meniscal lesions. (author)

  9. Human Migratory Meniscus Progenitor Cells Are Controlled via the TGF-β Pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhammad, Hayat; Schminke, Boris; Bode, Christa; Roth, Moritz; Albert, Julius; von der Heyde, Silvia; Rosen, Vicki; Miosge, Nicolai

    2014-01-01

    Summary Degeneration of the knee joint during osteoarthritis often begins with meniscal lesions. Meniscectomy, previously performed extensively after meniscal injury, is now obsolete because of the inevitable osteoarthritis that occurs following this procedure. Clinically, meniscus self-renewal is well documented as long as the outer, vascularized meniscal ring remains intact. In contrast, regeneration of the inner, avascular meniscus does not occur. Here, we show that cartilage tissue harvested from the avascular inner human meniscus during the late stages of osteoarthritis harbors a unique progenitor cell population. These meniscus progenitor cells (MPCs) are clonogenic and multipotent and exhibit migratory activity. We also determined that MPCs are likely to be controlled by canonical transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) signaling that leads to an increase in SOX9 and a decrease in RUNX2, thereby enhancing the chondrogenic potential of MPC. Therefore, our work is relevant for the development of novel cell biological, regenerative therapies for meniscus repair. PMID:25418724

  10. Attachment is a dynamic system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zlatka Cugmas

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of the study of recent scientific literature about the development of attachment, the author answers the following questions: which are the postulates the theory of attachment has about the stability of the patterns of attachment, which level of stability in the patterns of attachment from infancy to adulthood these studies illuminate and which factors significantly influence the (instability of the patterns of attachment in time. The theory of attachment assumes that normal circumstances elicit stability. Changes, however, can be the result of important events influencing the sensitivity of the object of attachment. Agreement has not yet been reached regarding the percentage of stability in the patterns of attachment. There is more agreement regarding attachment in adulthood than that in childhood. The results depend on the size and characteristics of the subjects of the research, the measuring instruments, type of data analysis etc. The author concludes that attachment is a dynamic system influenced by significant changes in life (the cognitive development of the child, external care, parents' divorce, different stressful situations. As the influence of stressful events on the individual person' s quality of attachment is examined, it is necessary to consider also his/her temperamental characteristics, role of other people in their lives, etc.

  11. Optimized methods to measure acetoacetate, 3-hydroxybutyrate, glycerol, alanine, pyruvate, lactate and glucose in human blood using a centrifugal analyser with a fluorimetric attachment

    OpenAIRE

    Stappenbeck, R.; Hodson, A. W.; Skillen, A. W.; Agius, L.; Alberti, K. G. M. M.

    1990-01-01

    Optimized methods are described for the analysis of glucose, lactate, pyruvate, alanine, glycerol, D-3-hydroxybutyrate and acetoacetate in perchloric acid extracts of human blood using the Cobas Bio centrifugal analyser. Glucose and lactate are measured using the photometric mode and other metabolites using the fluorimetric mode. The intra-assay coefficients of variation ranged from 0.7 to 4.1%, except with very low levels of pyruvate and acetoacetate where the coefficients of variation were ...

  12. "Like Owner, Like Dog": Correlation between the Owner's Attachment Profile and the Owner-Dog Bond

    OpenAIRE

    Siniscalchi, Marcello; Stipo, Carlo; Quaranta, Angelo

    2013-01-01

    During recent years, several studies have revealed that human-dog relationships are based on a well-established and complex bond. There is now evidence suggesting that the dog-human affectional bond can be characterized as an "attachment". The present study investigated possible association between the owners' attachment profile assessed throughout a new semi-projective test (the 9 Attachment Profile) and the owner-dog attachment bond evaluated using a modified version of those used in studyi...

  13. Attachment Theory in Tourism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maximiliano Korstanje

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The following work is intended to a revision on attachment theory. The postulates of the theory of the sure base point that the system of exploration meets in narrow relation the system of conducts of attachment and the figure of the keepers. The conducts that characterize and symbolize the relation of the adult with the environment are carried back to the early age, in the moment in which the child develops the affective capacity. What difference does exist between someone who decides to journey to England and that one that one decides to travel to Mar del Plata? How it is possible to study this topic of on a manner trustworthy? These three questions were key to begin the investigation. Nevertheless, the matter began to find certain limitations linked to the methodology that had to be in use. It is possible to use careless they on the leisure scope, a theory which still demonstrates certain inconsistencies in its own clinical application?

  14. Ceramic blade attachment system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frey, G.A.; Jimenez, O.D.

    1996-12-03

    A turbine blade having a preestablished rate of thermal expansion is attached to a turbine flange having a preestablished rate of thermal expansion being greater than the preestablished rate of thermal expansion of the turbine blade. The turbine flange includes a first upstanding flange and a second upstanding flange having a groove formed between them. The turbine flange further includes a recess. Each of the first and second upstanding flanges have a plurality of bores therein. A turbine blade has a first member and a second member positioned in one of the groove and the recess. Each of the first member and the second member have a plurality of bores therein. A pin is positioned in respective ones of the plurality of bores in the first and second upstanding members and the first and second members and attach the blade to the turbine flange. The pin has a preestablished rate of thermal expansion being substantially equal to the rate of thermal expansion of the blade. 4 figs.

  15. The contribution of 3D quantitative meniscal and cartilage measures to variation in normal radiographic joint space width—Data from the Osteoarthritis Initiative healthy reference cohort

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roth, Melanie; Wirth, Wolfgang; Emmanuel, Katja; Culvenor, Adam G.; Eckstein, Felix

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To explore to what extent three-dimensional measures of the meniscus and femorotibial cartilage explain the variation in medial and lateral femorotibial radiographic joint space width (JSW), in healthy men and women. Methods: The right knees of 87 Osteoarthritis Initiative healthy reference participants (no symptoms, radiographic signs or risk factors of osteoarthritis; 37 men, 50 women; age 55.0 ± 7.6; BMI 24.4 ± 3.1) were assessed. Quantitative measures of subregional femorotibial cartilage thickness and meniscal position and morphology were computed from segmented magnetic resonance images. Minimal and medial/lateral fixed-location JSW were determined from fixed-flexion radiographs. Correlation and regression analyses were used to explore the contribution of demographic, cartilage and meniscal parameters to JSW in healthy subjects. Results: The correlation with (medial) minimal JSW was somewhat stronger for cartilage thickness (0.54 ≤ r ≤ 0.67) than for meniscal (−0.31 ≤ r ≤ 0.50) or demographic measures (−0.15 ≤ r ≤ 0.48), in particular in men. In women, in contrast, the strength of the correlations of cartilage thickness and meniscal measures with minimal JSW were in the same range. Fixed-location JSW measures showed stronger correlations with cartilage thickness (r ≥ 0.68 medially; r ≥ 0.59 laterally) than with meniscal measures (r ≤ |0.32| medially; r ≤ |0.32| laterally). Stepwise regression models revealed that meniscal measures added significant independent information to the total variance explained in minimal JSW (adjusted multiple r 2 = 58%) but not in medial or lateral fixed-location JSW (r 2 = 60/51%, respectively). Conclusions: In healthy subjects, minimal JSW was observed to reflect a combination of cartilage and meniscal measures, particularly in women. Fixed-location JSW, in contrast, was found to be dominated by variance in cartilage thickness in both men and women, with somewhat higher correlations between

  16. The contribution of 3D quantitative meniscal and cartilage measures to variation in normal radiographic joint space width—Data from the Osteoarthritis Initiative healthy reference cohort

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roth, Melanie, E-mail: melanie.roth@pmu.ac.at [Institute of Anatomy, Paracelsus Medical University Salzburg & Nuremberg, Strubergasse 21, 5020, Salzburg (Austria); Wirth, Wolfgang, E-mail: wolfgang.wirth@pmu.ac.at [Institute of Anatomy, Paracelsus Medical University Salzburg & Nuremberg, Strubergasse 21, 5020, Salzburg (Austria); Chondrometrics GmbH, Ulrichshöglerstrasse 23, 83404, Ainring (Germany); Emmanuel, Katja, E-mail: katja.emmanuel@icloud.com [Institute of Anatomy, Paracelsus Medical University Salzburg & Nuremberg, Strubergasse 21, 5020, Salzburg (Austria); Department of Orthopedics and Traumatology, Paracelsus Medical University, Müllner Hauptstraße 48, 5020, Salzburg (Austria); Culvenor, Adam G., E-mail: adam.culvenor@pmu.ac.at [Institute of Anatomy, Paracelsus Medical University Salzburg & Nuremberg, Strubergasse 21, 5020, Salzburg (Austria); School of Allied Health, La Trobe University, Plenty Road, Bundoora, 3086, Victoria (Australia); Eckstein, Felix, E-mail: felix.eckstein@pmu.ac.at [Institute of Anatomy, Paracelsus Medical University Salzburg & Nuremberg, Strubergasse 21, 5020, Salzburg (Austria); Chondrometrics GmbH, Ulrichshöglerstrasse 23, 83404, Ainring (Germany)

    2017-02-15

    Objective: To explore to what extent three-dimensional measures of the meniscus and femorotibial cartilage explain the variation in medial and lateral femorotibial radiographic joint space width (JSW), in healthy men and women. Methods: The right knees of 87 Osteoarthritis Initiative healthy reference participants (no symptoms, radiographic signs or risk factors of osteoarthritis; 37 men, 50 women; age 55.0 ± 7.6; BMI 24.4 ± 3.1) were assessed. Quantitative measures of subregional femorotibial cartilage thickness and meniscal position and morphology were computed from segmented magnetic resonance images. Minimal and medial/lateral fixed-location JSW were determined from fixed-flexion radiographs. Correlation and regression analyses were used to explore the contribution of demographic, cartilage and meniscal parameters to JSW in healthy subjects. Results: The correlation with (medial) minimal JSW was somewhat stronger for cartilage thickness (0.54 ≤ r ≤ 0.67) than for meniscal (−0.31 ≤ r ≤ 0.50) or demographic measures (−0.15 ≤ r ≤ 0.48), in particular in men. In women, in contrast, the strength of the correlations of cartilage thickness and meniscal measures with minimal JSW were in the same range. Fixed-location JSW measures showed stronger correlations with cartilage thickness (r ≥ 0.68 medially; r ≥ 0.59 laterally) than with meniscal measures (r ≤ |0.32| medially; r ≤ |0.32| laterally). Stepwise regression models revealed that meniscal measures added significant independent information to the total variance explained in minimal JSW (adjusted multiple r{sup 2} = 58%) but not in medial or lateral fixed-location JSW (r{sup 2} = 60/51%, respectively). Conclusions: In healthy subjects, minimal JSW was observed to reflect a combination of cartilage and meniscal measures, particularly in women. Fixed-location JSW, in contrast, was found to be dominated by variance in cartilage thickness in both men and women, with somewhat higher correlations

  17. Establishment of novel meniscal scaffold structures using polyglycolic and poly-l-lactic acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Tomohiko; Otsuki, Shuhei; Nakagawa, Kosuke; Okamoto, Yoshinori; Inoue, Tae; Sakamoto, Yuki; Sato, Hideki; Neo, Masashi

    2017-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate various types of meniscus scaffolds that mimic the meniscus structure, and to establish a novel cell-free meniscus scaffold with polyglycolic acid or poly-l-lactic acid. Four types of scaffolds were implanted into Japanese white rabbits: poly-l-lactic acid sponge poly-l-lactic acid, PGA-coated PLLA sponge, PGA lamination, and film-coated PGA lamination. Samples were harvested at 8 and 12 weeks after implantation, and a compression stress test was performed. The meniscus size and Ishida scores were evaluated for regenerated tissue. Immunohistochemistry was analyzed by anti-type I, II and X collagen antibodies to investigate the structure of the regenerated tissue, and by anti-iNOS antibody to investigate the inflammatory tissue of the meniscus. The cell nuclei of lymphocytes and foreign body multinucleated giant cells were counted in hematoxylin and eosin staining. Modified Mankin scores for cartilage degeneration were used for assessment after Safranin-O/Fast Green staining. The biomechanical test showed that l- and film-coated PGA lamination exhibited greater strength than s- and PGA-coated PLLA sponge. At 12 weeks, the size of meniscus and the Ishida score in implanted film-coated PGA lamination were improved significantly compared with the defect groups. The type II collagen staining intensity in the PGA lamination lamination is significantly higher than the defect at eight weeks. The staining intensity of iNOS and number of lymphocytes significantly increased in sponge poly-l-lactic acid at eight weeks, and increased in p-PLLA at 12 weeks. Foreign body multinucleated giant cells in implantation groups appeared, especially at eight weeks. The Mankin score for film-coated PGA lamination was significantly lower than for the defect at 12 weeks. Novel meniscal scaffolds especially PGA should possess not only biological but also biomechanical functions. In conclusions, film-coated PGA lamination was the beneficial property

  18. Electron attachment cross sections obtained from electron attachment spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popp, P.; Baumbach, J.I.; Leonhardt, J.W.; Mothes, S.

    1988-01-01

    Electron capture detectors have a high sensitivity for substances with high thermal electron attachment cross sections. The electron attachment spectroscopy makes it possible to change the mean electron energy in such a way that the maximum for dissociative electron attachment is reached. Thus, best operation modes of the detection system as well as significant dependencies of electron attachment coefficients are available. Cross sections for electron attachment as a function of the electron energy are obtained with the knowledge of electron energy distribution functions from Boltzmann equation analysis by a special computer code. A disadvantage of this electron attachment spectroscopy is the superposition of space charge effects due to the decrease of the electron drift velocity with increasing mean electron energy. These influences are discussed. (author)

  19. Value of Fat-Suppressed Proton-Density-Weighted Turbo Spin-Echo Sequences in Detecting Meniscal Lesions: Comparison with Arthroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaefer, F.K.W.; Schaefer, P.J.; Brossmann, J.; Frahm, C.; Hilgert, R.E.; Heller, M.; Jahnke, T.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate fat-suppressed (FS) proton-density-weighted (PDw) turbo spin-echo (TSE) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) compared to arthroscopy in the detection of meniscal lesions. Material and Methods: In a prospective study, 31 knee joints were imaged on a 1.5T MR scanner before arthroscopy using the following sequences: (a) coronal and sagittal FS-PDw TSE (TR/TE: 4009/15 ms); (b) coronal T1w SE (TR/TE: 722/20 ms), and sagittal PDw TSE (TR/TE: 3800/15 ms). Other imaging parameters were: slice thickness 3 mm, FOV 160 mm, matrix 256x256. A total of 186 meniscal regions (62 menisci; anterior horn, body, posterior horn) were evaluated. Standard of reference was arthroscopy. Sensitivity, specificity, negative predictive value (npv), positive predictive value (ppv), and accuracy were calculated. Results: Arthroscopically, meniscal lesions were detected in 55/186 segments (35 medial and 20 lateral meniscal lesions). Sensitivity, specificity, npv, ppv, and accuracy for combination of coronal and sagittal FS PDw TSE were 91.4%, 98.3%, 95%, 97%, and 93.5% for the medial meniscus, and 90%, 98.6%, 97.3%, 94.7%, and 96.8% for the lateral. The results were comparable to the combination of coronal T1w SE and sagittal PDw TSE for the medial (88.6%, 98.3%, 93.4%, 96.9%, 91.4%) and the lateral (90%, 95.9%, 97.2%, 85.7%, 92.5%) meniscus. Conclusion: FS PDw TSE-MR sequences are an excellent alternative for the detection of meniscal lesions in comparison with diagnostic arthroscopy

  20. Optimized methods to measure acetoacetate, 3-hydroxybutyrate, glycerol, alanine, pyruvate, lactate and glucose in human blood using a centrifugal analyser with a fluorimetric attachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stappenbeck, R; Hodson, A W; Skillen, A W; Agius, L; Alberti, K G

    1990-01-01

    Optimized methods are described for the analysis of glucose, lactate, pyruvate, alanine, glycerol, D-3-hydroxybutyrate and acetoacetate in perchloric acid extracts of human blood using the Cobas Bio centrifugal analyser. Glucose and lactate are measured using the photometric mode and other metabolites using the fluorimetric mode. The intra-assay coefficients of variation ranged from 0.7 to 4.1%, except with very low levels of pyruvate and acetoacetate where the coefficients of variation were 7.1 and 12% respectively. All seven metabolites can be measured in a perchloric acid extract of 20 mul of blood. The methods have been optimized with regard to variation in the perchloric acid content of the samples. These variations arise from the method of sample preparation used to minimize changes occurring in metabolite concentration after venepuncture.

  1. Genetic variability of attachment (G and Fusion (F protein genes of human metapneumovirus strains circulating during 2006-2009 in Kolkata, Eastern India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chawla-Sarkar Mamta

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human metapneumovirus (hMPV is associated with the acute respiratory tract infection (ARTI in all the age groups. However, there is limited information on prevalence and genetic diversity of human metapneumovirus (hMPV strains circulating in India. Objective To study prevalence and genomic diversity of hMPV strains among ARTI patients reporting in outpatient departments of hospitals in Kolkata, Eastern India. Methods Nasal and/or throat swabs from 2309 patients during January 2006 to December 2009, were screened for the presence of hMPV by RT-PCR of nucleocapsid (N gene. The G and F genes of representative hMPV positive samples were sequenced. Results 118 of 2309 (5.11% clinical samples were positive for hMPV. The majority (≈80% of the positive cases were detected during July−November all through the study period. Genetic analysis revealed that 77% strains belong to A2 subgroup whereas rest clustered in B1 subgroup. G sequences showed higher diversity at the nucleotide and amino acid level. In contrast, less than 10% variation was observed in F gene of representative strains of all four years. Sequence analysis also revealed changes in the position of stop codon in G protein, which resulted in variable length (217-231 aa polypeptides. Conclusion The study suggests that approximately 5% of ARTI in the region were caused by hMPV. This is the first report on the genetic variability of G and F gene of hMPV strains from India which clearly shows that the G protein of hMPV is continuously evolving. Though the study partially fulfills lacunae of information, further studies from other regions are necessary for better understanding of prevalence, epidemiology and virus evolution in Indian subcontinent.

  2. Attachment relationships shape pain-signaling behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozlowska, Kasia

    2009-10-01

    Attachment relationships shape the manner in which children signal pain to others. Open communication of pain affect, inhibition of pain affect, and exaggeration of pain affect, reflect adaptations to different relationship contexts. The open and direct signaling of pain is adaptive in sensitive relationship contexts where caregivers respond to the distressed child with behaviors that facilitate protection, recovery, and healing. Inhibition of pain signals has survival advantages in situations where the open expressions of pain elicit negative parental responses (absence of caregiving, withdrawal from the child, or frank displeasure or anger). Exaggerated pain signaling functions as a means to elicit a caregiving response from preoccupied, inattentive, or neglectful attachment figures. This paper considers how a child's developmental experiences-specifically, the repeating person-specific experiences which make up attachment relationships-produce individual differences in the manner in which pain is experienced and signaled. This article reviews recent advances in our understanding of child development as articulated by contemporary attachment theory-in particular, the dynamic-maturational model (DMM)-and discusses their implications for interpreting human pain, pain-signaling behavior, and medically unexplained pain. The development of the experience of pain, along with ways of signaling pain, is tied to familial relationships generally and, in particular, to the manner in which attachment relationships shape the infant's behavior and physiology, thereby regulating the experience of pain. In explaining how the child's early attachment relationships produce individual differences in the way that she learns to experience and signal pain, the article provides an innovative perspective that is helpful in understanding the wide variations in patients' experience and presentation of pain, in elaborating formulations of medically unexplained pain, and in planning

  3. Sentence-Level Attachment Prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albakour, M.-Dyaa; Kruschwitz, Udo; Lucas, Simon

    Attachment prediction is the task of automatically identifying email messages that should contain an attachment. This can be useful to tackle the problem of sending out emails but forgetting to include the relevant attachment (something that happens all too often). A common Information Retrieval (IR) approach in analyzing documents such as emails is to treat the entire document as a bag of words. Here we propose a finer-grained analysis to address the problem. We aim at identifying individual sentences within an email that refer to an attachment. If we detect any such sentence, we predict that the email should have an attachment. Using part of the Enron corpus for evaluation we find that our finer-grained approach outperforms previously reported document-level attachment prediction in similar evaluation settings.

  4. Interferences in place attachment: implications for wilderness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erin K. Sharpe; Alan W. Ewert

    2000-01-01

    Previous research on place attachment has tended to focus on attachment formation, with relatively little attention given to factors that disrupt or interfere with formed place attachments. Interferences to attachments are a worthy research area for two reasons: 1) The factors of place attachment are often more salient when being disrupted, and 2) place attachment...

  5. Using attachment theory in mentoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, Kerri

    Attachment theory is a useful way to understand the bond between children and the people with whom they have emotional ties--usually caregivers. The theory can also help us to understand any adult relationship that provides closeness and a sense of attachment, especially in times of stress or need. Understanding the nature, cause and effect of the role and function of attachment from a training and development perspective, and different styles of attachment, may improve the quality of the mentoring experience for both mentors and mentees.

  6. From security to attachment : Mary Ainsworth's contribution to attachment theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rosmalen, Lenette (Lenny) van

    2015-01-01

    Even though John Bowlby (1907-1990) is generally regarded as the founder of attachment theory, Mary Ainsworth’s (1913-1999) contribution is considerable and goes beyond the design of the Strange Situation Procedure and the introduction of maternal sensitivity as decisive for a secure attachment

  7. Reversed double PCL sign: unusual location of a meniscal fragment of the knee observed by MR imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niitsu, M.; Itai, Y. [Dept. of Radiology, Inst. of Clinical Medicine, Univ. of Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Ikeda, K. [Inst. of Clinical Medicine, Univ. of Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan)

    2003-12-01

    A 36-year-old woman with tears of the anterior cruciate ligament and medial meniscus received a meniscectomy. The MR images obtained prior to the partial meniscectomy showed a bucket-handle meniscal tear with centrally displaced fragment lying anterior to the posterior cruciate ligament (PCL), representing a ''double PCL sign''; however, after the meniscectomy, MR images demonstrated a fragment in the space posterior to the PCL where no structure is generally recognized except for the ligament of wrisberg. This article reports a ''reversed'' double PCL sign, caused by inadequate surgical clearance of a bucket-handle tear of the medial meniscus. (orig.)

  8. A 12-week supervised exercise therapy program for young adults with a meniscal tear: Program development and feasibility study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skou, Søren T.; Thorlund, Jonas B.

    2018-01-01

    on clinical expertise and available evidence. Six patients (age range 22–39 years) considered eligible for meniscal surgery by an orthopedic surgeon underwent the program. Patients completed the Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS) and evaluated the program during a semi-structured qualitative...... interview. Feedback from patients was included to finalize the exercise therapy program. Median improvements (Range) in KOOS subscales were 15 (0–33) for Pain, 11 (−11 to 50) for Symptoms, 16 (3–37) for Function in daily living, 23 (10–45) for Function in sport and recreation, and 9 (−6 to 31) for Quality...... of life. The patients found the program relevant and effective with only a few short-lasting adverse events and important clinical improvements after four to ten weeks. Physical therapist supervision was considered important. No patients wanted surgery up to 6 month after the exercise therapy program...

  9. Protein Attachment on Nanodiamonds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chung-Lun; Lin, Cheng-Huang; Chang, Huan-Cheng; Su, Meng-Chih

    2015-07-16

    A recent advance in nanotechnology is the scale-up production of small and nonaggregated diamond nanoparticles suitable for biological applications. Using detonation nanodiamonds (NDs) with an average diameter of ∼4 nm as the adsorbents, we have studied the static attachment of three proteins (myoglobin, bovine serum albumin, and insulin) onto the nanoparticles by optical spectroscopy, mass spectrometry, and dynamic light scattering, and electrophoretic zeta potential measurements. Results show that the protein surface coverage is predominantly determined by the competition between protein-protein and protein-ND interactions, giving each protein a unique and characteristic structural configuration in its own complex. Specifically, both myoglobin and bovine serum albumin show a Langmuir-type adsorption behavior, forming 1:1 complexes at saturation, whereas insulin folds into a tightly bound multimer before adsorption. The markedly different adsorption patterns appear to be independent of the protein concentration and are closely related to the affinity of the individual proteins for the NDs. The present study provides a fundamental understanding for the use of NDs as a platform for nanomedical drug delivery.

  10. Attachment, caring and prosocial behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erez, Ayelet

    2007-01-01

    The thesis focuses on 5 studies examining the role of adult attachment in volunteering by defining volunteerism as a form of caregiving. By that we suggest an effect of one behavioral system, attachment, on another, caring or prosocial behaviors in individual or group settings. Studies 1 and 2

  11. Attachment and Dyadic Regulation Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overall, Nickola C; Simpson, Jeffry A

    2015-02-01

    Insecurely attached people have relatively unhappy and unstable romantic relationships, but the quality of their relationships depends on how their partners regulate them. Some partners find ways to regulate the emotional and behavioral reactions of insecurely attached individuals, which promotes greater relationship satisfaction and security. We discuss attachment theory and interdependence dilemmas, and then explain how and why certain responses by partners assuage the cardinal concerns of insecure individuals in key interdependent situations. We then review recent studies illustrating how partners can successfully regulate the reactions of anxiously and avoidantly attached individuals, yielding more constructive interactions. We finish by considering how these regulation processes can create a more secure dyadic environment, which helps to improve relationships and attachment security across time.

  12. Adult Attachment Style and Suicidality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miniati, Mario; Callari, Antonio; Pini, Stefano

    2017-09-01

    There is evidence in the literature that adverse early attachment experiences and subsequent attachment insecurities during adulthood would lead to pessimism, low self-esteem, hopelessness and, ultimately, to suicide risk. This paper aims to review finding on the link between attachment style and suicidality. We searched the literature using the database of the U.S. National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI)-MedLine/Pubmed system from January 1992 until December 2016. We started with 1992 because, as far as we know, there are no published studies exploring the relationship between suicide and insecure attachment before that year. We considered reports published on the relationship between attachment style and suicidality. We applied several combinations of the following search terms: attachment, adult attachment style and suicidality, suicide, suicidal ideation, suicidal behavior or suicidal thoughts, and suicide attempts. We selected only English language studies. Research suggests that insecure attachment style, mostly anxious, and unresolved traumas are associated with an increased suicide risk. Few studies prospectively examined clinical course, comorbid psychiatric disorders, familial suicidality or other psychosocial factors. Further research is needed to highlight the nature of the link between attachment and suicidality. The presence of suicidal ideation and attempts might be a consequence of an underlying interaction between the emergence of psychiatrics symptoms, and the long-lasting presence of inadequate patterns of attachment. Within this context, Separation Anxiety Disorder, categorized in the DSM-5 as a condition not confined to childhood but as an anxiety disorder that may occur through the entire lifespan, might be the a key for the comprehension of this link. From a neurobiological point of view, the role of oxytocin remains unclear.

  13. Association of Antibiotic Resistance in Agricultural Escherichia coli Isolates with Attachment to Quartz▿

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Ping; Soupir, Michelle L.; Zwonitzer, Martha; Huss, Bridgette; Jarboe, Laura R.

    2011-01-01

    Surface water can be contaminated by bacteria from various sources, including manure from agricultural facilities. Attachment of these bacteria to soil and organic particles contributes to their transport through the environment, though the mechanism of attachment is unknown. As bacterial attachment to human tissues is known to be correlated with antibiotic resistance, we have investigated here the relationship between bacterial attachment to environmental particles and antibiotic resistance ...

  14. The neural correlates of attachment security in typically developing children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Eun Jung; Taylor, Margot J; Hong, Soon-Beom; Kim, Changdai; Yi, Soon-Hyung

    2018-07-01

    This study investigated neural correlates of children's attachment security using functional magnetic resonance imaging. Fifty-one boys' attachment styles (age mean = 9.5 years, SD = 0.61) were assessed with the Separation Anxiety Test (SAT). We created an fMRI version of the SAT to activate children's attachment system in fMRI environment and contrasted two conditions in which children were instructed to infer the specific feeling of the boy in the picture or to identify objects or physical activities. In the final fMRI analysis (N = 21), attachment security could be detected at the neural level corresponding to the behavioural differences in the attachment interview. Securely attached children showed greater activation in the frontal, limbic and basal ganglia area which included the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, amygdala, cingulate cortex and striatum, compared to other children who had lower quality of attachment. These regions have a key role in socio-emotional information processing and also represent a brain network related to approach and avoidance motivation in humans. Especially the striatum, strongly linked to reward processing underpinning social approach and avoidance motivation, showed the largest effects in these differences and also positively correlated with emotional openness scores in SAT. This suggests that the quality of attachment configures the approach and avoidance motivational system in our brain mediated by the striatum. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Attachment Styles and Enneagram Types: Development and Testing of an Integrated Typology for use in Marriage and Family Therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Arthur, Kristin Bedow

    2008-01-01

    This study developed and tested a new typology for use in Marriage and Family Therapy. The typology was created by integrating two already established typologies currently in use in MFT, the attachment style typology and the Enneagram typology. The attachment typology is based on attachment theory, a theory of human development that focuses on how infants and adults establish, monitor and repair attachment bonds. Differences in attachment style are associated with different kinds of relations...

  16. Love and attachment: the psychobiology of social bonding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Dan J; Vythilingum, Bavanisha

    2009-05-01

    Basic animal studies and human imaging studies have contributed to our understanding of the psychobiology of love and attachment. There are overlaps and distinctions in the neuronal circuitry of maternal love, romantic love, and long-term attachment. In these circuits, important molecules, which have been demonstrated to play a role in the psychobiology of social bonding include dopamine, serotonin, opioids, oxytocin, and vasopressin. Particular genetic and environmental variations contribute to social-bonding phenotypes, consistent with an evolutionary perspective on the value of these behaviors. Advances in the psychobiology of social bonds have led to hypotheses about the pharmacotherapy of disorders of attachment.

  17. Application of Attachment Theory in Clinical Social Work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blakely, Thomas Joseph; Dziadosz, Gregory M

    2015-11-01

    This article proposes the use of attachment theory in clinical social work practice. This theory is very appropriate in this context because of its fit with social work concepts of person-in-situation, the significance of developmental history in the emergence of psychosocial problems, and the content of human behavior in the social environment. A literature review supports the significance of the theory. Included are ideas about how attachment styles and working models may be used in assessment and treatment to help clients achieve a secure attachment style.

  18. Universal precision sine bar attachment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Franklin D. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    This invention relates to an attachment for a sine bar which can be used to perform measurements during lathe operations or other types of machining operations. The attachment can be used for setting precision angles on vises, dividing heads, rotary tables and angle plates. It can also be used in the inspection of machined parts, when close tolerances are required, and in the layout of precision hardware. The novelty of the invention is believed to reside in a specific versatile sine bar attachment for measuring a variety of angles on a number of different types of equipment.

  19. Everything You Want To Know about Attachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honig, Alice Sterling

    This paper discusses infant attachment, which it defines as a long-lasting emotional bond revealed when a child under stress seeks out and tries to stay close to a specific figure. The paper addresses: (1) What is attachment? Who are the pioneers in attachment theory?; (2) How do we notice attachment in action?; (3) Is attachment the only…

  20. Analysis of medical service use of knee osteoarthritis and knee meniscal and ligament injuries in Korea: a cross-sectional study of national patient sample data

    OpenAIRE

    Suh, Chang Yong; Lee, Yoon Jae; Shin, Joon-Shik; Lee, Jinho; Kim, Me-riong; Koh, Wonil; Cha, Yun-Yeop; Shin, Byung-Cheul; Hwang, Eui-Hyoung; Suhr, Kristin; Kim, Mia; Ha, In-Hyuk

    2017-01-01

    Background Osteoarthritis (OA) and meniscal and ligament injuries of the knee are the two most common knee disorders in Korea. The aim of this study was to analyze the demographic characteristics, medical service use and related costs for these disorders, and the results are expected to help inform practitioners, researchers, and policy-makers. Methods The present study aimed to evaluate incidence and patient characteristics, and to assess current medical service use, usual care, and medical ...

  1. Comparison of spin echo T1-weighted sequences versus fast spin-echo proton density-weighted sequences for evaluation of meniscal tears at 1.5 T

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolff, Andrew B.; Pesce, Lorenzo L.; Wu, Jim S.; Smart, L.R.; Medvecky, Michael J.; Haims, Andrew H.

    2009-01-01

    At our institution, fast spin-echo (FSE) proton density (PD) imaging is used to evaluate articular cartilage, while conventional spin-echo (CSE) T1-weighted sequences have been traditionally used to characterize meniscal pathology. We sought to determine if FSE PD-weighted sequences are equivalent to CSE T1-weighted sequences in the detection of meniscal tears, obviating the need to perform both sequences. We retrospectively reviewed the records of knee arthroscopies performed by two arthroscopy-focused surgeons from an academic medical center over a 2-year period. The preoperative MRI images were interpreted independently by two fellowship-trained musculoskeletal radiologists who graded the sagittal CSE T1 and FSE PD sequences at different sittings with grades 1-5, where 1 = normal meniscus, 2 = probable normal meniscus, 3 indeterminate, 4 = probable torn meniscus, and 5 = torn meniscus. Each meniscus was divided into an anterior and posterior half, and these halves were graded separately. Operative findings provided the gold standard. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was performed to compare the two sequences. There were 131 tears in 504 meniscal halves. Using ROC analysis, the reader 1 area under curve for FSE PD was significantly better than CSE T1 (0.939 vs. 0.902, >95% confidence). For reader 2, the difference met good criteria for statistical non-inferiority but not superiority (0.913 for FSE PD and 0.908 for CSE T1; >95% non-inferiority for difference at most of -0.027). FSE PD-weighted sequences, using our institutional protocol, are not inferior to CSE T1-weighted sequences for the detection of meniscal tears and may be superior. (orig.)

  2. Adult attachment style and anxiety

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sara Kerstine Kaya; Lønfeldt, Nicole Nadine; Wolitzky-Taylor, Kate

    2017-01-01

    Although there is substantial evidence for the role of emotion regulation in the etiology and maintenance of anxiety disorders, knowledge about what contributes to emotion dysregulation is sparse. Attachment style is related to emotion regulation and anxiety symptoms, but these variables have rar...... knowledge to examine the mediating role of emotion regulation between attachment dimensions (avoidance and anxiety) and anxiety symptoms.......Although there is substantial evidence for the role of emotion regulation in the etiology and maintenance of anxiety disorders, knowledge about what contributes to emotion dysregulation is sparse. Attachment style is related to emotion regulation and anxiety symptoms, but these variables have...... rarely been examined together. Examining emotion dysregulation within the context of anxiety disorders through an attachment theory framework will lead to a better understanding of the etiology and maintenance of anxiety disorders. In the present study we combined theoretically and empirically derived...

  3. WEAVING THE FABRIC OF ATTACHMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Lindsay Stewart

    2011-01-01

    This article is the Keynote Address given at the 5th International Integrative Psychotherapy Association Conference in Vichy, France, April 21, 2011. In the article author describes development of secure attachment with the help of the case study.

  4. Attachment Narratives in Refugee Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Haene, L.; Dalgård, Nina Thorup; Montgomery, E.

    2013-01-01

    J Trauma Stress. 2013 Jun;26(3):413-7. doi: 10.1002/jts.21820. Attachment narratives in refugee children: interrater reliability and qualitative analysis in pilot findings from a two-site study.......J Trauma Stress. 2013 Jun;26(3):413-7. doi: 10.1002/jts.21820. Attachment narratives in refugee children: interrater reliability and qualitative analysis in pilot findings from a two-site study....

  5. Fatal Attractions: Attachment to Smartphones Predicts Anthropomorphic Beliefs and Dangerous Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodford, Jessica E; Kwan, Virginia S Y; Sobota, David S

    2017-05-01

    As technology's presence grows increasingly concrete in global societies, so too do our relationships with the devices we keep close at hand from day to day. Whereas research has, in the past, framed smartphone addiction in terms of possessional attachment, the present research hypothesizes that anxious smartphone attachment stems from human attachment, in which Anxiously attached individuals may be more likely to generalize their anxious attachment style to communication devices. In the present study, we found support for this hypothesis and showed that anxious smartphone attachment predicts (1) anthropomorphic beliefs, (2) reliance on-or "clinginess" toward-smartphones, and (3) a seemingly compulsive urge to answer one's phone, even in dangerous situations (e.g., while driving). Taken together, we seek to provide a theoretical framework and methodological tools to identify the sources of technology attachment and those most at risk of engaging in dangerous or inappropriate behaviors as a result of attachment to ever-present mobile devices.

  6. Analysis of MR imaging with FSE and DESS for the diagnosis of meniscal tears in 316 patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jae Gue; Ryu, Kyung Nam; Hong, Hyun Pyo

    1999-01-01

    To evaluate the accuracy of a magnetic resonance(MR) imaging strategy that primarily uses fast spin-echo(SE) sequences for the diagnosis of meniscal tears. The original clinical interpretations of MR images in 316 patients who underwent imaging for suspected internal derangement of a knee joint were correlated with results from subsequent arthroscopy (mean interval:48.9 days). In all patients, MR examinations included double-echo fast SE T2-weighted sagittal and coronal imaging and double-echo steady state (DESS) sequence sagittal imaging. In 199 patients fat-suppressed conventional SE T1-weighted sagittal imaging was used. In cases in which interpretation was erroneous, imaging findings and arthroscopy reports were reviewed. For ISO confirmed tears of the medial meniscus, sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy were 94%, 93%, and 94%, respectively, while respective values for 147 confirmed tears of the lateral meniscus were 85%, 97%, and 91%. These values are within the ranges recently reported for imaging strategies relying predominantly on conventional SE sequences. Of the 12 false-positive tears of the medial meniscus, five menisci showed a high signal contacting the surface on only one image and seven, that in all cases were located in the periphery of the posterior horn, showed such signal on more than one image. Of the six false-positive tears of the lateral meniscus, three menisci showed a high signal contacting the surface on only one image. Of the nine false-negative tears of the medial meniscus, eight menisci showed an abnormal signal that did not demonstrate definitive contact with the surface. Of the 22 false-negative tears of the lateral meniscus, 18 menisci showed this same type of signal. Fast SE imaging of the knee can be an alternative to conventional SE imaging for the detection of meniscal tears. Most errors in our series were due to either an abnormal signal that failed to show definitive contact with the surface, a high signal which contacted

  7. Human Coronavirus HKU1 Spike Protein Uses O-Acetylated Sialic Acid as an Attachment Receptor Determinant and Employs Hemagglutinin-Esterase Protein as a Receptor-Destroying Enzyme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xingchuan; Dong, Wenjuan; Milewska, Aleksandra; Golda, Anna; Qi, Yonghe; Zhu, Quan K; Marasco, Wayne A; Baric, Ralph S; Sims, Amy C; Pyrc, Krzysztof; Li, Wenhui; Sui, Jianhua

    2015-07-01

    Human coronavirus (hCoV) HKU1 is one of six hCoVs identified to date and the only one with an unidentified cellular receptor. hCoV-HKU1 encodes a hemagglutinin-esterase (HE) protein that is unique to the group a betacoronaviruses (group 2a). The function of HKU1-HE remains largely undetermined. In this study, we examined binding of the S1 domain of hCoV-HKU1 spike to a panel of cells and found that the S1 could specifically bind on the cell surface of a human rhabdomyosarcoma cell line, RD. Pretreatment of RD cells with neuraminidase (NA) and trypsin greatly reduced the binding, suggesting that the binding was mediated by sialic acids on glycoproteins. However, unlike other group 2a CoVs, e.g., hCoV-OC43, for which 9-O-acetylated sialic acid (9-O-Ac-Sia) serves as a receptor determinant, HKU1-S1 bound with neither 9-O-Ac-Sia-containing glycoprotein(s) nor rat and mouse erythrocytes. Nonetheless, the HKU1-HE was similar to OC43-HE, also possessed sialate-O-acetylesterase activity, and acted as a receptor-destroying enzyme (RDE) capable of eliminating the binding of HKU1-S1 to RD cells, whereas the O-acetylesterase-inactive HKU1-HE mutant lost this capacity. Using primary human ciliated airway epithelial (HAE) cell cultures, the only in vitro replication model for hCoV-HKU1 infection, we confirmed that pretreatment of HAE cells with HE but not the enzymatically inactive mutant blocked hCoV-HKU1 infection. These results demonstrate that hCoV-HKU1 exploits O-Ac-Sia as a cellular attachment receptor determinant to initiate the infection of host cells and that its HE protein possesses the corresponding sialate-O-acetylesterase RDE activity. Human coronaviruses (hCoV) are important human respiratory pathogens. Among the six hCoVs identified to date, only hCoV-HKU1 has no defined cellular receptor. It is also unclear whether hemagglutinin-esterase (HE) protein plays a role in viral entry. In this study, we found that, similarly to other members of the group 2a CoVs, sialic

  8. Becoming a caregiver: attachment theory and poorly performing doctors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adshead, Gwen

    2010-02-01

    In this paper, I review a theoretical paradigm (attachment theory) which facilitates an understanding of how human care-giving and care-eliciting behaviours develop and are maintained over the lifespan. I argue that this paradigm has particular utility in: (i) the training of doctors; (ii) understanding why some doctors and medical students experience high levels of stress, and (iii) developing interventions to help those who struggle to manage high levels of work-related stress. I carried out a review of key texts and previously published studies of attachment styles in caregivers. Large-scale epidemiological studies, using valid and reliable measures, show that insecure attachment styles are found in a proportion of normal populations of both males and females. Insecure attachment is associated with impaired stress management and subtle deficits in care-giving sensitivity. It is reasonable to assume that a proportion of students entering medical training and doctors with performance problems may have insecure attachment styles which influence how they approach their training experience and how they manage occupational stress. Attachment theory is a useful paradigm for thinking about training as a professional caregiver. Insecure early attachment experiences may be a risk factor for poor stress management in some medical students and doctors who are exposed to increasing demands as carers. These findings lead to suggestions for possible research and support interventions.

  9. Activating Attachments Reduces Memories of Traumatic Images.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard A Bryant

    Full Text Available Emotional memories, and especially intrusive memories, are a common feature of many psychological disorders, and are overconsolidated by stress. Attachment theory posits that activation of mental representations of attachment figures can reduce stress and boost coping. This study tested the proposition that attachment activation would reduce consolidation of emotional and intrusive memories. Sixty-seven undergraduate students viewed subliminal presentations of traumatic and neutral images, which were preceded by subliminal presentations of either attachment-related images or non-attachment-related images; free recall and intrusive memories were assessed two days later. Participants with low avoidant attachment tendencies who received the attachment primes recalled fewer memories and reported fewer intrusions than those who received the non-attachment primes. Unexpectedly, those with high anxious attachment tendencies reported fewer memories. These findings generally accord with attachment theory, and suggest that consolidation of emotional memories can be moderated by activation of attachment representations.

  10. Attachments to places and activities: the relationship of psychological constructs to customer satisfaction attributes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas D. Wickham; Alan R. Graefe

    2002-01-01

    This study explores the nature of place attachment, enduring involvement and human territoriality and their relationship with customer satisfaction for a diverse group of anglers at lakes in the New England region. Previous work has made limited headway in our understanding of how place attachment, enduring involvement, and human territoriality relate to people's...

  11. The relation between chondromalacia patella and meniscal tear and the sulcus angle/ trochlear depth ratio as a powerful predictor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resorlu, Hatice; Zateri, Coskun; Nusran, Gurdal; Goksel, Ferdi; Aylanc, Nilufer

    2017-01-01

    To investigate the relation between chondromalacia patella and the sulcus angle/trochlear depth ratio as a marker of trochlear morphology. In addition, we also planned to show the relationship between meniscus damage, subcutaneous adipose tissue thickness as a marker of obesity, patellar tilt angle and chondromalacia patella. Patients with trauma, rheumatologic disease, a history of knee surgery and patellar variations such as patella alba and patella baja were excluded. Magnetic resonance images of the knees of 200 patients were evaluated. Trochlear morphology from standardized levels, patellar tilt angle, lateral/medial facet ratio, subcutaneous adipose tissue thickness from 3 locations and meniscus injury were assessed by two specialist radiologists. Retropatellar cartilage was normal in 108 patients (54%) at radiological evaluation, while chondromalacia patella was determined in 92 (46%) cases. Trochlear sulcus angle and prepatellar subcutaneous adipose tissue thickness were significantly high in patients with chondromalacia patella, while trochlear depth and lateral patellar tilt angle were low. The trochlear sulcus angle/trochlear depth ratio was also high in chondromalacia patella and was identified as an independent risk factor at regression analysis. Additionally, medial meniscal tear was observed in 35 patients (38%) in the chondromalacia patella group and in 27 patients (25%) in the normal group, the difference being statistically significant (P = 0.033). An increased trochlear sulcus angle/trochlear depth ratio is a significant predictor of chondromalacia patella. Medial meniscus injury is more prevalent in patients with chondromalacia patella in association with impairment in knee biomechanics and the degenerative process.

  12. Medial meniscal posterior root/horn radial tears correlate with cartilage degeneration detected by T1ρ relaxation mapping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, Kenji, E-mail: Kenji-am@nms.ac.jp [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Nippon Medical School, 1-1-5 Sendagi, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8603 (Japan); Hashimoto, Sanshiro, E-mail: info@msorc.jp [Minami-Shinjuku Orthopaedic Rehabilitation Clinic, 2-16-7 Yoyogi, Shibuya-ku, Tokyo 151-0053 (Japan); Nakamura, Hiroshi, E-mail: nakamura@nms.ac.jp [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Nippon Medical School, 1-1-5 Sendagi, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8603 (Japan); Mori, Atsushi, E-mail: atsu@nms.ac.jp [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Nippon Medical School, 1-1-5 Sendagi, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8603 (Japan); Sato, Akiko, E-mail: akiko-sato@nms.ac.jp [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Nippon Medical School, 1-1-5 Sendagi, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8603 (Japan); Majima, Tokifumi, E-mail: tkmajima@iuhw.ac.jp [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, International University of Health and Welfare Hospital, 537-3 Iguchi, Nasu-shiobara, Tochigi 329-2763 (Japan); Takai, Shinro, E-mail: takai-snr@nms.ac.jp [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Nippon Medical School, 1-1-5 Sendagi, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8603 (Japan)

    2015-06-15

    Highlights: • Posterior radial tears in medial meniscus associate T1ρ values of cartilage. • Posterior radial tears relate to cartilage degeneration even in early-stage osteoarthritis. • Abnormalities in meniscus on MRI are useful for screening early-stage osteoarthritis. - Abstract: Objective: This study aimed to identify factors on routine pulse sequence MRI associated with cartilage degeneration observed on T1ρ relaxation mapping. Materials and methods: This study included 137 subjects with knee pain. T1ρ values were measured in the regions of interest on the surface layer of the cartilage on mid-coronal images of the femorotibial joint. Assessment of cartilage, subchondral bone, meniscus and ligaments was performed using routine pulse sequence MRI. Radiographic evaluation for osteoarthritis was also performed. Results: Multiple regression analysis revealed posterior root/horn tears to be independent factors increasing the T1ρ values of the cartilage in the medial compartment of the femorotibial joint. Even when adjusted for radiographically defined early-stage osteoarthritis, medial posterior meniscal radial tears significantly increased the T1ρ values. Conclusions: This study showed that posterior root/horn radial tears in the medial meniscus are particularly important MRI findings associated with cartilage degeneration observed on T1ρ relaxation mapping. Morphological factors of the medial meniscus on MRI provide findings useful for screening early-stage osteoarthritis.

  13. Medial meniscal posterior root/horn radial tears correlate with cartilage degeneration detected by T1ρ relaxation mapping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Kenji; Hashimoto, Sanshiro; Nakamura, Hiroshi; Mori, Atsushi; Sato, Akiko; Majima, Tokifumi; Takai, Shinro

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Posterior radial tears in medial meniscus associate T1ρ values of cartilage. • Posterior radial tears relate to cartilage degeneration even in early-stage osteoarthritis. • Abnormalities in meniscus on MRI are useful for screening early-stage osteoarthritis. - Abstract: Objective: This study aimed to identify factors on routine pulse sequence MRI associated with cartilage degeneration observed on T1ρ relaxation mapping. Materials and methods: This study included 137 subjects with knee pain. T1ρ values were measured in the regions of interest on the surface layer of the cartilage on mid-coronal images of the femorotibial joint. Assessment of cartilage, subchondral bone, meniscus and ligaments was performed using routine pulse sequence MRI. Radiographic evaluation for osteoarthritis was also performed. Results: Multiple regression analysis revealed posterior root/horn tears to be independent factors increasing the T1ρ values of the cartilage in the medial compartment of the femorotibial joint. Even when adjusted for radiographically defined early-stage osteoarthritis, medial posterior meniscal radial tears significantly increased the T1ρ values. Conclusions: This study showed that posterior root/horn radial tears in the medial meniscus are particularly important MRI findings associated with cartilage degeneration observed on T1ρ relaxation mapping. Morphological factors of the medial meniscus on MRI provide findings useful for screening early-stage osteoarthritis

  14. CT arthrography and virtual arthroscopy in the diagnosis of the anterior cruciate ligament and meniscal abnormalities of the knee joint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Whal; Chung, Jin-Wook; Kang, Heung-Sik; Hong, Sung-Hwan; Choi, Ja-Young; Kim, Ho-Sung; Kim, Seok-Jung; Kim, Hyung-Ho

    2004-01-01

    To determine the diagnostic accuracy of CT arthrography and virtual arthroscopy in the diagnosis of anterior cruciate ligament and meniscus pathology. Thirty-eight consecutive patients sho underwent CT arthrography and arthroscopy of the knee were included in this study. The ages of the patients ranged from 19 to 52 years and all of the patients were male. Sagittal, coronal, transverse and oblique coronal multiplanar reconstruction images were reformatted from CT arthrography. Virtual arthroscopy was performed from 6 standard views using a volume rendering technique. Three radiologists analyzed the MPR images and two orthopedic surgeons analyzed the virtual arthroscopic images. The sensitivity and specificity of CT arthrography for the diagnosis of anterior cruciate ligament abnormalities were 87.5%-100% and 93.3%-96.7%, respectively and those for meniscus abnormalities were 91.7%-100% and 98.1%, respectively. The sensitivity and specificity of virtual arthroscopy for the diagnosis of anterior cruciate ligament abnormalities were 87.5% and 83.3%-90%, respectively, and those for meniscus abnormalities were 83.3%-87.5% and 96.1-98.1%, respectively. CT arthrography and virtual arthroscopy showed good diagnostic accuracy for anterior cruciate ligament and meniscal abnormalities

  15. Study of correlation between clinical, magnetic resonance imaging, and arthroscopic findings in meniscal and anterior cruciate ligament injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subhash R Puri

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Approx. 28% of patients presents to orthopedic OPD with complaints of knee pain. Common medical complications include an unstable knee, chronic knee pain, and post traumatic arthritis. Aim: To study the correlation between clinical, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, and arthroscopic findings in knee injuries. Materials and Methods: About 30 cases with history of rotational injury having knee pain and recurrent swelling were subjected to study. Results: MRI had better sensitivity (0.95 vs. 0.85 and specificity (1.0 vs. 0.5 in comparison with clinical examination for medial meniscus. In lateral meniscus injury (sensitivity 0.65 vs. 0.61 and specificity 0.95 vs. 0.92 and in ACL injury (Sensitivity 0.77 vs. 0.8 and specificity 1.0 vs. 0.96 the sensitivity and specificity of MRI versus clinical examination showed minimal difference. Conclusion: Our conclusion is that carefully performed clinical examination can give equal or better diagnosis of meniscal and ACL injuries in comparison with MRI scan. MRI may be used as an additional tool for diagnosis.

  16. "Like owner, like dog": correlation between the owner's attachment profile and the owner-dog bond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siniscalchi, Marcello; Stipo, Carlo; Quaranta, Angelo

    2013-01-01

    During recent years, several studies have revealed that human-dog relationships are based on a well-established and complex bond. There is now evidence suggesting that the dog-human affectional bond can be characterized as an "attachment". The present study investigated possible association between the owners' attachment profile assessed throughout a new semi-projective test (the 9 Attachment Profile) and the owner-dog attachment bond evaluated using a modified version of those used in studying human infants: Ainsworth's "strange situation". The findings represented the first evidence for the presence of a correlation between the owners' attachment profile and the owner-dog attachment bond throughout procedure and behavioural analyses involving controlled observations.

  17. "Like owner, like dog": correlation between the owner's attachment profile and the owner-dog bond.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcello Siniscalchi

    Full Text Available During recent years, several studies have revealed that human-dog relationships are based on a well-established and complex bond. There is now evidence suggesting that the dog-human affectional bond can be characterized as an "attachment". The present study investigated possible association between the owners' attachment profile assessed throughout a new semi-projective test (the 9 Attachment Profile and the owner-dog attachment bond evaluated using a modified version of those used in studying human infants: Ainsworth's "strange situation". The findings represented the first evidence for the presence of a correlation between the owners' attachment profile and the owner-dog attachment bond throughout procedure and behavioural analyses involving controlled observations.

  18. Attachment for mass exchange apparatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maksimenko, M.Z.; Maksimenko, M.M.; Prokopov, O.I.

    1982-01-01

    An attachment is proposed which contains a cylindrical housing in which the windows are profiled with inward bent windows. In order to improve the effectiveness of the attachment by increasing its surface, and mobility, the ends of the housing are equipped with inner annular partitions with radial cross sections. The sections of the partitions between them are bent inwards towards the forming housing in series, from the side of each section. The inward-bent sections of the partitions and the edges are directed to one side or to different sides.

  19. The Cellular DNA Helicase ChlR1 Regulates Chromatin and Nuclear Matrix Attachment of the Human Papillomavirus 16 E2 Protein and High-Copy-Number Viral Genome Establishment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Leanne; McFarlane-Majeed, Laura; Campos-León, Karen; Roberts, Sally; Parish, Joanna L

    2017-01-01

    In papillomavirus infections, the viral genome is established as a double-stranded DNA episome. To segregate the episomes into daughter cells during mitosis, they are tethered to cellular chromatin by the viral E2 protein. We previously demonstrated that the E2 proteins of diverse papillomavirus types, including bovine papillomavirus (BPV) and human papillomavirus 16 (HPV16), associate with the cellular DNA helicase ChlR1. This virus-host interaction is important for the tethering of BPV E2 to mitotic chromatin and the stable maintenance of BPV episomes. The role of the association between E2 and ChlR1 in the HPV16 life cycle is unresolved. Here we show that an HPV16 E2 Y131A mutant (E2 Y131A ) had significantly reduced binding to ChlR1 but retained transcriptional activation and viral origin-dependent replication functions. Subcellular fractionation of keratinocytes expressing E2 Y131A showed a marked change in the localization of the protein. Compared to that of wild-type E2 (E2 WT ), the chromatin-bound pool of E2 Y131A was decreased, concomitant with an increase in nuclear matrix-associated protein. Cell cycle synchronization indicated that the shift in subcellular localization of E2 Y131A occurred in mid-S phase. A similar alteration between the subcellular pools of the E2 WT protein occurred upon ChlR1 silencing. Notably, in an HPV16 life cycle model in primary human keratinocytes, mutant E2 Y131A genomes were established as episomes, but at a markedly lower copy number than that of wild-type HPV16 genomes, and they were not maintained upon cell passage. Our studies indicate that ChlR1 is an important regulator of the chromatin association of E2 and of the establishment and maintenance of HPV16 episomes. Infections with high-risk human papillomaviruses (HPVs) are a major cause of anogenital and oropharyngeal cancers. During infection, the circular DNA genome of HPV persists within the nucleus, independently of the host cell chromatin. Persistence of infection

  20. Structural Interfaces and Attachments in Biology

    CERN Document Server

    Birman, Victor; Genin, Guy

    2013-01-01

    Attachment of dissimilar materials in engineering and surgical practice is a perennial challenge. Bimaterial attachment sites are common locations for injury, repeated injury, and mechanical failure. Nature presents several highly effective solutions to the challenge of bimaterial attachment that differ from those found in engineering practice. Structural Interfaces and Attachments in Biology describes the attachment of dissimilar materials from multiple perspectives. The text will simultaneously elucidate natural bimaterial attachments and outline engineering principles underlying successful attachments to the communities of tissue engineers and surgeons. Included an in-depth analysis of the biology of attachments in the body and mechanisms by which robust attachments are formed, a review of current concepts of attaching dissimilar materials in surgical practice and a discussion of bioengineering approaches that are currently being developed. This book also: Provides the first comprehensive treatment of phys...

  1. Attachment Theory: Progress and Future Directions

    OpenAIRE

    Fearon, R. M. P.; Roisman, G. I.

    2017-01-01

    Attachment is a key subfield in the area of parenting and parent-child relationships research. In this brief overview, we summarise what we consider to be the state-of-the-art of attachment research, focusing primarily on the nature and significance of attachment in infancy and early childhood. We review 4 major topics that are central issues in the scientific literature on attachment: (1) the role of the environment in the development of attachment, (2) the intergenerational transmission of ...

  2. Variability of femoral muscle attachments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duda, G N; Brand, D; Freitag, S; Lierse, W; Schneider, E

    1996-09-01

    Analytical and experimental models of the musculoskeletal system often assume single values rather than ranges for anatomical input parameters. The hypothesis of the present study was that anatomical variability significantly influences the results of biomechanical analyses, specifically regarding the moment arms of the various thigh muscles. Insertions and origins of muscles crossing or attaching to the femur were digitized in six specimens. Muscle volumes were measured; muscle attachment area and centroid location were computed. To demonstrate the influence of inter-individual anatomic variability on a mechanical modeling parameter, the corresponding range of muscle moment arms were calculated. Standard deviations, as a percentage of the mean, were about 70% for attachment area and 80% for muscle volume and attachment centroid location. The resulting moment arms of the m. gluteus maximus and m. rectus femoris were especially sensitive to anatomical variations (SD 65%). The results indicate that sensitivity to anatomical variations should be analyzed in any investigation simulating musculoskeletal interactions. To avoid misinterpretations, investigators should consider using several anatomical configurations rather than relying on a mean data set.

  3. WEAVING THE FABRIC OF ATTACHMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindsay Stewart

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This article is the Keynote Address given at the 5th International Integrative Psychotherapy Association Conference in Vichy, France, April 21, 2011. In the article author describes development of secure attachment with the help of the case study.

  4. Mapping and measuring place attachment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brown, Greg; Raymond, Christopher Mark; Corcoran, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    The concept of place attachment has been studied extensively across multiple disciplines but only recently with empirical measurement using public participation GIS (PPGIS) and related crowd-sourcing mapping methods. This research trialed a spatially explicit method for identifying place attachme...

  5. Combined copper/zinc attachment to prion protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodak, Miroslav; Bernholc, Jerry

    2013-03-01

    Misfolding of prion protein (PrP) is responsible for diseases such as ``mad-cow disease'' in cattle and Creutzfeldt-Jacob in humans. Extensive experimental investigation has established that this protein strongly interacts with copper ions, and this ability has been linked to its still unknown function. Attachment of other metal ions (zinc, iron, manganese) have been demonstrated as well, but none of them could outcompete copper. Recent finding, however, indicates that at intermediate concentrations both copper and zinc ions can attach to the PrP at the octarepeat region, which contains high affinity metal binding sites. Based on this evidence, we have performed density functional theory simulations to investigate the combined Cu/Zn attachment. We consider all previously reported binding modes of copper at the octarepeat region and examine a possibility simultaneous Cu/Zn attachment. We find that this can indeed occur for only one of the known binding sites, when copper changes its coordination mode to allow for attachment of zinc ion. The implications of the simultaneous attachment on neural function remain to be explored.

  6. Chronic anterior cruciate ligament tears and associated meniscal and traumatic cartilage lesions: evaluation with morphological sequences at 3.0 T

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vlychou, Marianna; Fezoulidis, Ioannis V. [University Hospital of Larissa, Department of Radiology, Medical School of Thessaly, Larissa (Greece); Hantes, Michalis; Michalitsis, Sotirios; Malizos, Konstantinos [University Hospital of Larissa, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Medical School of Thessaly, Larissa (Greece); Tsezou, Aspasia [University Hospital of Larissa, Department of Molecular Genetics and Cytogenetics, Medical School of Thessaly, Larissa (Greece)

    2011-06-15

    To investigate the diagnostic efficacy of morphological sequences at 3.0 T MR imaging in detecting anterior cruciate ligament (ACL), meniscal pathology and traumatic cartilage legions in young patients with chronic deficient anterior cruciate ligament knees. This prospective study included 43 patients (39 male) between the age of 15 and 37 years (mean age 22.6 years) with a history of knee injury sustained at least 3 months prior to the decision to repair a torn ACL. All patients underwent a 3.0 T MR scan with the same standard protocol, including intermediate-weighted and three-dimensional spoiled gradient-recalled T1-weighted sequences with fat saturation and subsequently surgical reconstruction of the ACL, along with meniscal and cartilage repair, when necessary. All ACL tears were correctly interpreted by 3.0 T MR images. The sensitivity of the MR scans regarding tears of the medial meniscus was 93.7%, the specificity 92.6%, the positive predictive value 88.2% and the negative predictive value 95.8%. The sensitivity of the MR scans regarding tears of lateral meniscus was 85.7%, the specificity was 93.1%, the positive predictive value 85.7% and the negative predictive value 93.1%. With regard to the grading of the cartilage lesions, Cohen's kappa coefficient indicated moderate agreement for grade I and II cartilage lesions (0.5), substantial agreement for grade III and IV cartilage lesions (0.70 and 0.66) and substantial agreement for normal regions (0.75). Regarding location of the cartilage lesions, Cohen's kappa coefficient varied between almost perfect agreement in the lateral femoral condyle and no agreement in the trochlea. In the setting of chronic ACL deficiency, MR imaging at 3.0 T achieves satisfactory diagnostic performance regarding meniscal and ligamentous pathology. In the detection of cartilage lesions MRI is less successful. (orig.)

  7. Meniscal tear evaluation. Comparison of a conventional spin-echo proton density sequence with a fast spin-echo sequence utilizing a 512x358 matrix size

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hopper, M.A.; Robinson, P.; Grainger, A.J.

    2011-01-01

    Aim: To determine the sensitivities, specificities, and receiver-operating characteristics (ROCs) for sagittal conventional spin-echo proton density (SE-PD) and fast spin-echo proton density (FSE-PD) sequences in the diagnosis of meniscal tears when compared to arthroscopic findings utilizing increased FSE matrix acquisition size. Method and materials: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies of 97 knees (194 menisci) were independently and prospectively interpreted by two experienced musculoskeletal radiologists over four separate readings at least 3 weeks apart. Readings 1 and 2 included images in all three planes in accordance with the standard protocol with either a SE or FSE sagittal PD, at readings 3 and 4 just the SE or FSE sagittal PD sequences were reported. The FSE sequence was acquired with an increased matrix size, compared to the SE sequence, to provide increased resolution. Menisci were graded for the presence of a tear and statistical analysis to calculate sensitivity and specificity was performed comparing to arthroscopy as the reference standard. ROC analysis for the diagnosis of meniscal tears on the SE and FSE sagittal sequences was also evaluated. Reader concordance for the SE and FSE sequences was calculated. Results: Sixty-seven tears were noted at arthroscopy; 60 were detected on SE and 56 on FSE. The sensitivity and specificity for SE was 90 and 90%, and for FSE was 84 and 94%, respectively, with no significant difference. ROC analysis showed no significant difference between the two sequences and kappa values demonstrated a higher level of reader agreement for the FSE than for the SE reading. Conclusion: Use of a FSE sagittal PD sequence with an increased matrix size provides comparable performance to conventional SE sagittal PD when evaluating meniscal disease with a modern system. The present study indicates an increased level of concordance between readers for the FSE sagittal sequence compared to the conventional SE.

  8. Meniscal tear evaluation. Comparison of a conventional spin-echo proton density sequence with a fast spin-echo sequence utilizing a 512x358 matrix size

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hopper, M.A.; Robinson, P. [Leeds Teaching Hospitals NHS Trust, Leeds (United Kingdom); Grainger, A.J., E-mail: andrew.grainger@leedsth.nhs.u [Leeds Teaching Hospitals NHS Trust, Leeds (United Kingdom)

    2011-04-15

    Aim: To determine the sensitivities, specificities, and receiver-operating characteristics (ROCs) for sagittal conventional spin-echo proton density (SE-PD) and fast spin-echo proton density (FSE-PD) sequences in the diagnosis of meniscal tears when compared to arthroscopic findings utilizing increased FSE matrix acquisition size. Method and materials: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies of 97 knees (194 menisci) were independently and prospectively interpreted by two experienced musculoskeletal radiologists over four separate readings at least 3 weeks apart. Readings 1 and 2 included images in all three planes in accordance with the standard protocol with either a SE or FSE sagittal PD, at readings 3 and 4 just the SE or FSE sagittal PD sequences were reported. The FSE sequence was acquired with an increased matrix size, compared to the SE sequence, to provide increased resolution. Menisci were graded for the presence of a tear and statistical analysis to calculate sensitivity and specificity was performed comparing to arthroscopy as the reference standard. ROC analysis for the diagnosis of meniscal tears on the SE and FSE sagittal sequences was also evaluated. Reader concordance for the SE and FSE sequences was calculated. Results: Sixty-seven tears were noted at arthroscopy; 60 were detected on SE and 56 on FSE. The sensitivity and specificity for SE was 90 and 90%, and for FSE was 84 and 94%, respectively, with no significant difference. ROC analysis showed no significant difference between the two sequences and kappa values demonstrated a higher level of reader agreement for the FSE than for the SE reading. Conclusion: Use of a FSE sagittal PD sequence with an increased matrix size provides comparable performance to conventional SE sagittal PD when evaluating meniscal disease with a modern system. The present study indicates an increased level of concordance between readers for the FSE sagittal sequence compared to the conventional SE.

  9. Culture of equine fibroblast-like synoviocytes on synthetic tissue scaffolds towards meniscal tissue engineering: a preliminary cell-seeding study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer J. Warnock

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Tissue engineering is a new methodology for addressing meniscal injury or loss. Synovium may be an ideal source of cells for in vitro meniscal fibrocartilage formation, however, favorable in vitro culture conditions for synovium must be established in order to achieve this goal. The objective of this study was to determine cellularity, cell distribution, and extracellular matrix (ECM formation of equine fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLS cultured on synthetic scaffolds, for potential application in synovium-based meniscal tissue engineering. Scaffolds included open-cell poly-L-lactic acid (OPLA sponges and polyglycolic acid (PGA scaffolds cultured in static and dynamic culture conditions, and PGA scaffolds coated in poly-L-lactic (PLLA in dynamic culture conditions.Materials and Methods. Equine FLS were seeded on OPLA and PGA scaffolds, and cultured in a static environment or in a rotating bioreactor for 12 days. Equine FLS were also seeded on PGA scaffolds coated in 2% or 4% PLLA and cultured in a rotating bioreactor for 14 and 21 days. Three scaffolds from each group were fixed, sectioned and stained with Masson’s Trichrome, Safranin-O, and Hematoxylin and Eosin, and cell numbers and distribution were analyzed using computer image analysis. Three PGA and OPLA scaffolds from each culture condition were also analyzed for extracellular matrix (ECM production via dimethylmethylene blue (sulfated glycosaminoglycan assay and hydroxyproline (collagen assay. PLLA coated PGA scaffolds were analyzed using double stranded DNA quantification as areflection of cellularity and confocal laser microscopy in a fluorescent cell viability assay.Results. The highest cellularity occurred in PGA constructs cultured in a rotating bioreactor, which also had a mean sulfated glycosaminoglycan content of 22.3 µg per scaffold. PGA constructs cultured in static conditions had the lowest cellularity. Cells had difficulty adhering to OPLA and the PLLA

  10. Place attachment of the public space in Krueng Cunda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novianti, Yenny; Ginting, Nurlisa; Marpaung, B. O. Y.

    2018-03-01

    Attachment to place will have an impact on the design a city, especially the public space. Part of important from place attachment can the great benefit in from a city. One of the result is influence to quality of life from urban society. That is not only, but forming of identity a city, dependence and sense of place. That is all measureable when the people have activity to place. Place attachment is connection human to place involve a psychological process. As for the issue in reservoir area and the river of Krueng Cunda. The main purpose in this study is find interaction individuals or urban society to public space. This study have use mixed method are combination with quantitave and qualitative. The quantitative method make use of questionnaires and qualitative with observations. The results of this study indicate that psychological process is more dominant than attachment to the place or human. At finally is this research show attachment to the psychological process feel better than to community because can fulfill a sense, comfortable, safety, lifestyle and goal needs of life to the public space.

  11. Attachment Styles of Dermatological Patients in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Szabó, Csanád; Altmayer, Anita; Lien, Lars

    2017-01-01

    Attachment styles of dermatological outpatients and satisfaction with their dermatologists were investigated within the framework of a multicentre study conducted in 13 European countries, organized by the European Society for Dermatology and Psychiatry. Attachment style was assessed with the Adult......, and experienced similar rates of anxiety in relationships as did the controls. Participants who had secure attachment styles reported stressful life events during the last 6 months significantly less often than those who had insecure attachment styles. Patients with secure attachment styles tended to be more...... satisfied with their dermatologist than did insecure patients. These results suggest that secure attachment of dermatological outpatients may be a protective factor in the management of stress....

  12. Association of Antibiotic Resistance in Agricultural Escherichia coli Isolates with Attachment to Quartz▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ping; Soupir, Michelle L.; Zwonitzer, Martha; Huss, Bridgette; Jarboe, Laura R.

    2011-01-01

    Surface water can be contaminated by bacteria from various sources, including manure from agricultural facilities. Attachment of these bacteria to soil and organic particles contributes to their transport through the environment, though the mechanism of attachment is unknown. As bacterial attachment to human tissues is known to be correlated with antibiotic resistance, we have investigated here the relationship between bacterial attachment to environmental particles and antibiotic resistance in agricultural isolates. We evaluated 203 Escherichia coli isolates collected from swine facilities for attachment to quartz, resistance to 13 antibiotics, and the presence of genes encoding 13 attachment factors. The genes encoding type I, EcpA, P pili, and Ag43 were detected, though none was significantly related to attachment. Quartz attachment was positively and significantly (P amoxicillin/streptomycin/tetracycline/sulfamethazine/tylosin/chlortetracycline and negatively and significantly (P < 0.0038) related to combined resistance to nalidixic acid/kanamycin/neomycin. These results provide clear evidence for a link between antibiotic resistance and attachment to quartz in agricultural isolates. We propose that this may be due to encoding by the responsible genes on a mobile genetic element. Further exploration of the relationship between antibiotic resistance and attachment to environmental particles will improve the understanding and modeling of environmental transport processes, with the goal of preventing human exposure to antibiotic-resistant or virulent microorganisms. PMID:21821756

  13. Association of antibiotic resistance in agricultural Escherichia coli isolates with attachment to quartz.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ping; Soupir, Michelle L; Zwonitzer, Martha; Huss, Bridgette; Jarboe, Laura R

    2011-10-01

    Surface water can be contaminated by bacteria from various sources, including manure from agricultural facilities. Attachment of these bacteria to soil and organic particles contributes to their transport through the environment, though the mechanism of attachment is unknown. As bacterial attachment to human tissues is known to be correlated with antibiotic resistance, we have investigated here the relationship between bacterial attachment to environmental particles and antibiotic resistance in agricultural isolates. We evaluated 203 Escherichia coli isolates collected from swine facilities for attachment to quartz, resistance to 13 antibiotics, and the presence of genes encoding 13 attachment factors. The genes encoding type I, EcpA, P pili, and Ag43 were detected, though none was significantly related to attachment. Quartz attachment was positively and significantly (P amoxicillin/streptomycin/tetracycline/sulfamethazine/tylosin/chlortetracycline and negatively and significantly (P < 0.0038) related to combined resistance to nalidixic acid/kanamycin/neomycin. These results provide clear evidence for a link between antibiotic resistance and attachment to quartz in agricultural isolates. We propose that this may be due to encoding by the responsible genes on a mobile genetic element. Further exploration of the relationship between antibiotic resistance and attachment to environmental particles will improve the understanding and modeling of environmental transport processes, with the goal of preventing human exposure to antibiotic-resistant or virulent microorganisms.

  14. Difference in place attachment between students in Helsinki and in Belgrade

    OpenAIRE

    Radusinović Dubravka; Vukčević Maša; Čizmić Svetlana

    2012-01-01

    Place attachment refers to the process of human-place bonding; the bonding process includes both physical and social ties formed within an environment. In the last two decades, place attachment has been the subject of many studies, but there have not been many cross-cultural studies. The aim of this study was to determine differences in global attachment to house, neighbourhood and city among young people in Belgrade and Helsinki, with consideration of social and physical dimensions of place ...

  15. [Early attachement relationships and epigenetic customization].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocchi, Giordana; Serio, Valentina; Carluccio, Giuseppe Mattia; Marini, Isabella; Meuti, Valentina; Zaccagni, Michela; Giacchetti, Nicoletta; Aceti, Franca

    2015-01-01

    Recently, new findings in epigenetic science switched the focus from the observation of physiological intragenomic dynamics to the idea of an environmental co-construction of phenotypic expression. In psichodynamic field, objectual relations and attachement theoreticians emphasized the interpersonal dimension of individual development, focusing the attention on the relational matrix of self organization. The construction of stable affective-behavioral traits throughout different parenting styles has actually found a coincidence in ethological studies, which have explored the epigenetic processes underlying the relationship between caregiving and HPA stress responsiveness. An adequate parenting style seems to support affective regulation throughout psychobiological hidden moderators, which would tend to rebalance the physiological systems homeostasis; an unconfident attachment style would promote, on the other hand, the allostatic load rise. Sites of longlife epigenetic susceptibility have also been identified in humans; although associated with risk of maladaptive developing in adverse environmental conditions, they seem to confer protection under favorable conditions. This persisting possibility of reorganization of stable traits throughout lifetime, which seems to be activated by a relevant environmental input, grant to significant relationships, and to therapeutical one as well, an implicit reconditioning potential which could result into the configuration of new stable affective-behavioral styles.

  16. Attachment theory: progress and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fearon, R M Pasco; Roisman, Glenn I

    2017-06-01

    Attachment is a key subfield in the area of parenting and parent-child relationships research. In this brief overview, we summarise what we consider to be the state-of-the-art of attachment research, focusing primarily on the nature and significance of attachment in infancy and early childhood. We review 4 major topics that are central issues in the scientific literature on attachment: (1) the role of the environment in the development of attachment, (2) the intergenerational transmission of patterns of attachment, (3) the stability of attachment patterns through early adulthood, and (4) the role of attachment in adjustment and maladjustment. We conclude by highlighting several critical unresolved issues and priorities for future research. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Attachment Theory, Foster Parents and Diversity Tolerance

    OpenAIRE

    Kenny, Michael; Fleming, Ted

    2009-01-01

    relevance to attachment within the biological and foster family. Yet every foster parent has a childhood attachment history that influences their interpersonal relationships in adulthood. The primary concern of the foster parent and their supports is with the foster child. But as a result the foster parent may distract or block reflection on their own attachment history. This presentation will focus on attachment theory and the adult, with particular reference to the foster parent. The pre...

  18. Confocal arthroscopy-based patient-specific constitutive models of cartilaginous tissues - II: prediction of reaction force history of meniscal cartilage specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Zeike A; Kirk, Thomas B; Miller, Karol

    2007-10-01

    The theoretical framework developed in a companion paper (Part I) is used to derive estimates of mechanical response of two meniscal cartilage specimens. The previously developed framework consisted of a constitutive model capable of incorporating confocal image-derived tissue microstructural data. In the present paper (Part II) fibre and matrix constitutive parameters are first estimated from mechanical testing of a batch of specimens similar to, but independent from those under consideration. Image analysis techniques which allow estimation of tissue microstructural parameters form confocal images are presented. The constitutive model and image-derived structural parameters are then used to predict the reaction force history of the two meniscal specimens subjected to partially confined compression. The predictions are made on the basis of the specimens' individual structural condition as assessed by confocal microscopy and involve no tuning of material parameters. Although the model does not reproduce all features of the experimental curves, as an unfitted estimate of mechanical response the prediction is quite accurate. In light of the obtained results it is judged that more general non-invasive estimation of tissue mechanical properties is possible using the developed framework.

  19. Attachment in Middle Childhood: Progress and Prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosmans, Guy; Kerns, Kathryn A.

    2015-01-01

    Contrary to the substantial amount of research on infant, preschool, adolescent, and adult attachment, middle childhood has long been neglected by the international attachment research community. In the past two decades, however, there has been a steep increase in research focusing on middle childhood attachment. This article provides an overview…

  20. An Attachment Perspective on the Child--Dog Bond: Interdisciplinary and International Research Findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalongo, Mary Renck

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the process of attachment formation in young children has been a focal point in child development research for decades. However, young children's attachments are not only with human beings; they also form bonds with companion animals, particularly dogs ("Canis familiaris"). Given the number of dogs that are kept by families…

  1. Place attachment, place identity and aesthetic appraisal of urban landscape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaśkiewicz Michał

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available As the aesthetic of the Polish cities became a topic of wider discussions, it is important to detect the potential role of human-place relations. Two studies (N = 185 & N = 196 were conducted to explore the relationship between place attachment, place identity and appraisal of urban landscape. Satisfaction with urban aesthetic was predicted by two dimensions of place attachment (place inherited and place discovered, local identity (on the trend level and national-conservative identity. Place discovered and European identity were also predictors of visual pollution sensitivity. Place discovered is considered as more active type of attachment that permits both a positive bias concerning the aesthetics of one’s city, and a stronger criticism of the elements that can potentially violate the place’s landscape.

  2. Relationship between years in the trade and the development of radiographic knee osteoarthritis and MRI-detected meniscal tears and bursitis in floor layers. A cross-sectional study of a historical cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lilli Kirkeskov; Rytter, Søren; Marott, Jacob Louis

    2012-01-01

    An increased risk of developing knee disorders including radiographic knee osteoarthritis (OA) have been shown among workers with kneeling working demands. There may also be a dose-related association between duration of employment in occupations with kneeling work and development of radiographic...... knee OA and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-detected meniscal tears and bursitis....

  3. Split ring containment attachment device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sammel, A.G.

    1996-01-01

    A containment attachment device is described for operatively connecting a glovebag to plastic sheeting covering hazardous material. The device includes an inner split ring member connected on one end to a middle ring member wherein the free end of the split ring member is inserted through a slit in the plastic sheeting to captively engage a generally circular portion of the plastic sheeting. A collar potion having an outer ring portion is provided with fastening means for securing the device together wherein the glovebag is operatively connected to the collar portion. 5 figs

  4. Diagnostic Validity of Combining History Elements and Physical Examination Tests for Traumatic and Degenerative Symptomatic Meniscal Tears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Décary, Simon; Fallaha, Michel; Frémont, Pierre; Martel-Pelletier, Johanne; Pelletier, Jean-Pierre; Feldman, Debbie E; Sylvestre, Marie-Pierre; Vendittoli, Pascal-André; Desmeules, François

    2017-10-27

    The current approach to the clinical diagnosis of traumatic and degenerative symptomatic meniscal tears (SMTs) proposes combining history elements and physical examination tests without systematic prescription of imaging investigations, yet the evidence to support this diagnostic approach is scarce. To assess the validity of diagnostic clusters combining history elements and physical examination tests to diagnose or exclude traumatic and degenerative SMT compared with other knee disorders. Prospective diagnostic accuracy study. Patients were recruited from 2 orthopedic clinics, 2 family medicine clinics, and from a university community. A total of 279 consecutive patients who underwent consultation for a new knee complaint. Each patient was assessed independently by 2 evaluators. History elements and standardized physical examination tests performed by a physiotherapist were compared with the reference standard: an expert physicians' composite diagnosis including a clinical examination and confirmatory magnetic resonance imaging. Participating expert physicians were orthopedic surgeons (n = 3) or sport medicine physicians (n = 2). Penalized logistic regression (least absolute shrinkage and selection operator) was used to identify history elements and physical examination tests associated with the diagnosis of SMT and recursive partitioning was used to develop diagnostic clusters. Diagnostic accuracy measures were calculated including sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values, and positive and negative likelihood ratios (LR+/-) with associated 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Eighty patients had a diagnosis of SMT (28.7%), including 35 traumatic tears and 45 degenerative tears. The combination a history of trauma during a pivot, medial knee pain location, and a positive medial joint line tenderness test was able to diagnose (LR+ = 8.9; 95% CI 6.1-13.1) or exclude (LR- = 0.10; 95% CI 0.03-0.28) a traumatic SMT. Combining a history of

  5. Defining the Value of Future Research to Identify the Preferred Treatment of Meniscal Tear in the Presence of Knee Osteoarthritis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Losina

    Full Text Available Arthroscopic partial meniscectomy (APM is extensively used to relieve pain in patients with symptomatic meniscal tear (MT and knee osteoarthritis (OA. Recent studies have failed to show the superiority of APM compared to other treatments. We aim to examine whether existing evidence is sufficient to reject use of APM as a cost-effective treatment for MT+OA.We built a patient-level microsimulation using Monte Carlo methods and evaluated three strategies: Physical therapy ('PT' alone; PT followed by APM if subjects continued to experience pain ('Delayed APM'; and 'Immediate APM'. Our subject population was US adults with symptomatic MT and knee OA over a 10 year time horizon. We assessed treatment outcomes using societal costs, quality-adjusted life years (QALYs, and calculated incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs, incorporating productivity costs as a sensitivity analysis. We also conducted a value-of-information analysis using probabilistic sensitivity analyses.Calculated ICERs were estimated to be $12,900/QALY for Delayed APM as compared to PT and $103,200/QALY for Immediate APM as compared to Delayed APM. In sensitivity analyses, inclusion of time costs made Delayed APM cost-saving as compared to PT. Improving efficacy of Delayed APM led to higher incremental costs and lower incremental effectiveness of Immediate APM in comparison to Delayed APM. Probabilistic sensitivity analyses indicated that PT had 3.0% probability of being cost-effective at a willingness-to-pay (WTP threshold of $50,000/QALY. Delayed APM was cost effective 57.7% of the time at WTP = $50,000/QALY and 50.2% at WTP = $100,000/QALY. The probability of Immediate APM being cost-effective did not exceed 50% unless WTP exceeded $103,000/QALY.We conclude that current cost-effectiveness evidence does not support unqualified rejection of either Immediate or Delayed APM for the treatment of MT+OA. The amount to which society would be willing to pay for additional information

  6. Attachment style and adjustment to divorce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yárnoz-Yaben, Sagrario

    2010-05-01

    Divorce is becoming increasingly widespread in Europe. In this study, I present an analysis of the role played by attachment style (secure, dismissing, preoccupied and fearful, plus the dimensions of anxiety and avoidance) in the adaptation to divorce. Participants comprised divorced parents (N = 40) from a medium-sized city in the Basque Country. The results reveal a lower proportion of people with secure attachment in the sample group of divorcees. Attachment style and dependence (emotional and instrumental) are closely related. I have also found associations between measures that showed a poor adjustment to divorce and the preoccupied and fearful attachment styles. Adjustment is related to a dismissing attachment style and to the avoidance dimension. Multiple regression analysis confirmed that secure attachment and the avoidance dimension predict adjustment to divorce and positive affectivity while preoccupied attachment and the anxiety dimension predicted negative affectivity. Implications for research and interventions with divorcees are discussed.

  7. Trajectory of self-reported pain and function and knee extensor muscle strength in young patients undergoing arthroscopic surgery for meniscal tears: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorlund, Jonas Bloch; Østengaard, Lasse; Cardy, Nathan; Wilson, Fiona; Jørgensen, Claus; Juhl, Carsten Bogh

    2017-08-01

    To investigate the trajectory of patient reported pain and function and knee extensor muscle strength over time in young individuals undergoing arthroscopic meniscal surgery. Systematic review and meta-analysis METHODS: Six databases were searched up to October 13th, 2016. People aged 30 years or younger undergoing surgery for a meniscal tear. and comparator: (1) Self-reported pain and function in patients undergoing meniscal surgery compared to a non-operative control group (2). Knee extensor strength in the leg undergoing surgery compared to a healthy control group or the contra-lateral leg. Methodological quality was assessed using the SIGN 50 guidelines. No studies were found on patient reported pain and function. Six studies, including 137 patients were included in the analysis on knee extensor muscle strength. Knee extensor muscle strength was impaired in the injured leg prior to surgery and was still reduced compared with control data up to 12 months after surgery (SMD: -1.16) (95% CI: -1.83; -0.49). All included studies were assessed to have a high risk of bias. No studies were found comparing the trajectory of self-reported pain and function in patients undergoing arthroscopic surgery compared with non-operative treatments for young patients with meniscal tears. Knee extensor strength seemed to be impaired up to 12 months after surgery in young patients undergoing surgery for meniscal tears. The results of the present study should be interpreted with caution due to a limited number of available studies with high risk of bias including relatively few patients. Copyright © 2017 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Networked Attached Devices at SNS

    CERN Document Server

    Blokland, W

    2003-01-01

    The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) diagnostic instruments at Oak Ridge National Laboratory are based on the Network Attached Device (NAD) concept. Each pickup or sensor has its own resources such as timing, data acquisition and processing. NADs are individually connected to the network, thus reducing the brittleness inherent in tightly coupled systems. This architecture allows an individual device to fail or to be serviced or removed without disrupting other devices. This paper describes our implementation of the nearly 400 NADs to be deployed. The hardware consists of rack-mounted PCs with standard motherboards and PCI data-acquisition boards. The software environment is based on LabVIEW and EPICS. LabVIEW supports the agile development demanded by modern diagnostic systems. EPICS is the control system standard for the entire SNS facility. To achieve high performance, LabVIEW and EPICS communicate through shared memory. SNS diagnostics are developed by a multi-laboratory partnership including ORNL, BNL, LAN...

  9. Multipurpose hooks for elastic attachment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siddharth Shashidhar Revankar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available As certain bracket systems do not include hooks on premolar brackets for elastic attachment, Kobayashi or custom made ligature hooks have proven as an alternative. However, these hooks tend to bend labially when used with heavy elastics and these elastics can even pop loose from the hooks on mouth opening. The following article describes an innovative multipurpose hook which is simple, stiff and inexpensive and can be used for engagement of class II elastics on premolars in case of missing molars as well as engagement of intermaxillary elastics for settling of occlusion in finishing stages. As the hooks can be prefabricated, this saves a lot of chair side time and is more practical for use in day-to-day orthodontic practice.

  10. “Toward socially responsible agents: integrating attachment and learning in emotional decision-making,”

    OpenAIRE

    M. Ben Moussa and N. Magnenat-Thalmann

    2013-01-01

    Our goal is to create socially responsible agents either robots or virtual humans. In this paper we present an integration of emotions attachment and learning in emotional decision making to achieve this goal. Based on emerging psychological theories we aim at building human like emotional decision making where emotions play a central role in selecting the next action to be performed by the agent. Here we present our own approach for emotion appraisal where we use emotional attachment as an i...

  11. Association Between Insecure Attachment and ADHD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storebø, Ole Jakob; Rasmussen, Pernille Darling; Simonsen, Erik

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Psychological theories have postulated an association between insecure attachment and ADHD. The objective of this study is to investigate possible association between insecure attachment and ADHD in children and adults. METHOD: Review of literature was performed using the Psyc......INFO, Medline, and EMBASE databases. RESULTS: Twenty-nine studies were included in the review. Overall, the studies showed that parental attachment problems and environmental mediating factors were significantly associated with childhood ADHD. Adults with ADHD had a much higher incidence of insecure attachment...... styles than reported in the general population. CONCLUSION: There seems to be a clear association between ADHD and insecure attachment. It is likely that early intervention in the form of parent training and pharmacological treatment may prevent development of attachment problems. But such studies have...

  12. Place attachment and disasters: Knowns and unknowns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamali, Mehdi; Nejat, Ali

    When considering the factors important for disaster recovery, one must consider the attachment individuals have toward their living area. This article reviews and synthesizes the current literature on the determinants of place attachment in the context of postdisaster recovery. Although the majority of the reviewed articles focused on disaster recovery, there were some which had a broader scope and were included due to their importance. This research categorizes the determinants of place attachment into four categories: demographic, socioeconomic, spatial, and psychosocial. Age, ethnicity, and religion were grouped under the category of demographics. Job status, education, and property ownership were categorized under the socioeconomic category. Attachment to home, neighborhood, and city, together with attachment to rural and urban areas, were grouped under the spatial category. Finally, mental health status and community attachment were classified under the psychosocial heading. Based on the outcome of the aforementioned synthesis, this article develops a conceptual framework to guide future research.

  13. Place attachment and natural environmental risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonaiuto, Marino; Alves, Susana; De Dominicis, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    Little is known about place attachment affecting natural environmental risk perception and coping. A systematic search of social science databases revealed 31 works (1996–2016) directly addressing place attachment in relation to different types of natural hazard risks (e.g., seismic, volcanic, etc.......). Across different contexts, the research shows: (a) positive and/or negative relationships between place attachment and natural environmental risk perception; (b) positive and/or negative relationships between place attachment and risk coping; and (c) mediating and moderating relationships. In particular......, results show that: (a) highly attached individuals perceive natural environmental risks but underestimate their potential effects; (b) highly attached individuals are unwilling to relocate when facing natural environmental risks and more likely to return to risky areas after a natural environmental...

  14. Diagnostic accuracy of the Thessaly test, standardised clinical history and other clinical examination tests (Apley's, McMurray's and joint line tenderness) for meniscal tears in comparison with magnetic resonance imaging diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blyth, Mark; Anthony, Iain; Francq, Bernard; Brooksbank, Katriona; Downie, Paul; Powell, Andrew; Jones, Bryn; MacLean, Angus; McConnachie, Alex; Norrie, John

    2015-08-01

    Reliable non-invasive diagnosis of meniscal tears is difficult. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is often used but is expensive and incidental findings are problematic. There are a number of physical examination tests for the diagnosis of meniscal tears that are simple, cheap and non-invasive. To determine the diagnostic accuracy of the Thessaly test and to determine if the Thessaly test (alone or in combination with other physical tests) can obviate the need for further investigation by MRI or arthroscopy for patients with a suspected meniscal tear. Single-centre prospective diagnostic accuracy study. Although the study was performed in a secondary care setting, it was designed to replicate the results that would have been achieved in a primary care setting. Two cohorts of patients were recruited: patients with knee pathology (n = 292) and a control cohort with no knee pathology (n = 75). Sensitivity, specificity and diagnostic accuracy of the Thessaly test in determining the presence of meniscal tears. Participants were assessed by both a primary care clinician and a musculoskeletal clinician. Both clinicians performed the Thessaly test, McMurray's test, Apley's test, joint line tenderness test and took a standardised clinical history from the patient. The Thessaly test had a sensitivity of 0.66, a specificity of 0.39 and a diagnostic accuracy of 54% when utilised by primary care clinicians. This compared with a sensitivity of 0.62, a specificity of 0.55 and diagnostic accuracy of 59% when used by musculoskeletal clinicians. The diagnostics accuracy of the other tests when used by primary care clinicians was 54% for McMurray's test, 53% for Apley's test, 54% for the joint line tenderness test and 55% for clinical history. For primary care clinicians, age and past history of osteoarthritis were both significant predictors of MRI diagnosis of meniscal tears. For musculoskeletal clinicians age and a positive diagnosis of meniscal tears on clinical history

  15. Father and son attachment styles in alcoholic and non-alcoholic families

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mythili Hazarika

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The theory of attachment is important to understand a lot of human behaviour. Styles of attachment could be important predictors in developing dependence on alcoholism. Insecure attachment patterns could be significant risk factors for future alcohol use. Methods: Participants for this study consist of fathers with alcohol dependence syndrome (ADS from treatment centres and fathers from the community with no dependency on alcohol, and their sons (n=200. The Michigan Alcoholism Screening Test (MAST, socioeconomic status scale were administered, and attachment styles were derived by the Attachment Style Questionnaire (ASQ. We hypothesised a prior concept reflecting theoretical predictions for the association between attachment styles and alcohol in both the generations. Results: Statistics on SPSS-16 was used to test our hypotheses. As predicted, fathers with ADS had insecure attachments styles in comparison to the control group. Substance abuse/dependence and treatment participation were at an all-time low for the secure group. Conclusion: The findings from this study identify attachment styles as an influential factor in understanding the divergence between alcohol dependence in treatment seekers. The findings further imply that differential treatment may need to be provided taking into account one’s attachment representation to promote successful recovery. It also highlights the need to develop secure ties in children of alcoholic parents to protect them from use of substances as a coping and a learned mechanism. Limitations of the study and suggestions for further research are highlighted and implications for diagnosis and treatment are discussed.

  16. Attachment style and interpersonal trauma in refugees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morina, Naser; Schnyder, Ulrich; Schick, Matthis; Nickerson, Angela; Bryant, Richard A

    2016-12-01

    Refugees can suffer many experiences that threaten their trust in others. Although models of refugee mental health have postulated that attachment securities may be damaged by refugee experiences, this has yet to be empirically tested. This study aimed to understand the relationship between the nature of traumatic experiences sustained by refugees and attachment styles. In a cross-sectional study, treatment-seeking refugees (N = 134) were assessed for traumatic exposure using the Harvard Trauma Questionnaire and Posttraumatic Diagnostic Scale. Attachment style was assessed using the Experiences in Close Relationship Scale. Whereas gender and severity of interpersonal traumatic events predicted avoidant attachment style (accounting for 11% of the variance), neither these factors nor non-interpersonal trauma predicted anxious attachment. Exposure to interpersonal traumatic events, including torture, is associated with enduring avoidant attachment tendencies in refugees. This finding accords with attachment theories that prior adverse interpersonal experiences can undermine secure attachment systems, and may promote avoidance of attachment seeking. This finding may point to an important process maintaining poor psychological health in refugees affected by interpersonal trauma. © The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists 2016.

  17. Temperament and attachment: one construct or two?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangelsdorf, S C; Frosch, C A

    1999-01-01

    In this chapter we described the constructs of temperament and attachment and have discussed similarities and differences between the two. We addressed the issue of whether temperament contributes to overall attachment security or to the specific type of attachment that children display. We conclude that although temperament may influence the type of secure and insecure attachment relationship children form with their parent, temperament alone will not determine if a child is classified as securely or insecurely attached. We presented evidence suggesting that certain dimensions of temperament, specifically negative emotionality, may be associated with infants' behavior during the Strange Situation, such as proneness-to-distress during separations. However, we noted that these temperament dimensions do not predict overall security of attachment. It is likely that although no single temperament characteristic, such as proneness-to-distress, in and of itself determines overall attachment security, it is possible that a constellation of temperament characteristics may be more strongly related to attachment security. The examination of constellations of temperament characteristics may be particularly useful for furthering our understanding of individual differences within attachment classifications. Such an approach may elucidate the reasons why infants are classified into one subgroup of secure, insecure-avoidant, or insecure-resistant attachment versus another subgroup. Furthermore, we suggest that the collection of findings regarding temperament and attachment not only underscores the importance of a transactional approach to early social-emotional development, but emphasizes that temperament and attachment can make unique and interactive contributions to children's social-emotional functioning. That is, the goodness-of-fit between infant and parent characteristics may best predict security of attachment. Although child characteristics clearly contribute to the

  18. Security for Network Attached Storage Devices

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gobioff, Howard

    1997-01-01

    This paper presents a novel cryptographic capability system addressing the security and performance needs of network attached storage systems in which file management functions occur at a different...

  19. Sine-Bar Attachment For Machine Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Franklin D.

    1988-01-01

    Sine-bar attachment for collets, spindles, and chucks helps machinists set up quickly for precise angular cuts that require greater precision than provided by graduations of machine tools. Machinist uses attachment to index head, carriage of milling machine or lathe relative to table or turning axis of tool. Attachment accurate to 1 minute or arc depending on length of sine bar and precision of gauge blocks in setup. Attachment installs quickly and easily on almost any type of lathe or mill. Requires no special clamps or fixtures, and eliminates many trial-and-error measurements. More stable than improvised setups and not jarred out of position readily.

  20. Overdenture locator attachments for atrophic mandible

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neerja Mahajan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Implant-supported overdentures provide a good opportunity for dentists to improve oral health and quality-of-life of patients. Atrophic mandible poses a significant challenge to successful oral rehabilitation with dental implants. In this article, the fabrication of lower overdenture by two narrow platform implants is described with dual retentive, resilient, self-locating locator attachment system. The locator attachment system has the lowest profile in comparison with the ball and bar attachments and is versatile up to 40΀ of divergence between two implants. By using locators as attachments, we can meet functional, economic and social expectation of patients with ease and satisfaction.

  1. Disorganized Attachment in Infancy Predicts Greater Amygdala Volume in Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons-Ruth, K.; Pechtel, P.; Yoon, S.A.; Anderson, C.M.; Teicher, M.H.

    2016-01-01

    Early life stress in rodents is associated with increased amygdala volume in adulthood. In humans, the amygdala develops rapidly during the first two years of life. Thus, disturbed care during this period may be particularly important to amygdala development. In the context of a 30-year longitudinal study of impoverished, highly stressed families, we assessed whether disorganization of the attachment relationship in infancy was related to amygdala volume in adulthood. Amygdala volumes were assessed among 18 low-income young adults (8M/10F, 29.33±0.49 years) first observed in infancy (8.5±5.6 months) and followed longitudinally to age 29. In infancy (18.58±1.02 mos), both disorganized infant attachment behavior and disrupted maternal communication were assessed in the standard Strange Situation Procedure (SSP). Increased left amygdala volume in adulthood was associated with both maternal and infant components of disorganized attachment interactions at 18 months of age (overall r = .679, p attachment disturbance in adolescence, were not significantly related to left amygdala volume. Left amygdala volume was further associated with dissociation and limbic irritability in adulthood. Finally, left amygdala volume mediated the prediction from attachment disturbance in infancy to limbic irritability in adulthood. Results point to the likely importance of quality of early care for amygdala development in human children as well as in rodents. The long-term prediction found here suggests that the first two years of life may be an early sensitive period for amygdala development during which clinical intervention could have particularly important consequences for later child outcomes. PMID:27060720

  2. Attachment Theory and Spirituality: Two Threads Converging in Palliative Care?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cécile Loetz

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to discuss and explore the interrelation between two concepts, attachment theory and the concept of spirituality, which are important to palliative care and to founding a multivariate understanding of the patient’s needs and challenges. Both concepts have been treated by research in diverse and multiform ways, but little effort has yet been made to integrate them into one theoretical framework in reference to the palliative context. In this paper, we begin an attempt to close this scientific gap theoretically. Following the lines of thought in this paper, we assume that spirituality can be conceptualized as an adequate response of a person’s attachment pattern to the peculiarity of the palliative situation. Spirituality can be seen both as a recourse to securely based relationships and as an attempt to explore the ultimate unknown, the mystery of one’s own death. Thus, spirituality in the palliative context corresponds to the task of attachment behavior: to transcend symbiosis while continuing bonds and thus to explore the unknown environment independently and without fear. Spiritual activity is interpreted as a human attachment behavior option that receives special quality and importance in the terminal stage of life. Implications for clinical practice and research are discussed in the final section of the paper.

  3. Attachment theory and spirituality: two threads converging in palliative care?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loetz, Cécile; Müller, Jakob; Frick, Eckhard; Petersen, Yvonne; Hvidt, Niels Christian; Mauer, Christine

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to discuss and explore the interrelation between two concepts, attachment theory and the concept of spirituality, which are important to palliative care and to founding a multivariate understanding of the patient's needs and challenges. Both concepts have been treated by research in diverse and multiform ways, but little effort has yet been made to integrate them into one theoretical framework in reference to the palliative context. In this paper, we begin an attempt to close this scientific gap theoretically. Following the lines of thought in this paper, we assume that spirituality can be conceptualized as an adequate response of a person's attachment pattern to the peculiarity of the palliative situation. Spirituality can be seen both as a recourse to securely based relationships and as an attempt to explore the ultimate unknown, the mystery of one's own death. Thus, spirituality in the palliative context corresponds to the task of attachment behavior: to transcend symbiosis while continuing bonds and thus to explore the unknown environment independently and without fear. Spiritual activity is interpreted as a human attachment behavior option that receives special quality and importance in the terminal stage of life. Implications for clinical practice and research are discussed in the final section of the paper.

  4. Measuring Patients’ Attachment Avoidance in Psychotherapy: Development of the Attachment Avoidance in Therapy Scale (AATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    András Láng

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available A new scale measuring patient-therapist attachment avoidance was developed. Attachment Avoidance in Therapy Scale is a new measure based on the Bartholomew model of adult attachment (Bartholomew & Horowitz, 1991 and the Experience in Close Relationships Scale (Brennan, Clark, & Shaver, 1998 to measure patients’ attachment avoidance towards therapists. With 112 patient-therapist dyads participating in the study, validation of a preliminary scale – measuring both attachment anxiety and attachment avoidance in therapy – took place using therapists’ evaluations of patients’ relational behavior and patients’ self-reports about their attitude toward psychotherapy. Analysis of the data revealed six underlying scales. Results showed all six scales to be reliable. Validation of scales measuring attachment anxiety failed. The importance of Attachment Avoidance in Therapy Scale and its subscales is discussed.

  5. Hamiltonian dynamics of preferential attachment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zuev, Konstantin; Papadopoulos, Fragkiskos; Krioukov, Dmitri

    2016-01-01

    Prediction and control of network dynamics are grand-challenge problems in network science. The lack of understanding of fundamental laws driving the dynamics of networks is among the reasons why many practical problems of great significance remain unsolved for decades. Here we study the dynamics of networks evolving according to preferential attachment (PA), known to approximate well the large-scale growth dynamics of a variety of real networks. We show that this dynamics is Hamiltonian, thus casting the study of complex networks dynamics to the powerful canonical formalism, in which the time evolution of a dynamical system is described by Hamilton’s equations. We derive the explicit form of the Hamiltonian that governs network growth in PA. This Hamiltonian turns out to be nearly identical to graph energy in the configuration model, which shows that the ensemble of random graphs generated by PA is nearly identical to the ensemble of random graphs with scale-free degree distributions. In other words, PA generates nothing but random graphs with power-law degree distribution. The extension of the developed canonical formalism for network analysis to richer geometric network models with non-degenerate groups of symmetries may eventually lead to a system of equations describing network dynamics at small scales. (paper)

  6. Smartphone attachment for stethoscope recording.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Jeff

    2015-01-01

    With the ubiquity of smartphones and the rising technology of 3D printing, novel devices can be developed that leverage the "computer in your pocket" and rapid prototyping technologies toward scientific, medical, engineering, and creative purposes. This paper describes such a device: a simple 3D-printed extension for Apple's iPhone that allows the sound from an off-the-shelf acoustic stethoscope to be recorded using the phone's built-in microphone. The attachment's digital 3D files can be easily shared, modified for similar phones and devices capable of recording audio, and in combination with 3D printing technology allow for fabrication of a durable device without need for an entire factory of expensive and specialized machining tools. It is hoped that by releasing this device as an open source set of printable files that can be downloaded and reproduced cheaply, others can make use of these developments where access to cost-prohibitive, specialized medical instruments are not available. Coupled with specialized smartphone software ("apps"), more sophisticated and automated diagnostics may also be possible on-site.

  7. Effect of ionizing radiation on biochemical and physical properties of human menisci (preliminary data)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uhrynowska-Tyszkiewicz, I.; Kaminski, A.

    2008-01-01

    Full text: The menisci, composed mostly of water (-70%) and collagen (-20%, predominantly type I), are integral structural components of human knee, aiding in shock absorption, joint stability, lubrication, and nutrition. Total or partial meniscectomies are associated with altered load bearing across the knee, frequently resulting in degenerative osteoarthritis. Therefore meniscal replacement has been advocated in case of extensive meniscus damage or after its removal. Among different natural and artificial materials, the use of meniscal allografts is the most promising method. However, the application of non-sterilised menisci is connected with the risk of infection disease transmission. The aim of the initial part of our study was to assess the effect of ionising radiation on biochemical properties of human menisci preserved with various methods and then irradiated with a dose 35 kGy. Twenty eight menisci from cadaveric donors were procured using standard operating procedures and then divided into the following groups: 1) fresh menisci irradiated at -70 degree C; 2) fresh menisci irradiated at room temperature (RT); 3) lyophilised menisci irradiated at -70 degree C; 4) lyophilised menisci irradiated at RT. Samples from each experimental group were irradiated with a dose of 35 kGy with 10 MeV electron accelerator. Non-irradiated menisci served as controls. Meniscal allografts were pulverised in the liquid nitrogen mill and quantitatively extracted to measure neutral soluble collagen (NSC) and acid soluble collagen (ASC) by colorimetric assay of hydroxyproline, released under extraction from tissue samples. The amount of released hydroxyproline reflects the level of collagen degradation caused by ionising radiation. As in our previous studies concerning other connective tissue allografts (bones, tendons), collagen fragmentation in menisci was also affected by preservation and sterilisation conditions. The choice of proper conditions allows one to diminish the

  8. Attachment and Socioemotional Problems in Middle Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, Ellen; Lecompte, Vanessa

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we will evaluate the evidence concerning links between attachment and behavior problems in the middle childhood period. We will first provide a general introduction to the question of attachment and maladaptation in the middle childhood period, and then examine the recent empirical evidence with respect to both externalizing and…

  9. Parent-Child Attachment and Emotion Regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brumariu, Laura E.

    2015-01-01

    Given the centrality of both parent-child attachment and emotion regulation in children's development and adjustment, it is important to evaluate the relations between these constructs. This article discusses conceptual and empirical links between attachment and emotion regulation in middle childhood, highlights progress and challenges in the…

  10. Study on thermocouple attachment in reflood experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugimoto, Jun

    1977-03-01

    The method of thermocouple attachment to a heater rods has been studied for surface temperature measurement in reflood experiments. The method used as far in JAERI's reflood experiments had some possibilities of not estimating exactly the quench times. Various attachment method have been tested and some proved to be effective in the respect. (auth.)

  11. The role of time in place attachment

    Science.gov (United States)

    David Smaldone

    2007-01-01

    Quantitative studies have found that the length of association is an important variable affecting place attachment (Kaltenborn 1998, Moore & Graefe 1994, Patterson & Williams 1991, Vorkinn & Riese 2001). These studies, however, have provided less insight into how and why time is involved in the process of forming place attachment, as well as the meanings...

  12. Internal Representational Models of Attachment Relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crittenden, Patricia M.

    This paper outlines several properties of internal representational models (IRMs) and offers terminology that may help to differentiate the models. Properties of IRMs include focus, memory systems, content, cognitive function, "metastructure," quality of attachment, behavioral strategies, and attitude toward attachment. An IRM focuses on…

  13. Attachment of Salmonella spp. to pork meat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Trine; Riber, Leise; Löfström, Charlotta

    2011-01-01

    Five strains of Salmonella, one wildtype and four knock-out mutants (the prg, flhDC, yhjH and fliC genes) were investigated based on their probability to attach and subsequently detach from a surface of pork fillet. The attachment followed by detachment was measured and modelled for two different...

  14. Attachment Theory and Neuroscience for Care Managers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blakely, Thomas J; Dziadosz, Gregory M

    2016-09-01

    This article describes a model for care managers that is based on attachment theory supplemented by knowledge from neuroscience. Together, attachment theory and basic knowledge from neuroscience provide for both an organizing conceptual framework and a scientific, measureable approach to assessment and planning interventions in a care plan.

  15. Attachment in young children with incarcerated fathers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poehlmann-Tynan, Julie; Burnson, Cynthia; Runion, Hilary; Weymouth, Lindsay A

    2017-05-01

    The present study examined young children's attachment behaviors during paternal incarceration and reported on initial validity of a new measure used to rate children's attachment-related behaviors and emotions during visits in a corrections setting. Seventy-seven children, age 2 to 6 years, and their jailed fathers and current caregivers participated in the home visit portion of the study, whereas 28 of these children participated in the jail visit. The results indicated that 27% of children witnessed the father's crime and 22% of children witnessed the father's arrest, with most children who witnessed these events exhibiting extreme distress; children who witnessed these events were more likely to have insecure attachments to their caregivers. Consistent with attachment theory and research, caregivers who exhibited more sensitivity and responsivity during interactions with children and those who provided more stimulating, responsive, learning-oriented home environments had children who were more likely to have secure attachments (measured with the Attachment Q-Sort). We also found preliminary evidence for the validity of our new measure, the Jail Prison Observation Checklist, in that children's attachment-related behaviors and emotions during the jail visit correlated with their attachment security observed in the home. Our observations indicate that, in certain contexts, noncontact visits with incarcerated parents can be stressful for children and that children's caregivers may play a significant role during these visits.

  16. Insecure attachment and anxiety in student athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, D H; Kim, S M; Zaichkowsky, L

    2013-06-01

    The main purpose of our research was to examine attachment type and competition anxiety in high school student athletes and general high school students. We recruited 465 student athletes and 543 general students to participate in our study. The Revised Korean version of the Experiences in Close Relationships Scale (K-ECRS) and the Competitive State Anxiety Inventory-2 (CSAI-2) were given to all students. In χ2 tests, athletes showed attachment types in the following order of prevalence: fearful, dismissive, and preoccupied, compared to the fearful, preoccupied, and dismissive order observed in general students. In parametric, independent t-tests, athletes reported significantly higher cognitive anxiety scores, relative to general students. Further, athletes with insecure attachment compared to those with secure attachment reported higher cognitive anxiety scores and self-confidence scores. In both the athletes with insecure attachment and general students with insecure attachment groups, the K-ECRS anxiety subscale was significantly correlated with CSAI-2 total score. In post hoc analysis in the athletes with insecure attachment group, the K-ECRS anxiety subscale was also significantly correlated with the CSAI-2 cognitive anxiety subscale. These results suggest that anxious athletes with an insecure attachment style tend to exaggerate threats from both external and internal sources, which negatively affect their performances.

  17. Attachment Representations and Time Perspective in Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laghi, Fiorenzo; D'Alessio, Maria; Pallini, Susanna; Baiocco, Roberto

    2009-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between attachment to parents and peers, time perspective and psychological adjustment in adolescence. 2,665 adolescents (M age = 17.03 years, SD = 1.48) completed self-report measures about parent and peer attachment, time perspective, sympathy and self-determination. Subjects were divided into four groups…

  18. performance characteristics of a cam turning attachment

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Obe

    ABSTRACT. A modification of a cylindrical turning unit has been done to give a non- cylindrical turning attachment for production of irregular shapes, like cams on the lathe machine. To assess the performance of the attachment, cutting forces have been measured using a 'Sigma' Cutting Tool. Dynamometer. Furthermore ...

  19. Adolescent Self-Esteem, Attachment and Loneliness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhal, Anubha; Bhatia, Sangeeta; Sharma, Vidhi; Gupta, Priyanka

    2007-01-01

    Objectives: To assess self-esteem, loneliness and attachment styles among adolescents and examine their association with each other and with age and gender. Method: Adolescents (55 males and 55 females) from a public school in Delhi, aged 10-13 years were administered Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory (School Form), Attachment Scale and UCLA…

  20. Attachment Patterns in the Psychotherapy Relationship: Development of the Client Attachment to Therapist Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallinckrodt, Brent; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Describes development of an instrument, the Client Attachment to Therapist Scale (CATS). CATS factors correlated in expected directions with survey measures of object relations, client-rated working alliance, social self-efficacy, and adult attachment. Cluster analysis revealed four types of client attachment. Discusses implications of attachment…

  1. Attachment and children's biased attentional processing: evidence for the exclusion of attachment-related information.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Vandevivere

    Full Text Available Research in both infants and adults demonstrated that attachment expectations are associated with the attentional processing of attachment-related information. However, this research suffered from methodological issues and has not been validated across ages. Employing a more ecologically valid paradigm to measure attentional processes by virtue of eye tracking, the current study tested the defensive exclusion hypothesis in late childhood. According to this hypothesis, insecurely attached children are assumed to defensively exclude attachment-related information. We hypothesized that securely attached children process attachment- related neutral and emotional information in a more open manner compared to insecurely attached children. Sixty-two children (59.7% girls, 8-12 years completed two different tasks, while eye movements were recorded: task one presented an array of neutral faces including mother and unfamiliar women and task two presented the same with happy and angry faces. Results indicated that more securely attached children looked longer at mother's face regardless of the emotional expression. Also, they tend to have more maintained attention to mother's neutral face. Furthermore, more attachment avoidance was related to a reduced total viewing time of mother's neutral, happy, and angry face. Attachment anxiety was not consistently related to the processing of mother's face. Findings support the theoretical assumption that securely attached children have an open manner of processing all attachment-related information.

  2. Youth hedonistic behaviour: moderating role of peer attachment on the effect of religiosity and worldview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamzah, Siti Raba'ah; Suandi, Turiman; Krauss, Steven Eric; Hamzah, Azimi; Tamam, Ezhar

    2014-01-01

    This study was carried out on the moderating effect of peer attachment on the relationships between religiosity and worldview, and on how hedonistic behaviour among Malaysian undergraduate students is shaped by such influences. With regard to peer attachment, the study focused on the influences of communication, trust and alienation among youth. Bronfenbrenner's theory of human ecology and Armsden and Greenberg's attachment model were used as the framework. Drawing on a quantitative survey of 394 Malaysian university students (M age = 21.0, SD = 0.40), structural equation modelling and path analysis revealed a significant relationship between worldview and hedonistic behaviour. Peer attachment moderated the relationships between religiosity and religious worldview. The results further showed that the unique moderating effect of the lower level of attachment with peers is positively related to the hedonistic behaviour. Implications from the findings are discussed. PMID:25431513

  3. Pet in the therapy room: an attachment perspective on Animal-Assisted Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zilcha-Mano, Sigal; Mikulincer, Mario; Shaver, Phillip R

    2011-11-01

    John Bowlby's ( 1973, 1980, 1982) attachment theory is one of the most influential theories in personality and developmental psychology and provides insights into adjustment and psychopathology across the lifespan. The theory is also helpful in defining the target of change in psychotherapy, understanding the processes by which change occurs, and conceptualizing cases and planning treatment (Daniel, 2006; Obegi & Berant, 2008; Sable, 2004 ; Wallin, 2007). Here, we propose a model of Animal-Assisted Therapy (AAT) based on attachment theory and on the unique characteristics of human-pet relationships. The model includes clients' unmet attachment needs, individual differences in attachment insecurity, coping, and responsiveness to therapy. It also suggests ways to foster the development of more adaptive patterns of attachment and healthier modes of relating to others.

  4. Attachment and eating disorders: a research update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasca, Giorgio A

    2018-03-16

    Prominent models of eating disorders tend to focus on cognitive and behavioral features, but tend not to consider important developmental issues related to affect regulation, interpersonal style, self concept, and mentalization-all of which are well conceptualized within attachment theory. Higher levels of attachment insecurity across diagnoses are related to greater eating disorder symptoms. Low parental care and early trauma may lead to attachment insecurity that then might lead to greater eating disorder symptoms. The association between insecure attachment and eating disorder severity is likely mediated by affect dysregulation and perfectionism. Recent research using the Adult Attachment Interview highlights the importance of reflective functioning in predicting treatment response and therapeutic processes, and on the utility of therapies that increase mentalization. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. The process of developing and changing of infant-teacher attachment : A study on an infant whose attachment to the first attachment figure is insecure

    OpenAIRE

    上田, 七生

    2003-01-01

    Toward infants whose attachment to their first attachment figures (mainly their mothers) is insecure, how can we intervene in them? To reveal it, an observation was carried out regularly once a week, over a period of 9 months. The subjects were an infant who has insecure attachment and comparative one who has secure attachment. And the attachment behaviors they exhibited toward nursery school teachers, strangers, and an observer were counted. The amount of the attachment behaviors of the infa...

  6. Breastfeeding, Parenting, and Infant Attachment Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, Benjamin G; Forste, Renata; Lybbert, Emily

    2018-04-01

    Objectives Infants and toddlers need secure attachments in order to develop the social competence required to successfully navigate later peer and adult relationships. Breastfeeding is a parenting factor that has been associated with child emotional development-specifically the attachment between children and their mothers. Yet, this link may simply be the result of other parenting behaviors that are associated with breastfeeding. Thus, our objective is to examine whether the link between infant attachment behaviors and breastfeeding endures when accounting for a broad array of in-depth measures of parenting. Methods We use the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study of children from 9 months to 2 years of age collected by the National Center for Education Statistics. Using Ordinary Least Squares regression, data analyses examine the association between the Toddler Attachment Sort-45 (TAS-45) measures of toddler-parent attachment (infant attachment security and temperamental dependency) and breastfeeding practices. We also examine individual items of the TAS-45 to isolate specific attachment behaviors that have the strongest associations with breastfeeding. Results We find an enduring link between children who are predominantly breastfed for six or more months and infant attachment security. However, we find no evidence that breastfeeding is linked to a child's temperamental dependency. Of the nine items used to examine infant attachment behaviors, we find that breastfed children are rated as having slightly higher scores on two measures ("warm and cuddly," "cooperative") and lower scores on one measure ("demanding/angry"). Conclusions for Practice Breastfeeding has an important link to the child's use of their caregiver as a secure base for exploration and a place of comfort when distressed (infant attachment security). Yet, breastfeeding does not appear to reduce a child's temperamental dependency or level of clinginess as measured by how demanding, fussy or

  7. The relation of infant attachment to attachment and cognitive and behavioural outcomes in early childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Yan-hua; Xu, Xiu; Wang, Zheng-yan; Li, Hui-rong; Wang, Wei-ping

    2014-09-01

    In China, research on the relation of mother-infant attachment to children's development is scarce. This study sought to investigate the relation of mother-infant attachment to attachment, cognitive and behavioural development in young children. This study used a longitudinal study design. The subjects included healthy infants (n=160) aged 12 to 18 months. Ainsworth's "Strange Situation Procedure" was used to evaluate mother-infant attachment types. The attachment Q-set (AQS) was used to evaluate the attachment between young children and their mothers. The Bayley scale of infant development-second edition (BSID-II) was used to evaluate cognitive developmental level in early childhood. Achenbach's child behaviour checklist (CBCL) for 2- to 3-year-olds was used to investigate behavioural problems. In total, 118 young children (73.8%) completed the follow-up; 89.7% of infants with secure attachment and 85.0% of infants with insecure attachment still demonstrated this type of attachment in early childhood (κ=0.738, pInfants with insecure attachment collectively exhibited a significantly lower mental development index (MDI) in early childhood than did infants with secure attachment, especially the resistant type. In addition, resistant infants were reported to have greater social withdrawal, sleep problems and aggressive behaviour in early childhood. There is a high consistency in attachment development from infancy to early childhood. Secure mother-infant attachment predicts a better cognitive and behavioural outcome; whereas insecure attachment, especially the resistant attachment, may lead to a lower cognitive level and greater behavioural problems in early childhood. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Difference in place attachment between students in Helsinki and in Belgrade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radusinović Dubravka

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Place attachment refers to the process of human-place bonding; the bonding process includes both physical and social ties formed within an environment. In the last two decades, place attachment has been the subject of many studies, but there have not been many cross-cultural studies. The aim of this study was to determine differences in global attachment to house, neighbourhood and city among young people in Belgrade and Helsinki, with consideration of social and physical dimensions of place attachment. Additionally, the effects of gender on all types of place attachments were tested. Data were collected using the Place Attachment Scale (Hidalgo & Hernandez, 2001 and the Questionnaire on residential and socio-demographic characteristics of the sample. The instrument was translated into Serbian and Finnish, respecting the translation procedure for cross-cultural studies (Brislin, 1986 and administered to subjects in their native language. The study was conducted on the sample of two hundred students of psychology, comprising: 100 inhabitants of Belgrade, and 100 of Helsinki, balanced by gender (60% female, 40% male and age (average 24.4 years. The following results can be pointed out: 1 young people living in Belgrade show greater degree of global attachment to their city than young people living in Helsinki to their city, 2 young people from Belgrade also show greater social ties within their city and house, in relation to peers from Helsinki, 3 physical attachment to house and city is also significantly higher in young inhabitants of Belgrade. An interesting finding is 4 the existence of significant differences between men and women in the degree of global, social and physical attachment to house and physical attachment to city in the Serbian sample, and non-existence of differences in place attachment between men and women in the Finnish sample. The findings are interpreted within the Hofstede's five Cultural Dimensions.

  9. High Ringxiety: Attachment Anxiety Predicts Experiences of Phantom Cell Phone Ringing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruger, Daniel J; Djerf, Jaikob M

    2016-01-01

    Mobile cell phone users have reported experiencing ringing and/or vibrations associated with incoming calls and messages, only to find that no call or message had actually registered. We believe this phenomenon can be understood as a human signal detection issue, with potentially important influences from psychological attributes. We hypothesized that individuals higher in attachment anxiety would report more frequent phantom cell phone experiences, whereas individuals higher in attachment avoidance would report less frequent experiences. If these experiences are primarily psychologically related to attributes of interpersonal relationships, associations with attachment style should be stronger than for general sensation seeking. We also predicted that certain contexts would interact with attachment style to increase or decrease the likelihood of experiencing phantom cell phone calls and messages. Attachment anxiety directly predicted the frequency of phantom ringing and notification experiences, whereas attachment avoidance and sensation seeking did not directly predict frequency. Attachment anxiety and attachment avoidance interacted with contextual factors (expectations for a call or message and concerned about an issue that one may be contacted about) in the expected directions for predicting phantom cell phone experiences.

  10. The attachment system in fledgling relationships: an activating role for attachment anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eastwick, Paul W; Finkel, Eli J

    2008-09-01

    Is it sensible to study attachment dynamics between potential romantic partners before they share a full-fledged attachment bond? The present data indicate that such an approach may reveal novel insights about initial attraction processes. Four studies suggest that the state-like experience of attachment anxiety has functional implications within fledgling (i.e., desired or undeveloped) romantic relationships, well before the formation of an attachment bond. Studies 1 and 3 reveal that attachment anxiety directed toward a particular romantic interest is elevated before (in comparison with after) participants report being in an established relationship. Studies 2 and 3 demonstrate that such partner-specific attachment anxiety predicts attachment-relevant outcomes in fledgling relationships, including proximity seeking, safe haven, secure base, passionate love, and other approach behaviors. These associations were reliable above and beyond (and were typically as strong as or stronger than) the effect of sexual desire. Finally, Study 4 presents evidence that partner-specific attachment anxiety may cause several of these attachment-relevant outcomes. Attachment anxiety seems to be a normative experience and may signal the activation of the attachment system during the earliest stages of romantic relationships.

  11. Adult Attachment Styles Associated with Brain Activity in Response to Infant Faces in Nulliparous Women: An Event-Related Potentials Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yuanxiao; Ran, Guangming; Chen, Xu; Ma, Haijing; Hu, Na

    2017-01-01

    Adult attachment style is a key for understanding emotion regulation and feelings of security in human interactions as well as for the construction of the caregiving system. The caregiving system is a group of representations about affiliative behaviors, which is guided by the caregiver's sensitivity and empathy, and is mature in young adulthood. Appropriate perception and interpretation of infant emotions is a crucial component of the formation of a secure attachment relationship between infant and caregiver. As attachment styles influence the ways in which people perceive emotional information, we examined how different attachment styles associated with brain response to the perception of infant facial expressions in nulliparous females with secure, anxious, and avoidant attachment styles. The event-related potentials of 65 nulliparous females were assessed during a facial recognition task with joy, neutral, and crying infant faces. The results showed that anxiously attached females exhibited larger N170 amplitudes than those with avoidant attachment in response to all infant faces. Regarding the P300 component, securely attached females showed larger amplitudes to all infant faces in comparison with avoidantly attached females. Moreover, anxiously attached females exhibited greater amplitudes than avoidantly attached females to only crying infant faces. In conclusion, the current results provide evidence that attachment style differences are associated with brain responses to the perception of infant faces. Furthermore, these findings further separate the psychological mechanisms underlying the caregiving behavior of those with anxious and avoidant attachment from secure attachment.

  12. Adult Attachment Styles Associated with Brain Activity in Response to Infant Faces in Nulliparous Women: An Event-Related Potentials Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Chen

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Adult attachment style is a key for understanding emotion regulation and feelings of security in human interactions as well as for the construction of the caregiving system. The caregiving system is a group of representations about affiliative behaviors, which is guided by the caregiver’s sensitivity and empathy, and is mature in young adulthood. Appropriate perception and interpretation of infant emotions is a crucial component of the formation of a secure attachment relationship between infant and caregiver. As attachment styles influence the ways in which people perceive emotional information, we examined how different attachment styles associated with brain response to the perception of infant facial expressions in nulliparous females with secure, anxious, and avoidant attachment styles. The event-related potentials of 65 nulliparous females were assessed during a facial recognition task with joy, neutral, and crying infant faces. The results showed that anxiously attached females exhibited larger N170 amplitudes than those with avoidant attachment in response to all infant faces. Regarding the P300 component, securely attached females showed larger amplitudes to all infant faces in comparison with avoidantly attached females. Moreover, anxiously attached females exhibited greater amplitudes than avoidantly attached females to only crying infant faces. In conclusion, the current results provide evidence that attachment style differences are associated with brain responses to the perception of infant faces. Furthermore, these findings further separate the psychological mechanisms underlying the caregiving behavior of those with anxious and avoidant attachment from secure attachment.

  13. Megakaryocyte Polyploidization and Proplatelet Formation in Low-Attachment Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlinker, Alaina C; Duncan, Mark T; DeLuca, Teresa A; Whitehead, David C; Miller, William M

    2016-07-15

    In vitro -derived platelets (PLTs), which could provide an alternative source of PLTs for patient transfusions, are formed from polyploid megakaryocytes (MKs) that extend long cytoplasmic projections, termed proplatelets (proPLTs). In this study, we compared polyploidization and proPLT formation (PPF) of MKs cultured on surfaces that either promote or inhibit protein adsorption and subsequent cell adhesion. A megakaryoblastic cell line exhibited increased polyploidization and arrested PPF on a low-attachment surface. Primary human MKs also showed low levels of PPF on the same surface, but no difference in ploidy. Importantly, both cell types exhibited accelerated PPF after transfer to a surface that supports attachment, suggesting that pre-culture on a non-adhesive surface may facilitate synchronization of PPF and PLT generation in culture.

  14. Calcium Oxalate Stones Are Frequently Found Attached to Randall's Plaque

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matlaga, Brian R.; Williams, James C. Jr.; Evan, Andrew P.; Lingeman, James E.

    2007-01-01

    The exact mechanisms of the crystallization processes that occur during the formation of calcium oxalate calculi are controversial. Over six decades ago, Alexander Randall reported on a series of cadaveric renal units in which he observed calcium salt deposits on the tips of the renal papilla. Randall hypothesized that these deposits, eponymously termed Randall's plaque, would be the ideal site for stone formation, and indeed in a number of specimens he noted small stones attached to the papillae. With the recent advent of digital endoscopic imaging and micro computerized tomography (CT) technology, it is now possible to inspect the renal papilla of living, human stone formers and to study the attached stone with greater scrutiny

  15. Slides with no attached paper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warin, Dominique; Wallenius, Janne; Ouzounian, Gerald; Wikberg, Peter; Todd, Terry A.; Kormilitsyn, Mikhael V.; Osipenko, Alexander G.; Mayorshin, A.A.; McLachlan, Fiona; Nash, Ken L.; Nilsson, M.; Grimes, T.; Braley, J.C.; TAKESHITA, Kenji; Babain, Vasiliy A.; Spendlikova, I.; Distler, P.; John, J.; Sebesta, F.; VU, Trong-Hung; SIMONIN, Jean-Pierre; PAULENOVA, Alena; PRECEK, Martin; HARTIG, Kyle; KNAPP, Nathan; Vidick, Geoffrey; Bouslimani, Nouri; Desreux, Jean F.; Lewis, F.W.; Hudson, M.J.; Harwood, L.M.; Nunez, Ana; Nagarajan, K.; Vasudeva Rao, P.R.; Raj, Baldev; Ignatiev, Victor; Surenkov, Alexander; Pouchon, Manuel A.; Skarnemark, Gunnar; Allard, Stefan; Ekberg, Christian; Retegan, Teodora; Nordlund, Anders; John, Jan; Maershin, Alexander; Zakirov, R.; Panov, A.; Toropov, Andrey

    2010-01-01

    This document brings together the different presentations (slides) given at the workshop but with no attached paper. These slides refer to the following presentations: - Presentation of ITN (Instituto Tecnologico e Nuclear); - Minor Actinide Partitioning (Dominique Warin); - Transmutation (Janne Wallenius); - Radioactive Waste Management, IGD-TP (Gerald Ouzounian); - Present status of the Swedish nuclear waste management programme (Peter Wikberg); - The U.S. Fuel Cycle Research and Development Program - Separations Research and Development (Terry Todd); - Strategies and national programs of closed fuel cycles - Russian Expert Vision (Mikhael Kormilitsyn) - Extraction Studies Of Potential Solvent Formulations For The GANEX Process (Fiona MacLachlan); - Investigations of The Fundamental Chemistry of the TALSPEAK Process (Ken Nash); - Extraction Separation of Trivalent Minor Actinides and Lanthanides by Hexa-dentate Nitrogen-donor Extractant, TPEN, and its Analogs (Kenji Takeshita); - Fluorinated Diluents for HLW Processing - technological point of view (Vasiliy Babain); - Extraction properties of some new pyridine molecules and search for better diluents (Irena Spendlikova); - Kinetics of extraction of Eu 3+ ion by TODGA and CyMe 4 -BTBP studied using the RMC technique (Trong Hung Vu); - Redox Chemistry of Neptunium in Solutions of Nitric Acid (Alena Paulenova); - NMR applied to actinide ions and their complexes. In search of covalency effects (Geoffrey Vidick); - Towards 'Stability Rules' for Radiolysis of bis-DGA compounds (Ana Nunez); - Pyroprocess Research Activities at IGCAR, Kalpakkam, India (K. Nagarajan); - Critical issues of nuclear energy systems employing molten salt fluorides: from ISTC No. 1606 to No. 3749 (1. year of project activity) and MARS/EVOL cooperation (Victor Ignatiev); - Conversion processes: Internal Gelation and the Sphere-pac concept (Manuel Pouchon); - A Combined Nuclear Technology and Nuclear Chemistry Master. A Unique

  16. TIM-1 Promotes Hepatitis C Virus Cell Attachment and Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing; Qiao, Luhua; Hou, Zhouhua; Luo, Guangxiang

    2017-01-15

    Human TIM and TAM family proteins were recently found to serve as phosphatidylserine (PS) receptors which promote infections by many different viruses, including dengue virus, West Nile virus, Ebola virus, Marburg virus, and Zika virus. In the present study, we provide substantial evidence demonstrating that TIM-1 is important for efficient infection by hepatitis C virus (HCV). The knockdown of TIM-1 expression significantly reduced HCV infection but not HCV RNA replication. Likewise, TIM-1 knockout in Huh-7.5 cells remarkably lowered HCV cell attachment and subsequent HCV infection. More significantly, the impairment of HCV infection in the TIM-1 knockout cells could be restored completely by ectopic expression of TIM-1 but not TIM-3 or TIM-4. Additionally, HCV infection and cell attachment were inhibited by PS but not by phosphatidylcholine (PC), demonstrating that TIM-1-mediated enhancement of HCV infection is PS dependent. The exposure of PS on the HCV envelope was confirmed by immunoprecipitation of HCV particles with a PS-specific monoclonal antibody. Collectively, these findings demonstrate that TIM-1 promotes HCV infection by serving as an attachment receptor for binding to PS exposed on the HCV envelope. TIM family proteins were recently found to enhance infections by many different viruses, including several members of the Flaviviridae family. However, their importance in HCV infection has not previously been examined experimentally. The TIM family proteins include three members in humans: TIM-1, TIM-3, and TIM-4. The findings derived from our studies demonstrate that TIM-1, but not TIM-3 or TIM-4, promotes HCV infection by functioning as an HCV attachment factor. Knockout of the TIM-1 gene resulted in a remarkable reduction of HCV cell attachment and infection. PS-containing liposomes blocked HCV cell attachment and subsequent HCV infection. HCV particles could also be precipitated with a PS-specific monoclonal antibody. These findings suggest that TIM-1

  17. The fourth pattern of attachment: Disorganized / disoriented

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zlatka Cugmas

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of the study of recent scientific literature about the development of attachment behavior, the author answers the following questions about: the behavior children categorized as Disorganized/disorientated or Controlling in the procedure of the Strange situation; the life circumstances, in which these children live; the reasons for lack of balanced strategies of attachment and characteristics of their general manner of adaptation. The author finds the characteristics of the mothers' (insensitivity to be significantly influential for the emergence of the fourth pattern of attachment. These children are heterogeneous regarding adaptation in general. Professional help preceding negative consequences for their socioemotional development is neccesary.

  18. Nuclear reactor fuel rod attachment system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christiansen, D.W.

    1983-01-01

    The invention involves a technique to quickly, inexpensively and rigidly attach a nuclear reactor fuel rod to a support member. The invention also allows for the repeated non-destructive removal and replacement of the fuel rod. The proposed fuel rod and support member attachment and removal system consists of a locking cap fastened to the fuel rod and a locking strip fastened to the support member or vice versa. The locking cap has two or more opposing fingers shaped to form a socket. The fingers spring back when moved apart and released. The locking strip has an extension shaped to rigidly attach to the socket's body portion

  19. Restabilizing attachment to cultural objects. Aesthetics, emotions and biography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benzecry, Claudio E

    2015-12-01

    The scholarship on aesthetics and materiality has studied how objects help shape identity, social action and subjectivity. Objects, as 'equipment[s] for living' (Luhmann 2000), become the 'obligatory passage points humans have to contend with in order to pursue their projects (Latour 1991). They provide patterns to which bodies can unconsciously latch onto, or help human agents work towards particular states of being (DeNora 2000, 2003). Objects are central in the long term process of taste construction, as any attachment to an object is made out of a delicate equilibrium of mediators, bodies, situations and techniques (Hennion and his collaborators (Hennion and Fouquet 2001; Hennion and Gomart 1999). In all of these accounts objects are the end result of long-term processes of stabilization, in which the actual material object (a musical piece, a sculpture, an art installation, a glass of wine, the oeuvre of Bach as we know it) is both a result and yet a key co-producer of its own generation. Whereas the literature has been generous and detailed in exploring the processes of assembling and sustaining object-centered attachments, it has not sufficiently engaged with what happens when the aesthetic elements of cultural artifacts that have produced emotional resonance are transformed: what do these artifacts morph into? What explains the transition (or not) of different cultural objects? And relatedly, what happens to the key aesthetic qualities that were so central to how the objects had been defined, and to those who have emotionally attached to them? To answer these questions, this article uses as exemplars two different cases of attachment, predicated on the distinctive features of a cultural object--the transcendence of opera and the authenticity of a soccer jersey--that have undergone transformations. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2015.

  20. Adult Attachment Affects Neural Response to Preference-Inferring in Ambiguous Scenarios: Evidence From an fMRI Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xing Zhang

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Humans are highly social animals, and the ability to cater to the preferences of other individuals is encouraged by society. Preference-inferring is an important aspect of the theory of mind (TOM. Many previous studies have shown that attachment style is closely related to TOM ability. However, little is known about the effects of adult attachment style on preferences inferring under different levels of certainty. Here, we investigated how adult attachment style affects neural activity underlying preferences inferred under different levels of certainty by using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI. The fMRI results demonstrated that adult attachment influenced the activation of anterior insula (AI and inferior parietal lobule (IPL in response to ambiguous preference-inferring. More specifically, in the ambiguous preference condition, the avoidant attached groups exhibited a significantly enhanced activation than secure and anxious attached groups in left IPL; the anxious attached groups exhibited a significantly reduced activation secure attached group in left IPL. In addition, the anxious attached groups exhibited a significantly reduced activation than secure and avoidant attached groups in left AI. These results were also further confirmed by the subsequent PPI analysis. The results from current study suggest that, under ambiguous situations, the avoidant attached individuals show lower sensitivity to the preference of other individuals and need to invest more cognitive resources for preference-reasoning; while compared with avoidant attached group, the anxious attached individuals express high tolerance for uncertainty and a higher ToM proficiency. Results from the current study imply that differences in preference-inferring under ambiguous conditions associated with different levels of individual attachment may explain the differences in interpersonal interaction.

  1. [The interpretation of attachment in the Szondi test and in the questionnaire processes of attachment theory].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Török I, András; Vincze, Gábor

    2011-01-01

    [corrected] The Szondi-test is widely applied in clinical diagnostics in Hungary too, and the evidence resulting from the theory is that we can get information about attachment during its interpreting. Its validity is proven by empirical research and clinical experiences. By analyzing the modern attachment theory more thoroughly, it becomes clear in what ways the Szondi-test constellations regarding attachment are different from the classificationbased on questionnaires, allowing the discrete measurement of the attachment style. With the Szondi-test the classification to attachment style is more insecure, but if it is completed with exploration, it is more informative in vector C (vector of relation, attachment information), while short questionnaires make the classification to attachment style possible. In our empirical analysis we represent the integration of the above mentioned clinical and theoretical experiences. In the present analysis we compare the vector C and S constellation of the two-profile Szondi-test of 80 persons with the dimensions of ECR-R questionnaire and with Collins and Read's questionnaire classification regarding attachment style. The statistical results refer to the fact that there is a legitimacy to compare questionnaire processes allowing the discrete classification of attachment and the Szondi-test's information content regarding attachment. With applying the methods together, we get a unique, complementary section of the information relating to attachment. Comparing the two methods (projective and questionnaire) establishes the need of theoretical integration as well. We also make an attempt to explain Fraley's evolutionary non-adaptivity of avoidant attachment, in the case of whose presence adaptivity of early attachment, counterbalancing the exploration and security need, and providing closeness--farness loses its balance.

  2. A Skin-attachable Flexible Piezoelectric Pulse Wave Energy Harvester

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Sunghyun; Cho, Young-Ho

    2014-01-01

    We present a flexible piezoelectric generator, capable to harvest energy from human arterial pulse wave on the human wrist. Special features and advantages of the flexible piezoelectric generator include the multi-layer device design with contact windows and the simple fabrication process for the higher flexibility with the better energy harvesting efficiency. We have demonstrated the design effectiveness and the process simplicity of our skin- attachable flexible piezoelectric pulse wave energy harvester, composed of the sensitive P(VDF-TrFE) piezoelectric layer on the flexible polyimide support layer with windows. We experimentally characterize and demonstrate the energy harvesting capability of 0.2∼1.0μW in the Human heart rate range on the skin contact area of 3.71cm 2 . Additional physiological and/or vital signal monitoring devices can be fabricated and integrated on the skin attachable flexible generator, covered by an insulation layer; thus demonstrating the potentials and advantages of the present device for such applications to the flexible multi-functional selfpowered artificial skins, capable to detect physiological and/or vital signals on Human skin using the energy harvested from arterial pulse waves

  3. Magnetically Attached Multifunction Maintenance Rover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Joffe, Benjamin

    2005-01-01

    A versatile mobile telerobot, denoted the magnetically attached multifunction maintenance rover (MAGMER), has been proposed for use in the inspection and maintenance of the surfaces of ships, tanks containing petrochemicals, and other large ferromagnetic structures. As its name suggests, this robot would utilize magnetic attraction to adhere to a structure. As it moved along the surface of the structure, the MAGMER would perform tasks that could include close-up visual inspection by use of video cameras, various sensors, and/or removal of paint by water-jet blasting, laser heating, or induction heating. The water-jet nozzles would be mounted coaxially within compressed-air-powered venturi nozzles that would collect the paint debris dislodged by the jets. The MAGMER would be deployed, powered, and controlled from a truck, to which it would be connected by hoses for water, compressed air, and collection of debris and by cables for electric power and communication (see Figure 1). The operation of the MAGMER on a typical large structure would necessitate the use of long cables and hoses, which can be heavy. To reduce the load of the hoses and cables on the MAGMER and thereby ensure its ability to adhere to vertical and overhanging surfaces, the hoses and cables would be paid out through telescopic booms that would be parts of a MAGMER support system. The MAGMER would move by use of four motorized, steerable wheels, each of which would be mounted in an assembly that would include permanent magnets and four pole pieces (see Figure 2). The wheels would protrude from between the pole pieces by only about 3 mm, so that the gap between the pole pieces and the ferromagnetic surface would be just large enough to permit motion along the surface but not so large as to reduce the magnetic attraction excessively. In addition to the wheel assemblies, the MAGMER would include magnetic adherence enhancement fixtures, which would comprise arrays of permanent magnets and pole pieces

  4. Associations among Adult Attachment Presentations, Maternal Sensitivity, and Infant-Mother Attachment in a Sample of Adolescent Mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Mary J.; Carlson, Elizabeth A.

    1995-01-01

    Associations among adolescent attachment organization, maternal sensitivity, and infant attachment organization were examined prospectively in 72 teenaged mother-infant dyads. Pregnant teenagers' attachment organizations predicted both sensitivity and infant-mother attachments. Associations between maternal sensitivity and infant attachment were…

  5. Preferential attachment in evolutionary earthquake networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaei, Soghra; Moghaddasi, Hanieh; Darooneh, Amir Hossein

    2018-04-01

    Earthquakes as spatio-temporal complex systems have been recently studied using complex network theory. Seismic networks are dynamical networks due to addition of new seismic events over time leading to establishing new nodes and links to the network. Here we have constructed Iran and Italy seismic networks based on Hybrid Model and testified the preferential attachment hypothesis for the connection of new nodes which states that it is more probable for newly added nodes to join the highly connected nodes comparing to the less connected ones. We showed that the preferential attachment is present in the case of earthquakes network and the attachment rate has a linear relationship with node degree. We have also found the seismic passive points, the most probable points to be influenced by other seismic places, using their preferential attachment values.

  6. Cesarean Births and Attachment Behaviors of Fathers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    knowledge about breastfeeding and maternal breastfeeding and attachment behaviors of a group of primiparous mothers on the first post - partum day...individuality of their infants and the attachment process can be promoted. Brazelton believes the opposite occurs with a depressed -q* infant. Commenting in...Maternal-Infant Bondin by Klaus and Kennell, Brazelton says, Certainly a depressed infant is less likely to be responsive either on initial contact or

  7. Association of medial meniscal extrusion with medial tibial osteophyte distance detected by T2 mapping MRI in patients with early-stage knee osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hada, Shinnosuke; Ishijima, Muneaki; Kaneko, Haruka; Kinoshita, Mayuko; Liu, Lizu; Sadatsuki, Ryo; Futami, Ippei; Yusup, Anwajan; Takamura, Tomohiro; Arita, Hitoshi; Shiozawa, Jun; Aoki, Takako; Takazawa, Yuji; Ikeda, Hiroshi; Aoki, Shigeki; Kurosawa, Hisashi; Okada, Yasunori; Kaneko, Kazuo

    2017-09-12

    Medial meniscal extrusion (MME) is associated with progression of medial knee osteoarthritis (OA), but no or little information is available for relationships between MME and osteophytes, which are found in cartilage and bone parts. Because of the limitation in detectability of the cartilage part of osteophytes by radiography or conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), the rate of development and size of osteophytes appear to have been underestimated. Because T2 mapping MRI may enable us to evaluate the cartilage part of osteophytes, we aimed to examine the association between MME and OA-related changes, including osteophytes, by using conventional and T2 mapping MRI. Patients with early-stage knee OA (n = 50) were examined. MRI-detected OA-related changes, in addition to MME, were evaluated according to the Whole-Organ Magnetic Resonance Imaging Score. T2 values of the medial meniscus and osteophytes were measured on T2 mapping images. Osteophytes surgically removed from patients with end-stage knee OA were histologically analyzed and compared with findings derived by radiography and MRI. Medial side osteophytes were detected by T2 mapping MRI in 98% of patients with early-stage knee OA, although the detection rate was 48% by conventional MRI and 40% by radiography. Among the OA-related changes, medial tibial osteophyte distance was most closely associated with MME, as determined by multiple logistic regression analysis, in the patients with early-stage knee OA (β = 0.711, p T2 values of the medial meniscus were directly correlated with MME in patients with early-stage knee OA, who showed ≥ 3 mm of MME (r = 0.58, p = 0.003). The accuracy of osteophyte evaluation by T2 mapping MRI was confirmed by histological analysis of the osteophytes removed from patients with end-stage knee OA. Our study demonstrates that medial tibial osteophyte evaluated by T2 mapping MRI is frequently observed in the patients with early-stage knee OA, showing

  8. WITHDRAWN: Exercise for treating anterior cruciate ligament injuries in combination with collateral ligament and meniscal damage of the knee in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trees, Amanda H; Howe, Tracey E; Grant, Margaret; Gray, Heather G

    2011-05-11

    The anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) is the most frequently injured ligament of the knee. The ACL may be damaged in isolation but often other ligaments and menisci are implicated. The injury may be managed surgically or conservatively. Injury causes pain, effusion and inflammation leading to alteration in muscle function. Regaining muscular control is essential if the individual wishes to return to pre-injury level of function and patients will invariably be referred for rehabilitation. To present the best evidence for effectiveness of exercise used in the treatment of ACL injuries in combination with collateral ligament and meniscal damage to the knee in adults, on return to work and pre-injury levels of activity. We searched the Cochrane Bone, Joint and Muscle Trauma Group Specialised Register (October 2006), Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (The Cochrane Library 2006, Issue 3), MEDLINE (1996 to October 2006), EMBASE (1980 to October 2006), other databases and reference lists of articles. We included randomised controlled trials and quasi-randomised trials testing exercise programmes designed to treat adults with ACL injuries in combination with collateral ligament and meniscal damage. Included trials randomised participants to receive any combination of the following: no care, usual care, a single-exercise intervention, and multiple-exercise interventions. The primary outcome measures of interest were returning to work and return to pre-injury level of activity post treatment, at six months and one year. Two authors independently assessed trial quality and extracted data. Study authors were contacted for additional information. Adverse effects information was collected from the trials. Five trials (243 participants) evaluated different exercise programmes following ACL reconstruction and one trial (100 participants) compared supervised with self-monitored exercises as part of conservative treatment. No study compared the effect of exercise versus

  9. Attachment of Adolescents to Parents: Turkey Profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turkan Dogan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study aims to determine the attachment of adolescents to their parents according to geographical regions in Turkey and gender. The research group consisted of 6061 adolescents. With an age average of 15.53 years. The Inventory of Attachment to Parents and Friends- Brief Form (EABE was used as data acquisition tool. The results of the study indicated significant difference between the scores of students regarding the inventory of attachment to parents according to regions. Evaluating the findings regarding attachment to father and mother together, the findings were similar, and the attachment levels of adolescents in Middle Anatolia, Eastern Anatolia and Black Sea Region were found to be higher than the ones in other regions. This result may be related with socioeconomic, geographical and cultural structures of the regions. Examining the finding according to gender variable, the scores of male students are significantly lower than the scores of female students. As a result according to the data gained from a wide sample group; the main factors for the attachment of adolescents to their parents in Turkey are the geographical regions in Turkey and the gender. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2016; 8(4.000: 406-419

  10. Personality and Attachment in Transsexual Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lingiardi, Vittorio; Giovanardi, Guido; Fortunato, Alexandro; Nassisi, Valentina; Speranza, Anna Maria

    2017-07-01

    The main aim of this study was to investigate the associations between personality features and attachment patterns in transsexual adults. We explored mental representations of attachment, assessed personality traits, and possible personality disorders. Forty-four individuals diagnosed with gender identity disorder (now gender dysphoria), 28 male-to-female and 16 female-to-male, were evaluated using the Shedler-Westen assessment procedure-200 (SWAP-200) to assess personality traits and disorders; the adult attachment interview was used to evaluate their attachment state-of-mind. With respect to attachment, our sample differed both from normative samples because of the high percentage of disorganized states of mind (50% of the sample), and from clinical samples for the conspicuous percentage of secure states of mind (37%). Furthermore, we found that only 16% of our sample presented a personality disorder, while 50% showed a high level of functioning according to the SWAP-200 scales. In order to find latent subgroups that shared personality characteristics, we performed a Q-factor analysis. Three personality clusters then emerged: Healthy Functioning (54% of the sample); Depressive/Introverted (32%) and Histrionic/Extroverted (14%). These data indicate that in terms of personality and attachment, GD individuals are a heterogeneous sample and show articulate and diverse types with regard to these constructs.

  11. Attachment of gaseous fission products to aerosols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skyrme, G.

    1985-01-01

    Accidents may occur in which the integrity of fuel cladding is breached and volatile fission products are released to the containment atmosphere. In order to assess the magnitude of the subsequent radiological hazard it is necessary to know the transport behaviour of such fission products. It is frequently assumed that the fission products remain in the gaseous phase. There is a possibility, however, that they may attach themselves to particles and hence substantially modify their transport properties. This paper provides a theoretical assessment of the conditions under which gaseous fission products may be attached to aerosol particles. Specific topics discussed are: the mass transfer of a gaseous fission product to an isolated aerosol particle in an infinite medium; the rate at which the concentration of fission products in the gas phase diminishes within a container as a result of deposition on a population of particles; and the distribution of deposited fission product between different particle sizes in a log-normal distribution. It is shown that, for a given mass, small particles are more efficient for fission product attachment, and that only small concentrations of such particles may be necessary to achieve rapid attachment. Conditions under which gaseous fission products are not attached to particles are also considered, viz, the competing processes of deposition onto the containment walls and onto aerosol particles, and the possibility of the removal of aerosols from the containment by various deposition processes, or agglomeration, before attachment takes place. (author)

  12. The relationship between attachment and cognitive development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tošić Milica

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Emotional and cognitive development of personality have mostly been explored independently in the history of psychology. However, in the last decades, there have been more and more frequent arguments in favour of the idea that the emotional relationship between the mother and the child in early childhood, through forming a secure or insecure attachment style, is to a certain extent linked to the cognitive development. For example, securely attached children, compared to the insecurely attached, have more frequent and longer episodes of symbolic play and are more advanced in the domain of language in early childhood. Securely attached children are also more efficient and persistent in solving problems. Before starting school, securely attached children understand better the feelings and beliefs of others, as well as the fact that these determine people’s behaviour, thus having an opportunity to understand and predict this behaviour better. In this paper, we will attempt to point out some of the mechanisms that are assumed to be mediators between the emotional and cognitive development. Namely, since it enables a more independent exploration of the surroundings, more quality social relations among children, higher self-esteem, better focus and more developed communicative skills, secure attachment might potentially be linked to the cognitive development. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 179002

  13. Wait Up!: Attachment and Sovereign Power.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duschinsky, Robbie; Greco, Monica; Solomon, Judith

    2015-09-01

    Sociologists and feminist scholars have, over many decades, characterised attachment as a social construction that functions to support political and gender conservatism. We accept that attachment theory has seen use to these ends and consider recent deployments of attachment theory as justification for a minimal State within conservative political discourse in the UK since 2009. However, we contest that attachment is reducible to its discursive construction. We consider Judith Butler's depiction of the infant attached to an abusive caregiver as a foundation and parallel to the position of the adult citizen subjected to punitive cultural norms and political institutions. We develop and qualify Butler's account, drawing on the insights offered by the work of Lauren Berlant. We also return to Foucault's Psychiatric Power lectures, in which familial relations are situated as an island of sovereign power within the sea of modern disciplinary institutions. These reflections help advance analysis of three important issues: the social and political implications of attachment research; the relationship between disciplinary and sovereign power in the affective dynamic of subjection; and the political and ethical status of professional activity within the psy disciplines.

  14. Attachment to the Romantic Partner and Sibling: Attachment Hierarchies of Twins and Non-Twin Siblings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sascha Schwarz

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have shown that romantic partners and siblings are important attachment figures. This study compares the attachment to the romantic partner with the attachment to the sibling as a function of the participant’s sibling type among monozygotic (MZ twins, dizygotic (DZ twins, and non-twin (NT siblings. The results show that MZ twins prefer their sibling to their romantic partner whereas DZ twins are equally attached to their sibling and romantic partner. In contrast, NT siblings are more attached to their romantic partner compared to their sibling. These results indicate that genetic relatedness has profound impact on a person’s attachment hierarchy and the relative rank of the romantic partner and the sibling.

  15. Electron attachment rate constant measurement by photoemission electron attachment ion mobility spectrometry (PE-EA-IMS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su, Desheng; Niu, Wenqi; Liu, Sheng; Shen, Chengyin; Huang, Chaoqun; Wang, Hongmei; Jiang, Haihe; Chu, Yannan

    2012-01-01

    Photoemission electron attachment ion mobility spectrometry (PE-EA-IMS), with a source of photoelectrons induced by vacuum ultraviolet radiation on a metal surface, has been developed to study electron attachment reaction at atmospheric pressure using nitrogen as the buffer gas. Based on the negative ion mobility spectra, the rate constants for electron attachment to tetrachloromethane and chloroform were measured at ambient temperature as a function of the average electron energy in the range from 0.29 to 0.96 eV. The experimental results are in good agreement with the data reported in the literature. - Highlights: ► Photoemission electron attachment ion mobility spectrometry (PE-EA-IMS) was developed to study electron attachment reaction. ► The rate constants of electron attachment to CCl 4 and CHCl 3 were determined. ► The present experimental results are in good agreement with the previously reported data.

  16. Effect of Human Serum and 2 Different Types of Platelet Concentrates on Human Meniscus Cell Migration, Proliferation, and Matrix Formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freymann, Undine; Metzlaff, Sebastian; Krüger, Jan-Philipp; Hirsh, Glen; Endres, Michaela; Petersen, Wolf; Kaps, Christian

    2016-06-01

    To evaluate the effect of 10% human serum (HS), 5% platelet-rich plasma (PRP), and 5% autologous conditioned plasma (ACP) on migration, proliferation, and extracellular matrix (ECM) synthesis of human meniscus cells. Cell migration and proliferation on stimulation with HS, PRP, and ACP were assessed by chemotaxis assays and measurement of genomic DNA content. Meniscus cells were cultivated in pellets stimulated with 10% HS, 5% PRP, or 5% ACP. Meniscal ECM formation was evaluated by histochemical staining of collagen type I, type II, and proteoglycans and by analysis of fibrochondrocyte marker gene expression. Human meniscus cells were significantly attracted by all 3 blood-derived products (10% HS and 5% ACP: P = .0001, 5% PRP: P = .0002). Cell proliferation at day 9 was significantly increased on stimulation with 10% HS (P = .0001) and 5% PRP (P = .0002) compared with 5% ACP and controls. Meniscus cell pellet cultures showed the formation of a well-structured meniscal ECM with deposition of collagen type I, type II, and proteoglycans on stimulation with 10% HS, whereas 5% PRP or 5% ACP resulted in the formation of an inhomogeneous and more fibrous ECM. Stimulation with 10% HS and 5% ACP showed a significant induction of fibrochondrocyte marker genes such as aggrecan (HS: P = .0002, ACP: P = .0147), cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (HS: P = .0002, ACP: P = .0005), and biglycan (HS: P = .0002, ACP: P = .0003), whereas PRP showed no inducing effect. Among all tested blood-derived products, only stimulation with HS showed the formation of a meniscal ECM as well as positive cell proliferating and migrating effects in vitro. Regarding a potential biological repair of nonvascular meniscus lesions, our results may point toward the use of HS as a beneficial augment in regenerative meniscus repair approaches. Our findings may suggest that HS might be a beneficial augment for meniscus repair. Copyright © 2016 Arthroscopy Association of North America. Published

  17. An experimental evaluation of the State Adult Attachment Measure: The Influence of Attachment Primes on the Content of State Attachment Representations

    OpenAIRE

    Bosmans, Guy; Bowles, David, P.; Dewitte, Marieke; De Winter, Simon; Braet, Caroline

    2014-01-01

    Attachment theory predicts cross-contextual stability of attachment representations, but research findings are rather mixed. Recently, it has been suggested that these mixed findings reflect the existence of both state and trait attachment components. The development of the State Adult Attachment Measure (SAAM) has enabled an investigation of this hypothesis. The current study aimed to evaluate the extent to which the SAAM is a useful instrument for studying such state attachment hypotheses. ...

  18. 'Adoption and attachment theory' the attachment models of adoptive mothers and the revision of attachment patterns of their late-adopted children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pace, C S; Zavattini, G C

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the attachment patterns of late-adopted children (aged 4-7) and their adoptive mothers during the first 7- to 8-month period after adoption and aimed to evaluate the effect of adoptive mothers' attachment security on the revision of the attachment patterns of their late-adopted children. We assessed attachment patterns in 20 adoptive dyads and 12 genetically related dyads at two different times: T1 (time 1) within 2 months of adoption and T2 (time 2) 6 months after T1. The children's behavioural attachment patterns were assessed using the Separation-Reunion Procedure and the children's representational (verbal) attachment patterns using the Manchester Child Attachment Story Task. The attachment models of the adoptive mothers were classified using the Adult Attachment Interview. We found that there was a significant enhancement of the late-adopted children's attachment security across the time period considered (P= 0.008). Moreover, all the late-adopted children who showed a change from insecurity to security had adoptive mothers with secure attachment models (P= 0.044). However, the matching between maternal attachment models and late-adopted children's attachment patterns (behaviours and representations) was not significant. Our data suggest that revision of the attachment patterns in the late-adopted children is possible but gradual, and that the adoptive mothers' attachment security makes it more likely to occur. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  19. Attachment Versus Differentiation: The Contemporary Couple Therapy Debate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, Nathan R; Fisher, Adam R

    2018-01-24

    This paper reviews the current debate between differentiation and attachment in treating couples through exploring the tenets of crucible therapy (Schnarch, 1991) and emotionally focused couple therapy (Johnson, 2004). We provide a review of the two theories-as well as the two "pure form" example models-and explore the debate in light of the integrative movement in couple and family therapy (Lebow, 2014). We also examine points of convergence of the two theories and models, and provide clinicians and researchers with an enhanced understanding of their divergent positions. Both differentiation and attachment are developmental theories that highlight the human experience of balancing individuality and connection in adulthood. The two models converge in terms of metaconcepts that pervade their respective theories and approach. Both models capitalize on the depth and importance of the therapeutic relationship, and provide rich case conceptualization and processes of therapy. However, they substantially differ in terms of how they view the fundamental aspects of adult development, have vastly divergent approaches to how a therapist intervenes in the room, and different ideas of how a healthy couple should function. In light of the deep polarization of the two models, points of integration-particularly between the broader theories of attachment and differentiation-are offered for therapists to consider. © 2018 Family Process Institute.

  20. Concordance of attachment representations in preschool siblings assessed by the attachment story completion task

    OpenAIRE

    Werner, Helene; Zahn, Salome; Titze, Karl; Walitza, Susanne; Zulauf Logoz, Marina

    2015-01-01

    Several studies have indicated only a modest concordance of attachment security in siblings in infancy. Until now, very little was known about the concordance of siblings’ attachment security beyond infancy, as assessed by the attachment story completion task. This cross-sectional study aims to examine the concordance of attachment representations of 38 first-born (4–7 years) and 38 second-born (3–5 years) siblings living in middle-class two-parent families. Personality factors and the level ...

  1. Influence of Owners’ Attachment Style and Personality on Their Dogs’ (Canis familiaris) Separation-Related Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konok, Veronika; Kosztolányi, András; Rainer, Wohlfarth; Mutschler, Bettina; Halsband, Ulrike; Miklósi, Ádám

    2015-01-01

    Previous research has suggested that owners’ attitude to their family dogs may contribute to a variety of behaviour problems in the dog, and authors assume that dogs with separation-related disorder (SRD) attach differently to the owner than typical dogs do. Our previous research suggested that these dogs may have an insecure attachment style. In the present study we have investigated whether owners’ attachment style, personality traits and the personality of the dog influence the occurrence of SRD in the dog. In an internet-based survey 1508 (1185 German and 323 Hungarian) dog-owners filled in five questionnaires: Demographic questions, Separation Behaviour Questionnaire (to determine SRD), Human and Dog Big Five Inventory and Adult Attachment Scale. We found that with owners’ higher score on attachment avoidance the occurrence of SRD in the dog increases. Dogs scoring higher on the neuroticism scale were more prone to develop SRD. Our results suggest that owners’ attachment avoidance may facilitate the development of SRD in dogs. We assume that avoidant owners are less responsive to the dog’s needs and do not provide a secure base for the dog when needed. As a result dogs form an insecure attachment and may develop SRD. However, there may be alternative explanations of our findings that we also discuss. PMID:25706147

  2. Influence of owners' attachment style and personality on their dogs' (Canis familiaris separation-related disorder.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronika Konok

    Full Text Available Previous research has suggested that owners' attitude to their family dogs may contribute to a variety of behaviour problems in the dog, and authors assume that dogs with separation-related disorder (SRD attach differently to the owner than typical dogs do. Our previous research suggested that these dogs may have an insecure attachment style. In the present study we have investigated whether owners' attachment style, personality traits and the personality of the dog influence the occurrence of SRD in the dog. In an internet-based survey 1508 (1185 German and 323 Hungarian dog-owners filled in five questionnaires: Demographic questions, Separation Behaviour Questionnaire (to determine SRD, Human and Dog Big Five Inventory and Adult Attachment Scale. We found that with owners' higher score on attachment avoidance the occurrence of SRD in the dog increases. Dogs scoring higher on the neuroticism scale were more prone to develop SRD. Our results suggest that owners' attachment avoidance may facilitate the development of SRD in dogs. We assume that avoidant owners are less responsive to the dog's needs and do not provide a secure base for the dog when needed. As a result dogs form an insecure attachment and may develop SRD. However, there may be alternative explanations of our findings that we also discuss.

  3. The Politics of Attachment: Lines of Flight with Bowlby, Deleuze and Guattari.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duschinsky, Robbie; Greco, Monica; Solomon, Judith

    2015-12-01

    Research on attachment is widely regarded in sociology and feminist scholarship as politically conservative - oriented by a concern to police families, pathologize mothers and emphasize psychological at the expense of socio-economic factors. These critiques have presented attachment theory as constructing biological imperatives to naturalize contingent, social demands. We propose that a more effective critique of the politically conservative uses of attachment theory is offered by engaging with the 'attachment system' at the level of ontology. In developing this argument we draw on Deleuze and Guattari, making use of the common language of ethology which links their ideas to that of attachment theory. The attachment system can and has been reified into an image of the infant returning to their caregiver as an image of familial sufficiency. This has offered ammunition for discourses and institutions which isolate women from health, social and political resources. Yet Deleuze and Guattari can help attachment theory and research to be recognized as a powerful ally for progressive politics, for reflection on the movement of human individuation, and for arguing for the meaningful resourcing of those who care for someone else.

  4. Epigenetic modification of the oxytocin and glucocorticoid receptor genes is linked to attachment avoidance in young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ein-Dor, Tsachi; Verbeke, Willem J M I; Mokry, Michal; Vrtička, Pascal

    2018-08-01

    Attachment in the context of intimate pair bonds is most frequently studied in terms of the universal strategy to draw near, or away, from significant others at moments of personal distress. However, important interindividual differences in the quality of attachment exist, usually captured through secure versus insecure - anxious and/or avoidant - attachment orientations. Since Bowlby's pioneering writings on the theory of attachment, it has been assumed that attachment orientations are influenced by both genetic and social factors - what we would today describe and measure as gene by environment interaction mediated by epigenetic DNA modification - but research in humans on this topic remains extremely limited. We for the first time examined relations between intra-individual differences in attachment and epigenetic modification of the oxytocin receptor (OXTR) and glucocorticoid receptor (NR3C1) gene promoter in 109 young adult human participants. Our results revealed that attachment avoidance was significantly and specifically associated with increased OXTR and NR3C1 promoter methylation. These findings offer first tentative clues on the possible etiology of attachment avoidance in humans by showing epigenetic modification in genes related to both social stress regulation and HPA axis functioning.

  5. Redefining community based on place attachment in a connected world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurney, Georgina G; Blythe, Jessica; Adams, Helen; Adger, W Neil; Curnock, Matthew; Faulkner, Lucy; James, Thomas; Marshall, Nadine A

    2017-09-19

    The concept of community is often used in environmental policy to foster environmental stewardship and public participation, crucial prerequisites of effective management. However, prevailing conceptualizations of community based on residential location or resource use are limited with respect to their utility as surrogates for communities of shared environment-related interests, and because of the localist perspective they entail. Thus, addressing contemporary sustainability challenges, which tend to involve transnational social and environmental interactions, urgently requires additional approaches to conceptualizing community that are compatible with current globalization. We propose a framing for redefining community based on place attachment (i.e., the bonds people form with places) in the context of Australia's Great Barrier Reef, a World Heritage Area threatened by drivers requiring management and political action at scales beyond the local. Using data on place attachment from 5,403 respondents residing locally, nationally, and internationally, we identified four communities that each shared a type of attachment to the reef and that spanned conventional location and use communities. We suggest that as human-environment interactions change with increasing mobility (both corporeal and that mediated by communication and information technology), new types of people-place relations that transcend geographic and social boundaries and do not require ongoing direct experience to form are emerging. We propose that adopting a place attachment framing to community provides a means to capture the neglected nonmaterial bonds people form with the environment, and could be leveraged to foster transnational environmental stewardship, critical to advancing global sustainability in our increasingly connected world.

  6. Diagnostic criterial to differentiate medial meniscal injury from degenerative changes on 99mTc-MDP knee SPECT in patients with chronic knee pain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paeng, Jin Chul; Chung, June Key; Kang, Won Jun; So, Young; Lee, Dong Soo; Lee, Myung Chul; Yoo, Jae Ho; Lee, Myung Chul; Jeong, Hwan Jeong

    2003-01-01

    In patients with chronic knee pain, the diagnostic performance of 99m Tc-MDP knee SPECT for internal derangement of knee is deteriorated due to degenerative changes. In this study, we tried to establish diagnostic criteria to differentiate medial meniscal injury (MMI) from degenerative change (DC) when the uptake in increased in medial compartment. A total of 49 knee SPECT of the patients with chronic(more than 3 months) knee pain, which showed increased 99m Tc-MDP uptake in the medial compartment, were included in this study. The diagnosis was confirmed by arthroscopy. On knee SPECT, 3 diagnosic criteria for MMI were investigated. In Criterion, I, MMI was diagnosed when crescentic uptake was observed in the medial tibial plateau. In Criterion II, crescentic uptake was further classified into anterior, mid, posterior, and diffuse patterns, according to the location of maximal uptake; and only crescentic mid, posterior, and diffuse patterns were diagnosed as MMI. In Criterion III, MMI was diagnosed when medial tibial plateau showed higher activity then medial femoral condyle. The diagnostic performance of the 3 criteria was compared. The sensitivity and specificity were 93% and 14% in Criterion I, 89% and 38% in Criterion II, and 75% and 67% in Criterion III, respectively. Criterion III had significantly improve diagnostic performance, especially, specificity. In this study, we established a practical diagnostic criterion to differentiate MMI from DC on knee SPECT. The result is helpful to improve the diagnostic value of knee SPECT as a screening test for chronic knee pain

  7. Single-leaf partial meniscectomy in extensive horizontal tears of the discoid lateral meniscus: Does decreased peripheral meniscal thickness affect outcomes? (Mean four-year follow-up).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Se-Won; Chun, Yong-Min; Choi, Chong-Hyuk; Kim, Sung-Jae; Jung, Min; Han, Joon-Woo; Kim, Sung-Hwan

    2016-06-01

    To evaluate whether single-leaf partial meniscectomy in horizontal tears along the entire discoid lateral meniscus has any advantages in clinical and radiological results compared with other meniscectomies in discoid lateral meniscus. A total of 145 patients with a horizontal tear pattern in symptomatic lateral discoid meniscus were retrospectively reviewed. Twenty-seven patients had undergone full-extent single-leaf partial meniscectomy (group A), 60 had undergone conventional partial meniscectomy (saucerization) maintaining peripheral meniscal height (group B), and 58 patients had undergone total meniscectomy (group C). Each patient was evaluated with the Lysholm knee score, International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC) subjective grading, and modified Kellgren-Lawrence grade in plain radiography at their last follow-up. Group C had inferior functional results to groups A and B on the Lysholm knee score and IKDC subjective score. There was no significant difference between groups A and B. Group C fared significantly worse than groups A and B (p=0.003, pmeniscus tears, the full-extent single-leaf partial meniscectomy group had no adverse results compared with the total meniscectomy group and was not significantly different compared to the conventional partial meniscectomy group. Cohort study. Level III, therapeutic study. See Guidelines for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Quantitative evaluation of endothelial cell attachment to vascular graft materials using In-111 Oxine label

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, H.M.; Kesler, K.A.; Stinson, J.; Mock, B.; Arnold, M.

    1985-05-01

    Human umbilical vein endothelial cells were harvested, cultured and labeled with In-111 oxine using a modification of the technique described by Sharefkin et al. Average cell labeling efficiency was 42%. Two graft materials, polytetrafluoroethylene (Gortex) and polyester elastomer (Hytrel), with and without pretreatment with human fibronectin (FN) were incubated with the labeled cells. Quantitation of In-111 activity was done 3 times: at inoculation, after incubation (attachment) and after 1 hr of in vitro perfusion (retention). The average attachment ranged from 53% to 99.5%. The In-111 activity attached ranged from 10 to 20 ..mu..Ci per graft. A gamma camera with medium energy collimator and two pulse height analyzers for 173 and 247 keV photons with 20% window and an on-line computer was used. Images were obtained in 1.5 zoom mode. The count rate response to a In-111 point source up to 150 ..mu..Ci was linear. The results indicate Hytrel permits better endothelial cell attachment than Gortex and FN coating enhances the strength of attachment to both graft materials. The authors conclude that In-111 Oxine labeling is a reliable method for quantitatively evaluating endothelial cell attachment to vascular graft materials.

  9. Growing networks with mixed attachment mechanisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shao Zhigang; Zou Xianwu; Tan Zhijie; Jin Zhunzhi

    2006-01-01

    Networks grow and evolve when new nodes and links are added in. There are two methods to add the links: uniform attachment and preferential attachment. We take account of the addition of links with mixed attachment between uniform attachment and preferential attachment in proportion. By using numerical simulations and analysis based on a continuum theory, we obtain that the degree distribution P(k) has an extended power-law form P(k) ∼ (k + k 0 ) -γ . When the number of edges k of a node is much larger than a certain value k 0 , the degree distribution reduces to the power-law form P(k) ∼ k -γ ; and when k is much smaller than k 0 , the degree distribution degenerates into the exponential form P(k)∼exp(-yk/k 0 ). It has been found that degree distribution possesses this extended power-law form for many real networks, such as the movie actor network, the citation network of scientific papers and diverse protein interaction networks

  10. Laser enhanced attachment in diffuse discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giesselmann, M.; Pashaie, B.; Kristiansen, M.; Schaefer, G.

    1987-01-01

    Measurements of the effect of laser enhanced attachment on externally sustained diffuse discharges are reported. Optical control of diffuse discharges is a promising way of upgrading the performance of e-beam controlled opening switches for repetitive operation. Ideal gases should exhibit a negligible attachment cross section for low E/N values (switch closed) in the ground state and strong attaching properties upon optical excitation in an E/N range between the conducting state and self breakdown of the switch. The ratio of resistivity change in these experiments is much higher than in previous investigations. In this investigation the attachment rate of an electronegative gas component, representing approximately 1% of the gas in the discharge volume, was increased by means of vibrational excitation with a pulsed IR-laser beam. Molecules exhibiting a strongly increased attachment rate upon IR-excitation are vinyl-chloride, vinyl flouride and trifluoroethylene, which has been verified in preliminary experiments. All experiments reported were performed with vinyl chloride and trifluoroethylene

  11. Father attachment, father emotion expression, and children's attachment to fathers: The role of marital conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Shuang; Haak, Eric A; Gilbert, Lauren R; El-Sheikh, Mona; Keller, Peggy S

    2018-06-01

    The current study examined relations between father attachment to spouses and child attachment to fathers in middle childhood, focusing on father emotion expressions in father-child interactions as mediators and marital conflict as a moderator of relations. Participants were 199 children between 6 and 12 years of age and their fathers. Fathers completed questionnaires about their attachment to their spouses, and both fathers and mothers reported on their marital conflict. Fathers also discussed a difficult topic with their children for 5 min, and fathers' positive and negative emotion expression during the discussions were coded. Children completed questionnaires through an interview about their attachment to their father. Father insecure attachment interacted with marital conflict in predicting more negative emotions and less positive emotions during father-child interactions. Specifically, in the context of higher marital conflict in this community sample, fathers who reported greater preoccupied attachment to their spouses exhibited more negative emotions and less positive emotions when interacting with their children. In turn, more father negative emotions and less positive emotions were associated with children's less secure attachment to fathers. In contrast, father fearful attachment interacted with marital conflict to predict less negative emotion and more positive emotion during interactions with children. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  12. Attachment at (not to) work: applying attachment theory to explain individual behavior in organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, David A; Schat, Aaron C H

    2011-01-01

    In this article, we report the results of 2 studies that were conducted to investigate whether adult attachment theory explains employee behavior at work. In the first study, we examined the structure of a measure of adult attachment and its relations with measures of trait affectivity and the Big Five. In the second study, we examined the relations between dimensions of attachment and emotion regulation behaviors, turnover intentions, and supervisory reports of counterproductive work behavior and organizational citizenship behavior. Results showed that anxiety and avoidance represent 2 higher order dimensions of attachment that predicted these criteria (except for counterproductive work behavior) after controlling for individual difference variables and organizational commitment. The implications of these results for the study of attachment at work are discussed.

  13. Adolescent attachment, family functioning and depressive symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nishola Rawatlal

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background. Adolescence represents a challenging transitional period where changes in biological, emotional, cognitive and social domains can increase the risk of developing internalised problems including subthreshold depression. Adolescent-parent attachment style, perceived support and family functioning may increase risk for depressive symptoms or may reduce such risk. Adolescent-parent attachment, adolescent-perceived support from parents and family functioning were examined as correlates of depressive symptom presentation within this age group. Methods. Participants included a maternal parent and an adolescent (65.5% female from each family. Adolescents were in Grade 7 (n=175 or Grade 10 (n=31. Data were collected through home interviews. The Self-Report of Family Inventory (SFI, Experiences of Close Relationships Scale (ECR, Network of Relationships Inventory (NRI, Children’s Depression Inventory (CDI and Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL were used to assess depression, parental support and attachment.  Results. Two models were examined: one with adolescent report of depressive symptoms as the outcome and a second with parent report of adolescent internalising symptoms as the outcome. The model predicting adolescent-reported depressive symptoms was significant with older age, higher levels of avoidant attachment, and higher levels of youth-reported dysfunctional family interaction associated with more depressive symptomatology. In the model predicting parent report of adolescent internalising symptoms only higher levels of dysfunctional family interaction, as reported by the parent, were associated with higher levels of internalising symptoms. Conclusion. Positive family communication, cohesion and support predictive of a secure parent-adolescent attachment relationship reduced the risk of a depressive symptom outcome. Secure adolescents were able to regulate their emotions, knowing that they could seek out secure base attachment relations

  14. 14 CFR 33.23 - Engine mounting attachments and structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Engine mounting attachments and structure... mounting attachments and structure. (a) The maximum allowable limit and ultimate loads for engine mounting attachments and related engine structure must be specified. (b) The engine mounting attachments and related...

  15. Effects of Emotion Regulation Training on Attachment Style of Primiparous Pregnant Women with Insecure Attachment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tayebeh Reyhani

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pregnant women with insecure attachment style are at high risk of psychiatric disorders. Since emotions are the first coordinators of attachment behavior, emotion regulation training can alter maternal attachment style. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the effects of emotion regulation training on the attachment styles of primiparous pregnant women with insecure attachment style. Aim: This study aimed to evaluate the effects of training programs on the headache of patients after spinal anesthesia. Method: This randomized, clinical trial on 40 primiparous pregnant women with age range of 30-34 years, who were referred to healthcare centers of Mashhad, Iran, during 2014. The data collection instrument was Revised Adult Attachment Scale (RAAS. The participants were assigned to intervention and control groups. A training program was implemented on emotion regulation based on dialectical behavior therapy (DBT for the intervention group. After delivery, RAAS was completed by the mothers again. The control group only received the routine care. To analyze the data, Chi-square and independent t-test were run using SPSS, version 15. Results: Mean ages of the mothers in the intervention and control groups were 26.9±4.04 and 27.5±3.5 years, respectively. According to the results of independent t-test, the difference between the groups was non-significant (P=0.77. The groups were analogous in terms of attachment style pre-intervention. After the intervention, independent t-test did not reflect any significant differences between the groups regarding avoidant (P=0.37 and anxious (P=0.11 attachment styles. However, mean score for secure attachment style was significantly enhanced (P=0.01. Implications for Practice: Our findings revealed that implementation of emotion regulation training increased secure attachment scores. Thus, implementing emotion regulation training program is recommended as part of a program for pre-natal care in healthcare

  16. Clinical decision - making review on magnetic attachments versus mechanical attachments in dental prosthetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Fabiano

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background Conventional dentures in edentulous patients show some limitations due to the lack of retention, support and stability thus resulting in difficulty to chew. The modern implantology allows to use different implant overdentures and different attachment systems. The selection of the attachment by practitioners is mainly influenced by the clinical experience or technical preferences. Aims The aim of the present review is to provide an adequate background to the clinicians, in order to select the prosthetic attachments according to the current literature. The mechanical attachments have been compared to the magnetic devices, with the aim to guide the decision of the practitioners. Methods Articles topics selection was based on the use of magnetic attachments in dentistry and the comparison between them and mechanical connectors. The databases used were PubMed/MEDLINE, Google Scholar and ISI Web of Science. A critical evaluation of the selected paper has been made to choose the ones that matched the inclusion criteria. Results Nowadays, few studies have compared different attachments in a manner useful for clinical decision-making. The main problem limiting long-term durability of magnetic attachments in the oral fluid is the poor corrosion resistance of permanent magnets and the consequent leaching of cytotoxic ions. Conclusion Magnetic attachments in comparison with other attaching systems can be useful in patients with special needs, in patients with limited interocclusal space, or in patients with neuromuscular limitations, thanks to the automatic reseating properties. However, it’s important to highlight that the mechanical attachments still represent the best choice in common conditions requiring dental prostheses.

  17. Understanding Members’ Attachment to Social Networking Sites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lim, Eric T. K.; Cyr, Dianne; Tan, Chee-Wee

    2014-01-01

    Social Networking Sites (SNSs) are pervasive phenomena in today’s society. With greater connectivity and interactivity enabled through emerging technologies, SNSs provide communication platforms for individuals to bridge spatial and temporal differences when making friends, sharing experiences......, socializing with others and much more. This study therefore endeavors to shed light on this growing trend by decomposing members’ motives for participating within SNSs into identity-based, bondbased and comparison-based attachments. Each of these forms of attachment in turn affects members’ cooperative...

  18. Attachment patterns and Mentalization in Traumatized Refugees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riber, Karin

    Poster Titel: Proces-præsentation: Tilknytningsmønstre og Refleksiv Funktion hos Traumatiserede Flygtninge. Introduktion. Gennem de senere år har empirisk forskning dokumenteret tilknytningsmønstre som en central variabel, der påvirker proces og effekt i psykologisk behandling på vigtige måder...... nærværende projekt bestod af de patienter i moderforsøget, som var arabisktalende (N=68). Måleredskaber består i The Adult Attachment Interview, The Reflective Functioning Scale, Revised Adult Attachment Scale, Working Alliance Inventory og Feeling Word Checklist-58. PTSD, depressions- og angstsymptomer...

  19. Pilot cryo tunnel: Attachments, seals, and insulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, J. F.; Ware, G. D.; Ramsey, J. W., Jr.

    1974-01-01

    Several different tests are described which simulated the actual configuration of a cryogenic wind tunnel operating at pressures up to 5 atmospheres (507 kPa) and temperatures from -320 F (78K) to 120 F (322K) in order to determine compatible bolting, adequate sealing, and effective insulating materials. The evaluation of flange attachments (continuous threaded studs) considered bolting based on compatible flanges, attachment materials, and prescribed bolt elongations. Various types of seals and seal configurations were studied to determine suitability and reusability under the imposed pressure and temperature loadings. The temperature profile was established for several materials used for structural supports.

  20. Lightning attachment process to common buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saba, M. M. F.; Paiva, A. R.; Schumann, C.; Ferro, M. A. S.; Naccarato, K. P.; Silva, J. C. O.; Siqueira, F. V. C.; Custódio, D. M.

    2017-05-01

    The physical mechanism of lightning attachment to grounded structures is one of the most important issues in lightning physics research, and it is the basis for the design of the lightning protection systems. Most of what is known about the attachment process comes from leader propagation models that are mostly based on laboratory observations of long electrical discharges or from observations of lightning attachment to tall structures. In this paper we use high-speed videos to analyze the attachment process of downward lightning flashes to an ordinary residential building. For the first time, we present characteristics of the attachment process to common structures that are present in almost every city (in this case, two buildings under 60 m in São Paulo City, Brazil). Parameters like striking distance and connecting leaders speed, largely used in lightning attachment models and in lightning protection standards, are revealed in this work.Plain Language SummarySince the time of Benjamin Franklin, no one has ever recorded high-speed video images of a lightning connection to a common building. It is very difficult to do it. Cameras need to be very close to the structure chosen to be observed, and long observation time is required to register one lightning strike to that particular structure. Models and theories used to determine the zone of protection of a lightning rod have been developed, but they all suffer from the lack of field data. The submitted manuscript provides results from high-speed video observations of lightning attachment to low buildings that are commonly found in almost every populated area around the world. The proximity of the camera and the high frame rate allowed us to see interesting details that will improve the understanding of the attachment process and, consequently, the models and theories used by lightning protection standards. This paper also presents spectacular images and videos of lightning flashes connecting lightning rods that

  1. Toward a Radically Embodied Neuroscience of Attachment and Relationships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lane eBeckes

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Attachment theory (Bowlby, 1969/1982 posits that internal working models are a foundational feature of human bonds. Radical embodied approaches suggest that cognition requires no computation or representation, favoring a cognition situated in a body in context with affordances for action (Barrett, 2011; Chemero, 2009; Wilson & Golonka, 2013. We explore whether embodied approaches to social soothing, interpersonal warmth, separation distress, and support seeking could replace representational constructs such as internal working models with a view of relationship cognition anchored in the resources afforded to the individual by their brain, body, and environment interacting. We review the neurobiological bases for social attachments and relationships and attempt to delineate how these systems overlap or don’t with more basic physiological systems in ways that support or contradict a radical embodied explanation. We suggest that many effects might be the result of the fact that relationship cognition depends on and emerges out of the action of neural systems that regulate several clearly physically grounded systems. For example, the neuropeptide oxytocin appears to be central to attachment and pair-bond behavior (Carter & Keverne, 2002 and is implicated in social thermoregulation, being necessary for maintaining a warm body temperature in rats (Kasahara et al., 2007 and humans (Beck et al., 1979.Finally, we discuss the most challenging issues around taking a radically embodied perspective on social relationships. We find the most crucial challenge in individual differences in support seeking and responses to social contact, which have long been thought to be a function of representational structures in the mind (e.g., Baldwin, 1995. Together we entertain the thought to explain such individual differences without mediating representations or computations ending with a discussion of how representational approaches might be integrated with embodied