WorldWideScience

Sample records for human interactive proofs

  1. BaffleText: a Human Interactive Proof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chew, Monica; Baird, Henry S.

    2003-01-01

    Internet services designed for human use are being abused by programs. We present a defense against such attacks in the form of a CAPTCHA (Completely Automatic Public Turing test to tell Computers and Humans Apart) that exploits the difference in ability between humans and machines in reading images of text. CAPTCHAs are a special case of 'human interactive proofs,' a broad class of security protocols that allow people to identify themselves over networks as members of given groups. We point out vulnerabilities of reading-based CAPTCHAs to dictionary and computer-vision attacks. We also draw on the literature on the psychophysics of human reading, which suggests fresh defenses available to CAPTCHAs. Motivated by these considerations, we propose BaffleText, a CAPTCHA which uses non-English pronounceable words to defend against dictionary attacks, and Gestalt-motivated image-masking degradations to defend against image restoration attacks. Experiments on human subjects confirm the human legibility and user acceptance of BaffleText images. We have found an image-complexity measure that correlates well with user acceptance and assists in engineering the generation of challenges to fit the ability gap. Recent computer-vision attacks, run independently by Mori and Jitendra, suggest that BaffleText is stronger than two existing CAPTCHAs.

  2. Memorizable Interactive Proof and Zero-Knowledge Proof Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ning Chen; Jia-Wei Rong

    2004-01-01

    Interactive proof and zero-knowledge proof systems are two important concepts in cryptography and complexity theory. In the past two decades, a great number of interactive proof and zero-knowledge proof protocols have been designed and applied in practice. In this paper, a simple memorizable zero-knowledge protocol is proposed for graph non-isomorphism problem, based on the memorizable interactive proof system,which is extended from the original definition of interactive proof and is more applicable in reality.

  3. A Logic of Interactive Proofs

    CERN Document Server

    Kramer, Simon

    2012-01-01

    We propose a logic of interactive proofs as the first and main step towards an intuitionistic foundation for interactive computation to be obtained via an interactive analog of the G\\"odel-Kolmogorov-Art\\"emov definition of intuitionistic logic as embedded into a classical modal logic of proofs, and of the Curry-Howard isomorphism between intuitionistic proofs and typed programs. Our interactive proofs effectuate a persistent epistemic impact in their intended communities of peer reviewers that consists in the induction of the (propositional) knowledge of their proof goal by means of the (individual) knowledge of the proof with the interpreting reviewer. That is, interactive proofs effectuate a transfer of propositional knowledge---(to-be-)known facts---via the transfer of certain individual knowledge---(to-be-)known proofs---in distributed and multi-agent systems. In other words, we as a community can have the formal common knowledge that a proof is that which if known to one of our peer members would induce...

  4. An Application of Quantum Finite Automata to Interactive Proof Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Nishimura, H; Nishimura, Harumichi; Yamakami, Tomoyuki

    2004-01-01

    Quantum finite automata have been studied intensively since their introduction in late 1990s as a natural model of a quantum computer with finite-dimensional quantum memory space. This paper seeks their direct application to interactive proof systems in which a mighty quantum prover communicates with a quantum-automaton verifier through a common communication cell. Our quantum interactive proof systems are juxtaposed to Dwork-Stockmeyer's classical interactive proof systems whose verifiers are two-way probabilistic automata. We demonstrate strengths and weaknesses of our systems and further study how various restrictions on the behaviors of quantum-automaton verifiers affect the power of quantum interactive proof systems.

  5. Quantum interactive proofs with short messages

    CERN Document Server

    Beigi, Salman; Watrous, John

    2010-01-01

    This paper considers three variants of quantum interactive proof systems in which short (meaning logarithmic-length) messages are exchanged between the prover and verifier. The first variant is one in which the verifier sends a short message to the prover, and the prover responds with an ordinary, or polynomial-length, message; the second variant is one in which any number of messages can be exchanged, but where the combined length of all the messages is logarithmic; and the third variant is one in which the verifier sends polynomially many random bits to the prover, who responds with a short quantum message. We prove that in all of these cases the short messages can be eliminated without changing the power of the model, so the first variant has the expressive power of QMA and the second and third variants have the expressive power of BQP. These facts are proved through the use of quantum state tomography, along with the finite quantum de Finetti theorem for the first variant.

  6. Distributed Parallel Interactive Data Analysis Using the Proof System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ReneBrun; FonsRademakers

    2001-01-01

    The only way Terabytes of data can be processed and analyzed in a reasonable time is by using parallel processing architectures.The Paralle ROOT Facility,PROOF,is s system for the parallel interactive analysis of such datasets on clusters of heterogeneous computers.Early prototypes have confirmed the validity of the basic PROOF architecture However,some important work still has to be done before PROOF can be used as a production facility.The basic architecture and the planned developments are described in this paper.

  7. Interpreting a Classical Geometric Proof with Interactive Realizability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Birolo

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available We show how to extract a monotonic learning algorithm from a classical proof of a geometric statement by interpreting the proof by means of interactive realizability, a realizability sematics for classical logic. The statement is about the existence of a convex angle including a finite collections of points in the real plane and it is related to the existence of a convex hull. We define real numbers as Cauchy sequences of rational numbers, therefore equality and ordering are not decidable. While the proof looks superficially constructive, it employs classical reasoning to handle undecidable comparisons between real numbers, making the underlying algorithm non-effective. The interactive realizability interpretation transforms the non-effective linear algorithm described by the proof into an effective one that uses backtracking to learn from its mistakes. The effective algorithm exhibits a "smart" behavior, performing comparisons only up to the precision required to prove the final statement. This behavior is not explicitly planned but arises from the interactive interpretation of comparisons between Cauchy sequences.

  8. Delegateable signatures based on non-interactive witness indistinguishable and non-interactive witness hiding proofs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANG ChunMing; PEI DingYi; WANG XiaoFeng; LIU ZhuoJun

    2008-01-01

    A delegateable signature scheme (DSS) which was first introduced by Barak is mainly based on the non-interactive zero-knowledge proof (NIZK) for preventing the signing verifier from telling which witness (i.e., restricted subset) is being used. However, the scheme is not significantly efficient due to the difficulty of constructing NIZK. We first show that a non-Interactive witness indistinguishable (NIWI) proof sys-tern and a non-interactive witness hiding (NIWH) proof system are easier and more efficient proof models than NIZK in some cases. Furthermore, the witnesses em-ployed in these two protocols (NIWI and NIWT) cannot also be distinguished by the verifiers. Combined with the Σ-protocol, we then construct NlWl and NIWH proofs for any NP statement under the existence of one-way functions and show that each proof is different from those under the existence of trapdoor permutations. Finally, based on our NIWI and NIWH proofs, we construct delegateable signature schemes under the existence of one-way functions, which are more efficient than Barak's scheme under the existence of trapdoor permutations.

  9. Coqoon - An IDE for Interactive Proof Development in Coq

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faithfull, Alexander; Bengtson, Jesper; Tassi, Enrico

    2016-01-01

    ”s for proof assistants typically only operate on files in isolation, relying on external tools to integrate those files into larger projects. In this paper we present Coqoon, an IDE for Coq developments integrated into Eclipse. Coqoon manages proofs as projects rather than isolated source files, and compiles...

  10. A proof of Bell's inequality in quantum mechanics using causal interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robins, James M; VanderWeele, Tyler J; Gill, Richard D

    2015-06-01

    We give a simple proof of Bell's inequality in quantum mechanics using theory from causal interaction, which, in conjunction with experiments, demonstrates that the local hidden variables assumption is false. The proof sheds light on relationships between the notion of causal interaction and interference between treatments.

  11. A proof of Bell's inequality in quantum mechanics using causal interactions

    CERN Document Server

    Robins, James M; Gill, Richard D

    2012-01-01

    We give a simple proof of Bell's inequality in quantum mechanics which, in conjunction with experiments, demonstrates that the local hidden variables assumption is false. The proof sheds light on relationships between the notion of causal interaction and interference between particles.

  12. Human-machine interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsythe, J. Chris; Xavier, Patrick G.; Abbott, Robert G.; Brannon, Nathan G.; Bernard, Michael L.; Speed, Ann E.

    2009-04-28

    Digital technology utilizing a cognitive model based on human naturalistic decision-making processes, including pattern recognition and episodic memory, can reduce the dependency of human-machine interactions on the abilities of a human user and can enable a machine to more closely emulate human-like responses. Such a cognitive model can enable digital technology to use cognitive capacities fundamental to human-like communication and cooperation to interact with humans.

  13. Human Work Interaction Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we review research in the emerging practice and research field of Human Work Interaction Design (HWID). We present a HWID frame-work, and a sample of 54 papers from workshops, conferences and journals from the period 2009-2014. We group the papers into six topical groups, and then ...

  14. Human Work Interaction Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we review research in the emerging practice and research field of Human Work Interaction Design (HWID). We present a HWID framework, and a sample of 54 HWID related papers from workshops, conferences and journals from the period 2009–2014. We group the papers into six topical group...

  15. Human Work Interaction Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lopes, Arminda; Ørngreen, Rikke

    This book constitutes the thoroughly refereed post-conference proceedings of the Third IFIP WG 13.6 Working Conference on Human Work Interaction Design, HWID 2012, held in Copenhagen, Denmark, in December 2012. The 16 revised papers presented were carefully selected for inclusion in this volume...

  16. Authentication Based on Non-Interactive Zero-Knowledge Proofs for the Internet of Things.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Fernández, Francisco; Caballero-Gil, Pino; Caballero-Gil, Cándido

    2016-01-07

    This paper describes the design and analysis of a new scheme for the authenticated exchange of confidential information in insecure environments within the Internet of Things, which allows a receiver of a message to authenticate the sender and compute a secret key shared with it. The proposal is based on the concept of a non-interactive zero-knowledge proof, so that in a single communication, relevant data may be inferred to verify the legitimacy of the sender. Besides, the new scheme uses the idea under the Diffie-Hellman protocol for the establishment of a shared secret key. The proposal has been fully developed for platforms built on the Android Open Source Project, so it can be used in any device or sensor with this operating system. This work provides a performance study of the implementation and a comparison between its promising results and others obtained with similar schemes.

  17. Social interactions in virtual reality exposure therapy: a proof-of-concept pilot study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morina, N.; Brinkman, W.P.; Hartanto, D.; Kampmann, I.L.; Emmelkamp, P.G.M.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Research on virtual reality exposure therapy (VRET) has demonstrated good treatment efficacy with regards to several anxiety disorders. Yet, there is lack of knowledge about the value of integrating interaction between clients and virtual humans in VRET. Such interaction m

  18. Social interactions in virtual reality exposure therapy: a proof-of-concept pilot study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morina, N.; Brinkman, W.P.; Hartanto, D.; Kampmann, I.L.; Emmelkamp, P.G.M.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Research on virtual reality exposure therapy (VRET) has demonstrated good treatment efficacy with regards to several anxiety disorders. Yet, there is lack of knowledge about the value of integrating interaction between clients and virtual humans in VRET. Such interaction

  19. Human-Robot Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandor, Aniko; Cross, E. Vincent, II; Chang, Mai Lee

    2015-01-01

    Human-robot interaction (HRI) is a discipline investigating the factors affecting the interactions between humans and robots. It is important to evaluate how the design of interfaces affect the human's ability to perform tasks effectively and efficiently when working with a robot. By understanding the effects of interface design on human performance, workload, and situation awareness, interfaces can be developed to appropriately support the human in performing tasks with minimal errors and with appropriate interaction time and effort. Thus, the results of research on human-robot interfaces have direct implications for the design of robotic systems. For efficient and effective remote navigation of a rover, a human operator needs to be aware of the robot's environment. However, during teleoperation, operators may get information about the environment only through a robot's front-mounted camera causing a keyhole effect. The keyhole effect reduces situation awareness which may manifest in navigation issues such as higher number of collisions, missing critical aspects of the environment, or reduced speed. One way to compensate for the keyhole effect and the ambiguities operators experience when they teleoperate a robot is adding multiple cameras and including the robot chassis in the camera view. Augmented reality, such as overlays, can also enhance the way a person sees objects in the environment or in camera views by making them more visible. Scenes can be augmented with integrated telemetry, procedures, or map information. Furthermore, the addition of an exocentric (i.e., third-person) field of view from a camera placed in the robot's environment may provide operators with the additional information needed to gain spatial awareness of the robot. Two research studies investigated possible mitigation approaches to address the keyhole effect: 1) combining the inclusion of the robot chassis in the camera view with augmented reality overlays, and 2) modifying the camera

  20. A constructive and formal proof of Lebesgue’s Dominated Convergence Theorem in the interactive theorem prover Matita

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Sacerdoti Coen

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available We present a formalisation of a constructive proof of Lebesgue’s Dominated Convergence Theorem given by the Sacerdoti Coen and Zoli in [CSCZ]. The proof is done in the abstract setting of ordered uniformities, also introduced by the two authors as a simplification of Weber’s lattice uniformities given in [Web91, Web93]. The proof is fully constructive, in the sense that it is done in Bishop’s style and, under certain assumptions, it is also fully predicative. The formalisation is done in the Calculus of (CoInductive Constructions using the interactive theorem prover Matita [ASTZ07]. It exploits some peculiar features of Matita and an advanced technique to represent algebraic hierarchies previously introduced by the authors in [ST07]. Moreover, we introduce a new technique to cope with duality to halve the formalisation effort.

  1. Human genetics of infectious diseases: between proof of principle and paradigm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcaïs, Alexandre; Abel, Laurent; Casanova, Jean-Laurent

    2009-01-01

    The observation that only a fraction of individuals infected by infectious agents develop clinical disease raises fundamental questions about the actual pathogenesis of infectious diseases. Epidemiological and experimental evidence is accumulating to suggest that human genetics plays a major role in this process. As we discuss here, human predisposition to infectious diseases seems to cover a continuous spectrum from monogenic to polygenic inheritance. Although many studies have provided proof of principle that infectious diseases may result from various types of inborn errors of immunity, the genetic determinism of most infectious diseases in most patients remains unclear. However, in the future, studies in human genetics are likely to establish a new paradigm for infectious diseases. PMID:19729848

  2. Sense of presence and anxiety during virtual social interactions between a human and virtual humans

    OpenAIRE

    Nexhmedin Morina; Willem-Paul Brinkman; Dwi Hartanto; Emmelkamp, Paul M. G.

    2014-01-01

    Virtual reality exposure therapy (VRET) has been shown to be effective in treatment of anxiety disorders. Yet, there is lack of research on the extent to which interaction between the individual and virtual humans can be successfully implanted to increase levels of anxiety for therapeutic purposes. This proof-of-concept pilot study aimed at examining levels of the sense of presence and anxiety during exposure to virtual environments involving social interaction with virtual humans and using d...

  3. Sense of presence and anxiety during virtual social interactions between a human and virtual humans

    OpenAIRE

    Nexhmedin Morina; Willem-Paul Brinkman; Dwi Hartanto; Emmelkamp, Paul M. G.

    2014-01-01

    Virtual reality exposure therapy (VRET) has been shown to be effective in treatment of anxiety disorders. Yet, there is lack of research on the extent to which interaction between the individual and virtual humans can be successfully implanted to increase levels of anxiety for therapeutic purposes. This proof-of-concept pilot study aimed at examining levels of the sense of presence and anxiety during exposure to virtual environments involving social interaction with virtual humans and using d...

  4. HUMAN INTERACTION WITH MOBILE APPLICATIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Alin Zamfiroiu; Emanuel Herteliu; Bogdan Vintila

    2012-01-01

    Computing - human interaction is a very important paradigm because informatics applications are created to be used by people via human interaction. Nowadays mobile applications are more used so is necessarily to talk about mobile - human interaction. In this paper types of mobile devices are presented. Citizen oriented character of mobile application and his utility are described. Different means of interactions with mobile devices are analyzed and in the end of the paper direction of mobile ...

  5. Human Work Interaction Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we review research in the emerging practice and research field of Human Work Interaction Design (HWID). We present a HWID frame-work, and a sample of 54 papers from workshops, conferences and journals from the period 2009-2014. We group the papers into six topical groups, and then at......-tempt to map these groups to the framework to find research gaps for future re-search. We find that the groups of papers cover all areas of the framework well for a variety of work and leisure domains. The area in strongest need for more research papers is the development of the holistic framework itself....... Furthermore, much focus has been on studying design sketching or implemented systems-in-use, while little attention has been paid to mature design (prototypes) or early implementation (content templates). In conclusion, we recommend an update to the framework so that it can be also useful for research...

  6. Solitonic-type excitations in laser-condensed matter interaction: additional proof by independent publications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudriavtsev, Eugene M.

    2000-08-01

    The goal of this report is to discuss (in addition to review) the independent literature works which come to our attention in 2 last years with experimental or theoretical proofs the existence of the solitonic type Wave of Change in Reflection and Conduction (WCRC). WCRC presents a new variety of transfer phenomena in condensed matter. It was excited by a single IR laser pulse with a threshold of more than 10 kW/cm2 and consists of a series of about 30 solitary pulses with propagation velocity of each subsequent pulse decreasing two times comparing with that of preceding one in the range from sound velocity to less than about micron/s. Each pulse has the following solitary wave features: (1) it is all the time of one sign, (2) its velocity Ui is nearly constant, (3) it reflects from sample surfaces without noticeable velocity change. So far the systematic WCRC study was made in Lebedev Physical Institute, grate deal in collaboration with group of Marseilles University (prof. M. Autric) and also with some others groups. Literature analysis showed independent works where WCRC can be seen and which was made in different institutions with different own goals in mind. As example, work on optical monitoring of laser damage in IR materials or thermocouple measurements of temperature non stability in water cooled copper shield stopped the high power e-beam, etc. We will discuss also some details of theoretical work connected with development of Frenkel-Kontorova (1937) topological soliton model. WCRC is rather universal phenomenon, it appears in many laser-condensed matter interactions and so it should be studied for the WCRC mechanism understanding and its effect evaluation for different applications.

  7. Social interactions in virtual reality exposure therapy: A proof-of-concept pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morina, Nexhmedin; Brinkman, Willem-Paul; Hartanto, Dwi; Kampmann, Isabel L; Emmelkamp, Paul M G

    2015-01-01

    Research on virtual reality exposure therapy (VRET) has demonstrated good treatment efficacy with regards to several anxiety disorders. Yet, there is lack of knowledge about the value of integrating interaction between clients and virtual humans in VRET. Such interaction might prove effective in treating psychological complaints that involve social interactions, such as social anxiety. A VRET system specifically designed to expose clients with social anxiety disorder to anxiety provoking social situations was applied to 16 and 18 individuals with high and low levels of social anxiety, respectively. Participants engaged in two exposure sessions in several free speech dialogues with virtual humans while being monitored by a therapist. Participants with high levels of social anxiety reported significantly lower levels of social anxiety three months after exposure to two virtual reality interaction sessions than before treatment (p group with low levels of social anxiety, no significant change of social anxiety was reported between pre-treatment and follow-up. Additionally, participants in both groups reported higher self-efficacy three months after treatment than before treatment (ps ≤ 0.001). These findings indicate that virtual reality technology that incorporates social interactions may be successfully applied for therapeutic purposes.

  8. Advanced Proof Viewing in ProofTool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomer Libal

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Sequent calculus is widely used for formalizing proofs. However, due to the proliferation of data, understanding the proofs of even simple mathematical arguments soon becomes impossible. Graphical user interfaces help in this matter, but since they normally utilize Gentzen's original notation, some of the problems persist. In this paper, we introduce a number of criteria for proof visualization which we have found out to be crucial for analyzing proofs. We then evaluate recent developments in tree visualization with regard to these criteria and propose the Sunburst Tree layout as a complement to the traditional tree structure. This layout constructs inferences as concentric circle arcs around the root inference, allowing the user to focus on the proof's structural content. Finally, we describe its integration into ProofTool and explain how it interacts with the Gentzen layout.

  9. Proof Image

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidron, Ivy; Dreyfus, Tommy

    2014-01-01

    The emergence of a proof image is often an important stage in a learner's construction of a proof. In this paper, we introduce, characterize, and exemplify the notion of proof image. We also investigate how proof images emerge. Our approach starts from the learner's efforts to construct a justification without (or before) attempting any…

  10. Seismic Proofing Capability of the Accumulated Semiactive Hydraulic Damper as an Active Interaction Control Device with Predictive Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Hsiang Shih

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The intensity of natural disasters has increased recently, causing buildings’ damages which need to be reinforced to prevent their destruction. To improve the seismic proofing capability of Accumulated Semiactive Hydraulic Damper, it is converted to an Active Interaction Control device and synchronous control and predictive control methods are proposed. The full-scale shaking table test is used to test and verify the seismic proofing capability of the proposed AIC with these control methods. This study examines the shock absorption of test structure under excitation by external forces, influences of prediction time, stiffness of the auxiliary structure, synchronous switching, and asynchronous switching on the control effects, and the influence of control locations of test structure on the control effects of the proposed AIC. Test results show that, for the proposed AIC with synchronous control and predictive control of 0.10~0.13 seconds, the displacement reduction ratios are greater than 71%, the average acceleration reduction ratios are, respectively, 36.2% and 36.9%, at the 1st and 2nd floors, and the average base shear reduction ratio is 29.6%. The proposed AIC with suitable stiffeners for the auxiliary structure at each floor with synchronous control and predictive control provide high reliability and practicability for seismic proofing of buildings.

  11. Human-Robot Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rochlis-Zumbado, Jennifer; Sandor, Aniko; Ezer, Neta

    2012-01-01

    Risk of Inadequate Design of Human and Automation/Robotic Integration (HARI) is a new Human Research Program (HRP) risk. HRI is a research area that seeks to understand the complex relationship among variables that affect the way humans and robots work together to accomplish goals. The DRP addresses three major HRI study areas that will provide appropriate information for navigation guidance to a teleoperator of a robot system, and contribute to the closure of currently identified HRP gaps: (1) Overlays -- Use of overlays for teleoperation to augment the information available on the video feed (2) Camera views -- Type and arrangement of camera views for better task performance and awareness of surroundings (3) Command modalities -- Development of gesture and voice command vocabularies

  12. A Virtual Reality avatar interaction (VRai) platform to assess residual executive dysfunction in active military personnel with previous mild traumatic brain injury: proof of concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robitaille, Nicolas; Jackson, Philip L; Hébert, Luc J; Mercier, Catherine; Bouyer, Laurent J; Fecteau, Shirley; Richards, Carol L; McFadyen, Bradford J

    2017-10-01

    This proof of concept study tested the ability of a dual task walking protocol using a recently developed avatar-based virtual reality (VR) platform to detect differences between military personnel post mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) and healthy controls. The VR platform coordinated motion capture, an interaction and rendering system, and a projection system to present first (participant-controlled) and third person avatars within the context of a specific military patrol scene. A divided attention task was also added. A healthy control group was compared to a group with previous mTBI (both groups comprised of six military personnel) and a repeated measures ANOVA tested for differences between conditions and groups based on recognition errors, walking speed and fluidity and obstacle clearance. The VR platform was well tolerated by both groups. Walking fluidity was degraded for the control group within the more complex navigational dual tasking involving avatars, and appeared greatest in the dual tasking with the interacting avatar. This navigational behaviour was not seen in the mTBI group. The present findings show proof of concept for using avatars, particularly more interactive avatars, to expose differences in executive functioning when applying context-specific protocols (here for the military). Implications for rehabilitation Virtual reality provides a means to control context-specific factors for assessment and intervention. Adding human interaction and agency through avatars increases the ecologic nature of the virtual environment. Avatars in the present application of the Virtual Reality avatar interaction platform appear to provide a better ability to reveal differences between trained, military personal with and without mTBI.

  13. A TASER conducted electrical weapon with cardiac biomonitoring capability: Proof of concept and initial human trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stopyra, Jason P; Ritter, Samuel I; Beatty, Jennifer; Johnson, James C; Kleiner, Douglas M; Winslow, James E; Gardner, Alison R; Bozeman, William P

    2016-10-01

    Despite research demonstrating the overall safety of Conducted Electrical Weapons (CEWs), commonly known by the brand name TASER(®), concerns remain regarding cardiac safety. The addition of cardiac biomonitoring capability to a CEW could prove useful and even lifesaving in the rare event of a medical crisis by detecting and analyzing cardiac rhythms during the period immediately after CEW discharge. To combine an electrocardiogram (ECG) device with a CEW to detect and store ECG signals while still allowing the CEW to perform its primary function of delivering an incapacitating electrical discharge. This work was performed in three phases. In Phase 1 standard law enforcement issue CEW cartridges were modified to demonstrate transmission of ECG signals. In Phase 2, a miniaturized ECG recorder was combined with a standard issue CEW and tested. In Phase 3, a prototype CEW with on-board cardiac biomonitoring was tested on human volunteers to assess its ability to perform its primary function of electrical incapacitation. Bench testing demonstrated that slightly modified CEW cartridge wires transmitted simulated ECG signals produced by an ECG rhythm generator and from a human volunteer. Ultimately, a modified CEW incorporating ECG monitoring successfully delivered incapacitating current to human volunteers and successfully recorded ECG signals from subcutaneous CEW probes after firing. An ECG recording device was successfully incorporated into a standard issue CEW without impeding the functioning of the device. This serves as proof-of-concept that safety measures such as cardiac biomonitoring can be incorporated into CEWs and possibly other law enforcement devices. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  14. An ex vivo approach to botanical-drug interactions: A proof of concept study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xinwen; Zhu, Hao-Jie; Munoz, Juliana; Gurley, Bill J.; Markowitz, John S.

    2015-01-01

    Ethnopharmacological relevance Botanical medicines are frequently used in combination with therapeutic drugs, imposing a risk for harmful botanical-drug interactions (BDIs). Among the existing BDI evaluation methods, clinical studies are the most desirable, but due to their expense and protracted time-line for completion, conventional in vitro methodologies remain the most frequently used BDI assessment tools. However, many predictions generated from in vitro studies are inconsistent with clinical findings. Accordingly, the present study aimed to develop a novel ex vivo approach for BDI assessment and expand the safety evaluation methodoloy in applied ethnopharmacological research. Materials and Methods This approach differs from conventional in vitro methods in that rather than botanical extracts or individual phytochemicals being prepared in artificial buffers, human plasma/serum collected from a limited number of subjects administered botanical supplements was utilized to assess BDIs. To validate the methodology, human plasma/serum samples collected from healthy subjects administered either milk thistle or goldenseal extracts were utilized in incubation studies to determine their potential inhibitory effects on CYP2C9 and CYP3A4/5, respectively. Silybin A and B, two principal milk thistle phytochemicals, and hydrastine and berberine, the purported active constituents in goldenseal, were evaluated in both phosphate buffer and human plasma based in vitro incubation systems. Results Ex vivo study results were consistent with formal clinical study findings for the effect of milk thistle on the disposition of tolbutamide, a CYP2C9 substrate, and for goldenseal’s influence on the pharmacokinetics of midazolam, a widely accepted CYP3A4/5 substrate. Compared to conventional in vitro BDI methodologies of assessment, the introduction of human plasma into the in vitro study model changed the observed inhibitory effect of silybinA, silybin B and hydrastine and berberine

  15. Minimal mobile human computer interaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    el Ali, A.

    2013-01-01

    In the last 20 years, the widespread adoption of personal, mobile computing devices in everyday life, has allowed entry into a new technological era in Human Computer Interaction (HCI). The constant change of the physical and social context in a user's situation made possible by the portability of m

  16. Interactions between Humans and Robots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vlachos, Evgenios; Schärfe, Henrik

    2013-01-01

    introduce a generic model for comparing and contrasting robots (CCM), aiming to provide a common platform for robot designers, developers and users. The framework for HRI we propose stems mainly from the vagueness and the lack of clarity that has been observed in the definitions of both Direct and Indirect......Combining multiple scientific disciplines, robotic technology has made significant progress the last decade, and so did the interactions between humans and robots. This article updates the agenda for robotic research by highlighting the factors that affect Human – Robot Interaction (HRI......), and explains the relationships and dependencies that exist between them. The four main factors that define the properties of a robot, and therefore the interaction, are distributed in two dimensions: (1) Intelligence (Control - Autonomy), and (2) Perspective (Tool - Medium). Based on these factors, we...

  17. Interactions between Humans and Robots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vlachos, Evgenios; Schärfe, Henrik

    2013-01-01

    Combining multiple scientific disciplines, robotic technology has made significant progress the last decade, and so did the interactions between humans and robots. This article updates the agenda for robotic research by highlighting the factors that affect Human – Robot Interaction (HRI......), and explains the relationships and dependencies that exist between them. The four main factors that define the properties of a robot, and therefore the interaction, are distributed in two dimensions: (1) Intelligence (Control - Autonomy), and (2) Perspective (Tool - Medium). Based on these factors, we...... introduce a generic model for comparing and contrasting robots (CCM), aiming to provide a common platform for robot designers, developers and users. The framework for HRI we propose stems mainly from the vagueness and the lack of clarity that has been observed in the definitions of both Direct and Indirect...

  18. PROOF OF CONCEPT FOR A HUMAN RELIABILITY ANALYSIS METHOD FOR HEURISTIC USABILITY EVALUATION OF SOFTWARE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ronald L. Boring; David I. Gertman; Jeffrey C. Joe; Julie L. Marble

    2005-09-01

    An ongoing issue within human-computer interaction (HCI) is the need for simplified or “discount” methods. The current economic slowdown has necessitated innovative methods that are results driven and cost effective. The myriad methods of design and usability are currently being cost-justified, and new techniques are actively being explored that meet current budgets and needs. Recent efforts in human reliability analysis (HRA) are highlighted by the ten-year development of the Standardized Plant Analysis Risk HRA (SPAR-H) method. The SPAR-H method has been used primarily for determining humancentered risk at nuclear power plants. The SPAR-H method, however, shares task analysis underpinnings with HCI. Despite this methodological overlap, there is currently no HRA approach deployed in heuristic usability evaluation. This paper presents an extension of the existing SPAR-H method to be used as part of heuristic usability evaluation in HCI.

  19. Integrating Implicit Induction Proofs into Certified Proof Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stratulat, Sorin

    We give evidence of the direct integration and automated checking of implicit induction-based proofs inside certified reasoning environments, as that provided by the Coq proof assistant. This is the first step of a long term project focused on 1) mechanically certifying implicit induction proofs generated by automated provers like Spike, and 2) narrowing the gap between automated and interactive proof techniques inside proof assistants such that multiple induction steps can be executed completely automatically and mutual induction can be treated more conveniently. Contrary to the current approaches of reconstructing implicit induction proofs into scripts based on explicit induction tactics that integrate the usual proof assistants, our checking methodology is simpler and fits better for automation. The underlying implicit induction principles are separated and validated independently from the proof scripts that consist in a bunch of one-to-one translations of implicit induction proof steps. The translated steps can be checked independently, too, so the validation process fits well for parallelisation and for the management of large proof scripts. Moreover, our approach is more general; any kind of implicit induction proof can be considered because the limitations imposed by the proof reconstruction techniques no longer exist. An implementation that integrates automatic translators for generating fully checkable Coq scripts from Spike proofs is reported.

  20. Notion of Mediators in Human Interaction

    OpenAIRE

    Josip Stepanic

    2003-01-01

    Many types of human interaction are mediated processes. However, regarding the details of human description, the mediating unit structure and dynamics is not developed appropriately. The explicit concentration on mediators contributes to understanding of interplay between value sets governing interaction, interaction roles in regular activities and interaction design for purpose. This article is a contribution to development of a concept of mediated human interaction through structuring of me...

  1. Proof Auditing Formalised Mathematics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Miles Adams

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The first three formalisations of major mathematical proofs have heralded a new age in formalised mathematics, establishing that informal proofs at the limits of what can be understood by humans can be checked by machine. However, formalisation itself can be subject to error, and yet there is currently no accepted process in checking, or even much concern that such checks have not been performed. In this paper, we motivate why we should be concerned about correctness, and argue the need for proof auditing, to rigorously and independently check a formalisation. We discuss the issues involved in performing an audit, and propose an effective and efficient auditing process. Throughout we use the Flyspeck Project, that formalises the Kepler Conjecture proof, to illustrate our point.

  2. Proof patterns

    CERN Document Server

    Joshi, Mark

    2015-01-01

    This innovative textbook introduces a new pattern-based approach to learning proof methods in the mathematical sciences. Readers will discover techniques that will enable them to learn new proofs across different areas of pure mathematics with ease. The patterns in proofs from diverse fields such as algebra, analysis, topology and number theory are explored. Specific topics examined include game theory, combinatorics, and Euclidean geometry, enabling a broad familiarity. The author, an experienced lecturer and researcher renowned for his innovative view and intuitive style, illuminates a wide range of techniques and examples from duplicating the cube to triangulating polygons to the infinitude of primes to the fundamental theorem of algebra. Intended as a companion for undergraduate students, this text is an essential addition to every aspiring mathematician’s toolkit.

  3. The interaction between religious freedom, equality and human dignity

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Personal Computer

    ABSTRACT. In balancing religious freedom with the right to equality and human dignity of persons ... Especially in the case of racial or gender discrimination, .... important issue is the determination of the burden of proof and whether the.

  4. The Self-Organization of Human Interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dale, Rick; Fusaroli, Riccardo; Duran, Nicholas

    2013-01-01

    We describe a “centipede’s dilemma” that faces the sciences of human interaction. Research on human interaction has been involved in extensive theoretical debate, although the vast majority of research tends to focus on a small set of human behaviors, cognitive processes, and interactive contexts....... The problem is that naturalistic human interaction must integrate all of these factors simultaneously, and grander theoretical mitigation cannot come only from focused experimental or computational agendas. We look to dynamical systems theory as a framework for thinking about how these multiple behaviors...

  5. Pantomimic gestures for human-robot interaction

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Burke, Michael G

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available -1 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON ROBOTICS 1 Pantomimic Gestures for Human-Robot Interaction Michael Burke, Student Member, IEEE, and Joan Lasenby Abstract This work introduces a pantomimic gesture interface, which classifies human hand gestures using...

  6. The Human-Robot Interaction Operating System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, Terrence; Kunz, Clayton; Hiatt, Laura M.; Bugajska, Magda

    2006-01-01

    In order for humans and robots to work effectively together, they need to be able to converse about abilities, goals and achievements. Thus, we are developing an interaction infrastructure called the "Human-Robot Interaction Operating System" (HRI/OS). The HRI/OS provides a structured software framework for building human-robot teams, supports a variety of user interfaces, enables humans and robots to engage in task-oriented dialogue, and facilitates integration of robots through an extensible API.

  7. Formal Proof And Exploratory Experimentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Misfeldt, Morten; Danielsen, Kristian; Krag Sørensen, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates conceptions of mathematical investigation and proof in upper-secondary students. The focus of the paper is an intervention that scaffolds the interaction between open explorative activities and the development of proof sketches through explorations of lattice polygons, aim...

  8. Development of a lozenge for oral transmucosal delivery of trans-resveratrol in humans: proof of concept.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otis L Blanchard

    Full Text Available Resveratrol provides multiple physiologic benefits which promote healthspan in various model species and clinical trials support continued exploration of resveratrol treatment in humans. However, there remains concern regarding low bioavailability and wide inter-individual differences in absorption and metabolism in humans, which suggests a great need to develop novel methods for resveratrol delivery. We hypothesized that oral transmucosal delivery, using a lozenge composed of a resveratrol-excipient matrix, would allow resveratrol to be absorbed rapidly into the bloodstream. We pursued proof of concept through two experiments. In the first experiment, the solubility of trans-resveratrol (tRES in water and 2.0 M solutions of dextrose, fructose, ribose, sucrose, and xylitol was determined using HPLC. Independent t-tests with a Bonferroni correction were used to compare the solubility of tRES in each of the solutions to that in water. tRES was significantly more soluble in the ribose solution (p = 0.0013 than in the other four solutions. Given the enhanced solubility of tRES in a ribose solution, a resveratrol-ribose matrix was developed into a lozenge suitable for human consumption. Lozenges were prepared, each containing 146±5.5 mg tRES per 2000 mg of lozenge mass. Two healthy human participants consumed one of the prepared lozenges following an overnight fast. Venipuncture was performed immediately before and 15, 30, 45, and 60 minutes following lozenge administration. Maximal plasma concentrations (Cmax for tRES alone (i.e., resveratrol metabolites not included were 325 and 332 ng⋅mL(-1 for the two participants at 15 minute post-administration for both individuals. These results suggest a resveratrol-ribose matrix lozenge can achieve greater Cmax and enter the bloodstream faster than previously reported dosage forms for gastrointestinal absorption. While this study is limited by small sample size and only one method of resveratrol

  9. Themes in human work interaction design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørngreen, Rikke; Clemmensen, Torkil

    2008-01-01

    Abstract. This paper raises themes that are seen as some of the challenges facing the emerging practice and research field of Human Work Interaction Design. The paper has its offset in the discussions and writings that have been dominant within the IFIP Working Group on Human Work Interaction...

  10. Themes in human work interaction design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørngreen, Rikke; Clemmensen, Torkil

    2008-01-01

    Abstract. This paper raises themes that are seen as some of the challenges facing the emerging practice and research field of Human Work Interaction Design. The paper has its offset in the discussions and writings that have been dominant within the IFIP Working Group on Human Work Interaction...... Design (name HWID) through the last two and half years since the commencement of this Working Group. The paper thus provides an introduction to the theory and empirical evidence that lie behind the combination of empirical work studies and interaction design. It also recommends key topics for future...... research in Human Work Interaction Design....

  11. Two Invariants of Human-Swarm Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-15

    2002). Humans and automation: System design and research issues. John Wiley and Sons. 29 Brown et al., Two Invariants of Human Swarm Interaction...Daniel S. Brown AFRL Information Directorate and Michael A. Goodrich, Shin-Young Jung, and Sean Kerman Brigham Young University The search for...publication in this journal. Journal of Human-Robot Interaction, Vol. 1, No. 1, 2012, Pages 78-95. DOI 10.5898/JHRI.1.1.Tanaka Brown et al., Two Invariants

  12. Augmented Robotics Dialog System for Enhancing Human-Robot Interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso-Martín, Fernando; Castro-González, Aĺvaro; Luengo, Francisco Javier Fernandez de Gorostiza; Salichs, Miguel Ángel

    2015-07-03

    Augmented reality, augmented television and second screen are cutting edge technologies that provide end users extra and enhanced information related to certain events in real time. This enriched information helps users better understand such events, at the same time providing a more satisfactory experience. In the present paper, we apply this main idea to human-robot interaction (HRI), to how users and robots interchange information. The ultimate goal of this paper is to improve the quality of HRI, developing a new dialog manager system that incorporates enriched information from the semantic web. This work presents the augmented robotic dialog system (ARDS), which uses natural language understanding mechanisms to provide two features: (i) a non-grammar multimodal input (verbal and/or written) text; and (ii) a contextualization of the information conveyed in the interaction. This contextualization is achieved by information enrichment techniques that link the extracted information from the dialog with extra information about the world available in semantic knowledge bases. This enriched or contextualized information (information enrichment, semantic enhancement or contextualized information are used interchangeably in the rest of this paper) offers many possibilities in terms of HRI. For instance, it can enhance the robot's pro-activeness during a human-robot dialog (the enriched information can be used to propose new topics during the dialog, while ensuring a coherent interaction). Another possibility is to display additional multimedia content related to the enriched information on a visual device. This paper describes the ARDS and shows a proof of concept of its applications.

  13. Assessing Technology in the Absence of Proof: Trust Based on the Interplay of Others' Opinions and the Interaction Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vries, Peter W; van den Berg, Stéphanie M; Midden, Cees

    2015-12-01

    The present research addresses the question of how trust in systems is formed when unequivocal information about system accuracy and reliability is absent, and focuses on the interaction of indirect information (others' evaluations) and direct (experiential) information stemming from the interaction process. Trust in decision-supporting technology, such as route planners, is important for satisfactory user interactions. Little is known, however, about trust formation in the absence of outcome feedback, that is, when users have not yet had opportunity to verify actual outcomes. Three experiments manipulated others' evaluations ("endorsement cues") and various forms of experience-based information ("process feedback") in interactions with a route planner and measured resulting trust using rating scales and credits staked on the outcome. Subsequently, an overall analysis was conducted. Study 1 showed that effectiveness of endorsement cues on trust is moderated by mere process feedback. In Study 2, consistent (i.e., nonrandom) process feedback overruled the effect of endorsement cues on trust, whereas inconsistent process feedback did not. Study 3 showed that although the effects of consistent and inconsistent process feedback largely remained regardless of face validity, high face validity in process feedback caused higher trust than those with low face validity. An overall analysis confirmed these findings. Experiential information impacts trust even if outcome feedback is not available, and, moreover, overrules indirect trust cues-depending on the nature of the former. Designing systems so that they allow novice users to make inferences about their inner workings may foster initial trust. © 2015, Human Factors and Ergonomics Society.

  14. Stem cell-based treatments against stroke: observations from human proof-of-concept studies and considerations regarding clinical applicability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thorsten Roland Doeppner

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Ischemic stroke remains a heavy burden for industrialized countries. The only causal therapy is the recanalization of occluded vessels via thrombolysis, which due to a narrow time window still can be offered only to a minority of patients. Since the majority of patients continues to exhibit neurological deficits even following successful thrombolysis, restorative therapies are urgently needed that promote brain remodeling and repair once stroke injury has occurred. Due to their unique properties of action, stem cell-based strategies gained increasing interest during recent years. Using various stroke models in both rodents and primates, the transplantation of stem cells, namely of bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs or neural progenitor cells (NPCs, has been shown to promote neurological recovery most likely via indirect bystander actions. In view of promising observations, clinical proof-of-concept studies are currently under way, in which effects of stem and precursor cells are evaluated in human stroke patients. In this review we summarize already published studies, which due to the broad experience in other medical contexts mostly employed bone marrow-derived MSCs by means of intravenous transplantation. With the overall number of clinical trials limited in number, only a fraction of these studies used non-treated control groups, and only single studies were adequately blinded. Despite these limitations, first promising results justify the need for more elaborate clinical trials in order to make stem cell transplantation a success for stroke treatment in the future.

  15. Non-Invasive Intra-cardiac Pressure Measurements Using Subharmonic-Aided Pressure Estimation: Proof of Concept in Humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dave, Jaydev K; Kulkarni, Sushmita V; Pangaonkar, Purva P; Stanczak, Maria; McDonald, Maureen E; Cohen, Ira S; Mehrotra, Praveen; Savage, Michael P; Walinsky, Paul; Ruggiero, Nicholas J; Fischman, David L; Ogilby, David; VanWhy, Carolyn; Lombardi, Matthew; Forsberg, Flemming

    2017-08-11

    This study evaluated the feasibility of employing non-invasive intra-cardiac pressure estimation using subharmonic signals from ultrasound contrast agents in humans. This institutional review board-approved proof-of-concept study included 15 consenting patients scheduled for left and right heart catheterization. During the catheterization procedure, Definity was infused intra-venously at 4-10 mL/min. Ultrasound scanning was performed with a Sonix RP using pulse inversion, three incident acoustic output levels and 2.5-MHz transmit frequency. Radiofrequency data were processed and subharmonic amplitudes were compared with the pressure catheter data. The correlation coefficient between subharmonic signals and pressure catheter data ranged from -0.3 to -0.9. For acquisitions with optimum acoustic output, pressure errors between the subharmonic technique and catheter were as low as 2.6 mmHg. However, automatically determining optimum acoustic output during scanning for each patient remains to be addressed before clinical applicability can be decided. Copyright © 2017 World Federation for Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Mixed reality and human-robot interaction

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Xiangyu

    2011-01-01

    MR technologies play an increasing role in different aspects of human-robot interactions. The visual combination of digital contents with real working spaces creates a simulated environment that is set out to enhance these aspects. This book presents and discusses fundamental scientific issues, technical implementations, lab testing, and industrial applications and case studies of Mixed Reality in Human-Robot Interaction. It is a reference book that not only acts as meta-book in the field that defines and frames Mixed Reality use in Human-Robot Interaction, but also addresses up-coming trends

  17. Are human interactivity times lognormal?

    CERN Document Server

    Blenn, Norbert

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we are analyzing the interactivity time, defined as the duration between two consecutive tasks such as sending emails, collecting friends and followers and writing comments in online social networks (OSNs). The distributions of these times are heavy tailed and often described by a power-law distribution. However, power-law distributions usually only fit the heavy tail of empirical data and ignore the information in the smaller value range. Here, we argue that the durations between writing emails or comments, adding friends and receiving followers are likely to follow a lognormal distribution. We discuss the similarities between power-law and lognormal distributions, show that binning of data can deform a lognormal to a power-law distribution and propose an explanation for the appearance of lognormal interactivity times. The historical debate of similarities between lognormal and power-law distributions is reviewed by illustrating the resemblance of measurements in this paper with the historical...

  18. Understanding mathematical proof

    CERN Document Server

    Taylor, John

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The need for proof The language of mathematics Reasoning Deductive reasoning and truth Example proofs Logic and ReasoningIntroduction Propositions, connectives, and truth tables Logical equivalence and logical implication Predicates and quantification Logical reasoning Sets and Functions Introduction Sets and membership Operations on setsThe Cartesian product Functions and composite functions Properties of functions The Structure of Mathematical ProofsIntroduction Some proofs dissected An informal framework for proofs Direct proof A more formal framework Finding Proofs Direct proo

  19. Human Work Interaction Design Meets International Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Campos, Pedro; Clemmensen, Torkil; Barricelli, Barbara Rita

    2017-01-01

    Over the last decade, empirical relationships between work domain analysis and HCI design have been identified by much research in the field of Human Work Interaction Design (HWID) across five continents. Since this workshop takes place at the Interact Conference in Mumbai, there is a unique oppo...

  20. Interactively human: Sharing time, constructing materiality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roepstorff, Andreas

    2013-06-01

    Predictive processing models of cognition are promising an elegant way to unite action, perception, and learning. However, in the current formulations, they are species-unspecific and have very little particularly human about them. I propose to examine how, in this framework, humans can be able to massively interact and to build shared worlds that are both material and symbolic.

  1. Problem spotting in human-machine interaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krahmer, Emiel; Swerts, Marc; Theune, Mariët; Weegels, Mieke

    1999-01-01

    In human-human communication, dialogue participants are con-tinuously sending and receiving signals on the status of the inform-ation being exchanged. We claim that if spoken dialogue systems were able to detect such cues and change their strategy accordingly, the interaction between user and system

  2. Problem spotting in human-machine interaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krahmer, Emiel; Swerts, Marc; Theune, Mariet; Weegels, Mieke

    In human-human communication, dialogue participants are con-tinuously sending and receiving signals on the status of the inform-ation being exchanged. We claim that if spoken dialogue systems were able to detect such cues and change their strategy accordingly, the interaction between user and

  3. The Science of Human Interaction and Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yano, Kazuo

    2013-01-01

    There is a missing link between our understanding of teaching as high-level social phenomenon and teaching as a physiological phenomenon of brain activity. We suggest that the science of human interaction is the missing link. Using over one-million days of human-behavior data, we have discovered that "collective activenes" (CA), which indicates…

  4. Deep architectures for Human Computer Interaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noulas, A.K.; Kröse, B.J.A.

    2008-01-01

    In this work we present the application of Conditional Restricted Boltzmann Machines in Human Computer Interaction. These provide a well suited framework to model the complex temporal patterns produced from humans in the audio and video modalities. They can be trained in a semisupervised fashion and

  5. Ivermectin interacts with human ABCG2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jani, Márton; Makai, Ildikó; Kis, Emese; Szabó, Pál; Nagy, Tünde; Krajcsi, Péter; Lespine, Anne

    2011-01-01

    Ivermectin is an antiparasitic drug frequently administered to humans. It has a limited brain exposure that is attributed to the efflux activity of ABCB1/Abcb1. ABCG2/Abcg2 is also a major transporter present in most pharmacologically important barriers. However, interaction of ivermectin with Abcg2 shows species specificity and in many studies was confounded by the masking effect of ABCB1/Abcb1. In this study using cellular and membrane assays we show that ivermectin displays a high-affinity interaction with human ABCG2 with IC(50) values in the 1-1.5  µM range. This interaction may have implications in human ABCG2-mediated drug-drug interactions of ivermectin.

  6. Identifying the structural discontinuities of human interactions

    CERN Document Server

    Grauwin, Sebastian; Sobolevsky, Stanislav; Hövel, Philipp; Simini, Filippo; Vanhoof, Maarten; Smoreda, Zbigniew; Barabasi, Albert-Laszlo; Ratti, Carlo

    2015-01-01

    The idea of a hierarchical spatial organization of society lies at the core of seminal theories in human geography that have strongly influenced our understanding of social organization. In the same line, the recent availability of large-scale human mobility and communication data has offered novel quantitative insights hinting at a strong geographical confinement of human interactions within neighboring regions, extending to local levels within countries. However, models of human interaction largely ignore this effect. Here, we analyze several country-wide networks of telephone calls and uncover a systematic decrease of communication induced by borders which we identify as the missing variable in state-of-the-art models. Using this empirical evidence, we propose an alternative modeling framework that naturally stylize the damping effect of borders. We show that this new notion substantially improves the predictive power of widely used interaction models, thus increasing our ability to predict social activiti...

  7. Proust: A Nano Proof Assistant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prabhakar Ragde

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Proust is a small Racket program offering rudimentary interactive assistance in the development of verified proofs for propositional and predicate logic. It is constructed in stages, some of which are done by students before using it to complete proof exercises, and in parallel with the study of its theoretical underpinnings, including elements of Martin-Lof type theory. The goal is twofold: to demystify some of the machinery behind full-featured proof assistants such as Coq and Agda, and to better integrate the study of formal logic with other core elements of an undergraduate computer science curriculum.

  8. Human-Robot Interaction: Status and Challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheridan, Thomas B

    2016-06-01

    The current status of human-robot interaction (HRI) is reviewed, and key current research challenges for the human factors community are described. Robots have evolved from continuous human-controlled master-slave servomechanisms for handling nuclear waste to a broad range of robots incorporating artificial intelligence for many applications and under human supervisory control. This mini-review describes HRI developments in four application areas and what are the challenges for human factors research. In addition to a plethora of research papers, evidence of success is manifest in live demonstrations of robot capability under various forms of human control. HRI is a rapidly evolving field. Specialized robots under human teleoperation have proven successful in hazardous environments and medical application, as have specialized telerobots under human supervisory control for space and repetitive industrial tasks. Research in areas of self-driving cars, intimate collaboration with humans in manipulation tasks, human control of humanoid robots for hazardous environments, and social interaction with robots is at initial stages. The efficacy of humanoid general-purpose robots has yet to be proven. HRI is now applied in almost all robot tasks, including manufacturing, space, aviation, undersea, surgery, rehabilitation, agriculture, education, package fetch and delivery, policing, and military operations. © 2016, Human Factors and Ergonomics Society.

  9. Duplicability of self-interacting human genes.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Pérez-Bercoff, Asa

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There is increasing interest in the evolution of protein-protein interactions because this should ultimately be informative of the patterns of evolution of new protein functions within the cell. One model proposes that the evolution of new protein-protein interactions and protein complexes proceeds through the duplication of self-interacting genes. This model is supported by data from yeast. We examined the relationship between gene duplication and self-interaction in the human genome. RESULTS: We investigated the patterns of self-interaction and duplication among 34808 interactions encoded by 8881 human genes, and show that self-interacting proteins are encoded by genes with higher duplicability than genes whose proteins lack this type of interaction. We show that this result is robust against the system used to define duplicate genes. Finally we compared the presence of self-interactions amongst proteins whose genes have duplicated either through whole-genome duplication (WGD) or small-scale duplication (SSD), and show that the former tend to have more interactions in general. After controlling for age differences between the two sets of duplicates this result can be explained by the time since the gene duplication. CONCLUSIONS: Genes encoding self-interacting proteins tend to have higher duplicability than proteins lacking self-interactions. Moreover these duplicate genes have more often arisen through whole-genome rather than small-scale duplication. Finally, self-interacting WGD genes tend to have more interaction partners in general in the PIN, which can be explained by their overall greater age. This work adds to our growing knowledge of the importance of contextual factors in gene duplicability.

  10. Proof nets for display logic

    CERN Document Server

    Moot, Richard

    2007-01-01

    This paper explores several extensions of proof nets for the Lambek calculus in order to handle the different connectives of display logic in a natural way. The new proof net calculus handles some recent additions to the Lambek vocabulary such as Galois connections and Grishin interactions. It concludes with an exploration of the generative capacity of the Lambek-Grishin calculus, presenting an embedding of lexicalized tree adjoining grammars into the Lambek-Grishin calculus.

  11. Language evolution and human-computer interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grudin, Jonathan; Norman, Donald A.

    1991-01-01

    Many of the issues that confront designers of interactive computer systems also appear in natural language evolution. Natural languages and human-computer interfaces share as their primary mission the support of extended 'dialogues' between responsive entities. Because in each case one participant is a human being, some of the pressures operating on natural languages, causing them to evolve in order to better support such dialogue, also operate on human-computer 'languages' or interfaces. This does not necessarily push interfaces in the direction of natural language - since one entity in this dialogue is not a human, this is not to be expected. Nonetheless, by discerning where the pressures that guide natural language evolution also appear in human-computer interaction, we can contribute to the design of computer systems and obtain a new perspective on natural languages.

  12. Language evolution and human-computer interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grudin, Jonathan; Norman, Donald A.

    1991-01-01

    Many of the issues that confront designers of interactive computer systems also appear in natural language evolution. Natural languages and human-computer interfaces share as their primary mission the support of extended 'dialogues' between responsive entities. Because in each case one participant is a human being, some of the pressures operating on natural languages, causing them to evolve in order to better support such dialogue, also operate on human-computer 'languages' or interfaces. This does not necessarily push interfaces in the direction of natural language - since one entity in this dialogue is not a human, this is not to be expected. Nonetheless, by discerning where the pressures that guide natural language evolution also appear in human-computer interaction, we can contribute to the design of computer systems and obtain a new perspective on natural languages.

  13. Multimodal interaction for human-robot teams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Dustin; Schurr, Nathan; Ayers, Jeanine; Rousseau, Jeff; Fertitta, John; Carlin, Alan; Dumond, Danielle

    2013-05-01

    Unmanned ground vehicles have the potential for supporting small dismounted teams in mapping facilities, maintaining security in cleared buildings, and extending the team's reconnaissance and persistent surveillance capability. In order for such autonomous systems to integrate with the team, we must move beyond current interaction methods using heads-down teleoperation which require intensive human attention and affect the human operator's ability to maintain local situational awareness and ensure their own safety. This paper focuses on the design, development and demonstration of a multimodal interaction system that incorporates naturalistic human gestures, voice commands, and a tablet interface. By providing multiple, partially redundant interaction modes, our system degrades gracefully in complex environments and enables the human operator to robustly select the most suitable interaction method given the situational demands. For instance, the human can silently use arm and hand gestures for commanding a team of robots when it is important to maintain stealth. The tablet interface provides an overhead situational map allowing waypoint-based navigation for multiple ground robots in beyond-line-of-sight conditions. Using lightweight, wearable motion sensing hardware either worn comfortably beneath the operator's clothing or integrated within their uniform, our non-vision-based approach enables an accurate, continuous gesture recognition capability without line-of-sight constraints. To reduce the training necessary to operate the system, we designed the interactions around familiar arm and hand gestures.

  14. Equality: A Principle of Human Interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hjördís Hákonardóttir

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper focuses on equality as a primary principle of human interaction. Human beings have basic needs, physical and mental, the fulfilment of which is necessary for a flourishing life. These needs transfer into so-called fundamental rights. Humans are entitled to a life as conscious, autonomous actors in respect to those needs. In this respect all humans are equal. It is proposed here that equality in this sense promotes a situation from which fundamental rights are derived. Thus equality is primary to and the reason why recognition of fundamental rights cannot be left to the chance of social development.

  15. Human-Robot Interaction and Human Self-Realization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    The ethical debate on robots has become a cutting edge issue in many countries. It is, however, most often approached through an us-versus-them perspective—as if we were watching a soccer game and taking one side. Informed by Eastern as well as Western thought, the meta-ethical aim of this paper...... is to test the basis for this type of discrimination when it comes to human-robot interaction. Furthermore, the paper will take Heidegger's warning concerning technology as a vantage point and explore the possibility of human-robot interaction forming a praxis that might help humans to be with robots beyond...

  16. Analysis of human emotion in human-robot interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blar, Noraidah; Jafar, Fairul Azni; Abdullah, Nurhidayu; Muhammad, Mohd Nazrin; Kassim, Anuar Muhamed

    2015-05-01

    There is vast application of robots in human's works such as in industry, hospital, etc. Therefore, it is believed that human and robot can have a good collaboration to achieve an optimum result of work. The objectives of this project is to analyze human-robot collaboration and to understand humans feeling (kansei factors) when dealing with robot that robot should adapt to understand the humans' feeling. Researches currently are exploring in the area of human-robot interaction with the intention to reduce problems that subsist in today's civilization. Study had found that to make a good interaction between human and robot, first it is need to understand the abilities of each. Kansei Engineering in robotic was used to undergo the project. The project experiments were held by distributing questionnaire to students and technician. After that, the questionnaire results were analyzed by using SPSS analysis. Results from the analysis shown that there are five feelings which significant to the human in the human-robot interaction; anxious, fatigue, relaxed, peaceful, and impressed.

  17. Sense of presence and anxiety during virtual social interactions between a human and virtual humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinkman, Willem-Paul; Hartanto, Dwi; Emmelkamp, Paul M.G.

    2014-01-01

    Virtual reality exposure therapy (VRET) has been shown to be effective in treatment of anxiety disorders. Yet, there is lack of research on the extent to which interaction between the individual and virtual humans can be successfully implanted to increase levels of anxiety for therapeutic purposes. This proof-of-concept pilot study aimed at examining levels of the sense of presence and anxiety during exposure to virtual environments involving social interaction with virtual humans and using different virtual reality displays. A non-clinical sample of 38 participants was randomly assigned to either a head-mounted display (HMD) with motion tracker and sterescopic view condition or a one-screen projection-based virtual reality display condition. Participants in both conditions engaged in free speech dialogues with virtual humans controlled by research assistants. It was hypothesized that exposure to virtual social interactions will elicit moderate levels of sense of presence and anxiety in both groups. Further it was expected that participants in the HMD condition will report higher scores of sense of presence and anxiety than participants in the one-screen projection-based display condition. Results revealed that in both conditions virtual social interactions were associated with moderate levels of sense of presence and anxiety. Additionally, participants in the HMD condition reported significantly higher levels of presence than those in the one-screen projection-based display condition (p = .001). However, contrary to the expectations neither the average level of anxiety nor the highest level of anxiety during exposure to social virtual environments differed between the groups (p = .97 and p = .75, respectively). The findings suggest that virtual social interactions can be successfully applied in VRET to enhance sense of presence and anxiety. Furthermore, our results indicate that one-screen projection-based displays can successfully activate levels of anxiety in

  18. Human Computer Interaction: An intellectual approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuntal Saroha

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the research that has been done in thefield of Human Computer Interaction (HCI relating tohuman psychology. Human-computer interaction (HCI isthe study of how people design, implement, and useinteractive computer systems and how computers affectindividuals, organizations, and society. This encompassesnot only ease of use but also new interaction techniques forsupporting user tasks, providing better access toinformation, and creating more powerful forms ofcommunication. It involves input and output devices andthe interaction techniques that use them; how information ispresented and requested; how the computer’s actions arecontrolled and monitored; all forms of help, documentation,and training; the tools used to design, build, test, andevaluate user interfaces; and the processes that developersfollow when creating Interfaces.

  19. High-resolution Time-Of-Flight PET with Depth-Of-Interaction becomes feasible: a proof of principle

    CERN Document Server

    Cosentino, Luigi; Pappalardo, Alfio; Garibaldi, Franco

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we prove that the choice of a suitable treatment of the scintillator surfaces, along with suitable photodetectors electronics and specific algorithms for raw data analysis, allow to achieve an optimal tradeoff between energy, time and DOI resolution, thus strongly supporting the feasibility of a prostate TOF- PET probe, MRI compatible, with the required features and performance. In numbers this means a detector element of 1.5mm x 1.5mm x 10mm, achieving at the same time energy resolution around 11.5%, time-of- flight resolution around 150 ps and DOI resolution even below 1 mm. We stress that such a time resolution allows to increase significantly the Noise Equivalent Counting Rate, and consequently improve the image quality and the lesion detection capability. These individual values correspond to the best obtained so far by other groups, but we got all of them simultaneously. In our opinion this proof of principle paves the way to the feasibility of a TOF-PET MRI compatible probe with unprecede...

  20. Fundamentals of human-computer interaction

    CERN Document Server

    Monk, Andrew F

    1985-01-01

    Fundamentals of Human-Computer Interaction aims to sensitize the systems designer to the problems faced by the user of an interactive system. The book grew out of a course entitled """"The User Interface: Human Factors for Computer-based Systems"""" which has been run annually at the University of York since 1981. This course has been attended primarily by systems managers from the computer industry. The book is organized into three parts. Part One focuses on the user as processor of information with studies on visual perception; extracting information from printed and electronically presented

  1. Simulating human behavior for national security human interactions.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernard, Michael Lewis; Hart, Dereck H.; Verzi, Stephen J.; Glickman, Matthew R.; Wolfenbarger, Paul R.; Xavier, Patrick Gordon

    2007-01-01

    This 3-year research and development effort focused on what we believe is a significant technical gap in existing modeling and simulation capabilities: the representation of plausible human cognition and behaviors within a dynamic, simulated environment. Specifically, the intent of the ''Simulating Human Behavior for National Security Human Interactions'' project was to demonstrate initial simulated human modeling capability that realistically represents intra- and inter-group interaction behaviors between simulated humans and human-controlled avatars as they respond to their environment. Significant process was made towards simulating human behaviors through the development of a framework that produces realistic characteristics and movement. The simulated humans were created from models designed to be psychologically plausible by being based on robust psychological research and theory. Progress was also made towards enhancing Sandia National Laboratories existing cognitive models to support culturally plausible behaviors that are important in representing group interactions. These models were implemented in the modular, interoperable, and commercially supported Umbra{reg_sign} simulation framework.

  2. Human-Computer Interaction in Smart Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianluca Paravati

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Here, we provide an overview of the content of the Special Issue on “Human-computer interaction in smart environments”. The aim of this Special Issue is to highlight technologies and solutions encompassing the use of mass-market sensors in current and emerging applications for interacting with Smart Environments. Selected papers address this topic by analyzing different interaction modalities, including hand/body gestures, face recognition, gaze/eye tracking, biosignal analysis, speech and activity recognition, and related issues.

  3. Metabolic interactions of agrochemicals in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgson, Ernest; Rose, Randy L

    2008-06-01

    Agrochemicals and other xenobiotics are metabolized by xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes (XMEs) to products that may be more or less toxic than the parent chemical. In this regard, phase-I XMEs such as cytochrome P450s (CYPs) are of primary importance. Interactions at the level of metabolism may take place via either inhibition or induction of XMEs. Such interactions have often been investigated, in vitro, in experimental animals, using subcellular fractions such as liver microsomes, but seldom in humans or at the level of individual XME isoforms. The authors have been investigating the metabolism of a number of agrochemicals by human liver microsomes and recombinant CYP isoforms and have recently embarked on studies of the induction of XMEs in human hepatocytes. The insecticides chlorpyrifos, carbaryl, carbofuran and fipronil, as well as the repellant DEET, are all extensively metabolized by human liver microsomes and, although a number of CYP isoforms may be involved, CYP2B6 and CYP3A4 are usually the most important. Permethrin is hydrolyzed by esterase(s) present in both human liver microsomes and cytosol. A number of metabolic interactions have been observed. Chlorpyrifos and other phosphorothioates are potent inhibitors of the CYP-dependent metabolism of both endogenous substrates, such as testosterone and estradiol, and exogenous substrates, such as carbaryl, presumably as a result of the interaction of highly reactive sulfur, released during the oxidative desulfuration reaction, with the heme iron of CYP. The hydrolysis of permethrin in human liver can be inhibited by chlorpyrifos oxon and by carbaryl. Fipronil can inhibit testosterone metabolism by CYP3A4 and is an effective inducer of CYP isoforms in human hepatocytes.

  4. Quantification of human-structure interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caprani Colin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In lightweight structural systems there is increasing evidence that the presence of humans influences the dynamics characteristics of the system. In the past, most effort on determining the footfall-induced vertical force to the walking surface has been conducted using rigid or non-flexible surfaces such as treadmills. However, should the walking surface be vibrating, the characteristics of human walking could change to maximize comfort. This interaction between the structure and human may account for the discrepancy between the levels of vibration predicted by theory and those observed in practice. Indeed, many design rules can be seen to be conservative, perhaps partly because knowledge of this human-structure interaction is limited. This work aims to address this problem by quantifying the magnitude of human-structure interaction through a comprehensive experimental programme. Novel experimental techniques are used to measure the human-imparted force on the walking surface. Both rigid and flexible (vibrating surfaces are used, and we measure the imparted vibration response on a lively footbridge (the Warwick Bridge which acts as the flexible surface. A range of test subjects is considered, walking at a range of pacing frequencies. Comparison is made between a notional vibration response from the footfall force imparted to the rigid surface and the actual vibration response caused by the footfall force imparted to the flexible surface. Key aspects of the experimental regime are also explained. Finally, some comparisons are made using footfall force models from the literature. It is concluded that human-structure interaction is a key phenomenon that should be taken into account in the design and assessment of vibration-sensitive structures.

  5. Lakatos and Hersh on Mathematical Proof

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Bayat

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The concept of Mathematical Proof has been controversial for the past few decades. Different philosophers have offered different theories about the nature of Mathematical Proof, among which theories presented by Lakatos and Hersh have had significant similarities and differences with each other. It seems that a comparison and critical review of these two theories will lead to a better understanding of the concept of mathematical proof and will be a big step towards solving many related problems. Lakatos and Hersh argue that, firstly, “mathematical proof” has two different meanings, formal and informal; and, secondly, informal proofs are affected by human factors, such as individual decisions and collective agreements. I call these two thesis, respectively, “proof dualism” and “humanism”. But on the other hand, their theories have significant dissimilarities and are by no means equivalent. Lakatos is committed to linear proof dualism and methodological humanism, while Hersh’s theory involves some sort of parallel proof dualism and sociological humanism. According to linear proof dualism, the two main types of proofs are provided in order to achieve a common goal: incarnation of mathematical concepts and methods and truth. However, according to the parallel proof dualism, two main types of proofs are provided in order to achieve two different types of purposes: production of a valid sequence of signs (the goal of the formal proof and persuasion of the audience (the goal of the informal proof. Hersh’s humanism is informative and indicates pluralism; whereas, Lakatos’ version of humanism is normative and monistic.

  6. Human interactions with sirenians (manatees and dugongs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonde, Robert K.; Flint, Mark

    2017-01-01

    There are three extant sirenian species of the Trichechidae family and one living Dugongidae family member. Given their close ties to coastal and often urbanized habitats, sirenians are exposed to many types of anthropogenic activities that result in challenges to their well-being, poor health, and even death. In the wild, they are exposed to direct and indirect local pressures as well as subject to large-scale stressors such as global climate change acting on regions or entire genetic stocks. In captivity, they are subject to husbandry and management practices based on our collective knowledge, or in some cases lack thereof, of their needs and welfare. It is therefore reasonable to consider that their current imperiled status is very closely linked to our actions. In this chapter, we identify and define human interactions that may impact dugongs and manatees, including hunting, fisheries, boat interactions, negative interactions with man-made structures, disease and contaminants, and global climate change. We examine techniques used to investigate these impacts and the influence of sirenian biology and of changing human behaviors on potential outcomes. We examine how this differs for dugongs and manatees in the wild and for those held in captivity. Finally, we provide possible mitigation strategies and ways to assess the efforts we are making to improve the welfare of individuals and to conserve these species. This chapter identifies how the welfare of these species is intrinsically linked to the human interactions these animals experience, and how the nature of these interactions has changed with societal shifts. We proffer suggested ways to minimize negative impacts. Current knowledge should be used to minimize negative human interactions and impacts, to promote positive impacts, and to protect these animals for the future.

  7. Negative Affect in Human Robot Interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rehm, Matthias; Krogsager, Anders

    2013-01-01

    The vision of social robotics sees robots moving more and more into unrestricted social environments, where robots interact closely with users in their everyday activities, maybe even establishing relationships with the user over time. In this paper we present a field trial with a robot in a semi......-public place. Our analysis of the interactions with casual users shows that it is not enough to focus on modeling behavior that is similar to successful human interactions but that we have to take more deviant ways of interaction like abuse and impoliteness into account when we send robots into the users......’ environments. The analysis uses impoliteness theory as an analytical toolbox and exemplifies which strategies are employed by users in unexpected encounters with a humanoid robot....

  8. Hydroxypropyl methylcellulose mediated precipitation inhibition of sirolimus: from a screening campaign to a proof-of-concept human study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petruševska, Marija; Homar, Miha; Petek, Boštjan; Resman, Aleksander; Kocjan, Darko; Urleb, Uroš; Peternel, Luka

    2013-06-03

    The aim of this study was to develop a sirolimus (BCS class II drug substance) solid oral dosage form containing a precipitation inhibitor, which would result in an improved sirolimus absorption in humans compared to the formulation containing nanosized sirolimus without a precipitation inhibitor, i.e., Rapamune. The selection of the precipitation inhibitor was based on the results of a screening campaign that identified two "hit" excipients: HPMC 603 (i.e., Pharmacoat 603) and Poloxamer 407. However, in a confirmatory precipitation inhibitor study using biorelevant media (Fa/FeSSIF) HPMC 603 more effectively inhibited sirolimus precipitation than Poloxamer 407. In the PAMPA assay, HPMC 603, but not Poloxamer 407, significantly increased the flux of the sirolimus across the membrane lipid layer. Additionally, a differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and an infrared (IR) spectroscopy study revealed that interactions between the sirolimus and HPMC 603 were developed that could lead to the observed precipitation inhibition effect. Based on the above data, two formulations with HPMC 603-coated sirolimus particles were developed, namely, formulation A (d (0.5) = 0.21 μm) and formulation B (d (0.5) = 1.7 μm). A human pharmacokinetic study outlined that significantly higher AUC and Cmax were obtained for formulations A and B in comparison to Rapamune. This result could be attributed to the HPMC 603 (Pharmacoat 603) mediated sirolimus precipitation inhibition resulting in improved sirolimus absorption from the gastrointestinal tract in humans.

  9. Interaction of Citrinin with Human Serum Albumin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miklós Poór

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Citrinin (CIT is a mycotoxin produced by several Aspergillus, Penicillium, and Monascus species. CIT occurs worldwide in different foods and drinks and causes health problems for humans and animals. Human serum albumin (HSA is the most abundant plasma protein in human circulation. Albumin forms stable complexes with many drugs and xenobiotics; therefore, HSA commonly plays important role in the pharmacokinetics or toxicokinetics of numerous compounds. However, the interaction of CIT with HSA is poorly characterized yet. In this study, the complex formation of CIT with HSA was investigated using fluorescence spectroscopy and ultrafiltration techniques. For the deeper understanding of the interaction, thermodynamic, and molecular modeling studies were performed as well. Our results suggest that CIT forms stable complex with HSA (logK ~ 5.3 and its primary binding site is located in subdomain IIA (Sudlow’s Site I. In vitro cell experiments also recommend that CIT-HSA interaction may have biological relevance. Finally, the complex formations of CIT with bovine, porcine, and rat serum albumin were investigated, in order to test the potential species differences of CIT-albumin interactions.

  10. User localization during human-robot interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso-Martín, F; Gorostiza, Javi F; Malfaz, María; Salichs, Miguel A

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a user localization system based on the fusion of visual information and sound source localization, implemented on a social robot called Maggie. One of the main requisites to obtain a natural interaction between human-human and human-robot is an adequate spatial situation between the interlocutors, that is, to be orientated and situated at the right distance during the conversation in order to have a satisfactory communicative process. Our social robot uses a complete multimodal dialog system which manages the user-robot interaction during the communicative process. One of its main components is the presented user localization system. To determine the most suitable allocation of the robot in relation to the user, a proxemic study of the human-robot interaction is required, which is described in this paper. The study has been made with two groups of users: children, aged between 8 and 17, and adults. Finally, at the end of the paper, experimental results with the proposed multimodal dialog system are presented.

  11. User Localization During Human-Robot Interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel A. Salichs

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a user localization system based on the fusion of visual information and sound source localization, implemented on a social robot called Maggie. One of the main requisites to obtain a natural interaction between human-human and human-robot is an adequate spatial situation between the interlocutors, that is, to be orientated and situated at the right distance during the conversation in order to have a satisfactory communicative process. Our social robot uses a complete multimodal dialog system which manages the user-robot interaction during the communicative process. One of its main components is the presented user localization system. To determine the most suitable allocation of the robot in relation to the user, a proxemic study of the human-robot interaction is required, which is described in this paper. The study has been made with two groups of users: children, aged between 8 and 17, and adults. Finally, at the end of the paper, experimental results with the proposed multimodal dialog system are presented.

  12. Assessing Technology in the Absence of Proof: Trust Based on the Interplay of Others’ Opinions and the Interaction Process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, Pieter Walter; van den Berg, Stéphanie Martine; Midden, C.J.H.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The present research addresses the question of how trust in systems is formed when unequivocal information about system accuracy and reliability is absent, and focuses on the interaction of indirect information (others’ evaluations) and direct (experiential) information stemming from the

  13. Solvable model of a generic trapped mixture of interacting bosons: reduced density matrices and proof of Bose-Einstein condensation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alon, Ofir E.

    2017-07-01

    A mixture of two kinds of identical bosons, species 1 with N 1 bosons of mass m 1 and species 2 with N 2 bosons of mass m 2, held in a harmonic potential of frequency ω and interacting by harmonic intra-species and inter-species particle-particle interactions of strengths λ1 , λ2 , and λ12 is discussed. This is an exactly-solvable model of a generic mixture of trapped interacting bosons which allows one to investigate and determine analytically properties of interest. To start, closed form expressions for the frequencies, ground-state energy, and wave-function of the mixture are obtained and briefly analyzed as a function of the masses, numbers of particles, and strengths and signs of interactions. To prove Bose-Einstein condensation of the mixture three steps are needed. First, we integrate the all-particle density matrix, employing a four-parameter matrix-recurrence relations, down to the lowest-order intra-species and inter-species reduced density matrices of the mixture. Second, the coupled Gross-Pitaevskii (mean-field) equations of the mixture are solved analytically. Third, we analyze the mixture’s reduced density matrices in the limit of an infinite number of particles of both species 1 and 2 (when the interaction parameters, i.e. the products of the number of particles times the intra-species and inter-species interaction strengths, are held fixed) and prove that: (i) both species 1 and 2 are 100% condensed; (ii) the inter-species reduced density matrix per particle is separable and given by the product of the intra-species reduced density matrices per particle; and (iii) the mixture’s energy per particle, and reduced density matrices and densities per particle all coincide with the Gross-Pitaevskii quantities. Finally, when the infinite-particle limit is taken with respect to, say, species 1 only (with interaction parameters held fixed) we prove that: (iv) only species 1 is 100% condensed and its reduced density matrix and density per particle, as

  14. Humans, computers and wizards human (simulated) computer interaction

    CERN Document Server

    Fraser, Norman; McGlashan, Scott; Wooffitt, Robin

    2013-01-01

    Using data taken from a major European Union funded project on speech understanding, the SunDial project, this book considers current perspectives on human computer interaction and argues for the value of an approach taken from sociology which is based on conversation analysis.

  15. Human metabolic interactions of environmental chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgson, Ernest; Rose, Randy L

    2007-01-01

    Investigations utilizing recombinant human xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes as well as human hepatocytes have revealed a number of interactions not only between different environmental chemicals (ECs) but also between ECs and endogenous metabolites. Organophosphorus insecticides (OPs) are potent inhibitors of the human metabolism of carbaryl, carbofuran, DEET and fipronil, as well as the jet fuel components, nonane and naphthalene. OPs are potent irreversible inhibitors of testosterone metabolism by cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A4 and of estradiol metabolism by CYP3A4 and CYP1A2. All of these CYP inhibitions are believed to be due to the release of reactive sulfur during CYP-catalyzed oxidative desulfuration. It has also been shown that the esterase(s) responsible for the initial step in permethrin metabolism in human liver is inhibited by both chlorpyrifos oxon and carbaryl. A number of pesticides, including chlorpyrifos, fipronil and permethrin, and the repellent, DEET, have been shown to be inducers of CYP isoforms in human hepatocytes, with fipronil being the most potent. Several agrochemicals, including fipronil and the pyrethroids, permethrin and deltamethrin, show toxicity toward human hepatocytes with fipronil being the most potent in this regard. Endosulfan-alpha, which has shown promise as a model substrate for phenotyping CYP3A4 and CYP2B6 in human liver microsomes, is also an inducer of CYP2B6, acting through the PXR receptor.

  16. Automated Generation of Machine Verifiable and Readable Proofs: A Case Study of Tarski's Geometry

    OpenAIRE

    Stojanovic Durdevic, Sana; Narboux, Julien; Janicic, Predrag

    2015-01-01

    International audience; The power of state-of-the-art automated and interactive the-orem provers has reached the level at which a significant portion of non-trivial mathematical contents can be formalized almost fully automat-ically. In this paper we present our framework for the formalization of mathematical knowledge that can produce machine verifiable proofs (for different proof assistants) but also human-readable (nearly textbook-like) proofs. As a case study, we focus on one of the twent...

  17. Common Metrics for Human-Robot Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinfeld, Aaron; Lewis, Michael; Fong, Terrence; Scholtz, Jean; Schultz, Alan; Kaber, David; Goodrich, Michael

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes an effort to identify common metrics for task-oriented human-robot interaction (HRI). We begin by discussing the need for a toolkit of HRI metrics. We then describe the framework of our work and identify important biasing factors that must be taken into consideration. Finally, we present suggested common metrics for standardization and a case study. Preparation of a larger, more detailed toolkit is in progress.

  18. Ivermectin Interacts With Human ABCG2

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Ivermectin is an antiparasitic drug frequently administered to humans. It has alimited brain exposure that is attributed to the efflux activity of ABCB1/Abcb1. ABCG2/Abcg2 isalso a major transporter present in most pharmacologically important barriers. However,interaction of ivermectin with Abcg2 shows species specificity and in many studies wasconfounded by the masking effect of ABCB1/Abcb1. In this study using cellular and membraneassays we show that ivermectin displays a high-affinity inte...

  19. Interactive inverse kinematics for human motion estimation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engell-Nørregård, Morten Pol; Hauberg, Søren; Lapuyade, Jerome

    2009-01-01

    We present an application of a fast interactive inverse kinematics method as a dimensionality reduction for monocular human motion estimation. The inverse kinematics solver deals efficiently and robustly with box constraints and does not suffer from shaking artifacts. The presented motion...... estimation system uses a single camera to estimate the motion of a human. The results show that inverse kinematics can significantly speed up the estimation process, while retaining a quality comparable to a full pose motion estimation system. Our novelty lies primarily in use of inverse kinematics...... to significantly speed up the particle filtering. It should be stressed that the observation part of the system has not been our focus, and as such is described only from a sense of completeness. With our approach it is possible to construct a robust and computationally efficient system for human motion estimation....

  20. A Graphical User Interface for Formal Proofs in Geometry.

    OpenAIRE

    Narboux, Julien

    2007-01-01

    International audience; We present in this paper the design of a graphical user interface to deal with proofs in geometry. The software developed combines three tools: a dynamic geometry software to explore, measure and invent conjectures, an automatic theorem prover to check facts and an interactive proof system (Coq) to mechanically check proofs built interactively by the user.

  1. Achieving Closed-Loop Control Simulation of Human-Artefact Interaction: A Comparative Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilhelm Frederik van der Vegte

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available To include user interactions in simulations of product use, the most common approach is to couple human subjects to simulation models, using hardware interfaces to close the simulation-control loop. Testing with virtual human models could offer a low-cost addition to evaluation with human subjects. This paper explores the possibilities for coupling human and artefact models to achieve fully software-based interaction simulations. We have critically reviewed existing partial solutions to simulate or execute control (both human control and product-embedded control and compared solutions from literature with a proof-of-concept we have recently developed. Our concept closes all loops, but it does not rely on validated algorithms to predict human decision making and low-level human motor control. For low-level control, validated solutions are available from other approaches. For human decision making, however, validated algorithms exist only to predict the timing but not the reasoning behind it. To identify decision-making schemes beyond what designers can conjecture, testing with human subjects remains indispensable.

  2. Self-Managing Postoperative Pain with the Use of a Novel, Interactive Device: A Proof of Concept Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luke Mordecai

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Pain is commonly experienced following surgical procedures. Suboptimal management is multifactorial. Objectives. The primary objective was to assess whether patients used a device (Navimed to self-report pain over and above a normal baseline of observations. Secondary outcome measures included comparison of pain scores and patient use of and feedback on the device. Methods. In a prospective randomized controlled trial, elective gynaecological surgery patients received standard postoperative pain care or standard care plus the Navimed, which allowed them to self-report pain and offered interactive self-help options. Results. 52 female patients, 26 in each of device and standard groups, did not differ in the frequency of nurse-documented pain scores or mean pain scores provided to nurses. The device group additionally reported pain on the device (means 18.50 versus 11.90 pain ratings per day, t(32=2.75, p<0.001 that was significantly worse than reported to nurses but retrospectively rated significantly less anxiety. 80% of patients found the device useful. Discussion and Conclusion. This study demonstrates that patients used the Navimed to report pain and to help manage it. Further work is required to investigate the difference in pain scores reported and to develop more sophisticated software.

  3. Human-Computer Interaction The Agency Perspective

    CERN Document Server

    Oliveira, José

    2012-01-01

    Agent-centric theories, approaches and technologies are contributing to enrich interactions between users and computers. This book aims at highlighting the influence of the agency perspective in Human-Computer Interaction through a careful selection of research contributions. Split into five sections; Users as Agents, Agents and Accessibility, Agents and Interactions, Agent-centric Paradigms and Approaches, and Collective Agents, the book covers a wealth of novel, original and fully updated material, offering:   ü  To provide a coherent, in depth, and timely material on the agency perspective in HCI ü  To offer an authoritative treatment of the subject matter presented by carefully selected authors ü  To offer a balanced and broad coverage of the subject area, including, human, organizational, social, as well as technological concerns. ü  To offer a hands-on-experience by covering representative case studies and offering essential design guidelines   The book will appeal to a broad audience of resea...

  4. Examining human-system interactions: The HSYS (Human SYStem) methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hill, S.G.; Harbour, J.L.; Sullivan, C.; Hallbert, B.P. (Idaho National Engineering Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (USA))

    1990-01-01

    HSYS is a model-based methodology developed to examine the many factors which influence Human-SYStem interactions. HSYS is built around a linear model of human performance, called the Input-Action model, which describes five sequential steps: Input Detection, Input Understanding, Action Selection, Action Planning, and Action Execution. HSYS is structured in an hierarchical tree which presents a logical structure for examining potential areas where human performance, hardware or other system components are less than adequate. The HSYS tree consists of five major branches which correspond to the five major components of the Input-Action model. Initial validation was begun by studying accident reports via HSYS and identifying sources of error. The validation process has continued with accident investigations in operational settings. 9 refs., 3 figs.

  5. The interactive evolution of human communication systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fay, Nicolas; Garrod, Simon; Roberts, Leo; Swoboda, Nik

    2010-04-01

    This paper compares two explanations of the process by which human communication systems evolve: iterated learning and social collaboration. It then reports an experiment testing the social collaboration account. Participants engaged in a graphical communication task either as a member of a community, where they interacted with seven different partners drawn from the same pool, or as a member of an isolated pair, where they interacted with the same partner across the same number of games. Participants' horizontal, pair-wise interactions led "bottom up" to the creation of an effective and efficient shared sign system in the community condition. Furthermore, the community-evolved sign systems were as effective and efficient as the local sign systems developed by isolated pairs. Finally, and as predicted by a social collaboration account, and not by an iterated learning account, interaction was critical to the creation of shared sign systems, with different isolated pairs establishing different local sign systems and different communities establishing different global sign systems.

  6. Writing proofs in analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Kane, Jonathan M

    2016-01-01

    This is a textbook on proof writing in the area of analysis, balancing a survey of the core concepts of mathematical proof with a tight, rigorous examination of the specific tools needed for an understanding of analysis. Instead of the standard "transition" approach to teaching proofs, wherein students are taught fundamentals of logic, given some common proof strategies such as mathematical induction, and presented with a series of well-written proofs to mimic, this textbook teaches what a student needs to be thinking about when trying to construct a proof. Covering the fundamentals of analysis sufficient for a typical beginning Real Analysis course, it never loses sight of the fact that its primary focus is about proof writing skills. This book aims to give the student precise training in the writing of proofs by explaining exactly what elements make up a correct proof, how one goes about constructing an acceptable proof, and, by learning to recognize a correct proof, how to avoid writing incorrect proofs. T...

  7. Introduction to human-computer interaction

    CERN Document Server

    Booth, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Originally published in 1989 this title provided a comprehensive and authoritative introduction to the burgeoning discipline of human-computer interaction for students, academics, and those from industry who wished to know more about the subject. Assuming very little knowledge, the book provides an overview of the diverse research areas that were at the time only gradually building into a coherent and well-structured field. It aims to explain the underlying causes of the cognitive, social and organizational problems typically encountered when computer systems are introduced. It is clear and co

  8. Analogy, explanation, and proof.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hummel, John E; Licato, John; Bringsjord, Selmer

    2014-01-01

    People are habitual explanation generators. At its most mundane, our propensity to explain allows us to infer that we should not drink milk that smells sour; at the other extreme, it allows us to establish facts (e.g., theorems in mathematical logic) whose truth was not even known prior to the existence of the explanation (proof). What do the cognitive operations underlying the inference that the milk is sour have in common with the proof that, say, the square root of two is irrational? Our ability to generate explanations bears striking similarities to our ability to make analogies. Both reflect a capacity to generate inferences and generalizations that go beyond the featural similarities between a novel problem and familiar problems in terms of which the novel problem may be understood. However, a notable difference between analogy-making and explanation-generation is that the former is a process in which a single source situation is used to reason about a single target, whereas the latter often requires the reasoner to integrate multiple sources of knowledge. This seemingly small difference poses a challenge to the task of marshaling our understanding of analogical reasoning to understanding explanation. We describe a model of explanation, derived from a model of analogy, adapted to permit systematic violations of this one-to-one mapping constraint. Simulation results demonstrate that the resulting model can generate explanations for novel explananda and that, like the explanations generated by human reasoners, these explanations vary in their coherence.

  9. Sense of presence and anxiety during virtual social interactions between a human and virtual humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nexhmedin Morina

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Virtual reality exposure therapy (VRET has been shown to be effective in treatment of anxiety disorders. Yet, there is lack of research on the extent to which interaction between the individual and virtual humans can be successfully implanted to increase levels of anxiety for therapeutic purposes. This proof-of-concept pilot study aimed at examining levels of the sense of presence and anxiety during exposure to virtual environments involving social interaction with virtual humans and using different virtual reality displays. A non-clinical sample of 38 participants was randomly assigned to either a head-mounted display (HMD with motion tracker and sterescopic view condition or a one-screen projection-based virtual reality display condition. Participants in both conditions engaged in free speech dialogues with virtual humans controlled by research assistants. It was hypothesized that exposure to virtual social interactions will elicit moderate levels of sense of presence and anxiety in both groups. Further it was expected that participants in the HMD condition will report higher scores of sense of presence and anxiety than participants in the one-screen projection-based display condition. Results revealed that in both conditions virtual social interactions were associated with moderate levels of sense of presence and anxiety. Additionally, participants in the HMD condition reported significantly higher levels of presence than those in the one-screen projection-based display condition (p = .001. However, contrary to the expectations neither the average level of anxiety nor the highest level of anxiety during exposure to social virtual environments differed between the groups (p = .97 and p = .75, respectively. The findings suggest that virtual social interactions can be successfully applied in VRET to enhance sense of presence and anxiety. Furthermore, our results indicate that one-screen projection-based displays can successfully activate levels

  10. Effects of interactions between humans and domesticated animals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bokkers, E.A.M.

    2006-01-01

    Humans have many kinds of relationships with domesticated animals. To maintain relationships interactions are needed. Interactions with animals may be beneficial for humans but may also be risky. Scientific literature on effects of human¿animal relationships and interactions in a workplace, health-c

  11. The PROOF benchmark suite measuring PROOF performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, S.; Ganis, G.

    2012-06-01

    The PROOF benchmark suite is a new utility suite of PROOF to measure performance and scalability. The primary goal of the benchmark suite is to determine optimal configuration parameters for a set of machines to be used as PROOF cluster. The suite measures the performance of the cluster for a set of standard tasks as a function of the number of effective processes. Cluster administrators can use the suite to measure the performance of the cluster and find optimal configuration parameters. PROOF developers can also utilize the suite to help them measure, identify problems and improve their software. In this paper, the new tool is explained in detail and use cases are presented to illustrate the new tool.

  12. Human-Robot Interaction Directed Research Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandor, Aniko; Cross, Ernest V., II; Chang, Mai Lee

    2014-01-01

    Human-robot interaction (HRI) is a discipline investigating the factors affecting the interactions between humans and robots. It is important to evaluate how the design of interfaces and command modalities affect the human's ability to perform tasks accurately, efficiently, and effectively when working with a robot. By understanding the effects of interface design on human performance, workload, and situation awareness, interfaces can be developed to appropriately support the human in performing tasks with minimal errors and with appropriate interaction time and effort. Thus, the results of research on human-robot interfaces have direct implications for the design of robotic systems. This DRP concentrates on three areas associated with interfaces and command modalities in HRI which are applicable to NASA robot systems: 1) Video Overlays, 2) Camera Views, and 3) Command Modalities. The first study focused on video overlays that investigated how Augmented Reality (AR) symbology can be added to the human-robot interface to improve teleoperation performance. Three types of AR symbology were explored in this study, command guidance (CG), situation guidance (SG), and both (SCG). CG symbology gives operators explicit instructions on what commands to input, whereas SG symbology gives operators implicit cues so that operators can infer the input commands. The combination of CG and SG provided operators with explicit and implicit cues allowing the operator to choose which symbology to utilize. The objective of the study was to understand how AR symbology affects the human operator's ability to align a robot arm to a target using a flight stick and the ability to allocate attention between the symbology and external views of the world. The study evaluated the effects type of symbology (CG and SG) has on operator tasks performance and attention allocation during teleoperation of a robot arm. The second study expanded on the first study by evaluating the effects of the type of

  13. Personality and social skills in human-dog interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Iben Helene Coakley

    able to form human-dog relationships that are comparable to such interpersonal relationships. Human-dog interaction has been suggested to have various benefits for humans, but obviously the welfare of both humans and dogs depend on such interaction being successful. Unfor-tunately not all human...... developing a social tool set that makes it very successful in interacting and communicating with humans. Human evolution has similarly resulted in the development of complex social cognition in humans. This enables humans to form bonded relationships, besides pair-bonding, and it seems that humans are also......-dog relationships are successful and every year a large number of dogs are relinquished because of failed dog-owner relationships. Therefore more knowledge is needed about the mechanisms of human-dog interaction and about factors related to successful as well as unsuc-cessful human-dog relationships. The aim...

  14. Interaction in Information Systems - Beyond Human-Computer Interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bækgaard, Lars

    The purpose of this paper is to discuss and analyze the role of interaction in information systems. Interaction represents dynamic relations between actors and other elements in information systems. We introduce a semi-formal notation that we use to describe a set of interaction patterns and we...... illustrate how the notation can be used to describe mediated interaction. We use the interaction patterns to evaluate a set of modeling languages. No single language supports all relevant aspects of interaction modeling. We use the interaction patterns to identify to general and supplementary forms...... of interaction-interaction based on exchange of objects and interaction based on exchange of commands. None of the modeling languages that we analyze support both forms in a rich way....

  15. Bifunctional Inhibition of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Reverse Transcriptase: Mechanism and Proof-of-Concept as a Novel Therapeutic Design Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Christopher M.; Sullivan, Todd J.; Iyidogan, Pinar; Tirado-Rives, Julian; Chung, Raymond; Ruiz-Caro, Juliana; Mohamed, Ebrahim; Jorgensen, William; Hunter, Roger; Anderson, Karen S.

    2013-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 reverse transcriptase (HIV-1 RT) is a major target for currently approved anti-HIV drugs. These drugs are divided into two classes: nucleoside and non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs and NNRTIs). This study illustrates the synthesis and biochemical evaluation of a novel bifunctional RT inhibitor utilizing d4T (NRTI) and a TMC-derivative (a diarylpyrimidine NNRTI) linked via a poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) linker. HIV-1 RT successfully incorporates the triphosphate of d4T-4PEG-TMC bifunctional inhibitor in a base-specific manner. Moreover, this inhibitor demonstrates low nanomolar potency that has 4.3-fold and 4300-fold enhancement of polymerization inhibition in vitro relative to the parent TMC-derivative and d4T, respectively. This study serves as a proof-of-concept for the development and optimization of bifunctional RT inhibitors as potent inhibitors of HIV-1 viral replication. PMID:23659183

  16. Loving Machines: Theorizing Human and Sociable-Technology Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw-Garlock, Glenda

    Today, human and sociable-technology interaction is a contested site of inquiry. Some regard social robots as an innovative medium of communication that offer new avenues for expression, communication, and interaction. Other others question the moral veracity of human-robot relationships, suggesting that such associations risk psychological impoverishment. What seems clear is that the emergence of social robots in everyday life will alter the nature of social interaction, bringing with it a need for new theories to understand the shifting terrain between humans and machines. This work provides a historical context for human and sociable robot interaction. Current research related to human-sociable-technology interaction is considered in relation to arguments that confront a humanist view that confine 'technological things' to the nonhuman side of the human/nonhuman binary relation. Finally, it recommends a theoretical approach for the study of human and sociable-technology interaction that accommodates increasingly personal relations between human and nonhuman technologies.

  17. Human computer interaction using hand gestures

    CERN Document Server

    Premaratne, Prashan

    2014-01-01

    Human computer interaction (HCI) plays a vital role in bridging the 'Digital Divide', bringing people closer to consumer electronics control in the 'lounge'. Keyboards and mouse or remotes do alienate old and new generations alike from control interfaces. Hand Gesture Recognition systems bring hope of connecting people with machines in a natural way. This will lead to consumers being able to use their hands naturally to communicate with any electronic equipment in their 'lounge.' This monograph will include the state of the art hand gesture recognition approaches and how they evolved from their inception. The author would also detail his research in this area for the past 8 years and how the future might turn out to be using HCI. This monograph will serve as a valuable guide for researchers (who would endeavour into) in the world of HCI.

  18. Effects of interactions between humans and domesticated animals

    OpenAIRE

    Bokkers, E.A.M.

    2006-01-01

    Humans have many kinds of relationships with domesticated animals. To maintain relationships interactions are needed. Interactions with animals may be beneficial for humans but may also be risky. Scientific literature on effects of human¿animal relationships and interactions in a workplace, health-care and residential context has been reviewed to develop ideas about the effects farm animals can have on humans. Although there are quite a few studies, the variety of methods, the complexity of t...

  19. New activity pattern in human interactive dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Formentin, Marco; Lovison, Alberto; Maritan, Amos; Zanzotto, Giovanni

    2015-09-01

    We investigate the response function of human agents as demonstrated by written correspondence, uncovering a new pattern for how the reactive dynamics of individuals is distributed across the set of each agent’s contacts. In long-term empirical data on email, we find that the set of response times considered separately for the messages to each different correspondent of a given writer, generate a family of heavy-tailed distributions, which have largely the same features for all agents, and whose characteristic times grow exponentially with the rank of each correspondent. We furthermore show that this new behavioral pattern emerges robustly by considering weighted moving averages of the priority-conditioned response-time probabilities generated by a basic prioritization model. Our findings clarify how the range of priorities in the inputs from one’s environment underpin and shape the dynamics of agents embedded in a net of reactive relations. These newly revealed activity patterns might be universal, being present in other general interactive environments, and constrain future models of communication and interaction networks, affecting their architecture and evolution.

  20. Proofs, Upside Down

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Puech, Matthias

    2013-01-01

    It is well known in proof theory that sequent-calculus proofs differ from natural deduction proofs by “reversing” elimination rules upside down into left introduction rules. It is also well known that to each recursive, functional program corresponds an equivalent iterative, accumulator...... and the sequent calculus by systematically deriving the rules of the latter from the former, and allows us to derive new sequent calculus rules from the introduction and elimination rules of new logical connectives....

  1. First Human Use of a Radiopharmaceutical Prepared by Continuous-Flow Microfluidic Radiofluorination: Proof of Concept with the Tau Imaging Agent [18F]T807

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven H. Liang

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Despite extensive preclinical imaging with radiotracers developed by continuous-flow microfluidics, a positron emission tomographic (PET radiopharmaceutical has not been reported for human imaging studies by this technology. The goal of this study was to validate the synthesis of the tau radiopharmaceutical 7-(6-fluoropyridin-3-yl-5H-pyrido[4,3-b]indole ([18F]T807 and perform first-in-human PET scanning enabled by microfluidic flow chemistry. [18F]T807 was synthesized by our modified one-step method and adapted to suit a commercial microfluidic flow chemistry module. For this proof of concept, the flow system was integrated to a GE Tracerlab FXFN unit for high-performance liquid chromatography purification and formulation. Three consecutive productions of [18F]T807 were conducted to validate this radiopharmaceutical. Uncorrected radiochemical yields of 17 ± 1% of crude [18F]T807 (≈ 500 mCi, radiochemical purity 95% were obtained from the microfluidic device. The crude material was then purified, and > 100 mCi of the final product was obtained in an overall uncorrected radiochemical yield of 5 ± 1% (n = 3, relative to starting [18F]fluoride (end of bombardment, with high radiochemical purity (≥ 99% and high specific activities (6 Ci/μmol in 100 minutes. A clinical research study was carried out with [18F]T807, representing the first reported human imaging study with a radiopharmaceutical prepared by this technology.

  2. Analogy, Explanation, and Proof

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John eHummel

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available People are habitual explanation generators. At its most mundane, our propensity to explain allows us to infer that we should not drink milk that smells sour; at the other extreme, it allows us to establish facts (e.g., theorems in mathematical logic whose truth was not even known prior to the existence of the explanation (proof. What do the cognitive operations underlying the (inductive inference that the milk is sour have in common with the (deductive proof that, say, the square root of two is irrational? Our ability to generate explanations bears striking similarities to our ability to make analogies. Both reflect a capacity to generate inferences and generalizations that go beyond the featural similarities between a novel problem and familiar problems in terms of which the novel problem may be understood. However, a notable difference between analogy-making and explanation-generation is that the former is a process in which a single source situation is used to reason about a single target, whereas the latter often requires the reasoner to integrate multiple sources of knowledge. This small-seeming difference poses a challenge to the task of marshaling our understanding of analogical reasoning in the service of understanding explanation. We describe a model of explanation, derived from a model of analogy, adapted to permit systematic violations of this one-to-one mapping constraint. Simulation results demonstrate that the resulting model can generate explanations for novel explananda and that, like the explanations generated by human reasoners, these explanations vary in their coherence.

  3. On the Rhetorical Contract in Human-Computer Interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenger, Michael J.

    1991-01-01

    An exploration of the rhetorical contract--i.e., the expectations for appropriate interaction--as it develops in human-computer interaction revealed that direct manipulation interfaces were more likely to establish social expectations. Study results suggest that the social nature of human-computer interactions can be examined with reference to the…

  4. HIV-1, human interaction database: current status and new features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ako-Adjei, Danso; Fu, William; Wallin, Craig; Katz, Kenneth S; Song, Guangfeng; Darji, Dakshesh; Brister, J Rodney; Ptak, Roger G; Pruitt, Kim D

    2015-01-01

    The 'Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 (HIV-1), Human Interaction Database', available through the National Library of Medicine at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/genome/viruses/retroviruses/hiv-1/interactions, serves the scientific community exploring the discovery of novel HIV vaccine candidates and therapeutic targets. Each HIV-1 human protein interaction can be retrieved without restriction by web-based downloads and ftp protocols and includes: Reference Sequence (RefSeq) protein accession numbers, National Center for Biotechnology Information Gene identification numbers, brief descriptions of the interactions, searchable keywords for interactions and PubMed identification numbers (PMIDs) of journal articles describing the interactions. In addition to specific HIV-1 protein-human protein interactions, included are interaction effects upon HIV-1 replication resulting when individual human gene expression is blocked using siRNA. A total of 3142 human genes are described participating in 12,786 protein-protein interactions, along with 1316 replication interactions described for each of 1250 human genes identified using small interfering RNA (siRNA). Together the data identifies 4006 human genes involved in 14,102 interactions. With the inclusion of siRNA interactions we introduce a redesigned web interface to enhance viewing, filtering and downloading of the combined data set.

  5. Soil and Human Interactions in Maya Wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beach, Timothy; Luzzadder-Beach, Sheryl

    2013-04-01

    Since the early 1990s, we have studied Maya interaction with soils in Mexico, Belize, Guatemala, and elsewhere. We studied upland and lowland soils, but here we focus on seasonal or 'Bajo' wetlands and perennial wetlands for different reasons. Around the bajos, the ancient Maya focused on intensive agriculture and habitation despite the difficulties their Vertisol soils posed. For the perennial wetlands, small populations spread diffusely through Mollisol and Histisol landscapes with large scale, intensive agro-ecosystems. These wetlands also represent important repositories for both environmental change and how humans responded in situ to environmental changes. Work analyzing bajo soils has recorded significant diversity but the soil and sediment record shows two main eras of soil instability: the Pleistocene-Holocene transition as rainfall fluctuated and increased and tropical forest pulsed through the region, and the Maya Preclassic to Classic 3000 to 1000 BP as deforestation, land use intensity, and drying waxed and waned. The ancient Maya adapted their bajo soil ecosystems successfully through agro-engineering but they also withdrew in many important places in the Late Preclassic about 2000 BP and Terminal Classic about 1200 BP. We continue to study and debate the importance of perennial wetland agro-ecosystems, but it is now clear that Maya interaction with these soil landscapes was significant and multifaceted. Based on soil excavation and coring with a broad toolkit of soil stratigraphy, chemistry, and paleoecology from 2001 to 2013, our results show the ancient Maya interacted with their wetland soils to maintain cropland for maize, tree crops, arrow root, and cassava against relative sea level rise, increased flooding, and aggradation by gypsum precipitation and sedimentation. We have studied these interactions across an area of 2000 km2 in Northern Belize to understand how Maya response varied and how these soil environments varied over time and distance

  6. Parallelizing TTree::Draw functionality with PROOF

    CERN Document Server

    Marinaci, Stefano

    2014-01-01

    In ROOT, the software context of this project, multi-threading is not currently an easy option, because ROOT is not by construction thread-aware and thread-safeness can only be achieved with heavy locking. Therefore, for a ROOT task, multi-processing is currently the most eective way to achieve cuncurrency. Multi-processing in ROOT is done via PROOF. PROOF is used to enable interactive analysis of large sets of ROOT les in parallel on clusters of computers or many-core machines. More generally PROOF can parallelize tasks that can be formulated as a set of independent sub-tasks. The PROOF technology is rather ecient to exploit all the CPU's provided by many-core processors. A dedicated version of PROOF, PROOF-Lite, provides an out-of-the-box solution to take full advantage of the additional cores available in today desktops or laptops. One of the items on the PROOF plan of work is to improve the inte- gration of PROOF-Lite for local processing of ROOT trees. In this project we investigate the case of the Draw ...

  7. Cancer driver-passenger distinction via sporadic human and dog cancer comparison: a proof-of-principle study with colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, J; Li, Y; Lyon, K; Camps, J; Dalton, S; Ried, T; Zhao, S

    2014-02-13

    Herein we report a proof-of-principle study illustrating a novel dog-human comparison strategy that addresses a central aim of cancer research, namely cancer driver-passenger distinction. We previously demonstrated that sporadic canine colorectal cancers (CRCs) share similar molecular pathogenesis mechanisms as their human counterparts. In this study, we compared the genome-wide copy number abnormalities between 29 human and 10 canine sporadic CRCs. This led to the identification of 73 driver candidate genes (DCGs), altered in both species, and with 27 from the whole genome and 46 from dog-human genomic rearrangement breakpoint (GRB) regions, as well as 38 passenger candidate genes (PCGs), altered in humans only and located in GRB regions. We noted that DCGs significantly differ from PCGs in every analysis conducted to assess their cancer relevance and biological functions. Importantly, although PCGs are not enriched in any specific functions, DCGs possess significantly enhanced functionality closely associated with cell proliferation and death regulation, as well as with epithelial cell apicobasal polarity establishment/maintenance. These observations support the notion that, in sporadic CRCs of both species, cell polarity genes not only contribute in preventing cancer cell invasion and spreading, but also likely serve as tumor suppressors by modulating cell growth. This pilot study validates our novel strategy and has uncovered four new potential cell polarity and colorectal tumor suppressor genes (RASA3, NUPL1, DENND5A and AVL9). Expansion of this study would make more driver-passenger distinctions for cancers with large genomic amplifications or deletions, and address key questions regarding the relationship between cancer pathogenesis and epithelial cell polarity control in mammals.

  8. Safe physical human robot interaction- past, present and future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pervez, Aslam; Ryu, Jeha [Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-03-15

    When a robot physically interacts with a human user, the requirements should be drastically changed. The most important requirement is the safety of the human user in the sense that robot should not harm the human in any situation. During the last few years, research has been focused on various aspects of safe physical human robot interaction. This paper provides a review of the work on safe physical interaction of robotic systems sharing their workspace with human users (especially elderly people). Three distinct areas of research are identified: interaction safety assessment, interaction safety through design, and interaction safety through planning and control. The paper then highlights the current challenges and available technologies and points out future research directions for realization of a safe and dependable robotic system for human users

  9. Diagnostic microRNA markers to screen for sporadic human colon cancer in stool: I. Proof of principle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Farid E; Ahmed, Nancy C; Vos, Paul W; Bonnerup, Chris; Atkins, James N; Casey, Michelle; Nuovo, Gerard J; Naziri, Wade; Wiley, John E; Mota, Helvecio; Allison, Ron R

    2013-01-01

    To present proof-of-principle application for employing micro(mi)RNAs as diagnostic markers for colon cancer, we carried out global microarray expression studies on stool samples obtained from fifteen individuals (three controls, and three each with TNM stage 0-1, stage 2, stage 3, and stage 4 colon cancer), using Affymetrix GeneChip miRNA 3.0 Array, to select for a panel of miRNA genes for subsequent focused semi-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis studies. Microarray results showed 202 preferentially expressed miRNA genes that were either increased (141 miRNAs), or reduced (61 miRNAs) in expression. We then conducted a stem-loop reverse transcriptase (RT)-TaqMan® minor groove binding (MGB) probes, followed by a modified qPCR expression study on 20 selected miRNAs. Twelve of the miRNAs exhibited increased and 8 decreased expression in stool from 60 individuals (20 controls, 20 with tumor-lymph node-metastatic (TNM) stage 0-1, 10 with stage 2, five with stage 3, and 5 with stage 4 colon cancer) to quantitatively monitor miRNA changes at various TNM stages of colon cancer progression. We also used laser-capture microdissection (LCM) of colon mucosal epithelial tissue samples (three control samples, and three samples from each of the four stages of colon cancer, for a total of 15 samples) to find concordance or lack thereof with stool findings. The reference housekeeping pseudogene-free ribosomal gene (18S rRNA), which shows little variation in expression, was employed as a normalization standard for relative PCR quantification. Results of the PCR analyses confirmed that twelve miRNAs (miR-7, miR-17, miR-20a, miR-21, miR-92a, miR-96, miR-106a, miR-134, miR-183, miR-196a, miR-199a-3p and miR214) had an increased expression in the stool of patients with colon cancer, and that later TNM carcinoma stages exhibited a more pronounced expression than did adenomas. On the other hand, eight miRNAs (miR-9, miR-29b, miR-127-5p, miR-138, miR-143, miR-146a, mi

  10. Cognitive Robotics, Embodied Cognition and Human-Robot Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-03

    Cognitive Robotics , Embodied Cognition and Human-Robot Interaction Greg Trafton, Ph.D Naval Research Laboratory Wednesday, November 3, 2010 Report...2. REPORT TYPE N/A 3. DATES COVERED - 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Cognitive Robotics , Embodied Cognition and Human-Robot Interaction 5a. CONTRACT...that cognition is for action (embodied cognition) • We are building embodied models for cognitive robotics and human-robot interaction • Online

  11. Proof: Examples and Beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knuth, Eric J.; Choppin, Jeffrey M.; Bieda, Kristen N.

    2009-01-01

    The goal of this article is to help teachers both recognize and capitalize on classroom opportunities so that students can be meaningfully engaged in mathematical proof. To do so, the authors discuss students' thoughts about proof and their abilities to construct arguments. They also offer suggestions for teachers that are intended to support…

  12. A PROOF Analysis Framework

    CERN Document Server

    Gonzalez Caballero, Isidro

    2012-01-01

    The analysis of the complex LHC data usually follows a standard path that aims at minimizing not only the amount of data but also the number of observables used. After a number of steps of slimming and skimming the data, the remaining few terabytes of ROOT files hold a selection of the events and a flat structure for the variables needed that can be more easily inspected and traversed in the final stages of the analysis. PROOF arises at this point as an efficient mechanism to distribute the analysis load by taking advantage of all the cores in modern CPUs through PROOF Lite, or by using PROOF Cluster or PROOF on Demand tools to build dynamic PROOF cluster on computing facilities with spare CPUs. However using PROOF at the level required for a serious analysis introduces some difficulties that may scare new adopters. We have developed the PROOF Analysis Framework (PAF) to facilitate the development of new analysis by uniformly exposing the PROOF related configurations across technologies and by taking care of ...

  13. Mixing Computations and Proofs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Beeson

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We examine the relationship between proof and computation in mathematics, especially in formalized mathematics. We compare the various approaches to proofs with a significant computational component, including (i verifying  the algorithms, (ii verifying the results of the unverified algorithms, and (iii trusting an external computation.

  14. Human-Computer Interaction and Information Management Research Needs

    Data.gov (United States)

    Networking and Information Technology Research and Development, Executive Office of the President — In a visionary future, Human-Computer Interaction HCI and Information Management IM have the potential to enable humans to better manage their lives through the use...

  15. Some Implications of Human-Structure Interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Lars

    2013-01-01

    On structures, humans may be active which may cause structural vibrations as human activity can excite structural vibration modes. However, humans may also be passive (sitting or standing on the structure). The paper addresses this subject and explores the implications of having passive humans pr...

  16. Burdens of Proof, Presumptions and Standards of Proof in Criminal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Worku_Y

    This note highlights how issues of burden and standard of proof are ..... proof. The prosecutor is duty bound to convince that the accused has committed .... Burdens of proof and presumptions are intimately related concepts.33 The latter.

  17. Proof-of-Concept Demonstrations for Computation-Based Human Reliability Analysis. Modeling Operator Performance During Flooding Scenarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joe, Jeffrey Clark [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Boring, Ronald Laurids [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Herberger, Sarah Elizabeth Marie [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Mandelli, Diego [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Smith, Curtis Lee [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-09-01

    The United States (U.S.) Department of Energy (DOE) Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) program has the overall objective to help sustain the existing commercial nuclear power plants (NPPs). To accomplish this program objective, there are multiple LWRS “pathways,” or research and development (R&D) focus areas. One LWRS focus area is called the Risk-Informed Safety Margin and Characterization (RISMC) pathway. Initial efforts under this pathway to combine probabilistic and plant multi-physics models to quantify safety margins and support business decisions also included HRA, but in a somewhat simplified manner. HRA experts at Idaho National Laboratory (INL) have been collaborating with other experts to develop a computational HRA approach, called the Human Unimodel for Nuclear Technology to Enhance Reliability (HUNTER), for inclusion into the RISMC framework. The basic premise of this research is to leverage applicable computational techniques, namely simulation and modeling, to develop and then, using RAVEN as a controller, seamlessly integrate virtual operator models (HUNTER) with 1) the dynamic computational MOOSE runtime environment that includes a full-scope plant model, and 2) the RISMC framework PRA models already in use. The HUNTER computational HRA approach is a hybrid approach that leverages past work from cognitive psychology, human performance modeling, and HRA, but it is also a significant departure from existing static and even dynamic HRA methods. This report is divided into five chapters that cover the development of an external flooding event test case and associated statistical modeling considerations.

  18. OSIRIS, a quest for proof of principle for integrated testing strategies of chemicals for four human health endpoints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeire, Theo; Aldenberg, Tom; Buist, Harrie; Escher, Sylvia; Mangelsdorf, Inge; Pauné, Eduard; Rorije, Emiel; Kroese, Dinant

    2013-11-01

    Chemical substances policies in Europe are aiming towards chemical safety and at the same time a reduction in animal testing. These goals are alleged to be reachable by mining as many relevant data as possible, evaluate these data with regard to validity, reliability and relevance, and use of these data in so-called Integrated Testing Strategies (ITS). This paper offers an overview of four human health endpoints that were part of the EU-funded OSIRIS project, aiming to develop ITS fit for the EU chemicals legislation REACH. The endpoints considered cover their categorical as well as continuous characteristics: skin sensitisation, repeated dose toxicity, mutagenicity and carcinogenicity. Detailed papers are published elsewhere in this volume. The stepwise ITS approach developed takes advantage of existing information, groups information about similar substances and integrates exposure considerations. The different and possibly contradictory information is weighted and the respective uncertainties taken into account in a weight of evidence (WoE) approach. In case of data gaps, the ITS proposes the most appropriate method to acquire the missing information. Each building block for the ITS, i.e. each in vivo test, in vitro test, (Q)SAR model or human evidence, is evaluated with regard to quality.

  19. [Understanding mistake-proofing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Saint Maurice, G; Giraud, N; Ausset, S; Auroy, Y; Lenoir, B; Amalberti, R

    2011-01-01

    The mistake-proofing concept often refers to physical devices that prevent actors from making a wrong action. In anaesthesiology, one immediately thinks to specific design of outlets for medical gases. More generally, the principle of mistake-proofing is to avoid an error, by placing knowledge in the world rather than knowledge in the head. As it often happens in risk management, healthcare has received information transfers from the industry. Computer is changing the concept of mistake-proofing, initially based on physical design, such as aerospace and automotive industry. The mistake-proofing concept may be applied to prevention, detection, and mitigation of errors. The forcing functions are a specific part of mistake-proofing: they prevent a wrong action or they force a virtuous one. Grout proposes a little shortcut to identify mistake-proofing devices: "If it is not possible to picture it in action, it is probably not a mistake-proofing device". Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. A new biophysical metric for interrogating the information content in human genome sequence variation: Proof of concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindesay, James; Mason, Tshela E; Ricks-Santi, Luisel; Hercules, William; Kurian, Philip; Dunston, Georgia M

    2012-02-01

    The 21(st) century emergence of genomic medicine is shifting the paradigm in biomedical science from the population phenotype to the individual genotype. In characterizing the biology of disease and health disparities in population genetics, human populations are often defined by the most common alleles in the group. This definition poses difficulties when categorizing individuals in the population who do not have the most common allele(s). Various epidemiological studies have shown an association between common genomic variation, such as single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), and common diseases. We hypothesize that information encoded in the structure of SNP haploblock variation in the human leukocyte antigen-disease related (HLA-DR) region of the genome illumines molecular pathways and cellular mechanisms involved in the regulation of host adaptation to the environment. In this paper we describe the development and application of the normalized information content (NIC) as a novel metric based on SNP haploblock variation. The NIC facilitates translation of biochemical DNA sequence variation into a biophysical quantity derived from Boltzmann's canonical ensemble in statistical physics and used widely in information theory. Our normalization of this information metric allows for comparisons of unlike, or even unrelated, regions of the genome. We report here NIC values calculated for HLA-DR SNP haploblocks constructed by Haploview, a product of the International Haplotype Map Project. These haploblocks were scanned for potential regulatory elements using ConSite and miRBase, publicly available bioinformatics tools. We found that all of the haploblocks with statistically low NIC values contained putative transcription factor binding sites and microRNA motifs, suggesting correlation with genomic regulation. Thus, we were able to relate a mathematical measure of information content in HLA-DR SNP haploblocks to biologically relevant functional knowledge embedded in

  1. A New Biophysical Metric for Interrogating the Information Content in Human Genome Sequence Variation: Proof of Concept

    CERN Document Server

    Lindesay, James; Ricks-Santi, Luisel; Hercules, William; Kurian, Philip; Dunston, Georgia M

    2011-01-01

    Various studies have shown an association between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and common disease. We hypothesize that information encoded in the structure of SNP haploblock variation illumines molecular pathways and cellular mechanisms involved in the regulation of host adaptation to the environment. We developed and utilized the normalized information content (NIC), a novel metric based on SNP haploblock variation. We found that all SNP haploblocks with statistically low information content contained putative transcription factor binding sites and microRNA motifs. We were able to translate a biophysical, mathematical measure of common variants into a deeper understanding of the life sciences through analysis of biochemical patterns associated with SNP haploblock variation. We submit that this new metric, NIC, may be useful in decoding the functional significance of common variation in the human genome and in analyzing the regulation of molecular pathways involved in host adaptation to environmenta...

  2. Recombinant HPA-1a antibody therapy for treatment of fetomaternal alloimmune thrombocytopenia: proof of principle in human volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghevaert, Cedric; Herbert, Nina; Hawkins, Louise; Grehan, Nicola; Cookson, Philip; Garner, Steve F; Crisp-Hihn, Abigail; Lloyd-Evans, Paul; Evans, Amanda; Balan, Kottekkattu; Ouwehand, Willem H; Armour, Kathryn L; Clark, Mike R; Williamson, Lorna M

    2013-07-18

    Fetomaternal alloimmune thrombocytopenia, caused by the maternal generation of antibodies against fetal human platelet antigen-1a (HPA-1a), can result in intracranial hemorrhage and intrauterine death. We have developed a therapeutic human recombinant high-affinity HPA-1a antibody (B2G1Δnab) that competes for binding to the HPA-1a epitope but carries a modified constant region that does not bind to Fcγ receptors. In vitro studies with a range of clinical anti-HPA-1a sera have shown that B2G1Δnab blocks monocyte chemiluminescence by >75%. In this first-in-man study, we demonstrate that HPA-1a1b autologous platelets (matching fetal phenotype) sensitized with B2G1Δnab have the same intravascular survival as unsensitized platelets (190 hours), while platelets sensitized with a destructive immunoglobulin G1 version of the antibody (B2G1) are cleared from the circulation in 2 hours. Mimicking the situation in fetuses receiving B2G1Δnab as therapy, we show that platelets sensitized with a combination of B2G1 (representing destructive HPA-1a antibody) and B2G1Δnab survive 3 times as long in circulation compared with platelets sensitized with B2G1 alone. This confirms the therapeutic potential of B2G1Δnab. The efficient clearance of platelets sensitized with B2G1 also opens up the opportunity to carry out studies of prophylaxis to prevent alloimmunization in HPA-1a-negative mothers.

  3. Proof theory an introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Pohlers, Wolfram

    1989-01-01

    Although this is an introductory text on proof theory, most of its contents is not found in a unified form elsewhere in the literature, except at a very advanced level. The heart of the book is the ordinal analysis of axiom systems, with particular emphasis on that of the impredicative theory of elementary inductive definitions on the natural numbers. The "constructive" consequences of ordinal analysis are sketched out in the epilogue. The book provides a self-contained treatment assuming no prior knowledge of proof theory and almost none of logic. The author has, moreover, endeavoured not to use the "cabal language" of proof theory, but only a language familiar to most readers.

  4. Helping Students Write Paragraph Proofs in Geometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandell, Joseph L.

    1994-01-01

    Demonstrates how instruction in writing paragraph proofs can be developed and implemented including organizing, writing proofs in paragraphs, evaluating a proof, sketching a proof, and drawing conclusions. (MKR)

  5. Burden of Proof in Bioethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koplin, Julian J; Selgelid, Michael J

    2015-11-01

    A common strategy in bioethics is to posit a prima facie case in favour of one policy, and to then claim that the burden of proof (that this policy should be rejected) falls on those with opposing views. If the burden of proof is not met, it is claimed, then the policy in question should be accepted. This article illustrates, and critically evaluates, examples of this strategy in debates about the sale of organs by living donors, human enhancement, and the precautionary principle. We highlight general problems with this style of argument, and particular problems with its use in specific cases. We conclude that the burden ultimately falls on decision-makers (i.e. policy-makers) to choose the policy supported by the best reasons.

  6. An Aspect of Dynamic Human-structure Interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Lars

    2008-01-01

    . Focus is on how modal characteristics of the structure, i.e. its frequency and damping, are influenced by the presence of stationary humans. Vertical vibrations are considered, and particular focus is given the influence of human posture on modal characteristics of the supporting structure. Insight......It is known that humans and structures interact. Humans can cause structures to vibrate, and excessive vibrations may occur if the motion frequency of humans coincides with a resonant frequency of the structural system. It is also known that stationary humans (such as humans sitting or standing...... on the structure) influence the dynamic behaviour and modal characteristics of the structure carrying them, whether being a grandstand, an office floor or similar. However, the interaction between the stationary humans and the structure is generally not well understood, and the paper addresses this interaction...

  7. 基于事故/事件的民机人因防错设计关键因素研究%Research on key factors of human error proofing design for civil aircraft based on accidents/incidents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高扬; 王向章; 李晓旭

    2015-01-01

    Aiming at the influence of human error proofing design for civil aircraft on flight safety, 92 typical acci-dents cases by human factors were selected from the world civil aviation safety accidents/incidents database.The element incident analysis method was applied to conduct deep analysis, then the important design factors which need to be considered in the human error proofing design for civil aircraft was summarized, and the important design factor set was established.Based on the man-machine-environment model in systems engineering, and combined with the relevant standards for aircrafts design at home and abroad, an index system of important factors about hu-man error proofing design for civil aircraft was built.The FAHP method was used to calculate the weight of inde-xes, and 14 key factors of human error proofing design that influence the flight safety were determined.Finally, the general requirements of human error proofing design for civil aircraft were proposed against the key factors.It can provide reference for the human error proofing design for civil aircraft to better meet the requirements of initial air-worthiness.%针对民机人因防错设计对飞行安全的影响,从世界民航安全事故/事件数据库中筛选出92起典型的人为因素事故案例,采用基元事件分析法进行深度分析,提炼出民机人因防错设计需要考虑的重要设计因素,并建立重要设计因素集。基于系统工程学的“人机环”模型,结合国内外飞机设计相关标准,建立民机人因防错设计重要因素指标体系。运用模糊层次分析法对因素指标进行权重计算,确立影响飞行安全的14项人因防错设计关键因素,并针对这些关键因素提出民机人因防错设计通用要求,以期为民机人因防错设计满足初始适航要求提供参考。

  8. Implications of interaction between Humans and Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Lars

    2015-01-01

    as structural damping and therefore also structural vibration levels). The paper addresses this subject and explores implications of having passive humans present on the structure. In experimental tests with a laboratory floor it is examined to which degree the posture of humans passively sitting on the floor......Many civil engineering structures are occupied by humans, and often humans are considered as a static load in calculations. However, active humans on structures can cause structural vibrations. Passive humans might also be present on that structure and they do change the structural system (such...... influences the damping added to the floor. A numerical case study explores how passive humans may influence vibration levels of a floor....

  9. Human-computer interaction and management information systems

    CERN Document Server

    Galletta, Dennis F

    2014-01-01

    ""Human-Computer Interaction and Management Information Systems: Applications"" offers state-of-the-art research by a distinguished set of authors who span the MIS and HCI fields. The original chapters provide authoritative commentaries and in-depth descriptions of research programs that will guide 21st century scholars, graduate students, and industry professionals. Human-Computer Interaction (or Human Factors) in MIS is concerned with the ways humans interact with information, technologies, and tasks, especially in business, managerial, organizational, and cultural contexts. It is distinctiv

  10. Vitamin D Combined with Aminolevulinate (ALA)-Mediated Photodynamic Therapy (PDT) for Human Psoriasis: A Proof-of-Principle Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maytin, Edward V; Honari, Golara; Khachemoune, Amor; Taylor, Charles R; Ortel, Bernhard; Pogue, Brian W; Sznycer-Taub, Nathaniel; Hasan, Tayyaba

    2012-09-01

    We previously showed that select agents (methotrexate or Vitamin D), when administered as a preconditioning regimen, are capable of promoting cellular differentiation of epithelial cancer cells while simultaneously enhancing the efficacy of 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA)-mediated photodynamic therapy (PDT). In solid tumors, pretreatment with Vitamin D simultaneously promotes cellular differentiation and leads to selective accumulation of target porphyrins (mainly protoporphyrin IX, PpIX) within diseased tissue. However, questions of whether or not the effects upon cellular differentiation are inexorably linked to PpIX accumulation, and whether these effects might occur in hyperproliferative noncancerous tissues, have remained unanswered. In this paper, we reasoned that psoriasis, a human skin disease in which abnormal cellular proliferation and differentiation plays a major role, could serve as a useful model to test the effects of pro-differentiating agents upon PpIX levels in a non-neoplastic setting. In particular, Vitamin D, a treatment for psoriasis that restores (increases) differentiation, might increase PpIX levels in psoriatic lesions and facilitate their responsiveness to ALA-PDT. This concept was tested in a pilot study of 7 patients with bilaterally-matched psoriatic plaques. A regimen in which calcipotriol 0.005% ointment was applied for 3 days prior to ALA-PDT with blue light, led to preferential increases in PpIX (~130%), and reductions in thickness, redness, scaling, and itching in the pretreated plaques. The results suggest that a larger clinical trial is warranted to confirm a role for combination treatments with Vitamin D and ALA-PDT for psoriasis.

  11. Real-time Animation of Interactive Virtual Humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Egges, A.

    2006-01-01

    Over the last years, there has been a lot of interest in the area of Interactive Virtual Humans (IVHs). Virtual characters who interact naturally with users in mixed realities have many different applications, such as interactive video games, virtual training and rehabilitation, or virtual heritage.

  12. Molecular imaging of the human pulmonary vascular endothelium in pulmonary hypertension: a phase II safety and proof of principle trial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harel, Francois [Montreal Heart Institute, Research Center, Montreal, QC (Canada); Universite de Montreal, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Langleben, David; Abikhzer, Gad [McGill University, Lady Davis Institute and Jewish General Hospital, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Provencher, Steve; Guimond, Jean [Institut Universitaire de Cardiologie et de Pneumologie de Quebec, Quebec (Canada); Fournier, Alain; Letourneau, Myriam [INRS-Institut Armand-Frappier, Laval, Quebec (Canada); Finnerty, Vincent; Nguyen, Quang T.; Levac, Xavier [Montreal Heart Institute, Research Center, Montreal, QC (Canada); Mansour, Asmaa; Guertin, Marie-Claude [Montreal Health Innovation Coordination Center, Montreal, QC (Canada); Dupuis, Jocelyn [Montreal Heart Institute, Research Center, Montreal, QC (Canada); Universite de Montreal, Department of Medicine, Montreal, Quebec (Canada)

    2017-07-15

    The adrenomedullin receptor is densely expressed in the pulmonary vascular endothelium. PulmoBind, an adrenomedullin receptor ligand, was developed for molecular diagnosis of pulmonary vascular disease. We evaluated the safety of PulmoBind SPECT imaging and its capacity to detect pulmonary vascular disease associated with pulmonary hypertension (PH) in a human phase II study. Thirty patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH, n = 23) or chronic thromboembolic PH (CTEPH, n = 7) in WHO functional class II (n = 26) or III (n = 4) were compared to 15 healthy controls. Lung SPECT was performed after injection of 15 mCi {sup 99m}Tc-PulmoBind in supine position. Qualitative and semi-quantitative analyses of lung uptake were performed. Reproducibility of repeated testing was evaluated in controls after 1 month. PulmoBind injection was well tolerated without any serious adverse event. Imaging was markedly abnormal in PH with ∝50% of subjects showing moderate to severe heterogeneity of moderate to severe extent. The abnormalities were unevenly distributed between the right and left lungs as well as within each lung. Segmental defects compatible with pulmonary embolism were present in 7/7 subjects with CTEPH and in 2/23 subjects with PAH. There were no segmental defects in controls. The PulmoBind activity distribution index, a parameter indicative of heterogeneity, was elevated in PH (65% ± 28%) vs. controls (41% ± 13%, p = 0.0003). In the only subject with vasodilator-responsive idiopathic PAH, PulmoBind lung SPECT was completely normal. Repeated testing 1 month later in healthy controls was well tolerated and showed no significant variability of PulmoBind distribution. In this phase II study, molecular SPECT imaging of the pulmonary vascular endothelium using {sup 99m}Tc-PulmoBind was safe. PulmoBind showed potential to detect both pulmonary embolism and abnormalities indicative of pulmonary vascular disease in PAH. Phase III studies with this novel tracer and

  13. Human Factors Issues for Interaction with Bio-Inspired Swarms

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    subtle leaders of fish schools. Pheromone trails also suggest a way to support human interaction as has been explored to a limited extent... Human Factors issues for Interaction with Bio-Inspired Swarms Michael Lewis*, Michael Goodrich**, Katia Sycara+, Mark Steinberg++ * School of...Enabling a human to control such bio-inspired systems is a considerable challenge due to the limitations of each individual robot and the sheer

  14. Advances in proof theory

    CERN Document Server

    Strahm, Thomas; Studer, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this volume is to collect original contributions by the best specialists from the area of proof theory, constructivity, and computation and discuss recent trends and results in these areas. Some emphasis will be put on ordinal analysis, reductive proof theory, explicit mathematics and type-theoretic formalisms, and abstract computations. The volume is dedicated to the 60th birthday of Professor Gerhard Jäger, who has been instrumental in shaping and promoting logic in Switzerland for the last 25 years. It comprises contributions from the symposium “Advances in Proof Theory”, which was held in Bern in December 2013. Proof theory came into being in the twenties of the last century, when it was inaugurated by David Hilbert in order to secure the foundations of mathematics. It was substantially influenced by Gödel's famous incompleteness theorems of 1930 and Gentzen's new consistency proof for the axiom system of first order number theory in 1936. Today, proof theory is a well-established branch ...

  15. Proteomic and protein interaction network analysis of human T lymphocytes during cell-cycle entry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orr, Stephen J; Boutz, Daniel R; Wang, Rong; Chronis, Constantinos; Lea, Nicholas C; Thayaparan, Thivyan; Hamilton, Emma; Milewicz, Hanna; Blanc, Eric; Mufti, Ghulam J; Marcotte, Edward M; Thomas, N Shaun B

    2012-01-01

    Regulating the transition of cells such as T lymphocytes from quiescence (G0) into an activated, proliferating state involves initiation of cellular programs resulting in entry into the cell cycle (proliferation), the growth cycle (blastogenesis, cell size) and effector (functional) activation. We show the first proteomic analysis of protein interaction networks activated during entry into the first cell cycle from G0. We also provide proof of principle that blastogenesis and proliferation programs are separable in primary human T cells. We employed a proteomic profiling method to identify large-scale changes in chromatin/nuclear matrix-bound and unbound proteins in human T lymphocytes during the transition from G0 into the first cell cycle and mapped them to form functionally annotated, dynamic protein interaction networks. Inhibiting the induction of two proteins involved in two of the most significantly upregulated cellular processes, ribosome biogenesis (eIF6) and hnRNA splicing (SF3B2/SF3B4), showed, respectively, that human T cells can enter the cell cycle without growing in size, or increase in size without entering the cell cycle. PMID:22415777

  16. Eyeblink Synchrony in Multimodal Human-Android Interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatsukawa, Kyohei; Nakano, Tamami; Ishiguro, Hiroshi; Yoshikawa, Yuichiro

    2016-12-23

    As the result of recent progress in technology of communication robot, robots are becoming an important social partner for humans. Behavioral synchrony is understood as an important factor in establishing good human-robot relationships. In this study, we hypothesized that biasing a human's attitude toward a robot changes the degree of synchrony between human and robot. We first examined whether eyeblinks were synchronized between a human and an android in face-to-face interaction and found that human listeners' eyeblinks were entrained to android speakers' eyeblinks. This eyeblink synchrony disappeared when the android speaker spoke while looking away from the human listeners but was enhanced when the human participants listened to the speaking android while touching the android's hand. These results suggest that eyeblink synchrony reflects a qualitative state in human-robot interactions.

  17. Towards an Intelligent Tutor for Mathematical Proofs

    CERN Document Server

    Autexier, Serge; Schiller, Marvin; 10.4204/EPTCS.79.1

    2012-01-01

    Computer-supported learning is an increasingly important form of study since it allows for independent learning and individualized instruction. In this paper, we discuss a novel approach to developing an intelligent tutoring system for teaching textbook-style mathematical proofs. We characterize the particularities of the domain and discuss common ITS design models. Our approach is motivated by phenomena found in a corpus of tutorial dialogs that were collected in a Wizard-of-Oz experiment. We show how an intelligent tutor for textbook-style mathematical proofs can be built on top of an adapted assertion-level proof assistant by reusing representations and proof search strategies originally developed for automated and interactive theorem proving. The resulting prototype was successfully evaluated on a corpus of tutorial dialogs and yields good results.

  18. Towards an Intelligent Tutor for Mathematical Proofs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serge Autexier

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Computer-supported learning is an increasingly important form of study since it allows for independent learning and individualized instruction. In this paper, we discuss a novel approach to developing an intelligent tutoring system for teaching textbook-style mathematical proofs. We characterize the particularities of the domain and discuss common ITS design models. Our approach is motivated by phenomena found in a corpus of tutorial dialogs that were collected in a Wizard-of-Oz experiment. We show how an intelligent tutor for textbook-style mathematical proofs can be built on top of an adapted assertion-level proof assistant by reusing representations and proof search strategies originally developed for automated and interactive theorem proving. The resulting prototype was successfully evaluated on a corpus of tutorial dialogs and yields good results.

  19. Management Education: Reflective Learning on Human Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clydesdale, Greg

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to describe an attempt to develop a more effective technique to teach self-awareness and relationship skills. Design/methodology/approach: A journal is used in combination with a model of human nature. The model lists human characteristics that the management trainee must identify in themselves and others they interact…

  20. Sea Turtle Human/Gear Interactions Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Southeast Fisheries Science Center Mississippi Laboratories is responsible for new gear development and testing to reduce bycatch and incidental interactions of...

  1. Proof nets for lingusitic analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moot, R.C.A.

    2002-01-01

    This book investigates the possible linguistic applications of proof nets, redundancy free representations of proofs, which were introduced by Girard for linear logic. We will adapt the notion of proof net to allow the formulation of a proof net calculus which is soundand complete for the multimoda

  2. A proof of Bertrand's postulate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Asperti

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We discuss the formalization, in the Matita Interactive Theorem Prover, of some results by Chebyshev concerning the distribution of prime numbers, subsuming, as a corollary, Bertrand's postulate.Even if Chebyshev's result has been later superseded by the stronger prime number theorem, his machinery, and in particular the two functions psi and theta still play a central role in the modern development of number theory. The proof makes use of most part of the machinery of elementary arithmetics, and in particular of properties of prime numbers, gcd, products and summations, providing a natural benchmark for assessing the actual development of the arithmetical knowledge base.

  3. Workshop on cultural usability and human work interaction design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clemmensen, Torkil; Ørngreen, Rikke; Roese, Kerstin

    2008-01-01

    This workshop analyzes the use of techniques to connect empirical work analysis and interaction design in different cultural contexts. In industry, a wealth of usability evaluation methods is used to evaluate computer software user interfaces and other interactive products: Inspection methods...... it into interaction design. The workshop will present current research into cultural usability and human work interaction design. Cultural usability is a comprehensive concept, which adheres to all kinds of contexts in which humans are involved (private family, work, public and private organizations, nature...

  4. First-in-Human PET/CT Imaging of Metastatic Neuroendocrine Neoplasms with Cyclotron-Produced (44)Sc-DOTATOC: A Proof-of-Concept Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Aviral; van der Meulen, Nicholas P; Müller, Cristina; Klette, Ingo; Kulkarni, Harshad R; Türler, Andreas; Schibli, Roger; Baum, Richard P

    2017-05-01

    (44)Sc is a promising positron emission tomography (PET) radionuclide (T1/2 = 4.04 hours, Eβ+average = 632 keV) and can be made available, using a cyclotron production route, in substantial quantities as a highly pure product. Herein, the authors report on a first-in-human PET/CT study using (44)Sc-DOTATOC prepared with cyclotron-produced (44)Sc. The production of (44)Sc was carried out through the (44)Ca(p,n)(44)Sc nuclear reaction at Paul Scherrer Institut, Switzerland. After separation, (44)Sc was shipped to Zentralklinik Bad Berka, Germany, where radiolabeling was performed, yielding radiochemically pure (44)Sc-DOTATOC. Two patients, currently followed up after peptide receptor radionuclide therapy of metastatic neuroendocrine neoplasms, participated in this proof-of-concept study. Blood sampling was performed before and after application of (44)Sc-DOTATOC. PET/CT acquisitions, performed at different time points after injection of (44)Sc-DOTATOC, allowed detection of even very small lesions on delayed scans. No clinical adverse effects were observed and the laboratory hematological, renal, and hepatic profiles remained unchanged. In this study, cyclotron-produced (44)Sc was used in the clinic for the first time. It is attractive for theranostic application with (177)Lu, (90)Y, or (47)Sc as therapeutic counterparts. (44)Sc-based radiopharmaceuticals will be of particular value for PET facilities without radiopharmacy, to which they can be shipped from a centralized production site.

  5. Socially intelligent robots: dimensions of human-robot interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dautenhahn, Kerstin

    2007-04-29

    Social intelligence in robots has a quite recent history in artificial intelligence and robotics. However, it has become increasingly apparent that social and interactive skills are necessary requirements in many application areas and contexts where robots need to interact and collaborate with other robots or humans. Research on human-robot interaction (HRI) poses many challenges regarding the nature of interactivity and 'social behaviour' in robot and humans. The first part of this paper addresses dimensions of HRI, discussing requirements on social skills for robots and introducing the conceptual space of HRI studies. In order to illustrate these concepts, two examples of HRI research are presented. First, research is surveyed which investigates the development of a cognitive robot companion. The aim of this work is to develop social rules for robot behaviour (a 'robotiquette') that is comfortable and acceptable to humans. Second, robots are discussed as possible educational or therapeutic toys for children with autism. The concept of interactive emergence in human-child interactions is highlighted. Different types of play among children are discussed in the light of their potential investigation in human-robot experiments. The paper concludes by examining different paradigms regarding 'social relationships' of robots and people interacting with them.

  6. Affect in Human-Robot Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Werry, I., Rae , J., Dickerson, P., Stribling, P., & Ogden, B. (2002). Robotic Playmates: Analysing Interactive Competencies of Children with Autism...R.C., & Cameron, J.M. (1997). Multiagent Mission Specification and Execution. Autonomous Robots, 4(1), 29-52. 31. Manual for MissionLab Version 7.0

  7. Audio Technology and Mobile Human Computer Interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chamberlain, Alan; Bødker, Mads; Hazzard, Adrian

    2017-01-01

    Audio-based mobile technology is opening up a range of new interactive possibilities. This paper brings some of those possibilities to light by offering a range of perspectives based in this area. It is not only the technical systems that are developing, but novel approaches to the design...

  8. Interactions between Streptococcus pneumoniae and the human host

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mens, S.P. van

    2014-01-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae, the pneumococcus, is an important human pathogen causing considerable morbidity and mortality worldwide. This thesis addresses several interactions between pneumococcus and man. The first part of the thesis deals with the host immune response against pneumococci. We studied

  9. Joint action: Neurocognitive mechanisms supporting human interaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekkering, H.; Bruijn, E.R.A. de; Cuijpers, R.H.; Newman-Norlund, R.D.; Schie, H.T. van; Meulenbroek, R.G.J.

    2009-01-01

    Humans are experts in cooperating with each other when trying to accomplish tasks they cannot achieve alone. Recent studies of joint action have shown that when performing tasks together people strongly rely on the neurocognitive mechanisms that they also use when performing actions individually, th

  10. Human-Computer Interactions and Decision Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    software interfaces. The major components of the reseach program included the Diaiogue Management System. (DMS) operating environment, the role of...specification; and new methods for modeling, designing, and developing human-computer interfaces based on syntactic and semantic specification. The DMS...achieving communication is language. Accordingly, the transaction model employs a linguistic model consisting of parts that relate computer responses

  11. The Law of Attraction in Human-Robot Interaction

    OpenAIRE

    Eunil Park; Dallae Jin; del Pobil, Angel P.

    2012-01-01

    Following the law of attraction in human‐human interaction, this paper examines the effects of a robot’s personality and a human’s personality in various human‐robot interactions. This study was conducted using robots that were programmed to mimic both extroverted and introverted personality types, as well as humans who were classified as having introverted, extroverted or intermediate personality types. Using a 3 x 2 between‐ subjects experiment with 120 participants, the results indicated t...

  12. Interactive displays natural human-interface technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Bhowmik, Achintya K

    2014-01-01

    One of the first books to provide an in-depth discussion of the technologies, applications and trends in the rapidly emerging field of interactive displays (touch, gesture & voice) The book will cover the technologies, applications and trends in the field of interactive displays, namely interfaces based on touch, gesture and voice and those using a combination of these technologies. The book will be split into 4 main parts with each being dedicated to a specific user interface. Part 1 ''Touch Interfaces'' will provide a review of the currently deployed touch-screen technologies and applications. It will also cover the recent developments towards achieving thinner, lightweight and cost-reduced touch screen panels in the future via integration of touch functionalities. Part 2 ''Gesture Interfaces'' will examine techniques and applications in stereoscopic 3D computer vision, structured-light 3D computer vision and time-of-flight 3D computer vision in gesture interfaces. Part 3 ''Voice Interfaces'' will revie...

  13. The Law of Attraction in Human-Robot Interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eunil Park

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Following the law of attraction in human-human interaction, this paper examines the effects of a robot's personality and a human's personality in various human-robot interactions. This study was conducted using robots that were programmed to mimic both extroverted and introverted personality types, as well as humans who were classified as having introverted, extroverted or intermediate personality types. Using a 3 × 2 between-subjects experiment with 120 participants, the results indicated that participants who interacted with a similar personality robot were more comfortable than those who engaged with a different personality robot. Yet, the evaluation of social presence presented an opposing result. Both the implications and limitations of the present study, as well as guidelines for future research, are discussed.

  14. An Integrated Human System Interaction (HSI) Framework for Human-Agent Team Collaboration Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The NASA commitment to a human presence in space exploration results in the interaction of humans with challenging environments in space, on lunar, and on planetary...

  15. One Health proof of concept: Bringing a transdisciplinary approach to surveillance for zoonotic viruses at the human-wild animal interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Terra R; Karesh, William B; Johnson, Christine Kreuder; Gilardi, Kirsten V K; Anthony, Simon J; Goldstein, Tracey; Olson, Sarah H; Machalaba, Catherine; Mazet, Jonna A K

    2017-02-01

    As the world continues to react and respond inefficiently to emerging infectious diseases, such as Middle Eastern Respiratory Syndrome and the Ebola and Zika viruses, a growing transdisciplinary community has called for a more proactive and holistic approach to prevention and preparedness - One Health. Such an approach presents important opportunities to reduce the impact of disease emergence events and also to mitigate future emergence through improved cross-sectoral coordination. In an attempt to provide proof of concept of the utility of the One Health approach, the US Agency for International Development's PREDICT project consortium designed and implemented a targeted, risk-based surveillance strategy based not on humans as sentinels of disease but on detecting viruses early, at their source, where intervention strategies can be implemented before there is opportunity for spillover and spread in people or food animals. Here, we share One Health approaches used by consortium members to illustrate the potential for successful One Health outcomes that can be achieved through collaborative, transdisciplinary partnerships. PREDICT's collaboration with partners around the world on strengthening local capacity to detect hundreds of viruses in wild animals, coupled with a series of cutting-edge virological and analytical activities, have significantly improved our baseline knowledge on the zoonotic pool of viruses and the risk of exposure to people. Further testament to the success of the project's One Health approach and the work of its team of dedicated One Health professionals are the resulting 90 peer-reviewed, scientific publications in under 5 years that improve our understanding of zoonoses and the factors influencing their emergence. The findings are assisting in global health improvements, including surveillance science, diagnostic technologies, understanding of viral evolution, and ecological driver identification. Through its One Health leadership and multi

  16. First-in-Human Proof-of-Concept Study: Intralesional Administration of BQ788, an Endothelin Receptor B Antagonist, to Melanoma Skin Metastases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunger, Robert E.; Garrod, Terence; Dubuis, Benoit; Hunziker, Thomas; van den Oord, Joost J.; Lahav-le Coutre, Ronit

    2015-01-01

    Lessons Learned Local tolerance of intralesional treatment of melanoma skin metastases with BQ788 is excellent. Hints of efficacy are observed, consisting of both direct effects (decreased expression of endothelin receptor B [EDNRB] and of survival factors, reduced proliferation) and indirect effects (enhanced immune cell infiltration and angiogenesis). Patients in future trials should be screened for EDNRB expression level prior to treatment because only patients with high EDNRB-expressing melanomas (four of five) responded to BQ788. Future studies should be performed for at least 2 weeks because reduced lesion growth was observed in the only patient that was treated for longer than 1 week. Background. This first-in-human proof-of-concept study aimed to check whether safety and preclinical results obtained by intratumoral administration of BQ788, an endothelin receptor B (EDNRB) antagonist, can be repeated in human melanoma patients. Methods. Three patients received a single intralesional BQ788 application of 3 mg. After 3–7 days, the lesions were measured and removed for analysis. The administered dose was increased to a cumulative dosage of 8 mg in patient 4 (4 × 2.0 mg, days 0–3; lesion removed on day 4) and to 10 mg in patient 5 (3 × 3.3 mg, days 0, 3, and 10; lesion removed after 14 days). Control lesions were simultaneously treated with phosphate-buffered saline (PBS). All samples were processed and analyzed without knowledge of the clinical findings. Results. No statistical evaluation was possible because of the number of patients (n = 5) and the variability in the mode of administration. No adverse events were observed, regardless of administered dose. All observations were in accordance with results obtained in preclinical studies. Accordingly, no difference in degree of tumor necrosis was detected between BQ788- and PBS-treated samples. In addition, both EDNRB and Ki67 showed decreased expression in patients 2 and 5 and, to a lesser extent, in

  17. Motor contagion during human-human and human-robot interaction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ambra Bisio

    Full Text Available Motor resonance mechanisms are known to affect humans' ability to interact with others, yielding the kind of "mutual understanding" that is the basis of social interaction. However, it remains unclear how the partner's action features combine or compete to promote or prevent motor resonance during interaction. To clarify this point, the present study tested whether and how the nature of the visual stimulus and the properties of the observed actions influence observer's motor response, being motor contagion one of the behavioral manifestations of motor resonance. Participants observed a humanoid robot and a human agent move their hands into a pre-specified final position or put an object into a container at various velocities. Their movements, both in the object- and non-object- directed conditions, were characterized by either a smooth/curvilinear or a jerky/segmented trajectory. These trajectories were covered with biological or non-biological kinematics (the latter only by the humanoid robot. After action observation, participants were requested to either reach the indicated final position or to transport a similar object into another container. Results showed that motor contagion appeared for both the interactive partner except when the humanoid robot violated the biological laws of motion. These findings suggest that the observer may transiently match his/her own motor repertoire to that of the observed agent. This matching might mediate the activation of motor resonance, and modulate the spontaneity and the pleasantness of the interaction, whatever the nature of the communication partner.

  18. Motor contagion during human-human and human-robot interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisio, Ambra; Sciutti, Alessandra; Nori, Francesco; Metta, Giorgio; Fadiga, Luciano; Sandini, Giulio; Pozzo, Thierry

    2014-01-01

    Motor resonance mechanisms are known to affect humans' ability to interact with others, yielding the kind of "mutual understanding" that is the basis of social interaction. However, it remains unclear how the partner's action features combine or compete to promote or prevent motor resonance during interaction. To clarify this point, the present study tested whether and how the nature of the visual stimulus and the properties of the observed actions influence observer's motor response, being motor contagion one of the behavioral manifestations of motor resonance. Participants observed a humanoid robot and a human agent move their hands into a pre-specified final position or put an object into a container at various velocities. Their movements, both in the object- and non-object- directed conditions, were characterized by either a smooth/curvilinear or a jerky/segmented trajectory. These trajectories were covered with biological or non-biological kinematics (the latter only by the humanoid robot). After action observation, participants were requested to either reach the indicated final position or to transport a similar object into another container. Results showed that motor contagion appeared for both the interactive partner except when the humanoid robot violated the biological laws of motion. These findings suggest that the observer may transiently match his/her own motor repertoire to that of the observed agent. This matching might mediate the activation of motor resonance, and modulate the spontaneity and the pleasantness of the interaction, whatever the nature of the communication partner.

  19. Behavioral Entropy in Human-Robot Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    Department 2 Erwin R. Boer Consulting Brigham Young University San Diego, CA, USA Provo, UT, USA ABSTRACT The ability to quickly and accurately measure...AND ADDRESS(ES) Brigham Young University,Computer Science Department,33361 Talmage Building,Provo,UT,84602 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER...in- teraction. To paraphrase Wiener, people work to re- duce entropy so skilled behavior minimizes entropy. This manifests itself in human behavior

  20. Human-Robot Interaction Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    analyse documentaire porte sur 53 ouvrages et vise à donner un aperçu des recherches sur l’IHR concernant l’utilisation des UV qui sont actuellement en...Toronto CR2012- ; Defence R&S Canada – Toronto; March 2012. Mandat : Cette analyse documentaire a été effectuée pour le compte de RDDC-Toronto dans...faut améliorer l’interaction humain-robot (IHR) qui se produit lorsqu’un opérateur commande un UV. But : Cette analyse documentaire vise à présenter

  1. COMMUNICATIVE INTERACTION ACTIVITIES USING HUMAN INTEREST STORIES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Song Shunling

    1983-01-01

    @@ As an EFL teacher actively engaged in promoting communicative approach in teaching post-intermediate students I have been all the time aware of the risks involved in classroom discussion and debate in the target language. Despite elaborate preparations on thepart of both teacher and students and numerous encouraging cues from the teacher to induce an adequate interaction during the session, the end product is anything but satisfactory: few more able students may hog the show for a few minutes while the rest clamp up, then stony silence dominates and the teacher has recourse to monologue.

  2. Social interactions through the eyes of macaques and humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard McFarland

    Full Text Available Group-living primates frequently interact with each other to maintain social bonds as well as to compete for valuable resources. Observing such social interactions between group members provides individuals with essential information (e.g. on the fighting ability or altruistic attitude of group companions to guide their social tactics and choice of social partners. This process requires individuals to selectively attend to the most informative content within a social scene. It is unclear how non-human primates allocate attention to social interactions in different contexts, and whether they share similar patterns of social attention to humans. Here we compared the gaze behaviour of rhesus macaques and humans when free-viewing the same set of naturalistic images. The images contained positive or negative social interactions between two conspecifics of different phylogenetic distance from the observer; i.e. affiliation or aggression exchanged by two humans, rhesus macaques, Barbary macaques, baboons or lions. Monkeys directed a variable amount of gaze at the two conspecific individuals in the images according to their roles in the interaction (i.e. giver or receiver of affiliation/aggression. Their gaze distribution to non-conspecific individuals was systematically varied according to the viewed species and the nature of interactions, suggesting a contribution of both prior experience and innate bias in guiding social attention. Furthermore, the monkeys' gaze behavior was qualitatively similar to that of humans, especially when viewing negative interactions. Detailed analysis revealed that both species directed more gaze at the face than the body region when inspecting individuals, and attended more to the body region in negative than in positive social interactions. Our study suggests that monkeys and humans share a similar pattern of role-sensitive, species- and context-dependent social attention, implying a homologous cognitive mechanism of

  3. The epistemology and ontology of human-computer interaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brey, Philip

    2005-01-01

    This paper analyzes epistemological and ontological dimensions of Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) through an analysis of the functions of computer systems in relation to their users. It is argued that the primary relation between humans and computer systems has historically been epistemic: computer

  4. The Twelf Proof Assistant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schürmann, Carsten

    2009-01-01

    Logical framework research is based on the philosophical point of view that it should be possible to capture mathematical concepts such as proofs, logics, and meaning in a formal system — directly, adequately (in the sense that there are no spurious or exotic witnesses), and without having to com...

  5. Interaction profiling identifies the human nuclear exosome targeting complex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lubas, Michal Szymon; Christensen, Marianne Spangsberg; Kristiansen, Maiken Søndergaard

    2011-01-01

    of a similar activator(s) in humans remains elusive. By establishing an interaction network of the human nuclear exosome, we identify the trimeric Nuclear Exosome Targeting (NEXT) complex, containing hMTR4, the Zn-knuckle protein ZCCHC8, and the putative RNA binding protein RBM7. ZCCHC8 and RBM7 are excluded...... to nucleoli. Our results suggest that human nuclear exosome degradation pathways comprise modules of spatially organized cofactors that diverge from the yeast model....

  6. A Moving Human Tracking Approach Based on Semantic Interaction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Ning; FANG Bao-hong; SUN Fu-liang

    2007-01-01

    In order to deal with partical occlusion, a semantic interaction based moving human tracking approach is put forward. Firstly human is modeled as moving blobs which are described as blob descriptions. Then moving blobs are updated and verified by projecting these descriptions. The approach exploits improved fast gauss transform and chooses source and target samples to reduce compute cost. Multi-moving human can be tracked simply and part occlusion can be done well.

  7. 68Ga- and 177Lu-Labeled PSMA I&T: Optimization of a PSMA-Targeted Theranostic Concept and First Proof-of-Concept Human Studies

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Weineisen, Martina; Schottelius, Margret; Simecek, Jakub; Baum, Richard P; Yildiz, Akin; Beykan, Seval; Kulkarni, Harshad R; Lassmann, Michael; Klette, Ingo; Eiber, Matthias; Schwaiger, Markus; Wester, Hans-Jürgen

    2015-01-01

    ...) in metastatic prostate cancer (PC), the goal of this study was the development, preclinical evaluation, and first proof-of-concept investigation of a PSMA inhibitor for imaging and therapy (PSMA I&T) for (68)Ga-based PET and (177...

  8. Modeling human dynamics of face-to-face interaction networks

    CERN Document Server

    Starnini, Michele; Pastor-Satorras, Romualdo

    2013-01-01

    Face-to-face interaction networks describe social interactions in human gatherings, and are the substrate for processes such as epidemic spreading and gossip propagation. The bursty nature of human behavior characterizes many aspects of empirical data, such as the distribution of conversation lengths, of conversations per person, or of inter-conversation times. Despite several recent attempts, a general theoretical understanding of the global picture emerging from data is still lacking. Here we present a simple model that reproduces quantitatively most of the relevant features of empirical face-to-face interaction networks. The model describes agents which perform a random walk in a two dimensional space and are characterized by an attractiveness whose effect is to slow down the motion of people around them. The proposed framework sheds light on the dynamics of human interactions and can improve the modeling of dynamical processes taking place on the ensuing dynamical social networks.

  9. Necessary truth and proof

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Read

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available What makes necessary truths true? I argue that all truth supervenes on how things are, and that necessary truths are no exception. What makes them true are proofs. But if so, the notion of proof needs to be generalized to include verification-transcendent proofs, proofs whose correctness exceeds our ability to verify it. It is incumbent on me, therefore, to show that arguments, such as Dummett's, that verification-truth is not compatible with the theory of meaning, are mistaken. The answer is that what we can conceive and construct far outstrips our actual abilities. I conclude by proposing a proof-theoretic account of modality, rejecting a claim of Armstrong's that modality can reside in non-modal truthmakers.O que faz verdadeiras as verdades necessárias? Defendo que qualquer verdade sobrevém das coisas como elas são, e que as verdades necessárias não são exceções. O que as faz verdadeiras são provas. Mas, se assim for, a noção de prova precisa ser generalizada para incluir provas de verificação-transcendente, provas cuja correção extrapola a nossa própria habilidade de verificação. Além disso, tenho a incumbência de mostrar que argumentos, como o de Dummett, segundo o qual a verdade em termos de verificação não é compatível com a teoria do significado, não procedem. A resposta consiste no fato de que aquilo que podemos conceber e construir ultrapassa nossas habilidades efetivas. Concluo propondo um tratamento das modalidades em termos de teoria da prova, rejeitando a afirmação de Armstrong de que modalidades podem residir em fazedores de verdade não modais.

  10. Proof in geometry with "mistakes in geometric proofs"

    CERN Document Server

    Fetisov, A I

    2006-01-01

    This single-volume compilation of 2 books explores the construction of geometric proofs. It offers useful criteria for determining correctness and presents examples of faulty proofs that illustrate common errors. 1963 editions.

  11. Self-Powered Human-Interactive Transparent Nanopaper Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Junwen; Zhu, Hongli; Zhong, Qize; Dai, Jiaqi; Li, Wenbo; Jang, Soo-Hwan; Yao, Yonggang; Henderson, Doug; Hu, Qiyi; Hu, Liangbing; Zhou, Jun

    2015-07-28

    Self-powered human-interactive but invisible electronics have many applications in anti-theft and anti-fake systems for human society. In this work, for the first time, we demonstrate a transparent paper-based, self-powered, and human-interactive flexible system. The system is based on an electrostatic induction mechanism with no extra power system appended. The self-powered, transparent paper device can be used for a transparent paper-based art anti-theft system in museums or for a smart mapping anti-fake system in precious packaging and documents, by virtue of the advantages of adding/removing freely, having no impairment on the appearance of the protected objects, and being easily mass manufactured. This initial study bridges the transparent nanopaper with a self-powered and human-interactive electronic system, paving the way for the development of smart transparent paper electronics.

  12. Human capabilities in space. [man machine interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicogossian, A. E.

    1984-01-01

    Man's ability to live and perform useful work in space was demonstrated throughout the history of manned space flight. Current planning envisions a multi-functional space station. Man's unique abilities to respond to the unforeseen and to operate at a level of complexity exceeding any reasonable amount of previous planning distinguish him from present day machines. His limitations, however, include his inherent inability to survive without protection, his limited strength, and his propensity to make mistakes when performing repetitive and monotonous tasks. By contrast, an automated system does routine and delicate tasks, exerts force smoothly and precisely, stores, and recalls large amounts of data, and performs deductive reasoning while maintaining a relative insensitivity to the environment. The establishment of a permanent presence of man in space demands that man and machines be appropriately combined in spaceborne systems. To achieve this optimal combination, research is needed in such diverse fields as artificial intelligence, robotics, behavioral psychology, economics, and human factors engineering.

  13. Universal activity pattern in human interactive dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Formentin, Marco; Maritan, Amos; Zanzotto, Giovanni

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the response function of human agents as demonstrated by written correspondence, uncovering a new universal pattern for how the reactive dynamics of individuals is distributed across the set of each agent's contacts. In long-term empirical data on email, we find that the set of response times considered separately for the messages to each different correspondent of a given writer, generate a family of heavy-tailed distributions, which have largely the same features for all agents, and whose characteristic times grow exponentially with the rank of each correspondent. We show this universal behavioral pattern emerges robustly by considering weighted moving averages of the priority-conditioned response-time probabilities generated by a basic prioritization model. Our findings clarify how the range of priorities in the inputs from one's environment underpin and shape the dynamics of agents embedded in a net of reactive relations. These newly revealed activity patterns constrain future models of com...

  14. Human immunodeficiency virus type 1, human protein interaction database at NCBI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, William; Sanders-Beer, Brigitte E; Katz, Kenneth S; Maglott, Donna R; Pruitt, Kim D; Ptak, Roger G

    2009-01-01

    The 'Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 (HIV-1), Human Protein Interaction Database', available through the National Library of Medicine at www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/RefSeq/HIVInteractions, was created to catalog all interactions between HIV-1 and human proteins published in the peer-reviewed literature. The database serves the scientific community exploring the discovery of novel HIV vaccine candidates and therapeutic targets. To facilitate this discovery approach, the following information for each HIV-1 human protein interaction is provided and can be retrieved without restriction by web-based downloads and ftp protocols: Reference Sequence (RefSeq) protein accession numbers, Entrez Gene identification numbers, brief descriptions of the interactions, searchable keywords for interactions and PubMed identification numbers (PMIDs) of journal articles describing the interactions. Currently, 2589 unique HIV-1 to human protein interactions and 5135 brief descriptions of the interactions, with a total of 14,312 PMID references to the original articles reporting the interactions, are stored in this growing database. In addition, all protein-protein interactions documented in the database are integrated into Entrez Gene records and listed in the 'HIV-1 protein interactions' section of Entrez Gene reports. The database is also tightly linked to other databases through Entrez Gene, enabling users to search for an abundance of information related to HIV pathogenesis and replication.

  15. Cyberpsychology: a human-interaction perspective based on cognitive modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emond, Bruno; West, Robert L

    2003-10-01

    This paper argues for the relevance of cognitive modeling and cognitive architectures to cyberpsychology. From a human-computer interaction point of view, cognitive modeling can have benefits both for theory and model building, and for the design and evaluation of sociotechnical systems usability. Cognitive modeling research applied to human-computer interaction has two complimentary objectives: (1) to develop theories and computational models of human interactive behavior with information and collaborative technologies, and (2) to use the computational models as building blocks for the design, implementation, and evaluation of interactive technologies. From the perspective of building theories and models, cognitive modeling offers the possibility to anchor cyberpsychology theories and models into cognitive architectures. From the perspective of the design and evaluation of socio-technical systems, cognitive models can provide the basis for simulated users, which can play an important role in usability testing. As an example of application of cognitive modeling to technology design, the paper presents a simulation of interactive behavior with five different adaptive menu algorithms: random, fixed, stacked, frequency based, and activation based. Results of the simulation indicate that fixed menu positions seem to offer the best support for classification like tasks such as filing e-mails. This research is part of the Human-Computer Interaction, and the Broadband Visual Communication research programs at the National Research Council of Canada, in collaboration with the Carleton Cognitive Modeling Lab at Carleton University.

  16. A survey of noninteractive zero knowledge proof system and its applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Huixin; Wang, Feng

    2014-01-01

    Zero knowledge proof system which has received extensive attention since it was proposed is an important branch of cryptography and computational complexity theory. Thereinto, noninteractive zero knowledge proof system contains only one message sent by the prover to the verifier. It is widely used in the construction of various types of cryptographic protocols and cryptographic algorithms because of its good privacy, authentication, and lower interactive complexity. This paper reviews and analyzes the basic principles of noninteractive zero knowledge proof system, and summarizes the research progress achieved by noninteractive zero knowledge proof system on the following aspects: the definition and related models of noninteractive zero knowledge proof system, noninteractive zero knowledge proof system of NP problems, noninteractive statistical and perfect zero knowledge, the connection between noninteractive zero knowledge proof system, interactive zero knowledge proof system, and zap, and the specific applications of noninteractive zero knowledge proof system. This paper also points out the future research directions.

  17. Human-robot interaction strategies for walker-assisted locomotion

    CERN Document Server

    Cifuentes, Carlos A

    2016-01-01

    This book presents the development of a new multimodal human-robot interface for testing and validating control strategies applied to robotic walkers for assisting human mobility and gait rehabilitation. The aim is to achieve a closer interaction between the robotic device and the individual, empowering the rehabilitation potential of such devices in clinical applications. A new multimodal human-robot interface for testing and validating control strategies applied to robotic walkers for assisting human mobility and gait rehabilitation is presented. Trends and opportunities for future advances in the field of assistive locomotion via the development of hybrid solutions based on the combination of smart walkers and biomechatronic exoskeletons are also discussed. .

  18. Analysis of Human-Spacesuit Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Neha

    2015-01-01

    Astronauts sustain injuries of various natures such as finger delamination, joint pain, and redness due to their interaction with the space suit. The role of the Anthropometry and Biomechanics Facility is to understand the biomechanics, environmental variables, and ergonomics of the suit. This knowledge is then used to make suggestions for improvement in future iterations of the space suit assembly to prevent injuries while allowing astronauts maneuverability, comfort, and tactility. The projects I was involved in were the Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) space suit stiffness study and the glove feasibility study. The EMU project looked at the forces exerted on the shoulder, arm, and wrist when subjects performed kinematic tasks with and without a pressurized suit. The glove study consisted of testing three conditions - the Series 4000 glove, the Phase VI glove, and the no glove condition. With more than forty channels of sensor data total, it was critical to develop programs that could analyze data with basic descriptive statistics and generate relevant graphs to help understand what happens within the space suit and glove. In my project I created a Graphical User Interface (GUI) in MATLAB that would help me visualize what each sensor was doing within a task. The GUI is capable of displaying overlain plots and can be synchronized with video. This was helpful during the stiffness testing to visualize how the forces on the arm acted while the subject performed tasks such as shoulder adduction/abduction and bicep curls. The main project of focus, however, was the glove comparison study. I wrote MATLAB programs which generated movies of the strain vectors during specific tasks. I also generated graphs that summarized the differences between each glove for the strain, shear and FSR sensors. Preliminary results indicate that the Phase VI glove places less strain and shear on the hand. Future work includes continued data analysis of surveys and sensor data. In the end

  19. Perspectives on human-human sensorimotor interactions for the design of rehabilitation robots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawers, Andrew; Ting, Lena H

    2014-10-06

    Physical interactions between patients and therapists during rehabilitation have served as motivation for the design of rehabilitation robots, yet we lack a fundamental understanding of the principles governing such human-human interactions (HHI). Here we review the literature and pose important open questions regarding sensorimotor interaction during HHI that could facilitate the design of human-robot interactions (HRI) and haptic interfaces for rehabilitation. Based on the goals of physical rehabilitation, three subcategories of sensorimotor interaction are identified: sensorimotor collaboration, sensorimotor assistance, and sensorimotor education. Prior research has focused primarily on sensorimotor collaboration and is generally limited to relatively constrained visuomotor tasks. Moreover, the mechanisms by which performance improvements are achieved during sensorimotor cooperation with haptic interaction remains unknown. We propose that the effects of role assignment, motor redundancy, and skill level in sensorimotor cooperation should be explicitly studied. Additionally, the importance of haptic interactions may be better revealed in tasks that do not require visual feedback. Finally, cooperative motor tasks that allow for motor improvement during solo performance to be examined may be particularly relevant for rehabilitation robotics. Identifying principles that guide human-human sensorimotor interactions may lead to the development of robots that can physically interact with humans in more intuitive and biologically inspired ways, thereby enhancing rehabilitation outcomes.

  20. Neural correlate of human reciprocity in social interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakaiya, Shiro; Shiraito, Yuki; Kato, Junko; Ide, Hiroko; Okada, Kensuke; Takano, Kouji; Kansaku, Kenji

    2013-01-01

    Reciprocity plays a key role maintaining cooperation in society. However, little is known about the neural process that underpins human reciprocity during social interactions. Our neuroimaging study manipulated partner identity (computer, human) and strategy (random, tit-for-tat) in repeated prisoner's dilemma games and investigated the neural correlate of reciprocal interaction with humans. Reciprocal cooperation with humans but exploitation of computers by defection was associated with activation in the left amygdala. Amygdala activation was also positively and negatively correlated with a preference change for human partners following tit-for-tat and random strategies, respectively. The correlated activation represented the intensity of positive feeling toward reciprocal and negative feeling toward non-reciprocal partners, and so reflected reciprocity in social interaction. Reciprocity in social interaction, however, might plausibly be misinterpreted and so we also examined the neural coding of insight into the reciprocity of partners. Those with and without insight revealed differential brain activation across the reward-related circuitry (i.e., the right middle dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and dorsal caudate) and theory of mind (ToM) regions [i.e., ventromedial prefrontal cortex (VMPFC) and precuneus]. Among differential activations, activation in the precuneus, which accompanied deactivation of the VMPFC, was specific to those without insight into human partners who were engaged in a tit-for-tat strategy. This asymmetric (de)activation might involve specific contributions of ToM regions to the human search for reciprocity. Consequently, the intensity of emotion attached to human reciprocity was represented in the amygdala, whereas insight into the reciprocity of others was reflected in activation across the reward-related and ToM regions. This suggests the critical role of mentalizing, which was not equated with reward expectation during social interactions.

  1. Neural correlate of human reciprocity in social interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiro eSakaiya

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Reciprocity plays a key role maintaining cooperation in society. However, little is known about the neural process that underpins human reciprocity during social interactions. Our neuroimaging study manipulated partner identity (computer, human and strategy (random, tit-for-tat in repeated prisoner’s dilemma games and investigated the neural correlate of reciprocal interaction with humans. Reciprocal cooperation with humans but exploitation of computers by defection was associated with activation in the left amygdala. Amygdala activation was also positively and negatively correlated with a preference change for human partners following tit-for-tat and random strategies, respectively. The correlated activation represented the intensity of positive feeling toward reciprocal and negative feeling toward non-reciprocal partners, and so reflected reciprocity in social interaction. Reciprocity in social interaction, however, might plausibly be misinterpreted and so we also examined the neural coding of insight into the reciprocity of partners. Those with and without insight revealed differential brain activation across the reward-related circuitry (i.e., the right middle dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and dorsal caudate and theory of mind (ToM regions (i.e., ventromedial prefrontal cortex [VMPFC] and precuneus. Among differential activations, activation in the precuneus, which accompanied deactivation of the VMPFC, was specific to those without insight into human partners who were engaged in a tit-for-tat strategy. This asymmetric (deactivation might involve specific contributions of ToM regions to the human search for reciprocity. Consequently, the intensity of emotion attached to human reciprocity was represented in the amygdala, whereas insight into the reciprocity of others was reflected in activation across the reward-related and ToM regions. This suggests the critical role of mentalizing, which was not equated with reward expectation during

  2. A Human-Information Interaction Perspective on Augmented Cognition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greitzer, Frank L.; Griffith, Douglas

    2006-10-15

    Nearly a half-century ago, J.C.R. Licklider expressed a vision for “man-machine symbiosis,” coupling human brains and computing machines in a partnership that “will think as no human brain has ever thought and process data in a way not approached by the information-handling machines we know today.” Until relatively recently, this vision was largely left idle by human factors engineering (HFE) research that grew over the decades from an initial focus on design of equipment to accommodate human limitations to cognitive systems engineering research to a more recent perspective focusing on design of human-information interaction. These perspective shifts and insights have brought a degree of success to the field in design efforts aimed at enhancing human-system performance. In recent years, the research area of augmented cognition has begun to shift the focus once more not only to enhancing the interaction environment, but also the cognitive abilities of the human operators and decision makers themselves. Ambitious goals of increasing total cognitive capacity through augmented cognition technologies are still on the horizon of this research program. This paper describes a framework within which augmented cognition research may identify requirements that compensate for human information processing shortcomings and augment human potential.

  3. The Scaling of Human Interactions with City Size

    CERN Document Server

    Schläpfer, Markus; Raschke, Mathias; Claxton, Rob; Smoreda, Zbigniew; West, Geoffrey B; Ratti, Carlo

    2012-01-01

    The pace of life accelerates with city size, manifested in a per capita increase of almost all socioeconomic rates such as GDP, wages, violent crime or the transmission of certain contagious diseases. Here, we show that the structure and dynamics of the underlying network of human interactions provides a possible unifying mechanism for the origin of these pervasive regularities. By analyzing billions of anonymized call records from two European countries we find that human social interactions follow a superlinear scale-invariant relationship with city population size. This systematic acceleration of the interaction intensity takes place within specific constraints of social grouping. Together, these results provide a general microscopic basis for a deeper understanding of cities as co-located social networks in space and time, and of the emergent urban socioeconomic processes that characterize complex human societies.

  4. Automated Proof Compression by Invention of New Definitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyskočil, Jiří; Stanovský, David; Urban, Josef

    State-of-the-art automated theorem provers (ATPs) are today able to solve relatively complicated mathematical problems. But as ATPs become stronger and more used by mathematicians, the length and human unreadability of the automatically found proofs become a serious problem for the ATP users. One remedy is automated proof compression by invention of new definitions.

  5. Drug interactions at the human placenta: what is the evidence?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam eRubinchik-Stern

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Pregnant women (and their fetuses are treated with a significant number of prescription and nonprescription medications. Interactions among those drugs may affect their efficacy and toxicity in both mother and fetus. Whereas interactions that result in altered drug concentrations in maternal plasma are detectable, those involving modulation of placental transfer mechanisms are rarely reflected by altered drug concentrations in maternal plasma. Therefore, they are often overlooked. Placental-mediated interactions are possible because the placenta is not only a passive diffusional barrier, but also expresses a variety of influx and efflux transporters and drug metabolizing enzymes. Current data on placental-mediated drug interactions are limited. In rodents, pharmacological or genetic manipulations of placental transporters significantly affect fetal drug exposure. In contrast, studies in human placentae suggest that the magnitude of such interactions is modest in most cases. Nevertheless, under certain circumstances, such interactions may be of clinical significance. This review describes currently known mechanisms of placental-mediated drug interactions and the potential implications of such interactions in humans. Better understanding of those mechanisms is important for minimizing fetal toxicity from drugs while improving their efficacy when directed to treat the fetus.

  6. Social interactions model and adaptability of human behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kun eZhao

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Human social networks evolve on the fast timescale of face-to face interactions and of interactions mediated by technology such as a telephone calls or video conferences. The resulting networks have a strong dynamical component that changes significantly the properties of dynamical processes. In this paper we study a general model of pairwise human social interaction intended to model both face-to face interactions and mobile phone communication. We study the distribution of durations of social interactions in whitin the model. This distribution in one limit is a power law, for other values of the parameters of the model this distribution is given by a Weibull function. Therefore the model can be used to model both face-to-face interactions data, where the distribution of duration has been shown to be fat-tailed, and mobile phone communication data where the distribution of duration is given by a Weibull distribution.The highly adaptable social interaction model propose in this paper has a very simple algorithmic implementation and can be used to simulate dynamical processes occurring in dynamical social interaction networks.

  7. Visual Interpretation Of Hand Gestures For Human Computer Interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.S.Sahane

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of hand gestures provides an attractive alternative to cumbersome interface devices for human-computer interaction (HCI. In particular, visual interpretation of hand gestures can help in achieving the ease and naturalness desired for HCI. This discussion is organized on the basis of the method used for modeling, analyzing, and recognizing gestures. We propose pointing gesture-based large display interaction using a depth camera. A user interacts with applications for large display by using pointing gestures with the barehand. The calibration between large display and depth camera can be automatically performed by using RGB-D camera.. We also discuss implemented gestural systems as well as other potential applications of vision-based gesture recognition. We discuss directions of future research in gesture recognition, including its integration with other natural modes of human computer interaction.

  8. What can human-animal interaction tell us about intersubjectivity?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mondeme, Chloé

    interacting in the same phenomelogical world? This preliminary observation remains insignificant unless we consider forms of interactions where a doubt can be cast on the nature of the participant’s subjecthood/autonomy. In this regard, human-animal interactions constitute an interesting topic of inquiry......: intersubjectivity presupposes subject, and western continental philosophy (and its many outcomes) still has some doubts on the nature, or even on the existence, of animal subjectivity. Yet, we argue that a praxeological and ethnomethodologically informed approach might help consider the problem from another...... as a subject. That implies to observe how in « lived action and lived contexts » (Wieder, 1980) intersubjectivity is achieved, created, actively accomplished and oriented to. To address this, we examine sequences of video-recorded interactions between humans and dogs, in domestic or training settings. Despite...

  9. A Glance into the Future of Human Computer Interactions

    CERN Document Server

    Farooq, Umer; Nazir, Sohail

    2011-01-01

    Computers have a direct impact on our lives nowadays. Human's interaction with the computer has modified with the passage of time as improvement in technology occurred the better the human computer interaction became. Today we are facilitated by the operating system that has reduced all the complexity of hardware and we undergo our computation in a very convenient way irrespective of the process occurring at the hardware level. Though the human computer interaction has improved but it's not done yet. If we come to the future the computer's role in our lives would be a lot more rather our life would be of the artificial intelligence. In our future the biggest resource would be component of time and wasting time for a key board entry or a mouse input would be unbearable so the need would be of the computer interaction environment that along with the complexity reduction also minimizes the time wastage in the human computer interaction. Accordingly in our future the computation would also be increased it would n...

  10. A Glance into the Future of Human Computer Interaction

    CERN Document Server

    Farooq, Umer; Nazir, Sohail

    2011-01-01

    Computers have a direct impact on our lives nowadays. Human's interaction with the computer has modified with the passage of time as improvement in technology occurred the better the human computer interaction became. Today we are facilitated by the operating system that has reduced all the complexity of hardware and we undergo our computation in a very convenient way irrespective of the process occurring at the hardware level. Though the human computer interaction has improved but it's not done yet. If we come to the future the computer's role in our lives would be a lot more rather our life would be of the artificial intelligence. In our future the biggest resource would be component of time and wasting time for a key board entry or a mouse input would be unbearable so the need would be of the computer interaction environment that along with the complexity reduction also minimizes the time wastage in the human computer interaction. Accordingly in our future the computation would also be increased it would n...

  11. Human-Computer Interaction, Tourism and Cultural Heritage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cipolla Ficarra, Francisco V.

    We present a state of the art of the human-computer interaction aimed at tourism and cultural heritage in some cities of the European Mediterranean. In the work an analysis is made of the main problems deriving from training understood as business and which can derail the continuous growth of the HCI, the new technologies and tourism industry. Through a semiotic and epistemological study the current mistakes in the context of the interrelations of the formal and factual sciences will be detected and also the human factors that have an influence on the professionals devoted to the development of interactive systems in order to safeguard and boost cultural heritage.

  12. Human computer interaction issues in Clinical Trials Management Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starren, Justin B; Payne, Philip R O; Kaufman, David R

    2006-01-01

    Clinical trials increasingly rely upon web-based Clinical Trials Management Systems (CTMS). As with clinical care systems, Human Computer Interaction (HCI) issues can greatly affect the usefulness of such systems. Evaluation of the user interface of one web-based CTMS revealed a number of potential human-computer interaction problems, in particular, increased workflow complexity associated with a web application delivery model and potential usability problems resulting from the use of ambiguous icons. Because these design features are shared by a large fraction of current CTMS, the implications extend beyond this individual system.

  13. A Social Cognitive Neuroscience Stance on Human-Robot Interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaminade Thierry

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Robotic devices, thanks to the controlled variations in their appearance and behaviors, provide useful tools to test hypotheses pertaining to social interactions. These agents were used to investigate one theoretical framework, resonance, which is defined, at the behavioral and neural levels, as an overlap between first- and third- person representations of mental states such as motor intentions or emotions. Behaviorally, we found a reduced, but significant, resonance towards a humanoid robot displaying biological motion, compared to a human. Using neuroimaging, we've reported that while perceptual processes in the human occipital and temporal lobe are more strongly engaged when perceiving a humanoid robot than a human action, activity in areas involved in motor resonance depends on attentional modulation for artificial agent more strongly than for human agents. Altogether, these studies using artificial agents offer valuable insights into the interaction of bottom-up and top-down processes in the perception of artificial agents.

  14. Motivating forces of human actions. Neuroimaging reward and social interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Henrik; Abler, Birgit; Ciaramidaro, Angela; Erk, Susanne

    2005-11-15

    In neuroeconomics, reward and social interaction are central concepts to understand what motivates human behaviour. Both concepts are investigated in humans using neuroimaging methods. In this paper, we provide an overview about these results and discuss their relevance for economic behaviour. For reward it has been shown that a system exists in humans that is involved in predicting rewards and thus guides behaviour, involving a circuit including the striatum, the orbitofrontal cortex and the amygdala. Recent studies on social interaction revealed a mentalizing system representing the mental states of others. A central part of this system is the medial prefrontal cortex, in particular the anterior paracingulate cortex. The reward as well as the mentalizing system is engaged in economic decision-making. We will discuss implications of this study for neuromarketing as well as general implications of these results that may help to provide deeper insights into the motivating forces of human behaviour.

  15. Sphericall: A Human/Artificial Intelligence interaction experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frack Gechter

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Multi-agent systems are now wide spread in scientific works and in industrial applications. Few applications deal with the Human/Multi-agent system interaction. Multi-agent systems are characterized by individual entities, called agents, in interaction with each other and with their environment. Multi-agent systems are generally classified into complex systems categories since the global emerging phenomenon cannot be predicted even if every component is well known. The systems developed in this paper are named reactive because they behave using simple interaction models. In the reactive approach, the issue of Human/system interaction is hard to cope with and is scarcely exposed in literature. This paper presents Sphericall, an application aimed at studying Human/Complex System interactions and based on two physics inspired multi-agent systems interacting together. The Sphericall device is composed of a tactile screen and a spherical world where agents evolve. This paper presents both the technical background of Sphericall project and a feedback taken from the demonstration performed during OFFF Festival in La Villette (Paris.

  16. Evaluating a Digital Proofing Device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Datwyler

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available In the graphic arts industry color accuracy is one of the central quality criteria, particularly in connection with proof printing. This study is concerned with an assessment of color accuracy of professional digital proofing systems in reference to the ISO standard 12647-2 (offset printing and of the stability of both the proofing system and its proofs. For an AgfaJet Sherpa 43i, as an instance of a current high-quality equipment, the mean color deviation between a proof and the reference of DE1 less than 2 is demonstrated.

  17. Study on Human-Computer Interaction in Immersive Virtual Environment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段红; 黄柯棣

    2002-01-01

    Human-computer interaction is one of the most important issues in research of Virtual Environments. This paper introduces interaction software developed for a virtual operating environment for space experiments. Core components of the interaction software are: an object-oriented database for behavior management of virtual objects, a software agent called virtual eye for viewpoint control, and a software agent called virtual hand for object manipulation. Based on the above components, some instance programs for object manipulation have been developed. The user can observe the virtual environment through head-mounted display system, control viewpoint by head tracker and/or keyboard, and select and manipulate virtual objects by 3D mouse.

  18. The interaction between ICT and human activity-travel behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kwan, M.P.; Dijst, M.J.; Schwanen, T.

    2007-01-01

    The interaction between information and communication technologies (ICT) and human activity-travel behavior has been an important theme in transportation research in recent years. Researchers have recognized that an increase in the use of ICT may lead to changes in the location, timing and duration

  19. CHI 2013 Human Work Interaction Design (HWID) SIG

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clemmensen, Torkil; Campos, Pedro F.; Katre, Dinesh S.

    2013-01-01

    In this SIG we aim to introduce the IFIP 13.6 Human Work Interaction Design (HWID) approach to the CHI audience. The HWID working group aims at establishing relationships between extensive empirical work-domain studies and HCI design. We invite participants from industry and academia with an inte...

  20. Quantifying Engagement: Measuring Player Involvement in Human-Avatar Interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, Anne E; Weger, Harry; Bullinger, Cory; Bowers, Alyssa

    2014-05-01

    This research investigated the merits of using an established system for rating behavioral cues of involvement in human dyadic interactions (i.e., face-to-face conversation) to measure involvement in human-avatar interactions. Gameplay audio-video and self-report data from a Feasibility Trial and Free Choice study of an effective peer resistance skill building simulation game (DRAMA-RAMA™) were used to evaluate reliability and validity of the rating system when applied to human-avatar interactions. The Free Choice study used a revised game prototype that was altered to be more engaging. Both studies involved girls enrolled in a public middle school in Central Florida that served a predominately Hispanic (greater than 80%), low-income student population. Audio-video data were coded by two raters, trained in the rating system. Self-report data were generated using measures of perceived realism, predictability and flow administered immediately after game play. Hypotheses for reliability and validity were supported: Reliability values mirrored those found in the human dyadic interaction literature. Validity was supported by factor analysis, significantly higher levels of involvement in Free Choice as compared to Feasibility Trial players, and correlations between involvement dimension sub scores and self-report measures. Results have implications for the science of both skill-training intervention research and game design.

  1. Warning signals for poor performance improve human-robot interaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brule, R. van den; Bijlstra, G.; Dotsch, R.; Haselager, W.F.G.; Wigboldus, D.H.J.

    2016-01-01

    The present research was aimed at investigating whether human-robot interaction (HRI) can be improved by a robot's nonverbal warning signals. Ideally, when a robot signals that it cannot guarantee good performance, people could take preventive actions to ensure the successful completion of the robot

  2. Warning signals for poor performance improve human-robot interaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brule, R. van den; Bijlstra, G.; Dotsch, R.; Haselager, W.F.G.; Wigboldus, D.H.J.

    2016-01-01

    The present research was aimed at investigating whether human-robot interaction (HRI) can be improved by a robot's nonverbal warning signals. Ideally, when a robot signals that it cannot guarantee good performance, people could take preventive actions to ensure the successful completion of the robot

  3. Warning Signals for Poor Performance Improve Human-Robot Interaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Brule, Rik; Bijlstra, Gijsbert; Dotsch, Ron; Haselager, Pim; Wigboldus, Daniel HJ

    2016-01-01

    The present research was aimed at investigating whether human-robot interaction (HRI) can be improved by a robot’s nonverbal warning signals. Ideally, when a robot signals that it cannot guarantee good performance, people could take preventive actions to ensure the successful completion of the robot

  4. Catz, Dogz & Robotz? Human interaction with domestic robotic devices

    OpenAIRE

    Lawson, Shaun; Chesney, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    This special issue of the Journal of Physical Agents is devoted to human interaction with domestic robots. The form, features and future, of domestic robotic devices, from entertainment-based agents through to robotic cleaners, companions, assistants and helpers, are considered and discussed.

  5. Warning Signals for Poor Performance Improve Human-Robot Interaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Brule, Rik; Bijlstra, Gijsbert; Dotsch, Ron; Haselager, Pim; Wigboldus, Daniel HJ

    2016-01-01

    The present research was aimed at investigating whether human-robot interaction (HRI) can be improved by a robot’s nonverbal warning signals. Ideally, when a robot signals that it cannot guarantee good performance, people could take preventive actions to ensure the successful completion of the robot

  6. Human Resources Skills: Learning through an Interactive Multimedia Business Simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klassen, Johanna; Drummond, Damon

    2000-01-01

    Describes and evaluates the design and development of an interactive multimedia simulation package for management education called Business Simulation which combines the concepts of case study methods with business simulation games. It is designed to provide students with skills-based training in human resources management, particularly…

  7. Warning signals for poor performance improve human-robot interaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brule, R. van den; Bijlstra, G.; Dotsch, R.; Haselager, W.F.G.; Wigboldus, D.H.J.

    2016-01-01

    The present research was aimed at investigating whether human-robot interaction (HRI) can be improved by a robot's nonverbal warning signals. Ideally, when a robot signals that it cannot guarantee good performance, people could take preventive actions to ensure the successful completion of the

  8. Formal modelling techniques in human-computer interaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haan, de G.; Veer, van der G.C.; Vliet, van J.C.

    1991-01-01

    This paper is a theoretical contribution, elaborating the concept of models as used in Cognitive Ergonomics. A number of formal modelling techniques in human-computer interaction will be reviewed and discussed. The analysis focusses on different related concepts of formal modelling techniques in hum

  9. The interaction between ICT and human activity-travel behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kwan, M.P.; Dijst, M.J.; Schwanen, T.

    2007-01-01

    The interaction between information and communication technologies (ICT) and human activity-travel behavior has been an important theme in transportation research in recent years. Researchers have recognized that an increase in the use of ICT may lead to changes in the location, timing and duration

  10. Human Work Interaction Design. Work Analysis and HCI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paasch, Kasper

    2013-01-01

    This book constitutes the thoroughly refereed post-conference proceedings of the Third IFIP WG 13.6 Working Conference on Human Work Interaction Design, HWID 2012, held in Copenhagen, Denmark, in December 2012. The 16 revised papers presented were carefully selected for inclusion in this volume...

  11. Prosthetic Leg Control in the Nullspace of Human Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregg, Robert D.; Martin, Anne E.

    2016-01-01

    Recent work has extended the control method of virtual constraints, originally developed for autonomous walking robots, to powered prosthetic legs for lower-limb amputees. Virtual constraints define desired joint patterns as functions of a mechanical phasing variable, which are typically enforced by torque control laws that linearize the output dynamics associated with the virtual constraints. However, the output dynamics of a powered prosthetic leg generally depend on the human interaction forces, which must be measured and canceled by the feedback linearizing control law. This feedback requires expensive multi-axis load cells, and actively canceling the interaction forces may minimize the human's influence over the prosthesis. To address these limitations, this paper proposes a method for projecting virtual constraints into the nullspace of the human interaction terms in the output dynamics. The projected virtual constraints naturally render the output dynamics invariant with respect to the human interaction forces, which instead enter into the internal dynamics of the partially linearized prosthetic system. This method is illustrated with simulations of a transfemoral amputee model walking with a powered knee-ankle prosthesis that is controlled via virtual constraints with and without the proposed projection. PMID:27746585

  12. Goedel, truth and proof

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peregrin, Jaroslav [Academy of Sciences and Charles University, Prague (Czech Republic)

    2007-11-15

    The usual way of interpreting Goedel's (1931) incompleteness result is as showing that there is a gap between truth and provability, i.e. that we can never prove everything that is true. Moreover, this result is supposed to show that there are unprovable truths which we can know to be true. This, so the story goes, shows that we are more than machines that are restricted to acting as proof systems. Hence our minds are 'not mechanical'.

  13. The Law of Attraction in Human-Robot Interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eunil Park

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Following the law of attraction in human‐human interaction, this paper examines the effects of a robot’s personality and a human’s personality in various human‐robot interactions. This study was conducted using robots that were programmed to mimic both extroverted and introverted personality types, as well as humans who were classified as having introverted, extroverted or intermediate personality types. Using a 3 x 2 between‐ subjects experiment with 120 participants, the results indicated that participants who interacted with a similar personality robot were more comfortable than those who engaged with a different personality robot. Yet, the evaluation of social presence presented an opposing result. Both the implications and limitations of the present study, as well as guidelines for future research, are discussed.

  14. Existence of 3-round zero-knowledge proof systems for NP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI HongDa; LI Bao

    2008-01-01

    This paper considers the existence of 3-round zero-knowledge proof systems for NP. Whether there exist 3-round non-black-box zero-knowledge proof systems for NP language is an open problem. By introducing a new interactive proof model, we con- struct a 3-round zero-knowledge proof system for graph 3-coloring under standard assumptions. Our protocol is a non-black-box zero-knowledge proof because we adopt a special strategy to prove the zero-knowledge property. Consequently, our construction shows the existence of 3-round non-black-box zero-knowledge proof for all languages in NP under the DDH assumption.

  15. Characterization of human-dog social interaction using owner report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lit, Lisa; Schweitzer, Julie B; Oberbauer, Anita M

    2010-07-01

    Dog owners were surveyed for observations of social behaviors in their dogs, using questions adapted from the human Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS) pre-verbal module. Using 939 responses for purebred and mixed-breed dogs, three factors were identified: initiation of reciprocal social behaviors (INIT), response to social interactions (RSPNS), and communication (COMM). There were small or no effects of sex, age, breed group or training. For six breeds with more than 35 responses (Border Collie, Rough Collie, German Shepherd, Golden Retriever, Labrador Retriever, Standard Poodle), the behaviors eye contact with humans, enjoyment in interactions with human interaction, and name recognition demonstrated little variability across breeds, while asking for objects, giving/showing objects to humans, and attempts to direct humans' attention showed higher variability across these breeds. Breeds with genetically similar backgrounds had similar response distributions for owner reports of dog response to pointing. When considering these breeds according to the broad categories of "herders" and "retrievers," owners reported that the "herders" used more eye contact and vocalization, while the "retrievers" used more body contact. Information regarding social cognitive abilities in dogs provided by owner report suggest that there is variability across many social cognitive abilities in dogs and offers direction for further experimental investigations.

  16. Human-Robot Interaction Reconfigurable Test Environment: Optimizing the Human Interface Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Human-Robot Interaction Reconfigurable Test Environment (HRI-RTE) integrates a grid-based, reconfigurable test arena and an operator workstation with...

  17. Predicting human genetic interactions from cancer genome evolution.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaowen Lu

    Full Text Available Synthetic Lethal (SL genetic interactions play a key role in various types of biological research, ranging from understanding genotype-phenotype relationships to identifying drug-targets against cancer. Despite recent advances in empirical measuring SL interactions in human cells, the human genetic interaction map is far from complete. Here, we present a novel approach to predict this map by exploiting patterns in cancer genome evolution. First, we show that empirically determined SL interactions are reflected in various gene presence, absence, and duplication patterns in hundreds of cancer genomes. The most evident pattern that we discovered is that when one member of an SL interaction gene pair is lost, the other gene tends not to be lost, i.e. the absence of co-loss. This observation is in line with expectation, because the loss of an SL interacting pair will be lethal to the cancer cell. SL interactions are also reflected in gene expression profiles, such as an under representation of cases where the genes in an SL pair are both under expressed, and an over representation of cases where one gene of an SL pair is under expressed, while the other one is over expressed. We integrated the various previously unknown cancer genome patterns and the gene expression patterns into a computational model to identify SL pairs. This simple, genome-wide model achieves a high prediction power (AUC = 0.75 for known genetic interactions. It allows us to present for the first time a comprehensive genome-wide list of SL interactions with a high estimated prediction precision, covering up to 591,000 gene pairs. This unique list can potentially be used in various application areas ranging from biotechnology to medical genetics.

  18. Advancements in Violin-Related Human-Computer Interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overholt, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Finesse is required while performing with many traditional musical instruments, as they are extremely responsive to human inputs. The violin is specifically examined here, as it excels at translating a performer’s gestures into sound in manners that evoke a wide range of affective qualities...... of human intelligence and emotion is at the core of the Musical Interface Technology Design Space, MITDS. This is a framework that endeavors to retain and enhance such traits of traditional instruments in the design of interactive live performance interfaces. Utilizing the MITDS, advanced Human......-Computer Interaction technologies for the violin are developed in order to allow musicians to explore new methods of creating music. Through this process, the aim is to provide musicians with control systems that let them transcend the interface itself, and focus on musically compelling performances....

  19. Inferring high-confidence human protein-protein interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Xueping

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background As numerous experimental factors drive the acquisition, identification, and interpretation of protein-protein interactions (PPIs, aggregated assemblies of human PPI data invariably contain experiment-dependent noise. Ascertaining the reliability of PPIs collected from these diverse studies and scoring them to infer high-confidence networks is a non-trivial task. Moreover, a large number of PPIs share the same number of reported occurrences, making it impossible to distinguish the reliability of these PPIs and rank-order them. For example, for the data analyzed here, we found that the majority (>83% of currently available human PPIs have been reported only once. Results In this work, we proposed an unsupervised statistical approach to score a set of diverse, experimentally identified PPIs from nine primary databases to create subsets of high-confidence human PPI networks. We evaluated this ranking method by comparing it with other methods and assessing their ability to retrieve protein associations from a number of diverse and independent reference sets. These reference sets contain known biological data that are either directly or indirectly linked to interactions between proteins. We quantified the average effect of using ranked protein interaction data to retrieve this information and showed that, when compared to randomly ranked interaction data sets, the proposed method created a larger enrichment (~134% than either ranking based on the hypergeometric test (~109% or occurrence ranking (~46%. Conclusions From our evaluations, it was clear that ranked interactions were always of value because higher-ranked PPIs had a higher likelihood of retrieving high-confidence experimental data. Reducing the noise inherent in aggregated experimental PPIs via our ranking scheme further increased the accuracy and enrichment of PPIs derived from a number of biologically relevant data sets. These results suggest that using our high

  20. Efficient 4-round zero-knowledge proof system for NP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    A 4-round zero-knowledge interactive proof system for NP (Non-deterministic Polynomial) is presented when assuming the existence of one-way permutations and collision-free hash functions. This construction is more efficient than the original construction of 5-round zero-knowledge proof system for NP. The critical tools used in this paper are: zap, hash-based commitment scheme and non-interactive zero-knowledge.

  1. Proofs from THE BOOK

    CERN Document Server

    Aigner, Martin

    2014-01-01

    This revised and enlarged fifth edition features four new chapters, which contain highly original and delightful proofs for classics such as the spectral theorem from linear algebra, some more recent jewels like the non-existence of the Borromean rings and other surprises. From the Reviews "... Inside PFTB (Proofs from The Book) is indeed a glimpse of mathematical heaven, where clever insights and beautiful ideas combine in astonishing and glorious ways. There is vast wealth within its pages, one gem after another. ... Aigner and Ziegler... write: "... all we offer is the examples that we have selected, hoping that our readers will share our enthusiasm about brilliant ideas, clever insights and wonderful observations." I do. ... " Notices of the AMS, August 1999 "... This book is a pleasure to hold and to look at: ample margins, nice photos, instructive pictures, and beautiful drawings ... It is a pleasure to read as well: the style is clear and entertaining, the level is close to elementary, the necessary b...

  2. Aspects of Prediction Accuracy in Human-structure Interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Lars

    2009-01-01

    Structures such as grandstands in stadia and office floors in buildings are typically occupied by seated persons, and it is a challenge to predict the dynamic characteristics of these structures. This is because the structures and the seated persons interact when the structures undergo vibrations......, basically with the effect that the seated persons influence the dynamic system. The mechanism of the interaction is not well understood, and there are a number of factors that might influence the mechanism of the interaction. Through experiments with a vibrating floor carrying seated humans, the paper looks...... into the mechanism of the interaction focusing on its effect on dynamic structural properties. It is investigated to which extent factors such as posture of the seated persons and the construction type of the seat on which the persons are sitting have a bearing on the structural frequency and damping. This provides...

  3. Combining Natural Human-Computer Interaction and Wireless Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ştefan Gheorghe PENTIUC

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present how human-computer interaction can be improved by using wireless communication between devices. Devices that offer a natural user interaction, like the Microsoft Surface Table and tablet PCs, can work together to enhance the experience of an application. Users can use physical objects for a more natural way of handling the virtual world on one hand, and interact with other users wirelessly connected on the other. Physical objects, that interact with the surface table, have a tag attached to them, allowing us to identify them, and take the required action. The TCP/IP protocol was used to handle the wireless communication over the wireless network. A server and a client application were developed for the used devices. To get a wide range of targeted mobile devices, different frameworks for developing cross platform applications were analyzed.

  4. A conceptual framework to evaluate human-wildlife interactions within coupled human and natural systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita T. Morzillo

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Landscape characteristics affect human-wildlife interactions. However, there is a need to better understand mechanisms that drive those interactions, particularly feedbacks that exist between wildlife-related impacts, human reaction to and behavior as a result of those impacts, and how land use and landscape characteristics may influence those components within coupled human and natural systems. Current conceptual models of human-wildlife interactions often focus on species population size as the independent variable driving those interactions. Such an approach potentially overlooks important feedbacks among and drivers of human-wildlife interactions that result from mere wildlife presence versus absence. We describe an emerging conceptual framework that focuses on wildlife as a driver of human behavior and allows us to better understand linkages between humans, wildlife, and the broader landscape. We also present results of a pilot analysis related to our own ongoing study of urban rodent control behavior to illustrate one application of this framework within a study of urban landscapes.

  5. Quantitative Modeling of Human-Environment Interactions in Preindustrial Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommer, Philipp S.; Kaplan, Jed O.

    2017-04-01

    Quantifying human-environment interactions and anthropogenic influences on the environment prior to the Industrial revolution is essential for understanding the current state of the earth system. This is particularly true for the terrestrial biosphere, but marine ecosystems and even climate were likely modified by human activities centuries to millennia ago. Direct observations are however very sparse in space and time, especially as one considers prehistory. Numerical models are therefore essential to produce a continuous picture of human-environment interactions in the past. Agent-based approaches, while widely applied to quantifying human influence on the environment in localized studies, are unsuitable for global spatial domains and Holocene timescales because of computational demands and large parameter uncertainty. Here we outline a new paradigm for the quantitative modeling of human-environment interactions in preindustrial time that is adapted to the global Holocene. Rather than attempting to simulate agency directly, the model is informed by a suite of characteristics describing those things about society that cannot be predicted on the basis of environment, e.g., diet, presence of agriculture, or range of animals exploited. These categorical data are combined with the properties of the physical environment in coupled human-environment model. The model is, at its core, a dynamic global vegetation model with a module for simulating crop growth that is adapted for preindustrial agriculture. This allows us to simulate yield and calories for feeding both humans and their domesticated animals. We couple this basic caloric availability with a simple demographic model to calculate potential population, and, constrained by labor requirements and land limitations, we create scenarios of land use and land cover on a moderate-resolution grid. We further implement a feedback loop where anthropogenic activities lead to changes in the properties of the physical

  6. Vocal Interactivity in-and-between Humans, Animals and Robots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger K Moore

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Almost all animals exploit vocal signals for a range of ecologically-motivated purposes: detecting predators prey and marking territory, expressing emotions, establishing social relations and sharing information. Whether it is a bird raising an alarm, a whale calling to potential partners,a dog responding to human commands, a parent reading a story with a child, or a business-person accessing stock prices using emph{Siri}, vocalisation provides a valuable communication channel through which behaviour may be coordinated and controlled, and information may be distributed and acquired.Indeed, the ubiquity of vocal interaction has led to research across an extremely diverse array of fields, from assessing animal welfare, to understanding the precursors of human language, to developing voice-based human-machine interaction. Opportunities for cross-fertilisation between these fields abound; for example, using artificial cognitive agents to investigate contemporary theories of language grounding, using machine learning to analyse different habitats or adding vocal expressivity to the next generation of language-enabled autonomous social agents. However, much of the research is conducted within well-defined disciplinary boundaries, and many fundamental issues remain. This paper attempts to redress the balance by presenting a comparative review of vocal interaction within-and-between humans, animals and artificial agents (such as robots, and it identifies a rich set of open research questions that may benefit from an inter-disciplinary analysis.

  7. Identifying and modeling the structural discontinuities of human interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grauwin, Sebastian; Szell, Michael; Sobolevsky, Stanislav; Hövel, Philipp; Simini, Filippo; Vanhoof, Maarten; Smoreda, Zbigniew; Barabási, Albert-László; Ratti, Carlo

    2017-04-01

    The idea of a hierarchical spatial organization of society lies at the core of seminal theories in human geography that have strongly influenced our understanding of social organization. Along the same line, the recent availability of large-scale human mobility and communication data has offered novel quantitative insights hinting at a strong geographical confinement of human interactions within neighboring regions, extending to local levels within countries. However, models of human interaction largely ignore this effect. Here, we analyze several country-wide networks of telephone calls - both, mobile and landline - and in either case uncover a systematic decrease of communication induced by borders which we identify as the missing variable in state-of-the-art models. Using this empirical evidence, we propose an alternative modeling framework that naturally stylizes the damping effect of borders. We show that this new notion substantially improves the predictive power of widely used interaction models. This increases our ability to understand, model and predict social activities and to plan the development of infrastructures across multiple scales.

  8. TP53 mutations, expression and interaction networks in human cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaosheng; Sun, Qingrong

    2017-01-03

    Although the associations of p53 dysfunction, p53 interaction networks and oncogenesis have been widely explored, a systematic analysis of TP53 mutations and its related interaction networks in various types of human cancers is lacking. Our study explored the associations of TP53 mutations, gene expression, clinical outcomes, and TP53 interaction networks across 33 cancer types using data from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA). We show that TP53 is the most frequently mutated gene in a number of cancers, and its mutations appear to be early events in cancer initiation. We identified genes potentially repressed by p53, and genes whose expression correlates significantly with TP53 expression. These gene products may be especially important nodes in p53 interaction networks in human cancers. This study shows that while TP53-truncating mutations often result in decreased TP53 expression, other non-truncating TP53 mutations result in increased TP53 expression in some cancers. Survival analyses in a number of cancers show that patients with TP53 mutations are more likely to have worse prognoses than TP53-wildtype patients, and that elevated TP53 expression often leads to poor clinical outcomes. We identified a set of candidate synthetic lethal (SL) genes for TP53, and validated some of these SL interactions using data from the Cancer Cell Line Project. These predicted SL genes are promising candidates for experimental validation and the development of personalized therapeutics for patients with TP53-mutated cancers.

  9. Proviola: A Tool for Proof Re-animation

    CERN Document Server

    Tankink, Carst; McKinna, James; Wiedijk, Freek

    2010-01-01

    To improve on existing models of interaction with a proof assistant (PA), in particular for storage and replay of proofs, we in- troduce three related concepts, those of: a proof movie, consisting of frames which record both user input and the corresponding PA response; a camera, which films a user's interactive session with a PA as a movie; and a proviola, which replays a movie frame-by-frame to a third party. In this paper we describe the movie data structure and we discuss a proto- type implementation of the camera and proviola based on the ProofWeb system. ProofWeb uncouples the interaction with a PA via a web- interface (the client) from the actual PA that resides on the server. Our camera films a movie by "listening" to the ProofWeb communication. The first reason for developing movies is to uncouple the reviewing of a formal proof from the PA used to develop it: the movie concept enables users to discuss small code fragments without the need to install the PA or to load a whole library into it. Other a...

  10. INTERACTIONS BETWEEN THE HUMAN GASTRIC CARCINOMA CELL AND THE HUMAN VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL CELL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Objective To definite the interactions between the human gastric carcinoma cell and the human vascular endothelial cell during the establishment and maintenance of the tumor vascular system and the tumor hematogenous metastasis.Methods We prepared the conditioned mediums of each cell so as to study the effect of the conditioned medium on itself or others by MTT colorimetry. The comprehensive effect of interactions between two cells was determined by stratified transfilter co-culture or direct contact co-culture.Results The conditioned medium of human gastric carcinoma cell can stimulate the proliferation of the human vascular endothelial cell, but the CM of HVEC can inhibit the growth of HGCC. Both kinds of cells can inhibit the growth of itself. The ultimate comprehensive effect of the interactions between two kinds of cells was increase of total cell numbers.Conclusion There exist the complicated interactions between the human gastric carcinoma cell and the human vascular endothelial cell during the tumor angiogenesis and the tumor hematogenous metastasis. The ultimate comprehensive effect of the interactions is increase of total cells numbers and tumor volume.

  11. Introduction: Human-nature Interactions through a Multispecies Lens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Aisher

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This introduction brings together a group of papers focusing on conservation theory and practice, and argues strongly for a new place-based conservation through a multispecies lens. Honouring the work of Brian Morris, a scholar who has consistently forged a persuasive set of conceptual connections between science and society, and building on his insights into environmental history and human-nature interactions, we outline a vision of conservation that incorporates new narratives – at the intersection between the ecological and the social – to reimagine the world in the Anthropocene. This includes challenging the persistence of fortress, neoprotectionist and other top-down forms of conservation, through a recognition that conservation is deeply rooted in (human, nonhuman and more-than-human senses of place. The introduction urges scholars to focus on landscapes as units of analysis: 'multispecies assemblages' that are easily overlooked at other spatial and historical scales. It calls for increased attention to the contact zones where the lives of humans and other species biologically, culturally and politically intersect, as a counterpoint to the dominant planetary perspective of earth systems and conservation science. It underlines the importance of deep relational analyses of human interactions with other life forms, through renewed attention to multispecies histories, locality, and forms of knowledge rooted in place. It is at this level, through historically nuanced accounts founded on a more place-based conception of ourselves as a species, that new narratives and answers to our current predicament will emerge.

  12. Visual exploration and analysis of human-robot interaction rules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hui; Boyles, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    We present a novel interaction paradigm for the visual exploration, manipulation and analysis of human-robot interaction (HRI) rules; our development is implemented using a visual programming interface and exploits key techniques drawn from both information visualization and visual data mining to facilitate the interaction design and knowledge discovery process. HRI is often concerned with manipulations of multi-modal signals, events, and commands that form various kinds of interaction rules. Depicting, manipulating and sharing such design-level information is a compelling challenge. Furthermore, the closed loop between HRI programming and knowledge discovery from empirical data is a relatively long cycle. This, in turn, makes design-level verification nearly impossible to perform in an earlier phase. In our work, we exploit a drag-and-drop user interface and visual languages to support depicting responsive behaviors from social participants when they interact with their partners. For our principal test case of gaze-contingent HRI interfaces, this permits us to program and debug the robots' responsive behaviors through a graphical data-flow chart editor. We exploit additional program manipulation interfaces to provide still further improvement to our programming experience: by simulating the interaction dynamics between a human and a robot behavior model, we allow the researchers to generate, trace and study the perception-action dynamics with a social interaction simulation to verify and refine their designs. Finally, we extend our visual manipulation environment with a visual data-mining tool that allows the user to investigate interesting phenomena such as joint attention and sequential behavioral patterns from multiple multi-modal data streams. We have created instances of HRI interfaces to evaluate and refine our development paradigm. As far as we are aware, this paper reports the first program manipulation paradigm that integrates visual programming

  13. Emotional Contagion and Proto-Organizing in Human Interaction Dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James K. Hazy

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper combines the complexity notions of phase transitions and tipping points with recent advances in cognitive neuroscience to propose a general theory of human proto-organizing. It takes as a premise that a necessary prerequisite for organizing, or proto-organizing, occurs through emotional contagion in subpopulations of human interaction dynamics in complex ecosystems. Emotional contagion is posited to engender emotional understanding and identification with others, a social process that acts as a mechanism that enables (or precludes cooperative responses to opportunities and risks. Propositions are offered and further research is suggested.

  14. A viral-human interactome based on structural motif-domain interactions captures the human infectome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldo Segura-Cabrera

    Full Text Available Protein interactions between a pathogen and its host are fundamental in the establishment of the pathogen and underline the infection mechanism. In the present work, we developed a single predictive model for building a host-viral interactome based on the identification of structural descriptors from motif-domain interactions of protein complexes deposited in the Protein Data Bank (PDB. The structural descriptors were used for searching, in a database of protein sequences of human and five clinically important viruses; therefore, viral and human proteins sharing a descriptor were predicted as interacting proteins. The analysis of the host-viral interactome allowed to identify a set of new interactions that further explain molecular mechanism associated with viral infections and showed that it was able to capture human proteins already associated to viral infections (human infectome and non-infectious diseases (human diseasome. The analysis of human proteins targeted by viral proteins in the context of a human interactome showed that their neighbors are enriched in proteins reported with differential expression under infection and disease conditions. It is expected that the findings of this work will contribute to the development of systems biology for infectious diseases, and help guide the rational identification and prioritization of novel drug targets.

  15. Adding protein context to the human protein-protein interaction network to reveal meaningful interactions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin H Schaefer

    Full Text Available Interactions of proteins regulate signaling, catalysis, gene expression and many other cellular functions. Therefore, characterizing the entire human interactome is a key effort in current proteomics research. This challenge is complicated by the dynamic nature of protein-protein interactions (PPIs, which are conditional on the cellular context: both interacting proteins must be expressed in the same cell and localized in the same organelle to meet. Additionally, interactions underlie a delicate control of signaling pathways, e.g. by post-translational modifications of the protein partners - hence, many diseases are caused by the perturbation of these mechanisms. Despite the high degree of cell-state specificity of PPIs, many interactions are measured under artificial conditions (e.g. yeast cells are transfected with human genes in yeast two-hybrid assays or even if detected in a physiological context, this information is missing from the common PPI databases. To overcome these problems, we developed a method that assigns context information to PPIs inferred from various attributes of the interacting proteins: gene expression, functional and disease annotations, and inferred pathways. We demonstrate that context consistency correlates with the experimental reliability of PPIs, which allows us to generate high-confidence tissue- and function-specific subnetworks. We illustrate how these context-filtered networks are enriched in bona fide pathways and disease proteins to prove the ability of context-filters to highlight meaningful interactions with respect to various biological questions. We use this approach to study the lung-specific pathways used by the influenza virus, pointing to IRAK1, BHLHE40 and TOLLIP as potential regulators of influenza virus pathogenicity, and to study the signalling pathways that play a role in Alzheimer's disease, identifying a pathway involving the altered phosphorylation of the Tau protein. Finally, we provide the

  16. Social Psychology Of Persuasion Applied To Human-agent Interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shenghua Liu

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses and evaluates the application of a social psychologically enriched, user-centered approach to agent architecture design. The major aim is to facilitate human-agent interaction (HAI by making agents not only algorithmically more intelligent but also socially more skillful in communicating with the user. A decision-making model and communicative argumentation strategies have been incorporated into the agent architecture. In the presented content resource management experiments, enhancement of human task performance is demonstrated for users that are supported by a persuasive agent. This superior performance seems to be rooted in a more trusting collaborative relationship between the user and the agent, rather than in the appropriateness of the agent's decision-making suggestions alone. In particular, the second experiment demonstrated that interface interaction design should follow the principles of task-orientation and implicitness. Making the influence of the agent too salient can trigger counterintentional effects, such as users' discomfort and psychological reactance.

  17. Exploring host-microbiota interactions in animal models and humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostic, Aleksandar D; Howitt, Michael R; Garrett, Wendy S

    2013-04-01

    The animal and bacterial kingdoms have coevolved and coadapted in response to environmental selective pressures over hundreds of millions of years. The meta'omics revolution in both sequencing and its analytic pipelines is fostering an explosion of interest in how the gut microbiome impacts physiology and propensity to disease. Gut microbiome studies are inherently interdisciplinary, drawing on approaches and technical skill sets from the biomedical sciences, ecology, and computational biology. Central to unraveling the complex biology of environment, genetics, and microbiome interaction in human health and disease is a deeper understanding of the symbiosis between animals and bacteria. Experimental model systems, including mice, fish, insects, and the Hawaiian bobtail squid, continue to provide critical insight into how host-microbiota homeostasis is constructed and maintained. Here we consider how model systems are influencing current understanding of host-microbiota interactions and explore recent human microbiome studies.

  18. Limited communication capacity unveils strategies for human interaction

    CERN Document Server

    Miritello, Giovanna; Cebrián, Manuel; Moro, Esteban

    2013-01-01

    Social connectivity is the key process that characterizes the structural properties of social networks and in turn processes such as navigation, influence or information diffusion. Since time, attention and cognition are inelastic resources, humans should have a predefined strategy to manage their social interactions over time. However, the limited observational length of existing human interaction datasets, together with the bursty nature of dyadic communications have hampered the observation of tie dynamics in social networks. Here we develop a method for the detection of tie activation/deactivation, and apply it to a large longitudinal, cross-sectional communication dataset ($\\approx$ 19 months, $\\approx$ 20 million people). Contrary to the perception of ever-growing connectivity, we observe that individuals exhibit a finite communication capacity, which limits the number of ties they can maintain active. In particular we find that men have an overall higher communication capacity than women and that this ...

  19. CHIP-MYTH: a novel interactive proteomics method for the assessment of agonist-dependent interactions of the human β₂-adrenergic receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kittanakom, Saranya; Barrios-Rodiles, Miriam; Petschnigg, Julia; Arnoldo, Anthony; Wong, Victoria; Kotlyar, Max; Heisler, Lawrence E; Jurisica, Igor; Wrana, Jeffrey L; Nislow, Corey; Stagljar, Igor

    2014-03-21

    G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) are involved in a variety of disease processes and comprise major drug targets. However, the complexity of integral membrane proteins such as GPCRs makes the identification of their interacting partners and subsequent drug development challenging. A comprehensive understanding of GPCR protein interaction networks is needed to design effective therapeutic strategies to inhibit these drug targets. Here, we developed a novel split-ubiquitin membrane yeast two-hybrid (MYTH) technology called CHIP-MYTH, which allows the unbiased characterization of interaction partners of full-length GPCRs in a drug-dependent manner. This was achieved by coupling DNA microarray technology to the MYTH approach, which allows a quantitative evaluation of interacting partners of a given integral membrane protein in the presence or absence of drug. As a proof of principle, we applied the CHIP-MYTH approach to the human β2-adrenergic receptor (β2AR), a target of interest in the treatment of asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), neurological disease, cardiovascular disease, and obesity. A CHIP-MYTH screen was performed in the presence or absence of salmeterol, a long-acting β2AR-agonist. Our results suggest that β2AR activation with salmeterol can induce the dissociation of heterotrimeric G-proteins, Gαβγ, into Gα and Gβγ subunits, which in turn activates downstream signaling cascades. Using CHIP-MYTH, we confirmed previously known and identified novel β2AR interactors involved in GPCR-mediated signaling cascades. Several of these interactions were confirmed in mammalian cells using LUminescence-based Mammalian IntERactome (LUMIER) and co-immunoprecipitation assays. In summary, the CHIP-MYTH approach is ideal for conducting comprehensive protein-protein interactions (PPI) screenings of full-length GPCRs in the presence or absence of drugs, thus providing a valuable tool to further our understanding of GPCR-mediated signaling

  20. Human and machine perception communication, interaction, and integration

    CERN Document Server

    Cantoni, Virginio; Setti, Alessandra

    2005-01-01

    The theme of this book on human and machine perception is communication, interaction, and integration. For each basic topic there are invited lectures, corresponding to approaches in nature and machines, and a panel discussion. The lectures present the state of the art, outlining open questions and stressing synergies among the disciplines related to perception. The panel discussions are forums for open debate. The wide spectrum of topics allows comparison and synergy and can stimulate new approaches.

  1. Human-computer systems interaction backgrounds and applications 3

    CERN Document Server

    Kulikowski, Juliusz; Mroczek, Teresa; Wtorek, Jerzy

    2014-01-01

    This book contains an interesting and state-of the art collection of papers on the recent progress in Human-Computer System Interaction (H-CSI). It contributes the profound description of the actual status of the H-CSI field and also provides a solid base for further development and research in the discussed area. The contents of the book are divided into the following parts: I. General human-system interaction problems; II. Health monitoring and disabled people helping systems; and III. Various information processing systems. This book is intended for a wide audience of readers who are not necessarily experts in computer science, machine learning or knowledge engineering, but are interested in Human-Computer Systems Interaction. The level of particular papers and specific spreading-out into particular parts is a reason why this volume makes fascinating reading. This gives the reader a much deeper insight than he/she might glean from research papers or talks at conferences. It touches on all deep issues that ...

  2. Functional interactions of DNA topoisomerases with a human replication origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdurashidova, Gulnara; Radulescu, Sorina; Sandoval, Oscar; Zahariev, Sotir; Danailov, Miltcho B; Demidovich, Alexander; Santamaria, Laura; Biamonti, Giuseppe; Riva, Silvano; Falaschi, Arturo

    2007-02-21

    The human DNA replication origin, located in the lamin B2 gene, interacts with the DNA topoisomerases I and II in a cell cycle-modulated manner. The topoisomerases interact in vivo and in vitro with precise bonds ahead of the start sites of bidirectional replication, within the pre-replicative complex region; topoisomerase I is bound in M, early G1 and G1/S border and topoisomerase II in M and the middle of G1. The Orc2 protein competes for the same sites of the origin bound by either topoisomerase in different moments of the cell cycle; furthermore, it interacts on the DNA with topoisomerase II during the assembly of the pre-replicative complex and with DNA-bound topoisomerase I at the G1/S border. Inhibition of topoisomerase I activity abolishes origin firing. Thus, the two topoisomerases are closely associated with the replicative complexes, and DNA topology plays an essential functional role in origin activation.

  3. Pedestrian-bridge dynamic interaction, including human participation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, J. W.; Law, S. S.; Yang, Q. S.; Yang, N.

    2013-02-01

    The pedestrian-bridge dynamic interaction problem based on bipedal walking model and damped compliant legs is presented in this work. A time-variant damper is modeled at a given walking speed. A control force is applied by the pedestrian to compensate for energy dissipated with the system damping in walking and to regulate the walking performance of the pedestrian. The effects of stiffness, damping of the leg and the landing angle of attack are investigated in the numerical studies. Simulation results show that the dynamic interaction will increase with a larger vibration level of structure. More external energy must be input to maintain steady walking and uniform dynamic behavior of the pedestrian in the process. The simple bipedal walking model could well describe the human-structure dynamic interaction.

  4. Situated dialog in speech-based human-computer interaction

    CERN Document Server

    Raux, Antoine; Lane, Ian; Misu, Teruhisa

    2016-01-01

    This book provides a survey of the state-of-the-art in the practical implementation of Spoken Dialog Systems for applications in everyday settings. It includes contributions on key topics in situated dialog interaction from a number of leading researchers and offers a broad spectrum of perspectives on research and development in the area. In particular, it presents applications in robotics, knowledge access and communication and covers the following topics: dialog for interacting with robots; language understanding and generation; dialog architectures and modeling; core technologies; and the analysis of human discourse and interaction. The contributions are adapted and expanded contributions from the 2014 International Workshop on Spoken Dialog Systems (IWSDS 2014), where researchers and developers from industry and academia alike met to discuss and compare their implementation experiences, analyses and empirical findings.

  5. A validation study of a stochastic model of human interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burchfield, Mitchel Talmadge

    The purpose of this dissertation is to validate a stochastic model of human interactions which is part of a developmentalism paradigm. Incorporating elements of ancient and contemporary philosophy and science, developmentalism defines human development as a progression of increasing competence and utilizes compatible theories of developmental psychology, cognitive psychology, educational psychology, social psychology, curriculum development, neurology, psychophysics, and physics. To validate a stochastic model of human interactions, the study addressed four research questions: (a) Does attitude vary over time? (b) What are the distributional assumptions underlying attitudes? (c) Does the stochastic model, {-}N{intlimitssbsp{-infty}{infty}}varphi(chi,tau)\\ Psi(tau)dtau, have utility for the study of attitudinal distributions and dynamics? (d) Are the Maxwell-Boltzmann, Fermi-Dirac, and Bose-Einstein theories applicable to human groups? Approximately 25,000 attitude observations were made using the Semantic Differential Scale. Positions of individuals varied over time and the logistic model predicted observed distributions with correlations between 0.98 and 1.0, with estimated standard errors significantly less than the magnitudes of the parameters. The results bring into question the applicability of Fisherian research designs (Fisher, 1922, 1928, 1938) for behavioral research based on the apparent failure of two fundamental assumptions-the noninteractive nature of the objects being studied and normal distribution of attributes. The findings indicate that individual belief structures are representable in terms of a psychological space which has the same or similar properties as physical space. The psychological space not only has dimension, but individuals interact by force equations similar to those described in theoretical physics models. Nonlinear regression techniques were used to estimate Fermi-Dirac parameters from the data. The model explained a high degree

  6. Interaction of rocuronium with human liver cytochromes P450.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anzenbacherova, Eva; Spicakova, Alena; Jourova, Lenka; Ulrichova, Jitka; Adamus, Milan; Bachleda, Petr; Anzenbacher, Pavel

    2015-02-01

    Rocuronium is a neuromuscular blocking agent acting as a competitive antagonist of acetylcholine. Results of an inhibition of eight individual liver microsomal cytochromes P450 (CYP) are presented. As the patients are routinely premedicated with diazepam, possible interaction of diazepam with rocuronium has been also studied. Results indicated that rocuronium interacts with human liver microsomal CYPs by binding to the substrate site. Next, concentration dependent inhibition of liver microsomal CYP3A4 down to 42% (at rocuronium concentration 189 μM) was found. This effect has been confirmed with two CYP3A4 substrates, testosterone (formation of 6β-hydroxytestosterone) and diazepam (temazepam formation). CYP2C9 and CYP2C19 activities were inhibited down to 75-80% (at the same rocuronium concentration). Activities of other microsomal CYPs have not been inhibited by rocuronium. To prove the possibility of rocuronium interaction with other drugs (diazepam), the effect of rocuronium on formation of main diazepam metabolites, temazepam (by CYP3A4) and desmethyldiazepam, (also known as nordiazepam; formed by CYP2C19) in primary culture of human hepatocytes has been examined. Rocuronium has caused inhibition of both reactions by 20 and 15%, respectively. The results open a possibility that interactions of rocuronium with drugs metabolized by CYP3A4 (and possibly also CYP2C19) may be observed. Copyright © 2014 Japanese Pharmacological Society. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Reduced-order models for vertical human-structure interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Nimmen, Katrien; Lombaert, Geert; De Roeck, Guido; Van den Broeck, Peter

    2016-09-01

    For slender and lightweight structures, the vibration serviceability under crowd- induced loading is often critical in design. Currently, designers rely on equivalent load models, upscaled from single-person force measurements. Furthermore, it is important to consider the mechanical interaction with the human body as this can significantly reduce the structural response. To account for these interaction effects, the contact force between the pedestrian and the structure can be modelled as the superposition of the force induced by the pedestrian on a rigid floor and the force resulting from the mechanical interaction between the structure and the human body. For the case of large crowds, however, this approach leads to models with a very high system order. In the present contribution, two equivalent reduced-order models are proposed to approximate the dynamic behaviour of the full-order coupled crowd-structure system. A numerical study is performed to evaluate the impact of the modelling assumptions on the structural response to pedestrian excitation. The results show that the full-order moving crowd model can be well approximated by a reduced-order model whereby the interaction with the pedestrians in the crowd is modelled using a single (equivalent) SDOF system.

  8. Fibre-matrix interaction in the human annulus fibrosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Zaoyang; Shi, Xiaohao; Peng, Xiongqi; Caner, Ferhun

    2012-01-01

    Although the mechanical behaviour of the human annulus fibrosus has been extensively studied, the interaction between the collagen fibres and the ground matrix has not been well understood and is therefore ignored by most constitutive models. The objective of this study is to identify the significance of the fibre-matrix interaction in the human annulus fibrosus by careful investigation of the experimental data, the theoretical constitutive models, and the numerical simulation results in the literature. Based on the experimental results from biaxial and uniaxial tests, it is shown that the mechanical behaviour of the matrix can be well simulated by an incompressible neo-Hookean type model, but the effective stiffness of the matrix depends on fibre stretch ratio, which can only be explained by fibre-matrix interaction. Furthermore, we find that this interaction takes place anisotropically between the matrix and the fibres distributed in different proportions in different directions. The dependence of the tangent stiffness of the matrix on the first invariant of the deformation tensor can also be explained by this fibre orientation dispersion.

  9. A hierarchical framework for understanding human-human interactions in video surveillance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sangho; Aggarwal, J. K.

    2005-01-01

    Understanding human behavior in video is essential in numerous applications including smart surveillance, video annotation/retrieval, and human-computer interaction. However, recognizing human interactions is a challenging task due to ambiguity in body articulation, variations in body size and appearance, loose clothing, mutual occlusion, and shadows. In this paper we present a framework for recognizing human actions and interactions in color video, and a hierarchical graphical model that unifies multiple-level processing in video computing: pixel level, blob level, object level, and event level. A mixture of Gaussian (MOG) model is used at the pixel level to train and classify individual pixel colors. A relaxation labeling with attribute relational graph (ARG) is used at the blob level to merge the pixels into coherent blobs and to register inter-blob relations. At the object level, the poses of individual body parts are recognized using Bayesian networks (BNs). At the event level, the actions of a single person are modeled using a dynamic Bayesian network (DBN). The results of the object-level descriptions for each person are juxtaposed along a common timeline to identify an interaction between two persons. The linguistic 'verb argument structure' is used to represent human action in terms of triplets. A meaningful semantic description in terms of is obtained. Our system achieves semantic descriptions of positive, neutral, and negative interactions between two persons including hand-shaking, standing hand-in-hand, and hugging as the positive interactions, approaching, departing, and pointing as the neutral interactions, and pushing, punching, and kicking as the negative interactions.

  10. Human motion behavior while interacting with an industrial robot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bortot, Dino; Ding, Hao; Antonopolous, Alexandros; Bengler, Klaus

    2012-01-01

    Human workers and industrial robots both have specific strengths within industrial production. Advantageously they complement each other perfectly, which leads to the development of human-robot interaction (HRI) applications. Bringing humans and robots together in the same workspace may lead to potential collisions. The avoidance of such is a central safety requirement. It can be realized with sundry sensor systems, all of them decelerating the robot when the distance to the human decreases alarmingly and applying the emergency stop, when the distance becomes too small. As a consequence, the efficiency of the overall systems suffers, because the robot has high idle times. Optimized path planning algorithms have to be developed to avoid that. The following study investigates human motion behavior in the proximity of an industrial robot. Three different kinds of encounters between the two entities under three robot speed levels are prompted. A motion tracking system is used to capture the motions. Results show, that humans keep an average distance of about 0,5m to the robot, when the encounter occurs. Approximation of the workbenches is influenced by the robot in ten of 15 cases. Furthermore, an increase of participants' walking velocity with higher robot velocities is observed.

  11. Varicella Zoster Virus (VZV-Human Neuron Interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Don Gilden

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Varicella zoster virus (VZV is a highly neurotropic, exclusively human herpesvirus. Primary infection causes varicella (chickenpox, wherein VZV replicates in multiple organs, particularly the skin. Widespread infection in vivo is confirmed by the ability of VZV to kill tissue culture cells in vitro derived from any organ. After varicella, VZV becomes latent in ganglionic neurons along the entire neuraxis. During latency, virus DNA replication stops, transcription is restricted, and no progeny virions are produced, indicating a unique virus-cell (neuron relationship. VZV reactivation produces zoster (shingles, often complicated by serious neurological and ocular disorders. The molecular trigger(s for reactivation, and thus the identity of a potential target to prevent it, remains unknown due to an incomplete understanding of the VZV-neuron interaction. While no in vitro system has yet recapitulated the findings in latently infected ganglia, recent studies show that VZV infection of human neurons in SCID mice and of human stem cells, including induced human pluripotent stem cells and normal human neural progenitor tissue-like assemblies, can be established in the absence of a cytopathic effect. Usefulness of these systems in discovering the mechanisms underlying reactivation awaits analyses of VZV-infected, highly pure (>90%, terminally differentiated human neurons capable of prolonged survival in vitro.

  12. Economics as a Science of the Human Mind and Interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fast, Michael; Hertel, Frederik; Clark, Woodrow

    2014-01-01

    as important in the understanding of economics activities, actions and results. Those meanings and definitions of economics are being produced and exchanged in order to become a new comprehensive framework that influences, co-produces, limits and creates contradictions in everyday economic life....... This additional qualitative focus [1] outlines the importance of understanding how human cognitions produce meaning of objects, definitions, activities and actions which provides the framework for the field of economics. The epistemological perspective for this is that the objects are not only within themselves...... references), then it can be stated that economics cannot only be understood as something that appears in nature. On the contrary, economics must be understood as “something” which results from human behaviour, interaction and groups in human activities and the thinking involved and embedded in those...

  13. Proof and proving in secondary school

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vimolan Mudaly

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper argues that mathematics should be a human activity in which the process of guided invention takes the learner through the various stages and steps of the discovery of mathematical ideas and concepts. The central premise is that proof functions as an explanation, where experimental mathematics is used to empirically convince the learner that the conjecture holds true. Inductive reasoning used while working with the computer software Sketchpad assists learners in arriving at and testing their conjectures.

  14. Proof and proving in secondary school

    OpenAIRE

    Vimolan Mudaly

    2007-01-01

    This paper argues that mathematics should be a human activity in which the process of guided invention takes the learner through the various stages and steps of the discovery of mathematical ideas and concepts. The central premise is that proof functions as an explanation, where experimental mathematics is used to empirically convince the learner that the conjecture holds true. Inductive reasoning used while working with the computer software Sketchpad assists learners in arriving at and test...

  15. Generating Schemata of Resolution Proofs

    CERN Document Server

    Aravantinos, Vincent

    2011-01-01

    Two distinct algorithms are presented to extract (schemata of) resolution proofs from closed tableaux for propositional schemata. The first one handles the most efficient version of the tableau calculus but generates very complex derivations (denoted by rather elaborate rewrite systems). The second one has the advantage that much simpler systems can be obtained, however the considered proof procedure is less efficient.

  16. Short proofs of strong normalization

    OpenAIRE

    Wojdyga, Aleksander

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents simple, syntactic strong normalization proofs for the simply-typed lambda-calculus and the polymorphic lambda-calculus (system F) with the full set of logical connectives, and all the permutative reductions. The normalization proofs use translations of terms and types to systems, for which strong normalization property is known.

  17. Geometry: A Flow Proof Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMurray, Robert

    The inspiration for this text was provided by an exposure to the flow proof approach to a proof format as opposed to the conventional two-column approach. Historical background is included, to provide a frame of reference to give the student an appreciation of the subject. The basic constructions are introduced early and briefly, to aid the…

  18. Formal Proof And Exploratory Experimentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Misfeldt, Morten; Danielsen, Kristian; Krag Sørensen, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    be explained as a problem of bringing their empirical investigations into the deductive proof process in relevant and productive ways. Through our analyses of the portfolios and deliberations of the students, we are able to assess their performance of proofs and the conceptions of mathematical methodology...

  19. From Inductive Reasoning to Proof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yopp, David A.

    2009-01-01

    Mathematical proof is an expression of deductive reasoning (drawing conclusions from previous assertions). However, it is often inductive reasoning (conclusions drawn on the basis of examples) that helps learners form their deductive arguments, or proof. In addition, not all inductive arguments generate more formal arguments. This article draws a…

  20. Are Children with Autism More Responsive to Animated Characters? A Study of Interactions with Humans and Human-Controlled Avatars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Elizabeth J.; Williams, Diane L.; Hodgins, Jessica K.; Lehman, Jill F.

    2014-01-01

    Few direct comparisons have been made between the responsiveness of children with autism to computer-generated or animated characters and their responsiveness to humans. Twelve 4-to 8-year-old children with autism interacted with a human therapist; a human-controlled, interactive avatar in a theme park; a human actor speaking like the avatar; and…

  1. The mid-Miocene structural conversion within the NE Tibetan Plateau from new proof of the interaction between two conflicting fault systems in the western Qaidam Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, H.; Wu, L.; Xiao, A.

    2016-12-01

    We present a detailed structural analysis on the fault geometry and Cenozoic development in the Dongping area, northwestern Qaidam Basin, based on the precise 3-D seismic interpretation, remote sensing images and seismic attribute analysis. Two conflicting fault systems distributed in different orientations ( EW-striking and NNW-striking) with opposing senses of shear are recognized and discussed, and the interaction between them provides new insights to the intracontinental deformation of the Qaidam Basin within the NE Tibetan Plateau. The EW-striking fault system constitutes the south part of the Altyn left-slip positive flower structure. Faulting on the EW-striking faults dominated the northwestern Qaidam since 40 Ma in respond to the inception of the Altyn Tagh fault system as a ductile shear zone, tilting the south slope of the Altyn Tagh. Whereas the NNW-striking fault system became the dominant structures since the mid-Miocene ( 15 Ma), induced by the large scale strike-slip of the Altyn Tagh fault which leads to the NE-SW directed compression of the Qaidam Basin. Thus it evidently implies a structural conversion taking place within the NE Tibetan Plateau since the mid-Miocece ( 15 Ma). Interestingly, the preexisting faults possibly restrained the development of the later period faults, while the latter tended to track and link to the former fault traces. Taken the large scale sinistral striking-slip East Kunlun fault system into account, the late Cenozoic intracontinental deformation in the Qaidam Basin showing the dextral transpressional attribute is suggested to be the consequence of the combined effect of its two border sinistral strike-slip faults, which furthermore favors a continuous and lateral-extrusion mechanism of the growth of the NE Tibetan Plateau.

  2. Algebraic Proofs over Noncommutative Formulas

    CERN Document Server

    Tzameret, Iddo

    2010-01-01

    We study possible formulations of algebraic propositional proof systems operating with noncommutative formulas. We observe that a simple formulation gives rise to systems at least as strong as Frege---yielding a semantic way to define a Cook-Reckhow (i.e., polynomially verifiable) algebraic analogue of Frege proofs, different from that given in [BIKPRS96,GH03]. We then turn to an apparently weaker system, namely, polynomial calculus (PC) where polynomials are written as ordered formulas ("PC over ordered formulas", for short). This is an algebraic propositional proof system that operates with noncommutative polynomials in which the order of products in all monomials respects a fixed linear order on the variables, and where proof-lines are written as noncommutative formulas. We show that the latter proof system is strictly stronger than resolution, polynomial calculus and polynomial calculus with resolution (PCR) and admits polynomial-size refutations for the pigeonhole principle and the Tseitin's formulas. We...

  3. Human cytomegalovirus IE2 protein interacts with transcription activating factors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU; Jinping(徐进平); YE; Linbai(叶林柏)

    2002-01-01

    The human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) IE86 Cdna was cloned into Pgex-2T and fusion protein GST-IE86 was expressed in E. Coli. SDS-PAGE and Western blot assay indicated that fusion protein GST-IE86 with molecular weight of 92 ku is soluble in the supernatant of cell lysate. Protein GST and fusion protein GST-IE86 were purified by affinity chromatography. The technology of co-separation and specific affinity chromatography was used to study the interactions of HCMV IE86 protein with some transcriptional regulatory proteins and transcriptional factors. The results indicated that IE86 interacts separately with transcriptional factor TFIIB and promoter DNA binding transcription trans-activating factors SP1, AP1 and AP2 to form a heterogenous protein complex. These transcriptional trans-activating factors, transcriptional factor and IE86 protein were adsorbed and retained in the affinity chromatography simultaneously. But IE86 protein could not interact with NF-Кb, suggesting that the function of IE86 protein that can interact with transcriptional factor and transcriptional trans-activating factors has no relevance to protein glycosylation. IE86 protein probably has two domains responsible for binding transcriptional trans-activating regulatory proteins and transcriptional factors respectively, thus activating the transcription of many genes. The interactions accelerated the assembly of the transcriptional initiation complexes.

  4. Optimized Assistive Human-Robot Interaction Using Reinforcement Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modares, Hamidreza; Ranatunga, Isura; Lewis, Frank L; Popa, Dan O

    2016-03-01

    An intelligent human-robot interaction (HRI) system with adjustable robot behavior is presented. The proposed HRI system assists the human operator to perform a given task with minimum workload demands and optimizes the overall human-robot system performance. Motivated by human factor studies, the presented control structure consists of two control loops. First, a robot-specific neuro-adaptive controller is designed in the inner loop to make the unknown nonlinear robot behave like a prescribed robot impedance model as perceived by a human operator. In contrast to existing neural network and adaptive impedance-based control methods, no information of the task performance or the prescribed robot impedance model parameters is required in the inner loop. Then, a task-specific outer-loop controller is designed to find the optimal parameters of the prescribed robot impedance model to adjust the robot's dynamics to the operator skills and minimize the tracking error. The outer loop includes the human operator, the robot, and the task performance details. The problem of finding the optimal parameters of the prescribed robot impedance model is transformed into a linear quadratic regulator (LQR) problem which minimizes the human effort and optimizes the closed-loop behavior of the HRI system for a given task. To obviate the requirement of the knowledge of the human model, integral reinforcement learning is used to solve the given LQR problem. Simulation results on an x - y table and a robot arm, and experimental implementation results on a PR2 robot confirm the suitability of the proposed method.

  5. Adaptive interaction a utility maximization approach to understanding human interaction with technology

    CERN Document Server

    Payne, Stephen J

    2013-01-01

    This lecture describes a theoretical framework for the behavioural sciences that holds high promise for theory-driven research and design in Human-Computer Interaction. The framework is designed to tackle the adaptive, ecological, and bounded nature of human behaviour. It is designed to help scientists and practitioners reason about why people choose to behave as they do and to explain which strategies people choose in response to utility, ecology, and cognitive information processing mechanisms. A key idea is that people choose strategies so as to maximise utility given constraints. The frame

  6. Probing cocaine-antibody interactions in buffer and human serum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muthu Ramakrishnan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Despite progress in cocaine immunotherapy, the kinetic and thermodynamic properties of antibodies which bind to cocaine and its metabolites are not well understood. It is also not clear how the interactions between them differ in a complex matrix such as the serum present in the human body. In the present study, we have used microscale thermophoresis (MST, isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC, and surface plasmon resonance (SPR we have evaluated the affinity properties of a representative mouse monoclonal (mAb08 as well as those of polyclonal antibodies purified from vaccinated mouse and human patient serum. RESULTS: MST analysis of fluorescently tagged mAb08 binding to cocaine reveals an approximately 15 fold decrease in its equilibrium dissociation constant in 20-50% human serum compared with that in saline buffer. A similar trend was also found using enriched polyclonal antibodies purified from vaccinated mice and patient serum, for which we have used fluorescently tagged bovine serum albumin conjugated to succinyl norcocaine (BSA-SNC. This conjugate closely mimics both cocaine and the hapten used to raise these antibodies. The ITC data also revealed that cocaine has a moderate affinity of about 2 µM to 20% human serum and very little interaction with human serum albumin or nonspecific human IgG at that concentration range. In a SPR inhibition experiment, the binding of mAb08 to immobilized BSA-SNC was inhibited by cocaine and benzoylecgonine in a highly competitive manner, whereas the purified polyclonal antibodies from vaccinated humans and mice, revealed preferential selectivity to pharmacologically active cocaine but not to the inactive metabolite benzoylecgonine. We have also developed a simple binding model to simulate the challenges associated with cocaine immunotherapy using the variable quantitative and kinetic properties of the antibodies. CONCLUSIONS: High sensitivity calorimetric determination of antibody binding to

  7. Interactive Evolutionary Computation for Analyzing Human Awareness Mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hideyuki Takagi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We discuss the importance of establishing awareness science and show the idea of using interactive evolutionary computation (IEC as a tool for analyzing awareness mechanism and making awareness models. First, we describe the importance of human factors in computational intelligence and that IEC is one of approaches for the so-called humanized computational intelligence. Second, we show examples that IEC is used as an analysis tool for human science. As analyzing human awareness mechanism is in this kind of analyzing human characteristics and capabilities, IEC may be able to be used for this purpose. Based on this expectation, we express one idea for analyzing the awareness mechanism. This idea is to make an equivalent model of an IEC user using a learning model and find latent variables that connect inputs and outputs of the user model and that help to understand or explain the inputs-outputs relationship. Although there must be several definitions of awareness, this idea is based on one definition that awareness is to find out unknown variables that helps our understanding. If we establish a method for finding the latent variables automatically, we can realize an awareness model in computer.

  8. Phage-bacteria interaction network in human oral microbiome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jinfeng; Gao, Yuan; Zhao, Fangqing

    2016-07-01

    Although increasing knowledge suggests that bacteriophages play important roles in regulating microbial ecosystems, phage-bacteria interaction in human oral cavities remains less understood. Here we performed a metagenomic analysis to explore the composition and variation of oral dsDNA phage populations and potential phage-bacteria interaction. A total of 1,711 contigs assembled with more than 100 Gb shotgun sequencing data were annotated to 104 phages based on their best BLAST matches against the NR database. Bray-Curtis dissimilarities demonstrated that both phage and bacterial composition are highly diverse between periodontally healthy samples but show a trend towards homogenization in diseased gingivae samples. Significantly, according to the CRISPR arrays that record infection relationship between bacteria and phage, we found certain oral phages were able to invade other bacteria besides their putative bacterial hosts. These cross-infective phages were positively correlated with commensal bacteria while were negatively correlated with major periodontal pathogens, suggesting possible connection between these phages and microbial community structure in oral cavities. By characterizing phage-bacteria interaction as networks rather than exclusively pairwise predator-prey relationships, our study provides the first insight into the participation of cross-infective phages in forming human oral microbiota.

  9. The vestibulosympathetic reflex in humans: neural interactions between cardiovascular reflexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Chester A.; Monahan, Kevin D.

    2002-01-01

    1. Over the past 5 years, there has been emerging evidence that the vestibular system regulates sympathetic nerve activity in humans. We have studied this issue in humans by using head-down rotation (HDR) in the prone position. 2. These studies have clearly demonstrated increases in muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) and calf vascular resistance during HDR. These responses are mediated by engagement of the otolith organs and not the semicircular canals. 3. However, differential activation of sympathetic nerve activity has been observed during HDR. Unlike MSNA, skin sympathetic nerve activity does not increase with HDR. 4. Examination of the vestibulosympathetic reflex with other cardiovascular reflexes (i.e. barorereflexes and skeletal muscle reflexes) has shown an additive interaction for MSNA. 5. The additive interaction between the baroreflexes and vestibulosympathetic reflex suggests that the vestibular system may assist in defending against orthostatic challenges in humans by elevating MSNA beyond that of the baroreflexes. 6. In addition, the further increase in MSNA via otolith stimulation during isometric handgrip, when arterial pressure is elevated markedly, indicates that the vestibulosympathetic reflex is a powerful activator of MSNA and may contribute to blood pressure and flow regulation during dynamic exercise. 7. Future studies will help evaluate the importance of the vestibulosympathetic reflex in clinical conditions associated with orthostatic hypotension.

  10. Socio-hydrology: conceptualising human-flood interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Di Baldassarre

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Over history, humankind has tended to settle near streams because of the role of rivers as transportation corridors and the fertility of riparian areas. However, human settlements in floodplains have been threatened by the risk of flooding. Possible responses have been to resettle away and/or modify the river system by building flood control structures. This has led to a complex web of interactions and feedback mechanisms between hydrological and social processes in settled floodplains. This paper is an attempt to conceptualise these interplays for hypothetical human-flood systems. We develop a simple, dynamic model to represent the interactions and feedback loops between hydrological and social processes. The model is then used to explore the dynamics of the human-flood system and the effect of changing individual characteristics, including external forcing such as technological development. The results show that the conceptual model is able to reproduce reciprocal effects between floods and people as well as the emergence of typical patterns. For instance, when levees are built or raised to protect floodplain areas, their presence not only reduces the frequency of flooding, but also exacerbates high water levels. Then, because of this exacerbation, higher flood protection levels are required by the society. As a result, more and more flooding events are avoided, but rare and catastrophic events take place.

  11. Socio-hydrology: conceptualising human-flood interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Di Baldassarre

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Over history, humankind has tended to settle near streams because of the role of rivers as transportation corridors and the fertility of riparian areas. However, human settlements in floodplains have been threatened by the risk of flooding. Possible responses have been to resettle away and/or modify the river system by building flood control structures. This has led to a complex web of interactions and feedback mechanisms between hydrological and social processes in settled floodplains. This paper is an attempt to conceptualise these interplays for hypothetical human-flood systems. We develop a simple, dynamic model to represent the interactions and feedback loops between hydrological and social processes. The model is then used to explore the dynamics of the human-flood system and the effect of changing individual characteristics, including external forcing such as technological development. The results show that the conceptual model is able to reproduce reciprocal effects between floods and people as well as the emergence of typical patterns. For instance, when levees are built or raised to protect floodplain areas, their presence not only reduces the frequency of flooding, but also exacerbates high water levels. Then, because of this exacerbation, higher flood protection levels are required by society. As a result, more and more flooding events are avoided, but rare and catastrophic events take place.

  12. Analyzing Human-Landscape Interactions: Tools That Integrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zvoleff, Alex; An, Li

    2014-01-01

    Humans have transformed much of Earth's land surface, giving rise to loss of biodiversity, climate change, and a host of other environmental issues that are affecting human and biophysical systems in unexpected ways. To confront these problems, environmental managers must consider human and landscape systems in integrated ways. This means making use of data obtained from a broad range of methods (e.g., sensors, surveys), while taking into account new findings from the social and biophysical science literatures. New integrative methods (including data fusion, simulation modeling, and participatory approaches) have emerged in recent years to address these challenges, and to allow analysts to provide information that links qualitative and quantitative elements for policymakers. This paper brings attention to these emergent tools while providing an overview of the tools currently in use for analysis of human-landscape interactions. Analysts are now faced with a staggering array of approaches in the human-landscape literature—in an attempt to bring increased clarity to the field, we identify the relative strengths of each tool, and provide guidance to analysts on the areas to which each tool is best applied. We discuss four broad categories of tools: statistical methods (including survival analysis, multi-level modeling, and Bayesian approaches), GIS and spatial analysis methods, simulation approaches (including cellular automata, agent-based modeling, and participatory modeling), and mixed-method techniques (such as alternative futures modeling and integrated assessment). For each tool, we offer an example from the literature of its application in human-landscape research. Among these tools, participatory approaches are gaining prominence for analysts to make the broadest possible array of information available to researchers, environmental managers, and policymakers. Further development of new approaches of data fusion and integration across sites or disciplines

  13. Metabolic interaction between toluene, trichloroethylene and n-hexane in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bælum, Jesper; Mølhave, Lars; Hansen, S H

    1998-01-01

    This human experimental study describes the mutual metabolic interaction between toluene, trichloroethylene, and n-hexane.......This human experimental study describes the mutual metabolic interaction between toluene, trichloroethylene, and n-hexane....

  14. Interaction of perfluorooctanoic acid with human serum albumin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Fang-Fang

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recently, perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA has become a significant issue in many aspects of environmental ecology, toxicology, pathology and life sciences because it may have serious effects on the endocrine, immune and nervous systems and can lead to embryonic deformities and other diseases. Human serum albumin (HSA is the major protein component of blood plasma and is called a multifunctional plasma carrier protein because of its ability to bind an unusually broad spectrum of ligands. Results The interaction of PFOA with HSA was investigated in the normal physiological condition by equilibrium dialysis, fluorospectrometry, isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC and circular dichroism (CD. The non-covalent interaction is resulted from hydrogen bond, van der Waals force and hydrophobic stack. PFOA binding to HSA accorded with two-step binding model with the saturation binding numbers of PFOA, only 1 in the hydrophobic intracavity of HSA and 12 on the exposed outer surface. The interaction of PFOA with HSA is spontaneous and results in change of HSA conformation. The possible binding sites were speculated. Conclusion The present work suggested a characterization method for the intermolecular weak interaction. It is potentially useful for elucidating the toxigenicity of perfluorochemicals when combined with biomolecular function effect, transmembrane transport, toxicological testing and the other experiments.

  15. Synchronization in human musical rhythms and mutually interacting complex systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennig, Holger

    2014-09-09

    Though the music produced by an ensemble is influenced by multiple factors, including musical genre, musician skill, and individual interpretation, rhythmic synchronization is at the foundation of musical interaction. Here, we study the statistical nature of the mutual interaction between two humans synchronizing rhythms. We find that the interbeat intervals of both laypeople and professional musicians exhibit scale-free (power law) cross-correlations. Surprisingly, the next beat to be played by one person is dependent on the entire history of the other person's interbeat intervals on timescales up to several minutes. To understand this finding, we propose a general stochastic model for mutually interacting complex systems, which suggests a physiologically motivated explanation for the occurrence of scale-free cross-correlations. We show that the observed long-term memory phenomenon in rhythmic synchronization can be imitated by fractal coupling of separately recorded or synthesized audio tracks and thus applied in electronic music. Though this study provides an understanding of fundamental characteristics of timing and synchronization at the interbrain level, the mutually interacting complex systems model may also be applied to study the dynamics of other complex systems where scale-free cross-correlations have been observed, including econophysics, physiological time series, and collective behavior of animal flocks.

  16. Limited communication capacity unveils strategies for human interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miritello, Giovanna; Lara, Rubén; Cebrian, Manuel; Moro, Esteban

    2013-06-01

    Connectivity is the key process that characterizes the structural and functional properties of social networks. However, the bursty activity of dyadic interactions may hinder the discrimination of inactive ties from large interevent times in active ones. We develop a principled method to detect tie de-activation and apply it to a large longitudinal, cross-sectional communication dataset (~19 months, ~20 million people). Contrary to the perception of ever-growing connectivity, we observe that individuals exhibit a finite communication capacity, which limits the number of ties they can maintain active in time. On average men display higher capacity than women, and this capacity decreases for both genders over their lifespan. Separating communication capacity from activity reveals a diverse range of tie activation strategies, from stable to exploratory. This allows us to draw novel relationships between individual strategies for human interaction and the evolution of social networks at global scale.

  17. Human eosinophil–airway smooth muscle cell interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Margaret Hughes

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Eosinophils are present throughout the airway wall of asthmatics. The nature of the interaction between human airway smooth muscle cells (ASMC and eosinophils was investigated in this study. We demonstrated, using light microscopy, that freshly isolated eosinophils from healthy donors rapidly attach to ASMC in vitro. Numbers of attached eosinophils were highest at 2 h, falling to 50% of maximum by 20 h. Eosinophil attachment at 2 h was reduced to 72% of control by anti-VCAM-1, and to 74% at 20 h by anti-ICAM-1. Pre-treatment of ASMC for 24 h with TNF-α, 10 nM, significantly increased eosinophil adhesion to 149 and 157% of control after 2 and 20 h. These results provide evidence that eosinophil interactions with ASMC involve VCAM-1 and ICAM-1 and are modulated by TNF-α.

  18. Proof Pad: A New Development Environment for ACL2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caleb Eggensperger

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Most software development projects rely on Integrated Development Environments (IDEs based on the desktop paradigm, with an interactive, mouse-driven user interface. The standard installation of ACL2, on the other hand, is designed to work closely with Emacs. ACL2 experts, on the whole, like this mode of operation, but students and other new programmers who have learned to program with desktop IDEs often react negatively to the process of adapting to an unfamiliar form of interaction. This paper discusses Proof Pad, a new IDE for ACL2. Proof Pad is not the only attempt to provide ACL2 IDEs catering to students and beginning programmers. The ACL2 Sedan and DrACuLa systems arose from similar motivations. Proof Pad builds on the work of those systems, while also taking into account the unique workflow of the ACL2 theorem proving system. The design of Proof Pad incorporated user feedback from the outset, and that process continued through all stages of development. Feedback took the form of direct observation of users interacting with the IDE as well as questionnaires completed by users of Proof Pad and other ACL2 IDEs. The result is a streamlined interface and fast, responsive system that supports using ACL2 as a programming language and a theorem proving system. Proof Pad also provides a property-based testing environment with random data generation and automated interpretation of properties as ACL2 theorem definitions.

  19. Flooring-systems and their interaction with furniture and humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frier, Christian; Pedersen, Lars; Andersen, Lars Vabbersgaard

    2017-01-01

    Flooring-system designs may be sensitive in terms of their vibrational performance due the risk that serviceability-limit-state problems may be encountered. For evaluating the vibrational performance of a flooring system at the design stage, decisions must be made by the engineer in charge...... of computations. Passive humans and/or furniture are often present on a floor. Typically, these masses and their way of interacting with the floor mass are ignored in predictions of vibrational behaviour of the flooring system. Utilizing a shell finite-element model, the paper explores and quantifies how non...

  20. Simplified Human-Robot Interaction: Modeling and Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balazs Daniel

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a novel concept of human-robot interaction (HRI modeling is proposed. Including factors like trust in automation, situational awareness, expertise and expectations a new user experience framework is formed for industrial robots. Service Oriented Robot Operation, proposed in a previous paper, creates an abstract level in HRI and it is also included in the framework. This concept is evaluated with exhaustive tests. Results prove that significant improvement in task execution may be achieved and the new system is more usable for operators with less experience with robotics; personnel specific for small and medium enterprises (SMEs.

  1. Economics as a Science of the Human Mind and Interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fast, Michael; Hertel, Frederik; Clark, Woodrow

    2014-01-01

    upon the perspective chosen, in which one sees and thinks of economics from a particular philosophical and even political position and perspective. If one takes the perspective on economics from a qualitative paradigm that draws upon the tradition from Kant, Husserl, Simmel, Mead, Schutz, Blumer (see......In understanding economics and the organisation of economics, the questions are what constituteeconomics and the thinking behind economics today? In short what is the field of economics? And in what ways can we connect to and understand this field of study? Of course, the answer to this depends...... references), then it can be stated that economics cannot only be understood as something that appears in nature. On the contrary, economics must be understood as “something” which results from human behaviour, interaction and groups in human activities and the thinking involved and embedded in those...

  2. An Interactive Web-based Environment using Human Companion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tahar Bouhadada

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the architecture of an Interactive Learning Environment (ILE on internet using companions, one of which is a human and geographically distant from the learning site. The achieved system rests on a 3-tier customer/server architecture (customer, web server, data and applications server where human and software actors can communicate via the internet and use the DTL learning strategy. It contains five main actors: a tutor actor in charge to guide the learner; a system actor whose role is to manage and to control the accesses to the system; a teacher actor in charge of the management and the updating of the different bases; a learner actor who represents the main actor of the system for whom is dedicated the teaching. Also, a learning companion actor whose role can be sometimes as an assistant, and other times as a troublemaker.

  3. Sublogarithmic uniform Boolean proof nets

    CERN Document Server

    Aubert, Clément

    2012-01-01

    Using a proofs-as-programs correspondence, Terui was able to compare two models of parallel computation: Boolean circuits and proof nets for multiplicative linear logic. Mogbil et. al. gave a logspace translation allowing us to compare their computational power as uniform complexity classes. This paper presents a novel translation in AC0 and focuses on a simpler restricted notion of uniform Boolean proof nets. We can then encode constant-depth circuits and compare complexity classes below logspace, which were out of reach with the previous translations.

  4. Computerized proof techniques for undergraduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Christopher J.; Tefera, Akalu; Zeleke, Aklilu

    2012-12-01

    The use of computer algebra systems such as Maple and Mathematica is becoming increasingly important and widespread in mathematics learning, teaching and research. In this article, we present computerized proof techniques of Gosper, Wilf-Zeilberger and Zeilberger that can be used for enhancing the teaching and learning of topics in discrete mathematics. We demonstrate by examples how one can use these computerized proof techniques to raise students' interests in the discovery and proof of mathematical identities and enhance their problem-solving skills.

  5. Vote Counting as Mathematical Proof

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schürmann, Carsten; Pattinson, Dirk

    2015-01-01

    Trust in the correctness of an election outcome requires proof of the correctness of vote counting. By formalising particular voting protocols as rules, correctness of vote counting amounts to verifying that all rules have been applied correctly. A proof of the outcome of any particular election......-based formalisation of voting protocols inside a theorem prover, we synthesise vote counting programs that are not only provably correct, but also produce independently verifiable certificates. These programs are generated from a (formal) proof that every initial set of ballots allows to decide the election winner...

  6. Decision support system for monitoring environmental-human interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delavari-Edalat, Farideh; Abdi, M Reza

    2009-06-01

    The specific aim of this study is to investigate popular attitudes toward trees. The paper is involved the understanding of biophilia tendencies with respect to people's views in an urban area. Biophilia is considered as the idea insisting on the dependency of human identity on his relationship with nature. The biophilia fundamental tendencies were explored to establish a biological framework for valuing and affiliating the natural world. Accordingly, the nine tendencies i.e. utilitarian, naturalistic, ecologistic-scientific, aesthetic, symbolic, humanistic, moralistic, dominionistic, and negativistic were investigate to find out how people relate to the nature especially trees. The investigation was based on a quantitative interview which was applied to the public population in the Liverpool urban parks. Data collected from the designed questionnaire was followed by analysis of the data to identify people's attitudes towards trees. The results indicated how important the physical appeal and beauty of trees was for the people and also showed the people's emotional attachments to trees. Furthermore, a decision support model was proposed to evaluate human instincts and preferences in relation to their surrounding areas using the Analytical Hierarchical Process (AHP). The proposed model composed the environmental factors and the biophilia tendencies as the criteria of evaluating environmental-human interactions. A case study was then conducted in Liverpool parks to examine theses interactions. The data gathered was used as the input to the AHP model for the attribute analysis. The AHP model would enable environment managers to compose the relevant information via a link between human feelings about urban trees, and environmental factors for monitoring purposes and performance analysis.

  7. Understanding Human-Landscape Interactions in the "Anthropocene"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harden, Carol P.; Chin, Anne; English, Mary R.; Fu, Rong; Galvin, Kathleen A.; Gerlak, Andrea K.; McDowell, Patricia F.; McNamara, Dylan E.; Peterson, Jeffrey M.; Poff, N. LeRoy; Rosa, Eugene A.; Solecki, William D.; Wohl, Ellen E.

    2014-01-01

    This article summarizes the primary outcomes of an interdisciplinary workshop in 2010, sponsored by the U.S. National Science Foundation, focused on developing key questions and integrative themes for advancing the science of human-landscape systems. The workshop was a response to a grand challenge identified recently by the U.S. National Research Council (2010a)—"How will Earth's surface evolve in the "Anthropocene?"—suggesting that new theories and methodological approaches are needed to tackle increasingly complex human-landscape interactions in the new era. A new science of human-landscape systems recognizes the interdependence of hydro-geomorphological, ecological, and human processes and functions. Advances within a range of disciplines spanning the physical, biological, and social sciences are therefore needed to contribute toward interdisciplinary research that lies at the heart of the science. Four integrative research themes were identified—thresholds/tipping points, time scales and time lags, spatial scales and boundaries, and feedback loops—serving as potential focal points around which theory can be built for human-landscape systems. Implementing the integrative themes requires that the research communities: (1) establish common metrics to describe and quantify human, biological, and geomorphological systems; (2) develop new ways to integrate diverse data and methods; and (3) focus on synthesis, generalization, and meta-analyses, as individual case studies continue to accumulate. Challenges to meeting these needs center on effective communication and collaboration across diverse disciplines spanning the natural and social scientific divide. Creating venues and mechanisms for sustained focused interdisciplinary collaborations, such as synthesis centers, becomes extraordinarily important for advancing the science.

  8. Spoken language interaction with model uncertainty: an adaptive human-robot interaction system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doshi, Finale; Roy, Nicholas

    2008-12-01

    Spoken language is one of the most intuitive forms of interaction between humans and agents. Unfortunately, agents that interact with people using natural language often experience communication errors and do not correctly understand the user's intentions. Recent systems have successfully used probabilistic models of speech, language and user behaviour to generate robust dialogue performance in the presence of noisy speech recognition and ambiguous language choices, but decisions made using these probabilistic models are still prone to errors owing to the complexity of acquiring and maintaining a complete model of human language and behaviour. In this paper, a decision-theoretic model for human-robot interaction using natural language is described. The algorithm is based on the Partially Observable Markov Decision Process (POMDP), which allows agents to choose actions that are robust not only to uncertainty from noisy or ambiguous speech recognition but also unknown user models. Like most dialogue systems, a POMDP is defined by a large number of parameters that may be difficult to specify a priori from domain knowledge, and learning these parameters from the user may require an unacceptably long training period. An extension to the POMDP model is described that allows the agent to acquire a linguistic model of the user online, including new vocabulary and word choice preferences. The approach not only avoids a training period of constant questioning as the agent learns, but also allows the agent actively to query for additional information when its uncertainty suggests a high risk of mistakes. The approach is demonstrated both in simulation and on a natural language interaction system for a robotic wheelchair application.

  9. When Humanoid Robots Become Human-Like Interaction Partners: Corepresentation of Robotic Actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenzel, Anna; Chinellato, Eris; Bou, Maria A. Tirado; del Pobil, Angel P.; Lappe, Markus; Liepelt, Roman

    2012-01-01

    In human-human interactions, corepresenting a partner's actions is crucial to successfully adjust and coordinate actions with others. Current research suggests that action corepresentation is restricted to interactions between human agents facilitating social interaction with conspecifics. In this study, we investigated whether action…

  10. Practical Verified Computation with Streaming Interactive Proofs

    OpenAIRE

    Thaler, Justin R

    2013-01-01

    As the cloud computing paradigm has gained prominence, the need for verifiable computation has grown urgent. Protocols for verifiable computation enable a weak client to outsource difficult computations to a powerful, but untrusted, server. These protocols provide the client with a (probabilistic) guarantee that the server performed the requested computations correctly, without requiring the client to perform the computations herself.

  11. Teaching Syllogistics Through Gamification and Interactive Proofs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Øhrstrøm, Peter; Sandborg-Petersen, Ulrik; Thorvaldsen, Steinar

    2015-01-01

    This paper is a continuation of earlier studies involving experiments with Communication students using a Java-Applet running in the student’s browser, developed using the Prolog programming language as embodied in a Java implementation called Prolog+CG. This makes it possible to support logic...... be helpful in logic teaching in order to obtain a better understanding of syllogistic reasoning....

  12. Verifiable Computation with Massively Parallel Interactive Proofs

    CERN Document Server

    Thaler, Justin; Mitzenmacher, Michael; Pfister, Hanspeter

    2012-01-01

    As the cloud computing paradigm has gained prominence, the need for verifiable computation has grown increasingly urgent. The concept of verifiable computation enables a weak client to outsource difficult computations to a powerful, but untrusted, server. Protocols for verifiable computation aim to provide the client with a guarantee that the server performed the requested computations correctly, without requiring the client to perform the computations herself. By design, these protocols impose a minimal computational burden on the client. However, existing protocols require the server to perform a large amount of extra bookkeeping in order to enable a client to easily verify the results. Verifiable computation has thus remained a theoretical curiosity, and protocols for it have not been implemented in real cloud computing systems. Our goal is to leverage GPUs to reduce the server-side slowdown for verifiable computation. To this end, we identify abundant data parallelism in a state-of-the-art general-purpose...

  13. Complexity of human and ecosystem interactions in an agricultural landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coupe, Richard H.; Barlow, Jeannie R.; Capel, Paul D.

    2012-01-01

    The complexity of human interaction in the commercial agricultural landscape and the resulting impacts on the ecosystem services of water quality and quantity is largely ignored by the current agricultural paradigm that maximizes crop production over other ecosystem services. Three examples at different spatial scales (local, regional, and global) are presented where human and ecosystem interactions in a commercial agricultural landscape adversely affect water quality and quantity in unintended ways in the Delta of northwestern Mississippi. In the first example, little to no regulation of groundwater use for irrigation has caused declines in groundwater levels resulting in loss of baseflow to streams and threatening future water supply. In the second example, federal policy which subsidizes corn for biofuel production has encouraged many producers to switch from cotton to corn, which requires more nutrients and water, counter to national efforts to reduce nutrient loads to the Gulf of Mexico and exacerbating groundwater level declines. The third example is the wholesale adoption of a system for weed control that relies on a single chemical, initially providing many benefits and ultimately leading to the widespread occurrence of glyphosate and its degradates in Delta streams and necessitating higher application rates of glyphosate as well as the use of other herbicides due to increasing weed resistance. Although these examples are specific to the Mississippi Delta, analogous situations exist throughout the world and point to the need for change in how we grow our food, fuel, and fiber, and manage our soil and water resources.

  14. Interhemispheric interactions between the human primary somatosensory cortices.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Ragert

    Full Text Available In the somatosensory domain it is still unclear at which processing stage information reaches the opposite hemispheres. Due to dense transcallosal connections, the secondary somatosensory cortex (S2 has been proposed to be the key candidate for interhemispheric information transfer. However, recent animal studies showed that the primary somatosensory cortex (S1 might as well account for interhemispheric information transfer. Using paired median nerve somatosensory evoked potential recordings in humans we tested the hypothesis that interhemispheric inhibitory interactions in the somatosensory system occur already in an early cortical processing stage such as S1. Conditioning right S1 by electrical median nerve (MN stimulation of the left MN (CS resulted in a significant reduction of the N20 response in the target (left S1 relative to a test stimulus (TS to the right MN alone when the interstimulus interval between CS and TS was between 20 and 25 ms. No such changes were observed for later cortical components such as the N20/P25, N30, P40 and N60 amplitude. Additionally, the subcortically generated P14 response in left S1 was also not affected. These results document the existence of interhemispheric inhibitory interactions between S1 in human subjects in the critical time interval of 20-25 ms after median nerve stimulation.

  15. Field Guide for Designing Human Interaction with Intelligent Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malin, Jane T.; Thronesbery, Carroll G.

    1998-01-01

    The characteristics of this Field Guide approach address the problems of designing innovative software to support user tasks. The requirements for novel software are difficult to specify a priori, because there is not sufficient understanding of how the users' tasks should be supported, and there are not obvious pre-existing design solutions. When the design team is in unfamiliar territory, care must be taken to avoid rushing into detailed design, requirements specification, or implementation of the wrong product. The challenge is to get the right design and requirements in an efficient, cost-effective manner. This document's purpose is to describe the methods we are using to design human interactions with intelligent systems which support Space Shuttle flight controllers in the Mission Control Center at NASA/Johnson Space Center. Although these software systems usually have some intelligent features, the design challenges arise primarily from the innovation needed in the software design. While these methods are tailored to our specific context, they should be extensible, and helpful to designers of human interaction with other types of automated systems. We review the unique features of this context so that you can determine how to apply these methods to your project Throughout this Field Guide, goals of the design methods are discussed. This should help designers understand how a specific method might need to be adapted to the project at hand.

  16. Finding Proofs in Tarskian Geometry

    OpenAIRE

    Beeson, Michael; Wos, Larry

    2016-01-01

    We report on a project to use a theorem prover to find proofs of the theorems in Tarskian geometry. These theorems start with fundamental properties of betweenness, proceed through the derivations of several famous theorems due to Gupta and end with the derivation from Tarski's axioms of Hilbert's 1899 axioms for geometry. They include the four challenge problems left unsolved by Quaife, who two decades ago found some \\Otter proofs in Tarskian geometry (solving challenges issued in Wos's 1998...

  17. Microarray analysis of human epithelial cell responses to bacterial interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mans, Jeffrey J; Lamont, Richard J; Handfield, Martin

    2006-09-01

    Host-pathogen interactions are inherently complex and dynamic. The recent use of human microarrays has been invaluable to monitor the effects of various bacterial and viral pathogens upon host cell gene expression programs. This methodology has allowed the host response transcriptome of several cell lines to be studied on a global scale. To this point, the great majority of reports have focused on the response of immune cells, including macrophages and dendritic cells. These studies revealed that the immune response to microbial pathogens is tailored to different microbial challenges. Conversely, the paradigm for epithelial cells has--until recently--held that the epithelium mostly served as a relatively passive physical barrier to infection. It is now generally accepted that the epithelial barrier contributes more actively to signaling events in the immune response. In light of this shift, this review will compare transcriptional profiling data from studies that involved host-pathogen interactions occurring with epithelial cells. Experiments that defined both a common core response, as well as pathogen-specific host responses will be discussed. This review will also summarize the contributions that transcriptional profiling analysis has made to our understanding of bacterial physio-pathogensis of infection. This will include a discussion of how host transcriptional responses can be used to infer the function of virulence determinants from bacterial pathogens interacting with epithelial mucosa. In particular, we will expand upon the lessons that have been learned from gastro-intestinal and oral pathogens, as well as from members of the commensal flora.

  18. Bayesian Safety Risk Modeling of Human-Flightdeck Automation Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ancel, Ersin; Shih, Ann T.

    2015-01-01

    Usage of automatic systems in airliners has increased fuel efficiency, added extra capabilities, enhanced safety and reliability, as well as provide improved passenger comfort since its introduction in the late 80's. However, original automation benefits, including reduced flight crew workload, human errors or training requirements, were not achieved as originally expected. Instead, automation introduced new failure modes, redistributed, and sometimes increased workload, brought in new cognitive and attention demands, and increased training requirements. Modern airliners have numerous flight modes, providing more flexibility (and inherently more complexity) to the flight crew. However, the price to pay for the increased flexibility is the need for increased mode awareness, as well as the need to supervise, understand, and predict automated system behavior. Also, over-reliance on automation is linked to manual flight skill degradation and complacency in commercial pilots. As a result, recent accidents involving human errors are often caused by the interactions between humans and the automated systems (e.g., the breakdown in man-machine coordination), deteriorated manual flying skills, and/or loss of situational awareness due to heavy dependence on automated systems. This paper describes the development of the increased complexity and reliance on automation baseline model, named FLAP for FLightdeck Automation Problems. The model development process starts with a comprehensive literature review followed by the construction of a framework comprised of high-level causal factors leading to an automation-related flight anomaly. The framework was then converted into a Bayesian Belief Network (BBN) using the Hugin Software v7.8. The effects of automation on flight crew are incorporated into the model, including flight skill degradation, increased cognitive demand and training requirements along with their interactions. Besides flight crew deficiencies, automation system

  19. Marine mammal harvests and other interactions with humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hovelsrud, Grete K; McKenna, Meghan; Huntington, Henry P

    2008-03-01

    The Arctic is currently undergoing rapid social and environmental changes, and while the peoples of the north have a long history of adapting, the current changes in climate pose unprecedented challenges to the marine mammal-human interactions in the Arctic regions. Arctic marine mammals have been and remain an important resource for many of the indigenous and nonindigenous people of the north. Changes in climate are likely to bring about profound changes to the environment in which these animals live and subsequently to the hunting practices and livelihoods of the people who hunt them. Climate change will lead to reduction in the sea ice extent and thickness and will likely increase shipping through the Northern Sea Route and the Northwest Passage and oil and gas activities in Arctic areas previously inaccessible. Such activities will lead to more frequent interactions between humans and marine mammals. These activities may also change the distribution of marine mammals, affecting the hunters. This paper has three parts. First, an overview of marine mammal harvesting activities in the different circumpolar regions provides a snapshot of current practices and conditions. Second, case studies of selected Arctic regions, indigenous groups, and species provide insight into the manner in which climate change is already impacting marine mammal harvesting activities in the Arctic. Third, we describe how climate change is likely to affect shipping and oil and gas exploration and production activities in the Arctic and describe the possible implications of these changes for the marine mammal populations. We conclude that many of the consequences of climate change are likely to be negative for marine mammal hunters and for marine mammals. Lack of adequate baseline data, however, makes it difficult to identify specific causal mechanisms and thus to develop appropriate conservation measures. Nonetheless, the future of Arctic marine mammals and human uses of them depends on

  20. A Guide for Developing Human-Robot Interaction Experiments in the Robotic Interactive Visualization and Experimentation Technology (RIVET) Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-01

    camera control for remote exploration. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2004 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems; 2004 Apr 24–29; Vienna...Austria. New York (NY): ACM ; c2004. p. 511–517. Kunkler K. The role of medical simulation: an overview. The International Journal of Medical Robotics and...Schreckenghost D. Survey of metrics for human-robot interaction. In: Proceedings of the 8th ACM /IEEE Human-Robot Interaction Conference; HRI 2013

  1. Mathematical model for hit phenomena as stochastic process of interactions of human interactions

    CERN Document Server

    Ishii, Akira; Matsuda, Naoya; Umemura, Sanae; Urushidani, Tamiko; Yamagata, Naoya; Yoshda, Narihiko

    2011-01-01

    Mathematical model for hit phenomena in entertainments in the society is presented as stochastic process of interactions of human dynamics. The model use only the time distribution of advertisement budget as input and the words of mouth (WOM) as posting in the social network system is used as the data to compare with the calculated results. The unit of time is daily. The WOM distribution in time is found to be very close to the residue distribution in time. The calculations for Japanese motion picture market due to the mathematical model agree very well with the actual residue distribution in time.

  2. Interactions between Human Norovirus Surrogates and Acanthamoeba spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsueh, Tun-Yun; Gibson, Kristen E

    2015-06-15

    Human noroviruses (HuNoVs) are the most common cause of food-borne disease outbreaks, as well as virus-related waterborne disease outbreaks in the United States. Here, we hypothesize that common free-living amoebae (FLA)-ubiquitous in the environment, known to interact with pathogens, and frequently isolated from water and fresh produce-could potentially act as reservoirs of HuNoV and facilitate the environmental transmission of HuNoVs. To investigate FLA as reservoirs for HuNoV, the interactions between two Acanthamoeba species, A. castellanii and A. polyphaga, as well as two HuNoV surrogates, murine norovirus type 1 (MNV-1) and feline calicivirus (FCV), were evaluated. The results showed that after 1 h of amoeba-virus incubation at 25°C, 490 and 337 PFU of MNV-1/ml were recovered from A. castellanii and A. polyphaga, respectively, while only few or no FCVs were detected. In addition, prolonged interaction of MNV-1 with amoebae was investigated for a period of 8 days, and MNV-1 was demonstrated to remain stable at around 200 PFU/ml from day 2 to day 8 after virus inoculation in A. castellanii. Moreover, after a complete amoeba life cycle (i.e., encystment and excystment), infectious viruses could still be detected. To determine the location of virus associated with amoebae, immunofluorescence experiments were performed and showed MNV-1 transitioning from the amoeba surface to inside the amoeba over a 24-h period. These results are significant to the understanding of how HuNoVs may interact with other microorganisms in the environment in order to aid in its persistence and survival, as well as potential transmission in water and to vulnerable food products such as fresh produce.

  3. Ghost-in-the-Machine reveals human social signals for human-robot interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loth, Sebastian; Jettka, Katharina; Giuliani, Manuel; de Ruiter, Jan P

    2015-01-01

    We used a new method called "Ghost-in-the-Machine" (GiM) to investigate social interactions with a robotic bartender taking orders for drinks and serving them. Using the GiM paradigm allowed us to identify how human participants recognize the intentions of customers on the basis of the output of the robotic recognizers. Specifically, we measured which recognizer modalities (e.g., speech, the distance to the bar) were relevant at different stages of the interaction. This provided insights into human social behavior necessary for the development of socially competent robots. When initiating the drink-order interaction, the most important recognizers were those based on computer vision. When drink orders were being placed, however, the most important information source was the speech recognition. Interestingly, the participants used only a subset of the available information, focussing only on a few relevant recognizers while ignoring others. This reduced the risk of acting on erroneous sensor data and enabled them to complete service interactions more swiftly than a robot using all available sensor data. We also investigated socially appropriate response strategies. In their responses, the participants preferred to use the same modality as the customer's requests, e.g., they tended to respond verbally to verbal requests. Also, they added redundancy to their responses, for instance by using echo questions. We argue that incorporating the social strategies discovered with the GiM paradigm in multimodal grammars of human-robot interactions improves the robustness and the ease-of-use of these interactions, and therefore provides a smoother user experience.

  4. Ghost-in-the-Machine Reveals Human Social Signals for Human-Robot Interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian eLoth

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available We used a new method called Ghost-in-the-Machine (GiM to investigate social interactions with a robotic bartender taking orders for drinks and serving them. Using the GiM paradigm allowed us to identify how human participants recognise the intentions of customers on the basis of the output of the robotic recognisers. Specifically, we measured which recogniser modalities (e.g., speech, the distance to the bar were relevant at different stages of the interaction. This provided insights into human social behaviour necessary for the development of socially competent robots. When initiating the drink-order interaction, the most important recognisers were those based on computer vision. When drink orders were being placed, however, the most important information source was the speech recognition. Interestingly, the participants used only a subset of the available information, focussing only on a few relevant recognisers while ignoring others. This reduced the risk of acting on erroneous sensor data and enabled them to complete service interactions more swiftly than a robot using all available sensor data. We also investigated socially appropriate response strategies. In their responses, the participants preferred to use the same modality as the customer’s requests, e.g., they tended to respond verbally to verbal requests. Also, they added redundancy to their responses, for instance by using echo questions. We argue that incorporating the social strategies discovered with the GiM paradigm in multimodal grammars of human-robot interactions improves the robustness and the ease-of-use of these interactions, and therefore provides a smoother user experience.

  5. Metaphors for the Nature of Human-Computer Interaction in an Empowering Environment: Interaction Style Influences the Manner of Human Accomplishment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weller, Herman G.; Hartson, H. Rex

    1992-01-01

    Describes human-computer interface needs for empowering environments in computer usage in which the machine handles the routine mechanics of problem solving while the user concentrates on its higher order meanings. A closed-loop model of interaction is described, interface as illusion is discussed, and metaphors for human-computer interaction are…

  6. Characterization of Yersinia pestis Interactions with Human Neutrophils In vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophia C. Dudte

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Yersinia pestis is a gram-negative, zoonotic, bacterial pathogen, and the causative agent of plague. The bubonic form of plague occurs subsequent to deposition of bacteria in the skin by the bite of an infected flea. Neutrophils are recruited to the site of infection within the first few hours and interactions between neutrophils and Y. pestis have been demonstrated in vivo. In contrast to macrophages, neutrophils have been considered non-permissive to Y. pestis intracellular survival. Several studies have shown killing of the vast majority of Y. pestis ingested by human neutrophils. However, survival of 10–15% of Y. pestis after phagocytosis by neutrophils is consistently observed. Furthermore, these surviving bacteria eventually replicate within and escape from the neutrophils. We set out to further characterize the interactions between Y. pestis and human neutrophils by (1 determining the effects of known Y. pestis virulence factors on bacterial survival after uptake by neutrophils, (2 examining the mechanisms employed by the neutrophil to kill the majority of intracellular Y. pestis, (3 determining the activation phenotype of Y. pestis-infected neutrophils, and (4 characterizing the Y. pestis-containing phagosome in neutrophils. We infected human neutrophils in vitro with Y. pestis and assayed bacterial survival and uptake. Deletion of the caf1 gene responsible for F1 capsule production resulted in significantly increased uptake of Y. pestis. Surprisingly, while the two-component regulator PhoPQ system is important for survival of Y. pestis within neutrophils, pre-induction of this system prior to infection did not increase bacterial survival. We used an IPTG-inducible mCherry construct to distinguish viable from non-viable intracellular bacteria and determined the association of the Y. pestis-containing phagosome with neutrophil NADPH-oxidase and markers of primary, secondary and tertiary granules. Additionally, we show that inhibition of

  7. Alternation-Trading Proofs, Linear Programming, and Lower Bounds

    CERN Document Server

    Williams, Ryan

    2010-01-01

    A fertile area of recent research has demonstrated concrete polynomial time lower bounds for solving natural hard problems on restricted computational models. Among these problems are Satisfiability, Vertex Cover, Hamilton Path, Mod6-SAT, Majority-of-Majority-SAT, and Tautologies, to name a few. The proofs of these lower bounds follow a certain proof-by-contradiction strategy that we call alternation-trading. An important open problem is to determine how powerful such proofs can possibly be. We propose a methodology for studying these proofs that makes them amenable to both formal analysis and automated theorem proving. We prove that the search for better lower bounds can often be turned into a problem of solving a large series of linear programming instances. Implementing a small-scale theorem prover based on this result, we extract new human-readable time lower bounds for several problems. This framework can also be used to prove concrete limitations on the current techniques.

  8. A digital interactive human brain atlas based on Chinese visible human datasets for anatomy teaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qiyu; Ran, Xu; Zhang, Shaoxiang; Tan, Liwen; Qiu, Mingguo

    2014-01-01

    As we know, the human brain is one of the most complicated organs in the human body, which is the key and difficult point in neuroanatomy and sectional anatomy teaching. With the rapid development and extensive application of imaging technology in clinical diagnosis, doctors are facing higher and higher requirement on their anatomy knowledge. Thus, to cultivate medical students to meet the needs of medical development today and to improve their ability to read and understand radiographic images have become urgent challenges for the medical teachers. In this context, we developed a digital interactive human brain atlas based on the Chinese visible human datasets for anatomy teaching (available for free download from http://www.chinesevisiblehuman.com/down/DHBA.rar). The atlas simultaneously provides views in all 3 primary planes of section. The main structures of the human brain have been anatomically labeled in all 3 views. It is potentially useful for anatomy browsing, user self-testing, and automatic student assessment. In a word, it is interactive, 3D, user friendly, and free of charge, which can provide a new, intuitive means for anatomy teaching.

  9. INTESTINAL VIROME AND NORMAL MICROFLORA OF HUMAN: FEATURES OF INTERACTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bobyr V.V.

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Intestinal bacteria defend the host organism and narrow pathogenic bacterial colonization. However, the microbiome effect to enteric viruses is unexplored largely as well as role of microbiota in the pathogenesis of viral infections in general. This review focuses on precisely these issues. Keywords: microbiome, virome, normal microflora, enteric viruses, contagiousness. In this review article, facts about viral persistence in the human gut are summarized. It is described the role of viral populations during health and diseases. After analyzing of the literary facts it was concluded that the gastrointestinal tract is an environment for one from the most complex microbial ecosystems, which requires of more deeper study of its composition, role in physiological processes, as well as the dynamics of changes under influence of the environment. Normal microflora performs a different important functions providing the physiological homeostasis of the human body, including, in particular, an important role in the human metabolic processes, supporting of homeostasis, limiting of colonization by infectious bacteria. The multifactorial significance of the normal gastrointestinal microflora can be divided into immunological, structural and metabolic functions. At the same time, interaction between intestinal microflora and enteric viruses has not been studied largely. In recent years, much attention is paid to study of viruses-bacteria associations, and it is possible, obtained results should change our understanding of microbiota role in the systematic pathogenesis of the diseases with viral etiology. In contrast to the well-known benefits of normal microflora to the host, the viruses can use intestinal microflora as a trigger for replication at the optimal region. Recent studies give a reason for assumption that depletion of normal microflora with antibiotics can determining the antiviral effect. Thus, the role of commensal bacteria in viral

  10. Using "human state aware" robots to enhance physical human-robot interaction in a cooperative scenario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrero, Carlos Rodriguez; Fraile Marinero, Juan Carlos; Turiel, Javier Perez; Muñoz, Victor

    2013-11-01

    Human motor performance, speed and variability are highly susceptible to emotional states. This paper reviews the impact of the emotions on the motor control performance, and studies the possibility of improving the perceived skill/challenge relation on a multimodal neural rehabilitation scenario, by means of a biocybernetic controller that modulates the assistance provided by a haptic controlled robot in reaction to undesirable physical and mental states. Results from psychophysiological, performance and self assessment data for closed loop experiments in contrast with their open loop counterparts, suggest that the proposed method had a positive impact on the overall challenge/skill relation leading to an enhanced physical human-robot interaction experience.

  11. Optoelectronic investigation of nanodiamond interactions with human blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ficek, M.; Wróbel, M. S.; Wasowicz, M.; Jedrzejewska-Szczerska, M.

    2016-03-01

    We present optoelectronic investigation of in vitro interactions of whole human blood with different nanodiamond biomarkers. Plasmo-chemical modifications of detonation nanodiamond particles gives the possibility for controlling their surface for biological applications. Optical investigations reveal the biological activity of nanodiamonds in blood dependent on its surface termination. We compare different types of nanodiamonds: commercial non-modified detonation nanodiamonds, and nanodiamonds modified by MW PACVD method with H2-termination, and chemically modified nanodiamond with O2-termination. The absorption spectra, and optical microscope investigations were conducted. The results indicate haemocompatibility of non-modified detonation nanodiamond as well as modified nanodiamonds, which enables their application for drug delivery, as well as sensing applications.

  12. Interaction of aloe-emodin with human serum albumin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DU JinFeng; LI Ying; ZHANG Qi; YAO XiaoJun

    2007-01-01

    The presence of several high affinity binding sites on human serum albumin (HAS) makes it a possible target for many drugs. This study is designed to examine the effect of aloe-emodin on HAS by fluorescence, CD spectroscopy and molecular modeling. The results of fluorescence measurements suggested that the hydrophobic interaction was the predominant intermolecular force stabilizing the AE-HAS complex, which was in good agreement with the result of molecular modeling study. And the enthalpy change ΔH0 and the entropy change ΔS0 were calculated to be -7.041 kJ·mol-1 and 76.619 J·mol-1·K-1 according to the Van't Hoff equation. The alterations of protein secondary structure in the presence of AE in aqueous solution were quantitatively calculated from CD spectra, and the content of α-helices obviously increased.

  13. Interactive 3D computer model of the human corneolimbal region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Molvaer, Rikke Kongshaug; Andreasen, Arne; Heegaard, Steffen;

    2013-01-01

    in the superior limbal region and one LEC, six LCs and 12 FSPs in the inferior limbal region. Only few LECs, LCs and FSPs were localized nasally and temporally. CONCLUSION: Interactive 3D models are a powerful tool that may help to shed more light on the existence and spatial localization of the different stem......PURPOSE: This study aims to clarify the existence of and to map the localization of different proposed stem cell niches in the corneal limbal region. MATERIALS AND METHODS: One human eye was cut into 2200 consecutive sections. Every other section was stained with haematoxylin and eosin, digitized...... in the limbal region: limbal epithelial crypts (LECs), limbal crypts (LCs) and focal stromal projections (FSPs). In all, eight LECs, 25 LCs and 105 FSPs were identified in the limbal region. The LECs, LCs and FSPs were predominantly located in the superior limbal region with seven LECs, 19 LCs and 93 FSPs...

  14. Human-computer interaction: psychology as a science of design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, J M

    1997-01-01

    Human-computer interaction (HCI) study is the region of intersection between psychology and the social sciences, on the one hand, and computer science and technology, on the other. HCI researchers analyze and design specific user interface technologies (e.g. pointing devices). They study and improve the processes of technology development (e.g. task analysis, design rationale). They develop and evaluate new applications of technology (e.g. word processors, digital libraries). Throughout the past two decades, HCI has progressively integrated its scientific concerns with the engineering goal of improving the usability of computer systems and applications, which has resulted in a body of technical knowledge and methodology. HCI continues to provide a challenging test domain for applying and developing psychological and social theory in the context of technology development and use.

  15. Secondary School Mathematics Teachers' Conceptions of Proof.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knuth, Eric J.

    2002-01-01

    Examines in-service secondary school mathematics teachers' conceptions of proof. Suggests that teachers recognize the variety of roles that proof plays in mathematics. Noticeably absent, however, was a view of proof as a tool for learning mathematics. Many of the teachers held limited views of the nature of proof in mathematics and demonstrated…

  16. Discrete mathematics proofs, structures and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Garnier, Rowan

    2009-01-01

    Logic Propositions and Truth Values Logical Connectives and Truth Tables Tautologies and Contradictions Logical Equivalence and Logical Implication The Algebra of Propositions Arguments Formal Proof of the Validity of Arguments Predicate Logic Arguments in Predicate Logic Mathematical Proof The Nature of Proof Axioms and Axiom Systems Methods of Proof Mathematical Induction Sets Sets and MembershipSubsets<

  17. A multimodal emotion detection system during human-robot interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso-Martín, Fernando; Malfaz, María; Sequeira, João; Gorostiza, Javier F; Salichs, Miguel A

    2013-11-14

    In this paper, a multimodal user-emotion detection system for social robots is presented. This system is intended to be used during human-robot interaction, and it is integrated as part of the overall interaction system of the robot: the Robotics Dialog System (RDS). Two modes are used to detect emotions: the voice and face expression analysis. In order to analyze the voice of the user, a new component has been developed: Gender and Emotion Voice Analysis (GEVA), which is written using the Chuck language. For emotion detection in facial expressions, the system, Gender and Emotion Facial Analysis (GEFA), has been also developed. This last system integrates two third-party solutions: Sophisticated High-speed Object Recognition Engine (SHORE) and Computer Expression Recognition Toolbox (CERT). Once these new components (GEVA and GEFA) give their results, a decision rule is applied in order to combine the information given by both of them. The result of this rule, the detected emotion, is integrated into the dialog system through communicative acts. Hence, each communicative act gives, among other things, the detected emotion of the user to the RDS so it can adapt its strategy in order to get a greater satisfaction degree during the human-robot dialog. Each of the new components, GEVA and GEFA, can also be used individually. Moreover, they are integrated with the robotic control platform ROS (Robot Operating System). Several experiments with real users were performed to determine the accuracy of each component and to set the final decision rule. The results obtained from applying this decision rule in these experiments show a high success rate in automatic user emotion recognition, improving the results given by the two information channels (audio and visual) separately.

  18. Synergistic bactericidal interaction of josamycin with human neutrophils in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labro, M T; el Benna, J

    1990-10-01

    Josamycin and erythromycin have been compared for their in-vitro interaction with bactericidal killing by human neutrophils. The mechanism of this interaction was studied in two ways. First, the target organisms (Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) were incubated for 60 min with josamycin, erythromycin or control buffer prior to use in a human polymorphonuclear neutrophil (PMN) killing assay. Second the macrolides were added directly to acellular killing systems mimicking those acting inside the phagolysosome; oxygen-independent systems were obtained from a crude granule extract of PMN and oxygen-dependent systems consisted either of a mixture of xanthine plus xanthine oxidase or of a solution of H2O2. Whereas josamycin-pretreated P. aeruginosa were twice as sensitive to killing by PMN than were control cells, this was not the case for S. aureus. Both oxidant generating systems were more effective in destroying S. aureus in the presence of josamycin (3 and 30 mg/l). Erythromycin showed a similar synergy but only with the xanthine plus xanthine oxidase system. This synergy was observed with neither of the O2-independent systems for S. aureus, nor with any acellular system for P. aeruginosa. These data suggest that at least two kinds of mechanism may explain the bactericidal synergy observed between macrolides and PMN. The first (for macrolide-resistant species such as P. aeruginosa) could be due to alterations in the bacteria by the antibiotics, while the second (for macrolide-sensitive species such as S. aureus) could be based upon an as yet unexplained transformation of the molecules by reactive oxygen species into more "toxic" forms. These differences between josamycin and erythromycin could arise from differences in their chemical structure.

  19. Proof of concept studies exploring the safety and functional activity of human parthenogenetic-derived neural stem cells for the treatment of Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Rodolfo; Garitaonandia, Ibon; Crain, Andrew; Poustovoitov, Maxim; Abramihina, Tatiana; Noskov, Alexander; Jiang, Chuan; Morey, Robert; Laurent, Louise C; Elsworth, John D; Snyder, Evan Y; Redmond, D Eugene; Semechkin, Ruslan

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies indicate that human pluripotent stem cell (PSC)-based therapies hold great promise in Parkinson's disease (PD). Clinical studies have shown that grafted fetal neural tissue can achieve considerable biochemical and clinical improvements in PD. However, the source of fetal tissue grafts is limited and ethically controversial. Human parthenogenetic stem cells offer a good alternative because they are derived from unfertilized oocytes without destroying viable human embryos and can be used to generate an unlimited supply of neural stem cells for transplantation. Here we evaluate for the first time the safety and engraftment of human parthenogenetic stem cell-derived neural stem cells (hpNSCs) in two animal models: 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)-lesioned rodents and 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-treated nonhuman primates (NHPs). In both rodents and nonhuman primates, we observed successful engraftment and higher dopamine levels in hpNSC-transplanted animals compared to vehicle control animals, without any adverse events. These results indicate that hpNSCs are safe, well tolerated, and could potentially be a source for cell-based therapies in PD.

  20. A review of over three decades of research on cat-human and human-cat interactions and relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Dennis C

    2017-01-22

    This review article covers research conducted over the last three decades on cat-human and human-cat interactions and relationships, especially from an ethological point of view. It includes findings on cat-cat and cat-human communication, cat personalities and cat-owner personalities, the effects of cats on humans, and problems caused by cats.

  1. INTERACT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jochum, Elizabeth; Borggreen, Gunhild; Murphey, TD

    This paper considers the impact of visual art and performance on robotics and human-computer interaction and outlines a research project that combines puppetry and live performance with robotics. Kinesics—communication through movement—is the foundation of many theatre and performance traditions...... interaction between a human operator and an artificial actor or agent. We can apply insights from puppetry to develop culturally-aware robots. Here we describe the development of a robotic marionette theatre wherein robotic controllers assume the role of human puppeteers. The system has been built, tested...

  2. Human immunodeficiencies related to APC/T cell interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marinos eKallikourdis

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The primary event for initiating adaptive immune responses is the encounter between T lymphocytes and antigen presenting cells (APC in the T cell area of secondary lymphoid organs and the formation of highly organized inter-cellular junctions referred to as the immune synapses. In vivo live-cell imaging of APC-T cell interactions combined to functional studies unveiled that T cell fate is dictated, in large part, by the stability of the initial contact. Immune cell interaction is equally important during delivery of T cell help to B cells and for the killing of target cells by cytotoxic T cells and NK cells. The critical role of contact dynamics and synapse stability on the immune response is well illustrated by human immune deficiencies in which disease pathogenesis is linked to altered adhesion or defective cross-talk between the synaptic partners. Here we will discuss in details the mechanisms of defective APC-T cell communications in Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome (WAS and in warts, hypogammaglobulinemia, infections, myelokathexis syndrome (WHIM. In addition, we will summarize the evidences pointing to a compromised conjugate formation in WIP deficiency, DOCK8 deficiency and X-linked lymphoproliferative syndrome.

  3. Wearable joystick for gloves-on human/computer interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Jaewook; Voyles, Richard M.

    2006-05-01

    In this paper, we present preliminary work on a novel wearable joystick for gloves-on human/computer interaction in hazardous environments. Interacting with traditional input devices can be clumsy and inconvenient for the operator in hazardous environments due to the bulkiness of multiple system components and troublesome wires. During a collapsed structure search, for example, protective clothing, uneven footing, and "snag" points in the environment can render traditional input devices impractical. Wearable computing has been studied by various researchers to increase the portability of devices and to improve the proprioceptive sense of the wearer's intentions. Specifically, glove-like input devices to recognize hand gestures have been developed for general-purpose applications. But, regardless of their performance, prior gloves have been fragile and cumbersome to use in rough environments. In this paper, we present a new wearable joystick to remove the wires from a simple, two-degree of freedom glove interface. Thus, we develop a wearable joystick that is low cost, durable and robust, and wire-free at the glove. In order to evaluate the wearable joystick, we take into consideration two metrics during operator tests of a commercial robot: task completion time and path tortuosity. We employ fractal analysis to measure path tortuosity. Preliminary user test results are presented that compare the performance of both a wearable joystick and a traditional joystick.

  4. Interactions between personality and institutions in cooperative behaviour in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, K B; Nettle, D; McElreath, R

    2015-12-05

    Laboratory attempts to identify relationships between personality and cooperative behaviour in humans have generated inconsistent results. This may partially stem from different practices in psychology and economics laboratories, with both hypothetical players and incentives typical only in the former. Another possible cause is insufficient consideration of the contexts within which social dilemmas occur. Real social dilemmas are often governed by institutions that change the payoff structure via rewards and punishments. However, such 'strong situations' will not necessarily suppress the effects of personality. On the contrary, they may affect some personalities differentially. Extraversion and neuroticism, reflecting variation in reward and punishment sensitivity, should predict modification of cooperative behaviour following changes to the payoff structure. We investigate interactions between personality and a punishment situation via two versions of a public goods game. We find that, even in a strong situation, personality matters and, moreover, it is related to strategic shifts in cooperation. Extraversion is associated with a shift from free-riding to cooperation in the presence of punishment, agreeableness is associated with initially higher contributions regardless of game, and, contrary to our predictions, neuroticism is associated with lower contributions regardless of game. Results should lead to new hypotheses that relate variation in biological functioning to individual differences in cooperative behaviour and that consider three-way interactions among personality, institutional context and sociocultural background.

  5. Advanced human machine interaction for an image interpretation workstation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maier, S.; Martin, M.; van de Camp, F.; Peinsipp-Byma, E.; Beyerer, J.

    2016-05-01

    In recent years, many new interaction technologies have been developed that enhance the usability of computer systems and allow for novel types of interaction. The areas of application for these technologies have mostly been in gaming and entertainment. However, in professional environments, there are especially demanding tasks that would greatly benefit from improved human machine interfaces as well as an overall improved user experience. We, therefore, envisioned and built an image-interpretation-workstation of the future, a multi-monitor workplace comprised of four screens. Each screen is dedicated to a complex software product such as a geo-information system to provide geographic context, an image annotation tool, software to generate standardized reports and a tool to aid in the identification of objects. Using self-developed systems for hand tracking, pointing gestures and head pose estimation in addition to touchscreens, face identification, and speech recognition systems we created a novel approach to this complex task. For example, head pose information is used to save the position of the mouse cursor on the currently focused screen and to restore it as soon as the same screen is focused again while hand gestures allow for intuitive manipulation of 3d objects in mid-air. While the primary focus is on the task of image interpretation, all of the technologies involved provide generic ways of efficiently interacting with a multi-screen setup and could be utilized in other fields as well. In preliminary experiments, we received promising feedback from users in the military and started to tailor the functionality to their needs

  6. Agent Based Modeling of Human Gut Microbiome Interactions and Perturbations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Shashkova

    Full Text Available Intestinal microbiota plays an important role in the human health. It is involved in the digestion and protects the host against external pathogens. Examination of the intestinal microbiome interactions is required for understanding of the community influence on host health. Studies of the microbiome can provide insight on methods of improving health, including specific clinical procedures for individual microbial community composition modification and microbiota correction by colonizing with new bacterial species or dietary changes.In this work we report an agent-based model of interactions between two bacterial species and between species and the gut. The model is based on reactions describing bacterial fermentation of polysaccharides to acetate and propionate and fermentation of acetate to butyrate. Antibiotic treatment was chosen as disturbance factor and used to investigate stability of the system. System recovery after antibiotic treatment was analyzed as dependence on quantity of feedback interactions inside the community, therapy duration and amount of antibiotics. Bacterial species are known to mutate and acquire resistance to the antibiotics. The ability to mutate was considered to be a stochastic process, under this suggestion ratio of sensitive to resistant bacteria was calculated during antibiotic therapy and recovery.The model confirms a hypothesis of feedbacks mechanisms necessity for providing functionality and stability of the system after disturbance. High fraction of bacterial community was shown to mutate during antibiotic treatment, though sensitive strains could become dominating after recovery. The recovery of sensitive strains is explained by fitness cost of the resistance. The model demonstrates not only quantitative dynamics of bacterial species, but also gives an ability to observe the emergent spatial structure and its alteration, depending on various feedback mechanisms. Visual version of the model shows that spatial

  7. Time scale interactions and the coevolution of humans and water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivapalan, Murugesu; Blöschl, Günter

    2015-09-01

    We present a coevolutionary view of hydrologic systems, revolving around feedbacks between environmental and social processes operating across different time scales. This brings to the fore an emphasis on emergent phenomena in changing water systems, such as the levee effect, adaptation to change, system lock-in, and system collapse due to resource depletion. Changing human values play a key role in the emergence of these phenomena and should therefore be considered as internal to the system. Guidance is provided for the framing and modeling of these phenomena to test alternative hypotheses about how they arose. A plurality of coevolutionary models, from stylized to comprehensive system-of-system models, may assist strategic water management for long time scales through facilitating stakeholder participation, exploring the possibility space of alternative futures, and helping to synthesize the observed dynamics in a wide range of case studies. Future research opportunities lie in exploring emergent phenomena arising from time scale interactions through historical, comparative, and process studies of human-water feedbacks.

  8. Interacting Effects of TSH and Insulin on Human Differentiated Adipocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felske, D; Gagnon, A; Sorisky, A

    2015-08-01

    Subclinical hypothyroidism, characterized by an isolated rise in TSH serum levels with normal thyroid function, is a pro-inflammatory state associated with insulin resistance. Adipocytes express TSH receptors, but it is not known if TSH can directly inhibit insulin signaling. Using primary human differentiated adipocytes, we examined the effects of TSH on insulin-stimulated Akt phosphorylation, and whether conventional PKC (cPKC) were involved. The effect of insulin on TSH-stimulated lipolysis was also investigated. TSH inhibited insulin-stimulated Akt phosphorylation in adipocytes by 54%. TSH activated cPKC, and Gö6976, a PKCα and -β1 inhibitor, prevented the inhibitory effect of TSH on the insulin response. Insulin reduced the ability of TSH to activate cPKC and to stimulate lipolysis.Our data reveal novel interactions between TSH and insulin. TSH inhibits insulin-stimulated Akt signaling in a cPKC-dependent fashion, whereas insulin blocks TSH-stimulated cPKC activity and lipolysis. TSH and insulin act on differentiated human adipocytes to modulate their respective intracellular signals. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  9. Mobile app for human-interaction with sitter robots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Sumit Kumar; Sahu, Ankita; Popa, Dan O.

    2017-05-01

    Human environments are often unstructured and unpredictable, thus making the autonomous operation of robots in such environments is very difficult. Despite many remaining challenges in perception, learning, and manipulation, more and more studies involving assistive robots have been carried out in recent years. In hospital environments, and in particular in patient rooms, there are well-established practices with respect to the type of furniture, patient services, and schedule of interventions. As a result, adding a robot into semi-structured hospital environments is an easier problem to tackle, with results that could have positive benefits to the quality of patient care and the help that robots can offer to nursing staff. When working in a healthcare facility, robots need to interact with patients and nurses through Human-Machine Interfaces (HMIs) that are intuitive to use, they should maintain awareness of surroundings, and offer safety guarantees for humans. While fully autonomous operation for robots is not yet technically feasible, direct teleoperation control of the robot would also be extremely cumbersome, as it requires expert user skills, and levels of concentration not available to many patients. Therefore, in our current study we present a traded control scheme, in which the robot and human both perform expert tasks. The human-robot communication and control scheme is realized through a mobile tablet app that can be customized for robot sitters in hospital environments. The role of the mobile app is to augment the verbal commands given to a robot through natural speech, camera and other native interfaces, while providing failure mode recovery options for users. Our app can access video feed and sensor data from robots, assist the user with decision making during pick and place operations, monitor the user health over time, and provides conversational dialogue during sitting sessions. In this paper, we present the software and hardware framework that

  10. Intramyocardial transplantation and tracking of human mesenchymal stem cells in a novel intra-uterine pre-immune fetal sheep myocardial infarction model: a proof of concept study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmert, Maximilian Y; Weber, Benedikt; Wolint, Petra; Frauenfelder, Thomas; Zeisberger, Steffen M; Behr, Luc; Sammut, Sebastien; Scherman, Jacques; Brokopp, Chad E; Schwartländer, Ruth; Vogel, Viola; Vogt, Peter; Grünenfelder, Jürg; Alkadhi, Hatem; Falk, Volkmar; Boss, Andreas; Hoerstrup, Simon P

    2013-01-01

    Although stem-cell therapies have been suggested for cardiac-regeneration after myocardial-infarction (MI), key-questions regarding the in-vivo cell-fate remain unknown. While most available animal-models require immunosuppressive-therapy when applying human cells, the fetal-sheep being pre-immune until day 75 of gestation has been proposed for the in-vivo tracking of human cells after intra-peritoneal transplantation. We introduce a novel intra-uterine myocardial-infarction model to track human mesenchymal stem cells after direct intra-myocardial transplantation into the pre-immune fetal-sheep. Thirteen fetal-sheep (gestation age: 70-75 days) were included. Ten animals either received an intra-uterine induction of MI only (n = 4) or MI+intra-myocardial injection (IMI;n = 6) using micron-sized, iron-oxide (MPIO) labeled human mesenchymal stem cells either derived from the adipose-tissue (ATMSCs;n = 3) or the bone-marrow (BMMSCs;n = 3). Three animals received an intra-peritoneal injection (IPI;n = 3; ATMSCs;n = 2/BMMSCs;n = 1). All procedures were performed successfully and follow-up was 7-9 days. To assess human cell-fate, multimodal cell-tracking was performed via MRI and/or Micro-CT, Flow-Cytometry, PCR and immunohistochemistry. After IMI, MRI displayed an estimated amount of 1×10(5)-5×10(5) human cells within ventricular-wall corresponding to the injection-sites which was further confirmed on Micro-CT. PCR and IHC verified intra-myocardial presence via detection of human-specific β-2-microglobulin, MHC-1, ALU-Sequence and anti-FITC targeting the fluorochrome-labeled part of the MPIOs. The cells appeared viable, integrated and were found in clusters or in the interstitial-spaces. Flow-Cytometry confirmed intra-myocardial presence, and showed further distribution within the spleen, lungs, kidneys and brain. Following IPI, MRI indicated the cells within the intra-peritoneal-cavity involving the liver and kidneys. Flow

  11. Intramyocardial transplantation and tracking of human mesenchymal stem cells in a novel intra-uterine pre-immune fetal sheep myocardial infarction model: a proof of concept study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maximilian Y Emmert

    Full Text Available Although stem-cell therapies have been suggested for cardiac-regeneration after myocardial-infarction (MI, key-questions regarding the in-vivo cell-fate remain unknown. While most available animal-models require immunosuppressive-therapy when applying human cells, the fetal-sheep being pre-immune until day 75 of gestation has been proposed for the in-vivo tracking of human cells after intra-peritoneal transplantation. We introduce a novel intra-uterine myocardial-infarction model to track human mesenchymal stem cells after direct intra-myocardial transplantation into the pre-immune fetal-sheep. Thirteen fetal-sheep (gestation age: 70-75 days were included. Ten animals either received an intra-uterine induction of MI only (n = 4 or MI+intra-myocardial injection (IMI;n = 6 using micron-sized, iron-oxide (MPIO labeled human mesenchymal stem cells either derived from the adipose-tissue (ATMSCs;n = 3 or the bone-marrow (BMMSCs;n = 3. Three animals received an intra-peritoneal injection (IPI;n = 3; ATMSCs;n = 2/BMMSCs;n = 1. All procedures were performed successfully and follow-up was 7-9 days. To assess human cell-fate, multimodal cell-tracking was performed via MRI and/or Micro-CT, Flow-Cytometry, PCR and immunohistochemistry. After IMI, MRI displayed an estimated amount of 1×10(5-5×10(5 human cells within ventricular-wall corresponding to the injection-sites which was further confirmed on Micro-CT. PCR and IHC verified intra-myocardial presence via detection of human-specific β-2-microglobulin, MHC-1, ALU-Sequence and anti-FITC targeting the fluorochrome-labeled part of the MPIOs. The cells appeared viable, integrated and were found in clusters or in the interstitial-spaces. Flow-Cytometry confirmed intra-myocardial presence, and showed further distribution within the spleen, lungs, kidneys and brain. Following IPI, MRI indicated the cells within the intra-peritoneal-cavity involving the liver and kidneys. Flow

  12. Computer Aided Design in Digital Human Modeling for Human Computer Interaction in Ergonomic Assessment: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suman Mukhopadhyay , Sanjib Kumar Das and Tania Chakraborty

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Research in Human-Computer Interaction (HCI hasbeen enormously successful in the area of computeraidedergonomics or human-centric designs. Perfectfit for people has always been a target for productdesign. Designers traditionally used anthropometricdimensions for 3D product design which created a lotof fitting problems when dealing with thecomplexities of the human body shapes. Computeraided design (CAD, also known as Computer aideddesign and drafting (CADD is the computertechnology used for the design processing and designdocumentation. CAD has now been used extensivelyin many applications such as automotive,shipbuilding, aerospace industries, architectural andindustrial designs, prosthetics, computer animationfor special effects in movies, advertising andtechnical manuals. As a technology, digital humanmodeling (DHM has rapidly emerged as atechnology that creates, manipulates and controlhuman representations and human-machine systemsscenes on computers for interactive ergonomic designproblem solving. DHM promises to profoundlychange how products or systems are designed, howergonomics analysis is performed, how disorders andimpairments are assessed and how therapies andsurgeries are conducted. The imperative andemerging need for the DHM appears to be consistentwith the fact that the past decade has witnessedsignificant growth in both the software systemsoffering DHM capabilities as well as the corporateadapting the technology.The authors shall dwell atlength and deliberate on how research in DHM hasfinally brought about an enhanced HCI, in thecontext of computer-aided ergonomics or humancentricdesign and discuss about future trends in thiscontext.

  13. In our own image? Emotional and neural processing differences when observing human-human vs human-robot interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yin; Quadflieg, Susanne

    2015-11-01

    Notwithstanding the significant role that human-robot interactions (HRI) will play in the near future, limited research has explored the neural correlates of feeling eerie in response to social robots. To address this empirical lacuna, the current investigation examined brain activity using functional magnetic resonance imaging while a group of participants (n = 26) viewed a series of human-human interactions (HHI) and HRI. Although brain sites constituting the mentalizing network were found to respond to both types of interactions, systematic neural variation across sites signaled diverging social-cognitive strategies during HHI and HRI processing. Specifically, HHI elicited increased activity in the left temporal-parietal junction indicative of situation-specific mental state attributions, whereas HRI recruited the precuneus and the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (VMPFC) suggestive of script-based social reasoning. Activity in the VMPFC also tracked feelings of eeriness towards HRI in a parametric manner, revealing a potential neural correlate for a phenomenon known as the uncanny valley. By demonstrating how understanding social interactions depends on the kind of agents involved, this study highlights pivotal sub-routes of impression formation and identifies prominent challenges in the use of humanoid robots. © The Author (2015). Published by Oxford University Press.

  14. Simplest proof of Bell's inequality

    CERN Document Server

    Maccone, Lorenzo

    2013-01-01

    Bell's theorem is a fundamental result in quantum mechanics: it discriminates between quantum mechanics and all theories where probabilities in measurement results arise from the ignorance of pre-existing local properties. We give an extremely simple proof of Bell's inequality: a single figure suffices. This simplicity may be useful in the unending debate of what exactly the Bell inequality means, since the hypothesis at the basis of the proof become extremely transparent. It is also a useful didactic tool, as the Bell inequality can be explained in a single intuitive lecture.

  15. Aspects of elephant behavior, ecology, and interactions with humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connell, Caitlin Elizabeth

    This dissertation is comprised of two chapters relating to the acoustic behavior of elephants, their surrounding ecology and interactions with humans. The first chapter investigates the seismic aspects of Asian elephant (Elephus maximus) acoustic communication. The second chapter is comprised of a synthesis of two separate studies conducted on the African elephant (Loxodonta africana) in Namibia, both in Etosha National Park and the Caprivi region. The two studies were combined and published in Biological Conservation as one large study on aspects of the economic and social impacts of elephant/human conflict and experiments conducted to reduce conflict. In chapter one, seismic and acoustic data were recorded simultaneously from Asian elephants during periods of vocalizations and locomotion. Acoustic and seismic signals from rumbles were highly correlated at near and far distances and were in phase near the elephant and were out of phase at an increased distance from the elephant. Data analyses indicated that elephant generated signals associated with rumbles and "foot stomps" propagated at different velocities in the two media, the acoustic signals traveling at 309 m/s and the seismic signals at 248--264 m/s. Both types of signals had predominant frequencies in the range of 20 Hz. Seismic signal amplitudes considerably above background noise were recorded at 40 m from the generating elephants for both the rumble and the stomp. Seismic propagation models suggest that seismic waveforms from vocalizations are potentially detectable by instruments at distances of up to 16 km, and up to 32 km for locomotion generated signals. Thus, if detectable by elephants, these seismic signals could be useful for long distance communication. In chapter two, the economic impact of elephants, Loxodonta africana , and predators, particularly lions, Panthera leo, on rural agriculturists in the Kwando region of the East Caprivi, Namibia was assessed from the years 1991 to 1995. Elephants

  16. Human Computer Interaction Approach in Developing Customer Relationship Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd H.N.M. Nasir

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Many published studies have found that more than 50% of Customer Relationship Management (CRM system implementations have failed due to the failure of system usability and does not fulfilled user expectation. This study presented the issues that contributed to the failures of CRM system and proposed a prototype of CRM system developed using Human Computer Interaction approaches in order to resolve the identified issues. Approach: In order to capture the users' requirements, a single in-depth case study of a multinational company was chosen in this research, in which the background, current conditions and environmental interactions were observed, recorded and analyzed for stages of patterns in relation to internal and external influences. Some techniques of blended data gathering which are interviews, naturalistic observation and studying user documentation were employed and then the prototype of CRM system was developed which incorporated User-Centered Design (UCD approach, Hierarchical Task Analysis (HTA, metaphor and identification of users' behaviors and characteristics. The implementation of these techniques, were then measured in terms of usability. Results: Based on the usability testing conducted, the results showed that most of the users agreed that the system is comfortable to work with by taking the quality attributes of learnability, memorizeablity, utility, sortability, font, visualization, user metaphor, information easy view and color as measurement parameters. Conclusions/Recommendations: By combining all these techniques, a comfort level for the users that leads to user satisfaction and higher usability degree can be achieved in a proposed CRM system. Thus, it is important that the companies should put usability quality attribute into a consideration before developing or procuring CRM system to ensure the implementation successfulness of the CRM system.

  17. The severity of Osteogenesis imperfecta and type I collagen pattern in human skin as determined by nonlinear microscopy: proof of principle of a diagnostic method.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Adur

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The confirmatory diagnosis of Osteogenesis Imperfecta (OI requires invasive, commonly bone biopsy, time consuming and destructive methods. This paper proposes an alternative method using a combination of two-photon excitation fluorescence (TPEF and second-harmonic generation (SHG microscopies from easily obtained human skin biopsies. We show that this method can distinguish subtypes of human OI. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Different aspects of collagen microstructure of skin fresh biopsies and standard H&E-stained sections of normal and OI patients (mild and severe forms were distinguished by TPEF and SHG images. Moreover, important differences between subtypes of OI were identified using different methods of quantification such as collagen density, ratio between collagen and elastic tissue, and gray-level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM image-pattern analysis. Collagen density was lower in OI dermis, while the SHG/autofluorescence index of the dermis was significantly higher in OI as compared to that of the normal skin. We also showed that the energy value of GLCM texture analysis is useful to discriminate mild from severe OI and from normal skin. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This work demonstrated that nonlinear microscopy techniques in combination with image-analysis approaches represent a powerful tool to investigate the collagen organization in skin dermis in patients with OI and has the potential to distinguish the different types of OI. The procedure outlined in this paper requires a skin biopsy, which is almost painless as compared to the bone biopsy commonly used in conventional methods. The data presented here complement existing clinical diagnostic techniques and can be used as a diagnostic procedure to confirm the disease, evaluate its severity and treatment efficacy.

  18. Human-Centered Software Engineering: Software Engineering Architectures, Patterns, and Sodels for Human Computer Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seffah, Ahmed; Vanderdonckt, Jean; Desmarais, Michel C.

    The Computer-Human Interaction and Software Engineering (CHISE) series of edited volumes originated from a number of workshops and discussions over the latest research and developments in the field of Human Computer Interaction (HCI) and Software Engineering (SE) integration, convergence and cross-pollination. A first volume in this series (CHISE Volume I - Human-Centered Software Engineering: Integrating Usability in the Development Lifecycle) aims at bridging the gap between the field of SE and HCI, and addresses specifically the concerns of integrating usability and user-centered systems design methods and tools into the software development lifecycle and practices. This has been done by defining techniques, tools and practices that can fit into the entire software engineering lifecycle as well as by defining ways of addressing the knowledge and skills needed, and the attitudes and basic values that a user-centered development methodology requires. The first volume has been edited as Vol. 8 in the Springer HCI Series (Seffah, Gulliksen and Desmarais, 2005).

  19. You Look Human, But Act Like a Machine: Agent Appearance and Behavior Modulate Different Aspects of Human-Robot Interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abubshait, Abdulaziz; Wiese, Eva

    2017-01-01

    Gaze following occurs automatically in social interactions, but the degree to which gaze is followed depends on whether an agent is perceived to have a mind, making its behavior socially more relevant for the interaction. Mind perception also modulates the attitudes we have toward others, and determines the degree of empathy, prosociality, and morality invested in social interactions. Seeing mind in others is not exclusive to human agents, but mind can also be ascribed to non-human agents like robots, as long as their appearance and/or behavior allows them to be perceived as intentional beings. Previous studies have shown that human appearance and reliable behavior induce mind perception to robot agents, and positively affect attitudes and performance in human-robot interaction. What has not been investigated so far is whether different triggers of mind perception have an independent or interactive effect on attitudes and performance in human-robot interaction. We examine this question by manipulating agent appearance (human vs. robot) and behavior (reliable vs. random) within the same paradigm and examine how congruent (human/reliable vs. robot/random) versus incongruent (human/random vs. robot/reliable) combinations of these triggers affect performance (i.e., gaze following) and attitudes (i.e., agent ratings) in human-robot interaction. The results show that both appearance and behavior affect human-robot interaction but that the two triggers seem to operate in isolation, with appearance more strongly impacting attitudes, and behavior more strongly affecting performance. The implications of these findings for human-robot interaction are discussed.

  20. A Network-Centric Formalism for Disturbance Rejection Design and Human Swarm Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-06

    AFRL-AFOSR-VA-TR-2016-0007 Formalism for Disturbance Rejection Design and Human- swarm Interaction Mehran Mesbahi UNIVERSITY OF WASHINGTON Final...SUBTITLE A Network-centric Formalism for Disturbance Rejection Design and Human Swarm Interaction 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER FA9550-12-1-0203 5b. GRANT NUMBER...proposed research is to examine fundamental structural bounds on the disturbance rejection and human- swarm interaction properties of a network of

  1. Diagrams and Proofs in Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carter, Jessica M H Grund

    2010-01-01

    The article discusses the role of diagrams in mathematical reasoning based on a case study in analysis.   In the presented example certain combinatorial expressions were first found by using diagrams. In the published proofs the pictures are replaced by reasoning about permutation groups...

  2. Making Schools Future-Proof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dessoff, Alan

    2011-01-01

    Under pressure to keep spending down but also keep pace with rapid technology changes, many districts are future-proofing their schools--trying to get the most out of tech spending by providing solutions they can use now and in the future without major, expensive infrastructure overhauls. In the Folsom Cordova (California) Unified School District,…

  3. Climate Proof Cities : Final Report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rovers, V.; Bosch, Peter; Albers, Ronald; Spit, Tejo

    2014-01-01

    All cities in the Netherlands, large and small, are vulnerable to the effects of climate change. The degree of vulnerability varies considerably within urban areas. This means that making cities more climate proof can be done most efficiently by taking many relatively small and local measures. Many

  4. A sipometer for measuring motivation to consume and reward value of foods and beverages in humans: Description and proof of principle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogenkamp, P S; Shechter, A; St-Onge, M-P; Sclafani, A; Kissileff, H R

    2017-03-15

    New methods, derived from animal work, for measuring food reward value (i.e. reinforcing value of food), and motivation (i.e. strength of desire) to consume, in humans are described and validated. A sipping device (sipometer) was developed that permits access to a liquid food or beverage on two reward schedules: continuous reinforcement (CR) and progressively increasing time spent exerting pressure on a straw (PR-schedule). In addition, a pictorial scale showing a cup, from which the 'amount wanted' could be marked was used to pre-test potential consumption. Intake, time spent sipping, breakpoint, and pressure exerted were the main dependent variables measured. Three pilot experiments were conducted. In Experiment 1, participants (n=8) consumed yogurt shakes after a 1-h or 21-h food deprivation period on both schedules. In Experiment 2, participants (n=8) sham-consumed (i.e. spit out) sweet and non-sweet beverages, utilizing both schedules. In Experiment 3, sham-consuming sweet and non-sweet beverages on both schedules and working for shake on the PR schedule were repeated, after three nights of either habitual sleep or short sleep duration (n=7) in a crossover design. In Experiment 1, participants sipped longer after 21-h vs. 1-h of food deprivation (13±3.0 vs. 8.0±2.1s; p=0.04), on the PR schedule. In Experiment 2, sham-intake (p=0.01) and sipping time (p=0.04) were greater for sweet than non-sweet beverages on the PR schedule and a similar, though not conventionally significant, effect was observed for exerted pressure (p=0.09). In both Experiment 2 and Experiment 3 after habitual sleep, on the PR schedule, cumulative pressure difference between sweet and non-sweet beverage increased with difference in amount wanted in the taste test. In contrast, after short sleep participants were less willing to work for sweet taste as their wanting increased, suggesting that sleep deprivation raises desire, but lowers behavioral output. Taken together these results

  5. Human performance measures for interactive haptic-audio-visual interfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Dawei; Bhatti, Asim; Nahavandi, Saeid; Horan, Ben

    2013-01-01

    Virtual reality and simulation are becoming increasingly important in modern society and it is essential to improve our understanding of system usability and efficacy from the users' perspective. This paper introduces a novel evaluation method designed to assess human user capability when undertaking technical and procedural training using virtual training systems. The evaluation method falls under the user-centered design and evaluation paradigm and draws on theories of cognitive, skill-based and affective learning outcomes. The method focuses on user interaction with haptic-audio-visual interfaces and the complexities related to variability in users' performance, and the adoption and acceptance of the technologies. A large scale user study focusing on object assembly training tasks involving selecting, rotating, releasing, inserting, and manipulating three-dimensional objects was performed. The study demonstrated the advantages of the method in obtaining valuable multimodal information for accurate and comprehensive evaluation of virtual training system efficacy. The study investigated how well users learn, perform, adapt to, and perceive the virtual training. The results of the study revealed valuable aspects of the design and evaluation of virtual training systems contributing to an improved understanding of more usable virtual training systems.

  6. Interactions of human serum albumin with doxorubicin in different media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gun'ko, Vladimir M.; Turov, Vladimir V.; Krupska, Tetyana V.; Tsapko, Magdalina D.

    2017-02-01

    Interactions of human serum albumin (10 wt% H2O and 0.3 wt% sodium caprylate) with doxorubicin hydrochloride (1 wt%) were studied alone or with addition of HCl (3.6 wt% HCl) using 1H NMR spectroscopy. A model of hydrated HSA/12DOX was calculated using PM7 method with COSMO showing large variations in the binding constant depending on structural features of DOX/HSA complexes. DOX molecules/ions displace bound water from narrow intramolecular voids in HSA that leads to diminution of freezing-melting point depression of strongly bound water (SBW). Structure of weakly bound water (WBW) depends much weaker on the presence of DOX than SBW because a major fraction of DOX is bound to adsorption sites of HSA. Addition of HCl results in strong changes in structure of macromolecules and organization of water in hydration shells of HSA (i.e., mainly SBW) and in the solution (i.e., WBW + non-bound bulk water).

  7. Interaction of streaming and attention in human auditory cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutschalk, Alexander; Rupp, André; Dykstra, Andrew R

    2015-01-01

    Serially presented tones are sometimes segregated into two perceptually distinct streams. An ongoing debate is whether this basic streaming phenomenon reflects automatic processes or requires attention focused to the stimuli. Here, we examined the influence of focused attention on streaming-related activity in human auditory cortex using magnetoencephalography (MEG). Listeners were presented with a dichotic paradigm in which left-ear stimuli consisted of canonical streaming stimuli (ABA_ or ABAA) and right-ear stimuli consisted of a classical oddball paradigm. In phase one, listeners were instructed to attend the right-ear oddball sequence and detect rare deviants. In phase two, they were instructed to attend the left ear streaming stimulus and report whether they heard one or two streams. The frequency difference (ΔF) of the sequences was set such that the smallest and largest ΔF conditions generally induced one- and two-stream percepts, respectively. Two intermediate ΔF conditions were chosen to elicit bistable percepts (i.e., either one or two streams). Attention enhanced the peak-to-peak amplitude of the P1-N1 complex, but only for ambiguous ΔF conditions, consistent with the notion that automatic mechanisms for streaming tightly interact with attention and that the latter is of particular importance for ambiguous sound sequences.

  8. The EpiDerm™ 3D human reconstructed skin micronucleus (RSMN) assay: Historical control data and proof of principle studies for mechanistic assay adaptations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Shambhu; Kulkarni, Rohan; Hewitt, Nicola J; Aardema, Marilyn J

    2016-07-01

    The in vitro human reconstructed skin micronucleus (RSMN) assay in EpiDerm™ is a promising novel animal alternative for evaluating genotoxicity of topically applied chemicals. It is particularly useful for assessing cosmetic ingredients that can no longer be tested using in vivo assays. To advance the use of this test especially for regulatory decision-making, we have established the RSMN assay in our laboratory according to Good Laboratory Practice and following the principles of the OECD test guideline 487 in vitro mammalian cell micronucleus test. Proficiency with the assay was established by correctly identifying direct-acting genotoxins and genotoxins requiring metabolism, as well as non-genotoxic/non-carcinogenic chemicals. We also report the analysis of our historical control data that demonstrate vehicle control and positive control values for %micronuclei in binucleated cells are in the ranges reported previously. Technical issues including evaluating various solvents with both 48h and 72h treatment regimens were investigated. For the first time, mechanistic studies using CREST analysis revealed that the RSMN assay is suitable for distinguishing aneugens and clastogens. Moreover, the assay is also suitable for measuring cytokines as markers for proliferative and toxic effects of chemicals.

  9. Time matters in soft proofing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jon Y. Hardeberg

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available One of latest developments for pre-press applications is the concept of soft proofing, which aims to provide an accurate preview on a monitor of how the final document will appear once it is printed. At the core of this concept is the problem of identifying, for any printed color, the most similar color the monitor can display. This problem is made difficult by such factors as varying viewing conditions, color gamut limitations, or the less studied color memory shift.Color matching experiments are usually done by examining samples viewed simultaneously. However, in soft proofing applications, the proof and the print are not always viewed together. This paper attempts to shed more light on the difference between simultaneous and time-spaced color matching, in order to contribute to improving the accuracy of soft proofs. A color matchingexperiment setup has been established in which observers were asked to match a color patch displayed on a LCD monitor, by adjusting its RGB values, to another color patch printed out on paper. In the first part of the experiment the two colors were viewed simultaneously. In the second part, the observers were asked to produce the match according to a previously memorized color. According to the obtained results, the color appearance attributes lightness and chroma were the most difficult components for the observers to remember, generating huge differences with the simultaneous match, whereas hue was the component which varied the least. This indicates that for soft proofing, getting the hues right is of primordial importance.

  10. Muecas: A Multi-Sensor Robotic Head for Affective Human Robot Interaction and Imitation

    OpenAIRE

    Felipe Cid; Jose Moreno; Pablo Bustos; Pedro Núñez

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a multi-sensor humanoid robotic head for human robot interaction. The design of the robotic head, Muecas, is based on ongoing research on the mechanisms of perception and imitation of human expressions and emotions. These mechanisms allow direct interaction between the robot and its human companion through the different natural language modalities: speech, body language and facial expressions. The robotic head has 12 degrees of freedom, in a human-like configuration, inclu...

  11. Two is better than one: Physical interactions improve motor performance in humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganesh, G.; Takagi, A.; Osu, R.; Yoshioka, T.; Kawato, M.; Burdet, E.

    2014-01-01

    How do physical interactions with others change our own motor behavior? Utilizing a novel motor learning paradigm in which the hands of two - individuals are physically connected without their conscious awareness, we investigated how the interaction forces from a partner adapt the motor behavior in physically interacting humans. We observed the motor adaptations during physical interactions to be mutually beneficial such that both the worse and better of the interacting partners improve motor performance during and after interactive practice. We show that these benefits cannot be explained by multi-sensory integration by an individual, but require physical interaction with a reactive partner. Furthermore, the benefits are determined by both the interacting partner's performance and similarity of the partner's behavior to one's own. Our results demonstrate the fundamental neural processes underlying human physical interactions and suggest advantages of interactive paradigms for sport-training and physical rehabilitation.

  12. The human-bacterial pathogen protein interaction networks of Bacillus anthracis, Francisella tularensis, and Yersinia pestis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew D Dyer

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Bacillus anthracis, Francisella tularensis, and Yersinia pestis are bacterial pathogens that can cause anthrax, lethal acute pneumonic disease, and bubonic plague, respectively, and are listed as NIAID Category A priority pathogens for possible use as biological weapons. However, the interactions between human proteins and proteins in these bacteria remain poorly characterized leading to an incomplete understanding of their pathogenesis and mechanisms of immune evasion. METHODOLOGY: In this study, we used a high-throughput yeast two-hybrid assay to identify physical interactions between human proteins and proteins from each of these three pathogens. From more than 250,000 screens performed, we identified 3,073 human-B. anthracis, 1,383 human-F. tularensis, and 4,059 human-Y. pestis protein-protein interactions including interactions involving 304 B. anthracis, 52 F. tularensis, and 330 Y. pestis proteins that are uncharacterized. Computational analysis revealed that pathogen proteins preferentially interact with human proteins that are hubs and bottlenecks in the human PPI network. In addition, we computed modules of human-pathogen PPIs that are conserved amongst the three networks. Functionally, such conserved modules reveal commonalities between how the different pathogens interact with crucial host pathways involved in inflammation and immunity. SIGNIFICANCE: These data constitute the first extensive protein interaction networks constructed for bacterial pathogens and their human hosts. This study provides novel insights into host-pathogen interactions.

  13. Neuroscience of Human Social Interactions and Adult Attachment Style

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pascal eVrticka

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Since its first description four decades ago, attachment theory has become one of the principal developmental psychological frameworks for describing the role of individual differences in the establishment and maintenance of social bonds between people. Yet, still little is known about the neurobiological underpinnings of attachment orientations and their well-established impact on a range of social and affective behaviors. In the present review, we summarize data from recent studies using cognitive and imaging approaches to characterize attachment styles and their effect on emotion and social cognition. We propose a functional neuroanatomical framework to integrate the key brain mechanisms involved in the perception and regulation of social emotional information, and their modulation by individual differences in terms of secure versus insecure (more specifically avoidant, anxious, or resolved vs. unresolved attachment traits. This framework describes how each individual’s attachment style (built through interactions between personal relationship history and predispositions may influence the encoding of approach versus aversion tendencies (safety versus threat in social encounters, implicating the activation of a network of subcortical (amygdala, hippocampus, striatum and cortical (insula, cingulate limbic areas. These basic and automatic affective mentalization mechanisms are in turn modulated by more elaborate and voluntary cognitive mentalization processes, subserving theory of mind, cognitive control, and emotion regulation capacities, implicating a distinct network (in medial prefrontal cortex, superior temporal sulcus, and temporo-parietal junction, among others. Such research does not only help better understand the neural underpinnings of human social behavior, but also provides important insights on psychopathological conditions where attachment dysregulations is likely to play an important (causal role.

  14. Neuroscience of human social interactions and adult attachment style.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrtička, Pascal; Vuilleumier, Patrik

    2012-01-01

    Since its first description four decades ago, attachment theory (AT) has become one of the principal developmental psychological frameworks for describing the role of individual differences in the establishment and maintenance of social bonds between people. Yet, still little is known about the neurobiological underpinnings of attachment orientations and their well-established impact on a range of social and affective behaviors. In the present review, we summarize data from recent studies using cognitive and imaging approaches to characterize attachment styles and their effect on emotion and social cognition. We propose a functional neuroanatomical framework to integrate the key brain mechanisms involved in the perception and regulation of social emotional information, and their modulation by individual differences in terms of secure versus insecure (more specifically avoidant, anxious, or resolved versus unresolved) attachment traits. This framework describes how each individual's attachment style (built through interactions between personal relationship history and predispositions) may influence the encoding of approach versus aversion tendencies (safety versus threat) in social encounters, implicating the activation of a network of subcortical (amygdala, hippocampus, striatum) and cortical (insula, cingulate) limbic areas. These basic and automatic affective evaluation mechanisms are in turn modulated by more elaborate and voluntary cognitive control processes, subserving mental state attribution and emotion regulation capacities, implicating a distinct network in medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), superior temporal sulcus (STS), and temporo-parietal junction (TPJ), among others. Recent neuroimaging data suggest that affective evaluation is decreased in avoidantly but increased in anxiously attached individuals. In turn, although data on cognitive control is still scarce, it points toward a possible enhancement of mental state representations associated with

  15. Human-Robot Interaction in High Vulnerability Domains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gore, Brian F.

    2016-01-01

    Future NASA missions will require successful integration of the human with highly complex systems. Highly complex systems are likely to involve humans, automation, and some level of robotic assistance. The complex environments will require successful integration of the human with automation, with robots, and with human-automation-robot teams to accomplish mission critical goals. Many challenges exist for the human performing in these types of operational environments with these kinds of systems. Systems must be designed to optimally integrate various levels of inputs and outputs based on the roles and responsibilities of the human, the automation, and the robots; from direct manual control, shared human-robotic control, or no active human control (i.e. human supervisory control). It is assumed that the human will remain involved at some level. Technologies that vary based on contextual demands and on operator characteristics (workload, situation awareness) will be needed when the human integrates into these systems. Predictive models that estimate the impact of the technologies on the system performance and the on the human operator are also needed to meet the challenges associated with such future complex human-automation-robot systems in extreme environments.

  16. Analysis and Evaluation of Error-Proof Systems for Configuration Data Management in Railway Signalling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimazoe, Toshiyuki; Ishikawa, Hideto; Takei, Tsuyoshi; Tanaka, Kenji

    Recent types of train protection systems such as ATC require the large amounts of low-level configuration data compared to conventional types of them. Hence management of the configuration data is becoming more important than before. Because of this, the authors developed an error-proof system focusing on human operations in the configuration data management. This error-proof system has already been introduced to the Tokaido Shinkansen ATC data management system. However, as effectiveness of the system has not been presented objectively, its full perspective is not clear. To clarify the effectiveness, this paper analyses error-proofing cases introduced to the system, using the concept of QFD and the error-proofing principles. From this analysis, the following methods of evaluation for error-proof systems are proposed: metrics to review the rationality of required qualities are provided by arranging the required qualities according to hazard levels and work phases; metrics to evaluate error-proof systems are provided to improve their reliability effectively by mapping the error-proofing principles onto the error-proofing cases which are applied according to the required qualities and the corresponding hazard levels. In addition, these objectively-analysed error-proofing cases are available to be used as error-proofing-cases database or guidelines for safer HMI design especially for data management.

  17. Refutation of stability proofs for dipole vortices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nycander, J.

    1992-01-01

    Five stability proofs for dipole vortices (modons) that have been presented by various authors are examined. It is shown that they are all incorrect, and that westward-propagating dipoles are in fact unstable, in contradiction to some of the proofs.......Five stability proofs for dipole vortices (modons) that have been presented by various authors are examined. It is shown that they are all incorrect, and that westward-propagating dipoles are in fact unstable, in contradiction to some of the proofs....

  18. Dogs and their human companions: the effect of familiarity on dog-human interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerepesi, Andrea; Dóka, Antal; Miklósi, Ádám

    2015-01-01

    There are few quantitative examinations of the extent to which dogs discriminate between familiar and unfamiliar persons. In our study we have investigated whether dogs show differential behaviour towards humans of different degrees of familiarity (owner, familiar person, unfamiliar person). Dogs and humans were observed in eight test situations: (1) Three-way strange situation test, (2) Calling in from food, (3) Obedience test, (4) Walking away, (5) Threatening approach, (6) Playful interaction, (7) Food inhibition test and (8) Manipulation of the dog's body. Dogs distinguished between the owner and the two other test partners in those tests which involved separation from the owner (Test 1, 4), were aversive for the dog (Test 5) or involved playing interaction (Test 6). Our results revealed that the owner cannot be replaced by a familiar person in situations provoking elevated anxiety and fear. In contrasts, dogs did not discriminate between the owner and the familiar person in those tests that were based on obedient behaviour or behaviour towards an assertive person (Tests 2, 3, 7 and 8). Dogs' former training experience reduced the difference between their behaviour towards the owner and the familiar person in situations requiring obedience but it did not mask it totally. The dogs' behaviour towards each of the humans participating in the tests was consistent all over the test series. In summary, dogs discriminated between their owner and the unfamiliar person and always preferred the owner to the unfamiliar person. However, the discrimination between the owner and the familiar person is context-specific. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Canine Behavior.

  19. Interdependence of domestic malaria prevention measures and mosquito-human interactions in urban Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geissbühler, Yvonne; Chaki, Prosper; Emidi, Basiliana; Govella, Nicodemus J; Shirima, Rudolf; Mayagaya, Valeliana; Mtasiwa, Deo; Mshinda, Hassan; Fillinger, Ulrike; Lindsay, Steven W; Kannady, Khadija; de Castro, Marcia Caldas; Tanner, Marcel; Killeen, Gerry F

    2007-01-01

    Background Successful malaria vector control depends on understanding behavioural interactions between mosquitoes and humans, which are highly setting-specific and may have characteristic features in urban environments. Here mosquito biting patterns in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania are examined and the protection against exposure to malaria transmission that is afforded to residents by using an insecticide-treated net (ITN) is estimated. Methods Mosquito biting activity over the course of the night was estimated by human landing catch in 216 houses and 1,064 residents were interviewed to determine usage of protection measures and the proportion of each hour of the night spent sleeping indoors, awake indoors, and outdoors. Results Hourly variations in biting activity by members of the Anopheles gambiae complex were consistent with classical reports but the proportion of these vectors caught outdoors in Dar es Salaam was almost double that of rural Tanzania. Overall, ITNs confer less protection against exophagic vectors in Dar es Salaam than in rural southern Tanzania (59% versus 70%). More alarmingly, a biting activity maximum that precedes 10 pm and much lower levels of ITN protection against exposure (38%) were observed for Anopheles arabiensis, a vector of modest importance locally, but which predominates transmission in large parts of Africa. Conclusion In a situation of changing mosquito and human behaviour, ITNs may confer lower, but still useful, levels of personal protection which can be complemented by communal transmission suppression at high coverage. Mosquito-proofing houses appeared to be the intervention of choice amongst residents and further options for preventing outdoor transmission include larviciding and environmental management. PMID:17880679

  20. Interdependence of domestic malaria prevention measures and mosquito-human interactions in urban Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mshinda Hassan

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Successful malaria vector control depends on understanding behavioural interactions between mosquitoes and humans, which are highly setting-specific and may have characteristic features in urban environments. Here mosquito biting patterns in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania are examined and the protection against exposure to malaria transmission that is afforded to residents by using an insecticide-treated net (ITN is estimated. Methods Mosquito biting activity over the course of the night was estimated by human landing catch in 216 houses and 1,064 residents were interviewed to determine usage of protection measures and the proportion of each hour of the night spent sleeping indoors, awake indoors, and outdoors. Results Hourly variations in biting activity by members of the Anopheles gambiae complex were consistent with classical reports but the proportion of these vectors caught outdoors in Dar es Salaam was almost double that of rural Tanzania. Overall, ITNs confer less protection against exophagic vectors in Dar es Salaam than in rural southern Tanzania (59% versus 70%. More alarmingly, a biting activity maximum that precedes 10 pm and much lower levels of ITN protection against exposure (38% were observed for Anopheles arabiensis, a vector of modest importance locally, but which predominates transmission in large parts of Africa. Conclusion In a situation of changing mosquito and human behaviour, ITNs may confer lower, but still useful, levels of personal protection which can be complemented by communal transmission suppression at high coverage. Mosquito-proofing houses appeared to be the intervention of choice amongst residents and further options for preventing outdoor transmission include larviciding and environmental management.

  1. A Proof of Onsager's Conjecture

    CERN Document Server

    Isett, Philip

    2016-01-01

    For any $\\alpha 1/3$ due to [Eyink] and [Constantin, E, Titi], solves Onsager's conjecture that the exponent $\\alpha = 1/3$ marks the threshold for conservation of energy for weak solutions in the class $L_t^\\infty C_x^\\alpha$. The previous best results were solutions in the class $C_tC_x^\\alpha$ for $\\alpha < 1/5$, due to the author, and in the class $L_t^1 C_x^\\alpha$ for $\\alpha < 1/3$ due to Buckmaster, De Lellis and Sz\\'{e}kelyhidi, both based on the method of convex integration developed for the incompressible Euler equations by De Lellis and Sz\\'ekelyhidi. The present proof combines the method of convex integration and a new "gluing approximation" technique. The convex integration part of the proof relies on the "Mikado flows" introduced by [Daneri, Sz\\'ekelyhidi] and the framework of estimates developed in the author's previous work.

  2. Chemical ecology of interactions between human skin microbiota and mosquitoes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhulst, N.O.; Takken, W.; Dicke, M.; Schraa, G.; Smallegange, R.C.

    2010-01-01

    Microbiota on the human skin plays a major role in body odour production. The human microbial and chemical signature displays a qualitative and quantitative correlation. Genes may influence the chemical signature by shaping the composition of the microbiota. Recent studies on human skin microbiota,

  3. [An interactive three-dimensional model of the human body].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liem, S L

    2009-01-01

    Driven by advanced computer technology, it is now possible to show the human anatomy on a computer. On the internet, the Visible Body programme makes it possible to navigate in all directions through the anatomical structures of the human body, using mouse and keyboard. Visible Body is a wonderful tool to give insight in the human structures, body functions and organs.

  4. Students' Difficulties with Proof by Mathematical Induction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, John Douglas

    The cognitive difficulties encountered by 40 high school and 13 college students beginning to learn the proof technique of mathematical induction were investigated. Students provided data in the form of proof-writing and proof-analysis tasks followed by interviews to clarify their written responses. Both groups of students had significant…

  5. Proof, Explanation and Exploration: An Overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanna, Gila

    2000-01-01

    Explores the role of proof in mathematics education and provides justification for its importance in the curriculum. Discusses three applications of dynamic geometry software--heuristics, exploration, and visualization--as tools in the teaching of proof and as potential challenges to the importance of proof. (Author/MM)

  6. Hybrid logics with infinitary proof systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooi, Barteld; Renardel de Lavalette, Gerard; Verbrugge, Rineke

    2006-01-01

    We provide a strongly complete infinitary proof system for hybrid logic. This proof system can be extended with countably many sequents. Thus, although these logics may be non-compact, strong completeness proofs are provided for infinitary hybrid versions of non-compact logics like ancestral logic a

  7. Appearance-based human gesture recognition using multimodal features for human computer interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Dan; Gao, Hua; Ekenel, Hazim Kemal; Ohya, Jun

    2011-03-01

    The use of gesture as a natural interface plays an utmost important role for achieving intelligent Human Computer Interaction (HCI). Human gestures include different components of visual actions such as motion of hands, facial expression, and torso, to convey meaning. So far, in the field of gesture recognition, most previous works have focused on the manual component of gestures. In this paper, we present an appearance-based multimodal gesture recognition framework, which combines the different groups of features such as facial expression features and hand motion features which are extracted from image frames captured by a single web camera. We refer 12 classes of human gestures with facial expression including neutral, negative and positive meanings from American Sign Languages (ASL). We combine the features in two levels by employing two fusion strategies. At the feature level, an early feature combination can be performed by concatenating and weighting different feature groups, and LDA is used to choose the most discriminative elements by projecting the feature on a discriminative expression space. The second strategy is applied on decision level. Weighted decisions from single modalities are fused in a later stage. A condensation-based algorithm is adopted for classification. We collected a data set with three to seven recording sessions and conducted experiments with the combination techniques. Experimental results showed that facial analysis improve hand gesture recognition, decision level fusion performs better than feature level fusion.

  8. Exploring cultural factors in human-robot interaction: A matter of personality?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weiss, Astrid; Evers, Vanessa

    2011-01-01

    This paper proposes an experimental study to investigate task-dependence and cultural-background dependence of the personality trait attribution on humanoid robots. In Human-Robot Interaction, as well as in Human-Agent Interaction research, the attribution of personality traits towards intelligent a

  9. Exploring cultural factors in human-robot interaction: A matter of personality?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weiss, Astrid; Evers, Vanessa

    2011-01-01

    This paper proposes an experimental study to investigate task-dependence and cultural-background dependence of the personality trait attribution on humanoid robots. In Human-Robot Interaction, as well as in Human-Agent Interaction research, the attribution of personality traits towards intelligent a

  10. A scored human protein-protein interaction network to catalyze genomic interpretation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Taibo; Wernersson, Rasmus; Hansen, Rasmus B;

    2017-01-01

    Genome-scale human protein-protein interaction networks are critical to understanding cell biology and interpreting genomic data, but challenging to produce experimentally. Through data integration and quality control, we provide a scored human protein-protein interaction network (In...

  11. Functional features and protein network of human sperm-egg interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabetian, Soudabeh; Shamsir, Mohd Shahir; Abu Naser, Mohammed

    2014-12-01

    Elucidation of the sperm-egg interaction at the molecular level is one of the unresolved problems in sexual reproduction, and understanding the molecular mechanism is crucial in solving problems in infertility and failed in vitro fertilization (IVF). Many molecular interactions in the form of protein-protein interactions (PPIs) mediate the sperm-egg membrane interaction. Due to the complexity of the problem such as difficulties in analyzing in vivo membrane PPIs, many efforts have failed to comprehensively elucidate the fusion mechanism and the molecular interactions that mediate sperm-egg membrane fusion. The main purpose of this study was to reveal possible protein interactions and associated molecular function during sperm-egg interaction using a protein interaction network approach. Different databases have been used to construct the human sperm-egg interaction network. The constructed network revealed new interactions. These included CD151 and CD9 in human oocyte that interact with CD49 in sperm, and CD49 and ITGA4 in sperm that interact with CD63 and CD81, respectively, in the oocyte. These results showed that the different integrins in sperm may be involved in human sperm-egg interaction. It was also suggested that sperm ADAM2 plays a role as a protein candidate involved in sperm-egg membrane interaction by interacting with CD9 in the oocyte. Interleukin-4 receptor activity, receptor signaling protein tyrosine kinase activity, and manganese ion transmembrane transport activity are the major molecular functions in sperm-egg interaction protein network. The disease association analysis indicated that sperm-egg interaction defects are also reflected in other disease networks such as cardiovascular, hematological, and breast cancer diseases. By analyzing the network, we identified the major molecular functions and disease association genes in sperm-egg interaction protein. Further experimental studies will be required to confirm the significance of these new

  12. Trust and Trustworthiness in Human-Robot Interaction: A Formal Conceptualization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-11

    A., and Wagner, A. R., “Overtrust of Robots in Emergency Evacuation Scenarios”, ACM /IEEE International Conference on Human-Robot Interaction (HRI...failures and feedback on real-time trust," in Proceedings of the 8th ACM /IEEE international conference on Human-robot interaction, Tokyo, Japan, 2013...Robot Interaction (HRI), 2012 7th ACM /IEEE International Conference on, Boston, 2012. [17] A. R. Wagner, The Role of Trust and Relationships in

  13. Mood contagion of robot body language in human robot interaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xu, J.; Broekens, J.; Hindriks, K.; Neerincx, M.A.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of our work is to design bodily mood expressions of humanoid robots for interactive settings that can be recognized by users and have (positive) effects on people who interact with the robots. To this end, we develop a parameterized behavior model for humanoid robots to express mood through

  14. Mood contagion of robot body language in human robot interaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xu, J.; Broekens, D.J.; Hindriks, K.V.; Neerincx, M.A.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of our work is to design bodily mood expressions of humanoid robots for interactive settings that can be recognized by users and have (positive) effects on people who interact with the robots. To this end, we develop a parameterized behavior model for humanoid robots to express mood through

  15. Convergent Flows: Humanities Scholars and Their Interactions with Electronic Texts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukovic, Suzana

    2008-01-01

    This article reports research findings related to converging formats, media, practices, and ideas in the process of academics' interaction with electronic texts during a research project. The findings are part of the results of a study that explored interactions of scholars in literary and historical studies with electronic texts as primary…

  16. Interactions of human monocytes with TMVs (tumour-derived microvesicles).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baj-Krzyworzeka, Monika; Baran, Jarosław; Szatanek, Rafał; Mytar, Bożenna; Siedlar, Maciej; Zembala, Marek

    2013-02-01

    The tumour microenvironment represents a dynamic complex milieu, which includes tumour cells, cells of the immune system and other (cellular and non-cellular) components. The role of these particular 'puzzle pieces' may change substantially due to their mutual interactions. The present review concerns different opinions on interactions that occur between monocytes, tumour cells and TMVs (tumour-derived microvesicles).

  17. Effective Use of Human Computer Interaction in Digital Academic Supportive Devices

    OpenAIRE

    Thuseethan, S.; Kuhanesan, S.

    2015-01-01

    In this research, a literature in human-computer interaction is reviewed and the technology aspect of human computer interaction related with digital academic supportive devices is also analyzed. According to all these concerns, recommendations to design good human-computer digital academic supportive devices are analyzed and proposed. Due to improvements in both hardware and software, digital devices have unveiled continuous advances in efficiency and processing capacity. However, many of th...

  18. Lymphoid Cell-Glioma Cell Interaction Enhances Cell Coat Production by Human Gliomas: Novel Suppressor Mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dick, Steven J.; Macchi, Beatrice; Papazoglou, Savvas; Oldfield, Edward H.; Kornblith, Paul L.; Smith, Barry H.; Gately, Maurice K.

    1983-05-01

    Certain human glioma lines produce mucopolysaccharide coats that impair the generation of cytolytic lymphocytes in response to these lines in vitro. Coat production is substantially enhanced by the interaction of glioma cells with a macromolecular factor released by human peripheral blood mononuclear cells in culture. This interaction thus constitutes an unusual mechanism by which inflammatory cells may nonspecifically suppress the cellular immune response to at least one class of solid tumors in humans.

  19. Small forces that differ with prior motor experience can communicate movement goals during human-human physical interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawers, Andrew; Bhattacharjee, Tapomayukh; McKay, J Lucas; Hackney, Madeleine E; Kemp, Charles C; Ting, Lena H

    2017-01-31

    Physical interactions between two people are ubiquitous in our daily lives, and an integral part of many forms of rehabilitation. However, few studies have investigated forces arising from physical interactions between humans during a cooperative motor task, particularly during overground movements. As such, the direction and magnitude of interaction forces between two human partners, how those forces are used to communicate movement goals, and whether they change with motor experience remains unknown. A better understanding of how cooperative physical interactions are achieved in healthy individuals of different skill levels is a first step toward understanding principles of physical interactions that could be applied to robotic devices for motor assistance and rehabilitation. Interaction forces between expert and novice partner dancers were recorded while performing a forward-backward partnered stepping task with assigned "leader" and "follower" roles. Their position was recorded using motion capture. The magnitude and direction of the interaction forces were analyzed and compared across groups (i.e. expert-expert, expert-novice, and novice-novice) and across movement phases (i.e. forward, backward, change of direction). All dyads were able to perform the partnered stepping task with some level of proficiency. Relatively small interaction forces (10-30N) were observed across all dyads, but were significantly larger among expert-expert dyads. Interaction forces were also found to be significantly different across movement phases. However, interaction force magnitude did not change as whole-body synchronization between partners improved across trials. Relatively small interaction forces may communicate movement goals (i.e. "what to do and when to do it") between human partners during cooperative physical interactions. Moreover, these small interactions forces vary with prior motor experience, and may act primarily as guiding cues that convey information about

  20. Proof assistants: History, ideas and future

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    H Geuvers

    2009-02-01

    In this paper I will discuss the fundamental ideas behind proof assistants: What are they and what is a proof anyway? I give a short history of the main ideas, emphasizing the way they ensure the correctness of the mathematics formalized. I will also briefly discuss the places where proof assistants are used and how we envision their extended use in the future. While being an introduction into the world of proof assistants and the main issues behind them, this paper is also a position paper that pushes the further use of proof assistants. We believe that these systems will become the future of mathematics, where definitions, statements, computations and proofs are all available in a computerized form. An important application is and will be in computer supported modelling and verification of systems. But there is still a long road ahead and I will indicate what we believe is needed for the further proliferation of proof assistants.

  1. Privacy Preserving Location Proof Updating System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhinesh Kumar S.

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Location-sensitive service broadcasting on user’s mobile devices to discover the current location. A privacy preserving Location proof updating system(APPLAUS,which does not rely on the wide deployement of network infrastructure or the expensive trusted computing module.In APPLAUS, Bluetooth enabled mobile devices in range mutually generate location proofs,which are uploaded to a untrusted location proof. An authorized verifier can query and retrieve location proofs from the server.Moreover,our location proof system guarantees user location privacy from every party.Bluetooth enabled mobile devices in range mutually generate location proofs.CA used to be the bridges between the verifier and the location proof server.

  2. Privacy Preserving Location Proof Updating System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhinesh Kumar S.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Location-sensitive service broadcasting on user’s mobile devices to discover the current location. A privacy preserving Location proof updating system(APPLAUS,which does not rely on the wide deployement of network infrastructure or the expensive trusted computing module.In APPLAUS, Bluetooth enabled mobile devices in range mutually generate location proofs,which are uploaded to a untrusted location proof. An authorized verifier can query and retrieve location proofs from the server.Moreover,our location proof system guarantees user location privacy from every party.Bluetooth enabled mobile devices in range mutually generate location proofs.CA used to be the bridges between the verifier and the location proof server..

  3. Virus-Bacteria Interactions: An Emerging Topic in Human Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almand, Erin A; Moore, Matthew D; Jaykus, Lee-Ann

    2017-03-21

    Bacteria and viruses often occupy the same niches, however, interest in their potential collaboration in promoting wellness or disease states has only recently gained traction. While the interaction of some bacteria and viruses is well characterized (e.g., influenza virus), researchers are typically more interested in the location of the infection than the manner of cooperation. There are two overarching types of bacterial-virus disease causing interactions: direct interactions that in some way aid the viruses, and indirect interactions aiding bacteria. The virus-promoting direct interactions occur when the virus exploits a bacterial component to facilitate penetration into the host cell. Conversely, indirect interactions result in increased bacterial pathogenesis as a consequence of viral infection. Enteric viruses mainly utilize the direct pathway, while respiratory viruses largely affect bacteria in an indirect fashion. This review focuses on some key examples of how virus-bacteria interactions impact the infection process across the two organ systems, and provides evidence supporting this as an emerging theme in infectious disease.

  4. Supporting human interaction and human resources coordination in distributed clinical guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottrighi, Alessio; Torchio, Mauro; Montani, Stefania; Molino, Gianpaolo; Terenziani, Paolo

    2010-01-01

    Clinical guidelines (GL) play an important role in medical practice: the one of optimizing the quality of patient care on the basis of the best and most recent evidence based medicine. In order to achieve this goal, the interaction between different actors, who cooperate in the execution of the same GL, is a crucial issue. As a matter of fact, in many cases (e.g. in chronic disease treatment) the GL execution requires that patient treatment is not performed/completed in the hospital, but is continued in different contexts (e.g. at home, or in the general practitioner's ambulatory), under the responsibility of different actors. In this situation, the correct interaction and communication between the actors themselves is critical for the quality of care, and human resources coordination is a key issue to be addressed by the managers of the involved healthcare service. In this paper we describe how computerized GL management can be extended in order to support such needs, and we illustrate our approach by means of a practical case study.

  5. Carbon-climate-human interactions in an integrated human-Earth system model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvin, K. V.; Bond-Lamberty, B. P.; Jones, A. D.; Shi, X.

    2016-12-01

    The C4MIP and CMIP5 results highlighted large uncertainties in climate projections, driven to a large extent by limited understanding of the interactions between terrestrial carbon-cycle and climate feedbacks, and their associated uncertainties. These feedbacks are dominated by uncertainties in soil processes, disturbance dynamics, ecosystem response to climate change, and agricultural productivity, and land-use change. This research addresses three questions: (1) how do terrestrial feedbacks vary across different levels of climate change, (2) what is the relative contribution of CO2 fertilization and climate change, and (3) how robust are the results across different models and methods? We used a coupled modeling framework that integrates an Integrated Assessment Model (modeling economic and energy activity) with an Earth System Model (modeling the natural earth system) to examine how business-as-usual (RCP 8.5) climate change will affect ecosystem productivity, cropland extent, and other aspects of the human-Earth system. We find that higher levels of radiative forcing result in higher productivity growth, that increases in CO2 concentrations are the dominant contributors to that growth, and that our productivity increases fall in the middle of the range when compared to other CMIP5 models and the AgMIP models. These results emphasize the importance of examining both the anthropogenic and natural components of the earth system, and their long-term interactive feedbacks.

  6. The landscape of human proteins interacting with viruses and other pathogens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew D Dyer

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Infectious diseases result in millions of deaths each year. Mechanisms of infection have been studied in detail for many pathogens. However, many questions are relatively unexplored. What are the properties of human proteins that interact with pathogens? Do pathogens interact with certain functional classes of human proteins? Which infection mechanisms and pathways are commonly triggered by multiple pathogens? In this paper, to our knowledge, we provide the first study of the landscape of human proteins interacting with pathogens. We integrate human-pathogen protein-protein interactions (PPIs for 190 pathogen strains from seven public databases. Nearly all of the 10,477 human-pathogen PPIs are for viral systems (98.3%, with the majority belonging to the human-HIV system (77.9%. We find that both viral and bacterial pathogens tend to interact with hubs (proteins with many interacting partners and bottlenecks (proteins that are central to many paths in the network in the human PPI network. We construct separate sets of human proteins interacting with bacterial pathogens, viral pathogens, and those interacting with multiple bacteria and with multiple viruses. Gene Ontology functions enriched in these sets reveal a number of processes, such as cell cycle regulation, nuclear transport, and immune response that participate in interactions with different pathogens. Our results provide the first global view of strategies used by pathogens to subvert human cellular processes and infect human cells. Supplementary data accompanying this paper is available at http://staff.vbi.vt.edu/dyermd/publications/dyer2008a.html.

  7. CIDeR: multifactorial interaction networks in human diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lechner, Martin; Höhn, Veit; Brauner, Barbara; Dunger, Irmtraud; Fobo, Gisela; Frishman, Goar; Montrone, Corinna; Kastenmüller, Gabi; Waegele, Brigitte; Ruepp, Andreas

    2012-07-18

    The pathobiology of common diseases is influenced by heterogeneous factors interacting in complex networks. CIDeR http://mips.helmholtz-muenchen.de/cider/ is a publicly available, manually curated, integrative database of metabolic and neurological disorders. The resource provides structured information on 18,813 experimentally validated interactions between molecules, bioprocesses and environmental factors extracted from the scientific literature. Systematic annotation and interactive graphical representation of disease networks make CIDeR a versatile knowledge base for biologists, analysis of large-scale data and systems biology approaches.

  8. Applications of artificial intelligence in safe human-robot interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najmaei, Nima; Kermani, Mehrdad R

    2011-04-01

    The integration of industrial robots into the human workspace presents a set of unique challenges. This paper introduces a new sensory system for modeling, tracking, and predicting human motions within a robot workspace. A reactive control scheme to modify a robot's operations for accommodating the presence of the human within the robot workspace is also presented. To this end, a special class of artificial neural networks, namely, self-organizing maps (SOMs), is employed for obtaining a superquadric-based model of the human. The SOM network receives information of the human's footprints from the sensory system and infers necessary data for rendering the human model. The model is then used in order to assess the danger of the robot operations based on the measured as well as predicted human motions. This is followed by the introduction of a new reactive control scheme that results in the least interferences between the human and robot operations. The approach enables the robot to foresee an upcoming danger and take preventive actions before the danger becomes imminent. Simulation and experimental results are presented in order to validate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  9. Error detection in spoken human-machine interaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krahmer, E.; Swerts, M.; Theune, Mariet; Weegels, M.

    Given the state of the art of current language and speech technology, errors are unavoidable in present-day spoken dialogue systems. Therefore, one of the main concerns in dialogue design is how to decide whether or not the system has understood the user correctly. In human-human communication,

  10. Error detection in spoken human-machine interaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krahmer, E.; Swerts, M.; Theune, M.; Weegels, M.

    2001-01-01

    Given the state of the art of current language and speech technology, errors are unavoidable in present-day spoken dialogue systems. Therefore, one of the main concerns in dialogue design is how to decide whether or not the system has understood the user correctly. In human-human communication, dial

  11. Literature review of human microbes' interaction with plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maguire, B., Jr.

    1980-01-01

    Human carried microorganisms, which cannot practically be excluded from human supporting agricultural systems of extra terrestrial stations, are considered. These microorganisms damage the plants on which the people depend for oxygen and food. The inclusion of carefully screened or constructed, but more or less normal, phylloplane and rhizosphere microbial communities is studied.

  12. Interaction Challenges in Human-Robot Space Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, Terrence; Nourbakhsh, Illah

    2005-01-01

    In January 2004, NASA established a new, long-term exploration program to fulfill the President's Vision for U.S. Space Exploration. The primary goal of this program is to establish a sustained human presence in space, beginning with robotic missions to the Moon in 2008, followed by extended human expeditions to the Moon as early as 2015. In addition, the program places significant emphasis on the development of joint human-robot systems. A key difference from previous exploration efforts is that future space exploration activities must be sustainable over the long-term. Experience with the space station has shown that cost pressures will keep astronaut teams small. Consequently, care must be taken to extend the effectiveness of these astronauts well beyond their individual human capacity. Thus, in order to reduce human workload, costs, and fatigue-driven error and risk, intelligent robots will have to be an integral part of mission design.

  13. IoT Based Human-Building Interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fürst, Jonathan

    2017-01-01

    Our interactions with built environments are increasingly augmented with digital capabilities. Smart appliances coupled with Building Management Systems (BMS) promise to increase occupant comfort and to reduce energy consumption through automated control and personalized services. However, it is ...

  14. Comparative biogeochemistry–ecosystem–human interactions on dynamic continental margins..

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Levin, L.A.; Liu, K-K.; Emeis, K.-C.; Breitburg, D.L.; Cloern, J.; Deutsch, C.; Giani, M.; Goffart, A.; Hofmann, E.E.; Lachkar, Z.; Limburg, K.; Liu, Su-Mei; Montes, E.; Naqvi, S.W.A.; Ragueneau, O.; Rabouille, C.; Sarkar, S.K.; Swaney, D.P.; Wassman, P.; Wishner, K.F.

    The oceans' continental margins face strong and rapid change, forced by a combination of direct human activity, anthropogenic CO2-induced climate change, and natural variability. Stimulated by discussions in Goa, India at the IMBER IMBIZO III, we (1...

  15. Cognition beyond the brain computation, interactivity and human artifice

    CERN Document Server

    Cowley, Stephen J

    2013-01-01

    Arguing that a collective dimension has given cognitive flexibility to human intelligence, this book shows that traditional cognitive psychology underplays the role of bodies, dialogue, diagrams, tools, talk, customs, habits, computers and cultural practices.

  16. Effects of human-structure interaction in slabs

    OpenAIRE

    Villamizar, Sandra; Gómez, Daniel; Thomson, Peter

    2014-01-01

    During the last several decades, stronger and lighter materials have been developed with the aim of optimizing performance and building costs. These technological advances have given rise to thin flexible flooring systems with natural frequencies that lie within the frequency range of vibrations produced by human activity. Human occupants can cause changes in the dynamic properties of the structure and structural vibrations can cause discomfort to the occupants, who not only perceive the vibr...

  17. Comparison of dogs and humans in visual scanning of social interaction

    OpenAIRE

    Törnqvist, Heini; Somppi, Sanni; Koskela, Aija; Krause, Christina M.; Vainio, Outi; Kujala, Miiamaaria V.

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated similarities in gazing behaviour of dogs and humans, but comparisons under similar conditions are rare, and little is known about dogs' visual attention to social scenes. Here, we recorded the eye gaze of dogs while they viewed images containing two humans or dogs either interacting socially or facing away: the results were compared with equivalent data measured from humans. Furthermore, we compared the gazing behaviour of two dog and two human populations w...

  18. Toward a unified method for analysing and teaching Human Robot Interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dinesen, Jens Vilhelm

    This abstract aims to present key aspect of a future paper, which outlines the ongoing development ofa unified method for analysing and teaching Human-Robot-Interaction. The paper will propose a novel method for analysing both HRI, interaction with other forms of technologies and fellow humans......, drawing on key theories and methods from both communications- and interaction-theory. The aim is to provide a single unified method for analysing interaction, through means of video analysis and then applying theories, with proven mutual compatibility, to reach a desired granularity of study....

  19. Applying systemic-structural activity theory to design of human-computer interaction systems

    CERN Document Server

    Bedny, Gregory Z; Bedny, Inna

    2015-01-01

    Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) is an interdisciplinary field that has gained recognition as an important field in ergonomics. HCI draws on ideas and theoretical concepts from computer science, psychology, industrial design, and other fields. Human-Computer Interaction is no longer limited to trained software users. Today people interact with various devices such as mobile phones, tablets, and laptops. How can you make such interaction user friendly, even when user proficiency levels vary? This book explores methods for assessing the psychological complexity of computer-based tasks. It also p

  20. Interaction of human dipeptidyl peptidase IV and human immunodeficiency virus type-1 transcription transactivator in Sf9 cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reutter Werner

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPPIV also known as the T cell activation marker CD26 is a multifunctional protein which is involved in various biological processes. The association of human-DPPIV with components of the human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV1 is well documented and raised some discussions. Several reports implicated the interaction of human-DPPIV with the HIV1 transcription transactivator protein (HIV1-Tat and the inhibition of the dipeptidyl peptidase activity of DPPIV by the HIV1-Tat protein. Furthermore, enzyme kinetic data implied another binding site for the HIV1-Tat other than the active centre of DPPIV. However, the biological significance of this interaction of the HIV1-Tat protein and human-DPPIV has not been studied, yet. Therefore, we focused on the interaction of HIV1-Tat protein with DPPIV and investigated the subsequent biological consequences of this interaction in Spodoptera frugiperda cells, using the BAC-TO-BAC baculovirus system. Results The HIV1-Tat protein (Tat-BRU co-localized and co-immunoprecipitated with human-DPPIV protein, following co-expression in the baculovirus-driven Sf9 cell expression system. Furthermore, tyrosine phosphorylation of DPPIV protein was up-regulated in Tat/DPPIV-co-expressing cells after 72 h culturing and also in DPPIV-expressing Sf9 cells after application of purified recombinant Tat protein. As opposed to the expression of Tat alone, serine phosphorylation of the Tat protein was decreased when co-expressed with human-DPPIV protein. Conclusions We show for the first time that human-DPPIV and HIV1-Tat co-immunoprecipitate. Furthermore, our findings indicate that the interaction of HIV1-Tat and human-DPPIV may be involved in signalling platforms that regulate the biological function of both human-DPPIV and HIV1-Tat.

  1. Formal Proofs for Nonlinear Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Magron

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a formally verified global optimization framework. Given a semialgebraic or transcendental function f and a compact semialgebraic domain K, we use the nonlinear maxplus template approximation algorithm to provide a certified lower bound of f over K.This method allows to bound in a modular way some of the constituents of f by suprema of quadratic forms with a well chosen curvature. Thus, we reduce the initial goal to a hierarchy of semialgebraic optimization problems, solved by sums of squares relaxations. Our implementation tool interleaves  semialgebraic approximations with sums of squares witnesses to form certificates. It is interfaced with Coq and thus benefits from the trusted arithmetic available inside the proof assistant. This feature is used to produce, from the certificates, both valid underestimators and lower bounds for each approximated constituent.The application range for such a tool is widespread; for instance Hales' proof of Kepler's conjecture yields thousands of multivariate transcendental inequalities. We illustrate the performance of our formal framework on some of these inequalities as well as on examples from the global optimization literature.

  2. POWER AND HUMAN'S FREEDOM INTERACTION IN CONTEMPORARY WORLD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khatsenko A. N.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Hereby we substantiate the necessity of social philosophical analysis of power phenomena as due to power relations' change a human being and his values also transform. A knowledge convertation into power recourse has become a reason for authority humanization and democracy thus leading to total humans enslavement. People's intentions in aims achievement, their effectiveness and high level of organization let the authority not only manage them but also produce «obedient bodies». The authority area or in other words «focused» territory, or already experienced human activities and existing terms grow and widens. New social benefits and mobile shapes disconnected with «place» and territory appear. Thus, the «authority deterritorization» leads to the responsibility refusal for any actions and effective management consequences. New authority shapes start being exhibited as total control abolishment, where a person gains absolute choice of freedom solving his vital problems but without being supplied with choice bases. In today's world an authority, whose mission is to protect humans from anarchy, chooses risk as a new management paradigm. The mentioned reasons' entity depersonalizes the power relations where not only subordinates but also authorities become impersonal, where «authority subjects disappear». The contemporary authority research works by Alvin Toffler, Michel Foucault, Sigmund Bauman, focusing at power relations, determine the authority nature as an indefinite, newly shape taking and remoted from its final research definition

  3. The Human Factors of Graphic Interaction: Tasks and Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-12-01

    representation an interaction technique diagram. Our diagrams are not as detailed as the Labanotation [HUTC70], but unlike that notation they represent more...Conference Proceedings on Data Handling Devices (1970), 8. HUTC70 Hutchinson, A., " Labanotation ", Theatre Arts Books, New York (1970). IRVI76 Irving

  4. Inferring High-Confidence Human Protein-Protein Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Similarly, the top-ranked interaction between L-threonine dehydrogenase ( TDH ) and aminoacetone synthetase (alias of GCAT) catalyzes the conversion of L...acetyltransferase TDH 2 L-threonine dehydrogenase 2 577.4 11.0 1328.0 CXCL16 4 Inducible T cell co-stimulator CXCR6 4 Inducible T cell co-stimulator

  5. Long-term human-robot interaction with young users

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baxter, P.; Belpaeme, T.; Canamero, L.; Cosi, P.; Demiris, Y.; Enescu, V.; Et al.

    2011-01-01

    Artificial companion agents have the potential to combine novel means for effective health communication with young patients support and entertainment. However, the theory and practice of long-term child-robot interaction is currently an underdeveloped area of research. This paper introduces an appr

  6. Long-term human-robot interaction with young users

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baxter, P.; Belpaeme, T.; Canamero, L.; Cosi, P.; Demiris, Y.; Enescu, V.; Et al.

    2011-01-01

    Artificial companion agents have the potential to combine novel means for effective health communication with young patients support and entertainment. However, the theory and practice of long-term child-robot interaction is currently an underdeveloped area of research. This paper introduces an appr

  7. Motivation, Participation, and Engagement in Human Work Interaction Design Literature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clemmensen, Torkil; Campos, Pedro; Abdelnour-Nocera, José

    2016-01-01

    This position paper is aimed at presenting as discussion material at the CoPDA 2016 Workshop the preliminary results of a short review of the literature published by the HWID community in the last 10 years in four books. Specifically, the attention is posed on understanding the importance...... of motivation, participation, and engagement in Interaction Design projects for smart and pervasive workplaces...

  8. The MAHNOB Mimicry Database - a database of naturalistic human interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bilakhia, Sanjay; Petridis, Stavros; Nijholt, Anton; Pantic, Maja

    2015-01-01

    People mimic verbal and nonverbal expressions and behaviour of their counterparts in various social interactions. Research in psychology and social sciences has shown that mimicry has the power to influence social judgment and various social behaviours, including negotiation and debating, courtship,

  9. The importance of gene-environment interactions in human obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddon, Hudson; Guéant, Jean-Louis; Meyre, David

    2016-09-01

    The worldwide obesity epidemic has been mainly attributed to lifestyle changes. However, who becomes obese in an obesity-prone environment is largely determined by genetic factors. In the last 20 years, important progress has been made in the elucidation of the genetic architecture of obesity. In parallel with successful gene identifications, the number of gene-environment interaction (GEI) studies has grown rapidly. This paper reviews the growing body of evidence supporting gene-environment interactions in the field of obesity. Heritability, monogenic and polygenic obesity studies provide converging evidence that obesity-predisposing genes interact with a variety of environmental, lifestyle and treatment exposures. However, some skepticism remains regarding the validity of these studies based on several issues, which include statistical modelling, confounding, low replication rate, underpowered analyses, biological assumptions and measurement precision. What follows in this review includes (1) an introduction to the study of GEI, (2) the evidence of GEI in the field of obesity, (3) an outline of the biological mechanisms that may explain these interaction effects, (4) methodological challenges associated with GEI studies and potential solutions, and (5) future directions of GEI research. Thus far, this growing body of evidence has provided a deeper understanding of GEI influencing obesity and may have tremendous applications in the emerging field of personalized medicine and individualized lifestyle recommendations. © 2016 The Author(s). published by Portland Press Limited on behalf of the Biochemical Society.

  10. Playte, a tangible interface for engaging human-robot interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, David Johan; Fogh, Rune; Lund, Henrik Hautop

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes a tangible interface, Playte, designed for children animating interactive robots. The system supports physical manipulation of behaviors represented by LEGO bricks and allows the user to record and train their own new behaviors. Our objective is to explore several modes of in...

  11. Transnational HCI: Humans, Computers and Interactions in Global Contexts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vertesi, Janet; Lindtner, Silvia; Shklovski, Irina

    2011-01-01

    , but as evolving in relation to global processes, boundary crossings, frictions and hybrid practices. In doing so, we expand upon existing research in HCI to consider the effects, implications for individuals and communities, and design opportunities in times of increased transnational interactions. We hope...

  12. Temporal networks of face-to-face human interactions

    CERN Document Server

    Barrat, Alain

    2013-01-01

    The ever increasing adoption of mobile technologies and ubiquitous services allows to sense human behavior at unprecedented levels of details and scale. Wearable sensors are opening up a new window on human mobility and proximity at the finest resolution of face-to-face proximity. As a consequence, empirical data describing social and behavioral networks are acquiring a longitudinal dimension that brings forth new challenges for analysis and modeling. Here we review recent work on the representation and analysis of temporal networks of face-to-face human proximity, based on large-scale datasets collected in the context of the SocioPatterns collaboration. We show that the raw behavioral data can be studied at various levels of coarse-graining, which turn out to be complementary to one another, with each level exposing different features of the underlying system. We briefly review a generative model of temporal contact networks that reproduces some statistical observables. Then, we shift our focus from surface ...

  13. Structural principles within the human-virus protein-protein interaction network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franzosa, Eric A.; Xia, Yu

    2011-01-01

    General properties of the antagonistic biomolecular interactions between viruses and their hosts (exogenous interactions) remain poorly understood, and may differ significantly from known principles governing the cooperative interactions within the host (endogenous interactions). Systems biology approaches have been applied to study the combined interaction networks of virus and human proteins, but such efforts have so far revealed only low-resolution patterns of host-virus interaction. Here, we layer curated and predicted 3D structural models of human-virus and human-human protein complexes on top of traditional interaction networks to reconstruct the human-virus structural interaction network. This approach reveals atomic resolution, mechanistic patterns of host-virus interaction, and facilitates systematic comparison with the host’s endogenous interactions. We find that exogenous interfaces tend to overlap with and mimic endogenous interfaces, thereby competing with endogenous binding partners. The endogenous interfaces mimicked by viral proteins tend to participate in multiple endogenous interactions which are transient and regulatory in nature. While interface overlap in the endogenous network results largely from gene duplication followed by divergent evolution, viral proteins frequently achieve interface mimicry without any sequence or structural similarity to an endogenous binding partner. Finally, while endogenous interfaces tend to evolve more slowly than the rest of the protein surface, exogenous interfaces—including many sites of endogenous-exogenous overlap—tend to evolve faster, consistent with an evolutionary “arms race” between host and pathogen. These significant biophysical, functional, and evolutionary differences between host-pathogen and within-host protein-protein interactions highlight the distinct consequences of antagonism versus cooperation in biological networks. PMID:21680884

  14. Neural Signatures of Trust During Human-Automation Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-01

    connectivity changes following explicit-memory training for face-name pairs in patients with mild cognitive impairment: a pilot study. Neurorehabil Neural...Descriptions Human: Mr. Steve Williams Mr. Steve Williams (Human) is a trained luggage screener, with extensive knowledge in identifying illegal imports... Extraversion 41.92 ± 3.37 40.42 ± 3.26 t = 1.11, p = .280 Openness 37.75 ± 3.60 36.92 ± 4.72 t = 0.49, p = .631 Agreeableness 38.67 ± 4.05 41.00

  15. The direct liquefaction proof of concept program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Comolli, A.G.; Lee, L.K.; Pradhan, V.R.; Stalzer, R.H. [New York & Puritan Avenues, Lawrenceville, NJ (United States)

    1995-12-31

    The goal of the Proof of Concept (POC) Program is to develop Direct Coal Liquefaction and associated transitional technologies towards commercial readiness for economically producing premium liquid fuels from coal in an environmentally acceptable manner. The program focuses on developing the two-stage liquefaction (TSL) process by utilizing geographically strategic feedstocks, commercially feasible catalysts, new prototype equipment, and testing co-processing or alternate feedstocks and improved process configurations. Other high priority objectives include dispersed catalyst studies, demonstrating low rank coal liquefaction without solids deposition, improving distillate yields on a unit reactor volume basis, demonstrating ebullated bed operations while obtaining scale-up data, demonstrating optimum catalyst consumption using new concepts (e.g. regeneration, cascading), producing premium products through on-line hydrotreating, demonstrating improved hydrogen utilization for low rank coals using novel heteroatom removal methods, defining and demonstrating two-stage product properties for upgrading; demonstrating efficient and economic solid separation methods, examining the merits of integrated coal cleaning, demonstrating co-processing, studying interactions between the preheater and first and second-stage reactors, improving process operability by testing and incorporating advanced equipment and instrumentation, and demonstrating operation with alternate coal feedstocks. During the past two years major PDU Proof of Concept runs were completed. POC-1 with Illinois No. 6 coal and POC-2 with Black Thunder sub-bituminous coal. Results from these operations are continuing under review and the products are being further refined and upgraded. This paper will update the results from these operations and discuss future plans for the POC program.

  16. Tolerance and Pharmacokinetic Interactions of Rifabutin and Clarithromycin in Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected Volunteers†

    OpenAIRE

    Hafner, Richard; Bethel, James; Power, Maureen; Landry, Bernard; Banach, Mary; Mole, Larry; Standiford, Harold C.; Follansbee, Stephen; Kumar, Princy; Raasch, Ralph; Cohn, David; Mushatt, David; Drusano, George

    1998-01-01

    This study evaluated the tolerance and potential pharmacokinetic interactions between clarithromycin (500 mg every 12 h) and rifabutin (300 mg daily) in clinically stable human immunodeficiency virus-infected volunteers with CD4 counts of

  17. Personal experience and reputation interact in human decisions to help reciprocally

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molleman, Lucas; van den Broek, Eva; Egas, Martijn

    2013-01-01

    There is ample evidence that human cooperative behaviour towards other individuals is often conditioned on information about previous interactions. This information derives both from personal experience (direct reciprocity) and from experience of others (i.e. reputation; indirect reciprocity).

  18. Personal experience and reputation interact in human decisions to help reciprocally.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molleman, L.; van den Broek, E.; Egas, M.

    2013-01-01

    There is ample evidence that human cooperative behaviour towards other individuals is often conditioned on information about previous interactions. This information derives both from personal experience (direct reciprocity) and from experience of others (i.e. reputation; indirect reciprocity).

  19. Ambulatory Sensing of the Dynamic interaction between the human body and the environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veltink, Petrus H.; Schepers, H. Martin; Cooper, R.A.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a method to estimate power transfer between the human body and the environment during short interactions and relatively arbitrary movements with net displacement and varying loads (mass and spring), and appeared to be accurate within 4%.

  20. Sequent calculus proof systems for inductive definitions

    OpenAIRE

    Brotherston, James

    2006-01-01

    Inductive definitions are the most natural means by which to represent many families of structures occurring in mathematics and computer science, and their corresponding induction / recursion principles provide the fundamental proof techniques by which to reason about such families. This thesis studies formal proof systems for inductive definitions, as needed, e.g., for inductive proof support in automated theorem proving tools. The systems are formulated as sequent calculi for...

  1. Lakatos and Hersh on Mathematical Proof

    OpenAIRE

    حسین بیات

    2015-01-01

    The concept of Mathematical Proof has been controversial for the past few decades. Different philosophers have offered different theories about the nature of Mathematical Proof, among which theories presented by Lakatos and Hersh have had significant similarities and differences with each other. It seems that a comparison and critical review of these two theories will lead to a better understanding of the concept of mathematical proof and will be a big step towards solving many related proble...

  2. A Software Framework for Multimodal Human-Computer Interaction Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shen, Jie; Pantic, Maja

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes a software framework we designed and implemented for the development and research in the area of multimodal human-computer interface. The proposed framework is based on publish / subscribe architecture, which allows developers and researchers to conveniently configure, test and

  3. Brain-Computer Interfaces and Human-Computer Interaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tan, Desney; Nijholt, Anton; Tan, Desney S.; Nijholt, Anton

    2010-01-01

    Advances in cognitive neuroscience and brain imaging technologies have started to provide us with the ability to interface directly with the human brain. This ability is made possible through the use of sensors that can monitor some of the physical processes that occur within the brain that correspo

  4. Molecular basis of indomethacin-human serum albumin interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trivedi, V D; Vorum, H; Honoré, B

    1999-01-01

    Studies on the strength and extent of binding of the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug indomethacin to human serum albumin (HSA) have provided conflicting results. In the present work, the serum-binding of indomethacin was studied in 55 mM sodium phosphate buffer (pH 7.0) at 28 degrees C, by u...

  5. Tactile Cuing to Augment Multisensory Human-Machine Interaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hancock, P.A.; Lawson, B.; Cholewiak, R.; Elliott, L.R.; Erp, J.B.F. van; Mortimer, B.J.P.; Rupert, A.; Redden, E.S.

    2015-01-01

    Tactile displays promise to improve the information-processing capacity of operators, especially when used in conjunction with visual and auditory displays. In this article, we describe current applications and future directions in tactile cuing. © 2015 by Human Factors and Ergonomics Society. All r

  6. Diet-microbiota interactions as moderators of human metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonnenburg, Justin L; Bäckhed, Gert Fredrik

    2016-01-01

    are coming to light through a powerful combination of translation-focused animal models and studies in humans. A body of knowledge is accumulating that points to the gut microbiota as a mediator of dietary impact on the host metabolic status. Efforts are focusing on the establishment of causal relationships...

  7. Brain-Computer Interfaces and Human-Computer Interaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tan, Desney; Tan, Desney S.; Nijholt, Antinus

    2010-01-01

    Advances in cognitive neuroscience and brain imaging technologies have started to provide us with the ability to interface directly with the human brain. This ability is made possible through the use of sensors that can monitor some of the physical processes that occur within the brain that

  8. A Software Framework for Multimodal Human-Computer Interaction Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shen, Jie; Pantic, Maja

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes a software framework we designed and implemented for the development and research in the area of multimodal human-computer interface. The proposed framework is based on publish / subscribe architecture, which allows developers and researchers to conveniently configure, test and

  9. Interactive human behavior analysis in open or public spaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hung, H.; Odobez, J.M.; Gavrila, D.M.

    2011-01-01

    In the past years, efforts in surveillance and open space analysis have focused on traditional computer vision problems like scene modeling or object detection and tracking. Research on human behavior recognition have tended to work on predefined simple activities such as running, jumping or left lu

  10. An Animation Framework for Continuous Interaction with Reactive Virtual Humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reidsma, Dennis; Zwiers, Jakob; Ruttkay, Z.M.; ter Maat, Mark; Nijholt, Antinus; Egges, A.; van Welbergen, H.; Hondorp, G.H.W.

    2009-01-01

    We present a complete framework for animation of Reactive Virtual Humans that offers a mixed animation paradigm: control of different body parts switches between keyframe animation, procedural animation and physical simulation, depending on the requirements of the moment. This framework implements

  11. Ecological Interactions of Bacteria in the Human Gut

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falony, Gwen; de Vuyst, Luc

    The colon or large intestine is one of the most important organs of the human body (Macfarlane and Cummings, 1991). Moreover, its inhabitants, the colon microbiota, are the key elements of the human digestive ecosystem. The vast complexity of the human large-intestinal microbiota has inspired researchers to consider it as an organ itself, located inside the colon and acquired postnatally (Bäckhed et al., 2005; Zocco et al., 2007). From a physiologist's point of view, this image of the colon microbiota is relevant: like an organ, it is composed of different cell lineages that communicate with both one another and the host; it consumes, stores, and redistributes energy; it mediates physiologically important chemical transformations; and it is able to maintain and repair itself through self-replication (Bäckhed et al., 2005). As a microbial organ, the human colon community does not only broaden the digestive abilities of the host (Gill et al., 2006), but also influences body processes far beyond digestion (Roberfroid, 2005b; Turnbaugh et al., 2007).

  12. Drum-mate: interaction dynamics and gestures in human-humanoid drumming experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kose-Bagci, Hatice; Dautenhahn, Kerstin; Syrdal, Dag S.; Nehaniv, Chrystopher L.

    2010-06-01

    This article investigates the role of interaction kinesics in human-robot interaction (HRI). We adopted a bottom-up, synthetic approach towards interactive competencies in robots using simple, minimal computational models underlying the robot's interaction dynamics. We present two empirical, exploratory studies investigating a drumming experience with a humanoid robot (KASPAR) and a human. In the first experiment, the turn-taking behaviour of the humanoid is deterministic and the non-verbal gestures of the robot accompany its drumming to assess the impact of non-verbal gestures on the interaction. The second experiment studies a computational framework that facilitates emergent turn-taking dynamics, whereby the particular dynamics of turn-taking emerge from the social interaction between the human and the humanoid. The results from the HRI experiments are presented and analysed qualitatively (in terms of the participants' subjective experiences) and quantitatively (concerning the drumming performance of the human-robot pair). The results point out a trade-off between the subjective evaluation of the drumming experience from the perspective of the participants and the objective evaluation of the drumming performance. A certain number of gestures was preferred as a motivational factor in the interaction. The participants preferred the models underlying the robot's turn-taking which enable the robot and human to interact more and provide turn-taking closer to 'natural' human-human conversations, despite differences in objective measures of drumming behaviour. The results are consistent with the temporal behaviour matching hypothesis previously proposed in the literature which concerns the effect that the participants adapt their own interaction dynamics to the robot's.

  13. Human Robotic Swarm Interaction Using An Artificial Physics Approach (Briefing Charts)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    Human Robotic Swarm Interaction Using An Artificial Physics Approach LT Brenton Campbell ADVISORS: Asst Professor Dr. Timothy Chung Senior Lecturer...REPORT DATE DEC 2014 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2014 to 00-00-2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Human Robotic Swarm Interaction Using An...and R. Heil, “Distributed, physics-based control of swarms of vehicles,” Autonomous Robots, pp. 137–162, 2004. [Online]. Available: http

  14. On the interaction of the ultrashort laser pulses with human brain matter

    CERN Document Server

    Marciak-Kozlowska, J

    2011-01-01

    In this paper the modified Schrodinger equation for attosecond laser pulses interaction with "atoms" of human brain . i.e. neurons is developed and solved. Considering that the mass of the human neuron is of the order of Planck mass =10-5 g the model equation for Planck masses is applied to the laser pulse neuron interaction. Key words: Modified Schr\\"odinger Equation, Planck particles, neurons

  15. A Meta-Analysis of Factors Affecting Trust in Human-Robot Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-01

    display a currently valid OMB control number. 1. REPORT DATE OCT 2011 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2011 to 00-00-2011 4. TITLE AND... validating metrics for the evaluation of a wide spectrum of human-robot interactions (HRI) issues (Steinfeld et al., 2006); designing human-robot...almost exclusively via subjective response, measured one time after a specific interaction. However, physiological indicators, such as oxytocin -related

  16. Design of Food Management Information System Based on Human-computer Interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xingkai Cui

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Food safety problem is directly related with public health. This study takes the necessity of establishing food management information system as the breakthrough point, through the interpretation of the overview of human-computer interaction technology, as well as the conceptual framework of human-computer interaction, it discusses the construction of food management information system, expecting to promote China's food safety management process so as to guarantee public health guarantee.

  17. The human-computer interaction design of self-operated mobile telemedicine devices

    OpenAIRE

    Zheng, Shaoqing

    2015-01-01

    Human-computer interaction (HCI) is an important issue in the area of medicine, for example, the operation of surgical simulators, virtual rehabilitation systems, telemedicine treatments, and so on. In this thesis, the human-computer interaction of a self-operated mobile telemedicine device is designed. The mobile telemedicine device (i.e. intelligent Medication Box or iMedBox) is used for remotely monitoring patient health and activity information such as ECG (electrocardiogram) signals, hom...

  18. Motion Coordination and Adaptation Using Deception and Human Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-18

    differential equation solvers, while only arithmetic calculations are needed in discrete time GT-DDP. Therefore, the time cost per iteration is faster...Using Control Lyapunov Functions and Optimal Control. Networks and Heterogeneous Media , Vol. 10, No. 3, pp. 609-630, Sept. 2015. 2. T. Setter, A...Swarm Interactions Using Control Lyapunov Functions and Optimal Control. Networks and Heterogeneous Media , Vol. 10, No. 3, pp. 609-630, Sept. 2015. T

  19. Introduction to proof in abstract mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Wohlgemuth, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    The primary purpose of this undergraduate text is to teach students to do mathematical proofs. It enables readers to recognize the elements that constitute an acceptable proof, and it develops their ability to do proofs of routine problems as well as those requiring creative insights. The self-contained treatment features many exercises, problems, and selected answers, including worked-out solutions. Starting with sets and rules of inference, this text covers functions, relations, operation, and the integers. Additional topics include proofs in analysis, cardinality, and groups. Six appendixe

  20. Teaching Human Poses Interactively to a Social Robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel A. Salichs

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The main activity of social robots is to interact with people. In order to do that, the robot must be able to understand what the user is saying or doing. Typically, this capability consists of pre-programmed behaviors or is acquired through controlled learning processes, which are executed before the social interaction begins. This paper presents a software architecture that enables a robot to learn poses in a similar way as people do. That is, hearing its teacher’s explanations and acquiring new knowledge in real time. The architecture leans on two main components: an RGB-D (Red-, Green-, Blue- Depth -based visual system, which gathers the user examples, and an Automatic Speech Recognition (ASR system, which processes the speech describing those examples. The robot is able to naturally learn the poses the teacher is showing to it by maintaining a natural interaction with the teacher. We evaluate our system with 24 users who teach the robot a predetermined set of poses. The experimental results show that, with a few training examples, the system reaches high accuracy and robustness. This method shows how to combine data from the visual and auditory systems for the acquisition of new knowledge in a natural manner. Such a natural way of training enables robots to learn from users, even if they are not experts in robotics.

  1. Teaching Human Poses Interactively to a Social Robot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Pacheco, Victor; Malfaz, Maria; Fernandez, Fernando; Salichs, Miguel A.

    2013-01-01

    The main activity of social robots is to interact with people. In order to do that, the robot must be able to understand what the user is saying or doing. Typically, this capability consists of pre-programmed behaviors or is acquired through controlled learning processes, which are executed before the social interaction begins. This paper presents a software architecture that enables a robot to learn poses in a similar way as people do. That is, hearing its teacher's explanations and acquiring new knowledge in real time. The architecture leans on two main components: an RGB-D (Red-, Green-, Blue- Depth) -based visual system, which gathers the user examples, and an Automatic Speech Recognition (ASR) system, which processes the speech describing those examples. The robot is able to naturally learn the poses the teacher is showing to it by maintaining a natural interaction with the teacher. We evaluate our system with 24 users who teach the robot a predetermined set of poses. The experimental results show that, with a few training examples, the system reaches high accuracy and robustness. This method shows how to combine data from the visual and auditory systems for the acquisition of new knowledge in a natural manner. Such a natural way of training enables robots to learn from users, even if they are not experts in robotics. PMID:24048336

  2. Virtual Partner Interaction (VPI: exploring novel behaviors via coordination dynamics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J A Scott Kelso

    Full Text Available Inspired by the dynamic clamp of cellular neuroscience, this paper introduces VPI -- Virtual Partner Interaction -- a coupled dynamical system for studying real time interaction between a human and a machine. In this proof of concept study, human subjects coordinate hand movements with a virtual partner, an avatar of a hand whose movements are driven by a computerized version of the Haken-Kelso-Bunz (HKB equations that have been shown to govern basic forms of human coordination. As a surrogate system for human social coordination, VPI allows one to examine regions of the parameter space not typically explored during live interactions. A number of novel behaviors never previously observed are uncovered and accounted for. Having its basis in an empirically derived theory of human coordination, VPI offers a principled approach to human-machine interaction and opens up new ways to understand how humans interact with human-like machines including identification of underlying neural mechanisms.

  3. Bistatic SAR: Proof of Concept.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yocky, David A.; Doren, Neall E.; Bacon, Terry A.; Wahl, Daniel E.; Eichel, Paul H.; Jakowatz, Charles V,; Delaplain, Gilbert G.; Dubbert, Dale F.; Tise, Bertice L.; White, Kyle R.

    2014-10-01

    Typical synthetic aperture RADAR (SAR) imaging employs a co-located RADAR transmitter and receiver. Bistatic SAR imaging separates the transmitter and receiver locations. A bistatic SAR configuration allows for the transmitter and receiver(s) to be in a variety of geometric alignments. Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) / New Mexico proposed the deployment of a ground-based RADAR receiver. This RADAR receiver was coupled with the capability of digitizing and recording the signal collected. SNL proposed the possibility of creating an image of targets the illuminating SAR observes. This document describes the developed hardware, software, bistatic SAR configuration, and its deployment to test the concept of a ground-based bistatic SAR. In the proof-of-concept experiments herein, the RADAR transmitter will be a commercial SAR satellite and the RADAR receiver will be deployed at ground level, observing and capturing RADAR ground/targets illuminated by the satellite system.

  4. A Toolset for Supporting Iterative Human Automation: Interaction in Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feary, Michael S.

    2010-01-01

    The addition of automation has greatly extended humans' capability to accomplish tasks, including those that are difficult, complex and safety critical. The majority of Human - Automation Interacton (HAl) results in more efficient and safe operations, ho,,:,ever ertain unpected atomatlon behaviors or "automation surprises" can be frustrating and, In certain safety critical operations (e.g. transporttion, manufacturing control, medicine), may result in injuries or. the loss of life.. (Mellor, 1994; Leveson, 1995; FAA, 1995; BASI, 1998; Sheridan, 2002). This papr describes he development of a design tool that enables on the rapid development and evaluation. of automaton prototypes. The ultimate goal of the work is to provide a design platform upon which automation surprise vulnerability analyses can be integrated.

  5. Human Machine Interaction by Simulation of Dynamics of Construction Machinery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langer, Thomas Heegaard

    This industrial Ph.D. project concerns whole-body vibrations in human operated construction machinery. The emissions of these vibrations is closely related to the subjective experience of comfort and in some cases these vibrations can occur in a level which can cause the operator back disorders...... on long term basis. Whole-body vibrations are potential damaging for the human operator in a frequency range for which the dynamics of the machines are dominated by the inputs of the operator. The objective of this project is to reduce the amount of potential damaging wholebody vibrations for two...... different kinds of machinery; an articulated backhoe loader and an articulated dump truck. In this work a standardized procedure containing a set of duty cycles for measuring and declaring whole-body vibrations has been proposed for both of these machines. The result of the measuring is important...

  6. Acanthamoeba castellanii: morphological analysis of the interaction with human cornea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omaña-Molina, Maritza; González-Robles, Arturo; Salazar-Villatoro, Lizbeth Iliana; Cristóbal-Ramos, Ana Ruth; González-Lázaro, Mónica; Salinas-Moreno, Edmundo; Méndez-Cruz, Rene; Sánchez-Cornejo, Manuel; De la Torre-González, Enrique; Martínez-Palomo, Adolfo

    2010-09-01

    The present study demonstrates that when Acanthamoeba castellanii trophozoites are co-cultivated with isolated human corneas, the amoeba can be invasive and cause damage to the intact corneal epithelium without the requirement of previous corneal abrasion. After adhesion, A. castellanii trophozoites migrate between cells forming bumps on the corneal cell layers and reaching Bowman s membrane in 3h, although no evidence of cell damage was observed until the phagocytic process was detected. Likewise, conditioned medium produced damage to the corneal cells that was proportional to the time of incubation, but this cytophatic effect involved only the most superficial layer of the human cornea and was not enough to explain amoebic invasion of Bowman s membrane. As a result of our observations, we suggest that the mechanical action of the trophozoites and phagocytosis of corneal cells during the process of corneal invasion are more important than previously suggested.

  7. [Human interaction, social cognition, and the superior temporal sulcus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunelle, Francis; Saitovitch, Anna; Boddaert, Nathalie; Grevent, David; Cambier, Jean; Lelord, Gilbert; Samson, Yves; Zilbovicius, Monica

    2013-01-01

    Human beings are social animals. This ability to live together is ensured by cognitive functions, the neuroanatomical bases of which are starting to be unraveled by MRI-based studies. The regions and network engaged in this process are known as the "social brain ". The core of this network is the superior temporal sulcus (STS), which integrates sensory and emotional inputs. Modeling studies of healthy volunteers have shown the role of the STS.in recognizing others as biological beings, as well as facial and eye-gaze recognition, intentionality and emotions. This cognitive capacity has been described as the "theory of mind ". Pathological models such as autism, in which the main clinical abnormality is altered social abilities and communication, have confirmed the role of the STS in the social brain. Conceptualisation of this empathic capacity has been described as "meta cognition ", which forms the basis of human social organizationand culture.

  8. Dynamics of energy harvesting backpack with human being interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Yue; Zuo, Lei

    2016-04-01

    In last ten years, a lot of researchers have begun to look into obtaining electricity from the movement between human and their backpack that occurs during walking. In this paper, an innovative, elastically-suspended backpack with mechanical motion rectifier (MMR) based energy harvester is developed to generate electricity with high efficiency and reliability. Up to 28 Watts peak electrical power can be produced by the MMR based backpack energy harvester. A dynamic model for the system is presented along with experimental results. Three dual mass models for different distinct harvesters: pure viscous, non MMR, and MMR, are proposed, and a comparison in the output power and human comfort between the three models is discussed.

  9. Deflating Autonomy: Human Interactivity in the Emerging Social World

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cowley, Stephen; Gahrn-Andersen, Rasmus

    2015-01-01

    This article critiques recent enactivist attempts to bridge an epistemological divide between the individual and the social (i.e. to fill in the posited macro-micro gap). Its central claim is that an inflated view of ‘autonomy’ leads to error. Scrutinising two contributions, we find that methodol...... that methodological solipsism taints Varela’s model: It induces De Jaegher & Di Paolo to ascribe social knowledge to perturbances – contingencies whose logic arises from the closed organization of an individual (De Jaegher & Di Paolo, 2007) and Steiner & Stewart to posit that the pre.......) with on-going social and environmental activity. This human kind of heteronomy links social processes to agent-environment systems that sustain – and are sustained by – historically positioned modes of life. Far from being organisationally closed, human subjects depend on using sensorimotoric prompts...

  10. A Framework for Agent-based Human Interaction Support

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Axel Bürkle

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we describe an agent-based infrastructure for multimodal perceptual systems which aims at developing and realizing computer services that are delivered to humans in an implicit and unobtrusive way. The framework presented here supports the implementation of human-centric context-aware applications providing non-obtrusive assistance to participants in events such as meetings, lectures, conferences and presentations taking place in indoor "smart spaces". We emphasize on the design and implementation of an agent-based framework that supports "pluggable" service logic in the sense that the service developer can concentrate on coding the service logic independently of the underlying middleware. Furthermore, we give an example of the architecture's ability to support the cooperation of multiple services in a meeting scenario using an intelligent connector service and a semantic web oriented travel service.

  11. DrawCompileEvolve: Sparking interactive evolutionary art with human creations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Jinhong; Taarnby, Rasmus; Liapis, Antonios

    2015-01-01

    , which can be evolved interactively, allowing the user to change the image’s colors, patterns and ultimately transform it. The human artist has direct control while drawing the initial seed of an evolutionary run and indirect control while interactively evolving it, thus making DrawCompileEvolve a mixed...

  12. Gene × Smoking Interactions on Human Brain Gene Expression: Finding Common Mechanisms in Adolescents and Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolock, Samuel L.; Yates, Andrew; Petrill, Stephen A.; Bohland, Jason W.; Blair, Clancy; Li, Ning; Machiraju, Raghu; Huang, Kun; Bartlett, Christopher W.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Numerous studies have examined gene × environment interactions (G × E) in cognitive and behavioral domains. However, these studies have been limited in that they have not been able to directly assess differential patterns of gene expression in the human brain. Here, we assessed G × E interactions using two publically available datasets…

  13. Enhancing Human-Computer Interaction Design Education: Teaching Affordance Design for Emerging Mobile Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faiola, Anthony; Matei, Sorin Adam

    2010-01-01

    The evolution of human-computer interaction design (HCID) over the last 20 years suggests that there is a growing need for educational scholars to consider new and more applicable theoretical models of interactive product design. The authors suggest that such paradigms would call for an approach that would equip HCID students with a better…

  14. The Human-Computer Interaction of Cross-Cultural Gaming Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Joyram; Norcio, Anthony F.; Van Der Veer, Jacob J.; Andre, Charles F.; Miller, Zachary; Regelsberger, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    This article explores the cultural dimensions of the human-computer interaction that underlies gaming strategies. The article is a desktop study of existing literature and is organized into five sections. The first examines the cultural aspects of knowledge processing. The social constructs technology interaction is discussed. Following this, the…

  15. Gene × Smoking Interactions on Human Brain Gene Expression: Finding Common Mechanisms in Adolescents and Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolock, Samuel L.; Yates, Andrew; Petrill, Stephen A.; Bohland, Jason W.; Blair, Clancy; Li, Ning; Machiraju, Raghu; Huang, Kun; Bartlett, Christopher W.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Numerous studies have examined gene × environment interactions (G × E) in cognitive and behavioral domains. However, these studies have been limited in that they have not been able to directly assess differential patterns of gene expression in the human brain. Here, we assessed G × E interactions using two publically available datasets…

  16. Dietary whole grain-microbiota interactions: Insights into mechanisms for human health

    Science.gov (United States)

    This article summarizes the presentations from the “Dietary whole grain-microbiota interactions: Insights into mechanisms for human health” symposium held at the ASN Annual Meeting in San Diego, CA on April 28, 2014. The symposium focused on the interactive effects of whole grains and non-digestible...

  17. Holistic Modeling for Human-Autonomous System Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Dekker  and  Woods,  1999;   Hollnagel,  2003;   Klein ,  2000;   Klein ,  et  al.,  1989;  Lewis  and  Wharton,  1997...complexities  of  human  perception,  cognition,   emotions ,   and  decision-­‐making.  Second,  the  CHAS  model  requires

  18. Human-Robot Interaction: Intention Recognition and Mutual Entrainment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-18

    robot force control,” Robotica , vol. 15, no. 05, pp. 473–482, 1997. [35] N. Jarrassé, J. Paik, V. Pasqui, and G. Morel, “How can human motion prediction...2009. [35] C.-L. Shih, J.W. Grizzle, and C. Chevallereau, “From Stable Walking to Steering of a 3D Bipedal Robot with Passive Point Feet,” Robotica

  19. Teaching logic using a state-of-art proof assistant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maxim Hendriks

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the system ProofWeb developed for teaching logic to undergraduate computer science students. The system is based on the higher order proof assistant Coq, and is made available to the students through an interactive web interface. Part of this system is a large database of logic problems. This database will also hold the solutions of the students. The students do not need to install anything to be able to use the system (not even a browser plug-in, and the teachers are able to centrally track progress of the students. The system makes the full power of Coq available to the students, but simultaneously presents the logic problems in a way that is customary in undergraduate logic courses. Both styles of presenting natural deduction proofs (Gentzen-style `tree view' and Fitch-style `box view' are supported. Part of the system is a parser that indicates whether the students used the automation of Coq to solve their problems or that they solved it themselves using only the inference rules of the logic. For these inference rules dedicated tactics for Coq have been developed. The system has already been used in type theory courses and logic undergraduate courses. The ProofWeb system can be tried at http://proofweb.cs.ru.nl/.

  20. Hands-free human-machine interaction with voice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juang, B. H.

    2001-05-01

    Voice is natural communication interface between a human and a machine. The machine, when placed in today's communication networks, may be configured to provide automation to save substantial operating cost, as demonstrated in AT&T's VRCP (Voice Recognition Call Processing), or to facilitate intelligent services, such as virtual personal assistants, to enhance individual productivity. These intelligent services often need to be accessible anytime, anywhere (e.g., in cars when the user is in a hands-busy-eyes-busy situation or during meetings where constantly talking to a microphone is either undersirable or impossible), and thus call for advanced signal processing and automatic speech recognition techniques which support what we call ``hands-free'' human-machine communication. These techniques entail a broad spectrum of technical ideas, ranging from use of directional microphones and acoustic echo cancellatiion to robust speech recognition. In this talk, we highlight a number of key techniques that were developed for hands-free human-machine communication in the mid-1990s after Bell Labs became a unit of Lucent Technologies. A video clip will be played to demonstrate the accomplishement.

  1. [The human gut microbiota: Interactions with the host and dysfunctions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepage, P

    2017-05-12

    The human intestinal microbiota is composed of approximately 100,000 billion microorganisms with the average total number of different commensal bacterial species estimated at over 500 per individual. The human intestinal microbiota can be considered as an organ within another, which co-evolved with its host to achieve a symbiotic relationship leading to physiological homeostasis. The host provides an environment enriched in nutrients and the microbiota provides essential functions. Dysbiosis of the intestinal microbiota (changes in bacterial composition) has been associated with local dysfunctions of the gastrointestinal tract, such as inflammatory bowel disease or irritable bowel syndrome but also with obesity and metabolic diseases. However, a better understanding of the human intestinal ecosystem is still needed to understand the exact role of the microbiota in health and disease. Most intestinal bacteria are anaerobic and therefore, for the large majority, impossible to culture at present. Consequently, their function cannot be inferred from data on their composition. Today, with the help of a metagenomic approach, the bacterial genomic content of an ecosystem and the associated functions can be directly accessed from the environment without culture. Copyright © 2017 SPLF. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. Interactions between space and effectiveness in human multisensory performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nidiffer, Aaron R; Stevenson, Ryan A; Krueger Fister, Juliane; Barnett, Zachary P; Wallace, Mark T

    2016-07-29

    Several stimulus factors are important in multisensory integration, including the spatial and temporal relationships of the paired stimuli as well as their effectiveness. Changes in these factors have been shown to dramatically change the nature and magnitude of multisensory interactions. Typically, these factors are considered in isolation, although there is a growing appreciation for the fact that they are likely to be strongly interrelated. Here, we examined interactions between two of these factors - spatial location and effectiveness - in dictating performance in the localization of an audiovisual target. A psychophysical experiment was conducted in which participants reported the perceived location of visual flashes and auditory noise bursts presented alone and in combination. Stimuli were presented at four spatial locations relative to fixation (0°, 30°, 60°, 90°) and at two intensity levels (high, low). Multisensory combinations were always spatially coincident and of the matching intensity (high-high or low-low). In responding to visual stimuli alone, localization accuracy decreased and response times (RTs) increased as stimuli were presented at more eccentric locations. In responding to auditory stimuli, performance was poorest at the 30° and 60° locations. For both visual and auditory stimuli, accuracy was greater and RTs were faster for more intense stimuli. For responses to visual-auditory stimulus combinations, performance enhancements were found at locations in which the unisensory performance was lowest, results concordant with the concept of inverse effectiveness. RTs for these multisensory presentations frequently violated race-model predictions, implying integration of these inputs, and a significant location-by-intensity interaction was observed. Performance gains under multisensory conditions were larger as stimuli were positioned at more peripheral locations, and this increase was most pronounced for the low-intensity conditions. These

  3. Why College or University Students Hate Proofs in Mathematics?

    OpenAIRE

    Mbaïtiga Zacharie

    2009-01-01

    Problem Statement: A proof is a notoriously difficult mathematical concept for students. Empirical studies have shown that students emerge from proof-oriented courses such as high-school geometry, introduction to proof, complex and abstract algebra unable to construct anything beyond very trivial proofs. Furthermore, most university students do not know what constitutes a proof and cannot determine whether a purported proof is valid. A proof is a convincing method that demonstrates with gener...

  4. Pragmatic Frames for Teaching and Learning in Human-Robot Interaction: Review and Challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vollmer, Anna-Lisa; Wrede, Britta; Rohlfing, Katharina J; Oudeyer, Pierre-Yves

    2016-01-01

    One of the big challenges in robotics today is to learn from human users that are inexperienced in interacting with robots but yet are often used to teach skills flexibly to other humans and to children in particular. A potential route toward natural and efficient learning and teaching in Human-Robot Interaction (HRI) is to leverage the social competences of humans and the underlying interactional mechanisms. In this perspective, this article discusses the importance of pragmatic frames as flexible interaction protocols that provide important contextual cues to enable learners to infer new action or language skills and teachers to convey these cues. After defining and discussing the concept of pragmatic frames, grounded in decades of research in developmental psychology, we study a selection of HRI work in the literature which has focused on learning-teaching interaction and analyze the interactional and learning mechanisms that were used in the light of pragmatic frames. This allows us to show that many of the works have already used in practice, but not always explicitly, basic elements of the pragmatic frames machinery. However, we also show that pragmatic frames have so far been used in a very restricted way as compared to how they are used in human-human interaction and argue that this has been an obstacle preventing robust natural multi-task learning and teaching in HRI. In particular, we explain that two central features of human pragmatic frames, mostly absent of existing HRI studies, are that (1) social peers use rich repertoires of frames, potentially combined together, to convey and infer multiple kinds of cues; (2) new frames can be learnt continually, building on existing ones, and guiding the interaction toward higher levels of complexity and expressivity. To conclude, we give an outlook on the future research direction describing the relevant key challenges that need to be solved for leveraging pragmatic frames for robot learning and teaching.

  5. Crabby Interactions: Fifth Graders Explore Human Impact on the Blue Crab Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffery, Tonya D.; McCollough, Cherie A.; Moore, Kim

    2016-01-01

    This article describes a two-day lesson in which fifth-grade students took on the role of marine biology scientists, using their critical-thinking and problem-solving skills to explore human impact on the blue crab ecosystem. The purpose of "Crabby Interactions" was to help students understand the impact of human activities on the local…

  6. Human body micro-environment: The benefits of controlling airflow interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melikov, Arsen Krikor

    2015-01-01

    This paper focuses on the micro-environment around a human body, and especially on its interaction with the surrounding environment. Research on the free convection flow generated by a human body (including the convective boundary layer around the body and the thermal plume above the body), its...

  7. Optimal design method to minimize users' thinking mapping load in human-machine interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yanqun; Li, Xu; Zhang, Jie

    2015-01-01

    The discrepancy between human cognition and machine requirements/behaviors usually results in serious mental thinking mapping loads or even disasters in product operating. It is important to help people avoid human-machine interaction confusions and difficulties in today's mental work mastered society. Improving the usability of a product and minimizing user's thinking mapping and interpreting load in human-machine interactions. An optimal human-machine interface design method is introduced, which is based on the purpose of minimizing the mental load in thinking mapping process between users' intentions and affordance of product interface states. By analyzing the users' thinking mapping problem, an operating action model is constructed. According to human natural instincts and acquired knowledge, an expected ideal design with minimized thinking loads is uniquely determined at first. Then, creative alternatives, in terms of the way human obtains operational information, are provided as digital interface states datasets. In the last, using the cluster analysis method, an optimum solution is picked out from alternatives, by calculating the distances between two datasets. Considering multiple factors to minimize users' thinking mapping loads, a solution nearest to the ideal value is found in the human-car interaction design case. The clustering results show its effectiveness in finding an optimum solution to the mental load minimizing problems in human-machine interaction design.

  8. Crabby Interactions: Fifth Graders Explore Human Impact on the Blue Crab Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffery, Tonya D.; McCollough, Cherie A.; Moore, Kim

    2016-01-01

    This article describes a two-day lesson in which fifth-grade students took on the role of marine biology scientists, using their critical-thinking and problem-solving skills to explore human impact on the blue crab ecosystem. The purpose of "Crabby Interactions" was to help students understand the impact of human activities on the local…

  9. Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) in Educational Environments: Implications of Understanding Computers as Media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Gary A.

    2000-01-01

    Reviews literature in the field of human-computer interaction (HCI) as it applies to educational environments. Topics include the origin of HCI; human factors; usability; computer interface design; goals, operations, methods, and selection (GOMS) models; command language versus direct manipulation; hypertext; visual perception; interface…

  10. A Human Work Interaction Design (HWID) Case Study in E-Government and Public Information Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clemmensen, Torkil

    2011-01-01

    This paper first outlines a revised version of the general HWID framework, with a focus on what connects empirical work analysis and interaction design, and then presents a case study of the Danish government one-for-all authentication system NemID. The case is briefly analyzed, using...... ethnomethodology, work domain/task analysis, and the HWID approach, and comparing the results. Compared to the traditional approaches, the HWID focus on case-specific connections between human work and interaction design, gives different and supplementary answers. The conclusion is that there are benefits...... in studying how human work analysis and interaction design in concrete cases are related and connected....

  11. Human-computer interaction handbook fundamentals, evolving technologies and emerging applications

    CERN Document Server

    Sears, Andrew

    2007-01-01

    This second edition of The Human-Computer Interaction Handbook provides an updated, comprehensive overview of the most important research in the field, including insights that are directly applicable throughout the process of developing effective interactive information technologies. It features cutting-edge advances to the scientific knowledge base, as well as visionary perspectives and developments that fundamentally transform the way in which researchers and practitioners view the discipline. As the seminal volume of HCI research and practice, The Human-Computer Interaction Handbook feature

  12. Interdependence and Predictability of Human Mobility and Social Interactions

    CERN Document Server

    De Domenico, Manlio; Musolesi, Mirco

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that human movement is predictable to a certain extent at different geographic scales. Existing prediction techniques exploit only the past history of the person taken into consideration as input of the predictors. In this paper, we show that by means of multivariate nonlinear time series prediction techniques it is possible to increase the accuracy of movement forecasting by considering movements of friends or people with correlated mobility patterns (i.e., characterised by high mutual information) as input of the predictor. Finally, we evaluate the proposed techniques on the Nokia Mobile Data Challenge and Cabspotting datasets.

  13. Diet-microbiota interactions as moderators of human metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonnenburg, Justin L; Bäckhed, Fredrik

    2016-07-06

    It is widely accepted that obesity and associated metabolic diseases, including type 2 diabetes, are intimately linked to diet. However, the gut microbiota has also become a focus for research at the intersection of diet and metabolic health. Mechanisms that link the gut microbiota with obesity are coming to light through a powerful combination of translation-focused animal models and studies in humans. A body of knowledge is accumulating that points to the gut microbiota as a mediator of dietary impact on the host metabolic status. Efforts are focusing on the establishment of causal relationships in people and the prospect of therapeutic interventions such as personalized nutrition.

  14. Assessing neuromuscular mechanisms in human-exoskeleton interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sylla, N; Bonnet, V; Venture, G; Armande, N; Fraisse, P

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we propose to evaluate a 7 DOF exoskeleton in terms of motion control. Using criteria from the human motor control literature, inverse optimization was performed to assess an industrial screwing movement. The results of our study show that the hybrid composition of the free arm movement was accurately determined. At contrary, when wearing the exoskeleton, which produces an arbitrary determined torque compensation, the motion is different from the naturally adopted one. This study is part of the evaluation and comprehension of the complex neuromuscular mechanism resulting in wearing an exoskeleton several hours per day for industrial tasks assistance.

  15. Human Metabolism and Interactions of Deployment-Related Chemicals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-08-01

    consisted of the pGL3- CYP3A4, pCDG1-SXR, and pRL-TK plasmids in the amounts of 360, 90, and 10 ng, respectively, along with 540 ng sonicated salmon sperm...oxidative stress in rat brain and liver is prevented by vitamin E or allopurinol. Toxicol. Lett. 2001; 118: 139-146. 34. Li, P., Nijhawan, D...acids, eicosanoids, fat- soluble vitamins /1/. Among fifty-seven CYP isoforms known in humans, fifteen are involved in the metabolism of

  16. Impact of Cognitive Architectures on Human-Computer Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    simulation. In this work they were preparing for the Synthetic Theatre of War-1997 exercise where between 10,000 and 50,000 automated agents would...work with up to 1,000 humans.27 The results of this exercise are documented by Laird et al.28 5. Conclusions and Future Work To assess whether cognitive...RW, MacKenzie IS. Towards a standard for pointing device evaluation, perspectives on 27 years of Fitts’ law research in HCI. International Journal of

  17. Effects of laser interaction with living human tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molchanova, O. E.; Protasov, E. A.; Protasov, D. E.; Smirnova, A. V.

    2016-09-01

    With the help of a highly sensitive laser device with the wavelength λ = 0.808 pm, which is optimal for deep penetration of the radiation into biological tissues, the effects associated with the appearance of uncontrolled human infrasonic vibrations of different frequencies were investigated. It was established that the observed fluctuations are associated with the vascular system which is characterized by its own respiratory movements, occurring synchronously with the movements of the respiratory muscles, the operation of the heart muscle, and the effect of compression ischemia. The effect of “enlightenment” of a tissue is observed with stopping of blood flow in vessels by applying a tourniquet on the wrist.

  18. Biomolecular Interaction Study of Cyclolinopeptide A with Human Serum Albumin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben Rempel

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The kinetics, energetics, and structure of Cyclolinopeptide A binding with Human Serum Albumin were investigated with surface plasmon resonance and circular dichroism. The complex is formed through slow recognition kinetics that is temperature sensitive in the range of 20°C–37°C. The overall reaction was observed to be endothermic (ΔH=204 kJ mol−1 and entropy driven (ΔS=746 J mol−1K−1 with overall small changes to the tertiary structure.

  19. Prospective Teachers' Conceptions of Proof Comprehension: Revisiting a Proof of the Pythagorean Theorem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zazkis, Dov; Zazkis, Rina

    2016-01-01

    A significant body of research literature in mathematics education attends to mathematical proofs. However, scant research attends to proof comprehension, which is the focus of this study. We examine perspective secondary teachers' conceptions of what constitutes comprehension of a given proof and their ideas of how students' comprehension can be…

  20. Proof Problems with Diagrams: An Opportunity for Experiencing Proofs and Refutations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komatsu, Kotaro; Tsujiyama, Yosuke; Sakamaki, Aruta; Koike, Norio

    2014-01-01

    It has become gradually accepted that proof and proving are essential at all grades of mathematical learning. Among the various aspects of proof and proving, this study addresses proofs and refutations described by Lakatos, in particular a part of increasing content by deductive guessing, to introduce an authentic process into mathematics…