WorldWideScience

Sample records for human information behaviour

  1. Citation relations of theories of human information behaviour

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hamid R. Jamali

    2013-01-01

    Interrelation of models and theories of human information behaviour (HIB), their common roots, and the extent to which they are indebted to the fields other than library and information science (LIS) were investigated...

  2. Citation relations of theories of human information behaviour

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hamid R Jamali

    2013-01-01

      Interrelation of models and theories of human information behaviour (HIB), their common roots, and the extent to which they are indebted to the fields other than library and information science (LIS) were investigated...

  3. Human Information Behaviour and Design, Development and Evaluation of Information Retrieval Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keshavarz, Hamid

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to introduce the concept of human information behaviour and to explore the relationship between information behaviour of users and the existing approaches dominating design and evaluation of information retrieval (IR) systems and also to describe briefly new design and evaluation methods in which extensive…

  4. How Human Information Behaviour Researchers Use Each Other's Work: A Basic Citation Analysis Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKechnie, Lynne E. F.; Goodall, George R.; Lajoie-Paquette, Darian; Julien, Heidi

    2005-01-01

    Introduction: The purpose of this study was to determine if and how human information behaviour (HIB) research is used by others. Method: Using ISI Web of Knowledge, a citation analysis was conducted on 155 English-language HIB articles published from 1993 to 2000 in six prominent LIS journals. The bibliometric core of 12 papers was identified.…

  5. Information behaviour and practice

    CERN Document Server

    Rafferty, Pauline; Baker, David

    2015-01-01

    This special issue explores information behaviour and practice in general, and specifically focuses on the implications for library and information services. Information seeking behaviour and information practice remain areas of importance in information science and librarianship, perhaps even more so in the digital age. This special issue is an opportunity to share ideas and scholarship and to explore models and methods. The papers chosen for inclusion cover a range of topics and approach them from a number of different epistemological and methodological positions demonstrating the liveliness

  6. Changing Information Retrieval Behaviours

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Constantiou, Ioanna D.; Lehrer, Christiane; Hess, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    The introduction of smartphones and the accompanying profusion of mobile data services have had a profound effect on individuals' lives. One of the most influential service categories is location-based services (LBS). Based on insights from behavioural decision-making, a conceptual framework is d...... on the continuance of LBS use and indicate changes in individuals' information retrieval behaviours in everyday life. In particular, the distinct value dimension of LBS in specific contexts of use changes individuals' behaviours towards accessing location-related information....

  7. Information behaviour: models and concepts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polona Vilar

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents an overview of the research area of information behaviour. Information behaviour is defined as the behaviour of individuals in relation to information sources and channels, which results as a consequence of their information need, and encompasses passive and active searching of information, and its use. Theoretical foundations are presented, as well as some fundamental conceptual models of information behaviour and related concepts: information searching behaviour, which occurrs in active, purposeful searching for information, regardless of the information source used; and information seeking behaviour, which represents a micro-level of information searching behaviour, and is expressed by those individuals who interact with information retrieval systems.

  8. Interactive information seeking, behaviour and retrieval

    CERN Document Server

    Ruthven, Ian

    2011-01-01

    Information retrieval (IR) is a complex human activity supported by sophisticated systems. This book covers the whole spectrum of information retrieval, including: history and background information; behaviour and seeking task-based information; searching and retrieval approaches to investigating information; and, evaluation interfaces for IR.

  9. Trends in information behaviour research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greifeneder, Elke Susanne

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. This paper traces current trends in information behaviour research, both in terms of methods and topics. Results are put into relation to the previous trend analysis by Julien et al. (2011) and Vakkari (2008). Method. Trends derive from a publication analysis taken from information...... behaviour related publication venues between 2012 and 2014. Analysis. Publication titles, authors, years, publication venue, methods and topics were collected and quantitatively analysed. Results. Qualitative methods still dominate information behaviour research. Content analysis and participatory designs...... are gaining terrain. Information seeking is still the major topic of interest. Important newer topics are studies focusing on users’ context and on special needs. Conclusion. Information behaviour research has evolved a great deal over the last years and has taken on new methods and new topics. A discussion...

  10. Trends in information behaviour research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greifeneder, Elke Susanne

    2014-01-01

    behaviour related publication venues between 2012 and 2014. Analysis. Publication titles, authors, years, publication venue, methods and topics were collected and quantitatively analysed. Results. Qualitative methods still dominate information behaviour research. Content analysis and participatory designs......Introduction. This paper traces current trends in information behaviour research, both in terms of methods and topics. Results are put into relation to the previous trend analysis by Julien et al. (2011) and Vakkari (2008). Method. Trends derive from a publication analysis taken from information...... are gaining terrain. Information seeking is still the major topic of interest. Important newer topics are studies focusing on users’ context and on special needs. Conclusion. Information behaviour research has evolved a great deal over the last years and has taken on new methods and new topics. A discussion...

  11. Information transmission via movement behaviour improves decision accuracy in human groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Clément, Romain J.G.; Wolf, Max; Snijders, Lysanne; Krause, Jens; Kurvers, Ralf H.J.M.

    2015-01-01

    A major advantage of group living is increased decision accuracy. In animal groups information is often transmitted via movement. For example, an individual quickly moving away from its group may indicate approaching predators. However, individuals also make mistakes which can initiate information c

  12. Information transmission via movement behaviour improves decision accuracy in human groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Clément, R.J.G.; Wolf, Max; Snijders, Lysanne; Krause, Jens; Kurvers, R.H.J.M.

    2015-01-01

    A major advantage of group living is increased decision accuracy. In animal groups information is often transmitted via movement. For example, an individual quickly moving away from its group may indicate approaching predators. However, individuals also make mistakes which can initiate informatio

  13. Information sharing promotes prosocial behaviour

    CERN Document Server

    Szolnoki, Attila

    2013-01-01

    More often than not, bad decisions are bad regardless of where and when they are made. Information sharing might thus be utilized to mitigate them. Here we show that sharing the information about strategy choice between players residing on two different networks reinforces the evolution of cooperation. In evolutionary games the strategy reflects the action of each individual that warrants the highest utility in a competitive setting. We therefore assume that identical strategies on the two networks reinforce themselves by lessening their propensity to change. Besides network reciprocity working in favour of cooperation on each individual network, we observe the spontaneous emerge of correlated behaviour between the two networks, which further deters defection. If information is shared not just between individuals but also between groups, the positive effect is even stronger, and this despite the fact that information sharing is implemented without any assumptions with regards to content.

  14. Information sharing promotes prosocial behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szolnoki, Attila; Perc, Matjaž

    2013-05-01

    More often than not, bad decisions are bad regardless of where and when they are made. Information sharing might thus be utilized to mitigate them. Here we show that sharing information about strategy choice between players residing on two different networks reinforces the evolution of cooperation. In evolutionary games, the strategy reflects the action of each individual that warrants the highest utility in a competitive setting. We therefore assume that identical strategies on the two networks reinforce themselves by lessening their propensity to change. Besides network reciprocity working in favour of cooperation on each individual network, we observe the spontaneous emergence of correlated behaviour between the two networks, which further deters defection. If information is shared not just between individuals but also between groups, the positive effect is even stronger, and this despite the fact that information sharing is implemented without any assumptions with regard to content.

  15. Measuring human behaviour with radar

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dorp, Ph. van

    2001-01-01

    The paper presents human motion measurements with the experimental Frequency Modulated Continuous Wave(FMCW) radar at TNO-FEL. The aim of these measurements is to analyse the Doppler velocity spectrum of humans. These analysis give insight in measuring human behaviour with radar for security applica

  16. Beyond Information Seeking: Towards a General Model of Information Behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godbold, Natalya

    2006-01-01

    Introduction: The aim of the paper is to propose new models of information behaviour that extend the concept beyond simply information seeking to consider other modes of behaviour. The models chiefly explored are those of Wilson and Dervin. Argument: A shortcoming of some models of information behaviour is that they present a sequence of stages…

  17. Understanding Casual-Leisure Information Behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elsweiler, David; Wilson, Max L.; Lunn, Brian Kirkegaard

    2011-01-01

    -leisure scenarios. The results of these two studies are then used to define an initial model of casual-leisure information behaviour, which highlights the key differences between casual-leisure scenarios and typical information behaviour theory. The chapter concludes by discussing how this new model of casual......Originally grounded in library and information science, the majority of information behaviour and information-seeking theories focus on task-based scenarios where users try to resolve information needs. While other theories exist, such as how people unexpectedly encounter information, for example......, they are typically related back to tasks, motivated by work or personal goals. This chapter, however, focuses on casual-leisure scenarios that are typically motivated by hedonistic needs rather than information needs, where people engage in searching behaviours for pleasure rather than to find information...

  18. Understanding Casual-Leisure Information Behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elsweiler, David; Wilson, Max L.; Lunn, Brian Kirkegaard

    2011-01-01

    Originally grounded in library and information science, the majority of information behaviour and information-seeking theories focus on task-based scenarios where users try to resolve information needs. While other theories exist, such as how people unexpectedly encounter information, for example......, they are typically related back to tasks, motivated by work or personal goals. This chapter, however, focuses on casual-leisure scenarios that are typically motivated by hedonistic needs rather than information needs, where people engage in searching behaviours for pleasure rather than to find information....... This chapter describes two studies on (1) television information behaviour and (2) the casual information behaviours described by users of Twitter. The first study focuses on a specific casual-leisure domain that is familiar to many, while the second indicates that our findings generalise to many other casual...

  19. Building a foundation to study distributed information behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terry L. von Thaden

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The purpose of this research is to assess information behaviour as it pertains to operational teams in dynamic safety critical operations. Method. In this paper, I describe some of the problems faced by crews on modern flight decks and suggest a framework modelled on Information Science, Human Factors, and Activity Theory research to assess the distribution of information actions, namely information identification, gathering and use, by teams of users in a dynamic, safety critical environment. Analysis. By analysing the information behaviour of crews who have accidents and those who do not, researchers may be able to ascertain how they (fail to make use of essential, safety critical information in their information environment. The ultimate goal of this research is to differentiate information behaviour among the distinct outcomes. Results. This research affords the possibility to discern differences in distributed information behaviour illustrating that crews who err to the point of an accident appear to practice different distributed information behaviour than those who do not. This foundation serves to operationalise team sense-making through illustrating the social practice of information structuring within the activity of the work environment. Conclusion. . The distributed information behaviour framework provides a useful structure to study the patterning and organization of information distributed over space and time, to reach a common goal. This framework may allow researchers and investigators alike to identify critical information activity in the negotiation of meaning in high reliability safety critical work, eventually informing safer practice. This framework is applicable to other domains.

  20. Information Searching Behaviour of Young Slovenian Researchers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilar, Polona; Zumer, Maja

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to present the findings of an empirical study of information behaviour of young Slovenian researchers. Design/methodology/approach: Built on some well-known models of scholarly information behaviour the study complements a previously conducted study of the same population, which focused on the aspects of user…

  1. A proposed general model of information behaviour.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Presents a critical description of Wilson's (1996 global model of information behaviour and proposes major modification on the basis of research into information behaviour of managers, conducted in Poland. The theoretical analysis and research results suggest that Wilson's model has certain imperfections, both in its conceptual content, and in graphical presentation. The model, for example, cannot be used to describe managers' information behaviour, since managers basically are not the end users of external from organization or computerized information services, and they acquire information mainly through various intermediaries. Therefore, the model cannot be considered as a general model, applicable to every category of information users. The proposed new model encompasses the main concepts of Wilson's model, such as: person-in-context, three categories of intervening variables (individual, social and environmental, activating mechanisms, cyclic character of information behaviours, and the adoption of a multidisciplinary approach to explain them. However, the new model introduces several changes. They include: 1. identification of 'context' with the intervening variables; 2. immersion of the chain of information behaviour in the 'context', to indicate that the context variables influence behaviour at all stages of the process (identification of needs, looking for information, processing and using it; 3. stress is put on the fact that the activating mechanisms also can occur at all stages of the information acquisition process; 4. introduction of two basic strategies of looking for information: personally and/or using various intermediaries.

  2. Humpback Dolphin (Genus Sousa) Behavioural Responses to Human Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piwetz, Sarah; Lundquist, David; Würsig, Bernd

    2015-01-01

    Humpback dolphins (genus Sousa) use shallow, near-shore waters throughout their range. This coastal distribution makes them vulnerable to recreational and commercial disturbances, especially near heavily populated and industrialized areas. Most research focusing on Sousa and human activities has emphasized direct impacts and threats, involving injury and death, with relatively little focus on indirect effects on dolphins, such as changes in behaviour that may lead to deleterious effects. Understanding behaviour is important in resolving human-wildlife conflict and is an important component of conservation. This chapter gives an overview of animal behavioural responses to human activity with examples from diverse taxa; reviews the scientific literature on behavioural responses of humpback dolphins to human activity throughout their range, including marine vessel traffic, dolphin tourism, cetacean-fishery interactions, noise pollution, and habitat alteration; and highlights information and data gaps for future humpback dolphin research to better inform behaviour-based management decisions that contribute to conservation efforts.

  3. Information behaviour of university students: a literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dora Rubinić

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This literature review attempts to give an overview of the field of university students' information behaviour. Students are generally one of the most investigated groups in the field of human information behaviour, but the field of students' information behaviour is difficult to draw into a coherent knowledge base. There are many studies of different aspects of information behaviour conducted over different groups of students. This paper presents some of the key conclusions and perspectives of selected studies. Studies in this field are conducted from the beginning of 1970's when the focus was on exploring the usage of library resources and services. During the last two decades the interest in students' library use and information behaviour in general has increased and the focus of research expanded. This review presents the literature in the following main areas: disciplinary differences in information seeking and use, the impact of curriculum and wider context including learning and teaching, effects of personality attributes, and studies that focus on use of electronic information resources. This paper also highlights research problems that authors suggest as topics for further studies.

  4. Evolutionary accounts of human behavioural diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Gillian R.; Dickins, Thomas E.; Sear, Rebecca; Laland, Kevin N.

    2011-01-01

    Human beings persist in an extraordinary range of ecological settings, in the process exhibiting enormous behavioural diversity, both within and between populations. People vary in their social, mating and parental behaviour and have diverse and elaborate beliefs, traditions, norms and institutions. The aim of this theme issue is to ask whether, and how, evolutionary theory can help us to understand this diversity. In this introductory article, we provide a background to the debate surrounding how best to understand behavioural diversity using evolutionary models of human behaviour. In particular, we examine how diversity has been viewed by the main subdisciplines within the human evolutionary behavioural sciences, focusing in particular on the human behavioural ecology, evolutionary psychology and cultural evolution approaches. In addition to differences in focus and methodology, these subdisciplines have traditionally varied in the emphasis placed on human universals, ecological factors and socially learned behaviour, and on how they have addressed the issue of genetic variation. We reaffirm that evolutionary theory provides an essential framework for understanding behavioural diversity within and between human populations, but argue that greater integration between the subfields is critical to developing a satisfactory understanding of diversity. PMID:21199836

  5. Information Behaviour and Information Literacy: The Ultimate in Transdisciplinary Phenomena?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shenton, Andrew K.; Hay-Gibson, Naomi V.

    2011-01-01

    This article investigates transdisciplinarity in relation to information behaviour and information literacy. It demonstrates how these areas are especially suited to transdisciplinarity thought, notes the potential that transdisciplinarity offers in these contexts and presents the key components of transdisciplinarity in two complementary…

  6. Towards a Definition of Serendipity in Information Behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Naresh Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Serendipitous or accidental discovery of information has often been neglected in information behaviour models, which tend to focus on information seeking, a more goal-directed behaviour. Method: This theoretical paper seeks to map the conceptual space of serendipity in information behaviour and to arrive at a definition. This is done…

  7. Personality traits and group-based information behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hyldegård, Jette

    2009-01-01

    Introduction. The relationship between hypothesised behaviour resulting from a personality test and actual information behaviour resulting from a group-based assignment process is addressed in this paper. Methods. Three voluntary groups of ten librarianship and information science students were....... Information behaviour associated with personality traits was identified, but the presence of personality effects tended to vary with the perceived presence of the social context. Conclusions. Some matches were identified between group members' personality traits and their actual information behaviour...

  8. Relationship between stakeholders' information value perception and information security behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tajuddin, Sharul; Olphert, Wendy; Doherty, Neil

    2015-02-01

    The study, reported in this paper, aims to explore the relationship between the stakeholders' perceptions about the value of information and their resultant information security behaviours. Moreover, this study seeks to explore the role of national and organisational culture in facilitating information value assignment. Information Security is a concept that formed from the recognition that information is valuable and that there is a need to protect it. The ISO 27002 defines information as an asset, which, like other important business assets, is essential to an organisation's business and consequently needs to be appropriately protected. By definition, an asset has a value to the organisation hence it requires protection. Information protection is typically accomplished through the implementation of countermeasures against the threats and vulnerabilities of information security, for example, implementation of technological processes and mechanisms such as firewall and authorization and authentication systems, set-up of deterrence procedures such as password control and enforcement of organisational policy on information handling procedures. However, evidence routinely shows that despite such measures, information security breaches and incidents are on the rise. These breaches lead to loss of information, personal records, or other data, with consequent implications for the value of the information asset. A number of studies have suggested that such problems are not related primarily to technology problems or procedural deficiencies, but rather to stakeholders' poor compliance with the security measures that are in place. Research indicates that compliance behaviour is affected by many variables including perceived costs and benefits, national and organisational culture and norms. However, there has been little research to understand the concept of information value from the perspective of those who interact with the data, and the consequences for information

  9. GENDER-SPECIFIC INFORMATION SEEKING BEHAVIOUR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paramita Pathak

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Makes an attempt to examine the validity of the construct regarding gendered information behavior. A survey was made for the purpose on a sample of eighty people covering both male and female in equal proportion from four distinct groups, namely Teacher, Student, Skilled Labour and Unskilled Labour from both urban and rural areas. Data were collected from the selected audience, using a combination of both questionnaire and interview, on a set of fixed queries. Results have revealed that the information needs as well as the information seeking behaviour, in general, among the male and female do not show any uniform and consistent pattern. The findings also have revealed that there are variations of needs and behavior for seeking information among an individual man and woman, an individual man and man, as well as an individual woman and woman. But the differences in this regard have been found as quantitative and not qualitative. The findings do not show any evidence of gendered information need as well as information seeking behavior exclusive to the male or female.

  10. From hominins to humans: how sapiens became behaviourally modern

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterelny, Kim

    2011-01-01

    This paper contributes to a debate in the palaeoarchaeological community about the major time-lag between the origin of anatomically modern humans and the appearance of typically human cultural behaviour. Why did humans take so long—at least 100 000 years—to become ‘behaviourally modern’? The transition is often explained as a change in the intrinsic cognitive competence of modern humans: often in terms of a new capacity for symbolic thought, or the final perfection of language. These cognitive breakthrough models are not satisfactory, for they fail to explain the uneven palaeoanthropological record of human competence. Many supposed signature capacities appear (and then disappear) before the supposed cognitive breakthrough; many of the signature capacities disappear again after the breakthrough. So, instead of seeing behavioural modernity as a simple reflection of a new kind of mind, this paper presents a niche construction conceptual model of behavioural modernity. Humans became behaviourally modern when they could reliably transmit accumulated informational capital to the next generation, and transmit it with sufficient precision for innovations to be preserved and accumulated. In turn, the reliable accumulation of culture depends on the construction of learning environments, not just intrinsic cognitive machinery. I argue that the model is (i) evolutionarily plausible: the elements of the model can be assembled incrementally, without implausible selective scenarios; (ii) the model coheres with the broad palaeoarchaeological record; (iii) the model is anthropologically and ethnographically plausible; and (iv) the model is testable, though only in coarse, preliminary ways. PMID:21320896

  11. Human behaviour: Egalitarian motive and altruistic punishment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, James H; Johnson, Tim; Smirnov, Oleg

    2005-01-06

    Altruistic punishment is a behaviour in which individuals punish others at a cost to themselves in order to provide a public good. Fehr and Gächter present experimental evidence in humans indicating that negative emotions towards non-cooperators motivate punishment, which, in turn, provokes a high degree of cooperation. Using Fehr and Gächter's original data, we provide an alternative analysis of their experiment that suggests that egalitarian motives are more important than motives for punishing non-cooperative behaviour. This finding is consistent with evidence that humans may have an evolutionary incentive to punish the highest earners in order to promote equality, rather than cooperation.

  12. Network information analysis reveals risk perception transmission in a behaviour-influenza dynamics system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, C-M; You, S-H; Cheng, Y-H

    2015-01-01

    Influenza poses a significant public health burden worldwide. Understanding how and to what extent people would change their behaviour in response to influenza outbreaks is critical for formulating public health policies. We incorporated the information-theoretic framework into a behaviour-influenza (BI) transmission dynamics system in order to understand the effects of individual behavioural change on influenza epidemics. We showed that information transmission of risk perception played a crucial role in the spread of health-seeking behaviour throughout influenza epidemics. Here a network BI model provides a new approach for understanding the risk perception spread and human behavioural change during disease outbreaks. Our study allows simultaneous consideration of epidemiological, psychological, and social factors as predictors of individual perception rates in behaviour-disease transmission systems. We suggest that a monitoring system with precise information on risk perception should be constructed to effectively promote health behaviours in preparation for emerging disease outbreaks.

  13. Exploring information seeking behaviour in a digital museum context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skov, Mette; Ingwersen, Peter

    2008-01-01

    information needs, and 2) main characteristics of virtual museum visitors' information seeking behaviour. Both quantitative and qualitative data were gathered from written enquiries to the museum, an online questionnaire and a user study of simulated interest tasks combined with retrospective think......-aloud sessions. The data collected did not show exploratory behaviour to be predominant as expected. Rather analysis of data indicates a broad coverage of different types of needs. Finally, four main characteristics of virtual museum guests' information seeking behaviour were identified....

  14. Role of vaspin in human eating behaviour.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Breitfeld

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The adipokine vaspin (visceral adipose tissue derived serine protease inhibitor, serpinA12 follows a meal-related diurnal variation in humans and intracerebroventricular vaspin administration leads to acutely reduced food intake in db/db mice. We therefore hypothesized that vaspin may play a role in human eating behaviour. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We measured serum vaspin concentrations in 548 subjects from a self-contained population of Sorbs (Germany who underwent detailed metabolic testing including eating behaviour assessments using the three-factor eating questionnaire. In addition, genetic variation within vaspin was assessed by genotyping 28 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in all study subjects. RESULTS: Serum vaspin concentrations correlated positively with restraint, disinhibition and hunger (all P0.05. Independent of observed correlations, genetic variants in vaspin were associated with serum vaspin levels but showed no significant association with any of the eating behaviour phenotypes after accounting for multiple testing (P≥0.05 after adjusting for age, gender and BMI. CONCLUSION: Our data suggest that serum vaspin concentrations might modulate human eating behaviour, which does not seem to be affected by common genetic variation in vaspin.

  15. Human issues of library and information work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jela Steinerová

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines philosophical, methodological and practical strategic aspects of library and information activity from the viewpoint of natural human and social factors. In contrast to traditional methodological patterns, real-life information problems and supportive methods of information seeking are stressed. The formulated conceptual framework is related to new competencies of information professionals, needs of information institutions and position of a human being in information processes. New methodological approach is outlined in models including factors with impact on a position of people in information work, human complexity and relationships of people and information. The resulting idea of human unity in information-related behaviour forms the vision of research directed to philosophy of a man in information science.

  16. Meta-Synthesis of Research on Information Seeking Behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urquhart, Christine

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Meta-synthesis methods may help to make more sense of information behaviour research evidence. Aims and objectives: The objectives are to: 1) identify and examine the theoretical research strategies commonly used in information behaviour research; 2) discuss meta-synthesis methods that might be appropriate to the type of research…

  17. Human behaviour in tunnels: what further steps to take?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martens, M.H.; Jenssen, G.D.; Ingason, Haukur; Lönnermark, Anders

    2012-01-01

    Tunnel safety, especially in case of fires, has received a lot of attention due to heavy disasters. However, much attention is paid to controlling and extinguishing the fire, and not so much on the role of human behaviour. In this case, human behaviour includes the behaviour of road users, rail pass

  18. Benevolent characteristics promote cooperative behaviour among humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valerio Capraro

    Full Text Available Cooperation is fundamental to the evolution of human society. We regularly observe cooperative behaviour in everyday life and in controlled experiments with anonymous people, even though standard economic models predict that they should deviate from the collective interest and act so as to maximise their own individual payoff. However, there is typically heterogeneity across subjects: some may cooperate, while others may not. Since individual factors promoting cooperation could be used by institutions to indirectly prime cooperation, this heterogeneity raises the important question of who these cooperators are. We have conducted a series of experiments to study whether benevolence, defined as a unilateral act of paying a cost to increase the welfare of someone else beyond one's own, is related to cooperation in a subsequent one-shot anonymous Prisoner's dilemma. Contrary to the predictions of the widely used inequity aversion models, we find that benevolence does exist and a large majority of people behave this way. We also find benevolence to be correlated with cooperative behaviour. Finally, we show a causal link between benevolence and cooperation: priming people to think positively about benevolent behaviour makes them significantly more cooperative than priming them to think malevolently. Thus benevolent people exist and cooperate more.

  19. Citation Behaviour of Information Science Students II: Postgraduate Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Maria Elizabeth; Oppenheim, Charles

    2006-01-01

    This paper reports the results of a study of student citation behaviours in the Department of Information Science, Loughborough University. The research methods were citation analysis of student dissertation bibliographies from 1998 to 2003, a survey of student's attitudes to citation behaviour and a test of student citation accuracy. The results…

  20. Application of the information, motivation and behavioural skills ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Application of the information, motivation and behavioural skills model for targeting HIV risk behaviour ... SAHARA-J: Journal of Social Aspects of HIV/AIDS ... School 1 was the Experimental group, while School 2 was the Control group. After a ...

  1. Exploring information seeking behaviour in a digital museum context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skov, Mette; Ingwersen, Peter

    2008-01-01

    -aloud sessions. The data collected did not show exploratory behaviour to be predominant as expected. Rather analysis of data indicates a broad coverage of different types of needs. Finally, four main characteristics of virtual museum guests' information seeking behaviour were identified.......This paper describes the preliminary results of a case study of task-based interactive information seeking and retrieval behaviour of virtual museum visitors in context. The research described here is part of a larger study: this paper specifically looks at 1) leisure tasks/interests and derived...... information needs, and 2) main characteristics of virtual museum visitors' information seeking behaviour. Both quantitative and qualitative data were gathered from written enquiries to the museum, an online questionnaire and a user study of simulated interest tasks combined with retrospective think...

  2. Five personality dimensions and their influence on information behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jannica Heinstrom

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This article emphasize the importance of considering psychological mechanisms for a thorough understanding of users of information services. The focal point is the relation between personality and information seeking which is explored through a quantitative analysis of 305 university students' personality traits and information habits. It is shown that information behaviour could be connected to all the personality dimensions tested in the study - neuroticism, extraversion, openness to experience, competitiveness and conscientiousness. Possible explanations for these relations are discussed. It is concluded that inner traits interact with contextual factors in their final impact on information behaviour.

  3. Personality traits and group-based information behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hyldegård, Jette

    2009-01-01

    Introduction. The relationship between hypothesised behaviour resulting from a personality test and actual information behaviour resulting from a group-based assignment process is addressed in this paper. Methods. Three voluntary groups of ten librarianship and information science students were...... but there were also deviations, which were found that seemed to be related to the group-work context. The importance of studying personality traits in context has further been confirmed....

  4. Self-injurious behaviour (SIB)--from definition to human rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothenberger, A

    1993-01-01

    This article is part of a special section on 'self-injurious behaviour and autism' and is mainly based on a book edited by Luiselli, Matson and Singh (1992) addressing empirical data on self-injurious behaviour and mental retardation from a behavioural perspective. Within the overview of the book some information on autism is also presented and critically discussed. Self-injurious behaviour is a poorly understood phenomenon and problematic in many ways; its definition is not easy; little is known about the causes and neuroscientific models. Demographic data are scarce and functional analysis and interventions (behavioural techniques, medication, education) need to be further developed, under the protection of human rights committees.

  5. Consumer behaviour and the environment: Which role for information?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, John

    of information for getting the full potential out of economic instruments. However, my main emphasis will be on the importance of information for creating and facilitating consumers' willing participation in solving environmental problems that are in some way related to their behaviour as consumers. Information......My aim here is to present a broad-brush overview of some of the most important roles that information has been found to play as a tool for promoting environmentally responsible consumer behaviour. Because this workshop is organized by a network of economists, I will start with the importance...

  6. Behaviour of humans and behaviour of models in dynamic space

    OpenAIRE

    Nijkamp, P.

    2012-01-01

    This paper addresses new trends in quantitative geography research. Modern social science research - including economic and social geography - has in the past decades shown an increasing interest in micro-oriented behaviour of actors. This is inter alia clearly reflected in spatial interaction models (SIMs), where discrete choice approaches have assumed a powerful position. This paper aims to provide in particular a concise review of micro-based research, with the aim to review the potential ...

  7. Information seeking behaviour in the digital environment: information science vs. non-information science students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Furi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The paper presents selected findings of a small-scale pilot study on the actual information-seeking behaviour of the Osijek University students in the digital environment.Design/Methodology/Approach: A qualitative research was conducted on the sample of six graduate students of different social science disciplines (information sciences, psychology, economy, cultural management who were asked to perform searches in order to provide answers to several information tasks. The research method used in the research was a think-aloud method where the respondents were asked to verbalise their thoughts and feelings while performing the simulated search tasks. The respondents were video-recorded and the transcripts of video material were subsequently analysed and interpreted.Research limitations: The small and convenient sample limits the findings.Originality/Value: The results provide the useful insight into the information behaviour of students in the electronic environment (their search strategy, search steps, feelings, etc. but surprisingly reveals the poor information seeking skills of information-science students.Keywords: students, information seeking behaviour, digital environment, University of Osijek

  8. INFORMATION SEEKING BEHAVIOUR OF PREGNANT WOMEN IN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Challenges facing information seeking were attributed mainly to ... India, being a developing country, contributes ... required by rural women. 79 ... identified family and friends, local herb hawkers, local drug sellers (hawkers) .... Lack of Radio.

  9. Information Work Analysis: An Approach to Research on Information Interactions and Information Behaviour in Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huvila, Isto

    2008-01-01

    Introduction: A work roles and role theory-based approach to conceptualise human information activity, denoted information work analysis is discussed. The present article explicates the approach and its special characteristics and benefits in comparison to earlier methods of analysing human information work. Method: The approach is discussed in…

  10. 250 Information Needs and Information Seeking Behaviour and Use ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    information systems and information services to meet their information needs effectively. ... industry, country and international boundaries because of globalization effect. Thus, they ... degree of expressed satisfaction or dissatisfaction with the information. ... Also, very vital to note is the quality of information sources that are.

  11. Information seeking behaviour of online museum visitors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skov, Mette

    two research projects on online museum visitors. The first case study will illustrate the information seeking and searching characteristics of online museum visitors at the National Museum of Military History in Copenhagen. Participants in this case study are characterised as special interest museum...

  12. Information, communication, travel behaviour and accessibility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wee, van B.; Chorus, C.; Geurs, K.T.

    2013-01-01

    Over the past two decades many papers have been published on the impact of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) on travel behavior, but the literature focusing on the impact of ICT on accessibility is relatively scarce. In this paper we give an overview of the impact of ICT on four compo

  13. Information seeking behaviour of master's students using library electronic databases in the Faculty of Humanities, Development and Social Sciences of the University of KwaZulu-Natal

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hoskins, Ruth; Hadebe, Tusiwe

    2010-01-01

    .... The conceptual framework for the study was rooted in Kuhlthau's Information Search Process. The methodological approach undertaken by the researcher was quantitative and data was collected using a questionnaire...

  14. Information behaviour of migrant Hispanic farm workers and their families in the Pacific Northwest Information grounds, Information behaviour, Behavior, Washington, Immigrants, Information habits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen E. Fisher

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Immigrants are generally perceived to be information poor, meaning they face major challenges with finding and using greatly needed everyday information. However, little research exists from an information behaviour perspective as differences in language, culture, and other factors such as access make immigrants a difficult population to study. We explored the everyday information behaviour and information grounds of migrant Hispanic farm workers through field observation and interviews with users, non-users, and staff of community technology centres in a major agricultural area. Findings suggest that personal networks having various levels of credibility were used more readily than any other type of information source. Credibility and use of various sources seemed to relate to personal status as well as interest in information.

  15. [Patient information in radiooncology Information seeking behaviour and patient characteristics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pour-Haring, Herta Farassati; Volleritsch, Christa; Roth, Roswith

    2009-01-01

    Provision of relevant and accurate information is an important factor for patient-satisfaction. This study investigated the self-assessed level of information, information needs and sources of information of patients undergoing radiotherapy in correlation between socio-demographic, medical and psychological variables. A self-ministered questionnaire designed to measure the self-assessed level of information and information needs was distributed to 133 cancer patients before (t(1)) and 14 days after the first medical consultation (t(2)). "Anxiety" and "Social desirability" were assessed at t(1) and four groups of coping methods (repressive, sensitive, anxious, non-defensive/non-anxious) were derived. Sources of information were elicited at t(2). The self-assessed level of information increased, while the demand for information declined. Female patients felt better informed than males. Older patients had a lower self-assessed level of information than younger patients. Among the four groups using different methods of coping, the repressive group wanted the least information. Generally medical consultations were preferred and other sources of information rarely were used. Where there are a large number of older patients with a low educational background, the use of computers is not appropriate at the moment. It can, however, be assumed that the next generation of patients will have a more practical knowledge of computers, and will thus make better use of this method of communication.

  16. Describing linguistic information in a behavioural framework: Possible or not?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Cooman, G. [Universiteit Gent, Zwijnaarde (Belgium)

    1996-12-31

    The paper discusses important aspects of the representation of linguistic information, using imprecise probabilities with a behavioural interpretation. We define linguistic information as the information conveyed by statements in natural language, but restrict ourselves to simple affirmative statements of the type {open_quote}subject-is-predicate{close_quote}. Taking the behavioural stance, as it is described in detail, we investigate whether it is possible to give a mathematical model for this kind of information. In particular, we evaluate Zadeli`s suggestion that we should use possibility measures to this end. We come to tile conclusion that, generally speaking, possibility measures are possibility models for linguistic information, but that more work should be done in order to evaluate the suggestion that they may be the only ones.

  17. A new model of information behaviour based on the Search Situation Transition schema Information searching, Information behaviour, Behavior, Information retrieval, Information seeking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nils Pharo

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a conceptual model of information behaviour. The model is part of the Search Situation Transition method schema. The method schema is developed to discover and analyse interplay between phenomena traditionally analysed as factors influencing either information retrieval or information seeking. In this paper the focus is on the model's five main categories: the work task, the searcher, the social/organisational environment, the search task, and the search process. In particular, the search process and its sub-categories search situation and transition and the relationship between these are discussed. To justify the method schema an empirical study was designed according to the schema's specifications. In the paper a subset of the study is presented analysing the effects of work tasks on Web information searching. Findings from this small-scale study indicate a strong relationship between the work task goal and the level of relevance used for judging resources during search processes.

  18. A Non-Linear Model of Information Seeking Behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Allen

    2005-01-01

    Introduction:The results of a study of information seeking behaviour of inter-disciplinary academic and postgraduate researchers are reported. Method. The study applied the naturalistic methods recommended by Lincoln and Guba for maximising credibility, transferability, dependability, and confirmability in data collection and analysis. Sampling…

  19. Information Seeking Behaviour of Mathematicians: Scientists and Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapa, Remigiusz; Krakowska, Monika; Janiak, Malgorzata

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: The paper presents original research designed to explore and compare selected aspects of the information seeking behaviour of mathematicians (scientists and students) on the Internet. Method: The data were gathered through a questionnaire distributed at the end of 2011 and in January 2012. Twenty-nine professional mathematicians and…

  20. Serendipity dimensions and users' information behaviour in the physical library interface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Björneborn, Lennart

    2008-01-01

    as integrative interfaces comprising all contact surfaces and mediation flows between users and library resources, whether human, physical or digital. Conclusion. The typology of convergent and divergent information behaviour and the identified serendipity dimensions may have implications for how the integrative......Introduction. Outlines an exploratory study concerned with the types of information behaviour users employ to find materials in a public library. Special focus was on what dimensions in the physical library may affect possibilities for serendipity. The overall aim of the study was to develop...... a conceptual framework including models to describe users' interaction with library spaces. Method. The study took place at two Danish public libraries during 10 months in 2006. Naturalistic observation of users' information behaviour was supplemented with qualitative interviews with 113 users including think...

  1. Students' information behaviour and the role of academic library

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darko Lacović

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the author presented the results of some of the available studies of students' information seeking behaviour conducted in different countries. The aim of these studies was to identify information needs, sources, and types of library use by the university students from various disciplinary fields. According to the results, the majority of the respondents needed the information for academic purposes (such as papers, assignments or examinations, frequently using information sources like books, journal articles, online sources etc. For many students the internet was a very important source in finding academic materials. Most of the students received advice in finding relevant information sources from their lecturers, peers, and librarians. This paper also describes some aspects related to information seeking behaviour of young students (Generation Y, and Millennial generation who were influenced by their peers, and had poor understanding of their information needs. They prefer quick Google search, navigation through virtual libraries and spend more time downloading the materials than utilizing e-sources. Although the academic libraries were often used only for borrowing books and using reference material or printed periodicals, it has been established that the role of academic libraries was very significant in satisfying university students’ information needs. Further research that could be done building onto the selected studies is examination of information seeking behaviour of the students between different disciplines while taking into the account various context situations in which information tasks are performed. Moreover, further studies should explore factors that affect students’ library use, and identify significance of the library instruction in improving academic library services for users.

  2. A non-linear model of information seeking behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allen E. Foster

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of a qualitative, naturalistic, study of information seeking behaviour are reported in this paper. The study applied the methods recommended by Lincoln and Guba for maximising credibility, transferability, dependability, and confirmability in data collection and analysis. Sampling combined purposive and snowball methods, and led to a final sample of 45 inter-disciplinary researchers from the University of Sheffield. In-depth semi-structured interviews were used to elicit detailed examples of information seeking. Coding of interview transcripts took place in multiple iterations over time and used Atlas-ti software to support the process. The results of the study are represented in a non-linear Model of Information Seeking Behaviour. The model describes three core processes (Opening, Orientation, and Consolidation and three levels of contextual interaction (Internal Context, External Context, and Cognitive Approach, each composed of several individual activities and attributes. The interactivity and shifts described by the model show information seeking to be non-linear, dynamic, holistic, and flowing. The paper concludes by describing the whole model of behaviours as analogous to an artist's palette, in which activities remain available throughout information seeking. A summary of key implications of the model and directions for further research are included.

  3. Implications of the behavioural immune system for social behaviour and human health in the modern world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaller, Mark; Murray, Damian R; Bangerter, Adrian

    2015-05-26

    The 'behavioural immune system' is composed of mechanisms that evolved as a means of facilitating behaviours that minimized infection risk and enhanced fitness. Recent empirical research on human populations suggests that these mechanisms have unique consequences for many aspects of human sociality--including sexual attitudes, gregariousness, xenophobia, conformity to majority opinion and conservative sociopolitical attitudes. Throughout much of human evolutionary history, these consequences may have had beneficial health implications; but health implications in modern human societies remain unclear. This article summarizes pertinent ways in which modern human societies are similar to and different from the ecologies within which the behavioural immune system evolved. By attending to these similarities and differences, we identify a set of plausible implications-both positive and negative-that the behavioural immune system may have on health outcomes in contemporary human contexts. We discuss both individual-level infection risk and population-level epidemiological outcomes. We also discuss a variety of additional implications, including compliance with public health policies, the adoption of novel therapeutic interventions and actual immunological functioning. Research on the behavioural immune system, and its implications in contemporary human societies, can provide unique insights into relationships between fitness, sociality and health.

  4. Introduction. Cultural transmission and the evolution of human behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kenny; Kalish, Michael L; Griffiths, Thomas L; Lewandowsky, Stephan

    2008-11-12

    The articles in this theme issue seek to understand the evolutionary bases of social learning and the consequences of cultural transmission for the evolution of human behaviour. In this introductory article, we provide a summary of these articles (seven articles on the experimental exploration of cultural transmission and three articles on the role of gene-culture coevolution in shaping human behaviour) and a personal view of some promising lines of development suggested by the work summarized here.

  5. Information transfer and behavioural inertia in starling flocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attanasi, Alessandro; Cavagna, Andrea; Del Castello, Lorenzo; Giardina, Irene; Grigera, Tomas S.; Jelić, Asja; Melillo, Stefania; Parisi, Leonardo; Pohl, Oliver; Shen, Edward; Viale, Massimiliano

    2014-09-01

    Collective decision-making in biological systems requires all individuals in the group to go through a behavioural change of state. During this transition fast and robust transfer of information is essential to prevent cohesion loss. The mechanism by which natural groups achieve such robustness, however, is not clear. Here we present an experimental study of starling flocks performing collective turns. We find that information about direction changes propagates across the flock with a linear dispersion law and negligible attenuation, hence minimizing group decoherence. These results contrast starkly with present models of collective motion, which predict diffusive transport of information. Building on spontaneous symmetry breaking and conservation-law arguments, we formulate a theory that correctly reproduces linear and undamped propagation. Essential to this framework is the inclusion of the birds' behavioural inertia. The theory not only explains the data, but also predicts that information transfer must be faster the stronger the group's orientational order, a prediction accurately verified by the data. Our results suggest that swift decision-making may be the adaptive drive for the strong behavioural polarization observed in many living groups.

  6. Personality: bridging the literatures from human psychology and behavioural ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nettle, Daniel; Penke, Lars

    2010-12-27

    The concept of personality has recently begun to attract a great deal of interest in behavioural ecology. However, there is also a large and mature literature on personality within human psychology. These two bodies of work have developed independently and at present make rather little reference to one another. The current paper has two main objectives. First, we seek to acquaint behavioural ecologists with the principal ideas and issues found in the human personality psychology literature. Second, we explore how ideas from the behavioural ecology literature might help advance research in human personality psychology. We suggest strong potential for convergence between the two literatures in the near future. Common themes of this future unified science of personality include the conception of personality traits as reaction norms, a commitment to the importance of direct measurement of behaviour, investigation of both proximate and ultimate explanations for personality variation, and a concern with the impact of personality variation on survival and reproductive success.

  7. Ontology-Based Information Behaviour to Improve Web Search

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Calegari

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Web Search Engines provide a huge number of answers in response to a user query, many of which are not relevant, whereas some of the most relevant ones may not be found. In the literature several approaches have been proposed in order to help a user to find the information relevant to his/her real needs on the Web. To achieve this goal the individual Information Behavior can been analyzed to ’keep’ track of the user’s interests. Keeping information is a type of Information Behavior, and in several works researchers have referred to it as the study on what people do during a search on the Web. Generally, the user’s actions (e.g., how the user moves from one Web page to another, or her/his download of a document, etc. are recorded in Web logs. This paper reports on research activities which aim to exploit the information extracted from Web logs (or query logs in personalized user ontologies, with the objective to support the user in the process of discovering Web information relevant to her/his information needs. Personalized ontologies are used to improve the quality of Web search by applying two main techniques: query reformulation and re-ranking of query evaluation results. In this paper we analyze various methodologies presented in the literature aimed at using personalized ontologies, defined on the basis of the observation of Information Behaviour to help the user in finding relevant information.

  8. Analyzing Traditional Medical Practitioners' Information-Seeking Behaviour Using Taylor's Information-Use Environment Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olatokun, Wole Michael; Ajagbe, Enitan

    2010-01-01

    This survey-based study examined the information-seeking behaviour of traditional medical practitioners using Taylor's information use model. Respondents comprised all 160 traditional medical practitioners that treat sickle cell anaemia. Data were collected using an interviewer-administered, structured questionnaire. Frequency and percentage…

  9. Analyzing Traditional Medical Practitioners' Information-Seeking Behaviour Using Taylor's Information-Use Environment Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olatokun, Wole Michael; Ajagbe, Enitan

    2010-01-01

    This survey-based study examined the information-seeking behaviour of traditional medical practitioners using Taylor's information use model. Respondents comprised all 160 traditional medical practitioners that treat sickle cell anaemia. Data were collected using an interviewer-administered, structured questionnaire. Frequency and percentage…

  10. Indirect effect of management support on users' compliance behaviour towards information security policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humaidi, Norshima; Balakrishnan, Vimala

    2017-01-01

    Health information systems are innovative products designed to improve the delivery of effective healthcare, but they are also vulnerable to breaches of information security, including unauthorised access, use, disclosure, disruption, modification or destruction, and duplication of passwords. Greater openness and multi-connectedness between heterogeneous stakeholders within health networks increase the security risk. The focus of this research was on the indirect effects of management support (MS) on user compliance behaviour (UCB) towards information security policies (ISPs) among health professionals in selected Malaysian public hospitals. The aim was to identify significant factors and provide a clearer understanding of the nature of compliance behaviour in the health sector environment. Using a survey design and stratified random sampling method, self-administered questionnaires were distributed to 454 healthcare professionals in three hospitals. Drawing on theories of planned behaviour, perceived behavioural control (self-efficacy (SE) and MS components) and the trust factor, an information system security policies compliance model was developed to test three related constructs (MS, SE and perceived trust (PT)) and their relationship to UCB towards ISPs. Results showed a 52.8% variation in UCB through significant factors. Partial least squares structural equation modelling demonstrated that all factors were significant and that MS had an indirect effect on UCB through both PT and SE among respondents to this study. The research model based on the theory of planned behaviour in combination with other human and organisational factors has made a useful contribution towards explaining compliance behaviour in relation to organisational ISPs, with trust being the most significant factor. In adopting a multidimensional approach to management-user interactions via multidisciplinary concepts and theories to evaluate the association between the integrated management

  11. Human-Centered Information Fusion

    CERN Document Server

    Hall, David L

    2010-01-01

    Information fusion refers to the merging of information from disparate sources with differing conceptual, contextual and typographical representations. Rather than focusing on traditional data fusion applications which have been mainly concerned with physical military targets, this unique resource explores new human-centered trends, such as locations, identity, and interactions of individuals and groups (social networks). Moreover, the book discusses two new major sources of information: human observations and web-based information.This cutting-edge volume presents a new view of multi-sensor d

  12. Cognition to Collaboration: User-Centric Approach and Information Behaviour Theories/Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alperen M Aydin

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim/Purpose: The objective of this paper is to review the vast literature of user-centric in-formation science and inform about the emerging themes in information behaviour science. Background:\tThe paradigmatic shift from system-centric to user-centric approach facilitates research on the cognitive and individual information processing. Various information behaviour theories/models emerged. Methodology: Recent information behaviour theories and models are presented. Features, strengths and weaknesses of the models are discussed through the analysis of the information behaviour literature. Contribution: This paper sheds light onto the weaknesses in earlier information behaviour models and stresses (and advocates the need for research on social information behaviour. Findings: Prominent information behaviour models deal with individual information behaviour. People live in a social world and sort out most of their daily or work problems in groups. However, only seven papers discuss social information behaviour (Scopus search. Recommendations for Practitioners\t: ICT tools used for inter-organisational sharing should be redesigned for effective information-sharing during disaster/emergency times. Recommendation for Researchers: There are scarce sources on social side of the information behaviour, however, most of the work tasks are carried out in groups/teams. Impact on Society: In dynamic work contexts like disaster management and health care settings, collaborative information-sharing may result in decreasing the losses. Future Research: A fieldwork will be conducted in disaster management context investigating the inter-organisational information-sharing.

  13. Cognition: Human Information Processing. Introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, Belver C.

    1981-01-01

    Summarizes the key research issues and developments in cognitive science, especially with respect to the similarities, differences, and interrelationships between human and machine information processing. Nine references are listed. (JL)

  14. Technical energy savings versus changes in human behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Jørgen

    1996-01-01

    the way into human satisfaction via energy services. Results of various analyses and field experiments show saving potentials for electricity of 50 - 80 per cents. Barriers for implementing these technical saving options are discussed. Also the necessity and potentials for changing behavioural or life......Energy savings seems to be the most environmentally benign element in an energy policy. The paper is a reflection on the work on saving energy both by improving technology and by adapting human daily behaviour. A simple model is suggested for the energy chain which converts the primary energy all...

  15. Variables influencing the frictional behaviour of in vivo human skin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veijgen, N.K.; Masen, M.A.; Heide, van der E.

    2013-01-01

    In the past decades, skin friction research has focused on determining which variables are important to affect the frictional behaviour of in vivo human skin. Until now, there is still limited knowledge on these variables. This study has used a large dataset to identify the effect of variables on t

  16. Variables influencing the frictional behaviour of in vivo human skin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veijgen, N.K.; Masen, M.A.; Heide, E. van der

    2013-01-01

    In the past decades, skin friction research has focused on determining which variables are important to affect the frictional behaviour of in vivo human skin. Until now, there is still limited knowledge on these variables.This study has used a large dataset to identify the effect of variables on the

  17. Technical energy savings versus changes in human behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Jørgen

    1996-01-01

    the way into human satisfaction via energy services. Results of various analyses and field experiments show saving potentials for electricity of 50 - 80 per cents. Barriers for implementing these technical saving options are discussed. Also the necessity and potentials for changing behavioural or life...

  18. Human factors and information transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Alfred T.

    1989-01-01

    Key problem areas in the management and transfer of information in the National Airspace System, contributing to human errors are identified. Information-management aspects supporting the user's ability to assess prevailing situations accurately with adequate time to make an informed decision are considered. The relationship between judgment biases and requirements for managing weather information is illustrated by examining such hazardous weather phenomena as microbursts and windshears. The system of air-ground communication relying almost exclusively on voice transmissions is discussed, and recommendations in the areas of communications procedures and technology development are provided.

  19. Scaling Behaviour and Memory in Heart Rate of Healthy Human

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAI Shi-Min; PENG Hu; YANG Hui-Jie; ZHOU Tao; ZHOU Pei-Ling; WANG Bing-Hong

    2007-01-01

    We investigate a set of complex heart rate time series from healthy human in different behaviour states with the detrended fluctuation analysis and diffusion entropy (DE) method. It is proposed that the scaling properties are influenced by behaviour states. The memory detected by DE exhibits an approximately same pattern after a detrending procedure. Both of them demonstrate the long-range strong correlations in heart rate. These findings may be helpful to understand the underlying dynamical evolution process in the heart rate control system, as well as to model the cardiac dynamic process.

  20. Understanding and changing human behaviour--antibiotic mainstreaming as an approach to facilitate modification of provider and consumer behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stålsby Lundborg, Cecilia; Tamhankar, Ashok J

    2014-05-01

    This paper addresses: 1) Situations where human behaviour is involved in relation to antibiotics, focusing on providers and consumers; 2) Theories about human behaviour and factors influencing behaviour in relation to antibiotics; 3) How behaviour in relation to antibiotics can change; and, 4) Antibiotic mainstreaming as an approach to facilitate changes in human behaviour as regards antibiotics. Influencing human behaviour in relation to antibiotics is a complex process which includes factors like knowledge, attitudes, social norms, socio-economic conditions, peer pressure, experiences, and bio-physical and socio-behavioural environment. Further, key concepts are often perceived in different ways by different individuals. While designing and implementing projects or programmes for behavioural change with respect to antibiotics for professionals or consumers it is helpful to consider theories or models of behaviour change, e.g. the 'stages of change model', including pre-contemplation, contemplation, preparation, action, and maintenance. People in different stages of change are susceptible to different behaviour modification strategies. Application of marketing principles to 'global good', so-called 'social marketing', to improve 'welfare of the individual and society' is gaining increased attention in public health. In conclusion, just providing correct knowledge is not sufficient although it is a pre-requisite for behaviour modification in the desired direction. We can never change the behaviour of any other human, but we can facilitate for others to change their own behaviour. One possibility is to implement 'antibiotic mainstreaming' as a potentially effective way for behaviour modification, i.e. to address consequences for maintaining effective antibiotics in all activities and decisions in society.

  1. Inscription of Behaviour and Flexible Interpretation in Information Infrastructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henningsson, Stefan; Zinner Henriksen, Helle

    2011-01-01

    of stability forces the users of the European e-Customs II to continously modify and investment in IT participate in the infrastructure, explaining an expressed longing for the ‘good old paper days’. Based on theoretical integration and empirical findings, we develop a model of the duality of inscription......Despite the increasing importance of large IT-based solutions binding actors and processes together across institutional borders, still little is known about how these Information Infrastructures (IIs) assume their shapes and potentially may be reshaped towards specific ends. We focus...... on the duality of organizations using the IT artefacts of the European e-Customs IIs to inscribe harmonised behaviour into the operation of the infrastructure and how the IT artefacts are divergently interpreted by the users of the II. We find a tension between the need for artefacts with strong inscription...

  2. Dynamic behaviour of human neuroepithelial cells in the developing forebrain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramanian, Lakshmi; Bershteyn, Marina; Paredes, Mercedes F.; Kriegstein, Arnold R.

    2017-01-01

    To understand how diverse progenitor cells contribute to human neocortex development, we examined forebrain progenitor behaviour using timelapse imaging. Here we find that cell cycle dynamics of human neuroepithelial (NE) cells differ from radial glial (RG) cells in both primary tissue and in stem cell-derived organoids. NE cells undergoing proliferative, symmetric divisions retract their basal processes, and both daughter cells regrow a new process following cytokinesis. The mitotic retraction of the basal process is recapitulated by NE cells in cerebral organoids generated from human-induced pluripotent stem cells. In contrast, RG cells undergoing vertical cleavage retain their basal fibres throughout mitosis, both in primary tissue and in older organoids. Our findings highlight developmentally regulated changes in mitotic behaviour that may relate to the role of RG cells to provide a stable scaffold for neuronal migration, and suggest that the transition in mitotic dynamics can be studied in organoid models. PMID:28139695

  3. Human-directed social behaviour in dogs shows significant heritability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persson, M E; Roth, L S V; Johnsson, M; Wright, D; Jensen, P

    2015-04-01

    Through domestication and co-evolution with humans, dogs have developed abilities to attract human attention, e.g. in a manner of seeking assistance when faced with a problem solving task. The aims of this study were to investigate within breed variation in human-directed contact seeking in dogs and to estimate its genetic basis. To do this, 498 research beagles, bred and kept under standardized conditions, were tested in an unsolvable problem task. Contact seeking behaviours recorded included both eye contact and physical interactions. Behavioural data was summarized through a principal component analysis, resulting in four components: test interactions, social interactions, eye contact and physical contact. Females scored significantly higher on social interactions and physical contact and age had an effect on eye contact scores. Narrow sense heritabilities (h(2) ) of the two largest components were estimated at 0.32 and 0.23 but were not significant for the last two components. These results show that within the studied dog population, behavioural variation in human-directed social behaviours was sex dependent and that the utilization of eye contact seeking increased with age and experience. Hence, heritability estimates indicate a significant genetic contribution to the variation found in human-directed social interactions, suggesting that social skills in dogs have a genetic basis, but can also be shaped and enhanced through individual experiences. This research gives the opportunity to further investigate the genetics behind dogs' social skills, which could also play a significant part into research on human social disorders such as autism.

  4. A re-examination of information seeking behaviour in the context of activity theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson T.D.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Activity theory, developed in the USSR as a Marxist alternative to Western psychology, has been applied widely in educational studies and increasingly in human-computer interaction research. Argument. The key elements of activity theory, Motivation, Goal, Activity, Tools, Object, Outcome, Rules, Community and Division of labour are all directly applicable to the conduct of information behaviour research. An activity-theoretical approach to information behaviour research would provide a sound basis for the elaboration of contextual issues, for the discovering of organizational and other contradictions that affect information behaviour. It may be used to aid the design and analysis of investigations. Elaboration. The basic ideas of activity theory are outlined and an attempt is made to harmonize different perspectives. A contrast is made between an activity system perspective and an activity process perspective and a diagrammatic representation of the process perspective is offered. Conclusion. Activity theory is not a predictive theory but a conceptual framework within which different theoretical perspectives may be employed. Typically, it is suggested that several methods of data collection should be employed and that the time frame for investigation should be long enough for the full range of contextual issues to emerge. Activity theory offers not only a useful conceptual framework, but also a coherent terminology to be shared by researchers, and a rapidly developing body of literature in associated disciplines.

  5. Human behaviour towards climatic change during the 4th millennium BC in the Swiss Alpine forelands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karg, Sabine

    Human behaviour towards climatic change during the 4th millennium BC in the Swiss Alpine forelands.......Human behaviour towards climatic change during the 4th millennium BC in the Swiss Alpine forelands....

  6. Learning dynamics explains human behaviour in prisoner's dilemma on networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cimini, Giulio; Sánchez, Angel

    2014-05-06

    Cooperative behaviour lies at the very basis of human societies, yet its evolutionary origin remains a key unsolved puzzle. Whereas reciprocity or conditional cooperation is one of the most prominent mechanisms proposed to explain the emergence of cooperation in social dilemmas, recent experimental findings on networked Prisoner's Dilemma games suggest that conditional cooperation also depends on the previous action of the player-namely on the 'mood' in which the player is currently in. Roughly, a majority of people behave as conditional cooperators if they cooperated in the past, whereas they ignore the context and free ride with high probability if they did not. However, the ultimate origin of this behaviour represents a conundrum itself. Here, we aim specifically to provide an evolutionary explanation of moody conditional cooperation (MCC). To this end, we perform an extensive analysis of different evolutionary dynamics for players' behavioural traits-ranging from standard processes used in game theory based on pay-off comparison to others that include non-economic or social factors. Our results show that only a dynamic built upon reinforcement learning is able to give rise to evolutionarily stable MCC, and at the end to reproduce the human behaviours observed in the experiments.

  7. Proposed Model of Information Behaviour in Crisis: The Case of Hurricane Sandy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopatovska, Irene; Smiley, Bobby

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: The paper proposes a model of information behaviour in crisis. No previous model has attempted to integrate information resources, information behaviour and needs of the storm-affected communities within the temporal stages of a natural disaster. Method: The study was designed as autoethnography. The data were collected through a…

  8. HPV vaccination and the effect of information framing on intentions and behaviour: an application of the theory of planned behaviour and moral norm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juraskova, Ilona; O'Brien, Michaeley; Mullan, Barbara; Bari, Royena; Laidsaar-Powell, Rebekah; McCaffery, Kirsten

    2012-12-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) is a common sexually transmitted infection (STI) known to cause cervical cancer and genital warts. However, making the genital warts aspect explicit may reduce HPV vaccination intention and behaviour due to perceived stigma associated with STIs. This study investigated the effect of differential information framing on intention to receive the HPV vaccine using the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) and moral norm construct. Female university students were randomised to receive a fact sheet describing the HPV vaccine as: (1) preventing cervical cancer only (n = 81); or (2) preventing both cervical cancer and genital warts (n = 78). A 2-month follow-up investigated relationships between vaccination intention and actual behaviour. No effect of information framing was detected on intention to receive the HPV vaccine, or vaccine uptake behaviour at 2-month follow-up. The traditional TPB components predicted 54% of the variance in vaccination intention (F (3,155) = 61.580, p behaviour. The HPV vaccine does not seem to be associated with perceptions of stigma related to genital warts, and has broad acceptance among a female university population. This study demonstrates that TPB is suited to investigate HPV vaccination, and has helped clarify the role of moral norm within the TPB.

  9. Information processing. [in human performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickens, Christopher D.; Flach, John M.

    1988-01-01

    Theoretical models of sensory-information processing by the human brain are reviewed from a human-factors perspective, with a focus on their implications for aircraft and avionics design. The topics addressed include perception (signal detection and selection), linguistic factors in perception (context provision, logical reversals, absence of cues, and order reversals), mental models, and working and long-term memory. Particular attention is given to decision-making problems such as situation assessment, decision formulation, decision quality, selection of action, the speed-accuracy tradeoff, stimulus-response compatibility, stimulus sequencing, dual-task performance, task difficulty and structure, and factors affecting multiple task performance (processing modalities, codes, and stages).

  10. An Analysis of the Information Behaviour of Geography Teachers in a Developing African Country–Lesotho

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constance BITSO

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Information behaviour studies have the potential to inform the design of effective information services that incorporate the information needs, information-seeking and preferences for information sources of target users; hence a doctoral study was conducted on the information behaviour of geography teachers in Lesotho with the aim of guiding the design and implementation of an information service model for these teachers. This paper focuses on the analysis of the information behaviour of geography teachers in Lesotho as a contribution of original knowledge on geography teachers’ information behaviour. The analysis established the information behaviour of geography teachers using the information behaviour concept that encompasses information needs, information-seeking and information sources. Data were collected and analyzed through focus group discussions and conceptual content analysis respectively.The analysis reveals that these geography teachers need current and accurate information covering a variety of aspects in teaching and learning, such as content, pedagogy, classroom management and learners’ assessment. Owing to the increasing number of orphans in schools as a result of the HIV and AIDS pandemic, most teachers expressed the need for information on social assistance for orphans and vulnerable children. Recommendations include information literacy training for teachers and access to the Internet in schools, including the use of open access journals on the Internet by the teachers.

  11. The urban environment, its hazards and human behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marko Polič

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The physical environment is only a tool, a medium or a place enabling human interrelations to develop. This is perhaps the most evident in cases of dangers people confront within an environment. Everything from disasters and minor incidents to vandalism and crime is reflected in human behaviour, from satisfying our basic needs all the way to discerning the sense of reality. The article presents an array of reflections from accidents and dangers in an urban environment that can hurt the largest number of people, to less dangerous, but unpleasant acts for an individual.

  12. Modeling Human Behaviour with Higher Order Logic: Insider Threats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boender, Jaap; Ivanova, Marieta Georgieva; Kammuller, Florian

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we approach the problem of modeling the human component in technical systems with a view on the difference between the use of model and theory in sociology and computer science. One aim of this essay is to show that building of theories and models for sociology can be compared...... it to the sociological process of logical explanation. As a case study on modeling human behaviour, we present the modeling and analysis of insider threats as a Higher Order Logic theory in Isabelle/HOL. We show how each of the three step process of sociological explanation can be seen in our modeling of insider’s state...

  13. Modelling Adaptive Learning Behaviours for Consensus Formation in Human Societies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Chao; Tan, Guozhen; Lv, Hongtao; Wang, Zhen; Meng, Jun; Hao, Jianye; Ren, Fenghui

    2016-06-01

    Learning is an important capability of humans and plays a vital role in human society for forming beliefs and opinions. In this paper, we investigate how learning affects the dynamics of opinion formation in social networks. A novel learning model is proposed, in which agents can dynamically adapt their learning behaviours in order to facilitate the formation of consensus among them, and thus establish a consistent social norm in the whole population more efficiently. In the model, agents adapt their opinions through trail-and-error interactions with others. By exploiting historical interaction experience, a guiding opinion, which is considered to be the most successful opinion in the neighbourhood, can be generated based on the principle of evolutionary game theory. Then, depending on the consistency between its own opinion and the guiding opinion, a focal agent can realize whether its opinion complies with the social norm (i.e., the majority opinion that has been adopted) in the population, and adapt its behaviours accordingly. The highlight of the model lies in that it captures the essential features of people’s adaptive learning behaviours during the evolution and formation of opinions. Experimental results show that the proposed model can facilitate the formation of consensus among agents, and some critical factors such as size of opinion space and network topology can have significant influences on opinion dynamics.

  14. Illness Perception and Information Behaviour of Patients with Rare Chronic Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katavic, Snježana Stanarevic; Tanackovic, Sanjica Faletar; Badurina, Boris

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: This study examined possible correlations between health information behaviour and illness perception among patients with rare chronic diseases. Illness perception is related to coping strategies used by patients, and some health information behaviour practices may be associated with better coping and more positive perception of…

  15. Information Behaviour of Slovenian Researchers: Investigation of Activities, Preferences and Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilar, Polona; Juznic, Primoz; Bartol, Tomaz

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The paper presents one segment of the first comprehensive national study investigating information behaviour of Slovenian researchers in all research disciplines in relation to selected demographic variables. Research questions addressed various types of information behaviour, format preferences, use of different types of sources,…

  16. Personality Traits and Group-Based Information Behaviour: An Exploratory Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyldegard, Jette

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: The relationship between hypothesised behaviour resulting from a personality test and actual information behaviour resulting from a group-based assignment process is addressed in this paper. Methods: Three voluntary groups of ten librarianship and information science students were followed during a project assignment. The long…

  17. Establishing 'quality of life' parameters using behavioural guidelines for humane euthanasia of captive non-human primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambeth, Sp; Schapiro, Sj; Bernacky, Bj; Wilkerson, Gk

    2013-09-01

    Chronic pain and distress are universally accepted conditions that may adversely affect an animal's quality of life (QOL) and lead to the humane euthanasia of an animal. At most research institutions and zoological parks in the USA, a veterinarian, who has physically examined the animal and reviewed the clinical records, ultimately decides when an animal has reached a humane endpoint. To aid in the difficult process of interpreting pain and distress, we have developed specific behavioural guidelines, in addition to standard clinical information, to help define unique characteristics and traits of primates to assess and promote discussion of an individual primate's QOL, and thereby, to assist in the decision-making process regarding euthanasia. These guidelines advocate the creation of a QOL team when the animal is diagnosed with a life-threatening or debilitating chronic condition, or at the time the animal is entered into a terminal study. The team compiles a list of characteristics unique to that individual animal by utilising a questionnaire and a behavioural ethogram. This list enables the team to quantitatively assess any deviations from the established normal behavioural repertoire of that individual. Concurrently, the QOL team determines the number of behavioural deviations that are needed to trigger an immediate discussion of the necessity for humane euthanasia of the animal. The team remains intact once created, and revisits the animal's condition as frequently as deemed necessary. This process improves animal welfare by continuing the quest to optimally define QOL for captive primates, and potentially for all captive animals.

  18. Protecting against natural hazards - Information seeking behaviour in anticipation of severe weather events

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jeuring, Jelmer

    2011-01-01

    Protection against natural hazards - Information seeking behaviour in anticipation of severe weather events Severe weather events can have considerable impact on society, including tourism organisations and tourists. Providing accurate and timely information about possible risks due to environmental

  19. Protecting against natural hazards - Information seeking behaviour in anticipation of severe weather events

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jeuring, Jelmer

    2011-01-01

    Protection against natural hazards - Information seeking behaviour in anticipation of severe weather events Severe weather events can have considerable impact on society, including tourism organisations and tourists. Providing accurate and timely information about possible risks due to environmental

  20. A methodology for modelling energy-related human behaviour: Application to window opening behaviour in residential buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabi, Valentina; Andersen, Rune Korsholm; Corgnati, Stefano P.

    2013-01-01

    . The occupant behaviour related to the building control potentialities is a very complex process that has been studied only in the last years with some focuses related to natural ventilation (window opening behaviour), space heating energy demand (in particular the adjustments in the temperature set......-point) and natural light (focusing on window blinds adjustments). In this paper, a methodology is presented to model the user behaviour in the context of real energy use and applied to a case study. The methodology, based on a medium/long-term monitoring, is aimed at shifting towards a probabilistic approach...... for modelling the human behaviour related to the control of indoor environment. The procedure is applied at models of occupants’ interactions with windows (opening and closing behaviour). Models of occupants’ window opening behaviour were inferred based on measurements and implemented in a simulation program...

  1. Teaching Information Seeking: Relating Information Literacy Education to Theories of Information Behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limberg, Louise; Sundin, Olof

    2006-01-01

    Introduction: The article argues for a closer association between information seeking research and the practices of teaching information seeking. Findings are presented from a research project on information seeking, didactics and learning (IDOL) investigating librarians' and teachers' experiences of teaching information seeking. Method: Thirteen…

  2. Variables influencing the frictional behaviour of in vivo human skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veijgen, N K; Masen, M A; van der Heide, E

    2013-12-01

    In the past decades, skin friction research has focused on determining which variables are important to affect the frictional behaviour of in vivo human skin. Until now, there is still limited knowledge on these variables. This study has used a large dataset to identify the effect of variables on the human skin, subject characteristics and environmental conditions on skin friction. The data are obtained on 50 subjects (34 males and 16 females). Friction measurements represent the friction between in vivo human skin and an aluminium sample, assessed on three anatomical locations. The coefficient of friction increased significantly (pskin and the height of the subject. Other outcome variables in this study were the hydration of the skin and the skin temperature.

  3. Information-seeking behaviour and information needs of LGBTQ health professionals: a follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Martin; Roberto, K R

    2016-09-01

    Except for one study in 2004, the literature has no data on the information-seeking behaviour of lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender and queer/questioning (LGBTQ) health professionals. After a decade of change for LGBTQ people, and the growth of electronic information sources and social networks, it is appropriate to revisit this subject. To gain an updated understanding of the information-seeking behaviour of LGBTQ health professionals and of how medical libraries can provide a culturally competent service to such users. A mixed-methods approach was adopted combining a Web-based questionnaire with email follow-up discussions. One hundred and twenty-three complete responses were received, mostly from the USA and Canada, between November 2012 and October 2013. LGBTQ health professionals remain more comfortable seeking LGBTQ health information from a medical librarian whom they know to be LGBTQ because they perceive LGBTQ librarians as more likely to have specialist knowledge, or through concern that non-LGBTQ librarians may be more likely to react in a stigmatising or discriminatory way. The study also provides evidence suggesting that online chat has marginal appeal for respondents seeking LGBTQ health information, despite its anonymity. Medical libraries seeking to demonstrate their cultural competency should provide visible evidence of this, such as through the creation of dedicated resource lists, promotion of LGBTQ literature on the library's website, and display of other symbols or statements supporting diversity. Opportunities exist for LGBTQ health professionals and medical librarians to work together to ensure that medical libraries are culturally competent and welcoming spaces for LGBTQ patrons, that library collections match their needs, and in the creation of guides to ensure maximum access to the results of LGBTQ health research. Medical libraries should also consider nominating and, if necessary, training a specialist in LGBTQ health information. Such

  4. Interactions between personality and institutions in cooperative behaviour in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, K B; Nettle, D; McElreath, R

    2015-12-05

    Laboratory attempts to identify relationships between personality and cooperative behaviour in humans have generated inconsistent results. This may partially stem from different practices in psychology and economics laboratories, with both hypothetical players and incentives typical only in the former. Another possible cause is insufficient consideration of the contexts within which social dilemmas occur. Real social dilemmas are often governed by institutions that change the payoff structure via rewards and punishments. However, such 'strong situations' will not necessarily suppress the effects of personality. On the contrary, they may affect some personalities differentially. Extraversion and neuroticism, reflecting variation in reward and punishment sensitivity, should predict modification of cooperative behaviour following changes to the payoff structure. We investigate interactions between personality and a punishment situation via two versions of a public goods game. We find that, even in a strong situation, personality matters and, moreover, it is related to strategic shifts in cooperation. Extraversion is associated with a shift from free-riding to cooperation in the presence of punishment, agreeableness is associated with initially higher contributions regardless of game, and, contrary to our predictions, neuroticism is associated with lower contributions regardless of game. Results should lead to new hypotheses that relate variation in biological functioning to individual differences in cooperative behaviour and that consider three-way interactions among personality, institutional context and sociocultural background.

  5. Understanding and changing human behaviour—antibiotic mainstreaming as an approach to facilitate modification of provider and consumer behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Stålsby Lundborg, Cecilia; Ashok J. Tamhankar

    2014-01-01

    This paper addresses: 1) Situations where human behaviour is involved in relation to antibiotics, focusing on providers and consumers; 2) Theories about human behaviour and factors influencing behaviour in relation to antibiotics; 3) How behaviour in relation to antibiotics can change; and, 4) Antibiotic mainstreaming as an approach to facilitate changes in human behaviour as regards antibiotics. Influencing human behaviour in relation to antibiotics is a complex process which includes factor...

  6. Designing behaviourally informed policies for land stewardship: A new paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Don W Hine

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper argues the case for a new approach to the stewardship of land resources that uses behavioural science theory to support the design and application of policies that facilitate changes in behaviour by those who develop policy and the farmers who implement it. Current approaches have: focused on legally-based expert system; and have been devised by national and international bureaucracies with little or no knowledge of how land owners and managers are motivated, and how they think, behave and operate as stewards of their natural resources. A review of current approaches from the social scientific literature is provided, with a particular focus on principles from social psychology. This is followed by an examination of how these principles can be applied to influence behaviour related to land restoration and soil conservation. Examples of the problems with traditional approaches and the evolution of new approaches with full engagement of farmers as the delivery agents are provided from within the European Union, Iceland and Scotland. In the light of these examples and emerging thinking in other parts of the world, the paper sets out the basis for a new approach based on behavioural science theory and application, reinforcing the arguments already made in the literature for a social license for farming.

  7. Human behaviour and the epidemiology of parasitic zoonoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macpherson, Calum N L

    2005-10-01

    The behaviour of Homo sapiens has a pivotal role to play in the macro and microepidemiology of emerging or re-emerging parasitic zoonoses. Changing demographics and the concomitant alterations to the environment, climate, technology, land use and changes in human behavior, converge to favour the emergence and spread of parasitic zoonoses. The recent unprecedented movements of people, their animals and their parasites around the world, introduce and mix genes, cultural preferences, customs, and behavioral patterns. The increasing proclivity for eating meat, fish, crabs, shrimp, molluscs raw, undercooked, smoked, pickled or dried facilitates a number of protozoan (Toxoplasma), trematode (Fasciola sp., Paragonimus spp., Clonorchis sp., Opisthorchis spp., Heterophyes sp., Metagonimus sp., Echinostoma spp., Nanophyetus sp.) cestode (Taenia spp, Diphyllobothrum sp.) and nematode (Trichinella spp., Capillaria spp., Gnathostoma spp., Anisakis sp., Parastrongylus spp.) caused zoonoses. The increasing world population and the inability to keep pace with the provision of adequate sanitation and clean, safe drinking water, has led to an increased importance of waterborne zoonoses, such as those caused by Giardia, Cryptosporidium and Toxoplasma. Our close relationship with and the numerous uses to which we put companion animals and their ubiquitous distribution has resulted in dogs and cats unwitting participation in sharing over 60 parasite species including: Giardia, Cryptosporidium, Toxoplasma, most foodborne trematode species, Diphyllobothrum, Echinococcus spp., Ancylostoma and Toxocara. Changing human behaviour through education, to encourage the proper cooking of food, which may have cultural and social significance, will remain as challenging as controlling stray and feral pet populations, improving hygiene levels and the provision of safe drinking water and the proper use of sanctuary facilities. Long pre-patent periods and the normally insidious sub-clinical nature of

  8. Parental information-seeking behaviour in childhood vaccinations

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Background People want to be well informed and ask for more information regarding their health. The public can use different sources (i.e. the Internet, health care providers, friends, family, television, radio, and newspapers) to access information about their health. Insight into the types and sources of vaccine related information that parents use, and reasons why they seek extra information is needed to improve the existing information supply about childhood vaccinations. Methods Dutch pa...

  9. An empirical analysis of executive behaviour with hospital executive information systems in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wei-Min

    2013-01-01

    Existing health information systems largely only support the daily operations of a medical centre, and are unable to generate the information required by executives for decision-making. Building on past research concerning information retrieval behaviour and learning through mental models, this study examines the use of information systems by hospital executives in medical centres. It uses a structural equation model to help find ways hospital executives might use information systems more effectively. The results show that computer self-efficacy directly affects the maintenance of mental models, and that system characteristics directly impact learning styles and information retrieval behaviour. Other results include the significant impact of perceived environmental uncertainty on scan searches; information retrieval behaviour and focused searches on mental models and perceived efficiency; scan searches on mental model building; learning styles and model building on perceived efficiency; and finally the impact of mental model maintenance on perceived efficiency and effectiveness.

  10. The Centre for Early Human Behaviour (EHB) at the University of Bergen: A transdisciplinary exploration into the evolution of homo sapiens behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobolowski, Stefan; Henshilwood, Christopher; Jansen, Eystein

    2017-04-01

    Homo sapiens was anatomically modern by 200 000 years ago in Africa, but there is no archaeological evidence to demonstrate that behaviour was modern at the time. Attributes of modern behaviour, perhaps inspired by changes in the human brain, are only recognizable after 100 000 years ago. Before we can study the process, we must critically define the criteria for the term 'modern behaviour' and then find a means to recognize such behavior in the record. This seemingly simple research statement involves complex exploration by a team of specialists. In this highly competitive research field our centre will, for the first time, be able to rise to the challenge by combining the skills of cutting-edge scientists in archaeology, climate reconstruction and modelling, and the cognitive and social sciences. Over the next decade we will integrate knowledge and methods from different disciplines to synthesize approaches and contribute to a sophisticated understanding of early human behaviour. Our highly ambitious research program will focus explicitly on rare, well preserved archaeological sites occupied in the period between 100-50 000 years ago because these contain the 'keys' for unlocking the past. A major competitive edge is the EHB Director's 25 years of archaeological experience and his long-term exclusive access, with permits, to a number of the best-preserved sites in the southern Cape, South Africa - a region regarded as a major locus for vital evidence that could inform on the behaviour of early humans. Our planned excavations at existing and new sites and our ground-breaking and innovative interdisciplinary approaches, including climate (The Bjerknes Centre for Climate Research) and cognitive research, to understanding the processes that shaped human cultures. Primarily, EHB will directly address unanswered, first order questions about Homo sapiens: a) what defines the switch to 'modern behaviour', exactly how should this term be defined and then, when, why and

  11. Impact of the web on citation and information-seeking behaviour of academics

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    D.Litt. et Phil. This study investigated the impact of the Web on the information-seeking and citation behaviour of Unisa academics. The research study was executed in two phases. Phase 1 consisted of a Web citation analysis and phase 2 a questionnaire. Phase 1 explored how the availability of Web information resources affected the scholarly citation behaviour of Unisa academics by determining the relationship between Web-based references and non-Web-based references in the reference lists...

  12. USER AND SYSTEM PERSPECTIVE IN THE INFORMATION BEHAVIOUR RESEARCH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurora González Teruel

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the main perspectives in the study of information behavior: a user perspective and system perspective. In the user´s perspective, we assume a global vision of information-seeking process and develop theoretical and methodological models to guide research in this field. Two theoretical proposals are Sense-Making theory of Brenda Dervin and the Information Search Process model of Carol Kuhlthau. The system´s perspective assumes a partial view of information-seeking process, focusing primarily on transactions between the user and the system or between the user and information. Three types of studies are described: studies of the use of information resources, demand studies and studies of the information use. Both perspectives are complementary and provide sufficient information for planning both for the evaluation of appropriate information systems.

  13. A plea for a behavioural approach in the science of Human Resources Management

    OpenAIRE

    Martin, Albert

    2004-01-01

    The aim of science is to develop true theories. From this it follows quite naturally that the Behavioural Approach is the only plausible approach in a Science of Human Resources Management. The Behavioural Approach derives its propositions from the best theories from the social and behavioural sciences. It is problem-oriented in the strictest sense and thus escapes discipline-specific narrow-mindedness. It integrates the knowledge bases necessary for good practice. The behavioural approach to...

  14. A plea for a behavioural approach in the science of Human Resources Management

    OpenAIRE

    Martin, Albert

    2004-01-01

    The aim of science is to develop true theories. From this it follows quite naturally that the Behavioural Approach is the only plausible approach in a Science of Human Resources Management. The Behavioural Approach derives its propositions from the best theories from the social and behavioural sciences. It is problem-oriented in the strictest sense and thus escapes discipline-specific narrow-mindedness. It integrates the knowledge bases necessary for good practice. The behavioural approach to...

  15. [Sexual risk behaviours and PAP testing in university women vaccinated against human papillomavirus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Feito, Ana; Antón-Fernández, Raquel; Paz-Zulueta, María

    2017-08-31

    To estimate the association between the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine and sexual risk behaviour, as well as the participation in the Cervical Cancer Screening Program (CCSP). Cross-sectional study. School of Medicine and Health Sciences, School of Law, and School of Economics and Business (University of Oviedo). Female university students. Information was collected about contraceptive methods, sexual behaviours, HPV knowledge, and participation in the CCSP. Furthermore, proportions and odds ratio (OR) were estimated with their corresponding 95% confidence intervals (95%CI). Approximately two-thirds (67.7%) of the sample was vaccinated against HPV, and 216 women (65.3%) were sexually active. Barrier contraceptive methods were used by 67.6% during their current intimate relationships, being less frequent in non-vaccinated women (54.9% vs. 75.4% in vaccinated female students) (P=.002). The risk of having at least one sexual risk behaviour was higher in non-vaccinated women: OR2.29 (95%CI: 1.29-4.07). In addition, the probability of having a PAP test within the CCSP was higher in non-vaccinated women: OR2.18 (95%CI: 1.07-4.47). The prevalence of sexual risk behaviours in non-vaccinated women is elevated, and it is related to the lack of use of barrier contraceptive methods. The vaccination against HPV could affect sexual behaviours and the participation in the CCSP. Therefore, the information received by young people about contraceptive methods, sexually transmitted diseases, and cancer prevention should be reinforced. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  16. Leadership, consensus decision making and collective behaviour in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyer, John R G; Johansson, Anders; Helbing, Dirk; Couzin, Iain D; Krause, Jens

    2009-03-27

    This paper reviews the literature on leadership in vertebrate groups, including recent work on human groups, before presenting the results of three new experiments looking at leadership and decision making in small and large human groups. In experiment 1, we find that both group size and the presence of uninformed individuals can affect the speed with which small human groups (eight people) decide between two opposing directional preferences and the likelihood of the group splitting. In experiment 2, we show that the spatial positioning of informed individuals within small human groups (10 people) can affect the speed and accuracy of group motion. We find that having a mixture of leaders positioned in the centre and on the edge of a group increases the speed and accuracy with which the group reaches their target. In experiment 3, we use large human crowds (100 and 200 people) to demonstrate that the trends observed from earlier work using small human groups can be applied to larger crowds. We find that only a small minority of informed individuals is needed to guide a large uninformed group. These studies build upon important theoretical and empirical work on leadership and decision making in animal groups.

  17. Recognition of complex human behaviours using 3D imaging for intelligent surveillance applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Bo; Lepley, Jason J.; Peall, Robert; Butler, Michael; Hagras, Hani

    2016-10-01

    We introduce a system that exploits 3-D imaging technology as an enabler for the robust recognition of the human form. We combine this with pose and feature recognition capabilities from which we can recognise high-level human behaviours. We propose a hierarchical methodology for the recognition of complex human behaviours, based on the identification of a set of atomic behaviours, individual and sequential poses (e.g. standing, sitting, walking, drinking and eating) that provides a framework from which we adopt time-based machine learning techniques to recognise complex behaviour patterns.

  18. A Review on Information Seeking Behaviour Literature in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    shiva yari

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This article reviews the condition of information seeking behavior in Iran with analytical and qualittatire approaches to exhibit a clear, scientific, and read condition of it. Published literature has been reviewed both in theoretical bases and accomplished researches. So, all published literature including books, articles, theses, and research plans that has been released and distributed in Iran and were effective in this domain, has been studied. Reviews showed that the information seeking behavior has had a developing trend in quality and quantity form the last seventeen years of its emerging in Iran. Lower than 4% of published literature has been translated. Most resources have studied the information seeking behavior in research form. Scholar’s information seeking behavior has been done in most researches (about 34% of all researches. Then students’ information seeking behavior (about 17% and researches’ information seeking behavior (about 14% has been done. The least attention has been about examination of publics’ information seeking behavior and public library members. Reviews show that most researches have been at science and research units of Azad University in Tehran and Ahvaz. According to accomplished analysis, most articles has been published in National Studies of Librarianship and Information quarterly (previously Faslname Ketab, Processing and management of Information quarterly, and Librarianship and Information quarterly, respectively. This domain has been focused by librarians and somewhat by specialists of agricultural, social communication science, course planning, and government management fields.

  19. Risk and Ambiguity in Information Seeking: Eye Gaze Patterns Reveal Contextual Behaviour in Dealing with Uncertainty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Wittek

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Information foraging connects optimal foraging theory in ecology withhow humans search for information. The theory suggests that, followingan information scent, the information seeker must optimize the tradeoffbetween exploration by repeated steps in the search space vs.exploitation, using the resources encountered. We conjecture that thistradeoff characterizes how a user deals with uncertainty and its twoaspects, risk and ambiguity in economic theory. Risk is related to theperceived quality of the actually visited patch of information, and canbe reduced by exploiting and understanding the patch to a better extent.Ambiguity, on the other hand, is the opportunity cost of having higherquality patches elsewhere in the search space. The aforementionedtradeoff depends on many attributes, including traits of the user: atthe two extreme ends of the spectrum, analytic and wholistic searchersemploy entirely different strategies. The former type focuses onexploitation first, interspersed with bouts of exploration, whereas thelatter type prefers to explore the search space first and consume later.Our findings from an eye-tracking study of experts' interactions withnovel search interfaces in the biomedical domain suggest that usertraits of cognitive styles and perceived search task difficultyare significantly correlated with eye gaze and search behaviour. Wealso demonstrate that perceived risk shifts the balance betweenexploration and exploitation in either type of users, tilting it againstvs. in favour of ambiguity minimization. Since the pattern of behaviourin information foraging is quintessentially sequential, risk andambiguity minimization cannot happen simultaneously, leading to afundamental limit on how good such a tradeoff can be. This in turnconnects information seeking with the emergent field of quantum decisiontheory.

  20. Behaviour of solitary adult Scandinavian brown bears (Ursus arctos when approached by humans on foot.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gro Kvelprud Moen

    Full Text Available Successful management has brought the Scandinavian brown bear (Ursus arctos L. back from the brink of extinction, but as the population grows and expands the probability of bear-human encounters increases. More people express concerns about spending time in the forest, because of the possibility of encountering bears, and acceptance for the bear is decreasing. In this context, reliable information about the bear's normal behaviour during bear-human encounters is important. Here we describe the behaviour of brown bears when encountering humans on foot. During 2006-2009, we approached 30 adult (21 females, 9 males GPS-collared bears 169 times during midday, using 1-minute positioning before, during and after the approach. Observer movements were registered with a handheld GPS. The approaches started 869±348 m from the bears, with the wind towards the bear when passing it at approximately 50 m. The bears were detected in 15% of the approaches, and none of the bears displayed any aggressive behaviour. Most bears (80% left the initial site during the approach, going away from the observers, whereas some remained at the initial site after being approached (20%. Young bears left more often than older bears, possibly due to differences in experience, but the difference between ages decreased during the berry season compared to the pre-berry season. The flight initiation distance was longer for active bears (115±94 m than passive bears (69±47 m, and was further affected by horizontal vegetation cover and the bear's age. Our findings show that bears try to avoid confrontations with humans on foot, and support the conclusions of earlier studies that the Scandinavian brown bear is normally not aggressive during encounters with humans.

  1. Effects of monetary reward and punishment on information checking behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Simon Y W; Cox, Anna L; Or, Calvin; Blandford, Ann

    2016-03-01

    Two experiments were conducted to examine whether checking one's own work can be motivated by monetary reward and punishment. Participants were randomly assigned to one of three conditions: a flat-rate payment for completing the task (Control); payment increased for error-free performance (Reward); payment decreased for error performance (Punishment). Experiment 1 (N = 90) was conducted with liberal arts students, using a general data-entry task. Experiment 2 (N = 90) replicated Experiment 1 with clinical students and a safety-critical 'cover story' for the task. In both studies, Reward and Punishment resulted in significantly fewer errors, more frequent and longer checking, than Control. No such differences were obtained between the Reward and Punishment conditions. It is concluded that error consequences in terms of monetary reward and punishment can result in more accurate task performance and more rigorous checking behaviour than errors without consequences. However, whether punishment is more effective than reward, or vice versa, remains inconclusive.

  2. Variation in general practitioners' information-seeking behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Videbæk Le, Jette; Pedersen, Line Bjørnskov; Riisgaard, Helle

    2016-01-01

    . SETTING: Danish general practice. SUBJECTS: A population of 3440 GPs (corresponding to approximately 96% of all Danish GPs). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: GPs' use and perceived importance of information sources. Multilevel mixed-effects logit models were used to investigate associations with GP characteristics...... characteristics. Further insights could provide opportunities for targeting information dissemination strategies. Single-handed GPs seek information from colleagues less frequently than GPs in partnerships and do not use other sources more frequently. GPs aged above 44 years do not seek information as frequently...

  3. Human REM sleep: influence on feeding behaviour, with clinical implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horne, James A

    2015-08-01

    Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep shares many underlying mechanisms with wakefulness, to a much greater extent than does non-REM, especially those relating to feeding behaviours, appetite, curiosity, exploratory (locomotor) activities, as well as aspects of emotions, particularly 'fear extinction'. REM is most evident in infancy, thereafter declining in what seems to be a dispensable manner that largely reciprocates increasing wakefulness. However, human adults retain more REM than do other mammals, where for us it is most abundant during our usual final REM period (fREMP) of the night, nearing wakefulness. The case is made that our REM is unusual, and that (i) fREMP retains this 'dispensability', acting as a proxy for wakefulness, able to be forfeited (without REM rebound) and substituted by physical activity (locomotion) when pressures of wakefulness increase; (ii) REM's atonia (inhibited motor output) may be a proxy for this locomotion; (iii) our nocturnal sleep typically develops into a physiological fast, especially during fREMP, which is also an appetite suppressant; (iv) REM may have 'anti-obesity' properties, and that the loss of fREMP may well enhance appetite and contribute to weight gain ('overeating') in habitually short sleepers; (v) as we also select foods for their hedonic (emotional) values, REM may be integral to developing food preferences and dislikes; and (vii) REM seems to have wider influences in regulating energy balance in terms of exercise 'substitution' and energy (body heat) retention. Avenues for further research are proposed, linking REM with feeding behaviours, including eating disorders, and effects of REM-suppressant medications.

  4. Information Needs and Seeking Behaviour of Distance Learning ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Also, 54.9% of the respondents had been using the library as source of ... personal life and work, and more resourse-based, calls for perpetual access and usage of information and ... these centres, the distance learners need information on course offered by the institution, what is ..... Management of Primary and Secondary.

  5. A Review on Information Seeking Behaviour Literature in Iran

    OpenAIRE

    shiva yari; hamid ahmadi

    2014-01-01

    This article reviews the condition of information seeking behavior in Iran with analytical and qualittatire approaches to exhibit a clear, scientific, and read condition of it. Published literature has been reviewed both in theoretical bases and accomplished researches. So, all published literature including books, articles, theses, and research plans that has been released and distributed in Iran and were effective in this domain, has been studied. Reviews showed that the information seeking...

  6. Information seeking and use behaviour of economists and business analysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Thivant

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The aim of this paper is to deal with the information seeking and use problem in a professional context and understand how activity can influence practices, by taking as examples, the research undertaken by economic analysts. We analyse the relationship between the situational approach, described by Cheuk, the work environment complexity (with social, technological and personal aspects, and the information seeking and use strategies, which relied on Ellis and Wilson's model, with Bates's comments. Method. We interviewed eight economists, using a questionnaire and the SICIA (Situation, Complexity and Information Activity method. The SICAI method is a qualitative approach, which underlines the relationship between situations, professional contexts and strategies. Both methods allow better understanding of how investment analysts find out what they need for their job. We can clarify their information sources and practices of information seeking, which are very particular because of their activities. We complete our analysis by interviewing analysts from financial institutions. Analysis. A qualitative mode of analysis was used to interpret the interviewees' comments, within the research framework adopted. Results. We find similarity in information seeking and use strategies used by these two groups and environmental levels meet in most situations. But some differences can be also found, explained by the activity frameworks and goals. Conclusion. This study demonstrates that the activity and also the professional context (here the financial context can directly influence practices.

  7. Epistemology and Information Seeking Behaviour: Outcome of a Quantitative Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmood Khowsrojerdi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study intended to study the state of information seeking among 158 graduate students in University of Tehran and examine its correlation with students’ epistemological beliefs. A survey employing two sets of questionnaires was carried out. One set was devised by the author while the other was Schommers 63-item epistemological beliefs questionnaire. Findings indicated that there is a positive significance at 0.05 level between knowledge organization and students’ information relevancy judgments. Furthermore there is a positive significance at 0.001 level between knowledge management and time allocation. Learning speed and internalization of past knowledge however displayed a negative significance at 0.01 level. No significance was observed among the rest of epistemological beliefs aspects with other aspects of information seeking behavior

  8. Water resources and human behaviour: an integrated landscape management perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Oosterbeek

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available A two sides balance can be drawn from the last 20 years of active intents to change local, regional and global policies concerning water and global environment issues. On one hand, as a consequence of the “sustainable development” model, there is an increasing awareness of the issues in stake, and environment became a core part of any public policy. International conferences and the investment in scientific research in these areas are an expression of this. Yet, concerns are growing in face of the increasing stress imposed on freshwater resources, climate change and the difficulties to achieve international consensus on specific strategies. This was the focus of discussion in the international conference on climate change organised in Nagoya in December 2010, by ICSS, ICSU and ICPHS. A revision of the conceptual approach to sustainable development, moving beyond a strictly socio-economic understanding of human behaviour and incorporating, as basic strategies, the dimensions of culture, didactics of dilemma and governance, is currently being applied in some scenarios, hopefully with a better result. The paper discusses water resources in the context of climate change from this integrated perspective.

  9. Instinct(ive) play behaviour in human and non-human players

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wirman, Hanna; Jørgensen, Ida Kathrine Hammeleff

    in human play? What kind of definition of ‘instinctual’ is meaningful for the study of games and play? Finally, how to design for instinctual or for non-instinctual play? While many such questions remain out of the reach of a humanist or a design researcher, this paper aims to focus on one single aspect......Instinctive stands in opposition to thoughtful. It is free from causal reasoning and deductive logic that bases on knowledge from past experience (Garrett 1997). Acknowledging how little is confirmed about the origins, importance or evolution of play in humans and non-humans (e.g. Burghardt 2005......), the part of instinctual also remains a mystery. In Wirman’s recent studies (e.g. Wirman 2015), however, we can recognise a human tendency to see ‘instinctive’ in animal behaviour while ‘play’ substitutes it in categorising human actions. This poses intriguing questions for multispecies game and play...

  10. Temporally and spatially partitioned behaviours of spinner dolphins: implications for resilience to human disturbance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, David W.; Christiansen, Fredrik

    2017-01-01

    Selective forces shape the evolution of wildlife behavioural strategies and influence the spatial and temporal partitioning of behavioural activities to maximize individual fitness. Globally, wildlife is increasingly exposed to human activities which may affect their behavioural activities. The ability of wildlife to compensate for the effects of human activities may have implications for their resilience to disturbance. Resilience theory suggests that behavioural systems which are constrained in their repertoires are less resilient to disturbance than flexible systems. Using behavioural time-series data, we show that spinner dolphins (Stenella longirostris) spatially and temporally partition their behavioural activities on a daily basis. Specifically, spinner dolphins were never observed foraging during daytime, where resting was the predominant activity. Travelling and socializing probabilities were higher in early mornings and late afternoons when dolphins were returning from or preparing for nocturnal feeding trips, respectively. The constrained nature of spinner dolphin behaviours suggests they are less resilient to human disturbance than other cetaceans. These dolphins experience the highest exposure rates to human activities ever reported for any cetaceans. Over the last 30 years human activities have increased significantly in Hawaii, but the spinner dolphins still inhabit these bays. Recent abundance estimates (2011 and 2012) however, are lower than all previous estimates (1979–1981, 1989–1992 and 2003), indicating a possible long-term impact. Quantification of the spatial and temporal partitioning of wildlife behavioural schedules provides critical insight for conservation measures that aim to mitigate the effects of human disturbance. PMID:28280561

  11. A novel method for delivering ramped cooling reveals rat behaviours at innocuous and noxious temperatures: A comparative study of human psychophysics and rat behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunham, James P; Hulse, Richard P; Donaldson, Lucy F

    2015-07-15

    Thermal sensory testing in rodents informs human pain research. There are important differences in the methodology for delivering thermal stimuli to humans and rodents. This is particularly true in cold pain research. These differences confound extrapolation and de-value nociceptive tests in rodents. We investigated cooling-induced behaviours in rats and psychophysical thresholds in humans using ramped cooling stimulation protocols. A Peltier device mounted upon force transducers simultaneously applied a ramped cooling stimulus whilst measuring contact with rat hind paw or human finger pad. Rat withdrawals and human detection, discomfort and pain thresholds were measured. Ramped cooling of a rat hind paw revealed two distinct responses: Brief paw removal followed by paw replacement, usually with more weight borne than prior to the removal (temperature inter-quartile range: 19.1 °C to 2.8 °C). Full withdrawal was evoked at colder temperatures (inter quartile range: -11.3 °C to -11.8 °C). The profile of human cool detection threshold and cold pain threshold were remarkably similar to that of the rat withdrawals behaviours. Previous rat cold evoked behaviours utilise static temperature stimuli. By utilising ramped cold stimuli this novel methodology better reflects thermal testing in patients. Brief paw removal in the rat is driven by non-nociceptive afferents, as is the perception of cooling in humans. This is in contrast to the nociceptor-driven withdrawal from colder temperatures. These findings have important implications for the interpretation of data generated in older cold pain models and consequently our understanding of cold perception and pain. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. Information Seeking Behaviour of Undergraduates in a Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lack of computer skills, irregular electricity supply and lack of good search ... information literacy skills in the use of library currently taught in the university .... according to him use a subject-disciplinary method that leads them to a specific list of.

  13. Evaluation of behaviour testing for human directed aggression in dogs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borg, van der J.A.M.; Beerda, B.; Ooms, M.; Silveira de Souza, A.; Hagen, M.; Kemp, B.

    2010-01-01

    Behaviour test batteries are used to identify aggressive dogs. The Dutch Socially Acceptable Behaviour (SAB)-test has been used since 2001 to select against unwanted aggression and fear in specific dog breeds, though much is unknown yet regarding its reliability, validity and feasibility. In this pa

  14. Empirical study and modeling of human behaviour dynamics of comments on Blog posts

    CERN Document Server

    Guo, Jin-Li

    2010-01-01

    On-line communities offer a great opportunity to investigate human dynamics, because much information about individuals is registered in databases. In this paper, based on data statistics of online comments on Blog posts, we first present an empirical study of a comment arrival-time interval distribution. We find that people interested in some subjects gradually disappear and the interval distribution is a power law. According to this feature, we propose a model with gradually decaying interest. We give a rigorous analysis on the model by non-homogeneous Poisson processes and obtain an analytic expression of the interval distribution. Our analysis indicates that the time interval between two consecutive events follows the power-law distribution with a tunable exponent, which can be controlled by the model parameters and is in interval (1,\\infty). The analytical result agrees with the empirical results well, obeying an approximately power-law form. Our model provides a theoretical basis for human behaviour dyn...

  15. Profiling and understanding student information behaviour: methodologies and meaning Jennifer Rowley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Rowley

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper draws on work conducted under the Joint Information Systems Committee (JISC User Behaviour Monitoring and Evaluation Framework to identify a range of issues associated with research design that can form a platform for enquiry about knowledge creation in the arena of user behaviour. The Framework has developed a multidimensional set of tools for profiling, monitoring and evaluating user behaviour. The Framework has two main approaches: one, a broad-based survey which generates both a qualitative and a quantitative profile of user behaviour, and the other a longitudinal qualitative study of user behaviour that (in addition to providing in-depth insights is the basis for the development of the EIS (Electronic Information Services Diagnostic Toolkit. The strengths and weaknesses of the Framework approach are evaluated. In the context of profiling user behaviour, key methodological concerns relate to: representativeness, sampling and access, the selection of appropriate measures and the interpretation of those measures. Qualitative approaches are used to generate detailed insights. These include detailed narratives, case study analysis and gap analysis. The messages from this qualitative analysis do not lend themselves to simple summarization. One approach that has been employed to capture and interpret these messages is the development of the EIS Diagnostic Toolkit. This toolkit can be used to assess and monitor an institution's progress with embedding EIS into learning processes. Finally, consideration must be given to integration of insights generated through different strands within the Framework.

  16. Tourist Motivation and Information Search Behaviour Case: Museum of Contemporary Art Kiasma

    OpenAIRE

    Nurmi, Eero

    2013-01-01

    This bachelor’s thesis focuses on researching tourist motivation and the information search behaviour among foreign visitors at Museum of Contemporary Art Kiasma. The aims of the thesis are to uncover the motivational factors that govern tourists’ decision-making, and to probe into the information sources that they use. The sufficiency of the information supply offered on Museum of Contemporary Art Kiasma is also delved into. The theoretical framework consists of a review of the works of ...

  17. Human Posture Estimation using Visual Information

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiayu XU

    2014-01-01

    Human-robot cooperation is one of the central research issues in robotics.Al kinds of sensors wil be used since the robot should understand human’s intention.This article wil focus on the human posture estimation by using Microsoft Kinect.The visual Information from Kinect can be acquired and used to extract the human skeletal information and further,calcu-late the human posture.The experiment results have been compared with a Qualisys system,which has been proved quite precisely.

  18. Epigenesis of behavioural lateralization in humans and other animals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaafsma, S. M.; Riedstra, B. J.; Pfannkuche, K. A.; Bouma, A.; Groothuis, T. G. G.

    2009-01-01

    Despite several decades of research, the epigenesis of behavioural and brain lateralization is still elusive, although its knowledge is important in understanding developmental plasticity, function and evolution of lateralization, and its relationship with developmental disorders. Over the last deca

  19. How Trauma and Attachment Can Impact Neurodevelopment: Informing Our Understanding and Treatment of Sexual Behaviour Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creeden, Kevin

    2009-01-01

    Over the last several years there has been a notable increase in neurological and neurodevelopmental research, with a keen interest in applying this research to our understanding of everyday human learning and behaviour. One aspect of this research has examined how the experience of trauma in childhood can affect neurodevelopment with implications…

  20. Social behaviour in pervasive developmental disorders: effects of informant, group and "theory-of-mind".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, C; Soares-Boucaud, I; Hochmann, J; Frith, U

    1997-12-01

    Theory of mind skills and a range of social behaviour in everyday life were assessed in a sample of 21 children with pervasive developmental disorders and 22 normally-developing preschoolers. Parents, teachers and therapists were interviewed using the Vineland Adaptive Behaviour Scales and a new supplementary scale, the "Echelle d'Adaptation Sociale pour Enfants" (EASE). Teachers and therapists were able to differentiate subtle forms of social problems in everyday life between subgroups of children diagnosed later to have either autism (n = 13) or PDDNOS (n = 8), according to DSM-III-R (1) criteria. This study offers a (small) cross-cultural replication of recent work suggesting that differences in the mentalising skills of children with autism are reflected in the everyday social behaviour of this group. A significant effect of informant was found for the PDD group, and this effect was particularly pronounced when children with autism were considered separately. The implications of informant differences are discussed.

  1. The Influence of Nutrition Labeling and Point-of-Purchase Information on Food Behaviours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volkova, Ekaterina; Ni Mhurchu, Cliona

    2015-03-01

    Point-of-purchase information on packaged food has been a highly debated topic. Various types of nutrition labels and point-of-purchase information have been studied to determine their ability to attract consumers' attention, be well understood and promote healthy food choices. Country-specific regulatory and monitoring frameworks have been implemented to ensure reliability and accuracy of such information. However, the impact of such information on consumers' behaviour remains contentious. This review summarizes recent evidence on the real-world effectiveness of nutrition labels and point-of-purchase information.

  2. A survey on information seeking behaviour of nurses at a private hospital in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argyri, Paraskevi; Kostagiolas, Petros; Diomidous, Marianna

    2014-01-01

    The paper deals with the investigation of the information seeking behavior of nursing staff of a private hospital in Greece. It is assumed that the information seeking behaviour has an effect on the nursing care and practices. A survey was conducted through a specially designed questionnaire distributed within 2013 to registered nurses of a major private Hospital in Athens. Nonparametric descriptive statistics have been carried out through SPSS version 20. The information needs of nurses are related to their work role and include information for nursing interventions and hospital infections control. The online scientific content is considered as the main source of information, while lack of time is considered as the main obstacle when seeking information. Regarding the effects of information, nurses believe that information quality and availability influences nursing care as well as nursing practices. Development of appropriate information services and information literacy skills for nurses is required.

  3. Information sciences and human factors overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holcomb, Lee B.

    1988-01-01

    An overview of program objectives of the Information Sciences and Human Factors Division of NASA's Office of Aeronautics and Space Technology is given in viewgraph form. Information is given on the organizational structure, goals, the research and technology base, telerobotics, systems autonomy in space operations, space sensors, humans in space, space communications, space data systems, transportation vehicle guidance and control, spacecraft control, and major program directions in space.

  4. Human error: A significant information security issue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banks, W.W.

    1994-12-31

    One of the major threats to information security human error is often ignored or dismissed with statements such as {open_quotes}There is not much we can do about it.{close_quotes} This type of thinking runs counter to reality because studies have shown that, of all systems threats, human error has the highest probability of occurring and that, with professional assistance, human errors can be prevented or significantly reduced Security analysts often overlook human error as a major threat; however, other professionals such as human factors engineers are trained to deal with these probabilistic occurrences and mitigate them. In a recent study 55% of the respondents surveyed considered human error as the most important security threat. Documentation exists to show that human error was a major cause of the consequences suffered at Three Mile Island, Chernobyl, Bhopal, and the Exxon tanker, Valdez. Ironically, causes of human error can usually be quickly and easily eliminated.

  5. Hobby-related information-seeking behaviour of highly dedicated online museum visitors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skov, Mette

    2013-01-01

    museum. Follow-up interviews (n = 24) obtained rich, qualitative data to validate and elaborate the characteristics of online museum visitors' information-seeking behaviour. Analysis. Based on the serious leisure perspective, data analysis led to the identification of two different user groups named...

  6. The Effects of Using a Model-Reinforced Video on Information-Seeking Behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    McHugh, Elizabeth A.; Lenz, Janet G.; Reardon, Robert C.; Peterson, Gary W.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the effects of viewing a ten-minute model-reinforced video on careers information-seeking behaviour of 280 students in ten sections of a university careers course randomly assigned to treatment or control conditions. The video portrayed an undergraduate student seeking careers counselling services and a counsellor using…

  7. Practical and Scholarly Implications of Information Behaviour Research: A Pilot Study of Research Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Kyungwon; Rubenstein, Ellen; White, Kelvin

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: This pilot study examined how current information behaviour research addresses the implications and potential impacts of its findings. The goal was to understand what implications and contributions the field has made and how effectively authors communicate implications of their findings. Methods: We conducted a content analysis of 30…

  8. Culturally transmitted paternity beliefs and the evolution of human mating behaviour

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Alex Mesoudi; Kevin N Laland

    2007-01-01

    ...’, and biological reality, where children have just one father. Here, mathematical models are used to explore the coevolution of paternity beliefs and the genetic variation underlying human mating behaviour. A gene...

  9. Why bother about health? A study on the factors that influence health information seeking behaviour among Malaysian healthcare consumers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaafar, Noor Ismawati; Ainin, Sulaiman; Yeong, Mun Wai

    2017-08-01

    The general improvement of socio-economic conditions has resulted in people becoming more educated to make better-informed decisions in health related matters. Individual's perspective on health increases with better understanding of ways to improve lifestyle for better health and living. With the increase in lifestyle related diseases that lead to health problems, there is an increase in the availability of healthcare information. Thus, it is important to identify the factors that influence information seeking behaviour in the area of healthcare and lifestyle. This exploratory study examines the relationship between the factors that affect online health information-seeking behaviour among healthcare product in the capital city of Malaysia. Survey questionnaire was used to collect empirical data. A survey was conducted among 300 healthcare consumers in three main cities in Malaysia where questionnaires were personally distributed through snowball sampling. A total of 271 questionnaire forms were used in the analysis. Health Behaviour of the consumers influences Health Information Seeking Behaviour. And this relationship is strongly affected by Gender whereby the affect is strongly among females compared to males. The findings indicate that Health Behaviour influences Health Information Seeking Behaviour. Marketers can find out which target segment of population to target when devising information channels for consumers, especially through the Internet. However, message that promotes positive health behaviour to a target audience who already has positive Health Behaviour increase the motivation to Health Information Seeking Behaviour. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. An investigation of the search behaviour associated with Ingwersen’s three types of information needs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borlund, Pia; Jensen, Sabine Dreier Elgaard

    2014-01-01

    We report a naturalistic interactive information retrieval (IIR) study of 18 ordinary users in the age of 20–25 who carry out everyday-life information seeking (ELIS) on the Internet with respect to the three types of information needs identified by Ingwersen (1986): the verificative information...... need (VIN), the conscious topical information need (CIN), and the muddled topical information need (MIN). The searches took place in the private homes of the users in order to ensure as realistic searching as possible. Ingwersen (1996) associates a given search behaviour to each of the three types...... of information needs, which are analytically deduced, but not yet empirically tested. Thus the objective of the study is to investigate whether empirical data does, or does not, conform to the predictions derived from the three types of information needs. The main conclusion is that the analytically deduced...

  11. Causal Information on Children's Attitudes and Behavioural Intentions Toward a Peer With Obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Fitzgerald

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study examined the effect of types of causal information about overweight on children's attitudes and intentions toward a peer presented as overweight. Methods: Participants (N = 176 were randomly assigned to read a vignette of an overweight peer in one of three conditions, which varied in the explanatory information provided for the aetiology of the peer's overweight condition: biological, environmental or no causal information, along with a vignette of an average-weight peer. Results: The provision of information that the overweight was the result of biological factors and of no causal information yielded more positive attitudes toward the overweight peer compared to those who were provided with environmental information. Information on overweight had no impact on behavioural intentions. A social desirability bias was found for each of the three experimental conditions and for the average weight condition. Conclusion: Information explaining overweight had a minimal positive effect on attitudes and no effect on intentions toward an overweight peer.

  12. Being a Modern Human: essentialist and hierarchical approaches to the emergence of 'modern human behaviour'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terry Hopkinson

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The emergence of the modern human mind and modern human behaviour is a prominent issue in palaeolithic archaeology. The consensus has been that modernity, understood in terms of increased rates of innovation and the emergence of symbolism, is enabled by a heritable neurophysiology unique to Homo sapiens. This consensus is characterised as biological essentialist in that it understands modernity as genotypically specified and unique to Homo sapiens. 'Archaic' hominins such as the Neanderthals are understood to have lacked the modern neuroanatomical genotype and therefore to have been innately incapable of modern cognition and behaviour. The biological-essentialist programme, however, is facing a serious challenge as evidence for innovation and symbolism is found in the archaeological records of the Eurasian Middle Palaeolithic and the African Middle Stone Age. An alternative programme is emerging that understands modern human behaviour as an emergent property of social, demographic and ecological dynamics. It is argued that this programme is currently inadequate since it cannot explain the emergence of symbolically charged material culture and relies on inexorable long-term population growth. It is suggested here that the problem is better understood in terms of hierarchy theory, a body of ideas concerned with systems organised on multiple scales. Palaeolithic behaviour is reconceptualised as social practice emerging from a multi-scale knowledge system. It is shown that enhancements in the rate at which knowledgeable practices disseminate through social fields – the social transmission of knowledge - will have the effect of increasing the likelihood that novel practices will be incorporated into long-term structuring principles and thus become persistent practices. They will also effect a scalar convergence of domains of knowledgeability such that technical practices become incorporated into the construction of personhood as meaningful or

  13. The Information Seeking Behaviour of Distance Learners: A Case Study of the University of London International Programmes

    OpenAIRE

    Tury, S.; Robinson, L; Bawden, D.

    2015-01-01

    An examination of the information behaviour of distance learning students is described, based on a case study of the International Programmes of the University of London. A comprehensive literature analysis, and comparison of relevant information behaviour models were carried out, supported by a survey of student behaviour. Following a pilot study, the main survey gained responses from 649 students, in 81 countries and following diverse study programmes. A variety of inter-related factors wer...

  14. [Affective behavioural responses by dogs to tactile human-dog interactions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhne, Franziska; Hössler, Johanna C; Struwe, Rainer

    2012-01-01

    The communication of dogs is based on complex, subtle body postures and facial expressions. Some social interaction between dogs includes physical contact. Humans generally use both verbal and tactile signals to communicate with dogs. Hence, interaction between humans and dogs might lead to conflicts because the behavioural responses of dogs to human-dog interaction may be misinterpreted and wrongly assessed. The behavioural responses of dogs to tactile human-dog interactions and human gestures are the focus of this study. The participating dogs (n = 47) were privately owned pets.They were of varying breed and gender.The test consisted of nine randomised test sequences (e. g. petting the dog's head or chest). A test sequence was performed for a period of 30 seconds. The inter-trial interval was set at 60 seconds and the test-retest interval was set at 10 minutes. The frequency and duration of the dogs'behavioural responses were recorded using INTERACT. To examine the behavioural responses of the dogs, a two-way analysis of variance within the linear mixed models procedure of IBM SPSS Statistics 19 was conducted. A significant influence of the test-sequenc order on the dogs' behaviour could be analysed for appeasement gestures (F8,137 = 2.42; p = 0.018), redirected behaviour (F8,161 = 6.31; p = 0.012) and socio-positive behaviour (F8,148 = 6.28; p = 0.012). The behavioural responses of the dogs, which were considered as displacement activities (F8,109 = 2.5; p = 0.014) differed significantly among the test sequences. The response of the dogs, measured as gestures of appeasement, redirected behaviours, and displacement activities, was most obvious during petting around the head and near the paws.The results of this study conspicuously indicate that dogs respond to tactile human-dog interactions with gestures of appeasement and displacement activities. Redirected behaviours, socio-positive behaviours as well displacement activities are behavioural responses which dogs

  15. Antenna Behaviour in the Presence of Human Body

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Firrao, E.L.; Annema, Anne J.; Nauta, Bram

    Mobile phones are widely used nowadays. The demand in the new generations of mobile phones is better performance. Typically the mobile phone performance is derived assuming an ideal antenna impedance of 50Ω. Some work has been done in understanding the behaviour of the antenna impedance in a real

  16. Small Worlds, Lifeworlds, and Information: The Ramifications of the Information Behaviour of Social Groups in Public Policy and the Public Sphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnett, Gary; Jaeger, Paul T.

    2008-01-01

    Introduction: This paper attempts to build bridges between two sets of theoretical concepts related to information behaviour: the macro-level concepts of Jurgen Habermas related to lifeworlds and the micro-level concepts of Elfreda Chatman related to small worlds. Argument: Habermas and Chatman explored similar issues of information behaviour at…

  17. Information behaviour of parents of children admitted to a neonatal intensive care unit: Constructing a conceptual framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Rouck, Sofie; Leys, Mark

    2011-01-01

    This article explores the concepts 'information behaviour' and 'illness trajectory' at the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). On the basis of literature review and exploratory interviews with neonatologists and head nurses of Belgian NICUs a conceptual framework is presented. The 'information behaviour' of parents of infants admitted to a NICU is analytically divided into five dimensions: ways of getting information; interpersonal information sources; time-related issues; location of information transfer; and content of information. The conceptual framework equally takes the 'illness trajectory' into account. Following Corbin and Strauss the illness trajectory at a NICU is analysed in three sub-trajectories: disease course; healthcare trajectory; and sickness trajectory. By combining the respective categories of information behaviour and illness trajectory, an analytical tool is presented under the form of a classification matrix for scrutinizing the mediating role of the illness trajectory on the information behaviour of parents of infants admitted to a NICU.

  18. Information-seeking behaviours and decision-making process of parents of children with cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilicarslan-Toruner, Ebru; Akgun-Citak, Ebru

    2013-04-01

    This study aimed to explore the information-seeking behaviours, perceptions and decision-making experiences of parents of children with cancer by employing semi-structured interviews. A qualitative research design was used to assess the information-seeking behaviours, perceptions and decision-making processes used by parents in Turkey whose children have cancer. Interviews were conducted with 15 parents of children with cancer using a semi-structured interview schedule. The interviews were recorded and transcribed verbatim. Six main issues emerged. Issues were related to parents' information needs, the sources of information, difficulties that the parents encountered when seeking information, the decision-making process, the factors affecting decision-making, and expectations from the health team. Information resources for parents included medical doctors and nurses, the internet, friends and the parents of other children who were staying in the hospital. The parents mostly sought information about their child's illness, prognoses, treatment, side-effects and care giving issues. The parents expressed that they were directed primarily by health care providers during their decision-making process. Adequate and systematic information pertaining to illness, treatment, prognosis and child care must be provided by health care professionals throughout the illness process. In addition, individual guidance and spare time are key components to helping parents make decisions about their children with cancer. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Hobby-related information-seeking behaviour of highly dedicated online museum visitors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skov, Mette

    2013-01-01

    museum. Follow-up interviews (n = 24) obtained rich, qualitative data to validate and elaborate the characteristics of online museum visitors' information-seeking behaviour. Analysis. Based on the serious leisure perspective, data analysis led to the identification of two different user groups named......-standing interest or hobby. The identified information needs were surprisingly well-defined known item needs and only few exploratory information needs were identified. Participants stressed the importance of personal channels and the social context of the hobby. Conclusions. The present study contributes...

  20. Influencing user behaviour with energy information display systems for intelligent homes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, G.; Newborough, M. [Energy Academy, Heriot-Watt University, Edinburgh, Scotland EH14 4AS, (United Kingdom)

    2006-08-01

    This paper considers the design of energy consumption displays from a theoretical standpoint in relation to user-appliance interactions in the home. It presents the main options for display position and discusses what detailed information to display in order to promote energy saving. To guide the designer in making decisions regarding the merits of displaying appliance-specific information (ASI) and grouped appliance information (GAI) around the home, classifications are presented of appliance-associated micro-behaviours and appliance control to end-use relationships. A hybrid display approach is suggested as a most effective solution. (Author)

  1. Serendipity dimensions and users' information behaviour in the physical library interface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Björneborn, Lennart

    2008-01-01

    Introduction. Outlines an exploratory study concerned with the types of information behaviour users employ to find materials in a public library. Special focus was on what dimensions in the physical library may affect possibilities for serendipity. The overall aim of the study was to develop...... a conceptual framework including models to describe users' interaction with library spaces. Method. The study took place at two Danish public libraries during 10 months in 2006. Naturalistic observation of users' information behaviour was supplemented with qualitative interviews with 113 users including think......-aloud sessions with eleven users. Analysis. Data from observations and interviews were transcribed and analysed in an iterative process of categorization and condensation. Results. Observations and interviews in the study resulted in a model of different ways of finding library materials using and combining...

  2. Information Seeking Behaviours of Business Students and the Development of Academic Digital Libraries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelli WooShue

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives ‐ To gain insight into the extent to which user information‐seeking behaviours should inform the design and development of Digital Libraries in an academic setting, a study was carried out at Dalhousie University, Canada to explore the information‐seeking behaviours of business students.Methods ‐ The students studied were drawn from the School of Business Administration at Dalhousie University, Canada. The study was based on qualitative and quantitative data collected through a survey, in‐depth semi‐structured interviews, observational study and document analysis. Qualitative case study data was coded using QSR N6 qualitative data analysis software. The data was categorized using Atkinson’s “Model of BusinessInformation Users’ Expectations” and Renda and Straccia‘s personalized collaborative DL model. Atkinson’s model defines the expectations of business students in terms of cost, time,effort required, pleasure and the avoidance of pain. Renda and Straccia’s model of a personalized and collaborative digital library centres around three concepts: actors, objects, and functionality. The survey data was analysed using the Zoomerang software.Results ‐ The study results revealed that students tend to select resources based on cost(free or for fee, accessibility, ease of use, speed of delivery (of results, and convenience. The results showed that similar to Atkinson’s findings, the business students’ information seeking behaviour is influenced by the concepts of cost‐benefit and break‐even analyses that underlie business education. Concerning speed of delivery and convenience, the organization of the resources was paramount. Students preferred user‐defined resource lists, alert services, and expert‐created business resource collections. When asked about the usefulness of potential digital library functionalities, students valued a personalized user interface and communal virtual spaces to share

  3. Chemotherapy and information-seeking behaviour: characteristics of patients using mass-media information sources.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muusses, L.D.; Weert, J.C.M. van; Dulmen, S. van; Jansen, J.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Fulfilling patients' information needs can help them cope with illness and improve their well-being. Little research has been conducted on the characteristics of patients using different information sources. This study aims to get insight into which information sources patients receiving

  4. Chemotherapy and information-seeking behaviour: characteristics of patients using mass-media information sources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muusses, L.D.; van Weert, J.C.M.; van Dulmen, S.; Jansen, J.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Fulfilling patients’ information needs can help them cope with illness and improve their well‐being. Little research has been conducted on the characteristics of patients using different information sources. This study aims to get insight into which information sources patients receiving

  5. Chemotherapy and information-seeking behaviour: characteristics of patients using mass-media information sources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muusses, L.D.; van Weert, J.C.M.; van Dulmen, S.; Jansen, J.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Fulfilling patients’ information needs can help them cope with illness and improve their well‐being. Little research has been conducted on the characteristics of patients using different information sources. This study aims to get insight into which information sources patients receiving

  6. Chemotherapy and information-seeking behaviour: characteristics of patients using mass-media information sources.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muusses, L.D.; Weert, J.C.M. van; Dulmen, S. van; Jansen, J.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Fulfilling patients' information needs can help them cope with illness and improve their well-being. Little research has been conducted on the characteristics of patients using different information sources. This study aims to get insight into which information sources patients receiving

  7. Effects of human handling during early rearing on the behaviour of dairy calves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schütz, K.E.; Hawke, M.L.; Waas, J.R.; McLeay, L.M.; Bokkers, E.A.M.; Reenen, van C.G.; Webster, J.R.; Stewart, M.

    2012-01-01

    We examined the effects of daily positive or negative human handling on the behaviour of Holstein-Friesian dairy calves (n = 20 calves per treatment, five calves per group). The response to humans and indicators of positive emotions were examined at four weeks of age. Calves that received positive h

  8. Modelled temperature-dependent excitability behaviour of a generalised human peripheral sensory nerve fibre

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Smit, Jacoba E

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine if a recently developed human Ranvier node model, which is based on a modified version of the Hodgkin-Huxley model, could predict the excitability behaviour in human peripheral sensory nerve fibres...

  9. Comparison of French and Estonian Students' Conceptions in Genetic Determinism of Human Behaviours

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castera, Jeremy; Sarapuu, Tago; Clement, Pierre

    2013-01-01

    Innatism is the belief that most of the human personality can be determined by genes. This ideology is dangerous, especially when it claims to be scientific. The present study investigates conceptions of 1060 students from Estonia and France related to genetic determinism of some human behaviours. Factors taken into account included students'…

  10. Information search behaviour among new car buyers: A two-step cluster analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.M. Satish

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available A two-step cluster analysis of new car buyers in India was performed to identify taxonomies of search behaviour using personality and situational variables, apart from sources of information. Four distinct groups were found—broad moderate searchers, intense heavy searchers, low broad searchers, and low searchers. Dealers can identify the members of each segment by measuring the variables used for clustering, and can then design appropriate communication strategies.

  11. Uncertainty dimensions of information behaviour in a group based problem solving context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hyldegård, Jette

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a study of uncertainty dimensions of information behaviour in a group based problem solving context. After a presentation of the cognitive uncertainty dimension underlying Kuhlthau's ISP-model, uncertainty factors associated with personality, the work task situation and social......-dimensional phenomenon, which should not be studied out of context. On the other hand, this complexity of the uncertainty concept also represents a methodological and practical challenge to the researcher as well as the practioner....

  12. Multi-Element Behaviour Support as a Model for the Delivery of a Human Rights Based Approach for Working with People with Intellectual Disabilities and Behaviours that Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doody, Christina

    2009-01-01

    This paper demonstrates the effectiveness of the multi-element behaviour support (MEBS) model in meeting the rights of persons with intellectual disabilities and behaviours that challenge. It does this through explicitly linking the multi-element model to the guiding principles of a human rights based approach (HRBA) using a vignette to…

  13. Spatial information processing in humans and monkeys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oleksiak, A.

    2010-01-01

    In this thesis a series of experiments are described on human volunteers and rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) in the context of spatial information processing. In the first single-unit recording experiments in monkeys a spatial summation algorithm was investigated. The responses of single neurons to

  14. Metastatic behaviour of primary human tumours in a zebrafish xenotransplantation model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heidecke Claus-Dieter

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Aberrant regulation of cell migration drives progression of many diseases, including cancer cell invasion and metastasis formation. Analysis of tumour invasion and metastasis in living organisms to date is cumbersome and involves difficult and time consuming investigative techniques. For primary human tumours we establish here a simple, fast, sensitive and cost-effective in vivo model to analyse tumour invasion and metastatic behaviour. Methods We fluorescently labelled small explants from gastrointestinal human tumours and investigated their metastatic behaviour after transplantation into zebrafish embryos and larvae. The transparency of the zebrafish embryos allows to follow invasion, migration and micrometastasis formation in real-time. High resolution imaging was achieved through laser scanning confocal microscopy of live zebrafish. Results In the transparent zebrafish embryos invasion, circulation of tumour cells in blood vessels, migration and micrometastasis formation can be followed in real-time. Xenografts of primary human tumours showed invasiveness and micrometastasis formation within 24 hours after transplantation, which was absent when non-tumour tissue was implanted. Furthermore, primary human tumour cells, when organotopically implanted in the zebrafish liver, demonstrated invasiveness and metastatic behaviour, whereas primary control cells remained in the liver. Pancreatic tumour cells showed no metastatic behaviour when injected into cloche mutant embryos, which lack a functional vasculature. Conclusion Our results show that the zebrafish is a useful in vivo animal model for rapid analysis of invasion and metastatic behaviour of primary human tumour specimen.

  15. The information-seeking behaviour of doctors: a review of the evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Karen; Harrison, Janet

    2007-06-01

    This paper provides a narrative review of the available literature from the past 10 years (1996-2006) that focus on the information seeking behaviour of doctors. The review considers the literature in three sub-themes: Theme 1, the Information Needs of Doctors includes information need, frequency of doctors' questions and types of information needs; Theme 2, Information Seeking by Doctors embraces pattern of information resource use, time spent searching, barriers to information searching and information searching skills; Theme 3, Information Sources Utilized by Doctors comprises the number of sources utilized, comparison of information sources consulted, computer usage, ranking of information resources, printed resource use, personal digital assistant (PDA) use, electronic database use and the Internet. The review is wide ranging. It would seem that the traditional methods of face-to-face communication and use of hard-copy evidence still prevail amongst qualified medical staff in the clinical setting. The use of new technologies embracing the new digital age in information provision may influence this in the future. However, for now, it would seem that there is still research to be undertaken to uncover the most effective methods of encouraging clinicians to use the best evidence in everyday practice.

  16. Speech-language pathologists' informal learning in healthcare settings: behaviours and motivations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walden, Patrick R; Bryan, Valerie C

    2011-08-01

    The current research sought to identify the types of informal learning behaviours speech-language pathologists (SLPs) working in healthcare settings engage in as well as SLPs' motivations for engaging in informal learning. Twenty-four American Speech-Language-Hearing Association (ASHA)-certified SLPs participated in this qualitative study. Data collection consisted of computer-mediated interviews, online journaling, and a virtual focus group. These textual data were coded and collapsed into themes. All participant SLPs reported that they learned through collaboration (inter- and intra-disciplinary), worked with patients to learn through trial-and-error, and consulted non-peer-reviewed material on the internet as well as peer-reviewed research in order to learn informally in the workplace. Eighteen of the 24 participants reported being motivated to learn at work to meet a patient's need to meet therapy goals. Five of the 24 participants reported meeting their own personal learning needs was a motivating factor and 10 of the 24 participants reported learning informally to meet the needs of the healthcare organization/SLP profession. Results were compared to past research on SLPs' information retrieval behaviours. It was concluded that SLPs acknowledge their personal work-related gaps in knowledge and skills and actively seek to develop their knowledge and skill base through informal means.

  17. Naturopaths practice behaviour: provision and access to information on complementary and alternative medicines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bloustien Geraldine

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The increasing use of complementary and alternative medicines in Australia has generated concern regarding the information on these products available to both healthcare providers and the public. The aim of this study was to examine the practice behaviours of naturopaths in relation to both the provision of and access to information on complementary and alternative medicines (CAM. Methods A representative sample of 300 practicing naturopaths located nationally were sent a comprehensive survey which gathered data on self reported practice behaviour in relation to the provision of information on oral CAM to clients and the information needs of the practitioners themselves Results A response rate of 35% was achieved. Most practitioners (98% have a dispensary within their clinic and the majority of practitioners perform the dispensing themselves. Practitioners reported they provided information to clients, usually in the form of verbal information (96%, handwritten notes (83% and printed information (75%. The majority of practitioners (over 75% reported always giving information on the full name of the product, reason for prescribing, expected response, possible interactions and contraindications and actions of the product. Information resources most often used by practitioners included professional newsletters, seminars run by manufacturers, patient feedback and personal observation of patients. Most practitioners were positive about the information they could access but felt that more information was required in areas such as adverse reactions and safe use of CAM in children, pregnancy and breastfeeding. Most naturopaths (over 96% were informed about adverse events through manufacturer or distributor newsletters. The barriers in the provision of information to clients were misleading or incorrect information in the media, time constraints, information overload and complex language used in printed information. The main barrier

  18. Chemotherapy and information-seeking behaviour: characteristics of patients using mass-media information sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muusses, Linda D; van Weert, Julia C M; van Dulmen, Sandra; Jansen, Jesse

    2012-09-01

    Fulfilling patients' information needs can help them cope with illness and improve their well-being. Little research has been conducted on the characteristics of patients using different information sources. This study aims to get insight into which information sources patients receiving chemotherapy for the first time use and which factors (background characteristics, psychological factors, information needs and source reliability) explain the use of different mass-media information sources. Three hundred forty-five patients receiving chemotherapy in ten hospitals in the Netherlands completed a questionnaire. Use of 16 sources (mass-media and interpersonal) was measured with a five-point Likert scale. Regression analyses were conducted to test whether use of the three most frequently used mass-media sources could be explained by socio-demographic, medical and psychological factors, unfulfilled information needs and perceived reliability of the source. Treatment guide, brochures and Internet were the most frequently used mass-media sources. Medical specialists, nurses, and family and/or friends were the most common interpersonal sources. Using the treatment guide was found to be associated with treatment goal, unfulfilled information needs and source reliability. Using brochures was associated with cancer-related stress responses, coping style and source reliability. Using Internet was associated with age, education, coping style and source reliability. This study developed a model to explain the use of mass-media information sources by patients with cancer receiving chemotherapy. The use of different information sources is associated with different factors, indicating that each source offers specific opportunities to tailor information to the patient's needs. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Factors affecting patients' online health information-seeking behaviours: The role of the Patient Health Engagement (PHE) Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graffigna, Guendalina; Barello, Serena; Bonanomi, Andrea; Riva, Giuseppe

    2017-10-01

    To identify the variables affecting patients' online health information-seeking behaviours by examining the relationships between patient participation in their healthcare and online health information-seeking behaviours. A cross-sectional survey of Italian chronic patients (N=352) was conducted on patient's online health information-seeking behaviours and patient participation-related variables. Structural equation modeling analysis was conducted to test the hypothesis. This study showed how the healthcare professionals' ability to support chronic patients' autonomy affect patients' participation in their healthcare and patient's online health information-seeking behaviours. However, results do not confirm that the frequency of patients' online health-information seeking behavior has an impact on their adherence to medical prescriptions. Assuming a psychosocial perspective, we have discussed how patients' engagement - conceived as the level of their emotional elaboration of the health condition - affects the patients' ability to search for and manage online health information. To improve the effectiveness of patients' online health information-seeking behaviours and to enhance the effectiveness of technological interventions in this field, healthcare providers should target assessing and improving patient engagement and patient empowerment in their healthcare. It is important that health professionals acknowledge patients' online health information-seeking behaviours that they discuss the information offered by patients and guide them to reliable and accurate web sources. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Clinical medical students’ experiences of unprofessional behaviour and how these should inform approaches to teaching of professionalism

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Abu, Ozotu Rosemary

    2016-08-01

    This mixed method research explores unprofessional behaviour experienced by clinical Medical students, during clinical training in Ireland; with a view to obtaining learning points that inform future design of modules on Professionalism. It also looks at the impact of these on students and the relationship between gender\\/ethnicity and students’ experiences of these behaviours.

  1. User information seeking behaviour: perceptions and reality. An evaluation of the WHO Labresources Internet portal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madle, Gemma; Berger, Anouk; Cognat, Sebastien; Menna, Sylvio; Kostkova, Patty

    2009-01-01

    Evaluation on Internet portals is a key component of any online resource development. Understanding user information seeking behaviour and user perceived behaviour is essential to obtain the full picture of user needs, online activities and draw lessons to improve the design of Internet portals to better meet user expectations. This article discusses the evaluation of a WHO Internet portal: the Labresources website. The evaluation investigates user satisfaction with the resource, usability, demographic information about users and how well they could complete specific tasks using the website and compared this with the actual online behaviour revealing a number of discrepancies. An online questionnaire was advertised on the Labresources website during the period 25 November 2005 to 20 February 2006. As the site caters to English and French speakers, the questionnaire was made available in both languages. It consisted of two sections - the first section required the participant to complete three tasks using the website whereas the second section tested user satisfaction, information needs and appropriateness of the content. Weblogs data were compared with the questionnaire results to compare user perceived and actual online behaviour. Twenty one respondents completed the online questionnaire from a total of 18 countries. This was out of a potential 60 website users among whom the questionnaire was promoted. In general, respondents were satisfied with the website layout and navigation. 61.9% of respondents listed WHO among their top 5 and a third listed the Labresources website. The number of sessions where users browse (146) the information resources is almost three times more than the number of users who search (52) the resources. Weblogs revealed most interesting results with differences between what users reported doing when completing tasks and how easy they perceived the tasks and what they actually did. Twelve respondents completed at least one task. Of the

  2. Online genetic databases informing human genome epidemiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Higgins Julian PT

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background With the advent of high throughput genotyping technology and the information available via projects such as the human genome sequencing and the HapMap project, more and more data relevant to the study of genetics and disease risk will be produced. Systematic reviews and meta-analyses of human genome epidemiology studies rely on the ability to identify relevant studies and to obtain suitable data from these studies. A first port of call for most such reviews is a search of MEDLINE. We examined whether this could be usefully supplemented by identifying databases on the World Wide Web that contain genetic epidemiological information. Methods We conducted a systematic search for online databases containing genetic epidemiological information on gene prevalence or gene-disease association. In those containing information on genetic association studies, we examined what additional information could be obtained to supplement a MEDLINE literature search. Results We identified 111 databases containing prevalence data, 67 databases specific to a single gene and only 13 that contained information on gene-disease associations. Most of the latter 13 databases were linked to MEDLINE, although five contained information that may not be available from other sources. Conclusion There is no single resource of structured data from genetic association studies covering multiple diseases, and in relation to the number of studies being conducted there is very little information specific to gene-disease association studies currently available on the World Wide Web. Until comprehensive data repositories are created and utilized regularly, new data will remain largely inaccessible to many systematic review authors and meta-analysts.

  3. Practice explains abolished behavioural adaptation after human dorsal anterior cingulate cortex lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Steenbergen, H; Haasnoot, E; Bocanegra, B R; Berretty, E W; Hommel, B

    2015-04-08

    The role of mid-cingulate cortex (MCC), also referred to as dorsal anterior cingulate cortex, in regulating cognitive control is a topic of primary importance in cognitive neuroscience. Although many studies have shown that MCC responds to cognitive demands, lesion studies in humans are inconclusive concerning the causal role of the MCC in the adaptation to these demands. By elegantly combining single-cell recordings with behavioural methods, Sheth et al. [Sheth, S. et al. Human dorsal anterior cingulate cortex neurons mediate ongoing behavioural adaptation. Nature 488, 218-22 (2012).] recently were able to show that neurons in MCC encode cognitive demand. Importantly, this study also claimed that focal lesions of the MCC abolished behavioural adaptation to cognitive demands. Here we show that the absence of post-cingulotomy behavioural adaptation reported in this study may have been due to practice effects. We run a control condition where we tested subjects before and after a dummy treatment, which substituted cingulotomy with a filler task (presentation of a documentary). The results revealed abolished behavioural adaptation following the dummy treatment. Our findings suggest that future work using proper experimental designs is needed to advance the understanding of the causal role of the MCC in behavioural adaptation.

  4. Emotional and behavioural functioning of children of a parent diagnosed with cancer : A cross-informant perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, Annemieke; Huizinga, G.A.; Hoekstra, H.J.; van der Graaf, W.T.; Klip, E.C.; Pras, E.; Hoekstra-Weebers, J.E.

    2005-01-01

    This study investigates emotional and behavioural problems in children of parents diagnosed with cancer and examines the relationship with demographic and illness-related variables. Furthermore, agreement and differences between informants regarding child's functioning were examined. Members of 186

  5. Emotional and behavioural functioning of children of a parent diagnosed with cancer : A cross-informant perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, A.; Huizinga, G.A.; Hoekstra, H.J.; van der Graaf, W.T.; Klip, E.C.; Pras, E.; Hoekstra-Weebers, J.E.

    2005-01-01

    This study investigates emotional and behavioural problems in children of parents diagnosed with cancer and examines the relationship with demographic and illness-related variables. Furthermore, agreement and differences between informants regarding child's functioning were examined. Members of 186

  6. Information Seeking Behaviour of Faculty Members of Rajabhat Universities in Bangkok

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neela J. Deshpande

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available This article reports the results of a study of the information seeking behaviour of faculty members of Rajabhat Universities in Bangkok, Thailand. Data were collected by using a questionnaire from seven faculties in Rajabhat Universities. Results show that most of respondents (forty one percent stated their method of seeking information by consulting a knowledgeable person in the field. Two hundred and thirteen respondents (82 percent seek information for preparing lectures. Fifty-four percent of faculty members access more documents was references from a book. It is revealed that most of the faculty members (57 percent used textbooks. Seventy four percent of respondents read information materials in Thai and twenty four percent read materials in English. The Internet had been almost universally adopted; they trace materials from the library via the Internet. Google.com was used for searching information by respondents. They use frequently e-mail for communication. It is found that 42 percent of respondents use the ERIC (Education Resources Information Centre database. The majority of respondents faced the common problem while seeking information i.e. unavailability of information.

  7. Uncertainty dimensions of information behaviour in a group based problem solving context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hyldegård, Jette

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a study of uncertainty dimensions of information behaviour in a group based problem solving context. After a presentation of the cognitive uncertainty dimension underlying Kuhlthau's ISP-model, uncertainty factors associated with personality, the work task situation and social...... members' experiences of uncertainty differ from the individual information seeker in Kuhlthau's ISP-model, and how this experience may be related to personal, work task and social factors. A number of methods have been employed to collect data on each group member during the assignment process......: a demographic survey, a personality test, 3 process surveys, 3 diaries and 3 interviews. It was found that group members' experiences of uncertainty did not correspond with the ISP-model in that other factors beyond the mere information searching process seemed to intermingle with the complex process...

  8. Modeling Human Behaviour with Higher Order Logic: Insider Threats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boender, Jaap; Ivanova, Marieta Georgieva; Kammüller, Florian; Primierio, Giuseppe

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we approach the problem of modeling the human component in technical systems with a view on the difference between the use of model and theory in sociology and computer science. One aim of this essay is to show that building of theories and models for sociology can be compared and imp

  9. The development of human factors technologies -The development of human behaviour analysis techniques-

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jung Woon; Lee, Yong Heui; Park, Keun Ok; Chun, Se Woo; Suh, Sang Moon; Park, Jae Chang [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-07-01

    In order to contribute to human error reduction through the studies on human-machine interaction in nuclear power plants, this project has objectives to develop SACOM(Simulation Analyzer with a Cognitive Operator Model) and techniques for human error analysis and application. In this year, we studied the followings: (1) Site investigation of operator tasks, (2) Development of operator task micro structure and revision of micro structure, (3) Development of knowledge representation software and SACOM prototype, (4) Development of performance assessment methodologies in task simulation and analysis of the effects of performance shaping factors. human error analysis and application techniques> (1) Classification of error shaping factors(ESFs) and development of software for ESF evaluation, (2) Analysis of human error occurrences and revision of analysis procedure, (3) Experiment for human error data collection using a compact nuclear simulator, (4) Development of a prototype data base system of the analyzed information on trip cases. 55 figs, 23 tabs, 33 refs. (Author).

  10. Understanding the Information Requirements of Arts and Humanities Scholarship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agiatis Benardou

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on research of scholarly research practices and requirements conducted in the context of the Preparing DARIAH European e-Infrastructures project, with a view to ensuring current and future fitness for purpose of the planned digital infrastructure, services and tools. It summarises the findings of earlier research, primarily from the field of human information behaviour as applied in scholarly work, it presents a conceptual perspective informed by cultural-historical activity theory, it introduces briefly a formal conceptual model for scholarly research activity compliant with CIDOC CRM, it describes the plan of work and methodology of an empirical research project based on open-questionnaire interviews with arts and humanities researchers, and presents illustrative examples of segmentation, tagging and initial conceptual analysis of the empirical evidence. Finally, it presents plans for future work, consisting, firstly, of a comprehensive re-analysis of interview segments within the framework of the scholarly research activity model, and, secondly, of the integration of this analysis with the extended digital curation process model we presented in earlier work.

  11. Information technology for competitive advantage: the case of learning and innovation in behavioural healthcare service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Chang-tseh; Lin, Binshan

    2011-01-01

    The utilisation of IS/IT could offer a substantial competitive advantage to healthcare service providers through the realisation of improved clinical, financial, and administrative outcomes. In this study, 42 journal articles were reviewed and summarised with respect to identified benefits and challenges of the development and implementation of electronic medical records, tele-health, and electronic appointment reminders. Results of this study help pave the knowledge foundation for management of the behavioural healthcare to learn how to apply state-of-the-art information technology to offer higher quality, clinically proven effective services at lower costs than those of their competitors.

  12. Self-reported physical activity behaviour; exercise motivation and information among Danish adult cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Midtgaard, Julie; Baadsgaard, Marie Topp; Møller, Tom

    2009-01-01

    . PURPOSE: The current study aimed at investigating self-reported physical activity behaviour, exercise motivation and information in cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy. METHODS AND SAMPLE: Using a cross-sectional design, 451 patients (18-65 years) completed a questionnaire assessing pre......-illness and present physical activity; motivation and information received. RESULTS: Patients reported a significant decline in physical activity from pre-illness to the time in active treatment (pexercise to be beneficial; and 78% claimed...... not exercising as much as desired. Exercise barriers included fatigue (74%) and physical discomfort (45%). Present physical activity behaviour was associated with pre-illness physical activity behaviour (pexercise belief (p40 years...

  13. Human Factors on the Flight Deck Safe Piloting Behaviour in Practice

    CERN Document Server

    Scheiderer, Joachim

    2013-01-01

    What is for a professional pilot required to fly as safe as possible? Written by pilots the book gives a detailed introduction into the basics of accident prevention in air traffic. Explicit background knowledge as well as detailed listings of safety relevant features in human behaviour are included.

  14. The genetics of complex human behaviour: Cannabis use, personality, sexuality and mating

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verweij, K.J.H.

    2012-01-01

    I investigated the genetic and environmental etiology of individual differences in a variety of complex human behaviours, broadly captured within three domains - 1) cannabis use, 2) personality, and 3) sexuality and mating. Research questions and hypotheses are addressed with large community-based,

  15. The genetics of complex human behaviour: Cannabis use, personality, sexuality and mating

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verweij, K.J.H.

    2012-01-01

    I investigated the genetic and environmental etiology of individual differences in a variety of complex human behaviours, broadly captured within three domains - 1) cannabis use, 2) personality, and 3) sexuality and mating. Research questions and hypotheses are addressed with large community-based,

  16. Teachers' Conceptions about the Genetic Determinism of Human Behaviour: A Survey in 23 Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castéra, Jérémy; Clément, Pierre

    2014-01-01

    This work analyses the answers to a questionnaire from 8,285 in-service and pre-service teachers from 23 countries, elaborated by the Biohead-Citizen research project, to investigate teachers' conceptions related to the genetic determinism of human behaviour. A principal components analysis is used to assess the main trends in all the interviewed…

  17. Human factors in a dynamic information society: where are we heading?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, J

    2000-07-01

    Society is becoming increasingly dynamic and integrated owing to the extensive use of information technology. This has several implications that pose new challenges to the human factors profession. In an integrated society, changes and disturbances propagate rapidly and widely and the increasing scale of operations requires also that rare events and circumstances are considered during systems design. In this situation, human factors contributions should be increasingly proactive, not only responding to observed problems, but also, they should be based on models of adaptive human behaviour in complex, dynamic systems. The paper suggests some methodological issues to consider for human factors analyses by designers, evaluators and teachers.

  18. Hospital clinicians' information behaviour and attitudes towards the 'Clinical Informationist': an Irish survey.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Flynn, Maura G

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: Hospital clinicians are increasingly expected to practice evidence-based medicine (EBM) in order to minimize medical errors and ensure quality patient care, but experience obstacles to information-seeking. The introduction of a Clinical Informationist (CI) is explored as a possible solution. AIMS: This paper investigates the self-perceived information needs, behaviour and skill levels of clinicians in two Irish public hospitals. It also explores clinicians\\' perceptions and attitudes to the introduction of a CI into their clinical teams. METHODS: A questionnaire survey approach was utilised for this study, with 22 clinicians in two hospitals. Data analysis was conducted using descriptive statistics. RESULTS: Analysis showed that clinicians experience diverse information needs for patient care, and that barriers such as time constraints and insufficient access to resources hinder their information-seeking. Findings also showed that clinicians struggle to fit information-seeking into their working day, regularly seeking to answer patient-related queries outside of working hours. Attitudes towards the concept of a CI were predominantly positive. CONCLUSION: This paper highlights the factors that characterise and limit hospital clinicians\\' information-seeking, and suggests the CI as a potentially useful addition to the clinical team, to help them to resolve their information needs for patient care.

  19. Using participant or non-participant observation to explain information behaviour. Participant observation, Non-participant observation, Information behaviour, Hospital pharmacists, Older people

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janet Cooper

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to provide guidance on conducting participant and non-participant observation studies of information behaviour. Examines lessons learned during non-participant observation of hospital pharmacists, and participant observation with dependent older people living in their own homes. Describes the methods used in both studies, and discusses the ethical issues involved in gaining access to the subjects. In the hospital setting, professional affiliation between the researcher and the subjects (six pharmacists made access easier to obtain. In the home care setting, access to subjects (seven clients for participant observation (as a care worker was more difficult, as was withdrawal from the field study. In both studies, the observation element was triangulated with survey data. Both studies indicated the fundamental need for trust between the observer and the research subjects. In some situations, professional relations offer instant access and trust, whereas in closed and sensitive situations such as social care, time is required to build up trust. With participant observation, that trust should not be damaged by withdrawal of the researcher from the research setting.

  20. Practice explains abolished behavioural adaptation after human dorsal anterior cingulate cortex lesions

    OpenAIRE

    van Steenbergen, H.; E. Haasnoot; Bocanegra, B.R.; Berretty, E.W.; Hommel, B.

    2015-01-01

    The role of mid-cingulate cortex (MCC), also referred to as dorsal anterior cingulate cortex, in regulating cognitive control is a topic of primary importance in cognitive neuroscience. Although many studies have shown that MCC responds to cognitive demands, lesion studies in humans are inconclusive concerning the causal role of the MCC in the adaptation to these demands. By elegantly combining single-cell recordings with behavioural methods, Sheth et al. [Sheth, S. et al. Human dorsal anteri...

  1. Human nicotine conditioning requires explicit contingency knowledge: is addictive behaviour cognitively mediated?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogarth, Lee; Duka, Theodora

    2006-03-01

    Two seemingly contrary theories describe the learning mechanisms that mediate human addictive behaviour. According to the classical incentive theories of addiction, addictive behaviour is motivated by a Pavlovian conditioned appetitive emotional response elicited by drug-paired stimuli. Expectancy theory, on the other hand, argues that addictive behaviour is mediated by an expectancy of the drug imparted by cognitive knowledge of the Pavlovian (predictive) contingency between stimuli (S+) and the drug and of the instrumental (causal) contingency between instrumental behaviour and the drug. The present paper reviewed human-nicotine-conditioning studies to assess the role of appetitive emotional conditioning and explicit contingency knowledge in mediating addictive behaviour. The studies reviewed here provided evidence for both the emotional conditioning and the expectancy accounts. The first source of evidence is that nicotine-paired S+ elicit an appetitive emotional conditioned response (CR), albeit only in participants who expect nicotine. Furthermore, the magnitude of this emotional state is modulated by nicotine deprivation/satiation. However, the causal status of the emotional response in driving other forms of conditioned behaviour remains undemonstrated. The second source of evidence is that other nicotine CRs, including physiological responses, self-administration, attentional bias and subjective craving, are also dependent on participants possessing explicit knowledge of the Pavlovian contingencies arranged in the experiment. In addition, several of the nicotine CRs can be brought about or modified by instructed contingency knowledge, demonstrating the causal status of this knowledge. Collectively, these data suggest that human nicotine conditioned effects are mediated by an explicit expectancy of the drug coupled with an appetitive emotional response that reflects the positive biological value of the drug. The implication of this conclusion is that

  2. Human Information Processing Guidelines for Decision-Aiding Displays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-12-01

    5 4. Pachella, R. G. "The Interpretation of Reaction Time in Information Processing Research." In B. Kantowitz (Ed.). Human Information Pro- cessing... Kantowitz (Ed.). Human Information Proces- sing: Tutorials in Performance and Cognition, Hillsdale, New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 1974. 65...Finite Number of Inputs." In B. Kantowitz (Ed.). Human Information Processing: Tutorials in Performance and Cognition, Hillsdale, New Jersey: Lawrence

  3. Order information coding in working memory: Review of behavioural studies and cognitive mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Dolenc

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Executive processes, such as coding for sequential order, are of extreme importance for higher-order cognitive tasks. One of the significant questions is, how order information is coded in working memory and what cognitive mechanisms and processes mediate it. The aim of this review paper is to summarize results of studies that explore whether order and item memory are two separable processes. Furthermore, we reviewed evidence for each of the proposed cognitive mechanism that might mediate order processing. Previous behavioural and neuroimaging data suggest different representation and processing of item and order information in working memory. Both information are maintained and recalled separately and this separation seems to hold for recognition as well as for recall. To explain the result of studies of order coding, numerous cognitive mechanisms were proposed. We focused on four different mechanisms by which order information might be coded and retrieved, namely inter-item associations, direct coding, hierarchical coding and magnitude coding. Each of the mechanisms can explain some of the aspect of order information coding, however none of them is able to explain all of the empirical findings. Due to its complex nature it is not surprising that a single mechanism has difficulties accounting for all the behavioral data and order memory may be more accurately characterized as the result of a set of mechanisms rather than a single one. Moreover, the findings beget a question of whether different types of memory for order information might exist.

  4. Ex Vivo Behaviour of Human Bone Tumor Endothelial Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Infante, Teresa [SDN-Foundation, Institute of Diagnostic and Nuclear Development, IRCCS, 80143 Naples (Italy); Cesario, Elena [Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics, Second University of Naples, 80138 Naples (Italy); Gallo, Michele; Fazioli, Flavio [Division of Skeletal Muscles Oncology Surgery, National Cancer Institute, Pascale Foundation, 80131 Naples (Italy); De Chiara, Annarosaria [Anatomic Pathology Unit, National Cancer Institute, Pascale Foundation, 80131 Naples (Italy); Tutucci, Cristina; Apice, Gaetano [Medical Oncology of Bone and Soft Sarcoma tissues Unit, National Cancer Institute, Pascale Foundation, 80131 Naples (Italy); Nigris, Filomena de, E-mail: filomena.denigris@unina2.it [Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics, Second University of Naples, 80138 Naples (Italy)

    2013-04-11

    Cooperation between endothelial cells and bone in bone remodelling is well established. In contrast, bone microvasculature supporting the growth of primary tumors and metastasis is poorly understood. Several antiangiogenic agents have recently been undergoing trials, although an extensive body of clinical data and experimental research have proved that angiogenic pathways differ in each tumor type and stage. Here, for the first time, we characterize at the molecular and functional level tumor endothelial cells from human bone sarcomas at different stages of disease and with different histotypes. We selected a CD31{sup +} subpopulation from biopsies that displayed the capability to grow as adherent cell lines without vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Our findings show the existence in human primary bone sarcomas of highly proliferative endothelial cells expressing CD31, CD44, CD105, CD146 and CD90 markers. These cells are committed to develop capillary-like structures and colony formation units, and to produce nitric oxide. We believe that a better understanding of tumor vasculature could be a valid tool for the design of an efficacious antiangiogenic therapy as adjuvant treatment of sarcomas.

  5. Processing of emotional information in the human subthalamic nucleus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buot, Anne; Welter, Marie-Laure; Karachi, Carine; Pochon, Jean-Baptiste; Bardinet, Eric; Yelnik, Jérôme; Mallet, Luc

    2013-12-01

    The subthalamic nucleus (STN) is an efficient target for treating patients with Parkinson's disease as well as patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) using high frequency stimulation (HFS). In both Parkinson's disease and OCD patients, STN-HFS can trigger abnormal behaviours, such as hypomania and impulsivity. To investigate if this structure processes emotional information, and whether it depends on motor demands, we recorded subthalamic local field potentials in 16 patients with Parkinson's disease using deep brain stimulation electrodes. Recordings were made with and without dopaminergic treatment while patients performed an emotional categorisation paradigm in which the response varied according to stimulus valence (pleasant, unpleasant and neutral) and to the instruction given (motor, non-motor and passive). Pleasant, unpleasant and neutral stimuli evoked an event related potential (ERP). Without dopamine medication, ERP amplitudes were significantly larger for unpleasant compared with neutral pictures, whatever the response triggered by the stimuli; and the magnitude of this effect was maximal in the ventral part of the STN. No significant difference in ERP amplitude was observed for pleasant pictures. With dopamine medication, ERP amplitudes were significantly increased for pleasant compared with neutral pictures whatever the response triggered by the stimuli, while ERP amplitudes to unpleasant pictures were not modified. These results demonstrate that the ventral part of the STN processes the emotional valence of stimuli independently of the motor context and that dopamine enhances processing of pleasant information. These findings confirm the specific involvement of the STN in emotional processes in human, which may underlie the behavioural changes observed in patients with deep brain stimulation.

  6. How does genetic risk information for Lynch syndrome translate to risk management behaviours?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steel, Emma; Robbins, Andrew; Jenkins, Mark; Flander, Louisa; Gaff, Clara; Keogh, Louise

    2017-01-01

    There is limited research on why some individuals who have undergone predictive genetic testing for Lynch syndrome do not adhere to screening recommendations. This study aimed to explore qualitatively how Lynch syndrome non-carriers and carriers translate genetic risk information and advice to decisions about risk managment behaviours in the Australian healthcare system. Participants of the Australasian Colorectal Cancer Family Registry who had undergone predictive genetic testing for Lynch syndrome were interviewed on their risk management behaviours. Transcripts were analysed thematically using a comparative coding analysis. Thirty-three people were interviewed. Of the non-carriers (n = 16), 2 reported having apparently unnecessary colonoscopies, and 6 were unsure about what population-based colorectal cancer screening entails. Of the carriers (n = 17), 2 reported they had not had regular colonoscopies, and spoke about their discomfort with the screening process and a lack of faith in the procedure's ability to reduce their risk of developing colorectal cancer. Of the female carriers (n = 9), 2 could not recall being informed about the associated risk of gynaecological cancers. Non-carriers and female carriers of Lynch syndrome could benefit from further clarity and advice about appropriate risk management options. For those carriers who did not adhere to colonoscopy screening, a lack of faith in both genetic test results and screening were evident. It is essential that consistent advice is offered to both carriers and non-carriers of Lynch syndrome.

  7. Human responses to multiple sources of directional information in virtual crowd evacuations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bode, Nikolai W F; Kemloh Wagoum, Armel U; Codling, Edward A

    2014-02-06

    The evacuation of crowds from buildings or vehicles is one example that highlights the importance of understanding how individual-level interactions and decision-making combine and lead to the overall behaviour of crowds. In particular, to make evacuations safer, we need to understand how individuals make movement decisions in crowds. Here, we present an evacuation experiment with over 500 participants testing individual behaviour in an interactive virtual environment. Participants had to choose between different exit routes under the influence of three different types of directional information: static information (signs), dynamic information (movement of simulated crowd) and memorized information, as well as the combined effect of these different sources of directional information. In contrast to signs, crowd movement and memorized information did not have a significant effect on human exit route choice in isolation. However, when we combined the latter two treatments with additional directly conflicting sources of directional information, for example signs, they showed a clear effect by reducing the number of participants that followed the opposing directional information. This suggests that the signals participants observe more closely in isolation do not simply overrule alternative sources of directional information. Age and gender did not consistently explain differences in behaviour in our experiments.

  8. Viscoelastic behaviour of human blood and polyacrylamide model fluids for heart valve testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerche, Dietmar; Vlastos, Georgios; Koch, Brigitte; Pohl, Manfred; Affeld, Klaus

    1993-06-01

    New heart valves and other cardiovascular assist systems have to be tested for hydrodynamic performance. In place of human blood simple model fluids like glycerol solutions are employed often due to ethical and practical reasons. But blood exhibits complex non-Newtonian and viscoelastic behaviour. Rheological blood properties are reviewed based on literature and own experimental results. Furthermore we studied polymer solutions with respect to blood-like flow behaviour. Rheology was assessed by means of the low shear rotational viscometer (LS 40, Mettler-Toledo, Switzerland) under stationary and dynamic shear conditions (variation of frequency and angular displacement).

  9. Call for poems in MSM poems section on medicine, health and human behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Editor

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available We begin a Mens Sana Monographs Poems Section from this issue.Interested poets may send their work for consideration. They may be in verse, but preferably in blank verse. A fourline write up on the poet with a photograph must accompany every submission. You may submit not more than three poems at one time.While there cannot really be a restriction of any nature as to topics in poetry, poems dealing with medicine, health, delicate satire on human behaviour of various types, insighful reflections etc are more likely to be accepted for publication.Poems may preferably be submitted in Word format bye mail and addressed to the Editor.Acceptance, or otherwise, will be conveyed within four weeks of receipt of submission, if not earlier. We do not wish to increase the anguish of poets by making them wait further. That may lead to another distressed poetry because of us!Poems for potential publication in Mens Sana Monographs Vol III, No 6, March-April 2006 ISSN 0973-1229 should reach the Editor in Microsoft Word format by 1st January 2006. All poems will be submitted for peer review and a decision of acceptance or otherwise will be conveyed to the authors by 1st Feb 2006.Authors may contact the Editor, Mens Sana Monographs, for further details and clarification (email: mensanamonographs@yahoo.co.uk. They may also visit the website http://mensanamonographs.tripod.com for further information.

  10. Call for poems in MSM poems section on medicine, health and human behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajai R. Singh

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Interested poets may send their work for consideration. They may be in verse, but preferably in blank verse. A four-line write up on the poet with a photograph must accompany every submission. You may submit not more than three poems at one time. While there cannot really be a restriction of any nature as to topics in poetry, poems dealing with medicine, health, delicate satire on human behaviour of various types, insighful reflections etc are more likely to be accepted for publication. Poems may preferably be submitted in Word format by email and addressed to the Editor. Acceptance, or otherwise, will be conveyed within four weeks of receipt of submission, if not earlier. We do not wish to increase the anguish of poets by making them wait further! That may lead to another distressed poetry because of us! Poems for potential publication in Mens Sana Monographs Vol IV, No 5, January 2007 should reach the Editor in Microsoft Word format by 1st Oct. 2006. All poems will be submitted for peer review and a decision of acceptance or otherwise will be conveyed to the authors by 1st Nov. 2006. Authors may contact the Editor, Mens Sana Monographs , for further details and clarification (email: mensanamonographs@yahoo.co.uk . They may also visit the website www.msmonographs.org/ for further information.

  11. Goats display audience-dependent human-directed gazing behaviour in a problem-solving task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawroth, Christian; Brett, Jemma M; McElligott, Alan G

    2016-07-01

    Domestication is an important factor driving changes in animal cognition and behaviour. In particular, the capacity of dogs to communicate in a referential and intentional way with humans is considered a key outcome of how domestication as a companion animal shaped the canid brain. However, the lack of comparison with other domestic animals makes general conclusions about how domestication has affected these important cognitive features difficult. We investigated human-directed behaviour in an 'unsolvable problem' task in a domestic, but non-companion species: goats. During the test, goats experienced a forward-facing or an away-facing person. They gazed towards the forward-facing person earlier and for longer and showed more gaze alternations and a lower latency until the first gaze alternation when the person was forward-facing. Our results provide strong evidence for audience-dependent human-directed visual orienting behaviour in a species that was domesticated primarily for production, and show similarities with the referential and intentional communicative behaviour exhibited by domestic companion animals such as dogs and horses. This indicates that domestication has a much broader impact on heterospecific communication than previously believed.

  12. Childhood Attachment to Pets: Associations between Pet Attachment, Attitudes to Animals, Compassion, and Humane Behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roxanne D. Hawkins

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Attachment to pets has an important role in children’s social, emotional, and cognitive development, mental health, well-being, and quality of life. This study examined associations between childhood attachment to pets and caring and friendship behaviour, compassion, and attitudes towards animals. This study also examined socio-demographic differences, particularly pet ownership and pet type. A self-report survey of over one thousand 7 to 12 year-olds in Scotland, UK, revealed that the majority of children are strongly attached to their pets, but attachment scores differ depending on pet type and child gender. Analysis revealed that attachment to pets is facilitated by compassion and caring and pet-directed friendship behaviours and that attachment to pets significantly predicts positive attitudes towards animals. The findings have implications for the promotion of prosocial and humane behaviour. Encouraging children to participate in pet care behaviour may promote attachment between children and their pet, which in turn may have a range of positive outcomes for both children (such as reduced aggression, better well-being, and quality of life and pets (such as humane treatment. This study enhances our understanding of childhood pet attachment and has implications for humane education and promoting secure emotional attachments in childhood.

  13. Reputation drives cooperative behaviour and network formation in human groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuesta, Jose A; Gracia-Lázaro, Carlos; Ferrer, Alfredo; Moreno, Yamir; Sánchez, Angel

    2015-01-19

    Cooperativeness is a defining feature of human nature. Theoreticians have suggested several mechanisms to explain this ubiquitous phenomenon, including reciprocity, reputation, and punishment, but the problem is still unsolved. Here we show, through experiments conducted with groups of people playing an iterated Prisoner's Dilemma on a dynamic network, that it is reputation what really fosters cooperation. While this mechanism has already been observed in unstructured populations, we find that it acts equally when interactions are given by a network that players can reconfigure dynamically. Furthermore, our observations reveal that memory also drives the network formation process, and cooperators assort more, with longer link lifetimes, the longer the past actions record. Our analysis demonstrates, for the first time, that reputation can be very well quantified as a weighted mean of the fractions of past cooperative acts and the last action performed. This finding has potential applications in collaborative systems and e-commerce.

  14. Solution behaviour of Human Serum Albumin and GLP-1variants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sønderby, Pernille

    interaction is critical for the long term stability of a pharmaceutical. Protein complex formation is important for extended half-life in vivo and is essential to cellular communication such as the induction of the insulin response. This thesis focuses on human serum albumin (HSA) as a central player...... approach to half-life extension is conjugation of molecules to HSA. In this part of the thesis, novel GLP-1-albumin conjugates developed by Albumedix A/S where examined by a combined approach of pharmacokinetic studies and solution structure determination with SAXS. GLP-1 was conjugated to Cys34...... of recombinant HSA (rHSA) and two rHSA variants with lower (NB) and higher binding (HB) affinity to the neonatal Fc receptor (FcRn). Binding kinetics showed that the conjugation had limited effect on the binding properties of the conjugates to FcRn compared to the respective rHSA variants. Increased in-vivo half...

  15. Rationality and irrationality in understanding human behaviour. An evaluation of the methodological consequences of conceptualising irrationality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cosmin Toth

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Some of the most known and fertile models for understanding human behaviour are those which rest on the assumption of human rationality. These models have specific strategies for dealing with situations in which understanding human behaviour becomes difficult, i.e. cases of irrationality, and this, in turn, leads to particular methodological consequences. The aim of this article is to illustrate and systematize some of the typical theoretical approaches to the issues of rationality and irrationality and their methodological consequences, while warning, at the same time, against the risks of applying rationality models of a pronounced normative-evaluative nature. A number of important methodological consequences of applying the principle of charity to various degrees of strength are analysed and a taxonomic grid for the different ways of approaching rationality is presented.

  16. Early childbearing and behavioural flexibility in the United Kingdom

    OpenAIRE

    Chipman, Abigail

    2014-01-01

    Work in behavioural ecology has been and continues to be highly informative in the study of human reproductive variation and behavioural flexibility. The traditional focus of this approach has largely been on calibrations in reproductive behaviour in ultimate terms (i.e. a specific behaviour is adaptive and maximizes fitness in different environments). Yet, understanding the ultimate function of human behaviour as adaptive to local environments allows for the deeper study of the proximate psy...

  17. Information-seeking behaviour for epilepsy: an infodemiological study of searches for Wikipedia articles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brigo, Francesco; Otte, Willem M; Igwe, Stanley C; Ausserer, Harald; Nardone, Raffaele; Tezzon, Frediano; Trinka, Eugen

    2015-12-01

    Millions of people worldwide use the internet daily as a source of health information. Wikipedia is a popular free online encyclopaedia used by patients and physicians to search for health-related information. Our aim was to evaluate information-seeking behaviour of English-speaking internet users searching Wikipedia for articles related to epilepsy and epileptic seizures. Using Wiki Trends, which provides quantitative information on daily viewing of articles, data on global search queries for Wikipedia articles related to epilepsy and seizures were analysed. The daily Wikipedia article views on syncope, psychogenic non-epileptic seizures, migraine, and multiple sclerosis served as comparative data. The period of analysis covered was from January 2008 to December 2014. Overall, the Wikipedia article "epilepsy and driving" was found to be more frequently visited than the articles "epilepsy and employment" or "epilepsy in children". Since January 2008, the Wikipedia article "multiple sclerosis" was more often visited compared to the articles "epilepsy", "syncope", "psychogenic non-epileptic seizures" or "migraine"; the article "epilepsy" ranked 3,779 and was less frequently visited than "multiple sclerosis", ranked at 571, in traffic on Wikipedia. The highest peak in search volume for the article "epilepsy" coincided with the news of a celebrity having seizures. Fears and worries about epileptic seizures, their impact on driving and employment, and news about celebrities with epilepsy might be major determinants in searching Wikipedia for information.

  18. The impact of communication on human behaviour in times of crisis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLeod, Andrew

    Decision makers have constantly sought to find the most appropriate ways to use communication to influence behaviour during times of crises to assist in their recovery. This paper will investigate why policy makers wish to utilise effective crisis communications and explore the importance of crisis communication on influencing human behaviour in a time of crisis as well as the influence that the medium of communication can have. It will be noted that the medium of the message is important to ensure that the correct audience has been reached. This paper will suggest that, for decision makers to maximise the impact of crisis communications during a crisis, they must utilise rhetoric and cognitive response theory. It will also be suggested that the most importance factor in influencing behaviour in a time of crisis is that communications are provided from a credible source and are empathic in nature.

  19. The application of foraging theory to the information searching behaviour of general practitioners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwairy, Mai; Dowell, Anthony C; Stahl, Jean-Claude

    2011-08-23

    General Practitioners (GPs) employ strategies to identify and retrieve medical evidence for clinical decision making which take workload and time constraints into account. Optimal Foraging Theory (OFT) initially developed to study animal foraging for food is used to explore the information searching behaviour of General Practitioners. This study is the first to apply foraging theory within this context.Study objectives were: 1. To identify the sequence and steps deployed in identifiying and retrieving evidence for clinical decision making. 2. To utilise Optimal Foraging Theory to assess the effectiveness and efficiency of General Practitioner information searching. GPs from the Wellington region of New Zealand were asked to document in a pre-formatted logbook the steps and outcomes of an information search linked to their clinical decision making, and fill in a questionnaire about their personal, practice and information-searching backgrounds. A total of 115/155 eligible GPs returned a background questionnaire, and 71 completed their information search logbook. GPs spent an average of 17.7 minutes addressing their search for clinical information. Their preferred information sources were discussions with colleagues (38% of sources) and books (22%). These were the two most profitable information foraging sources (15.9 min and 9.5 min search time per answer, compared to 34.3 minutes in databases). GPs nearly always accessed another source when unsuccessful (95% after 1st source), and frequently when successful (43% after 2nd source). Use of multiple sources accounted for 41% of searches, and increased search success from 70% to 89%. By consulting in foraging terms the most 'profitable' sources of information (colleagues, books), rapidly switching sources when unsuccessful, and frequently double checking, GPs achieve an efficient trade-off between maximizing search success and information reliability, and minimizing searching time. As predicted by foraging theory, GPs

  20. The application of foraging theory to the information searching behaviour of general practitioners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dowell Anthony C

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background General Practitioners (GPs employ strategies to identify and retrieve medical evidence for clinical decision making which take workload and time constraints into account. Optimal Foraging Theory (OFT initially developed to study animal foraging for food is used to explore the information searching behaviour of General Practitioners. This study is the first to apply foraging theory within this context. Study objectives were: 1. To identify the sequence and steps deployed in identifiying and retrieving evidence for clinical decision making. 2. To utilise Optimal Foraging Theory to assess the effectiveness and efficiency of General Practitioner information searching. Methods GPs from the Wellington region of New Zealand were asked to document in a pre-formatted logbook the steps and outcomes of an information search linked to their clinical decision making, and fill in a questionnaire about their personal, practice and information-searching backgrounds. Results A total of 115/155 eligible GPs returned a background questionnaire, and 71 completed their information search logbook. GPs spent an average of 17.7 minutes addressing their search for clinical information. Their preferred information sources were discussions with colleagues (38% of sources and books (22%. These were the two most profitable information foraging sources (15.9 min and 9.5 min search time per answer, compared to 34.3 minutes in databases. GPs nearly always accessed another source when unsuccessful (95% after 1st source, and frequently when successful (43% after 2nd source. Use of multiple sources accounted for 41% of searches, and increased search success from 70% to 89%. Conclusions By consulting in foraging terms the most 'profitable' sources of information (colleagues, books, rapidly switching sources when unsuccessful, and frequently double checking, GPs achieve an efficient trade-off between maximizing search success and information reliability, and

  1. Understanding human queuing behaviour at exits: an empirical study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagoum, A. U. Kemloh; Liao, W.

    2017-01-01

    The choice of the exit to egress from a facility plays a fundamental role in pedestrian modelling and simulation. Yet, empirical evidence for backing up simulation is scarce. In this contribution, we present three new groups of experiments that we conducted in different geometries. We varied parameters such as the width of the doors, the initial location and number of pedestrians which in turn affected their perception of the environment. We extracted and analysed relevant indicators such as distance to the exits and density levels. The results put in evidence the fact that pedestrians use time-dependent information to optimize their exit choice, and that, in congested states, a load balancing over the exits occurs. We propose a minimal modelling approach that covers those situations, especially the cases where the geometry does not show a symmetrical configuration. Most of the models try to achieve the load balancing by simulating the system and solving optimization problems. We show statistically and by simulation that a linear model based on the distance to the exits and the density levels around the exit can be an efficient dynamical alternative. PMID:28280588

  2. Behavioural, modeling, and electrophysiological evidence for supramodality in human metacognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faivre, Nathan; Filevich, Elisa; Solovey, Guillermo; Kühn, Simone; Blanke, Olaf

    2017-09-15

    Human metacognition, or the capacity to introspect on one's own mental states, has been mostly characterized through confidence reports in visual tasks. A pressing question is to what extent results from visual studies generalize to other domains. Answering this question allows determining whether metacognition operates through shared, supramodal mechanisms, or through idiosyncratic, modality-specific mechanisms. Here, we report three new lines of evidence for decisional and post-decisional mechanisms arguing for the supramodality of metacognition. First, metacognitive efficiency correlated between auditory, tactile, visual, and audiovisual tasks. Second, confidence in an audiovisual task was best modeled using supramodal formats based on integrated representations of auditory and visual signals. Third, confidence in correct responses involved similar electrophysiological markers for visual and audiovisual tasks that are associated with motor preparation preceding the perceptual judgment. We conclude that the supramodality of metacognition relies on supramodal confidence estimates and decisional signals that are shared across sensory modalities.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENTMetacognitive monitoring is the capacity to access, report and regulate one's own mental states. In perception, this allows rating our confidence in what we have seen, heard or touched. While metacognitive monitoring can operate on different cognitive domains, we ignore whether it involves a single supramodal mechanism common to multiple cognitive domains, or modality-specific mechanisms idiosyncratic to each domain. Here, we bring evidence in favor of the supramodality hypothesis by showing that participants with high metacognitive performance in one modality are likely to perform well in other modalities. Based on computational modeling and electrophysiology, we propose that supramodality can be explained by the existence of supramodal confidence estimates, and by the influence of decisional cues on

  3. Existential behavioural therapy for informal caregivers of palliative patients: a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fegg, M J; Brandstätter, M; Kögler, M; Hauke, G; Rechenberg-Winter, P; Fensterer, V; Küchenhoff, H; Hentrich, M; Belka, C; Borasio, G D

    2013-09-01

    Existential behavioural therapy (EBT) was developed to support informal caregivers of palliative patients in the last stage of life and during bereavement as a manualised group psychotherapy comprising six sessions. We tested the effectiveness of EBT on mental stress and quality of life (QOL). Informal caregivers were randomly assigned (1:1) to EBT or a treatment-as-usual control group using computer-generated numbers in blocks of 10. Primary outcomes were assessed with the Brief Symptom Inventory (subscales somatisation, anxiety and depression), the Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS), the WHOQOL-BREF and a numeric rating scale for QOL (QOL-NRS, range 0-10). Data were collected at baseline, pre-treatment, post-treatment and follow-ups after 3 and 12 months. Treatment effects were assessed with a multivariate analysis of covariance. Out of 160 relatives, 81 were assigned to EBT and 79 to the control group. Participants were 54.5 ± 13.2 years old; 69.9% were female. The multivariate model was significant for the pre-/post-comparison (p=0.005) and the pre-/12-month comparison (p=0.05) but not for the pre-/3-month comparison. Medium to large effects on anxiety and QOL (SWLS, WHOQOL-BREF, QOL-NRS) were found at post-treatment; medium effects on depression and QOL (QOL-NRS) emerged in the 12-month follow-up. No adverse effects of the intervention were observed. Existential behavioural therapy appears to exert beneficial effects on distress and QOL of informal caregivers of palliative patients. Further longitudinal evidence is needed to confirm these findings. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Human-Computer Interaction and Information Management Research Needs

    Data.gov (United States)

    Networking and Information Technology Research and Development, Executive Office of the President — In a visionary future, Human-Computer Interaction HCI and Information Management IM have the potential to enable humans to better manage their lives through the use...

  5. Quantifying behavioural interactions between humans and mosquitoes: Evaluating the protective efficacy of insecticidal nets against malaria transmission in rural Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathenge Evan

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background African malaria vectors bite predominantly indoors at night so sleeping under an Insecticide-Treated Net (ITN can greatly reduce malaria risk. Behavioural adaptation by mosquitoes to increasing ITN coverage could allow vector mosquitoes to bite outside of peak sleeping hours and undermine efficacy of this key malaria prevention measure. Methods High coverage with largely untreated nets has been achieved in the Kilombero Valley, southern Tanzania through social marketing programmes. Direct surveys of nightly biting activity by An. gambiae Giles were conducted in the area before (1997 and after (2004 implementation of ITN promotion. A novel analytical model was applied to estimate the effective protection provided by an ITN, based on published experimental hut trials combined with questionnaire surveys of human sleeping behaviour and recorded mosquito biting patterns. Results An. gambiae was predominantly endophagic and nocturnal in both surveys: Approximately 90% and 80% of exposure occurred indoors and during peak sleeping hours, respectively. ITNs consistently conferred >70% protection against exposure to malaria transmission for users relative to non-users. Conclusion As ITN coverage increases, behavioural adaptation by mosquitoes remains a future possibility. The approach described allows comparison of mosquito biting patterns and ITN efficacy at multiple study sites and times. Initial results indicate ITNs remain highly effective and should remain a top-priority intervention. Combined with recently developed transmission models, this approach allows rapid, informative and cost-effective preliminary comparison of diverse control strategies in terms of protection against exposure before more costly and intensive clinical trials.

  6. Expert judgment in analysis of human and organizational behaviour at nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reiman, L. [Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety, Helsinki (Finland). Dept. of Nuclear Safety

    1994-12-01

    Probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) of a nuclear power plant includes an assessment of the probability of each event sequence that can lead to a reactor core damage and of their consequences. Despite increasing maturity of PSA methods, there are still several problems in their use. These include the assessment of human reliability and the impact of organizational factors on plant safety. The assessment of both these issues is based on expert judgment. Therefore, the use of expert judgment in analysis of human and organizational behaviour was studied theoretically and in practical case studies in this thesis. Human errors were analysed in two case studies. In the first study cognitive actions of control room operators were analysed. For this purpose methods were developed for the qualitative and quantitative phases of the analysis. Errors of test and maintenance personnel were analysed in the second case study. Especially the dependence of errors between sequential tasks performed in redundant subsystems of a safety system was studied. A method to assess organizational behaviour was developed and applied in the third case study. The three case studies demonstrated that expert judgment can be used in the analysis of human reliability and organizational behaviour taking into account the observations made and the remarks presented in the study. However, significant uncertainties are related with expert judgment. Recommendations are presented concerning the use of different methods. Also, some insights are presented into how reliance on expert judgment could be reduced. (241 refs., 20 figs., 36 tabs.).

  7. Effect of gamma irradiation on the wear behaviour of human tooth enamel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qing, Ping; Huang, Shengbin; Gao, Shanshan; Qian, Linmao; Yu, Haiyang

    2015-06-01

    Radiotherapy is a frequently used treatment for oral cancer. Extensive research has been conducted to detect the mechanical properties of dental hard tissues after irradiation at the macroscale. However, little is known about the influence of irradiation on the tribological properties of enamel at the micro- or nanoscale. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the effect of gamma irradiation on the wear behaviour of human tooth enamel in relation to prism orientation. Nanoscratch tests, surface profilometer and scanning electron microscope (SEM) analysis were used to evaluate the friction behaviour of enamel slabs before and after treatment with identical irradiation procedures. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) were performed to analyse the changes in crystallography and chemical composition induced by irradiation. Surface microhardness (SMH) alteration was also evaluated. The results showed that irradiation resulted in different scratch morphologies, friction coefficients and remnant depth and width at different loads. An inferior nanoscratch resistance was observed independent of prism orientation. Moreover, the variation of wear behaviours was closely related to changes in the crystallography, chemical composition and SMH of the enamel. Together, these measures indicated that irradiation had a direct deleterious effect on the wear behaviour of human tooth enamel.

  8. Understanding managerial behaviour during initial steps of a clinical information system adoption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Charo; Pozzebon, Marlei

    2011-06-17

    While the study of the information technology (IT) implementation process and its outcomes has received considerable attention, the examination of pre-adoption and pre-implementation stages of configurable IT uptake appear largely under-investigated. This paper explores managerial behaviour during the periods prior the effective implementation of a clinical information system (CIS) by two Canadian university multi-hospital centers. Adopting a structurationist theoretical stance and a case study research design, the processes by which CIS managers' patterns of discourse contribute to the configuration of the new technology in their respective organizational contexts were longitudinally examined over 33 months. Although managers seemed to be aware of the risks and organizational impact of the adoption of a new clinical information system, their decisions and actions over the periods examined appeared rather to be driven by financial constraints and power struggles between different groups involved in the process. Furthermore, they largely emphasized technological aspects of the implementation, with organizational dimensions being put aside. In view of these results, the notion of 'rhetorical ambivalence' is proposed. Results are further discussed in relation to the significance of initial decisions and actions for the subsequent implementation phases of the technology being configured. Theoretical and empirically grounded, the paper contributes to the underdeveloped body of literature on information system pre-implementation processes by revealing the crucial role played by managers during the initial phases of a CIS adoption.

  9. The Ecological Behaviour Related to Green Information and Communication Technology in Romanian Organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura-Diana Radu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available An increased focus on environmental issues and the fulminant development of information and communication technologies led to the appearance and increased interest in the green characteristics of the available products and services. The ecological behaviour related to these technologies used by organizations, has become a widely studied and applied topic nowadays. In this context, this paper aims to analyse the perception of managers and employees of the Romanian companies in relation to the green information and communication technologies in the attempt to offer a genuine image of their attitude and see if their views are close to the international vision on environment protection. Starting from the literature regarding information and communication technologies and the available empirical studies, we have made an analysis on two categories of organizations: the ones that apply environment policies supported by the institutions and the ones that do not apply any policies, including comparisons between them. The conclusions of the study pointed out the presence of environmental concerns, not always clearly drawn or applied, but they could form the basis for the future actions and initiatives of consumers of information and communication technologies products and services in the wider context and will to fall into line with the Western level of economic and social development.

  10. A longitudinal study of childhood social behaviour : Inter-informant agreement, inter-context agreement, and social preference linkages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuppens, Sofie; Grietens, Hans; Onghena, Patrick; Michiels, Daisy

    2009-01-01

    This study examined inter-informant agreement, inter-context agreement, and social preference linkages for social behaviour subtypes. On two occasions, data was collected on 600 children (8-10 years old) via mother, father, teacher, and peer reports. Informant reports converged within each context a

  11. Part II – The effect of data on waste behaviour: The South African waste information system

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Godfrey, Linda K

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available to the theoretical framework shows that there are only three constructs which have a significant effect on behaviour, viz experience, knowledge, and perceived behavioural control (PBC). Knowledge has a significant influence on all three of the antecedents...

  12. Partial Least Square Approach to Second Order Factor in Behavioural Study of Accounting Information System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim Mohd Tarmizi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Theories are developed to explain an observed phenomenon in an effort to understand why and how things happen. Theories thus, use latent variables to estimate conceptual parameters. The level of abstraction depends, partly on the complexity of the theoretical model explaining the phenomenon. The conjugation of directly-measured variables leads to a formation of a first-order factor. A combination of theoretical underpinnings supporting an existence of a higher-order components, and statistical evidence pointing to such presence adds advantage for the researchers to investigate a phenomenon both at an aggregated and disjointed dimensions. As partial least square (PLS gains its tractions in theory development, behavioural accounting discipline in general should exploit the flexibility of PLS to work with the higher-order factors. However, technical guides are scarcely available. Therefore, this article presents a PLS approach to validate a higher-order factor on a statistical ground using accounting information system dataset.

  13. Enhancing Multi-Agent Based Simulation with Human-Agents Interactive Spatial Behaviour

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Yee Ming; Shiu, Hung-Ming

    2009-01-01

    We are exploring the enhancement of models of agent behaviour with more "human-like" decision making strategies than are presently available. Our motivation is to developed with a view to as the decision analysis and support for electric taxi company under the mission of energy saving and reduction of CO2, in particular car-pool and car-sharing management policies. In order to achieve the object of decision analysis for user, we provide a human-agents interactive spatial behaviour to support user making decision real time. We adopt passenger average waiting time and electric taxi average idle time as the performance measures and decision support fro electric taxi company. Finally, according to the analysis result, we demonstrate that our multi-agent simulation and GUI can help users or companies quickly make a quality and accurate decision to reduce the decision-making cost and time.

  14. Part II--the effect of data on waste behaviour: the South African waste information system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godfrey, Linda; Scott, Dianne; Difford, Mark; Trois, Cristina

    2012-11-01

    Combining the process of learning and the theory of planned behaviour into a new theoretical framework provides an opportunity to explore the impact of data on waste behaviour, and consequently on waste management, in South Africa. Fitting the data to the theoretical framework shows that there are only three constructs which have a significant effect on behaviour, viz experience, knowledge, and perceived behavioural control (PBC). Knowledge has a significant influence on all three of the antecedents to behavioural intention (attitude, subjective norm and PBC). However, it is PBC, and not intention, that has the greatest influence on waste behaviour. While respondents may have an intention to act, this intention does not always manifest as actual waste behaviour, suggesting limited volitional control. The theoretical framework accounts for 53.7% of the variance in behaviour, suggesting significant external influences on behaviour not accounted for in the framework. While the theoretical model remains the same, respondents in public and private organisations represent two statistically significant sub-groups in the data set. The theoretical framework accounts for 47.8% of the variance in behaviour of respondents in public waste organisations and 57.6% of the variance in behaviour of respondents in private organisations. The results suggest that respondents in public and private waste organisations are subject to different structural forces that shape knowledge, intention, and resultant waste behaviour. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Teachers' Conceptions About the Genetic Determinism of Human Behaviour: A Survey in 23 Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Castéra, Jérémy; Clément, Pierre

    2014-01-01

    International audience; This work analyses the answers to a questionnaire from 8,285 in-service and pre-service teachers from 23 countries, elaborated by the Biohead-Citizen research project, to investigate teachers' conceptions related to the genetic determinism of human behaviour. A principal components analysis is used to assess the main trends in all the interviewed teachers' conceptions. This illustrates that innatism is present in two distinct ways: in relation to individuals (e.g. gene...

  16. Human recreation alters behaviour profiles of non-breeding birds on open-coast sandy shores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlacher, Thomas A.; Nielsen, Tara; Weston, Michael A.

    2013-02-01

    Sandy beaches are primarily valued for their amenity and property values rather than for their ecological functions and properties. Some human usage of beaches potentially conflicts with the conservation and management of wildlife, such as beach-dwelling birds, on sandy shorelines. Because responses by birds to environmental change, including disturbance by humans, often involve behaviours that carry fitness costs, we quantify behaviour profiles of birds in relation to human occurrence along 200 km of sandy shoreline in Eastern Australia, including the large conservation area of Fraser Island. Disturbance to birds on these shores was considerable: 1) birds encountered motorized vehicles (cars, trucks, buses etc.) during 80% of focal bird observation bouts, 2) birds were flushed in over half (up to 86% in individual species) of all bouts, and 3) individuals spent, on average, one-third of their time on disturbance-related behaviours; this was particularly prevalent for Crested Terns (Thalasseus bergii) which were alert 42% of the time and spent 12% of their time escaping from human stimuli. Overall, this study demonstrated that motorized traffic is the prime agent of disturbance to birds on these beaches, resulting in frequent and time-consuming escape behaviours. These findings also emphasize that management of vehicle-based recreation on beaches needs to be re-aligned to meet conservation requirements in addition to providing leisure opportunities in National Parks and beyond; we identify some salient issue for this development: a) encouragement of social norms that promote environmentally benign beach use not involving motor vehicles, b) creation of spatial refuges for beach wildlife from traffic and other non-compatible uses, and c) investment in developing complementary management actions such as effective set-back distances.

  17. The information-seeking behaviour of paediatricians accessing web-based resources.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Prendiville, T W

    2012-02-01

    OBJECTIVES: To establish the information-seeking behaviours of paediatricians in answering every-day clinical queries. DESIGN: A questionnaire was distributed to every hospital-based paediatrician (paediatric registrar and consultant) working in Ireland. RESULTS: The study received 156 completed questionnaires, a 66.1% response. 67% of paediatricians utilised the internet as their first "port of call" when looking to answer a medical question. 85% believe that web-based resources have improved medical practice, with 88% reporting web-based resources are essential for medical practice today. 93.5% of paediatricians believe attempting to answer clinical questions as they arise is an important component in practising evidence-based medicine. 54% of all paediatricians have recommended websites to parents or patients. 75.5% of paediatricians report finding it difficult to keep up-to-date with new information relevant to their practice. CONCLUSIONS: Web-based paediatric resources are of increasing significance in day-to-day clinical practice. Many paediatricians now believe that the quality of patient care depends on it. Information technology resources play a key role in helping physicians to deliver, in a time-efficient manner, solutions to clinical queries at the point of care.

  18. Talking more about talking cures: cognitive behavioural therapy and informed consent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blease, C R

    2015-09-01

    Cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) has risen to prominence as an orthodox treatment option which is commonly recommended to patients with anxiety and depressive disorders. Mainstream healthcare institutions (including the National Health Service in the UK (NHS) and National Institute for Mental Health (NIMH)) assume that CBT works by helping patients to challenge and overcome 'faulty cognition'. Even if we accept the empirical evidence which shows that CBT (like other forms of psychotherapy) is a beneficial treatment there are still problems with this therapy: mainstream medicine and psychotherapy are continuing to ignore established research that CBT does not work according to its core theoretical tenets. This paper presents evidence that psychotherapy is entrenched in such conventional 'wisdom' and that practitioners are failing to meet their own codified requirement of informed consent. I examine ethical arguments for and against upholding current informed consent procedures and focus, in particular, on the relationship between respect for patient autonomy and the duty of beneficence. I argue that (so far) there are no strong grounds for the claim that patient autonomy undermines therapeutic outcome. The modest conclusion of this paper is that psychotherapy (including CBT) needs to begin to adapt informed consent procedures to comply with ongoing scientific research into its efficacy.

  19. Monitoring human health behaviour in one's living environment: a technological review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, Shane A; Ólaighin, Gearóid

    2014-02-01

    The electronic monitoring of human health behaviour using computer techniques has been an active research area for the past few decades. A wide array of different approaches have been investigated using various technologies including inertial sensors, Global Positioning System, smart homes, Radio Frequency IDentification and others. It is only in recent years that research has turned towards a sensor fusion approach using several different technologies in single systems or devices. These systems allow for an increased volume of data to be collected and for activity data to be better used as measures of behaviour. This change may be due to decreasing hardware costs, smaller sensors, increased power efficiency or increases in portability. This paper is intended to act as a reference for the design of multi-sensor behaviour monitoring systems. The range of technologies that have been used in isolation for behaviour monitoring both in research and commercial devices are reviewed and discussed. Filtering, range, sensitivity, usability and other considerations of different technologies are discussed. A brief overview of commercially available activity monitors and their technology is also included.

  20. Development of a multi-body human model that predicts active and passive human behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, R.; Hassel, E. van; Broos, J.; Elrofai, H.; Rooij, L. van; Hooijdonk, P. van

    2012-01-01

    Active safety systems that start to act moments before the crash might be capable of anticipating the occupant’s position, either by correcting it, or by taking the out-of-position into account. To develop such active safety systems, computer simulations of the occupant’s pre-crash behaviour are

  1. Multi-tasking arbitration and behaviour design for human-interactive robots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Yuichi; Onishi, Masaki; Hosoe, Shigeyuki; Luo, Zhiwei

    2013-05-01

    Robots that interact with humans in household environments are required to handle multiple real-time tasks simultaneously, such as carrying objects, collision avoidance and conversation with human. This article presents a design framework for the control and recognition processes to meet these requirements taking into account stochastic human behaviour. The proposed design method first introduces a Petri net for synchronisation of multiple tasks. The Petri net formulation is converted to Markov decision processes and processed in an optimal control framework. Three tasks (safety confirmation, object conveyance and conversation) interact and are expressed by the Petri net. Using the proposed framework, tasks that normally tend to be designed by integrating many if-then rules can be designed in a systematic manner in a state estimation and optimisation framework from the viewpoint of the shortest time optimal control. The proposed arbitration method was verified by simulations and experiments using RI-MAN, which was developed for interactive tasks with humans.

  2. Evaluating informational behaviour of users of the page “com açucar, com afeto” on Facebook

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celio Andrade Santana

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This research presents the evaluation of information behaviour of users in the page “Com Açucar, Com Afeto” on Facebook. This page is focused on Brazilian popular music (MPB and the interaction between the users occurs through Facebook posts. To identify the information behaviour of the users in this page, we had assessed a total of 120 posts and elements such as "like", "share" and “comments” from each one of these posts in one-day interval and also we had interviewed 15 users to collect data about information needs on the page. The data collection was based on the qualitative method netnography from the analysis of user behaviour and we conducted interviews to collect complementary data. The collected data were analyzed based on the information behavior model developed by Tom Wilson. The results show that users looking for the group to meet cognitive and psychological information needs enabled by music and this behaviour are augmented when they belong to social groups (network.

  3. A Vision-Based System for Intelligent Monitoring: Human Behaviour Analysis and Privacy by Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandros Andre Chaaraoui

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Due to progress and demographic change, society is facing a crucial challenge related to increased life expectancy and a higher number of people in situations of dependency. As a consequence, there exists a significant demand for support systems for personal autonomy. This article outlines the vision@home project, whose goal is to extend independent living at home for elderly and impaired people, providing care and safety services by means of vision-based monitoring. Different kinds of ambient-assisted living services are supported, from the detection of home accidents, to telecare services. In this contribution, the specification of the system is presented, and novel contributions are made regarding human behaviour analysis and privacy protection. By means of a multi-view setup of cameras, people’s behaviour is recognised based on human action recognition. For this purpose, a weighted feature fusion scheme is proposed to learn from multiple views. In order to protect the right to privacy of the inhabitants when a remote connection occurs, a privacy-by-context method is proposed. The experimental results of the behaviour recognition method show an outstanding performance, as well as support for multi-view scenarios and real-time execution, which are required in order to provide the proposed services.

  4. Increased costs reduce reciprocal helping behaviour of humans in a virtual evacuation experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bode, Nikolai W F; Miller, Jordan; O'Gorman, Rick; Codling, Edward A

    2015-11-06

    Altruistic behaviour is widespread and highly developed in humans and can also be found in some animal species. It has been suggested that altruistic tendencies can depend on costs, benefits and context. Here, we investigate the changes in the occurrence of helping behaviour in a computer-based experiment that simulates an evacuation from a building exploring the effect of varying the cost to help. Our findings illuminate a number of key mechanistic aspects of human decision-making about whether to help or not. In a novel situation where it is difficult to assess the risks associated with higher costs, we reproduce the finding that increasing costs reduce helping and find that the reduction in the frequency of helping behaviour is gradual rather than a sudden transition for a threshold cost level. Interestingly, younger and male participants were more likely to help. We provide potential explanations for this result relating to the nature of our experiment. Finally, we find no evidence that participants in our experiment plan ahead over two consecutive, inter-dependent helping opportunities when conducting cost-benefit trade-offs in spontaneous decisions. We discuss potential applications of our findings to research into decision-making during evacuations.

  5. Modelling human behaviour in a bumper car ride using molecular dynamics tools: a student project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buendía, Jorge J.; Lopez, Hector; Sanchis, Guillem; Pardo, Luis Carlos

    2017-05-01

    Amusement parks are excellent laboratories of physics, not only to check physical laws, but also to investigate if those physical laws might also be applied to human behaviour. A group of Physics Engineering students from Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya has investigated if human behaviour, when driving bumper cars, can be modelled using tools borrowed from the analysis of molecular dynamics simulations, such as the radial and angular distribution functions. After acquiring several clips and obtaining the coordinates of the cars, those magnitudes are computed and analysed. Additionally, an analogous hard disks system is simulated to compare its distribution functions to those obtained from the cars’ coordinates. Despite the clear difference between bumper cars and a hard disk-like particle system, the obtained distribution functions are very similar. This suggests that there is no important effect of the individuals in the collective behaviour of the system in terms of structure. The research, performed by the students, has been undertaken in the frame of a motivational project designed to approach the scientific method for university students named FISIDABO. This project offers both the logistical and technical support to undertake the experiments designed by students at the amusement park of Barcelona TIBIDABO and accompanies them all along the scientific process.

  6. Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination and subsequent sexual behaviour: Evidence from a large survey of Nordic women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Bo T.; Kjaer, Susanne K.; Arnheim-Dahlstrom, Lisen;

    2014-01-01

    . Among vaccinees, 1539 received the HPV vaccine before or at the same age as sexual debut, of which 476 and 1063 were eligible for organized catch-up and opportunistic vaccination, respectively. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Self-reported sexual behaviour, compared by hazard ratios and odds ratios for women who...... than did non-vaccinees. Non-use of contraception during first intercourse was more common among non-vaccinees than among HPV vaccinees. The results were similar for organized catch-up and opportunistic vaccinees. CONCLUSION: Women who received the HPV vaccine before or at the same age as sexual debut......OBJECTIVE: To assess whether recipients and non-recipients of the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine subsequently differ in terms of sexual risk taking behaviour. DESIGN: Cross-sectional survey. Sequential analyses constructed from self-reported age at vaccination, age at first intercourse and age...

  7. Designing Information Human Factors and Common Sense in Information Design

    CERN Document Server

    Katz, Joel

    2012-01-01

    "The book itself is a diagram of clarification, containing hundreds of examples of work by those who favor the communication of information over style and academic postulation-and those who don't. Many blurbs such as this are written without a thorough reading of the book. Not so in this case. I read it and love it. I suggest you do the same."-Richard Saul Wurman Designing Information shows designers in all fields - from user-interface design to architecture and engineering - how to design complex data and information for meaning, relevance, and clarity. Written by a worldwide authority on th

  8. Part II - The effect of data on waste behaviour: The South African waste information system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Godfrey, Linda [CSIR, Natural Resources and the Environment, PO Box 395, Pretoria 0001 (South Africa); University of KwaZulu-Natal, CRECHE - Centre for Research in Environmental, Coastal and Hydrological Engineering, School of Engineering, Durban 4041 (South Africa); Scott, Dianne [University of KwaZulu-Natal, School of Development Studies, Durban 4041 (South Africa); Difford, Mark [Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, Port Elizabeth 6031 (South Africa); Trois, Cristina, E-mail: troisc@ukzn.ac.za [University of KwaZulu-Natal, CRECHE - Centre for Research in Environmental, Coastal and Hydrological Engineering, School of Engineering, Durban 4041 (South Africa)

    2012-11-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This empirical study explores the relationship between data and resultant waste knowledge. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The study shows that 'Experience, Data and Theory' account for 54.1% of the variance in knowledge. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A strategic framework for Municipalities emerged from this study. - Abstract: Combining the process of learning and the theory of planned behaviour into a new theoretical framework provides an opportunity to explore the impact of data on waste behaviour, and consequently on waste management, in South Africa. Fitting the data to the theoretical framework shows that there are only three constructs which have a significant effect on behaviour, viz experience, knowledge, and perceived behavioural control (PBC). Knowledge has a significant influence on all three of the antecedents to behavioural intention (attitude, subjective norm and PBC). However, it is PBC, and not intention, that has the greatest influence on waste behaviour. While respondents may have an intention to act, this intention does not always manifest as actual waste behaviour, suggesting limited volitional control. The theoretical framework accounts for 53.7% of the variance in behaviour, suggesting significant external influences on behaviour not accounted for in the framework. While the theoretical model remains the same, respondents in public and private organisations represent two statistically significant sub-groups in the data set. The theoretical framework accounts for 47.8% of the variance in behaviour of respondents in public waste organisations and 57.6% of the variance in behaviour of respondents in private organisations. The results suggest that respondents in public and private waste organisations are subject to different structural forces that shape knowledge, intention, and resultant waste behaviour.

  9. Empirical Modeling of Information Communication Technology Usage Behaviour among Business Education Teachers in Tertiary Colleges of a Developing Country

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isiyaku, Dauda Dansarki; Ayub, Ahmad Fauzi Mohd; Abdulkadir, Suhaida

    2015-01-01

    This study has empirically tested the fitness of a structural model in explaining the influence of two exogenous variables (perceived enjoyment and attitude towards ICTs) on two endogenous variables (behavioural intention and teachers' Information Communication Technology (ICT) usage behavior), based on the proposition of Technology Acceptance…

  10. Web 2.0 systems supporting childhood chronic disease management: design guidelines based on information behaviour and social learning theories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekberg, Joakim; Ericson, Leni; Timpka, Toomas; Eriksson, Henrik; Nordfeldt, Sam; Hanberger, Lena; Ludvigsson, Johnny

    2010-04-01

    Self-directed learning denotes that the individual is in command of what should be learned and why it is important. In this study, guidelines for the design of Web 2.0 systems for supporting diabetic adolescents' every day learning needs are examined in light of theories about information behaviour and social learning. A Web 2.0 system was developed to support a community of practice and social learning structures were created to support building of relations between members on several levels in the community. The features of the system included access to participation in the culture of diabetes management practice, entry to information about the community and about what needs to be learned to be a full practitioner or respected member in the community, and free sharing of information, narratives and experience-based knowledge. After integration with the key elements derived from theories of information behaviour, a preliminary design guideline document was formulated.

  11. Information for People Treated with Human Growth Hormone (Summary)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... NHPP): Information for People Treated with Pituitary Human Growth Hormone (Summary) How did Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) occur in people treated with pituitary human growth hormone (hGH)? From 1963 to 1985, the National Hormone ...

  12. A note on the relationship between the behavioural response of lactating sows to humans and the survival of their piglets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hemsworth, P.H.; Pedersen, V.; Cox, M.

    1999-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the relationships, based on unit averages, between the behavioural responses of lactating sows to humans and the performance of sows in 25 farrowing units at a large commercial farm. The behavioural responses of 25 sows in each farrowing unit were observed...... at 2-4 and 16-18 days of lactation and a correlation analysis, using unit averages, was used to examine the behaviour-productivity relationships. Moderate and significant between-unit correlations were found between the behavioural response of lactating sows at days 16-18 to an approaching experimenter...... for about 18% of the variance in percentage of stillborn piglets. While this study was a preliminary one examining the potential for the human-animal relationship to affect the performance of sows in the farrowing shed, the results indicate that high levels of fear of humans by sows may affect the survival...

  13. Meaning and authority: the social construction of an 'author' among information behaviour researchers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Olsson

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The study explores the social processes that influence the construction by academic (information behaviour researchers of the meaning/s and significance/s of an author and her work prominent in the literature of their field (Brenda Dervin. Method. Semi-structured qualitative interviews, based in part on the 'Life-Line' and 'Time-line' techniques developed by Dervin and her collaborators. Participants were purposefully sampled to reflect a range of experience levels and conceptual approaches.. Analysis. The study adopted an inductive approach to data analysis, based on the 'constant comparison' approach of Glaser and Strauss. Feedback from participants was sought throughout the analysis process via email. Results. 'Interactions and Relationships' describes the social contacts involved in their construction of the author; 'The Role of Existing Constructions' deals with participants' existing knowledge and understandings; and 'Accepted and Contested Constructions' demonstrates how they drew on their existing constructions in order to accept or contest the constructions of the author conveyed to them Conclusion. Participants' constructive processes involved drawing on their previous experience ('existing constructions' in order to accept or contest the constructions of the author conveyed to them in each new encounter. Participants' constructive processes had two interdependent aspects: the construction of meaning and the construction of authority.

  14. NASA information sciences and human factors program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holcomb, Lee; Hood, Ray; Montemerlo, Melvin; Jenkins, James; Smith, Paul; Dibattista, John; Depaula, Ramon; Hunter, Paul; Lavery, David

    1991-01-01

    The FY-90 descriptions of technical accomplishments are contained in seven sections: Automation and Robotics, Communications, Computer Sciences, Controls and Guidance, Data Systems, Human Factors, and Sensor Technology.

  15. Data-driven behavioural modelling of residential water consumption to inform water demand management strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuliani, Matteo; Cominola, Andrea; Alshaf, Ahmad; Castelletti, Andrea; Anda, Martin

    2016-04-01

    The continuous expansion of urban areas worldwide is expected to highly increase residential water demand over the next few years, ultimately challenging the distribution and supply of drinking water. Several studies have recently demonstrated that actions focused only on the water supply side of the problem (e.g., augmenting existing water supply infrastructure) will likely fail to meet future demands, thus calling for the concurrent deployment of effective water demand management strategies (WDMS) to pursue water savings and conservation. However, to be effective WDMS do require a substantial understanding of water consumers' behaviors and consumption patterns at different spatial and temporal resolutions. Retrieving information on users' behaviors, as well as their explanatory and/or causal factors, is key to spot potential areas for targeting water saving efforts and to design user-tailored WDMS, such as education campaigns and personalized recommendations. In this work, we contribute a data-driven approach to identify household water users' consumption behavioural profiles and model their water use habits. State-of-the-art clustering methods are coupled with big data machine learning techniques with the aim of extracting dominant behaviors from a set of water consumption data collected at the household scale. This allows identifying heterogeneous groups of consumers from the studied sample and characterizing them with respect to several consumption features. Our approach is validated onto a real-world household water consumption dataset associated with a variety of demographic and psychographic user data and household attributes, collected in nine towns of the Pilbara and Kimberley Regions of Western Australia. Results show the effectiveness of the proposed method in capturing the influence of candidate determinants on residential water consumption profiles and in attaining sufficiently accurate predictions of users' consumption behaviors, ultimately providing

  16. Probabilistic Decision Making with Spikes: From ISI Distributions to Behaviour via Information Gain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier A Caballero

    Full Text Available Computational theories of decision making in the brain usually assume that sensory 'evidence' is accumulated supporting a number of hypotheses, and that the first accumulator to reach threshold triggers a decision in favour of its associated hypothesis. However, the evidence is often assumed to occur as a continuous process whose origins are somewhat abstract, with no direct link to the neural signals - action potentials or 'spikes' - that must ultimately form the substrate for decision making in the brain. Here we introduce a new variant of the well-known multi-hypothesis sequential probability ratio test (MSPRT for decision making whose evidence observations consist of the basic unit of neural signalling - the inter-spike interval (ISI - and which is based on a new form of the likelihood function. We dub this mechanism s-MSPRT and show its precise form for a range of realistic ISI distributions with positive support. In this way we show that, at the level of spikes, the refractory period may actually facilitate shorter decision times, and that the mechanism is robust against poor choice of the hypothesized data distribution. We show that s-MSPRT performance is related to the Kullback-Leibler divergence (KLD or information gain between ISI distributions, through which we are able to link neural signalling to psychophysical observation at the behavioural level. Thus, we find the mean information needed for a decision is constant, thereby offering an account of Hick's law (relating decision time to the number of choices. Further, the mean decision time of s-MSPRT shows a power law dependence on the KLD offering an account of Piéron's law (relating reaction time to stimulus intensity. These results show the foundations for a research programme in which spike train analysis can be made the basis for predictions about behavior in multi-alternative choice tasks.

  17. Beneficial effects of pet ownership on some aspects of human health and behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serpell, J

    1991-12-01

    A 10-month prospective study was carried out which examined changes in behaviour and health status in 71 adult subjects following the acquisition of a new pet (either dogs or cats). A group of 26 subjects without pets served as a comparison over the same period. Both pet-owning groups reported a highly significant reduction in minor health problems during the first month following pet acquisition, and this effect was sustained in dog owners through to 10 months. The pet-acquiring groups also showed improvements in their scores on the 30-item General Health Questionnaire over the first 6 months and, in dog owners, this improvement was maintained until 10 months. In addition, dog owners took considerably more physical exercise while walking their dogs than the other two groups, and this effect continued throughout the period of study. The group without pets exhibited no statistically significant changes in health or behaviour, apart from a small increase in recreational walking. The results provide evidence that pet acquisition may have positive effects on human health and behaviour, and that in some cases these effects are relatively long term.

  18. Human N-methyl D-aspartate receptor antibodies alter memory and behaviour in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Planagumà, Jesús; Leypoldt, Frank; Mannara, Francesco; Gutiérrez-Cuesta, Javier; Martín-García, Elena; Aguilar, Esther; Titulaer, Maarten J; Petit-Pedrol, Mar; Jain, Ankit; Balice-Gordon, Rita; Lakadamyali, Melike; Graus, Francesc; Maldonado, Rafael; Dalmau, Josep

    2015-01-01

    Anti-N-methyl D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) encephalitis is a severe neuropsychiatric disorder that associates with prominent memory and behavioural deficits. Patients' antibodies react with the N-terminal domain of the GluN1 (previously known as NR1) subunit of NMDAR causing in cultured neurons a selective and reversible internalization of cell-surface receptors. These effects and the frequent response to immunotherapy have suggested an antibody-mediated pathogenesis, but to date there is no animal model showing that patients' antibodies cause memory and behavioural deficits. To develop such a model, C57BL6/J mice underwent placement of ventricular catheters connected to osmotic pumps that delivered a continuous infusion of patients' or control cerebrospinal fluid (flow rate 0.25 µl/h, 14 days). During and after the infusion period standardized tests were applied, including tasks to assess memory (novel object recognition in open field and V-maze paradigms), anhedonic behaviours (sucrose preference test), depressive-like behaviours (tail suspension, forced swimming tests), anxiety (black and white, elevated plus maze tests), aggressiveness (resident-intruder test), and locomotor activity (horizontal and vertical). Animals sacrificed at Days 5, 13, 18, 26 and 46 were examined for brain-bound antibodies and the antibody effects on total and synaptic NMDAR clusters and protein concentration using confocal microscopy and immunoblot analysis. These experiments showed that animals infused with patients' cerebrospinal fluid, but not control cerebrospinal fluid, developed progressive memory deficits, and anhedonic and depressive-like behaviours, without affecting other behavioural or locomotor tasks. Memory deficits gradually worsened until Day 18 (4 days after the infusion stopped) and all symptoms resolved over the next week. Accompanying brain tissue studies showed progressive increase of brain-bound human antibodies, predominantly in the hippocampus (maximal on Days

  19. 78 FR 58548 - Request for Information: The National Toxicology Program Requests Information on Use, Human...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-24

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Request for Information: The National Toxicology Program Requests Information on Use, Human Exposure, and Toxicity of Vinpocetine SUMMARY: To facilitate the design... research program for toxicological characterization of vinpocetine. Request for Information: The NTP seeks...

  20. Self-reported physical activity behaviour; exercise motivation and information among Danish adult cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Midtgaard, J.; Baadsgaard, M.T.; Moller, T.;

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Physical activity is considered an important and determining factor for the cancer patient's physical well-being and quality of life. However, cancer treatment may disrupt the practice of physical activity, and the prevention of sedentary lifestyles in cancer survivors is imperative....... PURPOSE: The current study aimed at investigating self-reported physical activity behaviour, exercise motivation and information in cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy. METHODS AND SAMPLE: Using a cross-sectional design, 451 patients (18-65 years) completed a questionnaire assessing pre...... not exercising as much as desired. Exercise barriers included fatigue (74%) and physical discomfort (45%). Present physical activity behaviour was associated with pre-illness physical activity behaviour (p40 years...

  1. Understanding the medicines information-seeking behaviour and information needs of South African long-term patients with limited literacy skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Sonal; Dowse, Ros

    2015-10-01

    Although much health information-seeking behaviour (HISB) research has been reported in patients with good literacy skills, little is known about HISB in patients with limited literacy skills served by under-resourced health-care systems. To investigate medicine information-seeking behaviour and information needs in patients with limited literacy. Using a question guide, four focus group discussions (FGDs) were conducted to explore themes related to information needs, information-seeking practices and awareness of and ability to utilize information sources. Twenty-two isiXhosa-speaking long-term patients with limited formal education were recruited from a primary health-care clinic in South Africa. Discussions were audio-recorded and transcribed verbatim. NVivo(®) was used for initial coding of transcripts. Codes were analysed, and potential themes and subthemes in the entire data set were identified and refined. The results of this study reflect a passive, disempowered patient. Poor awareness of information sources, lack of health-related knowledge and stigma contributed to a lack of information-seeking practice, thus potentially adversely influencing patient-provider interactions. Patients neither asked questions nor were encouraged to ask questions. All expressed an unmet need for information and a desire for receiving the illustrated written medicines-related information displayed in the FGDs. The main sources of information were health-care professionals, followed by family and friends. The significant level of patient disempowerment and passivity reported amongst patients underpinned their inability to actively seek information. Neither sources of information nor types of appropriate medicines information could be identified. Unmet information needs and a desire for information were reported. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Effects of adverse early-life events on aggression and anti-social behaviours in animals and humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haller, J; Harold, G; Sandi, C; Neumann, I D

    2014-10-01

    We review the impact of early adversities on the development of violence and antisocial behaviour in humans, and present three aetiological animal models of escalated rodent aggression, each disentangling the consequences of one particular adverse early-life factor. A review of the human data, as well as those obtained with the animal models of repeated maternal separation, post-weaning social isolation and peripubertal stress, clearly shows that adverse developmental conditions strongly affect aggressive behaviour displayed in adulthood, the emotional responses to social challenges and the neuronal mechanisms activated by conflict. Although similarities between models are evident, important differences were also noted, demonstrating that the behavioural, emotional and neuronal consequences of early adversities are to a large extent dependent on aetiological factors. These findings support recent theories on human aggression, which suggest that particular developmental trajectories lead to specific forms of aggressive behaviour and brain dysfunctions. However, dissecting the roles of particular aetiological factors in humans is difficult because these occur in various combinations; in addition, the neuroscientific tools employed in humans still lack the depth of analysis of those used in animal research. We suggest that the analytical approach of the rodent models presented here may be successfully used to complement human findings and to develop integrative models of the complex relationship between early adversity, brain development and aggressive behaviour.

  3. Sources of drug information and their influence on the prescribing behaviour of doctors in a teaching hospital in Ibadan, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oshikoya, Kazeem Adeola; Oreagba, Ibrahim; Adeyemi, Olayinka

    2011-01-01

    Pharmaceutical drug promotion is a means of informing health professionals about new drugs. The approach is often times unethical and inappropriate and may promote irrational prescribing. Dearth of information on impact of pharmaceutical drug promotion on prescribing behaviour of doctors in developing African countries has necessitated this study. We therefore aimed to determine the sources of drug information for doctors working in a teaching hospital in Nigeria and to assess the self-reported impact of the sources on their prescribing behaviour. A total of 163 doctors working at the University College Hospital (UCH), Ibadan in Nigeria were evaluated with a questionnaire for their demographics and sources of drug information. For doctors who relied on drug promotion, they were asked to self-report and self-rate their opinion on extent of interactions with pharmaceutical companies as well as how such interactions had impacted on their prescribing behaviour. Apart from the demographics, each question was evaluated with a typical five-level Likert item. Data analyses were with simple descriptive statistics. Of the 400 doctors working at UCH, only 40.8% participated in the study. Drug information was sourced from colleagues (161, 98.8%), reference books (158, 96.9%), pharmaceutical sales representatives-PSRs (152, 93.2%), promotion materials (151, 92.6%), scientific papers/journals/internet (149, 91.4%), and drug promotion forum/product launches (144, 88.3%). Each source was highly utilized but there was no wide variation in their pattern of use. According to the self-report of over a half of the respondents, PSRs was an accurate and reliable drug information resource; PSRs increased their awareness of the promoted drugs; and their prescribing behaviours were influenced by information from PSRs. Respondents tend to rely on a broad range of drug information resources which include potentially inappropriate resources such as PSRs. Since this study was based on self

  4. Open access behaviours and perceptions of health sciences faculty and roles of information professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lwoga, Edda T; Questier, Frederik

    2015-03-01

    This study sought to investigate the faculty's awareness, attitudes and use of open access, and the role of information professionals in supporting open access (OA) scholarly communication in Tanzanian health sciences universities. A cross-sectional survey was conducted. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 16 librarians, while questionnaires were physically distributed to 415 faculty members in all eight Tanzanian health sciences universities, with a response rate of 71.1%. The study found that most faculty members were aware about OA issues. However, the high level of OA awareness among faculty members did not translate into actual dissemination of faculty's research outputs through OA web avenues. A small proportion of faculty's research materials was made available as OA. Faculty were more engaged with OA journal publishing than with self-archiving practices. Senior faculty with proficient technical skills were more likely to use open access than junior faculty. Major barriers to OA usage were related to ICT infrastructure, awareness, skills, author-pay model, and copyright and plagiarism concerns. Interviews with librarians revealed that there was a strong support for promoting OA issues on campus; however, this positive support with various open access-related tasks did not translate into actual action. It is thus important for librarians and OA administrators to consider all these factors for effective implementation of OA projects in research and academic institutions. This is the first comprehensive and detailed study focusing on the health sciences faculty's and librarians' behaviours and perceptions of open access initiatives in Tanzania and reveals findings that are useful for planning and implementing open access initiatives in other institutions with similar conditions. © 2015 Health Libraries Journal.

  5. Never-ending making sense: towards a substantive theory of the information-seeking behaviour of newly diagnosed cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCaughan, Eilis; McKenna, Hugh

    2007-11-01

    The aim of this paper was to report a study which explored the information-seeking behaviour of patients newly diagnosed with cancer in the immediate postdiagnosis period. Information is an important tool for cancer patients. There is evidence that patients' information needs are not being adequately met and, in many cases, patients often do not recall much information at the time of diagnosis. Using a grounded theory approach, a theoretical sample of 27 newly diagnosed patients was interviewed in their own homes. Data were analysed using grounded theory analysis procedures. A substantive theory describing the transitions from 'being traumatized' by the diagnosis, through a phase of trying to 'take it on', through to 'taking control' is tentatively offered. It provides a theoretical framework to understand newly diagnosed cancer patients' changing, varied and continuing needs and their efforts to regain some control over their lives. Their information-seeking behaviour seemed a journey of 'never-ending making sense' with ongoing discovery and new information needs as they struggled with the effects of the disease and treatments. The processes and stages identified in this study provide nurses with a framework to assess the readiness of patients to receive information and to assist them in their efforts to regain some control over their disease and their lives. Health professionals need to be aware of these stages, to be equipped to assess the need of individuals for information and support.

  6. The behaviour of satellite cells in response to exercise: what have we learned from human studies?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kadi, Fawzi; Olsen, Steen Schytte

    2005-01-01

    Understanding the complex role played by satellite cells in the adaptive response to exercise in human skeletal muscle has just begun. The development of reliable markers for the identification of satellite cell status (quiescence/activation/proliferation) is an important step towards the underst......Understanding the complex role played by satellite cells in the adaptive response to exercise in human skeletal muscle has just begun. The development of reliable markers for the identification of satellite cell status (quiescence/activation/proliferation) is an important step towards...... the understanding of satellite cell behaviour in exercised human muscles. It is hypothesised currently that exercise in humans can induce (1) the activation of satellite cells without proliferation, (2) proliferation and withdrawal from differentiation, (3) proliferation and differentiation to provide myonuclei...... and (4) proliferation and differentiation to generate new muscle fibres or to repair segmental fibre injuries. In humans, the satellite cell pool can increase as early as 4 days following a single bout of exercise and is maintained at higher level following several weeks of training. Cessation...

  7. Information Presentation: Human Research Program - Space Human Factors and Habitability, Space Human Factors Engineering Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holden, Kristina L.; Sandor, Aniko; Thompson, Shelby G.; Kaiser, Mary K.; McCann, Robert S.; Begault, D. R.; Adelstein, B. D.; Beutter, B. R.; Wenzel, E. M.; Godfroy, M.; Stone, L. S.

    2010-01-01

    The goal of the Information Presentation Directed Research Project (DRP) is to address design questions related to the presentation of information to the crew. The major areas of work, or subtasks, within this DRP are: 1) Displays, 2) Controls, 3) Electronic Procedures and Fault Management, and 4) Human Performance Modeling. This DRP is a collaborative effort between researchers atJohnson Space Center and Ames Research Center. T

  8. Human Factors Principles in Information Dashboard Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hugo, Jacques V.; St. Germain, Shawn

    2016-06-01

    When planning for control room upgrades, nuclear power plants have to deal with a multitude of engineering and operational impacts. This will inevitably include several human factors considerations, including physical ergonomics of workstations, viewing angles, lighting, seating, new communication requirements, and new concepts of operation. In helping nuclear power utilities to deal with these challenges, the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) has developed effective methods to manage the various phases of the upgrade life cycle. These methods focus on integrating human factors engineering processes with the plant’s systems engineering process, a large part of which is the development of end-state concepts for control room modernization. Such an end-state concept is a description of a set of required conditions that define the achievement of the plant’s objectives for the upgrade. Typically, the end-state concept describes the transition of a conventional control room, over time, to a facility that employs advanced digital automation technologies in a way that significantly improves system reliability, reduces human and control room-related hazards, reduces system and component obsolescence, and significantly improves operator performance. To make the various upgrade phases as concrete and as visible as possible, an end-state concept would include a set of visual representations of the control room before and after various upgrade phases to provide the context and a framework within which to consider the various options in the upgrade. This includes the various control systems, human-system interfaces to be replaced, and possible changes to operator workstations. This paper describes how this framework helps to ensure an integrated and cohesive outcome that is consistent with human factors engineering principles and also provide substantial improvement in operator performance. The paper further describes the application of this integrated approach in the

  9. Proactive human-computer collaboration for information discovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiBona, Phil; Shilliday, Andrew; Barry, Kevin

    2016-05-01

    Lockheed Martin Advanced Technology Laboratories (LM ATL) is researching methods, representations, and processes for human/autonomy collaboration to scale analysis and hypotheses substantiation for intelligence analysts. This research establishes a machinereadable hypothesis representation that is commonsensical to the human analyst. The representation unifies context between the human and computer, enabling autonomy in the form of analytic software, to support the analyst through proactively acquiring, assessing, and organizing high-value information that is needed to inform and substantiate hypotheses.

  10. Nonintentional behavioural responses to psi : hidden targets and hidden observers

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson, Mary-Jane Charlotte

    2012-01-01

    Psi is the phenomenon of apparently responding to or receiving information by means other than the recognised senses. Psi information may influence human behaviour, without the individual intending this or even being aware of it. This thesis seeks to investigate nonintentional behavioural responses to psi. We present five empirical studies that investigated nonintentional behavioural responses to psi information. In each study, the psi information was hidden from participants, ...

  11. Enterprise Human Resources Information Mining Based on Improved Apriori Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei He

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available With the unceasing development of information and technology in today’s modern society, enterprises’ demand of human resources information mining is getting bigger and bigger. Based on the enterprise human resources information mining situation, this paper puts forward a kind of improved Apriori algorithm based model on the enterprise human resources information mining, this model introduced data mining technology and traditional Apriori algorithm, and improved on its basis, divided the association rules mining task of the original algorithm into two subtasks of producing frequent item sets and producing rule, using SQL technology to directly generating frequent item sets, and using the method of establishing chart to extract the information which are interested to customers. The experimental results show that the improved Apriori algorithm based model on the enterprise human resources information mining is better in efficiency than the original algorithm, and the practical application test results show that the improved algorithm is practical and effective.

  12. Democratizing Human Genome Project Information: A Model Program for Education, Information and Debate in Public Libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollack, Miriam

    The "Mapping the Human Genome" project demonstrated that librarians can help whomever they serve in accessing information resources in the areas of biological and health information, whether it is the scientists who are developing the information or a member of the public who is using the information. Public libraries can guide library…

  13. Applying Human Computation Methods to Information Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Christopher Glenn

    2013-01-01

    Human Computation methods such as crowdsourcing and games with a purpose (GWAP) have each recently drawn considerable attention for their ability to synergize the strengths of people and technology to accomplish tasks that are challenging for either to do well alone. Despite this increased attention, much of this transformation has been focused on…

  14. Sensing behaviour in healthcare design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorpe, Julia Rosemary; Hysse Forchhammer, Birgitte; Maier, Anja

    2017-01-01

    We are entering an era of distributed healthcare that should fit and respond to individual needs, behaviour and lifestyles. Designing such systems is a challenging task that requires continuous information about human behaviour on a large scale, for which pervasive sensing (e.g. using smartphones...... specifically on activity and location data that can easily be obtained from smartphones or wearables. We further demonstrate how these are applied in healthcare design using an example from dementia care. Comparing a current and proposed scenario exemplifies how integrating sensor-derived information about...... user behaviour can support the healthcare design goals of personalisation, adaptability and scalability, while emphasising patient quality of life....

  15. Problems of information technologies integration into humanities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana F. Milova

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The author considers main transformations impacted by information technologies in humanitarian researches, discourse and education. Net resources, штащкьфешщт exchange, hypertext and interactive learn means are focused as key integration points.

  16. Can sacrificial feeding areas protect aquatic plants from herbivore grazing? Using behavioural ecology to inform wildlife management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Kevin A; Stillman, Richard A; Daunt, Francis; O'Hare, Matthew T

    2014-01-01

    Effective wildlife management is needed for conservation, economic and human well-being objectives. However, traditional population control methods are frequently ineffective, unpopular with stakeholders, may affect non-target species, and can be both expensive and impractical to implement. New methods which address these issues and offer effective wildlife management are required. We used an individual-based model to predict the efficacy of a sacrificial feeding area in preventing grazing damage by mute swans (Cygnus olor) to adjacent river vegetation of high conservation and economic value. The accuracy of model predictions was assessed by a comparison with observed field data, whilst prediction robustness was evaluated using a sensitivity analysis. We used repeated simulations to evaluate how the efficacy of the sacrificial feeding area was regulated by (i) food quantity, (ii) food quality, and (iii) the functional response of the forager. Our model gave accurate predictions of aquatic plant biomass, carrying capacity, swan mortality, swan foraging effort, and river use. Our model predicted that increased sacrificial feeding area food quantity and quality would prevent the depletion of aquatic plant biomass by swans. When the functional response for vegetation in the sacrificial feeding area was increased, the food quantity and quality in the sacrificial feeding area required to protect adjacent aquatic plants were reduced. Our study demonstrates how the insights of behavioural ecology can be used to inform wildlife management. The principles that underpin our model predictions are likely to be valid across a range of different resource-consumer interactions, emphasising the generality of our approach to the evaluation of strategies for resolving wildlife management problems.

  17. Nanoindentation characterisation of human colorectal cancer cells considering cell geometry, surface roughness and hyperelastic constitutive behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boccaccio, Antonio; Uva, Antonio E.; Papi, Massimiliano; Fiorentino, Michele; De Spirito, Marco; Monno, Giuseppe

    2017-01-01

    Characterisation of the mechanical behaviour of cancer cells is an issue of crucial importance as specific cell mechanical properties have been measured and utilized as possible biomarkers of cancer progression. Atomic force microscopy certainly occupies a prominent place in the field of the mechanical characterisation devices. We developed a hybrid approach to characterise different cell lines (SW620 and SW480) of the human colon carcinoma submitted to nanoindentation measurements. An ad hoc algorithm was written that compares the force-indentation curves experimentally retrieved with those predicted by a finite element model that simulates the nanoindentation process and reproduces the cell geometry and the surface roughness. The algorithm perturbs iteratively the values of the cell mechanical properties implemented in the finite element model until the difference between the experimental and numerical force-indentation curves reaches the minimum value. The occurrence of this indicates that the implemented material properties are very close to the real ones. Different hyperelastic constitutive models, such as Arruda-Boyce, Mooney-Rivlin and Neo-Hookean were utilized to describe the structural behaviour of indented cells. The algorithm was capable of separating, for all the cell lines investigated, the mechanical properties of cell cortex and cytoskeleton. Material properties determined via the algorithm were different with respect to those obtained with the Hertzian contact theory. This demonstrates that factors such as: the cell geometry/anatomy and the hyperelastic constitutive behaviour, which are not contemplated in the Hertz’s theory hypotheses, do affect the nanoindentation measurements. The proposed approach represents a powerful tool that, only on the basis of nanoindentation measurements, is capable of characterising material at the subcellular level.

  18. ASYMMETRY OF HUMAN INFORMATION SPACE AND DYSLEXIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.V. Levashov

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available There is an increase of dyslexics in many countries up to 15-20% in recent years. In this report I discuss possible reasons for the situation. There are: 1. A bias of contemporary “information space” in visual component vs verbal and sign component. 2. Visual sensory overload in early sensitive period (up to 7-8 which results to specific functional brain asymmetry. 3. Low physical activity of children, especially a deficit of ball games.

  19. Pose Estimation and Adaptive Robot Behaviour for Human-Robot Interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svenstrup, Mikael; Hansen, Søren Tranberg; Andersen, Hans Jørgen

    2009-01-01

    ’s pose. The resulting pose estimates are used to identify humans who wish to be approached and interacted with. The interaction motion of the robot is based on adaptive potential functions centered around the person that respect the persons social spaces. The method is tested in experiments......Abstract—This paper introduces a new method to determine a person’s pose based on laser range measurements. Such estimates are typically a prerequisite for any human-aware robot navigation, which is the basis for effective and timeextended interaction between a mobile robot and a human. The robot...... uses observed information from a laser range finder to detect persons and their position relative to the robot. This information together with the motion of the robot itself is fed through a Kalman filter, which utilizes a model of the human kinematic movement to produce an estimate of the person...

  20. Monitoring chicken flock behaviour provides early warning of infection by human pathogen Campylobacter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colles, Frances M; Cain, Russell J; Nickson, Thomas; Smith, Adrian L; Roberts, Stephen J; Maiden, Martin C J; Lunn, Daniel; Dawkins, Marian Stamp

    2016-01-13

    Campylobacter is the commonest bacterial cause of gastrointestinal infection in humans, and chicken meat is the major source of infection throughout the world. Strict and expensive on-farm biosecurity measures have been largely unsuccessful in controlling infection and are hampered by the time needed to analyse faecal samples, with the result that Campylobacter status is often known only after a flock has been processed. Our data demonstrate an alternative approach that monitors the behaviour of live chickens with cameras and analyses the 'optical flow' patterns made by flock movements. Campylobacter-free chicken flocks have higher mean and lower kurtosis of optical flow than those testing positive for Campylobacter by microbiological methods. We show that by monitoring behaviour in this way, flocks likely to become positive can be identified within the first 7-10 days of life, much earlier than conventional on-farm microbiological methods. This early warning has the potential to lead to a more targeted approach to Campylobacter control and also provides new insights into possible sources of infection that could transform the control of this globally important food-borne pathogen. © 2016 The Authors.

  1. Adding Stiffness to the Foot Modulates Soleus Force-Velocity Behaviour during Human Walking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Kota Z.; Gross, Michael T.; van Werkhoven, Herman; Piazza, Stephen J.; Sawicki, Gregory S.

    2016-07-01

    Previous studies of human locomotion indicate that foot and ankle structures can interact in complex ways. The structure of the foot defines the input and output lever arms that influences the force-generating capacity of the ankle plantar flexors during push-off. At the same time, deformation of the foot may dissipate some of the mechanical energy generated by the plantar flexors during push-off. We investigated this foot-ankle interplay during walking by adding stiffness to the foot through shoes and insoles, and characterized the resulting changes in in vivo soleus muscle-tendon mechanics using ultrasonography. Added stiffness decreased energy dissipation at the foot (p muscle lever arms) (p muscle behaviour, leading to greater peak force (p shortening speed (p < 0.001). Despite this shift in force-velocity behaviour, the whole-body metabolic cost during walking increased with added foot stiffness (p < 0.001). This increased metabolic cost is likely due to the added force demand on the plantar flexors, as walking on a more rigid foot/shoe surface compromises the plantar flexors’ mechanical advantage.

  2. [Usefulness of human papillomavirus testing in anal intraepithelial neoplasia screening in a risk behaviour population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilla-España, Laura; Repiso-Jiménez, Bosco; Fernández-Sánchez, Fernando; Frieyro-Elicegui, Marta; Fernández-Morano, Teresa; Pereda, Teresa; Rivas-Ruiz, Francisco; Redondo, Maximino; de-Troya Martín, Magdalena

    2014-11-01

    The incidence of intraepithelial anal neoplasia is increasing in certain risk behaviour groups, and human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is involved in its pathogenesis. The systematic use of anal cytology, and more recently HPV detection by hybrid capture and genotyping, have been introduced into screening programs in recent decades. A retrospective cohort study was carried out on individuals with risk behaviours of developing intraepithelial anal neoplasia and who attended Sexually Transmitted Infections clinics in the Dermatology area of the Hospital Costa del Sol from January 2010 to December 2012. The intraepithelial anal neoplasia screening was performed using anal cytology and HPV genotyping. Half (50%) of the study population were HIV positive. A high frequency of anal dysplasia and presence of HPV in cytology (82.1%) and genotype (79%) was found. A statistically significant association (P<.005) was obtained between the presence of high-risk HPV genotypes and the presence of high-grade dysplasia in the second directed cytology. HPV genotyping enabled 17 cases (22%) of severe dysplasia to be identified that were under-diagnosed in the first cytology. Cases of high-grade dysplasia can be under-diagnosed by a first anal cytology. Detection of HPV can supplement this procedure, leading to the identification of those patients most at risk of developing high-grade anal dysplasia. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  3. Culturally transmitted paternity beliefs and the evolution of human mating behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesoudi, Alex; Laland, Kevin N

    2007-05-22

    Recent anthropological findings document how certain lowland South American societies hold beliefs in 'partible paternity', which allow children to have more than one 'biological' father. This contrasts with Western beliefs in 'singular paternity', and biological reality, where children have just one father. Here, mathematical models are used to explore the coevolution of paternity beliefs and the genetic variation underlying human mating behaviour. A gene-culture coevolutionary model found that populations exposed to a range of selection regimes typically converge on one of two simultaneously stable equilibria; one where the population is monogamous and believes in singular paternity, and the other where the population is polygamous and believes in partible paternity. A second agent-based model, with alternative assumptions regarding the formation of mating consortships, broadly replicated this finding in populations with a strongly female-biased sex ratio, consistent with evidence for high adult male mortality in the region. This supports an evolutionary scenario in which ancestral South American populations with differing paternity beliefs were subject to divergent selection on genetically influenced mating behaviour, facilitated by a female-biased sex ratio, leading to the present-day associations of female control, partible paternity and polygamy in some societies, and male control, singular paternity and monogamy in others.

  4. TECHNOLOGY AND INNOVATION IN HUMAN ACTIVITY OF THE INFORMATION AGE: INFORMATION CHALLENGES AND TECHNOLOGIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleksandr Yu. Burov

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available It is discussed the role of technology development, especially in connection with social transformation and transition of humanity to the era of information/knowledge, analyzed the trend accelerating technological change and its relation to civil and military changes in society. It is emphasized the fundamental novelty of the information age, namely the transition of mankind from the production of material products mainly to intangible (information, knowledge, human cognitive processes. It is emphasized that ICT gain not only growing importance, but become a driving force of human civilization. The basic features of education in the information age, including ICT educational purpose out technology for distance education are described.

  5. Behavioural Modernity

    OpenAIRE

    McLean, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Behavioural Modernity explores the changing politics of representation and ethics of care in curatorial practice, necessitated by an increasing blurring of boundaries between the human, the technological, and the planetary.

  6. Human-computer interaction and management information systems

    CERN Document Server

    Galletta, Dennis F

    2014-01-01

    ""Human-Computer Interaction and Management Information Systems: Applications"" offers state-of-the-art research by a distinguished set of authors who span the MIS and HCI fields. The original chapters provide authoritative commentaries and in-depth descriptions of research programs that will guide 21st century scholars, graduate students, and industry professionals. Human-Computer Interaction (or Human Factors) in MIS is concerned with the ways humans interact with information, technologies, and tasks, especially in business, managerial, organizational, and cultural contexts. It is distinctiv

  7. An Investigation of Information-Seeking Behaviour of Geography Teachers for an Information Service Intervention: The Case of Lesotho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitso, Constance; Fourie, Ina

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: This study investigates the information needs and information-seeking patterns of secondary level geography teachers in Lesotho to guide the design and implementation of an information service for these teachers. Leckie, Pettigrew and Sylvain's model of professionals' information-seeking served as a theoretical framework but was…

  8. Human behaviours in evacuation crowd dynamics: From modelling to "big data" toward crisis management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellomo, N.; Clarke, D.; Gibelli, L.; Townsend, P.; Vreugdenhil, B. J.

    2016-09-01

    This paper proposes an essay concerning the understanding of human behaviours and crisis management of crowds in extreme situations, such as evacuation through complex venues. The first part focuses on the understanding of the main features of the crowd viewed as a living, hence complex system. The main concepts are subsequently addressed, in the second part, to a critical analysis of mathematical models suitable to capture them, as far as it is possible. Then, the third part focuses on the use, toward safety problems, of a model derived by the methods of the mathematical kinetic theory and theoretical tools of evolutionary game theory. It is shown how this model can depict critical situations and how these can be managed with the aim of minimizing the risk of catastrophic events.

  9. Sexual selection of human cooperative behaviour: an experimental study in rural Senegal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnaud Tognetti

    Full Text Available Human cooperation in large groups and between non-kin individuals remains a Darwinian puzzle. Investigations into whether and how sexual selection is involved in the evolution of cooperation represent a new and important research direction. Here, 69 groups of four men or four women recruited from a rural population in Senegal played a sequential public-good game in the presence of out-group observers, either of the same sex or of the opposite sex. At the end of the game, participants could donate part of their gain to the village school in the presence of the same observers. Both contributions to the public good and donations to the school, which reflect different components of cooperativeness, were influenced by the sex of the observers. The results suggest that in this non-Western population, sexual selection acts mainly on men's cooperative behaviour with non-kin, whereas women's cooperativeness is mainly influenced by nonsexual social selection.

  10. Digital Leisure-Time Activities, Cognition, Learning Behaviour and Information Literacy: What Are Our Children Learning?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimley, Mick

    2012-01-01

    Recent developments in digital technology have resulted in the unprecedented uptake of digital technology engagement as a leisure-time pursuit across the age span. This has resulted in the speculation that such use of digital technology is responsible for changes in cognition and learning behaviour. This study investigated two groups of…

  11. Threshold behaviour in hydrological systems as (human geo-ecosystems: manifestations, controls, implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Sivapalan

    2009-07-01

    . These are controlled by the topological architecture of the catchments that interacts with system states and the boundary conditions. Crossing the response thresholds means to establish connectedness of surface or subsurface flow paths to the catchment outlet. Subsurface stormflow in humid areas, overland flow and erosion in semi-arid and arid areas are examples, and explain that crossing local process thresholds is necessary but not sufficient to trigger a system response threshold. The third form of threshold behaviour involves changes in the "architecture" of human geo-ecosystems, which experience various disturbances. As a result substantial change in hydrological functioning of a system is induced, when the disturbances exceed the resilience of the geo-ecosystem. We present examples from savannah ecosystems, humid agricultural systems, mining activities affecting rainfall runoff in forested areas, badlands formation in Spain, and the restoration of the Upper Rhine river basin as examples of this phenomenon. This functional threshold behaviour is most difficult to predict, since it requires extrapolations far away from our usual experience and the accounting of bidirectional feedbacks. However, it does not require the development of more complicated model, but on the contrary, only models with the right level of simplification, which we illustrate with an instructive example. Following Prigogine, who studied structure formation in open thermodynamic systems, we hypothesise that topological structures which control response thresholds in the landscape might be seen as dissipative structures, and the onset of threshold processes/response as a switch to more efficient ways of depleting strong gradients that develop in the case of extreme boundary conditions.

  12. Information behaviour of French-speaking speech-language therapists in Belgium: results of a questionnaire survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durieux, Nancy; Pasleau, Françoise; Piazza, Aurelie; Donneau, Anne-Françoise; Vandenput, Sandrina; Maillart, Christelle

    2016-03-01

    Speech-language therapists (SLTs) are encouraged to implement evidence-based practice (EBP). Nevertheless, EBP use by practitioners can be questioned. The objective of this study was to explore Belgian French-speaking SLTs' information behaviour and their awareness of EBP. The collected data allow one to determine how far they have embraced this approach. The two Belgian French-speaking SLT professional associations promoted an online questionnaire survey by email. Additionally, clinical supervisors of students were asked to participate. In March 2012, 2068 emails were sent. The participation rate was at least 20% (n = 415). The reported information needs mainly concerned treatment or diagnosis. Most of the time, to attempt to fulfil their information needs, SLTs relied on their own resources (personal experience and libraries) and on colleagues in the workplace. When they searched on the Internet, they preferred to use a general search engine rather than a specialised bibliographic database. Barriers to obtaining scientific information are highlighted. Only 12% of the respondents had already heard about EBP. This study provides the first overview of the information behaviour of SLTs working in the French community of Belgium. Several recommendations are suggested for SLTs and librarians. © 2015 Health Libraries Group.

  13. Measurement of stress-strain behaviour of human hair fibres using optical techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, J; Kwon, H J

    2013-06-01

    Many studies have presented stress-strain relationship of human hair, but most of them have been based on an engineering stress-strain curve, which is not a true representation of stress-strain behaviour. In this study, a more accurate 'true' stress-strain curve of human hair was determined by applying optical techniques to the images of the hair deformed under tension. This was achieved by applying digital image cross-correlation (DIC) to 10× magnified images of hair fibres taken under increasing tension to estimate the strain increments. True strain was calculated by summation of the strain increments according to the theoretical definition of 'true' strain. The variation in diameter with the increase in longitudinal elongation was also measured from the 40× magnified images to estimate the Poisson's ratio and true stress. By combining the true strain and the true stress, a true stress-strain curve could be determined, which demonstrated much higher stress values than the conventional engineering stress-strain curve at the same degree of deformation. Four regions were identified in the true stress-strain relationship and empirical constitutive equations were proposed for each region. Theoretical analysis on the necking condition using the constitutive equations provided the insight into the failure mechanism of human hair. This analysis indicated that local thinning caused by necking does not occur in the hair fibres, but, rather, relatively uniform deformation takes place until final failure (fracture) eventually occurs.

  14. Impact of familiarity on information complexity in human-computer interfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bakaev Maxim

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A quantitative measure of information complexity remains very much desirable in HCI field, since it may aid in optimization of user interfaces, especially in human-computer systems for controlling complex objects. Our paper is dedicated to exploration of subjective (subject-depended aspect of the complexity, conceptualized as information familiarity. Although research of familiarity in human cognition and behaviour is done in several fields, the accepted models in HCI, such as Human Processor or Hick-Hyman’s law do not generally consider this issue. In our experimental study the subjects performed search and selection of digits and letters, whose familiarity was conceptualized as frequency of occurrence in numbers and texts. The analysis showed significant effect of information familiarity on selection time and throughput in regression models, although the R2 values were somehow low. Still, we hope that our results might aid in quantification of information complexity and its further application for optimizing interaction in human-machine systems.

  15. Suicide among animals: clues from folklore that may prevent suicidal behaviour in human beings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preti, Antonio

    2005-10-01

    Knowing the most likely reasons for suicide might increase the chances to identify the early signs of suicide. Folkloric tales on suicide among animals are a possible source of such information, since people probably explain animal suicide using the same reasons they would apply to their kin. Modern naturalistic studies ave found little evidence of self-harming conduct among nonhuman species. Nevertheless, mythological accounts often report suicidal behaviour among animals. Claudius Aelian's De natura animalium, a classic in its genre, written in the 2nd century AD, reports 21 cases of suicide among animals. In Aelian's tales, the severing of social ties emerges as an important motive for suicide, together with incest and rage caused by adultery. Paying attention to the mechanisms leading to suicide described in ancient mythology may help us understand unusual and uncommon motives for suicide and the reasons people feel suicidal.

  16. Informal Institutions and the "Weaknesses" of Human Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    Volkswirtschaftslehre ’ i LDepartment of Economics Discussion Paper No. January 2005 34 Informal Institutions and the "Weaknesses" of Human Behavior Markus G6bel...Diskussionspapiere der Faichergruppe Volkswirtschaftslehre "* Grbel, Markus & Tobias Thomas, Informal Institutions and the "Weaknesses" of Human Behavior, No... Volkswirtschaftslehre "* Braiuninger, Michael, Social Capital and Regional Mobility, Nr. 4/2002. "* Schdfer, Wolf, EU-Erweiterung: Anmerkungen zum Balassa

  17. Information-Seeking Behaviour on Internet: A Comparison between Arts and Science Undergraduate Students in Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omidian, Faranak; Seifi Maleki, A.M. Masoomeh

    2013-01-01

    The Internet has increasingly influenced the information-seeking behavior of students in higher education over the past few decades. The mass availability of information on the web has seen significant changes in the electronic information needs, information retrieval, and communication patterns (information seeking behavior) of university…

  18. A strategy for implementing genomics into nursing practice informed by three behaviour change theories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leach, Verity; Tonkin, Emma; Lancastle, Deborah; Kirk, Maggie

    2016-06-01

    Genomics is an ever increasing aspect of nursing practice, with focus being directed towards improving health. The authors present an implementation strategy for the incorporation of genomics into nursing practice within the UK, based on three behaviour change theories and the identification of individuals who are likely to provide support for change. Individuals identified as Opinion Leaders and Adopters of genomics illustrate how changes in behaviour might occur among the nursing profession. The core philosophy of the strategy is that genomic nurse Adopters and Opinion Leaders who have direct interaction with their peers in practice will be best placed to highlight the importance of genomics within the nursing role. The strategy discussed in this paper provides scope for continued nursing education and development of genomics within nursing practice on a larger scale. The recommendations might be of particular relevance for senior staff and management.

  19. Unveiling the mystery of visual information processing in human brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diamant, Emanuel

    2008-08-15

    It is generally accepted that human vision is an extremely powerful information processing system that facilitates our interaction with the surrounding world. However, despite extended and extensive research efforts, which encompass many exploration fields, the underlying fundamentals and operational principles of visual information processing in human brain remain unknown. We still are unable to figure out where and how along the path from eyes to the cortex the sensory input perceived by the retina is converted into a meaningful object representation, which can be consciously manipulated by the brain. Studying the vast literature considering the various aspects of brain information processing, I was surprised to learn that the respected scholarly discussion is totally indifferent to the basic keynote question: "What is information?" in general or "What is visual information?" in particular. In the old days, it was assumed that any scientific research approach has first to define its basic departure points. Why was it overlooked in brain information processing research remains a conundrum. In this paper, I am trying to find a remedy for this bizarre situation. I propose an uncommon definition of "information", which can be derived from Kolmogorov's Complexity Theory and Chaitin's notion of Algorithmic Information. Embracing this new definition leads to an inevitable revision of traditional dogmas that shape the state of the art of brain information processing research. I hope this revision would better serve the challenging goal of human visual information processing modeling.

  20. A Human-Information Interaction Perspective on Augmented Cognition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greitzer, Frank L.; Griffith, Douglas

    2006-10-15

    Nearly a half-century ago, J.C.R. Licklider expressed a vision for “man-machine symbiosis,” coupling human brains and computing machines in a partnership that “will think as no human brain has ever thought and process data in a way not approached by the information-handling machines we know today.” Until relatively recently, this vision was largely left idle by human factors engineering (HFE) research that grew over the decades from an initial focus on design of equipment to accommodate human limitations to cognitive systems engineering research to a more recent perspective focusing on design of human-information interaction. These perspective shifts and insights have brought a degree of success to the field in design efforts aimed at enhancing human-system performance. In recent years, the research area of augmented cognition has begun to shift the focus once more not only to enhancing the interaction environment, but also the cognitive abilities of the human operators and decision makers themselves. Ambitious goals of increasing total cognitive capacity through augmented cognition technologies are still on the horizon of this research program. This paper describes a framework within which augmented cognition research may identify requirements that compensate for human information processing shortcomings and augment human potential.

  1. Culture medium modulates the behaviour of human dental pulp-derived cells: Technical Note

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Lopez-Cazaux

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available In vitro approaches have extensively been developed to study reparative dentinogenesis. While dental pulp is a source of unidentified progenitors able to differentiate into odontoblast-like cells, we investigated the effect of two media; MEM (1.8mM Ca and 1mM Pi and RPMI 1640 (0.8mM Ca and 5mM Pi on the behaviour of human dental pulp cells. Our data indicate that MEM significantly increased cell proliferation and markedly enhanced the proportion of -smooth muscle actin positive cells, which represent a putative source of progenitors able to give rise to odontoblast-like cells. In addition, MEM strongly stimulated alkaline phosphatase activity and was found to induce expression of transcripts encoding dentin sialophosphoprotein, an odontoblastic marker, without affecting that of parathyroid hormone/parathyroid hormone related protein-receptor and osteonectin. In conclusion, these observations demonstrate that not only proliferation but also differentiation into odontoblast-like cells was induced by rich calcium and poor phosphate medium (MEM as compared to RPMI 1640. This study provides important data for the determination of the optimal culture conditions allowing odontoblast-like differentiation in human pulp cell culture.

  2. Local origins impart conserved bone type-related differences in human osteoblast behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, M; Gburcik, V; Reilly, P; Sankey, R A; Emery, R J; Clarkin, C E; Pitsillides, A A

    2015-03-04

    Osteogenic behaviour of osteoblasts from trabecular, cortical and subchondral bone were examined to determine any bone type-selective differences in samples from both osteoarthritic (OA) and osteoporotic (OP) patients. Cell growth, differentiation; alkaline phosphatase (TNAP) mRNA and activity, Runt-related transcription factor-2 (RUNX2), SP7-transcription factor (SP7), bone sialoprotein-II (BSP-II), osteocalcin/bone gamma-carboxyglutamate (BGLAP), osteoprotegerin (OPG, TNFRSF11B), receptor activator of nuclear factor-κβ ligand (RANKL, TNFSF11) mRNA levels and proangiogenic vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A) mRNA and protein release were assessed in osteoblasts from paired humeral head samples from age-matched, human OA/OP (n = 5/4) patients. Initial outgrowth and increase in cell number were significantly faster (p origins in OA and trabecular origins in OP. We found virtually identical bone type-related differences, however, in TNFRSF11B:TNFSF11 in OA and OP, consistent with greater potential for paracrine effects on osteoclasts in trabecular osteoblasts. Subchondral osteoblasts (OA) exhibited highest VEGF-A mRNA levels and release. Our data indicate that human osteoblasts in trabecular, subchondral and cortical bone have inherent, programmed diversity, with specific bone type-related differences in growth, differentiation and pro-angiogenic potential in vitro.

  3. Determinants of information behaviour and information literacy related to healthy eating among Internet users in five European countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niedźwiedzka, Barbara; Mazzocchi, Mario; Aschemann-Witzel, Jessica

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. This study investigates how Europeans seek information related to healthy eating, what determines their information seeking and whether any problems are encountered in doing so. Method. A survey was administered through computer-assisted on-line web-interviewing. Respondents were gr...... literacy of the information-poor, men, the uneducated, and the economically disadvantaged.......Introduction. This study investigates how Europeans seek information related to healthy eating, what determines their information seeking and whether any problems are encountered in doing so. Method. A survey was administered through computer-assisted on-line web-interviewing. Respondents were...... grouped by age and sex (n=3003, age +16) in Belgium, Denmark, Italy, Poland, and the UK. Analysis. Descriptive statistics and regression analysis were used to analyse the influence of social, demographic, psychological and economic characteristics on the information seeking of the respondents. Results...

  4. The applicability of constructivist user studies: how can constructivist inquiry inform service providers and systems designers? Constructivist inquiry, Case study, Systems design, User behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison Pickard

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper has attempted to clarify the ways in which individual, holistic case studies, produced via the process of constructivist inquiry, can be tested for trustworthiness and applied to other, similar situations. Service providers and systems designers need contextual information concerning their users in order to design and provide systems and services that will function effectively and efficiently within those contexts. Abstract models can only provide abstract insight into human behaviour and this is rarely sufficient detail upon which to base the planning and delivery of a service. The methodological issues which surround the applicability of individual, holistic case studies are discussed, explaining the concept of 'contextual applicability.' The relevance and usefulness of in-depth case study research to systems designers and service providers is highlighted.

  5. Improving behaviour in self-testing (IBIS: Study on frequency of use, consequences, information needs and use, and quality of currently available consumer information (protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Vries Nanne K

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Self-tests are available to consumers for more than 25 conditions, ranging from infectious diseases to cardiovascular risk factors. Self-tests are defined as in-vitro tests on body materials such as blood, urine, faeces, or saliva that are initiated by consumers to diagnose a particular disorder or risk factor without involving a medical professional. In 2006, 16% of a sample of Dutch Internet users had ever used at least one self-test and 17% intended to use a self-test in the future. The objectives of this study are to determine (1 the frequency of self-test use, (2 the consumers' reasons for using or not using a self-test, (3 the information that is used by self-testers in the different self-test stages and the consumers' interpretation of the quality of this information, (4 the consumers' response to self-test results in terms of their confidence in the result, reassurance by the test result, and follow-up behaviour, (5 the information consumers report to need in the decision making process of using or not using a self-test, and in further management on the basis of the self-test result, and (6 the quality of the currently available consumer information on a selected set of self-tests. Methods Mixed methods study with (1 a cross-sectional study consisting of a two-phase Internet-questionnaire, (2 semi-structured interviews with self-testers and consumers who intend to use a self-test, and (3 the assessment of the quality of consumer information of self-tests. The Health Belief Model and the Theory of Planned Behaviour will serve as the theoretical basis for the questionnaires and the interview topic guides. Conclusions The self-testing area is still in a state of flux and therefore it is expected that self-test use will increase in the future. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study which combines quantitative and qualitative research to identify consumers' information needs and use concerning self

  6. Improving behaviour in self-testing (IBIS): Study on frequency of use, consequences, information needs and use, and quality of currently available consumer information (protocol).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grispen, Janaica E J; Ickenroth, Martine H P; de Vries, Nanne K; Dinant, Geert-Jan; Ronda, Gaby; van der Weijden, Trudy

    2010-08-03

    Self-tests are available to consumers for more than 25 conditions, ranging from infectious diseases to cardiovascular risk factors. Self-tests are defined as in-vitro tests on body materials such as blood, urine, faeces, or saliva that are initiated by consumers to diagnose a particular disorder or risk factor without involving a medical professional. In 2006, 16% of a sample of Dutch Internet users had ever used at least one self-test and 17% intended to use a self-test in the future. The objectives of this study are to determine (1) the frequency of self-test use, (2) the consumers' reasons for using or not using a self-test, (3) the information that is used by self-testers in the different self-test stages and the consumers' interpretation of the quality of this information, (4) the consumers' response to self-test results in terms of their confidence in the result, reassurance by the test result, and follow-up behaviour, (5) the information consumers report to need in the decision making process of using or not using a self-test, and in further management on the basis of the self-test result, and (6) the quality of the currently available consumer information on a selected set of self-tests. Mixed methods study with (1) a cross-sectional study consisting of a two-phase Internet-questionnaire, (2) semi-structured interviews with self-testers and consumers who intend to use a self-test, and (3) the assessment of the quality of consumer information of self-tests. The Health Belief Model and the Theory of Planned Behaviour will serve as the theoretical basis for the questionnaires and the interview topic guides. The self-testing area is still in a state of flux and therefore it is expected that self-test use will increase in the future. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study which combines quantitative and qualitative research to identify consumers' information needs and use concerning self-testing, and the consumers' actual follow-up behaviour based

  7. The sensitivity of QBA assessments of sheep behavioural expression to variations in visual or verbal information provided to observers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, P A; Wickham, S L; Stockman, C A; Verbeek, E; Matthews, L; Wemelsfelder, F

    2015-05-01

    Qualitative behavioural assessment (QBA) is based on observers' ability to capture the dynamic complexity of an animal's demeanour as it interacts with the environment, in terms such as tense, anxious or relaxed. Sensitivity to context is part of QBA's integrative capacity and discriminatory power; however, when not properly managed it can also be a source of undesirable variability and bias. This study investigated the sensitivity of QBA to variations in the visual or verbal information provided to observers, using free-choice profiling (FCP) methodology. FCP allows observers to generate their own descriptive terms for animal demeanour, against which each animal's expressions are quantified on a visual analogue scale. The resulting scores were analysed with Generalised Procrustes Analysis (GPA), generating two or more multi-variate dimensions of animal expression. Study 1 examined how 63 observers rated the same video clips of individual sheep during land transport, when these clips were interspersed with two different sets of video footage. Scores attributed to the sheep in the two viewing sessions correlated significantly (GPA dimension 1: r s =0.95, Pobservers assessing footage of 22 individual sheep in a behavioural demand facility. One group was given no contextual information regarding this facility, whereas the second group was told that animals were moving towards and away from a feeder (in view) to access feed. Scores attributed to individual sheep by the two observer groups correlated significantly (Dim1: r s =0.92, Pobserver groups and used in similar ways, other terms were unique to each group. The group given additional information about the experimental facility scored the sheep's behaviour as more 'directed' and 'focused' than observers who had not been told. Thus, in neither of the two studies did experimentally imposed variations in context alter the characterisations of animals relative to each other, but in Study 1 this did affect the mean

  8. Determinants of Information Behaviour and Information Literacy Related to Healthy Eating among Internet Users in Five European Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niedzwiedzka, Barbara; Mazzocchi, Mario; Aschemann-Witzel, Jessica; Gennaro, Laura; Verbeke, Wim; Traill, W. Bruce

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: This study investigates how Europeans seek information related to healthy eating, what determines their information seeking and whether any problems are encountered in doing so. Method: A survey was administered through computer-assisted on-line web-interviewing. Respondents were grouped by age and sex (n = 3003, age +16) in Belgium,…

  9. When Sentry Goes Stealing: An Information Systems Security Case Study in Behavioural Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Irfan Nabi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we describe a case where the top management of a small holding company is involved in a love-hate relationship with its own IT department. The top management firmly believes that IT staff is involved in leaking out company’s secrets. However, having no expertise in IT and even lesser grasp on the complexity of IT architecture resulting from recent mergers and acquisition, the top management finds itself crucially dependent on its IT systems, yet unable to trust them fully. The theories of deterrence and reasoned action are used to explain the otherwise objectionable behaviour of the perpetrator.

  10. Unveiling the mystery of visual information processing in human brain

    CERN Document Server

    Diamant, Emanuel

    2008-01-01

    It is generally accepted that human vision is an extremely powerful information processing system that facilitates our interaction with the surrounding world. However, despite extended and extensive research efforts, which encompass many exploration fields, the underlying fundamentals and operational principles of visual information processing in human brain remain unknown. We still are unable to figure out where and how along the path from eyes to the cortex the sensory input perceived by the retina is converted into a meaningful object representation, which can be consciously manipulated by the brain. Studying the vast literature considering the various aspects of brain information processing, I was surprised to learn that the respected scholarly discussion is totally indifferent to the basic keynote question: "What is information?" in general or "What is visual information?" in particular. In the old days, it was assumed that any scientific research approach has first to define its basic departure points. ...

  11. Human machine interaction: The special role for human unconscious emotional information processing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noort, M.W.M.L. van den; Hugdahl, K.; Bosch, M.P.C.

    2005-01-01

    The nature of (un)conscious human emotional information processing remains a great mystery. On the one hand, classical models view human conscious emotional information processing as computation among the brain's neurons but fail to address its enigmatic features. On the other hand, quantum processe

  12. Human machine interaction: The special role for human unconscious emotional information processing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noort, M.W.M.L. van den; Hugdahl, K.; Bosch, M.P.C.

    2005-01-01

    The nature of (un)conscious human emotional information processing remains a great mystery. On the one hand, classical models view human conscious emotional information processing as computation among the brain's neurons but fail to address its enigmatic features. On the other hand, quantum processe

  13. Health-seeking behaviour of human brucellosis cases in rural Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MacMillan Alastair

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Brucellosis is known to cause debilitating conditions if not promptly treated. In some rural areas of Tanzania however, practitioners give evidence of seeing brucellosis cases with symptoms of long duration. The purpose of this study was to establish health-seeking behaviour of human brucellosis cases in rural Tanzania and explore the most feasible ways to improve it. Methods This was designed as a longitudinal study. Socio-demographic, clinical and laboratory data were collected from patients who reported to selected hospitals in rural northern Tanzania between June 2002 and April 2003. All patients with conditions suspicious of brucellosis on the basis of preliminary clinical examination and history were enrolled into the study as brucellosis suspects. Blood samples were taken and tested for brucellosis using the Rose-Bengal Plate Test (RBPT and other agglutination tests available at the health facilities and the competitive ELISA (c-ELISA test at the Veterinary Laboratory Agencies (VLA in the UK. All suspects who tested positive with the c-ELISA test were regarded as brucellosis cases. A follow-up of 49 cases was made to collect data on health-seeking behaviour of human brucellosis cases. Results The majority of cases 87.7% gave a history of going to hospital as the first point of care, 10.2% purchased drugs from a nearby drug shop before going to hospital and 2% went to a local traditional healer first. Brucellosis cases delayed going to hospital with a median delay time of 90 days, and with 20% of the cases presenting to hospitals more than a year after the onset of symptoms. Distance to the hospital, keeping animals and knowledge of brucellosis were significantly associated with patient delay to present to hospital. Conclusion More efforts need to be put on improving the accessibility of health facilities to the rural poor people who succumb to most of the diseases including zoonoses. Health education on brucellosis in

  14. Determinants of information behaviour and information literacy related to healthy eating among Internet users in five European countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niedźwiedzka, Barbara; Mazzocchi, Mario; Aschemann-Witzel, Jessica

    2014-01-01

    grouped by age and sex (n=3003, age +16) in Belgium, Denmark, Italy, Poland, and the UK. Analysis. Descriptive statistics and regression analysis were used to analyse the influence of social, demographic, psychological and economic characteristics on the information seeking of the respondents. Results......Introduction. This study investigates how Europeans seek information related to healthy eating, what determines their information seeking and whether any problems are encountered in doing so. Method. A survey was administered through computer-assisted on-line web-interviewing. Respondents were...

  15. Approach-Induced Biases in Human Information Sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Laurence T.; Rutledge, Robb B.; Malalasekera, W. M. Nishantha; Kennerley, Steven W.; Dolan, Raymond J.

    2016-01-01

    Information sampling is often biased towards seeking evidence that confirms one’s prior beliefs. Despite such biases being a pervasive feature of human behavior, their underlying causes remain unclear. Many accounts of these biases appeal to limitations of human hypothesis testing and cognition, de facto evoking notions of bounded rationality, but neglect more basic aspects of behavioral control. Here, we investigated a potential role for Pavlovian approach in biasing which information humans will choose to sample. We collected a large novel dataset from 32,445 human subjects, making over 3 million decisions, who played a gambling task designed to measure the latent causes and extent of information-sampling biases. We identified three novel approach-related biases, formalized by comparing subject behavior to a dynamic programming model of optimal information gathering. These biases reflected the amount of information sampled (“positive evidence approach”), the selection of which information to sample (“sampling the favorite”), and the interaction between information sampling and subsequent choices (“rejecting unsampled options”). The prevalence of all three biases was related to a Pavlovian approach-avoid parameter quantified within an entirely independent economic decision task. Our large dataset also revealed that individual differences in the amount of information gathered are a stable trait across multiple gameplays and can be related to demographic measures, including age and educational attainment. As well as revealing limitations in cognitive processing, our findings suggest information sampling biases reflect the expression of primitive, yet potentially ecologically adaptive, behavioral repertoires. One such behavior is sampling from options that will eventually be chosen, even when other sources of information are more pertinent for guiding future action. PMID:27832071

  16. A Study of the Information Search Behaviour of the Millennial Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Arthur

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Members of the millennial generation (born after 1982) have come of age in a society infused with technology and information. It is unclear how they determine the validity of information gathered, or whether or not validity is even a concern. Previous information search models based on mediated searches with different age groups may…

  17. A fuzzy Bayesian network approach to quantify the human behaviour during an evacuation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramli, Nurulhuda; Ghani, Noraida Abdul; Ahmad, Nazihah

    2016-06-01

    Bayesian Network (BN) has been regarded as a successful representation of inter-relationship of factors affecting human behavior during an emergency. This paper is an extension of earlier work of quantifying the variables involved in the BN model of human behavior during an evacuation using a well-known direct probability elicitation technique. To overcome judgment bias and reduce the expert's burden in providing precise probability values, a new approach for the elicitation technique is required. This study proposes a new fuzzy BN approach for quantifying human behavior during an evacuation. Three major phases of methodology are involved, namely 1) development of qualitative model representing human factors during an evacuation, 2) quantification of BN model using fuzzy probability and 3) inferencing and interpreting the BN result. A case study of three inter-dependencies of human evacuation factors such as danger assessment ability, information about the threat and stressful conditions are used to illustrate the application of the proposed method. This approach will serve as an alternative to the conventional probability elicitation technique in understanding the human behavior during an evacuation.

  18. A framework of motion capture system based human behaviours simulation for ergonomic analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Ma, Ruina; Bennis, Fouad; Ma, Liang

    2011-01-01

    With the increasing of computer capabilities, Computer aided ergonomics (CAE) offers new possibilities to integrate conventional ergonomic knowledge and to develop new methods into the work design process. As mentioned in [1], different approaches have been developed to enhance the efficiency of the ergonomic evaluation. Ergonomic expert systems, ergonomic oriented information systems, numerical models of human, etc. have been implemented in numerical ergonomic software. Until now, there are ergonomic software tools available, such as Jack, Ergoman, Delmia Human, 3DSSPP, and Santos, etc. [2-4]. The main functions of these tools are posture analysis and posture prediction. In the visualization part, Jack and 3DSSPP produce results to visualize virtual human tasks in 3-dimensional, but without realistic physical properties. Nowadays, with the development of computer technology, the simulation of physical world is paid more attention. Physical engines [5] are used more and more in computer game (CG) field. The a...

  19. INFORMATION SEEKING BEHAVIOUR OF WOMAN IN SLUM AREA IN KAMPUNG PONCOL, SOUTH JAKARTA, INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fauzan Abdi

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. This research identifies the information seeking behavior of women who reside in the slum area of Kampung Poncol, Jakarta, Indonesia in the fulfillment of the triple role; those are reproductive, productive, and social. A qualitative approach with phenomenology method is used in this research while the data are collected by non-participant observation and in-depth interview with six participants. The results of this research show that the steps of information seeking behavior of those women are the initiation, selection, formulation, collection, and presentation; while the exploration step does not appear at all. Based on the role of reproduction needed by the informants in relation to their role as housewives, the information needed by the women are about the price of basic commodities, family healthcare and well-being, children education, as well as information about the flood. On the productive role, the information needed are vary among the informants depends on their occupations. While for the social role, the information needed by the informants are related to personal health, fashion, entertainment, and politics. The primary source of information is informal source those are relatives and neighbors.

  20. Individual consistency and flexibility in human social information use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toelch, Ulf; Bruce, Matthew J; Newson, Lesley; Richerson, Peter J; Reader, Simon M

    2014-02-07

    Copying others appears to be a cost-effective way of obtaining adaptive information, particularly when flexibly employed. However, adult humans differ considerably in their propensity to use information from others, even when this 'social information' is beneficial, raising the possibility that stable individual differences constrain flexibility in social information use. We used two dissimilar decision-making computer games to investigate whether individuals flexibly adjusted their use of social information to current conditions or whether they valued social information similarly in both games. Participants also completed established personality questionnaires. We found that participants demonstrated considerable flexibility, adjusting social information use to current conditions. In particular, individuals employed a 'copy-when-uncertain' social learning strategy, supporting a core, but untested, assumption of influential theoretical models of cultural transmission. Moreover, participants adjusted the amount invested in their decision based on the perceived reliability of personally gathered information combined with the available social information. However, despite this strategic flexibility, participants also exhibited consistent individual differences in their propensities to use and value social information. Moreover, individuals who favoured social information self-reported as more collectivist than others. We discuss the implications of our results for social information use and cultural transmission.

  1. Human-Assisted Machine Information Exploitation: a crowdsourced investigation of information-based problem solving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kase, Sue E.; Vanni, Michelle; Caylor, Justine; Hoye, Jeff

    2017-05-01

    The Human-Assisted Machine Information Exploitation (HAMIE) investigation utilizes large-scale online data collection for developing models of information-based problem solving (IBPS) behavior in a simulated time-critical operational environment. These types of environments are characteristic of intelligence workflow processes conducted during human-geo-political unrest situations when the ability to make the best decision at the right time ensures strategic overmatch. The project takes a systems approach to Human Information Interaction (HII) by harnessing the expertise of crowds to model the interaction of the information consumer and the information required to solve a problem at different levels of system restrictiveness and decisional guidance. The design variables derived from Decision Support Systems (DSS) research represent the experimental conditions in this online single-player against-the-clock game where the player, acting in the role of an intelligence analyst, is tasked with a Commander's Critical Information Requirement (CCIR) in an information overload scenario. The player performs a sequence of three information processing tasks (annotation, relation identification, and link diagram formation) with the assistance of `HAMIE the robot' who offers varying levels of information understanding dependent on question complexity. We provide preliminary results from a pilot study conducted with Amazon Mechanical Turk (AMT) participants on the Volunteer Science scientific research platform.

  2. Localized corrosion behaviour in simulated human body fluids of commercial Ni-Ti orthodontic wires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rondelli, G; Vicentini, B

    1999-04-01

    The corrosion performances in simulated human body fluids of commercial equiatomic Ni-Ti orthodontic wires having various shape and size and produced by different manufacturers were evaluated; for comparison purposes wires made of stainless steel and of cobalt-based alloy were also examined. Potentiodynamic tests in artificial saliva at 40 degrees C indicated a sufficient pitting resistance for the Ni-Ti wires, similar to that of cobalt-based alloy wire; the stainless steel wire, instead, exhibited low pitting potential. Potentiodynamic tests at 40 degrees C in isotonic saline solution (0.9% NaCl) showed, for Ni-Ti and stainless steel wires, pitting potential values in the range approximately 200-400 mV and approximately 350 mV versus SCE, respectively: consequently, according to literature data (Hoar TP, Mears DC. Proc Roy Soc A 1996;294:486-510), these materials should be considered potentially susceptible to pitting; only the cobalt-based alloy should be immune from pitting. The localized corrosion potentials determined in the same environment by the ASTM F746 test (approximately 0-200 mV and 130 mV versus SCE for Ni-Ti and stainless steel, respectively) pointed out that for these materials an even higher risk of localized corrosion. Slight differences in localized corrosion behaviour among the various Ni-Ti wires were detected.

  3. Values and Environmental Ethics – Pillars of Changing Human Behaviour Toward Sustainable Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florina Bran

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable development necessitates the harmonisation of human’s and nature’s needs under the siege of continuous demographic growth and the quest for wellbeing based on material things. This outcome implies important changes to occur at individual, collective and corporate behaviour. How they could be accomplished is a question that animates debates for several decades and revealed that solutions should be related to the process of valuation. Better understanding of value and how it relates to the needs of environmental protection is the aim of our analysis that recalls axiological milestones and compares them with environment related issues. Value as a product of object and subject in the framework of human aspirations is at some extent transposed in economic value. Environmental goods valuation in economic terms encounters numerous difficulties, including high costs and low reliability. Therefore we conclude that decision making should be underpinned not only by economic valuation, but also by value judgement that cannot be expressed in monetary terms.

  4. Attachment and growth behaviour of human gingival fibroblasts on titanium and zirconia ceramic surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pae, Ahran; Kim, Hyeong-Seob; Woo, Yi-Hyung [Department of Prosthodontics, School of Dentistry, Kyung Hee University, 1 Hoegi-dong, Dongdaemun-gu, Seoul 130-701 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Heesu [Department of Oral Anatomy, School of Dentistry, Kangnung National University, Gibyun-dong, Kangnung 210-702 (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, Yong-Dae, E-mail: ahranp@hotmail.co, E-mail: nightsu@kangnung.ac.k, E-mail: odontopia@khu.ac.k, E-mail: yongdae.kwon@gmail.co, E-mail: yhwoo@khu.ac.k [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, School of Dentistry, Kyung Hee University, 1 Hoegi-dong, Dongdaemun-gu, Seoul 130-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-04-15

    The attachment, growth behaviour and the genetic effect of human gingival fibroblasts (HGF) cultured on titanium and different zirconia surfaces were investigated. HGF cells were cultured on (1) titanium discs with a machined surface, (2) yttrium-stabilized tetragonal zirconia polycrystals (Y-TZP) with a smooth surface and (3) Y-TZP with 100{mu}m grooves. The cell proliferation activity was evaluated through a MTT assay at 24 h and 48 h, and the cell morphology was examined by SEM. The mRNA expression of integrin-beta1, type I and III collagen, laminin and fibronectin in HGF were evaluated by RT-PCR after 24 h. From the MTT assay, the mean optical density values for the titanium and grooved zirconia surfaces after 48 h of HGF adhesion were greater than the values obtained for the smooth zirconia surfaces. SEM images showed that more cells were attached to the grooves, and the cells appeared to follow the direction of the grooves. The results of RT-PCR suggest that all groups showed comparable fibroblast-specific gene expression. A zirconia ceramic surface with grooves showed biological responses that were comparable to those obtained with HGF on a titanium surface.

  5. Human behavioural research applied to the leprosy control programme of Sarawak, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, P C

    1986-09-01

    In 1984, in Sarawak, there were a total of 1,099 recorded cases of leprosy for a population of 1.3 million. However, for each case recorded, it is estimated that two others remain undiagnosed as a consequence of the stigmatization associated with leprosy. For the five year period, 1979-1983, an average of 29 new cases were detected each year of which 8.6 (30%) were deformed due to the late stages at which it was being reported. To increase the case-finding rate, human behavioural research was applied to the leprosy control programme so as to develop culture-specific health education packages aimed at self diagnosis and self referral in order to detect the large pool of undiagnosed cases hidden behind the veil of aversion, fear and ignorance. This was achieved through anthropological studies to identify how the various major ethnic groups perceived leprosy and their attitudes towards leprosy. Taking into account these findings, health education packages aimed at adults as well as children were developed for the Chinese as well as the non-Chinese, and consisted of newspaper articles, cartoon tape-slides, cartoon story books and posters.

  6. Treadmill versus overground and barefoot versus shod comparisons of triceps surae fascicle behaviour in human walking and running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cronin, Neil J; Finni, Taija

    2013-07-01

    Studies of human locomotion are commonly performed on a treadmill or overground, as well as with or without footwear. These testing modalities have been suggested to influence kinematics, kinetics and/or spatio-temporal variables differently. However, it is unclear whether they influence contractile behaviour at the level of the muscle fascicles. This has major relevance because results from studies performed with different combinations of the testing modalities are often compared. The present study used ultrasound to examine fascicle behaviour of the medial gastrocnemius (MG) and soleus muscles of ten young, healthy males during walking and running on a treadmill and overground, as well as barefoot and shod. Barefoot conditions resulted in modestly shorter step durations than corresponding shod conditions, whereas no consistent temporal differences were observed between overground and treadmill locomotion. For both comparisons, no differences were observed in soleus or MG fascicle behaviour between corresponding conditions in walking or running, although soleus consistently exhibited smaller, lower velocity length changes than MG. It is concluded that the examined testing modalities are equally valid for studying muscle fascicle behaviour during locomotion. This conclusion is supported by a comparison of our data to the results of 16 previous studies that used various combinations of testing modalities; muscle fascicle behaviour is qualitatively similar between studies for a given muscle and gait.

  7. Human vision is determined based on information theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado-Bonal, Alfonso; Martín-Torres, Javier

    2016-11-03

    It is commonly accepted that the evolution of the human eye has been driven by the maximum intensity of the radiation emitted by the Sun. However, the interpretation of the surrounding environment is constrained not only by the amount of energy received but also by the information content of the radiation. Information is related to entropy rather than energy. The human brain follows Bayesian statistical inference for the interpretation of visual space. The maximization of information occurs in the process of maximizing the entropy. Here, we show that the photopic and scotopic vision absorption peaks in humans are determined not only by the intensity but also by the entropy of radiation. We suggest that through the course of evolution, the human eye has not adapted only to the maximum intensity or to the maximum information but to the optimal wavelength for obtaining information. On Earth, the optimal wavelengths for photopic and scotopic vision are 555 nm and 508 nm, respectively, as inferred experimentally. These optimal wavelengths are determined by the temperature of the star (in this case, the Sun) and by the atmospheric composition.

  8. Human vision is determined based on information theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado-Bonal, Alfonso; Martín-Torres, Javier

    2016-11-01

    It is commonly accepted that the evolution of the human eye has been driven by the maximum intensity of the radiation emitted by the Sun. However, the interpretation of the surrounding environment is constrained not only by the amount of energy received but also by the information content of the radiation. Information is related to entropy rather than energy. The human brain follows Bayesian statistical inference for the interpretation of visual space. The maximization of information occurs in the process of maximizing the entropy. Here, we show that the photopic and scotopic vision absorption peaks in humans are determined not only by the intensity but also by the entropy of radiation. We suggest that through the course of evolution, the human eye has not adapted only to the maximum intensity or to the maximum information but to the optimal wavelength for obtaining information. On Earth, the optimal wavelengths for photopic and scotopic vision are 555 nm and 508 nm, respectively, as inferred experimentally. These optimal wavelengths are determined by the temperature of the star (in this case, the Sun) and by the atmospheric composition.

  9. The Peculiarities of Human Resource Information Management Problems and Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gražina Kalibataitė

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The current article explores one of the traditional management functional areas of enterprises—human resources management and its multi-component information environments, components. The traditional enterprises, usually manufacturing-oriented enterprises, controlled according to the functions of the activity, when many operating divisions is specialized in carrying out some certain tasks, functions (i.e. every department or unit is focused on the specific information technology applications which are not integrated. But quick changes in the modern activity environment fosters enterprises to switch from the classical functional management approaches (i.e. non-effective databases that are of marginal use, duplicative of one another, and operational systems that cannot adequately provide important information for enterprise control towards more adaptive, contemporary information processing models, knowledge-based enterprises, process management (i.e. a computer-aided knowledge bases, automatic information exchange, structured and metadata-oriented way. As mentioned above, are the databases now really becoming increasingly unmanageable, non-effective? Slow information processing not only costs money, but also endangers competitiveness and makes users unhappy. However, it should be noted that every functional area, group of users of the enterprise, have their specific, purpose, subjects and management structure, otherwise they have different information needs, requirements. Therefore, organizational information systems need be constantly maintained and applied to their surroundings.This article presents and critically analyzes the theoretical, practical aspects of the human resources or employee and information management, i.e. the first introduces 1 the major problems of information management (e.g., data integration and interoperability of systems, why business users often don’t have direct access to the important business data; 2 the process

  10. The Peculiarities of Human Resource Information Management Problems and Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gražina Kalibataitė

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The current article explores one of the traditional management functional areas of enterprises—human resources management and its multi-component information environments, components. The traditional enterprises, usually manufacturing-oriented enterprises, controlled according to the functions of the activity, when many operating divisions is specialized in carrying out some certain tasks, functions (i.e. every department or unit is focused on the specific information technology applications which are not integrated. But quick changes in the modern activity environment fosters enterprises to switch from the classical functional management approaches (i.e. non-effective databases that are of marginal use, duplicative of one another, and operational systems that cannot adequately provide important information for enterprise control towards more adaptive, contemporary information processing models, knowledge-based enterprises, process management (i.e. a computer-aided knowledge bases, automatic information exchange, structured and metadata-oriented way. As mentioned above, are the databases now really becoming increasingly unmanageable, non-effective? Slow information processing not only costs money, but also endangers competitiveness and makes users unhappy. However, it should be noted that every functional area, group of users of the enterprise, have their specific, purpose, subjects and management structure, otherwise they have different information needs, requirements. Therefore, organizational information systems need be constantly maintained and applied to their surroundings. This article presents and critically analyzes the theoretical, practical aspects of the human resources or employee and information management, i.e. the first introduces 1 the major problems of information management (e.g., data integration and interoperability of systems, why business users often don’t have direct access to the important business data; 2 the process

  11. Health information-seeking behaviour in adolescence: the place of the internet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Nicola J; Klein, Jonathan D; Noyce, Peter R; Sesselberg, Tracy S; Cantrill, Judith A

    2005-04-01

    The internet is one of a range of health information sources available to adolescents. It is recognised that young people have difficulties accessing traditional health services; in theory, the internet offers them confidential and convenient access to an unprecedented level of information about a diverse range of subjects. This could redress adolescents' state of relative health 'information poverty', compared to adults. This paper seeks to explore United Kingdom (UK) and United States (US) adolescents' perceptions and experiences of using the internet to find information about health and medicines, in the context of the other health information sources that are available to them. The study involved a series of 26 single-gender focus groups with 157 English-speaking students aged 11-19 years from the UK and the US. Many students reported that the internet was their primary general information source. Information sources were defined during analysis in terms of previous experience of the source, saliency of the available information, and credibility of the source (defined in terms of expertise, trustworthiness and empathy). Most focus group participants had extensive personal experience with the internet and some information providers therein (notably search engines). Internet health information was regarded generally as salient. Its saliency was increased through active searching and personalisation. Perceived credibility of the internet varied because expertise and trustworthiness were sometimes difficult to determine, and empathy could be facilitated through online communities but the individual could control disclosure. The internet combines positive features of traditional lay and professional, personal and impersonal sources. Although it is unlikely to supplant the role of trusted peers and adults, the internet has found an important place among adolescents' repertory of health information sources.

  12. Export market information behaviour of SME's : the influence of firm characteristics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voerman, J.A.; Wedel, M.; Zwart, P.S.

    1998-01-01

    The magic word of the last years is internationalization. Researchers more and more focus on export market information and the relationship between this information and export performance. Just a few studies take into account the impact of firm characteristics on these topics. This study shows that

  13. Critical Appraisal of Information on the Web in Practice: Undergraduate Students' Knowledge, Reported Use, and Behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogan, Neil; Varnhagen, Connie

    2012-01-01

    Undergraduates use a wide range of information resources for academic and nonacademic purposes, including web sites that range from credible, peer reviewed, online journal sites, to biased and inaccurate promotional web sites. Students are taught basic critical appraisal skills, but do they apply these skills to make decisions about information in…

  14. Export market information behaviour of SME's : the influence of firm characteristics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voerman, J.A.; Wedel, M.; Zwart, P.S.

    1998-01-01

    The magic word of the last years is internationalization. Researchers more and more focus on export market information and the relationship between this information and export performance. Just a few studies take into account the impact of firm characteristics on these topics. This study shows that

  15. Hobby-Related Information-Seeking Behaviour of Highly Dedicated Online Museum Visitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skov, Mette

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: This paper explores the characteristics of online museum visitors in an everyday life, information-seeking context. Method: A triangulation of research methods was applied. A Web questionnaire survey gave initial, quantitative information about online museum visitors to a military museum. Follow-up interviews (n = 24) obtained rich,…

  16. A Theoretical Model of Health Information Technology Usage Behaviour with Implications for Patient Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holden, Richard J.; Karsh, Ben-Tzion

    2009-01-01

    Primary objective: much research and practice related to the design and implementation of information technology in health care has been atheoretical. It is argued that using extant theory to develop testable models of health information technology (HIT) benefits both research and practice. Methods and procedures: several theories of motivation,…

  17. Consumption of Mass Communication--Construction of a Model on Information Consumption Behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepstrup, Preben

    A general conceptual model on the consumption of information is introduced. Information as the output of the mass media is treated as a product, and a model on the consumption of this product is developed by merging elements from consumer behavior theory and mass communication theory. Chapter I gives basic assumptions about the individual and the…

  18. Multiple scales modelling approaches to social interaction in crowd dynamics and crisis management. Comment on "Human behaviours in evacuation crowd dynamics: From modelling to "big data" toward crisis management" by Nicola Bellomo et al.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trucu, Dumitru

    2016-09-01

    In this comprehensive review concerning the modelling of human behaviours in crowd dynamics [3], the authors explore a wide range of mathematical approaches spanning over multiple scales that are suitable to describe emerging crowd behaviours in extreme situations. Focused on deciphering the key aspects leading to emerging crowd patterns evolutions in challenging times such as those requiring an evacuation on a complex venue, the authors address this complex dynamics at both microscale (individual level), mesoscale (probability distributions of interacting individuals), and macroscale (population level), ultimately aiming to gain valuable understanding and knowledge that would inform decision making in managing crisis situations.

  19. Contextual Sensing: Integrating Contextual Information with Human and Technical Geo-Sensor Information for Smart Cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagl, Günther; Resch, Bernd; Blaschke, Thomas

    2015-07-14

    In this article we critically discuss the challenge of integrating contextual information, in particular spatiotemporal contextual information, with human and technical sensor information, which we approach from a geospatial perspective. We start by highlighting the significance of context in general and spatiotemporal context in particular and introduce a smart city model of interactions between humans, the environment, and technology, with context at the common interface. We then focus on both the intentional and the unintentional sensing capabilities of today's technologies and discuss current technological trends that we consider have the ability to enrich human and technical geo-sensor information with contextual detail. The different types of sensors used to collect contextual information are analyzed and sorted into three groups on the basis of names considering frequently used related terms, and characteristic contextual parameters. These three groups, namely technical in situ sensors, technical remote sensors, and human sensors are analyzed and linked to three dimensions involved in sensing (data generation, geographic phenomena, and type of sensing). In contrast to other scientific publications, we found a large number of technologies and applications using in situ and mobile technical sensors within the context of smart cities, and surprisingly limited use of remote sensing approaches. In this article we further provide a critical discussion of possible impacts and influences of both technical and human sensing approaches on society, pointing out that a larger number of sensors, increased fusion of information, and the use of standardized data formats and interfaces will not necessarily result in any improvement in the quality of life of the citizens of a smart city. This article seeks to improve our understanding of technical and human geo-sensing capabilities, and to demonstrate that the use of such sensors can facilitate the integration of different

  20. Highly Developed Information-oriented Society and Humanity ; Medical Information Services and Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakimoto, Atsuko

    Change in social circumstances caused by arrival of highly developed information-oriented society has altered what information services in medical libraries should be dramatically. Keeping with complication and diversification of needs by users such as medical doctors, researchers, medical technicians and so on medical librarians have been playing important role in the information activities, and are required to master more specialized knowledge. This paper outlines changes in circumstances surrounding medical libraries, discusses role of medical librarians in online information retrieval services, and introduces various curriculum for library education. The author proposes that humanity of librarian him or herself is still a key factor for library services regardless of advancement of computerization.

  1. TECHNOLOGY AND INNOVATION IN HUMAN ACTIVITY OF THE INFORMATION AGE: HUMAN AND ICT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleksandr Yu. Burov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the article a brief overview of projects initiated by the U.S. National Science Foundation that related to new knowledge on integration and mutual development of social systems is proposed. The projects have a potential for transformation of science and researches, improvement of life quality and economy prosperity, as well as they should ensure outrunning development of information and communication technologies for all spheres of human activity: anthropocentric computerization, integration of information and informatics, robust intelligence, cyber-human systems, as well as two cross-technical areas - human and/or robots interaction, security and information protection.

  2. Does field independence predict visuo-spatial abilities underpinning human navigation? Behavioural evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boccia, Maddalena; Piccardi, Laura; Di Marco, Mariangela; Pizzamiglio, Luigi; Guariglia, Cecilia

    2016-10-01

    Field independence (FI) has been defined as the extent to which the individual perceives part of a field as discrete from the surrounding field, rather than embedded in the field. It has been proposed to represent a relatively stable pattern in individuals' predisposition towards information processing. In the present study, we assessed the effect of FI on skills underpinning human navigation. Fifty Healthy individuals took part in this study. FI has been assessed by using the group embedded figures test (GEFT). Participants were also asked to perform several visuo-spatial orientation tasks, including the perspective taking/spatial orientation test (PTSOT), the mental rotation task (MRT) and the vividness task, as well as the Santa Barbara Sense of Direction Scale, a self-reported questionnaire, which has been found to predict environmental spatial orientation ability. We found that performances on the GEFT significantly predicted performances on the PTSOT and the MRT. This result supports the idea that FI predicts human navigation.

  3. The Human Brain and Information Science: Lessons from Popular Neuroscience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Sturges

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Insights from the recent wealth of popular books on neuroscience are offered to suggest a strengthening of theory in information science. Information theory has traditionally neglected the human dimension in favour of 'scientific' theory often derived from the Shannon-Weaver model. Neuroscientists argue in excitingly fresh ways from the evidence of case studies, non-intrusive experimentation and the measurements that can be obtained from technologies that include electroencephalography, positron emission tomography (PET, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI, and magnetoencephalography (MEG. The way in which the findings of neuroscience intersect with ideas such as those of Kahneman on fast and slow thinking and Csikszentmihalyi on flow, is tentatively explored as lines of connection with information science. It is argued that the beginnings of a theoretical underpinning for current web-based information searching in relation to established information retrieval methods can be drawn from this.

  4. Behavioural and physiological stress responses to environmental and human factors in different small mammal species: implications for their conservation

    OpenAIRE

    Navarro Castilla, Álvaro

    2016-01-01

    Tesis Doctoral inédita leída en la Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Facultad de Ciencias, Departamento de Biología Wild animal populations are continuously subjected to periodic disturbances by environmental and anthropogenic causes. Thereby, in this doctoral thesis, we carried out different investigations to study the behavioural and physiological stress responses of several small mammal species to different environmental and human factors. Behavioral responses to predation ris...

  5. Behavioural effects of directive cues on front-of-package nutrition information: the combination matters!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenigstorfer, Joerg; Wąsowicz-Kiryło, Grażyna; Styśko-Kunkowska, Małgorzata; Groeppel-Klein, Andrea

    2014-09-01

    Nutrition information aims to reduce information asymmetries between manufacturers and consumers. To date, however, it remains unclear how nutrition information that is shown on the front of the packaging should be designed in order to increase both visual attention and the tendency to make healthful food choices. The present study aimed to address this gap in research. An experimental laboratory study applying mobile eye-tracking technology manipulated the presence of two directive cues, i.e. health marks and traffic light colour-coding, as part of front-of-package nutrition information on actual food packages. Participants wore mobile eye-tracking glasses during a simulated shopping trip. After the ostensible study had finished, they chose one snack (from an assortment of fifteen snacks) as a thank you for participation. All products were labelled with nutrition information according to the experimental condition. Consumers (n 160) who were mainly responsible for grocery shopping in their household participated in the study. The results showed that, in the absence of traffic light colouring, health marks reduced attention to the snack food packaging. This effect did not occur when the colouring was present. The combination of the two directive cues (v. presenting traffic light colours only) made consumers choose more healthful snacks, according to the nutrient profile. Public policy makers may recommend retailers and manufacturers implement consistent front-of-pack nutrition labelling that contains both health marks and traffic light colouring as directive cues. The combination of the cues may increase the likelihood of healthful decision making.

  6. A Re-Examination of Information Seeking Behaviour in the Context of Activity Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, T. D.

    2006-01-01

    Introduction: Activity theory, developed in the USSR as a Marxist alternative to Western psychology, has been applied widely in educational studies and increasingly in human-computer interaction research. Argument: The key elements of activity theory, Motivation, Goal, Activity, Tools, Object, Outcome, Rules, Community and Division of labour are…

  7. Critical care nurses' information-seeking behaviour during an unfamiliar patient care task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Kristine M; Doran, Diane

    2012-01-01

    Critical care nurses complete tasks during patient care to promote the recovery or maintain the health of their patients. These tasks can be routine or non-routine to the nurse. Non-routine tasks are characterized by unfamiliarity, requiring nurses to seek additional information from a variety of sources to effectively complete the tasks. Critical care units are dynamic environments where decisions are often made by nurses under stress and time pressure because patient status changes rapidly. A non-routine task (e.g., administration of an unfamiliar medication) to the critical care nurse can impact patient care outcomes (e.g., increased time to complete task has consequences for the patient). In this article, the authors discuss literature reviewed on nurses' information-seeking and explore an information-seeking conceptual model that will be used as a guide to examine the main concepts found through the empirical evidence.

  8. Consumer Behaviour T oward Information Technolo gy Adoption on 3G Mobile Phone Usage in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MANIVANNAN SENTHIL VELMURUGAN

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Mobile phones have grown to be the most widely used portable device in the world. Mobile phones’ usage is rapid growth to the public in India. Moreover, the understanding of the people toward adoption of information technology in 3G mobile phones’ usage shows relatively low in India. So, it is vital to find out the exact situation among consumers’ behavior on 3G mobile phones. This study investigates consumers’ awareness and perceived ease of use and their influence of information technology adoption in 3G mobile phones. The resultsshow that the two hypotheses are valid. Based upon the research findings, implication, limitations and suggestionsresearch are drawn, which include a proposition of a way forward in addressing the consumers’ adoption on information technology toward 3G mobile phones’ usages in India.

  9. Cybernics fusion of human, machine and information systems

    CERN Document Server

    Suzuki, Kenji; Hasegawa, Yasuhisa

    2014-01-01

    Cybernics plays a significant role in coping with an aging society using state-of-the-art technologies from engineering, clinical medicine and humanities. This new interdisciplinary field studies technologies that enhance, strengthen, and support physical and cognitive functions of human beings, based on the fusion of human, machine, and information systems. The design of a seamless interface for interaction between the interior and exterior of the human body is described in this book from diverse aspects such as the physical, neurophysiological, and cognitive levels. It is the first book to cover the many aspects of cybernics, allowing readers to understand the life support robotics technology for the elderly, including remote, in-home, hospital, institutional, community medical welfare, and vital-sensing systems. Serving as a valuable resource, this volume will interest not only graduate students, scientists, and engineers but also newcomers to the field of cybernics.

  10. The influence of human behaviour on the energy consumption in buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Rune Vinther; Olesen, Bjarne W.

    2010-01-01

    Occupant behaviour influences the amount of energy consumed to sustain a comfortable indoor environment. However, the extent to which occupant behaviour affects building energy consumption is largely unknown. The purpose of this study was to investigate the extent of this influence. This paper...... describes two studies using dynamic computer simulations of occupant behaviour in dwellings. The first study included simulations of a naïve and a rational behaving occupant. The naïve occupant controlled the indoor climate using an energy expensive behaviour, while the rational occupant controlled...... the indoor climate in an energy efficient way. The simulated occupant could manipulate six controls, such as turning on or off the heat and adjusting clothing. All control actions were carried out with the aim of keeping the PMV value within predefined limits. An energy consuming and an energy efficient...

  11. Dutch dental patients on informed consent: Knowledge, attitudes, self-efficacy and behaviour.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schouten, B.; Hoogstraten, J.; Eijkman, M.

    2002-01-01

    Examined knowledge, attitudes, self-efficacy, and behavior concerning informed consent regarding dental patients. 128 dental patients (mean age 41.7 yrs) completed questionnaires concerning knowledge of and attitudes and behavior toward present status, purpose and risks of treatment, treatment costs

  12. The clinical effectiveness of individual behaviour change interventions to reduce risky sexual behaviour after a negative human immunodeficiency virus test in men who have sex with men: systematic and realist reviews and intervention development

    OpenAIRE

    Flowers, Paul; Wu, Olivia; Lorimer, Karen; Ahmed, Bipasha; Hesselgreaves, Hannah; MacDonald, Jennifer; Cayless, Sandi; Hutchinson, Sharon; Elliot, Lawrie; Sullivan, Ann; Clutterbuck, Dan; Rayment, Michael; McDaid, Lisa

    2017-01-01

    Background:\\ud \\ud Men who have sex with men (MSM) experience significant inequalities in health and well-being. They are the group in the UK at the highest risk of acquiring a human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Guidance relating to both HIV infection prevention, in general, and individual-level behaviour change interventions, in particular, is very limited.\\ud \\ud Objectives:\\ud \\ud To conduct an evidence synthesis of the clinical effectiveness of behaviour change interventions to...

  13. Human Capital information: generating intangibles and social responsibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisca Tejedo Romero

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Intangible resources have become the most important in the process of generating business' wealth in a sustainable way, namely the Human Capital. However, the success and survival of the companies is subject to the approval of its stakeholders. This means that companies take steps to ensure that their actions are perceived as legitimate, and one way is by providing voluntary information. Therefore, under the framework of the Theory of Legitimacy and Stakeholders, our goal is to analyze how Spanish companies are voluntarily reporting on its Human Capital in annual reports, information about the generation of intangibles (knowledge and social responsibility. Thus, using the methodology of content analysis, the empirical evidence shows that companies are reporting relatively little information on topics related to Human Capital being the topics related to training and development of employees the most disclosure. However, with regard to social responsibility, there is a rising trend to provide information concerning the policy of equality and diversity, risk prevention and the relationship between employers and employees.

  14. Patterns of risk behaviour for patients with sexually transmitted diseases and surveillance for human immunodeficiency virus in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lye, M S; Archibald, C; Ghazali, A A; Low, B T; Teoh, B H; Sinniah, M; Rus, S C; Singh, J; Nair, R C

    1994-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine the feasibility of establishing a sentinel human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) surveillance system involving patients with sexually transmitted diseases attending private clinics and a government sexually transmitted disease clinic in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Information on risk behaviours for HIV infection were also collected. A total of 84 female and 91 male patients were interviewed and tested for HIV infection; 41.7% of the women reported working as prostitutes, other occupations included masseuses, hairdressers, waitresses, salesgirls, receptionists, factory workers, and others. The most common diagnosis was gonorrhoea. Other diagnoses included non-specific genital infection, pelvic inflammatory disease, genital herpes and syphilis. 58.3% of the women had a hundred or more sex partners during the previous month; 99% had 6 or more sex partners. Only 4.8% of female patients had their male partners using condoms most of the time, 11.9% hardly used condoms at all. Of the males, 93.3% were heterosexual, while 6.7% were bisexuals, 41.1% had between 6-20 different partners in the previous year. 78.0% of them had prostitutes as their sex partners most of the time. 41.8% had experiences in Thailand and the Philippines. 73.6% never used condoms, while 19.8% only used condoms rarely. Although all patients were tested negative for HIV antibodies, lot quality assurance sampling methods indicate that the upper limits of prevalences for females and males were 3.5% and 3.3% respectively, at a 5% type I error. The study has shown that it is feasible to carry out a sentinel surveillance programme among STD patients and provided useful baseline data for future comparisons.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  15. Exploring utilitarian and hedonic antecedents for adopting information from a recommendation agent and unplanned purchase behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Li-Ting

    2016-01-01

    Research indicated that in order for properly utilizing recommendation agents (RAs), customers must rationally evaluate capability and suggestions of RAs during the interaction process. However, enjoying interactive processes and interface is also important. Methods for increasing user enjoyment of RAs are yet unknown. This study investigated the influences of utilitarian and hedonic factors on intention to adopt RAs suggestions and their antecedents. Involvement influences relative importance of utilitarian and hedonic factors. Contrary to common assumptions, customers may make unplanned purchases, rather than rational purchase. A field experiment with 2 × 2 × 2 factorial design reveals main findings. First, information diagnosticity and enjoyment enhance adoption intention simultaneously. Information diagnosticity is more important than enjoyment. Diagnosticity was determined by outcome similarity, and enjoyment was determined by both outcome similarity and atmospherics. The context of interacting with RAs is important. Outcome similarity even directly affects adoption intention. Second, highly involved users considered enjoyment and diagnosticity when forming adoption intentions, while users with low involvement only considered enjoyment. Third, information cascades altered the relationship between adoption intention and unplanned purchases. Most customers change selection after seeing ratings from other customers, even if they originally strongly want to adoption suggestion from RAs. Theoretical and managerial implications are proposed.

  16. Probabilistic analysis of the human transcriptome with side information

    CERN Document Server

    Lahti, Leo

    2011-01-01

    Understanding functional organization of genetic information is a major challenge in modern biology. Following the initial publication of the human genome sequence in 2001, advances in high-throughput measurement technologies and efficient sharing of research material through community databases have opened up new views to the study of living organisms and the structure of life. In this thesis, novel computational strategies have been developed to investigate a key functional layer of genetic information, the human transcriptome, which regulates the function of living cells through protein synthesis. The key contributions of the thesis are general exploratory tools for high-throughput data analysis that have provided new insights to cell-biological networks, cancer mechanisms and other aspects of genome function. A central challenge in functional genomics is that high-dimensional genomic observations are associated with high levels of complex and largely unknown sources of variation. By combining statistical ...

  17. Information systems and human error in the lab.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bissell, Michael G

    2004-01-01

    Health system costs in clinical laboratories are incurred daily due to human error. Indeed, a major impetus for automating clinical laboratories has always been the opportunity it presents to simultaneously reduce cost and improve quality of operations by decreasing human error. But merely automating these processes is not enough. To the extent that introduction of these systems results in operators having less practice in dealing with unexpected events or becoming deskilled in problemsolving, however new kinds of error will likely appear. Clinical laboratories could potentially benefit by integrating findings on human error from modern behavioral science into their operations. Fully understanding human error requires a deep understanding of human information processing and cognition. Predicting and preventing negative consequences requires application of this understanding to laboratory operations. Although the occurrence of a particular error at a particular instant cannot be absolutely prevented, human error rates can be reduced. The following principles are key: an understanding of the process of learning in relation to error; understanding the origin of errors since this knowledge can be used to reduce their occurrence; optimal systems should be forgiving to the operator by absorbing errors, at least for a time; although much is known by industrial psychologists about how to write operating procedures and instructions in ways that reduce the probability of error, this expertise is hardly ever put to use in the laboratory; and a feedback mechanism must be designed into the system that enables the operator to recognize in real time that an error has occurred.

  18. Differences in greeting behaviour towards humans with varying levels of familiarity in hand-reared wolves (Canis lupus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurys, Anita; Kubinyi, Enikő; Gácsi, Márta; Virányi, Zsófia

    2017-01-01

    Socialized wolves' relationship with humans is a much debated, but important question in light of dog domestication. Earlier findings reported no attachment to the caretaker at four months of age in a Strange Situation Test, while recently attachment to the caretaker was reported at a few weeks of age in a similar paradigm. To explore wolf–human relationship, we analysed behaviours of hand reared, extensively socialized wolves towards four visitor types: foster-parents, close acquaintances, persons met once before, and complete strangers during a greeting episode. As hypothesized, in the greeting context subjects showed more intense and friendly behaviour towards foster-parents, than other visitor types, which may reflect familiarity and affinity. However, differences were more pronounced in the group situation (at six months of age) than in the individual situation (at 12 and 24 months), suggesting that unique status of foster parents may become less distinct as wolves get older, while exploration of novel social agents is expressed more with older age. Fear related behaviour patterns were only found in the individual situation, mainly displayed towards strangers. We showed that, in case of extensively socialized wolves, distinctive affiliation and affinity towards the foster parent prevails into adulthood. PMID:28680658

  19. Air pollution information needs and the knowledge, attitudes and behaviour of Canadians : final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-01-01

    In the fall of 2001, the Environics Research Group conducted a national survey of 1,213 Canadians in order to provide Health Canada with public opinion on clean air issues. The topic areas included: concerns regarding air pollution; level of concern regarding air pollution; willingness for personal action; roles and responsibilities of government, industry and individuals; determinants of health; perceived effects of air pollution on health; personal health conditions; receipt of advice on the relationship between air pollution and health; information needs and preferred channels of information; familiarity with the air quality index; and, perceived sources of air pollution. According to survey results, Canadians think air pollution, pollution in general, and water quality are the most important environmental problems. They are most concerned about the manufacture, use and disposal of toxic chemicals, water quality and air quality, and less concerned about the depletion of the ozone layer and the use of biotechnology in agriculture and food products. Results suggest that most Canadians believe that air pollution significantly affects the health of Canadians. Approximately 25 per cent of Canadians feel they suffer from respiratory problems resulting from air pollution. In general, they think indoor and outdoor air pollution have equal effect on their health. The survey also indicated that Canadians think government regulations and enforcement are more effective in combating air pollution than voluntary action by individuals or companies. tabs., figs.

  20. Informed consent in human experimentation before the Nuremberg code.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vollmann, J; Winau, R

    1996-12-07

    The issue of ethics with respect to medical experimentation in Germany during the 1930s and 1940s was crucial at the Nuremberg trials and related trials of doctors and public health officials. Those involved in horrible crimes attempted to excuse themselves by arguing that there were no explicit rules governing medical research on human beings in Germany during the period and that research practices in Germany were not different from those in allied countries. In this context the Nuremberg code of 1947 is generally regarded as the first document to set out ethical regulations in human experimentation based on informed consent. New research, however, indicates that ethical issues of informed consent in guidelines for human experimentation were recognised as early as the nineteenth century. These guidelines shed light on the still contentious issue of when the concepts of autonomy, informed consent, and therapeutic and non-therapeutic research first emerged. This issue assumes renewed importance in the context of current attempts to assess liability and responsibility for the abuse of people in various experiments conducted since the second world war in the United States, Canada, Russia, and other nations.

  1. Co-evolution of behaviour and social network structure promotes human cooperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fehl, Katrin; van der Post, Daniel J; Semmann, Dirk

    2011-06-01

    The ubiquity of cooperation in nature is puzzling because cooperators can be exploited by defectors. Recent theoretical work shows that if dynamic networks define interactions between individuals, cooperation is favoured by natural selection. To address this, we compare cooperative behaviour in multiple but independent repeated games between participants in static and dynamic networks. In the latter, participants could break their links after each social interaction. As predicted, we find higher levels of cooperation in dynamic networks. Through biased link breaking (i.e. to defectors) participants affected their social environment. We show that this link-breaking behaviour leads to substantial network clustering and we find primarily cooperators within these clusters. This assortment is remarkable because it occurred on top of behavioural assortment through direct reciprocity and beyond the perception of participants, and represents a self-organized pattern. Our results highlight the importance of the interaction between ecological context and selective pressures on cooperation.

  2. The recall of information from working memory: insights from behavioural and chronometric perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Towse, John N.; Cowan, Nelson; Hitch, Graham J.; Horton, Neil J

    2009-01-01

    In four experiments we test a recall reconstruction hypothesis for working memory, according to which reading span items can be recovered or specified from multiple memory representations. Each reading span experiment involves memoranda either embedded within or unrelated to the sentence content. This manipulation affected the timing of recall, with longer pauses accompanying items that are linked to processing. Levels of recall accuracy vary between these task formats, dependent on the orienting task for processing. Experiment 1 compares the chronometry of spoken recall for word span and reading span, in which participants complete an unfinished sentence. Experiment 2 and 3 confirm recall time differences without using word generation requirements, while Experiments 4 used an item and order response choice paradigm with nonspoken responses. We argue that verbal and manual recall timing offers an informative measure for understanding working memory. PMID:19130763

  3. Changes in behaviour and faecal glucocorticoid levels in response to increased human activities during weekends in the pin-tailed sandgrouse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casas, Fabián; Benítez-López, Ana; Tarjuelo, Rocío; Barja, Isabel; Viñuela, Javier; García, Jesús T.; Morales, Manuel B.; Mougeot, Francois

    2016-12-01

    Human recreational activities are becoming increasingly widespread and frequent, a fact that may potentially exacerbate their effects on wildlife. These human-related disturbances on animals may induce behavioural and physiological changes that can ultimately affect their fitness, showing a similar anti-predator response that against natural predator or other threats. Here, we combine the use of behavioural and physiological approaches to assess the potential effect of winter human activities on a threatened farmland bird in Europe, the pin-tailed sandgrouse ( Pterocles alchata). We compared before, during and after weekend variations in human activity rates, pin-tailed sandgrouse behaviour (flocking and flying behaviour, interspecific association in mixed flocks and habitat use) and faecal glucocorticoid metabolite concentrations. Human disturbances, in particular those associated with hunting activities, peaked during weekends. Sandgrouse showed significant behavioural changes (increased sandgrouse-only flock sizes, increased proportion of birds flying and changes in habitat use) during weekends and higher faecal glucocorticoid metabolite concentrations after the weekends compared with during or before weekends. Therefore, physiological stress levels could be modulated by behavioural adjustments such as increased flock sizes and changes in habitat use that may allow sandgrouse to cope with increased human disturbance rates during weekends. Nevertheless, temporal and spatial organization of hunting days among groups of estates might be good strategies to buffer these potential adverse effects on wintering pin-tailed sandgrouse and other steppe species of conservation concern, while preserving a socio-economically important activity such as hunting.

  4. Source of information, knowledge, and sexual behaviour related to HIV/AIDS amongst university students in an inland territory of central Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michela L. Sammarco

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Italian university students were investigated for: sources of information about HIV, knowledge of HIV risk behaviours, as well as sexual behaviours and condom use. A self completed anonymous questionnaire was administered to 430 university students in Campobasso, Italy (mean age 23,1; males 35,8%. Although TV, radio and the printed press were the most common sources of HIV information (>60% of respondents, most respondents preferred to receive information from physicians or resource centres (50 and 51%. Most students (>97% were aware that specific sexual behaviours (unprotected vaginal or anal intercourse and sharing of needles with illegal injecting drug users could transmit HIV. Most students (>50% did not regularly use condoms (despite understanding their protective effect, and continued to engage in behaviours considered risky. Males were significantly more likely than females to engage in vaginal sex (84 vs. 67% or anal sex (37 vs. 13% with both regular and casual partners. Although knowledge of HIV in itself is not enough to produce behaviour change, increases in students’ levels of knowledge may be useful.

  5. Mapping shape to visuomotor mapping: learning and generalisation of sensorimotor behaviour based on contextual information.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loes C J van Dam

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Humans can learn and store multiple visuomotor mappings (dual-adaptation when feedback for each is provided alternately. Moreover, learned context cues associated with each mapping can be used to switch between the stored mappings. However, little is known about the associative learning between cue and required visuomotor mapping, and how learning generalises to novel but similar conditions. To investigate these questions, participants performed a rapid target-pointing task while we manipulated the offset between visual feedback and movement end-points. The visual feedback was presented with horizontal offsets of different amounts, dependent on the targets shape. Participants thus needed to use different visuomotor mappings between target location and required motor response depending on the target shape in order to "hit" it. The target shapes were taken from a continuous set of shapes, morphed between spiky and circular shapes. After training we tested participants performance, without feedback, on different target shapes that had not been learned previously. We compared two hypotheses. First, we hypothesised that participants could (explicitly extract the linear relationship between target shape and visuomotor mapping and generalise accordingly. Second, using previous findings of visuomotor learning, we developed a (implicit Bayesian learning model that predicts generalisation that is more consistent with categorisation (i.e. use one mapping or the other. The experimental results show that, although learning the associations requires explicit awareness of the cues' role, participants apply the mapping corresponding to the trained shape that is most similar to the current one, consistent with the Bayesian learning model. Furthermore, the Bayesian learning model predicts that learning should slow down with increased numbers of training pairs, which was confirmed by the present results. In short, we found a good correspondence between the

  6. Learning from research on the information behaviour of healthcare professionals: a review of the literature 2004-2008 with a focus on emotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fourie, Ina

    2009-09-01

    A review, focusing on emotion, was conducted of reported studies on the information behaviour of healthcare professionals (2004-2008). Findings were intended to offer guidelines on information services and information literacy training, to note gaps in research and to raise research interest. Databases were searched for literature published from January 2004 to December 2008 and indexed on eric, Library and Information Science Abstracts, medline, PsycINFO, Social Services Abstracts, Sociological Abstracts, Health Source: Nursing/Academic Edition; Library, Information Science & Technology Abstracts; Psychology and Behavioral Sciences Collection; Social Work Abstracts; SocINDEX with Full Text; SPORTDiscus; cinhal; and the ISI Web of Knowledge databases. Key journals were manually scanned and citations followed. Literature was included if reporting on issues concerning emotion. Emotion in information behaviour in healthcare contexts is scantily addressed. This review, however, offers some insight into the difficulty in identifying and expressing information needs; sense making and the need to fill knowledge gaps; uncertainty; personality and coping skills; motivation to seeking information; emotional experiences during information seeking; self-confidence and attitude; emotional factors in the selection of information channels; and seeking information for psychological or emotional reasons. Suggestions following findings, address information literacy programs, information services and research gaps.

  7. Evaluation of biexponential relaxation behaviour in the human brain by magnetic resonance imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjaer, L; Thomsen, C; Henriksen, O

    1989-01-01

    echoes. No genuine biexponentiality was demonstrated in the T1 and T2 relaxation processes of white matter, cortical grey matter, or cerebrospinal fluid. Thus, a monoexponential model seems adequate for description of the relaxation behaviour in these cases. Furthermore, the results suggest...

  8. The behaviour of mosquitoes in relation to humans under holed bednets: the evidence from experimental huts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seth R Irish

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The physical integrity of bednets is a concern of national malaria control programs, as it is a key factor in determining the rate of replacement of bednets. It is largely assumed that increased numbers of holes will result in a loss of protection of sleepers from potentially infective bites. Experimental hut studies are valuable in understanding mosquito behaviour indoors, particularly as it relates to blood feeding and mortality. This review summarises findings from experimental hut studies, focusing on two issues: (i the effect of different numbers or sizes of holes in bednets and (ii feeding behaviour and mortality with holed nets as compared with unholed nets. As might be expected, increasing numbers and area of holes resulted in increased blood feeding by mosquitoes on sleepers. However, the presence of holes did not generally have a large effect on the mortality of mosquitoes. Successfully entering a holed mosquito net does not necessarily mean that mosquitoes spend less time in contact with the net, which could explain the lack in differences in mortality. Further behavioural studies are necessary to understand mosquito behaviour around nets and the importance of holed nets on malaria transmission.

  9. Promoting positive states: the effect of early human handling on play and exploratory behaviour in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zupan, M; Rehn, T; de Oliveira, D; Keeling, L J

    2016-01-01

    It is known that tactile stimulation (TS) during ontogeny modifies brain plasticity and enhances the motor and cognitive skills. Our hypothesis was that early handling including TS would increase play and exploratory behaviour in commercial pigs under standardized test conditions. Piglets from 13 litters were subjected to three handling treatments from 5 to 35 days of age: all the piglets were handled (H), none of the piglets were handled (NH) or half of the piglets in the litter were handled (50/50). At 42 days of age, the pigs' behaviour was observed in pairs in a novel pen with a 'toy' (tug rope). The main results were that more locomotor play was performed by pigs from litters where all or half of them had been handled, whereas social exploratory behaviour was more pronounced in pigs from litters where half of them had been handled. Although behaviour was affected by the interaction of treatment with sex or with weight category, we propose that the handling procedure does seem to have acted to increase locomotor skills and that handling half of the piglets in the litter may have triggered a series of socio-emotional interactions that were beneficial for the whole group.

  10. Emotion identification method using RGB information of human face

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kita, Shinya; Mita, Akira

    2015-03-01

    Recently, the number of single households is drastically increased due to the growth of the aging society and the diversity of lifestyle. Therefore, the evolution of building spaces is demanded. Biofied Building we propose can help to avoid this situation. It helps interaction between the building and residents' conscious and unconscious information using robots. The unconscious information includes emotion, condition, and behavior. One of the important information is thermal comfort. We assume we can estimate it from human face. There are many researchs about face color analysis, but a few of them are conducted in real situations. In other words, the existing methods were not used with disturbance such as room lumps. In this study, Kinect was used with face-tracking. Room lumps and task lumps were used to verify that our method could be applicable to real situation. In this research, two rooms at 22 and 28 degrees C were prepared. We showed that the transition of thermal comfort by changing temperature can be observed from human face. Thus, distinction between the data of 22 and 28 degrees C condition from face color was proved to be possible.

  11. Information systems on human resources for health: a global review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riley Patricia L

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although attainment of the health-related Millennium Development Goals relies on countries having adequate numbers of human resources for health (HRH and their appropriate distribution, global understanding of the systems used to generate information for monitoring HRH stock and flows, known as human resources information systems (HRIS, is minimal. While HRIS are increasingly recognized as integral to health system performance assessment, baseline information regarding their scope and capability around the world has been limited. We conducted a review of the available literature on HRIS implementation processes in order to draw this baseline. Methods Our systematic search initially retrieved 11 923 articles in four languages published in peer-reviewed and grey literature. Following the selection of those articles which detailed HRIS implementation processes, reviews of their contents were conducted using two-person teams, each assigned to a national system. A data abstraction tool was developed and used to facilitate objective assessment. Results Ninety-five articles with relevant HRIS information were reviewed, mostly from the grey literature, which comprised 84 % of all documents. The articles represented 63 national HRIS and two regionally integrated systems. Whereas a high percentage of countries reported the capability to generate workforce supply and deployment data, few systems were documented as being used for HRH planning and decision-making. Of the systems examined, only 23 % explicitly stated they collect data on workforce attrition. The majority of countries experiencing crisis levels of HRH shortages (56 % did not report data on health worker qualifications or professional credentialing as part of their HRIS. Conclusion Although HRIS are critical for evidence-based human resource policy and practice, there is a dearth of information about these systems, including their current capabilities. The absence of

  12. Towards environmentally sustainable human behaviour: targeting non-conscious and conscious processes for effective and acceptable policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marteau, Theresa M.

    2017-05-01

    Meeting climate change targets to limit global warming to 2°C requires rapid and large reductions in demand for products that most contribute to greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. These include production of bulk materials (e.g. steel and cement), energy supply (e.g. fossil fuels) and animal source foods (particularly ruminants and their products). Effective strategies to meet these targets require transformative changes in supply as well as demand, involving changes in economic, political and legal systems at local, national and international levels, building on evidence from many disciplines. This paper outlines contributions from behavioural science in reducing demand. Grounded in dual-process models of human behaviour (involving non-conscious and conscious processes) this paper considers first why interventions aimed at changing population values towards the environment are usually insufficient or unnecessary for reducing demand although they may be important in increasing public acceptability of policies that could reduce demand. It then outlines two sets of evidence from behavioural science towards effective systems-based strategies, to identify interventions likely to be effective at: (i) reducing demand for products that contribute most to GHG emissions, mainly targeting non-conscious processes and (ii) increasing public acceptability for policy changes to enable these interventions, targeting conscious processes. This article is part of the themed issue 'Material demand reduction'.

  13. Towards environmentally sustainable human behaviour: targeting non-conscious and conscious processes for effective and acceptable policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Meeting climate change targets to limit global warming to 2°C requires rapid and large reductions in demand for products that most contribute to greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. These include production of bulk materials (e.g. steel and cement), energy supply (e.g. fossil fuels) and animal source foods (particularly ruminants and their products). Effective strategies to meet these targets require transformative changes in supply as well as demand, involving changes in economic, political and legal systems at local, national and international levels, building on evidence from many disciplines. This paper outlines contributions from behavioural science in reducing demand. Grounded in dual-process models of human behaviour (involving non-conscious and conscious processes) this paper considers first why interventions aimed at changing population values towards the environment are usually insufficient or unnecessary for reducing demand although they may be important in increasing public acceptability of policies that could reduce demand. It then outlines two sets of evidence from behavioural science towards effective systems-based strategies, to identify interventions likely to be effective at: (i) reducing demand for products that contribute most to GHG emissions, mainly targeting non-conscious processes and (ii) increasing public acceptability for policy changes to enable these interventions, targeting conscious processes. This article is part of the themed issue ‘Material demand reduction’. PMID:28461435

  14. Predictors of condom use behaviour among male street labourers in urban Vietnam using a modified Information-Motivation-Behavioral Skills (IMB) model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Huy, Nguyen; P Dunne, Michael; Debattista, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    HIV risk in vulnerable groups such as itinerant male street labourers is often examined via a focus on individual determinants. This study provides a test of a modified Information-Motivation-Behavioral Skills (IMB) model to predict condom use behaviour among male street workers in urban Vietnam. In a cross-sectional survey using a social mapping technique, 450 male street labourers from 13 districts of Hanoi, Vietnam were recruited and interviewed. Collected data were first examined for completeness; structural equation modelling was then employed to test the model fit. Condoms were used inconsistently by many of these men, and usage varied in relation to a number of factors. A modified IMB model had a better fit than the original IMB model in predicting condom use behaviour. This modified model accounted for 49% of the variance, versus 10% by the original version. In the modified model, the influence of psychosocial factors was moderately high, whilst the influence of HIV prevention information, motivation and perceived behavioural skills was moderately low, explaining in part the limited level of condom use behaviour. This study provides insights into social factors that should be taken into account in public health planning to promote safer sexual behaviour among Asian male street labourers.

  15. Information Flow Model of Human Extravehicular Activity Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Matthew J.; McGuire, Kerry M.; Feigh, Karen M.

    2014-01-01

    Future human spaceflight missions will face the complex challenge of performing human extravehicular activity (EVA) beyond the low Earth orbit (LEO) environment. Astronauts will become increasingly isolated from Earth-based mission support and thus will rely heavily on their own decision-making capabilities and onboard tools to accomplish proposed EVA mission objectives. To better address time delay communication issues, EVA characters, e.g. flight controllers, astronauts, etc., and their respective work practices and roles need to be better characterized and understood. This paper presents the results of a study examining the EVA work domain and the personnel that operate within it. The goal is to characterize current and historical roles of ground support, intravehicular (IV) crew and EV crew, their communication patterns and information needs. This work provides a description of EVA operations and identifies issues to be used as a basis for future investigation.

  16. Managing information technology human resources in health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahesh, Sathiadev; Crow, Stephen M

    2012-01-01

    The health care sector has seen a major increase in the use of information technology (IT). The increasing permeation of IT into the enterprise has resulted in many non-IT employees acquiring IT-related skills and becoming an essential part of the IT-enabled enterprise. Health care IT employees work in a continually changing environment dealing with new specializations that are often unfamiliar to other personnel. The widespread use of outsourcing and offshoring in IT has introduced a third layer of complexity in the traditional hierarchy and its approach to managing human resources. This article studies 3 major issues in managing these human resources in an IT-enabled health care enterprise and recommends solutions to the problem.

  17. The double helix revisited: a paradox of science and a paradigm of human behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Argüelles, Juan Carlos

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available In the modern history of Science, few breakthroughs have caused an impact comparative to the Double Helix, the three-dimensional structure of DNA proposed by Watson & Crick in 1953, an event whose 50th anniversary was widely celebrated in the non-specialist media, three years ago. Although the discovery had little transcendence at the time, it has unquestionably been of great importance ever since. The Double Helix has underlined the true biological value of nucleic acids compared with proteins, demonstrating that genes are not amorphous entities but have a specific chemical composition and adopt an ordered spatial folding pattern. Elucidation of this key configuration made it possible to establish a direct relationship between the structure and the function of macromolecules, a relationship which is not so clear in the case of proteins. During these last fifty years much has been written and argued about the circumstances surrounding the discovery and about the behaviour and attitudes of many of the protagonists. Besides Watson & Crick, other scientists, whose contribution has not been adequately recognised, played an important part in solving the Double Helix mystery. This article contains some ethical and scientific reflections which revise some of these essential contributions and throws light on the role played in history by these comparatively «unknown soldiers» of science. The Double Helix story is undoubtedly a manifestation of the human side of science and many scientists believe that the available evidence taken as a whole permits an alternative story to be written.

    En la desarrollo histórico de la Ciencia moderna, pocos descubrimientos han causado un impacto comparativo a las repercusiones de la Doble Hélice, la estructura tridimensional del ADN, propuesta por Watson y Crick en 1953. El 50º aniversario de aquel evento fue ampliamente celebrado hace tres años, incluso por los medios no especializados en informaci

  18. Human Mobility and Predictability enriched by Social Phenomena Information

    CERN Document Server

    Ponieman, Nicolas; Sarraute, Carlos

    2013-01-01

    The massive amounts of geolocation data collected from mobile phone records has sparked an ongoing effort to understand and predict the mobility patterns of human beings. In this work, we study the extent to which social phenomena are reflected in mobile phone data, focusing in particular in the cases of urban commute and major sports events. We illustrate how these events are reflected in the data, and show how information about the events can be used to improve predictability in a simple model for a mobile phone user's location.

  19. Impact of information technology on human resources in healthcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anvari, Mehran

    2007-01-01

    Incorporation of advances in information communications technology (ICT) into the workplace has had a major impact in human resource utilization in sectors of the economy where it has occurred in a substantial manner, such as manufacturing and financial services. While some benefits of ICT have been realized in healthcare, the full impact of its benefits will only be realized if it is incorporated in a systematic form, rather than in the current patchy and uneven manner seen around the province and across the country to date.

  20. Transcranial direct current stimulation reverses neurophysiological and behavioural effects of focal inhibition of human pharyngeal motor cortex on swallowing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasant, Dipesh H; Mistry, Satish; Michou, Emilia; Jefferson, Samantha; Rothwell, John C; Hamdy, Shaheen

    2014-02-15

    The human cortical swallowing system exhibits bilateral but functionally asymmetric representation in health and disease as evidenced by both focal cortical inhibition (pre-conditioning with 1 Hz repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation; rTMS) and unilateral stroke, where disruption of the stronger (dominant) pharyngeal projection alters swallowing neurophysiology and behaviour. Moreover, excitatory neurostimulation protocols capable of reversing the disruptive effects of focal cortical inhibition have demonstrated therapeutic promise in post-stroke dysphagia when applied contralaterally. In healthy participants (n = 15, 8 males, mean age (±SEM) 35 ± 9 years), optimal parameters of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) (anodal, 1.5 mA, 10 min) were applied contralaterally after 1 Hz rTMS pre-conditioning to the strongest pharyngeal projection. Swallowing neurophysiology was assessed in both hemispheres by intraluminal recordings of pharyngeal motor-evoked responses (PMEPs) to single-pulse TMS as a measure of cortical excitability. Swallowing behaviour was examined using a pressure-based reaction time protocol. Measurements were made before and for up to 60 min post intervention. Subjects were randomised to active or sham tDCS after 1 Hz rTMS on separate days and data were compared using repeated measures ANOVA. Active tDCS increased PMEPs bilaterally (F1,14 = 7.4, P = 0.017) reversing the inhibitory effects of 1 Hz rTMS in the pre-conditioned hemisphere (F1,14 = 10.1, P = 0.007). Active tDCS also enhanced swallowing behaviour, increasing the number of correctly timed challenge swallows compared to sham (F1,14 = 6.3, P = 0.025). Thus, tDCS to the contralateral pharyngeal motor cortex reverses the neurophysiological and behavioural effects of focal cortical inhibition on swallowing in healthy individuals and has therapeutic potential for dysphagia rehabilitation.

  1. Serotonergic Psychedelics Temporarily Modify Information Transfer in Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, Joan Francesc; Romero, Sergio; Mañanas, Miquel Àngel

    2015-01-01

    Background: Psychedelics induce intense modifications in the sensorium, the sense of “self,” and the experience of reality. Despite advances in our understanding of the molecular and cellular level mechanisms of these drugs, knowledge of their actions on global brain dynamics is still incomplete. Recent imaging studies have found changes in functional coupling between frontal and parietal brain structures, suggesting a modification in information flow between brain regions during acute effects. Methods: Here we assessed the psychedelic-induced changes in directionality of information flow during the acute effects of a psychedelic in humans. We measured modifications in connectivity of brain oscillations using transfer entropy, a nonlinear measure of directed functional connectivity based on information theory. Ten healthy male volunteers with prior experience with psychedelics participated in 2 experimental sessions. They received a placebo or a dose of ayahuasca, a psychedelic preparation containing the serotonergic 5-HT2A agonist N,N-dimethyltryptamine. Results: The analysis showed significant changes in the coupling of brain oscillations between anterior and posterior recording sites. Transfer entropy analysis showed that frontal sources decreased their influence over central, parietal, and occipital sites. Conversely, sources in posterior locations increased their influence over signals measured at anterior locations. Exploratory correlations found that anterior-to-posterior transfer entropy decreases were correlated with the intensity of subjective effects, while the imbalance between anterior-to-posterior and posterior-to-anterior transfer entropy correlated with the degree of incapacitation experienced. Conclusions: These results suggest that psychedelics induce a temporary disruption of neural hierarchies by reducing top-down control and increasing bottom-up information transfer in the human brain. PMID:25820842

  2. Designing and Implementing an Information Literacy Course in the Humanities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellen Daugman

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available As instructors in the Z. Smith Reynolds Library information literacy program at Wake Forest University, we are expanding beyond our introductory course model to teach discipline-specific information literacy courses. Z. Smith Reynolds Library initiated an information literacy program in 2002 and currently offers a 1-credit elective, taught in 15 sections per semester. Advanced discipline-specific courses were added in Spring 2008, and include courses in the social sciences, business and economics, and the sciences. As the subject specialists for art, dance, literature, music, religion and theatre, we were charged with creating a credit-bearing arts and humanities information literacy course, LIB250: Humanities Research Sources and Strategies. In addition to our arts and humanities course content and methodologies, we incorporated web2.0 technologies throughout course design and delivery in order to streamline planning and to facilitate student engagement. In our course preparation, we utilized Google Docs for collaborative brainstorming, planning, organization and self-evaluation. Our students used Google Docs for submitting their course assignments, which included a faculty or practitioner interview and the final project for the course. The project was an annotated bibliography that extended beyond books and journal articles to include additional elements such as scholarly associations, core journals, primary sources, and major special collections related to their topics. A blog was used for the course syllabus, incorporating assignment information and supplementary resources for class topics; student blogging included reflection and feedback on each lecture as well as application of class content to their research topics. A visit to the Library's Rare Books Reading Room exposed the students to the Library's unique holdings and introduced them to rare and archival resources at other libraries. Our article presents this process from start to

  3. Behavioural differences between single scandinavian brown bears (Ursus arctos and females with dependent young when experimentally approached by humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronica Sahlén

    Full Text Available Carnivore-human encounters that result in human injury present a conservation and management challenge and it is therefore important to understand under what conditions such incidents occur. Females with cubs are often involved when humans are injured by brown bears Ursus arctos. In Scandinavia, this is particularly true for unarmed recreational forest users. Our aim was to document behavioural differences between single bears and females with cubs in order to develop recommendations to minimize the risk of injuries to recreational forest users. We documented the reactions of GPS-collared females with cubs and single brown bears to experimental approaches by humans to 50 m from the bear on 42 and 108 occasions, respectively. The majority of females with cubs (95% and single bears (89% left when approached. Bears that left were passed at shorter distances and were in more open areas than those that stayed. Both groups had similar flight initiation distances, which were longer for bears that were active at the time of the disturbance. Females with cubs selected more open habitat than single bears, also for the new site they selected following disturbance. Females with cubs, particularly active females with cubs of the year, moved greater distances and spent more time active following the approach. Females with cubs and single bears were seen or heard in 26% and 14% of the approaches, respectively. None of the bears displayed any aggressive behaviour during the approaches. Females with cubs selected more open habitat, perhaps predisposing them to encountering people that are not involved in hunting activities, which might be the primary explanation why females with cubs are most frequently involved when unarmed people are injured by bears in Scandinavia. To mitigate injury risks, one must consider factors that bring bears closer to human activity in the first place.

  4. Computer simulation of leadership, consensus decision making and collective behaviour in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Song; Sun, Quanbin

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the reliability of a crowd simulation model developed by the authors by reproducing Dyer et al.'s experiments (published in Philosophical Transactions in 2009) on human leadership and consensus decision making in a computer-based environment. The theoretical crowd model of the simulation environment is presented, and its results are compared and analysed against Dyer et al.'s original experiments. It is concluded that the simulation results are largely consistent with the experiments, which demonstrates the reliability of the crowd model. Furthermore, the simulation data also reveals several additional new findings, namely: 1) the phenomena of sacrificing accuracy to reach a quicker consensus decision found in ants colonies was also discovered in the simulation; 2) the ability of reaching consensus in groups has a direct impact on the time and accuracy of arriving at the target position; 3) the positions of the informed individuals or leaders in the crowd could have significant impact on the overall crowd movement; and 4) the simulation also confirmed Dyer et al.'s anecdotal evidence of the proportion of the leadership in large crowds and its effect on crowd movement. The potential applications of these findings are highlighted in the final discussion of this paper.

  5. Computer simulation of leadership, consensus decision making and collective behaviour in humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song Wu

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to evaluate the reliability of a crowd simulation model developed by the authors by reproducing Dyer et al.'s experiments (published in Philosophical Transactions in 2009 on human leadership and consensus decision making in a computer-based environment. The theoretical crowd model of the simulation environment is presented, and its results are compared and analysed against Dyer et al.'s original experiments. It is concluded that the simulation results are largely consistent with the experiments, which demonstrates the reliability of the crowd model. Furthermore, the simulation data also reveals several additional new findings, namely: 1 the phenomena of sacrificing accuracy to reach a quicker consensus decision found in ants colonies was also discovered in the simulation; 2 the ability of reaching consensus in groups has a direct impact on the time and accuracy of arriving at the target position; 3 the positions of the informed individuals or leaders in the crowd could have significant impact on the overall crowd movement; and 4 the simulation also confirmed Dyer et al.'s anecdotal evidence of the proportion of the leadership in large crowds and its effect on crowd movement. The potential applications of these findings are highlighted in the final discussion of this paper.

  6. [Sexual behaviour and human immunodeficiency virus testing in university students from Cuzco (Peru)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bermúdez, M Paz; Ramiro, M Teresa; Teva, Inmaculada; Ramiro-Sánchez, Tamara; Buela-Casal, Gualberto

    2017-09-15

    To analyse sexual behaviour, HIV testing, HIV testing intentions and reasons for not testing for HIV in university students from Cuzco (Peru). The sample comprised 1,377 university students from several institutions from Cuzco (Peru). The size of the sample was set according to a maximum 3% error estimation and a 97% confidence interval. Ages ranged from 16 to 30 years old. The data were collected through a self-administered, anonymous and voluntary questionnaire regarding sexual behaviour and HIV testing. The data were collected in classrooms during teaching hours. A higher percentage of males than females reported having had vaginal, anal and oral sex, a higher number of sexual partners and an earlier age at first vaginal and oral sex. A higher percentage of females than males did not use condoms when they first had anal sex and had a higher anal sex-risk index. Most of the participants had never been HIV tested. The main reason was that they were sure that they were not HIV infected. It seems that there was a low HIV risk perception in these participants despite the fact that they had been involved in sexual risk behaviours. Prevention campaigns focused on the general population as well as the at-risk populations and young people are needed. Copyright © 2017 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  7. From fear to flow personality and information interaction

    CERN Document Server

    Heinstrom, Jannica

    2010-01-01

    From Fear to Flow explores how personality traits may influence attitude, behaviour and reaction to information. Consideration is made for individual differences in information behaviour and reasons behind individual search differences. The book reviews personality and information behaviour and discusses how personality may influence the attitude towards information. Reaction to information is examined in contexts such as everyday life, decision-making, work, studies and human-computer interaction.Introduces a little researched area which is current and needed in our Informatio

  8. An empirically informed critique of Habermas' argument from human nature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morar, Nicolae

    2015-02-01

    In a near-future world of bionics and biotechnology, the main ethical and political issue will be the definition of who we are. Could biomedical enhancements transform us to such an extent that we would be other than human? Habermas argues that any genetic enhancement intervention that could potentially alter 'human nature' should be morally prohibited since it alters the child's nature or the very essence that makes the child who he is. This practice also commits the child to a specific life project or, in any case, it puts specific restrictions on his freedom to choose a life of his own. Ultimately, genetic enhancement jeopardizes the very foundations of moral equality. I contend that Habermas' argument is based either on a series of presuppositions that imply a gross misunderstanding of evolution or the relevant factual information concerning the action we are about to morally assess is not empirically supported. Hence, the argument from human nature is based on a series of false or problematic assumptions, and, as such, it fails to play the normative role intended by Habermas.

  9. A critique of the representation of human suffering in the cognitive behavioural therapy literature with implications for mental health nursing practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, A

    2011-02-01

    This paper is informed by interpretivist understandings and practices, and the author's own conversion to interpretivist writing practice. The aim of the paper is to critique the ways in which suffering people are represented in the mainstream cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) literature with a view to identifying some implications for mental health nursing practice. It will begin by identifying key assumptions governing the textual portrayal of human experience, and will argue that the language used to describe human suffering is a potential site for struggles over meaning and more adequate representation. However, reductionist portrayals of individuals and their problems have largely gone unchallenged in much of the CBT literature since its early development in the 1970s. This is arguably because of the socialization of new members of the CBT community into established cultural and textual practices. A comparison of reductionist CBT writing with more fleshed out, more fully human possibilities will further clarify that forms of representation are never neutral, given the danger of reductionist representations facilitating reductionist interventions. The paper will end with the following emerging implications for mental health nursing practice: the therapeutic power of self-narratives, narrative research and the recovery movement, and the promising possibilities for autoethnographic research for mental health nurses and for day to day interactions between nurses and service users. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing.

  10. Variability of Heart Rate in Primitive Horses and Their Relatives as an Indicator of Stress Level, Behavioural Conduct Towards Humans and Adaptation to Living in Wild

    OpenAIRE

    Pluta Michał; Osiński Zbigniew

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the possibility of using heart rate (HR) as a metric parameter that can be used for the characterisation of behaviour of primitive horses and their relatives, related to reactions to the stress resulting from the contact with humans and adaptation to living in various conditions, including natural environment. This characterisation served the authors to expand the knowledge of such behaviour of primitive horses, and to assess the impact of the environmenta...

  11. A randomized trial of computer-based communications using imagery and text information to alter representations of heart disease risk and motivate protective behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Tarryn J; Cameron, Linda D; Wünsche, Burkhard; Stevens, Carey

    2011-02-01

    Advances in web-based animation technologies provide new opportunities to develop graphic health communications for dissemination throughout communities. We developed imagery and text contents of brief, computer-based programmes about heart disease risk, with both imagery and text contents guided by the common-sense model (CSM) of self-regulation. The imagery depicts a three-dimensional, beating heart tailored to user-specific information. A 2 × 2 × 4 factorial design was used to manipulate concrete imagery (imagery vs. no imagery) and conceptual information (text vs. no text) about heart disease risk in prevention-oriented programmes and assess changes in representations and behavioural motivations from baseline to 2 days, 2 weeks, and 4 weeks post-intervention. Sedentary young adults (N= 80) were randomized to view one of four programmes: imagery plus text, imagery only, text only, or control. Participants completed measures of risk representations, worry, and physical activity and healthy diet intentions and behaviours at baseline, 2 days post-intervention (except behaviours), and 2 weeks (intentions and behaviours only) and 4 weeks later. The imagery contents increased representational beliefs and mental imagery relating to heart disease, worry, and intentions at post-intervention. Increases in sense of coherence (understanding of heart disease) and worry were sustained after 1 month. The imagery contents also increased healthy diet efforts after 2 weeks. The text contents increased beliefs about causal factors, mental images of clogged arteries, and worry at post-intervention, and increased physical activity 2 weeks later and sense of coherence 1 month later. The CSM-based programmes induced short-term changes in risk representations and behaviour motivation. The combination of CSM-based text and imagery appears to be most effective in instilling risk representations that motivate protective behaviour. ©2010 The British Psychological Society.

  12. Human psychophysiology, macroscopic information entanglement, and the placebo effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiller, William A

    2006-12-01

    For the past 20 years, the magnitude of the "placebo effect" in double-blind, medical experiments has strongly increased. This paper asks why and how. Starting with the human "psychophysiologic principle," two unconscious and one conscious biofeedback examples are given to demonstrate how malleable we humans are to our expectations and our intentions and how strong our psychoenergetic forces can be relative to conventional chemical forces. Ending with several experimental examples wherein a therapeutically processed device and an unprocessed device are critically compared, one finds strong evidence to propose that an information entanglement process is converting the unprocessed device to a functional replica of the processed device in that its therapeutic efficacy is comparable to that of the treatment device. Furthermore, arguments are provided to indicate that a practitioner's biofield is capable of expanding the range of diagnostic capability of commercial measurement instruments so that the practitioner/device hybrid system becomes a potent psychoenergetic instrument for diagnostic and treatment purposes. In between, a theoretical model is provided, based on the author's extensive experimental psychoenergetic research on long-range interconnectivity between objects, between humans and between humans and objects, to show how long-range, quantitative coupling can occur between our normal atom/molecule level of physical reality and a second, unique level of physical reality whose physics can be modulated by psychoenergetic forces. It is the material qualities of this duplex physical reality that convert a seemingly inert object/device (placebo) into a synergistically active element in double-blind placebo experiments.

  13. Nine challenges in incorporating the dynamics of behaviour in infectious diseases models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funk, Sebastian; Bansal, Shweta; Bauch, Chris T; Eames, Ken T D; Edmunds, W John; Galvani, Alison P; Klepac, Petra

    2015-03-01

    Traditionally, the spread of infectious diseases in human populations has been modelled with static parameters. These parameters, however, can change when individuals change their behaviour. If these changes are themselves influenced by the disease dynamics, there is scope for mechanistic models of behaviour to improve our understanding of this interaction. Here, we present challenges in modelling changes in behaviour relating to disease dynamics, specifically: how to incorporate behavioural changes in models of infectious disease dynamics, how to inform measurement of relevant behaviour to parameterise such models, and how to determine the impact of behavioural changes on observed disease dynamics. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. 77 FR 33774 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Comment Request; Education and Human Resources Project...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-07

    ... Agency Information Collection Activities: Comment Request; Education and Human Resources Project... of Collection: Education and Human Resources Project Monitoring Clearance. OMB Approval Number: 3145... States and internationally. The Directorate for Education and Human Resources (EHR), a unit within NSF...

  15. Efficiency of Human Activity on Information Spreading on Twitter

    CERN Document Server

    Morales, A J; Losada, J C; Benito, R M

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the collective reaction to individual actions is key to effectively spread information in social media. In this work we define efficiency on Twitter, as the ratio between the emergent spreading process and the activity employed by the user. We characterize this property by means of a quantitative analysis of the structural and dynamical patterns emergent from human interactions, and show it to be universal across several Twitter conversations. We found that some influential users efficiently cause remarkable collective reactions by each message sent, while the majority of users must employ extremely larger efforts to reach similar effects. Next we propose a model that reproduces the retweet cascades occurring on Twitter to explain the emergent distribution of the user efficiency. The model shows that the dynamical patterns of the conversations are strongly conditioned by the topology of the underlying network. We conclude that the appearance of a small fraction of extremely efficient users resul...

  16. Information Technology in Human Resource Management: A Practical Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manpreet Kaur

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper encloses a brief overview of number of observations on the applications of information technology (IT in the field of human resource management (HRM in general. Although the impact of IT on HRM has long been attracting the concern of academics, no pragmatic research has ever been realized in this field in India, and few studies have been reported elsewhere. The survey was conducted among the IT managers and professionals from various sectors, based on those results, the data shows that IT is used widely in the organizations to perform HRM functions in India’s dynamic economy. The results also shown that, while IT has an impact on all sectors in terms of HRM to certain extent, the types of IT used vary significantly between recruitment, maintenance, and development tasks. However, the observed results here disclosed that these organizations are not applying these technologies systematically and wisely in the performance of HRM functions.

  17. Poroelastic behaviour of the degenerating human intervertebral disc: a ten-day study in a loaded disc culture system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KS Emanuel

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The intervertebral disc (IVD allows flexibility to the vertebral column, and transfers the predominant axial loads during daily activities. Its axial biomechanical behaviour is poroelastic, due to the water-binding and releasing capacity of the nucleus pulposus. Degeneration of the intervertebral disc presumably affects both the instantaneous elastic response to the load on the IVD and the subsequent interstitial flow of fluid. This study aims to quantify the poroelastic behaviour of the IVD and its change with degeneration, as defined by the magnetic resonance imaging-based Pfirrmann Score (PS. For a period of ten days, 36 human lumbar IVDs were loaded with a simulated physiological axial loading regime, while deformation was monitored. The IVDs responded to the loads with instantaneous elastic and slow poroelastic axial deformation. Several mechanical parameters changed throughout the first five days of the experiment, until the IVDs settled into a dynamic equilibrium. In this equilibrium, degeneration was significantly related to a decrease in disc height loss during the daytime high load phase (ρ = -0.49, and to a decrease in the rate of this deformation during the final half hour of each day (ρ = -0.53. These properties were related to the nucleus glycosaminoglycan/hydroxyproline (GAG/HYP ratio, rather than GAG content alone, indicating that remodelling of the extracellular matrix reduces poroelastic properties of the IVD. This implies that the degenerated discs have a reduced capacity to bind water and/or a reduced resistance against fluid flow. The resulting loss in hydrostatic pressure may further change cell behaviour in the nucleus pulposus.

  18. Human skin emanations in the host-seeking behaviour of the malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Braks, M.A.H.

    1999-01-01

    Malaria is an infectious disease caused by a parasite ( Plasmodium spp.) that is transmitted between human individuals by mosquitoes, belonging to the order of insects, Diptera, family of Culicidae (mosquitoes) and genus of Anopheles (malaria mosquitoes). Mosquitoes feed on humans (and other animals

  19. Parametrisation of the variety of human behaviour related to building energy consumption in the Town Energy Balance (SURFEX-TEB v. 8.2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoetter, Robert; Masson, Valéry; Bourgeois, Alexis; Pellegrino, Margot; Lévy, Jean-Pierre

    2017-07-01

    The anthropogenic heat flux can be an important part of the urban surface energy balance. Some of it is due to energy consumption inside buildings, which depends on building use and human behaviour, both of which are very heterogeneous in most urban areas. Urban canopy parametrisations (UCP), such as the Town Energy Balance (TEB), parametrise the effect of the buildings on the urban surface energy balance. They contain a simple building energy model. However, the variety of building use and human behaviour at grid point scale has not yet been represented in state of the art UCPs. In this study, we describe how we enhance the Town Energy Balance in order to take fractional building use and human behaviour into account. We describe how we parametrise different behaviours and initialise the model for applications in France. We evaluate the spatio-temporal variability of the simulated building energy consumption for the city of Toulouse. We show that a more detailed description of building use and human behaviour enhances the simulation results. The model developments lay the groundwork for simulations of coupled urban climate and building energy consumption which are relevant for both the urban climate and the climate change mitigation and adaptation communities.

  20. A dynamic approach for the impact of a toxic gas dispersion hazard considering human behaviour and dispersion modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovreglio, Ruggiero; Ronchi, Enrico; Maragkos, Georgios; Beji, Tarek; Merci, Bart

    2016-11-15

    The release of toxic gases due to natural/industrial accidents or terrorist attacks in populated areas can have tragic consequences. To prevent and evaluate the effects of these disasters different approaches and modelling tools have been introduced in the literature. These instruments are valuable tools for risk managers doing risk assessment of threatened areas. Despite the significant improvements in hazard assessment in case of toxic gas dispersion, these analyses do not generally include the impact of human behaviour and people movement during emergencies. This work aims at providing an approach which considers both modelling of gas dispersion and evacuation movement in order to improve the accuracy of risk assessment for disasters involving toxic gases. The approach is applied to a hypothetical scenario including a ship releasing Nitrogen dioxide (NO2) on a crowd attending a music festival. The difference between the results obtained with existing static methods (people do not move) and a dynamic approach (people move away from the danger) which considers people movement with different degrees of sophistication (either a simple linear path or more complex behavioural modelling) is discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Red and processed meat consumption and purchasing behaviours and attitudes: impacts for human health, animal welfare and environmental sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clonan, Angie; Wilson, Paul; Swift, Judy A; Leibovici, Didier G; Holdsworth, Michelle

    2015-09-01

    Higher intakes of red and processed meat are associated with poorer health outcomes and negative environmental impacts. Drawing upon a population survey the present paper investigates meat consumption behaviours, exploring perceived impacts for human health, animal welfare and the environment. Structured self-completion postal survey relating to red and processed meat, capturing data on attitudes, sustainable meat purchasing behaviour, red and processed meat intake, plus sociodemographic characteristics of respondents. Urban and rural districts of Nottinghamshire, East Midlands, UK, drawn from the electoral register. UK adults (n 842) aged 18-91 years, 497 females and 345 males, representing a 35·6 % response rate from 2500 randomly selected residents. Women were significantly more likely (P60 years) were more likely to hold positive attitudes towards animal welfare (Penvironmental sustainability. Policy makers, nutritionists and health professionals need to increase the public's awareness of the environmental impact of eating red and processed meat. A first step could be to ensure that dietary guidelines integrate the nutritional, animal welfare and environmental components of sustainable diets.

  2. Expression of mammalian GPCRs in C. elegans generates novel behavioural responses to human ligands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jansen Gert

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs play a crucial role in many biological processes and represent a major class of drug targets. However, purification of GPCRs for biochemical study is difficult and current methods of studying receptor-ligand interactions involve in vitro systems. Caenorhabditis elegans is a soil-dwelling, bacteria-feeding nematode that uses GPCRs expressed in chemosensory neurons to detect bacteria and environmental compounds, making this an ideal system for studying in vivo GPCR-ligand interactions. We sought to test this by functionally expressing two medically important mammalian GPCRs, somatostatin receptor 2 (Sstr2 and chemokine receptor 5 (CCR5 in the gustatory neurons of C. elegans. Results Expression of Sstr2 and CCR5 in gustatory neurons allow C. elegans to specifically detect and respond to somatostatin and MIP-1α respectively in a robust avoidance assay. We demonstrate that mammalian heterologous GPCRs can signal via different endogenous Gα subunits in C. elegans, depending on which cells it is expressed in. Furthermore, pre-exposure of GPCR transgenic animals to its ligand leads to receptor desensitisation and behavioural adaptation to subsequent ligand exposure, providing further evidence of integration of the mammalian GPCRs into the C. elegans sensory signalling machinery. In structure-function studies using a panel of somatostatin-14 analogues, we identified key residues involved in the interaction of somatostatin-14 with Sstr2. Conclusion Our results illustrate a remarkable evolutionary plasticity in interactions between mammalian GPCRs and C. elegans signalling machinery, spanning 800 million years of evolution. This in vivo system, which imparts novel avoidance behaviour on C. elegans, thus provides a simple means of studying and screening interaction of GPCRs with extracellular agonists, antagonists and intracellular binding partners.

  3. Animal social networks as substrate for cultural behavioural diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehead, Hal; Lusseau, David

    2012-02-07

    We used individual-based stochastic models to examine how social structure influences the diversity of socially learned behaviour within a non-human population. For continuous behavioural variables we modelled three forms of dyadic social learning, averaging the behavioural value of the two individuals, random transfer of information from one individual to the other, and directional transfer from the individual with highest behavioural value to the other. Learning had potential error. We also examined the transfer of categorical behaviour between individuals with random directionality and two forms of error, the adoption of a randomly chosen existing behavioural category or the innovation of a new type of behaviour. In populations without social structuring the diversity of culturally transmitted behaviour increased with learning error and population size. When the populations were structured socially either by making individuals members of permanent social units or by giving them overlapping ranges, behavioural diversity increased with network modularity under all scenarios, although the proportional increase varied considerably between continuous and categorical behaviour, with transmission mechanism, and population size. Although functions of the form e(c)¹(m)⁻(c)² + (c)³(Log(N)) predicted the mean increase in diversity with modularity (m) and population size (N), behavioural diversity could be highly unpredictable both between simulations with the same set of parameters, and within runs. Errors in social learning and social structuring generally promote behavioural diversity. Consequently, social learning may be considered to produce culture in populations whose social structure is sufficiently modular.

  4. Investigations on the visco-elastic behaviour of a human healthy heel pad: in vivo compression tests and numerical analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matteoli, Sara; Fontanella, Chiara G.; Carniel, Emanuele L.;

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the viscoelastic behaviour of the human heel pad by comparing the stress–relaxation curves obtained from a compression device used on an in vivo heel pad with those obtained from a threedimensional computer-based subject-specific heel pad model subjected...... to external compression. The three-dimensional model was based on the anatomy revealed by magnetic resonance imaging of a 31-year-old healthy female. The calcaneal fat pad tissue was described with a viscohyperelastic model, while a fibre-reinforced hyperelastic model was formulated for the skin. All......–relaxation and viscous recovery phenomena. The reliability of the investigations was validated by the interpretation of the mechanical response of heel tissues under the application of three pistons with diameter of 15, 20 and 40 mm, at the same displacement rate of about 1.7 mm/s. The maximum and minimum relative...

  5. Ecological Dimensions of Information Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinerova, Jela

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: We examine relationships between information literacy and information ecology with regard to conceptual innovation in information science. We aim to expand our understanding of human information behaviour and relevance assessment in the electronic environment. Method: Conceptual analysis and conceptual mapping is used and…

  6. Early dispersal of modern humans in Europe and implications for Neanderthal behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benazzi, Stefano; Douka, Katerina; Fornai, Cinzia; Bauer, Catherine C; Kullmer, Ottmar; Svoboda, Jiří; Pap, Ildikó; Mallegni, Francesco; Bayle, Priscilla; Coquerelle, Michael; Condemi, Silvana; Ronchitelli, Annamaria; Harvati, Katerina; Weber, Gerhard W

    2011-11-02

    The appearance of anatomically modern humans in Europe and the nature of the transition from the Middle to Upper Palaeolithic are matters of intense debate. Most researchers accept that before the arrival of anatomically modern humans, Neanderthals had adopted several 'transitional' technocomplexes. Two of these, the Uluzzian of southern Europe and the Châtelperronian of western Europe, are key to current interpretations regarding the timing of arrival of anatomically modern humans in the region and their potential interaction with Neanderthal populations. They are also central to current debates regarding the cognitive abilities of Neanderthals and the reasons behind their extinction. However, the actual fossil evidence associated with these assemblages is scant and fragmentary, and recent work has questioned the attribution of the Châtelperronian to Neanderthals on the basis of taphonomic mixing and lithic analysis. Here we reanalyse the deciduous molars from the Grotta del Cavallo (southern Italy), associated with the Uluzzian and originally classified as Neanderthal. Using two independent morphometric methods based on microtomographic data, we show that the Cavallo specimens can be attributed to anatomically modern humans. The secure context of the teeth provides crucial evidence that the makers of the Uluzzian technocomplex were therefore not Neanderthals. In addition, new chronometric data for the Uluzzian layers of Grotta del Cavallo obtained from associated shell beads and included within a Bayesian age model show that the teeth must date to ~45,000-43,000 calendar years before present. The Cavallo human remains are therefore the oldest known European anatomically modern humans, confirming a rapid dispersal of modern humans across the continent before the Aurignacian and the disappearance of Neanderthals.

  7. Human Topological Task Adapted for Rats: Spatial Information Processes of the Parietal Cortex

    OpenAIRE

    Goodrich-Hunsaker, Naomi J.; Howard, Brian P.; Hunsaker, Michael R.; Kesner, Raymond P.

    2008-01-01

    Human research has shown that lesions of the parietal cortex disrupt spatial information processing, specifically topological information. Similar findings have been found in nonhumans. It has been difficult to determine homologies between human and non-human mnemonic mechanisms for spatial information processing because methodologies and neuropathology differ. The first objective of the present study was to adapt a previously established human task for rats. The second objective was to bette...

  8. Human Topological Task Adapted for Rats: Spatial Information Processes of the Parietal Cortex

    OpenAIRE

    Goodrich-Hunsaker, Naomi J.; Howard, Brian P.; Hunsaker, Michael R.; Kesner, Raymond P.

    2008-01-01

    Human research has shown that lesions of the parietal cortex disrupt spatial information processing, specifically topological information. Similar findings have been found in nonhumans. It has been difficult to determine homologies between human and non-human mnemonic mechanisms for spatial information processing because methodologies and neuropathology differ. The first objective of the present study was to adapt a previously established human task for rats. The second objective was to bette...

  9. Spatiotemporal integration of tactile information in human somatosensory cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zumer Johanna M

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Our goal was to examine the spatiotemporal integration of tactile information in the hand representation of human primary somatosensory cortex (anterior parietal somatosensory areas 3b and 1, secondary somatosensory cortex (S2, and the parietal ventral area (PV, using high-resolution whole-head magnetoencephalography (MEG. To examine representational overlap and adaptation in bilateral somatosensory cortices, we used an oddball paradigm to characterize the representation of the index finger (D2; deviant stimulus as a function of the location of the standard stimulus in both right- and left-handed subjects. Results We found that responses to deviant stimuli presented in the context of standard stimuli with an interstimulus interval (ISI of 0.33s were significantly and bilaterally attenuated compared to deviant stimulation alone in S2/PV, but not in anterior parietal cortex. This attenuation was dependent upon the distance between the deviant and standard stimuli: greater attenuation was found when the standard was immediately adjacent to the deviant (D3 and D2 respectively, with attenuation decreasing for non-adjacent fingers (D4 and opposite D2. We also found that cutaneous mechanical stimulation consistently elicited not only a strong early contralateral cortical response but also a weak ipsilateral response in anterior parietal cortex. This ipsilateral response appeared an average of 10.7 ± 6.1 ms later than the early contralateral response. In addition, no hemispheric differences either in response amplitude, response latencies or oddball responses were found, independent of handedness. Conclusion Our findings are consistent with the large receptive fields and long neuronal recovery cycles that have been described in S2/PV, and suggest that this expression of spatiotemporal integration underlies the complex functions associated with this region. The early ipsilateral response suggests that anterior parietal fields also

  10. SURVEY ON HUMAN INTERACTIVE BEHAVIOUR RECOGNITION AND COMPREHENSION%人的交互行为识别与理解研究综述

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴联世; 夏利民; 罗大庸

    2011-01-01

    Human interactive behaviour recognition and comprehension is a front direction in computer vision research area with much concerns. This paper provides the up-to-date research results in regard to human-object interactive behaviour recognition, two-person interactive behaviour recognition and multi-person interactive behaviour (group activities) recognition and comprehension, as well as the introduction on some related public datasets in the research area. Moreover, the difficult problems at present existing in the research of human interactive behaviour recognition and comprehension are also summarised, and the possible directions of the future work are discussed as well.%人的交互行为识别和理解是计算机视觉研究领域一个备受关注的前沿方向.介绍人与物体的交互行为识别、双人交互行为识别以及多人交互(人群)行为识别和理解方面的最新研究成果和该研究领域的公共数据集.总结了人的交互行为识别与理解研究目前存在的难点问题.并展望了未来可能的发展方向.

  11. Variation in general practitioners' information-seeking behaviour - a cross-sectional study on the influence of gender, age and practice form

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Videbæk Le, Jette; Pedersen, Line B; Riisgaard, Helle;

    2016-01-01

    after adjusting for relevant covariates. RESULTS: A total of 1580 GPs (46.4%) responded to the questionnaire. GPs' information-seeking behaviour is associated with gender, age and practice form. Single-handed GPs use their colleagues as an information source significantly less than GPs working...... in partnership practices and they do not use other sources more frequently. Compared with their younger colleagues, GPs aged above 44 years are less likely to seek information from colleagues, guidelines and websites, but more likely to seek information from medical journals. Male and female GPs seek information...... equally frequently. However, whereas male GPs are more likely than female GPs to find that pharmaceutical sales representative and non-refundable CME meetings are important, they are less likely to find that colleagues, refundable CME meetings, guidelines and websites are important. CONCLUSION: Results...

  12. Predicting Outcomes Following Cognitive Behaviour Therapy in Child Anxiety Disorders: The Influence of Genetic, Demographic and Clinical Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Jennifer L.; Lester, Kathryn J.; Lewis, Cathryn M.; Tropeano, Maria; Creswell, Cathy; Collier, David A.; Cooper, Peter; Lyneham, Heidi J.; Morris, Talia; Rapee, Ronald M.; Roberts, Susanna; Donald, Jennifer A.; Eley, Thalia C.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Within a therapeutic gene by environment (G × E) framework, we recently demonstrated that variation in the Serotonin Transporter Promoter Polymorphism; "5HTTLPR" and marker rs6330 in Nerve Growth Factor gene; "NGF" is associated with poorer outcomes following cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) for child anxiety…

  13. Predicting Outcomes Following Cognitive Behaviour Therapy in Child Anxiety Disorders: The Influence of Genetic, Demographic and Clinical Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Jennifer L.; Lester, Kathryn J.; Lewis, Cathryn M.; Tropeano, Maria; Creswell, Cathy; Collier, David A.; Cooper, Peter; Lyneham, Heidi J.; Morris, Talia; Rapee, Ronald M.; Roberts, Susanna; Donald, Jennifer A.; Eley, Thalia C.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Within a therapeutic gene by environment (G × E) framework, we recently demonstrated that variation in the Serotonin Transporter Promoter Polymorphism; "5HTTLPR" and marker rs6330 in Nerve Growth Factor gene; "NGF" is associated with poorer outcomes following cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) for child anxiety…

  14. Modelling human and organizational behaviour in a high-risk operation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sillem, S.; Lin, P.H.; Ale, B.J.M.; Hudson, P.T.W.

    2012-01-01

    A core part of the risk modelling program for the Oil and Gas industry being carried out at Delft University of Technology is the influence of humans, within an organisation, as well as the technical factors. Specific attention is given to the incentive structure of operators, staff and managers, wh

  15. Determination Motive through the Prism of the General Concept of the Motives of Human Behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veresha, Roman V.

    2016-01-01

    This research studies the problems of defining the concept of motive of crime in terms of the psychological concept of motives of human behavior. The purpose of this research is to define the motive of crime (which is yet undefined in spite of the longstanding existence of criminology) and to improve existing scientific theories regarding the…

  16. Behaviour of silver nanoparticles and silver ions in an in vitro human gastrointestinal digestion model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Walczak, A.P.; Fokkink, R.G.; Peters, R.J.B.; Tromp, P.; Herrera Rivera, Z.E.; Rietjens, I.M.C.M.; Hendriksen, P.J.M.; Bouwmeester, H.

    2013-01-01

    Oral ingestion is an important exposure route for silver nanoparticles (AgNPs), but their fate during gastrointestinal digestion is unknown. This was studied for 60 nm AgNPs and silver ions (AgNO3) using in vitro human digestion model. Samples after saliva, gastric and intestinal digestion were

  17. 75 FR 9226 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Human Tissue...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    ... Collection; Comment Request; Human Tissue Intended for Transplantation AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration... solicits comments on the information collection requirements relating to FDA regulations for human tissue... of information technology. Human Tissue Intended for Transplantation--21 CFR Part 1270 (OMB Control...

  18. 78 FR 41403 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Human Tissue...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-10

    ... Collection; Comment Request; Human Tissue Intended for Transplantation AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration... solicits comments on the information collection requirements relating to FDA regulations for human tissue... appropriate, and other forms of information technology. Human Tissue Intended for Transplantation--21 CFR Part...

  19. The Human-Computer Interface and Information Literacy: Some Basics and Beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Church, Gary M.

    1999-01-01

    Discusses human/computer interaction research, human/computer interface, and their relationships to information literacy. Highlights include communication models; cognitive perspectives; task analysis; theory of action; problem solving; instructional design considerations; and a suggestion that human/information interface may be a more appropriate…

  20. THE INFLUENCE OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGIES ON THE HUMAN FACTOR WITHIN AN ORGNANIZATION

    OpenAIRE

    Sarkiunaite, Ingrida

    2005-01-01

    The article discusses a number of important changes of influence of information technologies on human factor within the organization. The focus of the article is on human factor and IT using problem. According to the theoretical and empirical material of IT influence on human factor, aspects of information technology are analyzed.

  1. Functional differentiation of the premotor cortex : Behavioural and brain imaging studies in humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Potgieser, Adriaan Remco Ewoud

    2015-01-01

    The premotor cortex is a brain structure that is involved in the preparation of movements. It has an important role in the final integration of task-related information and to funnel this to the primary motor cortex, which subsequently causes the execution of a movement. Premotor areas can also infl

  2. Molecular genetic studies of the arginine vasopressin 1a receptor (AVPR1a) and the oxytocin receptor (OXTR) in human behaviour: from autism to altruism with some notes in between.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Israel, Salomon; Lerer, Elad; Shalev, Idan; Uzefovsky, Florina; Reibold, Mathias; Bachner-Melman, Rachel; Granot, Roni; Bornstein, Gary; Knafo, Ariel; Yirmiya, Nurit; Ebstein, Richard P

    2008-01-01

    Converging evidence from both human and animal studies has highlighted the pervasive role of two neuropeptides, oxytocin (OXT) and arginine vasopressin (AVP), in mammalian social behaviours. Recent molecular genetic studies of the human arginine vasopressin 1a (AVPR1a) and oxytocin (OXTR) receptors have strengthened the evidence regarding the role of these two neuropeptides in a range of normal and pathological behaviours. Significant association between both AVPR1a repeat regions and OXTR single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with risk for autism has been provisionally shown which was mediated by socialization skills in our study. AVPR1a has also been linked to eating behaviour in both clinical and non-clinical groups, perhaps reflecting the social and ritualistic side of eating behaviour. Evidence also suggests that repeat variations in AVPR1a are associated with two other social domains in Homo sapiens: music and altruism. AVPR1a was associated with dance and musical cognition which we theorize as reflecting the ancient role of this hormone in social interactions executed by vocalization, ritual movement and dyadic (mother-offspring) and group communication. Finally, we have shown that individual differences in allocation of funds in the dictator game, a laboratory game of pure altruism, is predicted by length of the AVPR1a RS3 promoter-region repeat echoing the mechanism of this hormone's action in the vole model of affiliative behaviours and facilitation of positive group interactions. While still in its infancy, the current outlook for molecular genetic investigations of AVP-OXT continues to be fascinating. Future studies should profitably focus on pharmacogenomic and genomic imaging strategies facilitated by the ease and efficacy of manipulating AVP-OXT neurotransmission by intranasal administration. Importantly, physiological measures, behavioural paradigms and brain activation can be informed by considering between-group and also within-group individual

  3. Behavioural responses of Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto to components of human breath, sweat and urine depend on mixture composition and concentration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Qiu, Y.T.; Smallegange, R.C.; Loon, van J.J.A.; Takken, W.

    2011-01-01

    Host-seeking behaviour of the anthropophilic malaria vector Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto (Diptera: Culicidae) is mediated predominantly by olfactory cues. Several hundreds of odour components have been identified from human emanations, but only a few have been proven to act as attractants or syne

  4. Reviewing the Relationship between Human Resource Practices and Psychological Contract and Their Impact on Employee Attitude and Behaviours: A Conceptual Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, Upasana; Bhargava, Shivganesh

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to review and synthesise literature on the role of human resource practices (HRP) in shaping employee psychological contract (PC). Based on this review, a conceptual framework for examining the relationship between HRP and PC and their impact on employee attitudes as well as behaviour has been put forward for…

  5. Towards understanding the dynamic behaviour of floodplains as human-water systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Di Baldassarre

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper offers a conceptual approach to explore the complex dynamics of floodplains as fully coupled human-water systems. A number of hydrologists have recently investigated the impact of human activities (such as flood control measures, land-use changes, and settlement patterns on the frequency and severity of floods. Meanwhile, social scientists have shown how interactions between society and waters in deltas and floodplain areas, including the frequency and severity of floods, have an impact on the ways in which social relations unfold (in terms of governance processes, policies, and institutions and societies are organised (spatially, politically, and socially. However, we argue that the interactions and associated feedback mechanisms between hydrological and social processes remain largely unexplored and poorly understood. Thus, there is a need to better understand how the institutions and governance processes interact with hydrological processes in deltas and floodplains to influence the frequency and severity of floods, while (in turn hydrological processes co-constitute the social realm and make a difference for how social relations unfold to shape governance processes and institutions. Our research goal, therefore, is not in identifying one or the other side of the cycle (hydrological or social, but in explaining the relationship between them: how, when, where, and why they interact, and to what result for both social relations and hydrological processes? We argue that long time series of hydrological and social data, along with remote sensing data, can be used to observe floodplain dynamics from unconventional approaches, and understand the complex interactions between water and human systems taking place in floodplain areas, across scales and levels of human impacts, and within different hydro-climatic conditions, socio-cultural settings, and modes of governance.

  6. Towards understanding the dynamic behaviour of floodplains as human-water systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Di Baldassarre

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper offers a conceptual approach to explore the complex dynamics of floodplains as fully coupled human-water systems. A number of hydrologists have recently investigated the impact of human activities (such as flood control measures, land-use changes, and settlement patterns on the frequency and severity of floods. Meanwhile, social scientists have shown how interactions between society and waters in floodplain areas, including the frequency and severity of floods, have an impact on the ways in which social relations unfold (in terms of governance processes, policies, and institutions and societies are organised (spatially, politically, and socially. However, we argue that the interactions and associated feedback mechanisms between hydrological and social processes remain largely unexplored and poorly understood. Thus, there is a need to better understand how the institutions and governance processes interact with hydrological processes in floodplains to influence the frequency and severity of floods, while (in turn hydrological processes co-constitute the social realm and make a difference for how social relations unfold to shape governance processes and institutions. Our research goal, therefore, is not in identifying one or the other side of the cycle (hydrological or social, but in explaining the relationship between them: how, when, where, and why they interact, and to what result for both social relations and hydrological processes? We argue that long time series of hydrological and social data, along with remote sensing data, can be used to observe floodplain dynamics from unconventional approaches, and understand the complex interactions between water and human systems taking place in floodplain areas, across scales and levels of human impacts, and within different hydro-climatic conditions, socio-cultural settings, and modes of governance.

  7. The clinical effectiveness of individual behaviour change interventions to reduce risky sexual behaviour after a negative human immunodeficiency virus test in men who have sex with men: systematic and realist reviews and intervention development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flowers, Paul; Wu, Olivia; Lorimer, Karen; Ahmed, Bipasha; Hesselgreaves, Hannah; MacDonald, Jennifer; Cayless, Sandi; Hutchinson, Sharon; Elliott, Lawrie; Sullivan, Ann; Clutterbuck, Dan; Rayment, Michael; McDaid, Lisa

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND Men who have sex with men (MSM) experience significant inequalities in health and well-being. They are the group in the UK at the highest risk of acquiring a human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Guidance relating to both HIV infection prevention, in general, and individual-level behaviour change interventions, in particular, is very limited. OBJECTIVES To conduct an evidence synthesis of the clinical effectiveness of behaviour change interventions to reduce risky sexual behaviour among MSM after a negative HIV infection test. To identify effective components within interventions in reducing HIV risk-related behaviours and develop a candidate intervention. To host expert events addressing the implementation and optimisation of a candidate intervention. DATA SOURCES All major electronic databases (British Education Index, BioMed Central, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, EMBASE, Educational Resource Index and Abstracts, Health and Medical Complete, MEDLINE, PsycARTICLES, PsycINFO, PubMed and Social Science Citation Index) were searched between January 2000 and December 2014. REVIEW METHODS A systematic review of the clinical effectiveness of individual behaviour change interventions was conducted. Interventions were examined using the behaviour change technique (BCT) taxonomy, theory coding assessment, mode of delivery and proximity to HIV infection testing. Data were summarised in narrative review and, when appropriate, meta-analysis was carried out. Supplemental analyses for the development of the candidate intervention focused on post hoc realist review method, the assessment of the sequential delivery and content of intervention components, and the social and historical context of primary studies. Expert panels reviewed the candidate intervention for issues of implementation and optimisation. RESULTS Overall, trials included in this review (n = 10) demonstrated that individual-level behaviour change interventions

  8. Towards infant formula biomimetic of human milk structure and digestive behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bourlieu Claire

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Lipids of human milk or infant formula convey most of the energy necessary to support the newborn growth. Until recently, infant formula chemical composition had been optimized but not their structure. And yet, more and more proofs of evidence have shown that lipids structure in human milk modulates digestion kinetics and is involved in metabolic programming. Indeed there is a striking difference of structure between human milk which is an emulsion based on dispersed milk fat globules (4 μm secreted by the mammary gland and submicronic neoformed lipid droplets (0.5 μm found in infant formula. These droplets result from a series of operation units. This difference of structure modifies digestion kinetics and emulsion disintegration in the intestinal tract of the newborn. This difference persists along gastric phase which is mainly dominated by acid and enzyme-induced aggregation. Lipid droplets size is thus the key parameter to control gastric lipolysis and emptying and intestinal lipolysis. This parameter also controls proteolysis since adsorbed proteins are more rapidly hydrolyzed than when in solution. In animal models, these differences of lipid structure would also impact digestive and immune systems' maturation and microbiota. Lipid structure during neonatal period would also be involved in the early programming of adipose tissues and metabolism. The supplementation of infant formulas with bovine milk fractions (milk fat globule membrane extracts, triacylglycerol or recent development of large droplets infant formula, along with new fields of innovation in neonatal nutrition, are here reviewed.

  9. Health and sexual behaviour among exchange students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersson, Carina; Peterson, Ulla; Swahnberg, Katarina; Oscarsson, Marie

    2016-08-26

    The objective was to describe the exchange students' health and sexual behaviour associated with their exchange studies, and examine the extent to which they had received preventive efforts against human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/sexually transmitted infection (STI) and safer sex before departure. A cross-sectional study was conducted based on a web survey with questions about sexual behaviour, self-esteem and psychological well-being. Data were analysed using descriptive and analytical statistics. A total of 136 outgoing exchange students from a Swedish University participated. Most of the exchange students rated their health as good, had psychological well-being and rated their self-esteem as being high. Approximately half of the exchange students had sex with a new partner during the exchange semester, and 87% of them had sexually risky behaviour. More than half (61%) of the exchange students had received preventive efforts before departure. No statistically significant difference regarding preventive information was found between those who reported sexually risky behaviour and those who did not. The group that had sexually risky behaviour desired free condoms and access to clinics for sexual health. CONCLUSIONS EXCHANGE STUDENTS RATED THEIR HEALTH AS GOOD, AND THE MAJORITY OF THEM PARTICIPATED IN INFORMATION SESSIONS THAT ADDRESSED PREVENTIVE EFFORTS ON HIV/STI AND SAFER SEX BEFORE DEPARTURE SEXUALLY RISKY BEHAVIOUR DURING EXCHANGE STUDIES WAS REPORTED AND HIGHLIGHTS THE NEED FOR MORE EFFECTIVE PREVENTIVE MEASURES; FOR EXAMPLE, A RECOLLECTION OF READING STI INFORMATION. © Author(s) 2016.

  10. Asymmetric behaviours of brain oscillations in the human hippocampus during spatial navigation tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Joong Koo; Lee, Eun Mi; Kim, Dajeong; Hye Lee, Seong; Kim, Taekyung; Park, Young Min; Park, Jinsick; Kim, Sun I; Kim, In Young; Jang, Dong Pyo

    2016-02-10

    Hippocampal-dependent memory functions may be lateralized to the right hippocampus during spatial navigation. However, direct electrophysiological evidence supporting these findings in the bilateral hippocampi during spatial navigation has not been well documented in humans. We studied changes in brain oscillations between the dominant and the nondominant hippocampi during encoding periods of environmental novelty using spatial navigation tasks. Results showed that brain oscillations during the encoding period of spatial navigation increased significantly in the nondominant hippocampus compared with the dominant hippocampus. These findings provide direct electrophysiological evidence that the nondominant hippocampus plays a predominant role in spatial navigation.

  11. 'Goats that stare at men'--revisited: do dwarf goats alter their behaviour in response to eye visibility and head direction of a human?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawroth, Christian; von Borell, Eberhard; Langbein, Jan

    2016-05-01

    Being able to recognise when one is being observed by someone else is thought to be adaptive during cooperative or competitive events. In particular for prey species, this ability should be of use in the context of predation. A previous study reported that goats (Capra aegagrus hircus) alter their behaviour according to the body and head orientation of a human experimenter. During a food anticipation task, an experimenter remained in a particular posture for 30 s before delivering a reward, and the goats' active anticipation and standing alert behaviour were analysed. To further evaluate the specific mechanisms at work, we here present two additional test conditions. In particular, we investigated the effects of the eye visibility and head orientation of a human experimenter on the behaviour of the goats (N = 7). We found that the level of the subjects' active anticipatory behaviour was highest in the conditions where the experimenter was directing his head and body towards the goat ('Control' and 'Eyes closed' conditions), but the anticipatory behaviour was significantly decreased when the body ('Head only') or the head and body of the experimenter were directed away from the subject ('Back' condition). For standing alert, we found no significant differences between the three conditions in which the experimenter was directing his head towards the subject ('Control', 'Eyes closed' and 'Head only'). This lack of differences in the expression of standing alert suggests that goats evaluate the direction of a human's head as an important cue in their anticipatory behaviour. However, goats did not respond to the visibility of the experimenter's eyes alone.

  12. In vivo behaviour of human muscle architecture and mechanomyographic response using the interpolated twitch technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohta, Yoichi; Shima, Norihiro; Yabe, Kyonosuke

    2009-06-01

    This study investigated the origin of curvilinear change in the superimposed mechanomyogram (MMG) amplitude of the human medial gastrocnemius muscle (MG) with increasing contraction intensity. The superimposed twitch amplitude, the superimposed MMG amplitude and the extent of fascicle shortening were measured using ultrasonic images of electrical stimulation during isometric plantar flexions at levels 20%, 40%, 60%, 80%, and 100% of the maximal voluntary contraction (MVC). The superimposed twitch amplitude, the superimposed MMG amplitude and the extent of fascicle shortening decreased with increasing contraction intensity. The superimposed MMG amplitude and the extent of fascicle shortening showed a curvilinear decrease, while the superimposed twitch amplitude showed a linear decrease at levels up to 80% of the MVC. There was a linear relationship between the superimposed MMG amplitude and the extent of fascicle shortening at different contraction intensities. These results indicate that the superimposed MMG amplitude reflects changes in the extent of fascicle shortening at different contraction intensities better than the superimposed twitch amplitude. Our study suggests that the origin of the curvilinear decrease of superimposed MMG amplitude is associated with a curvilinear decrease of the extent of fascicle shortening with increasing contraction intensity in the human MG.

  13. Experimental and Numerical Assessment of the Dynamical Behaviour of a Footbridge Under Human-Induced Loads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santos da Silva José Guilherme

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to perform an experimental and numerical assessment of an existing pedestrian footbridge located in the campus of the State University of Rio de Janeiro (UERJ, Rio de Janeiro/RJ, Brazil. The structural system is based on an internal reinforced concrete footbridge spanning 24.5m, constituted by concrete beams and slabs and being currently used for pedestrian crossing. The modal testing of the structure was performed by dynamic monitoring through accelerometers installed on the structure as well as by a vibrometer device based on Laser Doppler Vibrometry using the SIMO and SISO acquisition techniques, respectively. Then, these experimental results were calibrated with a numerical model by the use of finite element method (FEM through the ANSYS program. Afterwards, a forced vibration analysis was performed on the structure based on human-induced loads considering two control groups: the first one is intended to excite the investigated footbridge to cause resonance motion with a controlled step frequency and the second one is related to freely random people crossing the footbridge as it occurs normally during its real life. Thus, the structural system dynamic response in terms of peak accelerations values were evaluated and compared to the current human comfort criteria.

  14. Information Waste, the Environment and Human Action: Concepts and Research

    OpenAIRE

    Wijnhoven, A.B.J.M.; Dietz, P.; Amrit, C.; Hercheui, M

    2012-01-01

    Information technology is powered by electricity. Although its impact on Green House Gasses (GHG) is still rather limited, the next decade will show an explosion of its impact because technological innovations on data communication, information retrieval and datacenter operation will not compensate the increased need for energy of information technology. This paper approaches the problem not from a technical perspective, but from the perspective of information value and the opportunities to d...

  15. Polarographic behaviour of loratadine and its direct determination in pharmaceutical formulation and human plasma by cathodic adsorptive stripping voltammetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghoneim, M M; Mabrouk, M M; Hassanein, A M; Tawfik, A

    2001-07-01

    The polarographic behaviour of the antihistaminic drug loratadine has been investigated in B.R. buffer solution of different pH values. Contradictory to that mentioned before in a previously published work, loratadine is electro-active at the mercury electrode. In B.R. buffer solution of pH values > or =6 it is reduced via a single 2-electrons irreversible wave corresponding to saturation of carbon-nitrogen double bond of the pyridine ring. The electrode reaction pathway was proposed and discussed. A sensitive differential pulse stripping voltammetric method based on controlled adsorptive accumulation of loratadine on a hanging mercury drop electrode has been developed for its direct determination at nanomolar concentrations without nitration of the drug. The optimized conditions for the direct cathodic adsorptive stripping voltammetric determination of the drug are: 0.1 M sodium hydroxide solution as a supporting electrolyte, accumulation potential, -1.2 V; accumulation time, 30 s; scan rate, 2-5 mV x s(-1) and pulse amplitude 100 mV. The proposed procedure was applied for the assay of loratadine in pharmaceutical formulation and human plasma. The average recoveries were 99.32-99.44 and 100.33-102.99% with the RSD 0.27-0.42 and 0.39-0.90% in pharmaceutical formulation and human plasma, respectively. The limits of detection of 1.60x10(-7) and 1.25x10(-7) M loratadine were found in pharmaceutical formulation and human plasma, respectively.

  16. Vital Signs Evaluation of Human Behaviour via an Autonomous Body Area Network System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussin, S.; Takayama, S.

    2016-11-01

    Enhancing Quality of Life (QOL) has long been an explicit and implicit goal for individuals, nations, and the world. QOL involves diverse multidimensional factors spanning wealth, physical health, social well-being, and international relationships. This study presents a definition of QOL combining the measurement of health-related QOL with an autonomous Body Area Network System (BANs). A method of evaluating vital signs is performed and linked to physical intensity assistance in exercise. Specifically, BAN acts as a supportive system which can assist a user in monitoring his or her body's parameters, providing real-time feedbacks and dynamically sharing information from any location to one or more users.

  17. Active and reactive behaviour in human mobility: the influence of attraction points on pedestrians

    CERN Document Server

    Gutiérrez-Roig, Mario; Oltra, Aitana; Bartumeus, Frederic; Diaz-Guilera, Albert; Perelló, Josep

    2015-01-01

    Human mobility is becoming an accessible field of study thanks to the progress and availability of tracking technologies as a common feature of smart phones. We describe an example of a scalable experiment exploiting these circumstances at a public, outdoor fair in Barcelona (Spain). Participants were tracked while wandering through an open space with activity stands attracting their attention. We develop a general modeling framework based on Langevin Dynamics, which allows us to test the influence of two distinct types of ingredients on mobility: reactive or context-dependent factors, modelled by means of a force field generated by attraction points in a given spatial configuration, and active or inherent factors, modelled from intrinsic movement patterns of the subjects. The additive and constructive framework model accounts for the observed features. Starting with the simplest model (purely random walkers) as a reference, we progressively introduce different ingredients such as persistence, memory, and per...

  18. Structural and thermal behaviour of carious and sound powders of human tooth enamel and dentine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiznado-Orozco, Gaby E.; García-García, R.; Reyes-Gasga, J.

    2009-12-01

    Powder from carious human tooth enamel and dentine were structurally, chemically and thermally analysed and compared against those from sound (healthy) teeth. Structural and chemical analyses were performed using x-ray diffraction, energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Thermal analysis was carried out by thermogravimetric analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and x-ray diffraction. Results demonstrate partially dissolved crystals of hydroxyapatite (HAP) with substitutions of Na, Mg, Cl and C, and a greater weight loss in carious dentine as compared with carious enamel. A greater amount of thermal decomposition is observed in carious dentine as compared with sound dentine, with major variations in the a-axis of the HAP unit cell than in the c-axis. Variations in shape and intensity of the OH-, CO_{3}^{2-} and PO_{4}^{3-} FTIR bands were also found.

  19. Structural and thermal behaviour of carious and sound powders of human tooth enamel and dentine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiznado-Orozco, Gaby E; Garcia-Garcia, R; Reyes-Gasga, J, E-mail: jreyes@fisica.unam.m [Instituto de Fisica, UNAM, Apdo. Postal 20-364, 01000, Mexico DF (Mexico)

    2009-12-07

    Powder from carious human tooth enamel and dentine were structurally, chemically and thermally analysed and compared against those from sound (healthy) teeth. Structural and chemical analyses were performed using x-ray diffraction, energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Thermal analysis was carried out by thermogravimetric analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and x-ray diffraction. Results demonstrate partially dissolved crystals of hydroxyapatite (HAP) with substitutions of Na, Mg, Cl and C, and a greater weight loss in carious dentine as compared with carious enamel. A greater amount of thermal decomposition is observed in carious dentine as compared with sound dentine, with major variations in the a-axis of the HAP unit cell than in the c-axis. Variations in shape and intensity of the OH{sup -}, CO{sub 3}{sup 2-} and PO{sub 4}{sup 3-} FTIR bands were also found.

  20. New methodology for mechanical characterization of human superficial facial tissue anisotropic behaviour in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Then, C; Stassen, B; Depta, K; Silber, G

    2017-02-21

    Mechanical characterization of human superficial facial tissue has important applications in biomedical science, computer assisted forensics, graphics, and consumer goods development. Specifically, the latter may include facial hair removal devices. Predictive accuracy of numerical models and their ability to elucidate biomechanically relevant questions depends on the acquisition of experimental data and mechanical tissue behavior representation. Anisotropic viscoelastic behavioral characterization of human facial tissue, deformed in vivo with finite strain, however, is sparse. Employing an experimental-numerical approach, a procedure is presented to evaluate multidirectional tensile properties of superficial tissue layers of the face in vivo. Specifically, in addition to stress relaxation, displacement-controlled multi-step ramp-and-hold protocols were performed to separate elastic from inelastic properties. For numerical representation, an anisotropic hyperelastic material model in conjunction with a time domain linear viscoelasticity formulation with Prony series was employed. Model parameters were inversely derived, employing finite element models, using multi-criteria optimization. The methodology provides insight into mechanical superficial facial tissue properties. Experimental data shows pronounced anisotropy, especially with large strain. The stress relaxation rate does not depend on the loading direction, but is strain-dependent. Preconditioning eliminates equilibrium hysteresis effects and leads to stress-strain repeatability. In the preconditioned state tissue stiffness and hysteresis insensitivity to strain rate in the applied range is evident. The employed material model fits the nonlinear anisotropic elastic results and the viscoelasticity model reasonably reproduces time-dependent results. Inversely deduced maximum anisotropic long-term shear modulus of linear elasticity is G∞,max(aniso)=2.43kPa and instantaneous initial shear modulus at an

  1. The effects of strain amplitude and localization on viscoelastic mechanical behaviour of human abdominal fascia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirilova-Doneva, Miglena; Pashkouleva, Dessislava; Kavardzhikov, Vasil

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the paper is to examine and compare the viscoelastic mechanical properties of human transversalis and umbilical fasciae according to chosen strain levels. A sequence of relaxation tests of finite deformation ranging from 4 to 6% strain with increment 0.3% was performed at strain rate 1.26 mm/s. Initial and equilibrium stresses T0, Teq, initial modulus E and equilibrium modulus Eeq, reduction of the stress during relaxation process ΔT, as well as the ratio (1 - Eeq /E) were calculated. The range in which parameters change their values are (0.184-1.74 MPa) for initial stress, (0.098-0.95 MPa) for equilibrium stress, (43.5-4.6 MPa) for initial modulus E. For Eeq this interval is (23.75-2.45 MPa). There are no statistically significant differences between the values of these parameters according to localization. The differences in viscoelastic properties of both fasciae are demonstrated by reduction of the stress during relaxation process and ratio (1 - Eeq /E). The values of ΔT and (1 - Eeq /E) ratio for umbilical fascia are significantly greater than that of fascia transversalis. An increase of 2% in strain leads to change of the normalized relaxation ratio of fasciae between 28%-66%. There is a weak contribution of viscous elements in fascia transversalis samples during relaxation, while in umbilical fascia the contribution of viscous component increases with strain level to 0.66 at 5.3% strain. This study adds new data for the material properties of human abdominal fascia. The results demonstrate that in chosen range of strain there is an influence of localization on visco-elastic tissue properties.

  2. Sexual behaviour, contraceptive practice and reproductive health ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sexual behaviour, contraceptive practice and reproductive health outcomes among ... sexual behaviour, outcomes and care-seeking among university students in ... to collect information on their reproductive health knowledge and behaviour.

  3. FORMING ORGANIZATIONAL SKILLS OF PROSPECTIVE TEACHERS OF THE HUMANITIES USING INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGIES

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Olena A. Zymovets

    2014-01-01

    ...’ organizational skills in the Information Society. The author defines organizational skills of prospective teachers of the Humanities, specifies the types of these skills taking into consideration the requirements of the Information Society...

  4. Green Marketing fot Information Technology: Perceptions of it Professionals’ Attitudes and Behaviours and Actions to Increase Green Marketing in this Sector.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Roberto Viana Castro

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Increased environmental awareness has been deeply affecting consumer behaviour and increasing green marketing importance for organizations. The aim of this study is to analyze the IT professionals (Information Technology perception about actions related to green marketing (considering environmental issues in all product marketing stages, since production, through the use and disposal by the consumer and propose socially planned changes so they can maintain or enhance practices related to green IT actions taken by IT professionals with a focus on environmental sustainability. To this end, we measured the attitudes towards green IT using the Expectancy-Value model beyond its knowledge level about environmental problems and their buying environmentally friendly products. From the results obtained we used the strategies composite typology for social change planned in order to propose actions to change or reinforce  behaviour as regards green marketing on the part of IT professionals. Qualitative surveys were conducted to identify the beliefs and its consequences (attitudes and then quantitative research to measure attitudes, engagement and knowledge about green IT. The results indicate that IT professionals can be considered engaged and positive attitudes towards green marketing. Therefore a reinforcement strategy is suggested through economic and psychological incentives to maintain and foster this behaviour in relation to green IT.

  5. Information

    CERN Document Server

    Ritchie, L David

    1991-01-01

    This volume thoroughly covers the sub-field of information, and is one of the first in a series which synthesizes the research literature on major concepts in the field of communication. Each concise volume includes a research definition (concept explication) and presents a state-of-the-art analysis of theory and empirical findings related to the concept. After defining the word `information', the author contrasts non-linear and reflexive ideas about human communication with linear perspectives. Information is equated with uncertainty. The result presents a pattern for the process of conceptua

  6. Women in STEM and Human Information Behavior: Implications for LIS Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Rebecca

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports preliminary data from research that seeks to inform the readers about the way that human information behavior and the use of scholarly resources impacts on women in the STEM fields. By focusing on the information behavior and information needs of women in STEM, this could lead to an increased use of academic library resources…

  7. Active and reactive behaviour in human mobility: the influence of attraction points on pedestrians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez-Roig, M.; Sagarra, O.; Oltra, A.; Palmer, J. R. B.; Bartumeus, F.; Díaz-Guilera, A.; Perelló, J.

    2016-07-01

    Human mobility is becoming an accessible field of study, thanks to the progress and availability of tracking technologies as a common feature of smart phones. We describe an example of a scalable experiment exploiting these circumstances at a public, outdoor fair in Barcelona (Spain). Participants were tracked while wandering through an open space with activity stands attracting their attention. We develop a general modelling framework based on Langevin dynamics, which allows us to test the influence of two distinct types of ingredients on mobility: reactive or context-dependent factors, modelled by means of a force field generated by attraction points in a given spatial configuration and active or inherent factors, modelled from intrinsic movement patterns of the subjects. The additive and constructive framework model accounts for some observed features. Starting with the simplest model (purely random walkers) as a reference, we progressively introduce different ingredients such as persistence, memory and perceptual landscape, aiming to untangle active and reactive contributions and quantify their respective relevance. The proposed approach may help in anticipating the spatial distribution of citizens in alternative scenarios and in improving the design of public events based on a facts-based approach.

  8. Compressive behaviour of gyroid lattice structures for human cancellous bone implant applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yánez, A; Herrera, A; Martel, O; Monopoli, D; Afonso, H

    2016-11-01

    Electron beam melting (EBM) was used to fabricate porous titanium alloy structures. The elastic modulus of these porous structures was similar to the elastic modulus of the cancellous human bone. Two types of cellular lattice structures were manufactured and tested: gyroids and diamonds. The design of the gyroid structures was determined by the main angle of the struts with respect to the axial direction. Thus, structures with angles of between 19 and 68.5° were manufactured. The aim of the design was to reduce the amount of material needed to fabricate a structure with the desired angles to increase the range of stiffness of the scaffolds. Compression tests were conducted to obtain the elastic modulus and the strength. Both parameters increased as the angle decreased. Finally, the specific strength of the gyroid structures was compared with that of the diamond structures and other types of structures. It is shown that, for angles lower than 35°, the gyroid structures had a high strength to weight ratios.

  9. Behaviour of silver nanoparticles and silver ions in an in vitro human gastrointestinal digestion model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walczak, Agata P; Fokkink, Remco; Peters, Ruud; Tromp, Peter; Herrera Rivera, Zahira E; Rietjens, Ivonne M C M; Hendriksen, Peter J M; Bouwmeester, Hans

    2013-11-01

    Oral ingestion is an important exposure route for silver nanoparticles (AgNPs), but their fate during gastrointestinal digestion is unknown. This was studied for 60 nm AgNPs and silver ions (AgNO₃) using in vitro human digestion model. Samples after saliva, gastric and intestinal digestion were analysed with SP-ICPMS, DLS and SEM-EDX. In presence of proteins, after gastric digestion the number of particles dropped significantly, to rise back to original values after the intestinal digestion. SEM-EDX revealed that reduction in number of particles was caused by their clustering. These clusters were composed of AgNPs and chlorine. During intestinal digestion, these clusters disintegrated back into single 60 nm AgNPs. The authors conclude that these AgNPs under physiological conditions can reach the intestinal wall in their initial size and composition. Importantly, intestinal digestion of AgNO₃ in presence of proteins resulted in particle formation. These nanoparticles (of 20-30 nm) were composed of silver, sulphur and chlorine.

  10. Spring-like leg behaviour, musculoskeletal mechanics and control in maximum and submaximum height human hopping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobbert, Maarten F; Richard Casius, L J

    2011-05-27

    The purpose of this study was to understand how humans regulate their 'leg stiffness' in hopping, and to determine whether this regulation is intended to minimize energy expenditure. 'Leg stiffness' is the slope of the relationship between ground reaction force and displacement of the centre of mass (CM). Variations in leg stiffness were achieved in six subjects by having them hop at maximum and submaximum heights at a frequency of 1.7 Hz. Kinematics, ground reaction forces and electromyograms were measured. Leg stiffness decreased with hopping height, from 350 N m(-1) kg(-1) at 26 cm to 150 N m(-1) kg(-1) at 14 cm. Subjects reduced hopping height primarily by reducing the amplitude of muscle activation. Experimental results were reproduced with a model of the musculoskeletal system comprising four body segments and nine Hill-type muscles, with muscle stimulation STIM(t) as only input. Correspondence between simulated hops and experimental hops was poor when STIM(t) was optimized to minimize mechanical energy expenditure, but good when an objective function was used that penalized jerk of CM motion, suggesting that hopping subjects are not minimizing energy expenditure. Instead, we speculated, subjects are using a simple control strategy that results in smooth movements and a decrease in leg stiffness with hopping height.

  11. Developing theory-informed behaviour change interventions to implement evidence into practice: a systematic approach using the Theoretical Domains Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, Simon D; Green, Sally E; O'Connor, Denise A; McKenzie, Joanne E; Francis, Jill J; Michie, Susan; Buchbinder, Rachelle; Schattner, Peter; Spike, Neil; Grimshaw, Jeremy M

    2012-04-24

    There is little systematic operational guidance about how best to develop complex interventions to reduce the gap between practice and evidence. This article is one in a Series of articles documenting the development and use of the Theoretical Domains Framework (TDF) to advance the science of implementation research. The intervention was developed considering three main components: theory, evidence, and practical issues. We used a four-step approach, consisting of guiding questions, to direct the choice of the most appropriate components of an implementation intervention: Who needs to do what, differently? Using a theoretical framework, which barriers and enablers need to be addressed? Which intervention components (behaviour change techniques and mode(s) of delivery) could overcome the modifiable barriers and enhance the enablers? And how can behaviour change be measured and understood? A complex implementation intervention was designed that aimed to improve acute low back pain management in primary care. We used the TDF to identify the barriers and enablers to the uptake of evidence into practice and to guide the choice of intervention components. These components were then combined into a cohesive intervention. The intervention was delivered via two facilitated interactive small group workshops. We also produced a DVD to distribute to all participants in the intervention group. We chose outcome measures in order to assess the mediating mechanisms of behaviour change. We have illustrated a four-step systematic method for developing an intervention designed to change clinical practice based on a theoretical framework. The method of development provides a systematic framework that could be used by others developing complex implementation interventions. While this framework should be iteratively adjusted and refined to suit other contexts and settings, we believe that the four-step process should be maintained as the primary framework to guide researchers through a

  12. Developing theory-informed behaviour change interventions to implement evidence into practice: a systematic approach using the Theoretical Domains Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    French Simon D

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is little systematic operational guidance about how best to develop complex interventions to reduce the gap between practice and evidence. This article is one in a Series of articles documenting the development and use of the Theoretical Domains Framework (TDF to advance the science of implementation research. Methods The intervention was developed considering three main components: theory, evidence, and practical issues. We used a four-step approach, consisting of guiding questions, to direct the choice of the most appropriate components of an implementation intervention: Who needs to do what, differently? Using a theoretical framework, which barriers and enablers need to be addressed? Which intervention components (behaviour change techniques and mode(s of delivery could overcome the modifiable barriers and enhance the enablers? And how can behaviour change be measured and understood? Results A complex implementation intervention was designed that aimed to improve acute low back pain management in primary care. We used the TDF to identify the barriers and enablers to the uptake of evidence into practice and to guide the choice of intervention components. These components were then combined into a cohesive intervention. The intervention was delivered via two facilitated interactive small group workshops. We also produced a DVD to distribute to all participants in the intervention group. We chose outcome measures in order to assess the mediating mechanisms of behaviour change. Conclusions We have illustrated a four-step systematic method for developing an intervention designed to change clinical practice based on a theoretical framework. The method of development provides a systematic framework that could be used by others developing complex implementation interventions. While this framework should be iteratively adjusted and refined to suit other contexts and settings, we believe that the four-step process should be

  13. Behaviour of the human gastrocnemius muscle architecture during submaximal isometric fatigue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mademli, Lida; Arampatzis, Adamantios

    2005-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine whether the human gastrocnemius medialis (GM) fascicle length and pennation angle alter during a sustained submaximal isometric plantar flexion. Fourteen male subjects performed maximal voluntary plantar flexions (MVC) on a dynamometer before and after a fatiguing task. This task consisted of a sustained submaximal isometric fatiguing contraction (40% MVC) until failure to hold the defined moment. Ultrasonography was used to visualise the muscle belly of the GM. Leg kinematics were recorded (120 Hz) to calculate the joint moment using inverse dynamics. The exerted moments and the EMG signals from GM and lateralis, soleus and tibialis anterior were measured at 1,080 Hz. The root mean square (RMS) of the EMG signal of the three triceps surae muscles increased significantly (P < or = 0.05) between 17% and 28% with fatigue. Further, the fascicle length of the GM significantly decreased from 47.1 +/- 8.0 mm at the beginning to 41.8 +/- 6.7 mm at the end of fatigue and the pennation angle increased from 23.5 +/- 4.1 degrees to 26.3 +/- 2.2 degrees (P < or = 0.05). The changes in fascicle length and pennation angle of the GM during the contraction can influence the force potential of the muscle due to the force-length relationship and the force transmission to the tendon. This provides evidence on that an additional mechanical mechanism, namely tendon creep, can contribute to the increase in the EMG activity of the GM during submaximal isometric sustained contractions.

  14. Effects of psilocybin on time perception and temporal control of behaviour in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittmann, Marc; Carter, Olivia; Hasler, Felix; Cahn, B Rael; Grimberg, Ulrike; Spring, Philipp; Hell, Daniel; Flohr, Hans; Vollenweider, Franz X

    2007-01-01

    Hallucinogenic psilocybin is known to alter the subjective experience of time. However, there is no study that systematically investigated objective measures of time perception under psilocybin. Therefore, we studied dose-dependent effects of the serotonin (5-HT)2A/1A receptor agonist psilocybin (4-phosphoryloxy-N, N-dimethyltryptamine) on temporal processing, employing tasks of temporal reproduction, sensorimotor synchronization and tapping tempo. To control for cognitive and subjective changes, we assessed spatial working memory and conscious experience. Twelve healthy human volunteers were tested under placebo, medium (115 microg/kg), and high (250 microg/kg) dose conditions, in a double-blind experimental design. Psilocybin was found to significantly impair subjects' ability to (1) reproduce interval durations longer than 2.5 sec, (2) to synchronize to inter-beat intervals longer than 2 sec and (3) caused subjects to be slower in their preferred tapping rate. These objective effects on timing performance were accompanied by working-memory deficits and subjective changes in conscious state, namely increased reports of 'depersonalization' and 'derealization' phenomena including disturbances in subjective 'time sense.' Our study is the first to systematically assess the impact of psilocybin on timing performance on standardized measures of temporal processing. Results indicate that the serotonin system is selectively involved in duration processing of intervals longer than 2 to 3 seconds and in the voluntary control of the speed of movement. We speculate that psilocybin's selective disruption of longer intervals is likely to be a product of interactions with cognitive dimensions of temporal processing -presumably via 5-HT2A receptor stimulation.

  15. Population size, group composition and behavioural ecology of geladas (Theropithecus gelada) and human-gelada conflict in Wonchit Valley, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kifle, Zewdu; Belay, Gurja; Bekele, Afework

    2013-11-01

    Primates that live in protected areas are intensively studied; however, those that live outside protected areas are less studied by primatologists. Therefore, the present study was carried out outside protected areas on the endemic gelada (Theropithecus gelada) to estimate the population size and group composition and human-gelada conflict in Wonchit Valley, Ethiopia from August 2008-March 2009. Total count method was used to determine the population size and group composition of geladas. A band of geladas was selected to carry out behavioural research. Data were collected on activity, diet and ranging patterns for one band of geladas using scan samples at 15 min intervals. Data on human-gelada conflict was gathered using questionnaire interview method. The total number of geladas in the study area was 1525. The average size of one-male unit was 16.96. Adult male to adult female sex ratio was 1.00:6.61. The average size of the band was 58.03. Group size ranged from 3 to 220. Geladas spent 65.2% of their time feeding, 16.3% moving, 4.6% resting and 13.9% socializing. The total time spent feeding on grass blades was 83.8% and 11.8% for bulbs and roots. The home range size was 1.5 km2 during the dry season and 0.2 km2 during the wet season. Geladas in the study area caused crop damage and shared pasture and drinking water with livestock. They consume crops during harvesting stage more than the seedling and vegetative stages. The study has immense contribution for the conservation and management of this endemic primate in unprotected areas.

  16. Information Waste, the Environment and Human Action: Concepts and Research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijnhoven, A.B.J.M.; Dietz, P.; Amrit, C.; Hercheui, M.

    2012-01-01

    Information technology is powered by electricity. Although its impact on Green House Gasses (GHG) is still rather limited, the next decade will show an explosion of its impact because technological innovations on data communication, information retrieval and datacenter operation will not compensate

  17. Information Waste, the Environment and Human Action: Concepts and Research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijnhoven, Fons; Dietz, Pim; Amrit, Chintan; Hercheui, Magda David; Whitehouse, Diane; McIver Jr., William J.; Phahlamohlaka, Jackie

    2012-01-01

    Information technology is powered by electricity. Although its impact on Green House Gasses (GHG) is still rather limited, the next decade will show an explosion of its impact because technological innovations on data communication, information retrieval and datacenter operation will not compensate

  18. Framework for Human Health Risk Assessment to Inform Decision Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    The purpose of this document is to describe a Framework for conducting human health risk assessments that are responsive to the needs of decision‐making processes in the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA).

  19. Three-dimensional dynamic behaviour of the human knee joint under impact loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Rahman, E M; Hefzy, M S

    1998-06-01

    The objective of this study is to determine the three-dimensional dynamic response of the human knee joint. A three-dimensional anatomical dynamic model was thus developed and consists of two body segments in contact (the femur and tibia) executing a general three-dimensional dynamic motion within the constraints of the different ligamentous structures. Each of the articular surfaces at the tibio-femoral joint was represented mathematically by a separate mathematical function. The joint ligaments were modelled as nonlinear elastic springs. The six-degrees-of-freedom joint motions were characterized by using six kinematic parameters, and ligamentous forces were expressed in terms of these six parameters. Knee response was studied by considering sudden external forcing pulse loads applied to the tibia. Model equations consist of nonlinear second-order ordinary differential equations coupled with nonlinear algebraic constraint conditions. Constraint equations were written to maintain at least one-point contact throughout motion; one- and two-point contact versions of the model were developed. This Differential-Algebraic Equations (DAE) system was solved by employing a DAE solver: the Differential/Algebraic System Solver (DASSL) developed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. A solution representing the response of this three-dimensional dynamic system was thus obtained for the first time. Earlier attempts to determine the system's response were unsuccessful owing to the inherent numerical instabilities in the system and the limitations of the solution techniques. Under the conditions tested, evidence of "femoral roll back" on both medial and lateral tibial plateaus was not observed from the model predictions. In the range of 20 degrees to 66 degrees of knee flexion, the lateral tibial contact point moved posteriorly while the medial tibial contact point moved anteriorly. In the range of 66 degrees to 90 degrees of knee flexion, contact was maintained only on the

  20. Human factors in cybersecurity; examining the link between Internet addiction, impulsivity, attitudes towards cybersecurity, and risky cybersecurity behaviours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadlington, Lee

    2017-07-01

    The present study explored the relationship between risky cybersecurity behaviours, attitudes towards cybersecurity in a business environment, Internet addiction, and impulsivity. 538 participants in part-time or full-time employment in the UK completed an online questionnaire, with responses from 515 being used in the data analysis. The survey included an attitude towards cybercrime and cybersecurity in business scale, a measure of impulsivity, Internet addiction and a 'risky' cybersecurity behaviours scale. The results demonstrated that Internet addiction was a significant predictor for risky cybersecurity behaviours. A positive attitude towards cybersecurity in business was negatively related to risky cybersecurity behaviours. Finally, the measure of impulsivity revealed that both attentional and motor impulsivity were both significant positive predictors of risky cybersecurity behaviours, with non-planning being a significant negative predictor. The results present a further step in understanding the individual differences that may govern good cybersecurity practices, highlighting the need to focus directly on more effective training and awareness mechanisms.

  1. Epidermal growth factor potentiates in vitro metastatic behaviour of human prostate cancer PC-3M cells: involvement of voltage-gated sodium channel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uysal-Onganer Pinar

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although a high level of functional voltage-gated sodium channel (VGSC expression has been found in strongly metastatic human and rat prostate cancer (PCa cells, the mechanism(s responsible for the upregulation is unknown. The concentration of epidermal growth factor (EGF, a modulator of ion channels, in the body is highest in prostatic fluid. Thus, EGF could be involved in the VGSC upregulation in PCa. The effects of EGF on VGSC expression in the highly metastatic human PCa PC-3M cell line, which was shown previously to express both functional VGSCs and EGF receptors, were investigated. A quantitative approach, from gene level to cell behaviour, was used. mRNA levels were determined by real-time PCR. Protein expression was studied by Western blots and immunocytochemistry and digital image analysis. Functional assays involved measurements of transverse migration, endocytic membrane activity and Matrigel invasion. Results Exogenous EGF enhanced the cells' in vitro metastatic behaviours (migration, endocytosis and invasion. Endogenous EGF had a similar involvement. EGF increased VGSC Nav1.7 (predominant isoform in PCa mRNA and protein expressions. Co-application of the highly specific VGSC blocker tetrodotoxin (TTX suppressed the effect of EGF on all three metastatic cell behaviours studied. Conclusion 1 EGF has a major involvement in the upregulation of functional VGSC expression in human PCa PC-3M cells. (2 VGSC activity has a significant intermediary role in potentiating effect of EGF in human PCa.

  2. 75 FR 11940 - Office of the Chief Human Capital Officer; Information Collection; Ancestry and Ethnicity Data...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-12

    ... NATIONAL INTELLIGENCE Office of the Chief Human Capital Officer; Information Collection; Ancestry and... the Chief Human Capital Officer, ODNI, at Washington, DC 20511, or call 703-275-3369. Please cite... submitted on or before April 12, 2010. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: The Office of the Chief...

  3. 78 FR 57394 - Draft Guidance for Industry on Patient Counseling Information Section of Labeling for Human...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-18

    ... products. In the Federal Register of January 24, 2006 (71 FR 3922), FDA published a final rule on labeling... Information Section of Labeling for Human Prescription Drug and Biological Products--Content and Format... Counseling Information Section of Labeling for Human Prescription Drug and Biological Products--Content...

  4. Dynamic systems and inferential information processing in human communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grammer, Karl; Fink, Bernhard; Renninger, LeeAnn

    2002-12-01

    Research in human communication on an ethological basis is almost obsolete. The reasons for this are manifold and lie partially in methodological problems connected to the observation and description of behavior, as well as the nature of human behavior itself. In this chapter, we present a new, non-intrusive, technical approach to the analysis of human non-verbal behavior, which could help to solve the problem of categorization that plagues the traditional approaches. We utilize evolutionary theory to propose a new theory-driven methodological approach to the 'multi-unit multi-channel modulation' problem of human nonverbal communication. Within this concept, communication is seen as context-dependent (the meaning of a signal is adapted to the situation), as a multi-channel and a multi-unit process (a string of many events interrelated in 'communicative' space and time), and as related to the function it serves. Such an approach can be utilized to successfully bridge the gap between evolutionary psychological research, which focuses on social cognition adaptations, and human ethology, which describes every day behavior in an objective, systematic way.

  5. 76 FR 16609 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Identification of Human Cell Lines Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-24

    ...; Identification of Human Cell Lines Project AGENCY: National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST...) profiling up to 1500 human cell line samples as part of the Identification of Human Cell Lines Project. All... for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) and will be used to differentiate among cell lines, as...

  6. 77 FR 74517 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Comment Request; Education and Human Resources Project...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-14

    ... FOUNDATION Agency Information Collection Activities: Comment Request; Education and Human Resources Project...: Education and Human Resources Program Monitoring Clearance. OMB Approval Number: 3145-NEW. Type of Request... parts of the United States and internationally. The Directorate for Education and Human Resources (EHR...

  7. Book Review: Information and Emotion: The Emergent Affective Paradigm in Information Behavior Research and Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid R. Jamali

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Information behaviour is one of the most researched areas in library and information sciences and yet there are areas that have not received enough attention. This is because of the complexity of human behaviour, broadness of the area of information behaviour and constant changes in the information services and the way we make use of information for different aspects of our lives. We have witnessed the development of different paradigms, theories and models in information behaviour research over the last half-century of serious research in this area. As the time passes we can see the different aspects in the field of information behaviour research become granulated and form the focus of new research domains. One of these less researched areas is the role of emotion in our information behaviour. The new edited book Information and Emotion plays an important role in establishing the affective and emotional dimensions in human information behaviour as a developing research area. The book is a collection of an introduction by Diane Nahl and seventeen chapters by twenty four contributors. The introduction briefly presents some background information on the research in the area of affect and emotion in information science and then it introduces the content of the book and summarises the individual chapters.

  8. Natural brain-information interfaces: Recommending information by relevance inferred from human brain signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eugster, Manuel J. A.; Ruotsalo, Tuukka; Spapé, Michiel M.; Barral, Oswald; Ravaja, Niklas; Jacucci, Giulio; Kaski, Samuel

    2016-12-01

    Finding relevant information from large document collections such as the World Wide Web is a common task in our daily lives. Estimation of a user’s interest or search intention is necessary to recommend and retrieve relevant information from these collections. We introduce a brain-information interface used for recommending information by relevance inferred directly from brain signals. In experiments, participants were asked to read Wikipedia documents about a selection of topics while their EEG was recorded. Based on the prediction of word relevance, the individual’s search intent was modeled and successfully used for retrieving new relevant documents from the whole English Wikipedia corpus. The results show that the users’ interests toward digital content can be modeled from the brain signals evoked by reading. The introduced brain-relevance paradigm enables the recommendation of information without any explicit user interaction and may be applied across diverse information-intensive applications.

  9. Human Age Estimation Based on Locality and Ordinal Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Changsheng; Liu, Qingshan; Dong, Weishan; Zhu, Xiaobin; Liu, Jing; Lu, Hanqing

    2015-11-01

    In this paper, we propose a novel feature selection-based method for facial age estimation. The face aging is a typical temporal process, and facial images should have certain ordinal patterns in the aging feature space. From the geometrical perspective, a facial image can be usually seen as sampled from a low-dimensional manifold embedded in the original high-dimensional feature space. Thus, we first measure the energy of each feature in preserving the underlying local structure information and the ordinal information of the facial images, respectively, and then we intend to learn a low-dimensional aging representation that can maximally preserve both kinds of information. To further improve the performance, we try to eliminate the redundant local information and ordinal information as much as possible by minimizing nonlinear correlation and rank correlation among features. Finally, we formulate all these issues into a unified optimization problem, which is similar to linear discriminant analysis in format. Since it is expensive to collect the labeled facial aging images in practice, we extend the proposed supervised method to a semi-supervised learning mode including the semi-supervised feature selection method and the semi-supervised age prediction algorithm. Extensive experiments are conducted on the FACES dataset, the Images of Groups dataset, and the FG-NET aging dataset to show the power of the proposed algorithms, compared to the state-of-the-arts.

  10. Civil Service Human Resource Capacity and Information Technology

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tesfaye

    2009-01-01

    Jan 1, 2009 ... Abstract. The New Public Management (NPM) model has inspired reforms both in ... employees in Ethiopia and USA, so that the gap analysis between the two countries ... model for analysing the relationship between IT and human resource ... changing the structure of the civil service organisations. More.

  11. Integrating Digital Humanities into the Library and Information Science Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moazeni, Sarah Leila

    2015-01-01

    Digital Humanities (DH) is a hot topic, in demand and on the rise. This article begins with excerpts from job listings that were posted to the American Library Association's job list in a two-month span in spring 2015 and they seem to indicate that DH is an increasingly important competency and interest for academic librarians who perform…

  12. How informative is the mouse for human gut microbiota research?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Thi Loan Anh; Vieira-Silva, Sara; Liston, Adrian; Raes, Jeroen

    2015-01-01

    The microbiota of the human gut is gaining broad attention owing to its association with a wide range of diseases, ranging from metabolic disorders (e.g. obesity and type 2 diabetes) to autoimmune diseases (such as inflammatory bowel disease and type 1 diabetes), cancer and even neurodevelopmental disorders (e.g. autism). Having been increasingly used in biomedical research, mice have become the model of choice for most studies in this emerging field. Mouse models allow perturbations in gut microbiota to be studied in a controlled experimental setup, and thus help in assessing causality of the complex host-microbiota interactions and in developing mechanistic hypotheses. However, pitfalls should be considered when translating gut microbiome research results from mouse models to humans. In this Special Article, we discuss the intrinsic similarities and differences that exist between the two systems, and compare the human and murine core gut microbiota based on a meta-analysis of currently available datasets. Finally, we discuss the external factors that influence the capability of mouse models to recapitulate the gut microbiota shifts associated with human diseases, and investigate which alternative model systems exist for gut microbiota research.

  13. Quantification of sensory information in human balance control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooij, van der Herman; Koopman, Bart; Jacobs, Ron; Mergner, Thomas; Grootenboer, Henk

    1998-01-01

    A human balance control model is developed, which includes the different sensory systems as well as neural time delays. The model is based on optimal control theory. Platform perturbation experiments were done to quantify the precision of the different sensory systems by matching model predictions w

  14. How informative is the mouse for human gut microbiota research?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thi Loan Anh Nguyen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The microbiota of the human gut is gaining broad attention owing to its association with a wide range of diseases, ranging from metabolic disorders (e.g. obesity and type 2 diabetes to autoimmune diseases (such as inflammatory bowel disease and type 1 diabetes, cancer and even neurodevelopmental disorders (e.g. autism. Having been increasingly used in biomedical research, mice have become the model of choice for most studies in this emerging field. Mouse models allow perturbations in gut microbiota to be studied in a controlled experimental setup, and thus help in assessing causality of the complex host-microbiota interactions and in developing mechanistic hypotheses. However, pitfalls should be considered when translating gut microbiome research results from mouse models to humans. In this Special Article, we discuss the intrinsic similarities and differences that exist between the two systems, and compare the human and murine core gut microbiota based on a meta-analysis of currently available datasets. Finally, we discuss the external factors that influence the capability of mouse models to recapitulate the gut microbiota shifts associated with human diseases, and investigate which alternative model systems exist for gut microbiota research.

  15. Health information needs, source preferences and engagement behaviours of women with metastatic breast cancer across the care continuum: protocol for a scoping review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Carol A; Martin, M Pilar; Jones, Ray B

    2017-01-01

    Introduction The health information needs, information source preferences and engagement behaviours of women with metastatic breast cancer (mBC) depend on personal characteristics such as education level, prior knowledge, clinical complications, comorbidities and where they are in the cancer journey. A thorough understanding of the information behaviours of women living with mBC is essential to the provision of optimal care. A preliminary literature review suggests that there is little research on this topic, but that there may be lessons from a slightly broader literature. This review will identify what is known and what is not known about the health information needs, acquisition and influences of women with mBC across the care continuum. Findings will help to identify research needs and specific areas where in-depth systematic reviews may be feasible, as well as inform evidence-based interventions to address the health information needs of female patients with mBC with different demographics and characteristics and across the mBC journey. Methods and analysis A scoping review will be performed using the guidelines of Arksey and O'Malley as updated by subsequent authors to systematically search scientific and grey literature for articles in English that discuss the health information needs, source preferences, engagement styles, and associated personal and medical attributes of women ≥18 years living with mBC at different stages of the disease course. A variety of databases (including Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), PubMed, Excerpta Medica Database (EMBASE), Academic Search Premier, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, PsycINFO, Health Source: Nursing/Academic Edition, and PQDT Open), oncology, patient advocacy and governmental websites will be searched from inception to present day. Research and non-research literature will be included; no study designs will be excluded. The six-stage Arksey and O'Malley scoping review

  16. Neighbourhood human capital and the development of children׳s emotional and behavioural problems: the mediating role of parenting and schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Midouhas, Emily; Kuang, Ye; Flouri, Eirini

    2014-05-01

    This study examined how low neighbourhood human capital (measured by percentage of residents with no qualifications) may be related to trajectories of children׳s emotional and behavioural problems from early-to-middle childhood. It also assessed whether effects of neighbourhood human capital or its pathways were moderated by child nonverbal cognitive ability. Using data on 9850 children in England participating in the Millennium Cohort Study, we found that, after adjusting for key child and family background characteristics, the adverse effects of low neighbourhood human capital on hyperactivity and peer problems remained, and were fully attenuated by the achievement level of children׳s schools. The effect of low neighbourhood human capital on the change in conduct problems over time was robust. Moreover, higher nonverbal ability did not dampen the adverse impact of low neighbourhood human capital on the trajectory of conduct problems or that of low performing schools on hyperactivity and peer problems.

  17. Judgements about the Value and Cost of Human Factors Information in Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Catherine M.; Vicente, Kim J.

    1996-01-01

    Describes an empirical evaluation that investigated the criteria by which designers of human-machine systems evaluate design information. Professional designers of nuclear power plant control rooms rated hypothetical information search questions in terms of relevance, importance, cost, and effort based on Rouse's model of information search…

  18. Improving access to health information for older migrants by using grounded theory and social network analysis to understand their information behaviour and digital technology use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodall, K T; Newman, L A; Ward, P R

    2014-11-01

    Migrant well-being can be strongly influenced by the migration experience and subsequent degree of mainstream language acquisition. There is little research on how older Culturally And Linguistically Diverse (CALD) migrants who have 'aged in place' find health information, and the role which digital technology plays in this. Although the research for this paper was not focused on cancer, we draw out implications for providing cancer-related information to this group. We interviewed 54 participants (14 men and 40 women) aged 63-94 years, who were born in Italy or Greece, and who migrated to Australia mostly as young adults after World War II. Constructivist grounded theory and social network analysis were used for data analysis. Participants identified doctors, adult children, local television, spouse, local newspaper and radio as the most important information sources. They did not generally use computers, the Internet or mobile phones to access information. Literacy in their birth language, and the degree of proficiency in understanding and using English, influenced the range of information sources accessed and the means used. The ways in which older CALD migrants seek and access information has important implications for how professionals and policymakers deliver relevant information to them about cancer prevention, screening, support and treatment, particularly as information and resources are moved online as part of e-health.

  19. Contextual Sensing: Integrating Contextual Information with Human and Technical Geo-Sensor Information for Smart Cities

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sagl, Günther; Resch, Bernd; Blaschke, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    ... approach from a geospatial perspective. We start by highlighting the significance of context in general and spatiotemporal context in particular and introduce a smart city model of interactions between humans, the environment...

  20. Human Factors and Information Security: Individual, Culture and Security Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    simple strategy is to invest in shredders ; sensitive and valuable information can be easily obtained by going through the rubbish bins of an...et al., 2006). Several defences against social engineering can be used to reduce the threat and they include such actions as using shredders to

  1. Sources of Information for Discriminating Dynamic Human Actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loucks, Jeff; Baldwin, Dare

    2009-01-01

    Despite the importance of action identification and discrimination in action perception and social cognition more broadly, little research has investigated how these processes are achieved. To this end, we sought to identify the extent to which adults capitalize on featural versus configural sources of information when discriminating small-scale…

  2. Sources of Information for Discriminating Dynamic Human Actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loucks, Jeff; Baldwin, Dare

    2009-01-01

    Despite the importance of action identification and discrimination in action perception and social cognition more broadly, little research has investigated how these processes are achieved. To this end, we sought to identify the extent to which adults capitalize on featural versus configural sources of information when discriminating small-scale…

  3. Decoding Information in the Human Hippocampus: A User's Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chadwick, Martin J.; Bonnici, Heidi M.; Maguire, Eleanor A.

    2012-01-01

    Multi-voxel pattern analysis (MVPA), or "decoding", of fMRI activity has gained popularity in the neuroimaging community in recent years. MVPA differs from standard fMRI analyses by focusing on whether information relating to specific stimuli is encoded in patterns of activity across multiple voxels. If a stimulus can be predicted, or decoded,…

  4. Therapeutic Targets of Triglyceride Metabolism as Informed by Human Genetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Robert C; Khetarpal, Sumeet A; Hand, Nicholas J; Rader, Daniel J

    2016-04-01

    Human genetics has contributed to the development of multiple drugs to treat hyperlipidemia and coronary artery disease (CAD), most recently including antibodies targeting PCSK9 to reduce LDL cholesterol. Despite these successes, a large burden of CAD remains. Genetic and epidemiological studies have suggested that circulating triglyceride (TG)-rich lipoproteins (TRLs) are a causal risk factor for CAD, presenting an opportunity for novel therapeutic strategies. We discuss recent unbiased human genetics testing, including genome-wide association studies (GWAS) and whole-genome or -exome sequencing, that have identified the lipoprotein lipase (LPL) and hepatic lipogenesis pathways as important mechanisms in the regulation of circulating TRLs. Further strengthening the causal relationship between TRLs and CAD, findings such as these may provide novel targets for much-needed potential therapeutic interventions. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Resident physicians as human information systems: sources yet seekers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bass, Ellen J; DeVoge, Justin Michael; Waggoner-Fountain, Linda A; Borowitz, Stephen M

    2013-01-01

    Objective To characterize question types that residents received on overnight shifts and what information sources were used to answer them. Materials and Methods Across 30 overnight shifts, questions asked of on-call senior residents, question askers’ roles, and residents’ responses were documented. External sources were noted. Results 158 of 397 questions (39.8%) related to the plan of care, 53 (13.4%) to medical knowledge, 48 (12.1%) to taskwork knowledge, and 44 (11.1%) to the current condition of patients. For 351 (88.4%) questions residents provided specific, direct answers or visited the patient. For 16 of these, residents modeled or completed the task. For 216 questions, residents used previous knowledge or their own clinical judgment. Residents solicited external information sources for 118 questions and only a single source for 77 (65.3%) of them. For the 118, most questions concerned either the plan of care or the patient's current condition and were asked by interns and nurses (those with direct patient care responsibilities). Discussion Resident physicians serve as an information system and they often specifically answer the question using previous knowledge or their own clinical judgment, suggesting that askers are contacting an appropriately knowledgeable person. However, they do need to access patient information such as the plan of care. They also serve an educator role and answer many knowledge-related questions. Conclusions As synchronous verbal communications continue to be important pathways for information flow, informaticians need to consider the relationship between such communications and workflow in the development of healthcare support tools. PMID:23268485

  6. Informed consent in human experimentation before the Nuremberg code.

    OpenAIRE

    Vollmann, J; Winau, R.

    1996-01-01

    The issue of ethics with respect to medical experimentation in Germany during the 1930s and 1940s was crucial at the Nuremberg trials and related trials of doctors and public health officials. Those involved in horrible crimes attempted to excuse themselves by arguing that there were no explicit rules governing medical research on human beings in Germany during the period and that research practices in Germany were not different from those in allied countries. In this context the Nuremberg co...

  7. Multisensory Information Processing For Enhanced Human Machine Symbiosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-02

    features on a single-trial basis. Based on chance accu- racy of 25%, ECoG-based decoding showed overall ~40% performance levels for detection of vowels ...nants and vowels . For detecting attention and orientation, the setup is similar to that for imagined speech detection. Each subject was presented...contact measurement of users’ emotional state through thermal imaging. Proceedings of the 2005 ACM Confer- ence on Human Factors in Computing Systems (CHI

  8. Consumer behaviour regarding energy products

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Evelina Gradinaru; Lorant Bucs; Gabriel Bratucu

    2016-01-01

    ... challenge if one considers achieving them sustainably. That being said, the present paper gives emphasis to some theoretical and practical information regarding the consumer behaviour regarding energy products...

  9. Interaction in Information Systems - Beyond Human-Computer Interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bækgaard, Lars

    The purpose of this paper is to discuss and analyze the role of interaction in information systems. Interaction represents dynamic relations between actors and other elements in information systems. We introduce a semi-formal notation that we use to describe a set of interaction patterns and we...... illustrate how the notation can be used to describe mediated interaction. We use the interaction patterns to evaluate a set of modeling languages. No single language supports all relevant aspects of interaction modeling. We use the interaction patterns to identify to general and supplementary forms...... of interaction-interaction based on exchange of objects and interaction based on exchange of commands. None of the modeling languages that we analyze support both forms in a rich way....

  10. Irrational choice and the value of information

    OpenAIRE

    Marco Vasconcelos; Tiago Monteiro; Alex Kacelnik

    2015-01-01

    Irrational decision making in humans and other species challenges the use of optimality in behavioural biology. Here we show that such observations are in fact powerful tools to understand the adaptive significance of behavioural mechanisms. We presented starlings choices between probabilistic alternatives, receiving or not information about forthcoming, delayed outcomes after their choices. Subjects could not use this information to alter the outcomes. Paradoxically, outcome information indu...

  11. Application Design of Human Resource Information System on Binus Student Learning Community of Bina Nusantara University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eileen Heriyanni

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Information exchange between human resources within an organization is a valuable asset that must be managed properly. Information technology now supports information management between human resources through Human Resource Information System (HRIS. Binus Student Learning Community (BSLC implementsdifferent technologies for each work they performed so that affect the quality of information exchange and performance of their members. This study aims to streamline the used technology in BSLC by combining it all into the same system through the implementation of HRIS constructed by Extreme Programming (XP method. Results of this research is the web-based HRIS BSLC application and expected to improve the quality of information exchange and optimize the performance of BSLC’s members.

  12. Aplication Design of Human Resource Information System on Binus Student Learning Community of Bina Nusantara University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eileen Heriyanni

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Information exchange between human resources within an organization is a valuable asset that must be managed properly. Information technology now supports information management between human resources through Human Resource Information System (HRIS. Binus Student Learning Community (BSLC implements different technologies for each work they performed so that affect the quality of information exchange and performance of their members. This study aims to streamline the used technology in BSLC by combining it all into the same system through the implementation of HRIS constructed by Extreme Programming (XP method. Results of this research is the web-based HRIS BSLC application and expected to improve the quality of information exchange and optimize the performance of BSLCs members.

  13. On the dependence of information display quality requirements upon human characteristics and pilot/automatics relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilckens, V.

    1972-01-01

    Present information display concepts for pilot landing guidance are outlined considering manual control as well as substitution of man by fully competent automatics. Display improvements are achieved by compressing the distributed indicators into an accumulative display and thus reducing information scanning. Complete integration of quantitative indications, outer loop information, and real world display in a pictorial information channel geometry constitutes an interface with human ability to differentiate and integrate for optimal manual control of the aircraft.

  14. Informal Justice Systems: Charting a Course for Human Rights-Based Engagement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kerrigan, Fergus; McKay, Anne Louise; Kristiansen, Annali

    engagement with informal justice systems can build greater respect and protection for human rights. It highlights the considerations that development partners should have when assessing whether to implement programmes involving informal justice systems, the primary consideration being that engagement...... with the informal justice systems neither directly nor inadvertently reinforces existing societal or structural discrimination – a consideration that applies to working with formal justice systems as well. The study also examines the value of informal justice systems in offering, in certain contexts, flexible...

  15. Privacy and human behavior in the age of information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acquisti, Alessandro; Brandimarte, Laura; Loewenstein, George

    2015-01-30

    This Review summarizes and draws connections between diverse streams of empirical research on privacy behavior. We use three themes to connect insights from social and behavioral sciences: people's uncertainty about the consequences of privacy-related behaviors and their own preferences over those consequences; the context-dependence of people's concern, or lack thereof, about privacy; and the degree to which privacy concerns are malleable—manipulable by commercial and governmental interests. Organizing our discussion by these themes, we offer observations concerning the role of public policy in the protection of privacy in the information age. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  16. Evaluation of Self-Ratings for Health Information Behaviour Skills Requires More Heterogeneous Sample, but Finds that Public Library Print Collections and Health Information Literacy of Librarians Needs Improvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carol Perryman

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective – To understand public library users’ perceptions of ability to locate, evaluate, and use health information; to identify barriers experienced in finding and using health information; and to compare self-ratings of skills to an administered instrument. Design – Mixed methods. Setting – Main library and two branches of one public library system in Florida. Subjects – 20 adult library users purposively selected from 131 voluntary respondents to a previously conducted survey (Yi, 2014 based on age range, ethnicity, gender, and educational level. Of the 20, 13 were female; 11 White, 8 Black, 1 Native American; most had attained college or graduate school education levels (9 each, with 2 having graduated from high school. 15 respondents were aged 45 or older. Methods – Intensive interviews conducted between April and May 2011 used critical incident technique to inquire about a recalled health situation. Participants responded to questions about skill self-appraisal, health situation severity, information seeking and assessment behaviour, use of information, barriers, and outcome. Responses were compared to results of the short form of the Test of Functional Health Literacy in Adults (S-TOFHLA test, administered to participants. Main Results – On a scale of 100, participants’ S-TOFHLA scores measured at high levels of proficiency, with 90% rating 90 points or above. Self-ratings of ability to find health information related to recalled need were ”excellent” (12 participants or “good” (8 participants. Fourteen participants did not seek library assistance; 12 began their search on the Internet, 5 searched the library catalogue, and 3 reported going directly to the collection. Resource preferences were discussed, although no frequency descriptions were provided. 90% of participants self-rated their ability to evaluate the quality of health information as “good” or “excellent.” Participants selected authority

  17. Representation of behaviourally relevant information by blowfly motion-sensitive visual interneurons requires precise compensatory head movements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kern, R.; Hateren, J.H. van; Egelhaaf, M.

    2006-01-01

    Flying blowflies shift their gaze by saccadic turns of body and head, keeping their gaze basically fixed between saccades. For the head, this results in almost pure translational optic flow between saccades, enabling visual interneurons in the fly motion pathway to extract information about translat

  18. How Work Positions Affect the Research Activity and Information Behaviour of Laboratory Scientists in the Research Lifecycle: Applying Activity Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Nahyun

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: This study was conducted to investigate the characteristics of research and information activities of laboratory scientists in different work positions throughout a research lifecycle. Activity theory was applied as the conceptual and analytical framework. Method: Taking a qualitative research approach, in-depth interviews and field…

  19. Nutrition-related information seeking behaviours before and throughout the course of pregnancy: consequences for nutrition communication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Szwajcer, E.M.; Hiddink, G.J.; Koelen, M.A.; Woerkum, van C.M.J.

    2005-01-01

    Background: Research has shown that especially pregnant women, and also women with a wish for a child, have increased nutrition awareness. Seeking nutrition information seemed to be an important determinant for nutrition awareness. However, little research has been carried out about

  20. Representation of behaviourally relevant information by blowfly motion-sensitive visual interneurons requires precise compensatory head movements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kern, R.; Hateren, J.H. van; Egelhaaf, M.

    2006-01-01

    Flying blowflies shift their gaze by saccadic turns of body and head, keeping their gaze basically fixed between saccades. For the head, this results in almost pure translational optic flow between saccades, enabling visual interneurons in the fly motion pathway to extract information about