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Sample records for human histamine h1

  1. [Mutagenesis of the human histamine H1 receptor and design of new antihistamine agents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Differding, E; Gillard, M; Moguilevsky, N; Varsalona, F; Noyer, M; Daliers, J; Goldstein, S; Neuwels, M; Lassoie, M A; Guillaume, J P; Bascour, M; Bollen, A; Hénichart, J P

    1996-01-01

    The binding cavity of histamine and histamine antagonists is explored using site directed mutagenesis of the human histamine H1 receptor and the amino acids involved in ligand binding are identified. Whereas Asp107 and Phe199 are important for both agonists and antagonists, two additional amino acids (Asn198 and Trp103) are required for efficient histamine binding. The binding site of antagonists is best defined as resulting from a strong ionic bond to Asp107, an orthogonal interaction between one of the aromatic rings with Phe199, and probably a hydrophobic interaction between the second aromatic ring and the lipophilic amino acids of the upper part of TMIV and TMV. This is consistent with structure-activity data of most described antagonists.

  2. Pharmacological and functional characterisation of the wild-type and site-directed mutants of the human H1 histamine receptor stably expressed in CHO cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moguilevsky, N; Varsalona, F; Guillaume, J P; Noyer, M; Gillard, M; Daliers, J; Henichart, J P; Bollen, A

    1995-01-01

    A cDNA clone for the human histamine H1 receptor was isolated from a lung cDNA library and stably expressed in CHO cells. The recombinant receptor protein present in the cell membranes, displayed the functional and binding characteristics of histamine H1 receptors. Mutation of Ser155 to Ala in the fourth transmembrane domain did not significantly change the affinity of the receptor for histamine and H1 antagonists. However, mutation of the fifth transmembrane Asn198 to Ala resulted in a dramatic decrease of the affinity for histamine binding, and for the histamine-induced polyphosphoinositides breakdown, whereas the affinity towards antagonists was not significantly modified. In addition, mutation of another fifth transmembrane amino acid, Thr194 to Ala also diminished, but to a lesser extent, the affinity for histamine. These data led us to propose a molecular model for histamine interaction with the human H1 receptor. In this model, the amide moiety of Asn198 and the hydroxyl group of Thr194 are involved in hydrogen bonding with the nitrogen atoms of the imidazole ring of histamine. Moreover, mutation of Thr194 to Ala demonstrated that this residue is responsible for the discrimination between enantiomers of cetirizine.

  3. C-terminal of human histamine H1 receptors regulates their agonist-induced clathrin-mediated internalization and G-protein signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hishinuma, Shigeru; Nozawa, Hiroki; Akatsu, Chizuru; Shoji, Masaru

    2016-11-01

    It has been suggested that the agonist-induced internalization of G-protein-coupled receptors from the cell surface into intracellular compartments regulates cellular responsiveness. We previously reported that Gq/11 -protein-coupled human histamine H1 receptors internalized via clathrin-dependent mechanisms upon stimulation with histamine. However, the molecular determinants of H1 receptors responsible for agonist-induced internalization remain unclear. In this study, we evaluated the roles of the intracellular C-terminal of human histamine H1 receptors tagged with hemagglutinin (HA) at the N-terminal in histamine-induced internalization in Chinese hamster ovary cells. The histamine-induced internalization was evaluated by the receptor binding assay with [(3) H]mepyramine and confocal immunofluorescence microscopy with an anti-HA antibody. We found that histamine-induced internalization was inhibited under hypertonic conditions or by pitstop, a clathrin terminal domain inhibitor, but not by filipin or nystatin, disruptors of the caveolar structure and function. The histamine-induced internalization was also inhibited by truncation of a single amino acid, Ser487, located at the end of the intracellular C-terminal of H1 receptors, but not by its mutation to alanine. In contrast, the receptor-G-protein coupling, which was evaluated by histamine-induced accumulation of [(3) H]inositol phosphates, was potentiated by truncation of Ser487, but was lost by its mutation to alanine. These results suggest that the intracellular C-terminal of human H1 receptors, which only comprises 17 amino acids (Cys471-Ser487), plays crucial roles in both clathrin-dependent internalization of H1 receptors and G-protein signaling, in which truncation of Ser487 and its mutation to alanine are revealed to result in biased signaling toward activation of G-proteins and clathrin-mediated internalization, respectively.

  4. Characteristics of the mouse genomic histamine H1 receptor gene

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    Inoue, Isao; Taniuchi, Ichiro; Kitamura, Daisuke [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan)] [and others

    1996-08-15

    We report here the molecular cloning of a mouse histamine H1 receptor gene. The protein deduced from the nucleotide sequence is composed of 488 amino acid residues with characteristic properties of GTP binding protein-coupled receptors. Our results suggest that the mouse histamine H1 receptor gene is a single locus, and no related sequences were detected. Interspecific backcross analysis indicated that the mouse histamine H1 receptor gene (Hrh1) is located in the central region of mouse Chromosome 6 linked to microphthalmia (Mitfmi), ras-related fibrosarcoma oncogene 1 (Raf1), and ret proto-oncogene (Ret) in a region of homology with human chromosome 3p. 12 refs., 3 figs.

  5. Sensory responses of human skin to synthetic histamine analogues and histamine.

    OpenAIRE

    Davies, M. G.; Greaves, M W

    1980-01-01

    The potential for itch production in human skin of the synthetic analogues of histamine, 2-methyl histamine (an H1-receptor agonist) and 4-methyl histamine and dimaprit (H2-receptor agonists) has been studied in vivo and compared with histamine. Itch thresholds for 2-methyl histamine were consistently much higher than for histamine (P < 0.001). The H1-receptor antagonist chlorpheniramine raised the itch thresholds to 2-methyl histamine and histamine significantly (P < 0.001). Pruritus was not...

  6. Stable expression of human H1-histamine-receptor cDNA in Chinese hamster ovary cells. Pharmacological characterisation of the protein, tissue distribution of messenger RNA and chromosomal localisation of the gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moguilevsky, N; Varsalona, F; Noyer, M; Gillard, M; Guillaume, J P; Garcia, L; Szpirer, C; Szpirer, J; Bollen, A

    1994-09-01

    A cDNA clone for the histamine H1 receptor was isolated from a human lung cDNA library; it encoded a protein of 487 amino acids which showed characteristic features of G-protein-coupled receptors. The percentages of identity of the deduced amino acid sequence with bovine, rat and guinea pig H1 histamine receptors were 82.6%, 79.4% and 73.3%, respectively, whereas these percentages decreased to 74.6%, 66% and 56.7% for the amino acid sequence of the third intracellular loop. The human H1-receptor cDNA was transfected into Chinese hamster ovary cells (CHO) via an eukaryotic expression vector; the receptor protein present on cell membranes specifically bound [3H]mepyramine with a Kd of 3.7 nM. The binding was displaced by H1-histamine-receptor antagonists and histamine. Northern blot analysis indicated the presence of two histamine H1 receptor mRNAs of 3.5 kb and 4.1 kb in various human tissues and an additional mRNA of 4.8 kb restricted to the human brain. Finally, by means of somatic cell hybrids segregating either human or rat chromosomes, the gene for histamine H1 receptor was found to reside on human chromosome 3 and rat chromosome 4.

  7. [11C]Doxepin binding to histamine H1 receptors in living human brain: reproducibility during attentive waking and circadian rhythm

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    Shibuya, Katsuhiko; Funaki, Yoshihito; Hiraoka, Kotaro; Yoshikawa, Takeo; Naganuma, Fumito; Miyake, Masayasu; Watanuki, Shoichi; Sato, Hirotoshi; Tashiro, Manabu; Yanai, Kazuhiko

    2012-01-01

    Molecular imaging in neuroscience is a new research field that enables visualization of the impact of molecular events on brain structure and function in humans. While magnetic resonance-based imaging techniques can provide complex information at the level of system, positron emission tomography (PET) enables determination of the distribution and density of receptor and enzyme in the human brain. Previous studies using [11C]raclopride and [11C]FLB457 revealed that the release of neuronal dopamine was increased in human brain by psychostimulants or reward stimuli. Following on from these previous [11C]raclopride studies, we examined whether the levels of neuronal release of histamine might change [11C]doxepin binding to the H1 receptors under the influence of physiological stimuli. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the test–retest reliability of quantitative measurement of [11C]doxepin binding between morning and afternoon and between resting and attentive waking conditions in healthy human subjects. There was a trend for a decrease in [11C]doxepin binding during attentive calculation tasks compared with that in resting conditions, but the difference (less than 10%) was not significant. Similarly, the binding potential of [11C]doxepin in the cerebral cortex was slightly higher in the morning than that in the afternoon, but it was also insignificant. These data suggest that higher histamine release during wakefulness could not decrease the [11C]doxepin binding in the brain. This study confirmed the reproducibility and reliability of [11C]doxepin in the previous imaging studies to measure the H1 receptor. PMID:22701403

  8. Interaktionen von Histamin H1-Rezeptoragonisten und –antagonisten mit dem humanen Histamin H4-Rezeptor

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Der humane Histamin H(4)-Rezeptor (hH(4)R) zeichnet sich durch hohe konstitutive Aktivität aus und ist wie der humane H(1)-Rezeptor (hH(1)R) in die Pathogenese von allergischen Reaktionen vom Typ I involviert. Die Ziele der Untersuchungen waren die Evaluierung des Wertes von dualen H(1)/H(4)R Antagonisten als antiallergische Medikamente und die Klärung der Frage, ob H(1)R Liganden an den hH(4)R binden. Am in Sf9-Insektenzellen exprimierten hH(4)R zeigten 18 H(1)R Antagonisten und 22 H(1)R Ago...

  9. Histamine H1 receptor occupancy and pharmacodynamics of second generation H1-antihistamines.

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    Gillard, M; Benedetti, M Strolin; Chatelain, P; Baltes, E

    2005-09-01

    The predictive efficacy of drugs in humans is frequently estimated from both a high affinity for their receptor as measured in vitro and a long plasmatic half-life. This is grossly misleading since one key parameter is missing: drug concentration at the receptor site in vivo. As a case study we compared the efficacies of three H(1) antihistamines in inhibiting histamine-induced wheal and flare in humans at two different time points with the above mentioned parameters. It is concluded that estimating in vivo receptor occupancy, which takes into account both the affinity of the drug for the receptor and its free plasma concentration, is a far better predictor for human pharmacodynamics and hence antihistamine potency, than considering in vitro affinity and plasmatic half-life only.

  10. Histamine H1 antagonists and clinical characteristics of febrile seizures

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    Zolaly MA

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Mohammed A ZolalyDepartment of Pediatrics, College of Medicine, Taibah University, Al-Madinah Al-Munawarah, Kingdom of Saudi ArabiaBackground: The purpose of this study was to determine whether seizure susceptibility due to antihistamines is provoked in patients with febrile seizures.Methods: The current descriptive study was carried out from April 2009 to February 2011 in 250 infants and children who visited the Madinah Maternity and Children's Hospital as a result of febrile convulsions. They were divided into two groups according to administration of antihistamines at the onset of fever.Results: Detailed clinical manifestations were compared between patients with and without administration of antihistamines. The time from fever detection to seizure onset was significantly shorter in the antihistamine group than that in the nonantihistamine group, and the duration of seizures was significantly longer in the antihistamine group than in the nonantihistamine group. No significant difference was found in time from fever detection to seizure onset or seizure duration between patients who received a first-generation antihistamine and those who received a second-generation antihistamine.Conclusion: Due to their central nervous system effects, H1 antagonists should not be administered to patients with febrile seizures and epilepsy. Caution should be exercised regarding the use of histamine H1 antagonists in young infants, because these drugs could potentially disturb the anticonvulsive central histaminergic system.Keywords: antihistamine, nonantihistamine, histamine H1 antagonist, febrile seizures

  11. 2-Thiazolylethylamine, a selective histamine H1 agonist, decreases seizure susceptibility in mice.

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    Yokoyama, H; Onodera, K; Iinuma, K; Watanabe, T

    1994-03-01

    The effects of intracerebroventricular (ICV) administration of histamine and its selective agonists on electrically and pentylenetetrazole-induced convulsions in mice were studied. The ICV administration of histamine decreased seizure susceptibility on electrically and pentylenetetrazole-induced convulsions significantly and dose-dependently. The inhibitory effects of histamine were well antagonized by centrally acting histamine H1 antagonists such as pyrilamine (or mepyramine) and ketotifen, but not by a peripherally acting histamine H1 antagonist, astemizole, or a centrally acting H2 antagonist, zolantidine. The ICV administration of 2-thiazolylethylamine, a selective histamine H1 agonist, also decreased seizure susceptibility, which could be antagonized by centrally acting histamine H1 antagonists, whereas dimaprit, a selective histamine H2 agonist, did not affect seizure susceptibility. These findings strengthened the idea that the central histaminergic neuron system plays an inhibitory role in convulsions.

  12. Histamine H1 Receptor Gene Expression and Drug Action of Antihistamines.

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    Fukui, Hiroyuki; Mizuguchi, Hiroyuki; Nemoto, Hisao; Kitamura, Yoshiaki; Kashiwada, Yoshiki; Takeda, Noriaki

    2016-11-25

    The upregulation mechanism of histamine H1 receptor through the activation of protein kinase C-δ (PKCδ) and the receptor gene expression was discovered. Levels of histamine H1 receptor mRNA and IL-4 mRNA in nasal mucosa were elevated by the provocation of nasal hypersensitivity model rats. Pretreatment with antihistamines suppressed the elevation of mRNA levels. Scores of nasal symptoms were correlatively alleviated to the suppression level of mRNAs above. A correlation between scores of nasal symptoms and levels of histamine H1 receptor mRNA in the nasal mucosa was observed in patients with pollinosis. Both scores of nasal symptoms and the level of histamine H1 receptor mRNA were improved by prophylactic treatment of antihistamines. Similar to the antihistamines, pretreatment with antiallergic natural medicines showed alleviation of nasal symptoms with correlative suppression of gene expression in nasal hypersensitivity model rats through the suppression of PKCδ. Similar effects of antihistamines and antiallergic natural medicines support that histamine H1 receptor-mediated activation of histamine H1 receptor gene expression is an important signaling pathway for the symptoms of allergic diseases. Antihistamines with inverse agonist activity showed the suppression of constitutive histamine H1 receptor gene expression, suggesting the advantage of therapeutic effect.

  13. Effects of histamine H(1) receptor antagonists on depressive-like behavior in diabetic mice.

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    Hirano, Shoko; Miyata, Shigeo; Onodera, Kenji; Kamei, Junzo

    2006-02-01

    We previously reported that streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice showed depressive-like behavior in the tail suspension test. It is well known that the central histaminergic system regulates many physiological functions including emotional behaviors. In this study, we examined the role of the central histaminergic system in the diabetes-induced depressive-like behavior in the mouse tail suspension test. The histamine contents in the hypothalamus were significantly higher in diabetic mice than in non-diabetic mice. The histamine H(1) receptor antagonist chlorpheniramine (1-10 mg/kg, s.c.) dose-dependently and significantly reduced the duration of immobility in both non-diabetic and diabetic mice. In contrast, the selective histamine H(1) receptor antagonists epinastine (0.03-0.3 microg/mouse, i.c.v.) and cetirizine (0.01-0.1 microg/mouse, i.c.v.) dose-dependently and significantly suppressed the duration of immobility in diabetic mice, but not in non-diabetic mice. Spontaneous locomotor activity was not affected by histamine H(1) receptor antagonists in either non-diabetic or diabetic mice. In addition, the number and affinity of histamine H(1) receptors in the frontal cortex were not affected by diabetes. In conclusion, we suggest that the altered neuronal system mediated by the activation of histamine H(1) receptors is involved, at least in part, in the depressive-like behavior seen in diabetic mice.

  14. The interaction between histamine H1 receptor and μ- opioid receptor in scratching behavior in ICR mice.

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    Nakasone, Tasuku; Sugimoto, Yumi; Kamei, Chiaki

    2016-04-15

    In this study, we examined the interaction between histamine H1 receptor and μ-opioid receptor in scratching behavior in ICR mice. Both histamine and morphine caused scratching and simultaneous injection of histamine and morphine had an additive effect. Chlorpheniramine and naloxone inhibited histamine-induced scratching behavior. These two drugs also inhibited morphine-induced scratching behavior. Simultaneous injection of chlorpheniramine and naloxone caused a significant inhibition of histamine-induced scratching compared with separate injections. The same findings were also noted for morphine-induced scratching. These results strongly indicate a close relationship between histamine H1 receptor and μ-opioid receptor in scratching behavior in ICR mice.

  15. Histamine H1-receptors modulate somatostatin receptors coupled to the inhibition of adenylyl cyclase in the rat frontoparietal cortex

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    Puebla Jiménez, Lilian; Ocaña Fuentes, Aurelio; Arilla Ferreiro, Eduardo

    1997-01-01

    Since exogenous histamine has been previously shown to increase the somatostatin (SS) receptor-effector system in the rat frontoparietal cortex and both histamine H1-receptor agonists and SS modulate higher nervous activity and have anticonvulsive properties, it was of interest to determine the participation of the H1-histaminergic system in this response. The intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) administration of the specific histamine H1-receptor agonist 2-pyridylethylamine (PEA) (10 ¿g) to rat...

  16. 组胺H_1受体与拮抗剂的相互作用%The Interactions between Histamine H1 Receptor and Histamine H1 Receptor Antagonists

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苗菁

    2012-01-01

    利用分子对接手段对H1受体与组胺以及各种拮抗剂的相互作用进行研究发现,组胺和各类拮抗剂与靶点之间的相互作用各有不同。组胺与靶点间的相互作用是以氢键为主的电性相互作用。经典的H1受体拮抗剂与受体间则以p-π、π-π相互作用为主,而无嗜睡作用的H1受体拮抗剂更是氢键、p-π、π-π相互作用皆有体现。%Through the method of docking, a study on the interactions between H1 receptor and H, receptor antagonists as well as histamine was carried out. The results indicated that the interactions between H1 receptor and histamine were dominated by H - bond, while the ones between H1 receptor and classic H1 receptor antagonists were mainly about p-π and π-πinteractions, and those with nonsedating histamine H1 receptor antagonists were including all three kinds of interactions mentioned above.

  17. Synthesis and Dual Histamine H1 and H2 Receptor Antagonist Activity of Cyanoguanidine Derivatives

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Premedication with a combination of histamine H1 receptor (H1R) and H2 receptor (H2R) antagonists has been suggested as a prophylactic principle, for instance, in anaesthesia and surgery. Aiming at pharmacological hybrids combining H1R and H2R antagonistic activity, a series of cyanoguanidines 14–35 was synthesized by linking mepyramine-type H1R antagonist substructures with roxatidine-, tiotidine-, or ranitidine-type H2R antagonist moieties. N-desmethylmepyramine was connected via a poly-met...

  18. Desipramine inhibits histamine H1 receptor-induced Ca2+ signaling in rat hypothalamic cells.

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    Ji-Ah Kang

    Full Text Available The hypothalamus in the brain is the main center for appetite control and integrates signals from adipose tissue and the gastrointestinal tract. Antidepressants are known to modulate the activities of hypothalamic neurons and affect food intake, but the cellular and molecular mechanisms by which antidepressants modulate hypothalamic function remain unclear. Here we have investigated how hypothalamic neurons respond to treatment with antidepressants, including desipramine and sibutramine. In primary cultured rat hypothalamic cells, desipramine markedly suppressed the elevation of intracellular Ca(2+ evoked by histamine H1 receptor activation. Desipramine also inhibited the histamine-induced Ca(2+ increase and the expression of corticotrophin-releasing hormone in hypothalamic GT1-1 cells. The effect of desipramine was not affected by pretreatment with prazosin or propranolol, excluding catecholamine reuptake activity of desipramine as an underlying mechanism. Sibutramine which is also an antidepressant but decreases food intake, had little effect on the histamine-induced Ca(2+ increase or AMP-activated protein kinase activity. Our results reveal that desipramine and sibutramine have different effects on histamine H1 receptor signaling in hypothalamic cells and suggest that distinct regulation of hypothalamic histamine signaling might underlie the differential regulation of food intake between antidepressants.

  19. Proliferative Effects of Histamine on Primary Human Pterygium Fibroblasts

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    Zhenwei Qin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. It has been confirmed that inflammatory cytokines are involved in the progression of pterygium. Histamine can enhance proliferation and migration of many cells. Therefore, we intend to investigate the proliferative and migratory effects of histamine on primary culture of human pterygium fibroblasts (HPFs. Methods. Pterygium and conjunctiva samples were obtained from surgery, and toluidine blue staining was used to identify mast cells. 3-[4, 5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT was performed to evaluate the proliferative rate of HPFs and human conjunctival fibroblasts (HCFs; ki67 expression was also measured by immunofluorescence analysis. Histamine receptor-1 (H1R antagonist (Diphenhydramine Hydrochloride and histamine receptor-2 (H2R antagonist (Nizatidine were added to figure out which receptor was involved. Wound healing model was used to evaluate the migratory ability of HPFs. Results. The numbers of total mast cells and degranulated mast cells were both higher in pterygium than in conjunctiva. Histamine had a proliferative effect on both HPFs and HCFs, the effective concentration (10 μmol/L on HPFs was lower than on HCFs (100 μmol/L, and the effect could be blocked by H1R antagonist. Histamine showed no migratory effect on HPFs. Conclusion. Histamine may play an important role in the proliferation of HPFs and act through H1R.

  20. In vitro study of histamine and histamine receptor ligands influence on the adhesion of purified human eosinophils to endothelium.

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    Grosicki, Marek; Wójcik, Tomasz; Chlopicki, Stefan; Kieć-Kononowicz, Katarzyna

    2016-04-15

    It is a well-known fact that histamine is involved in eosinophil-dependent inflammatory responses including cellular chemotaxis and migration. Nevertheless, the relative role of histamine receptors in the mechanisms of eosinophils adhesion to endothelial cells is not known. Therefore the aim of presented study was to examine the effect of selective histamine receptors ligands on eosinophils adhesion to endothelium. For that purpose the highly purified human eosinophils have been isolated from the peripheral blood. The viability and functional integrity of isolated eosinophils have been validated in several tests. Histamine as well as 4-methylhistamine (selective H4 agonist) in concentration-dependent manner significantly increased number of eosinophils that adhere to endothelium. Among the selective histamine receptors antagonist or H1 inverse agonist only JNJ7777120 (histamine H4 antagonist) and thioperamide (dual histamine H3/H4 antagonist) had direct effect on eosinophils adhesion to endothelial cells. Antagonists of H1 (diphenhydramine, mepyramine) H2 (ranitidine and famotidine) and H3 (pitolisant) histamine receptors were ineffective. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to demonstrate that histamine receptor H4 plays a dominant role in histamine-induced eosinophils adhesion to endothelium.

  1. Memory retrieval of inhibitory avoidance requires histamine H1 receptor activation in the hippocampus.

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    Fabbri, Roberta; Furini, Cristiane Regina Guerino; Passani, Maria Beatrice; Provensi, Gustavo; Baldi, Elisabetta; Bucherelli, Corrado; Izquierdo, Ivan; de Carvalho Myskiw, Jociane; Blandina, Patrizio

    2016-05-10

    Retrieval represents a dynamic process that may require neuromodulatory signaling. Here, we report that the integrity of the brain histaminergic system is necessary for retrieval of inhibitory avoidance (IA) memory, because rats depleted of histamine through lateral ventricle injections of α-fluoromethylhistidine (a-FMHis), a suicide inhibitor of histidine decarboxylase, displayed impaired IA memory when tested 2 d after training. a-FMHis was administered 24 h after training, when IA memory trace was already formed. Infusion of histamine in hippocampal CA1 of brain histamine-depleted rats (hence, amnesic) 10 min before the retention test restored IA memory but was ineffective when given in the basolateral amygdala (BLA) or the ventral medial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC). Intra-CA1 injections of selective H1 and H2 receptor agonists showed that histamine exerted its effect by activating the H1 receptor. Noteworthy, the H1 receptor antagonist pyrilamine disrupted IA memory retrieval in rats, thus strongly supporting an active involvement of endogenous histamine; 90 min after the retention test, c-Fos-positive neurons were significantly fewer in the CA1s of a-FMHis-treated rats that displayed amnesia compared with in the control group. We also found reduced levels of phosphorylated cAMP-responsive element binding protein (pCREB) in the CA1s of a-FMHis-treated animals compared with in controls. Increases in pCREB levels are associated with retrieval of associated memories. Targeting the histaminergic system may modify the retrieval of emotional memory; hence, histaminergic ligands might reduce dysfunctional aversive memories and improve the efficacy of exposure psychotherapies.

  2. Histamine H1 and endothelin ETB receptors mediate phospholipase D stimulation in rat brain hippocampal slices.

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    Sarri, E; Picatoste, F; Claro, E

    1995-08-01

    Different neurotransmitter receptor agonists [carbachol, serotonin, noradrenaline, histamine, endothelin-1, and trans-(1S,3R)-aminocyclopentyl-1,3-dicarboxylic acid (trans-ACPD)], known as stimuli of phospholipase C in brain tissue, were tested for phospholipase D stimulation in [32P]Pi-prelabeled rat brain cortical and hippocampal slices. The accumulation of [32P]phosphatidylethanol was measured as an index of phospholipase D-catalyzed transphosphatidylation in the presence of ethanol. Among the six neurotransmitter receptor agonists tested, only noradrenaline, histamine, endothelin-1, and trans-ACPD stimulated phospholipase D in hippocampus and cortex, an effect that was strictly dependent of the presence of millimolar extracellular calcium concentrations. The effect of histamine (EC50 18 microM) was inhibited by the H1 receptor antagonist mepyramine with a Ki constant of 0.7 nM and was resistant to H2 and H3 receptor antagonists (ranitidine and tioperamide, respectively). Endothelin-1-stimulated phospholipase D (EC50 44 nM) was not blocked by BQ-123, a specific antagonist of the ETA receptor. Endothelin-3 and the specific ETB receptor agonist safarotoxin 6c were also able to stimulate phospholipase D with efficacies similar to that of endothelin-1, and EC50 values of 16 and 3 nM, respectively. These results show that histamine and endothelin-1 stimulate phospholipase D in rat brain through H1 and ETB receptors, respectively.

  3. Activation of mesolimbic dopaminergic neurons following central administration of histamine is mediated by H1 receptors.

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    Fleckenstein, A E; Lookingland, K J; Moore, K E

    1993-01-01

    The effect of intracerebroventricular administration of histamine on the activity of mesolimbic and nigrostriatal dopaminergic (DA) neurons was determined in male rats. The activity of these neurons was estimated by measuring: (1) the accumulation of 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPA) after administration of a decarboxylase inhibitor, and (2) the concentration of 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) in the nucleus accumbens and striatum, which contain the terminals of these neurons. Central administration of histamine increased both DOPA accumulation and DOPAC concentrations in the nucleus accumbens, but was without effect in the striatum. The increase in DOPAC concentrations in the nucleus accumbens occurred within 10 min and was sustained for at least 120 min. The H1 antagonist mepyramine blocked whereas the H2 antagonist zolantidine did not affect histamine-induced increases in DOPAC concentrations in the nucleus accumbens. Neither mepyramine nor zolantidine affected basal DOPAC concentrations in the nucleus accumbens. These results indicate that central administration of histamine stimulates mesolimbic DA neurons through an action at the H1 receptor, but has no effect upon the activity of nigrostriatal DA neurons.

  4. Inhibition of tryptase release from human colon mast cells by histamine receptor antagonists.

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    He, Shao-Heng; Xie, Hua; Fu, Yi-Ling

    2005-03-01

    The main objective of this study was to investigate the ability of histamine receptor antagonists to modulate tryptase release from human colon mast cells induced by histamine. Enzymatically dispersed cells from human colon were challenged with histamine in the absence or presence of the histamine receptor antagonists, and the tryptase release was determined. It was found that histamine induced tryptase release from colon mast cells was inhibited by up to approximately 61.5% and 24% by the H1 histamine receptor antagonist terfenadine and the H2 histamine receptor antagonist cimetidine, respectively, when histamine and its antagonists were added to cells at the same time. The H3 histamine receptor antagonist clobenpropit had no effect on histamine induced tryptase release from colon mast cells at all concentrations tested. Preincubation of terfenadine, cimetidine or clobenpropit with cells for 20 minutes before challenging with histamine did not enhance the ability of these antihistamines to inhibit histamine induced tryptase release. Apart from terfenadine at 100 microg/ml, the antagonists themselves did not stimulate tryptase release from colon mast cells following both 15 minutes and 35 minutes incubation periods. It was concluded that H1 and H2 histamine receptor antagonists were able to inhibit histamine induced tryptase release from colon mast cells. This not only added some new data to our hypothesis of self-amplification mechanisms of mast cell degranulation, but also suggested that combining these two types of antihistamine drugs could be useful for the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD).

  5. Histamine Excites Rat Superior Vestibular Nuclear Neurons via Postsynaptic H1 and H2 Receptors in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian-Xing Zhuang

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The superior vestibular nucleus (SVN, which holds a key position in vestibulo-ocular reflexes and nystagmus, receives direct hypothalamic histaminergic innervations. By using rat brainstem slice preparations and extracellular unitary recordings, we investigated the effect of histamine on SVN neurons and the underlying receptor mechanisms. Bath application of histamine evoked an excitatory response of the SVN neurons, which was not blocked by the low-Ca2+/high-Mg2+ medium, indicating a direct postsynaptic effect of the amine. Selective histamine H1 receptor agonist 2-pyridylethylamine and H2 receptor agonist dimaprit, rather than VUF8430, a selective H4 receptor agonist, mimicked the excitation of histamine on SVN neurons. In addition, selective H1 receptor antagonist mepyramine and H2 receptor antagonist ranitidine, but not JNJ7777120, a selective H4 receptor antagonist, partially blocked the excitatory response of SVN neurons to histamine. Moreover, mepyramine together with ranitidine nearly totally blocked the histamine-induced excitation. Immunostainings further showed that histamine H1 and H2 instead of H4 receptors existed in the SVN. These results demonstrate that histamine excites the SVN neurons via postsynaptic histamine H1 and H2 receptors, and suggest that the central histaminergic innervation from the hypothalamus may actively bias the SVN neuronal activity and subsequently modulate the SVN-mediated vestibular functions and gaze control.

  6. Synthesis and Dual Histamine H1 and H2 Receptor Antagonist Activity of Cyanoguanidine Derivatives

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    Bassem Sadek

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Premedication with a combination of histamine H1 receptor (H1R and H2 receptor (H2R antagonists has been suggested as a prophylactic principle, for instance, in anaesthesia and surgery. Aiming at pharmacological hybrids combining H1R and H2R antagonistic activity, a series of cyanoguanidines 14–35 was synthesized by linking mepyramine-type H1R antagonist substructures with roxatidine-, tiotidine-, or ranitidine-type H2R antagonist moieties. N-desmethylmepyramine was connected via a poly-methylene spacer to a cyanoguanidine group as the “urea equivalent” of the H2R antagonist moiety. The title compounds were screened for histamine antagonistic activity at the isolated ileum (H1R and the isolated spontaneously beating right atrium (H2R of the guinea pig. The results indicate that, depending on the nature of the H2R antagonist partial structure, the highest H1R antagonist potency resided in roxatidine-type compounds with spacers of six methylene groups in length (compound 21, and tiotidine-type compounds irrespective of the alkyl chain length (compounds 28, 32, 33, N-cyano-N'-[2-[[(2-guanidino-4-thiazolylmethyl]thio]ethyl]-N″-[2-[N-[2-[N-(4-methoxybenzyl-N-(pyridyl-amino] ethyl]-N-methylamino]ethyl] guanidine (25, pKB values: 8.05 (H1R, ileum and 7.73 (H2R, atrium and the homologue with the mepyramine moiety connected by a six-membered chain to the tiotidine-like partial structure (compound 32, pKB values: 8.61 (H1R and 6.61 (H2R were among the most potent hybrid compounds. With respect to the development of a potential pharmacotherapeutic agent, structural optimization seems possible through selection of other H1R and H2R pharmacophoric moieties with mutually affinity-enhancing properties.

  7. Suppression of Osteopontin Functions by Levocetirizine, a Histamine H1 Receptor Antagonist, In Vitro

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    Toshimitsu Komatsuzaki

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. Osteopontin (OPN, a multifunctional glycoprotein secreted from a wide variety of cells after inflammatory stimulation, is well accepted to contribute to the development of allergic diseases. However, the influence of histamine H1 receptor antagonists (antihistamines on OPN functions is not well understood. The present study was undertaken to examine the influence of antihistamines on OPN functions in vitro. Methods. Human nasal epithelial cells (5×105 cells were stimulated with 250 ng/mL OPN in the presence of either desloratadine (DL, fexofenadine (FEX, or levocetirizine (LCT. The levels of OPN, GM-CSF, Eotaxin, and RANTES in 24 h culture supernatants were examined by ELISA. The influence of LCT on mRNA expression and transcription factor activation in cells were also examined by real-time RT-PCR and ELISA, respectively. Key Findings. The antihistamines examined significantly suppressed the production of GM-CSF, Eotaxin, and RANTES from cells after OPN stimulation. LCT also exhibited the suppression of mRNA expression for chemokines and transcription factor, NF-κB and AP-1, activation, which were increased by the stimulation of cells with OPN. Conclusions. The suppressive activity of LCT on OPN functions on nasal epithelial cells may be responsible for the attenuating effect of the agent on allergic diseases.

  8. Histamine increases cytosolic Ca2+ in dibutyryl-cAMP-differentiated HL-60 cells via H1 receptors and is an incomplete secretagogue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seifert, R; Höer, A; Offermanns, S; Buschauer, A; Schunack, W

    1992-08-01

    Human neutrophils and dibutyryl-cAMP (Bt2cAMP)-differentiated HL-60 cells possess receptors for the chemotactic peptide N-formyl-L-methionyl-L-leucyl-L-phenylalanine (fMet-Leu-Phe), which mediate activation of phospholipase C, with subsequent increase in cytosolic Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) and activation of specific cell functions. In many cell types, histamine, via H1 receptors, activates phospholipase C, but it is unknown whether neutrophilic cells possess functional H1 receptors. We compared the effects of histamine with those of fMet-Leu-Phe on activation of these cells. In Bt2cAMP-differentiated HL-60 cells, substances increased [Ca2+]i in the effectiveness order fMet-Leu-Phe greater than histamine greater than betahistine. Pertussis toxin diminished fMet-Leu-Phe-induced rises in [Ca2+]i to a greater extent than those induced by histamine. H1 but not H2 antagonists inhibited histamine- and betahistine-induced rises in [Ca2+]i. fMet-Leu-Phe and histamine activated phospholipase C and increased [Ca2+]i through release of Ca2+ from intracellular stores and sustained influx of Ca2+ from the extracellular space. The substances also induced Mn2+ influx. Ca2+ and Mn2+ influxes were inhibited by 1-(beta-[3-(4-methoxyphenyl)propoxyl]-4-methoxyphenethyl)-1H-imida zole hydrochloride (SK&F 96365). The stimulatory effects of histamine on [Ca2+]i were more sensitive to inhibition by 4 beta-phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate than were those of fMet-Leu-Phe. Unlike fMet-Leu-Phe, histamine did not activate superoxide anion formation, release of beta-glucuronidase, and tyrosine phosphorylation. In neutrophils, histamine and betahistine did not induce rises in [Ca2+]i. Our data show that (i) in Bt2cAMP-differentiated HL-60 cells, histamine increases [Ca2+]i via H1 receptors coupled to pertussis toxin-sensitive and possibly, pertussis toxin-insensitive heterotrimeric regulatory guanine nucleotide-binding proteins, (ii) histamine activates nonselective cation channels, and (iii

  9. [Molecular imaging of histamine receptors in the human brain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tashiro, Manabu; Yanai, Kazuhiko

    2007-03-01

    Brain histamine is involved in a wide range of physiological functions such as regulation of sleep-wake cycle, arousal, appetite control, cognition, learning and memory mainly through the 4 receptor subtypes: H1, H2, H3 and H4. Neurons producing histamine, histaminergic neurons, are exclusively located in the tuberomammillary nucleus of the posterior hypothalamus and are transmitting histamine to almost all regions of the brain. Roles of brain histamine have been studied using animals including knock-out mice and human subjects. For clinical studies, molecular imaging technique such as positron emission tomography (PET), with ligands such as [11C]doxepin and [11C]pyrilamine, has been a useful tool. A series of clinical studies on histamine H1 antagonists, or antihistamines, have demonstrated that antihistamines can be classified into sedative, mildly-sedative and non-sedative drugs according to their blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability, showing apparent clinical usefulness regarding QOL, work efficiency and traffic safety of allergic patients. PET has also been used for elucidation of aging effects and pathophysiological roles of histaminergic nervous system in various neuropsychiatric disorders such as Alzheimer's disease, schizophrenia and depression, where H1 receptor binding potentials were lower than age-matched healthy controls. It has been also demonstrated that brain histamine functions as an endogenous anti-epileptic. In addition, H3 receptors are located in the presynaptic sites of not only histaminergic nerves but also in other nervous systems such as serotonergic, cholinergic and dopaminergic systems, and to be regulating secretion of various neurotransmitters. Nowadays, H3 receptors have been thought to be a new target of drug treatment of various neuropsychiatric disorders. There are still many research topics to be investigated regarding molecular imaging of histamine and histamine receptors. The authors hope that this line of research contributes

  10. Estrogenic regulation of histamine receptor subtype H1 expression in the ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus in female rats.

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    Hiroko Mori

    Full Text Available Female sexual behavior is controlled by central estrogenic action in the ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus (VMN. This region plays a pivotal role in facilitating sex-related behavior in response to estrogen stimulation via neural activation by several neurotransmitters, including histamine, which participates in this mechanism through its strong neural potentiating action. However, the mechanism through which estrogen signaling is linked to the histamine system in the VMN is unclear. This study was undertaken to investigate the relationship between estrogen and histamine receptor subtype H1 (H1R, which is a potent subtype among histamine receptors in the brain. We show localization of H1R exclusively in the ventrolateral subregion of the female VMN (vl VMN, and not in the dorsomedial subregion. In the vl VMN, abundantly expressed H1R were mostly colocalized with estrogen receptor α. Intriguingly, H1R mRNA levels in the vl VMN were significantly elevated in ovariectomized female rats treated with estrogen benzoate. These data suggest that estrogen can amplify histamine signaling by enhancing H1R expression in the vl VMN. This enhancement of histamine signaling might be functionally important for allowing neural excitation in response to estrogen stimulation of the neural circuit and may serve as an accelerator of female sexual arousal.

  11. Histamine releases PGI2 from human pulmonary artery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schellenberg, R R; Duff, M J; Foster, A; Paddon, H B

    1986-08-01

    Histamine caused a triphasic response of human pulmonary artery strips in vitro, consisting of a small initial contraction followed by pronounced relaxation preceding a second contractile response. These characteristics were not seen with other contractile stimuli including 5-hydroxytryptamine, leukotriene D4, and KCl. The relaxant component of this response was ablated by removal of endothelium from the vascular strips or by pretreatment of the tissue with 1 microM indomethacin. Measurement of the PGI2 degradation product 6-keto-PGF1 alpha in supernatants from histamine-challenged tissues confirmed the synthesis of PGI2. Supernatants from unstimulated or leukotriene-challenged tissues contained no detectable amounts of 6-keto-PGF1 alpha. The histamine H1 antagonist diphenydramine inhibited both the contractile and relaxant responses to histamine whereas the H2 antagonist cimetidine affected neither component. The released PGI2 significantly altered the dose-response curve to histamine without inhibiting the maximal contractile responses. We conclude that histamine induces PGI2 formation from pulmonary arterial endothelium via an H1 receptor.

  12. Antidepressant-like effects of endogenous histamine and of two histamine H1 receptor agonists in the mouse forced swim test

    OpenAIRE

    Lamberti, Claudia; Ipponi, Alessandro; Bartolini, Alessandro; Schunack, Walter; Malmberg-Aiello, Petra

    1998-01-01

    Effects of substances which are able to alter brain histamine levels and two histamine H1 receptor agonists were investigated in mice by means of an animal model of depression, the forced swim test.Imipramine (10 and 30 mg kg−1, i.p.) and amitriptyline (5 and 15 mg kg−1, i.p.) were used as positive controls. Their effects were not affected by pretreatment with the histamine H3 receptor agonist, (R)-α-methylhistamine, at a dose (10 mg kg−1, i.p.) which did not modify the cumulative time of imm...

  13. Selective histamine H1 antagonism: novel hypnotic and pharmacologic actions challenge classical notions of antihistamines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahl, Stephen M

    2008-12-01

    Numerous "antihistamines" as well as various psychotropic medications with antihistamine properties are widely utilized to treat insomnia. Over-the-counter sleep aids usually contain an antihistamine and various antidepressants and antipsychotics with antihistamine properties have sedative-hypnotic actions. Although widely used for the treatment of insomnia, many agents that block the histamine H1 receptor are also widely considered to have therapeutic limitations, including the development of next-day carryover sedation, as well as problems with chronic use, such as the development of tolerance to sedative-hypnotic actions and weight gain. Although these clinical actions are classically attributed to blockade of the H1 receptor, recent findings with H1 selective agents and H1 selective dosing of older agents are challenging these notions and suggest that some of the clinical limitations of current H1-blocking agents at their currently utilized doses could be attributable to other properties of these drugs, especially to their simultaneous actions on muscarinic, cholinergic, and adrenergic receptors. Selective H1 antagonism is emerging as a novel approach to the treatment of insomnia, without tolerance, weight gain, or the need for the restrictive prescription scheduling required of other hypnotics.

  14. The histaminergic system regulates wakefulness and orexin/hypocretin neuron development via histamine receptor H1 in zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundvik, Maria; Kudo, Hisaaki; Toivonen, Pauliina; Rozov, Stanislav; Chen, Yu-Chia; Panula, Pertti

    2011-12-01

    The histaminergic and hypocretin/orexin (hcrt) neurotransmitter systems play crucial roles in alertness/wakefulness in rodents. We elucidated the role of histamine in wakefulness and the interaction of the histamine and hcrt systems in larval zebrafish. Translation inhibition of histidine decarboxylase (hdc) with morpholino oligonucleotides (MOs) led to a behaviorally measurable decline in light-associated activity, which was partially rescued by hdc mRNA injections and mimicked by histamine receptor H1 (Hrh1) antagonist pyrilamine treatment. Histamine-immunoreactive fibers targeted the dorsal telencephalon, an area that expresses histamine receptors hrh1 and hrh3 and contains predominantly glutamatergic neurons. Tract tracing with DiI revealed that projections from dorsal telencephalon innervate the hcrt and histaminergic neurons. Translation inhibition of hdc decreased the number of hcrt neurons in a Hrh1-dependent manner. The reduction was rescued by overexpression of hdc mRNA. hdc mRNA injection alone led to an up-regulation of hcrt neuron numbers. These results suggest that histamine is essential for the development of a functional and intact hcrt system and that histamine has a bidirectional effect on the development of the hcrt neurons. In summary, our findings provide evidence that these two systems are linked both functionally and developmentally, which may have important implications in sleep disorders and narcolepsy. development via histamine receptor H1 in zebrafish.

  15. Histamine acting on H1 receptor promotes inhibition of proliferation via PLC, RAC, and JNK-dependent pathways.

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    Notcovich, Cintia; Diez, Federico; Tubio, Maria Rosario; Baldi, Alberto; Kazanietz, Marcelo G; Davio, Carlos; Shayo, Carina

    2010-02-01

    It is well established that histamine modulates cell proliferation through the activation of the histamine H1 receptor (H1R), a G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) that is known to couple to phospholipase C (PLC) activation via Gq. In the present study, we aimed to determine whether H1R activation modulates Rho GTPases, well-known effectors of Gq/G(11)-coupled receptors, and whether such modulation influences cell proliferation. Experiments were carried out in CHO cells stably expressing H1R (CHO-H1R). By using pull-down assays, we found that both histamine and a selective H1R agonist activated Rac and RhoA in a time- and dose-dependent manner without significant changes in the activation of Cdc42. Histamine response was abolished by the H1R antagonist mepyramine, RGS2 and the PLC inhibitor U73122, suggesting that Rac and RhoA activation is mediated by H1R via Gq coupling to PLC stimulation. Histamine caused a marked activation of serum response factor activity via the H1R, as determined with a serum-responsive element (SRE) luciferase reporter, and this response was inhibited by RhoA inactivation with C3 toxin. Histamine also caused a significant activation of JNK which was inhibited by expression of the Rac-GAP beta2-chimaerin. On the other hand, H1R-induced ERK1/2 activation was inhibited by U73122 but not affected by C3 or beta2-chimaerin, suggesting that ERK1/2 activation was dependent on PLC and independent of RhoA or Rac. [(3)H]-Thymidine incorporation assays showed that both histamine and the H1R agonist inhibited cell proliferation in a dose-dependent manner and that the effect was independent of RhoA but partially dependent on JNK and Rac. Our results reveal that functional coupling of the H1R to Gq-PLC leads to the activation of RhoA and Rac small GTPases and suggest distinct roles for Rho GTPases in the control of cell proliferation by histamine.

  16. Histamine acting on H1 receptor promotes inhibition of proliferation via PLC, RAC, and JNK-dependent pathways

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Notcovich, Cintia [Laboratorio de Patologia y Farmacologia Molecular, Instituto de Biologia y Medicina Experimental (Argentina); Laboratorio de Farmacologia de Receptores, Catedra de Quimica Medicinal, Departamento de Farmacologia, Facultad de Farmacia y Bioquimica, Universidad de Buenos Aires (Argentina); Diez, Federico [Laboratorio de Farmacologia de Receptores, Catedra de Quimica Medicinal, Departamento de Farmacologia, Facultad de Farmacia y Bioquimica, Universidad de Buenos Aires (Argentina); Tubio, Maria Rosario [Laboratorio de Patologia y Farmacologia Molecular, Instituto de Biologia y Medicina Experimental (Argentina); Laboratorio de Farmacologia de Receptores, Catedra de Quimica Medicinal, Departamento de Farmacologia, Facultad de Farmacia y Bioquimica, Universidad de Buenos Aires (Argentina); Baldi, Alberto [Laboratorio de Patologia y Farmacologia Molecular, Instituto de Biologia y Medicina Experimental (Argentina); Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Kazanietz, Marcelo G. [Department of Pharmacology, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Davio, Carlos [Laboratorio de Farmacologia de Receptores, Catedra de Quimica Medicinal, Departamento de Farmacologia, Facultad de Farmacia y Bioquimica, Universidad de Buenos Aires (Argentina); Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Shayo, Carina, E-mail: cshayo@dna.uba.ar [Laboratorio de Patologia y Farmacologia Molecular, Instituto de Biologia y Medicina Experimental (Argentina); Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2010-02-01

    It is well established that histamine modulates cell proliferation through the activation of the histamine H1 receptor (H1R), a G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) that is known to couple to phospholipase C (PLC) activation via Gq. In the present study, we aimed to determine whether H1R activation modulates Rho GTPases, well-known effectors of Gq/G{sub 11}-coupled receptors, and whether such modulation influences cell proliferation. Experiments were carried out in CHO cells stably expressing H1R (CHO-H1R). By using pull-down assays, we found that both histamine and a selective H1R agonist activated Rac and RhoA in a time- and dose-dependent manner without significant changes in the activation of Cdc42. Histamine response was abolished by the H1R antagonist mepyramine, RGS2 and the PLC inhibitor U73122, suggesting that Rac and RhoA activation is mediated by H1R via Gq coupling to PLC stimulation. Histamine caused a marked activation of serum response factor activity via the H1R, as determined with a serum-responsive element (SRE) luciferase reporter, and this response was inhibited by RhoA inactivation with C3 toxin. Histamine also caused a significant activation of JNK which was inhibited by expression of the Rac-GAP {beta}2-chimaerin. On the other hand, H1R-induced ERK1/2 activation was inhibited by U73122 but not affected by C3 or {beta}2-chimaerin, suggesting that ERK1/2 activation was dependent on PLC and independent of RhoA or Rac. [{sup 3}H]-Thymidine incorporation assays showed that both histamine and the H1R agonist inhibited cell proliferation in a dose-dependent manner and that the effect was independent of RhoA but partially dependent on JNK and Rac. Our results reveal that functional coupling of the H1R to Gq-PLC leads to the activation of RhoA and Rac small GTPases and suggest distinct roles for Rho GTPases in the control of cell proliferation by histamine.

  17. Effects of histamine H1 receptor signaling on glucocorticoid receptor activity. Role of canonical and non-canonical pathways

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zappia, C.D.; Granja-Galeano, G.; Fernández, N.; Shayo, C.; Davio, C.; Fitzsimons, C.P.; Monczor, F.

    2015-01-01

    Histamine H1 receptor (H1R) antagonists and glucocorticoid receptor (GR) agonists are used to treat inflammatory conditions such as allergic rhinitis, atopic dermatitis and asthma. Consistent with the high morbidity levels of such inflammatory conditions, these receptors are the targets of a vast nu

  18. Analysis of the activation mechanism of the guinea-pig Histamine H1-receptor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straßer, Andrea; Wittmann, Hans-Joachim

    2007-09-01

    The Histamine H1-receptor (H1R), belonging to the amine receptor-class of family A of the G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) gets activated by agonists. The consequence is a conformational change of the receptor, which may involve the binding-pocket. So, for a good prediction of the binding-mode of an agonist, it is necessary to have knowledge about these conformational changes. Meanwhile some experimental data about the structural changes of GPCRs during activation exist. Based on homology modeling of the guinea-pig H1R (gpH1R), using the crystal structure of bovine rhodopsin as template, we performed several MD simulations with distance restraints in order to get an inactive and an active structure of the gpH1R. The calculations led to a Phe6.44/Trp6.48/Phe6.52-switch and linearization of the proline kinked transmembrane helix VI during receptor activation. Our calculations showed that the Trp6.48/Phe6.52-switch induces a conformational change in Phe6.44, which slides between transmembrane helices III and VI. Additionally we observed a hydrogen bond interaction of Ser3.39 with Asn7.45 in the inactive gpH1R, but because of a counterclockwise rotation of transmembrane helix III Ser3.39 establishes a water-mediated hydrogen bond to Asp2.50 in the active gpH1R. Additionally we simulated a possible mechanism for receptor activation with a modified LigPath-algorithm.

  19. Opposite functions of histamine H1 and H2 receptors and H3 receptor in substantia nigra pars reticulata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Fu-Wen; Xu, Jian-Jun; Zhao, Yu; LeDoux, Mark S; Zhou, Fu-Ming

    2006-09-01

    The substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNr) is a key basal ganglia output nucleus. Inhibitory outputs from SNr are encoded in spike frequency and pattern of the inhibitory SNr projection neurons. SNr output intensity and pattern are often abnormal in movement disorders of basal ganglia origin. In Parkinson's disease, histamine innervation and histamine H3 receptor expression in SNr may be increased. However, the functional consequences of these alterations are not known. In this study, whole cell patch-clamp recordings were used to elucidate the function of different histamine receptors in SNr. Histamine increased SNr inhibitory projection neuron firing frequency and thus inhibitory output. This effect was mediated by activation of histamine H1 and H2 receptors that induced inward currents and depolarization. In contrast, histamine H3 receptor activation hyperpolarized and inhibited SNr inhibitory projection neurons, thus decreasing the intensity of basal ganglia output. By the hyperpolarization, H3 receptor activation also increased the irregularity of the interspike intervals or changed the pattern of SNr inhibitory neuron firing. H3 receptor-mediated effects were normally dominated by those mediated by H1 and H2 receptors. Furthermore, endogenously released histamine provided a tonic, H1 and H2 receptor-mediated excitation that helped keep SNr inhibitory projection neurons sufficiently depolarized and spiking regularly. These results suggest that H1 and H2 receptors and H3 receptor exert opposite effects on SNr inhibitory projection neurons. Functional balance of these different histamine receptors may contribute to the proper intensity and pattern of basal ganglia output and, as a consequence, exert important effects on motor control.

  20. Lack of the specific influence of histamine and histamine H1, H2 and H3 receptor ligands on the serotonin uptake and release in rat blood platelets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawlak, D; Malinowska, B; Wollny, T; Godlewski, G; Buczko, W

    1996-01-01

    This work was designed to investigate the influence of histamine, and H1 receptor agonist 2-(2-thiazolyl)ethylamine, H2 receptor agonist dimaprit and H3 receptor agonist R-(-)-alpha-methylhistamine on the serotonin uptake and release in rat blood platelets. Histamine and R-(-)-alpha-methylhistamine (up to 1 mmol/l), 2-(2-thiazolyl)ethylamine (up to 10 mumol/l) and dimaprit (up to 1 mumol/l) failed to affect the serotonin uptake. The concentration-dependent inhibitory effects of higher concentrations of 2-(2-thiazolyl)ethylamine and dimaprit (up to 1 mmol/l) were not diminished by the H1 receptor antagonist dimetindene and the H2 receptor antagonist ranitidine (1 and 100 mumol/l each), respectively. Histamine, 2-(2-thiazolyl)ethylamine, dimaprit and R-(-)-alpha-methylhistamine (up to 10 mumol/l) did not change the serotonin release from rat blood platelets. Our results demonstrate that histamine and histamine H1, H2 and H3 receptor agonists do not affect in a specific manner the serotonin uptake and release in rat blood platelets.

  1. The role of histamine H1 and H4 receptors in atopic dermatitis: from basic research to clinical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohsawa, Yusuke; Hirasawa, Noriyasu

    2014-12-01

    Histamine plays important roles in inflammation and nervous irritability in allergic disorders, including atopic dermatitis (AD). It has been shown to regulate the expression of pruritic factors, such as nerve growth factor and semaphorin 3A, in skin keratinocytes via histamine H1 receptor (H1R). Furthermore, H1R antagonist reduced the level of IL-31, a cytokine involving the skin barrier and pruritus, in chronic dermatitis lesions in NC/Nga mice and patients with AD. Histamine plays roles in the induction of allergic inflammation by activating eosinophils, mast cells, basophils, and Th2 cells via histamine H4 receptor (H4R). H4R, in addition to H1R, is expressed on sensory neurons, and a decrease in scratching behaviors was observed in H4R-deficient mice and mice treated with a H4R antagonist. We found that the combined administration of H1R and H4R antagonists inhibited the itch response and chronic allergic inflammation, and had a pharmacological effect similar to that of prednisolone. Although the oral administration of H1R antagonists is widely used to treat AD, it is not very effective. In contrast, JNJ39758979, a novel H4R antagonist, had marked effects against pruritus in Japanese patients with AD in a phase II clinical trial. Next generation antihistaminic agents possessing H1R and H4R antagonistic actions may be a potent therapeutic drug for AD.

  2. Identification of histaminic (H1-type receptors in small intestine of broilers by application of histamine and some of its agonists and antagonists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mujezinović Indira

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Histamine is a biologically active amine (biogenic amine that has a broad spectra of physiologic and pathologic reactions in the organism. Its effects are shown through 4 types of specific receptors (H1, H2, H3 and H4. Histamine is one of the main causes of intestine disorders and the occurrence of diarrhea, both of which are very common in broilers. Whilst there is no information in scientific literature about the presence of histaminic receptors in smooth muscles of the small intestine wall of broilers (duodenum, jejunum and ileum, we tried to determine their presence, distribution and type in this kind of muscles. Investigations were carried out on isolated smooth muscles of the circular and longitudinal layer of the broiler small intestine (strip dimension 3-4 mm x 2 cm. The muscle strip was then placed in an isolated organ bath and the contractions obtained were registered with isometric transducers on a two-channel printer. This was done following the addition of histamine, betahistine (H1 agonist, and mepiramine (H1 antagonist. Muscle vitality was checked by adding acethylcholine chloride. Using the obtained results, it can be concluded that H1 types of histaminergic receptors are present in smooth muscles of the small intestine of broilers. .

  3. 组胺H1受体缺乏改变小鼠脑内组胺含量及昼夜节律%HISTAMINE H1 RECEPTOR DEFICIENCY ALTERS BRAIN HISTAMINE CONTENTS AND CIRCADIAN RHYTHM IN MICE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    洪宗元

    2005-01-01

    在乙谜麻醉下,分别于明时(8:00 a.m.)及暗时(8:00 p.m.)断头处死野生型及组胺H1R基因敲除型小鼠,迅速取出脑组织并分离出皮层、纹状体、海马、下丘脑、丘脑、中脑及脑干等脑区.这些脑组织被制成匀浆并用HPLC荧光检测法测量其组胺含量.结果显示暗时处死时,H1R基因敲除型小鼠海马、丘脑、中脑及脑干中的组胺含量明显低于野生型小鼠.明时处死时,野生型小鼠各脑区组胺含量均较暗时处死显著降低,但这一变化在H1R基因敲除型小鼠中并未观察到.这些表明作为组胺的功能靶,H1R不仅介导组胺的功能,而且调节大脑中组胺含量与释放的昼夜节律.%Under anesthesia by diethyl ether, histamine H1 receptor (H1R) gene knockout (KO) and wild-type (WT) mice were killed by decapitation either at 8:00 p.m. or at 8:00 a.m. The brains were quickly removed out and divided on ice into seven regions: the cortex, striatum, hippocampus, hypothalamus, thalamus, midbrain and medulla. These brain regions were homogenized and the histamine content in the homogenate was determined by HPLC- fluorometry. The results showed that at 8:00 p.m. histamine contents in the hippocampus, thalamus, midbrain, and medulla of DPR-KO mice were significantly decreased compared with WT mice (P<0.05). In WT mice, histamine contents in almost all brain regions were markedly higher at 8:00 p.m. than at 8:00 a.m, whereas the difference was not observed in H1R KO mice. We conclude that as the function target of histamine, H1R not only modulates the function of histamine, but also regulates the histamine content and its synthesizing or releasing rhythm in the mouse brain.

  4. Activation of noradrenergic neurons projecting to the diencephalon following central administration of histamine is mediated by H1 receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleckenstein, A E; Lookingland, K J; Moore, K E

    1994-02-28

    The effect of histamine on the activity of noradrenergic neurons terminating in discrete regions of the diencephalon was examined in male rats. Noradrenergic neuronal activity was estimated by measuring the concentration of norepinephrine and its metabolite 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylethyleneglycol [MHPG] in the medial zona incerta [MZI] and in the dorsomedial [DMN], periventricular [PeVN] and medial preoptic hypothalamic nuclei [MPN]. The intracerebroventricular administration of histamine effected a time-related increase in MHPG concentrations in the MZI, DMN, PeVN and MPN; these effects were blocked by the H1 antagonist mepyramine but not the H2 antagonist zolantidine. Neither mepyramine nor zolantidine affected basal MHPG concentrations in any of the brain regions examined. These results indicate that central administration of histamine increases the activity of noradrenergic neurons projecting to the diencephalon via an action at H1 but not H2 receptors.

  5. Typical and Atypical Antipsychotic Drugs Increase Extracellular Histamine Levels in the Rat Medial Prefrontal Cortex: Contribution of Histamine H1 Receptor Blockade

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    Kjell A Svensson

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Atypical antipsychotics such as clozapine and olanzapine have been shown to enhance histamine turnover and this effect has been hypothesized to contribute to their improved therapeutic profile compared to typical antipsychotics. In the present study, we examined the effects of antipsychotic drugs on histamine (HA efflux in the mPFC of the rat by means of in vivo microdialysis and sought to differentiate the receptor mechanisms which underlie such effects. Olanzapine and clozapine increased mPFC HA efflux in a dose related manner. Increased HA efflux was also observed after quetiapine, chlorpromazine and perphenazine treatment. We found no effect of the selective 5-HT2A antagonist MDL100907, 5-HT2c antagonist SB242084 or the 5-HT6 antagonist Ro 04-6790 on mPFC HA efflux. HA efflux was increased following treatment with selective H1 receptor antagonists pyrilamine, diphenhydramine and triprolidine, the H3 receptor antagonist ciproxifan and the mixed 5HT2A/H1 receptor antagonist ketanserin. The potential novel antipsychotic drug FMPD, which has a lower affinity at H1 receptors than olanzapine, did not affect HA efflux. Similarly, other antipsychotics with lower H1 receptor affinity (risperidone, aripiprazole and haloperidol were also without effect on HA efflux. Perfusion of clozapine and pyrilamine into the TMN, but not the mPFC, increased local HA efflux. Finally, HA efflux after antipsychotic treatment was significantly correlated with affinity at H1 receptors whereas 9 other receptors, including 5-HT2A, were not. These results demonstrate that both typical and atypical antipsychotics increase mPFC histamine efflux and this effect may be mediated via antagonism of histamine H1 receptors.

  6. Spectrophotometric determination of some histamine H1-antagonists drugs in their pharmaceutical preparations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Wafaa S.; El-Henawee, Magda M.; Gouda, Ayman A.

    2008-01-01

    Two rapid, simple and sensitive extractive specrophotometric methods has been developed for the determination of three histamine H1-antagonists drugs, e.g., chlorphenoxamine hydrochloride (CPX), diphenhydramine hydrochloride (DPH) and clemastine (CMT) in bulk and in their pharmaceutical formulations. The first method depend upon the reaction of molybdenum(V) thiocyanate ions (Method A) with the cited drugs to form stable ion-pair complexes which extractable with methylene chloride, the orange red color complex was determined colorimetrically at λmax 470 nm. The second method is based on the formation of an ion-association complex with alizarin red S as chromogenic reagents in acidic medium (Method B), which is extracted into chloroform. The complexes have a maximum absorbance at 425 and 426 nm for (DPH or CMT) and CPX, respectively. Regression analysis of Beer-Lambert plots showed a good correlation in the concentration ranges of 5.0-40 and 5-70 μg mL -1 for molybdenum(V) thiocyanate (Method A) and alizarin red S (Method B), respectively. For more accurate analysis, Ringbom optimum concentration ranges were calculated. The molar absorptivity, Sandell sensitivity, detection and quantification limits were calculated. Applications of the procedure to the analysis of various pharmaceutical preparations gave reproducible and accurate results. Further, the validity of the procedure was confirmed by applying the standard addition technique and the results obtained in good agreement well with those obtained by the official method.

  7. Proton pump inhibitor use and fracture risk - effect modification by histamine H1 receptor blockade. Observational case-control study using National Prescription Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abrahamsen, Bo; Vestergaard, Peter

    2013-01-01

    It remains unknown why proton pump inhibitor (PPI) use may be associated with risk of osteoporotic fractures; evidence of direct effects on calcium absorption or on the osteoclast in humans is weak or absent. However, the ensuing increased gastrin levels may cause histamine production through...... hypertrophy of gastric enterochromaffin like cells, which could lead to bone loss. We speculated that H1 receptor antagonists (H1RA) used for allergies would then reduce the effect of PPI on bone. We therefore conducted a register-based case-control study comprising 124,655 patients with hospital treated...

  8. Changes in Histamine Receptors (H1, H2, and H3 Expression in Rat Medial Vestibular Nucleus and Flocculus after Unilateral Labyrinthectomy: Histamine Receptors in Vestibular Compensation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liuqing Zhou

    Full Text Available Vestibular compensation is the process of behavioral recovery following peripheral vestibular lesion. In clinics, the histaminergic medicine is the most widely prescribed for the treatment of vertigo and motion sickness, however, the molecular mechanisms by which histamine modulates vestibular function remain unclear. During recovery from the lesion, the modulation of histamine receptors in the medial vestibular nucleus (MVN and the flocculus may play an important role. Here with the means of quantitative real-time PCR, western blotting and immunohistochemistry, we studied the expression of histamine receptors (H1, H2, and H3 in the bilateral MVN and the flocculus of rats on the 1st, 3rd, and 7th day following unilateral labyrinthectomy (UL. Our results have shown that on the ipsi-lesional flocculus the H1, H2 and H3 receptors mRNA and the protein increased significantly on the 1st and 3rd day, with compare of sham controls and as well the contralateral side of UL. However, on the 7th day after UL, this expression returned to basal levels. Furthermore, elevated mRNA and protein levels of H1, H2 and H3 receptors were observed in the ipsi-lesional MVN on the 1st day after UL compared with sham controls and as well the contralateral side of UL. However, this asymmetric expression was absent by the 3rd post-UL. Our findings suggest that the upregulation of histamine receptors in the MVN and the flocculus may contribute to rebalancing the spontaneous discharge in bilateral MVN neurons during vestibular compensation.

  9. Effects of histamine H1R-H4R-agonist on the airway epithelium of rabbits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Naushad A Dilkash; Trivendra Tripathi; Aijaz Ahmed Khan; Mohd Shahid; Haris M Khan; Mashiatullah Siddiqui; Rahat Ali Khan

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To explore the exact role of histamine receptors in respiratory system. Methods:The cohort comprised of six groups (group I control and group II-VI treated) containing five rabbits in each group. Control-group received vehicle (sterile distilled water) and treated groups received subcutaneous histamine (100μg/kg, b.i.d.), and H1R-agonist (HTMT), H2R-agonist (amthamine), H3R-agonist (R-(-)-α-methylhistamine) and H4R-agonist (clobenpropit) each in a dose of 10μg/kg, b.i.d. for 30 subsequent days. After completion of treatment, animals were euthanized and perfused with 10%buffered formalin. Small tissue blocks of trachea and lungs were processed for paraffin embedding. Observations were recorded in sample photomicrographs taken from 10μm thick. Haematoxylin and eosin stained sections. Results:It was observed that trachea and bronchi from histamine, H1R and H4R groups had only patches of hyperplastic and hypertrophied epithelium and in general, cells in the affected region were taller heaped up. The bronchiolar epithelia from all treated groups showed hypertrophy and hyperplasia throughout with most of the cells having rounded profile and appeared to bud out from the basal cells. Conclusions:It is concluded that histamine receptors on induction via its specific agonist can induce hypertrophy, hyperplasia of respiratory tract epithelia suggesting its role akin to growth stimulating factor and warranting further long-term study.

  10. Perspectives in Drug Development and Clinical Pharmacology: The Discovery of Histamine H1 and H2 Antagonists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Alan Wayne

    2016-01-01

    Knowledge about the history and development of therapeutic agents holds a central position in the education and training of pharmacists and pharmacologists. Students enjoy learning about the discovery of drugs, including details about the pioneer workers involved (apothecaries, organic chemists, pharmacologists, and physiologists) and the role played by serendipity. The treatment of people suffering from allergies and the development of drugs that block the actions of histamine at H1 and H2 receptors are the subject of this review. Pharmaceutical products that block H1 receptors are widely used as prophylactic treatment for seasonal allergies that plague millions of people worldwide. The development of H2 receptor antagonists revolutionized treatment of gastric hyperacidity, the principal cause of peptic ulcers. Antihistamine research has changed focus toward the development of drugs that block the action of histamine at H3 and H4 receptors and the therapeutic potential is gradually being appreciated.

  11. Novel function of histamine signaling in hyperlipidemia-induced atherosclerosis: Histamine H1 receptors protect and H2 receptors accelerate atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Sohsuke; Wang, Ke-Yong; Tanimoto, Akihide; Sasaguri, Yasuyuki

    2015-02-01

    Histamine is not only essential for acute inflammatory reactions, but it also participates in a chronic inflammatory disorder. We generated apolipoprotein E (apoE) and histamine receptors (HHRs), including the major H1 and H2 receptors (HH1R, HH2R) double knockout mice (DKO) to clarify the role of HHRs in hyperlipidemia-induced atherosclerosis, in which apoE-KO and DKO mice were fed a high cholesterol diet. We found that pronounced hyperlipidemia-induced atherosclerotic progression occurred in HH1R/apoE-DKO mice, but in HH2R/apoE-DKO mice less atherosclerosis, despite pro-atherogenic serum cholesterol levels compared with apoE-KO mice. Furthermore, the increased expressions of scavenger receptors (SRs), such as SR-A, CD36 and lectin-like oxidized low-density lipoprotein receptor 1 (LOX-1), nuclear factor-kappa B (NFκB), monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP-1), matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) or liver X receptor (LXR)-related inflammatory signaling factors, were consistent with the pro-atherogenic phenotype of HH2R/apoE-DKO mice. We hypothesize that histamine/HH1R and HH2R signaling has conflicting innate functions, inflammatory/atherogenic and anti-inflammatory/anti-atherogenic actions, and that there are innate links between histamine signaling and hyperlipidemia-induced atherosclerosis, independently of serum cholesterol metabolism. Specific histamine signaling blockers, in particular, HH2R blockers, are a possible novel therapeutic target for hyperlipidemia-induced atherosclerosis.

  12. Effects of histamine H1 receptor signaling on glucocorticoid receptor activity. Role of canonical and non-canonical pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zappia, Carlos Daniel; Granja-Galeano, Gina; Fernández, Natalia; Shayo, Carina; Davio, Carlos; Fitzsimons, Carlos P.; Monczor, Federico

    2015-01-01

    Histamine H1 receptor (H1R) antagonists and glucocorticoid receptor (GR) agonists are used to treat inflammatory conditions such as allergic rhinitis, atopic dermatitis and asthma. Consistent with the high morbidity levels of such inflammatory conditions, these receptors are the targets of a vast number of approved drugs, and in many situations their ligands are co-administered. However, this drug association has no clear rationale and has arisen from clinical practice. We hypothesized that H1R signaling could affect GR-mediated activity, impacting on its transcriptional outcome. Indeed, our results show a dual regulation of GR activity by the H1R: a potentiation mediated by G-protein βγ subunits and a parallel inhibitory effect mediated by Gαq-PLC pathway. Activation of the H1R by its full agonists resulted in a composite potentiating effect. Intriguingly, inactivation of the Gαq-PLC pathway by H1R inverse agonists resulted also in a potentiation of GR activity. Moreover, histamine and clinically relevant antihistamines synergized with the GR agonist dexamethasone to induce gene transactivation and transrepression in a gene-specific manner. Our work provides a delineation of molecular mechanisms underlying the widespread clinical association of antihistamines and GR agonists, which may contribute to future dosage optimization and reduction of well-described side effects associated with glucocorticoid administration. PMID:26635083

  13. Effects of histamine H1 receptor signaling on glucocorticoid receptor activity. Role of canonical and non-canonical pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zappia, Carlos Daniel; Granja-Galeano, Gina; Fernández, Natalia; Shayo, Carina; Davio, Carlos; Fitzsimons, Carlos P; Monczor, Federico

    2015-12-04

    Histamine H1 receptor (H1R) antagonists and glucocorticoid receptor (GR) agonists are used to treat inflammatory conditions such as allergic rhinitis, atopic dermatitis and asthma. Consistent with the high morbidity levels of such inflammatory conditions, these receptors are the targets of a vast number of approved drugs, and in many situations their ligands are co-administered. However, this drug association has no clear rationale and has arisen from clinical practice. We hypothesized that H1R signaling could affect GR-mediated activity, impacting on its transcriptional outcome. Indeed, our results show a dual regulation of GR activity by the H1R: a potentiation mediated by G-protein βγ subunits and a parallel inhibitory effect mediated by Gαq-PLC pathway. Activation of the H1R by its full agonists resulted in a composite potentiating effect. Intriguingly, inactivation of the Gαq-PLC pathway by H1R inverse agonists resulted also in a potentiation of GR activity. Moreover, histamine and clinically relevant antihistamines synergized with the GR agonist dexamethasone to induce gene transactivation and transrepression in a gene-specific manner. Our work provides a delineation of molecular mechanisms underlying the widespread clinical association of antihistamines and GR agonists, which may contribute to future dosage optimization and reduction of well-described side effects associated with glucocorticoid administration.

  14. Participation of histamine in the step-through active avoidance response and its inhibition by H1-blockers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamei, C; Tasaka, K

    1991-12-01

    The effects of intravenous and intracerebroventricular administrations of certain H1-blockers on the active avoidance response in rats were studied. Among the classic H1-blockers used in this study: pyrilamine, diphenydramine, promethazine and chlorpheniramine, promethazine was the most effective and chlorpheniramine the least in inhibiting the active avoidance response; namely, a variation of prolongation in the response latency of the avoidance response. Meanwhile, ketotifen most potently inhibited the active avoidance response when the drugs were administered intracerebroventricularly. Mequitazine, astemizole and oxatomide were weak depressants when administered by either route. Azelastine was less effective than the classic H1-blockers by intravenous injection, while by intracerebroventricular injection, the inhibition was almost identical to those induced by the classic H1-blockers. Intracerebroventricular injection of histamine was antagonized the prolonged latency in the avoidance response induced by pyrilamine or diphenhydramine. A similar effect was also produced by 2-methylhistamine, but 4-methylhistamine had no effect. Intracerebroventricular injection of acetylcholine was restored the retarded avoidance response induced by pyrilamine, but a dose 20 times greater than that of histamine was required. From these findings, it can be concluded that inhibition of the active avoidance response induced by H1-blockers may be exerted through interaction with H1-receptors in the brain.

  15. Distinct signalling pathways of murine histamine H1- and H4-receptors expressed at comparable levels in HEK293 cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silke Beermann

    Full Text Available Histamine (HA is recognized by its target cells via four G-protein-coupled receptors, referred to as histamine H1-receptor (H1R, H2R, H3R, and H4R. Both H1R and H4R exert pro-inflammatory functions. However, their signal transduction pathways have never been analyzed in a directly comparable manner side by side. Moreover, the analysis of pharmacological properties of the murine orthologs, representing the main targets of pre-clinical research, is very important. Therefore, we engineered recombinant HEK293 cells expressing either mouse (mH1R or mH4R at similar levels and analyzed HA-induced signalling in these cells. HA induced intracellular calcium mobilization via both mH1R and mH4R, with the mH1R being much more effective. Whereas cAMP accumulation was potentiated via the mH1R, it was reduced via the mH4R. The regulation of both second messengers via the H4R, but not the H1R, was sensitive to pertussis toxin (PTX. The mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs ERK 1/2 were massively activated downstream of both receptors and demonstrated a functional involvement in HA-induced EGR-1 gene expression. The p38 MAPK was moderately activated via both receptors as well, but was functionally involved in HA-induced EGR-1 gene expression only in H4R-expressing cells. Surprisingly, in this system p38 MAPK activity reduced the HA-induced gene expression. In summary, using this system which allows a direct comparison of mH1R- and mH4R-induced signalling, qualitative and quantitative differences on the levels of second messenger generation and also in terms of p38 MAPK function became evident.

  16. Combined histamine H1/H2 receptor antagonists: part I. Pharmacological hybrids with pheniramine- and roxatidine-like substructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulze, F R; Buschauer, A; Schunack, W

    1998-07-01

    A series of hybrid compounds combining the pharmacophores of both pheniramine-type histamine H1 receptor antagonists and roxatidine-type H2 receptor antagonists have been synthesized and tested for histamine antagonism at the isolated ileum (H1) and the spontaneously beating right atrium (H2) of the guinea pig. The 'polar group' of the H2 antagonist moiety (cyanoguanidine, nitroethenediamine or urea) and the side chain amino group of the H1 antagonist portion have been linked by a polymethylene spacer or by a piperazine system. The incorporation of a flexible spacer (2-7 methylene groups) resulted in H1 antagonists achieving up to 2.4 times the activity of pheniramine. Depending on the nature of the polar group the highest H2 antagonist potency resides in compounds with spacers ?2 methylene groups. Nitroethenediamine 24c with a seven-membered chain and a chlorpheniramine substructure proved to be approximately equipotent with pheniramine at the H1 and with ranitidine at the H2 receptor (pKB values 7.82 and 7.1, respectively).

  17. Effects of administration of histamine and its H1, H2, and H3 receptor antagonists into the primary somatosensory cortex on inflammatory pain in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esmaeal Tamaddonfard

    2014-01-01

    These results indicate that at PSC levels, histamine through post-synaptic H1, H2, and pre-synaptic H3 receptors might be involved in pain modulation. The endogenous opioid system may be involved in histamine- and thioperamide-induced antinociception.

  18. Involvement of H1 receptors in the central antinociceptive effect of histamine: pharmacological dissection by electrophysiological analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braga, P C; Soldavini, E; Pecile, A; Sibilia, V; Netti, C

    1996-01-16

    Intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) administration of histamine (HA, 0.025-0.1 microM/rat) to arthritic rats induces a dose-related inhibition of the neuronal thalamic firing evoked by peripheral noxious stimuli. To characterize the type(s) of HA receptors involved in this depressing activity of the amine we used electrophysiological techniques to examine the effects of i.c.v. administration of H1 and H2 agonists and antagonists on the spontaneous and evoked nociceptive firing of the thalamic neurons in rats rendered arthritic by Freund's adjuvant. The H1 agonist 2-pyridylethylamine (0.4-1.0 microM/rat, i.c.v.) displayed a dose-dependent antinociceptive effect very similar to that of HA, while the H2 agonist dimaprit (0.05-0.2 microM/rat, i.c.v.) did not modify thalamic firing. Neither mepyramine (H1 antagonist, 0.1 microM/rat, i.c.v.) nor zolantidine (H2 antagonist, 0.01 microM/rat, i.c.v.) modified the evoked firing of rat thalamic neurons. When administered before HA (0.1 microM/rat, i.c.v.) mepyramine but not zolantidine was able to inhibit the antinociceptive effect of HA. On the basis of the present electrophysiological results, we suggest that a specific interaction of histamine with H1 receptors may be important for its antinociceptive effect on afferent peripheral inputs to the thalamus.

  19. The role of histamine H1, H2 and H3 receptors of ventral posteromedial nucleus of thalamus in modulation of trigeminal pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamaddonfard, Esmaeal; Erfanparast, Amir; Ghasemi, Hamid; Henareh-Chareh, Farzin; Hadidi, Mansoor; Mirzakhani, Navideh; Seyedin, Sahar; Taati, Mina; Salighedar, Reza; Salimi, Sara; Safaei, Farshad

    2016-11-15

    Histamine receptors are involved in supraspinal modulation of pain. In the present study, we investigated the effects of microinjection of histamine H1, H2 and H3 receptor antagonists and agonists into the ventral posteromedial (VPM) nucleus of the thalamus on two models of trigeminal pain. Right and left sides of VPM were implanted with two guide cannulas. Corneal pain was induced by local corneal surface application of hypertonic saline and the number of eye wipes was recorded. The duration of face rubbing, as an orofacial pain measure, was recorded after subcutaneous (s.c.) injection of capsaicin into the vibrissa pad. 2-pyridylethylamine (2-PEA, a histamine H1 receptor agonist, 4µg/site) and dimaprit (a histamine H2 receptor agonist, 1 and 4µg/site) suppressed corneal and orofacial pains. Mepyramine (a histamine H1 receptor antagonist) and ranitidine (a histamine H2 receptor antagonist) at the similar doses of 0.5, 2 and 8µg/site alone had no effects on trigeminal pain. Prior microinjection of mepyramine and ranitidine at a similar dose of 8µg/site inhibited the antinociceptive effects of 2-PEA (4µg/site) and dimaprit (4µg/site), respectively. Immepip (a histamine H3 receptor agonist, 1 and 4µg/site) increased, and thioperamide (a histamine H3 receptor antagonist, 2 and 8µg/site) attenuated nociceptive responses. Prior microinjection of thioperamide (8µg/site) prevented immepip (4µg/site)-induced nociception. These chemicals did not change locomotor behavior. It is concluded that post-synaptic histamine H2, and to a lesser extent H1, receptors and pre-synaptic histamine H3 receptor may be involved in VPM modulation of trigeminal pain. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Porcine mast cells infected with H1N1 influenza virus release histamine and inflammatory cytokines and chemokines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, In Hong; Kim, Hyun Soo; Seo, Sang Heui

    2017-04-01

    Mast cells reside in many tissues, including the lungs, and might play a role in enhancing influenza virus infections in animals. In this study, we cultured porcine mast cells from porcine bone marrow cells with IL-3 and stem cell factor to study the infectivity and activation of the 2009 pandemic H1N1 influenza virus of swine origin. Porcine mast cells were infected with H1N1 influenza virus, without the subsequent production of infectious viruses but were activated, as indicated by the release of histamines. Inflammatory cytokine- and chemokine-encoding genes, including IL-1α, IL-6, CXCL9, CXCL10, and CXCL11, were upregulated in the infected porcine mast cells. Our results suggest that mast cells could be involved in enhancing influenza-virus-mediated disease in infected animals.

  1. In silico analysis of the histaprodifen induced activation pathway of the guinea-pig histamine H1-receptor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straßer, Andrea; Wittmann, Hans-Joachim

    2010-09-01

    The binding of (partial) agonists in the binding pocket of biogenic amine receptors induces a conformational change from the inactive to the active state of the receptors. There is only little knowledge about the binding pathways of ligands into binding pocket on molecular level. So far, it was not possible with molecular dynamic simulations to observe the ligand binding and receptor activation. Furthermore, there is nearly nothing known, in which state of ligand binding, the receptor gets activated. The aim of this study was to get more detailed insight into the process of ligand binding and receptor activation. With the recently developed LigPath algorithm, we scanned the potential energy surface of the binding process of dimeric histaprodifen, a partial agonist at the histamine H1-receptor, into the guinea pig histamine H1-receptor, taking also into account the receptor activation. The calculations exhibited large conformational changes of Trp6.48 and Phe6.55 during ligand binding and receptor activation. Additionally, conformational changes were also observed for Phe6.52, Tyr6.51 and Phe6.44. Conformational changes of Trp6.48 and Phe6.52 are discussed in literature as rotamer toggle switch in context with receptor activation. Additionally, the calculations indicate that the binding of dimeric histaprodifen, accompanied by receptor activation is energetically preferred. In general, this study gives new, theoretical insights onto ligand binding and receptor activation on molecular level.

  2. Inhibition of noradrenaline release from the sympathetic nerves of the human saphenous vein by presynaptic histamine H3 receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molderings, G J; Weissenborn, G; Schlicker, E; Likungu, J; Göthert, M

    1992-07-01

    The human saphenous vein was used to examine whether presynaptic histamine receptors can modulate noradrenaline release and, if so, to determine their pharmacological characteristics. Strips of this blood vessel were incubated with [3H]noradrenaline and subsequently superfused with physiological salt solution containing desipramine and corticosterone. Electrically (2 Hz) evoked 3H overflow was inhibited by histamine and the H3 receptor agonist R-(-)-alpha-methylhistamine. Histamine-induced inhibition of electrically evoked tritium overflow was not affected by alpha 2-adrenoceptor blockade by rauwolscine. S-(+)-alpha-methylhistamine (up to 10 mumol/l) as well as the histamine H1 and H2 receptor agonists 2-(2-thiazolyl)ethylamine (up to 3 mumol/l) and dimaprit (up to 30 mumol/l), respectively, were ineffective. The selective histamine H3 receptor antagonist thioperamide abolished the inhibitory effect of histamine. The histamine H2 and H1 receptor antagonists ranitidine and pheniramine, respectively, did not affect the histamine-induced inhibition of evoked tritium overflow. The present results are compatible with the suggestion that the sympathetic nerves of the human saphenous vein are endowed with inhibitory presynaptic histamine receptors of the H3 class.

  3. Temporal responses of cutaneous blood flow and plasma catecholamine concentrations to histamine H1- or H2-receptor stimulation in man

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knigge, U; Alsbjørn, B; Thuesen, B;

    1988-01-01

    continuously with a laser Doppler flowmeter, and noradrenaline and adrenaline concentrations were determined in blood samples drawn every 15 min. The infusion of histamine caused an immediate and sustained vasodilatation. The Concomitant infusion of mepyramine prevented the immediate vasodilatation, but had...... noradrenaline, while the increase during concomitant H1-receptor blockade was delayed but achieved the level observed during the histamine infusion. The response to histamine during H2-receptor blockade was small and transient. The rise in plasma adrenaline was not significant. These findings suggest...

  4. Histamine resets the circadian clock in the suprachiasmatic nucleus through the H1R-CaV 1.3-RyR pathway in the mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yoon Sik; Kim, Young-Beom; Kim, Woong Bin; Yoon, Bo-Eun; Shen, Feng-Yan; Lee, Seung Won; Soong, Tuck-Wah; Han, Hee-Chul; Colwell, Christopher S; Lee, C Justin; Kim, Yang In

    2015-10-01

    Histamine, a neurotransmitter/neuromodulator implicated in the control of arousal state, exerts a potent phase-shifting effect on the circadian clock in the rodent suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN). In this study, the mechanisms by which histamine resets the circadian clock in the mouse SCN were investigated. As a first step, Ca(2+) -imaging techniques were used to demonstrate that histamine increases intracellular Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+) ]i ) in acutely dissociated SCN neurons and that this increase is blocked by the H1 histamine receptor (H1R) antagonist pyrilamine, the removal of extracellular Ca(2+) and the L-type Ca(2+) channel blocker nimodipine. The histamine-induced Ca(2+) transient is reduced, but not blocked, by application of the ryanodine receptor (RyR) blocker dantrolene. Immunohistochemical techniques indicated that CaV 1.3 L-type Ca(2+) channels are expressed mainly in the somata of SCN cells along with the H1R, whereas CaV 1.2 channels are located primarily in the processes. Finally, extracellular single-unit recordings demonstrated that the histamine-elicited phase delay of the circadian neural activity rhythm recorded from SCN slices is blocked by pyrilamine, nimodipine and the knockout of CaV 1.3 channel. Again, application of dantrolene reduced but did not block the histamine-induced phase delays. Collectively, these results indicate that, to reset the circadian clock, histamine increases [Ca(2+) ]i in SCN neurons by activating CaV 1.3 channels through H1R, and secondarily by causing Ca(2+) -induced Ca(2+) release from RyR-mediated internal stores.

  5. Pharmacological Characterization of Human Histamine Receptors and Histamine Receptor Mutantsin the Sf9 Cell Expression System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Erich H; Seifert, Roland

    2017-02-24

    A large problem of histamine receptor research is data heterogeneity. Various experimental approaches, the complex signaling pathways of mammalian cells, and the use of different species orthologues render it difficult to compare and interpret the published results. Thus, the four human histamine receptor subtypes were analyzed side-by-side in the Sf9 insect cell expression system, using radioligand binding assays as well as functional readouts proximal to the receptor activation event (steady-state GTPase assays and [(35)S]GTPγS assays). The human H1R was co-expressed with the regulators of G protein signaling RGS4 or GAIP, which unmasked a productive interaction between hH1R and insect cell Gαq. By contrast, functional expression of the hH2R required the generation of an hH2R-Gsα fusion protein to ensure close proximity of G protein and receptor. Fusion of hH2R to the long (GsαL) or short (GsαS) splice variant of Gαs resulted in comparable constitutive hH2R activity, although both G protein variants show different GDP affinities. Medicinal chemistry studies revealed profound species differences between hH1R/hH2R and their guinea pig orthologues gpH1R/gpH2R. The causes for these differences were analyzed by molecular modeling in combination with mutational studies. Co-expression of the hH3R with Gαi1, Gαi2, Gαi3, and Gαi/o in Sf9 cells revealed high constitutive activity and comparable interaction efficiency with all G protein isoforms. A comparison of various cations (Li(+), Na(+), K(+)) and anions (Cl(-), Br(-), I(-)) revealed that anions with large radii most efficiently stabilize the inactive hH3R state. Potential sodium binding sites in the hH3R protein were analyzed by expressing specific hH3R mutants in Sf9 cells. In contrast to the hH3R, the hH4R preferentially couples to co-expressed Gαi2 in Sf9 cells. Its high constitutive activity is resistant to NaCl or GTPγS. The hH4R shows structural instability and adopts a G protein-independent high

  6. Role of the thalamic submedius nucleus histamine H1 and H 2 and opioid receptors in modulation of formalin-induced orofacial pain in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erfanparast, Amir; Tamaddonfard, Esmaeal; Taati, Mina; Dabaghi, Milad

    2015-10-01

    Histamine and opioid systems are involved in supraspinal modulation of pain. In this study, we investigated the effects of separate and combined microinjections of agonists and antagonists of histamine H1 and H2 and opioid receptors into the thalamic submedius (Sm) nucleus on the formalin-induced orofacial pain. Two guide cannulas were implanted into the right and left sides of the Sm in ketamine- and xylazine-anesthetized rats. Orofacial formalin pain was induced by subcutaneous injection of a diluted formalin solution (50 μl, 1.5%) into the vibrissa pad. Face rubbing durations were recorded at 3-min blocks for 45 min. Formalin produced a biphasic pain response (first phase: 0-3 min and second phase: 15-33 min). Separate and combined microinjections of histamine H1 and H2 receptor agonists, 2-pyridylethylamine (2-PEA) and dimaprit, respectively, and opioid receptor agonist, morphine, attenuated the second phase of pain. The analgesic effects induced by 2-PEA, dimaprit, and morphine were blocked by prior microinjections of fexofenadine (a histamine H1 receptor antagonist), famotidine (a histamine H2 receptor antagonist), and naloxone (an opioid receptor antagonist), respectively. Naloxone also prevented 2-PEA- and dimaprit-induced antinociception, and the analgesic effect induced by morphine was inhibited by fexofenadine and famotidine. These results showed the involvement of histamine H1 and H2 and opioid receptors in the Sm modulation of orofacial pain. Opioid receptor might be involved in analgesia induced by activation of histamine H1 and H2 receptors and vice versa.

  7. The anorectic effect of neurotensin is mediated via a histamine H1 receptor in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohinata, Kousaku; Shimano, Tomoko; Yamauchi, Rena; Sakurada, Shinobu; Yanai, Kazuhiko; Yoshikawa, Masaaki

    2004-12-01

    Neurotensin (NT), a tridecapeptide found in the mammalian brain and peripheral tissues, induces a decrease in food intake after central administration. In this investigation, we examine whether the histaminergic system is involved in NT-induced suppression of feeding. Intracerebroventricular injection of NT (0.1-1 nmol/mouse) led to dose-dependent inhibition of food intake in fasted ddY mice. The anorectic effect induced by NT (0.1 nmol/mouse) was ameliorated upon co-administration of pyrilamine (3 nmol/mouse), an antagonist for histomine H1 receptor. The NT-induced anorectic effect was partially ameliorated in H1 knockout mice. The findings suggest that the H1 receptor in part mediates the NT-induced suppression of food intake.

  8. The discovery of quinoline based single-ligand human H1 and H3 receptor antagonists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Procopiou, Panayiotis A; Ancliff, Rachael A; Gore, Paul M; Hancock, Ashley P; Hodgson, Simon T; Holmes, Duncan S; Keeling, Steven P; Looker, Brian E; Parr, Nigel A; Rowedder, James E; Slack, Robert J

    2016-12-15

    A novel series of potent quinoline-based human H1 and H3 bivalent histamine receptor antagonists, suitable for intranasal administration for the potential treatment of allergic rhinitis associated nasal congestion, were identified. Compound 18b had slightly lower H1 potency (pA2 8.8 vs 9.7 for the clinical goldstandard azelastine), and H3 potency (pKi 9.1vs 6.8 for azelastine), better selectivity over α1A, α1B and hERG, similar duration of action, making 18b a good back-up compound to our previous candidate, but with a more desirable profile.

  9. Dissociable effects of histamine H1 antagonists on reaction-time performance in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blokland, A; Scholtissen, B; Vermeeren, A; Ramaekers, J

    2001-01-01

    The most pronounced side effect of antiallergic histaminergic drugs (H1 antagonists) is sedation. These effects have been linked with the effects of histaminergic drugs on central H1 receptors. In the present study, we investigated the dose-response relationship of different antihistamines on the performance in a reaction-time task that has been developed for rats. The dose-response relationship of diphenhydramine, cetirizine and terfenadine were examined for the various behavioural measures in this task (i.e., reaction time, motor time, premature responses and number of trials completed). In addition, the effects of scopolamine were assessed to evaluate the cholinergic profile in this task. Diphenhydramine did not reliably affect the reaction time, but increased the motor time and the proportion of premature responses, and decreased the number of trials completed in a session. A low dose of cetirizine decreased the reaction time, whereas an increase in reaction time was found for the high dose. The motor time was increased after both doses of cetirizine. Terfenadine did not affect the responding of rats in the reaction-time task at the doses tested. The effects of scopolamine were very similar to those of diphenhydramine. The reaction-time task used in this study was able to dissociate different types of antihistamines on aspects of psychomotor function, which were likely to be related to central muscarinic or H1 antagonism. These findings suggest that the reaction-time task may be a sensitive tool for assessing effects of drugs on psychomotor function.

  10. LARG links histamine-H1-receptor-activated Gq to Rho-GTPase-dependent signaling pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfreimer, Mariana; Vatter, Petra; Langer, Torben; Wieland, Thomas; Gierschik, Peter; Moepps, Barbara

    2012-03-01

    Activation of heterotrimeric G proteins, such as G(12/13) and G(q), by cell surface receptors is coupled to the regulation of numerous cellular functions controlled by activated Rho GTPases. Previous studies have implicated the Rho guanine nucleotide exchange factor (RhoGEF) leukemia-associated RhoGEF (LARG) as a regulatory protein receiving stimulatory inputs from activated Gα(12/13) and Gα(q). However, the molecular mechanisms of the Gα(q)-mediated LARG activation are not fully understood and the structural elements of LARG involved in this process have remained unclear. In the present work, the specific coupling of the histamine H1 receptor (HRH1) exogenously expressed in COS-7 cells to G(q), but not to G(12/13), was used to conduct a detailed analysis of receptor- and Gα(q)-mediated LARG activation and to define its structural requirements. The results show that HRH1-mediated activation of the strictly Rho-dependent transcriptional activity of serum response factor requires the PDZ domain of LARG and can be mimicked by activated Gα(q)(Q209L). The functional interaction between activated Gα(q) and LARG requires no more than the catalytic DH-PH tandem of LARG, and is independent of PLCβ activation and distinct from the mechanisms of Gα(q)-mediated p63RhoGEF and PLCβ(3) activation. Activated Gα(q) physically interacts with the relevant portions of LARG in COS-7 cells and histamine causes activation of LARG in native HeLa cells endogenously expressing HRH1, G(q), and LARG. This work is the first positive demonstration of a stimulatory effect of LARG on the ability of a strictly G(q)-coupled receptor to cause activation of a Rho-GTPase-dependent signaling pathway.

  11. A novel benzofuran, 4-methoxybenzofuran-5-carboxamide, from Tephrosia purpurea suppressed histamine H1 receptor gene expression through a protein kinase C-δ-dependent signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shill, Manik Chandra; Mizuguchi, Hiroyuki; Karmakar, Sanmoy; Kadota, Takuya; Mukherjee, Pulok K; Kitamura, Yoshiaki; Kashiwada, Yoshiki; Nemoto, Hisao; Takeda, Noriaki; Fukui, Hiroyuki

    2016-01-01

    Histamine H1 receptor (H1R) gene is upregulated in patients with allergic rhinitis (AR), and its expression level is strongly correlated with the severity of allergic symptoms. We previously reported isolation of the putative anti-allergic compound, 4-methoxybenzofuran-5-carboxamide (MBCA) from Tephrosia purpurea and its chemical synthesis (Shill et al., Bioorg Med Chem 2015;23:6869-6874). However, the mechanism underlying its anti-allergic activity remains to be elucidated. Here, we report the mechanism of MBCA on phorbol 12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA)- or histamine-induced upregulation of H1R gene expression in HeLa cells, and in vivo effects of MBCA were also determined in toluene-2,4-diisocyanate (TDI)-sensitized rats. MBCA suppressed PMA- and histamine-induced upregulation of H1R expression at both mRNA and protein levels and inhibited PMA-induced phosphorylation of PKCδ at Tyr(311) and subsequent translocation to the Golgi. Furthermore, MBCA ameliorated allergic symptoms and suppressed the elevation of H1R and helper T cell type 2 (Th2) cytokine mRNAs in TDI-sensitized rats. Data suggest that MBCA alleviates nasal symptoms in TDI-sensitized rats through the inhibition of H1R and Th2 cytokine gene expression. The mechanism of its H1R gene suppression underlies the inhibition of PKCδ activation.

  12. Expression of histamine receptors in the human endolymphatic sac

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, M Nue; Kirkeby, S; Vikeså, J.

    2016-01-01

    in 2012. This leaves betahistine (Betaserc) as the only drug for potential prevention of the incapacitating attacks of dizziness, tinnitus and hearing loss. However, the histamine receptors targeted by betahistine have never been demonstrated in the human ES. Accordingly, this study aims to investigate...... the expression of histamine receptors of the human ES epithelium and sub-epithelial stroma. Following sampling of human endolymphatic sac tissue during translabyrinthine surgery, the expression of histamine receptor genes was determined by cDNA microarray analysis. Results were subsequently verified by immuno......-histochemistry. The combined results of microarrays and immuno-histochemistry showed expression of the histamine receptor HRH1 in the epithelial lining of the ES, whereas HRH3 was expressed exclusively in the sub-epithelial capillary network. Receptors HRH2 and -4 were not expressed. The present data provide the first direct...

  13. Effect of histamine H1 and H2 receptor antagonists, microinjected into cerebellar vermis, on emotional memory consolidation in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.C.L. Gianlorenco

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the effects of histamine H1 or H2 receptor antagonists on emotional memory consolidation in mice submitted to the elevated plus maze (EPM. The cerebellar vermis of male mice (Swiss albino was implanted using a cannula guide. Three days after recovery, behavioral tests were performed in the EPM on 2 consecutive days (T1 and T2. Immediately after exposure to the EPM (T1, animals received a microinjection of saline (SAL or the H1 antagonist chlorpheniramine (CPA; 0.016, 0.052, or 0.16 nmol/0.1 µL in Experiment 1, and SAL or the H2 antagonist ranitidine (RA; 0.57, 2.85, or 5.7 nmol/0.1 µL in Experiment 2. Twenty-four hours later, mice were reexposed to the EPM (T2 under the same experimental conditions but they did not receive any injection. Data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA and the Duncan test. In Experiment 1, mice microinjected with SAL and with CPA entered the open arms less often (%OAE and spent less time in the open arms (%OAT in T2, and there was no difference among groups. The results of Experiment 2 demonstrated that the values of %OAE and %OAT in T2 were lower compared to T1 for the groups that were microinjected with SAL and 2.85 nmol/0.1 µL RA. However, when animals were microinjected with 5.7 nmol/0.1 µL RA, they did not show a reduction in %OAE and %OAT. These results demonstrate that CPA did not affect behavior at the doses used in this study, while 5.7 nmol/0.1 µL RA induced impairment of memory consolidation in the EPM.

  14. Histamine H1-receptor antagonists against Leishmania (L.) infantum: an in vitro and in vivo evaluation using phosphatidylserine-liposomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Erika G; da Costa-Silva, Thais A; Tempone, Andre Gustavo

    2014-09-01

    Considering the limited and toxic therapeutic arsenal available for visceral leishmaniasis (VL), the drug repositioning approach could represent a promising tool to the introduction of alternative therapies. Histamine H1-receptor antagonists are drugs belonging to different therapeutic classes, including antiallergics and anxyolitics. In this work, we described for the first time the activity of H1-antagonists against L. (L.) infantum and their potential effectiveness in an experimental hamster model. The evaluation against promastigotes demonstrated that chlorpheniramine, cinnarizine, hydroxyzine, ketotifen, loratadine, quetiapine and risperidone exerted a leishmanicidal effect against promastigotes, with IC50 values in the range of 13-84μM. The antihistaminic drug cinnarizine demonstrated effectiveness against the intracellular amastigotes, with an IC50 value of 21μM. The mammalian cytotoxicity was investigated in NCTC cells, resulting in IC50 values in the range of 57-229μM. Cinnarizine was in vivo studied as a free formulation and entrapped into phosphatidylserine-liposomes. The free drug was administered for eight consecutive days at 50mg/kg by intraperitoneal route (i.p.) and at 100mg/kg by oral route to L. infantum-infected hamsters, but showed lack of effectiveness in both regimens, as detected by real time PCR. The liposomal formulation was administered by i.p. route at 3mg/kg for eight days and reduced the parasite burden to 54% in liver when compared to untreated group; no improvement was observed in the spleen of infected hamsters. Cinnarizine is the first antihistaminic drug with antileishmanial activity and could be used as scaffold for drug design studies for VL.

  15. Effect of histamine H1 and H2 receptor antagonists, microinjected into cerebellar vermis, on emotional memory consolidation in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gianlorenço, A.C.L.; Serafim, K.R. [Laboratório de Neurociências, Departamento de Fisioterapia, Centro de Ciências Biológicas e da Saúde, Universidade Federal de São Carlos, São Carlos, SP, Brasil, Laboratório de Neurociências, Departamento de Fisioterapia, Centro de Ciências Biológicas e da Saúde, Universidade Federal de São Carlos, São Carlos, SP (Brazil); Canto-de-Souza, A. [Laboratório de Psicologia da Aprendizagem, Departamento de Psicologia, Centro de Educação e Ciências Humanas, Universidade Federal de São Carlos, São Carlos, SP, Brasil, Laboratório de Psicologia da Aprendizagem, Departamento de Psicologia, Centro de Educação e Ciências Humanas, Universidade Federal de São Carlos, São Carlos, SP (Brazil); Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciências Fisiológicas, Universidade Federal de São Carlos, São Carlos, SP, Brasil, Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciências Fisiológicas, Universidade Federal de São Carlos, São Carlos, SP (Brazil); Instituto de Neurociências e Comportamento, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP, Brasil, Instituto de Neurociências e Comportamento, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil); Mattioli, R. [Laboratório de Neurociências, Departamento de Fisioterapia, Centro de Ciências Biológicas e da Saúde, Universidade Federal de São Carlos, São Carlos, SP, Brasil, Laboratório de Neurociências, Departamento de Fisioterapia, Centro de Ciências Biológicas e da Saúde, Universidade Federal de São Carlos, São Carlos, SP (Brazil)

    2014-02-17

    This study investigated the effects of histamine H1 or H2 receptor antagonists on emotional memory consolidation in mice submitted to the elevated plus maze (EPM). The cerebellar vermis of male mice (Swiss albino) was implanted using a cannula guide. Three days after recovery, behavioral tests were performed in the EPM on 2 consecutive days (T1 and T2). Immediately after exposure to the EPM (T1), animals received a microinjection of saline (SAL) or the H1 antagonist chlorpheniramine (CPA; 0.016, 0.052, or 0.16 nmol/0.1 µL) in Experiment 1, and SAL or the H2 antagonist ranitidine (RA; 0.57, 2.85, or 5.7 nmol/0.1 µL) in Experiment 2. Twenty-four hours later, mice were reexposed to the EPM (T2) under the same experimental conditions but they did not receive any injection. Data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA and the Duncan test. In Experiment 1, mice microinjected with SAL and with CPA entered the open arms less often (%OAE) and spent less time in the open arms (%OAT) in T2, and there was no difference among groups. The results of Experiment 2 demonstrated that the values of %OAE and %OAT in T2 were lower compared to T1 for the groups that were microinjected with SAL and 2.85 nmol/0.1 µL RA. However, when animals were microinjected with 5.7 nmol/0.1 µL RA, they did not show a reduction in %OAE and %OAT. These results demonstrate that CPA did not affect behavior at the doses used in this study, while 5.7 nmol/0.1 µL RA induced impairment of memory consolidation in the EPM.

  16. Effect of histamine H1 and H2 receptor antagonists, microinjected into cerebellar vermis, on emotional memory consolidation in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gianlorenço, A C L; Serafim, K R; Canto-de-Souza, A; Mattioli, R

    2014-02-01

    This study investigated the effects of histamine H1 or H2 receptor antagonists on emotional memory consolidation in mice submitted to the elevated plus maze (EPM). The cerebellar vermis of male mice (Swiss albino) was implanted using a cannula guide. Three days after recovery, behavioral tests were performed in the EPM on 2 consecutive days (T1 and T2). Immediately after exposure to the EPM (T1), animals received a microinjection of saline (SAL) or the H1 antagonist chlorpheniramine (CPA; 0.016, 0.052, or 0.16 nmol/0.1 µL) in Experiment 1, and SAL or the H2 antagonist ranitidine (RA; 0.57, 2.85, or 5.7 nmol/0.1 µL) in Experiment 2. Twenty-four hours later, mice were reexposed to the EPM (T2) under the same experimental conditions but they did not receive any injection. Data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA and the Duncan test. In Experiment 1, mice microinjected with SAL and with CPA entered the open arms less often (%OAE) and spent less time in the open arms (%OAT) in T2, and there was no difference among groups. The results of Experiment 2 demonstrated that the values of %OAE and %OAT in T2 were lower compared to T1 for the groups that were microinjected with SAL and 2.85 nmol/0.1 µL RA. However, when animals were microinjected with 5.7 nmol/0.1 µL RA, they did not show a reduction in %OAE and %OAT. These results demonstrate that CPA did not affect behavior at the doses used in this study, while 5.7 nmol/0.1 µL RA induced impairment of memory consolidation in the EPM.

  17. Putative sigma(3) sites in mammalian brain have histamine H(1) receptor properties: evidence from ligand binding and distribution studies with the novel H(1) radioligand [(3)H]-(-)-trans-1-phenyl-3-aminotetralin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, R G; Owens, C E; Brown, R L; Bucholtz, E C; Lawler, C P; Wyrick, S D

    1999-08-07

    A novel phenylaminotetralin (PAT) radioligand, [(3)H]-(1R, 3S)-(-)-trans-1-phenyl-3-dimethylamino-1,2,3,4-tetrahydronaphthalene ([(3)H]-[-]-trans-H(2)-PAT), is shown here to label a saturable (B(max)=39+/-6 fmol/mg protein) population of sites with high affinity (K(d)=0.13+/-0.03 nM) in guinea pig brain. Consistent with previous studies which showed that PATs stimulate catecholamine (dopamine) synthesis in rat striatum, autoradiographic brain receptor mapping studies here indicate that [(3)H]-(-)-trans-H(2)-PAT-labeled sites are highly localized in catecholaminergic nerve terminal fields in hippocampus, nucleus accumbens, and striatum in guinea pig brain. Competition binding studies with a broad range of CNS receptor-active ligands and CNS radioreceptor screening assays indicate that the pharmacological binding profile of brain [(3)H]-(-)-trans-H(2)-PAT sites closely resembles histamine H(1)-type receptors. Comparative studies using the histamine H(1) antagonist radioligand, [(3)H]mepyramine, indicate that the H(1) ligand binding profile and guinea pig brain distribution of H(1) receptors and [(3)H]-(-)-trans-H(2)-PAT sites are nearly identical; moreover, both sites have about 40-fold stereoselective affinity for (-)- over (+)-trans-H(2)-PAT. These results are discussed in light of previous studies which suggested that PATs stimulate dopamine synthesis through interaction with a novel sigma-type (sigma(3)) receptor in rodent brain; it now appears instead that PATs represent a new class of ligands for brain histamine H(1) receptors that can be stereoselectively labeled with [(3)H]-(-)-trans-H(2)-PAT. Copyright 1999 Published by Elsevier Science B.V.

  18. Histamine H1 receptors mediate vasodilation in guinea-pig ileum resistance vessels: characterization with computer-assisted videomicroscopy and new selective agonists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bungardt, E; Buschauer, A; Moser, U; Schunack, W; Lambrecht, G; Mutschler, E

    1992-10-06

    Histamine receptors on guinea-pig ileum submucosal arterioles (outside diameter 40-80 microns) were studied in vitro using a computer-assisted videomicroscopy system (Diamtrak). Histamine receptor agonists investigated in this study were histamine, the H1 receptor-selective compound, 2-[2-(3-fluorophenyl)-4-imidazolyl]ethanamine (VZ 20), the H2 receptor-selective compounds, dimaprit, impromidine, (+/-)-N1-[3-(4-fluorophenyl)-3-(pyridin-2-yl)propyl]- N2-[3-(1H-imidazol-4-yl)propyl]guanidine (arpromidine) and (+/-)-N1-[3-(3,4-difluorophenyl)-3-(pyridin-2-yl)propyl]- N2-[3-(1H-imidazol-4-yl)propyl]guanidine (BU-E-75), as well as the H3 receptor-selective drug, (R)-alpha-methylhistamine ((R)-alpha-MeHA). Applied to vessels at resting tone, the agonists (1 nM-300 microM) did not change arteriolar diameter. Vessels preconstricted by 10 microM noradrenaline showed similar concentration-dependent vasodilations with histamine and VZ 20 (pD2 = 5.38 and 5.36, respectively). This histamine-induced vasodilation was not affected by tetrodotoxin (0.5 microM) or indomethacin (1 microM), but was completely abolished in the presence of 1 microM of the H1 receptor antagonist, mepyramine. Calculation of the antagonist affinity of mepyramine for the histamine receptors in submucosal arterioles yielded a pA2 of 9.46. In contrast to histamine and VZ 20, the H2 receptor agonist, dimaprit, and the H3 receptor agonist, (R)-alpha-MeHA, were ineffective at preconstricted arterioles. The guanidine-type H2 receptor agonists, impromidine, apromidine and BU-E-75, produced vasodilation at noradrenaline-preconstricted arterioles (-log EC50 = 4.47, 5.30 and 5.39, respectively) but, in contrast to histamine, were ineffective at arterioles preconstricted by U-46619 (300 nM).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  19. Effect of budesonide and azelastine on histamine signaling regulation in human nasal epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shao-Cheng; Lin, Chun-Shu; Chen, Shyi-Gen; Chu, Yueng-Hsiang; Lee, Fei-Peng; Lu, Hsuan-Hsuan; Wang, Hsing-Won

    2017-02-01

    Both glucocorticoids and H1-antihistamines are widely used on patients with airway diseases. However, their direct effects on airway epithelial cells are not fully explored. Therefore, we use the primary culture of human nasal epithelial cells (HNEpC) to delineate in vitro mucosal responses to above two drugs. HNEpC cells were cultured with/without budesonide and azelastine. The growth rate at each group was recorded and measured as population double time (PDT). The histamine1-receptor (H1R), muscarinic1-receptor (M1R) and M3R were measured using immunocytochemistry and western blotting after 7-days treatment. Then, we used histamine and methacholine to stimulate the mucus secretion from HNEpC and observed the MUC5AC expression in culture supernatants. Concentration-dependent treatment-induced inhibition of HNEpC growth rate was observed. Cells incubated with azelastine proliferated significantly slower than that with budesonide and the combined use of those drugs led to significant PDT prolong. The immunocytochemistry showed the H1R, M1R and M3R were obviously located in the cell membrane without apparent difference after treatment. However, western blotting showed that budesonide can significantly up-regulate the H1R, M1R and M3R level while azelastine had opposite effects. Histamine and methacholine stimulated MUC5AC secretion was greater in cells treated with budesonide but was lesser in those treated with azelastine, as compared to controls. Our data suggest that both budesonide and azelastine can significantly inhibit HNEpC proliferation, and therefore, be helpful in against airway remodeling. Long-term use of budesonide might amplify histamine signaling and result in airway hyperreactivity to stimulants by enhancing H1R, M1R and M3R expression while azelastine can oppose this effect. Therefore, combined use of those two drugs in patients with chronic inflammatory airway diseases may be an ideal option.

  20. The isolation and synthesis of a novel benzofuran compound from Tephrosia purpurea, and the synthesis of several related derivatives, which suppress histamine H1 receptor gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shill, Manik Chandra; Das, Asish Kumar; Itou, Tomohiro; Karmakar, Sanmoy; Mukherjee, Pulok K; Mizuguchi, Hiroyuki; Kashiwada, Yoshiki; Fukui, Hiroyuki; Nemoto, Hisao

    2015-11-01

    A novel naturally occurring compound with a benzofuran skeleton was isolated from a plant, Tephrosia purpurea collected in Bangladesh. The chemical synthesis of this compound confirmed its structure, and preliminary biological results showed its suppressive activity towards histamine H1 gene expression. One isomer and four derivatives were also synthesized, and their suppression activity was investigated. Although only small quantities of this compound can be isolated from its natural source, a 10 g scale synthesis was demonstrated by the newly developed method.

  1. Blood flow in histamine- and allergen-induced weal and flare responses, effects of an H1 antagonist, alpha-adrenoceptor agonist and a topical glucocorticoid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammarlund, A; Olsson, P; Pipkorn, U

    1990-01-01

    Allergen has previously been shown to induce a continuous increase in local dermal blood flow after a prick test in allergic subjects, whereas histamine induced, initially, similar peak increases in blood flow of much shorter duration. Blood flow changes induced by histamine and allergen have now been evaluated (i) after pretreatment with a local corticosteroid cream, clobetasole-17-propionate; (ii) after oral administration of the H1-antihistamine loratadine; and (iii) after oral pretreatment with the alpha 1-adrenoceptor agonist pseudoephedrine. Blinded placebo-controlled designs were used in the substudies. Laser doppler flowmetry was used for non-invasive recording of changes in local blood flow intermittently for 24 h after the topical corticosteroid, 6 h for the substudies on loratadine and pseudoephedrine. The size of the immediate weal and flare reactions, as well as late phase reactions, were also determined. Pretreatment with clobetasole-17-propionate cream on the skin for 1 week prior to prick tests did not affect the blood flow response elicited by histamine or allergen, in either the initial part (up to 1 h) or the protracted 24 h determinations. The size of the weal and flare reactions decreased. Loratadine and pseudoephedrine did not reduce the initial allergen-induced increase in blood flow, while lower blood flow compared with placebo pretreatment was noted for the protracted (1-6 h) determinations. Blood flow changes after histamine were unaffected. The histamine-induced weal and flare was inhibited by loratadine more effectively than the corresponding allergen-induced reaction. The weal and flare reactions after histamine and allergen were not changed after pseudoephedrine.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  2. Vascular Effects of Histamine

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    olayemitoyin

    effects of histamine are mediated via H1 and H2 receptors and the actions are modulated by H3 receptor subtype ... Keywords: Histamine, Vascular smooth muscle, Endothelium .... responses to histamine, but not those to acetylcholine, were.

  3. Heterologous expression of human H1 histones in yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albig, W; Runge, D M; Kratzmeier, M; Doenecke, D

    1998-09-18

    The complete set of seven human H1 histone subtype genes was heterologously expressed in yeast. Since Saccharomyces cerevisiae lacks standard histone H1 we could isolate each recombinantly expressed human H1 subtype in pure form without contamination by endogenous H I histones. For isolation of the H1 histones in this expression system no tagging was needed and the isoforms could be extracted with the authentic primary structure by a single extraction step with 5%(0.74 M) perchloric acid. The isolated H1 histone proteins were used to assign the subtype genes to the corresponding protein spots or peaks after two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and capillary zone electrophoresis, respectively. This allowed us to correlate transcriptional data with protein data, which was barely possible until now.

  4. The response of a human bronchial epithelial cell line to histamine: Intracellular calcium changes and extracellular release of inflammatory mediators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noah, T.L.; Paradiso, A.M.; Madden, M.C.; McKinnon, K.P.; Devlin, R.B. (Department of Pediatrics, University of North Carolina School of Medicine, Chapel Hill (United States))

    1991-11-01

    Epithelial cells are likely to modulate inflammation and tissue repair in the airways, but the factors responsible for these processes remain unclear. Because human airway epithelia are infrequently available for in vitro studies, transformed epithelial cell lines are of interest as models. The authors therefore investigated the response of an SV-40/adenovirus-transformed human bronchial epithelial cell line (BEAS-2B) to histamine, a mediator with relevance for airway diseases. The intracellular calcium response to histamine (10(-4) M) was measured, using Fura-2 and microspectrofluorimetry. Histamine induced a transient increase in intracellular calcium that originated from intracellular sources; this effect was inhibited by the H1 receptor antagonist diphenhydramine, suggesting that BEAS cells retain functioning histamine receptors. BEAS cells were grown to confluence on microporous, collagen-coated filters, allowing measurement of vectorial release of soluble mediators. Monolayers exposed to histamine for 30 min released interleukin-6 and fibronectin in the apical direction, in a dose-dependent manner. Little eicosanoid production was induced by histamine, either in the apical or the basolateral direction, although BEAS cells constitutively produced small amounts of prostaglandin E2 and 15-HETE. However, these cells formed large amounts of eicosanoids in response to ozone exposure as a positive control. Comparison of their data with published reports for human airway epithelia in primary culture suggests that the BEAS cell line is, in a number of respects, a relevant model for the study of airway epithelial responses to a variety of stimuli.

  5. Histamine and histamine receptor antagonists in cancer biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaya, Bruno; Nicolau-Galmés, Francesca; Jangi, Shawkat M; Ortega-Martínez, Idoia; Alonso-Tejerina, Erika; Burgos-Bretones, Juan; Pérez-Yarza, Gorka; Asumendi, Aintzane; Boyano, María D

    2010-07-01

    Histamine has been demonstrated to be involved in cell proliferation, embryonic development, and tumour growth. These various biological effects are mediated through the activation of specific histamine receptors (H1, H2, H3, and H4) that differ in their tissue expression patterns and functions. Although many in vitro and in vivo studies of the modulatory roles of histamine in tumour development and metastasis have been reported, the effect of histamine in the progression of some types of tumours remains controversial; however, recent findings on the role of histamine in the immune system have shed new light on this question. This review focuses on the recent advances in understanding the roles of histamine and its receptors in tumour biology. We report our recent observations of the anti-tumoural effect of H1 histamine antagonists on experimental and human melanomas. We have found that in spite of exogenous histamine stimulated human melanoma cell proliferation, clonogenic ability and migration activity in a dose-dependent manner, the melanoma tumour growth was not modulated by in vivo histamine treatment. On the contrary, terfenadine-treatment in vitro induced melanoma cell death by apoptosis and in vivo terfenadine treatment significantly inhibited tumour growth in murine models. These observations increase our understanding of cancer biology and may inspire novel anticancer therapeutic strategies.

  6. Morphine modulates the effects of histamine H1 and H3 receptors on seizure susceptibility in pentylenetetrazole-induced seizure model of mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amini-Khoei, Hossein; Rahimi-Balaei, Maryam; Amiri, Shayan; Haj-Mirzaian, Arya; Hassanipour, Mahsa; Shirzadian, Armin; Gooshe, Maziar; Alijanpour, Sakineh; Mehr, Shahram Ejtemaie; Dehpour, Ahmad Reza

    2015-12-15

    Histamine regulates release of neurotransmitters such as dopamine, serotonin, gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), glutamate and also is involved in several functions in central nervous system (CNS). It has been shown that histamine participates in disorders like seizure. It has been well documented that morphine dose-dependently induces anti or proconvulsant effects. In the current study, we firstly showed that morphine (1mg/kg) exerts anticonvulsant effects which significantly reversed by naltrexone administration. Secondly, we determined seizure threshold for H1 and H3 receptors agonists and antagonists in mouse model of pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced clonic seizures. Our results showed that activation of H1 receptors by 2-(2-Pyridyl)-ethylamine exerts anticonvulsant properties while inhibition of H1 receptors by pyrilamine maleate induced proconvulsant effects. Furthermore, we showed that immepip dihydrobromide, a H3 receptor agonist, increased seizure susceptibility to PTZ whereas thioperamide, a H3 receptor antagonist increased seizure threshold. We also revealed that pretreatment with morphine potently reversed the effects of histaminergic system on seizure threshold suggesting the involvement of opioid system in alteration of seizure threshold by histaminergic drugs.

  7. Histamine and histamine-receptor antagonists modify gene expression and biosynthesis of interferon gamma in peripheral human blood mononuclear cells and in CD19-depleted cell subsets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horváth, B V; Szalai, C; Mándi, Y; László, V; Radvány, Z; Darvas, Z; Falus, A

    1999-01-01

    The effect of histamine and histamine antagonists was examined on gene expression and biosynthesis of bacterial endotoxin (LPS) induced interferon gamma (IFNgamma) both in human peripheral mononuclear cells (PMBC) and in T-cell enriched fractions. We found, that histamine inhibited the LPS induced t

  8. Histamine H1 Receptor Antagonist Bilastine%组胺H1受体拮抗剂比拉斯汀

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘晓庆; 邢爱敏

    2010-01-01

    比拉斯汀(bilastine)为西班牙FAES制药公司开发的第2代组胺H1受体拮抗剂,目前正在欧洲进行其治疗变应性鼻炎及慢性特发性荨麻疹的注册前准备工作,同时在美国进行Ⅱ期临床研究,考察其对季节性变应性鼻结膜炎的疗效.在健康受试者和鼻炎患者中进行的研究表明:本品安全性良好,无常用抗组胺药物存在的镇静作用及心脏毒性.

  9. Histamine is not released in acute thermal injury in human skin in vivo: a microdialysis study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Lars Jelstrup; Pedersen, Juri Lindy; Skov, Per Stahl

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Animal models have shown histamine to be released from the skin during the acute phase of a burn injury. The role of histamine during the early phase of thermal injuries in humans remains unclear. PURPOSE: The objectives of this trial were to study histamine release in human skin during...... the acute phase of a standardized thermal injury in healthy volunteers. METHODS: Histamine concentrations in human skin were measured by skin microdialysis technique. Microdialysis fibers were inserted into the dermis in the lower leg in male healthy volunteers. A standardized superficial thermal injury...... was elicited by a heating thermode (49 degrees C) applied to the skin for 5 min. Histamine in dialysate was analyzed for up to 2 h after the injury using two different analytical methods. RESULTS: Spectrofluorometric assay of histamine showed no histamine release in separate studies using 2-min samples over 20...

  10. Synthesis, evaluation, and comparative molecular field analysis of 1-phenyl-3-amino-1,2,3,4-tetrahydronaphthalenes as ligands for histamine H(1) receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucholtz, E C; Brown, R L; Tropsha, A; Booth, R G; Wyrick, S D

    1999-08-12

    A series of 1-phenyl-3-amino-1,2,3,4-tetrahydronaphthalenes (1-phenyl-3-aminotetralins, PATs) previously was found to modulate tyrosine hydroxylase activity and dopamine synthesis in rodent forebrain through interaction with a binding site labeled by [(3)H]-(-)-(1R,3S)-trans-H(2)-PAT. Recently, we have discovered that PATs also bind with high affinity to the [(3)H]mepyramine-labeled H(1) receptor in rat and guinea pig brain. Here, we report the synthesis and biological evaluation of additional PAT analogues in order to identify differences in binding at these two sites. Further molecular modifications involve the pendant phenyl ring as well as quaternary amine compounds. Comparison of about 38 PAT analogues, 10 structurally diverse H(1) ligands, and several other CNS-active compounds revealed no significant differences in affinity at [(3)H]-(-)-trans-H(2)-PAT sites versus [(3)H]mepyramine-labeled H(1) receptors. These results, together with previous autoradiographic brain receptor-mapping studies that indicate similar distribution of [(3)H]-(-)-trans-H(2)-PAT sites and [(3)H]mepyramine-labeled H(1) receptors, suggest that both radioligands label the same histamine H(1) receptors in rodent brain. We also report a revision of our previous comparative molecular field analysis (CoMFA) study of the PAT ligands that yields a highly predictive model for 66 compounds with a cross-validated R(2) (q(2)) value of 0.67. This model will be useful for the prediction of high-affinity ligands at radiolabeled H(1) receptors in mammalian brain.

  11. H(1) and H(2) receptors in the locus ceruleus are involved in the intracerebroventricular histamine-induced carotid sinus baroreceptor reflex resetting in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guo-Qing; Sun, Wan-Ping; Zhu, Yong-Jin; Zou, Rong; Zhou, Xi-Ping

    2006-07-01

    Objective To investigate the role of H(1) and H(2) receptors in the locus ceruleus (LC) in carotid sinus baroreceptor reflex (CSR) resetting induced by intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) injection of histamine (HA). Methods The left and right carotid sinus regions were isolated from the systemic circulation in 18 male Sprague-Dawley rats anesthetized with pentobarbital sodium. The intracarotid sinus pressure (ISP) was altered in a stepwise manner in vivo. ISP-mean arterial pressure (MAP) relationship curve and its characteristic parameters were constructed by fitting to the logistic function with five parameters. The changes in CSR performance induced by i.c.v. HA and the effects of pretreatment with H(1) or H(2) receptors selective antagonist, chlorpheniramine (CHL) or cimetidine (CIM) into the LC, on the responses of CSR to HA were examined. Results I.c.v. HA (100 ng in 5 mu l) significantly shifted the ISP-MAP relationship curve upwards (P 0.05). Conclusion Intracerebroventricular administration of HA results in a rapid resetting of CSR and a decrease in reflex sensitivity, and the responses of CSR to HA may be mediated, at least in part, by H(1) and H(2) receptors activities in the LC, especially by H(1) receptors. Moreover, the effects of the central HA on CSR might be related to a histaminergic descending pathway from the hypothalamus to LC.

  12. The Role of Histamine H1 and H4 Receptors in Atopic Dermatitis: From Basic Research to Clinical Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuke Ohsawa

    2014-01-01

    Although the oral administration of H1R antagonists is widely used to treat AD, it is not very effective. In contrast, JNJ39758979, a novel H4R antagonist, had marked effects against pruritus in Japanese patients with AD in a phase II clinical trial. Next generation antihistaminic agents possessing H1R and H4R antagonistic actions may be a potent therapeutic drug for AD.

  13. The effect of betahistine, a histamine H1 receptor agonist/H3 antagonist, on olanzapine-induced weight gain in first-episode schizophrenia patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poyurovsky, Michael; Pashinian, Artashes; Levi, Aya; Weizman, Ronit; Weizman, Abraham

    2005-03-01

    Histamine antagonism has been implicated in antipsychotic drug-induced weight gain. Betahistine, a histamine enhancer with H1 agonistic/H3 antagonistic properties (48 mg t.i.d.), was coadministered with olanzapine (10 mg/day) in three first-episode schizophrenia patients for 6 weeks. Body weight was measured at baseline and weekly thereafter. Clinical rating scales were completed at baseline and at week 6. All participants gained weight (mean weight gain 3.1+/-0.9 kg) and a similar pattern of weight gain was observed: an increase during the first 2 weeks and no additional weight gain (two patients) or minor weight loss (one patient) from weeks 3 to 6. None gained 7% of baseline weight, which is the cut-off for clinically significant weight gain. Betahistine was safe and well tolerated and did not interfere with the antipsychotic effect of olanzapine. Our findings justify a placebo-controlled evaluation of the putative weight-attenuating effect of betahistine in olanzapine-induced weight gain.

  14. VP2 capsid domain of the H-1 parvovirus determines susceptibility of human cancer cells to H-1 viral infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, I-R; Kaowinn, S; Song, J; Kim, S; Koh, S S; Kang, H-Y; Ha, N-C; Lee, K H; Jun, H-S; Chung, Y-H

    2015-05-01

    Although H-1 parvovirus is used as an antitumor agent, not much is known about the relationship between its specific tropism and oncolytic activity. We hypothesize that VP2, a major capsid protein of H-1 virus, determines H-1-specific tropism. To assess this, we constructed chimeric H-1 viruses expressing Kilham rat virus (KRV) capsid proteins, in their complete or partial forms. Chimeric H-1 viruses (CH1, CH2 and CH3) containing the whole KRV VP2 domain could not induce cytolysis in HeLa, A549 and Panc-1 cells. However, the other chimeric H-1 viruses (CH4 and CH5) expressing a partial KRV VP2 domain induced cytolysis. Additionally, the significant cytopathic effect caused by CH4 and CH5 infection in HeLa cells resulted from preferential viral amplification via DNA replication, RNA transcription and protein synthesis. Modeling of VP2 capsid protein showed that two variable regions (VRs) (VR0 and VR2) of H-1 VP2 protein protrude outward, because of the insertion of extra amino-acid residues, as compared with those of KRV VP2 protein. This might explain the precedence of H-1 VP2 protein over KRV in determining oncolytic activity in human cancer cells. Taking these results together, we propose that the VP2 protein of oncolytic H-1 parvovirus determines its specific tropism in human cancer cells.

  15. Human, recombinant interleukin-2 induces in vitro histamine release in a dose-dependent manner

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Hans Jørgen; Petersen, L J; Skov, P S

    1995-01-01

    We previously observed that human, recombinant interleukin-2 in a pharmacologic dose (200 u/ml) induced histamine release from monocyte-depleted peripheral blood mononuclear cells in vitro. Therefore, we studied the role of various pharmacologic doses of rIL-2 on in vitro histamine release......, for 1, 24 and 48 hours under standard conditions. Histamine was analysed in supernatants using the glass fiber method. Simultaneously, total cell-bound histamine was analysed in lysate from 5 x 10(6) mononuclear cells from all patients and volunteers, thus allowing determination of percent histamine...... release. Supernatant histamine concentration from unstimulated cells was 17.2 +/- 1.5 ng/ml in patients compared to 7.9 +/- 1.0 ng/ml in volunteers (#p Histamine concentration increased...

  16. Histamine, histamine intoxication and intolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovacova-Hanuskova, E; Buday, T; Gavliakova, S; Plevkova, J

    2015-01-01

    Excessive accumulation of histamine in the body leads to miscellaneous symptoms mediated by its bond to corresponding receptors (H1-H4). Increased concentration of histamine in blood can occur in healthy individuals after ingestion of foods with high contents of histamine, leading to histamine intoxication. In individuals with histamine intolerance (HIT) ingestion of food with normal contents of histamine causes histamine-mediated symptoms. HIT is a pathological process, in which the enzymatic activity of histamine-degrading enzymes is decreased or inhibited and they are insufficient to inactivate histamine from food and to prevent its passage to blood-stream. Diagnosis of HIT is difficult. Multi-faced, non-specific clinical symptoms provoked by certain kinds of foods, beverages and drugs are often attributed to different diseases, such as allergy and food intolerance, mastocytosis, psychosomatic diseases, anorexia nervosa or adverse drug reactions. Correct diagnosis of HIT followed by therapy based on histamine-free diet and supplementation of diamine oxidase can improve patient's quality of life.

  17. Activation of histamine H3 receptors in human nasal mucosa inhibits sympathetic vasoconstriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varty, LoriAnn M; Gustafson, Eric; Laverty, Maureen; Hey, John A

    2004-01-19

    The peripheral histamine H3 receptor is a presynaptic heterologous receptor located on postganglionic sympathetic nerve fibers innervating sympathetic effector systems such as blood vessels and the heart. An extensive body of evidence shows that activation of the histamine H3 receptor attenuates sympathetic tone by presynaptic inhibition of noradrenaline release. It is proposed that this sympathoinhibitory action, in vivo, leads to reduced vasoconstriction, thereby eliciting a vasodilatory effect. In humans, the peripheral histamine H3 receptor has also been shown to exert a sympathoinhibitory function on specific peripheral autonomic effector systems. For example, human saphenous vein and heart possess functional presynaptic histamine H3 receptors on the sympathetic nerve terminals that upon activation decrease the sympathetic tone to these respective organs. The present studies were conducted to define the role of histamine H3 receptors on neurogenic sympathetic vasoconstrictor responses in human nasal turbinate mucosa. Contractility studies were conducted to evaluate the effect of histamine H3 receptor activation on sympathetic vasoconstriction in surgically isolated human nasal turbinate mucosa. We found that the histamine H3 receptor agonist, (R)-alpha-methylhistamine (30 and 300 nM), inhibited electrical field stimulation-induced (neurogenic) sympathetic vasoconstriction in a concentration-dependent fashion. Pretreatment with the selective histamine H3 receptor antagonist, clobenpropit (100 nM), blocked the sympathoinhibitory effect of (R)-alpha-methylhistamine on the neurogenic sympathetic vasoconstriction. In addition, analysis of Taqman mRNA expression studies showed a specific, high level of distribution of the histamine H3 receptor localized in the human nasal mucosa. Taken together, these studies indicate that histamine H3 receptors modulate vascular contractile responses in human nasal mucosa most likely by inhibiting noradrenaline release from

  18. Quantitative measurement of histamine H{sub 1} receptors in human brains by PET and [{sup 11}C]doxepin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mochizuki, Hideki; Kimura, Yuichi E-mail: ukimura@ieee.org; Ishii, Kenji; Oda, Keiichi; Sasaki, Toru; Tashiro, Manabu; Yanai, Kazuhiko; Ishiwata, Kiichi

    2004-02-01

    The aim of this study is to establish a method for quantitative measurement of histamine H{sub 1} receptor (H1R) in human brain by PET and [{sup 11}C]doxepin ([{sup 11}C]DOX). The estimated parameters with a two-compartment model were stable for the initial values for parameter estimation but those with a three-compartment model were not. This finding suggests that the H1R measured by the [{sup 11}C]DOX and PET can be evaluated with a two-compartment model.

  19. Enhancement of ionizing radiation response by histamine in vitro and in vivo in human breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinel Lamas, Diego J; Cortina, Jorge E; Ventura, Clara; Sterle, Helena A; Valli, Eduardo; Balestrasse, Karina B; Blanco, Horacio; Cremaschi, Graciela A; Rivera, Elena S; Medina, Vanina A

    2015-01-01

    The radioprotective potential of histamine on healthy tissue has been previously demonstrated. The aims of this work were to investigate the combinatorial effect of histamine or its receptor ligands and gamma radiation in vitro on the radiobiological response of 2 breast cancer cell lines (MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7), to explore the potential molecular mechanisms of the radiosensitizing action and to evaluate the histamine-induced radiosensitization in vivo in a triple negative breast cancer model. Results indicate that histamine significantly increased the radiosensitivity of MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 cells. This effect was mimicked by the H1R agonist 2-(3-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl)histamine and the H4R agonists (Clobenpropit and VUF8430) in MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 cells, respectively. Histamine and its agonists enhanced radiation-induced oxidative DNA damage, DNA double-strand breaks, apoptosis and senescence. These effects were associated with increased production of reactive oxygen species, which correlated with the inhibition of catalase, glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase activities in MDA-MB-231 cells. Histamine was able also to potentiate in vivo the anti-tumoral effect of radiation, increasing the exponential tumor doubling time. We conclude that histamine increased radiation response of breast cancer cells, suggesting that it could be used as a potential adjuvant to enhance the efficacy of radiotherapy.

  20. Effects of antihistamine on up-regulation of histamine H1 receptor mRNA in the nasal mucosa of patients with pollinosis induced by controlled cedar pollen challenge in an environmental exposure unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshiaki Kitamura

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, we examined the effects of antihistamine on the up-regulation of H1R mRNA in the nasal mucosa of patients with pollinosis induced by controlled exposure to pollen using an environmental exposure unit. Out of 20 patients, we designated 14 responders, whose levels of H1R mRNA in the nasal mucosa were increased after the first pollen exposure and excluded 6 non-responders. Accordingly, the first exposure to pollen without treatment significantly induced both nasal symptoms and the up-regulation of H1R mRNA in the nasal mucosa of the responders. Subsequently, prophylactic administration of antihistamine prior to the second pollen exposure significantly inhibited both of the above effects in the responders. Moreover, the nasal expression of H1R mRNA before the second pollen exposure in the responders pretreated with antihistamine was significantly decreased, as compared with that before the first pollen exposure without treatment. These findings suggest that antihistamines suppressed histamine-induced transcriptional activation of H1R gene in the nasal mucosa, in addition to their blocking effect against histamine on H1R, resulting in a decrease of nasal symptoms. These findings further suggest that by their inverse agonistic activity, antihistamines suppress the basal transcription of nasal H1R in the absence of histamine in responders.

  1. Effects of antihistamine on up-regulation of histamine H1 receptor mRNA in the nasal mucosa of patients with pollinosis induced by controlled cedar pollen challenge in an environmental exposure unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitamura, Yoshiaki; Nakagawa, Hideyuki; Fujii, Tatsuya; Sakoda, Takema; Enomoto, Tadao; Mizuguchi, Hiroyuki; Fukui, Hiroyuki; Takeda, Noriaki

    2015-11-01

    In the present study, we examined the effects of antihistamine on the up-regulation of H1R mRNA in the nasal mucosa of patients with pollinosis induced by controlled exposure to pollen using an environmental exposure unit. Out of 20 patients, we designated 14 responders, whose levels of H1R mRNA in the nasal mucosa were increased after the first pollen exposure and excluded 6 non-responders. Accordingly, the first exposure to pollen without treatment significantly induced both nasal symptoms and the up-regulation of H1R mRNA in the nasal mucosa of the responders. Subsequently, prophylactic administration of antihistamine prior to the second pollen exposure significantly inhibited both of the above effects in the responders. Moreover, the nasal expression of H1R mRNA before the second pollen exposure in the responders pretreated with antihistamine was significantly decreased, as compared with that before the first pollen exposure without treatment. These findings suggest that antihistamines suppressed histamine-induced transcriptional activation of H1R gene in the nasal mucosa, in addition to their blocking effect against histamine on H1R, resulting in a decrease of nasal symptoms. These findings further suggest that by their inverse agonistic activity, antihistamines suppress the basal transcription of nasal H1R in the absence of histamine in responders.

  2. Time-dependent histamine release from stored human blood products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Hans Jørgen; Edvardsen, L; Vangsgaard, K

    1996-01-01

    Perioperative transfusion of whole blood has been shown to amplify trauma-induced immunosuppression, which could be attenuated by perioperative administration of histamine2 receptor antagonists. Supernatants from different blood products were, therefore, analysed for histamine content during...... storage. Whole blood (six units), plasma-reduced whole blood (six units), and plasma- and buffy coat-reduced (saline-adenine-glucose-mannitol) (SAGM) blood (six units) from unpaid healthy donors were stored in the blood bank for 35 days at 4 degrees C. Plasma histamine and total cell-bound histamine...... content at donation, and histamine concentration in samples drawn from the units on days 0, 2, 5, 9, 14, 21, 28 and 35 were analysed with an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Median plasma histamine concentration was 4.8 (range 1.9-14.3) nmol/l (n = 18). Median total cell-bound histamine content was 417...

  3. H1抗组胺药%H1-antihistamines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张罗; 韩德民

    2013-01-01

    While histamine plays an important role in the pathogenesis of allergic diseases, such as allergic rhinitis, H1-antihistamines, which have been using in the treatment of allergic diseases for more than 70 years, are considered as the cornerstone of the medication of allergic diseases. In this review, we discuss the history of histamine studies and anti - histamine discovery, the histamine receptors, as well as the mechanisms and the safety of H1-antihistamines.

  4. Neuronal histamine and expression of corticotropin-releasing hormone, vasopressin and oxytocin in the hypothalamus: relative importance of H1 and H2 receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjaer, A; Larsen, P J; Knigge, U; Jørgensen, H; Warberg, J

    1998-08-01

    Centrally administered histamine (HA) stimulates the secretion of the pro-opiomelanocortin-derived peptides ACTH and beta-endorphin as well as prolactin. The effect of HA on secretion of these adenohypophysial hormones is indirect and may involve activation of hypothalamic neurons containing corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), arginine-vasopressin (AVP) or oxytocin (OT). We studied the effect of activating central HA receptors by central infusion of HA, HA agonists or antagonists on expression of CRH, AVP and OT mRNA in the hypothalamic paraventricular (PVN) and supraoptic (SON) nuclei. Intracerebroventricular infusion of HA (270 nmol), the H1-receptor agonist 2-thiazolylethylamine or the H2-receptor agonist 4-methylhistamine increased the level of CRH mRNA in the PVN, and OT mRNA in the SON. In contrast, none of these compounds had any effect on expression of AVP mRNA in the PVN or SON. Administration of the H1-receptor antagonist mepyramine or the H2-receptor antagonist cimetidine had no effect on basal expression of CRH, AVP or OT mRNA in the PVN and/or SON except for a slight inhibitory effect of cimetidine on CRH mRNA expression in the PVN. Pretreatment with mepyramine or cimetidine before HA administration inhibited the HA-induced increase in OT mRNA levels but had no effect on the HA-induced increase in CRH mRNA levels in the PVN. We conclude that HA stimulates hypothalamic CRH and OT neurons by increasing mRNA levels, and this effect seems to be mediated via activation of both HA H1 and H2 receptors.

  5. Implication of histamine H1 receptors in vestibular nucleus and motion sickness%前庭核H1受体在运动病发生中的作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄立桂; 王恩彤; 陈伟; 龚维熙

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate the expression of histamine H1 receptors (H1 R) in vestibular nucleus of rat' s brainstem and the underlying role of H1R in motion sickness (MS).Methods Total of 24 healthy Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into four groups,6 rats in each group.A:MS(-)/Drug(-) control group,in which the rats were not exposed to motion stimulus and no anti-motion sickness drug promethazine taking; B:MS(+)/Drug(-) group,only exposed to motion stimulus; C:MS(-)/Drug(+) group,that applied with promethazine but not exposed to motion stimulus; D:MS(+)/Drug (+) group,applied with promethazine (0.25 mg for each rat) 30 minutes before exposing to motion stimulus.MS was induced by a complex motion stimulus and the conditioned taste aversion was used as the behavioral indicator of MS in rats,measuring the intaked volume of 0.15% sodium saccharin solution (SSS) for each rat 45 minutes after motion stimulus.H1 R in the vestibular nucleus of brainstem was examined by immunofluorescence staining.The expression of H1 R proteins in hrainstem tissue at vestibular nucleus level was detected by Western blot.The effects of motion stimulus and anti-MS drug promethazine on the expressions of H1R were evaluated.Results The mean intake of SSS in B group was significantly less than that in A group (F=346.82,P<0.01),which demondtrated that MS was induced by this motion stimulus in the rats.The mean intaked SSS volume (14.8 ml) in C group was similar to that in A group (P>0.05),indicating no significant effect of promethazine on intaking SSS.The mean intaked SSS volume in D group was more than that in B group (P<0.01),but less than that in A group or C group (P<0.01),which indicated that the inhibited intaking of SSS in motion-stimulated rats was improved partially by promethazine.Immunofluorescence staining showed the positive expression of H1R in the vestibular nucleus of brainstem in rats and the expression was enhanced by motion stimulus,but was not

  6. Histamine H3 receptor-mediated inhibition of noradrenaline release in the human brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlicker, E; Werthwein, S; Zentner, J

    1999-01-01

    Stimulation-evoked 3H-noradrenaline release in human cerebrocortical slices was inhibited by histamine (in a manner sensitive to clobenpropit) and by imetit, suggesting H3 receptor-mediated inhibition of noradrenaline release in human brain.

  7. H1 and H2 receptors in the locus ceruleus are involved in the intracerebroventricular histamine-induced carotid sinus baroreceptor reflex resetting in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo-Qing WANG; Wan-Ping SUN; Yong-Jin ZHU; Rong ZOU; Xi-Ping ZHOU

    2006-01-01

    Objective To investigate the role of H1 and H2 receptors in the locus ceruleus (LC) in carotid sinus baroreceptor reflex (CSR) resetting induced by intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) injection of histamine (HA). Methods The left and right carotid sinus regions were isolated from the systemic circulation in 18 male Sprague-Dawley rats anesthetized with pentobarbital sodium. The intracarotid sinus pressure (ISP) was altered in a stepwise manner in vivo. ISP-mean arterial pressure (MAP) relationship curve and its characteristic parameters were constructed by fitting to the logistic function with five parameters. The changes in CSR performance induced by i.c.v. HA and the effects of pretreatment with H1 or H2 receptors selective antagonist, chlorpheniramine (CHL) or cimetidine (CIM) into the LC, on the responses of CSR to HA were examined. Results I.c.v. HA (100 ng in 5 μl) significantly shifted the ISP-MAP relationship curve upwards (P < 0.05) and obviously decreased the value of the reflex parameters such as MAP range and maximum gain (P < 0.05), but increased the threshold pressure, saturation pressure and ISP at maximum gain (P < 0.05). The pretreatment with CHL (0.5 μg in 1 μl) or CIM (1.5 μg in 1 μl) into the LC could obviously attenuate the changes mentioned above in CSR performance induced by HA, but the alleviative effect of CIM was less remarkable than that ofCHL (P < 0.05). Respective microinjection of CHL or CIM alone into the LC with the corresponding dose and volume did not change CSR performance significantly (P > 0.05). Conclusion Intracerebroventricular administration of HA results in a rapid resetting of CSR and a decrease in reflex sensitivity, and the responses of CSR to HA may be mediated, at least in part, by H1 and H2 receptors activities in the LC, especially by H1 receptors. Moreover, the effects of the central HA on CSR might be related to a histaminergic descending pathway from the hypothalamus to LC.

  8. Measurement of histamine release from human lung tissue ex vivo by microdialysis technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, Dan; Petersen, Lars Jelstrup; Nolte, H;

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE AND DESIGN: Currently no method is available for measurement of mediator release from intact human lung. In this study, a microdialysis technique was used to measure histamine release from mast cells in human lung tissue ex vivo. MATERIAL: Microdialysis fibers of 216 microm were inserted...... into lung tissue and perfused with Krebs Ringer buffer at a rate of 3 microl/min. After a 15 min period of steady-state perfusion, anti-IgE and vehicle were injected into the lung tissue above individual fibers. Samples from each fibre were collected for 20 min at 2 min intervals. Histamine was assayed...... fluorometrically. RESULTS: Anti-IgE concentrations of 40-40,000 U/ml dose-dependently released histamine, significant histamine release being demonstrated with anti-IgE concentrations of 400 U/ml and greater. The kinetics of histamine release showed peak values 2-8 min after the injection. Great individual...

  9. Effects of the histamine H1 receptor antagonist hydroxyzine on hERG K+ channels and cardiac action potential duration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Byung Hoon LEE; Seung Ho LEE; Daehyun CHU; Jin Won HYUN; Han CHOE; Bok Hee CHOI; Su-Hyun JO

    2011-01-01

    To investigate the effects of hydroxyzine on human ether-a-go-go-related gene (hERG) channels to determine the electrolphysiological basis for its proarrhythmic effects.Methods:hERG channels were expressed in Xenopus oocytes and HEK293 cells,and the effects of hydroxyzine on the channels were examined using two-microelectrode voltage-clamp and patch-clamp techniques,respectively.The effects of hydroxyzine on action potential duration were examined in guinea pig ventricular myocytes using current clamp.Results:Hydroxyzine (0.2 and 2 μmol/L) significantly increased the action potential duration at 90% repolarization (APD90) in both concentration- and time-dependent manners.Hydroxyzine (0.03-3 μmol/L) blocked both the steady-state and tail hERG currents.The block was voltage-dependent,and the values of IC50 for blocking the steady-state and tail currents at +20 mV was 0.18±0.02 μmol/L and 0.16±0.01 μmol/L,respectively,in HEK293 cells.Hydroxyzine (5 μmol/L) affected both the activated and the inactivated states of the channels,but not the closed state.The S6 domain mutation Y652A attenuated the blocking of hERG current by ~6-fold.Conclusion:The results suggest that hydroxyzine could block hERG channels and prolong APD.The tyrosine at position 652 in the channel may be responsible for the proarrhythmic effects of hydroxyzine.

  10. Role of protein kinase C in histamine release from human basophils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morita, Y; Takaishi, T; Honda, Z; Miyamoto, T

    1988-02-01

    In this study, we investigated the role of calcium and phospholipid-dependent protein kinase (protein kinase C, PKC) in the modulation of histamine release from human basophils. A novel and potent inhibitor of PKC, K-252a, inhibited the release of histamine induced by anti-IgE in a dose-dependent manner with ID50 (the dose required for 50% inhibition of histamine release) of 2.2 x 10(-8) M. Histamine release stimulated with 12-0-tetradecanoyl-phorbol-13-acetate(TPA) was also suppressed by K-252a with maximal inhibition of 48.0 +/- 9.3% at 10(-7) M. In contrast, K-252a did not inhibit the release of histamine in response to FMLP and ionophore A23187. Another inhibitor of PKC, H-7, exhibited a dose-dependent inhibition of anti-IgE-induced histamine release with ID50 of 8.6 x 10(-4) M. H-8 and HA1004, which closely resemble H-7 in chemical structure but are less potent in inhibiting PKC, did not inhibit histamine release stimulated with anti-IgE, but rather enhanced the release at higher concentrations. These results strongly suggest that PKC activation plays a crucial role in the mediation of IgE-mediated histamine release from human basophils.

  11. Modulation of tryptase secretion from human colon mast cells by histamine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shao-Heng He; Hua Xie

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the ability of histamine to modulate tryptase release from human colon mast cells and the potential mechanisms.METHODS: Enzymatically dispersed cells from human colons were challenged with histamine, anti-IgE or calcium ionophore A23187 (CI), and the cell supernatants after challenge were collected. Tryptase release was determined with a sandwich ELISA procedure.able to induce a "bell" shape dose related release of tryptase from colon mast cells. The maximum release of tryptase was approximately 3.5 fold more than spontaneous release. As little as 10 ng/mL histamine showed a similar potency to 10 μg/mL anti-IgE in induction of tryptase release. Histamine induced release of tryptase initiated at 10 s when histamine (100 ng/mL) was added to cells, gradually increased thereafter, and completed at 5 min, Both pertussis toxin or metabolic inhibitors were able to inhibit histamine induced tryptase release. When histamine and anti-IgE were added to colon mast cells at the same time, the quantity of tryptase released was similar to that induced by anti-IgE alone. The similar results were observed with CI. However, when various concentrations of histamine were incubated with cells for 20 min before adding anti-IgE or CI, the quantity of tryptase released was similar to that was induced by histamine alone.CONCLUSION: Histamine is a potent activator of human colon mast cells, which represents a novel and pivotal selfamplification mechanism of mast cell degranulation.

  12. Human, recombinant interleukin-2 induces in vitro histamine release in a dose-dependent manner

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Hans Jørgen; Petersen, L J; Skov, P S

    1995-01-01

    We previously observed that human, recombinant interleukin-2 in a pharmacologic dose (200 u/ml) induced histamine release from monocyte-depleted peripheral blood mononuclear cells in vitro. Therefore, we studied the role of various pharmacologic doses of rIL-2 on in vitro histamine release....... Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (5 x 10(6) cells/ml), which also contain basophils, from 13 patients scheduled for elective colorectal cancer surgery and 10 age and sex matched healthy volunteers were stimulated with rIL-2 in concentrations of 0, 50, 100, 200, 450, 900, 1,800 and 3,600 u/ml, respectively......, for 1, 24 and 48 hours under standard conditions. Histamine was analysed in supernatants using the glass fiber method. Simultaneously, total cell-bound histamine was analysed in lysate from 5 x 10(6) mononuclear cells from all patients and volunteers, thus allowing determination of percent histamine...

  13. Effects of histamine on growth and apoptosis of human melanoma cells A375

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    RAN Li-wei; TAN Sheng-shun; XU Xin-ling; ZHANG Jiang-an; WANG Wan-juan

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effects of histamine on growth and apoptosis of human melanoma cells A375. Methods: The effect of histamine on growth of A375 cells in vitro was examined by MTT assay and Trypan blue exclusion assay. Cell cycle analysis, early apoptosis analysis by double staining with Annexin V-FITC and PI, and active caspase-3 analysis by staining FITC-conjugated monoclonal rabbit anti-active caspase-3 antibody were made by flow cytometer. StreptAvidin-Biotin Complex (SABC)immunocytochemical assays were adopted to detect Bax/Bcl-2 protein expressions. Results: Histamine inhibited proliferation of A375 cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner, and altered cell cycle distribution of A375 cells revealing an increase in G0/G1-phase population, a decrease in S-phase population and the inhibition of G1/S switching. Histamine induced apoptosis of A375 cells (P<0. 05), elevated the cells population with detectable active caspase-3 (P<0. 05), increased the number of cells forming Bax and decreased the number of cells forming Bcl-2 significantly (P<0.05). Conclusion: That histamine inhibits cell cycle progress of A375 cells is one of the possible mechanisms of proliferation arrest of A375 cells elicited by histamine. Histamine mediates apoptosis in A375 cells that may be caspase-dependent through mitochondria routine. Histamine with high concentration inhibits growth of A375 cells in vitro by interfering proliferation and inducing apoptosis of cells.

  14. [Isoforms of the human histamine H3 receptor: Generation, expression in the central nervous system and functional implications].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Gálvez, Ana Maricela; Arias-Montaño, José Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Histamine plays a significant role as a neuromodulator in the human central nervous system. Histamine-releasing neurons are exclusively located in the tuberomammillary nucleus of the hypothalamus, project to all major areas of the brain, and participate in functions such as the regulation of sleep/wakefulness, locomotor activity, feeding and drinking, analgesia, learning, and memory. The functional effects of histamine are exerted through the activation of four G protein-coupled receptors (H1, H2, H3 and H4), and in the central nervous system the first three receptors are widely expressed. The H3 receptor (H3R) is found exclusively in neuronal cells, where it functions as auto- and hetero-receptor. One remarkable characteristic of the H3R is the existence of isoforms, generated by alternative splicing of the messenger RNA. For the human H3R, 20 isoforms have been reported; although a significant number lack those regions required for agonist binding or receptor signaling, at least five isoforms appear functional upon heterologous expression. In this work we review the evidence for the generation of human H3R isoforms, their expression, and the available information regarding the functionality of such receptors.

  15. Inhibition of histamine release from human mast cells by natural chymase inhibitors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shao-heng HE; Hua XIE; Xiao-jun ZHANG; Xian-jie WANG

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the ability of natural chymase inhibitors to modulate histamine release from human mast cells.METHODS: Enzymatically dispersed cells from human lung, tonsil, and skin were challenged with anti-IgE or calcium ionophore A23187 in the absence or presence of the natural chymase inhibitors secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor (SLPI) and α1-antitrypsin, then histamine release was determined. RESULTS: IgE-dependent histamine release from lung, tonsil, and skin mast cells were inhibited by up to 70 %, 61%, and 62%, respectively following incubation with α1-antitrypsin (5000 nmol/L). SLPI 5000 nmol/L was also able to inhibit anti-IgEdependent histamine released from lung, tonsil and skin mast cells by up to approximately 72%, 67%, and 58%,respectively. While neither α1-antitrypsin nor SLPI by themselves altered histamine release from lung, tonsil and skin mast cells, they were able to inhibit calcium ionophore-induced histamine release from lung and tonsil mast cells. CONCLUSION: Both α1-antitrypsin and SLPI could potently inhibit IgE-dependent and calcium ionophoreinduced histamine release from dispersed human lung, tonsil, and skin mast cells in a concentration-dependent manner, which suggested that they were likely to play a protective role in mast cell associated diseases including allergy.

  16. Endothelin-1 induces a histamine-dependent flare in vivo, but does not activate human skin mast cells in vitro.

    OpenAIRE

    Brain, S D; Thomas, G.; Crossman, D.C.; Fuller, R.; Church, M. K.

    1992-01-01

    The role of the mast cell in endothelin-1 induced flare has been investigated by in vivo and in vitro experiments. The intradermal injection of endothelin-1 (10 pmol) into human skin induced a pallor with surrounding axon-reflex flare which is similar to the flare response to histamine (1 nmol). At these doses, chosen to give identical flare areas, blood flow was increased in the area of the endothelin-induced flare over a longer period. A systemic H1-receptor antagonist significantly inhibit...

  17. Effects of first- and second-generation histamine-H1-receptor antagonists on the pentobarbital-induced loss of the righting reflex in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamei, Junzo; Hirano, Shoko; Miyata, Shigeo; Saitoh, Akiyoshi; Onodera, Kenji

    2005-02-01

    The second-generation histamine-H(1)-receptor antagonists, such as epinastine and cetirizine, are used as non-sedating antihistamines for treating allergic symptoms due to their poor ability to penetrate blood-brain barrier. Because it has been reported that the blood-brain barrier system is disturbed in diabetes, it is possible that second-generation histamine-H(1)-receptor antagonists may easily penetrate the blood-brain barrier and cause potent sedation in diabetics. In the present study, we investigated the effects of first-generation (diphenhydramine) and second-generation (epinastine and cetirizine) histamine-H(1)-receptor antagonists on the duration of pentobarbital-induced loss of the righting reflex (LORR) in non-diabetic and diabetic mice. Systemic treatment with diphenhydramine (3 - 30 mg/kg, s.c.), and intracerebroventricular treatment with epinastine (0.03 - 0.3 microg/mouse) and cetirizine (0.03 - 0.3 microg/mouse) dose-dependently and significantly increased the duration of pentobarbital-induced LORR in both non-diabetic and diabetic mice. Although systemic treatment with epinastine (3 - 30 mg/kg, s.c.) and cetirizine (3 - 30 mg/kg, s.c.) did not affect the duration of pentobarbital-induced LORR in non-diabetic mice, these treatments significantly prolonged it in diabetic mice. Our results suggest that the systemic administration of second-generation histamine-H(1)-receptor antagonists may produce a central nervous system depressant effect in diabetes.

  18. Influence of nimodipine, verapamil and lanthanum on histamine release from human basophils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, C B; Thastrup, Ole; Norn, S;

    1987-01-01

    Our previous studies suggest that the membrane content of sialic acid influences histamine release from human basophils by interfering with the transmembraneous calcium fluxes preceding histamine release. In this study we investigated a possible interaction between membrane sialic acid...... and the calcium channels, using the calcium antagonists nimodipine, verapamil and lanthanum. Anti-IgE-induced histamine release was inhibited by verapamil, nimodipine and lanthanum. When cells were pretreated with sialidase in order to remove sialic acid from the cell membrane, the inhibitory action of nimodipine...

  19. Translocation of histone H1 subtypes between chromatin and cytoplasm during mitosis in normal human fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gréen, Anna; Lönn, Anita; Peterson, Kajsa Holmgren; Ollinger, Karin; Rundquist, Ingemar

    2010-05-01

    Histone H1 is an important constituent of chromatin, which undergoes major structural rearrangements during mitosis. However, the role of H1, multiple H1 subtypes, and H1 phosphorylation is still unclear. In normal human fibroblasts, phosphorylated H1 was found located in nuclei during prophase and in both cytoplasm and condensed chromosomes during metaphase, anaphase, and telophase as detected by immunocytochemistry. Moreover, we detected remarkable differences in the distribution of the histone H1 subtypes H1.2, H1.3, and H1.5 during mitosis. H1.2 was found in chromatin during prophase and almost solely in the cytoplasm of metaphase and early anaphase cells. In late anaphase, it appeared in both chromatin and cytoplasm and again in chromatin during telophase. H1.5 distribution pattern resembled that of H1.2, but H1.5 was partitioned between chromatin and cytoplasm during metaphase and early anaphase. H1.3 was detected in chromatin in all cell cycle phases. We propose therefore, that H1 subtype translocation during mitosis is controlled by phosphorylation, in combination with H1 subtype inherent affinity. We conclude that H1 subtypes, or theirphosphorylated forms, may leave chromatin in a regulated way to give access for chromatin condensing factors or transcriptional regulators during mitosis.

  20. Complexity of the influence of gangliosides on histamine release from human basophils and rat mast cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, C; Svendsen, U G; Thastrup, Ole;

    1987-01-01

    The influence of exogenous addition of gangliosides on histamine release from human basophils and rat mast cells was examined in vitro. Gangliosides dose-dependently inhibited histamine release, and this inhibition was dependent on the ganglioside sialic acid content, since GT1b, having 3 sialic...... was reflected in the sensitivity of the cells to extracellular calcium, since inhibition of the release could be counteracted by increasing the extracellular concentration of calcium....

  1. Time-dependent histamine release from stored human blood products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Hans Jørgen; Edvardsen, L; Vangsgaard, K;

    1996-01-01

    storage. Whole blood (six units), plasma-reduced whole blood (six units), and plasma- and buffy coat-reduced (saline-adenine-glucose-mannitol) (SAGM) blood (six units) from unpaid healthy donors were stored in the blood bank for 35 days at 4 degrees C. Plasma histamine and total cell-bound histamine......Perioperative transfusion of whole blood has been shown to amplify trauma-induced immunosuppression, which could be attenuated by perioperative administration of histamine2 receptor antagonists. Supernatants from different blood products were, therefore, analysed for histamine content during.......0 (range 176.0-910.0) nmol/l in whole blood and 475.0 (range 360.0-1560.0) nmol/l in plasma-reduced whole blood, while it was undetectable in SAGM blood. Spontaneous histamine release increased in a time-dependent manner from a median of 6.7 (range 2.2-17.4) nmol/l at the time of storage to 175.0 (range 33...

  2. Simplified PET measurement for evaluating histamine H{sub 1} receptors in human brains using [{sup 11}C]doxepin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mochizuki, Hideki [Department of Pharmacology, Tohoku University School of Medicine, Sendai, 980-8575 (Japan); Positron Medical Center, Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Gerontology, Itabashi, Tokyo, 173-0022 (Japan); Kimura, Yuichi [Positron Medical Center, Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Gerontology, Itabashi, Tokyo, 173-0022 (Japan)]. E-mail: ukimura@ieee.org; Ishii, Kenji [Positron Medical Center, Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Gerontology, Itabashi, Tokyo, 173-0022 (Japan); Oda, Keiichi [Positron Medical Center, Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Gerontology, Itabashi, Tokyo, 173-0022 (Japan); Sasaki, Toru [Positron Medical Center, Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Gerontology, Itabashi, Tokyo, 173-0022 (Japan); Tashiro, Manabu [Department of Pharmacology, Tohoku University School of Medicine, Sendai, 980-8575 (Japan); Yanai, Kazuhiko [Department of Pharmacology, Tohoku University School of Medicine, Sendai, 980-8575 (Japan); Ishiwata, Kiichi [Positron Medical Center, Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Gerontology, Itabashi, Tokyo, 173-0022 (Japan)

    2004-11-01

    The aim of this study was to develop simplified positron emission tomography measurement using [{sup 11}C]doxepin ([{sup 11}C]DOX) to evaluate histamine H{sub 1} receptors (H1Rs) in human brains. We evaluated the correlation between the distribution volume (DV) of [{sup 11}C]DOX, estimated quantitatively with a two-compartment model, and the [{sup 11}C]DOX uptake obtained at various time intervals and normalized using the metabolite-corrected plasma radioactivity. We found that the static 70- to 90-min images normalized using the plasma radioactivity at 10 min postinjection reflected the DV of [{sup 11}C]DOX-H1R binding.

  3. Experimental infection with H1N1 European swine influenza virus protects pigs from an infection with the 2009 pandemic H1N1 human influenza virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busquets, Núria; Segalés, Joaquim; Córdoba, Lorena; Mussá, Tufaria; Crisci, Elisa; Martín-Valls, Gerard E; Simon-Grifé, Meritxell; Pérez-Simó, Marta; Pérez-Maíllo, Monica; Núñez, Jose I; Abad, Francesc X; Fraile, Lorenzo; Pina, Sonia; Majó, Natalia; Bensaid, Albert; Domingo, Mariano; Montoya, María

    2010-01-01

    The recent pandemic caused by human influenza virus A(H1N1) 2009 contains ancestral gene segments from North American and Eurasian swine lineages as well as from avian and human influenza lineages. The emergence of this A(H1N1) 2009 poses a potential global threat for human health and the fact that it can infect other species, like pigs, favours a possible encounter with other influenza viruses circulating in swine herds. In Europe, H1N1, H1N2 and H3N2 subtypes of swine influenza virus currently have a high prevalence in commercial farms. To better assess the risk posed by the A(H1N1) 2009 in the actual situation of swine farms, we sought to analyze whether a previous infection with a circulating European avian-like swine A/Swine/Spain/53207/2004 (H1N1) influenza virus (hereafter referred to as SwH1N1) generated or not cross-protective immunity against a subsequent infection with the new human pandemic A/Catalonia/63/2009 (H1N1) influenza virus (hereafter referred to as pH1N1) 21 days apart. Pigs infected only with pH1N1 had mild to moderate pathological findings, consisting on broncho-interstitial pneumonia. However, pigs inoculated with SwH1N1 virus and subsequently infected with pH1N1 had very mild lung lesions, apparently attributed to the remaining lesions caused by SwH1N1 infection. These later pigs also exhibited boosted levels of specific antibodies. Finally, animals firstly infected with SwH1N1 virus and latter infected with pH1N1 exhibited undetectable viral RNA load in nasal swabs and lungs after challenge with pH1N1, indicating a cross-protective effect between both strains.

  4. Genetic correlation between current circulating H1N1 swine and human influenza viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Lu; Yin, Yanbo; Sun, Zhongsheng; Gao, Lei; Gao, George F; Liu, Sidang; Sun, Lei; Liu, Wenjun

    2010-11-01

    H1N1 is the main subtype influenza A virus circulating in human and swine population, and has long been a threat to economy and public health. To explore the genetic correlation between current circulating H1N1 swine and human influenza viruses. Three new H1N1 swine influenza viruses (SIVs) were isolated and genomes sequencing were conducted followed by phylogenetic and molecular analysis of all swine and human H1N1 influenza viruses isolated in China in the past five years. Homology and phylogenetic analysis revealed that the three isolates possessed different characteristics: the genome of A/Swine/Shandong/1112/2008 was closely related to that of classical H1N1 SIV, while A/Swine/Shandong/1123/2008 was a reassortant with NS gene from the human-like H3N2 influenza virus and other genes from the classical H1N1 SIV, and A/Swine/Fujian/0325/2008 fell into a lineage of seasonal human H1N1 influenza viruses. Genetically, 2009 H1N1 influenza A viruses (2009 H1N1) in China were contiguous to the SIV lineages rather than the seasonal H1N1 human influenza virus's lineage. Furthermore, molecular analysis among human and swine influenza viruses provided more detail information for understanding their genetic correlation. These results suggested that in China in the past five years, the classical, avian-like and human-like H1N1 SIV existed in swine herds and the reassortment between H1N1 swine and H3N2 human influenza viruses was identified. In addition, the present data showed no evidence to support a strong correlation between the 2009 H1N1 and the swine influenza virus circulating in China. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Histamine immunocytochemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobi, H H; Johansson, O; Liang, Y

    2000-01-01

    We report that basophils in peripheral blood can be stained using histamine immunocytochemistry. The staining is based on the fixation of leucocytes with 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)-carbodiimide (CDI) and the subsequent incubation of these cells with antisera raised against histamine...... conjugated to different carrier proteins using CDI. The staining appears to be specific for basophils and stained cells can be examined using both fluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry. In addition, histamine immunocytochemistry can be combined with conventional immunocytochemistry by incubating...... leucocytes with antibodies to cell surface antigens prior to or following fixation of the cells with CDI. Thus, histamine immunocytochemistry may be a valuable tool in future studies of human basophils....

  6. Modulation of histamine release from human colon mast cells by protease inhibitors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shao-Heng He; Hua Xie

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the ability of protease inhibitors to modulate histamine release from human colon mast cells.METHODS: Enzymatically dispersed cells from human colon were challenged with anti-IgE or calcium ionophore A23187 in the absence or presence of tryptase and chymase inhibitors, and histamine release was determined.RESULTS: IgE dependent histamine release from colon mast cells was inhibited by up to approximately 37%, 26% and 36.8% by chymase inhibitors Z-Ile-Glu-Pro-Phe-CO2Me (ZIGPFM), N-Tosyl-L-phenylalanyl-chloromethyl ketone (TPCK), and α1-antitrypsin, respectively. Similarly, inhibitors of tryptase leupeptin, N-tosyl-L-lysine chloromethyl ketone (TLCK), lactoferrin and protamine were also able to inhibit anti-IgE induced histamine release by a maximum of some 48%, 37%, 40% and 34%, respectively. Preincubation of these inhibitors with cells for 20 min before challenged with anti-IgE had small effect on the inhibitory actions of these inhibitors on colon mast cells. A specific inhibitor of aminopeptidase amastatin had no effect on anti-IgE induced histamine release. The significant inhibition of calcium ionophore induced histamine release was also observed with the inhibitors of tryptase and chymase examined. Apart from leupeptin and protamine, the inhibitors tested by themselves did not stimulate colon mast cells.CONCLUSION: It was demonstrated that both tryptase and chymase inhibitors could inhibit IgE dependent and calcium ionophore induced histamine release from dispersed colon mast cells in a concentration dependent of manner, which suggest that they are likely to be developed as a novel class of anti-inflammatory drugs to treat chronic of colitis in man.

  7. Expression of histamine receptors in the human endolymphatic sac: the molecular rationale for betahistine use in Menieres disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Møller, M Nue; Kirkeby, S; Vikeså, J; Nielsen, F Cilius; Caye-Thomasen, P

    2016-07-01

    The human endolymphatic sac (ES) is situated in a duplicature of the dura in the posterior cranial fossa and constitutes a part of the inner ear. The sac possesses immunological capacities and is responsible for a major part of the trans-epithelial ion transport occurring within the inner ear, via molecular mechanisms similar to that of the kidney collecting duct epithelia. Dysfunction of the trans-epithelial ion transport has been hypothesized as the reason for the endolymphatic hydrops occurring in Menieres diseases. Thus, candidate drug selection for medical treatment of Menieres disease has been based on a potential capability of improving trans-epithelial ion transport. However, recent human studies seems to rule out diuretic therapy and The Committee for Medicinal Products for Human Use redrew the recommendation for trimetazidine (Vastarel) treatment in the management of Meniere disease in 2012. This leaves betahistine (Betaserc) as the only drug for potential prevention of the incapacitating attacks of dizziness, tinnitus and hearing loss. However, the histamine receptors targeted by betahistine have never been demonstrated in the human ES. Accordingly, this study aims to investigate the expression of histamine receptors of the human ES epithelium and sub-epithelial stroma. Following sampling of human endolymphatic sac tissue during translabyrinthine surgery, the expression of histamine receptor genes was determined by cDNA microarray analysis. Results were subsequently verified by immuno-histochemistry. The combined results of microarrays and immuno-histochemistry showed expression of the histamine receptor HRH1 in the epithelial lining of the ES, whereas HRH3 was expressed exclusively in the sub-epithelial capillary network. Receptors HRH2 and -4 were not expressed. The present data provide the first direct evidence of a molecular rationale for betahistine treatment in Menieres disease. A potential betahistine effect in Menieres disease may primarily be

  8. Effects of sodium cromoglycate and nedocromil sodium on histamine secretion from human lung mast cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, K B; Flint, K C; Brostoff, J; Hudspith, B N; Johnson, N M; Lau, H Y; Liu, W L; Pearce, F L

    1988-01-01

    Sodium cromoglycate and nedocromil sodium produced a dose dependent inhibition of histamine secretion from human pulmonary mast cells obtained by bronchoalveolar lavage and by enzymatic dissociation of lung parenchyma. Both compounds were significantly more active against the lavage cells than against the dispersed lung cells, and nedocromil sodium was an order of magnitude more effective than sodium cromoglycate against both cell types. Tachyphylaxis was observed with the parenchymal cells but not with the lavage cells. Nedocromil sodium and sodium cromoglycate also inhibited histamine release from the lavage cells of patients with sarcoidosis and extrinsic asthma. PMID:2462755

  9. Antigenic Patterns and Evolution of the Human Influenza A (H1N1) Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Mi; Zhao, Xiang; Hua, Sha; Du, Xiangjun; Peng, Yousong; Li, Xiyan; Lan, Yu; Wang, Dayan; Wu, Aiping; Shu, Yuelong; Jiang, Taijiao

    2015-09-28

    The influenza A (H1N1) virus causes seasonal epidemics that result in severe illnesses and deaths almost every year. A deep understanding of the antigenic patterns and evolution of human influenza A (H1N1) virus is extremely important for its effective surveillance and prevention. Through development of antigenicity inference method for human influenza A (H1N1), named PREDAC-H1, we systematically mapped the antigenic patterns and evolution of the human influenza A (H1N1) virus. Eight dominant antigenic clusters have been inferred for seasonal H1N1 viruses since 1977, which demonstrated sequential replacements over time with a similar pattern in Asia, Europe and North America. Among them, six clusters emerged first in Asia. As for China, three of the eight antigenic clusters were detected in South China earlier than in North China, indicating the leading role of South China in H1N1 transmission. The comprehensive view of the antigenic evolution of human influenza A (H1N1) virus can help formulate better strategy for its prevention and control.

  10. Molecular cloning and pharmacology of functionally distinct isoforms of the human histamine H(3) receptor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wellendorph, Petrine; Goodman, M W; Burstein, E S

    2002-01-01

    The pharmacology of histamine H(3) receptors suggests the presence of distinct receptor isoforms or subtypes. We herein describe multiple, functionally distinct, alternatively spliced isoforms of the human H(3) receptor. Combinatorial splicing at three different sites creates at least six distinc...

  11. Influence of sodium nitroprusside to histamine induced H1 effect in guinea pig ileum%硝普钠对组胺所致离体豚鼠回肠H1效应的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵蕊; 楼宜嘉; 赵轶

    2002-01-01

    目的 探讨一氧化氮(NO)与组胺(His)对离体豚鼠回肠生理活动的共同调节作用及其可能机理。方法 将离体回肠段固定于含95% O2和5% CO2台氏液恒温测试系统中(37℃),分别给予硝普钠(SNP,15、150、1500 μmol*L-1)或SNP+硝苯地平(Nif,25、50、100 nmol*L-1),作用30 min,再累积加入不同浓度的His(0.01~10 μmol*L-1), 以平衡生理记录仪描记肠段收缩曲线,观察SNP和Nif对His引起的回肠H1效应的影响。结果 ①SNP可增强低浓度His(0.01~0.1 μmol*L-1)引起的回肠H1效应,随His浓度增高,SNP的增强作用减弱;②去台氏液中外钙,有或无SNP存在时的His H1效应均呈减弱作用,且两者间无显著差别;③Nif呈浓度依赖性地抑制His引起的H1效应,并浓度依赖性地抑制SNP增强H1效应的作用。结论 SNP可增强离体豚鼠回肠His H1效应,该增强作用可能与回肠平滑肌细胞的外Ca2+内流有关。

  12. Effect of histamine H1 receptors antagonist on TNF alpha and NO in blood serum in rats with allergic rhinitis%组胺H1受体拮抗剂对变应性鼻炎大鼠血清中TNF-α和NO的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张学文; 钮洪艳; 周晓燕

    2011-01-01

    Objective To study the effect of histamine H1 receptors antagonist on TNF alpha and NO in blood serum in rats with allergic rhinitis(AR). Method Rats were randomly divided into normal control group, AR without the intervention group ,AR HR1 antagonists intervention group, observing the change of the content in TNF alpha and NO treated by histamine H1 receptors antagonist. Result Compared with the normal group,TNF alpha and NO content increased in AR without the intervention group(P<0. 05);Compared with the AR without the intervention group,TNF alpha and NO content decreased in AR HR1 antagonists intervention group(P<0. 05). Conclusion TNF alpha and NO content are increased in blood serum in rats with AR,histamine H1 receptors antagonist can decrease the content of TNF alpha and NO to protecting against AR in rats.%目的 研究组胺H1受体拮抗剂对变应性鼻炎[Allergic Rhinitis,AR)大鼠血清中肿瘤坏死因子α(tumor necrosis factor alpha,TNF-α)和氧化亚氮(nitric oxide,NO)含量变化的影响.方法 实验大鼠随机分为正常对照组,AR无干预组,AR组胺HR1拮抗剂干预组,RT-PCR法测定组胺HR1拮抗剂干顶对变应性鼻炎大鼠血清中TNF-α水平,硝酸还原酶法测定血清NO水平的变化.结果 与正常组相比,AR无干预组大鼠血清中TNF-α和NO含量增加(P<0.05);而与AR无干预组比较,AR组胺HR1拮抗剂干预组大鼠血清中TNF-α和NO含量明显降低(P<0.05).结论 AR时大鼠血清中TNF-α和NO含量增加;组胺HR1拮抗剂可以通过抑制AR时血清中TNF-α和NO含量增加,发挥对AR大鼠的治疗作用.

  13. Genome evolution of novel influenza A (H1N1)viruses in humans

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KOU Zheng; HU SongNian; LI TianXian

    2009-01-01

    The epidemic situation of A H1N1 flu arose in North America in April 2009,which rapidly expanded to three continents of Europe,Asia and Africa,with the risk ranking up to 5.Until May 13th,the flu virus of A H1N1 had spread into 33 countries and regions,with a laboratory confirmed case number of 5728,including 61 deaths.Based on IRV and EpiFluDB database,425 parts of A H1N1 flu virus sequence were achieved,followed by sequenced comparison and evolution analysis.The results showed that the current predominant A H1N1 flu virus was a kind of triple reassortment A flu virus:(i) HA,NA,MP,NP and NS originated from swine influenza virus;PB2 and PA originated from bird influenza virus;PB1 originated from human influenza virus.(ii) The origin of swine influenza virus could be subdivided as follows:HA,NP and NS originated from classic swine influenza virus of H1N1 subtype;NA and MP originated from bird origin swine influenza virus of H1N1 subtype.(iii) A H1N1 flu virus experienced no significant mutation during the epidemic spread,accompanied with no reassortment of the virus genome.In the paper,the region of the representative strains for sequence analysis (A/California/04/2009 (H1N1) and A/Mexico/4486/2009 (H1N1)) included USA and Mexico and was relatively wide,which suggested that the analysis results were convincing.

  14. Histamine Induces Vascular Hyperpermeability by Increasing Blood Flow and Endothelial Barrier Disruption In Vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashina, Kohei; Tsubosaka, Yoshiki; Nakamura, Tatsuro; Omori, Keisuke; Kobayashi, Koji; Hori, Masatoshi; Ozaki, Hiroshi; Murata, Takahisa

    2015-01-01

    Histamine is a mediator of allergic inflammation released mainly from mast cells. Although histamine strongly increases vascular permeability, its precise mechanism under in vivo situation remains unknown. We here attempted to reveal how histamine induces vascular hyperpermeability focusing on the key regulators of vascular permeability, blood flow and endothelial barrier. Degranulation of mast cells by antigen-stimulation or histamine treatment induced vascular hyperpermeability and tissue swelling in mouse ears. These were abolished by histamine H1 receptor antagonism. Intravital imaging showed that histamine dilated vasculature, increased blood flow, while it induced hyperpermeability in venula. Whole-mount staining showed that histamine disrupted endothelial barrier formation of venula indicated by changes in vascular endothelial cadherin (VE-cadherin) localization at endothelial cell junction. Inhibition of nitric oxide synthesis (NOS) by L-NAME or vasoconstriction by phenylephrine strongly inhibited the histamine-induced blood flow increase and hyperpermeability without changing the VE-cadherin localization. In vitro, measurements of trans-endothelial electrical resistance of human dermal microvascular endothelial cells (HDMECs) showed that histamine disrupted endothelial barrier. Inhibition of protein kinase C (PKC) or Rho-associated protein kinase (ROCK), NOS attenuated the histamine-induced barrier disruption. These observations suggested that histamine increases vascular permeability mainly by nitric oxide (NO)-dependent vascular dilation and subsequent blood flow increase and maybe partially by PKC/ROCK/NO-dependent endothelial barrier disruption.

  15. Receptor binding properties of human and animal H1 influenza virus isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, G N; D'Souza, B L

    1989-11-01

    It has been previously reported that several human H1 influenza viruses isolated prior to 1956, in contrast to human H3 isolates which are quite specific for SA alpha 2,6Gal sequences, apparently recognize both SA alpha 2,3Gal and SA alpha 2,6Gal sequences (Rogers, G.N., and Paulson, J.C., Virology 127, 361-373, 1983). In this report human H1 isolates representative of two epidemic periods, from 1934 to 1957 and from 1977 to 1986, and H1 influenza isolated from pigs, ducks, and turkeys were compared for their ability to utilize sialyloligosaccharide structures containing terminal SA alpha 2,3Gal or SA alpha 2,6Gal sequences as receptor determinants. Five of the eight human isolates from the first epidemic period recognize both SA alpha 2,3Gal and SA alpha 2,6Gal linkages, in agreement with our previous results. Of the remaining three strains, all isolated towards the end of the first epidemic, two appear to prefer SA alpha 2,6Gal sequences while the third preferentially binds SA alpha 2,3Gal sequences. In contrast to the early isolates, 11 of 13 human strains isolated during the second epidemic period preferentially bind SA alpha 2,6Gal containing oligosaccharides. On the basis of changes in receptor binding associated with continued passage in the laboratory for some of these later strains, it seems likely that human H1 isolates preferentially bind SA alpha 2,6Gal sequences in nature, and that acquisition of SA alpha 2,3Gal-binding is associated with laboratory passage. Influenza H1 viruses isolated from pigs were predominantly SA alpha 2,6Gal-specific while those isolated from ducks were primarily SA alpha 2,3Gal-specific. Thus, as has been previously reported for H3 influenza isolates, receptor specificity for influenza H1 viruses appears to be influenced by the species from which they were isolated, human isolates binding preferentially to SA alpha 2,6Gal-containing oligosaccharides while those isolated from ducks prefer SA alpha 2,3Gal

  16. Staphylococcus aureus and influenza A virus stimulate human bronchoalveolar cells to release histamine and leukotrienes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clementsen, P; Bisgaard, H; Pedersen, M

    1989-01-01

    Mediator release was examined from superficially lying cells in the airway epithelium obtained by bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) in 13 non-atopic individuals. The BAL-cells were incubated (20 min, 37 degrees C) with Staphylococcus (Staph.) aureus or with human influenza A virus Staph. aureus...... was found to release histamine from cells from 7 of the 13 individuals and influenza A virus in 3 of 5 persons. Furthermore, Staph, aureus stimulated the BAL-cells to release leukotriene B4 in 7 of 11 subjects, whereas no release was found by influenza A virus in 7 examined persons. When cells from 4...... persons were stimulated with Staph. aureus no release of leukotriene C4 was found. The mediator release caused by bacteria and virus might be of importance for the exacerbation of bronchial asthma in upper respiratory tract infections, since histamine is assumed to increase the epithelial permeability...

  17. A method for production and determination of histamine releasing activity from human peripheral blood mononuclear cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kampen, G T; Poulsen, L K; Reimert, C M

    1997-01-01

    Histamine releasing factors, i.e. cytokines capable of inducing histamine release from basophils or mast cells, have been suggested to be involved in the pathogenesis of, for example, allergic late-phase reactions. Here we describe a controlled method for production and determination of histamine......). The preparations of HRA induced dose- and Ca2+-dependent histamine release from leukocytes. Supernatants of parallel cultures of unstimulated MNC did not induce histamine release. The HRA was neither due to exogenous histamine releasing compounds (e.g. Con A) nor to residual histamine in the preparations of HRA....... The kinetics of HRA induced histamine release (half-maximal release after > 40 min) were slower and more protracted than those of anti-IgE induced histamine release. However, based on a comparison between HRA induced histamine release from leukocytes and purified (97%) basophils, this did not appear to be due...

  18. H-1 chemical shift imaging characterization of human brain tumor and edema

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sijens, PE; Oudkerk, M

    Longitudinal (T1) and transverse (T2) relaxation times of metabolites in human brain tumor, peritumoral edema, and unaffected brain tissue were assessed from point resolved spectroscopy (PRESS) H-1 chemical shift imaging results at different repetition times (TR = 1500 and 5000 ms; T1: n = 19) and

  19. Nascent histamine induces α-synuclein and caspase-3 on human cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caro-Astorga, Joaquín; Fajardo, Ignacio; Ruiz-Pérez, María Victoria; Sánchez-Jiménez, Francisca; Urdiales, José Luis, E-mail: jlurdial@uma.es

    2014-09-05

    Highlights: • Nascent histamine alters cyclin expression pattern. • Nascent histamine increases expression of α-synuclein. • Nascent histamine activates caspase-3. - Abstract: Histamine (Hia) is the most multifunctional biogenic amine. It is synthetized by histidine decarboxylase (HDC) in a reduced set of mammalian cell types. Mast cells and histaminergic neurons store Hia in specialized organelles until the amine is extruded by exocytosis; however, other immune and cancer cells are able to produce but not store Hia. The intracellular effects of Hia are still not well characterized, in spite of its physiopathological relevance. Multiple functional relationships exist among Hia metabolism/signaling elements and those of other biogenic amines, including growth-related polyamines. Previously, we obtained the first insights for an inhibitory effect of newly synthetized Hia on both growth-related polyamine biosynthesis and cell cycle progression of non-fully differentiated mammalian cells. In this work, we describe progress in this line. HEK293 cells were transfected to express active and inactive versions of GFP-human HDC fusion proteins and, after cell sorting by flow cytometry, the relative expression of a large number of proteins associated with cell signaling were measured using an antibody microarray. Experimental results were analyzed in terms of protein–protein and functional interaction networks. Expression of active HDC induced a cell cycle arrest through the alteration of the levels of several proteins such as cyclin D1, cdk6, cdk7 and cyclin A. Regulation of α-synuclein and caspase-3 was also observed. The analyses provide new clues on the molecular mechanisms underlying the regulatory effects of intracellular newly synthetized Hia on cell proliferation/survival, cell trafficking and protein turnover. This information is especially interesting for emergent and orphan immune and neuroinflammatory diseases.

  20. Prediction of biological functions on glycosylation site migrations in human influenza H1N1 viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Shisheng; Wang, Qinzhe; Zhao, Fei; Chen, Wentian; Li, Zheng

    2012-01-01

    Protein glycosylation alteration is typically employed by various viruses for escaping immune pressures from their hosts. Our previous work had shown that not only the increase of glycosylation sites (glycosites) numbers, but also glycosite migration might be involved in the evolution of human seasonal influenza H1N1 viruses. More importantly, glycosite migration was likely a more effectively alteration way for the host adaption of human influenza H1N1 viruses. In this study, we provided more bioinformatics and statistic evidences for further predicting the significant biological functions of glycosite migration in the host adaptation of human influenza H1N1 viruses, by employing homology modeling and in silico protein glycosylation of representative HA and NA proteins as well as amino acid variability analysis at antigenic sites of HA and NA. The results showed that glycosite migrations in human influenza viruses have at least five possible functions: to more effectively mask the antigenic sites, to more effectively protect the enzymatic cleavage sites of neuraminidase (NA), to stabilize the polymeric structures, to regulate the receptor binding and catalytic activities and to balance the binding activity of hemagglutinin (HA) with the release activity of NA. The information here can provide some constructive suggestions for the function research related to protein glycosylation of influenza viruses, although these predictions still need to be supported by experimental data.

  1. Effect of allergen-specific immunotherapy on recombinant human interleukin 3-mediated amplification of allergen-induced basophil histamine release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowal, Krzysztof; Nolte, Hendrik; Skov, Per Stahl; DuBuske, Lawrence M

    2005-01-01

    Decreased allergen-induced histamine release from peripheral blood basophils in allergic rhinitis patients treated with specific immunotherapy (SIT) correlates with clinical outcomes of SIT. The aim of this study was to investigate if decreased histamine release is a permanent effect of SIT. Fifty-one patients (mean age, 35.3 years) with allergic rhinitis, diagnosed based on clinical history and positive skin-prick test results to common aeroallergens, were studied. Twenty-three patients had never received SIT (group A), and 28 patients had been treated with inhalant allergen extracts (group B). Eleven patients from group A participated in a prospective part of this study. Basophil histamine release in these patients was evaluated before (TO) and after-1 year (TI) of SIT. Histamine release from peripheral blood with and without interleukin (IL)-3 pretreatment was performed using the glass-fiber-based histamine release test. Brief pretreatment of whole blood basophils with one of the four concentrations (0.01, 0.1, 1, or 10 ng/mL) of recombinant human IL(rhIL)-3, rhIL-5, or rh-granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor resulted in a significant amplification of allergen-induced basophil histamine release. The amplification using cytokines at the optimal concentrations was the greatest with rhIL-3 and the lowest with rhIL-5; therefore, for further studies rhIL-3 was used. Prospective analysis showed no significant difference in allergen-induced basophil histamine release on rhIL-3 pretreatment after 1 year of SIT (192.7 +/- 75.3 ng and 176.1 +/- 76.4 ng for T0 and T1, respectively; p = 0.18). Short-term SIT does not decrease rhIL-3-mediated amplification of allergen-induced histamine release from peripheral blood basophils.

  2. Aspirin Augments IgE-Mediated Histamine Release from Human Peripheral Basophils via Syk Kinase Activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroaki Matsuo

    2013-01-01

    Conclusions: Aspirin enhanced histamine release from basophils via increased Syk kinase activation, and that the augmentation of histamine release by NSAIDs or FAs may be one possible cause of worsening symptoms in patients with chronic urticaria and FDEIA.

  3. Measurement of plasma histamine: description of an improved method and normal values

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dyer, J.; Warren, K.; Merlin, S.; Metcalfe, D.D.; Kaliner, M.

    1982-08-01

    The single isotopic-enzymatic assay of histamine was modified to increase its sensitivity and to facilitate measurement of plasma histamine levels. The modification involved extracting /sup 3/H-1-methylhistamine (generated by the enzyme N-methyltransferase acting on histamine in the presence of S-(methyl-/sup 3/H)-adenosyl-L-methionine) into chloroform and isolating the /sup 3/H-1-methylhistamine by thin-layer chromatography (TLC). The TLC was developed in acetone:ammonium hydroxide (95:10), and the methylhistamine spot (Rf . 0.50) was identified with an o-phthalaldehyde spray, scraped from the plate, and assayed in a scintillation counter. The assay in plasma demonstrated a linear relationship from 200 to 5000 pg histamine/ml. Plasma always had higher readings than buffer, and dialysis of plasma returned these values to the same level as buffer, suggesting that the baseline elevations might be attributable to histamine. However, all histamine standard curves were run in dialyzed plasma to negate any additional influences plasma might exert on the assay. The arithmetic mean (+/- SEM) in normal plasma histamine was 318.4 +/- 25 pg/ml (n . 51), and the geometric mean was 280 +/- 35 pg/ml. Plasma histamine was significantly elevated by infusion of histamine at 0.05 to 1.0 micrograms/kg/min or by cold immersion of the hand of a cold-urticaria patient. Therefore this modified isotopic-enzymatic assay of histamine is extremely sensitive, capable of measuring fluctuations in plasma histamine levels within the normal range, and potentially useful in analysis of the role histamine plays in human physiology.

  4. Anti-obesity and anti-diabetic actions of histamine neurons

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The present study aimed to examine roles of histamine neurons in leptin signaling pathways and leptin resistant states. H1-receptor knockout (H1KO) mice showed no change in daily food intake, adiposity, growth curve, basal expression of hypothalamic neuropeptides, uncoupling proteins (UCPs) or ob gene. However, H1KO mice fed with high fat diet increased fat deposition and ob gene expression more excessively. Leptin-induced feeding suppression was attenuated in H1KO mice. Chronic leptin treatment decreased visceral fat and up-regulated UCPs expression in brown and white fat. These effects of leptin were attenuated in pair-fed H1KO mice. Chronic histamine or histidine treatment decreased body weight, body fat deposition, and serum glucose and insulin in diet-induced obese, ob/ob and db/db mice. Activation of histamine neurons suppressed ob gene expression in the fat tissue together with elevation of seurm leptin and UCPs mRNA. These actions of neuronal histamine were attenuated in the double knockout mice, i.e., db/db mice with H1KO. Taken together, H1KO mice, a novel leptin resistant model, elucidate essential roles of H1-R in energy intake and expenditure as a down-stream-signaling message of leptin actions in the brain. The anti-obesity and anti-diabetic effects of histamine neurons provide a new insight into therapeutic strategies on human obesity and diabetes with leptin resistance.

  5. Measurement of histamine release from human lung tissue ex vivo by microdialysis technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, Dan; Petersen, Lars Jelstrup; Nolte, H

    1998-01-01

    responses were observed but data could be reproduced within individual donors. Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, a potent basophil secretagogue, did not induce histamine release in lung tissue which indicated mast cells to be the histamine source. Substance P did not release histamine in the lung tissue...

  6. Mastitis Modifies the Biogenic Amines Profile in Human Milk, with Significant Changes in the Presence of Histamine, Putrescine and Spermine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Marta; Ladero, Victor; Redruello, Begoña; del Rio, Beatriz; Fernandez, Leonides; Rodriguez, Juan Miguel; Martín, Mª Cruz; Fernandez, María; Alvarez, Miguel A.

    2016-01-01

    Biogenic amines (BAs) are low molecular weight nitrogenous organic compounds with different biological activities. Putrescine, spermidine and spermine are essential for the development of the gut and immune system of newborns, and are all found in human milk. Little is known, however, about the role of histamine, tyramine or cadaverine in breast milk. Nor is it known whether mastitis alters the BA composition of milk. The BA profile of human milk, and the influence of mastitis on BA concentrations, were therefore investigated. Putrescine, spermidine and spermine were the main BAs detected. In mastitis-affected milk, the concentrations of putrescine, spermine and histamine were higher. PMID:27584695

  7. Mastitis Modifies the Biogenic Amines Profile in Human Milk, with Significant Changes in the Presence of Histamine, Putrescine and Spermine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Marta; Ladero, Victor; Redruello, Begoña; Del Rio, Beatriz; Fernandez, Leonides; Rodriguez, Juan Miguel; Martín, M Cruz; Fernandez, María; Alvarez, Miguel A

    2016-01-01

    Biogenic amines (BAs) are low molecular weight nitrogenous organic compounds with different biological activities. Putrescine, spermidine and spermine are essential for the development of the gut and immune system of newborns, and are all found in human milk. Little is known, however, about the role of histamine, tyramine or cadaverine in breast milk. Nor is it known whether mastitis alters the BA composition of milk. The BA profile of human milk, and the influence of mastitis on BA concentrations, were therefore investigated. Putrescine, spermidine and spermine were the main BAs detected. In mastitis-affected milk, the concentrations of putrescine, spermine and histamine were higher.

  8. Molecular characterization of H1N1 influenza A viruses from human cases in North America

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Bin; WANG ChengMin; DONG GuoYing; LUO Jing; ZHAO BaoHua; HE HongXuan

    2009-01-01

    Subtypes of H1N1 influenza virus can be found in humans in North America,while they are also associated with the infection of swine.Characterization of the genotypes of viral strains in human populations is important to understand the source and distribution of viral strains.Genomic and protein sequences of 10 isolates of the 2009 outbreak of influenza A (H1N1) virus in North America were obtained from GenBank database.To characterize the genotypes of these viruses,phylogenetic trees of genes PB2,PB1,PA,HA,NP,NA,NS and M were constructed by Phylip3.67 program and N-Linked glycosylation sites of HA,NA,PB2,NS1 and M2 proteins were analyzed online by NetNGIyc1.0 program.Phylogenetic analysis indicated that these isolates are virtually identical but may be recombinant viruses because their genomic fragments come from different viruses.The isolates also contain a characteristic lowly pathogenic amino acid motif at their HA cleavage sites (IPSIQSR↓GL),and an E residue at position 627 of the PB2 protein which shows its high affinity to humans.The homologous model of M proteins showed that the viruses had obtained the ability of anti-amantadine due to the mutation at the drug-sensitive site,while sequence analysis of NA proteins indicated that the viruses are still susceptible to the neuraminidase inhibitor drug (i.e.oseltamivir and zanamivir) because no mutations have been observed.Our results strongly suggested that the viruses responsible for the 2009 outbreaks of influenza A (H1N1) virus have the ability to cross species barriers to infect human and mammalian animals based on molecular analysis.These findings may further facilitate the therapy and prevention of possible transmission from North America to other countries.

  9. Differential thermodynamic driving force of first- and second-generation antihistamines to determine their binding affinity for human H1 receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hishinuma, Shigeru; Sugawara, Kenta; Uesawa, Yoshihiro; Fukui, Hiroyuki; Shoji, Masaru

    2014-09-15

    Differential binding sites for first- and second-generation antihistamines were indicated on the basis of the crystal structure of human histamine H1 receptors. In this study, we evaluated differences between the thermodynamic driving forces of first- and second-generation antihistamines for human H1 receptors and their structural determinants. The binding enthalpy and entropy of 20 antihistamines were estimated with the van't Hoff equation using their dissociation constants obtained from their displacement curves against the binding of [(3)H]mepyramine to membrane preparations of Chinese hamster ovary cells expressing human H1 receptors at various temperatures from 4°C to 37°C. Structural determinants of antihistamines for their thermodynamic binding properties were assessed by quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) analyses. We found that entropy-dependent binding was more evident in second- than first-generation antihistamines, resulting in enthalpy-entropy compensation between the binding forces of first- and second-generation antihistamines. QSAR analyses indicated that enthalpy-entropy compensation was determined by the sum of degrees, maximal electrostatic potentials, water-accessible surface area and hydrogen binding acceptor count of antihistamines to regulate their affinity for receptors. In conclusion, it was revealed that entropy-dependent hydrophobic interaction was more important in the binding of second-generation antihistamines, even though the hydrophilicity of second-generation antihistamines is generally increased. Furthermore, their structural determinants responsible for enthalpy-entropy compensation were explored by QSAR analyses. These findings may contribute to understanding the fundamental mechanisms of how the affinity of ligands for their receptors is regulated.

  10. An Amphibian Host Defense Peptide Is Virucidal for Human H1 Hemagglutinin-Bearing Influenza Viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holthausen, David J; Lee, Song Hee; Kumar, Vineeth Tv; Bouvier, Nicole M; Krammer, Florian; Ellebedy, Ali H; Wrammert, Jens; Lowen, Anice C; George, Sanil; Pillai, Madhavan Radhakrishna; Jacob, Joshy

    2017-04-18

    Although vaccines confer protection against influenza A viruses, antiviral treatment becomes the first line of defense during pandemics because there is insufficient time to produce vaccines. Current antiviral drugs are susceptible to drug resistance, and developing new antivirals is essential. We studied host defense peptides from the skin of the South Indian frog and demonstrated that one of these, which we named "urumin," is virucidal for H1 hemagglutinin-bearing human influenza A viruses. This peptide specifically targeted the conserved stalk region of H1 hemagglutinin and was effective against drug-resistant H1 influenza viruses. Using electron microscopy, we showed that this peptide physically destroyed influenza virions. It also protected naive mice from lethal influenza infection. Urumin represents a unique class of anti-influenza virucide that specifically targets the hemagglutinin stalk region, similar to targeting of antibodies induced by universal influenza vaccines. Urumin therefore has the potential to contribute to first-line anti-viral treatments during influenza outbreaks. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Human Dendritic Cell Response Signatures Distinguish 1918, Pandemic, and Seasonal H1N1 Influenza Viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, Boris M; Thakar, Juilee; Albrecht, Randy A; Avey, Stefan; Zaslavsky, Elena; Marjanovic, Nada; Chikina, Maria; Fribourg, Miguel; Hayot, Fernand; Schmolke, Mirco; Meng, Hailong; Wetmur, James; García-Sastre, Adolfo; Kleinstein, Steven H; Sealfon, Stuart C

    2015-10-01

    Influenza viruses continue to present global threats to human health. Antigenic drift and shift, genetic reassortment, and cross-species transmission generate new strains with differences in epidemiology and clinical severity. We compared the temporal transcriptional responses of human dendritic cells (DC) to infection with two pandemic (A/Brevig Mission/1/1918, A/California/4/2009) and two seasonal (A/New Caledonia/20/1999, A/Texas/36/1991) H1N1 influenza viruses. Strain-specific response differences included stronger activation of NF-κB following infection with A/New Caledonia/20/1999 and a unique cluster of genes expressed following infection with A/Brevig Mission/1/1918. A common antiviral program showing strain-specific timing was identified in the early DC response and found to correspond with reported transcript changes in blood during symptomatic human influenza virus infection. Comparison of the global responses to the seasonal and pandemic strains showed that a dramatic divergence occurred after 4 h, with only the seasonal strains inducing widespread mRNA loss. Continuously evolving influenza viruses present a global threat to human health; however, these host responses display strain-dependent differences that are incompletely understood. Thus, we conducted a detailed comparative study assessing the immune responses of human DC to infection with two pandemic and two seasonal H1N1 influenza strains. We identified in the immune response to viral infection both common and strain-specific features. Among the stain-specific elements were a time shift of the interferon-stimulated gene response, selective induction of NF-κB signaling by one of the seasonal strains, and massive RNA degradation as early as 4 h postinfection by the seasonal, but not the pandemic, viruses. These findings illuminate new aspects of the distinct differences in the immune responses to pandemic and seasonal influenza viruses. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All

  12. Evaluation of the correlation and reproducibility between histamine, IL-4, and IL-13 release from human basophils.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nahid Eskandari

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Human basophils play a key role in allergic diseases such as asthma and in a variety of immunological disorders. The generation of IL-4 and IL-13 can be induced from basophil by IgE-mediated and non-IgE-mediated mechanisms. Time and stimulus-dependent differences in the regulation of these cytokines could have relevance to their biological effects. The aim of the present study was activation of basophils in order to evaluate the extent of histamine, IL-4, and IL-13 generations. Basophil-enriched suspensions were prepared by Percoll gradients. The release of histamine and cytokines was assessed after activation with either anti-human IgE (1/1000 or 1/10000, 4 h or 24 h or IL-3 (100 ng/ ml, 24 h. Results were analysed statistically, using ANOVA test. Using anti-IgE, there was no significant correlation between the extent of either IL-4 (r=0.24, p=0.35 or IL-13 (r=0.47, p=0.098 and histamine release. Using IL-3 as stimulator, results showed that the extent of IL-13 correlated with histamine release(r=0.44, p=0.036. There was no correlation between the extent of IL-4 and the degree of either histamine (r=0.077, p=0.72 or IL-13 (r=0.162, p=0.5. The reproducibility of cytokines isolated from the same donor (on different occasions indicated that the ability of anti-IgE to induce cytokines was consistently similar for a given donor. Our data showed that the pathways leading to IL-3-triggering histamine release and IL-13 generation show similarity. Donor-dependent differences may be responsible for this wide range in the extent of releasibility. The ability of IL-3 to release cytokines from basophils showed a wider range.

  13. Evaluation of the correlation and reproducibility between histamine, IL-4, and IL-13 release from human basophils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eskandari, Nahid; Bastan, Reza; Ahmadi, Maryam; Peachell, Peter T

    2014-06-01

    Human basophils play a key role in allergic diseases such as asthma and in a variety of immunological disorders. The generation of IL-4 and IL-13 can be induced from basophil by IgE-mediated and non-IgE-mediated mechanisms. Time and stimulus-dependent differences in the regulation of these cytokines could have relevance to their biological effects. The aim of the present study was activation of basophils in order to evaluate the extent of histamine, IL-4, and IL-13 generations. Basophil-enriched suspensions were prepared by Percoll gradients. The release of histamine and cytokines was assessed after activation with either anti-human IgE (1/1000 or 1/10000, 4 h or 24 h) or IL-3 (100 ng/ ml, 24 h). Results were analysed statistically, using ANOVA test. Using anti-IgE, there was no significant correlation between the extent of either IL-4 (r=0.24, p=0.35) or IL-13 (r=0.47, p=0.098) and histamine release. Using IL-3 as stimulator, results showed that the extent of IL-13 correlated with histamine release(r=0.44, p=0.036). There was no correlation between the extent of IL-4 and the degree of either histamine (r=0.077, p=0.72) or IL-13 (r=0.162, p=0.5). The reproducibility of cytokines isolated from the same donor (on different occasions) indicated that the ability of anti-IgE to induce cytokines was consistently similar for a given donor. Our data showed that the pathways leading to IL-3-triggering histamine release and IL-13 generation show similarity. Donor-dependent differences may be responsible for this wide range in the extent of releasibility. The ability of IL-3 to release cytokines from basophils showed a wider range.

  14. Caveolin-1 influences human influenza A virus (H1N1 multiplication in cell culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hemgård Gun-Viol

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The threat of recurring influenza pandemics caused by new viral strains and the occurrence of escape mutants necessitate the search for potent therapeutic targets. The dependence of viruses on cellular factors provides a weak-spot in the viral multiplication strategy and a means to interfere with viral multiplication. Results Using a motif-based search strategy for antiviral targets we identified caveolin-1 (Cav-1 as a putative cellular interaction partner of human influenza A viruses, including the pandemic influenza A virus (H1N1 strains of swine origin circulating from spring 2009 on. The influence of Cav-1 on human influenza A/PR/8/34 (H1N1 virus replication was determined in inhibition and competition experiments. RNAi-mediated Cav-1 knock-down as well as transfection of a dominant-negative Cav-1 mutant results in a decrease in virus titre in infected Madin-Darby canine kidney cells (MDCK, a cell line commonly used in basic influenza research as well as in virus vaccine production. To understand the molecular basis of the phenomenon we focussed on the putative caveolin-1 binding domain (CBD located in the lumenal, juxtamembranal portion of the M2 matrix protein which has been identified in the motif-based search. Pull-down assays and co-immunoprecipitation experiments showed that caveolin-1 binds to M2. The data suggest, that Cav-1 modulates influenza virus A replication presumably based on M2/Cav-1 interaction. Conclusion As Cav-1 is involved in the human influenza A virus life cycle, the multifunctional protein and its interaction with M2 protein of human influenza A viruses represent a promising starting point for the search for antiviral agents.

  15. Activation of the human immune system via toll-like receptors by the oncolytic parvovirus H-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sieben, Maike; Schäfer, Petra; Dinsart, Christiane; Galle, Peter R; Moehler, Markus

    2013-06-01

    This study aimed to investigate the function of toll-like receptors (TLRs) during oncolytic parvovirus H-1 (H-1PV)-induced human immune responses. First, the role of TLRs in the activation of the NFκB transcription factor was characterized; second, the immunologic effects of H-1PV-induced tumor cell lysates (TCL) on human antitumor immune responses were evaluated. A human ex vivo model was used to study immune responses with dendritic cells (DCs). Human embryonic kidney cells (HEK293) transfected to stably express TLRs were used as potential human DC equivalents to further investigate the role of specific TLRs during immune activation. TLR3 and TLR9 were activated by H-1PV infection, which correlated with NFκB translocation to the nucleus and a reduced cytoplasmic IκB expression. Using a TLR-signaling reporter plasmid (pNiFty-Luc), NFκB activity was increased following H-1PV infection. In addition, human DCs coincubated with H-1PV-induced TCL demonstrated increased TLR3 and TLR9 expression. These data suggest that H-1PV-induced TCL stimulate human DCs at least in part through TLR-dependent signaling pathways. Thus, DC maturation occurred through exposure to H-1PV-induced TCL through TLR-signaling leading to NFκB-dependent activation of the adaptive immune system as indicated by the increased expression of CD86, TLR3 and TLR9. Furthermore, the transcription of various cytokines indicates the activation of immune response, therefore the production of the proinflammatory cytokine TNF-α was determined. Here, H-1PV-induced TCL significantly enhanced the TNF-α level by DCs after coculture. H-1PV oncolytic virotherapy enhances immune priming by different effects on DCs and generates antitumor immunity. These findings potentially offer a new approach to tumor therapy.

  16. 组胺H1和H2受体在新生大鼠离体延髓脑片呼吸节律性放电调节中的作用%Role of histamine H1 and H2 receptors in the modulation of respiratory rhythmical discharge in medulla oblongata slice preparation of neonatal rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    齐莹; 千智斌; 吴中海

    2008-01-01

    本研究探讨组胺H1和H2受体在新生大鼠基本节律性呼吸的发生和调节中的作用.以改良的Kreb's液恒温灌流新生Sprague-Dawley大鼠离体延髓脑片标本,稳定记录与之相连舌下神经根的呼吸节律性放电活动(respiratory-related rhythmical discharge activity, RRDA).实验分为5组:第1、2、3组分别单独给予组胺(histamine, HA)、 H1受体特异阻断剂pyrilamine和H2受体特异阻断剂cimetidine;第4组分别先后给予HA和HA+pyrilamine;第5组分别先后给予HA和HA+cimetidine,观察舌下神经根RRDA的变化.结果显示,单独给予HA后呼吸周期(respiratory cycle, RC)及呼气时程(expiratory time, TE)明显缩短,而吸气时程(inspiratory time, TI)及放电积分幅度(integral amplitude, IA)无明显变化;给予pyrilamine后RC、 TE明显延长,TI、 IA也无明显变化,且HA的作用可以被pyrilamine逆转;给予cimetidine后RC、 TE、 TI、 IA均无明显变化,且HA的作用不能被cimetidine逆转.结果提示,H1受体参与哺乳动物基本呼吸节律的产生和调节,H2受体对哺乳动物基本节律性呼吸的调控无明显影响.

  17. Functional Evolution of Influenza Virus NS1 Protein in Currently Circulating Human 2009 Pandemic H1N1 Viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Amelia M; Nogales, Aitor; Martinez-Sobrido, Luis; Topham, David J; DeDiego, Marta L

    2017-09-01

    In 2009, a novel H1N1 influenza virus emerged in humans, causing a global pandemic. It was previously shown that the NS1 protein from this human 2009 pandemic H1N1 (pH1N1) virus was an effective interferon (IFN) antagonist but could not inhibit general host gene expression, unlike other NS1 proteins from seasonal human H1N1 and H3N2 viruses. Here we show that the NS1 protein from currently circulating pH1N1 viruses has evolved to encode 6 amino acid changes (E55K, L90I, I123V, E125D, K131E, and N205S) with respect to the original protein. Notably, these 6 residue changes restore the ability of pH1N1 NS1 to inhibit general host gene expression, mainly by their ability to restore binding to the cellular factor CPSF30. This is the first report describing the ability of the pH1N1 NS1 protein to naturally acquire mutations that restore this function. Importantly, a recombinant pH1N1 virus containing these 6 amino acid changes in the NS1 protein (pH1N1/NSs-6mut) inhibited host IFN and proinflammatory responses to a greater extent than that with the parental virus (pH1N1/NS1-wt), yet virus titers were not significantly increased in cell cultures or in mouse lungs, and the disease was partially attenuated. The pH1N1/NSs-6mut virus grew similarly to pH1N1/NSs-wt in mouse lungs, but infection with pH1N1/NSs-6mut induced lower levels of proinflammatory cytokines, likely due to a general inhibition of gene expression mediated by the mutated NS1 protein. This lower level of inflammation induced by the pH1N1/NSs-6mut virus likely accounts for the attenuated disease phenotype and may represent a host-virus adaptation affecting influenza virus pathogenesis.IMPORTANCE Seasonal influenza A viruses (IAVs) are among the most common causes of respiratory infections in humans. In addition, occasional pandemics are caused when IAVs circulating in other species emerge in the human population. In 2009, a swine-origin H1N1 IAV (pH1N1) was transmitted to humans, infecting people then and up

  18. Novel chalcone-based fluorescent human histamine H3 receptor ligands as pharmacological tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holger eStark

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Novel fluorescent chalcone-based ligands at human histamine H3 receptors (hH3R have been designed, synthesized and characterized. Compounds described are non-imidazole analogues of ciproxifan with a tetralone motif. Tetralones as chemical precursors and related fluorescent chalcones exhibit affinities at hH3R in the same concentration range like that of the reference antagonist ciproxifan (hH3R pKi value of 7.2. Fluorescence characterization of our novel ligands shows emission maxima about 570 nm for yellow fluorescent chalcones and ≥600 nm for the red fluorescent derivatives. Interferences to cellular autofluorescence could be excluded. All synthesized chalcone compounds could be taken to visualize hH3R proteins in stably transfected HEK-293 cells using confocal laser scanning fluorescence microscopy. These novel fluorescent ligands possess high potential to be used as pharmacological tools for hH3R visualization in different tissues.

  19. Severe swine influenza A (H1N1) versus severe human seasonal influenza A (H3N2): clinical comparisons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunha, Burke A; Pherez, Francisco M; Strollo, Stephanie; Syed, Uzma; Laguerre, Marianne

    2011-01-01

    At the beginning of the swine influenza (H1N1) pandemic in the spring of 2009, there were still stories of human seasonal influenza A circulating in the New York area. Adult patients admitted with influenza-like illnesses (ILIs) (fever > 102°F, dry cough, and myalgias) presented diagnostic problems. First, clinicians had to differentiate ILIs from influenza, and then differentiate human seasonal influenza A from H1N1 in hospitalized adults with ILIs and negative chest films (no focal segmental/lobar infiltrates). Human seasonal influenza A was diagnosed by rapid influenza diagnostic tests (RIDTs), but H1N1 was often RIDT negative. Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction for H1N1 was restricted or not available. The Winthrop-University Hospital Infectious Disease Division developed clinical diagnostic criteria (a diagnostic weighted point score system) to rapidly and clinically diagnose H1N1 in patients with negative RIDTs. The point score system was modified and shortened for ease of use, that is, the diagnostic H1N1 triad (any 3 of 4) (ILI, see above) plus thrombocytopenia, relative lymphopenia, elevated serum transaminases, or an elevated creatine phosphokinase. Our clinical experience during the pandemic allowed us to develop the swine diagnostic H1N1 triad. In the process, similarities and differences between human seasonal influenza A and H1N1 were noted. We present 2 illustrative cases of severe influenza, one due to human seasonal influenza A and one due to H1N1, for clinical consideration reflective of our experiences early in the H1N1 pandemic in 2009.

  20. Pharmacological investigation into the effects of histamine and histamine analogues on guinea-pig and rat colon in vitro.

    OpenAIRE

    Aguilar, M. J.; MORALES-OLIVAS, F. J.; RUBIO, E.

    1986-01-01

    The effects of histamine and specific histamine agonists has been examined on isolated longitudinal colon strips of guinea-pig and rat. Histamine and 2-pyridyl-ethylamine but not 4 methylhistamine produced a concentration-related contractile response in the guinea-pig colon. The H1-antagonist clemizole antagonized competitively the effect of histamine but the H2-antagonist ranitidine did not modify the dose-response curve to histamine in the guinea-pig colon. Atropine, hexamethonium, prazosin...

  1. Synthesis and structure-activity relationships of N-aryl-piperidine derivatives as potent (partial) agonists for human histamine H3 receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, Makoto; Furuuchi, Takeshi; Yamauchi, Miki; Yokoyama, Fumikazu; Kakui, Nobukazu; Sato, Yasuo

    2010-07-15

    4-((1H-imidazol-4-yl)methyl)-1-aryl-piperazine and piperidine derivatives were designed and synthesized as candidate human histamine type 3 agonists. The piperazine derivatives were found to have low (or no) affinity for human histamine H3 receptor, whereas the piperidine derivatives showed moderate to high affinity, and their agonistic activity was greatly influenced by substituents on the aromatic ring. Among the piperidine-containing compounds, 17d and 17h were potent human histamine H3 receptor agonists with high selectivity over the closely related human H4 receptor. Our results indicate that appropriate conformational restriction, that is, by the piperidine spacer moiety, favors specific binding to the human histamine H3 receptor.

  2. Histamine receptors in isolated bovine oviductal arteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, A C; Novella, S; Raposo, R; Recio, P; Labadía, A; Costa, G; Garcia-Sacristán, A; Benedito, S

    1997-05-20

    The present in vitro study was designed to evaluate the effect of histamine on isolated rings of bovine oviductal artery and to characterize the histamine receptors involved in the histamine-induced response. Endothelial dependence of the response was also investigated. Cumulative addition of histamine and 2-pyridylethylamine (histamine H receptor agonist) induced a concentration-dependent relaxation in intact arterial segments precontracted with noradrenaline. The histamine H1 receptor antagonist mepyramine showed non-competitive antagonism in the histamine-induced concentration-response curve. However, when the response to histamine was evaluated in the presence of mepyramine and histamine H1 and H3 receptors were blocked, Schild analysis yielded a line with a slope of 1.10 and a pA2 value of 8.91, indicating simple competitive antagonism of mepyramine at histamine H1 receptor sites. The histamine H2 receptor agonist, dimaprit, caused marked dilatation only at high doses. Cimetidine, propranolol and mepyramine failed to inhibit this relaxant effect. In precontracted oviductal arteries, cimetidine did not modify the histamine-induced concentration-response curves. Combined treatment with histamine H1 and H2 receptor antagonists did not induce an additional displacement with respect to the isolated effect of mepyramine thus excluding activation of histamine H2 receptors. Histamine and (R)-alpha-methylhistamine, a selective histamine H3 receptor agonist, produced a moderate contractile effect on the resting tone of preparations. Pretreatment with the selective histamine H1 receptor antagonist decreased the (R)-alpha-methylhistamine response but increased the maximal relaxant effect and abolished the contractile effect of histamine, suggesting the presence of a limited population of contractile histamine H3 receptors. Removal of the endothelium or pretreatment with methylene blue produced a significant inhibition of the relaxant response to histamine. Remaining

  3. Vasopeptidase-activated latent ligands of the histamine receptor-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gera, Lajos; Roy, Caroline; Charest-Morin, Xavier; Marceau, François

    2013-11-01

    Whether peptidases present in vascular cells can activate prodrugs active on vascular cells has been tested with 2 potential latent ligands of the histamine H1 receptor (H1R). First, a peptide consisting of the antihistamine cetirizine (CTZ) condensed at the N-terminus of ε-aminocaproyl-bradykinin (εACA-BK) was evaluated for an antihistamine activity that could be revealed by degradation of the peptide part of the molecule. CTZ-εACA-BK had a submicromolar affinity for the BK B2 receptor (B2R; IC50 of 590 nM, [(3)H]BK binding competition), but a non-negligible affinity for the human H1 receptor (H1R; IC50 of 11 μM for [(3)H]pyrilamine binding). In the human isolated umbilical vein, a system where both endogenous B2R and H1R mediate strong contractions, CTZ-εACA-BK exerted mild antagonist effects on histamine-induced contraction that were not modified by omapatrilat or by a B2R antagonist that prevents endocytosis of the BK conjugate. Cells expressing recombinant ACE or B2R incubated with CTZ-εACA-BK did not release a competitor of [(3)H]pyrilamine binding to H1Rs. Thus, there is no evidence that CTZ-εACA-BK can release free cetirizine in biological environments. The second prodrug was a blocked agonist, L-alanyl-histamine, potentially activated by aminopeptidase N (APN). This compound did not compete for [(3)H]pyrilamine binding to H1Rs. The human umbilical vein contractility assay responded to L-alanyl-histamine (EC50 54.7 μM), but the APN inhibitor amastatin massively (17-fold) reduced its apparent potency. Amastatin did not influence the potency of histamine as a contractile agent. One of the 2 tested latent H1R ligands, L-alanyl-histamine, supported the feasibility of pro-drug activation by vascular ectopeptidases.

  4. Ligand autoradiographical quantification of histamine H3 receptor in human dementia with Lewy bodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lethbridge, Natasha L; Chazot, Paul L

    2016-11-01

    Dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) is a serious age-dependent human neurodegenerative disease, with multiple debilitating symptoms, including dementia, psychosis and significant motor deficits, but with little or no effective treatments. This comparative ligand autoradiographical study has quantified histamine H3 receptors (H3R) in a series of major cortical and basal ganglia structures in human DLB and Alzheimer's (AD) post-mortem cases using the highly selective radioligand, [(3)H] GSK189254. In the main, the levels of H3 receptor were largely preserved in DLB cases when compared with aged-matched controls. However, we provide new evidence showing variable levels in the globus pallidus, and, moreover, raised levels of Pallidum H3 correlated with positive psychotic symptoms, in particular delusions and visual hallucinations, but not symptoms associated with depression. Furthermore, no correlation was detected for H3 receptor levels to MMSE or IUPRS symptom severity. This study suggests that H3R antagonists have scope for treating the psychotic symptomologies in DLB and other human brain disorders.

  5. Bacteria-induced histamine release from human bronchoalveolar cells and blood leukocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clementsen, P; Milman, N; Struve-Christensen, E

    1991-01-01

    Histamine release induced by Staphylococcus aureus was examined in cells obtained by bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) in non-atopic individuals. Approximately half of the individuals responded with mediator release to the bacterium, and the release was found to be time- and concentration dependent....... No difference was found between the patients who responded and those who did not respond in regard to age, sex, smoker/non-smoker, % recovery of BAL-fluid, total cell count, differential cell counts, histamine content per mast cell, or diagnoses. Also stimulation of the BAL-cells with the calcium-ionophore A......23187 resulted in histamine release. S. aureus-induced histamine release from basophils was examined in leukocyte suspensions obtained from the same individuals, and in all experiments release was found. The dose-response curves were similar to those obtained with BAL cells. The bacteria...

  6. Histamine 2 blocker potentiates the effects of histamine 1 blocker in suppressing histamine-induced wheal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhanya N

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Histamine is responsible for the wheal and flare reaction in various allergic conditions. Classical antihistamines are the drugs which block the H 1 receptors and are widely used in various allergic conditions, whereas H 2 blockers are mainly used for acid peptic disease. Although H 1 receptor-mediated actions of histamine are primarily responsible for vasodilatation, vasopermeability, and itching, it has been observed that combined blocking of both H 1 and H 2 receptors may provide better relief. Aim: To compare the efficacy of levocetirizine (H 1 blocker versus levocetirizine and ranitidine (H 2 blocker in suppressing histamine-induced wheal. Methods: Fifteen volunteers were given a single dose of levocetirizine 5 mg on day 1 and a single dose of levocetirizine 5 mg with ranitidine 150 mg twice a day on day 7. A pretest was performed by intradermal histamine prick test. After administration of the drugs, the prick test was repeated at 1 hour, 2, 3, 6, and 24 hours, and the size of the wheal measured and statistically analyzed. Results: At 1 hour, there was no statistically significant difference in the wheal size between levocetirizine alone and the combination of levocetirizine and ranitidine. Levocetirizine with ranitidine resulted in statistically significant reduction of wheal size at 2, 3, 6, and 24 hours when compared with levocetirizine alone. Conclusion: H2 blocker potentiates the effects of an H1 blocker in suppressing histamine-induced wheal.

  7. [Colorimetric detection of human influenza A H1N1 virus by reverse transcription loop mediated isothermal amplification].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Kai; Wang, Da-Yan; Qin, Meng; Gao, Rong-Bao; Wang, Miao; Zou, Shu-Mei; Han, Feng; Zhao, Xiang; Li, Xi-Yan; Shu, Yue-Long; Ma, Xue-Jun

    2010-03-01

    A simple, rapid and sensitive colorimetric Reverse Transcription Loop Mediated Isothermal Amplification (RT-LAMP) method was established to detect human influenza A H1N1 virus. The method employed a set of six specially designed primers that recognized eight distinct sequences of the HA gene for amplification of nucleic acid under isothermal conditions at 65 degrees C for one and half hour. The amplification process of RT-LAMP was monitored by the addition of HNB (Hydroxy naphthol blue) dye prior to amplification. A positive reaction was indicated by a color change from violet to sky blue and confirmed by agarose electrophoresis. The specificity of the RT-LAMP assay was validated by cross-reaction with different swine and human influenza virus including human seasonal influenza A /H1N1 A /H3N2, influenza B and swine A /H1N1. The sensitivity of this assay was evaluated by serial dilutions of RNA molecules from in vitro transcription of human influenza A H1N1 HA gene. The assay was further evaluated with 30 clinical specimens with suspected pandemic influenza A H1N1 virus infection in parallel with RT-PCR detection and 26 clinical specimens with seasonal influenza virus infection. Our results showed that the RT-LAMP was able to achieve a sensitivity of 60 RNA copies with high specificity, and detection rate was comparable to that of the RT-PCR with the clinical samples of pandemic influenza A H1N1 infection. The RT-LAMP reaction with HNB could also be measured at 650nm in a microplate reader for quantitative analysis. Thus, we concluded that this colorimetric RT-LAMP assay had potential for the rapid screening of the human influenza A H1N1 virus infection in National influenza monitoring network laboratories and sentinel hospitals of provincial and municipal region in China.

  8. The Histamine H4 Receptor: From Orphan to the Clinic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robin L. Thurmond

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The histamine H4 receptor (H4R was first noted as a sequence in genomic databases that had features of a G-protein coupled receptor. This putative receptor was found to bind histamine consistent with its homology to other histamine receptors and thus became the fourth member of the histamine receptor family. Due to the previous success of drugs that target the H1 and H2 receptors, an effort was made to understand the function of this receptor and determine if it represented a drug target. Taking advantage of the vast literature on histamine, a search for histamine activity that did not appear to be mediated by the other three histamine receptors was undertaken. From this asthma and pruritus emerged as areas of particular interest. Histamine has long been suspected to play a role in the pathogenesis of asthma, but antihistamines that target the H1 and H2 receptors have not been shown to be effective for this condition. The use of selective ligands in animal models of asthma has now potentially filled this gap by showing a role for the H4R in mediating lung function and inflammation. A similar story exists for chronic pruritus associated with conditions such as atopic dermatitis. Antihistamines that target the H1 receptor are effective in reducing acute pruritus, but are ineffective in pruritus experienced by patients with atopic dermatitis. As for asthma, animal models have now suggested a role for the H4R in mediating pruritic responses, with antagonists to the H4R reducing pruritus in a number of different conditions. The anti-pruritic effect of H4R antagonists has recently been shown in human clinical studies, validating the preclinical findings in the animal models. A selective H4R antagonist inhibited histamine-induced pruritus in health volunteers and reduced pruritus in patients with atopic dermatitis. The history to date of the H4R provides an excellent example of the deorphanization of a novel receptor and the translation of this into

  9. Fractionation of human H1 subtypes and characterization of a subtype-specific antibody exhibiting non-uniform nuclear staining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parseghian, M H; Clark, R F; Hauser, L J; Dvorkin, N; Harris, D A; Hamkalo, B A

    1993-07-01

    Four histone H1 subtypes and H1(0) were fractionated from human placental nuclei and purified to homogeneity by a combination of Bio-Rex 70 chromatography and reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC). Polyclonal antibodies were generated in rabbits against one of these subtypes designated H1-3. Antibodies reacted only against this subtype in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays and Western assays; subtype specificity was documented further by Western blotting of cell and nuclear extracts. They crossreacted with monkey H1, but not with H1 from other vertebrates tested. The epitope(s) recognized were mapped by immunoblotting against peptides prepared by cleavage with N-bromosuccinimide (NBS) and alpha-chymotrypsin; it includes the variant amino-terminal tail of the protein as well as a portion of the globular domain. The antibody stains mitotic chromosomes weakly but uniformly and, unlike antibodies that recognize total H1 which show uniform nuclear staining after indirect immunofluorescence localization, anti-H1-3 exhibits preferential labelling of the nuclear periphery. This non-uniform staining suggests compartmentalization of this subtype which may have functional significance with respect to differential chromatin condensation.

  10. Infectious Progeny of 2009 A (H1N1) Influenza Virus Replicated in and Released from Human Neutrophils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhang; Huang, Tao; Yu, Feiyuan; Liu, Xingmu; Zhao, Conghui; Chen, Xueling; Kelvin, David J; Gu, Jiang

    2015-12-07

    Various reports have indicated that a number of viruses could infect neutrophils, but the multiplication of viruses in neutrophils was abortive. Based on our previous finding that avian influenza viral RNA and proteins were present in the nucleus of infected human neutrophils in vivo, we investigated the possibility of 2009 A (H1N1) influenza viral synthesis in infected neutrophils and possible release of infectious progeny from host cells. In this study we found that human neutrophils in vitro without detectable level of sialic acid expression could be infected by this virus strain. We also show that the infected neutrophils can not only synthesize 2009 A (H1N1) viral mRNA and proteins, but also produce infectious progeny. These findings suggest that infectious progeny of 2009 A (H1N1) influenza virus could be replicated in and released from human neutrophils with possible clinical implications.

  11. Histamine H3 receptor antagonist OUP-186 attenuates the proliferation of cultured human breast cancer cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Satoshi; Sakaguchi, Minoru; Yoneyama, Hiroki; Usami, Yoshihide; Harusawa, Shinya

    2016-11-18

    Histamine is involved in various physiological functions, including its neurotransmitter actions in the central nervous system and its action as a causative agent of inflammation, allergic reactions, and gastric acid secretions. Histamine expression and biosynthesis have been detected in breast cancer cells. It was recently suggested that the histamine H3 receptor (H3R) plays a role in the proliferation of breast cancer cells. We recently developed the non-imidazole H3R antagonist OUP-186 which exhibited a potent and selective human H3R antagonistic activity as well as no activity against the human histamine H4 receptor (H4R). In this study, we compared the effects of OUP-186 on the proliferation of estrogen receptor negative (ER-) breast cancer cells (MDA-MB-231) and ER+ breast cancer cells (MCF7) to the effects of clobenpropit (potent imidazole-containing H3R antagonist). OUP-186 and clobenpropit suppressed the proliferation of breast cancer cells. The IC50 values at 48 h for OUP-186 and clobenpropit were approximately 10 μM and 50 μM, respectively. Furthermore, OUP-186 potently induced cell death by activating caspase-3/7, whereas cell death was only slightly induced by clobenpropit. In addition, OUP-186 treatment blocked the proliferation increase triggered by 100 μM (R)-(-)-α-methylhistamine (H3R agonist). The use of 4-methylhistamine (H4R agonist) and JNJ10191584 (selective H4R antagonist) did not affect breast cancer proliferation. These results indicate that OUP-186 potently suppresses proliferation and induces caspase-dependent apoptotic death in both ER+ and ER-breast cancer cells.

  12. Effect of the novel influenza A (H1N1 virus in the human immune system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evangelos J Giamarellos-Bourboulis

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The pandemic by the novel H1N1 virus has created the need to study any probable effects of that infection in the immune system of the host. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Blood was sampled within the first two days of the presentation of signs of infection from 10 healthy volunteers; from 18 cases of flu-like syndrome; and from 31 cases of infection by H1N1 confirmed by reverse RT-PCR. Absolute counts of subtypes of monocytes and of lymphocytes were determined after staining with monoclonal antibodies and analysis by flow cytometry. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs were isolated from patients and stimulated with various bacterial stimuli. Concentrations of tumour necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin (IL-1beta, IL-6, IL-18, interferon (FN-alpha and of IFN-gamma were estimated in supernatants by an enzyme immunoassay. Infection by H1N1 was accompanied by an increase of monocytes. PBMCs of patients evoked strong cytokine production after stimulation with most of bacterial stimuli. Defective cytokine responses were shown in response to stimulation with phytohemagglutin and with heat-killed Streptococcus pneumoniae. Adaptive immune responses of H1N1-infected patients were characterized by decreases of CD4-lymphocytes and of B-lymphocytes and by increase of T-regulatory lymphocytes (Tregs. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Infection by the H1N1 virus is accompanied by a characteristic impairment of the innate immune responses characterized by defective cytokine responses to S.pneumoniae. Alterations of the adaptive immune responses are predominated by increase of Tregs. These findings signify a predisposition for pneumococcal infections after infection by H1N1 influenza.

  13. Differentiation of human influenza A viruses including the pandemic subtype H1N1/2009 by conventional multiplex PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furuse, Yuki; Odagiri, Takashi; Okada, Takashi; Khandaker, Irona; Shimabukuro, Kozue; Sawayama, Rumi; Suzuki, Akira; Oshitani, Hitoshi

    2010-09-01

    April 2009 witnessed the emergence of a novel H1N1 influenza A virus infecting the human population. Currently, pandemic and seasonal influenza viruses are co-circulating in human populations. Understanding the course of the emerging pandemic virus is important. It is still unknown how the novel virus co-circulates with or outcompetes seasonal viruses. Sustainable and detailed influenza surveillance is required throughout the world including developing countries. In the present study, a multiplex PCR using four primers was developed, which was designed to differentiate the pandemic H1N1 virus from the seasonal H1N1 and H3N2 viruses, to obtain amplicons of different sizes. Multiplex PCR analysis could clearly differentiate the three subtypes of human influenza A virus. This assay was performed using 206 clinical samples collected in 2009 in Japan. Between February and April, four samples were subtyped as seasonal H1N1 and four as seasonal H3N2. All samples collected after July were subtyped as pandemic H1N1. Currently, pandemic viruses seem to have replaced seasonal viruses almost completely in Japan. This is a highly sensitive method and its cost is low. Influenza surveillance using this assay would provide significant information on the epidemiology of both pandemic and seasonal influenza.

  14. Agglutination of human O erythrocytes by influenza A(H1N1) viruses freshly isolated from patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, T; Haruki, K; Seto, Y; Kimura, T; Minoshiro, S; Shibe, K

    1991-04-01

    The hemagglutinin titers of 10 influenza A (H1N1) viruses were examined using the erythrocytes of several species. Human O erythrocytes showed the highest agglutination titer to the viruses, whereas chicken erythrocytes showed a low titer. These findings were noted for at least 10 passages by serial dilutions of the viruses in Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells. All influenza A(H1N1) viruses, plaque-cloned directly from throat-washing specimens of patients, also agglutinated human O but not chicken erythrocytes. The results of a hemadsorption test indicated that chicken erythrocytes possess less affinity to MDCK cells infected with the A/Osaka City/2/88(H1N1) stain than to those infected with the A/Yamagata/120/86(H1N1) strain which is used as an inactivated influenza vaccine in Japan. However, there were no significant differences between the A/Osaka City/2/88 and the A/Yamagata/120/86 strains in the hemagglutination inhibition test. Since human O erythrocytes have high agglutination activity to influenza A(H1N1) and also to A(H3N2) and B viruses in MDCK cells, these erythrocytes may be useful for the serological diagnosis of influenza.

  15. Polidocanol inhibits cowhage - but not histamine-induced itch in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawro, Tomasz; Fluhr, Joachim W; Mengeaud, Valérie; Redoulès, Daniel; Church, Martin K; Maurer, Marcus; Metz, Martin

    2014-12-01

    Polidocanol is a local anaesthetic and antipruritic compound that is used in the treatment of itching skin conditions such as eczema. Its mechanisms of action are largely ill defined. This study has compared the antipruritic efficacy of topical polidocanol in histamine-induced itch and a histamine-independent, cowhage-induced model of pruritus. Polidocanol (3%) or vehicle was applied topically under occlusion for 1 h to the forearms of 45 healthy volunteers before itch was provoked by rubbing in 40-45 spicules of cowhage or skin prick testing with 10 mg/ml histamine. Itch was recorded at 1-min intervals for 30 min on a 100-mm visual analogue scale. Polidocanol significantly reduced the area under the curve for cowhage-induced itch by 58% (P < 0.05), but had no significant effect on histamine-induced itch. This result underlines the importance of histamine-independent itch models in the development of topical antipruritic agents.

  16. Commercially available antibodies against human and murine histamine H₄-receptor lack specificity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beermann, Silke; Seifert, Roland; Neumann, Detlef

    2012-02-01

    Antibodies are important tools to detect expression and localization of proteins within the living cell. However, for a series of commercially available antibodies which are supposed to recognize G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCR), lack of specificity has been described. In recent publications, antisera against the histamine H₄-receptor (H₄R), which is a member of the GPCR family, have been used to demonstrate receptor expression. However, a comprehensive characterization of these antisera has not been performed yet. Therefore, the purpose of our study was to evaluate the specificity of three commercially available H₄R antibodies. Sf9 insect cells and HEK293 cells expressing recombinant murine and human H₄R, spleen cells obtained from H₄⁻/⁻ and from wild-type mice, and human CD20⁺ and CD20⁻ peripheral blood cells were analyzed by flow cytometry and Western blot using three commercially available H₄R antibodies. Our results show that all tested H₄R antibodies bind to virtually all cells, independently of the expression of H₄R, thus in an unspecific fashion. Also in Western blot, the H₄R antibodies do not bind to the specified protein. Our data underscore the importance of stringent evaluation of antibodies using valid controls, such as cells of H₄R⁻/⁻ mice, to show true receptor expression and antigen specificity. Improved validation of commercially available antibodies prior to release to the market would avoid time-consuming and expensive validation assays by the user.

  17. Interaction between fragile histamine triad and protein kinase C alpha in human non-small cell lung cancer tissues

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Objective To investigate the interaction between fragile histamine triad (FHIT) and protein kinase C alpha (PKCα) in human non-small cell lung cancer tissues. Methods FHIT and PKCα double positive samples were screened by immunohistochemical staining from 13 human non-small cell lung cancer tissues. Co-immunoprecipitation was performed by using anti-FHIT and anti-PKCα. The immune precipitate was analyzed by SDS-PAGE and Western blot. Results Immune precipitate staining detection showed that 3 samples out of...

  18. Inhibition by adenosine of histamine and leukotriene release from human basophils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peachell, P T; Lichtenstein, L M; Schleimer, R P

    1989-06-01

    Adenosine inhibited the release of histamine and leukotriene C4 (LTC4) from immunologically-activated basophils in a dose-dependent manner. Structural congeners of adenosine also attenuated the elaboration of these two mediators from stimulated basophils and a rank order of potency for the inhibition was observed following the sequence 2-chloroadenosine greater than or equal to N-ethylcarboxamidoadenosine (NECA) greater than adenosine greater than or equal to R-phenylisopropyladenosine (R-PIA) greater than or equal to S-PIA. These same nucleosides modulated the generation of LTC4 more potently than the release of histamine. A number of methylxanthines, which are antagonists of cell surface adenosine receptors, reversed the inhibition by adenosine and its congeners of the release of both histamine and LTC4 to varying extents. Dipyridamole and nitrobenzylthioinosine (NBTI), agents that block the intracellular uptake of adenosine, antagonized the inhibition of histamine release by adenosine (and 2-chloroadenosine) but failed to reverse the attenuation of LTC4 generation by the nucleoside. These same uptake blockers were unable to antagonize the inhibitory effects of NECA on either histamine or LTC4 release. In purified basophils, NECA and R-PIA, and in that order of decreasing reactivity, increased total cell cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) levels and inhibited the stimulated release of mediators. In total, these results suggest that the basophil possesses a cell surface adenosine receptor which, on the basis of both pharmacological and biochemical criteria, most closely conforms to an A2/Ra-like receptor. However, in addition to an interaction at the cell surface, studies with agents that block the intracellular uptake of adenosine suggest that the nucleoside may also exert intracellular effects when countering the release of histamine (but not LTC4).

  19. Efficiency of histamine H1 and H2 receptor antagonists on neuropathic pain in rats%组胺受体1和2拮抗药对神经病理性疼痛的疗效

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄亮; 長櫓巧

    2009-01-01

    Objective To investigate the efficiency of intracerebroventricular injection of histamine receptor antagonists on mechanical pain threshold of neuropathic pain in rats. Methods The neuropathic pain rat model was established by partially ligation of the sciatic nerve in 30 rats. Two weeks later, histamine receptor 1 antagonist pyrilamine 1.5 μg or 15 μg was injected intracerebroventricularly in group P1 or P2, histamine receptor 2 antagonist ranitidine 10 μg or 100 μg in group R1 or R2, and normal saline in group C as the control. The pain threshold was measured. Results Compaered with group C,the pain threshold was signifigantly increased in group R1 and R2, especially in group R2 (P<0.05). Conclusion Histamine H2 receptor antagonist can increase pain threshold in rats with neuropathic pain.%目的 探讨脑室内注射组胺受体拮抗药对神经病理性疼痛大鼠的治疗作用.方法 选择左侧坐骨神经部分结扎致神经病理性疼痛大鼠30只,随机均分为五组.对照组(C组)脑室内注射生理盐水;P1、P2组分别注射组胺受体1拮抗药美吡拉敏1.5 μg和15 μg;R1、R2组注射组胺受体2拮抗药雷尼替丁10μ和100 μg,评价注药后痛阈的改变.结果 与C组相比,R1、R2组雷尼替丁能显著提高大鼠对机械性刺激的痛阈(P<0.05);且R2组对疼痛的治疗效果加强,时间延长.结论 神经病理性疼痛时,采用组胺受体2拮抗药能提高痛阈,缓解疼痛.

  20. Characterization of stimulus-secretion coupling in the human pancreatic EndoC-βH1 beta cell line.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lotta E Andersson

    Full Text Available Studies on beta cell metabolism are often conducted in rodent beta cell lines due to the lack of stable human beta cell lines. Recently, a human cell line, EndoC-βH1, was generated. Here we investigate stimulus-secretion coupling in this cell line, and compare it with that in the rat beta cell line, INS-1 832/13, and human islets.Cells were exposed to glucose and pyruvate. Insulin secretion and content (radioimmunoassay, gene expression (Gene Chip array, metabolite levels (GC/MS, respiration (Seahorse XF24 Extracellular Flux Analyzer, glucose utilization (radiometric, lactate release (enzymatic colorimetric, ATP levels (enzymatic bioluminescence and plasma membrane potential and cytoplasmic Ca2+ responses (microfluorometry were measured. Metabolite levels, respiration and insulin secretion were examined in human islets.Glucose increased insulin release, glucose utilization, raised ATP production and respiratory rates in both lines, and pyruvate increased insulin secretion and respiration. EndoC-βH1 cells exhibited higher insulin secretion, while plasma membrane depolarization was attenuated, and neither glucose nor pyruvate induced oscillations in intracellular calcium concentration or plasma membrane potential. Metabolite profiling revealed that glycolytic and TCA-cycle intermediate levels increased in response to glucose in both cell lines, but responses were weaker in EndoC-βH1 cells, similar to those observed in human islets. Respiration in EndoC-βH1 cells was more similar to that in human islets than in INS-1 832/13 cells.Functions associated with early stimulus-secretion coupling, with the exception of plasma membrane potential and Ca2+ oscillations, were similar in the two cell lines; insulin secretion, respiration and metabolite responses were similar in EndoC-βH1 cells and human islets. While both cell lines are suitable in vitro models, with the caveat of replicating key findings in isolated islets, EndoC-βH1 cells have the

  1. Effects of multivalent histamine supported on gold nanoparticles: activation of histamine receptors by derivatized histamine at subnanomolar concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasiorek, Friederike; Pouokam, Ervice; Diener, Martin; Schlecht, Sabine; Wickleder, Mathias S

    2015-10-21

    Colloidal gold nanoparticles with a functionalized ligand shell were synthesized and used as new histamine receptor agonists. Mercaptoundecanoic acid moieties were attached to the surface of the nanoparticles and derivatized with native histamine. The multivalent presentation of the immobilized ligands carried by the gold nanoparticles resulted in extremely low activation concentrations for histamine receptors on rat colonic epithelium. As a functional read-out system, chloride secretion resulting from stimulation of neuronal and epithelial histamine H1 and H2 receptors was measured in Ussing chamber experiments. These responses were strictly attributed to the histamine entities as histamine-free particles Au-MUDOLS or the monovalent ligand AcS-MUDA-HA proved to be ineffective. The vitality of the tissues used was not impaired by the nanoparticles.

  2. Histamine in regulation of bone remodeling processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Wiercigroch

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Bone remodeling is under autocrine, paracrine, endocrine and central nervous system control. One of the potential endogenous factors affecting bone remodeling is histamine, an endogenous amine which acts as a mediator of allergic reactions and neuromediator, and induces production of gastric acid. Histamine H1 receptor antagonists are widely used in the treatment of allergic conditions, H2 receptor antagonists in peptic ulcer disease, and betahistine (an H3 receptor antagonist and H1 receptor agonist is used in the treatment of Ménière’s disease.Excess histamine release in mastocytosis and allergic diseases may lead to development of osteoporosis. Clinical and population-based studies on the effects of histamine receptor antagonists on the skeletal system have not delivered unequivocal results.Expression of mRNA of histamine receptors has been discovered in bone cells (osteoblasts and osteoclasts. Histamine synthesis has been demonstrated in osteoclast precursors. Histamine increases bone resorption both by direct effects on osteoclast precursors and osteoclasts, and indirectly, by increasing the expression of RANKL in osteoblasts. In in vivo studies, H1 and H2 receptor antagonists exerted protective effects on the bone tissue, although not in all experimental models. In the present article, in vitro and in vivo studies conducted so far, concerning the effects of histamine and drugs modifying its activity on the skeletal system, have been reviewed.

  3. Trafficking and phosphorylation dynamics of AQP4 in histamine-treated human gastric cells.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carmosino, M.; Procino, G.; Tamma, G.; Mannucci, R.; Svelto, M.; Valenti, G.

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND INFORMATION: AQP4 (aquaporin 4) internalization and a concomitant decrease in the osmotic water permeability coefficient (Pf) after histamine exposure has been reported in AQP4-transfected gastric HGT1 cells. RESULTS: In the present study we report that AQP4 internalization is followed by

  4. Pandemic H1N1 influenza A directly induces a robust and acute inflammatory gene signature in primary human bronchial epithelial cells downstream of membrane fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paquette, Stéphane G. [Division of Experimental Therapeutics, Toronto General Hospital Research Institute, University Health Network, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Institute of Medical Science, Faculty of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Banner, David [Division of Experimental Therapeutics, Toronto General Hospital Research Institute, University Health Network, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Chi, Le Thi Bao [Department of Microbiology, Hue University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Thua Thien Hue (Viet Nam); Carlo Urbani Centre, Hue University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Thua Thien Hue (Viet Nam); Leon, Alberto J. [Division of Experimental Therapeutics, Toronto General Hospital Research Institute, University Health Network, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); International Institute of Infection and Immunity, Shantou University Medical College, Shantou, Guangdong (China); Xu, Luoling; Ran, Longsi [Division of Experimental Therapeutics, Toronto General Hospital Research Institute, University Health Network, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Huang, Stephen S.H. [Division of Experimental Therapeutics, Toronto General Hospital Research Institute, University Health Network, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Department of Immunology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Farooqui, Amber [Division of Experimental Therapeutics, Toronto General Hospital Research Institute, University Health Network, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); International Institute of Infection and Immunity, Shantou University Medical College, Shantou, Guangdong (China); and others

    2014-01-05

    Pandemic H1N1 influenza A (H1N1pdm) elicits stronger pulmonary inflammation than previously circulating seasonal H1N1 influenza A (sH1N1), yet mechanisms of inflammatory activation in respiratory epithelial cells during H1N1pdm infection are unclear. We investigated host responses to H1N1pdm/sH1N1 infection and virus entry mechanisms in primary human bronchial epithelial cells in vitro. H1N1pdm infection rapidly initiated a robust inflammatory gene signature (3 h post-infection) not elicited by sH1N1 infection. Protein secretion inhibition had no effect on gene induction. Infection with membrane fusion deficient H1N1pdm failed to induce robust inflammatory gene expression which was rescued with restoration of fusion ability, suggesting H1N1pdm directly triggered the inflammatory signature downstream of membrane fusion. Investigation of intra-virion components revealed H1N1pdm viral RNA (vRNA) triggered a stronger inflammatory phenotype than sH1N1 vRNA. Thus, our study is first to report H1N1pdm induces greater inflammatory gene expression than sH1N1 in vitro due to direct virus–epithelial cell interaction. - Highlights: • We investigated H1N1pdm/sH1N1 infection in primary epithelial cells. • H1N1pdm directly initiated a robust inflammatory gene signature, sH1N1 did not. • H1N1pdm viral RNA triggered a stronger response than sH1N1. • H1N1pdm induces greater response due to direct virus–cell interaction. • These results have potential to impact vaccine and therapeutic development.

  5. Molecular characterization of a novel reassortant H1N2 influenza virus containing genes from the 2009 pandemic human H1N1 virus in swine from eastern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Xiuming; Wu, Haibo; Xu, Lihua; Peng, Xiaorong; Cheng, Linfang; Jin, Changzhong; Xie, Tiansheng; Lu, Xiangyun; Wu, Nanping

    2016-06-01

    Pandemic outbreaks of H1N1 swine influenza virus have been reported since 2009. Reassortant H1N2 viruses that contain genes from the pandemic H1N1 virus have been isolated in Italy and the United States. However, there is limited information regarding the molecular characteristics of reassortant H1N2 swine influenza viruses in eastern China. Active influenza surveillance programs in Zhejiang Province identified a novel H1N2 influenza virus isolated from pigs displaying clinical signs of influenza virus infection. Whole-genome sequencing was performed and this strain was compared with other influenza viruses available in GenBank. Phylogenetic analysis suggested that the novel strain contained genes from the 2009 pandemic human H1N1 and swine H3N2 viruses. BALB/c mice were infected with the isolated virus to assess its virulence in mice. While the novel H1N2 isolate replicated well in mice, it was found to be less virulent. These results provide additional evidence that swine serve as intermediate hosts or 'mixing vessels' for novel influenza viruses. They also emphasize the importance of surveillance in the swine population for use as an early warning system for influenza outbreaks in swine and human populations.

  6. Triple-reassortant swine influenza A (H1) in humans in the United States, 2005-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinde, Vivek; Bridges, Carolyn B; Uyeki, Timothy M; Shu, Bo; Balish, Amanda; Xu, Xiyan; Lindstrom, Stephen; Gubareva, Larisa V; Deyde, Varough; Garten, Rebecca J; Harris, Meghan; Gerber, Susan; Vagasky, Susan; Smith, Forrest; Pascoe, Neal; Martin, Karen; Dufficy, Deborah; Ritger, Kathy; Conover, Craig; Quinlisk, Patricia; Klimov, Alexander; Bresee, Joseph S; Finelli, Lyn

    2009-06-18

    Triple-reassortant swine influenza A (H1) viruses--containing genes from avian, human, and swine influenza viruses--emerged and became enzootic among pig herds in North America during the late 1990s. We report the clinical features of the first 11 sporadic cases of infection of humans with triple-reassortant swine influenza A (H1) viruses reported to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, occurring from December 2005 through February 2009, until just before the current epidemic of swine-origin influenza A (H1N1) among humans. These data were obtained from routine national influenza surveillance reports and from joint case investigations by public and animal health agencies. The median age of the 11 patients was 10 years (range, 16 months to 48 years), and 4 had underlying health conditions. Nine of the patients had had exposure to pigs, five through direct contact and four through visits to a location where pigs were present but without contact. In another patient, human-to-human transmission was suspected. The range of the incubation period, from the last known exposure to the onset of symptoms, was 3 to 9 days. Among the 10 patients with known clinical symptoms, symptoms included fever (in 90%), cough (in 100%), headache (in 60%), and diarrhea (in 30%). Complete blood counts were available for four patients, revealing leukopenia in two, lymphopenia in one, and thrombocytopenia in another. Four patients were hospitalized, two of whom underwent invasive mechanical ventilation. Four patients received oseltamivir, and all 11 recovered from their illness. From December 2005 until just before the current human epidemic of swine-origin influenza viruses, there was sporadic infection with triple-reassortant swine influenza A (H1) viruses in persons with exposure to pigs in the United States. Although all the patients recovered, severe illness of the lower respiratory tract and unusual influenza signs such as diarrhea were observed in some patients, including

  7. Evaluation of the correlation and reproducibility between histamine, IL-4, and IL-13 release from human basophils.

    OpenAIRE

    Nahid Eskandari; Reza Bastan; Maryam Ahmadi; Peachell, Peter T

    2014-01-01

    Human basophils play a key role in allergic diseases such as asthma and in a variety of immunological disorders. The generation of IL-4 and IL-13 can be induced from basophil by IgE-mediated and non-IgE-mediated mechanisms. Time and stimulus-dependent differences in the regulation of these cytokines could have relevance to their biological effects. The aim of the present study was activation of basophils in order to evaluate the extent of histamine, IL-4, and IL-13 generations. Basophil-enric...

  8. Improgan antinociception does not require neuronal histamine or histamine receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izadi Mobarakeh, Jalal; Nalwalk, Julia W; Watanabe, Takeshi; Sakurada, Shinobu; Hoffman, Marcel; Leurs, Rob; Timmerman, Henk; Silos-Santiago, Immaculada; Yanai, Kazuhiko; Hough, Lindsay B

    2003-06-06

    Improgan, a chemical congener of the H(2) antagonist cimetidine, induces antinociception following intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) administration in rodents, but the mechanism of action of this compound remains unknown. Because the chemical structure of improgan closely resembles those of histamine and certain histamine blockers, and because neuronal histamine is known to participate in pain-relieving responses, the antinociceptive actions of improgan were evaluated in mice containing null mutations in the genes for three histamine receptors (H(1), H(2), and H(3)) and also in the gene for histidine decarboxylase (the histamine biosynthetic enzyme). Similar to earlier findings in Swiss-Webster mice, improgan induced maximal, reversible, dose-related reductions in thermal nociceptive responses in ICR mice, but neither pre-improgan (baseline) nor post-improgan nociceptive latencies were changed in any of the mutant mice as compared with wild-type controls. Improgan also had weak inhibitory activity in vitro (pK(i)=4.7-4.9) on specific binding to three recently-discovered, recombinant isoforms of the rat H(3) receptor (H(3A), H(3B), and H(3C)). The present findings strongly support the hypothesis that neuronal histamine and its receptors fail to play a role in improgan-induced antinociception.

  9. Determination of histamine and 1-methylhistamine in human plasma by high-performance liquid chromatography and fluorescence detection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wubs KL; Stolker AAM; Kortboyer JM; Meulenbelt J; van Ginkel LA; ARO

    1997-01-01

    Voor de bepaling van histamine en 1-methylhistamine (=Nt-methylhistamine=histamine metaboliet) in humaanplasma is de vloeistofchromatografische methode gebruikt. De uit het plasma geextraheerde histaminen werden met behulp van fluorescamine gederivatiseerd tot fluorescerende verbindingen. De deriv

  10. Histamine increases cytosolic Ca2+ in HL-60 promyelocytes predominantly via H2 receptors with an unique agonist/antagonist profile and induces functional differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seifert, R; Höer, A; Schwaner, I; Buschauer, A

    1992-08-01

    Histamine H1 receptors mediate activation of phospholipase C, with subsequent increases in cytosolic Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i), and H2 receptors mediate accumulation of cAMP. HL-60 promyelocytes possess H2 receptors, but it is not known whether these cells also possess H1 receptors. We studied the effects of histamine on [Ca2+]i and the functional importance of histamine receptors in HL-60 promyelocytes. In these cells, histamine and dimaprit increased [Ca2+]i with EC50 values of 15 microM and 30 microM, respectively. Diphenhydramine inhibited the effect of histamine (100 microM) on [Ca2+]i up to 40%, with an IC50 of 100 nM. Famotidine and cimetidine diminished the effect of histamine (100 microM) up to 75%, with IC50 values of 85 nM and 300 nM, respectively. Diphenhydramine plus famotidine abolished histamine-induced rises in [Ca2+]i. Impromidine, with an IC50 of 100 nM, abolished the effect of histamine (100 microM) on [Ca2+]i. Diphenhydramine, famotidine, cimetidine, and impromidine showed marked noncompetitive antagonism with histamine. Histamine-induced increases in [Ca2+]i were largely due to influx of Ca2+ from the extracellular space. Ca2+ influx was inhibited by 1-(beta-[3-(4-methoxyphenyl)propoxyl]-4-methoxyphenethyl)-1H-imida zole hydrochloride (SK&F 96365). Histamine activated phospholipase C. Histamine induced expression of formyl peptide receptors, which effect was abolished by famotidine. In U-937 promonocytes and in the human erythroleukemia cell lines HEL and K-562, histamine did not induce rises in [Ca2+]i. Our data suggest the following. (i) In HL-60 promyelocytes, histamine increases [Ca2+]i predominantly via H2 receptors and to a lesser extent via H1 receptors. (ii) The agonist/antagonist profile of the H2 receptor-mediated increases in [Ca2+]i differs markedly from that for cAMP accumulation, suggesting the involvement of different H2 receptor subtypes. (iii) In HL-60 promyelocytes, histamine activates nonselective cation channels and

  11. Distinct differences in the responses of the human pancreatic β-cell line EndoC-βH1 and human islets to proinflammatory cytokines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oleson, Bryndon J; McGraw, Jennifer A; Broniowska, Katarzyna A; Annamalai, Mani; Chen, Jing; Bushkofsky, Justin R; Davis, Dawn B; Corbett, John A; Mathews, Clayton E

    2015-09-01

    While insulinoma cells have been developed and proven to be extremely useful in studies focused on mechanisms controlling β-cell function and viability, translating findings to human β-cells has proven difficult because of the limited access to human islets and the absence of suitable insulinoma cell lines of human origin. Recently, a human β-cell line, EndoC-βH1, has been derived from human fetal pancreatic buds. The purpose of this study was to determine whether human EndoC-βH1 cells respond to cytokines in a fashion comparable to human islets. Unlike most rodent-derived insulinoma cell lines that respond to cytokines in a manner consistent with rodent islets, EndoC-βH1 cells fail to respond to a combination of cytokines (IL-1, IFN-γ, and TNF) in a manner consistent with human islets. Nitric oxide, produced following inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression, is a major mediator of cytokine-induced human islet cell damage. We show that EndoC-βH1 cells fail to express iNOS or produce nitric oxide in response to this combination of cytokines. Inhibitors of iNOS prevent cytokine-induced loss of human islet cell viability; however, they do not prevent cytokine-induced EndoC-βH1 cell death. Stressed human islets or human islets expressing heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) are resistant to cytokines, and, much like stressed human islets, EndoC-βH1 cells express HSP70 under basal conditions. Elevated basal expression of HSP70 in EndoC-βH1 cells is consistent with the lack of iNOS expression in response to cytokine treatment. While expressing HSP70, EndoC-βH1 cells fail to respond to endoplasmic reticulum stress activators, such as thapsigargin. These findings indicate that EndoC-βH1 cells do not faithfully recapitulate the response of human islets to cytokines. Therefore, caution should be exercised when making conclusions regarding the actions of cytokines on human islets when using this human-derived insulinoma cell line.

  12. High conservation level of CD8(+) T cell immunogenic regions within an unusual H1N2 human influenza variant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komadina, Naomi; Quiñones-Parra, Sergio M; Kedzierska, Katherine; McCaw, James M; Kelso, Anne; Leder, Karin; McVernon, Jodie

    2016-10-01

    Current seasonal influenza vaccines require regular updates due to antigenic drift causing loss of effectiveness and therefore providing little or no protection against novel influenza A subtypes. Next generation vaccines capable of eliciting CD8(+) T cell (CTL) mediated cross-protective immunity may offer a long-term alternative strategy. However, measuring pre- and existing levels of CTL cross-protection in humans is confounded by differences in infection histories across individuals. During 2000-2003, H1N2 viruses circulated persistently in the human population for the first time and we hypothesized that the viral nucleoprotein (NP) contained novel CTL epitopes that may have contributed to the survival of the viruses. This study describes the immunogenic NP peptides of H1N1, H2N2, and H3N2 influenza viruses isolated from humans over the past century, 1918-2003, by comparing this historical dataset to reference NP peptides from H1N2 that circulated in humans during 2000-2003. Observed peptides sequences ranged from highly conserved (15%) to highly variable (12%), with variation unrelated to reported immunodominance. No unique NP peptides which were exclusive to the H1N2 viruses were noted. However, the virus had inherited the NP from a recently emerged H3N2 variant containing novel peptides, which may have assisted its persistence. Any advantage due to this novelty was subsequently lost with emergence of a newer H3N2 variant in 2003. Our approach has potential to provide insight into the population context in which influenza viruses emerge, and may help to inform immunogenic peptide selection for CTL-inducing influenza vaccines. J. Med. Virol. 88:1725-1732, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Pandemic H1N1 influenza A directly induces a robust and acute inflammatory gene signature in primary human bronchial epithelial cells downstream of membrane fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paquette, Stéphane G; Banner, David; Chi, Le Thi Bao; Leόn, Alberto J; Xu, Luoling; Ran, Longsi; Huang, Stephen S H; Farooqui, Amber; Kelvin, David J; Kelvin, Alyson A

    2014-01-05

    Pandemic H1N1 influenza A (H1N1pdm) elicits stronger pulmonary inflammation than previously circulating seasonal H1N1 influenza A (sH1N1), yet mechanisms of inflammatory activation in respiratory epithelial cells during H1N1pdm infection are unclear. We investigated host responses to H1N1pdm/sH1N1 infection and virus entry mechanisms in primary human bronchial epithelial cells in vitro. H1N1pdm infection rapidly initiated a robust inflammatory gene signature (3 h post-infection) not elicited by sH1N1 infection. Protein secretion inhibition had no effect on gene induction. Infection with membrane fusion deficient H1N1pdm failed to induce robust inflammatory gene expression which was rescued with restoration of fusion ability, suggesting H1N1pdm directly triggered the inflammatory signature downstream of membrane fusion. Investigation of intra-virion components revealed H1N1pdm viral RNA (vRNA) triggered a stronger inflammatory phenotype than sH1N1 vRNA. Thus, our study is first to report H1N1pdm induces greater inflammatory gene expression than sH1N1 in vitro due to direct virus-epithelial cell interaction.

  14. Interaction between fragile histamine triad and protein kinase C alpha in human non-small cell lung cancer tissues

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Peng-hui Zhuang; Zhao-hui Liu; Xiao-gang Jiang; Cheng-en Pan

    2009-01-01

    Objective To investigate the interaction between fragile histamine triad (FHIT) and protein kinase C alpha (PKCα) in human non-small cell lung cancer tissues. Methods FHIT and PKC伪 double positive samples were screened by immunohistochemical staining from 13 human non-small cell lung cancer tissues. Co-immunoprecipitation was performed by using anti-FHIT and anti-PKCα. The immune precipitate was analyzed by SDS-PAGE and Western blot. Results Immune precipitate staining detection showed that 3 samples out of the 13 cases were double positive for FHIT and PKCα. FHIT protein was present in the immune precipitate of anti-PKCα while there was PKCα in the immune precipitate of anti-FHITmAb. Conclusion FHIT and PKCα exist as a complex in human non-small cell lung cancer tissues, which will provide a new route for studying the pathogenesis and immunotherapy of human non-small cell lung cancer.

  15. Hemagglutinin protein of Asian strains of human influenza virus A H1N1 binds to sialic acid--a major component of human airway receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chua, K H; Chai, H C

    2012-03-16

    Hemagglutinin (HA) protein plays an important role in binding the influenza virus to infected cells and therefore mediates infection. Deposited HA sequences of 86 Asian strains of influenza A (H1N1) viruses during the first outbreak were obtained from the NCBI database and compared. Interaction of the HA protein of influenza A (H1N1) virus with the human sialic acid receptor was also studied using bioinformatics. Overall, not more than three single-point amino acid variants/changes were observed in the HA protein region of influenza A (H1N1) virus from Asian countries when a selected group sequence comparison was made. The bioinformatics study showed that the HA protein of influenza A (H1N1) binds to the sialic acid receptor in human airway receptors, possibly key to air-borne infection in humans.

  16. An investigation into the roles of histamine receptors in the control of human nasal blockage

    OpenAIRE

    Taylor-Clark, T. E.

    2004-01-01

    Allergic rhinitis is an allergic disease of the nose and, in sensitized individuals, is caused by inhaled innocuous particles such as pollen and house dust mite faeces. Allergen binds IgE on the surface of nasal mast cells, causing mast cell activation and degranulation, resulting in the release of inflammatory substances that are responsible for the symptoms of allergic rhinitis — sneezing, rhinorrhea, pruritus and nasal blockage. In this thesis, the mechanisms by which histamine, a mast cel...

  17. Histamine H3 Receptor-Mediated Signaling Protects Mice from Cerebral Malaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Bradley S.; Morisset, Séverine; Dubayle, David; Peronet, Roger; Dy, Michel; Louis, Jacques; Arrang, Jean-Michel; Mécheri, Salaheddine

    2009-01-01

    Background Histamine is a biogenic amine that has been shown to contribute to several pathological conditions, such as allergic conditions, experimental encephalomyelitis, and malaria. In humans, as well as in murine models of malaria, increased plasma levels of histamine are associated with severity of infection. We reported recently that histamine plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of experimental cerebral malaria (CM) in mice infected with Plasmodium berghei ANKA. Histamine exerts its biological effects through four different receptors designated H1R, H2R, H3R, and H4R. Principal Findings In the present work, we explored the role of histamine signaling via the histamine H3 receptor (H3R) in the pathogenesis of murine CM. We observed that the lack of H3R expression (H3R−/− mice) accelerates the onset of CM and this was correlated with enhanced brain pathology and earlier and more pronounced loss of blood brain barrier integrity than in wild type mice. Additionally tele-methylhistamine, the major histamine metabolite in the brain, that was initially present at a higher level in the brain of H3R−/− mice was depleted more quickly post-infection in H3R−/− mice as compared to wild-type counterparts. Conclusions Our data suggest that histamine regulation through the H3R in the brain suppresses the development of CM. Thus modulating histamine signaling in the central nervous system, in combination with standard therapies, may represent a novel strategy to reduce the risk of progression to cerebral malaria. PMID:19547708

  18. Histamine H(3 receptor-mediated signaling protects mice from cerebral malaria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walid Beghdadi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Histamine is a biogenic amine that has been shown to contribute to several pathological conditions, such as allergic conditions, experimental encephalomyelitis, and malaria. In humans, as well as in murine models of malaria, increased plasma levels of histamine are associated with severity of infection. We reported recently that histamine plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of experimental cerebral malaria (CM in mice infected with Plasmodium berghei ANKA. Histamine exerts its biological effects through four different receptors designated H1R, H2R, H3R, and H4R. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In the present work, we explored the role of histamine signaling via the histamine H3 receptor (H3R in the pathogenesis of murine CM. We observed that the lack of H3R expression (H3R(-/- mice accelerates the onset of CM and this was correlated with enhanced brain pathology and earlier and more pronounced loss of blood brain barrier integrity than in wild type mice. Additionally tele-methylhistamine, the major histamine metabolite in the brain, that was initially present at a higher level in the brain of H3R(-/- mice was depleted more quickly post-infection in H3R(-/- mice as compared to wild-type counterparts. CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggest that histamine regulation through the H3R in the brain suppresses the development of CM. Thus modulating histamine signaling in the central nervous system, in combination with standard therapies, may represent a novel strategy to reduce the risk of progression to cerebral malaria.

  19. Effects of antidepressants and antihistaminics on catalepsy induced by intracerebroventricular administration of histamine in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onodera, K

    1991-01-01

    The intracerebroventricular (icv) administration of histamine but not N-telemethylhistamine and 1-methyl-4-imidazole acetic acid induced catalepsy in mice. Histamine H1-receptor blockers such as cyproheptadine, mepyramine and diphenhydramine reduced histamine-induced catalepsy. However, astemizole which is known to be without central effects, did not reduce histamine-induced catalepsy. The icv pretreatment with histamine H2-receptor blockers, such as metiamide and cimetidine, also had no effect. Moreover, various antidepressants, both imipramine- and atypical-type drugs antagonized histamine-induced catalepsy to various degrees in this experiment. Thus, the induction of catalepsy by icv administration of histamine was mediated through histamine H1-receptors, and suggested that antidepressants reduced histamine-induced catalepsy via this mechanism. Histamine-induced catalepsy is a possible new animal model of depression which can also be used for evaluation of atypical antidepressants.

  20. Histamine Regulates Actin Cytoskeleton in Human Toll-like Receptor 4-activated Monocyte-derived Dendritic Cells Tuning CD4+ T Lymphocyte Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldinucci, Alessandra; Bonechi, Elena; Manuelli, Cinzia; Nosi, Daniele; Masini, Emanuela; Passani, Maria Beatrice; Ballerini, Clara

    2016-07-08

    Histamine, a major mediator in allergic diseases, differentially regulates the polarizing ability of dendritic cells after Toll-like receptor (TLR) stimulation, by not completely explained mechanisms. In this study we investigated the effects of histamine on innate immune reaction during the response of human monocyte-derived DCs (mDCs) to different TLR stimuli: LPS, specific for TLR4, and Pam3Cys, specific for heterodimer molecule TLR1/TLR2. We investigated actin remodeling induced by histamine together with mDCs phenotype, cytokine production, and the stimulatory and polarizing ability of Th0. By confocal microscopy and RT-PCR expression of Rac1/CdC42 Rho GTPases, responsible for actin remodeling, we show that histamine selectively modifies actin cytoskeleton organization induced by TLR4, but not TLR2 and this correlates with increased IL4 production and decreased IFNγ by primed T cells. We also demonstrate that histamine-induced cytoskeleton organization is at least in part mediated by down-regulation of small Rho GTPase CdC42 and the protein target PAK1, but not by down-regulation of Rac1. The presence and relative expression of histamine receptors HR1-4 and TLRs were determined as well. Independently of actin remodeling, histamine down-regulates IL12p70 and CXCL10 production in mDCs after TLR2 and TLR4 stimulation. We also observed a trend of IL10 up-regulation that, despite previous reports, did not reach statistical significance.

  1. Genetic makeup of amantadine-resistant and oseltamivir-resistant human influenza A/H1N1 viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaraket, Hassan; Saito, Reiko; Suzuki, Yasushi; Baranovich, Tatiana; Dapat, Clyde; Caperig-Dapat, Isolde; Suzuki, Hiroshi

    2010-04-01

    The emergence and widespread occurrence of antiviral drug-resistant seasonal human influenza A viruses, especially oseltamivir-resistant A/H1N1 virus, are major concerns. To understand the genetic background of antiviral drug-resistant A/H1N1 viruses, we performed full genome sequencing of prepandemic A/H1N1 strains. Seasonal influenza A/H1N1 viruses, including antiviral-susceptible viruses, amantadine-resistant viruses, and oseltamivir-resistant viruses, obtained from several areas in Japan during the 2007-2008 and 2008-2009 influenza seasons were analyzed. Sequencing of the full genomes of these viruses was performed, and the phylogenetic relationships among the sequences of each individual genome segment were inferred. Reference genome sequences from the Influenza Virus Resource database were included to determine the closest ancestor for each segment. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the oseltamivir-resistant strain evolved from a reassortant oseltamivir-susceptible strain (clade 2B) which circulated in the 2007-2008 season by acquiring the H275Y resistance-conferring mutation in the NA gene. The oseltamivir-resistant lineage (corresponding to the Northern European resistant lineage) represented 100% of the H1N1 isolates from the 2008-2009 season and further acquired at least one mutation in each of the polymerase basic protein 2 (PB2), polymerase basic protein 1 (PB1), hemagglutinin (HA), and neuraminidase (NA) genes. Therefore, a reassortment event involving two distinct oseltamivir-susceptible lineages, followed by the H275Y substitution in the NA gene and other mutations elsewhere in the genome, contributed to the emergence of the oseltamivir-resistant lineage. In contrast, amantadine-resistant viruses from the 2007-2008 season distinctly clustered in clade 2C and were characterized by extensive amino acid substitutions across their genomes, suggesting that a fitness gap among its genetic components might have driven these mutations to maintain it in the

  2. Melissa offiinalis effiacy against human inflenza virus (New H1N1 in comparison with oseltamivir

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    Parvane Jalali

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the antiviral activity of Melissa officinalis (MO extract against the influenza virus H1N1 in vitro. Methods: The cytotoxicity of MO extract was identified on Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK cell culture by MTT assay. The virus was inoculated to the cells (multiplicity of infection = 0.1 in two protocols. In protocol 1, the MO extracts at concentrations of 0.005, 0.050, 0.010, 0.100 and 0.500 mg/mL were incubated with the virus for one hour preinoculation. In protocol 2, the mentioned concentrations of MO extracts were added to the cells one-hour post infection. Furthermore, the antiviral effect of oseltamivir with different concentrations was tested as the positive controls. The 50% tissue culture infective dose, neutralizing index and hemagglutination titer were determined. Results: The medicine oseltamivir and MO extracts were not toxic for MDCK at concentrations less than 1 mg/mL. All utilized concentrations of MO extracts were vigorously efficient to decrease the viral yield in both experiments. The 50% tissue culture infective dose of the groups containing up to 0.100 mg/mL of MO extracts in the first experiment in compare with 0.050 mg/mL in the second experiment reduced to 0. Although hemagglutination tests showed little titers, the viral quantity significantly decreased in both experiments. By the way, the medicine oseltamivir could completely suppress viral replication in MDCK. Conclusions: The present study suggests that MO extracts have a potent anti-influenza effect in cell culture.

  3. Involvement of DNA ligase III and ribonuclease H1 in mitochondrial DNA replication in cultured human cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruhanen, Heini; Ushakov, Kathy; Yasukawa, Takehiro

    2011-12-01

    Recent evidence suggests that coupled leading and lagging strand DNA synthesis operates in mammalian mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) replication, but the factors involved in lagging strand synthesis are largely uncharacterised. We investigated the effect of knockdown of the candidate proteins in cultured human cells under conditions where mtDNA appears to replicate chiefly via coupled leading and lagging strand DNA synthesis to restore the copy number of mtDNA to normal levels after transient mtDNA depletion. DNA ligase III knockdown attenuated the recovery of mtDNA copy number and appeared to cause single strand nicks in replicating mtDNA molecules, suggesting the involvement of DNA ligase III in Okazaki fragment ligation in human mitochondria. Knockdown of ribonuclease (RNase) H1 completely prevented the mtDNA copy number restoration, and replication intermediates with increased single strand nicks were readily observed. On the other hand, knockdown of neither flap endonuclease 1 (FEN1) nor DNA2 affected mtDNA replication. These findings imply that RNase H1 is indispensable for the progression of mtDNA synthesis through removing RNA primers from Okazaki fragments. In the nucleus, Okazaki fragments are ligated by DNA ligase I, and the RNase H2 is involved in Okazaki fragment processing. This study thus proposes that the mitochondrial replication system utilises distinct proteins, DNA ligase III and RNase H1, for Okazaki fragment maturation.

  4. A single base-pair change in 2009 H1N1 hemagglutinin increases human receptor affinity and leads to efficient airborne viral transmission in ferrets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akila Jayaraman

    Full Text Available The 2009 H1N1 influenza A virus continues to circulate among the human population as the predominant H1N1 subtype. Epidemiological studies and airborne transmission studies using the ferret model have shown that the transmission efficiency of 2009 H1N1 viruses is lower than that of previous seasonal strains and the 1918 pandemic H1N1 strain. We recently correlated this reduced transmission efficiency to the lower binding affinity of the 2009 H1N1 hemagglutinin (HA to α2→6 sialylated glycan receptors (human receptors. Here we report that a single point mutation (Ile219→Lys; a base pair change in the glycan receptor-binding site (RBS of a representative 2009 H1N1 influenza A virus, A/California/04/09 or CA04/09, quantitatively increases its human receptor-binding affinity. The increased human receptor-affinity is in the same range as that of the HA from highly transmissible seasonal and 1918 pandemic H1N1 viruses. Moreover, a 2009 H1N1 virus carrying this mutation in the RBS (generated using reverse genetics transmits efficiently in ferrets by respiratory droplets thereby reestablishing our previously observed correlation between human receptor-binding affinity and transmission efficiency. These findings are significant in the context of monitoring the evolution of the currently circulating 2009 H1N1 viruses.

  5. Opposing regulation of histamine-induced calcium signaling by sodium selenite and ebselen via alterations of thiol redox status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Huihui; Zhong, Liangwei

    2010-01-25

    Elevated blood histamine plays a role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Calcium signaling mediates histamine action in endothelial cells. Selenium (Se) is a dietary essential trace element for humans. Se compounds in different oxidation states were found to exhibit an opposing effect on the histamine-induced calcium signaling in the ECV304 cell line. When Se in the form of sodium selenite was added in the cell culture, the reactivity of the histamine H(1)-receptor was increased as reported in our previous paper. We here show that as a culture supplement, sodium selenite enhanced the activity of selenoprotein thioredoxin reductase (TrxR) and the calcium response to histamine stimulation, which were reversed by treating the cells with gold thioglucose, a nucleophilic drug that selectively modifies thiolate/selenolate groups. Sodium selenite most likely caused a reductive shift in the thiol/disulfide redox balance through increasing TrxR activity. In contrast, when the cells were treated with Se in the form of ebselen, a thiol oxidant with peroxidase-like activity, histamine-induced calcium release and calcium entry were significantly suppressed. This effect appeared related to the thiol-directed modification rather than the peroxidase-like activity of ebselen, because this inhibitory effect was not replicated by increasing cellular peroxidase activity. Thus, the opposing effects of sodium selenite and ebselen on histamine-induced calcium signaling are achieved, at least in part, through their opposite actions in modulating the thiol/disulfide redox state.

  6. Use of a new glass microfibre histamine release method to study the modulation of the host response in human schistosomiasis mansoni. Individuals with different degrees of exposure to the disease show differing antibody biological function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Satti, M.Z.; Ebbesen, F.; Vennervald, B.;

    1996-01-01

    A new glass microfibre histamine release method was used to study the modulation of the host response in human schistosomiasis mansoni to improve our understanding of the role of basophils in the development of immunity in schistosomiasis mansoni. The histamine release from umbilical cord blood b...... basophils sensitized with sera from Sudanese individuals infected with Schistosoma mansoni was measured. Schistosomiasis sera (n=113) were able to passively sensitize basophils and induce a positive histamine release in response to whole worm homogenate (WWH)(chi(2)=40.5, P......A new glass microfibre histamine release method was used to study the modulation of the host response in human schistosomiasis mansoni to improve our understanding of the role of basophils in the development of immunity in schistosomiasis mansoni. The histamine release from umbilical cord blood...

  7. Role of the Histamine H3 Receptor in the Central Nervous System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlicker, Eberhard; Kathmann, Markus

    2016-10-28

    The Gi/o protein-coupled histamine H3 receptor is distributed throughout the central nervous system including areas like cerebral cortex, hippocampus and striatum with the density being highest in the posterior hypothalamus, i.e. the area in which the histaminergic cell bodies are located. In contrast to the other histamine receptor subtypes (H1, H2 and H4), the H3 receptor is located presynaptically and shows a constitutive activity. In detail, H3 receptors are involved in the inhibition of histamine release (presynaptic autoreceptor), impulse flow along the histaminergic neurones (somadendritic autoreceptor) and histamine synthesis. Moreover, they occur as inhibitory presynaptic heteroreceptors on serotoninergic, noradrenergic, dopaminergic, glutamatergic, GABAergic and perhaps cholinergic neurones. This review shows for four functions of the brain that the H3 receptor represents a brake against the wake-promoting, anticonvulsant and anorectic effect of histamine (via postsynaptic H1 receptors) and its procognitive activity (via postsynaptic H1 and H2 receptors). Indeed, H1 agonists and H3 inverse agonists elicit essentially the same effects, at least in rodents; these effects are opposite in direction to those elicited by brain-penetrating H1 receptor antagonists in humans. Although the benefit for H3 inverse agonists for the symptomatic treatment of dementias is inconclusive, several members of this group have shown a marked potential for the treatment of disorders associated with excessive daytime sleepiness. In March 2016, the European Commission granted a marketing authorisation for pitolisant (Wakix(R)) (as the first representative of the H3 inverse agonists) for the treatment of narcolepsy.

  8. Histamine and the regulation of body weight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Emilie A; Knigge, Ulrich; Warberg, Jørgen

    2007-01-01

    Energy intake and expenditure is regulated by a complex interplay between peripheral and central factors. An exhaustive list of peptides and neurotransmitters taking part in this complex regulation of body weight exists. Among these is histamine, which acts as a central neurotransmitter. In the p......Energy intake and expenditure is regulated by a complex interplay between peripheral and central factors. An exhaustive list of peptides and neurotransmitters taking part in this complex regulation of body weight exists. Among these is histamine, which acts as a central neurotransmitter....... In the present article we review current evidence pointing at an important role of histamine in the regulation of appetite and metabolism. Studies using both knockout mouse models as well as pharmacological studies have revealed that histamine acts as an anorexigenic agent via stimulation of histamine H(1......) receptors. One effect of histamine in the regulation of appetite is to act as a mediator of the inhibitory effect of leptin on appetite. It seems that histamine may attenuate and delay the development of leptin resistance in high-fat-diet-induced obesity. Furthermore, histamine may also act to accelerate...

  9. Lipolytic responses induced by intracerebroventricular administration of histamine in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bugajski, J; Janusz, Z

    1981-04-01

    Histamine (10-50 microgram) administered intraventricularly in conscious rats induced an increase in serum-free fatty acids. The maximum, significant increase appeared 30-60 min after administration. Histamine H1-receptor antagonists, mepyramine and chloropyramine, when injected 2 h prior to histamine, abolished considerably hyperlipaemic responses to histamine. H2-Receptor antagonists, metiamide and cimetidine, given i.c.v. only moderately diminished histamine-induced hyperlipaemia. Histamine injected i.c.v. also increased serum corticosterone levels considerably. This elevation was prevented significantly by the H1-receptor antagonist, mepyramine, but not by the H2-receptor blocker, cimetidine. It seems likely that histamine given i.c.v. induces lipolysis through the release of ACTH, one of the known lipid-mobilizing hormones. The central lipid-mobilizing mechanism after histamine depends more on activation of H1- than H2-receptors.

  10. Broadly cross-reactive antibodies dominate the human B cell response against 2009 pandemic H1N1 influenza virus infection

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    The 2009 pandemic H1N1 influenza pandemic demonstrated the global health threat of reassortant influenza strains. Herein, we report a detailed analysis of plasmablast and monoclonal antibody responses induced by pandemic H1N1 infection in humans. Unlike antibodies elicited by annual influenza vaccinations, most neutralizing antibodies induced by pandemic H1N1 infection were broadly cross-reactive against epitopes in the hemagglutinin (HA) stalk and head domain of multiple influenza strains. T...

  11. Protection of human influenza vaccines against a reassortant swine influenza virus of pandemic H1N1 origin using a pig model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arunorat, Jirapat; Charoenvisal, Nataya; Woonwong, Yonlayong; Kedkovid, Roongtham; Jittimanee, Supattra; Sitthicharoenchai, Panchan; Kesdangsakonwut, Sawang; Poolperm, Pariwat; Thanawongnuwech, Roongroje

    2017-02-28

    Since the pandemic H1N1 emergence in 2009 (pdmH1N1), many reassortant pdmH1N1 viruses emerged and found circulating in the pig population worldwide. Currently, commercial human subunit vaccines are used commonly to prevent the influenza symptom based on the WHO recommendation. In case of current reassortant swine influenza viruses transmitting from pigs to humans, the efficacy of current human influenza vaccines is of interest. In this study, influenza A negative pigs were vaccinated with selected commercial human subunit vaccines and challenged with rH3N2. All sera were tested with both HI and SN assays using four representative viruses from the surveillance data in 2012 (enH1N1, pdmH1N1, rH1N2 and rH3N2). The results showed no significant differences in clinical signs and macroscopic and microscopic findings among groups. However, all pig sera from vaccinated groups had protective HI titers to the enH1N1, pdmH1N1 and rH1N2 at 21DPV onward and had protective SN titers only to pdmH1N1and rH1N2 at 21DPV onward. SN test results appeared more specific than those of HI tests. All tested sera had no cross-reactivity against the rH3N2. Both studied human subunit vaccines failed to protect and to stop viral shedding with no evidence of serological reaction against rH3N2. SIV surveillance is essential for monitoring a novel SIV emergence potentially for zoonosis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Characterization of the 2009 pandemic A/Beijing/501/2009 H1N1 influenza strain in human airway epithelial cells and ferrets.

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    Penghui Yang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A novel 2009 swine-origin influenza A H1N1 virus (S-OIV H1N1 has been transmitted among humans worldwide. However, the pathogenesis of this virus in human airway epithelial cells and mammals is not well understood. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDING: In this study, we showed that a 2009 A (H1N1 influenza virus strain, A/Beijing/501/2009, isolated from a human patient, caused typical influenza-like symptoms including weight loss, fluctuations in body temperature, and pulmonary pathological changes in ferrets. We demonstrated that the human lung adenocarcinoma epithelial cell line A549 was susceptible to infection and that the infected cells underwent apoptosis at 24 h post-infection. In contrast to the seasonal H1N1 influenza virus, the 2009 A (H1N1 influenza virus strain A/Beijing/501/2009 induced more cell death involving caspase-3-dependent apoptosis in A549 cells. Additionally, ferrets infected with the A/Beijing/501/2009 H1N1 virus strain exhibited increased body temperature, greater weight loss, and higher viral titers in the lungs. Therefore, the A/Beijing/501/2009 H1N1 isolate successfully infected the lungs of ferrets and caused more pathological lesions than the seasonal influenza virus. Our findings demonstrate that the difference in virulence of the 2009 pandemic H1N1 influenza virus and the seasonal H1N1 influenza virus in vitro and in vivo may have been mediated by different mechanisms. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Our understanding of the pathogenesis of the 2009 A (H1N1 influenza virus infection in both humans and animals is broadened by our findings that apoptotic cell death is involved in the cytopathic effect observed in vitro and that the pathological alterations in the lungs of S-OIV H1N1-infected ferrets are much more severe.

  13. Reassortment ability of the 2009 pandemic H1N1 influenza virus with circulating human and avian influenza viruses: public health risk implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stincarelli, Maria; Arvia, Rosaria; De Marco, Maria Alessandra; Clausi, Valeria; Corcioli, Fabiana; Cotti, Claudia; Delogu, Mauro; Donatelli, Isabella; Azzi, Alberta; Giannecchini, Simone

    2013-08-01

    Exploring the reassortment ability of the 2009 pandemic H1N1 (A/H1N1pdm09) influenza virus with other circulating human or avian influenza viruses is the main concern related to the generation of more virulent or new variants having implications for public health. After different coinfection experiments in human A549 cells, by using the A/H1N1pdm09 virus plus one of human seasonal influenza viruses of H1N1 and H3N2 subtype or one of H11, H10, H9, H7 and H1 avian influenza viruses, several reassortant viruses were obtained. Among these, the HA of H1N1 was the main segment of human seasonal influenza virus reassorted in the A/H1N1pdm09 virus backbone. Conversely, HA and each of the three polymerase segments, alone or in combination, of the avian influenza viruses mainly reassorted in the A/H1N1pdm09 virus backbone. Of note, A/H1N1pdm09 viruses that reassorted with HA of H1N1 seasonal human or H11N6 avian viruses or carried different combination of avian origin polymerase segments, exerted a higher replication effectiveness than that of the parental viruses. These results confirm that reassortment of the A/H1N1pdm09 with circulating low pathogenic avian influenza viruses should not be misjudged in the prediction of the next pandemic. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Flow cytometric analysis of the inhibition of human basophil activation by histamine high dilutions – a replication study

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    Chantal Wälchli

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Inhibition of human basophil activation by highly diluted histamine was reported to be a reliable experimental model to examine biological effects of high dilutions. However, independent replications did not always yield concordant results. Aims: We aimed at performing an independent replication of a former study [1] using rigorously controlled experimental conditions to minimise confounding factors. Materials and Methods: In 20 independent experiments, human basophils were treated with highly diluted histamine (15cH, 16cH, corresponding to 10-30-10-32 M prior to activation by fMLP (formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine peptide. Controls were treated with analogously diluted water (15cH, 16cH. The dilutions were prepared freshly for each experiment in deionised water by successive steps of centesimal dilution and agitation (10 s vortex at high speed. Highly diluted samples were blinded and randomised. All samples were set in triplicates. Activated basophils were determined by flow cytometry using anti-CD203c. 20 independent systematic negative control (SNC experiments were carried out to investigate possible systematic errors. Results: No difference in basophil activation was observed between the highly diluted histamine samples and the highly diluted water controls. There was no evidence for a blood donor specificity of the results. The SNC experiments demonstrated the stability of the test system. Experimental variability within and between experiments was slightly reduced for the highly diluted histamine samples. Discussion: This study was designed as an independent reproduction of a former study [1]. Though we strictly adopted the experimental procedure described in [1], our results do not confirm the large inhibitory effects observed for histamine 15cH and 16cH. This lack of reproducibility might be due to minor differences in the experimental design, such as blinding and randomising of the samples, which we chose to

  15. Identification of histamine receptors and reduction of squalene levels by an antihistamine in sebocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelle, Edward; McCarthy, James; Seltmann, Holger; Huang, Xi; Mammone, Thomas; Zouboulis, Christos C; Maes, Daniel

    2008-05-01

    Overproduction of sebum, especially during adolescence, is causally related to acne and inflammation. As a way to reduce sebum and its interference with the process of follicular keratinization in the pilosebaceous unit leading to inflammatory acne lesions, antihistamines were investigated for their effect on sebocytes, the major cell of the sebaceous gland responsible for producing sebum. Reverse transcriptase-PCR analysis and immunofluorescence of an immortalized sebocyte cell line (SZ95) revealed the presence of histamine-1 receptor (H-1 receptor), and thus indicated that histamines and, conversely, antihistamines could potentially modulate sebocyte function directly. When sebocytes were incubated with an H-1 receptor antagonist, diphenhydramine (DPH), at non-cytotoxic doses, a significant decrease in squalene levels, a biomarker for sebum, was observed. As determined by high-performance liquid chromatography, untreated sebocytes contained 6.27 (+/-0.73) nmol squalene per 10(6) cells, whereas for DPH-treated cells, the levels were 2.37 (+/-0.24) and 2.03 (+/-0.97) nmol squalene per 10(6) cells at 50 and 100 microM, respectively. These data were further substantiated by the identification of histamine receptors in human sebaceous glands. In conclusion, our data show the presence of histamine receptors on sebocytes, demonstrate how an antagonist to these receptors modulated cellular function, and may indicate a new paradigm for acne therapy involving an H-1 receptor-mediated pathway.

  16. Histamine acting on the basolateral amygdala reverts the impairment of aversive memory of rats submitted to neonatal maternal deprivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benetti, Fernando; da Silveira, Clarice Kras Borges; Rosa, Jessica; Izquierdo, Ivan

    2015-02-01

    Recent findings suggest a role of brain histamine in the regulation of memory consolidation, particularly in one-trial inhibitory avoidance (IA) learning and that disruption in the mother infant relationship i.e. maternal deprivation induces cognitive deficits. We investigate whether histamine itself, and histaminergic compounds given into the basolateral amygdala (BLA) immediately post-training can affect retention (24 h after training) of one-trial (IA) in rats submitted to early postnatal maternal deprivation. In all cases, deprived (Dep) animals had lower retention scores than non-deprived controls (N-dep). Histamine induced memory enhancement on its own in N-dep animals and was able to overcome the deleterious effect of Dep. The effects by SKF-91488 is similar to histamine. The H3 agonist, imetit mimetized the enhancing effects of histamine; neither agonist H1 pyridylethylamine nor the H2 dimaprit had any effect. Ranitidine and thioperamide (50 nmol) co-infused with histamine (10 nmol) fully blocked the restorative effect of histamine on retention in Dep animals. Thioperamide, in addition, blocked the enhancing effect of histamine on memory of the N-dep animals as well. None of the drugs used given into BLA had any effect on open-field or elevated plus-maze behavior in N-dep or Dep rats. Our results are limited to experimental design in rats. Extrapolation i.e. in humans requires further experimentations. The present results suggest that the memory deficit induced by early postnatal maternal deprivation in rats may at least in part be due to an impairment of histamine H3 receptor-mediated mediated mechanisms in the BLA.

  17. Central infusion of histamine reduces fat accumulation and upregulates UCP family in leptin-resistant obese mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masaki, T; Yoshimatsu, H; Chiba, S; Watanabe, T; Sakata, T

    2001-02-01

    Leptin resistance has recently been confirmed not only in animal obese models but in human obesity. Evidence is rapidly emerging that suggests that activation of histamine signaling in the hypothalamus may have substantial anti-obesity and antidiabetic actions, particularly in leptin-resistant states. To address this issue, effects of central, chronic treatment with histamine on food intake, adiposity, and energy expenditure were examined using leptin-resistant obese and diabetic mice. Infusion of histamine (0.05 pmol x g body wt(-1) x day(-1)) into the lateral cerebroventricle (i.c.v.) for 7 successive days reduced food intake and body weight significantly in both diet-induced obesity (DIO) and db/db mice. Histamine treatment reduced body fat weight, ob gene expression, and serum leptin concentration more in the model mice than in pair-fed controls. The suppressive effect on fat deposition was significant in visceral fat but not in subcutaneous fat. Serum concentrations of glucose and/or insulin were reduced, and tests for glucose and insulin tolerance showed improvement of insulin sensitivity in those mice treated with histamine compared with pair-fed controls. On the other hand, gene expression of uncoupling protein (UCP)-1 in brown adipose tissue and UCP-3 expression in white adipose tissue were upregulated more in mice with i.c.v. histamine infusion than in the pair-fed controls. These upregulating effects of histamine were attenuated by targeted disruption of the H1-receptor in DIO and db/db mice. Sustained i.c.v. treatment with histamine thus makes it possible to partially restore the distorted energy intake and expenditure in leptin-resistant mice. Together, i.c.v. treatment with histamine contributes to improvement of energy balance even in leptin-resistant DIO and db/db mice.

  18. 蓝斑H1受体作用参与脑室注射组胺对颈动脉窦反射的重调定%H1 Receptors in the Locus Ceruleus Involved in Carotid Sinus Baroreflex Resetting Induced by Intracerebroventricular Injection of Histamine in Anesthetized Rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王国卿; 孙万平; 邹容; 李金华; 周希平

    2005-01-01

    目的研究蓝斑(LC)H1受体是否参与调制中枢外源性组胺(HA)对颈动脉窦反射(CBR)的重调定.方法孤离麻醉SD大鼠的双侧颈动脉窦区,将不同窦内压(ISP)与其对应的平均动脉压(MAP)值进行Logistic五参数曲线拟合,求得ISP-MAP关系曲线及其特征参数,观察脑室注射(icv)HA以及预先在LC微量注射选择性H1受体拮抗剂氯苯吡胺(CHL)对CBR的影响.结果 icv HA (100 ng) 导致ISP-MAP关系曲线明显上移(P0.05).结论脑室给HA使CBR产生快速重调定,反射敏感性下降;LC的H1受体作用参与icv HA对CBR的抑制性重调定,下丘脑-LC的HA能通路可能是中枢HA调节CBR的下行通路之一.

  19. Studies on the release of leukotrienes and histamine by human lung parenchymal and bronchial fragments upon immunologic and nonimmunologic stimulation. Effects of nordihydroguaiaretic acid, aspirin, and sodium cromoglycate

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-01-01

    Fragments of human lung parenchyma or bronchi were studied by high performance liquid chromatography, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and bioassay for the biosynthesis of 5-lipoxygenase metabolites of arachidonic acid, and by radioenzymatic assay for the release of histamine, upon immunologic and nonimmunologic stimulation. Human lung parenchyma were passively sensitized with serum from timothy- positive allergic patients (radioallergosorbent test, 30-40%) and challenged with 0.5 microgram/ml of timothy allergen. Analysis of the incubation media showed the presence of LTB4, LTC4, LTD4, LTE4, and histamine. Maximum release of LTB4 and LTD4 was observed after 15 min of challenge (92.8 +/- 21, and 67.8 +/- 14 pmol/g tissue wet weight, respectively; mean +/- SEM) whereas maximum release of LTC4 was observed after 5 min of challenge (25 +/- 7.1 pmol). In parallel to leukotriene formation, histamine was released rapidly and reached a maximum after approximately 15 min of challenge (2.85 +/- 0.76 nmol/g tissue). When fragments of human lung parenchyma were stimulated with ionophore A23187 (4 microM), we observed a profile of leukotriene and histamine release similar to that seen in response to the allergen. Ionophore A23187 stimulated the release of two- to fivefold greater amounts of leukotrienes and histamine than did the allergen. Release of LTC4 and histamine was maximal after 5 min of stimulation (83 +/- 22.2 and 5.2 +/- 0.95 nmol/g tissue, respectively), whereas LTB4 and LTD4 release reached a maximum after 15 min (438 +/- 66.6 and 205 +/- 68 nmol/g tissue, respectively). In addition, human lung parenchyma metabolized LTB4 into omega-OH-LTB4 and omega-COOH-LTB4. This tissue also released 5-hydroxy-eicosatetraenoic acid (5-Hete), 12-Hete, and 15- Hete. Fragments of human lung bronchi also released a similar profile of leukotrienes (except LTC4) and histamine when challenged with the allergen or ionophore A23187. Maximum release of LTB4 and LTD4 by allergen or

  20. Evidence for a histaminergic system in the human testis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albrecht, Martin; Frungieri, Monica B; Gonzalez-Calvar, Silvia; Meineke, Viktor; Köhn, Frank M; Mayerhofer, Artur

    2005-04-01

    The complete lack of information about mast cells as a source of histamine and potential target cells for histamine in human testes prompted us to investigate these issues in testes of fertile and infertile patients using a combination of laser microdissection, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), and immunohistochemistry. We show for the first time the expression of the rate-limiting enzyme in histamine synthesis-histidine decarboxylase-by human testicular mast cells and the expression of the histamine (H) receptors 1 (H1) and 2 (H2) by germinal, interstitial, and peritubular cells in the testes of fertile and infertile patients.

  1. Efficiency of low-frequency ultrasound sonophoresis in skin penetration of histamine: a randomized study in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruani, Annabel; Vierron, Emilie; Machet, Laurent; Giraudeau, Bruno; Boucaud, Alain

    2010-01-29

    Low-frequency ultrasound (US) applied to skin (sonophoresis) has been investigated to enhance the transdermal transport of various drugs. Histamine is usually used in allergy investigations. We aimed to investigate, in a randomized study, the transdermal penetration of histamine with sonophoresis. Ten subjects were included. Their right forearm was divided into three zones, which were randomly assigned a treatment: no US, US(1) (I(1)=2.72 W/cm(2)), US(2) (I(2)=3.50 W/cm(2)). The primary outcome was area of induced papule, which revealed histamine penetration. Secondary outcomes were echographic measurement of papule (skin thickness) and pruritus. Measurements were taken immediately after US application and after 30 min, 2 h and 24 h. Arm zones without US application showed no papules induced by histamine; 9/10 subjects receiving US showed papules. Their mean size increased with increased intensity of US but not significantly. The skin thickness increased with US. Pruritus occurred in 7/10 cases after US and histamine. The adverse events were skin erythema, pain and tinnitus. Though this study included a few number of patients, it confirms that sonophoresis enhances skin penetration of histamine. This technology could be used at therapeutic levels: histamine could be used with sonophoresis as a positive control in allergy testing instead of prick tests, which involve skin disruption with a lancet. 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Avian influenza viruses that cause highly virulent infections in humans exhibit distinct replicative properties in contrast to human H1N1 viruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Philippe F.; de La Vega, Marc-Antoine; Paradis, Éric; Mendoza, Emelissa; Coombs, Kevin M.; Kobasa, Darwyn; Beauchemin, Catherine A. A.

    2016-04-01

    Avian influenza viruses present an emerging epidemiological concern as some strains of H5N1 avian influenza can cause severe infections in humans with lethality rates of up to 60%. These have been in circulation since 1997 and recently a novel H7N9-subtyped virus has been causing epizootics in China with lethality rates around 20%. To better understand the replication kinetics of these viruses, we combined several extensive viral kinetics experiments with mathematical modelling of in vitro infections in human A549 cells. We extracted fundamental replication parameters revealing that, while both the H5N1 and H7N9 viruses replicate faster and to higher titers than two low-pathogenicity H1N1 strains, they accomplish this via different mechanisms. While the H7N9 virions exhibit a faster rate of infection, the H5N1 virions are produced at a higher rate. Of the two H1N1 strains studied, the 2009 pandemic H1N1 strain exhibits the longest eclipse phase, possibly indicative of a less effective neuraminidase activity, but causes infection more rapidly than the seasonal strain. This explains, in part, the pandemic strain’s generally slower growth kinetics and permissiveness to accept mutations causing neuraminidase inhibitor resistance without significant loss in fitness. Our results highlight differential growth properties of H1N1, H5N1 and H7N9 influenza viruses.

  3. Human ribonuclease H1 resolves R-loops and thereby enables progression of the DNA replication fork.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parajuli, Shankar; Teasley, Daniel C; Murali, Bhavna; Jackson, Jessica; Vindigni, Alessandro; Stewart, Sheila A

    2017-09-15

    Faithful DNA replication is essential for genome stability. To ensure accurate replication, numerous complex and redundant replication and repair mechanisms function in tandem with the core replication proteins to ensure DNA replication continues even when replication challenges are present that could impede progression of the replication fork. A unique topological challenge to the replication machinery is posed by RNA-DNA hybrids, commonly referred to as R-loops. Although R-loops play important roles in gene expression and recombination at immunoglobulin sites, their persistence is thought to interfere with DNA replication by slowing or impeding replication fork progression. Therefore, it is of interest to identify DNA-associated enzymes that help resolve replication-impeding R-loops. Here, using DNA fiber analysis, we demonstrate that human ribonuclease H1 (RNH1) plays an important role in replication fork movement in the mammalian nucleus by resolving R-loops. We found that RNH1 depletion results in accumulation of RNA-DNA hybrids, slowing of replication forks, and increased DNA damage. Our data uncovered a role for RNH1 in global DNA replication in the mammalian nucleus. Because accumulation of RNA-DNA hybrids is linked to various human cancers and neurodegenerative disorders, our study raises the possibility that replication fork progression might be impeded, adding to increased genomic instability and contributing to disease. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  4. H4 histamine receptors mediate cell cycle arrest in growth factor-induced murine and human hematopoietic progenitor cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne-France Petit-Bertron

    Full Text Available The most recently characterized H4 histamine receptor (H4R is expressed preferentially in the bone marrow, raising the question of its role during hematopoiesis. Here we show that both murine and human progenitor cell populations express this receptor subtype on transcriptional and protein levels and respond to its agonists by reduced growth factor-induced cell cycle progression that leads to decreased myeloid, erythroid and lymphoid colony formation. H4R activation prevents the induction of cell cycle genes through a cAMP/PKA-dependent pathway that is not associated with apoptosis. It is mediated specifically through H4R signaling since gene silencing or treatment with selective antagonists restores normal cell cycle progression. The arrest of growth factor-induced G1/S transition protects murine and human progenitor cells from the toxicity of the cell cycle-dependent anticancer drug Ara-C in vitro and reduces aplasia in a murine model of chemotherapy. This first evidence for functional H4R expression in hematopoietic progenitors opens new therapeutic perspectives for alleviating hematotoxic side effects of antineoplastic drugs.

  5. 人季节性H1N1流感病毒小鼠感染模型的建立%Establishment of a mouse infection model of human seasonal H1N1 influenza virus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑倩倩; 毕振强; 赵丽; 谢克勤; 刘倜; 姚萍; 李忠; 温红玲; 宋艳艳; 王显军; 徐爱强

    2012-01-01

    目的 制备人季节性H1N1流感病毒的小鼠感染模型,为研究流感病毒致病性、研发抗病毒药物提供模型动物.方法 将人季节性H1N1流感病毒在鸡胚尿囊腔扩增后,滴鼻接种小鼠,4d后将小鼠处死,挑选感染体征严重者进行实时荧光PCR(FQ-PCR)检测肺中的流感病毒,将检测阳性的肺上清在鸡胚尿囊腔扩增,接种于下一代小鼠.比较各代小鼠对流感病毒的适应情况,直至小鼠出现明显的感染体征,取肺研磨制成匀浆,获得流感病毒鼠肺适应株并检测其半数致死量( LD50).将10 LD50的病毒液接种于小鼠,建立人季节性H1N1流感病毒的小鼠感染模型,观察模型小鼠的一般活动状态、体质量变化、肺部病变,HE染色观察肺部病理切片,计算肺指数,FQ-PCR检测病毒RNA.结果 人季节性流感病毒在小鼠体内传代4次后,鼠肺适应株制备完成,其经鼻的LD50为10-2.41/0.05 mL.人季节性流感病毒的小鼠感染模型,一般状态差,体质量明显减轻,肺指数增大,70%出现死亡.病理切片观察病变明显,FQ-PCR显示流感病毒阳性.结论 成功建立了人季节性H1N1流感病毒的小鼠感染模型.%Objective To establish a mouse infection model of human seasonal influenza virus ( HINl), and make preparations for the study on influenza viral pathogenicity and new antiviral drugs. Methods Mice were inoculated with influenza virus (H1 N1) by the nasal cavity. After 4 days, mice with serious infectious signs were killed. A pneumonic homogenate that was confirmed with influenza virus infection by real time fluorescence quantitative polymerase chain reaction (FQ-PCR) was injected into the chick embryo allantoic cavity. Allantoic fluid was inoculated in to the next generation of mice. When infected mice presented obvious infectious signs, the 50% lethal dose (LD50) was calculated. The virus of 10LD50 was inoculated into mice to establish the infection model. Then, general condition, weight

  6. Evidence that histamine is the inhibitory transmitter of the auditory interneuron ON1 of crickets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skiebe, P; Corrette, B J; Wiese, K

    1990-08-24

    The omega neurons of crickets are connected with each other by reciprocal inhibition. This inhibition could be mimicked by bath-applied histamine and blocked by histamine H1-antagonists. Histamine, like ON1, also influenced the ascending interneuron AN2, so that its response pattern more closely reflected the temporal structure of the calling song. This evidence strongly suggests that histamine is the inhibitory transmitter of the ON1s.

  7. A Host Transcriptional Signature for Presymptomatic Detection of Infection in Humans Exposed to Influenza H1N1 or H3N2

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-09

    A Host Transcriptional Signature for Presymptomatic Detection of Infection in Humans Exposed to Influenza H1N1 or H3N2 Christopher W. Woods1,2,3...patients where it discriminates between swine-origin influenza A/ H1N1 (2009) infected and non-infected individuals with 92% accuracy. The host genomic... Influenza H1N1 or H3N2. PLoS ONE 8(1): e52198. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0052198 Editor: Herman Tse, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong Received

  8. Fatal acute myocarditis and fulminant hepatic failure in an infant with pandemic human influenza A, H1N1 (2009 virus infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mortada H.F. El-Shabrawi

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available We report the clinical presentation of a 10 month-old infant who succumbed with acute myocarditis and fulminant hepatic failure associated with a virologically confirmed human influenza A, H1N1 (2009 virus infection. To date, this is the first pediatric patient presenting with this fatal combination of complications during the current H1N1 pandemic. Therefore, we recommend meticulous assessment and follow up of the cardiac status, liver enzymes and coagulation profile in all pediatric patients with severe H1N1 influenza infection.

  9. The histamine system in human brain. Changes in neurological and psychiatric disorders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goodchild, R.E

    1999-09-01

    Autoradiographical examination of the distribution of H{sub 1}- and H{sub 3}- histamine receptor subtypes, using [{sup 3}H]-mepyramine and [{sup 3}H]-R-({alpha}) methylhistamine respectively, found high H{sub 1}-receptor binding densities in neocortex, dentate gyrus and basolateral amygdala, with low binding in all subdivisions of the thalamus and other subcortical areas. H{sub 3}-receptor binding was enriched within the nucleus accumbens, globus pallidus and substantia nigra, whilst was low in the hippocampus, subthalamic nucleus, temporal cortex, motor and somatosensory thalamic areas and basolateral amygdala. In situ hybridisation found H{sub 2}-receptor mRNA located in the striatum, thalamus, hippocampal pyramidal cell layer and dentate gyrus, and specific laminae of neocortex. Comparison of autoradiographically determined H{sub 1}-, H{sub 2}- and H{sub 3}-receptor binding densities between normal and pathological cases found significantly decreased (p < 0.005, ANOVA) striatal and pallidal H{sub 3}-receptor binding in Huntington's disease (HD), with unaltered binding in the insular cortex. A significant correlation (p < 0.01) was present between binding in the internal globus pallidus and HD grade. Binding to the striatal H{sub 1}-receptor was increased (p < 0.05, ANOVA) in Parkinson's disease (PD), whilst H{sub 2}- (measured using [{sup 125}I]-iodoaminopotentidine) and H{sub 3}-receptor binding densities were normal in all areas examined. H{sub 1}-receptor binding was also increased in the hippocampus of Lewy-body dementia (DLB) cases (p < 0.05, Students two-tailed T-Test), whilst hippocampal and cortical H{sub 2}-receptor binding densities were decreased in DLB, together with Alzheimer's disease (AD) (p < 0.05, ANOVA). H{sub 3}-receptor binding was increased in the insular cortex and decreased in the temporal cortex of DLB, but not AD, cases (p < 0.05, ANOVA). H{sub 1}-receptor binding to tissue from patients with schizophrenia was

  10. Fatal acute myocarditis and fulminant hepatic failure in an infant with pandemic human influenza A, H1N1 (2009) virus infection

    OpenAIRE

    Mortada H.F. El-Shabrawi; Bazaraa, Hafez M; Hanan Zekri; Hanaa I. Rady

    2011-01-01

    We report the clinical presentation of a 10 month-old infant who succumbed with acute myocarditis and fulminant hepatic failure associated with a virologically confirmed human influenza A, H1N1 (2009) virus infection. To date, this is the first pediatric patient presenting with this fatal combination of complications during the current H1N1 pandemic. Therefore, we recommend meticulous assessment and follow up of the cardiac status, liver enzymes and coagulation profile in all pediatric patien...

  11. 儿童甲型H1N1流感的现状、临床特点及处理%Current situation, clinical characteristics and management of human swine influenza A H1N1) in children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    覃肇源; 陈丽植; 张玲

    2010-01-01

    目前在全球呈现大流行趋势的甲型H1N1流感病毒是具备高度传染性的病毒,儿童和年轻成年人是主要易患人群,其临床表现相对轻微,但仍有部分病例因出现严重并发症而需要住院治疗.儿童,尤其是小于5岁者,是此次甲型H1N1流感流行中较易成为重症病例的高危人群,容易发生严重并发症,尤其是伴有慢性呼吸道、心血管疾病及免疫缺陷的儿童可能面临更大的死亡危险.神经氨酸酶抑制剂奥司他韦和扎那米韦是目前推荐使用的用于预防和治疗的抗病毒药物.疫苗被认为是控制流行的有效手段.%Human swine influenza A (H1N1) is a highly transmissible infectious disease, which has spreaded globally and represented a continuous pandemic threat. The novel virus has predominantly affected the children and young adults. Clinical manifestations generally appear mild, but there are still many patients with severe complications leading to hospitalization. According to the current reports, the mortality in the early stages of the pandemic appears no more than seasonal influenza A . Children (especially less than 5years) are considered to be at higher risk of infection and complications. Pediatric patients with a underlying significant chronic disease such as chronic respiratory disease,cardiovascular disease and immunodeficiency disease, are at a higher risk of death. The neuraminidase inhibitors Oseltamivir and Zanamivir are effective for prophylaxis and treatment. Effective vaccines are regarded to be crucial for the control of influenza pandemics. This review focuses on the epidemiological situation, clinical characteristics and management of human swine influenza A (H1N1), so as to provide practical advice for clinicians.

  12. Activation of histamine H4 receptor inhibits TNFα/IMD-0354-induced apoptosis in human salivary NS-SV-AC cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stegajev, Vasili; Kouri, Vesa-Petteri; Salem, Abdelhakim; Rozov, Stanislav; Stark, Holger; Nordström, Dan C E; Konttinen, Yrjö T

    2014-12-01

    Apoptosis is involved in the pathogenesis of Sjögren's syndrome (SS), an autoimmune disease affecting exocrine glands. Our recent studies revealed diminished histamine H4 receptor (H₄R) expression and impaired histamine transport in the salivary gland epithelial cells in SS. The aim was now to test if nanomolar histamine and high-affinity H₄R signaling affect apoptosis of human salivary gland epithelial cell. Simian virus 40-immortalized acinar NS-SV-AC cells were cultured in serum-free keratinocyte medium ± histamine H₄R agonist HST-10. Expression and internalization of H₄R were studied by immunofluorescence staining ± clathrin inhibitor methyl-β-cyclodextrin (MβCD). Apoptosis induced using tumor necrosis factor-α with nuclear factor-κB inhibitor IMD-0354 was studied using phase contrast microscopy, Western blot, flow cytometry and polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). HST-10-stimulated H₄R internalization was inhibited by MβCD. Western blotting revealed diminished phosphorylated c-Jun N-terminal kinase JNK, but unchanged levels of phosphorylated extracellular signal regulated kinase pERK1/2 in H₄R-stimulated samples compared to controls. qRT-PCR showed up-regulated expression of anti-apoptotic B cell lymphoma-extra large/Bcl-xL mRNAs and proteins, whereas pro-apoptotic Bcl-2-associated X protein/BAX remained unchanged in H4R-stimulated samples. H₄R stimulation diminished cleavage of PARP and flow cytometry showed significant dose-dependent inhibitory effect of H₄R stimulation on apoptosis. As far as we know this is the first study showing inhibitory effect of H₄R activation on apoptosis of human salivary gland cells. Diminished H₄R-mediated activation may contribute to loss of immune tolerance in autoimmune diseases and in SS in particular.

  13. Continual Reintroduction of Human Pandemic H1N1 Influenza A Viruses into Swine in the United States, 2009 to 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Martha I; Stratton, Jered; Killian, Mary Lea; Janas-Martindale, Alicia; Vincent, Amy L

    2015-06-01

    The diversity of influenza A viruses in swine (swIAVs) presents an important pandemic threat. Knowledge of the human-swine interface is particularly important for understanding how viruses with pandemic potential evolve in swine hosts. Through phylogenetic analysis of contemporary swIAVs in the United States, we demonstrate that human-to-swine transmission of pandemic H1N1 (pH1N1) viruses has occurred continuously in the years following the 2009 H1N1 pandemic and has been an important contributor to the genetic diversity of U.S. swIAVs. Although pandemic H1 and N1 segments had been largely removed from the U.S. swine population by 2013 via reassortment with other swIAVs, these antigens reemerged following multiple human-to-swine transmission events during the 2013-2014 seasonal epidemic. These findings indicate that the six internal gene segments from pH1N1 viruses are likely to be sustained long term in the U.S. swine population, with periodic reemergence of pandemic hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) segments in association with seasonal pH1N1 epidemics in humans. Vaccinating U.S. swine workers may reduce infection of both humans and swine and in turn limit the role of humans as sources of influenza virus diversity in pigs. Swine are important hosts in the evolution of influenza A viruses with pandemic potential. Here, we analyze influenza virus sequence data generated by the U.S. Department of Agriculture's national surveillance system to identify the central role of humans in the reemergence of pandemic H1N1 (pH1N1) influenza viruses in U.S. swine herds in 2014. These findings emphasize the important role of humans as continuous sources of influenza virus diversity in swine and indicate that influenza viruses with pandemic HA and NA segments are likely to continue to reemerge in U.S. swine in association with seasonal pH1N1 epidemics in humans. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  14. A human-like H1N2 influenza virus detected during an outbreak of acute respiratory disease in swine in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, Rejane; Rech, Raquel Rubia; Gava, Danielle; Cantão, Mauricio Egídio; da Silva, Marcia Cristina; Silveira, Simone; Zanella, Janice Reis Ciacci

    2015-01-01

    Passive monitoring for detection of influenza A viruses (IAVs) in pigs has been carried out in Brazil since 2009, detecting mostly the A(H1N1)pdm09 influenza virus. Since then, outbreaks of acute respiratory disease suggestive of influenza A virus infection have been observed frequently in Brazilian pig herds. During a 2010-2011 influenza monitoring, a novel H1N2 influenza virus was detected in nursery pigs showing respiratory signs. The pathologic changes were cranioventral acute necrotizing bronchiolitis to subacute proliferative and purulent bronchointerstitial pneumonia. Lung tissue samples were positive for both influenza A virus and A(H1N1)pdm09 influenza virus based on RT-qPCR of the matrix gene. Two IAVs were isolated in SPF chicken eggs. HI analysis of both swine H1N2 influenza viruses showed reactivity to the H1δ cluster. DNA sequencing was performed for all eight viral gene segments of two virus isolates. According to the phylogenetic analysis, the HA and NA genes clustered with influenza viruses of the human lineage (H1-δ cluster, N2), whereas the six internal gene segments clustered with the A(H1N1)pdm09 group. This is the first report of a reassortant human-like H1N2 influenza virus derived from pandemic H1N1 virus causing an outbreak of respiratory disease in pigs in Brazil. The emergence of a reassortant IAV demands the close monitoring of pigs through the full-genome sequencing of virus isolates in order to enhance genetic information about IAVs circulating in pigs.

  15. Histamine H3 receptor in primary mouse microglia inhibits chemotaxis, phagocytosis, and cytokine secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iida, Tomomitsu; Yoshikawa, Takeo; Matsuzawa, Takuro; Naganuma, Fumito; Nakamura, Tadaho; Miura, Yamato; Mohsen, Attayeb S; Harada, Ryuichi; Iwata, Ren; Yanai, Kazuhiko

    2015-07-01

    Histamine is a physiological amine which initiates a multitude of physiological responses by binding to four known G-protein coupled histamine receptor subtypes as follows: histamine H1 receptor (H1 R), H2 R, H3 R, and H4 R. Brain histamine elicits neuronal excitation and regulates a variety of physiological processes such as learning and memory, sleep-awake cycle and appetite regulation. Microglia, the resident macrophages in the brain, express histamine receptors; however, the effects of histamine on critical microglial functions such as chemotaxis, phagocytosis, and cytokine secretion have not been examined in primary cells. We demonstrated that mouse primary microglia express H2 R, H3 R, histidine decarboxylase, a histamine synthase, and histamine N-methyltransferase, a histamine metabolizing enzyme. Both forskolin-induced cAMP accumulation and ATP-induced intracellular Ca(2+) transients were reduced by the H3 R agonist imetit but not the H2 R agonist amthamine. H3 R activation on two ubiquitous second messenger signalling pathways suggests that H3 R can regulate various microglial functions. In fact, histamine and imetit dose-dependently inhibited microglial chemotaxis, phagocytosis, and lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced cytokine production. Furthermore, we confirmed that microglia produced histamine in the presence of LPS, suggesting that H3 R activation regulate microglial function by autocrine and/or paracrine signalling. In conclusion, we demonstrate the involvement of histamine in primary microglial functions, providing the novel insight into physiological roles of brain histamine.

  16. Establishment of a functional cell line expressing both subunits of H1a and H2c of human hepatocyte surface molecule ASGPR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Bin; Yang, Yan; Liu, Jia; Ma, Zhiyong; Huang, Hongping; Liu, Shenpei; Yu, Yuan; Hao, Youhua; Wang, Baoju; Lu, Mengji; Yang, Dongliang

    2010-10-01

    To better understand the effect of a new split variant of human asialoglycoprotein receptor (ASGPR H1b) on ASGPR ligands' binding ability, we established a functional cell line which expresses ASGPR. The full lengths of ASGPRH1a and H2c fragments from human liver were amplified by reverse transcript PCR (RT-PCR) and inserted into eukaryotic expression vector pIRES2EGFP, pCDNA3.1 (Zeo+) respectively. The recombinants were co-transfected into HeLa cells. After selection by using Neocin and Zeocin, a stably transfected cell line was established, which was designated 4-1-6. The transcription and expression of ASGPRH1a and H2c in 4-1-6 were confirmed by RT-PCR, Western blotting and immunofluorescence. The endocytosis function of the artificial "ASGPR" on the surface of 4-1-6 was tested by FACS. It was found that the cell line 4-1-6 could bind ASGPR natural ligand molecular asialo-orosomucoid (ASOR). After the eukaryotic plasmid H1b/pCDNA3.1 (neo) was transfected into cell line 4-1-6, H1b did not down-regulate the ligand binding ability of ASGPR. The eukaryotic expression plasmid H1b/pcDNA3.1 (neo) and H2c/pcDNA3.1 (neo) were co-transfected transiently into Hela cell. Neither single H1b nor H1b and H2c could bind ASOR. In conclusion, a functional cell line of human asialoglycoprotein receptor (ASGPR) which expresses both H1a and H2c stably was established. The new split variant H1b has no effect on ASGPR binding to ASOR. ASGPRH1b alone can't bind to ASOR, it yet can't form functional complex with ASGPRH2c.

  17. Involvement of central histamine in amygdaloid kindled seizures in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamei, C

    2001-10-15

    The involvement of central histamine in amygdaloid kindled seizures in rats was investigated using histamine-related compounds. Histamine contents in the amygdala of electrical stimulation site was significantly decreased after development of amygdaloid kindling. Intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) injection of histamine resulted in inhibition of amygdaloid kindled seizures. The H(1)-agonists 2-methylhistamine and 2-thiazolylethylamine also inhibited amygdaloid kindled seizures. In addition, intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of histidine and metoprine inhibited amygdaloid kindled seizures at doses that caused increases in histamine contents of the brain. H(1)-antagonists (diphenhydramine and chlorpheniramine) attenuated histamine (i.c.v.)-induced inhibition of amygdaloid kindled seizures, however, no significant antagonism was observed with H(2)-antagonists (cimetidine, ranitidine or zolantidine). Intracerebroventricular injection of H(3)-antagonists (thioperamide and AQ 0145) resulted in a dose-related inhibition of amygdaloid kindled seizures. The same findings were observed when thioperamide and clobenpropit were injected i.p. The effects of thioperamide (i.p.) and AQ 0145 (i.p.) were inhibited by an H(3)-agonist [(R)-alpha-methylhistamine] and H(1)-antagonists (diphenhydramine and chlorpheniramine). On the other hand, H(2)-antagonists (cimetidine and ranitidine) showed no antagonistic effects. These findings suggested that a histaminergic mechanism plays an important role in suppressing amygdaloid kindled seizures through histamine H(1)-receptors.

  18. [Role of central histamine in amygdaloid kindled seizures].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamei, C; Okuma, C

    2001-05-01

    The role of central histamine in amygdaloid kindled seizures in rats was studied. Histamine content in the amygdala was significantly decreased after development of amygdaloid kindling. Intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) injection of histamine resulted in inhibition of amygdaloid kindled seizures. The H1-agonists 2-methylhistamine and 2-thiazolylethylamine also inhibited amygdaloid kindled seizures. In addition, intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of histidine and metoprine inhibited amygdaloid kindled seizures at doses that caused increases in histamine contents of the brain. H1-antagonists (diphenhydramine and chlorpheniramine) attenuated histamine- or histidine-induced inhibition of amygdaloid kindled seizures. Both i.c.v. and i.p. injections of H3-antagonists (thioperamide, AQ0145 and clobenpropit) resulted in a dose-related inhibition of amygdaloid kindled seizures. The effects of thioperamide and AQ0145 were inhibited by an H3-agonist (R)-alpha-methylhistamine and H1-antagonists. On the other hand, H2-antagonists showed no antagonistic effect. GABAmimetic drugs, diazepam, sodium valproate and muscimol potentiated the effect of clobenpropit. Bicuculline caused significant antagonism of the inhibition of amygdaloid kindled seizures induced by clobenpropit. These findings suggested that a histaminergic mechanism plays an important role in suppressing amygdaloid kindled seizures through histamine H1-receptors. In addition, an inhibition of amygdaloid kindled seizures induced by histamine is closely related with the action of GABA.

  19. Pharmacoresistant temporal lobe epilepsy modifies histamine turnover and H3 receptor function in the human hippocampus and temporal neocortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bañuelos-Cabrera, Ivette; Cuéllar-Herrera, Manola; Velasco, Ana Luisa; Velasco, Francisco; Alonso-Vanegas, Mario; Carmona, Francia; Guevara, Rosalinda; Arias-Montaño, José-Antonio; Rocha, Luisa

    2016-04-01

    Experiments were designed to evaluate the tissue content of tele-methylhistamine (t-MeHA) and histamine as well as H3 receptor (H3 Rs) binding and activation of the heterotrimeric guanine nucleotide binding αi/o proteins (Gαi/o) coupled to these receptors in the hippocampus and temporal neocortex of patients (n = 10) with pharmacoresistant mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE). Patients with MTLE showed elevated tissue content of t-MeHA in the hippocampus. Analyses revealed that a younger age at seizure onset was correlated with a higher tissue content of t-MeHA, lower H3 R binding, and lower efficacy of Gαi/o protein activation in the hippocampus. We conclude that the hippocampus shows a reduction in the H3 R function associated with enhanced histamine. In contrast, the temporal neocortex displayed a high efficacy of H3 Rs Gαi/o protein activation that was associated with low tissue contents of histamine and t-MeHA. These results indicate an overactivation of H3 Rs leading to decreased histamine in the temporal neocortex. However, this situation was lessened in circumstances such as a longer duration of epilepsy or higher seizure frequency. It is concluded that decrease in H3 Rs function and enhanced levels of histamine may contribute to the epileptic activity in the hippocampus and temporal neocortex of patients with pharmacoresistant MTLE.

  20. Efficacy of soap and water and alcohol-based hand-rub preparations against live H1N1 influenza virus on the hands of human volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grayson, M Lindsay; Melvani, Sharmila; Druce, Julian; Barr, Ian G; Ballard, Susan A; Johnson, Paul D R; Mastorakos, Tasoula; Birch, Christopher

    2009-02-01

    Although pandemic and avian influenza are known to be transmitted via human hands, there are minimal data regarding the effectiveness of routine hand hygiene (HH) protocols against pandemic and avian influenza. Twenty vaccinated, antibody-positive health care workers had their hands contaminated with 1 mL of 10(7) tissue culture infectious dose (TCID)(50)/0.1 mL live human influenza A virus (H1N1; A/New Caledonia/20/99) before undertaking 1 of 5 HH protocols (no HH [control], soap and water hand washing [SW], or use of 1 of 3 alcohol-based hand rubs [61.5% ethanol gel, 70% ethanol plus 0.5% chlorhexidine solution, or 70% isopropanol plus 0.5% chlorhexidine solution]). H1N1 concentrations were assessed before and after each intervention by viral culture and real-time reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The natural viability of H1N1 on hands for >60 min without HH was also assessed. There was an immediate reduction in culture-detectable and PCR-detectable H1N1 after brief cutaneous air drying--14 of 20 health care workers had H1N1 detected by means of culture (mean reduction, 10(3-4) TCID(50)/0.1 mL), whereas 6 of 20 had no viable H1N1 recovered; all 20 health care workers had similar changes in PCR test results. Marked antiviral efficacy was noted for all 4 HH protocols, on the basis of culture results (14 of 14 had no culturable H1N1; (Peffective in reducing influenza A virus on human hands, although SW is the most effective intervention. Appropriate HH may be an important public health initiative to reduce pandemic and avian influenza transmission.

  1. Protein expression of nucleophosmin, annexin A3 and nm23-H1 correlates with human nasopharyngeal carcinoma radioresistance in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Song; Li, Xiao-Yu; Liang, Zhong-Guo; Li, Ling; Huang, Shi-Ting; Li, Jia-Quan; Li, Dan-Rong; Zhu, Xiao-Dong

    2016-07-01

    Radioresistance is a significant obstacle in the treatment of endemic nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). The present study aimed to identify proteins associated with radioresistance in NPC in vitro and in vivo. Proteomics analyses were conducted to screen for differentially-expressed proteins (DEPs) in parental CNE-2 cells and CNE-2R cells. Using proteomics approaches, 16 DEPs were identified. Of these DEPs, nucleophosmin (NPM1), annexin A3 and nm23-H1, were verified using western blot analyses. The tumorigenicity was investigated using mouse xenograft tumorigenicity assays, and tumor growth curves were generated. The protein expression of NPM1, annexin A3 and nm23-H1 was examined by immunohistochemically staining tumor tissues. NPM1 and annexin A3 protein levels were downregulated in the CNE-2R cells, whereas nm23-H1 expression was upregulated. In vivo tests showed that compared with the CNE-2 tumors, CNE-2R tumor growth was significantly retarded (PA3 expression was significantly lower in non-irradiated (NIR)-CNE-2R tumors compared with NIR-CNE-2 tumors (PA3 and nm23-H1 expression correlated with the cellular and tumor radioresponse. These proteins are involved in the regulation of intracellular functions, including stress responses, cell proliferation and DNA repair. However, further clinical evaluations are required.

  2. Generation of a homology model of the human histamine H3 receptor for ligand docking and pharmacophore-based screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlegel, Birgit; Laggner, Christian; Meier, Rene; Langer, Thierry; Schnell, David; Seifert, Roland; Stark, Holger; Höltje, Hans-Dieter; Sippl, Wolfgang

    2007-08-01

    The human histamine H3 receptor (hH3R) is a G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR), which modulates the release of various neurotransmitters in the central and peripheral nervous system and therefore is a potential target in the therapy of numerous diseases. Although ligands addressing this receptor are already known, the discovery of alternative lead structures represents an important goal in drug design. The goal of this work was to study the hH3R and its antagonists by means of molecular modelling tools. For this purpose, a strategy was pursued in which a homology model of the hH3R based on the crystal structure of bovine rhodopsin was generated and refined by molecular dynamics simulations in a dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC)/water membrane mimic before the resulting binding pocket was used for high-throughput docking using the program GOLD. Alternatively, a pharmacophore-based procedure was carried out where the alleged bioactive conformations of three different potent hH3R antagonists were used as templates for the generation of pharmacophore models. A pharmacophore-based screening was then carried out using the program Catalyst. Based upon a database of 418 validated hH3R antagonists both strategies could be validated in respect of their performance. Seven hits obtained during this screening procedure were commercially purchased, and experimentally tested in a [3H]Nα-methylhistamine binding assay. The compounds tested showed affinities at hH3R with K i values ranging from 0.079 to 6.3 μM.

  3. AID activity in B cells strongly correlates with polyclonal antibody affinity maturation in-vivo following pandemic 2009-H1N1 vaccination in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khurana, Surender; Frasca, Daniela; Blomberg, Bonnie; Golding, Hana

    2012-09-01

    The role of Activation-Induced Cytidine Deaminase (AID) in somatic hypermutation and polyclonal antibody affinity maturation has not been shown for polyclonal responses in humans. We investigated whether AID induction in human B cells following H1N1pdm09 vaccination correlated with in-vivo antibody affinity maturation against hemagglutinin domains in plasma of young and elderly individuals. AID was measured by qPCR in B cells from individuals of different ages immunized with the H1N1pdm09 influenza vaccine. Polyclonal antibody affinity in human plasma for the HA1 and HA2 domains of the H1N1pdm09 hemagglutinin was measured by antibody-antigen complex dissociation rates using real time kinetics in Surface Plasmon Resonance. Results show an age-related decrease in AID induction in B cells following H1N1pdm09 vaccination. Levels of AID mRNA before vaccination and fold-increase of AID mRNA expression after H1N1pdm09 vaccination directly correlated with increase in polyclonal antibody affinity to the HA1 globular domain (but not to the conserved HA2 stalk). In the younger population, significant affinity maturation to the HA1 globular domain was observed, which associated with initial levels of AID and fold-increase in AID after vaccination. In some older individuals (>65 yr), higher affinity to the HA1 domain was observed before vaccination and H1N1pdm09 vaccination resulted in minimal change in antibody affinity, which correlated with low AID induction in this age group. These findings demonstrate for the first time a strong correlation between AID induction and in-vivo antibody affinity maturation in humans. The ability to generate high affinity antibodies could have significant impact on the elucidation of age-specific antibody responses following vaccination and eventual clinical efficacy and disease outcome.

  4. A human monoclonal antibody derived from a vaccinated volunteer recognizes heterosubtypically a novel epitope on the hemagglutinin globular head of H1 and H9 influenza A viruses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boonsathorn, Naphatsawan; Panthong, Sumolrat [Medical Life Sciences Institute, Department of Medical Sciences, Ministry of Public Health, Muang, Nonthaburi (Thailand); Japan Science and Technology Agency/Japan International Cooperation Agency, Science and Technology Research Partnership for Sustainable Development (JST/JICA, SATREPS), Tokyo (Japan); Koksunan, Sarawut [Medical Life Sciences Institute, Department of Medical Sciences, Ministry of Public Health, Muang, Nonthaburi (Thailand); Chittaganpitch, Malinee; Phuygun, Siripaporn; Waicharoen, Sunthareeya [National Institute of Health, Department of Medical Sciences, Ministry of Public Health, Muang, Nonthaburi (Thailand); Prachasupap, Apichai [Medical Life Sciences Institute, Department of Medical Sciences, Ministry of Public Health, Muang, Nonthaburi (Thailand); Japan Science and Technology Agency/Japan International Cooperation Agency, Science and Technology Research Partnership for Sustainable Development (JST/JICA, SATREPS), Tokyo (Japan); Sasaki, Tadahiro [Department of Virology, Research Institute for Microbial Diseases, Osaka University, Suita, Osaka (Japan); Japan Science and Technology Agency/Japan International Cooperation Agency, Science and Technology Research Partnership for Sustainable Development (JST/JICA, SATREPS), Tokyo (Japan); Kubota-Koketsu, Ritsuko [Kanonji Institute, The Research Foundation for Microbial Diseases of Osaka University, Kanonji, Kagawa (Japan); Yasugi, Mayo [Graduate School of Life and Environmental Sciences, Osaka Prefecture University, Izumisano, Osaka (Japan); Ono, Ken-ichiro [Ina Laboratory, Medical and Biological Laboratories Corporation, Ltd., Ina, Nagano (Japan); Japan Science and Technology Agency/Japan International Cooperation Agency, Science and Technology Research Partnership for Sustainable Development (JST/JICA, SATREPS), Tokyo (Japan); Arai, Yasuha [Department of Virology, Research Institute for Microbial Diseases, Osaka University, Suita, Osaka (Japan); and others

    2014-09-26

    Highlights: • A human monoclonal antibody against influenza virus was produced from a volunteer. • The antibody was generated from the PBMCs of the volunteer using the fusion method. • The antibody neutralized heterosubtypically group 1 influenza A viruses (H1 and H9). • The antibody targeted a novel epitope in globular head region of the hemagglutinin. • Sequences of the identified epitope are highly conserved among H1 and H9 subtypes. - Abstract: Most neutralizing antibodies elicited during influenza virus infection or by vaccination have a narrow spectrum because they usually target variable epitopes in the globular head region of hemagglutinin (HA). In this study, we describe a human monoclonal antibody (HuMAb), 5D7, that was prepared from the peripheral blood lymphocytes of a vaccinated volunteer using the fusion method. The HuMAb heterosubtypically neutralizes group 1 influenza A viruses, including seasonal H1N1, 2009 pandemic H1N1 (H1N1pdm) and avian H9N2, with a strong hemagglutinin inhibition activity. Selection of an escape mutant showed that the HuMAb targets a novel conformational epitope that is located in the HA head region but is distinct from the receptor binding site. Furthermore, Phe114Ile substitution in the epitope made the HA unrecognizable by the HuMAb. Amino acid residues in the predicted epitope region are also highly conserved in the HAs of H1N1 and H9N2. The HuMAb reported here may be a potential candidate for the development of therapeutic/prophylactic antibodies against H1 and H9 influenza viruses.

  5. Effect of human rhinovirus infection in pediatric patients with influenza-like illness on the 2009 pandemic influenza A(H1N1) virus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sun Yu; Zhu Ru'nan; Zhao Linqing; Deng Jie; Wang Fang; Ding Yaxin; Yuan Yi

    2014-01-01

    Background Some research groups have hypothesized that human rhinoviruses (HRVs) delayed the circulation of the 2009 pandemic influenza A(H1N1) virus (A(H1N1)pdm09) at the beginning of Autumn 2009 in France.This study aimed to evaluate the relationship between HRV and A(H1N1)pdm09 in pediatric patients with influenza-like illness in Beijing,China.Methods A systematic analysis to detect A(H1N1)pdm09 and seasonal influenza A virus (FLU A) was performed on 4 349 clinical samples from pediatric patients with influenza-like illness during the period June 1,2009 to February 28,2010,while a one-step real-time RT-PCR (rRT-PCR) assay was used to detect HRV in 1 146 clinical specimens selected from those 4 349 specimens.Results During the survey period,only one wave of A(H1N1)pdm09 was observed.The percentage of positive cases for A(H1N1)pdm09 increased sharply in September with a peak in November 2009 and then declined in February 2010.Data on the monthly distribution of HRVs indicated that more HRV-positive samples were detected in September (2.2%) and October (3.3%),revealing that the peak of HRV infection in 2009 was similar to that of other years.Among the 1 146 specimens examined for HRVs,21 (1.8%) were HRV-positive,which was significantly lower than that reported previously in Beijing (15.4% to 19.2%) (P <0.01).Overall,6 samples were positive for both A(H1N1)pdm09 and HRV,which represented a positive relative frequency of 1.60% and 2.08% HRV,considering the A(H1N1)pdm09-positive and-negative specimens,respectively.The odds ratio was 0.87 (95% CI 0.32; 2.44,P=0.80).Conclusions HRVs and A (H1N1)pdm09 co-circulated in this Chinese population during September and October 2009,and the HRV epidemic in 2009 did not affect A(H1N1)pdm09 infection rates in Beijing,China as suggested by other studies.However,the presence of A(H1N1)pdm09 might explain the unexpected reduction in the percentage of HRV positive cases during the period studied.

  6. Identification and characterization of ZEL-H16 as a novel agonist of the histamine H3 receptor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Shi

    Full Text Available The histamine H3 receptor (H3R has been recognized as a promising target for the treatment of various central and peripheral nervous system diseases. In this study, a non-imidazole compound, ZEL-H16, was identified as a novel histamine H3 receptor agonist. ZEL-H16 was found to bind to human H3R with a Ki value of approximately 2.07 nM and 4.36 nM to rat H3R. Further characterization indicated that ZEL-H16 behaved as a partial agonist on the inhibition of forskolin-stimulated cAMP accumulation (the efficacy was 60% of that of histamine and activation of ERK1/2 signaling (the efficacy was 50% of that of histamine at H3 receptors, but acted as a full agonist just like histamin in the guinea-pig ileum contraction assay. These effects were blocked by pertussis toxin and H3 receptor specific antagonist thioperamide. ZEL-H16 showed no agonist or antagonist activities at the cloned human histamine H1, H2, and H4 receptors and other biogenic amine GPCRs in the CRE-driven reporter assay. Furthermore, our present data demonstrated that treatment of ZEL-H16 resulted in intensive H3 receptor internalization and delayed recycling to the cell surface as compared to that of control with treatment of histamine. Thus, ZEL-H16 is a novel and potent nonimidazole agonist of H3R, which might serve as a pharmacological tool for future investigations or as possible therapeutic agent of H3R.

  7. Identification and characterization of ZEL-H16 as a novel agonist of the histamine H3 receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Ying; Sheng, Rong; Zhong, Tingting; Xu, Yu; Chen, Xiaopan; Yang, Dong; Sun, Yi; Yang, Fenyan; Hu, Yongzhou; Zhou, Naiming

    2012-01-01

    The histamine H3 receptor (H3R) has been recognized as a promising target for the treatment of various central and peripheral nervous system diseases. In this study, a non-imidazole compound, ZEL-H16, was identified as a novel histamine H3 receptor agonist. ZEL-H16 was found to bind to human H3R with a Ki value of approximately 2.07 nM and 4.36 nM to rat H3R. Further characterization indicated that ZEL-H16 behaved as a partial agonist on the inhibition of forskolin-stimulated cAMP accumulation (the efficacy was 60% of that of histamine) and activation of ERK1/2 signaling (the efficacy was 50% of that of histamine) at H3 receptors, but acted as a full agonist just like histamin in the guinea-pig ileum contraction assay. These effects were blocked by pertussis toxin and H3 receptor specific antagonist thioperamide. ZEL-H16 showed no agonist or antagonist activities at the cloned human histamine H1, H2, and H4 receptors and other biogenic amine GPCRs in the CRE-driven reporter assay. Furthermore, our present data demonstrated that treatment of ZEL-H16 resulted in intensive H3 receptor internalization and delayed recycling to the cell surface as compared to that of control with treatment of histamine. Thus, ZEL-H16 is a novel and potent nonimidazole agonist of H3R, which might serve as a pharmacological tool for future investigations or as possible therapeutic agent of H3R.

  8. RhoA and ROCK mediate histamine-induced vascular leakage and anaphylactic shock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikelis, Constantinos M; Simaan, May; Ando, Koji; Fukuhara, Shigetomo; Sakurai, Atsuko; Amornphimoltham, Panomwat; Masedunskas, Andrius; Weigert, Roberto; Chavakis, Triantafyllos; Adams, Ralf H; Offermanns, Stefan; Mochizuki, Naoki; Zheng, Yi; Gutkind, J Silvio

    2015-04-10

    Histamine-induced vascular leakage is an integral component of many highly prevalent human diseases, including allergies, asthma and anaphylaxis. Yet, how histamine induces the disruption of the endothelial barrier is not well defined. By using genetically modified animal models, pharmacologic inhibitors and a synthetic biology approach, here we show that the small GTPase RhoA mediates histamine-induced vascular leakage. Histamine causes the rapid formation of focal adherens junctions, disrupting the endothelial barrier by acting on H1R Gαq-coupled receptors, which is blunted in endothelial Gαq/11 KO mice. Interfering with RhoA and ROCK function abolishes endothelial permeability, while phospholipase Cβ plays a limited role. Moreover, endothelial-specific RhoA gene deletion prevents vascular leakage and passive cutaneous anaphylaxis in vivo, and ROCK inhibitors protect from lethal systemic anaphylaxis. This study supports a key role for the RhoA signalling circuitry in vascular permeability, thereby identifying novel pharmacological targets for many human diseases characterized by aberrant vascular leakage.

  9. Roles of histamine on the expression of aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 in endometrioid adenocarcinoma cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yi; Jiang, Yang; Ikeda, Jun-Ichiro; Tian, Tian; Sato, Atsushi; Ohtsu, Hiroshi; Morii, Eiichi

    2014-10-01

    Cancer-initiating cells (CICs) are a limited number of cells that are essential for maintenance, recurrence, and metastasis of tumors. Aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 (ALDH1) has been recognized as a marker of CICs. We previously reported that ALDH1-high cases of uterine endometrioid adenocarcinoma showed poor prognosis, and that ALDH1 high population was more tumorigenic, invasive, and resistant to apoptosis than ALDH1 low population. Histamine plays a critical role in cancer cell proliferation, migration, and invasion. Here, we examined the effect of histamine on ALDH1 expression in endometrioid adenocarcinoma cell line. The addition of histamine increased ALDH1 high population, which was consistent with the result that histamine enhanced the invasive ability and the resistance to anticancer drug. Among 4 types of histamine receptors, histamine H1 and H2 receptor (H1R and H2R) were expressed in endometrioid adenocarcinoma cell line. The addition of H1R agonist but not H2R agonist increased ALDH1. The antagonist H1R but not H2R inhibited the effect of histamine on ALDH1 expression. These results indicated that histamine increased the expression of ALDH1 via H1R but not H2R. These findings may provide the evidence for exploring a new strategy to suppress CICs by inhibiting ALDH1 expression with histamine.

  10. Histamine H3 and H4 receptor ligands modify vascular histamine levels in normal and arthritic large blood vessels in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyriakidis, Konstantinos; Zampeli, Evangelia; Palaiologou, Marina; Tiniakos, Dina; Tiligada, Ekaterini

    2015-01-01

    Growing evidence associates histamine with arthritis, but its implication in shaping vascular function in chronic inflammation remains largely elusive. This study explored the involvement of vascular histamine in the extra-articular responses in peripheral large blood vessels using a rat model of adjuvant-induced arthritis. Histamine levels were increased in the abdominal aorta and the inferior vena cava of arthritic animals. Contrary to the H1 receptor antagonist dimetindene, histamine induction was observed following administration of the H3 and H4 receptor ligands GSK334429 and JNJ7777120, respectively. In arthritis, prophylactic treatment with GSK334429 partially attenuated the clinical signs and restored basal histamine levels only in the abdominal aorta. This study is the first to implicate the H3 and H4 receptors in a concerted constitutive regulation of basal vascular histamine in the rat large blood vessels and to identify the H3 receptor as a component that may influence arterial histamine during the onset of arthritis.

  11. PD-L1 expression induced by the 2009 pandemic influenza A(H1N1) virus impairs the human T cell response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valero-Pacheco, Nuriban; Arriaga-Pizano, Lourdes; Ferat-Osorio, Eduardo; Mora-Velandia, Luz María; Pastelin-Palacios, Rodolfo; Villasís-Keever, Miguel Ángel; Alpuche-Aranda, Celia; Sánchez-Torres, Luvia Enid; Isibasi, Armando; Bonifaz, Laura; López-Macías, Constantino

    2013-01-01

    PD-L1 expression plays a critical role in the impairment of T cell responses during chronic infections; however, the expression of PD-L1 on T cells during acute viral infections, particularly during the pandemic influenza virus (A(H1N1)pdm09), and its effects on the T cell response have not been widely explored. We found that A(H1N1)pdm09 virus induced PD-L1 expression on human dendritic cells (DCs) and T cells, as well as PD-1 expression on T cells. PD-L1 expression impaired the T cell response against A(H1N1)pdm09 by promoting CD8⁺ T cell death and reducing cytokine production. Furthermore, we found increased PD-L1 expression on DCs and T cells from influenza-infected patients from the first and second 2009 pandemic waves in Mexico City. PD-L1 expression on CD8⁺ T cells correlated inversely with T cell proportions in patients infected with A(H1N1)pdm09. Therefore, PD-L1 expression on DCs and T cells could be associated with an impaired T cell response during acute infection with A(H1N1)pdm09 virus.

  12. MUC1* ligand, NM23-H1, is a novel growth factor that maintains human stem cells in a more naive state.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benoit J Smagghe

    Full Text Available We report that a single growth factor, NM23-H1, enables serial passaging of both human ES and iPS cells in the absence of feeder cells, their conditioned media or bFGF in a fully defined xeno-free media on a novel defined, xeno-free surface. Stem cells cultured in this system show a gene expression pattern indicative of a more "naïve" state than stem cells grown in bFGF-based media. NM23-H1 and MUC1* growth factor receptor cooperate to control stem cell self-replication. By manipulating the multimerization state of NM23-H1, we override the stem cell's inherent programming that turns off pluripotency and trick the cells into continuously replicating as pluripotent stem cells. Dimeric NM23-H1 binds to and dimerizes the extra cellular domain of the MUC1* transmembrane receptor which stimulates growth and promotes pluripotency. Inhibition of the NM23-H1/MUC1* interaction accelerates differentiation and causes a spike in miR-145 expression which signals a cell's exit from pluripotency.

  13. PD-L1 Expression Induced by the 2009 Pandemic Influenza A(H1N1 Virus Impairs the Human T Cell Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuriban Valero-Pacheco

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available PD-L1 expression plays a critical role in the impairment of T cell responses during chronic infections; however, the expression of PD-L1 on T cells during acute viral infections, particularly during the pandemic influenza virus (A(H1N1pdm09, and its effects on the T cell response have not been widely explored. We found that A(H1N1pdm09 virus induced PD-L1 expression on human dendritic cells (DCs and T cells, as well as PD-1 expression on T cells. PD-L1 expression impaired the T cell response against A(H1N1pdm09 by promoting CD8+ T cell death and reducing cytokine production. Furthermore, we found increased PD-L1 expression on DCs and T cells from influenza-infected patients from the first and second 2009 pandemic waves in Mexico City. PD-L1 expression on CD8+ T cells correlated inversely with T cell proportions in patients infected with A(H1N1pdm09. Therefore, PD-L1 expression on DCs and T cells could be associated with an impaired T cell response during acute infection with A(H1N1pdm09 virus.

  14. PD-L1 Expression Induced by the 2009 Pandemic Influenza A(H1N1) Virus Impairs the Human T Cell Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arriaga-Pizano, Lourdes; Ferat-Osorio, Eduardo; Mora-Velandia, Luz María; Pastelin-Palacios, Rodolfo; Villasís-Keever, Miguel Ángel; Alpuche-Aranda, Celia; Sánchez-Torres, Luvia Enid; Isibasi, Armando; Bonifaz, Laura; López-Macías, Constantino

    2013-01-01

    PD-L1 expression plays a critical role in the impairment of T cell responses during chronic infections; however, the expression of PD-L1 on T cells during acute viral infections, particularly during the pandemic influenza virus (A(H1N1)pdm09), and its effects on the T cell response have not been widely explored. We found that A(H1N1)pdm09 virus induced PD-L1 expression on human dendritic cells (DCs) and T cells, as well as PD-1 expression on T cells. PD-L1 expression impaired the T cell response against A(H1N1)pdm09 by promoting CD8+ T cell death and reducing cytokine production. Furthermore, we found increased PD-L1 expression on DCs and T cells from influenza-infected patients from the first and second 2009 pandemic waves in Mexico City. PD-L1 expression on CD8+ T cells correlated inversely with T cell proportions in patients infected with A(H1N1)pdm09. Therefore, PD-L1 expression on DCs and T cells could be associated with an impaired T cell response during acute infection with A(H1N1)pdm09 virus. PMID:24187568

  15. Specific Recognition of Influenza A/H1N1/2009 Antibodies in Human Serum: A Simple Virus-Free ELISA Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, Mario M.; López-Pacheco, Felipe; Aguilar-Yañez, José M.; Portillo-Lara, Roberto; Mendoza-Ochoa, Gonzalo I.; García-Echauri, Sergio; Freiden, Pamela; Schultz-Cherry, Stacey; Zertuche-Guerra, Manuel I.; Bulnes-Abundis, David; Salgado-Gallegos, Johari; Elizondo-Montemayor, Leticia; Hernández-Torre, Martín

    2010-01-01

    Background Although it has been estimated that pandemic Influenza A H1N1/2009 has infected millions of people from April to October 2009, a more precise figure requires a worldwide large-scale diagnosis of the presence of Influenza A/H1N1/2009 antibodies within the population. Assays typically used to estimate antibody titers (hemagglutination inhibition and microneutralization) would require the use of the virus, which would seriously limit broad implementation. Methodology/Principal Findings An ELISA method to evaluate the presence and relative concentration of specific Influenza A/H1N1/2009 antibodies in human serum samples is presented. The method is based on the use of a histidine-tagged recombinant fragment of the globular region of the hemagglutinin (HA) of the Influenza A H1N1/2009 virus expressed in E. coli. Conclusions/Significance The ELISA method consistently discerns between Inf A H1N1 infected and non-infected subjects, particularly after the third week of infection/exposure. Since it does not require the use of viral particles, it can be easily and quickly implemented in any basic laboratory. In addition, in a scenario of insufficient vaccine availability, the use of this ELISA could be useful to determine if a person has some level of specific antibodies against the virus and presumably at least partial protection. PMID:20418957

  16. Specific recognition of influenza A/H1N1/2009 antibodies in human serum: a simple virus-free ELISA method.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario M Alvarez

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Although it has been estimated that pandemic Influenza A H1N1/2009 has infected millions of people from April to October 2009, a more precise figure requires a worldwide large-scale diagnosis of the presence of Influenza A/H1N1/2009 antibodies within the population. Assays typically used to estimate antibody titers (hemagglutination inhibition and microneutralization would require the use of the virus, which would seriously limit broad implementation. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: An ELISA method to evaluate the presence and relative concentration of specific Influenza A/H1N1/2009 antibodies in human serum samples is presented. The method is based on the use of a histidine-tagged recombinant fragment of the globular region of the hemagglutinin (HA of the Influenza A H1N1/2009 virus expressed in E. coli. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The ELISA method consistently discerns between Inf A H1N1 infected and non-infected subjects, particularly after the third week of infection/exposure. Since it does not require the use of viral particles, it can be easily and quickly implemented in any basic laboratory. In addition, in a scenario of insufficient vaccine availability, the use of this ELISA could be useful to determine if a person has some level of specific antibodies against the virus and presumably at least partial protection.

  17. Histamine inhibits differentiation of skin fibroblasts into myofibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Lin; Yamagata, Kaoru; Nakayamada, Shingo; Sawamukai, Norifumi; Yamaoka, Kunihiro; Sakata, Kei; Nakano, Kazuhisa; Tanaka, Yoshiya

    2015-07-31

    Histamine and TGF-β, major mediators secreted by mast cells, are involved in skin inflammation and play critical roles in the pathogenesis of systemic sclerosis. However, the roles of signaling mechanisms in the development of skin fibrosis remain largely unclear. Here we show that histamine suppressed the expression of α smooth muscle actin (αSMA), a marker of myofibroblasts, induced by TGF-β1 in skin fibroblasts. Histamine H1-receptor (H1R), but not H2-receptor (H2R) or H4-receptor (H4R), was expressed on skin fibroblasts at both mRNA and protein levels. Interestingly, an H1R antagonist, but not H2R or H4R antagonists, antagonized the histamine-mediated suppression of αSMA expression by TGF-β1. Correspondingly, phosphorylated Smad2 was detected after treatment with TGF-β1, whereas the addition of histamine inhibited this phosphorylation. Taken together, histamine-H1R decreased TGF-β1-mediated Smad2 phosphorylation and inhibited differentiation of skin fibroblasts into myofibroblasts.

  18. Biochemical and ultrastructural studies suggest that the effects of thapsigargin on human platelets are mediated by changes in intracellular calcium but not by intracellular histamine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saxena, S P; McNicol, A; Becker, A B;

    1992-01-01

    The involvement of intracellular histamine in thapsigargin (Tg)-induced platelet aggregation was studied. Platelet aggregation induced by 0.25 and 0.5 microM Tg was not accompanied by a rise in intracellular histamine but a significant (p <0.01) increase in the level of intracellular histamine wa...

  19. Histamine: metabolism, physiology, and pathophysiology with applications in veterinary medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Lisa J; Kovacic, Jan P

    2009-08-01

    To review the human and veterinary literature on histamine physiology and pathophysiology and potential applications for clinical use in veterinary critical care. Human and veterinary clinical studies, reviews, texts, and recent research in histamine receptor and antagonist therapy. Recent progress in molecular biology has led to a more complete understanding of the enzymes involved in histamine metabolism and histamine receptor physiology. The past decade of research has confirmed the role of histamine in the classical functions (contraction of smooth muscle, increase in vascular permeability, and stimulation of gastric acid secretion) and has also elucidated newer ones that are now under investigation. Data on the roles of histamine in angiogenesis, circadian rhythm, bone marrow regeneration, bacterial eradication, and cancer are emerging in the literature. Newer histamine antagonists are currently in drug trials and are expected to advance the clinical field in treatment of allergic, gastrointestinal, and cognitive disorders. Veterinary histamine research is directed at identifying the effects of certain pharmacological agents on blood histamine concentrations and establishing the relevance in clinical disease states. Research demonstrates important species differences in regards to histamine receptor physiology and tissue response. Studies in the area of trauma, sepsis, anaphylaxis, allergy, and gastrointestinal disorders have direct applications to clinical veterinary medicine. Histamine plays a key role in the morbidity and mortality associated with allergy, asthma, gastric ulcers, anaphylaxis, sepsis, hemorrhagic shock, anesthesia, surgery, cardiovascular disease, cancer, CNS disorders, and immune-mediated disease. Histamine antagonism has been in common use to block its adverse effects. With recent advances in the understanding of histamine receptor physiology, pharmaceutical agents targeting these receptors have increased the therapeutic options.

  20. Excitatory effect of histamine on neuronal activity of rat cerebellar fastigial nucleus in vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANG Biao; ZHANG Jun; LI HongZhao; ZHU JingNing; WANG JianJun

    2007-01-01

    The cerebellar fastigial nucleus (FN) holds an important role in motor control and body balance. Previous studies have revealed that the nucleus is innervated by direct hypothalamocerebellar histaminergic fibers. However, the functional role of histaminergic projection in cerebellar FN has never been established. In this study, we investigated the effect of histamine on neuronal firing of cerebellar FN by using slice preparations. Sixty-five FN cells were recorded from 47 cerebellar slices, and a vast majority of the cells responded to histamine stimulation with an excitatory response (58/65, 89.2%). Perfusing slices with low-Ca2+/high-Mg2+ medium did not block the histamine-induced excitation (n=10), supporting a direct postsynaptic action of histamine on the cells. Furthermore, the excitatory effect of histamine on FN neurons was not blocked by selective histamine H1 receptor antagonist triprolidine (n=15) or chlorpheniramine (n=10), but was effectively suppressed by ranitidine (n=15), a highly selective histamine H2 receptor antagonist. On the other hand, highly selective histamine H2 receptor agonist dimaprit (n=20) instead of histamine H1 receptor agonist 2-pyridylethylamine (n=16) mimicked the excitatory effect of histamine on FN neurons. The dimaprit-induced FN neuronal excitation was effectively antagonized by selective histamine H2 receptor antagonist ranitidine (n=13) but not influenced by selective histamine H1 receptor antagonist triprolidine (n=15). These results demonstrate that histamine excites cerebellar FN cells via the histamine H2 receptor mechanism and suggest that the hypothalamocerebellar histaminergic fibers may modulate cerebellar FN-mediated sensorimotor integration through their excitatory innervations on FN neurons.

  1. Effect of histamine on regional cerebral blood flow of the parietal lobe in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Peng-Bo; Chen, Xin-Lin; Zhao, Jian-Jun; Zhang, Jian-Shui; Zhang, Jun-Feng; Tian, Yu-Mei; Liu, Yong

    2010-09-01

    Histamine is a powerful modulator that regulates blood vessels and blood flow. The effect of histamine on the extracortical vessels has been well described, while much less is known about the effect of histamine on intracortical vessels. In this study, we investigated the effect of histamine on regional cerebral blood flow in rat parietal lobe with laser Doppler flowmetry. The pharmacological characteristics of distinct ways (intracerebroventricular injection, intraperitoneal injection, and cranial window infusion) in applying histamine to the brain were also obtained and compared. Histamine applied in three ways all produced a decrease of rCBF in parietal lobe in a concentration-dependent manner. Cranial window infusion was the most effective way and intraperitoneal injection of L-histidine was the most ineffective, although it is a simple and applied way. To determine which type of receptor takes part in the vessel contraction induced by histamine, H1 receptor antagonist, diphenhydramine, and H2 receptor antagonist, cimetidine, were applied, respectively, before histamine administration. When the injection of cimetidine was conducted in advance, histamine still resulted in a decrease of infusion amount; while the injection of diphenhydramine was conducted in advance, the infusion of blood amount wasn't changed. These findings indicated that histamine could result in a reduction of rCBF in the rat parietal lobe and this effect of histamine may attribute partly to its combination with H1 receptor.

  2. Central interaction between physostigmine and histamine during yawning in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamaddonfard, Esmaeal; Soraya, Hamid; Hamzeh-Gooshchi, Nasrin

    2008-01-01

    In this study, the effects of intraperitoneal (ip) injection of physostigmine, subcutaneous (sc) injection of atropine, and intracerebroventricular (icv) injections of histamine, chlorpheniramine (H(1)-receptor antagonist), and ranitidine (H(2)-receptor antagonist) in separate and combined treatments were investigated during yawning in rats. Physostigmine at a dose of 0.25 mg/kg produced the highest number of yawns. Atropine, used alone, was without effect, but physostigmine (0.25 mg/kg, ip)-induced yawning was blocked by pretreatment with atropine (1 mg/kg, sc). Histamine at the doses of 10, 20 and 40 microg produced yawning. Chlorpheniramine and ranitidine, used alone, had no effect, whereas pretreatments with chlorpheniramine and ranitidine at the same dose of 80 microg prevented histamine (40 microg, icv)-induced yawning. The suppressive effect of chlorpheniramine was more than that of ranitidine. Histamine (10 and 40 microg, icv) enhanced, whereas chlorpheniramine and ranitidine at the same dose of 80 microg suppressed, physostigmine (0.25 mg/kg, ip)-induced yawning. Atropine (1 mg/kg, sc) not only suppressed histamine-induced yawning, but also enhanced the inhibitory effect of chlorpheniramine, but not of ranitidine on yawning induced by histamine. These results indicate that muscarinic receptors mediate yawning induced by physostigmine. Histamine central H(1), and to a lesser extent H(2) receptors, may be involved in histamine-induced yawning. Cholinergic muscarinic receptors, as well as histaminergic H(1) and to a lesser extent H(2) receptors, may lso be involved in the interaction between brain acetylcholine and histamine.

  3. The extracellular loop 2 (ECL2 of the human histamine H4 receptor substantially contributes to ligand binding and constitutive activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Wifling

    Full Text Available In contrast to the corresponding mouse and rat orthologs, the human histamine H4 receptor (hH4R shows extraordinarily high constitutive activity. In the extracellular loop (ECL, replacement of F169 by V as in the mouse H4R significantly reduced constitutive activity. Stabilization of the inactive state was even more pronounced for a double mutant, in which, in addition to F169V, S179 in the ligand binding site was replaced by M. To study the role of the FF motif in ECL2, we generated the hH4R-F168A mutant. The receptor was co-expressed in Sf9 insect cells with the G-protein subunits Gαi2 and Gβ1γ2, and the membranes were studied in [3H]histamine binding and functional [35S]GTPγS assays. The potency of various ligands at the hH4R-F168A mutant decreased compared to the wild-type hH4R, for example by 30- and more than 100-fold in case of the H4R agonist UR-PI376 and histamine, respectively. The high constitutive activity of the hH4R was completely lost in the hH4R-F168A mutant, as reflected by neutral antagonism of thioperamide, a full inverse agonist at the wild-type hH4R. By analogy, JNJ7777120 was a partial inverse agonist at the hH4R, but a partial agonist at the hH4R-F168A mutant, again demonstrating the decrease in constitutive activity due to F168A mutation. Thus, F168 was proven to play a key role not only in ligand binding and potency, but also in the high constitutive activity of the hH4R.

  4. The extracellular loop 2 (ECL2) of the human histamine H4 receptor substantially contributes to ligand binding and constitutive activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wifling, David; Bernhardt, Günther; Dove, Stefan; Buschauer, Armin

    2015-01-01

    In contrast to the corresponding mouse and rat orthologs, the human histamine H4 receptor (hH4R) shows extraordinarily high constitutive activity. In the extracellular loop (ECL), replacement of F169 by V as in the mouse H4R significantly reduced constitutive activity. Stabilization of the inactive state was even more pronounced for a double mutant, in which, in addition to F169V, S179 in the ligand binding site was replaced by M. To study the role of the FF motif in ECL2, we generated the hH4R-F168A mutant. The receptor was co-expressed in Sf9 insect cells with the G-protein subunits Gαi2 and Gβ1γ2, and the membranes were studied in [3H]histamine binding and functional [35S]GTPγS assays. The potency of various ligands at the hH4R-F168A mutant decreased compared to the wild-type hH4R, for example by 30- and more than 100-fold in case of the H4R agonist UR-PI376 and histamine, respectively. The high constitutive activity of the hH4R was completely lost in the hH4R-F168A mutant, as reflected by neutral antagonism of thioperamide, a full inverse agonist at the wild-type hH4R. By analogy, JNJ7777120 was a partial inverse agonist at the hH4R, but a partial agonist at the hH4R-F168A mutant, again demonstrating the decrease in constitutive activity due to F168A mutation. Thus, F168 was proven to play a key role not only in ligand binding and potency, but also in the high constitutive activity of the hH4R.

  5. Molecular dynamics simulation of human serum paraoxonase 1 in DPPC bilayer reveals a critical role of transmembrane helix H1 for HDL association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patra, Mahesh Chandra; Rath, Surya Narayan; Pradhan, Sukanta Kumar; Maharana, Jitendra; De, Sachinandan

    2014-01-01

    Serum paraoxonase 1 (PON1) is a high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-bound mammalian enzyme exhibiting antiatherosclerotic activity. Despite years of research, an accurate model for the binding interaction between PON1 and HDL has not been established. However, it is reported that anchoring of PON1 to HDL is mainly governed by an N-terminal alpha helix H1 and another short helix H2. Here, we studied the molecular association of full-length human PON1 (huPON1) with a HDL-mimetic dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) bilayer using homology modeling and molecular dynamics simulations. Our results indicate that H1 is the highly dynamic part of huPON1, showing clockwise rotation of up to 30° within the DPPC bilayer. However, without phospholipid molecules, H1 experiences helical distortions, illustrating an incompatible HDL-anchoring conformation. Snorkeling interactions of K3, R18, and R27 together with aromatic locks formed by Y187, Y190, W194, and W202 are highly essential for anchoring of huPON1 to HDL's surface. Molecular mechanics/Poisson-Boltzmann solvent-accessible surface area (MM/PBSA) binding free energy calculation revealed that H1 displays greater binding affinity towards lipid molecules compared with H2 and H3, suggesting that H1 is the most probable HDL-binding domain of PON1. Binding free energy decomposition showed that K3, R18, and R27 interact with polar headgroups of DPPC membrane through electrostatic interaction. Moreover, Y187, Y190, W194, and W202 interact with DPPC lipids mainly through van der Waals interaction. Taken together, these results show that the transmembrane helix H1 along with the interfacial positively charged and aromatic resides were crucial for PON1's association with HDL particle. The current study will be useful towards understanding the antiatherosclerotic and bioscavenging properties of this promiscuous enzyme.

  6. [Cerebral ischemia and histamine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adachi, Naoto

    2002-10-01

    Cerebral ischemia induces excess release of glutamate and an increase in the intracellular Ca2+ concentration, which provoke catastrophic enzymatic processes leading to irreversible neuronal injury. Histamine plays the role of neurotransmitter in the central nervous system, and histaminergic fibers are widely distributed in the brain. In cerebral ischemia, release of histamine from nerve endings has been shown to be enhanced by facilitation of its activity. An inhibition of the histaminergic activity in ischemia aggravates the histologic outcome. In contrast, intracerebroventricular administration of histamine improves the aggravation, whereas blockade of histamine H2 receptors aggravates ischemic injury. Furthermore, H2 blockade enhances ischemic release of glutamate and dopamine. These findings suggest that central histamine provides beneficial effects against ischemic neuronal damage by suppressing release of excitatory neurotransmitters. However, histaminergic H2 action facilitates the permeability of the blood-brain barrier and shows deleterious effects on cerebral edema.

  7. Studies on the pharmacology of the novel histamine H3 receptor agonist Sch 50971.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hey, J A; Aslanian, R; Bolser, D C; Chapman, R W; Egan, R W; Rizzo, C A; Shih, N Y; Fernandez, X; McLeod, R L; West, R; Kreutner, W

    1998-09-01

    Experiments were performed to characterize the pharmacology of Sch 50971 ((+)-trans-4-(4(R)-methyl-3(R)-pyrolidinyl)-1H-imidazole dihydrochloride, CAS 167610-28-8), a novel histamine H3 receptor agonist. The activity of Sch 50971 was compared with that of (R)-alpha-methylhistamine (CAS 75614-87-8), a potent and moderately selective agonist of histamine H3 receptors, in a series of in vitro and in vivo assays. Sch 50971 is a high affinity, selective H3 receptor agonist in vitro and in vivo. Sch 50971 inhibits [3H]-N-alpha-methylhistamine (CAS 673-50-7) binding to the histamine H3 receptor in human brain (Ki = 5.0 nmol/l) and guinea pig brain (Ki = 2.5 nmol/l). Sch 50971 also inhibits electric field stimulated guinea pig ileum contractions (pD2 = 7.47) and decreases [3H]-norepinephrine (CAS 51-41-2) release (pD2 = 7.48) from guinea pig pulmonary artery by activation of presynaptic inhibitory H3 receptors. The in vitro effects of Sch 50971 are antagonized by low concentrations of a selective H3 antagonist, thioperamide (CAS 106243-16-7). Sch 50971 has low affinity (IC50's > 10 mumol/l) for histamine H1, dopamine D1 and D2, serotonin 5-HT2 and muscarinic cholinergic receptors. It also does not exhibit histamine H2-antagonist activity. In guinea pigs and cats, Sch 50971 exhibits in vivo H3 agonist activity. Sch 50971 inhibits sympathetic hypertension evoked by stimulation of the medulla oblongata in anesthetized guinea pigs (ED30 = 0.3 mg/kg i.v., ED30 = 1.0 mg/kg i.d.). Sch 50971 also inhibits the effects of sympathetic nerve stimulation on nasal resistance in cats. In these assays, Sch 50971 exhibits an efficacy and potency comparable to H3-agonist (R)-alpha-methylhistamine. However, under in vivo conditions, Sch 50971 does not exhibit histamine H1-mediated responses that are seen with (R)-alpha-methylhistamine at doses close to those that produce H3 effects. Therefore, Sch 50971 is a novel, potent and selective agonist of histamine H3 receptors with an improved in

  8. Cross state-dependent retrieval between histamine and lithium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarrindast, Mohammad-Reza; Fazli-Tabaei, Soheila; Khalilzadeh, Azita; Farahmanfar, Maryam; Yahyavi, Seyed-Hossein

    2005-09-15

    Histamine and lithium state-dependent (StD) retrieval of passive avoidance task and their interactions was examined in mice. The pre-training or pre-test intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) injection of histamine (20 microg/mouse) impaired retrieval when it was tested 24 h later. In the animals, in which retrieval was impaired due to histamine pre-training administration, pre-test administration of histamine, with the same dose, restored retrieval. The H1 blocker, pyrilamine (20 microg/mouse, i.c.v.), but not the H(2) blocker; ranitidine prevented the restoration of retrieval by pre-test histamine. The pre-training (5 and 10 mg/kg) or pre-test (5 mg/kg) injection of lithium also impaired retrieval, when it was tested 24 h later. In the animals that received lithium (5 mg/kg) or histamine (20 microg/mouse) as pre-training treatment, administration of histamine, clobenpropit or lithium, respectively, resulted in restoration of memory retrieval. Neither pyrilamine nor ranitidine prevented the restoration of retrieval by pre-test lithium. In conclusion, histamine or lithium can induce state-dependent retrieval and a cross-StD exists between these drugs, which may be mediated through the inositol pathway.

  9. A Novel H1N2 Influenza Virus Related to the Classical and Human Influenza Viruses from Pigs in Southern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yafen; Wu, Xiaowei; Wang, Nianchen; Ouyang, Guowen; Qu, Nannan; Cui, Jin; Qi, Yan; Liao, Ming; Jiao, Peirong

    2016-01-01

    Southern China has long been considered to be an epicenter of pandemic influenza viruses. The special environment, breeding mode, and lifestyle in southern China provides more chances for wild aquatic birds, domestic poultry, pigs, and humans to be in contact. This creates the opportunity for interspecies transmission and generation of new influenza viruses. In this study, we reported a novel reassortant H1N2 influenza virus from pigs in southern China. According to the phylogenetic trees and homology of the nucleotide sequence, the virus was confirmed to be a novel triple-reassortant H1N2 virus containing genes from classical swine (PB2, PB1, HA, NP, and NS genes), triple-reassortant swine (PA and M genes), and recent human (NA gene) lineages. It indicated that the novel reassortment virus among human and swine influenza viruses occurred in pigs in southern China. The isolation of the novel reassortant H1N2 influenza viruses provides further evidence that pigs are "mixing vessels," and swine influenza virus surveillance in southern China will provide important information about genetic evaluation and antigenic variation of swine influenza virus to formulate the prevention and control measures for the viruses.

  10. Immunochemical cross-reactivity between albumin and solid-phase adsorbed histamine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, L K; Nolte, H; Søndergaard, I

    1990-01-01

    For production of an antibody against histamine, this was coupled to human serum albumin (HSA) and used for immunization of rabbits. To test the antiserum, an immunoradiometric assay was developed comprising solid-phase bound histamine, antisera and radiolabelled protein A. Titration and inhibition...... experiments revealed that histamine adsorbed onto a solid-phase could bind the antiserum. However, neither free histamine nor histamine coupled to unrelated carriers could inhibit the binding of antiserum to the solid-phase histamine. Cross-reactivity was demonstrated between HSA and solid-phase bound...

  11. Genetic diversity of the haemagglutinin (HA) of human influenza a (H1N1) virus in montenegro: Focus on its origin and evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mugosa, Boban; Vujosevic, Danijela; Ciccozzi, Massimo; Valli, Maria Beatrice; Capobianchi, Maria Rosaria; Lo Presti, Alessandra; Cella, Eleonora; Giovanetti, Marta; Lai, Alessia; Angeletti, Silvia; Scarpa, Fabio; Terzić, Dragica; Vratnica, Zoran

    2016-11-01

    In 2009 an influenza A epidemic caused by a swine origin H1N1strain, unusual in human hosts, has been described. The present research is aimed to perform the first phylogenetic investigation on the influenza virus A (H1N1) strains circulating in Montenegro, from December 1, 2009, when the first case of death due to H1N1 was confirmed, and the epidemic began causing a total of four fatalities. The phylogenetic analysis of the strains circulating showed the absence of a pure Montenegrin cluster, suggesting the occurrence of multiple re-introductions in that population from different areas till as far as the early 2010. The time to most recent common ancestor (TMRCA) for the complete dataset has been dated in early 2008, pre-dating the first Montenegrin identification of H1N1 infection. These data suggest that virus was spreading undetected, may be as a consequence of unidentified infections in returning travelers. Anyhow, the estimated TMRCA of Montenegrin strains is fully consistent to that found in different areas. Compatibly with the time coverage of the study period here analyzed, molecular dynamic of Montenegrin strains follows similar trend as in other countries. J. Med. Virol. 88:1905-1913, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Influenza A(H1N1pdm09 virus suppresses RIG-I initiated innate antiviral responses in the human lung.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenxin Wu

    Full Text Available Influenza infection is a major cause of morbidity and mortality. Retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I is believed to play an important role in the recognition of, and response to, influenza virus and other RNA viruses. Our study focuses on the hypothesis that pandemic H1N1/09 influenza virus alters the influenza-induced proinflammatory response and suppresses host antiviral activity. We first compared the innate response to a clinical isolate of influenza A(H1N1pdm09 virus, OK/09, a clinical isolate of seasonal H3N2 virus, OK/06, and to a laboratory adapted seasonal H1N1 virus, PR8, using a unique human lung organ culture model. Exposure of human lung tissue to either pandemic or seasonal influenza virus resulted in infection and replication in alveolar epithelial cells. Pandemic virus induces a diminished RIG-I mRNA and antiviral cytokine response than seasonal virus in human lung. The suppression of antiviral response and RIG-I mRNA expression was confirmed at the protein level by ELISA and western blot. We performed a time course of RIG-I and interferon-β (IFN-β mRNA induction by the two viruses. RIG-I and IFN-β induction by OK/09 was of lower amplitude and shorter duration than that caused by PR8. In contrast, the pandemic virus OK/09 caused similar induction of proinflammatory cytokines, IL-8 and IL-6, at both the transcriptional and translational level as PR8 in human lung. Differential antiviral responses did not appear to be due to a difference in cellular infectivity as immunohistochemistry showed that both viruses infected alveolar macrophages and epithelial cells. These findings show that influenza A(H1N1pdm09 virus suppresses anti-viral immune responses in infected human lung through inhibition of viral-mediated induction of the pattern recognition receptor, RIG-I, though proinflammatory cytokine induction was unaltered. This immunosuppression of the host antiviral response by pandemic virus may have contributed to the more

  13. Analysis of histamine receptors in the central thermoregulatory mechanism of Mastomys natalensis.

    OpenAIRE

    Dhawan, B. N.; Shukla, R.; Srimal, R. C.

    1982-01-01

    1 The effect of intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) injection of histamine on the rectal temperature of Mastomys natalensis at ambient temperatures of 10, 24 and 33 degrees C has been studied. 2 Low doses (0.1-1.0 microgram) of histamine produced hypothermia while larger doses (5-20 micrograms) produced dose-dependent hyperthermia. The hypothermic effect was significantly antagonized by mepyramine while the hyperthermia was blocked by cimetidine. 3 Histamine H1-receptor agonists, 2-methyl-histam...

  14. Effects of histamine on 5-hydroxytryptaminergic neuronal activity in the rat hypothalamus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleckenstein, A E; Lookingland, K J; Moore, K E

    1994-03-11

    Effects of pharmacological manipulations which mimic or enhance histaminergic neuronal transmission were determined on the activity of 5-hydroxytryptaminergic neurons projecting to the hypothalamus of male rats. Intracerebroventricular administration of histamine decreased 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) and increased 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) concentrations in several hypothalamic nuclei; these effects were blocked by the histamine H1 receptor antagonist mepyramine but not the histamine H2 receptor antagonist zolantidine. Blockade of the 5-HT reuptake system by fluoxetine did not prevent histamine-induced decreases in 5-HT concentrations suggesting that histamine is not transported into nerve terminals via the 5-HT reuptake system to subsequently displace 5-HT stores. These data suggest that exogenous histamine increases 5-hydroxytryptaminergic neuronal activity through an action at histamine H1 receptors. In contrast, neither the histamine H3 receptor antagonist thioperamide, the histamine-N-methyltransferase inhibitor metoprine, nor combined thioperamide-metoprine treatment affected concentrations of 5-HT or 5-HIAA suggesting these agents, which purportedly enhance endogenous histaminergic transmission, do not affect 5-hydroxytryptaminergic neuronal activity. These results reveal that procedures commonly employed to study central actions of histamine differentially affect 5-hydroxytryptaminergic neuronal activity in the rat hypothalamus.

  15. Human rhinoviruses induce IL-35-producing Treg via induction of B7-H1 (CD274) and sialoadhesin (CD169) on DC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyerl, Maria; Kirchberger, Stefanie; Majdic, Otto; Seipelt, Joachim; Jindra, Christoph; Schrauf, Catharina; Stöckl, Johannes

    2010-02-01

    IL-35 is a heterodimer of EBV-induced gene 3 and of the p35 subunit of IL-12, and recently identified as an inhibitory cytokine produced by natural Treg in mice, but not in humans. Here we demonstrate that DC activated by human rhinoviruses (R-DC) induce IL-35 production and release, as well as a suppressor function in CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells derived from human peripheral blood but not in naïve T cells from cord blood. The induction of IL-35-producing T cells by R-DC was FOXP3-independent, but blocking of B7-H1 (CD274) and sialoadhesin (CD169) on R-DC with mAb against both receptors prevented the induction of IL-35. Thus, the combinatorial signal delivered by R-DC to T cells via B7-H1 and sialoadhesin is crucial for the induction of human IL-35(+) Treg. These results demonstrate a novel pathway and its components for the induction of immune-inhibitory T cells.

  16. Effects of intracerebroventricular injection of histamine and its related compounds on rectal temperature in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Z; Sugimoto, Y; Kamei, C

    1995-12-01

    Effects of intracerebroventricular injection of histamine and its related compounds on rectal temperature were studied in mice. Histamine (0.1-1.0 mu g) and histidine (500-1,000 mg/kg) caused a dose-related hypothermia. H1 agonist, 2-methylhistamine and 2-thiazolylethylamine also displayed a dose-dependent hypothermia. In addition, H2 agonists, 4-methylhistamine and dimaprit elicited a decrease in body temperature. Preinjection of not only H1-antagonists (diphenhydramine and chlorpheniramine) but also H2 antagonists (cimetidine and ranitidine) abolished histamine-induced hypothermia. Either intracerebroventricular or intraperitoneal injection of thioperamide, a histamine H3 antagonist, showed hypothermia. The hypothermic effect produced by intracerebroventricular injection of thioperamide was significantly blocked by (R)-alpha-methylhistamine, a selective H3 agonist. In addition, the effect induced by thioperamide was inhibited by H1 and H2 antagonists, indicating that the H3 receptor also participates in histamine-induced hypothermia.

  17. Multiple H1-antihistamine-induced urticaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inomata, Naoko; Tatewaki, Satoko; Ikezawa, Zenro

    2009-04-01

    H(1)-antihistamines are widely used in the treatment of various allergic diseases. Particularly, a cornerstone of the management of chronic idiopathic urticaria is treatment with H(1)-antihistamines. However, a few cases of H(1)-antihistamine-induced urticaria have been reported. A 34-year-old woman presented with a 4-month history of recurrent urticaria, which was prominently exacerbated by the administration of H(1)-antihistamines. The patient consented to a provocation test of fexofenadine among drugs including cetirizine and hydroxyzine, which were suspected of inducing severe symptoms in episodes. One hour after challenge with 12 mg fexofenadine (one-fifth of the therapeutic dose), a urticarial reaction rapidly developed on nearly the entire body with remarkably increased levels of plasma histamine (190 nmol/L) and plasma leukotriene B4 (150 pg/mL). In challenge tests with other antihistamines, generalized urticaria occurred 5 and 1 h after intake of 10 mg loratadine and 10 mg bepotastine, respectively, whereas challenges with chlorpheniramine, mequitazine and azelastine were all negative. Skin prick tests with H(1)-antihistamines used in the challenges were all negative, indicating that the urticarial reactions after challenges with the causative drugs might not be immunoglobulin E-mediated. Among the causative drugs in our case, cetirizine and hydroxyzine are the piperazine derivatives, whereas fexofenadine, bepotastine, ebastine and loratadine are the piperidine derivatives. The chemical structures of both derivatives are very similar. Therefore, in this case, H(1)-antihistamine-induced urticaria may have been due to cross-reactivity between metabolites of these drugs, but not to drugs before metabolization. Hypersensitivity to H(1)-antihistamines should be considered when urticarial lesions worsen after H(1)-antihistamine treatment.

  18. Fully human broadly neutralizing monoclonal antibodies against influenza A viruses generated from the memory B cells of a 2009 pandemic H1N1 influenza vaccine recipient

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Weibin [Molecular Virus Unit, Key Laboratory of Molecular Virology and Immunology, Institut Pasteur of Shanghai, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200025 (China); Chen, Aizhong [Key Laboratory of Molecular Cell Biology, Institute of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200031 (China); Miao, Yi [Shanghai Xuhui Central Hospital, Shanghai 200031 (China); Xia, Shengli [Center for Disease Control and Prevention of Henan Province, Zhengzhou 450016 (China); Ling, Zhiyang; Xu, Ke; Wang, Tongyan [Molecular Virus Unit, Key Laboratory of Molecular Virology and Immunology, Institut Pasteur of Shanghai, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200025 (China); Xu, Ying; Cui, Jun; Wu, Hongqiang; Hu, Guiyu; Tian, Lin; Wang, Lingling [Key Laboratory of Molecular Cell Biology, Institute of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200031 (China); Shu, Yuelong [Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing 102206 (China); Ma, Xiaowei [Hualan Biological Bacterin Company, Xinxiang 453003 (China); Xu, Bianli; Zhang, Jin [Center for Disease Control and Prevention of Henan Province, Zhengzhou 450016 (China); Lin, Xiaojun, E-mail: linxiaojun@hualan.com [Hualan Biological Bacterin Company, Xinxiang 453003 (China); Bian, Chao, E-mail: cbian@sibs.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Molecular Cell Biology, Institute of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200031 (China); Sun, Bing, E-mail: bsun@sibs.ac.cn [Molecular Virus Unit, Key Laboratory of Molecular Virology and Immunology, Institut Pasteur of Shanghai, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200025 (China); Key Laboratory of Molecular Cell Biology, Institute of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200031 (China)

    2013-01-20

    Whether the 2009 pandemic H1N1 influenza vaccine can induce heterosubtypic cross-protective anti-hemagglutinin (HA) neutralizing antibodies is an important issue. We obtained a panel of fully human monoclonal antibodies from the memory B cells of a 2009 pandemic H1N1 influenza vaccine recipient. Most of the monoclonal antibodies targeted the HA protein but not the HA1 fragment. Among the analyzed antibodies, seven mAbs exhibited neutralizing activity against several influenza A viruses of different subtypes. The conserved linear epitope targeted by the neutralizing mAbs (FIEGGWTGMVDGWYGYHH) is part of the fusion peptide on HA2. Our work suggests that a heterosubtypic neutralizing antibody response primarily targeting the HA stem region exists in recipients of the 2009 pandemic H1N1 influenza vaccine. The HA stem region contains various conserved neutralizing epitopes with the fusion peptide as an important one. This work may aid in the design of a universal influenza A virus vaccine.

  19. On histamine and appetites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando eTorrealba

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Brain histamine may influence a variety of different behavioral and physiological functions, but its responsibility in waking up has casted a long shadow on other important functions of this neurotransmitter. Here we review evidence indicating a central role of brain histamine in motivation, emphasizing its differential involvement in the appetitive and consummatory phases of motivated behaviors. We discuss the inputs that control the histaminergic neurons of the tuberomamillary nucleus of the hypothalamus, which determine the distinct role of these neurons in appetitive behavior, sleep/wake cycles and in food anticipatory activity. We review evidence supporting a dysfunction of histamine neurons and its cortical input in certain forms of decreased motivation (apathy. We finally discuss the relationship between the histamine system and drug addiction as a dysfunction of motivation.

  20. Systems-level comparison of host responses induced by pandemic and seasonal influenza A H1N1 viruses in primary human type I-like alveolar epithelial cells in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guan Yi

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pandemic influenza H1N1 (pdmH1N1 virus causes mild disease in humans but occasionally leads to severe complications and even death, especially in those who are pregnant or have underlying disease. Cytokine responses induced by pdmH1N1 viruses in vitro are comparable to other seasonal influenza viruses suggesting the cytokine dysregulation as seen in H5N1 infection is not a feature of the pdmH1N1 virus. However a comprehensive gene expression profile of pdmH1N1 in relevant primary human cells in vitro has not been reported. Type I alveolar epithelial cells are a key target cell in pdmH1N1 pneumonia. Methods We carried out a comprehensive gene expression profiling using the Affymetrix microarray platform to compare the transcriptomes of primary human alveolar type I-like alveolar epithelial cells infected with pdmH1N1 or seasonal H1N1 virus. Results Overall, we found that most of the genes that induced by the pdmH1N1 were similarly regulated in response to seasonal H1N1 infection with respect to both trend and extent of gene expression. These commonly responsive genes were largely related to the interferon (IFN response. Expression of the type III IFN IL29 was more prominent than the type I IFN IFNβ and a similar pattern of expression of both IFN genes was seen in pdmH1N1 and seasonal H1N1 infection. Genes that were significantly down-regulated in response to seasonal H1N1 but not in response to pdmH1N1 included the zinc finger proteins and small nucleolar RNAs. Gene Ontology (GO and pathway over-representation analysis suggested that these genes were associated with DNA binding and transcription/translation related functions. Conclusions Both seasonal H1N1 and pdmH1N1 trigger similar host responses including IFN-based antiviral responses and cytokine responses. Unlike the avian H5N1 virus, pdmH1N1 virus does not have an intrinsic capacity for cytokine dysregulation. The differences between pdmH1N1 and seasonal H1N1 viruses

  1. Hemagglutinin-specific CD4(+) T-cell responses following 2009-pH1N1 inactivated split-vaccine inoculation in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Shuguang; Zhang, Shihong; Wu, Bin; Zhao, Yingze; Zhang, Wei; Han, Min; Wu, Ying; Shi, Guoli; Liu, Yingxia; Yan, Jinghua; Wu, Guizhen; Wang, Hua; Gao, George F; Zhu, Fengcai; Liu, William J

    2017-09-13

    Influenza A virus remains a major threat to public health, and the inactivated split-virus vaccine is the most prevalent vaccine used worldwide. However, our knowledge about cellular immune responses to the inactivated influenza virus vaccine and its correlation with humoral responses are yet limited, which has restricted our understanding of the vaccine's protective mechanisms. Herein, in two clinical trials, T-cell responses specific for both previously identified human leucocyte antigen (HLA)-I-restricted epitopes from influenza virus and hemagglutinin (HA) protein were longitudinally investigated before, during, and after a two-dose vaccination with the inactivated 2009 pandemic H1N1 (2009-pH1N1) vaccine. A robust antibody response in all of the donors after vaccination was observed. Though no CD8(+) T-cell responses to known epitopes were detected, HA-specific T-cell responses were primed following vaccination, and the responses were found to be mainly CD4(+) T-cell dependent. However, HA-specific T-cells circulating in peripheral blood dropped to baseline levels 6weeks after vaccination, but humoral immune responses maintained a high level for 4months post-vaccination. Significant correlations between the magnitude of the HA-specific T-cell responses and hemagglutination inhibition antibody titers were demonstrated, indicating a priming role of HA-specific T-cells for humoral immune responses. In conclusion, our study indicates that HA-specific CD4(+) T-cell responses can be primed by the inactivated 2009-pH1N1 vaccine, which may coordinate with the elicitation of antibody protection. These findings would benefit a better understanding of the immune protective mechanisms of the widely used inactivated 2009-pH1N1 vaccine. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. [Expression and Subcellular Distribution of Costimulatory Molecules B7-H1,B7-H3 and B7-H4 in Human Hematologic Malignancy Cell Lines].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Wang, Jing; Wang, Yan-Fang; Zhu, Ming-Xia; Wan, Wen-Li; Li, Hai-Shen; Wu, Fei-Fei; Yan, Xin-Xing; Ke, Xiao-Yan

    2016-10-01

    To investigate the expression and subcellular distribution of costimulatory molecules B7-H1, B7-H3 and B7-H4 in human hematologic malignancy cell lines. The expression and subcellular distribution of B7-H1, B7-H3 and B7-H4 in 13 human hematologic malignancy cell lines were determined by RT-PCR, qPCR, Western blot and flow cytometry, the peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PB MNC) of 12 volunteers were used as control. The mRNA of B7-H1, B7-H3 and B7-H4 was widely expressed in PB MNC and hematologic malignancy cell lines, with a lower level of B7-H4. The mRNA expression of 3 molecules was highest in Maver, Z138, and HL-60, respectively, while among them the B7-H3 and B7-H4 had no expression in CZ1. The nuclear and cytoplasmic protein of 3 costimulatory molecules abnormally overexpressed only in hematologic malignancy cell lines, with the highest level in U937, Z138, and Raji, respectively, while the B7-H3 and B7-H4 had no expression in CZ1. There were differences among mRNA expression, nuclear and cytoplasmic protein expression of 3 molecules in cell lines derived from the same type of tumor, but the differences of expression in mRNA and protein levels were not exactly the same. The B7-H3 expression abundance in membrane localization was higher in U937, Maver and Z138, while the membrane protein of B7-H1 and B7-H4 had no or low expression in 13 cell lines. The mRNA expression of costimulatory molecules B7-H1, B7-H3 and B7-H4 can be widely detected. The protein level of 3 costimulatory molecules abnormally overexpressed only in hematologic malignancy cell lines, moreover the subcellular localizations mostly was found in nucleus and cytoplasm, while the membrane protein expresses in low level or had no expression. There are differences among the expression of 3 molecules in cell lines derived from the same type of tumor.

  3. Histamine H2 receptor - Involvement in gastric ulceration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, P. A.; Vernikos-Danellis, J.; Brown, T. H.

    1976-01-01

    The involvement of the H1 and H2 receptors for histamine in the pathogenesis of gastric ulcers was investigated in rats. Metiamide, an H2 receptor antagonist, reliably reduced ulceration produced by stress alone or by a combination of stress and aspirin. In contrast, pyrilamine, which blocks only the H1 receptor, was without effect under these same conditions. The results support the hypothesis that histamine mediates both stress and stress plus aspirin induced ulceration by a mechanism involving the H2 receptor.

  4. Histamine H2 receptor - Involvement in gastric ulceration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, P. A.; Vernikos-Danellis, J.; Brown, T. H.

    1976-01-01

    The involvement of the H1 and H2 receptors for histamine in the pathogenesis of gastric ulcers was investigated in rats. Metiamide, an H2 receptor antagonist, reliably reduced ulceration produced by stress alone or by a combination of stress and aspirin. In contrast, pyrilamine, which blocks only the H1 receptor, was without effect under these same conditions. The results support the hypothesis that histamine mediates both stress and stress plus aspirin induced ulceration by a mechanism involving the H2 receptor.

  5. Isoquercitrin suppresses the expression of histamine and pro-inflammatory cytokines by inhibiting the activation of MAP Kinases and NF-κB in human KU812 cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Li; ZHANG Xiao-Hui; LIU Guang-Rong; LIU Chang; DONG Yin-Mao

    2016-01-01

    Mast cells and basophils are multifunctional effector cells that contain abundant secretory granules in their cytoplasm.Both cell types are involved in a variety of inflammatory and immune events,producing an array of inflammatory mediators,such as cytokines.The aim of the study was to examine whether isoquercitrin modulates allergic and inflammatory reactions in the human basophilic KU812 cells and to elucidate its influence on the phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and nuclear factor (NF)-κB activation.The KU812 cells were stimulated with phorbol-12-myristate 13-acetate plus the calcium ionophore A23187 (PMACI).The inhibitory effects of isoquercitrin on the productions of histamine and pro-inflammatory cytokines in the stimulated KU812 cells were measured using cytokine-specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent (ELISA) assays.Western blotting analysis was used to assess the effects of isoquercitrin on the MAPKs and NF-κB protein levels.Our results indicated that the isoquercitrin treatment of PMACI-stimulated KU812 cells significantly reduced the production of histamine and the pro-inflammatory cytokines,such as interleukin (IL)-6,IL-8,IL-1β,and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α.The treated cells exhibited decreased phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK),revealing the role of ERK MAPK in isoquercitrin-mediated allergy inhibition.Furthermore,isoquercitrin suppressed the PMACI-mediated activation of NF-κB in the human basophil cells.In conclusion,the results from the present study provide insights into the potential therapeutic use of isoquercitrin for the treatment of inflammatory and allergic reactions.

  6. AZD5213: a novel histamine H3 receptor antagonist permitting high daytime and low nocturnal H3 receptor occupancy, a PET study in human subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jucaite, Aurelija; Takano, Akihiro; Boström, Emma; Jostell, Karl-Gustav; Stenkrona, Per; Halldin, Christer; Segerdahl, Märta; Nyberg, Svante

    2013-07-01

    The histamine H3 receptor represents an appealing central nervous system drug target due to its important role in the neurobiology of cognition and wake-sleep regulation. The therapeutic benefit of H3 antagonists/inverse agonists may be hampered by disruption of sleep that has been observed in humans with prolonged high H3 receptor occupancy (H3RO), extending into night-time. AZD5213 is a highly selective H3 antagonist (in vitro inverse agonist) developed to achieve a pharmacokinetic profile permitting circadian fluctuations of H3RO. Its efficacy has been demonstrated in rodent behavioural models of cognition. In human subjects, AZD5213 was safe and well tolerated following repeated doses (1-14 mg/d) and demonstrated a short (∼5 h) half-life. In this PET study H3RO was measured using the radioligand [11C]GSK189254 ([11C]AZ12807110) in seven young male volunteers following single doses of AZD5213 (0.05-30 mg). H3RO was calculated using the Lassen plot method. The plasma concentrations and the affinity constant (K i,pl 1.14 nmol/l, corresponding to the plasma concentration required to occupy 50% of available receptors) were used to estimate the H3RO time-course. AZD5213 showed dose and concentration dependent H3RO ranging from 16 to 90%. These binding characteristics and the pharmacokinetic profile of AZD5213 indicate that high daytime and low night-time H3RO could be achieved following once daily oral dosing of AZD5213. Fluctuations of H3RO following circadian rhythm of the histamine system may be expected to reduce the risk of sleep disruption while maintaining daytime efficacy. AZD5213 may thus be an optimal compound to evaluate the clinical benefit of selective H3 antagonism in cognitive disorders.

  7. The naturally occurring mutation Y197C does not affect the expression or signaling of the human histamine H3 receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores-Clemente, Cecilia; Escamilla-Sánchez, Juan; Arias, Juan-Manuel; Arias-Montaño, José-Antonio

    2017-02-22

    There is evidence for genetic polymorphism within the human histamine H3 receptor (hH3R), and a Tyr to Cys exchange at position 197 (Y197C), located in the amino terminus of the fifth transmembrane domain, has been reported. In this work we compared the expression and the pharmacological and signaling properties of wild-type (hH3RWT) and mutant (hH3RY197C) receptors transiently expressed in CHO-K1 cells. The hH3RY197C cDNA was created by overlap extension PCR amplification. Receptor expression and affinity were assessed by N-α-[methyl-(3)H]-histamine binding to cell membranes and intact cells. Receptor function was evaluated by stimulation of [(35)S]-GTPγS binding to cell membranes and by inhibition of forskolin-induced cAMP accumulation in intact cells. The hH3RWT and hH3RY197C were expressed at similar levels (761±68 and 663±66fmol/mg protein for membranes, and 13,434±1533 and 15,894±1884 receptors per cell, respectively). There were no significant differences in the affinities for H3R agonists or antagonists/inverse agonists between the hH3RWT and hH3RY197C, and the H3R agonist RAMH was similarly efficacious and potent to stimulate [(35)S]-GTPγS binding and to inhibit forskolin-induced cAMP accumulation. These results indicate that the Y197C mutation does not affect the expression, ligand affinity or signaling of the human H3 receptor.

  8. Isoquercitrin suppresses the expression of histamine and pro-inflammatory cytokines by inhibiting the activation of MAP Kinases and NF-κB in human KU812 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li; Zhang, Xiao-Hui; Liu, Guang-Rong; Liu, Chang; Dong, Yin-Mao

    2016-06-01

    Mast cells and basophils are multifunctional effector cells that contain abundant secretory granules in their cytoplasm. Both cell types are involved in a variety of inflammatory and immune events, producing an array of inflammatory mediators, such as cytokines. The aim of the study was to examine whether isoquercitrin modulates allergic and inflammatory reactions in the human basophilic KU812 cells and to elucidate its influence on the phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and nuclear factor (NF)-κB activation. The KU812 cells were stimulated with phorbol-12-myristate 13-acetate plus the calcium ionophore A23187 (PMACI). The inhibitory effects of isoquercitrin on the productions of histamine and pro-inflammatory cytokines in the stimulated KU812 cells were measured using cytokine-specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent (ELISA) assays. Western blotting analysis was used to assess the effects of isoquercitrin on the MAPKs and NF-κB protein levels. Our results indicated that the isoquercitrin treatment of PMACI-stimulated KU812 cells significantly reduced the production of histamine and the pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8, IL-1β, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α. The treated cells exhibited decreased phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), revealing the role of ERK MAPK in isoquercitrin-mediated allergy inhibition. Furthermore, isoquercitrin suppressed the PMACI-mediated activation of NF-κB in the human basophil cells. In conclusion, the results from the present study provide insights into the potential therapeutic use of isoquercitrin for the treatment of inflammatory and allergic reactions.

  9. Histamine Potentiates Cyclosomatostatin-Induced Catalepsy in Old Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionov

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background The decreased level of somatostatin and increased level of histamine are detected in the Parkinsonian brain. In old Wistar rats, the brain somatostatin deficiency can initiate catalepsy that suggests the pathogenic significance of this abnormality in Parkinson’s disease (PD. The ability of histamine to affect the somatostatin deficiency action is not studied. Objectives The current study aimed to examine if histamine alters the cataleptogenic activity of the brain somatostatin deficiency in Wistar rats. Materials and Methods The animals used in the study were 100 - 110 and 736 - 767 days old. Catalepsy was evaluated by the bar test. The inhibition of the brain somatostatin activity was simulated by I.C.V. administration of cyclosomatostatin (cycloSOM, a somatostatin receptor antagonist. Results CycloSOM (0.2, 1.0, and 5.0 µg and histamine (1.0 and 10.0 µg alone were ineffective in both young and old animals. In combination, however, cycloSOM and histamine initiated cataleptic response in old rats. Effect of the combination was inhibited by H1 and H2 but not H3 antagonists. Conclusions CycloSOM and histamine synergistically exert catalepsy in old rats. In light of these data, the combination of the decreased brain level of somatostatin and increased brain level of histamine may be of pathogenic relevance for extrapyramidal signs in PD.

  10. Perfil epidemiológico de la mortalidad por influenza humana A (H1N1 en México Epidemiological profile of mortality due to human influenza A (H1N1 in Mexico

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    Germán E Fajardo-Dolci

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Efectuar el análisis epidemiológico de 122 defunciones por influenza A (H1N1 confirmadas por laboratorio y contribuir a mejorar el diagnóstico y atención oportuna de casos. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Se Analizaron 122 expedientes de pacientes fallecidos por influenza A (H1N1. RESULTADOS: Una proporción de 51% correspondió a mujeres y 49% a varones. Hasta 45.1% ocurrió entre los 20 y 39 años. La letalidad general fue de 2.2% y varió entre 0.3% en el grupo de 10 a 19 años y 6.3% en el de 50 a 59. Una cifra de 43% de las defunciones se concentró en dos de las 32 entidades federativas y 5l% se atendió en instituciones de seguridad social. Sólo 17% recibió atención hospitalaria en las primeras 72 horas y 42% falleció en las primeras 72 horas de hospitalización. En 58.2% de los fallecidos había algún padecimiento asociado. DISCUSIÓN: El Nuevo virus A (H1N1 produce mayor mortalidad en personas jóvenes, al contrario de lo que sucede con la influenza estacional que muestra un mayor impacto en niños pequeños y personas de edad avanzada. El retraso de la atención médica y la morbilidad asociada fueron factores relevantes del fallecimiento.OBJECTIVE: To carry out the epidemiological analysis of 122 influenza A (H1N1 deaths confirmed by laboratory and help to improve the diagnosis and timely managing of cases. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A total of 122 clinical records were analyzed of patients with confirmed influenza A (H1N1 virus infection who died. RESULTS: Fifty-one percent of patients were female and 49% were male. A total of 45.l% who died were between 20 and 39 years old. Overall fatality was 2.2% and ranged between 0.3% for the l0 to l9 year-old group to 6.3% for the 50 to 59 year-old group. Forty-three percent of deaths were concentrated in only two of the thirty-two states and 5l% received medical attention in social security institutions. Only l7% received hospital attention within 72 hours and 42% died within 72 hours of

  11. Histamine poisoning and control measures in fish and fishery products

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    Pierina eVisciano

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Histamine poisoning is one of the most common form of intoxication caused by the ingestion of fish and fishery products. Cooking, canning or freezing cannot reduce the levels of histamine because this compound is heat stable. All humans are susceptible to histamine and its effects can be described as intolerance or intoxication depending on the severity of the symptoms. The amount of histamine in food, the individual sensitivity and the detoxification activity in human organism represent the main factors affecting the toxicological response in consumers. Histamine is the only biogenic amine with regulatory limits set by European Legislation, up to a maximum of 200 mg/kg in fresh fish and 400 mg/kg in fishery products treated by enzyme maturation in brine.

  12. Effects of histamine on spontaneous neuropathic pain induced by peripheral axotomy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jie Yu; Guo-Dong Lou; Jia-Xing Yue; Ying-Ying Tang; Wei-Wei Hou; Wen-Ting Shou; Hiroshi Ohtsu

    2013-01-01

    The present study was designed to investigate the effects of histamine on spontaneous neuropathic pain (NP) induced by peripheral axotomy.Rats and mice were subjected to complete transection of the left sciatic and saphenous nerves to induce spontaneous NP (the neuroma model).Rats were then treated with drugs once daily for 30 days (histidine and Ioratadine,i.p.) or 21 days (histamine,i.c.v.).Autotomy behavior was scored daily until day 50 post-operation (PO).On days 14 to 21 PO,some rats in the control group were subjected to single-fiber recording.Autotomy behavior was also monitored daily in histidine decarboxylase (the key enzyme for histamine synthesis) knockout (HDC~) and wild-type mice for 42 days.We found that both histidine (500 mg/kg) (a precursor of histamine that increases histamine levels in the tissues) and histamine (50 μg/5 μL) significantly suppressed autotomy behavior in rats.HDC-/-mice lacking endogenous histamine showed higher levels of autotomy than the wild-type.In addition,the analgesic effect of histidine was not antagonized by Ioratadine (a peripherally-acting H1 receptor antagonist),while Ioratadine alone significantly suppressed autotomy.Electrophysiological recording showed that ectopic spontaneous discharges from the neuroma were blocked by systemic diphenhydramine (an H1 receptor antagonist).Our results suggest that histamine plays an important role in spontaneous NP.It is likely that histamine in the central nervous system is analgesic,while in the periphery,via H1 receptors,it is algesic.This study justifies the avoidance of a histamine-rich diet and the use of peripherally-acting H1 receptor antagonists as well as agents that improve histamine action in the central nervous system in patients with spontaneous NP.

  13. Apoptosis and Proinflammatory Cytokine Responses of Primary Mouse Microglia and Astrocytes Induced by Human H1N1 and Avian H5N1 Influenza Viruses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gefei Wang; Kangsheng Li; Juan Zhang; Weizhong Li; Gang Xin; Yun Su; Yuanli Gao; Heng Zhang; Guimei Lin; Xiaoyang Jiao

    2008-01-01

    Patients with an influenza virus infection can be complicated by acute encephalopathy and encephalitis. To investigate the immune reactions involved in the neurocomplication, mouse microglia and astrocytes were isolated,infected with human H1N1 and avian H5N1 influenza viruses, and examined for their immune responses. We observed homogeneously distributed viral receptors, sialic acid (SA)-α2,3-Galactose (Gal) and SA-α2,6-Gal, on microglia and astrocytes. Both viruses were replicative and productive in microglia and astrocytes. Virus-induced apoptosis and cytopathy in infected cells were observed at 24 h post-infection (p.i.). Expression of IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α mRNA examined at 6 h and 24 h p.i. Was up-regulated, and their expression levels were considerably higher in H5N1 infection. The amounts of secreted proinflammatory IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α at 6 h and 24 h p.i. Were also induced, with greater induction by H5N1 infection. This study is the first demonstration that both human H1N1 and avian H5N1 influenza viruses can infect mouse microglia and astrocytes and induce apoptosis, cytopathy, and proinflammatory cytokine production in them in vitro. Our results suggest that the direct cellular damage and the consequences of immunopathological injury in the CNS contribute to the influenza viral pathogenesis.

  14. Transfection with extracellularly UV-damaged DNA induces human and rat cells to express a mutator phenotype towards parvovirus H-1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dinsart, C.; Cornelis, J.J.; Klein, B.; van der Eb, A.J.; Rommelaere, J.

    1984-02-01

    Human and rat cells transfected with UV-irradiated linear double-stranded DNA from calf thymus displayed a mutator activity. This phenotype was identified by growing a lytic thermosensitive single-stranded DNA virus (parvovirus H-1) in those cells and determining viral reversion frequencies. Likewise, exogenous UV-irradiated closed circular DNAs, either double-stranded (simian virus 40) or single-stranded (phi X174), enhanced the ability of recipient cells to mutate parvovirus H-1. The magnitude of mutator activity expression increased along with the number of UV lesions present in the inoculated DNA up to a saturation level. Unirradiated DNA displayed little inducing capacity, irrespective of whether it was single or double stranded. Deprivation of a functional replication origin did not impede UV-irradiated simian virus 40 DNA from providing rat and human cells with a mutator function. Our data suggest that in mammalian cells a trans-acting mutagenic signal might be generated from UV-irradiated DNA without the necessity for damaged DNA to replicate.

  15. A non-VH1-69 heterosubtypic neutralizing human monoclonal antibody protects mice against H1N1 and H5N1 viruses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donata De Marco

    Full Text Available Influenza viruses are among the most important human pathogens and are responsible for annual epidemics and sporadic, potentially devastating pandemics. The humoral immune response plays an important role in the defense against these viruses, providing protection mainly by producing antibodies directed against the hemagglutinin (HA glycoprotein. However, their high genetic variability allows the virus to evade the host immune response and the potential protection offered by seasonal vaccines. The emergence of resistance to antiviral drugs in recent years further limits the options available for the control of influenza. The development of alternative strategies for influenza prophylaxis and therapy is therefore urgently needed. In this study, we describe a human monoclonal antibody (PN-SIA49 that recognizes a highly conserved epitope located on the stem region of the HA and able to neutralize a broad spectrum of influenza viruses belonging to different subtypes (H1, H2 and H5. Furthermore, we describe its protective activity in mice after lethal challenge with H1N1 and H5N1 viruses suggesting a potential application in the treatment of influenza virus infections.

  16. Acute sleep deprivation has no lasting effects on the human antibody titer response following a novel influenza A H1N1 virus vaccination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benedict Christian

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Experimental studies in humans have yielded evidence that adaptive immune function, including the production of antigen-specific antibodies, is distinctly impaired when sleep is deprived at the time of first antigen exposure. Here we examined the effects of a regular 24- hour sleep-wake cycle (including 8 hours of nocturnal sleep and a 24-hour period of continuous wakefulness on the 7-week antibody production in 11 males and 13 females in response to the H1N1 (swine flu virus vaccination. The specific antibody titer in serum was assayed by the hemagglutination inhibition test on the days 5, 10, 17, and 52 following vaccination. Results In comparison to the sleep group, sleep-deprived males but not females had reduced serum concentration of H1N1-specific antibodies five days after vaccination, whereas antibody titers at later time points did not differ between the conditions. Conclusions These findings concur with the notion that sleep is a supportive influence in the very early stage of an adaptive immune response to a viral antigen. However, our results do not support the view that acute sleep deprivation has lasting effects on the human antibody titer response to influenza vaccination.

  17. Genetic characterization of an adapted pandemic 2009 H1N1 influenza virus that reveals improved replication rates in human lung epithelial cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wörmann, Xenia [Department of Molecular Biology, Max Planck Institute for Infection Biology, Berlin (Germany); Lesch, Markus [Department of Molecular Biology, Max Planck Institute for Infection Biology, Berlin (Germany); Steinbeis Innovation gGmbH, Center for Systems Biomedicine, Falkensee (Germany); Welke, Robert-William [Department of Biology, Molecular Biophysics, IRI Life Sciences, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin (Germany); Okonechnikov, Konstantin; Abdurishid, Mirshat [Department of Molecular Biology, Max Planck Institute for Infection Biology, Berlin (Germany); Sieben, Christian [Department of Biology, Molecular Biophysics, IRI Life Sciences, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin (Germany); Geissner, Andreas [Department for Biomolecular Systems, Max Planck Institute for Colloids and Interfaces, Potsdam (Germany); Institute of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Free University, Berlin (Germany); Brinkmann, Volker [Department of Molecular Biology, Max Planck Institute for Infection Biology, Berlin (Germany); Kastner, Markus [Institute for Biophysics, Johannes Kepler University, Linz (Austria); Karner, Andreas [Center for Advanced Bioanalysis GmbH (CBL), Linz (Austria); Zhu, Rong; Hinterdorfer, Peter [Institute for Biophysics, Johannes Kepler University, Linz (Austria); Anish, Chakkumkal [Department for Biomolecular Systems, Max Planck Institute for Colloids and Interfaces, Potsdam (Germany); Seeberger, Peter H. [Department for Biomolecular Systems, Max Planck Institute for Colloids and Interfaces, Potsdam (Germany); Institute of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Free University, Berlin (Germany); Herrmann, Andreas [Department of Biology, Molecular Biophysics, IRI Life Sciences, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin (Germany); and others

    2016-05-15

    The 2009 influenza pandemic originated from a swine-origin H1N1 virus, which, although less pathogenic than anticipated, may acquire additional virulence-associated mutations in the future. To estimate the potential risk, we sequentially passaged the isolate A/Hamburg/04/2009 in A549 human lung epithelial cells. After passage 6, we observed a 100-fold increased replication rate. High-throughput sequencing of viral gene segments identified five dominant mutations, whose contribution to the enhanced growth was analyzed by reverse genetics. The increased replication rate was pinpointed to two mutations within the hemagglutinin (HA) gene segment (HA{sub 1} D130E, HA{sub 2} I91L), near the receptor binding site and the stem domain. The adapted virus also replicated more efficiently in mice in vivo. Enhanced replication rate correlated with increased fusion pH of the HA protein and a decrease in receptor affinity. Our data might be relevant for surveillance of pre-pandemic strains and development of high titer cell culture strains for vaccine production. - Highlights: • We observed a spontaneous mutation of a 2009-pandemic H1N1 influenza virus in vitro. • The adaptation led to a 100-fold rise in replication rate in human A549 cells. • Adaptation was caused by two mutations in the HA gene segment. • Adaptation correlates with increased fusion pH and decreased receptor affinity.

  18. TLR-9 contributes to the antiviral innate immune sensing of rodent parvoviruses MVMp and H-1PV by normal human immune cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahari Raykov

    Full Text Available The oncotropism of Minute Virus of Mice (MVMp is partially related to the stimulation of an antiviral response mediated by type-I interferons (IFNs in normal but not in transformed mouse cells. The present work was undertaken to assess whether the oncotropism displayed against human cells by MVMp and its rat homolog H-1PV also depends on antiviral mechanisms and to identify the pattern recognition receptor (PRR involved. Despite their low proliferation rate which represents a drawback for parvovirus multiplication, we used human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (hPBMCs as normal model specifically because all known PRRs are functional in this mixed cell population and moreover because some of its subsets are among the main IFN producers upon infections in mammals. Human transformed models consisted in lines and tumor cells more or less permissive to both parvoviruses. Our results show that irrespective of their permissiveness, transformed cells do not produce IFNs nor develop an antiviral response upon parvovirus infection. However, MVMp- or H-1PV-infected hPBMCs trigger such defense mechanisms despite an absence of parvovirus replication and protein expression, pointing to the viral genome as the activating element. Substantial reduction of an inhibitory oligodeoxynucleotide (iODN of the latter IFN production identified TLR-9 as a potential PRR for parvoviruses in hPBMCs. However, neither the iODN treatment nor an antibody-induced neutralization of the IFN-triggered effects restored parvovirus multiplication in these cells as expected by their weak proliferation in culture. Finally, given that a TLR-9 activation could also not be observed in parvovirus-infected human lines reported to be endowed with a functional TLR-9 pathway (Namalwa, Raji, and HEK293-TLR9(+/+, our data suggest that transformed human cells do not sense MVMp or H-1PV either because of an absence of PRR expression or an intrinsic, or virus-driven defect in the endosomal

  19. Systems-level comparison of host-responses elicited by avian H5N1 and seasonal H1N1 influenza viruses in primary human macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Suki M Y; Gardy, Jennifer L; Cheung, C Y; Cheung, Timothy K W; Hui, Kenrie P Y; Ip, Nancy Y; Guan, Y; Hancock, Robert E W; Peiris, J S Malik

    2009-12-14

    Human disease caused by highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 can lead to a rapidly progressive viral pneumonia leading to acute respiratory distress syndrome. There is increasing evidence from clinical, animal models and in vitro data, which suggests a role for virus-induced cytokine dysregulation in contributing to the pathogenesis of human H5N1 disease. The key target cells for the virus in the lung are the alveolar epithelium and alveolar macrophages, and we have shown that, compared to seasonal human influenza viruses, equivalent infecting doses of H5N1 viruses markedly up-regulate pro-inflammatory cytokines in both primary cell types in vitro. Whether this H5N1-induced dysregulation of host responses is driven by qualitative (i.e activation of unique host pathways in response to H5N1) or quantitative differences between seasonal influenza viruses is unclear. Here we used microarrays to analyze and compare the gene expression profiles in primary human macrophages at 1, 3, and 6 h after infection with H5N1 virus or low-pathogenic seasonal influenza A (H1N1) virus. We found that host responses to both viruses are qualitatively similar with the activation of nearly identical biological processes and pathways. However, in comparison to seasonal H1N1 virus, H5N1 infection elicits a quantitatively stronger host inflammatory response including type I interferon (IFN) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha genes. A network-based analysis suggests that the synergy between IFN-beta and TNF-alpha results in an enhanced and sustained IFN and pro-inflammatory cytokine response at the early stage of viral infection that may contribute to the viral pathogenesis and this is of relevance to the design of novel therapeutic strategies for H5N1 induced respiratory disease.

  20. Systems-level comparison of host-responses elicited by avian H5N1 and seasonal H1N1 influenza viruses in primary human macrophages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suki M Y Lee

    Full Text Available Human disease caused by highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI H5N1 can lead to a rapidly progressive viral pneumonia leading to acute respiratory distress syndrome. There is increasing evidence from clinical, animal models and in vitro data, which suggests a role for virus-induced cytokine dysregulation in contributing to the pathogenesis of human H5N1 disease. The key target cells for the virus in the lung are the alveolar epithelium and alveolar macrophages, and we have shown that, compared to seasonal human influenza viruses, equivalent infecting doses of H5N1 viruses markedly up-regulate pro-inflammatory cytokines in both primary cell types in vitro. Whether this H5N1-induced dysregulation of host responses is driven by qualitative (i.e activation of unique host pathways in response to H5N1 or quantitative differences between seasonal influenza viruses is unclear. Here we used microarrays to analyze and compare the gene expression profiles in primary human macrophages at 1, 3, and 6 h after infection with H5N1 virus or low-pathogenic seasonal influenza A (H1N1 virus. We found that host responses to both viruses are qualitatively similar with the activation of nearly identical biological processes and pathways. However, in comparison to seasonal H1N1 virus, H5N1 infection elicits a quantitatively stronger host inflammatory response including type I interferon (IFN and tumor necrosis factor (TNF-alpha genes. A network-based analysis suggests that the synergy between IFN-beta and TNF-alpha results in an enhanced and sustained IFN and pro-inflammatory cytokine response at the early stage of viral infection that may contribute to the viral pathogenesis and this is of relevance to the design of novel therapeutic strategies for H5N1 induced respiratory disease.

  1. Signaling mechanism underlying the histamine-modulated action of hypoglossal motoneurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zi-Long; Wu, Xu; Luo, Yan-Jia; Wang, Lu; Qu, Wei-Min; Li, Shan-Qun; Huang, Zhi-Li

    2016-04-01

    Histamine, an important modulator of the arousal states of the central nervous system, has been reported to contribute an excitatory drive at the hypoglossal motor nucleus to the genioglossus (GG) muscle, which is involved in the pathogenesis of obstructive sleep apnea. However, the effect of histamine on hypoglossal motoneurons (HMNs) and the underlying signaling mechanisms have remained elusive. Here, whole-cell patch-clamp recordings were conducted using neonatal rat brain sections, which showed that histamine excited HMNs with an inward current under voltage-clamp and a depolarization membrane potential under current-clamp via histamine H1 receptors (H1Rs). The phospholipase C inhibitor U-73122 blocked H1Rs-mediated excitatory effects, but protein kinase A inhibitor and protein kinase C inhibitor did not, indicating that the signal transduction cascades underlying the excitatory action of histamine on HMNs were H1R/Gq/11 /phospholipase C/inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3). The effects of histamine were also dependent on extracellular Na(+) and intracellular Ca(2+), which took place via activation of Na(+)-Ca(2+) exchangers. These results identify the signaling molecules associated with the regulatory effect of histamine on HMNs. The findings of this study may provide new insights into therapeutic approaches in obstructive sleep apnea. We proposed the post-synaptic mechanisms underlying the modulation effect of histamine on hypoglossal motoneuron. Histamine activates the H1Rs via PLC and IP3, increases Ca(2+) releases from intracellular stores, promotes Na(+) influx and Ca(2+) efflux via the NCXs, and then produces an inward current and depolarizes the neurons. Histamine modulates the excitability of HMNs with other neuromodulators, such as noradrenaline, serotonin and orexin. We think that these findings should provide an important new direction for drug development for the treatment of obstructive sleep apnea.

  2. An overview of anti-allergic drug therapy and the histamine-1 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    vasodilatation and the increased vascular (capillary) permeability ... Keywords: anti-allergic drug therapy, H1 antihistamines, histamine receptors, allergic rhinoconjunctivitis .... Price. Local decongestants. Iliadin®. Oxymetazoline (0.100 mg/ml).

  3. Human histamine N-methyltransferase pharmacogenetics: gene resequencing, promoter characterization, and functional studies of a common 5'-flanking region single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Liewei; Thomae, Bianca; Eckloff, Bruce; Wieben, Eric; Weinshilboum, Richard

    2002-08-15

    Histamine N-methyltransferase (HNMT) catalyzes one of two major metabolic pathways for histamine. The levels of HNMT activity and immunoreactive protein in human tissues are regulated primarily by inheritance. Previous studies of HNMT identified two common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), including a functionally significant nonsynonymous coding SNP (cSNP), (C314T, Thr105Ile), but that polymorphism did not explain all of the phenotypic variation. In the present study, a genotype-to-phenotype strategy was used to search for additional genetic factors that might contribute to the regulation of human HNMT activity. Specifically, we began by resequencing the human HNMT gene using 90 ethnically anonymous DNA samples from the Coriell Cell Repository and identified a total of eight SNPs, including the two that had been reported previously. No new nonsynonymous cSNPs were observed, but three of the six novel SNPs were located in the 5'-flanking region (5'-FR) of the gene-including a third common polymorphism with a frequency of 0.367 (36.7%). That observation directed our attention to possible genetic effects on HNMT transcription. As a first step in testing that possibility, we created and studied a series of reporter gene constructs for the initial 1kb of the HNMT 5'-FR. The core promoter and possible regulatory regions were identified and verified by electrophoresis mobility shift assays. We then studied the possible functional implications of the new common HNMT 5'-FR SNP. However, on the basis of reporter gene studies, that SNP appeared to have little effect on transcription. Phenotype-genotype correlation analysis performed with 112 human kidney biopsy samples that had been phenotyped for their level of HNMT activity confirmed that the common 5'-FR SNP was not associated with the level of HNMT activity in vivo. In summary, this series of experiments resulted in the identification of several novel HNMT polymorphisms, identification of the HNMT core promoter

  4. Interaction between histamine and morphine at the level of the hippocampus in the formalin-induced orofacial pain in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamaddonfard, Esmaeal; Erfanparast, Amir; Farshid, Amir Abbas; Khalilzadeh, Emad

    2011-01-01

    The present study explored the interaction between histaminergic and opioidergic systems at the level of the hippocampus in modulation of orofacial pain by intra-hippocampal microinjections of histamine, pyrilamine (an antagonist of histamine H(1) receptors), ranitidine (an antagonist of histamine H(2) receptors), morphine (an opioid receptor agonist) and naloxone (an opioid receptor antagonist) in separate and combined treatments. Orofacial pain was induced by subcutaneous (sc) injection of formalin (50 μl, 1%) in the upper lip region and the time spent face rubbing was recorded in 3 min blocks for 45 min. Formalin (sc) produced a marked biphasic (first phase: 0-3 min, second phase: 15-33 min) pain response. Histamine and morphine suppressed both phases of pain. Histamine increased morphine-induced antinociception. Pyrilamine and ranitidine had no effects when used alone, whereas pretreatments with pyrilamine and ranitidine prevented histamine- and morphine-induced antinociceptive effects. Naloxone alone non-significantly increased pain intensity and inhibited the antinociceptive effects of morphine and histamine. The results of the present study indicate that at the level of the hippocampus, histamine through its H(1) and H(2) receptors, mediates orofacial region pain. Moreover, morphine via a naloxone-reversible mechanism produces analgesia. In addition, both histamine H(1) and H(2) receptors, as well as opioid receptors may be involved in the interaction between histamine and morphine in producing analgesia.

  5. Histamine impairs midbrain dopaminergic development in vivo by activating histamine type 1 receptors

    OpenAIRE

    Escobedo-Ávila, Itzel; Vargas-Romero, Fernanda; Molina-Hernández, Anayansi; López-González, Rodrigo; Cortés, Daniel; De Carlos, Juan A.; Velasco, Iván

    2014-01-01

    Background Histamine (HA) regulates the sleep-wake cycle, synaptic plasticity and memory in adult mammals. Dopaminergic specification in the embryonic ventral midbrain (VM) coincides with increased HA brain levels. To study the effect of HA receptor stimulation on dopamine neuron generation, we administered HA to dopamine progenitors, both in vitro and in vivo. Results Cultured embryonic day 12 (E12) VM neural stem/progenitor cells expressed transcripts for HA receptors H1R, H2R and H3R. Thes...

  6. Preparation and identification of polyclonal antibody against protein H1b: the variant of major subunit of human ASGPR%抗人ASGPR大亚基异构体蛋白H1b多克隆抗体的制备和鉴定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘嘉; 丁红晖; 杨燕; 胡斌; 余源; 黄红平; 陆蒙吉; 杨东亮

    2009-01-01

    AIM: To prepare and identify mouse polyclonal antibody against protein Hlb, which is the variant of major subunit of human ASGPR. METHODS: Hlb specific peptide was synthesized and coupled with keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH) for immunization. Then H1b-KLH conjugation was injected into mouse subcutaneously to produce polyclonal antibody. ELISA assay was used to detect the titer of the antibody. Antibody was also identified by Western blot and immunohistochemistry assays. RESULTS: Mouse antibody against Hlb was prepared after injection of H1bKLH conjugation. The titer of H1b antibody was about 1:10~5.Western blot confirmed its high specificity. This antibody could also be used for immunohistochemistry analysis. CONCLUSION: The successful preparation of the polyclonal antibody against protein H1b, which can discriminate the two variants of the major subunit of ASGPR with high specificity, will provide an efficient reagent for further study of the physiologic functions of H1b and its role in the pathogenesis of human disease.%目的:制备小鼠抗人ASGPR大亚基异构体蛋白H1b的多克隆抗体,并鉴定其特异性.方法:合成H1b特异性多肽,以匙孔血蓝蛋白(KLH)作为载体构建多肽免疫原,通过致敏小鼠,制备小鼠抗人H1b蛋白的多克隆抗体;ELISA法检测抗体效价,通过Western blot和免疫组织化学检测,鉴定抗体的特异性与适用范围.结果:得到小鼠抗人H1b蛋白的多克隆抗体,效价达1:10~5.纯化后的抗体用于Western blot可高特异性识别真核表达的H1b蛋白,并可用于免疫组织化学实验.结论:成功制备小鼠抗人H1b蛋白的多克隆抗体,该抗体具有较高的效价以及特异性,能区分ASG-PR大亚基的两种剪接异构体,从而为进一步研究H1b蛋白的生理功能及其在人类疾病中的意义提供了有利工具.

  7. Antinociception induced by central administration of histamine in the formalin test in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mojtahedin, Ali; Tamaddonfard, Esmaeal; Zanboori, Ali

    2008-01-01

    In the present study, effects of intracerebroventricular (icv) administration of histamine, mepyramine (H1-receptor antagonist) and famotidine (H2-receptor antagonist) have been investigated on the formalin test in rats. Subcutaneous injection of formalin (50 microl, 1%) into the ventral surface of the left hind paw produced a marked biphasic pain response (first phase: 0-5 min and second phase: 15-45 min). All the performed treatments did not significantly influence the first phase of pain. Histamine at the doses of 10 and 40 microg and mepyramine and famotidine at the same doses of 20 and 80 microg, significantly (P histamine (40 microg)-induced antinociception. These results indicate that brain histamine produces antinociception, and both central H1 and H2 receptors may involve in the histamine-induced antinociception in the formalin test in rats.

  8. Spinal histamine in attenuation of mechanical hypersensitivity in the spinal nerve ligation-induced model of experimental neuropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Hong; Viisanen, Hanna; You, Hao-Jun; Pertovaara, Antti

    2016-02-05

    Here we studied whether and through which mechanisms spinal administration of histamine dihydrochloride (histamine) attenuates pain behavior in neuropathic animals. Experiments were performed in rats with spinal nerve ligation-induced neuropathy and a chronic intrathecal catheter for spinal drug delivery. Mechanical hypersensitivity was assessed with monofilaments while radiant heat was used for assessing nociception. Ongoing neuropathic pain and its attenuation by histamine was assessed using conditioned place-preference test. Following spinal administration, histamine at doses 0.1-10µg produced a dose-related mechanical antihypersensitivity effect. With prolonged treatment (twice daily 10µg for five days), the antihypersensitivity effect of spinal histamine was reduced. In place-preference test, neuropathic animals preferred the chamber paired with histamine (10µg). Histamine (10µg) failed to influence heat nociception in neuropathic animals or mechanically induced pain behavior in a group of healthy control rats. Histamine-induced mechanical antihypersensitivity effect was prevented by spinal pretreatment with zolantidine (histamine H2 receptor antagonist), prazosine (α1-adrenoceptor antagonist) and bicuculline (γ-aminobutyric acid subtype A, GABA(A), receptor antagonist), but not by pyrilamine (histamine H1 receptor antagonist), atipamezole (α2-adrenoceptor antagonist), or raclopride (dopamine D2 receptor antagonist). A-960656, a histamine H3 receptor antagonist alone that presumably increased endogenous histamine levels reduced hypersensitivity. Additionally, histamine prevented central (presumably postsynaptically-induced) facilitation of hypersensitivity induced by N-methyl-d-aspartate. The results indicate that spinal histamine at the dose range of 0.1-10µg selectively attenuates mechanical hypersensitivity and ongoing pain in neuropathy. The spinal histamine-induced antihypersensitivity effect involves histamine H2 and GABA(A) receptors and

  9. Rules of co-occurring mutations characterize the antigenic evolution of human influenza A/H3N2, A/H1N1 and B viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Haifen; Zhou, Xinrui; Zheng, Jie; Kwoh, Chee-Keong

    2016-12-05

    The human influenza viruses undergo rapid evolution (especially in hemagglutinin (HA), a glycoprotein on the surface of the virus), which enables the virus population to constantly evade the human immune system. Therefore, the vaccine has to be updated every year to stay effective. There is a need to characterize the evolution of influenza viruses for better selection of vaccine candidates and the prediction of pandemic strains. Studies have shown that the influenza hemagglutinin evolution is driven by the simultaneous mutations at antigenic sites. Here, we analyze simultaneous or co-occurring mutations in the HA protein of human influenza A/H3N2, A/H1N1 and B viruses to predict potential mutations, characterizing the antigenic evolution. We obtain the rules of mutation co-occurrence using association rule mining after extracting HA1 sequences and detect co-mutation sites under strong selective pressure. Then we predict the potential drifts with specific mutations of the viruses based on the rules and compare the results with the "observed" mutations in different years. The sites under frequent mutations are in antigenic regions (epitopes) or receptor binding sites. Our study demonstrates the co-occurring site mutations obtained by rule mining can capture the evolution of influenza viruses, and confirms that cooperative interactions among sites of HA1 protein drive the influenza antigenic evolution.

  10. Anti-allergic cromones inhibit histamine and eicosanoid release from activated human and murine mast cells by releasing Annexin A1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samia Yazid

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Although the 'cromones' (di-sodium cromoglycate and sodium nedocromil are used to treat allergy and asthma, their 'mast cell stabilising' mechanism of pharmacological action has never been convincingly explained. Here, we investigate the hypothesis that these drugs act by stimulating the release of the anti-inflammatory protein Annexin-A1 (Anx-A1 from mast cells. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: We used biochemical and immuno-neutralisation techniques to investigate the mechanism by which cromones suppress histamine and eicosanoid release from cord-derived human mast cells (CDMCs or murine bone marrow-derived mast cells (BMDMCs from wild type and Anx-A1 null mice. KEY RESULTS: CDMCs activated by IgE-FcRε1 crosslinking, released histamine and prostaglandin (PG D2, which were inhibited (30-65% by 5 min pre-treatment with cromoglycate (10 nM or nedocromil (10 nM, as well as dexamethasone (2 nM and human recombinant Anx-A1 (1-10 nM. In CDMCs cromones potentiated (2-5 fold protein kinase C (PKC phosphorylation and Anx-A1 phosphorylation and secretion (3-5 fold. Incubation of CDMCs with a neutralising anti-Anx-A1 monoclonal antibody reversed the cromone inhibitory effect. Nedocromil (10 nM also inhibited (40-60% the release of mediators from murine bone marrow derived-mast cells from wild type mice activated by compound 48/80 and IgE-FcRε1 cross-linking, but were inactive in such cells when these were prepared from Anx-A1 null mice or when the neutralising anti-Anx-A1 antibody was present. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS: We conclude that stimulation of phosphorylation and secretion of Anx-A1 is an important component of inhibitory cromone actions on mast cells, which could explain their acute pharmacological actions in allergy. These findings also highlight a new pathway for reducing mediator release from these cells.

  11. The histamine H3 receptor and eating behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passani, Maria Beatrice; Blandina, Patrizio; Torrealba, Fernando

    2011-01-01

    Interest in the histaminergic system as a potential target for the treatment of feeding disorders is driven by the unsatisfactory history of the pharmacotherapy of obesity. Eating behavior is regulated by a complex interplay of central neurotransmitter systems, peripheral endocrine stimuli, the circadian rhythm, and environmental cues, all factors that change the behavioral state and alter homeostatic aspects of appetite and energy expenditure. Key factors driving eating behavior are appetite and satiety that are regulated through different mechanisms. Brain histamine has long been considered a satiety signal in the nervous system. Recent observations, however, indicate that histamine does not meet the criteria for being a satiety signal, because augmented histamine release accompanies the appetitive phase of feeding behavior rather than food consumption and satiety. The appetitive phase requires a high and yet optimal arousal state, and the histaminergic system is crucial for sustaining a high degree of arousal during motivated behavior. Histamine H(1) receptors in the brain are crucial for the regulation of the diurnal rhythm of food intake and the regulation of obesity; however, from a therapeutic standpoint, no brain-penetrating H(1) receptor agonists have been identified that would have antiobesity effects. Despite conflicting preclinical data, insights are emerging into the potential role of histamine H(3) receptors as a target of antiobesity therapeutics. The aim of this review is to outline the relevance of the histaminergic system in controlling feeding behavior and evaluate the potential therapeutic use of histaminergic ligands for the treatment of eating disorders.

  12. Antigenic and genomic characterization of human influenza A and B viruses circulating in Argentina after the introduction of influenza A(H1N1)pdm09.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Mara L; Pontoriero, Andrea V; Benedetti, Estefania; Czech, Andrea; Avaro, Martin; Periolo, Natalia; Campos, Ana M; Savy, Vilma L; Baumeister, Elsa G

    2014-12-01

    This study was conducted as part of the Argentinean Influenza and other Respiratory Viruses Surveillance Network, in the context of the Global Influenza Surveillance carried out by the World Health Organization (WHO). The objective was to study the activity and the antigenic and genomic characteristics of circulating viruses for three consecutive seasons (2010, 2011 and 2012) in order to investigate the emergence of influenza viral variants. During the study period, influenza virus circulation was detected from January to December. Influenza A and B, and all current subtypes of human influenza viruses, were present each year. Throughout the 2010 post-pandemic season, influenza A(H1N1)pdm09, unexpectedly, almost disappeared. The haemagglutinin (HA) of the A(H1N1)pdm09 viruses studied were segregated in a different genetic group to those identified during the 2009 pandemic, although they were still antigenically closely related to the vaccine strain A/California/07/2009. Influenza A(H3N2) viruses were the predominant strains circulating during the 2011 season, accounting for nearly 76 % of influenza viruses identified. That year, all HA sequences of the A(H3N2) viruses tested fell into the A/Victoria/208/2009 genetic clade, but remained antigenically related to A/Perth/16/2009 (reference vaccine recommended for this three-year period). A(H3N2) viruses isolated in 2012 were antigenically closely related to A/Victoria/361/2011, recommended by the WHO as the H3 component for the 2013 Southern Hemisphere formulation. B viruses belonging to the B/Victoria lineage circulated in 2010. A mixed circulation of viral variants of both B/Victoria and B/Yamagata lineages was detected in 2012, with the former being predominant. A(H1N1)pdm09 viruses remained antigenically closely related to the vaccine virus A/California/7/2009; A(H3N2) viruses continually evolved into new antigenic clusters and both B lineages, B/Victoria/2/87-like and B/Yamagata/16/88-like viruses, were observed

  13. Two serine residues of non-metastasis protein 23-H1 are critical in inhibiting signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 activity in human lung cancer cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhihao; Guo, Lili; Ge, Jiangnan; Zhang, Zhijian; Wei, Huijun; Zhou, Qinghua

    2017-01-01

    Constitutive activation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) in numerous cancers, including lung cancer, is one of the major mechanisms of tumor progression and metastasis. The authors previously reported that the metastasis suppressor non-metastasis protein 23-H1 (Nm23-H1) negatively regulates STAT3 activity by inhibiting its phosphorylation on Tyr705. Nm23-H1 is a multifunction protein that has three different kinase activities. By transfecting the five mutants that inactivated three different kinase activities respectively into Nm23-H1 deficient lung cancer cell lines, it was identified that Nm23-H1S44A (Ser44 to Ala) and Nm23-H1S120G (Ser120 to Gly) mutant forms were unable to suppress STAT3 phosphorylation on Tyr705, resulting in increased expression of fibronectin and matrix metalloproteinase-9. Notably, protein inhibitor of activated STAT3 was also involved in Nm23-H1S44A- and Nm23-H1S120G-mediated suppression of STAT3 phosphorylation. The present results indicated that Ser44 and Ser120 sites of Nm23-H1 may be responsible for its biological suppressive effects of STAT3 and tumor metastasis, which may contribute to illuminate the metastasis suppression function of Nm23-H1 in lung cancer. PMID:28781685

  14. H1N1 Influenza

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Nutrient Shortfall Questionnaire Home Diseases and Conditions H1N1 Influenza H1N1 Influenza Condition Family HealthKids and Teens Share H1N1 ... Contents1. Overview2. Symptoms3. Prevention4. Treatment What is H1N1 influenza?H1N1 influenza (also known as swine flu) is an ...

  15. Central Effect of Exogenous Histamine on Pain Induced by Sub-Plantar Injection of Formalin in Rabbits

    OpenAIRE

    Esmaeal Tamaddonfard

    2010-01-01

    In the present study, the effects of intracerebroventricular (ICV) administration of normal saline (control), histamine, mepyramine (a histamine H1-receptor antagonist) and ranitidine (a histamine H2-receptor antagonist) were investigated on the formalin-induced pain in rabbits. Subcutaneous (SC) injection of a formalin (100 μl, 5%) solution into the ventral surface of the right hind paw was performed, and the time durations spent licking and biting the injected paw were measured in 10 min bl...

  16. Fusion of Na-ASP-2 with human immunoglobulin Fcγ abrogates histamine release from basophils sensitized with anti-Na-ASP-2 IgE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Bin; Santiago, H; Keegan, B; Gillespie, P; Xue, J; Bethony, J; de Oliveira, L M; Jiang, D; Diemert, D; Xiao, S-H; Jones, K; Feng, X; Hotez, P J; Bottazzi, M E

    2012-01-01

    Na-ASP-2 is a major protein secreted by infective third-stage larvae (L3) of the human hookworm Necator americanus upon host entry. It was chosen as a lead vaccine candidate for its ability to elicit protective immune responses. However, clinical development of this antigen as a recombinant vaccine was halted because it caused allergic reactions among some of human volunteers previously infected with N. americanus. To prevent IgE-mediated allergic reactions induced by Na-ASP-2 but keep its immunogenicity as a vaccine antigen, we designed and tested a genetically engineered fusion protein, Fcγ/Na-ASP-2, composed of full-length Na-ASP-2 and truncated human IgG Fcγ1 that targets the negative signalling receptor FcγRIIb expressed on pro-allergic cells. The chimeric recombinant Fcγ/Na-ASP-2 protein was expressed in Pichia pastoris and shared the similar antigenicity as native Na-ASP-2. Compared to Na-ASP-2, the chimeric fusion protein efficiently reduced the release of histamine in human basophils sensitized with anti-Na-ASP-2 IgE obtained from individuals living in a hookworm-endemic area. In dogs infected with canine hookworm, Fcγ/Na-ASP-2 resulted in significantly reduced immediate-type skin reactivity when injected intradermally compared with Na-ASP-2. Hamsters vaccinated with Fcγ/Na-ASP-2 formulated with Alhydrogel(®) produced specific IgG that recognized Na-ASP-2 and elicited similar protection level against N. americanus L3 challenge as native Na-ASP-2. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  17. Biphasic changes in body temperature produced by intracerebroventricular injections of histamine in the cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, W G; Cumby, H R

    1976-09-01

    1. Intracerebroventricular administration of histamine to cats caused hypothermia followed by a rise in body temperature. 2-Methylhistamine caused a similar biphasic response, while 3-methylhistamine had no effect on body temperature and 4-methylhistamine produced a delayed hyperthermia. Some tolerance to the hypothermic activity developed when a series of closely spaced injections of histamine was given. 2. Doses of histamine and 2-methylhistamine which altered body temperature when given centrally were ineffective when infused or injected I.V. 3. Pyrilamine, an H1-receptor antagonist, prevented the hypothermic response to histamine. 4. Hypothermic responses to histamine at an environmental temperature of 22 degrees C were comparable to responses in a cold room at 4 degrees C in both resting animals and animals acting to depress a lever to escape an external heat load. A change in error signal from the thermostat could account for these results. However, lesser degrees of hypothermia developed when histamine was given to animals in a hot environment. In some, but not all animals, this smaller response could be attributed to inadequate heat loss in spite of maximal activation of heat-loss mechanisms. 5. The hyperthermic response to histamine was antagonized by central, but not peripheral, injection of metiamide, an H2-receptor antagonist. 6. The results indicate that histamine and related agents can act centrally to cause both hypothermia, mediated by H1-receptors, and hyperthermia, mediated by H2-receptors.

  18. Evidence for an inhibitory role of central histamine on carrageenin-induced hyperalgesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Netti, C; Sibilia, V; Guidobono, F; Villani, P; Pecile, A; Braga, P C

    1994-02-01

    The effects of intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) injection of histamine, the H1 agonist 2-methyl-histamine and the H2 agonist dimaprit were tested on carrageenin induced hyperalgesia by the Randall-Selitto paw pressure test in the rat. Treatment with histamine (0.1, 0.2, 0.4 mumol/rat, i.c.v.) 150 min after intraplantar carrageenin (0.1 ml of 1% solution) caused a significant increase of paw pressure thresholds in inflamed (but not in non-inflamed) paws. The magnitude and the duration of the antinociceptive effects of histamine were dose-dependent. Administration of 2-methyl-histamine (0.2, 0.4, 0.8, 1.0 mumol/rat, i.c.v.) and dimaprit (0.1, 0.2, 0.4, 0.8 mumol/rat, i.c.v.) also displayed dose-dependent blockade of carrageenin-induced hyperalgesia. Antinociceptive ED50 values calculated 30 min after drug treatments were: histamine 0.18 mumol/rat; 2-methyl-histamine 0.65 mumol/rat; dimaprit 0.33 mumol/rat. These data indicate that histamine through central H1 and H2 receptors exerts an inhibitory role in the control of nociception in pain resulting from inflammation.

  19. Histamine content and secretion in basophils and mast cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dvorak, A M

    1998-01-01

    Biochemical determinations of the histamine content and secretion from basophils and mast cells have been available for some time, and much of the complex anatomy of these cellular populations and their release reactions has been documented using the electron microscope. The ultrastructural analyses led to the description of vesicular transport between secretory granules and the plasma membrane as a mechanism for secretion from basophils and mast cells--a process termed piecemeal degranulation. Proof of concepts incorporated in a general degranulation model put forth in 1975 (DVORAK, H.F. and DVORAK, A.M.) requires high magnification imaging of a granule constituent in trafficking vesicles in the process of a stimulated release reaction in which the constituent release is monitored biochemically. Development and application of a new enzyme-affinity method to detect histamine at high magnifications in well-preserved ultrastructural samples have provided the necessary means to establish proof that appropriate secretagogues can stimulate the vesicular transport of histamine in basophils and mast cells during release reactions monitored biochemically. The background information necessary to the understanding of this result is presented here, as well as the development and verification of the diamine oxidase-gold method to image histamine in human mast cell granules as the test system. Also presented are applications using this technology to examine histamine stores and secretion in vitro, in vivo, and ex vivo in human basophils and mast cells and in mouse mast cells. Specifically examined are histamine stores developing in maturing mast cells induced to develop de novo from cultured human cord blood cells, secretagogue-stimulated release and recovery of histamine stores from isolated, purified human lung mast cells ex vivo, cytokine-stimulated degranulation of human skin mast cells and their histamine stores in vivo, piecemeal degranulation of human gut mast cells and

  20. Histamine and the antiallergic antihistamines: a history of their discoveries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emanuel, M B

    1999-07-01

    The paper provides a historical overview of the discovery of both histamine and the H1 antihistamines. The context of these discoveries is provided in relation to the development of medicinal chemistry during the 19th century. Background is provided on the history of discovery of mechanisms of anaphylaxis and allergy and the immunology of hypersensitivity at the end of the 19th and early 20th century. The discovery of histamine and the antihistamines is then discussed in relation to the development of pharmacological receptor theory culminating in the discovery of the first antihistamines in the 1930s and their widespread clinical introduction in the 1940s.

  1. Effect of morphine, naloxone and histamine system on water intake in adult male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eidi, Maryam; Oryan, Shahrbanoo; Eidi, Akram; Sepehrara, Leili

    2003-10-08

    The present study investigated the interaction between histamine and opioid systems on water intake in adult male rats. Intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) injections were carried out in all experiments. Water intake was measured 1 h after drug injections. Administration of histamine (40-80 microg/rat) and naloxone (0.5-1 microg/rat) increased, while morphine (2.5 microg/rat), pyrilamine (25-50 microg/rat), the histamine H1 receptor antagonist, and ranitidine (10-20 microg/rat), the histamine H2 receptor antagonist, decreased water intake in isolated rats. Blockade of histamine H1 and H2 receptors attenuated the histamine-induced response. Pyrilamine, but not ranitidine, increased the inhibitory effect induced by morphine. Also, pharmacological blockade of histamine H1 and H2 receptors decreased the naloxone-induced effect on water intake. It is concluded that the histaminergic system may have a close interaction with morphine and naloxone on drinking behavior.

  2. Effects of histamine and cholinergic systems on memory retention of passive avoidance learning in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eidi, Maryam; Zarrindast, Mohammad-Reza; Eidi, Akram; Oryan, Shahrbanoo; Parivar, Kazem

    2003-03-28

    In the present study, the effects of the histamine and cholinergic systems on memory retention in adult male rats were investigated. Post-training intracerebroventricular injections were carried out in all the experiments. Cholinoceptor agonist, acetylcholine (1-10 microg/rat) or nicotine (1-10 microg/rat), increased, while a cholinoceptor antagonist, scopolamine (5-20 microg/rat), decreased memory retention. The response to acetylcholine was attenuated by scopolamine. Administration of histamine (5-20 microg/rat) reduced, but the histamine H(1) receptor antagonist, pyrilamine (10-50 microg/rat), and the histamine H(2) receptor antagonist, cimetidine (1-50 microg/rat), increased memory retention in rats. The histamine receptor antagonists attenuated the response to histamine. Histamine reduced the acetylcholine- or nicotine-induced enhancement. The histamine receptor antagonists enhanced the nicotine- or acetylcholine-induced response. Histamine potentiated the inhibitory effect induced by scopolamine. It is concluded that histaminergic and cholinergic systems have opposing effects on memory retention. Also, the histaminergic system elicits an interaction with the cholinergic system in memory retention.

  3. Histamine receptors and antihistamines: from discovery to clinical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cataldi, Mauro; Borriello, Francesco; Granata, Francescopaolo; Annunziato, Lucio; Marone, Gianni

    2014-01-01

    The synthesis and the identification of histamine marked a milestone in both pharmacological and immunological research. Since Sir Henry Dale and Patrick Laidlaw described some of its physiological effects in vivo in 1910, histamine has been shown to play a key role in the control of gastric acid secretion and in allergic disorders. Using selective agonists and antagonists, as well as molecular biology tools, four histamine receptors (H1R, H2R, H3R and H4R) have been identified. The Nobel Prize in Physiology and Medicine was awarded to Daniel Bovet in 1957 for the discovery of antihistamines (anti-H1R) and to Sir James Black in 1988 for the identification of anti-H2R antagonists. Anti-H1R and anti-H2R histamine receptor antagonists have revolutionized the treatment of certain allergic disorders and gastric acid-related conditions, respectively. More recently, anti-H3R antagonists have entered early-phase clinical trials for possible application in obesity and a variety of neurologic disorders. The preferential expression of H4R by several immune cells and its involvement in the development of allergic inflammation provide the rationale for the use of anti-H4R antagonists in allergic and in other immune-related disorders.

  4. Neomycin inhibits histamine and thapsigargin mediated Ca2+ DDT1 MF-2 cells independent of phospholipase C activation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sipma, H; VanderZee, L; DenHertog, A; Nelemans, A

    1996-01-01

    The histamine H-1 receptor mediated increase in cytoplasmic Ca2+ ([Ca2+](i)) was measured in the presence of the known phospholipase C (PLC) inhibitor, neomycin. Neomycin (1 mM) inhibited the histamine (100 mu M) induced rise in [Ca2+](i) to the same extent as observed after blocking Ca2+ entry with

  5. Cytochrome P450 enzymes involved in the metabolic pathway of the histamine 2 (H2)-receptor antagonist roxatidine acetate by human liver microsomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, M; Nakayama, M; Numazawa, S; Oguro, T; Honma, S; Iwamura, S; Tsukamoto, K; Yoshida, T

    2001-01-01

    Roxatidine acetate hydrochloride (ROX, 2-acetoxy-N-[3-[m-(1-piperidinylmethyl)phenoxy]propyl]acetamide hydrochloride, CAS 78273-80-0), a histamine 2 (H2)-receptor antagonist, has been clinically applied for the treatment of gastritis, gastric and duodenal ulcers. There is no report on the identification of the metabolic enzyme of M-1 (2-hydroxy-N-[3-[m-(1-piperidinylmethyl)phenoxy]propyl]acetamide), the pharmacologically active metabolite, in humans. In this study, the Cytochrome P450 (CYP or P450) enzymes which participate in the metabolism of ROX were identified using human liver microsomes and S9 fractions. M-1 was converted to M-4 (3-[m-(1-piperidinyl-methyl)phenoxy]propylamine) by the enzyme reaction with the S9 but not with microsomes. M-4 was further metabolized to M-5 (3-[m-(1-piperidinylmethyl)phenoxy]propanol) by microsomes. The metabolism was inhibited by coumarin and anti-CYP2A1 serum. (3-[m-(1-piperidinylmethyl)-phenoxy]propionic acid) and M-3 (m-(1-piperidinylmethyl) phenol) formation from M-5 were inhibited by quinidine and anti-CYP2D6 serum. Moreover, M-5 was converted to M-2 and M-3 by cDNA-expressed CYP2D6. In conclusion, this study shows that microsomal enzymes do not participate in the clearance of the active metabolite M-1, CYP2A6 primarily catalyzes M-5 formation from M-4, and CYP2D6 primarily catalyzes M-2 and M-3 formation from M-5 in humans.

  6. Interactions of the histamine and hypocretin systems in CNS disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Ling; Dauvilliers, Yves; Siegel, Jerome M

    2015-07-01

    Histamine and hypocretin neurons are localized to the hypothalamus, a brain area critical to autonomic function and sleep. Narcolepsy type 1, also known as narcolepsy with cataplexy, is a neurological disorder characterized by excessive daytime sleepiness, impaired night-time sleep, cataplexy, sleep paralysis and short latency to rapid eye movement (REM) sleep after sleep onset. In narcolepsy, 90% of hypocretin neurons are lost; in addition, two groups reported in 2014 that the number of histamine neurons is increased by 64% or more in human patients with narcolepsy, suggesting involvement of histamine in the aetiology of this disorder. Here, we review the role of the histamine and hypocretin systems in sleep-wake modulation. Furthermore, we summarize the neuropathological changes to these two systems in narcolepsy and discuss the possibility that narcolepsy-associated histamine abnormalities could mediate or result from the same processes that cause the hypocretin cell loss. We also review the changes in the hypocretin and histamine systems, and the associated sleep disruptions, in Parkinson disease, Alzheimer disease, Huntington disease and Tourette syndrome. Finally, we discuss novel therapeutic approaches for manipulation of the histamine system.

  7. What happened after the initial global spread of pandemic human influenza virus A (H1N1? A population genetics approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martinez-Hernandez Fernando

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Viral population evolution dynamics of influenza A is crucial for surveillance and control. In this paper we analyzed viral genetic features during the recent pandemic caused by the new influenza human virus A H1N1, using a conventional population genetics approach based on 4689 hemagglutinin (HA and neuraminidase (NA sequences available in GenBank submitted between March and December of 2009. This analysis showed several relevant aspects: a a scarce initial genetic variability within the viral isolates from some countries that increased along 2009 when influenza was dispersed around the world; b a worldwide virus polarized behavior identified when comparing paired countries, low differentiation and high gene flow were found in some pairs and high differentiation and moderate or scarce gene flow in others, independently of their geographical closeness, c lack of positive selection in HA and NA due to increase of the population size of virus variants, d HA and NA variants spread in a few months all over the world being identified in the same countries in different months along 2009, and e containment of viral variants in Mexico at the beginning of the outbreak, probably due to the control measures applied by the government.

  8. Increase in IFNγ(-IL-2(+ cells in recent human CD4 T cell responses to 2009 pandemic H1N1 influenza.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason M Weaver

    Full Text Available Human CD4 T cell recall responses to influenza virus are strongly biased towards Type 1 cytokines, producing IFNγ, IL-2 and TNFα. We have now examined the effector phenotypes of CD4 T cells in more detail, particularly focusing on differences between recent versus long-term, multiply-boosted responses. Peptides spanning the proteome of temporally distinct influenza viruses were distributed into pools enriched for cross-reactivity to different influenza strains, and used to stimulate antigen-specific CD4 T cells representing recent or long-term memory. In the general population, peptides unique to the long-circulating influenza A/New Caledonia/20/99 (H1N1 induced Th1-like responses biased toward the expression of IFNγ(+TNFα(+ CD4 T cells. In contrast, peptide pools enriched for non-cross-reactive peptides of the pandemic influenza A/California/04/09 (H1N1 induced more IFNγ(-IL-2(+TNFα(+ T cells, similar to the IFNγ(-IL-2(+ non-polarized, primed precursor T cells (Thpp that are a predominant response to protein vaccination. These results were confirmed in a second study that compared samples taken before the 2009 pandemic to samples taken one month after PCR-confirmed A/California/04/09 infection. There were striking increases in influenza-specific TNFα(+, IFNγ(+, and IL-2(+ cells in the post-infection samples. Importantly, peptides enriched for non-cross-reactive A/California/04/09 specificities induced a higher proportion of Thpp-like IFNγ(-IL-2(+TNFα(+ CD4 T cells than peptide pools cross-reactive with previous influenza strains, which induced more Th1 (IFNγ(+TNFα(+ responses. These IFNγ(-IL-2(+TNFα(+ CD4 T cells may be an important target population for vaccination regimens, as these cells are induced upon infection, may have high proliferative potential, and may play a role in providing future effector cells during subsequent infections.

  9. Theoretical analysis of the neuraminidase epitope of the Mexican A H1N1 influenza strain, and experimental studies on its interaction with rabbit and human hosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loyola, Paola Kinara Reyes; Campos-Rodríguez, R; Bello, Martiniano; Rojas-Hernández, S; Zimic, Mirko; Quiliano, Miguel; Briz, Verónica; Muñoz-Fernández, M Angeles; Tolentino-López, Luis; Correa-Basurto, Jose

    2013-05-01

    The neuraminidase (NA) epitope from the Mexican AH1N1 influenza virus was identified by using sequences registered at the GenBank during the peak of a pandemic (from April 2009 to October 2010). First, NA protein sequences were submitted for multiple alignment analysis, and their three-dimensional models (3-D) were then built by using homology modeling. The most common sequence (denominated wild-type) and its mutants were submitted to linear and nonlinear epitope predictors, which included the major histocompatibility complex type II (MHC II) and B-cell peptides. The epitope prediction was in accordance with evolutionary behavior and some protein structural properties. The latter included a low NA mutation rate, NA 3-D surface exposure, and the presence of high hindrance side chain residues. After selecting the epitope, docking studies and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations were used to explore interactions between the epitope and MHC II. Afterward, several experimental assays were performed to validate the theoretical study by using antibodies from humans (infected by pandemic H1N1) and rabbits (epitope vaccination). The results show 119 complete sequences that were grouped into 28 protein sequences according to their identity (one wild-type and 27 representative mutants (1-5 mutations)). The predictors yielded several epitopes, with the best fit being the one located in the C-terminal region. Theoretical methods demonstrated that the selected epitope reached the P4, P6, P7, and P9 pockets of MHC II, whereas the experimental evidence indicates that the epitope is recognized by human antibodies and also by rabbit antibodies immunized with the peptide.

  10. Computational Analysis of Structure-Based Interactions for Novel H1-Antihistamines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yinfeng Yang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available As a chronic disorder, insomnia affects approximately 10% of the population at some time during their lives, and its treatment is often challenging. Since the antagonists of the H1 receptor, a protein prevalent in human central nervous system, have been proven as effective therapeutic agents for treating insomnia, the H1 receptor is quite possibly a promising target for developing potent anti-insomnia drugs. For the purpose of understanding the structural actors affecting the antagonism potency, presently a theoretical research of molecular interactions between 129 molecules and the H1 receptor is performed through three-dimensional quantitative structure-activity relationship (3D-QSAR techniques. The ligand-based comparative molecular similarity indices analysis (CoMSIA model (Q2 = 0.525, R2ncv = 0.891, R2pred = 0.807 has good quality for predicting the bioactivities of new chemicals. The cross-validated result suggests that the developed models have excellent internal and external predictability and consistency. The obtained contour maps were appraised for affinity trends for the investigated compounds, which provides significantly useful information in the rational drug design of novel anti-insomnia agents. Molecular docking was also performed to investigate the mode of interaction between the ligand and the active site of the receptor. Furthermore, as a supplementary tool to study the docking conformation of the antagonists in the H1 receptor binding pocket, molecular dynamics simulation was also applied, providing insights into the changes in the structure. All of the models and the derived information would, we hope, be of help for developing novel potent histamine H1 receptor antagonists, as well as exploring the H1-antihistamines interaction mechanism.

  11. Rabbit IgG directed to a synthetic C-terminal peptide of the major grass pollen allergen Lol p I inhibits human basophil histamine release induced by natural Lol p I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Ree, R; Aalberse, R C

    1995-03-01

    The potential role of allergen-specific IgG antibodies as 'blocking' antibodies in allergen-induced human basophil histamine release was investigated. This was studied in a model with the major grass pollen allergen Lol p I and polyclonal rabbit antisera directed against this allergen and against a synthetic peptide of its C terminus. When allergen and antibodies were allowed to preincubate, Lol p I induced histamine release was inhibited up to 85% by the antiserum against Lol p I. By omitting preincubation, and thereby more closely mimicking an in vivo situation, up to 55% inhibition was realized. This indicates that allergen-specific IgG can act as 'blocking' antibody without preincubation. Immunization of rabbits with a synthetic C-terminal peptide of Lol p I resulted in antibodies reactive with natural Lol p I. Despite their 100-fold lower avidity for Lol p I (as compared with antinatural Lol p I), these antibodies had the capacity to inhibit Lol p I induced histamine release for > 90% (up to 50% without preincubation). This indicates that it is possible to block histamine release induced by a major allergen with low-avidity IgG antibodies directed against a minor proportion of the allergen (25 amino acids). IgE antibodies from the donors studied were unreactive with this synthetic peptide, indicating that for blocking activity identical epitope specificity of IgE and IgG is not essential. This opens interesting perspectives for application of synthetic peptides in immunotherapy, distinct from their effects on T cell reactivity.

  12. Modulation of ConA-induced inflammatory ascites by histamine - short communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baintner, Károly

    2015-03-01

    The early phase of the ConA-induced inflammatory ascites was studied, with special reference to histamine. Concanavalin A (ConA), a cell-surface binding lectin was injected i.p. (25 mg/kg bw) to mice. After 1 h the animals were killed, the ascitic fluid collected and measured. Other agents were injected s.c., 10 min before the ConA-challenge. Exogenous histamine markedly inhibited the ConA-induced ascites. Release of endogenous vasoactive agents from the mast cells by Compound 48/80 had a similar, but slight effect. Cromolyn, a mast cell stabilizing agent, and chloropyramine, a histamine H1 receptor antagonist was ineffective. Although histamine increases endothelial permeability, it did not enhance the formation of ascitic fluid, on the contrary, it inhibited the ConA-induced ascites, presumably due to its known hypotonic effect. It is concluded that ConA-induced ascites is not mediated by mast cell histamine.

  13. Central effect of histamine in a rat model of acute trigeminal pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamaddonfard, Esmaeal; Khalilzadeh, Emad; Hamzeh-Gooshchi, Nasrin; Seiednejhad-Yamchi, Sona

    2008-01-01

    In conscious rats implanted with an intracerebroventricular (icv) cannula, effect of icv injections of histamine, chlorpheniramine (H(1)-receptor antagonist) and ranitidine (H(2)-receptor blocker) was investigated in a rat model of acute trigeminal pain. Acute trigeminal pain was induced by putting a drop of 5 M NaCl solution on the corneal surface of the eye and the numbers of eye wipes were counted during the first 30 s. Histamine (20, 40 microg) and chlorpheniramine (80 microg) significantly decreased the numbers of eye wipes. Ranitidine alone had no effect. Pretreatment with chlorpheniramine did not change the histamine-induced analgesia, whereas the histamine effect on pain was inhibited with ranitidine pretreatment. These results indicate that the brain histamine, through central H(2) receptors, may be involved in the modulation of the acute trigeminal pain in rats.

  14. Histamine, mast cells, and the enteric nervous system in the irritable bowel syndrome, enteritis, and food allergies

    OpenAIRE

    Wood, J. D.

    2006-01-01

    There is altered expression of histamine H1 and H2 receptor subtypes in mucosal biopsies from the terminal ileum and large intestine of patients with symptoms of food allergy and/or irritable bowel syndrome

  15. Evaluation of a fully human monoclonal antibody against multiple influenza A viral strains in mice and a pandemic H1N1 strain in nonhuman primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Aihua; Myojo, Kensuke; Laudenslager, John; Harada, Daisuke; Miura, Toru; Suzuki, Kazuo; Kuni-Kamochi, Reiko; Soloff, Rachel; Ohgami, Kinya; Kanda, Yutaka

    2014-11-01

    Influenza virus is a global health concern due to its unpredictable pandemic potential. Frequent mutations of surface molecules, hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA), contribute to low efficacy of the annual flu vaccine and therapeutic resistance to standard antiviral agents. The populations at high risk of influenza virus infection, such as the elderly and infants, generally mount low immune responses to vaccines, and develop severe disease after infection. Novel therapeutics with high effectiveness and mutation resistance are needed. Previously, we described the generation of a fully human influenza virus matrix protein 2 (M2) specific monoclonal antibody (mAb), Z3G1, which recognized the majority of M2 variants from natural viral isolates, including highly pathogenic avian strains. Passive immunotherapy with Z3G1 significantly protected mice from the infection when administered either prophylactically or 1-2days post infection. In the present study, we showed that Z3G1 significantly protected mice from lethal infection when treatment was initiated 3days post infection. In addition, therapeutic administration of Z3G1 reduced lung viral titers in mice infected with different viral strains, including amantadine and oseltamivir-resistant strains. Furthermore, prophylactic and therapeutic administration of Z3G1 sustained O2 saturation and reduced lung pathology in monkeys infected with a pandemic H1N1 strain. Finally, de-fucosylated Z3G1 with an IgG1/IgG3 chimeric Fc region was generated (AccretaMab® Z3G1), and showed increased ADCC and CDC in vitro. Our data suggest that the anti-M2 mAb Z3G1 has great potential as a novel anti-flu therapeutic agent.

  16. Naturally Occurring Antibodies in Humans Can Neutralize a Variety of Influenza Virus Strains, Including H3, H1, H2, and H5 ▿ §

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohshima, Nobuko; Iba, Yoshitaka; Kubota-Koketsu, Ritsuko; Asano, Yoshizo; Okuno, Yoshinobu; Kurosawa, Yoshikazu

    2011-01-01

    Influenza A viruses are classified into 16 subtypes according to the serotypes of hemagglutinin (HA). It is generally thought that neutralizing antibodies (Abs) are not broadly cross-reactive among HA subtypes. We examined the repertoire of neutralizing Abs against influenza viruses in humans. B lymphocytes were collected from donors by apheresis, and Ab libraries were constructed by using phage-display technology. Anti-HA clones were isolated by screening with H3N2 viruses. Their binding activity was examined, and four kinds of Abs showing broad strain specificity were identified from one donor. Two of the Abs, F045-092 and F026-427, were extensively analyzed. They neutralized not only H3N2 but also H1N1, H2N2, and H5N1 viruses, although the activities were largely varied. Flow cytometry suggested that they have the ability to bind to HA and HA1 artificially expressed on the cell surface. They show hemagglutination inhibition activity and do not compete with C179, an Ab thought to bind to the stalk region. F045-092 competes with Abs that recognize sites A and B for binding to HA. Furthermore, the serine at residue 136 in site A could be a part of the epitope. Thus, it is likely that F045-092 and F026-427 bind to a conserved epitope in the head region formed by HA1. Interestingly, while the VH1-69 gene can encode MAbs against the HA stem that are group 1 specific, F045-092 and its relatives that recognize the head region also use VH1-69. The possible epitope recognized by these clones is discussed. PMID:21865387

  17. Central Effect of Exogenous Histamine on Pain Induced by Sub-Plantar Injection of Formalin in Rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esmaeal Tamaddonfard

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, the effects of intracerebroventricular (ICV administration of normal saline (control, histamine, mepyramine (a histamine H1-receptor antagonist and ranitidine (a histamine H2-receptor antagonist were investigated on the formalin-induced pain in rabbits. Subcutaneous (SC injection of a formalin (100 μl, 5% solution into the ventral surface of the right hind paw was performed, and the time durations spent licking and biting the injected paw were measured in 10 min blocks for 1 h. The SC injection of formalin produced a short-lasting (10 min pain response. The ICV injection of histamine at doses of 25, 50 and 100 μg significantly (P < 0.05 decreased the time duration spent licking and biting the injected paw. Mepyramine and ranitidine, used alone produced no effects. The ICV pretreatments with mepyramine and ranitidine at the same dose of 200 μg significantly (P < 0.05 prevented histamine (100 μg, ICV-induced antinociception. These results indicate that activation of brain histamine with ICV injection of exogenous histamine produces antinociception. Central histamine H1 and H2 receptors may be involved in the centrally administered histamine-induced antinociception in the formalin-induced pain in rabbits.

  18. Effects of intracerebroventricular injection of histamine and related compounds on corticosterone release in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsujimoto, S; Okumura, Y; Kamei, C; Tasaka, K

    1993-07-01

    1. The effects of intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) injection of histamine and related compounds on plasma adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) and corticosterone concentrations were studied in conscious rats. 2. Histamine at doses of 5-20 micrograms kg-1 rapidly increased plasma ACTH and corticosterone concentrations almost simultaneously, and subsequent courses were also similar to each other. However, in the case of CRF-41 (i.v.), the plasma ACTH concentration first increased followed by an increase in plasma corticosterone concentration. Even in hypophysectomized rats, a significant increase in plasma corticosterone concentration was induced by histamine at doses of 20 and 50 micrograms kg-1. 3. Histamine at doses of 10 and 20 micrograms kg-1 elicited an increase in the amplitude of adrenal nerve activity, and electrical stimulation to the adrenal nerves resulted in an increase in plasma corticosterone concentration. 4. Both H1-agonist (2-methylhistamine) and H2-agonists (4-methylhistamine and impromidine) also induced similar effects to those of histamine. Pretreatment with pyrilamine caused an inhibition of histamine-induced increase in plasma ACTH and corticosterone concentrations, while both cimetidine and ranitidine failed to inhibit this effect. However, both H2-blockers were effective in inhibiting the 4-methylhistamine-induced elevation of plasma ACTH and corticosterone concentrations. 5. Neither (R)-alpha-methylhistamine nor thioperamide had a significant effect, indicating that the H3-receptor is not involved in the histamine-induced increase in plasma ACTH and corticosterone concentrations. 6. From these findings, it was concluded that (1) electrical signals transmitted from the brain to the adrenal gland through the neurones may be involved in the rapid corticosterone release induced by histamine, and (2) not only H1- but also H2-receptors are implicated in histamine-induced hormone secretions in rats, though the contribution of the H2-receptor is

  19. [Case report of the first world death due to a new strain of human influenza A H1N1 virus and behavior of human influenzae in pregnant women].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noguera Sánchez, Marcelo Fidias; Karchmer Krivitzky, Samuel; EsliRabadán, Martínez Cesar; Antonio Sánchez, Pedro

    2013-01-01

    Influenza A H1N1 is an acute respiratory illness caused by a new strain of H1N1. Human influenza is a subtype of influenza Avirus, from the family of Orthomyxoviridae. This strain is the cause of new influenza pandemic declared by the World Health Organization in June, 2009. This paper reports the first case occurred in Mexico: a 39-year-old woman with a history of diabetes mellitus type 2 and obesity grade II, which suffered atypical and aggressive pneumonia positive to coronavirus. Patient died 98 hours after her admission to the hospital unit. Due to the clinical presentation of the case, the doctors sent samples to the Instituto Nacional de Diagnóstico y Referencia Epidemiológica that sent an aliquot of the National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases of theAgency of Public Health in Canada, that reported positivity to influenza virus, and catalogued it as a new global strain called influenza A virus H1N1. The notice of 229E/NL63 coronavirus and its relationship to the recent outbreaks of avian influenza in humans and the clinical presentation of the case were the epidemiological circumstances that prevented the nation epidemiology system to establish global containment strategies to prevent the spread of this emerging infection. The consequence was the declaration of WHO pandemic alert level 6. Its behavior in pregnancy, reported by Assistant General Direction of Epidemiology in Mexico, has placed this infection as a risk factor for women.

  20. H1 at HERA Exhibition

    CERN Multimedia

    2000-01-01

    H1 is one of the two large detectors installed at HERA, the first electron-proton accelerator, located at DESY in Hamburg. The H1 collaboration regroups physicists from 32institutes of 11countries all over the world.

  1. Influence of the oncolytic parvovirus H-1, CTLA-4 antibody tremelimumab and cytostatic drugs on the human immune system in a human in vitro model of colorectal cancer cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heinrich B

    2013-08-01

    viability of the colon carcinoma cell line. There was no maturation of iDCs after coculture with SW480; instead, H-1PV-infected or drug pretreated SW480 induced maturation. Cytokine production was higher for H-1PV-infected cells but was not significantly enhanced by tremelimumab treatment alone or in combination. Addition of tremelimumab did not interfere with the maturation process as measured by markers of maturation as well as by determination of cytokine levels.Conclusion: By enhancing both cell death and immunogenicity of tumors, H-1PV is of special interest for tumor-directed therapy. These features make it a promising candidate for clinical application in human colorectal cancer. As tremelimumab does not significantly interfere with this process, an interesting therapeutic combination of active enhancement of tumor immunogenicity and independent masking of the CTLA-4 silencing process on tumor cells is highlighted.Keywords: dendritic cells, SW480

  2. Histamine and spontaneous motor activity: biphasic changes, receptors involved and participation of the striatal dopamine system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiavegatto, S; Nasello, A G; Bernardi, M M

    1998-01-01

    The time- and dose-related effects of exogenous histamine on spontaneous motor activity and receptors involved were evaluated in male rats. Intracerebroventricular administration of histamine (5.4 and 54.3 nmol) produced a biphasic effect with initial transitory hypoactivity and later hyperactivity expressed by locomotion frequency in an open-field. The rearing frequencies were only reduced by all doses of histamine used. The histamine-induced hypoactivity was inhibited by the H3-antagonist thioperamide and was also induced by the H3-agonist N-alpha-methylhistamine. The histamine-induced hyperactivity phase was blocked by the H1-antagonist mepyramine. The H2-antagonist ranitidine increased locomotion and rearing frequencies. The participation of other neurotransmitters in the persistent hypokinetic effect induced by 135.8 nmol of histamine was determined by HPLC in the striatum and hypothalamus as counter-proof. A decreased DOPAC/DA ratio was observed only in the striatum. In the hypothalamus, low levels of 5HT were detected, probably not correlated with motor activity. In conclusion, the present results suggest that the exogenous histamine-induced hypoactivity response is probably due to activation of H3-receptors as heteroreceptors reducing the activity of the striatal dopaminergic system. This effect can partially overlap with the expression of the hyperactivity induced by H1-receptor activation. The participation of H2-receptors requires further investigation.

  3. Biosensor cell assay for measuring real-time aldosterone-induced release of histamine from mesenteric arteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgaard, Emil G; Andersen, Kenneth; Svenningsen, Per

    2017-01-01

    as a sensitive biosensor assay for histamine release from isolated mouse mesenteric arteries. Activation of the H1 receptor by histamine was measured as an increased number of intracellular Ca(2+) transient peaks using fluorescence imaging RESULTS: The developed biosensor was sensitive to histamine...... in physiological relevant concentrations and responded to substances released by the artery preparation. Aldosterone treatment of mesenteric arteries from wild type mice for 50 minutes resulted in an increased number of intracellular Ca(2+) transient peaks in the biosensor cells, which was significantly inhibited...... by the histamine H1 blocker pyrilamine. Mesenteric arteries from mast cell deficient SASH mice induced similar pyrilamine-sensitive Ca(2+) transient response in the biosensor cells. Mesenteric arteries from wild type and SASH mice expressed histamine decarboxylase mRNA, indicating that mast cells are not the only...

  4. Histamine in the locus coeruleus promotes descending noradrenergic inhibition of neuropathic hypersensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Hong; Jin, Cong-Yu; Viisanen, Hanna; You, Hao-Jun; Pertovaara, Antti

    2014-12-01

    Among brain structures receiving efferent projections from the histaminergic tuberomammillary nucleus is the pontine locus coeruleus (LC) involved in descending noradrenergic control of pain. Here we studied whether histamine in the LC is involved in descending regulation of neuropathic hypersensitivity. Peripheral neuropathy was induced by unilateral spinal nerve ligation in the rat with a chronic intracerebral and intrathecal catheter for drug administrations. Mechanical hypersensitivity in the injured limb was assessed by monofilaments. Heat nociception was assessed by determining radiant heat-induced paw flick. Histamine in the LC produced a dose-related (1-10μg) mechanical antihypersensitivity effect (maximum effect at 15min and duration of effect 30min), without influence on heat nociception. Pretreatment of LC with zolantidine (histamine H2 receptor antagonist), but not with pyrilamine (histamine H1 receptor antagonist), and spinal administration of atipamezole (an α2-adrenoceptor antagonist), prazosine (an α1-adrenoceptor antagonist) or bicuculline (a GABAA receptor antagonist) attenuated the antihypersensitivity effect of histamine. The histamine-induced antihypersensitivity effect was also reduced by pretreatment of LC with fadolmidine, an α2-adrenoceptor agonist inducing autoinhibition of noradrenergic cell bodies. Zolantidine or pyrilamine alone in the LC failed to influence pain behavior, while A-960656 (histamine H3 receptor antagonist) suppressed hypersensitivity. A plausible explanation for these findings is that histamine, due to excitatory action mediated by the histamine H2 receptor on noradrenergic cell bodies, promotes descending spinal α1/2-adrenoceptor-mediated inhibition of neuropathic hypersensitivity. Blocking the autoinhibitory histamine H3 receptor on histaminergic nerve terminals in the LC facilitates release of histamine and thereby, increases descending noradrenergic pain inhibition.

  5. Histamine and neuroinflammation: insights from mouse experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Beatrice ePassani

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Multiple sclerosis (MS is a chronic inflammatory, neurodegenerative disease of the CNS whose pathogenesis remains largely unknown, and available therapies are rarely successful in reversing neurological deficits or stopping disease progression. Ongoing studies on MS and the widely used murine model experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE are trying to dissect out the many components of this complex and heterogeneous neurodegenerative disease in the hope of providing a mechanism-based characterization of MS that will afford successful strategies to limit and repair the neuronal damage. Recently, histamine has been postulated to have a key regulatory role in EAE and in MS pathogenesis. Histamine is a mediator of inflammation and immune responses, it explicates its many actions through four G protein-coupled receptors (H1,2,3,4R that signal through distinct intracellular pathways and have different therapeutic potentials as they vary in expression, distribution of isoforms, signaling properties and function. Immune cells involved in MS/EAE, including dendritic cells and T lymphocytes, express H1R, H2R and H4R, and histamine may have varying and counteracting effects on a particular cell type depending on the receptor subtypes being activated. Here, we review evidence of the complex and controversial role of histamine in MS/EAE pathogenesis and evaluate the therapeutic potential of histaminergic ligands to treat autoimmune diseases.

  6. Effects of histamine on MK-801-induced memory deficits in radial maze performance in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Z; Zhao, Q; Sugimoto, Y; Fujii, Y; Kamei, C

    1999-08-21

    The effects of histamine on the spatial memory deficits induced by MK-801 were investigated using the eight-arm radial maze paradigm in rats. Intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) injection of histamine or thioperamide, and intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of histidine improved the spatial memory deficits induced by MK-801. Similar results were obtained with 2-thiazolylethylamine. In contrast, 4-methylhistamine showed no significant effect. Based on these observations, it seems likely that the protective effect of histamine on MK-801-induced spatial memory deficit is mediated by H(1)-receptors.

  7. Effects of histamine and opioid systems on memory retention of passive avoidance learning in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarrindast, Mohammad-Reza; Eidi, Maryam; Eidi, Akram; Oryan, Shahrbano

    2002-10-04

    The present study investigated the effect of interactions between histamine receptor agents and the opioid peptidergic system on memory retention of passive avoidance learning in rats. Post-training intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) injections were carried out in all the experiments. Administration of histamine (20 micro g/rat) reduced, but the histamine H(1) receptor antagonist, pyrilamine (20 and 50 micro g/rat), and the histamine H(2) receptor antagonist, cimetidine (10 and 50 micro g/rat), increased memory retention in rats. The histamine receptor antagonists decreased the response induced by histamine. Morphine (1-10 micro g/rat) reduced, while pentazocine (5 and 10 micro g/rat) or the opioid receptor antagonist, naloxone (5 and 15 micro g/rat), increased memory retention. The combination of histamine with morphine showed potentiation. Effects of pyrilamine and cimetidine were attenuated by morphine. The responses to pentazocine and naloxone also were decreased by histamine. It is concluded that the histaminergic system has an interaction with opioidergic system that is involved in the memory retention process.

  8. H1-antihistamines induce vacuolation in astrocytes through macroautophagy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Wei-Wei; Yang, Ying; Wang, Zhe; Shen, Zhe; Zhang, Xiang-Nan [Department of Pharmacology, Key Laboratory of Medical Neurobiology of the Ministry of Health of China, Zhejiang Province Key Laboratory of Neurobiology, School of Basic Medical Sciences, College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang, 310058 (China); Wang, Guang-Hui [College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Soochow University, Suzhou, 215123 (China); Chen, Zhong, E-mail: chenzhong@zju.edu.cn [Department of Pharmacology, Key Laboratory of Medical Neurobiology of the Ministry of Health of China, Zhejiang Province Key Laboratory of Neurobiology, School of Basic Medical Sciences, College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang, 310058 (China)

    2012-04-15

    H1-antihistamines induce vacuolation in vascular smooth muscle cells, which may contribute to their cardiovascular toxicity. The CNS toxicity of H1-antihistamines may also be related to their non-receptor-mediated activity. The aim of this study was to investigate whether H1-antihistamines induce vacuolation in astrocytes and the mechanism involved. The H1-antihistamines induced large numbers of giant vacuoles in astrocytes. Such vacuoles were marked with both the lysosome marker Lysotracker Red and the alkalescent fluorescence dye monodansylcadaverine, which indicated that these vacuoles were lysosome-like acidic vesicles. Quantitative analysis of monodansylcadaverine fluorescence showed that the effect of H1-antihistamines on vacuolation in astrocytes was dose-dependent, and was alleviated by extracellular acidification, but aggravated by extracellular alkalization. The order of potency to induce vacuolation at high concentrations of H1-antihistamines (diphenhydramine > pyrilamine > astemizole > triprolidine) corresponded to their pKa ranking. Co-treatment with histamine and the histamine receptor-1 agonist trifluoromethyl toluidide did not inhibit the vacuolation. Bafilomycin A1, a vacuolar (V)-ATPase inhibitor, which inhibits intracellular vacuole or vesicle acidification, clearly reversed the vacuolation and intracellular accumulation of diphenhydramine. The macroautophagy inhibitor 3-methyladenine largely reversed the percentage of LC3-positive astrocytes induced by diphenhydramine, while only partly reversing the number of monodansylcadaverine-labeled vesicles. In Atg5{sup −/−} mouse embryonic fibroblasts, which cannot form autophagosomes, the number of vacuoles induced by diphenhydramine was less than that in wild-type cells. These results indicated that H1-antihistamines induce V-ATPase-dependent acidic vacuole formation in astrocytes, and this is partly mediated by macroautophagy. The pKa and alkalescent characteristic of H1-antihistamines may be the

  9. Histamine H3 receptors aggravate cerebral ischaemic injury by histamine-independent mechanisms

    OpenAIRE

    Yan, Haijing; Zhang, Xiangnan; Hu, Weiwei; Ma, Jing; Hou, Weiwei; Zhang, Xingzhou; Wang, Xiaofen; Gao, Jieqiong; Yao SHEN; Lv, Jianxin; Ohtsu, Hiroshi; Han, Feng; Wang, Guanghui; Chen, Zhong

    2014-01-01

    The role of the histamine H3 receptor (H3R) in cerebral ischaemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury remains unknown. Here we show that H3R expression is upregulated after I/R in two mouse models. H3R antagonists and H3R knockout attenuate I/R injury, which is reversed by an H3R-selective agonist. Interestingly, H1R and H2R antagonists, a histidine decarboxylase (HDC) inhibitor and HDC knockout all fail to compromise the protection by H3R blockade. H3R blockade inhibits mTOR phosphorylation and reinfor...

  10. Comparison of methods for intestinal histamine application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vind, S; Søondergaard, I; Poulsen, L K

    1991-01-01

    The study was conducted to investigate whether introduction of histamine in enterosoluble capsules produced the same amount of urinary histamine metabolites as that found after application of histamine through a duodeno-jejunal tube. Secondly, to examine whether a histamine-restrictive or a fast ...

  11. Effect of Maillard reaction on biochemical properties of peanut 7S globulin (Ara h 1) and its interaction with a human colon cancer cell line (Caco-2)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teodorowicz, M.; Fiedorowicz, E.; Kostyra, H.; Wichers, H.J.; Kostyra, E.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of Maillard reaction (MR, glycation) on biochemical and biological properties of the major peanut allergen Ara h 1. Methods Three different time/temperature conditions of treatment were applied (37, 60, and 145 °C). The extent of MR wa

  12. Effect of Maillard reaction on biochemical properties of peanut 7S globulin (Ara h 1) and its interaction with a human colon cancer cell line (Caco-2)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teodorowicz, M.; Fiedorowicz, E.; Kostyra, H.; Wichers, H.J.; Kostyra, E.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of Maillard reaction (MR, glycation) on biochemical and biological properties of the major peanut allergen Ara h 1. Methods Three different time/temperature conditions of treatment were applied (37, 60, and 145 °C). The extent of MR wa

  13. Hippocampal somatostatin receptors and modulation of adenylyl cyclase activity in histamine-treated rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puebla, L; Rodríguez-Martín, E; Arilla, E

    1996-01-01

    In the present study, the effects of an intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) dose of histamine (0.1, 1.0 or 10.0 micrograms) on the hippocampal somatostatin (SS) receptor/effector system in Wistar rats were investigated. In view of the rapid onset of histamine action, the effects of histamine on the somatostatinergic system were studied 2 h after its administration. Hippocampal SS-like immunoreactivity (SSLI) levels were not modified by any of the histamine doses studied. SS-mediated inhibition of basal and forskolin (FK)-stimulated adenylyl cyclase (AC) activity was markedly increased in hippocampal membranes from rats treated with 10 micrograms of histamine (23% +/- 1% vs. 17% +/- 1% and 37% +/- 2% vs. 23% +/- 1%, respectively). In contrast, neither the basal nor the FK-stimulated enzyme activities were affected by histamine administration. The functional activity of the hippocampal guanine-nucleotide binding inhibitory protein (Gi protein), as assessed by the capacity of the stable GTP analogue 5'-guanylylimidodiphosphate (Gpp[NH]p) to inhibit FK-stimulated AC activity, was not modified by histamine administration. These data suggest that the increased response of the enzyme to SS was not related to an increased functional activity of Gi proteins. In fact, the increased AC response to SS in hippocampal membranes from histamine (10 micrograms)-treated rats was associated with quantitative changes in the SS receptors. Equilibrium binding data obtained with [125I]Tyr11-SS indicate an increase in the number with specific SS receptors (541 +/- 24 vs. 365 +/- 16 fmol/mg protein, P histamine (10 micrograms)-treated rats as compared to control animals. With the aim of determining if these changes were related to histamine binding to its specific receptor sites, the histaminergic H1 and H2 receptor antagonists mepyramine and cimetidine, respectively, were administered 1 h before histamine injection. The pretreatment with mepyramine or cimetidine induced an increase in the

  14. Effects of H1–receptor antagonists in antidepressant tests in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Chitra C. Khanwelkar

    2008-01-01

    : Considering the vast data suggesting the role of brain histamine(HA) in behaviour,emotions,anxiety and depression;four H1-receptor antagonists; promethazine, diphenhydramine, cyclizine and pheniramine were subjected to antidepressant tests in rats. All H1 – antagonists behaved like antidepressants in animal tests. They antagonized reserpine induced catalepsy, potentiated methamphetamine induced stereotypy and reduced the period of immobility in Porsolt’s behavioural despair test. It is sug...

  15. Triple-reassortant influenza A virus with H3 of human seasonal origin, NA of swine origin, and internal A(H1N1) pandemic 2009 genes is established in Danish pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krog, Jesper Schak; Hjulsager, Charlotte Kristiane; Larsen, Michael Albin

    2017-01-01

    This report describes a triple-reassortant influenza A virus with a HA that resembles H3 of human seasonal influenza from 2004 to 2005, N2 from influenza A virus already established in swine, and the internal gene cassette from A(H1N1)pdm09 has spread in Danish pig herds. The virus has been detec...

  16. Triple-reassortant influenza A virus with H3 of human seasonal origin, NA of swine origin, and internal A(H1N1) pandemic 2009 genes is established in Danish pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krog, Jesper Schak; Hjulsager, Charlotte Kristiane; Larsen, Michael Albin

    2017-01-01

    This report describes a triple-reassortant influenza A virus with a HA that resembles H3 of human seasonal influenza from 2004 to 2005, N2 from influenza A virus already established in swine, and the internal gene cassette from A(H1N1)pdm09 has spread in Danish pig herds. The virus has been detec...

  17. Swine Influenza Virus PA and Neuraminidase Gene Reassortment into Human H1N1 Influenza Virus Is Associated with an Altered Pathogenic Phenotype Linked to Increased MIP-2 Expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dlugolenski, Daniel; Jones, Les; Howerth, Elizabeth; Wentworth, David; Tompkins, S Mark; Tripp, Ralph A

    2015-05-01

    Swine are susceptible to infection by both avian and human influenza viruses, and this feature is thought to contribute to novel reassortant influenza viruses. In this study, the influenza virus reassortment rate in swine and human cells was determined. Coinfection of swine cells with 2009 pandemic H1N1 virus (huH1N1) and an endemic swine H1N2 (A/swine/Illinois/02860/09) virus (swH1N2) resulted in a 23% reassortment rate that was independent of α2,3- or α2,6-sialic acid distribution on the cells. The reassortants had altered pathogenic phenotypes linked to introduction of the swine virus PA and neuraminidase (NA) into huH1N1. In mice, the huH1N1 PA and NA mediated increased MIP-2 expression early postinfection, resulting in substantial pulmonary neutrophilia with enhanced lung pathology and disease. The findings support the notion that swine are a mixing vessel for influenza virus reassortants independent of sialic acid distribution. These results show the potential for continued reassortment of the 2009 pandemic H1N1 virus with endemic swine viruses and for reassortants to have increased pathogenicity linked to the swine virus NA and PA genes which are associated with increased pulmonary neutrophil trafficking that is related to MIP-2 expression. Influenza A viruses can change rapidly via reassortment to create a novel virus, and reassortment can result in possible pandemics. Reassortments among subtypes from avian and human viruses led to the 1957 (H2N2 subtype) and 1968 (H3N2 subtype) human influenza pandemics. Recent analyses of circulating isolates have shown that multiple genes can be recombined from human, avian, and swine influenza viruses, leading to triple reassortants. Understanding the factors that can affect influenza A virus reassortment is needed for the establishment of disease intervention strategies that may reduce or preclude pandemics. The findings from this study show that swine cells provide a mixing vessel for influenza virus reassortment

  18. The impact of antigenic drift of influenza A virus on human herd immunity: Sero-epidemiological study of H1N1 in healthy Thai population in 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanai, Yuta; Boonsathorn, Naphatsawan; Chittaganpitch, Malinee; Bai, Guirong; Li, Yonggang; Kase, Tetsuo; Takahashi, Kazuo; Okuno, Yoshinobu; Jampangern, Wipawee; Ikuta, Kazuyoshi; Sawanpanyalert, Pathom

    2010-07-26

    To examine the effect of the antigenic drift of H1N1 influenza viruses on herd immunity, neutralization antibodies from 744 sera from Thai healthy volunteers in 2008-2009, who had not been vaccinated for at least the last 5 years, were investigated by microneutralization (MN) and hemagglutination inhibition (HI) assays. Significantly higher MN titers were observed for the H1N1 Thai isolate in 2006 than in 2008. The results indicate that the antigenically drifted virus effectively escaped herd immunity. Since the low neutralization activity of herd immunity against drifted viruses is an important factor for viruses to spread efficiently, continuous sero-epidemiological study is required for public health.

  19. The 2009 Influenza A(H1N1) ’Swine Flu’ Outbreak: U.S. Responses to Global Human Cases

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-05-26

    treatable with two antiviral drugs, oseltamivir ( brand name Tamiflu®) and zanamivir ( brand name Relenza®), though there is no available vaccine. WHO...www.who.int/ csr /disease/swineflu/en/ index.html and CRS Report R40554, The 2009 H1N1 “Swine Flu” Outbreak: An Overview, by Sarah A. Lister and C...the virus 5 See WHO, Swine influenza - update 3, April 27, 2009, http://www.who.int/ csr /don

  20. Whole genome characterization of human influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 viruses isolated from Kenya during the 2009 pandemic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gachara, George; Symekher, Samuel; Otieno, Michael; Magana, Japheth; Opot, Benjamin; Bulimo, Wallace

    2016-06-01

    An influenza pandemic caused by a novel influenza virus A(H1N1)pdm09 spread worldwide in 2009 and is estimated to have caused between 151,700 and 575,400 deaths globally. While whole genome data on new virus enables a deeper insight in the pathogenesis, epidemiology, and drug sensitivities of the circulating viruses, there are relatively limited complete genetic sequences available for this virus from African countries. We describe herein the full genome analysis of influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 viruses isolated in Kenya between June 2009 and August 2010. A total of 40 influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 viruses isolated during the pandemic were selected. The segments from each isolate were amplified and directly sequenced. The resulting sequences of individual gene segments were concatenated and used for subsequent analysis. These were used to infer phylogenetic relationships and also to reconstruct the time of most recent ancestor, time of introduction into the country, rates of substitution and to estimate a time-resolved phylogeny. The Kenyan complete genome sequences clustered with globally distributed clade 2 and clade 7 sequences but local clade 2 viruses did not circulate beyond the introductory foci while clade 7 viruses disseminated country wide. The time of the most recent common ancestor was estimated between April and June 2009, and distinct clusters circulated during the pandemic. The complete genome had an estimated rate of nucleotide substitution of 4.9×10(-3) substitutions/site/year and greater diversity in surface expressed proteins was observed. We show that two clades of influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 virus were introduced into Kenya from the UK and the pandemic was sustained as a result of importations. Several closely related but distinct clusters co-circulated locally during the peak pandemic phase but only one cluster dominated in the late phase of the pandemic suggesting that it possessed greater adaptability.

  1. Molecular analysis of the interaction of the four histamine receptor subtypes with antidepressant and antipsychotic drugs

    OpenAIRE

    Appl, Heidrun

    2010-01-01

    Antidepressant and antipsychotic drugs are known to affect multiple molecular targets. Beside their determinant effects on the neurotransmission of serotonin, norepinephrine and dopamine via several transporters and receptors, they may also modulate muscarinic acetylcholine receptors and the histamine H1 receptor (H1R). Consequently, these drugs do not only yield unique profiles of desired effects but also several unwanted side effects that may impact therapy. In addition to the H1R, the hist...

  2. Effects of alpha-adrenoceptor agonists and antagonists on histamine-induced impairment of memory retention of passive avoidance learning in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarrindast, Mohammad-Reza; Ahmadi, Ramesh; Oryan, Shahrbanoo; Parivar, Kazem; Haeri-Rohani, Ali

    2002-11-15

    The effect of alpha-adrenoceptor agents on the impairment induced by histamine was measured for memory retention of passive avoidance learning in rats. Post-training intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) injection was carried out in all the experiments. Histamine (5, 10 and 20 microg/rat) reduced, while a histamine H(1) receptor antagonist, chlorpheniramine (0.1, 1 and 10 microg/rat), increased memory retention. The histamine H(2) receptor antagonist, ranitidine (0.1, 1, 10 and 20 microg/rat), did not elicit any response in this respect. Different doses of chlorpheniramine but not ranitidine reversed the histamine-induced impairment of memory. Clonidine and prazosin decreased, but yohimbine and phenylephrine increased, memory retention. Yohimbine decreased the inhibitory response to histamine. Phenylephrine, clonidine and prazosin did not alter the histamine effect. It is concluded that a histamine-induced impairment of memory retention through histamine H(1) receptors and an alpha(2)-adrenoceptor mechanism may be involved in the histamine response.

  3. Histamine 50-Skin-Prick Test: A Tool to Diagnose Histamine Intolerance

    OpenAIRE

    Lukas Kofler; Hanno Ulmer; Heinz Kofler

    2011-01-01

    Background. Histamine intolerance results from an imbalance between histamine intake and degradation. In healthy persons, dietary histamine can be sufficiently metabolized by amine oxidases, whereas persons with low amine oxidase activity are at risk of histamine toxicity. Diamine oxidase (DAO) is the key enzyme in degradation. Histamine elicits a wide range of effects. Histamine intolerance displays symptoms, such as rhinitis, headache, gastrointestinal symptoms, palpitations, urticaria and ...

  4. Histamine H3-receptor inverse agonists as novel antipsychotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Chihiro

    2009-06-01

    Schizophrenia (SZ) that is resistant to treatment with dopamine (DA) D2 antagonists may involve changes other than those in the dopaminergic system. Recently, histamine (HA), which regulates arousal and cognitive functions, has been suggested to act as a neurotransmitter in the central nervous system. Four HA receptors-H1, H2, H3, and H4-have been identified. Our recent basic and clinical studies revealed that brain HA improved the symptoms of SZ. The H3 receptor is primarily localized in the central nervous system, and it acts not only as a presynaptic autoreceptor that modulates the HA release but also as a presynaptic heteroreceptor that regulates the release of other neurotransmitters such as monoamines and amino acids. H3-receptor inverse agonists have been considered to improve cognitive functions. Many atypical antipsychotics are H3-receptor antagonists. Imidazole-containing H3-receptor inverse agonists inhibit not only cytochrome P450 but also hERG potassium channels (encoded by the human ether-a-go-go-related gene). Several imidazole H3-receptor inverse agonists also have high affinity for H4 receptors, which are expressed at high levels in mast cells and leukocytes. Clozapine is an H4-receptor agonist; this agonist activity may be related to the serious side effect of agranulocytosis caused by clozapine. Therefore, selective non-imidazole H3-receptor inverse agonists can be considered as novel antipsychotics that may improve refractory SZ.

  5. Histamine and betahistine in the treatment of vertigo: elucidation of mechanisms of action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacour, M; Sterkers, O

    2001-01-01

    The aim of this review is to provide clinicians with a picture of the mechanisms by which: histamine and histaminergic agonists act on the vestibular system both peripherally and centrally; and histaminergic agonists and antagonists interfere with the recovery process after peripheral vestibular lesion. We have focused on betahistine, a structural analogue of histamine with weak histamine H(1) receptor agonist and more potent H(3) receptor antagonist properties, to review the currently available data on the role of the histaminergic system in the recovery process after peripheral vestibular deficits and the effects of histamine analogues in the clinical treatment of vertigo. This review provides new insights into the basic mechanisms by which betahistine improves vestibular compensation in animal models of unilateral vestibular dysfunction, and elucidates particularly the mechanisms of action of this substance at the level of the CNS. It is proposed that betahistine may reduce peripherally the asymmetric functioning of the sensory vestibular organs in addition to increasing vestibulocochlear blood flow by antagonising local H(3) heteroreceptors. Betahistine acts centrally by enhancing histamine synthesis within tuberomammillary nuclei of the posterior hypothalamus and histamine release within vestibular nuclei through antagonism of H(3) autoreceptors. This mechanism, together with less specific effects of betahistine on alertness regulation through cerebral H(1) receptors, should promote and facilitate central vestibular compensation. Elucidation of the mechanisms of action of betahistine is of particular interest for the treatment of vestibular and cochlear disorders and vertigo.

  6. H1 antihistamines in allergic rhinitis: The molecular pathways of interleukin and toll - like receptor systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonny Karunia Fajar

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The complex interaction between inflammatory mediators in allergic rhinitis (AR is determined by the role of genetic polymorphisms, including interleukin (IL and toll-like receptor (TLR genes. This study aimed to discuss the effects of H1-antihistamines on IL and TLR systems. Several ILs involved in AR pathogenesis are: IL-4 (rs2243250, rs1800925, rs1801275, rs2227284, rs2070874, IL-6 (rs1800795, rs1800797, IL-10 (rs1800871, rs1800872, IL-12R (rs438421, IL-13 (rs1800925, rs20541, IL-17 (rs3819024, IL-18 (rs360721, rs360718, rs360717, rs187238, IL-23R (rs7517847, and IL-27 (rs153109, rs17855750. In the IL system, histamines stimulate the IL production in Type 2 helper T (Th2 cells through protein kinase A (PKA, janus kinase-signal transducer and activator of transcription (JAK-STAT pathway, and the activation of H1-histamine receptor and histidine decarboxylase (HDC genes. On contrary, antihistamines down-regulate the H1-histamine receptor gene expression through the transcription suppression of HDC and IL genes and suppress histamine basal signaling through the inverse agonistic activity. TLRs involved in AR pathogenesis are TLR2 (rs4696480, rs3804099, rs5743708, TLR4 (rs4986790, TLR6 (rs2381289, TLR7 (rs179008, rs5935438, TRL8 (rs2407992, rs5741883, rs17256081, rs4830805, rs3788935, rs178998, and TLR10 (rs11466651. In the TLR system, histamines trigger the TLR expression by stimulating interferon-γ (IFN-γ to up-regulate mast cells and by stimulating receptor-interacting protein (RIP to activate IκB kinase-β. Contrastingly, antihistamines suppress TIR-domain-containing adaptor protein inducing IFN-β (TRIF and RIP protein and thus inhibit the expression of TLR. In addition, several studies indicated that H1-antihistamines inhibit the IL and TLR systems indirectly.

  7. Histamine H3 receptor activation inhibits neurogenic sympathetic vasoconstriction in porcine nasal mucosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varty, LoriAnn M; Hey, John A

    2002-10-11

    Histamine release from mast cells is a primary mediator of rhinorrhea, nasal mucosal swelling, increased secretion, sneezing, pruritus and congestion that occur in allergic rhinitis. It is well known that histamine H(1) receptor antagonists inhibit the itch and rhinorhea, but do not block the allergic nasal congestion. A growing body of evidence shows that in addition to histamine H(1) receptors, activation of H(3) receptors may contribute to the procongestant nasal actions of histamine. Activation of the prejunctional histamine H(3) receptor modulates sympathetic control of nasal vascular tone and resistance. The present study was conducted to further characterize the role of histamine H(3) receptors on neurogenic sympathetic vascular contractile responses in isolated porcine nasal turbinate mucosa. We presently found that the histamine H(3) receptor agonist, (R)-alpha-methylhistamine (10-1000 nM), inhibited electrical field stimulation-induced sympathetic vasomotor contractions in a concentration-dependent fashion. Pretreatment with either of the selective histamine H(3) receptor antagonists, thioperamide and clobenpropit, blocked the sympathoinhibitory effect of (R)-alpha-methylhistamine in porcine turbinate mucosa. The effect of compound 48/80, an agent that elicits the release of endogenous histamine from mast cells on nasal sympathetic contractile responses, was also tested. The action of compound 48/80 to release mast cell-derived histamine in the nose mimics many of the nasal responses associated with allergic rhinitis, extravascular leakage and decreased nasal patency. We presently found that compound 48/80 also inhibited the electrical field stimulation-induced sympathetic response. Pretreatment with the H(3) receptor antagonist clobenpropit blocked the sympathoinhibitory action of compound 48/80 on sympathetic contractile responses in nasal mucosa. Taken together, these studies indicate that histamine H(3) receptors modulate vascular contractile

  8. Genome-Wide Analysis of Evolutionary Markers of Human Influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 and A(H3N2) Viruses May Guide Selection of Vaccine Strain Candidates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belanov, Sergei S; Bychkov, Dmitrii; Benner, Christian; Ripatti, Samuli; Ojala, Teija; Kankainen, Matti; Kai Lee, Hong; Wei-Tze Tang, Julian; Kainov, Denis E

    2015-11-27

    Here we analyzed whole-genome sequences of 3,969 influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 and 4,774 A(H3N2) strains that circulated during 2009-2015 in the world. The analysis revealed changes at 481 and 533 amino acid sites in proteins of influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 and A(H3N2) strains, respectively. Many of these changes were introduced as a result of random drift. However, there were 61 and 68 changes that were present in relatively large number of A(H1N1)pdm09 and A(H3N2) strains, respectively, that circulated during relatively long time. We named these amino acid substitutions evolutionary markers, as they seemed to contain valuable information regarding the viral evolution. Interestingly, influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 and A(H3N2) viruses acquired non-overlapping sets of evolutionary markers. We next analyzed these characteristic markers in vaccine strains recommended by the World Health Organization for the past five years. Our analysis revealed that vaccine strains carried only few evolutionary markers at antigenic sites of viral hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA). The absence of these markers at antigenic sites could affect the recognition of HA and NA by human antibodies generated in response to vaccinations. This could, in part, explain moderate efficacy of influenza vaccines during 2009-2014. Finally, we identified influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 and A(H3N2) strains, which contain all the evolutionary markers of influenza A strains circulated in 2015, and which could be used as vaccine candidates for the 2015/2016 season. Thus, genome-wide analysis of evolutionary markers of influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 and A(H3N2) viruses may guide selection of vaccine strain candidates.

  9. Ability of ketanserin to block different receptors in human placental vessels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marin, J; Reviriego, J; Fernandez-Alfonso, M S

    1990-03-01

    5-Hydroxytryptamine (5-HT), noradrenaline (NA) and histamine induced concentration-dependent contractions in segments of human chorionic arteries and veins, whereas clonidine, an alpha 2-adrenoceptor agonist, had no effect. 5-HT and histamine induced strong contractions, while NA elicited weak contractions in some segments. The maximal response was similar for 5-HT and histamine. The order of potency (EC50 values) was: 5-HT greater than or equal to NA greater than or equal to histamine. These agonists induced tachyphylaxis, and single concentrations caused transient contractions. Contractions elicited by 5-HT were antagonized by ketanserin, a 5-HT2-receptor antagonist, which also antagonized the responses to NA and histamine, but at greater concentrations than those needed for 5-HT responses. Contractions elicited by histamine were reduced by diphenydramine. Low concentrations of 5-HT amplified contractions caused by NA and histamine. The results indicate that: (i) 5-HT is the most potent constrictor agent tested in these vessels; (ii) its effects are mediated by 5-HT2-receptors; and (iii) ketanserin at therapeutic plasma concentrations (10(-7) M) seems to block mainly 5-HT2-receptors, and alpha 1-adrenergic- and H1-receptors to a small extent only.

  10. Molecular Characterization and Phylogenetic Analysis of the Hemagglutinin 1 Protein of Human Influenza A Virus Subtype H1N1 Circulating in Kenya During 2007-2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    and Mag Attract Virus Mini M48 Kit (Qiagen) according to the manufacturer’s pro- tocols. For RT- PCR amplification , 5 μL of RNA was added to a 50-μL...AAA TGA AAG-3′; and H1HA_1238_R_M13, 5′- CAG GAA ACA GCT ATG ACC AGC TGT GAA TTG RGT GTT CAT TT-3′), using the SuperScript III One-Step RT- PCR System... amplification cycles at 94°C for 15 seconds, at 52°C for 30 seconds, and at 68°C for 75 seconds, with a final extension cycle at 68°C for 5 minutes. All PCR

  11. GM-CSF increases mucosal and systemic immunogenicity of an H1N1 influenza DNA vaccine administered into the epidermis of non-human primates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter T Loudon

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The recent H5N1 avian and H1N1 swine-origin influenza virus outbreaks reaffirm that the threat of a world-wide influenza pandemic is both real and ever-present. Vaccination is still considered the best strategy for protection against influenza virus infection but a significant challenge is to identify new vaccine approaches that offer accelerated production, broader protection against drifted and shifted strains, and the capacity to elicit anti-viral immune responses in the respiratory tract at the site of viral entry. As a safe alternative to live attenuated vaccines, the mucosal and systemic immunogenicity of an H1N1 influenza (A/New Caledonia/20/99 HA DNA vaccine administered by particle-mediated epidermal delivery (PMED or gene gun was analyzed in rhesus macaques. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Macaques were immunized at weeks 0, 8, and 16 using a disposable single-shot particle-mediated delivery device designed for clinical use that delivers plasmid DNA directly into cells of the epidermis. Significant levels of hemagglutination inhibiting (HI antibodies and cytokine-secreting HA-specific T cells were observed in the periphery of macaques following 1-3 doses of the PMED HA DNA vaccine. In addition, HA DNA vaccination induced detectable levels of HA-specific mucosal antibodies and T cells in the lung and gut-associated lymphoid tissues of vaccinated macaques. Importantly, co-delivery of a DNA encoding the rhesus macaque GM-CSF gene was found to significantly enhance both the systemic and mucosal immunogenicity of the HA DNA vaccine. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results provide strong support for the development of a particle-mediated epidermal DNA vaccine for protection against respiratory pathogens such as influenza and demonstrate, for the first time, the ability of skin-delivered GM-CSF to serve as an effective mucosal adjuvant for vaccine induction of immune responses in the gut and respiratory tract.

  12. The effects of crocin and safranal on the yawning induced by intracerebroventricular injection of histamine in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mina Taati

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Crocin and safranal, as the major constituents of saffron, have many biological activities. This study investigated the effects of crocin and safranal on yawning response induced by intracerebroventricular (i.c.v. injection of histamine in rats. Materials and Methods: In ketamine/xylazine-anesthetized rats, a guide cannula was implanted in the right ventricle of the brain and yawning induced by i.c.v. injection of histamine. Crocin and safranal were intraperitoneally (i.p. injected alone and before i.c.v. injection of histamine. Results: Histamine at the doses of 10 and 20 µg/rat produced yawning. Mepyramine (a histamine H1 receptor antagonist 40 µg/rat significantly (p

  13. Histamine-1 receptor blockade does not prevent nitroglycerin induced migraine. Support for the NO-hypothesis of migraine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, L H; Thomsen, L L; Kruuse, C;

    1996-01-01

    It has previously been shown that in migraine sufferers infusion of glyceryl trinitrate (GTN) and histamine causes an immediate headache during the infusion and a genuine migraine attack one to several hours after the infusion. This identical time profile indicates a common mechanism of action....... To evaluate whether GTN causes headache via liberation of histamine, we studied the effect of GTN 0.5 micrograms.kg-1.min-1 for 20 min in seven migraine sufferers, once after pretreatment with the histamine-1 (H1)-receptor blocker mepyramine (0.5 mg.kg-1) and once without pretreatment. This mepyramine dose...... with transcranial Doppler, were also unaffected by the mepyramine pretreatment. Our results demonstrate that neither headache nor arterial dilatation due to GTN infusion is caused by histamine release. In all likelihood the common mediator of migraine induction by GTN and histamine is nitric oxide....

  14. Bradykinin and histamine-induced cytosolic calcium increase in capillary endothelial cells of bovine adrenal medulla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinet, Raúl; Cortés, Magdalena P; Alvarez, Rocío; Delpiano, Marco A

    2014-09-01

    We have assessed the effect of bradykinin and histamine on the cytosolic free calcium concentration ([Ca(2+)]i ) of bovine adrenal medulla capillary endothelial cells (BAMCECs). To measure [Ca(2+)]i changes in BAMCECs the intracellular fluorescent probe, fluo-3 AM, was used. Bradykinin (3 µM) produced a transient monophasic increase in [Ca(2+)]i , which was depressed by B1650 (0.1 µM), a B2-bradykinin receptor antagonist (D-Arg-[Hyp(3), Thi(5,8) , D-Phe(7)]-Bradykinin). Similarly, increase in [Ca(2+)]i induced by histamine was also depressed by tripolidine (0.1 µM), an H1-histamine receptor antagonist. [Ca(2+)]i increase induced by both agonists was unaffected in the absence of extracellular Ca(2+) or presence of antagonists of voltage operated Ca(2+) channels (VOCCs). Thapsigargin (1 µM) did not abolish the increase of [Ca(2+)]i produced by bradykinin, but abolished that of histamine. In contrast, caffeine (100 µM), abolished the [Ca(2+)]i response induced by bradykinin (3 µM), but did not affect the [Ca(2+)]i increase induced by histamine (100 µM). The results indicate the presence of B2 bradykinin- and H1 histamine-receptors in BAMCECs. Liberation of Ca(2+) induced by both agonists occurs through 2 different intracellular mechanisms. While bradykinin activates a sarco(endo) plasmic reticulum (SER) containing a SER Ca(2+) -ATPase (SERCA) thapsigargin-insensitive, histamine activates a SER containing a SERCA thapsigargin-sensitive. We suggest that the increase in [Ca(2+)]i induced by bradykinin and histamine could be of physiological relevance, modulating adrenal gland microcirculation.

  15. Histamine and prostaglandin interaction in regulation of oxytocin and vasopressin secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knigge, U; Kjaer, A; Kristoffersen, U; Madsen, K; Toftegaard, C; Jørgensen, H; Warberg, J

    2003-10-01

    Prostaglandins and histamine in the hypothalamus are involved in the regulation of oxytocin and vasopressin secretion, and appear to be involved in the mediation of pituitary hormone responses to immunochallenges. Therefore, we investigated in conscious male rats: (i) whether blockade of H1 or H2 receptors affected the oxytocin and vasopressin responses to prostaglandins and (ii) whether blockade of prostaglandin synthesis affected the oxytocin and vasopressin responses to histamine or to Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS), in order to determine any interaction between prostaglandins and histamine in the hypothalamus. Oxytocin secretion was dose-dependently stimulated by intracerebroventricular infusion of 1 or 5 microg of PGE1, PGE2 or PGF2alpha, with PGE2 being the most potent of the compounds used. Prior central infusion of the H1 receptor antagonist mepyramine or the H2 receptor antagonist cimetidine significantly inhibited the oxytocin response to all three prostaglandins by approximately 50%. Vasopressin secretion was increased by PGE1 but not by PGE2 or PGF2alpha. The stimulatory effect of PGE1 was almost annihilated by prior administration of mepyramine or cimetidine. Central infusion of histamine or immunochallenge with LPS administered intraperitoneally increased oxytocin and vasopressin secretion four- and two-fold, respectively. Pretreatment with systemic injection of the prostaglandin synthesis inhibitor indomethacin dose-dependently reduced the oxytocin response and prevented the vasopressin response to histamine or LPS. We conclude that histamine and PGE1, PGE2 or PGF2alpha interact in the regulation of oxytocin secretion, whereas histamine and only PGE1 interact in the regulation of vasopressin secretion. Furthermore, histamine as well as LPS may affect oxytocin and vasopressin neurones via activation of prostaglandins, probably in the hypothalamic supraoptic nucleus.

  16. Differential effects of histamine on the activity of hypothalamic dopaminergic neurons in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleckenstein, A E; Lookingland, K J; Moore, K E

    1994-01-01

    The effect of intracerebroventricular administration of histamine on hypothalamic dopaminergic neuronal activity was estimated in male rats by measuring concentrations of dopamine and its metabolite 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) in brain regions containing terminals or perikarya of these neurons. Three distinct, regionally specific neurochemical responses were apparent. In the median eminence and intermediate lobe of the pituitary, histamine affected neither DOPAC nor dopamine concentrations, suggesting no effect on tuberoinfundibular or periventricular-hypophysial dopaminergic neuronal activity. In the medial zona incerta and in the dorsomedial, rostral periventricular and medial preoptic hypothalamic nuclei, histamine effected a dose- and time-related increase in both DOPAC and dopamine concentrations; these effects were blocked by destruction of noradrenergic neurons projecting to these regions, suggesting that these changes are attributable to noradrenergic neuronal activation, and that histamine does not affect the activity of incertohypothalamic or periventricular-preoptic dopaminergic neurons located in these brain regions. In the suprachiasmatic, caudal periventricular and paraventricular hypothalamic nuclei, histamine effected a dose- and time-related increase in DOPAC, but not dopamine, concentrations; these effects were blocked by the H1 antagonist mepyramine, but not the H2 antagonist zolantidine. Destruction of noradrenergic neurons projecting to these regions did not prevent the histamine-induced increases in DOPAC concentrations. These data indicate that histamine increases the activity of dopaminergic neurons projecting to the suprachiasmatic, caudal periventricular and paraventricular nuclei via an action at H1 receptors. Overall, these results reveal that i.c.v. administration of histamine differentially affects the activity of the various dopaminergic neuronal systems of the rat hypothalamus.

  17. Phosphoinositide hydrolysis mediated by H1 receptors in autoimmune myocarditis mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nora Goren

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available Stimulation of phosphoinositide hydrolysis in myocardium from autoimmune myocarditis mice by ThEA and histamine was assayed. Myocardium from autoimmune heart, but not the normal forms, specifically increased phosphoinositide turnover in the presence of histaminergic agonists. This increment was blocked by a specific H1 antagonist mepyramine and to the same extent by the phospholipase C inhibitor NCDC. By using a binding assay H1 histaminergic receptors were detected in autoimmune heart membrane preparations, but this was not observed in normal heart. These data suggest that autoimmune myocardium expressed a functional H1 receptor that could involve a distinctive mechanism operating in the disease.

  18. Modulation of histamine release by fatty acids. A new in vitro model investigating adverse drug reactions in various species

    OpenAIRE

    Ennis, M.; Lorenz, Wilfried

    1985-01-01

    Histamine release caused by drugs and/or their solvents is a well known phenomenon. In this study, both in vivo (anaesthetized and conscious dogs) and in vitro (isolated rat peritoneal, human and guinea-pig lung mast cells) models were used. Cremophor E1 and six derivatives of 12-hydroxystearic acid were compared for their histamine releasing abilities. Although the three types of isolated mast cells responded similarly, histamine release being observed with DH (the diester of 12-hydroxystear...

  19. Epitope of titin A-band-specific monoclonal antibody Tit1 5 H1.1 is highly conserved in several Fn3 domains of the titin molecule. Centriole staining in human, mouse and zebrafish cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikelsaar Aavo-Valdur

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previously we have reported on the development of a new mouse anti-titin monoclonal antibody, named MAb Titl 5 H1.1, using the synthetic peptide N-AVNKYGIGEPLESDSVVAK-C which corresponds to an amino acid sequence in the A-region of the titin molecule as immunogen. In the human skeletal muscles, MAb Titl 5 H1.1 reacts specifically with titin in the A-band of the sarcomere and in different non-muscle cell types with nucleus and cytoplasm, including centrioles. In this report we have studied the evolutionary aspects of the binding of MAb Tit1 5 H1.1 with its target antigen (titin. Results We have specified the epitope area of MAb Tit1 5 H1.1 by subpeptide mapping to the hexapeptide N-AVNKYG-C. According to protein databases this amino acid sequence is located in the COOH-terminus of several different Fn3 domains of the A-region of titin molecule in many organisms, such as human being, mouse, rabbit, zebrafish (Danio rerio, and even in sea squirt (Ciona intestinalis. Our immunohisto- and cytochemical studies with MAb Tit1 5 H1.1 in human, mouse and zebrafish tissues and cell cultures showed a striated staining pattern in muscle cells and also staining of centrioles, cytoplasm and nuclei in non-muscle cells. Conclusions The data confirm that titin can play, in addition to the known roles in striated muscle cells also an important role in non-muscle cells as a centriole associated protein. This phenomenon is highly conserved in the evolution and is related to Fn3 domains of the titin molecule. Using titin A-band-specific monoclonal antibody MAb Tit1 5 H1.1 it was possible to locate titin in the sarcomeres of skeletal muscle cells and in the centrioles, cytoplasm and nuclei of non-muscle cells in phylogenetically so distant organisms as Homo sapiens, Mus musculus and zebrafish (Danio rerio.

  20. A positive serum basophil histamine release assay is a marker for ciclosporin-responsiveness in patients with chronic spontaneous urticaria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iqbal, Kamran; Bhargava, Kapil; Skov, Per Stahl;

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT: The electronic records of 398 patients with chronic spontaneous urticaria (CSU) who had had a serum basophil histamine release assay (BHRA) performed as a marker of functional autoantibodies were audited. The BHRA was positive in 105 patients (26.4%). Fifty eight were treated with ciclo...... with ciclosporin because they were H1 anti-histamine unresponsive. CSU patients with a positive BHRA were more likely to respond clinically (P...

  1. Thioperamide treats neonatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy by postsynaptic H1 receptors*

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Feiyong Jia; Lin Du; Yunpeng Hao; Shicheng Liu; Ning Li; Huiyi Jiang

    2013-01-01

    Thioperamide, a selective histamine H3 receptor antagonist, can increase histamine content in the brain, improve brain edema, and exert a neuroprotective effect. This study aimed to examine the mechanism of action of thioperamide during brain edema in a rat model of neonatal hypoxic- is-chemic encephalopathy. Our results showed that thioperamide significantly decreased brain water content and malondialdehyde levels, while significantly increased histamine levels and superoxide dismutase activity in the hippocampus. This evidence demonstrates that thioperamide could pre-vent oxidative damage and attenuate brain edema fol owing neonatal hypoxic-ischemic encepha-lopathy. We further observed that changes in the above indexes occurred after combined treatment of thioperamide with the H1 receptor antagonist, pyrilamine, and the H2 receptor antagonist, ci-metidine. Experimental findings indicated that pyrilamine reversed the effects of thioperamide;however, cimetidine had no significant influence on the effects of thioperamide. Our present findings suggest that thioperamide can increase brain histamine content and attenuate brain edema and oxidative damage by acting in combination with postsynaptic H1 receptors in a rat model of neo-natal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy.

  2. [Roles of histamine in the pathogenesis of bronchial asthma and reevaluation of the clinical usefulness of antihistamines].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamauchi, Kohei; Shikanai, Toshiki; Nakamura, Yutaka; Kobayashi, Hitoshi; Ogasawara, Masahito; Maeyama, Kazutaka

    2011-02-01

    Histamine has been reported to play an important role in pathogenesis of bronchial asthma. However, H1-blockers are not recommended as the first drug for asthma therapy in the guidelines. Histamine may play various roles in allergic airway inflammation through the H1 receptor (H1R), H2R, and H4R in immune cells including T lymphocytes and dendritic cells. We therefore evaluated its role in allergic airway inflammation with the use of histamine-deficient mice. The results suggested that histamine plays a role in the prevention of goblet cell hyperplasia. Organic cation transporter-3 (OCT-3) is thought to be a transporter of histamine. Polymorphism of OCT-3 {R120R (T/C)} was associated with the severity of asthma. Recently, it has been proposed that both asthma and allergic rhinitis should be treated as a single airway disease. Comorbidity of asthma and allergic rhinitis is very high (70-80%) and they share similar allergic inflammation. H1-blockers are recommended as first-line drugs to treat allergic rhinitis in the guidelines. Therefore H1-blockers are strongly recommended for patients with both asthma and allergic rhinitis.

  3. Pre- and Postexposure Use of Human Monoclonal Antibody against H5N1 and H1N1 Influenza Virus in Mice: Viable Alternative to Oseltamivir

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koudstaal, W.; Koldijk, M.H.; Brakenhoff, J.P.J.; Cornelissen, A.H.M.; Weverling, G.J.; Friesen, R.H.E.; Goudsmit, J.

    2009-01-01

    New strategies to prevent and treat influenza virus infections are urgently needed. A recently discovered class of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) neutralizing an unprecedented spectrum of influenza virus subtypes may have the potential for future use in humans. Here, we assess the efficacies of CR6261

  4. Evaluation of the antigenic relatedness and cross-protective immunity of the neuraminidase between human influenza A (H1N1) virus and highly pathogenic avian influenza A (H5N1) virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xiuhua; Liu, Feng; Zeng, Hui; Sheu, Tiffany; Achenbach, Jenna E; Veguilla, Vic; Gubareva, Larisa V; Garten, Rebecca; Smith, Catherine; Yang, Hua; Stevens, James; Xu, Xiyan; Katz, Jacqueline M; Tumpey, Terrence M

    2014-04-01

    To determine the genetic and antigenic relatedness as well as the cross-protective immunity of human H1N1 and avian H5N1 influenza virus neuraminidase (NA), we immunized rabbits with either a baculovirus-expressed recombinant NA from A/Beijing/262/95 (BJ/262) H1N1 or A/Hong Kong/483/97 (HK/483) H5N1 virus. Cross-reactive antibody responses were evaluated by multiple serological assays and cross-protection against H5N1 virus challenge was evaluated in mice. In a neuraminidase inhibition (NI) test, the antisera exhibited substantial inhibition of NA activity of the homologous virus, but failed to inhibit the NA activity of heterologous virus. However, these antisera exhibited low levels of cross-reactivity measured by plaque size reduction, replication inhibition, single radial hemolysis, and ELISA assays. Passive immunization with HK/483 NA-specific antisera significantly reduced virus replication and disease, and afforded almost complete protection against lethal homologous virus challenge in mice. However, passive immunization with BJ/262 (H1N1) NA-specific antisera was ineffective at providing cross-protection against lethal H5N1 virus challenge and only slightly reduced weight loss. Substantial amino acid variation among the NA antigenic sites was observed between BJ/262 and HK/483 virus, which was consistent with the lack of cross-reactive NI activity by the antibody and limited cross-protective immunity in mice. These results show a strong correlation between the lack of cross-protective immunity and low structural similarities of NA from a human seasonal H1N1 virus and an avian H5N1 influenza virus.

  5. Protective efficacy of an inactivated Eurasian avian-like H1N1 swine influenza vaccine against homologous H1N1 and heterologous H1N1 and H1N2 viruses in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sui, Jinyu; Yang, Dawei; Qiao, Chuanling; Xu, Huiyang; Xu, Bangfeng; Wu, Yunpu; Yang, Huanliang; Chen, Yan; Chen, Hualan

    2016-07-19

    Eurasian avian-like H1N1 (EA H1N1) swine influenza viruses are prevalent in pigs in Europe and Asia, but occasionally cause human infection, which raises concern about their pandemic potential. Here, we produced a whole-virus inactivated vaccine with an EA H1N1 strain (A/swine/Guangxi/18/2011, SW/GX/18/11) and evaluated its efficacy against homologous H1N1 and heterologous H1N1 and H1N2 influenza viruses in mice. A strong humoral immune response, which we measured by hemagglutination inhibition (HI) and virus neutralization (VN), was induced in the vaccine-inoculated mice upon challenge. The inactivated SW/GX/18/11 vaccine provided complete protection against challenge with homologous SW/GX/18/11 virus in mice and provided effective protection against challenge with heterologous H1N1 and H1N2 viruses with distinctive genomic combinations. Our findings suggest that this EA H1N1 vaccine can provide protection against both homologous H1N1 and heterologous H1N1 or H1N2 virus infection. As such, it is an excellent vaccine candidate to prevent H1N1 swine influenza.

  6. Cloning and expression of the human asialoglycoprotein receptor H1 subunit and preliminary application%去唾液酸糖蛋白受体H1亚单位基因片段的克隆表达及其检测自身免疫性肝炎的价值

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张妍; 李永哲; 吴琳; 刘国振; 张蜀澜; 胡朝军; 佟大伟

    2009-01-01

    Objective To clone and express the human asialoglycoprotein receptor(ASGPR) H1 subunit, purify and identify the immunoreactivity of the recombinant protein, and establish the enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to detect anti-ASGPR antibodies in diagnosis of autoimmune hepatitis. Methods The CRDHI cDNA (435 bp) was subcloned into eukaryotic vector PEGH, and the recombinant protein expression was induced by D (+)-Galactose. The recombinant CRDH1 was purified with Glutathione Sepharose 4B, and its immunoreactivity was identified by SDS-PAGE and western blot as well as MALDI-TOF. ELISA was established to detect the anti-ASGPR antibodies in serum samples of 45 patients with AIH, 30 patients with SLE, 30 patients with RA, 10 patients with SS and 30 normal controls. Results The sequencing of recombinant plasmid showed the CRDH1 gene was successfully inserted to the eukaryotic expression vector with correct sequence and open reading frame. The fusion protein showed a molecular weight of 42 500 Da on SDS-PAGE gel and confirmed to be the human ASGPR by MALDI-MS through peptide mass fingerprint analysis with Mascot in human protein database. It shared 98. 34% homology with ASGPR H1 subunit. Western blot analysis showed that the fusion protein had the same immunoreactivity as human ASGPR. The results of ELISA indicated that the positive rate of anti-ASGPR was 35.6% ( 16/45 ), but the ELISA was negative in other control. There was significant difference of positivity of the autoantibodies between AIH and non-AIH controls (χ2 = 31.85,P < 0. 01 ). Conclusions The human plasmid containing ASGPR is successfully clone into Saccharomyces cerevisiae Y258. The recombinant autoantigen owns good antigenicity and specificity. ELISA established with the purified protein shows good specificity for diagnosis of AIH.%目的 克隆去唾液酸糖蛋白受体(asialoglycoprotein reeeptor,ASGPR)H1亚单位显性表位435 bp基因片段,构建表达重组质粒,进行表达、纯化,以

  7. Development of a UHPLC-MS/MS method for the determination of plasma histamine in various mammalian species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jia; Wang, Lei; Hu, Wenjuan; Chen, Xiaoyan; Zhong, Dafang

    2014-11-15

    Histamine is an important mediator of anaphylactic reactions. Although several methods have been developed to measure histamine levels, each has its limitations. In this study, we developed and validated a convenient bioanalytical method for the qualitative and quantitative determination of histamine in plasma samples from humans, beagle dogs, Sprague-Dawley rats, and imprinting control region mice. A simple plasma protein precipitation method using acetonitrile was selected, and hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry was used for sample separation and detection. Histamine was subjected to gradient elution with acetonitrile, ammonium acetate buffer, and formic acid. A mass spectrometer equipped with an electrospray ionization source was operated in the positive-ion multiple reaction monitoring mode for the detection of histamine and the internal standard. The [M+H](+) transitions were m/z 112→95 for histamine and m/z 116→99 for d4-histamine, which was used as the internal standard. The lower limit of quantification was 0.2μg/L and the calibration range was 0.2-500μg/L. The overall recovery ranged from 93.6% to 102.8%. The intra- and inter-run precision and accuracy were histamine concentrations in five healthy human volunteers. In conclusion, we have developed and validated a novel bioanalytical method for the quantification of histamine levels in plasma samples from various mammalian species.

  8. International Union of Basic and Clinical Pharmacology. XCVIII. Histamine Receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panula, Pertti; Chazot, Paul L; Cowart, Marlon; Gutzmer, Ralf; Leurs, Rob; Liu, Wai L S; Stark, Holger; Thurmond, Robin L; Haas, Helmut L

    2015-07-01

    Histamine is a developmentally highly conserved autacoid found in most vertebrate tissues. Its physiological functions are mediated by four 7-transmembrane G protein-coupled receptors (H1R, H2R, H3R, H4R) that are all targets of pharmacological intervention. The receptors display molecular heterogeneity and constitutive activity. H1R antagonists are long known antiallergic and sedating drugs, whereas the H2R was identified in the 1970s and led to the development of H2R-antagonists that revolutionized stomach ulcer treatment. The crystal structure of ligand-bound H1R has rendered it possible to design new ligands with novel properties. The H3R is an autoreceptor and heteroreceptor providing negative feedback on histaminergic and inhibition on other neurons. A block of these actions promotes waking. The H4R occurs on immuncompetent cells and the development of anti-inflammatory drugs is anticipated.

  9. Prejunctional inhibition of sympathetically evoked pupillary dilation in cats by activation of histamine H3 receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koss, M C; Hey, J A

    1993-08-01

    Frequency-dependent pupillary dilations were evoked by electrical stimulation of the pre- or post-ganglionic cervical sympathetic nerve (sympatho-excitation) or the hypothalamus (parasympatho-inhibition) in sympathectomized anesthetized cats. Systemic administration of the selective histamine H3 receptor agonist (R)-alpha-methylhistamine (R alpha MeHA) produced a dose-dependent depression of mydriasis due to direct neural sympathetic activation but had no effect on responses elicited by parasympathetic withdrawal. The histamine H2 receptor agonist, dimaprit, was inactive. R alpha MeHA was much more effective in depressing sympathetic responses obtained at lower frequencies when compared to higher frequencies of stimulation. Responses evoked both pre- and postganglionically were inhibited by R alpha MeHA. This peripheral sympatho-inhibitory action of R alpha MeHA was antagonized by the histamine H3 receptor blocker thioperamide but not by intravenous pretreatment with the histamine H1 receptor antagonist chlorpheniramine. Histamine H2 receptor blockers cimetidine and ranitidine were also without effect. R alpha MeHA did not depress pupillary responses elicited by i.v. (-)-adrenaline. The results demonstrate that histamine H3 receptors modulate sympathetic activation of the iris at a site proximal to the iris dilator muscle. The predominant mechanism of action appears to the prejunctional inhibition of noradrenaline release from postganglionic sympathetic nerve endings. However, a concomitant ganglionic inhibitory action cannot be excluded.

  10. Histamine inhibits the melanin-concentrating hormone system: implications for sleep and arousal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parks, Gregory S; Olivas, Nicholas D; Ikrar, Taruna; Sanathara, Nayna M; Wang, Lien; Wang, Zhiwei; Civelli, Olivier; Xu, Xiangmin

    2014-05-15

    Melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH)-producing neurons are known to regulate a wide variety of physiological functions such as feeding, metabolism, anxiety and depression, and reward. Recent studies have revealed that MCH neurons receive projections from several wake-promoting brain regions and are integral to the regulation of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. Here, we provide evidence in both rats and mice that MCH neurons express histamine-3 receptors (H3R), but not histamine-1 (H1R) or histamine-2 (H2R) receptors. Electrophysiological recordings in brain slices from a novel line of transgenic mice that specifically express the reporter ZsGreen in MCH neurons show that histamine strongly inhibits MCH neurons, an effect which is TTX insensitive, and blocked by the intracellular presence of GDP-β-S. A specific H3R agonist, α-methylhistamine, mimicks the inhibitory effects of histamine, and a specific neutral H3R antagonist, VUF 5681, blocks this effect. Tertiapin Q (TPQ), a G protein-dependent inwardly rectifying potassium (GIRK) channel inhibitor, abolishes histaminergic inhibition of MCH neurons. These results indicate that histamine directly inhibits MCH neurons through H3R by activating GIRK channels and suggest that that inhibition of the MCH system by wake-active histaminergic neurons may be responsible for silencing MCH neurons during wakefulness and thus may be directly involved in the regulation of sleep and arousal.

  11. Transformation of human fibroblasts by ionizing radiation, a chemical carcinogen, or simian virus 40 correlates with an increase in susceptibility to the autonomous parvoviruses H-1 virus and minute virus of mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cornelis, J.J.; Becquart, P.; Duponchel, N.; Salome, N.; Avalosse, B.L.; Namba, M.; Rommelaere, J.

    1988-05-01

    Morphologically altered and established human fibroblasts, obtained either by /sup 60/Co gamma irradiation, treatment with the carcinogen 4-nitroquinoline 1-oxide, or simian virus 40 (SV40) infection, were compared with their normal finite-life parental strains for susceptibility to the autonomous parvoviruses H-1 virus and the prototype strain of minute virus of mice (MVMp). All transformed cells suffered greater virus-induced killing than their untransformed progenitors. The cytotoxic effect of H-1 virus was more severe than that of MVMp. Moreover, the level of viral DNA replication was much (10- to 85-fold) enhanced in the transformants compared with their untransformed parent cells. Thus, in this system, cell transformation appears to correlate with an increase in both DNA amplification and cytotoxicity of the parvoviruses. However, the accumulation of parvovirus DNA in the transformants was not always accompanied by the production of infectious virus. Like in vitro-transformed fibroblasts, a fibrosarcoma-derived cell line was sensitive to the killing effect of both H-1 virus and MVMp and amplified viral DNA to high extents. The results indicate that oncogenic transformation can be included among cellular states which modulate permissiveness to parvoviruses under defined growth conditions.

  12. Transformation of human fibroblasts by ionizing radiation, a chemical carcinogen, or simian virus 40 correlates with an increase in susceptibility to the autonomous parvoviruses H-1 virus and minute virus of mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cornelis, J.J.; Becquart, P.; Duponchel, N.; Salome, N.; Avalosse, B.L.; Namba, M.; Rommelaere, J.

    1988-05-01

    Morphologically altered and established human fibroblasts, obtained either by /sup 60/Co gamma irradiation, treatment with the carcinogen 4-nitroquinoline 1-oxide, or simian virus 40 (SV40) infection, were compared with their normal finite-life parental strains for susceptibility to the autonomous parvoviruses H-1 virus and the prototype strain of minute virus of mice (MVMp). All transformed cells suffered greater virus-induced killing than their untransformed progenitors. The cytotoxic effect of H-1 virus was more severe than that of MVMp. Moreover, the level of viral DNA replication was much (10- to 85-fold) enhanced in the transformants compared with their untransformed parent cells. Thus, in this system, cell transformation appears to correlate with an increase in both DNA amplification and cytotoxicity of the parvoviruses. However, the accumulation of parvovirus DNA in the transformants was not always accompanied by the production of infectious virus. Like in vitro-transformed fibroblasts, a fibrosarcoma-derived cell line was sensitive to the killing effect of both H-1 virus and MVMp and amplified viral DNA to high extents. The results indicate that oncogenic transformation can be included among cellular states which modulate permissiveness to parvoviruses under defined growth conditions.

  13. The effect of intracerebroventricular injection of histamine in visceral nociception induced by acetic acid in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zanboori Ali

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective : This study was designed to investigate the role of brain histamine and H1 and H2 receptors in mediating the central perception of visceral pain in rats. Materials and Methods : In conscious rats implanted with a lateral brain ventricle cannula, the effect of intracerebroventricular (i.c.v. injection of histamine (2.5, 10, and 40 μg, and chlorpheniramine and ranitidine at the same doses of 5, 20, and 80 μg were investigated on visceral pain. Visceral nociception induced by intraperitoneal (i.p. injection of acetic acid (1 mL, 1%, and the number of complete abdominal wall muscle contractions accompanied with stretching of hind limbs (writhes were counted for 1 h. Results : Histamine at doses of 10 and 40 μg and chlorpheniramine and ranitidine at the same doses of 20 and 80 μg, significantly decreased the numbers of writhes (P < 0.05. Pretreatment with chlorpheniramine and ranitidine at the same dose of 80 μg, significantly prevented histamine (40 μg-induced antinociception (P < 0.05. Conclusion : The results of this study suggest that brain histamine may be involved in modulation of visceral antinociception through both central H 1 and H 2 receptors.

  14. Enhanced antinociceptive effects of morphine in histamine H2 receptor gene knockout mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mobarakeh, Jalal Izadi; Takahashi, Kazuhiro; Sakurada, Shinobu; Kuramasu, Atsuo; Yanai, Kazuhiko

    2006-09-01

    We have previously shown that antinociceptive effects of morphine are enhanced in histamine H1 receptor gene knockout mice. In the present study, involvement of supraspinal histamine H2 receptor in antinociception by morphine was examined using histamine H2 receptor gene knockout (H2KO) mice and histamine H2 receptor antagonists. Antinociception was evaluated by assays for thermal (hot-plate, tail-flick and paw-withdrawal tests), mechanical (tail-pressure test) and chemical (formalin and capsaicin tests) stimuli. Thresholds for pain perception in H2KO mice were higher than wild-type mice. Antinociceptive effects of intracerebroventricularly administered morphine were enhanced in the H2KO mice compared to wild-type mice. Intracerebroventricular co-administration of morphine and cimetidine produced significant antinociceptive effects in the wild-type mice when compared to morphine or cimetidine alone. Furthermore, zolantidine, a selective and hydrophobic H2 receptor antagonist, enhanced the effects of morphine in all nociceptive assays examined. These results suggest that histamine exerts inhibitory effects on morphine-induced antinociception through H2 receptors at the supraspinal level. Our present and previous studies suggest that H1 and H2 receptors cooperatively function to modulate pain perception in the central nervous system.

  15. REGULATION OF HISTAMINE-INDUCED AND UTP-INDUCED INCREASES IN INS(1,4,5)P-3, INS(1,3,4,5)P-4 AND CA2+ BY CYCLIC-AMP IN DDT1 MF-2 CELLS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    SIPMA, H; DUIN, M; HOITING, B; DENHERTOG, A; NELEMANS, A

    1995-01-01

    1 Stimulation of P-2U-purinoceptors with UTP or histamine H-1-receptors with histamine gave rise to the formation of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (Ins(1,4,5)P-3) and inositol 1,3,4,5-tetrakisphosphate (Ins(1,3,4,5)P-4) in DDT1 MF-2 smooth muscle cells. 2 Stimulation of P-2U-purinoceptors or histamin

  16. Centrally injected histamine increases posterior hypothalamic acetylcholine release in hemorrhage-hypotensive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altinbas, Burcin; Yilmaz, Mustafa S; Savci, Vahide; Jochem, Jerzy; Yalcin, Murat

    2015-01-01

    Histamine, acting centrally as a neurotransmitter, evokes a reversal of hemorrhagic hypotension in rats due to the activation of the sympathetic and the renin-angiotensin systems as well as the release of arginine vasopressin and proopiomelanocortin-derived peptides. We demonstrated previously that central nicotinic cholinergic receptors are involved in the pressor effect of histamine. The aim of the present study was to examine influences of centrally administrated histamine on acetylcholine (ACh) release at the posterior hypothalamus-a region characterized by location of histaminergic and cholinergic neurons involved in the regulation of the sympathetic activity in the cardiovascular system-in hemorrhage-hypotensive anesthetized rats. Hemodynamic and microdialysis studies were carried out in Sprague-Dawley rats. Hemorrhagic hypotension was induced by withdrawal of a volume of 1.5 ml blood/100 g body weight over a period of 10 min. Acute hemorrhage led to a severe and long-lasting decrease in mean arterial pressure (MAP), heart rate (HR), and an increase in extracellular posterior hypothalamic ACh and choline (Ch) levels by 56% and 59%, respectively. Intracerebroventricularly (i.c.v.) administered histamine (50, 100, and 200 nmol) dose- and time-dependently increased MAP and HR and caused an additional rise in extracellular posterior hypothalamic ACh and Ch levels at the most by 102%, as compared to the control saline-treated group. Histamine H1 receptor antagonist chlorpheniramine (50 nmol; i.c.v.) completely blocked histamine-evoked hemodynamic and extracellular posterior hypothalamic ACh and Ch changes, whereas H2 and H3/H4 receptor blockers ranitidine (50 nmol; i.c.v.) and thioperamide (50 nmol; i.c.v.) had no effect. In conclusion, centrally administered histamine, acting via H1 receptors, increases ACh release at the posterior hypothalamus and causes a pressor and tachycardic response in hemorrhage-hypotensive anesthetized rats.

  17. Pharmacological Evidence that Histamine H3 Receptors Mediate Histamine-Induced Inhibition of the Vagal Bradycardic Out-flow in Pithed Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Mónica; García-Pedraza, José Ángel; Villalón, Carlos M; Morán, Asunción

    2016-02-01

    In vivo stimulation of cardiac vagal neurons induces bradycardia by acetylcholine (ACh) release. As vagal release of ACh may be modulated by autoreceptors (muscarinic M2 ) and heteroreceptors (including serotonin 5-HT1 ), this study has analysed the pharmacological profile of the receptors involved in histamine-induced inhibition of the vagal bradycardic out-flow in pithed rats. For this purpose, 180 male Wistar rats were pithed, artificially ventilated and pre-treated (i.v.) with 1 mg/kg atenolol, followed by i.v. administration of physiological saline (1 ml/kg), histamine (10, 50, 100 and 200 μg/kg) or the selective histamine H1 (2-pyridylethylamine), H2 (dimaprit), H3 (methimepip) and H4 (VUF 8430) receptor agonists (1, 10, 50 and 100 μg/kg each). Under these conditions, electrical stimulation (3, 6 and 9 Hz; 15 ± 3 V and 1 ms) of the vagus nerve resulted in frequency-dependent bradycardic responses, which were (i) unchanged during the infusions of saline, 2-pyridylethylamine, dimaprit or VUF 8430; and (ii) dose-dependently inhibited by histamine or methimepip. Moreover, the inhibition of the bradycardia caused by 50 μg/kg of either histamine or methimepip (which failed to inhibit the bradycardic responses to i.v. bolus injections of acetylcholine; 1-10 μg/kg) was abolished by the H3 receptor antagonist JNJ 10181457 (1 mg/kg, i.v.). In conclusion, our results suggest that histamine-induced inhibition of the vagal bradycardic out-flow in pithed rats is mainly mediated by pre-junctional activation of histamine H3 receptors, as previously demonstrated for the vasopressor sympathetic out-flow and the vasodepressor sensory CGRPergic (calcitonin gene-related peptide) out-flow.

  18. H-1 Upgrades (4BW/4BN) (H-1 Upgrades)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Nautical Miles R&M - Reliability and Maintainability RM - Reference Model TV-1 - Technical Standards Profile Univ . - Universal H-1 Upgrades December 2015...Speed (kts) 165 165 135 139 139 Payload (Hot Day) (lbs) 3500 lbs 3500 lbs 2500 lbs 6 Wing Stations 4 Universal Under Wing Stations 3429 3429 Weapon...Stations Universal Mounts 6 6 4 4 4 Precision Guided Munitions 16 16 12 16 16 Maneuverability/Agility (G’s) -0.5 to +2.5 -0.5 to +2.5 -0.5 to +2.5 -0.5 to

  19. The effect of H1 and H2 histamine antagonists on symptomatic dermographism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, C N; Boss, J M; Warin, R P; Storari, F

    1979-07-01

    In ten patients suffering from symptomatic dermographism the combined administration of chlorpheniramine + cimetidine produced a greater reduction in the weal and flare response provoked by a standardized scratch than the administration of chlorpheniramine alone. There was a statistically significant improvement in the overall assessment of the patient's skin condition with the combined administration of chlorpheniramine + cimetidine. Chlorpheniramine given alone produced no significant benefit whilst cimetidine alone produced a marked exacerbation in itching in nearly half the patients who initially entered the study and was sufficient to require withdrawal.

  20. (11) C-labeled and (18) F-labeled PET ligands for subtype-specific imaging of histamine receptors in the brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funke, Uta; Vugts, Danielle J; Janssen, Bieneke; Spaans, Arnold; Kruijer, Perry S; Lammertsma, Adriaan A; Perk, Lars R; Windhorst, Albert D

    2013-01-01

    The signaling molecule histamine plays a key role in the mediation of immune reactions, in gastric secretion, and in the sensory system. In addition, it has an important function as a neurotransmitter in the central nervous system, acting in pituitary hormone secretion, wakefulness, motor and cognitive functions, as well as in itch and nociception. This has raised interest in the role of the histaminergic system for the treatment and diagnosis of various pathologies such as allergy, sleeping and eating disorders, neurodegeneration, neuroinflammation, mood disorders, and pruritus. In the past 20 years, several ligands targeting the four different histamine receptor subtypes have been explored as potential radiotracers for positron emission tomography (PET). This contribution provides an overview of the developments of subtype-selective carbon-11-labeled and fluorine-18-labeled compounds for imaging in the brain. Using specific radioligands, the H1 R expression in human brain could be examined in diseases such as schizophrenia, depression, and anorexia nervosa. In addition, the sedative effects of antihistamines could be investigated in terms of H1 R occupancy. The H3 R is of special interest because of its regulatory role in the release of various other neurotransmitters, and initial H3 R PET imaging studies in humans have been reported. The H4 R is the youngest member of the histamine receptor family and is involved in neuroinflammation and various sensory pathways. To date, two H4 R-specific (11) C-labeled ligands have been synthesized, and the imaging of the H4 R in vivo is in the early stage.

  1. [Roles of histamine receptors in pain perception: a study using receptors gene knockout mice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanai, Kazuhiko; Mobarakeh, Jalal Izadi; Kuramasu, Atsuo; Sakurada, Shinobu

    2003-11-01

    To study the participation of histamine H1- and H2-receptors in pain perception, H1 and H2 receptor knockout (KO) mice were examined for pain threshold by means of three kinds of nociceptive tasks. These included assays for thermal, mechanical, and chemical nociception. H1KO mice showed significantly fewer nociceptive responses to the hot-plate, tail-flick, tail-pressure, paw-withdrawal, formalin, capsaicin, and abdominal constriction tests. Sensitivity to noxious stimuli in H1KO mice was significantly decreased when compared to wild-type mice. The antinociceptive phenotypes of H2KO were relatively less prominent when compared to H1KO mice. We also examined the antinociceptive effects of intrathecally-, intracerebroventricularly-, and subcutaneously-administered morphine in H1KO and H2KO mice. In these nociceptive assays, the antinociceptive effects produced by morphine were more enhanced in both H1KO and H2KO mice. The effects of histamine H1- and H2-receptor antagonists on morphine-induced antinociception were studied in ICR mice. The intrathecal, intracerebroventricular and subcutaneous co-administrations of d-chlorpheniramine enhanced the effects of morphine in all nociceptive assays examined. In addition, intrathecal co-administrations of cimetidine enhanced the antinociception of morphine in the hot plate tests. These results suggest that existing H1 and H2 receptors play an inhibitory role in morphine-induced antinociception in the spinal and supra-spinal levels.

  2. Mast cell-derived histamine mediates cystitis pain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles N Rudick

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Mast cells trigger inflammation that is associated with local pain, but the mechanisms mediating pain are unclear. Interstitial cystitis (IC is a bladder disease that causes debilitating pelvic pain of unknown origin and without consistent inflammation, but IC symptoms correlate with elevated bladder lamina propria mast cell counts. We hypothesized that mast cells mediate pelvic pain directly and examined pain behavior using a murine model that recapitulates key aspects of IC. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Infection of mice with pseudorabies virus (PRV induces a neurogenic cystitis associated with lamina propria mast cell accumulation dependent upon tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF, TNF-mediated bladder barrier dysfunction, and pelvic pain behavior, but the molecular basis for pelvic pain is unknown. In this study, both PRV-induced pelvic pain and bladder pathophysiology were abrogated in mast cell-deficient mice but were restored by reconstitution with wild type bone marrow. Pelvic pain developed normally in TNF- and TNF receptor-deficient mice, while bladder pathophysiology was abrogated. Conversely, genetic or pharmacologic disruption of histamine receptor H1R or H2R attenuated pelvic pain without altering pathophysiology. CONCLUSIONS: These data demonstrate that mast cells promote cystitis pain and bladder pathophysiology through the separable actions of histamine and TNF, respectively. Therefore, pain is independent of pathology and inflammation, and histamine receptors represent direct therapeutic targets for pain in IC and other chronic pain conditions.

  3. The effect of intracerebroventricular injection of histamine in visceral nociception induced by acetic acid in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Zanboori Ali; Tamaddonfard Esmaeal; Mojtahedin Ali

    2010-01-01

    Objective : This study was designed to investigate the role of brain histamine and H1 and H2 receptors in mediating the central perception of visceral pain in rats. Materials and Methods : In conscious rats implanted with a lateral brain ventricle cannula, the effect of intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) injection of histamine (2.5, 10, and 40 μg), and chlorpheniramine and ranitidine at the same doses of 5, 20, and 80 μg were investigated on visceral pain. Visceral nociception induce...

  4. Effects of histamine and related compounds on regional cerebral blood flow in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, G; Chen, Z; Sugimoto, Y; Fujii, Y; Kamei, C

    1999-11-01

    The effects of histamine and related compounds on regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in the hippocampus of conscious rats were studied. Intracerebroventricular injection of histamine caused a dose-dependent increase in rCBF in the hippocampus, and similar findings were observed with not only the H1 agonist, 2-thiazolylethylamine, but also the H2 agonist, dimaprit. Intraperitoneal injection of L-histidine also resulted in an increase in rCBF in the hippocampus, in parallel with elevation of histamine content in the brain. The increase in rCBF in the hippocampus induced by L-histidine was antagonized by both H1 and H2 antagonists (diphenhydramine, pyrilamine and zolantidine). In addition, when both antagonists were injected simultaneously, an additive effect was observed in antagonism of the L-histidine-induced increase in rCBF. L-Histidine caused no marked changes in blood pressure even at a dose of 1,500 mg/kg, which showed an increase in rCBF in the hippocampus. These results indicate that histamine elicited an increase in rCBF via both H1 and H2 receptors.

  5. Anticonvulsive effect of nonimidazole histamine H3 receptor antagonists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadek, Bassem; Kuder, Kamil; Subramanian, Dhanasekaran; Shafiullah, Mohamed; Stark, Holger; Lażewska, Dorota; Adem, Abdu; Kieć-Kononowicz, Katarzyna

    2014-06-01

    To determine the potential of histamine H3 receptor (H3R) ligands as new antiepileptic drugs (AEDs), aromatic ether, and diether derivatives (1-12) belonging to the nonimidazole class of ligands, with high in-vitro binding affinity at human H3R, were tested for their in-vivo anticonvulsive activity in the maximal electroshock (MES)-induced and pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-kindled seizure models in rats. The anticonvulsive effects of a systemic injection of 1-12 on MES-induced and PTZ-kindled seizures were evaluated against the reference AED phenytoin (PHT) and the structurally related H3R antagonist/inverse agonist pitolisant (PIT). Among the most promising ligands 2, 4, 5, and 11, there was a significant and dose-dependent reduction in the duration of tonic hind limb extension (THLE) in MES-induced seizure subsequent to administration of 4 and 5 [(5, 10, and 15 mg/kg, intraperitoneally (i.p.)]. The protective effects observed for the 1-(3-(3-(4-chlorophenyl)propoxy)propyl)-3-methylpiperidine derivative 11 at 10 mg/kg, i.p. were significantly greater than those of PIT, and were reversed by pretreatment with the central nervous system penetrant H1R antagonist pyrilamine (PYR) (10 mg/kg). Moreover, the protective action of the reference AED PHT, at a dose of 5 mg/kg (without considerable protection in the MES model), was significantly augmented when coadministered with derivative 11 (5 mg/kg, i.p.). Surprisingly, pretreatment with derivative 7 (10 mg/kg, i.p.), an ethylphenoxyhexyl-piperidine derivative without considerable protection in the MES model, potently altered PTZ-kindled seizure, significantly prolonged myoclonic latency time, and clearly shortened the total seizure time when compared with control, PHT, and PIT. These interesting results highlight the potential of H3R ligands as new AEDs or as adjuvants to available AED therapeutics.

  6. Affinity of cyamemazine metabolites for serotonin, histamine and dopamine receptor subtypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benyamina, Amine; Arbus, Christophe; Nuss, Philippe; Garay, Ricardo P; Neliat, Gervais; Hameg, Ahcène

    2008-01-14

    Animal and human pharmacological studies indicate that the antipsychotic action of cyamemazine results from blockade of dopamine D(2) receptors, its anxiolytic properties from serotonin 5-HT(2C) receptor antagonism and the low incidence of extrapyramidal side effects from a potent 5-HT(2A) receptor antagonistic action. Cyamemazine is metabolized in monodesmethyl cyamemazine and cyamemazine sulfoxide, which are not known for their affinities for serotonin, dopamine and other brain receptor types considered to mediate central nervous systems effects of drugs. Hence, metabolite affinities were determined in human recombinant receptors expressed in CHO cells (hD(2) and hD4.4 receptors, h5-HT(1A), h5-HT(2A), h5-HT(2C) and h5-HT(7) receptors and hM(1), hM(2) and hM(3) receptors) and HEK-293 cells (h5-HT(3) receptors) or natively present in rat cerebral cortex (non-specific alpha(1)- and alpha(2)-adrenoceptors, GABA(A) and GABA(B) receptors) and guinea pig cerebellum (H(1) central histamine receptors) membranes. Monodesmethyl cyamemazine showed a neurotransmitter receptor profile similar to that of its parent compound cyamemazine, i.e.: high affinity for h5-HT(2A) receptors (K(i)=1.5 nM), h5-HT(2C) receptors (K(i)=12 nM) and hD(2) receptors (K(i)=12 nM). Cyamemazine sulfoxide showed high affinity for h5-HT(2A) receptors (K(i)=39 nM) and histamine H(1) receptors (K(i)=15 nM) and a reduced affinity for D(2) and 5-HT(2C) receptors. Therefore, monodesmethyl cyamemazine can contribute to enhance and prolong the therapeutic actions of cyamemazine. Further investigation is required to see if the high affinities of cyamemazine sulfoxide for H(1) and 5-HT(2A) receptors are of therapeutic benefit against sleep onset insomnia and/or sleep maintenance insomnia respectively.

  7. Inhibition of histamine-mediated signaling confers significant protection against severe malaria in mouse models of disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beghdadi, Walid; Porcherie, Adeline; Schneider, Bradley S.; Dubayle, David; Peronet, Roger; Huerre, Michel; Watanabe, Takeshi; Ohtsu, Hiroshi; Louis, Jacques; Mécheri, Salaheddine

    2008-01-01

    From the inoculation of Plasmodium sporozoites via Anopheles mosquito bites to the development of blood-stage parasites, a hallmark of the host response is an inflammatory reaction characterized by elevated histamine levels in the serum and tissues. Given the proinflammatory and immunosuppressive activities associated with histamine, we postulated that this vasoactive amine participates in malaria pathogenesis. Combined genetic and pharmacologic approaches demonstrated that histamine binding to H1R and H2R but not H3R and H4R increases the susceptibility of mice to infection with Plasmodium. To further understand the role of histamine in malaria pathogenesis, we used histidine decarboxylase–deficient (HDC−/−) mice, which are free of histamine. HDC−/− mice were highly resistant to severe malaria whether infected by mosquito bites or via injection of infected erythrocytes. HDC−/− mice displayed resistance to two lethal strains: Plasmodium berghei (Pb) ANKA, which triggers cerebral malaria (CM), and Pb NK65, which causes death without neurological symptoms. The resistance of HDC−/− mice to CM was associated with preserved blood–brain barrier integrity, the absence of infected erythrocyte aggregation in the brain vessels, and a lack of sequestration of CD4 and CD8 T cells. We demonstrate that histamine-mediated signaling contributes to malaria pathogenesis. Understanding the basis for these biological effects of histamine during infection may lead to novel therapeutic strategies to alleviate the severity of malaria. PMID:18227221

  8. Histamine deficiency exacerbates myocardial injury in acute myocardial infarction through impaired macrophage infiltration and increased cardiomyocyte apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Long; Hong, Tao; Lin, Jinyi; Ding, Suling; Huang, Zheyong; Chen, Jinmiao; Jia, Jianguo; Zou, Yunzeng; Wang, Timothy C; Yang, Xiangdong; Ge, Junbo

    2015-08-17

    Histamine is a biogenic amine that is widely distributed and has multiple functions, but the role it plays in acute myocardial infarction (AMI) remains unclear. In this study, we investigated the origin and contribution of endogenous histamine to AMI. Histidine decarboxylase (HDC) is the unique enzyme responsible for histamine generation. Using HDC-EGFP bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) transgenic mice in which EGFP expression is controlled by the HDC promoter, we identified HDC expression primarily in CD11b(+)Gr-1(+) immature myeloid cells (IMCs) that markedly increase in the early stages of AMI. Deficiency of histamine in HDC knockout mice (HDC(-/-)) reduced cardiac function and exacerbated the injury of infarcted heart. Furthermore, administering either an H1 receptor antagonist (pyrilamine) or an H2 receptor antagonist (cimetidine) demonstrated a protective effect of histamine against myocardial injury. The results of in vivo and in vitro assays showed that histamine deficiency promotes the apoptosis of cardiomyocytes and inhibits macrophage infiltration. In conclusion, CD11b(+)Gr-1(+) IMCs are the predominant HDC-expressing sites in AMI, and histamine plays a protective role in the process of AMI through inhibition of cardiomyocyte apoptosis and facilitation of macrophage infiltration.

  9. Neuronal histamine decreases fat accumulation and up-regulates UCP family in db/db obese mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    To examine anti-obesity and-diabetic effects of neuronal histamine especially in leptin resistant states, we investigated the effects of chronic central treatment with histamine on lipid, glucose and energy metabolism of db/db obese mice, which are genetically leptin receptor mutated mice. Chronic centrally treatment with histamine (0.05 μmol*g-1 body weight*d-1 for 7 days) decreased body weight, food intake in db/db obese mice, and decreased body fat weight, serum concentration of glucose compared with pair-fed db/db obese mice. Neuronal histamine also suppressed ob mRNA in the white adipose tissue (WAT), serum leptin and increased UCPs mRNA expression in brown adipose tissue (BAT) and in WAT compared with pair-fed controls. These above effects of the histamine were attenuated in these mice with combination of targeted disruption of the histamine H1 receptor gene. In conclusion, neuronal histamine can regulate body fat deposition, serum glucose, leptin, BAT and WAT UCPs expression even in leptin insensitive db/db obese mice.

  10. Effect of central and peripheral actions of histamine and its metabolite N-alpha methyl histamine on gastric secretion and acute gastric lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwiecień, S; Brzozowski, T; Konturek, P C; Konturek, S J; Pawlik, M; Pajdo, R; Drozdowicz, D; Ptak, A; Hahn, E G

    2001-12-01

    N alpha-methylhistamine (N alpha-MH) is one of unusual metabolite of histamine that was found in Helicobacter pylori-infected stomach and is believed to interact with specific histamine H1, H2 and H3-receptors to stimulate gastric acid secretion and gastrin release from isolated G-cells but the effects of N alpha-MH on gastric mucosal integrity have been little studied. This study was designed; 1) to compare the effect of intraperitoneal (i.p.), intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) and gastric topical (intragastric i.g.) application of exogenous N alpha-MH with that of standard histamine on gastric secretion in rats equipped with gastric fistula (series A) and 2) to compare the effect of i.c.v. administration of histamine and N alpha-MH with that of peripheral (i.p. and i.g.) application of these amines on gastric lesions induced by 100% ethanol (series B) in rats with or without capsaicin-induced deactivation of sensory nerves. The area of gastric lesions was determined planimetrically, gastric blood flow (GBF) was assessed by H2-gas clearance method and venous blood was collected for determination of plasma gastrin levels by RIA. N alpha-MH and histamine (0.1-10 mg/kg i.p. or i.g.) dose-dependently increased gastric acid output (series A); whereas i.c.v. administration of histamine or N alpha-MH inhibited dose-dependently this secretion; the dose attenuating gastric acid output by 50% (ED50) being 4 and 6 microg/kg i.c.v. Both, N alpha-MH and histamine (2 mg/kg i.p. and i.g.) attenuated significantly the area of gastric lesions induced by 100% ethanol (series B) while producing significant rise in the GBF and plasma immunoreactive gastrin increments. Central application of N alpha-MH and histamine (0.01-5 microg/kg i.c.v.) inhibited ethanol-induced gastric damage whereas higher doses ranging from 10-100 microg/kg of histamine and N alpha-MH were significantly less effective. Capsaicin-induced deactivation of sensory nerves by itself augmented significantly ethanol

  11. Newly emerging mutations in the matrix genes of the human influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 and A(H3N2) viruses reduce the detection sensitivity of real-time reverse transcription-PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ji-Rong; Kuo, Chuan-Yi; Huang, Hsiang-Yi; Wu, Fu-Ting; Huang, Yi-Lung; Cheng, Chieh-Yu; Su, Yu-Ting; Chang, Feng-Yee; Wu, Ho-Sheng; Liu, Ming-Tsan

    2014-01-01

    New variants of the influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 and A(H3N2) viruses were detected in Taiwan between 2012 and 2013. Some of these variants were not detected in clinical specimens using a common real-time reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) assay that targeted the conserved regions of the viral matrix (M) genes. An analysis of the M gene sequences of the new variants revealed that several newly emerging mutations were located in the regions where the primers or probes of the real-time RT-PCR assay bind; these included three mutations (G225A, T228C, and G238A) in the A(H1N1)pdm09 virus, as well as one mutation (C163T) in the A(H3N2) virus. These accumulated mismatch mutations, together with the previously identified C154T mutation of the A(H1N1)pdm09 virus and the C153T and G189T mutations of the A(H3N2) virus, result in a reduced detection sensitivity for the real-time RT-PCR assay. To overcome the loss of assay sensitivity due to mismatch mutations, we established a real-time RT-PCR assay using degenerate nucleotide bases in both the primers and probe and successfully increased the sensitivity of the assay to detect circulating variants of the human influenza A viruses. Our observations highlight the importance of the simultaneous use of different gene-targeting real-time RT-PCR assays for the clinical diagnosis of influenza.

  12. Identification of amino acids involved in histamine potentiation of GABA(A receptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrike eThiel

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Histamine is a neurotransmitter involved in a number of physiological and neuronal functions. In mammals, such as humans and rodents, the histaminergic neurons found in the tuberomamillary nucleus (TMN project widely throughout the central nervous system (CNS. Histamine acts as positive modulator of GABA(A receptors (GABA(ARs and, in high concentrations (10 mM, as negative modulator of the strychnine-sensitive glycine receptor. However, the exact molecular mechanisms by which histamine acts on GABA(ARs are unknown. In our study, we aimed to identify amino acids potentially involved in the modulatory effect of histamine on GABA(ARs. We expressed GABA(ARs with 12 different point mutations in Xenopus laevis oocytes and characterized the effect of histamine on GABA-induced currents using the two-electrode voltage clamp technique. Our data demonstrate that the amino acid residues ß2(N265 and ß2(M286, which are important for modulation by propofol, are not involved in the action of histamine. However, we found that histamine modulation is dependent on the amino acid residues alpha1(R120, ß2(Y157, ß3(D163, ß3(V175 and ß3(Q185. We showed that the amino acid residues ß2(Y157 and ß3(Q185 mediate the positive modulatory effect of histamine on GABA-induced currents, whereas alpha1(R120 and ß2(D163 form a potential histamine interaction site in GABA(ARs.

  13. Brain histamine mediates the bombesin-induced central activation of sympatho-adrenomedullary outflow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okuma, Y; Yokotani, K; Murakami, Y; Osumi, Y

    1997-01-01

    Intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) administration of bombesin (0.3 nmol) increased plasma levels of both adrenaline and noradrenaline in urethane anesthetized rats. These bombesin-induced increases were inhibited by i.c.v. pretreatment with pyrilamine, an H1-receptor antagonist. Ranitidine, an H2-receptor antagonist also inhibited the increase of adrenaline, however, its effective dose was much larger than that of pyrilamine. Furthermore, the bombesin-induced increase of noradrenaline was not effectively inhibited by ranitidine. In the next series, turnover of histamine was assessed by measuring accumulation of tele-methylhistamine (t-MH), a major metabolite of brain histamine. I.c.v. administration of bombesin (0.3-3 nmol) increased turnover of hypothalamic histamine, while its intravenous administration was without effect. The present results suggest that the bombesin-induced central activation of sympatho-adrenomedullary outflow is probably, at least in part, mediated through brain histaminergic neurons.

  14. Changes in and shortcomings of control strategies, drug stockpiles, and vaccine development during outbreaks of avian influenza A H5N1, H1N1, and H7N9 among humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Lin; Song, Peipei; Tang, Qi; Shan, Ke; Tobe, Ruoyan Gai; Selotlegeng, Lesego; Ali, Asghar Hammad; Cheng, Yangyang; Xu, Lingzhong

    2013-04-01

    The purpose of this review is to provide a reference for the future prevention and control of emerging infectious diseases by summarizing the control strategies, the status of drugs and vaccines, and shortcomings during three major outbreaks of avian influenza among humans (H5N1 in 2003, H1N1 in 2009, and H7N9 in 2013). Data on and documents regarding the three influenza outbreaks have been reviewed. Results indicated that the response to pandemic influenza outbreaks has improved markedly in terms of control strategies, stockpiles of antivirals, and vaccine development. These improvements also suggest advances in disease surveillance, transparency in reporting, and regional collaboration and cooperation. These trends also foreshadow better prospects for prevention and control of emerging infectious diseases. However, there are shortcomings since strategies failed to focus on high-risk groups, quantitative and measurable results (both direct and indirect) were unclear, and quantitative assessment is still lacking.

  15. nm23-H1基因和增殖细胞核抗原在肝癌组织中的表达及其与癌细胞DNA含量的关系%Relationship between nm23-H1, proliferating cell nuclear antigen expression and DNA content of human hepatocellular carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵新; 丛文铭; 谭璐; 吴孟超

    2001-01-01

    目的 探讨转移抑制基因nm23-H1在肝癌组织中的表达和癌细胞增殖及DNA含量间的关系。方法 应用免疫组织化学染色法检测56例肝癌组织标本中nm23-H1基因和增殖细胞核抗原(PCNA)的表达,应用图像分析系统测定癌细胞DNA含量,分析与肝癌病理生物学行为之间的关系。结果 nm23-H1表达阳性率无包膜组肝癌(29.6%)比包膜完整(64.3%)和包膜突破组肝癌(66.7%)明显减低(P<0.05)。DNA指数(DI)与肝癌包膜情况、组织类型、组织分级也有显著相关性(P<0.05)。nm23-H1表达阴性的肝癌P CNA标记指数(LI)高于nm23-H1阳性者(P<0.05);PCNA标记指数高增殖组肝癌D I值(2.30±0.90)较低增殖组肝癌DI值(1.86±0.7)明显增高(P<0.05)。结论 nm23-H1表达与肝癌包膜形成具有一定关系,并与肝癌增殖活性相关。DNA含量测定结合PCNA免疫组织化学染色可较为准确的反映肝癌浸润侵袭特征和增殖活性。%Objective To evaluate the relationship be tween expressions of nm23-H1, proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) in hepa tocellular carcinoma and DNA content of cancer cells. Methods The expression of nm23-H1 and PCNA were detected in 56 cases of HCC by us ing immunohistochemistry technique and DNA content of cancer cells were analyzed by DNA imaging analyses system as well in order to find their relationship with biopathologic characters of HCC. Results The expression levels of nm23-H1 in HCC without encapsulation (29.6%) were significantly reduc ed when compared with that with encapsulation (64.3%) or with incomplete capsula tion (66.7%,P<0.05). The increased DNA content of HCC was correlated with n on-encapsulation, compact type and high grade of the tumor (P<0.05). The labeling indexes of PCNA in the group with negative nm23-H1 expression of HCC w ere significantly higher than those in the group with positive nm23-H1 expressi on of HCC (P<0.05). The DI in

  16. Structural Basis for Inhibition of Histamine N-Methyltransferase by Diverse Drugs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horton,J.; Sawada, K.; Nishibori, M.; Cheng, X.

    2005-01-01

    In mammals, histamine action is terminated through metabolic inactivation by histamine N-methyltransferase (HNMT) and diamine oxidase. In addition to three well-studied pharmacological functions, smooth muscle contraction, increased vascular permeability, and stimulation of gastric acid secretion, histamine plays important roles in neurotransmission, immunomodulation, and regulation of cell proliferation. The histamine receptor H1 antagonist diphenhydramine, the antimalarial drug amodiaquine, the antifolate drug metoprine, and the anticholinesterase drug tacrine (an early drug for Alzheimer's disease) are surprisingly all potent HNMT inhibitors, having inhibition constants in the range of 10-100 nM. We have determined the structural mode of interaction of these four inhibitors with HNMT. Despite their structural diversity, they all occupy the histamine-binding site, thus blocking access to the enzyme's active site. Near the N terminus of HNMT, several aromatic residues (Phe9, Tyr15, and Phe19) adopt different rotamer conformations or become disordered in the enzyme-inhibitor complexes, accommodating the diverse, rigid hydrophobic groups of the inhibitors. The maximized shape complementarity between the protein aromatic side-chains and aromatic ring(s) of the inhibitors are responsible for the tight binding of these varied inhibitors.

  17. Rodent antinociception following acute treatment with different histamine receptor agonists and antagonists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farzin, Davood; Asghari, Ladan; Nowrouzi, Mahvash

    2002-06-01

    The effects of different histamine receptor agonists and antagonists on the nociceptive threshold were investigated in mice by two different kinds of noxious stimuli: thermal (hot plate) and chemical (acetic acid-induced abdominal writhing). Intracerebroventricular (icv) injection of the histamine H(1) receptor agonist, HTMT (6-[2-(4-imidazolyl)ethylamino]-N-(4-trifluoromethylphenyl) heptanecarboxamide) (50 microg/mouse), produced a hypernociception in the hot plate and writhing tests. Conversely, intraperitoneal (ip) injection of dexchlorpheniramine (30 and 40 mg/kg) and diphenhydramine (20 and 40 mg/kg) increased the pain threshold in both tests. The histamine H(2) receptor agonist, dimaprit (50 and 100 microg/mouse icv), or antagonist, ranitidine (50 and 100 microg/mouse icv), raised the pain threshold in both hot plate and writhing tests. In the mouse hot plate test, the histamine H(3) receptor agonist, imetit (50 mg/kg ip), reduced the pain threshold, while the histamine H(3) receptor antagonist, thioperamide (10 and 20 mg/kg ip), produced an antinociception. The hypernociceptive effects of HTMT and imetit were antagonized by dexchlorpheniramine (20 mg/kg ip) and thioperamide (5 mg/kg ip), respectively. The results suggest that histaminergic mechanisms may be involved in the modulation of nociceptive stimuli.

  18. Local histamine release increases leukocyte rolling in the cerebral microcirculation of the mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yong, T; Zheng, M Q; Linthicum, D S

    1997-10-01

    Histamine-mediated induction of leukocyte rolling and adhesion in the cerebral microcirculation was examined in two inbred strains of mice (SJL/J and BALB/c). A cranial window was surgically prepared for the visualization of the cerebral microcirculation using intra-vital microscopy. Leukocyte rolling and adhesion to pial venular walls were assessed during off-line video playback analyses. The surgical preparation of the cranial windows was found to trigger 'spontaneous' leukocyte rolling, and this was attributed to disruption of dural mast cells and localized release of vasoactive histamine. This spontaneous leukocyte rolling was observed only in the SJL/J strain of mice, and could be prevented by presurgical treatment with the mast cell stabilizer sodium cromoglycate. BALB/c mice did not show 'spontaneous' leukocyte rolling or adhesion; this strain is known to have low numbers of CNS-associated mast cells. Exogenous histamine, applied topically to the cerebral microcirculation via the cranial window in mice pretreated with sodium cromoglycate, produced significant dose-dependent increases in leukocyte rolling and adhesion to pial venules in SJL/J mice, but not in BALB/c mice. Diphenhydramine (H1 receptor antagonist), but not cimetidine (H2 receptor antagonist), abolished both 'spontaneous' and histamine-induced leukocyte rolling. Anti-P-selectin antibody was found efficiently to block both spontaneous and histamine-induced increases in leukocyte rolling, but not leukocyte adhesion.

  19. Histamine receptors expressed in circulating progenitor cells have reciprocal actions in ligation-induced arteriosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Sohsuke; Wang, Ke-Yong; Tanimoto, Akihide; Guo, Xin; Nabeshima, Atsunori; Watanabe, Takeshi; Sasaguri, Yasuyuki

    2013-09-01

    Histamine is synthesized as a low-molecular-weight amine from L-histidine by histidine decarboxylase (HDC). Recently, we demonstrated that carotid artery-ligated HDC gene-deficient mice (HDC(-/-)) showed less neointimal formation than wild-type (WT) mice, indicating that histamine participates in the process of arteriosclerosis. However, little is known about the roles of histamine-specific receptors (HHRs) in arteriosclerosis. To define the roles of HHRs in arteriosclerosis, we investigated intimal remodeling in ligated carotid arteries of HHR-deficient mice (H1R(-/-) or H2R(-/-)). Quantitative analysis showed that H1R(-/-) mice had significantly less arteriosclerogenesis, whereas H2R(-/-) mice had more, as compared with WT mice. Bone marrow transplantation from H1R(-/-) or H2R(-/-) to WT mice confirmed the above observation. Furthermore, the increased expression of monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP-1), platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF), adhesion molecules and liver X receptor (LXR)-related inflammatory signaling factors, including Toll-like receptor (TLR3), interleukin-1 receptor (IL-1R) and tumor necrosis factor receptor (TNF-R), was consistent with the arteriosclerotic phenotype of H2R(-/-) mice. Peripheral progenitor cells in H2R(-/-) mice accelerate ligation-induced arteriosclerosis through their regulation of MCP-1, PDGF, adhesion molecules and LXR-related inflammatory signaling factors. In contrast, peripheral progenitor cells act to suppress arteriosclerosis in H1R(-/-) mice, indicating that HHRs reciprocally regulate inflammation in the ligation-induced arteriosclerosis.

  20. Histamine in the regulation of wakefulness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakkar, Mahesh M

    2011-02-01

    The histaminergic system is exclusively localized within the posterior hypothalamus with projection to almost all the major regions of the central nervous system. Strong and consistent evidence exist to suggest that histamine, acting via H₁ and/or H₃ receptor has a pivotal role in the regulation of sleep-wakefulness. Administration of histamine or H₁ receptor agonists induces wakefulness, whereas administration of H₁ receptor antagonists promotes sleep. The H₃ receptor functions as an auto-receptor and regulates the synthesis and release of histamine. Activation of H₃ receptor reduces histamine release and promotes sleep. Conversely, blockade of H₃ receptor promotes wakefulness. Histamine release in the hypothalamus and other target regions is highest during wakefulness. The histaminergic neurons display maximal activity during the state of high vigilance, and cease their activity during non-rapid eye movement (NREM) and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. The cerebrospinal levels of histamine are reduced in diseased states where hypersomnolence is a major symptom. The histamine deficient L-histidine decarboxylase knockout (HDC KO) mice display sleep fragmentation and increased REM sleep during the light period along with profound wakefulness deficit at dark onset, and in novel environment. Similar results have been obtained when histamine neurons are lesioned. These studies strongly implicate the histaminergic neurons of the TMN to play a critical role in the maintenance of high vigilance state during wakefulness.

  1. Fluorometric determination of histamine in cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, T L; Staruszkiewicz, W F

    1978-09-01

    Thirty-one samples of cheese obtained from retail outlets were analyzed for histamine, using an official AOAC fluorometric method. The types of cheese analyzed and the ranges of histamine found were: colby, 0.3--2.8; camembert, 0.4--4.2; cheddar, 1.2--5.8; gouda, 1.3--2.4; provolone, 2.0--23.5; roquefort, 1.0--16.8; mozzarella 1.6--5.0; and swiss, 0.4--250 mg histamine/100 g. Ten of the 12 samples of swiss cheese contained less than 16 mg histamine/100 g. The remaining 2 samples which contained 116 and 250 mg histamine/100 g were judged organoleptically to be of poor quality. An investigation of one processing facility showed that the production of histamine in swiss cheese may have been a result of a hydrogen peroxide/low temperature treatment of the milk supply. Recovery of histamine added to methanol extracts of cheese ranged from 93 to 105%. Histamine content was confirmed by high pressure liquid chromatographic analysis of the methanol extracts.

  2. Histamine H3-receptor isoforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakker, R A

    2004-10-01

    Increasing evidence supports a role for HA as a neurotransmitter and neuromodulator in various brain functions, including emotion, cognition, and feeding. The recent cloning of the histamine H3 receptor allowed for the subsequent cloning of a variety of H3 receptor isoforms from different species as well as the H4 receptor. As a result a wide variety of H3-receptor isoforms are now known that display differential brain expression patterns and signalling properties. These recent discoveries are discussed in view of the growing interest of the H3 receptor as a target for the development of potential therapeutics.

  3. Transcription of the Human Microsomal Epoxide Hydrolase Gene (EPHX1) Is Regulated by PARP-1 and Histone H1.2. Association with Sodium-Dependent Bile Acid Transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Hui; Zhu, Qin-shi; Zhong, Shuping; Levy, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Microsomal epoxide hydrolase (mEH) is a bifunctional protein that plays a central role in the metabolism of numerous xenobiotics as well as mediating the sodium-dependent transport of bile acids into hepatocytes. These compounds are involved in cholesterol homeostasis, lipid digestion, excretion of xenobiotics and the regulation of several nuclear receptors and signaling transduction pathways. Previous studies have demonstrated the critical role of GATA-4, a C/EBPα-NF/Y complex and an HNF-4α/CAR/RXR/PSF complex in the transcriptional regulation of the mEH gene (EPHX1). Studies also identified heterozygous mutations in human EPHX1 that resulted in a 95% decrease in mEH expression levels which was associated with a decrease in bile acid transport and severe hypercholanemia. In the present investigation we demonstrate that EPHX1 transcription is significantly inhibited by two heterozygous mutations observed in the Old Order Amish population that present numerous hypercholanemic subjects in the absence of liver damage suggesting a defect in bile acid transport into the hepatocyte. The identity of the regulatory proteins binding to these sites, established using biotinylated oligonucleotides in conjunction with mass spectrometry was shown to be poly(ADP-ribose)polymerase-1 (PARP-1) bound to the EPHX1 proximal promoter and a linker histone complex, H1.2/Aly, bound to a regulatory intron 1 site. These sites exhibited 71% homology and may represent potential nucleosome positioning domains. The high frequency of the H1.2 site polymorphism in the Amish population results in a potential genetic predisposition to hypercholanemia and in conjunction with our previous studies, further supports the critical role of mEH in mediating bile acid transport into hepatocytes.

  4. 无偿献血者接种甲型H1N1流感疫苗效果的初步评价%Preliminary evaluation of the effect of Human Influenza A (H1N1) vaccination in blood donors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    车嘉琳; 梁兵; 王德文; 师玲玲; 陈少彬; 刘赴平

    2010-01-01

    目的 初步评价无偿献血者接种甲型H1N1型流感(简称甲流)疫苗的效果,为临床采集、储备甲流抗体血浆提供依据.方法 对2010年1月-2010年2月的1 027名东莞市无偿献血者分为甲流疫苗接种组(n=899)和对照组(n=128),应用ELISA法检测2组的人H1N1 IgG抗体,并对检测结果进行统计分析.结果 抗-H1N1阳性率:甲流疫苗接种组为77.53%(697/899),对照组为15.63%(20/128),2组比较具统计学意义(X2>=203.76,P<0.01);抗-H1N1阳性结果S/CO值,甲流疫苗接种组为1.27±0.18,对照组为1.08±0.07(t=4.71,P<0.01);甲流疫苗接种者中,接种时间71-80d组的抗-H1N1阳性率、S/CO值均高于接种时间小干70 d的各组.在甲流疫苗接种组中37例自诉有接种副反应,占4.12%,但无严重副反应.结论 无偿献血者接种甲流疫苗安全且能有效产生抗-H1N1 IgG,建议在接种疫苗70 d后采集甲流抗体血浆.

  5. Histamine chloramine reactivity with thiol compounds, ascorbate, and methionine and with intracellular glutathione.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peskin, Alexander V; Winterbourn, Christine C

    2003-11-15

    Histamine is stored in granules of mast cells and basophils and released by inflammatory mediators. It has the potential to intercept some of the HOCl generated by the neutrophil enzyme, myeloperoxidase, to produce histamine chloramine. We have measured rate constants for reactions of histamine chloramine with methionine, ascorbate, and GSH at pH 7.4, of 91 M(-1)s(-1), 195 M(-1)s(-1), and 721 M(-1)s(-1), respectively. With low molecular weight thiols, the reaction was with the thiolate and rates increased exponentially with decreasing thiol group pK(a). Comparing rate constants for different chloramines reacting with ascorbate or a particular thiol anion, these were higher when there was less negative charge in the vicinity of the chloramine group. Histamine chloramine was the most reactive among biologically relevant chloramines. Consumption of histamine chloramine and oxidation of intracellular GSH were examined for human fibroblasts. At nontoxic doses, GSH loss over 10 min was slightly greater than that with HOCl, but the cellular uptake of histamine chloramine was 5-10-fold less. With histamine chloramine, GSSG was a minor product and most of the GSH was converted to mixed disulfides with proteins. HOCl gave a different profile of GSH oxidation products, with significantly less GSSG and mixed disulfide formation. There was irreversible oxidation and losses to the medium, as observed with HOCl and other cell types. Thus, histamine chloramine shows high preference for thiols both in isolation and in cells, and in this respect is more selective than HOCl.

  6. Non-imidazole-based histamine H3 receptor antagonists with anticonvulsant activity in different seizure models in male adult rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadek B

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Bassem Sadek,1 Ali Saad,1 Gniewomir Latacz,2 Kamil Kuder,2 Agnieszka Olejarz,2 Tadeusz Karcz,2 Holger Stark,3 Katarzyna Kieć-Kononowicz2 1Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, United Arab Emirates University, Al Ain, United Arab Emirates; 2Department of Technology and Biotechnology of Drugs, Faculty of Pharmacy, Jagiellonian University Medical College, Kraków, Poland; 3Department of Pharmaceutical and Medicinal Chemistry, Institute of Pharmaceutical and Medicinal Chemistry, Heinrich Heine University, Düsseldorf, Germany Abstract: A series of twelve novel non-imidazole-based ligands (3–14 was developed and evaluated for its in vitro binding properties at the human histamine H3 receptor (hH3R. The novel ligands were investigated for their in vivo protective effects in different seizure models in male adult rats. Among the H3R ligands (3–14 tested, ligand 14 showed significant and dose-dependent reduction in the duration of tonic hind limb extension in maximal electroshock (MES-induced seizure model subsequent to acute systemic administration (5, 10, and 20 mg/kg, intraperitoneally, whereas ligands 4, 6, and 7 without appreciable protection in MES model were most promising in pentylenetetrazole (PTZ model. Moreover, the protective effect observed for ligand 14 in MES model was lower than that observed for the reference drug phenytoin and was entirely abrogated when rats were co-administered with the brain-penetrant H1R antagonist pyrilamine (PYR but not the brain-penetrant H2R antagonist zolantidine (ZOL, demonstrating that histaminergic neurotransmission by activation of postsynaptically located H1Rs seems to be involved in the protective action. On the contrary, PYR and ZOL failed to abrogate the full protection provided by 4 in PTZ model and the moderate protective effect by 14 in strychnine (STR model. Moreover, the experimental and in silico estimation of properties such as metabolism was

  7. H3 histamine receptor antagonist pitolisant reverses some subchronic disturbances induced by olanzapine in mice

    OpenAIRE

    Dudek, Magdalena; Kuder, Kamil; Kołaczkowski, Marcin; Olczyk, Adrian; Żmudzka, Elżbieta; Rak, Aleksandra; Bednarski, Marek; Pytka, Karolina; Sapa, Jacek; Kieć-Kononowicz, Katarzyna

    2016-01-01

    The use of atypical antipsychotic drugs like olanzapine is associated with side effects such as sedation and depression-like symptoms, especially during the initial period of the use. It is believed that the occurrence of these undesirable effectsis mainly the result of the histamine H1receptors blockade by olanzapine. In addition, use of olanzapine increases the level of triglycerides in the blood, which correlates with growing obesity. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence ...

  8. Fish Product-Borne Histamine Intoxication Outbreak and Survey of Imported Fish and Fish Products in Serbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrovic, Jelena; Babić, Jelena; Jaksic, Sandra; Kartalovic, Brankica; Ljubojevic, Dragana; Cirkovic, Miroslav

    2016-01-01

    Histamine levels in fish and fish products are regarded as a primary criterion for food safety, considering the effects of histamine on human health. The aim of this research was to describe a case of massive histamine intoxication in Serbian children and to provide relevant information regarding the presence of histamine in imported marine fish and fish products available in the Serbian market. In January 2014, an incident of foodborne illness occurred in 28 children (aged 2 to 5 years) who consumed canned sardines in a kindergarten in Vojvodina province, northern Serbia. The diagnosis was established based on anamnestic data, epidemiological data, and clinical symptoms and confirmed by positive histamine finding in the incriminated sardines. Substantially high histamine levels (>300 mg/kg) were detected in seven of the nine examined units of these canned sardines. In addition, during an official veterinary border control from January 2013 to January 2015, 273 lots in total, including 2,457 fish and fishery product units, were analyzed using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Even though only nine (3.29%) of all examined lots were declared as unsafe for human consumption, the presented case of histamine intoxication strongly suggests the importance of border inspection and comprehensive control of each imported lot.

  9. Synthesis of histamine by Haemophilus influenzae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheinman, B D; Devalia, J L; Davies, R J; Crook, S J; Tabaqchali, S

    1986-03-29

    Recent findings suggest that bacteria might contribute to histamine concentrations in the sputum of patients with infective lung disease. Ten isolates of Haemophilus influenzae from patients with acute exacerbation of chronic bronchitis and emphysema, together with two reference strains, were incubated at 37 degrees C for 72 hours. Serial estimations of histamine concentrations by high pressure liquid chromatography showed significant increases at 24 and 48 hours; no increases were evident in the control samples. These findings suggest that H influenzae might contribute to inflammation and limited airflow in infective lung disease by producing histamine.

  10. Mechanism of renal effects of intracerebroventricular histamine in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kook, Y J; Kim, K K; Yang, D K; Ahn, D S; Choi, B K

    1988-01-01

    Histamine, when given intracerebroventricularly (i.c.v.), has been reported to produce antidiuresis in the rabbit. In this study it was attempted to elucidate the mechanism involved in the effect. Histamine (H), 100 micrograms/kg i.c.v., produced antidiuresis with decreases in renal plasma flow and glomerular filtration rate in urethane-anesthetized rabbits. With larger doses, a tendency towards increased electrolyte excretion was noted in spite of decreased filtration. In the denervated kidney, marked diuresis and natriuresis were observed following i.c.v. H, whereas the contralateral innervated kidney responded with typical antidiuresis. Reserpinized rabbits also responded with marked natriuresis to i.c.v. H. Diphenhydramine (D), 250 micrograms/kg i.c.v., increased urine flow rate, sodium and potassium excretion, along with increase in renal perfusion. With 750 micrograms/kg i.c.v., marked natriuresis was observed in spite of decreased filtration. When H was given after D (250 micrograms/kg) the antidiuresis was completely abolished, and diuresis became more prominent. Cimetidine, 250 micrograms/kg i.c.v., elicited antidiuresis with decreases in renal hemodynamics, the pretreatment with cimetidine did not influence the antidiuresis by H and no natriuresis was noted. The present study suggests that histamine, given i.c.v., influences renal function in dual ways, i.e., antidiuresis by increasing the sympathetic tone to the kidney and diuresis due to some humoral natriuretic factor, the latter becoming apparent only when the former influence has been removed, and further suggests that H1-receptors might be involved in the nerve-mediated antidiuresis, whereas H2-receptors might mediate the humorally induced natriuresis and diuresis.

  11. The in vivo effects of interleukin-3 on histamine levels in non-Hodgkin's lymphoma patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hovgaard, D J; Stahl Skov, P; Nissen, N I

    1997-06-01

    Recombinant human Interleukin-3 (RhIL-3) is a haemopoietic growth factor with effect both on early and differentiated cells, such as eosinophils and basophils, and it also acts as a histamine-releasing agent. The purpose of the present study was to examine whether in vivo rhIL-3 administration after chemotherapy affected basophil histamine levels and whether a concordance between rhIL-3 induced histamine release and side effects during the treatment could be demonstrated. Thirty patients with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma entered the study. All patients received 6 courses of chemotherapy, rhIL-3 was administered subcutaneously once daily after the second and the fourth course of chemotherapy from cycle day 2-15 at the dose levels 0.5, 1.0, 5.0, 7.5 and 10 micrograms/kg with 6 patients at each dose level. In cycle 6 recombinant human Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor (rhGM-CSF) (3.0 micrograms/kg) was administered sequential/concurrent day 9-15 to rhIL-3 (day 2-15) at all dose levels except 7.5 micrograms/kg, where rhIL-3 was given day 2-8 and rhGM-CSF sequential day 9-15. Cycles 1, 3 and 5 served as control cycles with no cytokine therapy. During rhIL-3 treatment, and after CHOP chemotherapy, the basophil counts increased moderately especially during the recovery period day 15-22, and mainly at the two highest dose levels 7.5 and 10 micrograms/kg, but never exceeded the normal upper limit. Histamine levels in basophils were the same in patients before chemotherapy and healthy volunteers, and except from a trend to increased histamine level at 10 micrograms/kg on day 15, no difference was noted between rhIL-3 cycles and control cycles. Within 3-4 hr after rhIL-3 administration, a drop in histamine level in basophils was noted, which could be due to histamine-releasing properties of rhIL-3 as previously demonstrat