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Sample records for human hemagglutinin hsw1

  1. An Amphibian Host Defense Peptide Is Virucidal for Human H1 Hemagglutinin-Bearing Influenza Viruses.

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    Holthausen, David J; Lee, Song Hee; Kumar, Vineeth Tv; Bouvier, Nicole M; Krammer, Florian; Ellebedy, Ali H; Wrammert, Jens; Lowen, Anice C; George, Sanil; Pillai, Madhavan Radhakrishna; Jacob, Joshy

    2017-04-18

    Although vaccines confer protection against influenza A viruses, antiviral treatment becomes the first line of defense during pandemics because there is insufficient time to produce vaccines. Current antiviral drugs are susceptible to drug resistance, and developing new antivirals is essential. We studied host defense peptides from the skin of the South Indian frog and demonstrated that one of these, which we named "urumin," is virucidal for H1 hemagglutinin-bearing human influenza A viruses. This peptide specifically targeted the conserved stalk region of H1 hemagglutinin and was effective against drug-resistant H1 influenza viruses. Using electron microscopy, we showed that this peptide physically destroyed influenza virions. It also protected naive mice from lethal influenza infection. Urumin represents a unique class of anti-influenza virucide that specifically targets the hemagglutinin stalk region, similar to targeting of antibodies induced by universal influenza vaccines. Urumin therefore has the potential to contribute to first-line anti-viral treatments during influenza outbreaks. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Interaction of Bordetella pertussis filamentous hemagglutinin with human TLR2: identification of the TLR2-binding domain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Asgarian-Omran, Hossein; Amirzargar, Ali Akbar; Zeerleder, Sacha; Mahdavi, Marzieh; van Mierlo, Gerard; Solati, Shabnam; Jeddi-Tehrani, Mahmood; Rabbani, Hodjatallah; Aarden, Leucien; Shokri, Fazel

    2015-01-01

    Filamentous hemagglutinin (FHA) is a major adhesion and virulence factor of Bordetella pertussis and also a main component of acellular pertussis vaccines. Interaction of FHA with different receptors on human epithelial and immune cells facilitates entrance and colonization of bacteria as well as

  3. Broadly neutralizing human antibody that recognizes the receptor-binding pocket of influenza virus hemagglutinin

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    Whittle, James R.R.; Zhang, Ruijun; Khurana, Surender; King, Lisa R.; Manischewitz, Jody; Golding, Hana; Dormitzer, Philip R.; Haynes, Barton F.; Walter, Emmanuel B.; Moody, M. Anthony; Kepler, Thomas B.; Liao, Hua-Xin; Harrison, Stephen C. (Harvard-Med); (Novartis); (US-FDA); (Duke)

    2011-09-20

    Seasonal antigenic drift of circulating influenza virus leads to a requirement for frequent changes in vaccine composition, because exposure or vaccination elicits human antibodies with limited cross-neutralization of drifted strains. We describe a human monoclonal antibody, CH65, obtained by isolating rearranged heavy- and light-chain genes from sorted single plasma cells, coming from a subject immunized with the 2007 trivalent influenza vaccine. The crystal structure of a complex of the hemagglutinin (HA) from H1N1 strain A/Solomon Islands/3/2006 with the Fab of CH65 shows that the tip of the CH65 heavy-chain complementarity determining region 3 (CDR3) inserts into the receptor binding pocket on HA1, mimicking in many respects the interaction of the physiological receptor, sialic acid. CH65 neutralizes infectivity of 30 out of 36 H1N1 strains tested. The resistant strains have a single-residue insertion near the rim of the sialic-acid pocket. We conclude that broad neutralization of influenza virus can be achieved by antibodies with contacts that mimic those of the receptor.

  4. Peptide sharing between influenza A H1N1 hemagglutinin and human axon guidance proteins.

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    Lucchese, Guglielmo; Capone, Giovanni; Kanduc, Darja

    2014-03-01

    Epidemiologic data suggest that maternal microbial infections may cause fetal neurodevelopmental disorders, potentially increasing susceptibility to heavy psychopathologies such as schizophrenia, schizophreniform disorder, autism, pervasive developmental disorders, bipolar disorders, psychosis, epilepsy, language and speech disorders, and cognitive impairment in adult offspring. However, the molecular pathomechanisms underlying such a relationship are not clear. Here we analyze the potential role of the maternal immune response to viral infection in determining fetal brain injuries that increase the risk of neurological disorders in the adult. We use influenza infection as a disease model and human axon guidance pathway, a key process in the formation of neural network during midgestation, as a potential fetal target of immune insults. Specifically, we examined influenza A H1N1 hemagglutinin (HA), an antigenic viral protein, for amino acid sequence similarity to a random library of 188 axon guidance proteins. We obtain the results that (1) contrary to any theoretical expectations, 45 viral pentapeptide matches are distributed throughout a subset of 36 guidance molecules; (2) in 24 guidance proteins, the peptide sharing with HA antigen involves already experimentally validated influenza HA epitopes; and (3) most of the axon guidance vs HA peptide overlap is conserved among influenza A viral strains and subsets. Taken together, our data indicate that immune cross-reactivity between influenza HA and axon guidance molecules is possible and may well represent a pathologic mechanism capable of determining neurodevelopmental disruption in the fetus.

  5. Changes in the hemagglutinin of H5N1 viruses during human infection--influence on receptor binding.

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    Crusat, Martin; Liu, Junfeng; Palma, Angelina S; Childs, Robert A; Liu, Yan; Wharton, Stephen A; Lin, Yi Pu; Coombs, Peter J; Martin, Stephen R; Matrosovich, Mikhail; Chen, Zi; Stevens, David J; Hien, Vo Minh; Thanh, Tran Tan; Nhu, Le Nguyen Truc; Nguyet, Lam Anh; Ha, Do Quang; van Doorn, H Rogier; Hien, Tran Tinh; Conradt, Harald S; Kiso, Makoto; Gamblin, Steve J; Chai, Wengang; Skehel, John J; Hay, Alan J; Farrar, Jeremy; de Jong, Menno D; Feizi, Ten

    2013-12-01

    As avian influenza A(H5N1) viruses continue to circulate in Asia and Africa, global concerns of an imminent pandemic persist. Recent experimental studies suggest that efficient transmission between humans of current H5N1 viruses only requires a few genetic changes. An essential step is alteration of the virus hemagglutinin from preferential binding to avian receptors for the recognition of human receptors present in the upper airway. We have identified receptor-binding changes which emerged during H5N1 infection of humans, due to single amino acid substitutions, Ala134Val and Ile151Phe, in the hemagglutinin. Detailed biological, receptor-binding, and structural analyses revealed reduced binding of the mutated viruses to avian-like receptors, but without commensurate increased binding to the human-like receptors investigated, possibly reflecting a receptor-binding phenotype intermediate in adaptation to more human-like characteristics. These observations emphasize that evolution in nature of avian H5N1 viruses to efficient binding of human receptors is a complex multistep process. Copyright © 2013 The Authros. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Design and synthesis of glycoprotein-based multivalent glyco-ligands for influenza hemagglutinin and human galectin-3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Helen; Huang, Wei; Orwenyo, Jared; Banerjee, Aditi; Vasta, Gerardo R; Wang, Lai-Xi

    2013-04-01

    We report a facile synthesis of glycoprotein-based glyco-ligands and their binding with influenza hemagglutinin and human galectin-3. Human serum albumin (HSA) was used as the scaffold and an Asn-linked complex type N-glycan prepared from chicken eggs was used as the glycan building block. It was found that Cu(I)-catalyzed alkyne-azide cycloaddition reaction (click chemistry) between the alkyne-labeled glycan and the azide-tagged HSA led to an efficient formation of the glycoconjugates. The density of glycan ligands on the protein scaffold was readily varied by changing the molar ratios of the two reactants. Binding studies indicated that the sialylated and desialylated multivalent glycoligands could selectively bind to influenza hemagglutinin and human galectin-3, respectively, with high affinity. In the two glycan-lectin interactions, a clear multivalent effect was observed. Moreover, a cell-based assay showed that the synthetic multivalent glyco-ligands could efficiently inhibit the attachment of galectin-3 to human prostate cancer and lung cancer cell lines. This study suggests that the synthetic glycoprotein-based glyco-ligands can be useful for different applications, including blocking the function of galectin-3 in cancer metastasis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Mutations in H5N1 influenza virus hemagglutinin that confer binding to human tracheal airway epithelium.

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    Guadalupe Ayora-Talavera

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The emergence in 2009 of a swine-origin H1N1 influenza virus as the first pandemic of the 21st Century is a timely reminder of the international public health impact of influenza viruses, even those associated with mild disease. The widespread distribution of highly pathogenic H5N1 influenza virus in the avian population has spawned concern that it may give rise to a human influenza pandemic. The mortality rate associated with occasional human infection by H5N1 virus approximates 60%, suggesting that an H5N1 pandemic would be devastating to global health and economy. To date, the H5N1 virus has not acquired the propensity to transmit efficiently between humans. The reasons behind this are unclear, especially given the high mutation rate associated with influenza virus replication. Here we used a panel of recombinant H5 hemagglutinin (HA variants to demonstrate the potential for H5 HA to bind human airway epithelium, the predominant target tissue for influenza virus infection and spread. While parental H5 HA exhibited limited binding to human tracheal epithelium, introduction of selected mutations converted the binding profile to that of a current human influenza strain HA. Strikingly, these amino-acid changes required multiple simultaneous mutations in the genomes of naturally occurring H5 isolates. Moreover, H5 HAs bearing intermediate sequences failed to bind airway tissues and likely represent mutations that are an evolutionary "dead end." We conclude that, although genetic changes that adapt H5 to human airways can be demonstrated, they may not readily arise during natural virus replication. This genetic barrier limits the likelihood that current H5 viruses will originate a human pandemic.

  8. Serological characterization of guinea pigs infected with H3N2 human influenza or immunized with hemagglutinin protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Recent and previous studies have shown that guinea pigs can be infected with, and transmit, human influenza viruses. Therefore guinea pig may be a useful animal model for better understanding influenza infection and assessing vaccine strategies. To more fully characterize the model, antibody responses following either infection/re-infection with human influenza A/Wyoming/03/2003 H3N2 or immunization with its homologous recombinant hemagglutinin (HA) protein were studied. Results Serological samples were collected and tested for anti-HA immunoglobulin by ELISA, antiviral antibodies by hemagglutination inhibition (HI), and recognition of linear epitopes by peptide scanning (PepScan). Animals inoculated with infectious virus demonstrated pronounced viral replication and subsequent serological conversion. Animals either immunized with the homologous HA antigen or infected, showed a relatively rapid rise in antibody titers to the HA glycoprotein in ELISA assays. Antiviral antibodies, measured by HI assay, were detectable after the second inoculation. PepScan data identified both previously recognized and newly defined linear epitopes. Conclusions Infection and/or recombinant HA immunization of guinea pigs with H3N2 Wyoming influenza virus resulted in a relatively rapid production of viral-specific antibody thus demonstrating the strong immunogenicity of the major viral structural proteins in this animal model for influenza infection. The sensitivity of the immune response supports the utility of the guinea pig as a useful animal model of influenza infection and immunization. PMID:20735849

  9. Ex vivo analysis of human memory B lymphocytes specific for A and B influenza hemagglutinin by polychromatic flow-cytometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardelli, Monia; Alleri, Liliana; Angiolini, Francesca; Buricchi, Francesca; Tavarini, Simona; Sammicheli, Chiara; Nuti, Sandra; Degl'Innocenti, Elena; Isnardi, Isabelle; Fragapane, Elena; Del Giudice, Giuseppe; Castellino, Flora; Galli, Grazia

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the impact that human memory B-cells (MBC), primed by previous infections or vaccination, exert on neutralizing antibody responses against drifted influenza hemagglutinin (HA) is key to design best protective vaccines. A major obstacle to these studies is the lack of practical tools to analyze HA-specific MBCs in human PBMCs ex vivo. We report here an efficient method to identify MBCs carrying HA-specific BCR in frozen PBMC samples. By using fluorochrome-tagged recombinant HA baits, and vaccine antigens from mismatched influenza strains to block BCR-independent binding, we developed a protocol suitable for quantitative, functional and molecular analysis of single MBCs specific for HA from up to two different influenza strains in the same tube. This approach will permit to identify the naive and MBC precursors of plasmablasts and novel MBCs appearing in the blood following infection or vaccination, thus clarifying the actual contribution of pre-existing MBCs in antibody responses against novel influenza viruses. Finally, this protocol can allow applying high throughput deep sequencing to analyze changes in the repertoire of HA⁺ B-cells in longitudinal samples from large cohorts of vaccinees and infected subjects with the ultimate goal of understanding the in vivo B-cell dynamics driving the evolution of broadly cross-protective antibody responses.

  10. Ex vivo analysis of human memory B lymphocytes specific for A and B influenza hemagglutinin by polychromatic flow-cytometry.

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    Monia Bardelli

    Full Text Available Understanding the impact that human memory B-cells (MBC, primed by previous infections or vaccination, exert on neutralizing antibody responses against drifted influenza hemagglutinin (HA is key to design best protective vaccines. A major obstacle to these studies is the lack of practical tools to analyze HA-specific MBCs in human PBMCs ex vivo. We report here an efficient method to identify MBCs carrying HA-specific BCR in frozen PBMC samples. By using fluorochrome-tagged recombinant HA baits, and vaccine antigens from mismatched influenza strains to block BCR-independent binding, we developed a protocol suitable for quantitative, functional and molecular analysis of single MBCs specific for HA from up to two different influenza strains in the same tube. This approach will permit to identify the naive and MBC precursors of plasmablasts and novel MBCs appearing in the blood following infection or vaccination, thus clarifying the actual contribution of pre-existing MBCs in antibody responses against novel influenza viruses. Finally, this protocol can allow applying high throughput deep sequencing to analyze changes in the repertoire of HA⁺ B-cells in longitudinal samples from large cohorts of vaccinees and infected subjects with the ultimate goal of understanding the in vivo B-cell dynamics driving the evolution of broadly cross-protective antibody responses.

  11. Serological characterization of guinea pigs infected with H3N2 human influenza or immunized with hemagglutinin protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bushnell Ruth V

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent and previous studies have shown that guinea pigs can be infected with, and transmit, human influenza viruses. Therefore guinea pig may be a useful animal model for better understanding influenza infection and assessing vaccine strategies. To more fully characterize the model, antibody responses following either infection/re-infection with human influenza A/Wyoming/03/2003 H3N2 or immunization with its homologous recombinant hemagglutinin (HA protein were studied. Results Serological samples were collected and tested for anti-HA immunoglobulin by ELISA, antiviral antibodies by hemagglutination inhibition (HI, and recognition of linear epitopes by peptide scanning (PepScan. Animals inoculated with infectious virus demonstrated pronounced viral replication and subsequent serological conversion. Animals either immunized with the homologous HA antigen or infected, showed a relatively rapid rise in antibody titers to the HA glycoprotein in ELISA assays. Antiviral antibodies, measured by HI assay, were detectable after the second inoculation. PepScan data identified both previously recognized and newly defined linear epitopes. Conclusions Infection and/or recombinant HA immunization of guinea pigs with H3N2 Wyoming influenza virus resulted in a relatively rapid production of viral-specific antibody thus demonstrating the strong immunogenicity of the major viral structural proteins in this animal model for influenza infection. The sensitivity of the immune response supports the utility of the guinea pig as a useful animal model of influenza infection and immunization.

  12. Molecular signatures of hemagglutinin stem-directed heterosubtypic human neutralizing antibodies against influenza A viruses.

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    Yuval Avnir

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies have shown high usage of the IGHV1-69 germline immunoglobulin gene for influenza hemagglutinin stem-directed broadly-neutralizing antibodies (HV1-69-sBnAbs. Here we show that a major structural solution for these HV1-69-sBnAbs is achieved through a critical triad comprising two CDR-H2 loop anchor residues (a hydrophobic residue at position 53 (Ile or Met and Phe54, and CDR-H3-Tyr at positions 98±1; together with distinctive V-segment CDR amino acid substitutions that occur in positions sparse in AID/polymerase-η recognition motifs. A semi-synthetic IGHV1-69 phage-display library screen designed to investigate AID/polη restrictions resulted in the isolation of HV1-69-sBnAbs that featured a distinctive Ile52Ser mutation in the CDR-H2 loop, a universal CDR-H3 Tyr at position 98 or 99, and required as little as two additional substitutions for heterosubtypic neutralizing activity. The functional importance of the Ile52Ser mutation was confirmed by mutagenesis and by BCR studies. Structural modeling suggests that substitution of a small amino acid at position 52 (or 52a facilitates the insertion of CDR-H2 Phe54 and CDR-H3-Tyr into adjacent pockets on the stem. These results support the concept that activation and expansion of a defined subset of IGHV1-69-encoded B cells to produce potent HV1-69-sBnAbs does not necessarily require a heavily diversified V-segment acquired through recycling/reentry into the germinal center; rather, the incorporation of distinctive amino acid substitutions by Phase 2 long-patch error-prone repair of AID-induced mutations or by random non-AID SHM events may be sufficient. We propose that these routes of B cell maturation should be further investigated and exploited as a pathway for HV1-69-sBnAb elicitation by vaccination.

  13. Evolution of human receptor binding affinity of H1N1 hemagglutinins from 1918 to 2009 pandemic influenza A virus.

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    Nunthaboot, Nadtanet; Rungrotmongkol, Thanyada; Malaisree, Maturos; Kaiyawet, Nopporn; Decha, Panita; Sompornpisut, Pornthep; Poovorawan, Yong; Hannongbua, Supot

    2010-08-23

    The recent outbreak of the novel 2009 H1N1 influenza in humans has focused global attention on this virus, which could potentially have introduced a more dangerous pandemic of influenza flu. In the initial step of the viral attachment, hemagglutinin (HA), a viral glycoprotein surface, is responsible for the binding to the human SIA alpha2,6-linked sialopentasaccharide host cell receptor (hHAR). Dynamical and structural properties, based on molecular dynamics simulations of the four different HAs of Spanish 1918 (H1-1918), swine 1930 (H1-1930), seasonal 2005 (H1-2005), and a novel 2009 (H1-2009) H1N1 bound to the hHAR were compared. In all four HA-hHAR complexes, major interactions with the receptor binding were gained from HA residue Y95 and the conserved HA residues of the 130-loop, 190-helix, and 220-loop. However, introduction of the charged HA residues K145 and E227 in the 2009 HA binding pocket was found to increase the HA-hHAR binding efficiency in comparison to the three previously recognized H1N1 strains. Changing of the noncharged HA G225 residue to a negatively charged D225 provides a larger number of hydrogen-bonding interactions. The increase in hydrophilicity of the receptor binding region is apparently an evolution of the current pandemic flu from the 1918 Spanish, 1930 swine, and 2005 seasonal strains. Detailed analysis could help the understanding of how different HAs effectively attach and bind with the hHAR.

  14. A human monoclonal antibody derived from a vaccinated volunteer recognizes heterosubtypically a novel epitope on the hemagglutinin globular head of H1 and H9 influenza A viruses

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    Boonsathorn, Naphatsawan; Panthong, Sumolrat [Medical Life Sciences Institute, Department of Medical Sciences, Ministry of Public Health, Muang, Nonthaburi (Thailand); Japan Science and Technology Agency/Japan International Cooperation Agency, Science and Technology Research Partnership for Sustainable Development (JST/JICA, SATREPS), Tokyo (Japan); Koksunan, Sarawut [Medical Life Sciences Institute, Department of Medical Sciences, Ministry of Public Health, Muang, Nonthaburi (Thailand); Chittaganpitch, Malinee; Phuygun, Siripaporn; Waicharoen, Sunthareeya [National Institute of Health, Department of Medical Sciences, Ministry of Public Health, Muang, Nonthaburi (Thailand); Prachasupap, Apichai [Medical Life Sciences Institute, Department of Medical Sciences, Ministry of Public Health, Muang, Nonthaburi (Thailand); Japan Science and Technology Agency/Japan International Cooperation Agency, Science and Technology Research Partnership for Sustainable Development (JST/JICA, SATREPS), Tokyo (Japan); Sasaki, Tadahiro [Department of Virology, Research Institute for Microbial Diseases, Osaka University, Suita, Osaka (Japan); Japan Science and Technology Agency/Japan International Cooperation Agency, Science and Technology Research Partnership for Sustainable Development (JST/JICA, SATREPS), Tokyo (Japan); Kubota-Koketsu, Ritsuko [Kanonji Institute, The Research Foundation for Microbial Diseases of Osaka University, Kanonji, Kagawa (Japan); Yasugi, Mayo [Graduate School of Life and Environmental Sciences, Osaka Prefecture University, Izumisano, Osaka (Japan); Ono, Ken-ichiro [Ina Laboratory, Medical and Biological Laboratories Corporation, Ltd., Ina, Nagano (Japan); Japan Science and Technology Agency/Japan International Cooperation Agency, Science and Technology Research Partnership for Sustainable Development (JST/JICA, SATREPS), Tokyo (Japan); Arai, Yasuha [Department of Virology, Research Institute for Microbial Diseases, Osaka University, Suita, Osaka (Japan); and others

    2014-09-26

    Highlights: • A human monoclonal antibody against influenza virus was produced from a volunteer. • The antibody was generated from the PBMCs of the volunteer using the fusion method. • The antibody neutralized heterosubtypically group 1 influenza A viruses (H1 and H9). • The antibody targeted a novel epitope in globular head region of the hemagglutinin. • Sequences of the identified epitope are highly conserved among H1 and H9 subtypes. - Abstract: Most neutralizing antibodies elicited during influenza virus infection or by vaccination have a narrow spectrum because they usually target variable epitopes in the globular head region of hemagglutinin (HA). In this study, we describe a human monoclonal antibody (HuMAb), 5D7, that was prepared from the peripheral blood lymphocytes of a vaccinated volunteer using the fusion method. The HuMAb heterosubtypically neutralizes group 1 influenza A viruses, including seasonal H1N1, 2009 pandemic H1N1 (H1N1pdm) and avian H9N2, with a strong hemagglutinin inhibition activity. Selection of an escape mutant showed that the HuMAb targets a novel conformational epitope that is located in the HA head region but is distinct from the receptor binding site. Furthermore, Phe114Ile substitution in the epitope made the HA unrecognizable by the HuMAb. Amino acid residues in the predicted epitope region are also highly conserved in the HAs of H1N1 and H9N2. The HuMAb reported here may be a potential candidate for the development of therapeutic/prophylactic antibodies against H1 and H9 influenza viruses.

  15. Canine distemper virus neutralization activity is low in human serum and it is sensitive to an amino acid substitution in the hemagglutinin protein

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    Zhang, Xinsheng, E-mail: xzhang@iavi.org [AIDS Vaccine Design and Development Laboratory, International AIDS Vaccine Initiative (IAVI), Brooklyn, NY (United States); Molecular and Cellular Biology Program, State University of New York, Brooklyn, NY (United States); Wallace, Olivia L.; Domi, Arban; Wright, Kevin J.; Driscoll, Jonathan [AIDS Vaccine Design and Development Laboratory, International AIDS Vaccine Initiative (IAVI), Brooklyn, NY (United States); Anzala, Omu [Kenya AIDS Vaccine Initiative (KAVI)-Institute of Clinical Research, Nairobi (Kenya); Sanders, Eduard J. [Centre for Geographic Medicine Research, Kenya Medical Research Institute (KEMRI), Kilifi, Kenya & Centre for Clinical Vaccinology and Tropical Medicine, University of Oxford, Headington (United Kingdom); Kamali, Anatoli [MRC/UVRI Uganda Virus Research Unit on AIDS, Masaka and Entebbe (Uganda); Karita, Etienne [Projet San Francisco, Kigali (Rwanda); Allen, Susan [Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Emory University, Atlanta, GA (United States); Fast, Pat [Department of Medical Affairs, International AIDS Vaccine Initiative, NY, NY (United States); Gilmour, Jill [Human Immunology Laboratory, International AIDS Vaccine Initiative, London (United Kingdom); Price, Matt A. [Department of Medical Affairs, International AIDS Vaccine Initiative, NY, NY (United States); Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, University of California at San Francisco, San Francisco, CA (United States); Parks, Christopher L. [AIDS Vaccine Design and Development Laboratory, International AIDS Vaccine Initiative (IAVI), Brooklyn, NY (United States); Molecular and Cellular Biology Program, State University of New York, Brooklyn, NY (United States)

    2015-08-15

    Serum was analyzed from 146 healthy adult volunteers in eastern Africa to evaluate measles virus (MV) and canine distemper virus (CDV) neutralizing antibody (nAb) prevalence and potency. MV plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT) results indicated that all sera were positive for MV nAbs. Furthermore, the 50% neutralizing dose (ND50) for the majority of sera corresponded to antibody titers induced by MV vaccination. CDV nAbs titers were low and generally were detected in sera with high MV nAb titers. A mutant CDV was generated that was less sensitive to neutralization by human serum. The mutant virus genome had 10 nucleotide substitutions, which coded for single amino acid substitutions in the fusion (F) and hemagglutinin (H) glycoproteins and two substitutions in the large polymerase (L) protein. The H substitution occurred in a conserved region involved in receptor interactions among morbilliviruses, implying that this region is a target for cross-reactive neutralizing antibodies. - Highlights: • Screened 146 serum samples for measles virus (MV) and canine distemper virus (CDV) neutralizing antibody (nAb). • MV nAb is prevalent in the sera. • CDV neutralizing activity is generally low or absent and when detected it is present in sera with high MV nAb titers. • A neutralization-resistant CDV mutant was isolated using human serum selection. • A mutation was identified in the receptor-binding region of CDV hemagglutinin protein that confers the neutralization resistance.

  16. The human 2B4 and NTB-A receptors bind the influenza viral hemagglutinin and co-stimulate NK cell cytotoxicity

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    Duev-Cohen, Alexandra; Bar-On, Yotam; Glasner, Ariella; Berhani, Orit; Ophir, Yael; Levi-Schaffer, Francesca; Mandelboim, Michal; Mandelboim, Ofer

    2016-01-01

    Natural Killer (NK) cells are critical in the defense against viruses in general and against influenza in particular. We previously demonstrated that the activating NK cell receptor NKp46 is involved in the killing of influenza-virus infected cells through its interaction with viral hemagglutinin (HA). Furthermore, the recognition by NKp46 and consequent elimination of influenza infected cells were determined to be sialic-acid dependent. Here, we show that the human co-activating receptors 2B4 and NTB-A directly recognize the viral HA protein and co-stimulate killing by NK cells. We demonstrate that the 2B4/NTB-A-HA interactions require the sialylation of these receptors, and we identified the binding sites mediating these interactions. We also show that the virus counters these interactions through its neuraminidase (NA) protein. These results emphasize the critical role played by NK cells in eliminating influenza, a significant cause of worldwide morbidity and mortality. PMID:26919106

  17. Wheat germ cell-free system-based production of hemagglutinin-neuraminidase protein of human parainfluenza virus type 3: generation and characterization of monoclonal antibody

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    Satoko eMatsunaga

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Human parainfluenza virus 3 (HPIV3 commonly causes respiratory disorders in infants and young children. Monoclonal antibodies (MAbs have been produced to several components of HPIV3 and commercially available. However, the utility of these antibodies for several immunological and proteomic assays for understanding the nature of HPIV3 infection remain to be characterized. Herein, we report the development and characterization of monoclonal antibodies against hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN of HPIV3. A recombinant full-length HPIV3-HN was successfully synthesized using the wheat-germ cell-free protein production system. After immunization and cell fusion, 36 mouse hybridomas producing MAbs to HPIV3-HN were established. The MAbs obtained were fully characterized using ELISA, immunoblotting and immunofluorescent analyses. Of the MAbs tested, single clone was found to be applicable in both flow cytometry and immunoprecipitation procedures. By utilizing the antibody, we newly identified HPIV3-HN binding host proteins via immunoprecipitation-based mass spectrometry analysis. This study provides the availability of our newly-developed MAbs as a valuable tool for the study of HPIV3 infection as well as the several diagnostic tests of this virus.

  18. Pandemic H1N1 influenza infection and vaccination in humans induces cross-protective antibodies that target the hemagglutinin stem

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    Christy Ann Thomson

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Most monoclonal antibodies (mAbs generated from humans infected or vaccinated with the 2009 pandemic H1N1 (pdmH1N1 influenza virus targeted the hemagglutinin (HA stem. These anti-HA stem mAbs mostly used IGHV1-69 and bound readily to epitopes on the conventional seasonal influenza and pdmH1N1 vaccines. The anti-HA stem mAbs neutralized pdmH1N1, seasonal influenza H1N1 and avian H5N1 influenza viruses by inhibiting HA-mediated fusion of membranes and protected against and treated heterologous lethal infections in mice with H5N1 influenza virus. This demonstrated that therapeutic mAbs could be generated a few months after the new virus emerged. Human immunization with the pdmH1N1 vaccine induced circulating antibodies that protected mice from lethal, heterologous H5N1 influenza infections. We observed that the dominant heterosubtypic antibody response against the HA stem correlated with the relative absence of memory B cells against the HA head of pdmH1N1, thus enabling the rare heterosubtypic memory B cells induced by seasonal influenza and specific for conserved sites on the HA stem to compete for T-cell help. These results support the notion that broadly protective antibodies against influenza would be induced by successive vaccination with conventional influenza vaccines based on subtypes of HA in viruses not circulating in humans.

  19. Defining Influenza A Virus Hemagglutinin Antigenic Drift by Sequential Monoclonal Antibody Selection

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    Das, Suman R.; Hensley, Scott E.; Ince, William L.; Brooke, Christopher B.; Subba, Anju; Delboy, Mark G.; Russ, Gustav; Gibbs, James S.; Bennink, Jack R.; Yewdell, Jonathan W.

    2013-01-01

    Human influenza A virus (IAV) vaccination is limited by “antigenic drift,” rapid antibody-driven escape reflecting amino acid substitutions in the globular domain of hemagglutinin (HA), the viral attachment protein. To better understand drift, we used anti-hemagglutinin monoclonal Abs (mAbs) to sequentially select IAV escape mutants. Twelve selection steps, each resulting in a single amino acid substitution in the hemagglutinin globular domain, were required to eliminate antigenicity defined ...

  20. A single mutation in Taiwanese H6N1 influenza hemagglutinin switches binding to human-type receptors

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    de Vries, Robert P.; Tzarum, Netanel; Peng, Wenjie; Thompson, Andrew J.; Ambepitiya Wickramasinghe, Iresha N.; de la Pena, Alba T. Torrents; van Breemen, Marielle J.; Bouwman, Kim M.; Zhu, Xueyong; McBride, Ryan; Yu, Wenli; Sanders, Rogier W.; Verheije, Monique H.; Wilson, Ian A.; Paulson, James C.

    2017-07-10

    In June 2013, the first case of human infection with an avian H6N1 virus was reported in a Taiwanese woman. Although this was a single non-fatal case, the virus continues to circulate in Taiwanese poultry. As with any emerging avian virus that infects humans, there is concern that acquisition of human-type receptor specificity could enable transmission in the human population. Despite mutations in the receptor-binding pocket of the human H6N1 isolate, it has retained avian-type (NeuAcα2-3Gal) receptor specificity. However, we show here that a single nucleotide substitution, resulting in a change from Gly to Asp at position 225 (G225D), completely switches specificity to human-type (NeuAcα2-6Gal) receptors. Significantly, G225D H6 loses binding to chicken trachea epithelium and is now able to bind to human tracheal tissue. Structural analysis reveals that Asp225 directly interacts with the penultimate Gal of the human-type receptor, stabilizing human receptor binding.

  1. Botulinum hemagglutinin-mediated in situ break-up of human induced pluripotent stem cell aggregates for high-density suspension culture.

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    Nath, Suman C; Tokura, Tomohiro; Kim, Mee-Hae; Kino-Oka, Masahiro

    2018-04-01

    Large numbers of human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) are required for making stable cell bank. Although suspension culture yields high cell numbers, there remain unresolved challenges for obtaining high-density of hiPSCs because large size aggregates exhibit low growth rates. Here, we established a simple method for hiPSC aggregate break-up using botulinum hemagglutinin (HA), which specifically bound with E-cadherin and disrupted cell-cell connections in hiPSC aggregates. HA showed temporary activity for disrupting the E-cadherin-mediated cell-cell connections to facilitate the break-up of aggregates into small sizes only 9 hr after HA addition. The transportation of HA into the aggregates was mediated by transcellular and paracellular way after HA addition to the culture medium. hiPSC aggregates broken up by HA showed a higher number of live cells, higher cell density, and higher expansion fold compared to those of aggregates dissociated with enzymatic digestion. Moreover, a maximum cell density of 4.5 ± 0.2 × 10 6 cells ml -1 was obtained by aggregate break-up into small ones, which was three times higher than that with the conventional culture without aggregate break-up. Therefore, the temporary activity of HA for disrupting E-cadherin-mediated cell-cell connection was key to establishing a simple in situ method for hiPSC aggregate break-up in bioreactors, leading to high cell density in suspension culture. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Overcoming maternal antibody interference by vaccination with human adenovirus 5 recombinant viruses expressing the hemagglutinin and the nucleoprotein of swine influenza virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wesley, Ronald D; Lager, Kelly M

    2006-11-26

    Sows and gilts lack immunity to human adenovirus 5 (Ad-5) vectored vaccines so immunogens of swine pathogens can be expressed with these vaccines in order to immunize suckling piglets that have interfering, maternally derived antibodies. In this study 7-day-old piglets, that had suckled H3N2 infected gilts, were sham-inoculated with a non-expressing Ad-5 vector or given a primary vaccination with replication-defective Ad-5 viruses expressed the H3 hemagglutinin and the nucleoprotein of swine influenza virus (SIV) subtype H3N2. The hemagglutination inhibition (HI) titer of the sham-inoculated group (n = 12) showed continued antibody decay whereas piglets vaccinated with Ad-5 SIV (n = 23) developed an active immune response by the second week post-vaccination. At 4 weeks-of-age when the HI titer of the sham-inoculated group had decayed to 45, the sham-inoculated group and half of the Ad-5 SIV vaccinated pigs were boosted with a commercial inactivated SIV vaccine. The boosted pigs that had been primed in the presence of maternal interfering antibodies had a strong anamnestic response while sham-inoculated pigs did not respond to the commercial vaccine. Two weeks after the booster vaccination the pigs were challenged with a non-homologous H3N2 virulent SIV. The efficacy of the vaccination protocol was demonstrated by abrogation of clinical signs, by clearance of challenge virus from pulmonary lavage fluids, by markedly reduced virus shedding in nasal secretions, and by the absence of moderate or severe SIV-induced lung lesions. These recombinant Ad-5 SIV vaccines are useful for priming the immune system to override the effects of maternally derived antibodies which interfere with conventional SIV vaccines.

  3. Changes in the hemagglutinin of H5N1 viruses during human infection--influence on receptor binding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crusat, Martin; Liu, Junfeng; Palma, Angelina S.; Childs, Robert A.; Liu, Yan; Wharton, Stephen A.; Lin, Yi Pu; Coombs, Peter J.; Martin, Stephen R.; Matrosovich, Mikhail; Chen, Zi; Stevens, David J.; Hien, Vo Minh; Thanh, Tran Tan; Nhu, Le Nguyen Truc; Nguyet, Lam Anh; Ha, Do Quang; van Doorn, H. Rogier; Hien, Tran Tinh; Conradt, Harald S.; Kiso, Makoto; Gamblin, Steve J.; Chai, Wengang; Skehel, John J.; Hay, Alan J.; Farrar, Jeremy; de Jong, Menno D.; Feizi, Ten

    2013-01-01

    As avian influenza A(H5N1) viruses continue to circulate in Asia and Africa, global concerns of an imminent pandemic persist. Recent experimental studies suggest that efficient transmission between humans of current H5N1 viruses only requires a few genetic changes. An essential step is alteration of

  4. 78 FR 9355 - Influenza Viruses Containing the Hemagglutinin From the Goose/Guangdong/1/96 Lineage

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-08

    ... HUMAN SERVICES 42 CFR Part 73 Influenza Viruses Containing the Hemagglutinin From the Goose/ Guangdong/1... from the public regarding whether highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 viruses that contain a... concerning highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 viruses that contain a hemagglutinin (HA) from the...

  5. Characterization of Hemagglutinin Negative Botulinum Progenitor Toxins

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    Suzanne R. Kalb

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Botulism is a disease involving intoxication with botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs, toxic proteins produced by Clostridium botulinum and other clostridia. The 150 kDa neurotoxin is produced in conjunction with other proteins to form the botulinum progenitor toxin complex (PTC, alternating in size from 300 kDa to 500 kDa. These progenitor complexes can be classified into hemagglutinin positive or hemagglutinin negative, depending on the ability of some of the neurotoxin-associated proteins (NAPs to cause hemagglutination. The hemagglutinin positive progenitor toxin complex consists of BoNT, nontoxic non-hemagglutinin (NTNH, and three hemagglutinin proteins; HA-70, HA-33, and HA-17. Hemagglutinin negative progenitor toxin complexes contain BoNT and NTNH as the minimally functional PTC (M-PTC, but not the three hemagglutinin proteins. Interestingly, the genome of hemagglutinin negative progenitor toxin complexes comprises open reading frames (orfs which encode for three proteins, but the existence of these proteins has not yet been extensively demonstrated. In this work, we demonstrate that these three proteins exist and form part of the PTC for hemagglutinin negative complexes. Several hemagglutinin negative strains producing BoNT/A, /E, and /F were found to contain the three open reading frame proteins. Additionally, several BoNT/A-containing bivalent strains were examined, and NAPs from both genes, including the open reading frame proteins, were associated with BoNT/A. The open reading frame encoded proteins are more easily removed from the botulinum complex than the hemagglutinin proteins, but are present in several BoNT/A and /F toxin preparations. These are not easily removed from the BoNT/E complex, however, and are present even in commercially-available purified BoNT/E complex.

  6. A Single Mutation at Position 190 in Hemagglutinin Enhances Binding Affinity for Human Type Sialic Acid Receptor and Replication of H9N2 Avian Influenza Virus in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, Qiaoyang; Xu, Dawei; Shen, Weixia; Liu, Qinfang; Rong, Guangyu; Li, Xuesong; Yan, Liping; Yang, Jianmei; Chen, Hongjun; Yu, Hai

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT H9N2 avian influenza virus (AIV) has an extended host range, but the molecular basis underlying H9N2 AIV transmission to mammals remains unclear. We isolated more than 900 H9N2 AIVs in our 3-year surveillance in live bird markets in China from 2009 to 2012. Thirty-seven representative isolates were selected for further detailed characterization. These isolates were categorized into 8 genotypes (B64 to B71) and formed a distinct antigenic subgroup. Three isolates belonging to genotype B69, which is a predominant genotype circulating in China, replicated efficiently in mice, while the viruses tested in parallel in other genotypes replicated poorly, although they, like the three B69 isolates, have a leucine at position 226 in the hemagglutinin (HA) receptor binding site, which is critical for binding human type sialic acid receptors. Further molecular and single mutation analysis revealed that a valine (V) residue at position 190 in HA is responsible for efficient replication of these H9N2 viruses in mice. The 190V in HA does not affect virus receptor binding specificity but enhances binding affinity to human cells and lung tissues from mouse and humans. All these data indicate that the 190V in HA is one of the important determinants for H9N2 AIVs to cross the species barrier to infect mammals despite multiple genes conferring adaptation and replication of H9N2 viruses in mammals. Our findings provide novel insights on understanding host range expansion of H9N2 AIVs. IMPORTANCE Influenza virus hemagglutinin (HA) is responsible for binding to host cell receptors and therefore influences the viral host range and pathogenicity in different species. We showed that the H9N2 avian influenza viruses harboring 190V in the HA exhibit enhanced virus replication in mice. Further studies demonstrate that 190V in the HA does not change virus receptor binding specificity but enhances virus binding affinity of the H9N2 virus to human cells and attachment to lung tissues

  7. Exploring the nature of the H-bonds between the human class II MHC protein, HLA-DR1 (DRB*0101) and the influenza virus hemagglutinin peptide, HA306-318, using the quantum theory of atoms in molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aray, Yosslen; Aguilera-García, Ricardo; Izquierdo, Daniel R

    2018-01-02

    The nature of the H-bonds between the human protein HLA-DR1 (DRB*0101) and the hemagglutinin peptide HA306-318 has been studied using the Quantum Theory of Atoms in Molecules for the first time. We have found four H-bond groups: one conventional CO··HN bond group and three nonconventional CO··HC, π··HC involving aromatic rings and HN··HCaliphatic groups. The calculated electron density at the determined H-bond critical points suggests the follow protein pocket binding trend: P1 (2,311) > P9 (1.109) > P4 (0.950) > P6 (0.553) > P7 (0.213) which agrees and reveal the nature of experimental findings, showing that P1 produces by a long way the strongest binding of the HLA-DR1 human protein molecule with the peptide backbone as consequence of the vast number of H-bonds in the P1 area and at the same time the largest specific binding of the peptide Tyr308 residue with aromatic residues located at the binding groove floor. The present results suggest the topological analysis of the electronic density as a valuable tool that allows a non-arbitrary partition of the pockets binding energy via the calculated electron density at the determined critical points.

  8. Detailed genetic analysis of hemagglutinin-neuraminidase glycoprotein gene in human parainfluenza virus type 1 isolates from patients with acute respiratory infection between 2002 and 2009 in Yamagata prefecture, Japan

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    Mizuta Katsumi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human parainfluenza virus type 1 (HPIV1 causes various acute respiratory infections (ARI. Hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN glycoprotein of HPIV1 is a major antigen. However, the molecular epidemiology and genetic characteristics of such ARI are not exactly known. Recent studies suggested that a phylogenetic analysis tool, namely the maximum likelihood (ML method, may be applied to estimate the evolutionary time scale of various viruses. Thus, we conducted detailed genetic analyses including homology analysis, phylogenetic analysis (using both the neighbor joining (NJ and ML methods, and analysis of the pairwise distances of HN gene in HPIV1 isolated from patients with ARI in Yamagata prefecture, Japan. Results A few substitutions of nucleotides in the second binding site of HN gene were observed among the present isolates. The strains were classified into two major clusters in the phylogenetic tree by the NJ method. Another phylogenetic tree constructed by the ML method showed that the strains diversified in the late 1980s. No positively selected sites were found in the present strains. Moreover, the pairwise distance among the present isolates was relatively short. Conclusions The evolution of HN gene in the present HPIV1 isolates was relatively slow. The ML method may be a useful phylogenetic method to estimate the evolutionary time scale of HPIV and other viruses.

  9. Defining influenza A virus hemagglutinin antigenic drift by sequential monoclonal antibody selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Suman R; Hensley, Scott E; Ince, William L; Brooke, Christopher B; Subba, Anju; Delboy, Mark G; Russ, Gustav; Gibbs, James S; Bennink, Jack R; Yewdell, Jonathan W

    2013-03-13

    Human influenza A virus (IAV) vaccination is limited by "antigenic drift," rapid antibody-driven escape reflecting amino acid substitutions in the globular domain of hemagglutinin (HA), the viral attachment protein. To better understand drift, we used anti-hemagglutinin monoclonal Abs (mAbs) to sequentially select IAV escape mutants. Twelve selection steps, each resulting in a single amino acid substitution in the hemagglutinin globular domain, were required to eliminate antigenicity defined by monoclonal or polyclonal Abs. Sequential mutants grow robustly, showing the structural plasticity of HA, although several hemagglutinin substitutions required an epistatic substitution in the neuraminidase glycoprotein to maximize growth. Selecting escape mutants from parental versus sequential variants with the same mAb revealed distinct escape repertoires, attributed to contextual changes in antigenicity and the mutation landscape. Since each hemagglutinin mutation potentially sculpts future mutation space, drift can follow many stochastic paths, undermining its unpredictability and underscoring the need for drift-insensitive vaccines. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Plant-made virus-like particle vaccines bearing the hemagglutinin of either seasonal (H1) or avian (H5) influenza have distinct patterns of interaction with human immune cells in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendin, Hilary E; Pillet, Stéphane; Lara, Amanda N; Wu, Cheng-Ying; Charland, Nathalie; Landry, Nathalie; Ward, Brian J

    2017-05-02

    The recent emergence of avian influenza strains has fuelled concern about pandemic preparedness since vaccines targeting these viruses are often poorly immunogenic. Weak antibody responses to vaccines have been seen across multiple platforms including plant-made VLPs. To better understand these differences, we compared the in vitro responses of human immune cells exposed to plant-made virus-like particle (VLP) vaccines targeting H1N1 (H1-VLP) and H5N1 (H5-VLP). Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from healthy adults were stimulated ex vivo with 2-5µg/mL VLPs bearing the hemagglutinin (HA) of either H1N1 (A/California/7/2009) or H5N1 (A/Indonesia/5/05). VLP-immune cell interactions were characterized by confocal microscopy and flow cytometry 30min after stimulation with dialkylaminostyryl dye-labeled (DiD) VLP. Expression of CD69 and pro-inflammatory cytokines were used to assess innate immune activation 6h after stimulation. H1- and H5-VLPs rapidly associated with all subsets of human PBMC but exhibited unique binding preferences and frequencies. The H1-VLP bound to 88.7±1.6% of the CD19 + B cells compared to only 21.9±1.8% bound by the H5-VLP. At 6h in culture, CD69 expression on B cells was increased in response to H1-VLP but not H5-VLP (22.79±3.42% vs. 6.15±0.82% respectively: pvaccines. Plant-made VLP vaccines bearing H1 or H5 rapidly elicit immune activation and cytokine production in human PBMC. Differences in the VLP-immune cell interactions suggest that features of the HA proteins themselves, such as receptor specificity, influence innate immune responses. Although not generally considered for inactivated vaccines, the distribution and characteristics of influenza receptor(s) on the immune cells themselves may contribute to both the strength and pattern of the immune response generated. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Human parainfluenza virus type 2 hemagglutinin-neuramindase gene: sequence and phylogenetic analysis of the Saudi strain Riyadh 105/2009

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    Almajhdi Fahad N

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although human parainfluenza type 2 (HPIV-2 virus is an important respiratory pathogen, a little is known about strains circulating in Saudi Arabia. Findings Among 180 nasopharyngeal aspirates collected from suspected cases in Riyadh, only one sample (0.56% was confirmed HPIV-2 positive by nested RT-PCR. The sample that was designated Riyadh 105/2009 was used for sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of the most variable virus gene; the haemagglutinin-neuramindase (HN. Comparison of HN gene of Riyadh 105/2009 strain and the relevant sequences available in GenBank revealed a strong relationship with Oklahoma-94-2009 strain. Phylogenetic analysis indicated four different clusters of HPIV-2 strains (G1-4. Twenty-three amino acid substitutions were recorded for Riyadh 105/2009, from which four are unique. The majority of substitutions (n=18 had changed their amino acids characteristics. By analyzing the effect of the recorded substitutions on the protein function using SIFT program, only two located at positions 360 and 571 were predicted to be deleterious. Conclusions The presented changes of Riyadh 105/2009 strain may possess potential effect on the protein structure and/or function level. This is the first report that describes partial characterization of Saudi HPIV-2 strain.

  12. Hemagglutinin-esterase-fusion (HEF protein of influenza C virus

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    Mingyang Wang

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Influenza C virus, a member of the Orthomyxoviridae family, causes flu-like disease but typically only with mild symptoms. Humans are the main reservoir of the virus, but it also infects pigs and dogs. Very recently, influenza C-like viruses were isolated from pigs and cattle that differ from classical influenza C virus and might constitute a new influenza virus genus. Influenza C virus is unique since it contains only one spike protein, the hemagglutinin-esterase-fusion glycoprotein HEF that possesses receptor binding, receptor destroying and membrane fusion activities, thus combining the functions of Hemagglutinin (HA and Neuraminidase (NA of influenza A and B viruses. Here we briefly review the epidemiology and pathology of the virus and the morphology of virus particles and their genome. The main focus is on the structure of the HEF protein as well as on its co- and post-translational modification, such as N-glycosylation, disulfide bond formation, S-acylation and proteolytic cleavage into HEF1 and HEF2 subunits. Finally, we describe the functions of HEF: receptor binding, esterase activity and membrane fusion.

  13. Unique Structural Features of Influenza Virus H15 Hemagglutinin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tzarum, Netanel; McBride, Ryan; Nycholat, Corwin M.; Peng, Wenjie; Paulson, James C.; Wilson, Ian A. (Scripps)

    2017-04-12

    Influenza A H15 viruses are members of a subgroup (H7-H10-H15) of group 2 hemagglutinin (HA) subtypes that include H7N9 and H10N8 viruses that were isolated from humans during 2013. The isolation of avian H15 viruses is, however, quite rare and, until recently, geographically restricted to wild shorebirds and waterfowl in Australia. The HAs of H15 viruses contain an insertion in the 150-loop (loop beginning at position 150) of the receptor-binding site common to this subgroup and a unique insertion in the 260-loop compared to any other subtype. Here, we show that the H15 HA has a high preference for avian receptor analogs by glycan array analyses. The H15 HA crystal structure reveals that it is structurally closest to H7N9 HA, but the head domain of the H15 trimer is wider than all other HAs due to a tilt and opening of the HA1 subunits of the head domain. The extended 150-loop of the H15 HA retains the conserved conformation as in H7 and H10 HAs. Furthermore, the elongated 260-loop increases the exposed HA surface and can contribute to antigenic variation in H15 HAs. Since avian-origin H15 HA viruses have been shown to cause enhanced disease in mammalian models, further characterization and immune surveillance of H15 viruses are warranted.

    IMPORTANCEIn the last 2 decades, an apparent increase has been reported for cases of human infection by emerging avian influenza A virus subtypes, including H7N9 and H10N8 viruses isolated during 2013. H15 is the other member of the subgroup of influenza A virus group 2 hemagglutinins (HAs) that also include H7 and H10. H15 viruses have been restricted to Australia, but recent isolation of H15 viruses in western Siberia suggests that they could be spread more globally via the avian flyways that converge and emanate from this region. Here we report on characterization of the three-dimensional structure and receptor specificity of the H15 hemagglutinin, revealing distinct features and specificities that can

  14. Chlamydial hemagglutinin identified as lipopolysaccharide.

    OpenAIRE

    Watkins, N G; Caldwell, H D; Hackstadt, T

    1987-01-01

    Chlamydial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) agglutinated mouse and rabbit erythrocytes but not human, guinea pig, or pronghorn antelope erythrocytes. Hemagglutination was not specific for Chlamydia spp., as rough LPSs from Coxiella burnetii and Escherichia coli also agglutinated erythrocytes from the same animal species. Nonagglutinated and agglutinated erythrocytes bound equivalent amounts of LPS, indicating that hemagglutination was not due to a specific interaction of chlamydial LPS with erythrocy...

  15. Radioimmunoassay of measles virus hemagglutinin protein G

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lund, G.A.; Salmi, A.A. (Turku Univ. (Finland))

    1982-08-01

    Guinea pig and rabbit antisera from animals immunized with purified measles virus hemagglutinin (G) protein were used to establish a solid-phase four-layer radioimmunoassay for quantitative measurement of the G protein. The sensitivity of the assay was 2 ng of purified G protein, and 200 ..mu..g of protein from uninfected Vero cells neither decreased the sensitivity nor reacted non-specifically in the assay. Radioimmunoassay standard dose-response curves were established and unknown values interpolated from these using the logit program of a desktop computer. Using this procedure, a measles virus growth curve in infected Vero cells was determined by measurement of G protein production. Under these same conditions, hemagglutination was not sensitive enough to detect early hemagglutinin production. Viral antigens in canine distemper virus, Newcastle disease virus, parainfluenza viruses 1-4, simian virus 5, and respiratory syncytial virus-infected cell lysates did not cross-react in the radioimmunoassay. A small degree of cross-reactivity was detected with mumps viral antigens, both with Vero cell-derived (wild-type strain) and egg-derived (Enders strain) purified virus preparations and with a cell lysate antigen prepared from wild-type mumps virus-infected Vero cells.

  16. Chimeric hemagglutinin influenza virus vaccine constructs elicit broadly protective stalk-specific antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krammer, Florian; Pica, Natalie; Hai, Rong; Margine, Irina; Palese, Peter

    2013-06-01

    Current influenza virus vaccine strategies stimulate immune responses toward the globular head domain of the hemagglutinin protein in order to inhibit key steps of the virus life cycle. Because this domain is highly variable across strains, new vaccine formulations are required in most years. Here we demonstrate a novel vaccine strategy that generates immunity to the highly conserved stalk domain by using chimeric hemagglutinin constructs that express unique head and stalk combinations. By repeatedly immunizing mice with constructs that expressed the same stalk but an irrelevant head, we specifically stimulated a stalk-directed response that provided broad-based heterologous and heterosubtypic immunity in mice. Notably, our vaccination scheme provides a universal vaccine approach that protects against challenge with an H5 subtype virus. Furthermore, through in vivo studies using passively transferred antibodies or depletion of CD8(+) T cells, we demonstrated the critical role that humoral mechanisms of immunity play in the protection observed. The present data suggest that a vaccine strategy based on the stalk domain of the hemagglutinin protein could be used in humans to broadly protect against a variety of influenza virus subtypes.

  17. Gnarled-trunk evolutionary model of influenza A virus hemagglutinin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimihito Ito

    Full Text Available Human influenza A viruses undergo antigenic changes with gradual accumulation of amino acid substitutions on the hemagglutinin (HA molecule. A strong antigenic mismatch between vaccine and epidemic strains often requires the replacement of influenza vaccines worldwide. To establish a practical model enabling us to predict the future direction of the influenza virus evolution, relative distances of amino acid sequences among past epidemic strains were analyzed by multidimensional scaling (MDS. We found that human influenza viruses have evolved along a gnarled evolutionary pathway with an approximately constant curvature in the MDS-constructed 3D space. The gnarled pathway indicated that evolution on the trunk favored multiple substitutions at the same amino acid positions on HA. The constant curvature was reasonably explained by assuming that the rate of amino acid substitutions varied from one position to another according to a gamma distribution. Furthermore, we utilized the estimated parameters of the gamma distribution to predict the amino acid substitutions on HA in subsequent years. Retrospective prediction tests for 12 years from 1997 to 2009 showed that 70% of actual amino acid substitutions were correctly predicted, and that 45% of predicted amino acid substitutions have been actually observed. Although it remains unsolved how to predict the exact timing of antigenic changes, the present results suggest that our model may have the potential to recognize emerging epidemic strains.

  18. Membrane Fusion and Infection of the Influenza Hemagglutinin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smrt, Sean T; Lorieau, Justin L

    2017-01-01

    The influenza virus is a major health concern associated with an estimated 5000 to 30,000 deaths every year (Reed et al. 2015) and a significant economic impact with the development of treatments, vaccinations and research (Molinari et al. 2007). The entirety of the influenza genome is comprised of only eleven coding genes. An enormous degree of variation in non-conserved regions leads to significant challenges in the development of inclusive inhibitors for treatment. The fusion peptide domain of the influenza A hemagglutinin (HA) is a promising candidate for treatment since it is one of the most highly conserved sequences in the influenza genome (Heiny et al. 2007), and it is vital to the viral life cycle. Hemagglutinin is a class I viral fusion protein that catalyzes the membrane fusion process during cellular entry and infection. Impediment of the hemagglutinin's function, either through incomplete post-translational processing (Klenk et al. 1975; Lazarowitz and Choppin 1975) or through mutations (Cross et al. 2001), leads to non-infective virus particles. This review will investigate current research on the role of hemagglutinin in the virus life cycle, its structural biology and mechanism as well as the central role of the hemagglutinin fusion peptide (HAfp) to influenza membrane fusion and infection.

  19. Conserved epitope on influenza-virus hemagglutinin head defined by a vaccine-induced antibody

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raymond, Donald D.; Bajic, Goran; Ferdman, Jack; Suphaphiphat, Pirada; Settembre, Ethan C.; Moody, M. Anthony; Schmidt, Aaron G.; Harrison, Stephen C. (Duke-MED); (CH-Boston); (Seqirus)

    2017-12-18

    Antigenic variation requires frequent revision of annual influenza vaccines. Next-generation vaccine design strategies aim to elicit a broader immunity by directing the human immune response toward conserved sites on the principal viral surface protein, the hemagglutinin (HA). We describe a group of antibodies that recognize a hitherto unappreciated, conserved site on the HA of H1 subtype influenza viruses. Mutations in that site, which required a change in the H1 component of the 2017 vaccine, had not previously “taken over” among circulating H1 viruses. Our results encourage vaccine design strategies that resurface a protein to focus the immune response on a specific region.

  20. Characterization of the sialic acid binding activity of influenza A viruses using soluble variants of the H7 and H9 hemagglutinins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne-Kathrin Sauer

    Full Text Available Binding of influenza viruses to target cells is mediated by the viral surface protein hemagglutinin. To determine the presence of binding sites for influenza A viruses on cells and tissues, soluble hemagglutinins of the H7 and H9 subtype were generated by connecting the hemagglutinin ectodomain to the Fc portion of human immunoglobulin G (H7Fc and H9Fc. Both chimeric proteins bound to different cells and tissues in a sialic acid-dependent manner. Pronounced differences were observed between H7Fc and H9Fc, in the binding both to different mammalian and avian cultured cells and to cryosections of the respiratory epithelium of different virus host species (turkey, chicken and pig. Binding of the soluble hemagglutinins was similar to the binding of virus particles, but showed differences in the binding pattern when compared to two sialic acid-specific plant lectins. These findings were substantiated by a comparative glycan array analysis revealing a very narrow recognition of sialoglycoconjugates by the plant lectins that does not reflect the glycan structures preferentially recognized by H7Fc and H9Fc. Thus, soluble hemagglutinins may serve as sialic acid-specific lectins and are a more reliable indicator of the presence of binding sites for influenza virus HA than the commonly used plant lectins.

  1. Isolation of influenza virus A hemagglutinin C-terminal domain by hemagglutinin proteolysis in octylglucoside micelles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radyukhin, Victor A; Serebryakova, Marina V; Ksenofontov, Alexander L; Lukashina, Elena V; Baratova, Lyudmila A

    2006-01-01

    A method of isolation of hydrophobic membrane-bound C-terminal domain of influenza virus A hemagglutinin (HA) is suggested. The method is based on the insertion of HA into octylglucoside micelles followed by pepsin or thermolysin hydrolysis. Subsequent treatment of proteolytic digests with chloroform-hexafluoroisopropanol mixture resulted in the extraction of a few hydrophobic peptides into organic phase. Mass-spectrometry (MALDI-TOF) analysis revealed that the peptides with ion masses corresponding to the anchoring C-terminal domain with or without modifications predominated in the organic solution. The data obtained confirmed our speculation on the possibility of the suggested isolation scheme following from the strong interactions of anchoring domains in compact trimeric structure of HA spikes combined with micelle protection effect. Several appropriate peptides presence in the organic phase apparently arises from the presence of a few accessible proteolytic sites in HA transmembrane region.

  2. Hemagglutinins in Anopheles quadrimaculatus, strains susceptible and refractory to Brugia malayi, and their role in the immune response to filarial parasites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayar, J K; Knight, J W

    1997-01-01

    Hemagglutinins in the salivary gland extract and in the body fluid from strains of the mosquito, Anopheles quadrimaculatus, susceptible and refractory to the filarial parasite, Brugia malayi, had higher titers against Human A+, B- and O+, and sheep erythrocytes than against rabbit and jird erythrocytes. Hemagglutination activity in the body fluid was low in newly emerged females but increased and stabilized as they became older. Hemagglutination activity of the body fluid was not reduced by freezing at -20 degrees C, but it was destroyed following heating the body fluid to 60 degrees C and 100 degrees C for 45 min, indicating that the hemagglutinins are heat labile, and they are proteins or glycoproteins. Hemagglutinins in the salivary glands exhibited specificities for a broader range of carbohydrate moieties on the surface of Human A+ and sheep erythrocytes than those in the body fluid. Injections of specific carbohydrates in saline solution into B. malayi-infected females of the refractory strain of An. quadrimaculatus 24 hr after the infective blood meal showed that galactose, N-acetyl-D-galacto-samine, sorbose and mannose inhibited the increase in encapsulation (melanization) of L1 of B. malayi in the thoracic muscles of An. quadrimaculatus females when compared to those females injected with saline and other carbohydrates. The results suggest that hemagglutinins are present in the salivary gland extract and the body fluid of both strains of An. quadrimaculatus females and they may be involved in the immune response (encapsulation) to filarial parasites in An. quadrimaculatus.

  3. A stable trimeric influenza hemagglutinin stem as a broadly protective immunogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Impagliazzo, Antonietta; Milder, Fin; Kuipers, Harmjan; Wagner, Michelle V; Zhu, Xueyong; Hoffman, Ryan M B; van Meersbergen, Ruud; Huizingh, Jeroen; Wanningen, Patrick; Verspuij, Johan; de Man, Martijn; Ding, Zhaoqing; Apetri, Adrian; Kükrer, Başak; Sneekes-Vriese, Eveline; Tomkiewicz, Danuta; Laursen, Nick S; Lee, Peter S; Zakrzewska, Anna; Dekking, Liesbeth; Tolboom, Jeroen; Tettero, Lisanne; van Meerten, Sander; Yu, Wenli; Koudstaal, Wouter; Goudsmit, Jaap; Ward, Andrew B; Meijberg, Wim; Wilson, Ian A; Radošević, Katarina

    2015-09-18

    The identification of human broadly neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs) targeting the hemagglutinin (HA) stem revitalized hopes of developing a universal influenza vaccine. Using a rational design and library approach, we engineered stable HA stem antigens ("mini-HAs") based on an H1 subtype sequence. Our most advanced candidate exhibits structural and bnAb binding properties comparable to those of full-length HA, completely protects mice in lethal heterologous and heterosubtypic challenge models, and reduces fever after sublethal challenge in cynomolgus monkeys. Antibodies elicited by this mini-HA in mice and nonhuman primates bound a wide range of HAs, competed with human bnAbs for HA stem binding, neutralized H5N1 viruses, and mediated antibody-dependent effector activity. These results represent a proof of concept for the design of HA stem mimics that elicit bnAbs against influenza A group 1 viruses. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  4. Vectors based on modified vaccinia Ankara expressing influenza H5N1 hemagglutinin induce substantial cross-clade protective immunity.

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    Annett Hessel

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: New highly pathogenic H5N1 influenza viruses are continuing to evolve with a potential threat for an influenza pandemic. So far, the H5N1 influenza viruses have not widely circulated in humans and therefore constitute a high risk for the non immune population. The aim of this study was to evaluate the cross-protective potential of the hemagglutinins of five H5N1 strains of divergent clades using a live attenuated modified vaccinia Ankara (MVA vector vaccine. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The replication-deficient MVA virus was used to express influenza hemagglutinin (HA proteins. Specifically, recombinant MVA viruses expressing the HA genes of the clade 1 virus A/Vietnam/1203/2004 (VN/1203, the clade 2.1.3 virus A/Indonesia/5/2005 (IN5/05, the clade 2.2 viruses A/turkey/Turkey/1/2005 (TT01/05 and A/chicken/Egypt/3/2006 (CE/06, and the clade 2.3.4 virus A/Anhui/1/2005 (AH1/05 were constructed. These experimental live vaccines were assessed in a lethal mouse model. Mice vaccinated with the VN/1203 hemagglutinin-expressing MVA induced excellent protection against all the above mentioned clades. Also mice vaccinated with the IN5/05 HA expressing MVA induced substantial protection against homologous and heterologous AH1/05 challenge. After vaccination with the CE/06 HA expressing MVA, mice were fully protected against clade 2.2 challenge and partially protected against challenge of other clades. Mice vaccinated with AH1/05 HA expressing MVA vectors were only partially protected against homologous and heterologous challenge. The live vaccines induced substantial amounts of neutralizing antibodies, mainly directed against the homologous challenge virus, and high levels of HA-specific IFN-γ secreting CD4 and CD8 T-cells against epitopes conserved among the H5 clades and subclades. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The highest level of cross-protection was induced by the HA derived from the VN/1203 strain, suggesting that pandemic H5 vaccines

  5. Large-scale sequence analysis of hemagglutinin of influenza A virus identifies conserved regions suitable for targeting an anti-viral response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahini, Leepakshi; Tempczyk-Russell, Anna; Agarwal, Ritu

    2010-02-17

    Influenza A viral surface protein, hemagglutinin, is the major target of neutralizing antibody response and hence a main constituent of all vaccine formulations. But due to its marked evolutionary variability, vaccines have to be reformulated so as to include the hemagglutinin protein from the emerging new viral strain. With the constant fear of a pandemic, there is critical need for the development of anti-viral strategies that can provide wider protection against any Influenza A pathogen. An anti-viral approach that is directed against the conserved regions of the hemaggutinin protein has a potential to protect against any current and new Influenza A virus and provide a solution to this ever-present threat to public health. Influenza A human hemagglutinin protein sequences available in the NCBI database, corresponding to H1, H2, H3 and H5 subtypes, were used to identify highly invariable regions of the protein. Nine such regions were identified and analyzed for structural properties like surface exposure, hydrophilicity and residue type to evaluate their suitability for targeting an anti-peptide antibody/anti-viral response. This study has identified nine conserved regions in the hemagglutinin protein, five of which have the structural characteristics suitable for an anti-viral/anti-peptide response. This is a critical step in the design of efficient anti-peptide antibodies as novel anti-viral agents against any Influenza A pathogen. In addition, these anti-peptide antibodies will provide broadly cross-reactive immunological reagents and aid the rapid development of vaccines against new and emerging Influenza A strains.

  6. Bordetella filamentous hemagglutinin and fimbriae: critical adhesins with unrealized vaccine potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheller, Erich V; Cotter, Peggy A

    2015-11-01

    Pertussis, or whooping cough, is a highly contagious respiratory disease that is caused by the Gram-negative bacterium Bordetella pertussis, which is transmitted exclusively from human to human. While vaccination against B. pertussis has been successful, replacement of the whole cell vaccine with an acellular component vaccine has correlated with reemergence of the disease, especially in adolescents and infants. Based on their presumed importance in mediating adherence to host tissues, filamentous hemagglutinin (FHA) and fimbria (FIM) were selected as components of most acellular pertussis vaccines. In this review, we describe the biogenesis of FHA and FIM, recent data that show that these factors do, in fact, play critical roles in adherence to respiratory epithelium, and evidence that they also contribute to persistence in the lower respiratory tract by modulating the host immune response. We also discuss shortcomings of whole cell and acellular pertussis vaccines and the possibility that FHA and FIM could serve as effective protective antigens in next-generation vaccines. © FEMS 2015. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Modulation of the NF-kappaB pathway by Bordetella pertussis filamentous hemagglutinin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tzvia Abramson

    Full Text Available Filamentous hemagglutinin (FHA is a cell-associated and secreted adhesin produced by Bordetella pertussis with pro-apoptotic and pro-inflammatory activity in host cells. Given the importance of the NF-kappaB transcription factor family in these host cell responses, we examined the effect of FHA on NF-kappaB activation in macrophages and bronchial epithelial cells, both of which are relevant cell types during natural infection.Exposure to FHA of primary human monocytes and transformed U-937 macrophages, but not BEAS-2B epithelial cells, resulted in early activation of the NF-kappaB pathway, as manifested by the degradation of cytosolic IkappaB alpha, by NF-kappaB DNA binding, and by the subsequent secretion of NF-kappaB-regulated inflammatory cytokines. However, exposure of macrophages and human monocytes to FHA for two hours or more resulted in the accumulation of cytosolic IkappaB alpha, and the failure of TNF-alpha to activate NF-kappaB. Proteasome activity was attenuated following exposure of cells to FHA for 2 hours, as was the nuclear translocation of RelA in BEAS-2B cells.These results reveal a complex temporal dynamic, and suggest that despite short term effects to the contrary, longer exposures of host cells to this secreted adhesin may block NF-kappaB activation, and perhaps lead to a compromised immune response to this bacterial pathogen.

  8. Intermonomer Interactions in Hemagglutinin Subunits HA1 and HA2 Affecting Hemagglutinin Stability and Influenza Virus Infectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; DeFeo, Christopher J; Alvarado-Facundo, Esmeralda; Vassell, Russell; Weiss, Carol D

    2015-10-01

    Influenza virus hemagglutinin (HA) mediates virus entry by binding to cell surface receptors and fusing the viral and endosomal membranes following uptake by endocytosis. The acidic environment of endosomes triggers a large-scale conformational change in the transmembrane subunit of HA (HA2) involving a loop (B loop)-to-helix transition, which releases the fusion peptide at the HA2 N terminus from an interior pocket within the HA trimer. Subsequent insertion of the fusion peptide into the endosomal membrane initiates fusion. The acid stability of HA is influenced by residues in the fusion peptide, fusion peptide pocket, coiled-coil regions of HA2, and interactions between the surface (HA1) and HA2 subunits, but details are not fully understood and vary among strains. Current evidence suggests that the HA from the circulating pandemic 2009 H1N1 influenza A virus [A(H1N1)pdm09] is less stable than the HAs from other seasonal influenza virus strains. Here we show that residue 205 in HA1 and residue 399 in the B loop of HA2 (residue 72, HA2 numbering) in different monomers of the trimeric A(H1N1)pdm09 HA are involved in functionally important intermolecular interactions and that a conserved histidine in this pair helps regulate HA stability. An arginine-lysine pair at this location destabilizes HA at acidic pH and mediates fusion at a higher pH, while a glutamate-lysine pair enhances HA stability and requires a lower pH to induce fusion. Our findings identify key residues in HA1 and HA2 that interact to help regulate H1N1 HA stability and virus infectivity. Influenza virus hemagglutinin (HA) is the principal antigen in inactivated influenza vaccines and the target of protective antibodies. However, the influenza A virus HA is highly variable, necessitating frequent vaccine changes to match circulating strains. Sequence changes in HA affect not only antigenicity but also HA stability, which has important implications for vaccine production, as well as viral adaptation

  9. Evolutionary patterning of hemagglutinin gene sequence of 2009 H1N1 pandemic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Rachana; Roy, Ayan; Ahmad, Fayaz; Das, Santasabuj; Basak, Surajit

    2012-01-01

    The 2009 H1N1 swine flu is the first pandemic in decades. Infectivity of the influenza virus for human host depends largely on its ability to evade antibodies specific for viral protein called hemagglutinin (HA) that mediates attachment to the host. In the present study we analysed large number of HA gene sequences available in Flu Database maintained at NCBI. Our sequence based analysis clearly demonstrates that the amino acid usage pattern may dramatically change during the course of evolution, and there exists a clear link between a particular pattern of amino acid usage of HA genes and its potential to become infectious. Structural studies revealed how binding efficiency between the HA and sialic acid may alter the pandemic potential of infection. Our work highlights the evolutionary significance and biochemical basis of the selective advantage of certain amino acids of HA in 2009 and provides a link between the characteristics changes in HA protein and their potential to pronounce a global menace to public health.

  10. Anti-Hemagglutinin Antibody Derived Lead Peptides for Inhibitors of Influenza Virus Binding.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry Memczak

    Full Text Available Antibodies against spike proteins of influenza are used as a tool for characterization of viruses and therapeutic approaches. However, development, production and quality control of antibodies is expensive and time consuming. To circumvent these difficulties, three peptides were derived from complementarity determining regions of an antibody heavy chain against influenza A spike glycoprotein. Their binding properties were studied experimentally, and by molecular dynamics simulations. Two peptide candidates showed binding to influenza A/Aichi/2/68 H3N2. One of them, termed PeB, with the highest affinity prevented binding to and infection of target cells in the micromolar region without any cytotoxic effect. PeB matches best the conserved receptor binding site of hemagglutinin. PeB bound also to other medical relevant influenza strains, such as human-pathogenic A/California/7/2009 H1N1, and avian-pathogenic A/Mute Swan/Rostock/R901/2006 H7N1. Strategies to improve the affinity and to adapt specificity are discussed and exemplified by a double amino acid substituted peptide, obtained by substitutional analysis. The peptides and their derivatives are of great potential for drug development as well as biosensing.

  11. Quantitative characterization of glycan-receptor binding of H9N2 influenza A virus hemagglutinin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karunya Srinivasan

    Full Text Available Avian influenza subtypes such as H5, H7 and H9 are yet to adapt to the human host so as to establish airborne transmission between humans. However, lab-generated reassorted viruses possessing hemagglutinin (HA and neuraminidase (NA genes from an avian H9 isolate and other genes from a human-adapted (H3 or H1 subtype acquired two amino acid changes in HA and a single amino acid change in NA that confer respiratory droplet transmission in ferrets. We previously demonstrated for human-adapted H1, H2 and H3 subtypes that quantitative binding affinity of their HA to α2→6 sialylated glycan receptors correlates with respiratory droplet transmissibility of the virus in ferrets. Such a relationship remains to be established for H9 HA. In this study, we performed a quantitative biochemical characterization of glycan receptor binding properties of wild-type and mutant forms of representative H9 HAs that were previously used in context of reassorted viruses in ferret transmission studies. We demonstrate here that distinct molecular interactions in the glycan receptor-binding site of different H9 HAs affect the glycan-binding specificity and affinity. Further we show that α2→6 glycan receptor-binding affinity of a mutant H9 HA carrying Thr-189→Ala amino acid change correlates with the respiratory droplet transmission in ferrets conferred by this change. Our findings contribute to a framework for monitoring the evolution of H9 HA by understanding effects of molecular changes in HA on glycan receptor-binding properties.

  12. Broad protection against avian influenza virus by using a modified vaccinia Ankara virus expressing a mosaic hemagglutinin gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamlangdee, Attapon; Kingstad-Bakke, Brock; Anderson, Tavis K; Goldberg, Tony L; Osorio, Jorge E

    2014-11-01

    A critical failure in our preparedness for an influenza pandemic is the lack of a universal vaccine. Influenza virus strains diverge by 1 to 2% per year, and commercially available vaccines often do not elicit protection from one year to the next, necessitating frequent formulation changes. This represents a major challenge to the development of a cross-protective vaccine that can protect against circulating viral antigenic diversity. We have constructed a recombinant modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) that expresses an H5N1 mosaic hemagglutinin (H5M) (MVA-H5M). This mosaic was generated in silico using 2,145 field-sourced H5N1 isolates. A single dose of MVA-H5M provided 100% protection in mice against clade 0, 1, and 2 avian influenza viruses and also protected against seasonal H1N1 virus (A/Puerto Rico/8/34). It also provided short-term (10 days) and long-term (6 months) protection postvaccination. Both neutralizing antibodies and antigen-specific CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells were still detected at 5 months postvaccination, suggesting that MVA-H5M provides long-lasting immunity. Influenza viruses infect a billion people and cause up to 500,000 deaths every year. A major problem in combating influenza is the lack of broadly effective vaccines. One solution from the field of human immunodeficiency virus vaccinology involves a novel in silico mosaic approach that has been shown to provide broad and robust protection against highly variable viruses. Unlike a consensus algorithm which picks the most frequent residue at each position, the mosaic method chooses the most frequent T-cell epitopes and combines them to form a synthetic antigen. These studies demonstrated that a mosaic influenza virus H5 hemagglutinin expressed by a viral vector can elicit full protection against diverse H5N1 challenges as well as induce broader immunity than a wild-type hemagglutinin. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  13. Molecular Characterizations of Surface Proteins Hemagglutinin and Neuraminidase from Recent H5Nx Avian Influenza Viruses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Hua; Carney, Paul J.; Mishin, Vasiliy P.; Guo, Zhu; Chang, Jessie C.; Wentworth, David E.; Gubareva, Larisa V.; Stevens, James; Schultz-Cherry, S.

    2016-04-06

    ABSTRACT

    During 2014, a subclade 2.3.4.4 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) A(H5N8) virus caused poultry outbreaks around the world. In late 2014/early 2015, the virus was detected in wild birds in Canada and the United States, and these viruses also gave rise to reassortant progeny, composed of viral RNA segments (vRNAs) from both Eurasian and North American lineages. In particular, viruses were found with N1, N2, and N8 neuraminidase vRNAs, and these are collectively referred to as H5Nx viruses. In the United States, more than 48 million domestic birds have been affected. Here we present a detailed structural and biochemical analysis of the surface antigens of H5N1, H5N2, and H5N8 viruses in addition to those of a recent human H5N6 virus. Our results with recombinant hemagglutinin reveal that these viruses have a strict avian receptor binding preference, while recombinantly expressed neuraminidases are sensitive to FDA-approved and investigational antivirals. Although H5Nx viruses currently pose a low risk to humans, it is important to maintain surveillance of these circulating viruses and to continually assess future changes that may increase their pandemic potential.

    IMPORTANCEThe H5Nx viruses emerging in North America, Europe, and Asia pose a great public health concern. Here we report a molecular and structural study of the major surface proteins of several H5Nx influenza viruses. Our results improve the understanding of these new viruses and provide important information on their receptor preferences and susceptibilities to antivirals, which are central to pandemic risk assessment.

  14. Inhibition of influenza virus infection and hemagglutinin cleavage by the protease inhibitor HAI-2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamilton, Brian S.; Chung, Changik; Cyphers, Soreen Y.; Rinaldi, Vera D.; Marcano, Valerie C.; Whittaker, Gary R., E-mail: grw7@cornell.edu

    2014-07-25

    Highlights: • Biochemical and cell biological analysis of HAI-2 as an inhibitor of influenza HA cleavage activation. • Biochemical and cell biological analysis of HAI-2 as an inhibitor of influenza virus infection. • Comparative analysis of HAI-2 for vesicular stomatitis virus and human parainfluenza virus type-1. • Analysis of the activity of HAI-2 in a mouse model of influenza. - Abstract: Influenza virus remains a significant concern to public health, with the continued potential for a high fatality pandemic. Vaccination and antiviral therapeutics are effective measures to circumvent influenza virus infection, however, multiple strains have emerged that are resistant to the antiviral therapeutics currently on the market. With this considered, investigation of alternative antiviral therapeutics is being conducted. One such approach is to inhibit cleavage activation of the influenza virus hemagglutinin (HA), which is an essential step in the viral replication cycle that permits viral-endosome fusion. Therefore, targeting trypsin-like, host proteases responsible for HA cleavage in vivo may prove to be an effective therapeutic. Hepatocyte growth factor activator inhibitor 2 (HAI-2) is naturally expressed in the respiratory tract and is a potent inhibitor of trypsin-like serine proteases, some of which have been determined to cleave HA. In this study, we demonstrate that HAI-2 is an effective inhibitor of cleavage of HA from the human-adapted H1 and H3 subtypes. HAI-2 inhibited influenza virus H1N1 infection in cell culture, and HAI-2 administration showed protection in a mouse model of influenza. HAI-2 has the potential to be an effective, alternative antiviral therapeutic for influenza.

  15. Influenza A virus transfectants with chimeric hemagglutinins containing epitopes from different subtypes.

    OpenAIRE

    Li, S Q; Schulman, J L; Moran, T; Bona, C; Palese, P

    1992-01-01

    Influenza virus transfectants with chimeric hemagglutinins were constructed by using a ribonucleoprotein transfection method. Transfectants W(H1)-H2 and W(H1)-H3 contained A/WSN/33(H1N1) (WSN) hemagglutinins in which the six-amino-acid loop (contained in antigenic site B) was replaced by the corresponding structures of influenza viruses A/Japan/57(H2N2) and A/Hong Kong/8/68(H3N2) (HK), respectively. Serological analysis indicated that the W(H1)-H3 transfectant virus reacted with antibodies ag...

  16. Impact of host cell line adaptation on quasispecies composition and glycosylation of influenza A virus hemagglutinin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Verena Roedig

    Full Text Available The genome of influenza A viruses is constantly changing (genetic drift resulting in small, gradual changes in viral proteins. Alterations within antibody recognition sites of the viral membrane glycoproteins hemagglutinin (HA and neuraminidase (NA result in an antigenetic drift, which requires the seasonal update of human influenza virus vaccines. Generally, virus adaptation is necessary to obtain sufficiently high virus yields in cell culture-derived vaccine manufacturing. In this study detailed HA N-glycosylation pattern analysis was combined with in-depth pyrosequencing analysis of the virus genomic RNA. Forward and backward adaptation from Madin-Darby Canine Kidney (MDCK cells to African green monkey kidney (Vero cells was investigated for two closely related influenza A virus PR/8/34 (H1N1 strains: from the National Institute for Biological Standards and Control (NIBSC or the Robert Koch Institute (RKI. Furthermore, stability of HA N-glycosylation patterns over ten consecutive passages and different harvest time points is demonstrated. Adaptation to Vero cells finally allowed efficient influenza A virus replication in Vero cells. In contrast, during back-adaptation the virus replicated well from the very beginning. HA N-glycosylation patterns were cell line dependent and stabilized fast within one (NIBSC-derived virus or two (RKI-derived virus successive passages during adaptation processes. However, during adaptation new virus variants were detected. These variants carried "rescue" mutations on the genomic level within the HA stem region, which result in amino acid substitutions. These substitutions finally allowed sufficient virus replication in the new host system. According to adaptation pressure the composition of the virus populations varied. In Vero cells a selection for "rescue" variants was characteristic. After back-adaptation to MDCK cells some variants persisted at indifferent frequencies, others slowly diminished and even

  17. Single hemagglutinin mutations that alter both antigenicity and receptor binding avidity influence influenza virus antigenic clustering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yang; Bostick, David L; Sullivan, Colleen B; Myers, Jaclyn L; Griesemer, Sara B; Stgeorge, Kirsten; Plotkin, Joshua B; Hensley, Scott E

    2013-09-01

    The hemagglutination inhibition (HAI) assay is the primary measurement used for identifying antigenically novel influenza virus strains. HAI assays measure the amount of reference sera required to prevent virus binding to red blood cells. Receptor binding avidities of viral strains are not usually taken into account when interpreting these assays. Here, we created antigenic maps of human H3N2 viruses that computationally account for variation in viral receptor binding avidities. These new antigenic maps differ qualitatively from conventional antigenic maps based on HAI measurements alone. We experimentally focused on an antigenic cluster associated with a single N145K hemagglutinin (HA) substitution that occurred between 1992 and 1995. Reverse-genetics experiments demonstrated that the N145K HA mutation increases viral receptor binding avidity. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) revealed that the N145K HA mutation does not prevent antibody binding; rather, viruses possessing this mutation escape antisera in HAI assays simply by attaching to cells more efficiently. Unexpectedly, we found an asymmetric antigenic effect of the N145K HA mutation. Once H3N2 viruses acquired K145, an epitope involving amino acid 145 became antigenically dominant. Antisera raised against an H3N2 strain possessing K145 had reduced reactivity to H3N2 strains possessing N145. Thus, individual mutations in HA can influence antigenic groupings of strains by altering receptor binding avidity and by changing the dominance of antibody responses. Our results indicate that it will be important to account for variation in viral receptor binding avidity when performing antigenic analyses in order to identify genuine antigenic differences among influenza virus variants.

  18. Gene transfer mediated by fusion protein hemagglutinin reconstituted in cationic lipid vesicles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoen, P; Chonn, A; Cullis, PR; Wilschut, J; Scherrer, P

    Hemagglutinin, the membrane fusion protein of influenza virus,is known to mediate a low-pH-dependent fusion reaction between the viral envelope and the limiting membrane of the endosomal cell compartment following cellular uptake of the virus particles by receptor-mediated endocytosis. Here we

  19. Dual function of the hemagglutinin H5 fused to chicken CD154 in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dual function of the hemagglutinin H5 fused to chicken CD154 in a potential strategy of DIVA against avian influenza disease: preliminary study. AG Pose, ES Rodriguez, AC Mendez, JN Gomez, AV Redondo, ER Rodriguez, EMG Ramos, AA Gutierrez, MPR Molto, DG Roche, YS Ugalde, AM Lopez ...

  20. Correlating novel variable and conserved motifs in the Hemagglutinin protein with significant biological functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Werner Mark

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Variations in the influenza Hemagglutinin protein contributes to antigenic drift resulting in decreased efficiency of seasonal influenza vaccines and escape from host immune response. We performed an in silico study to determine characteristics of novel variable and conserved motifs in the Hemagglutinin protein from previously reported H3N2 strains isolated from Hong Kong from 1968–1999 to predict viral motifs involved in significant biological functions. Results 14 MEME blocks were generated and comparative analysis of the MEME blocks identified blocks 1, 2, 3 and 7 to correlate with several biological functions. Analysis of the different Hemagglutinin sequences elucidated that the single block 7 has the highest frequency of amino acid substitution and the highest number of co-mutating pairs. MEME 2 showed intermediate variability and MEME 1 was the most conserved. Interestingly, MEME blocks 2 and 7 had the highest incidence of potential post-translational modifications sites including phosphorylation sites, ASN glycosylation motifs and N-myristylation sites. Similarly, these 2 blocks overlap with previously identified antigenic sites and receptor binding sites. Conclusion Our study identifies motifs in the Hemagglutinin protein with different amino acid substitution frequencies over a 31 years period, and derives relevant functional characteristics by correlation of these motifs with potential post-translational modifications sites, antigenic and receptor binding sites.

  1. Relative contributions of measles virus hemagglutinin- and fusion protein- specific serum antibodies to virus neutralization.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.L. de Swart (Rik); S. Yüksel (Selma); A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractThe relative contribution of measles virus hemagglutinin (H)- or fusion protein (F)-specific antibodies to virus neutralization (VN) has not been demonstrated. We have depleted these specific antibodies from sera collected from young adults, who had been vaccinated during childhood, by

  2. Influenza-virus membrane fusion by cooperative fold-back of stochastically induced hemagglutinin intermediates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ivanovic, Tijana; Choi, Jason L.; Whelan, Sean P.; Oijen, Antoine M. van; Harrison, Stephen C.

    2013-01-01

    Influenza virus penetrates cells by fusion of viral and endosomal membranes catalyzed by the viral hemagglutinin (HA). Structures of the initial and final states of the HA trimer define the fusion endpoints, but do not specify intermediates. We have characterized these transitions by analyzing

  3. Folding of influenza virus hemagglutinin in insect cells is fast and efficient

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, Xin; van Oers, Monique M; Vlak, Just M; Braakman, Ineke

    2015-01-01

    Folding of influenza virus hemagglutinin (HA) in the endoplasmic reticulum has been well defined in mammalian cells. In different mammalian cell lines the protein follows the same folding pathway with identical folding intermediates, but folds with very different kinetics. To examine the effect of

  4. Folding of influenza virus hemagglutinin in insect cells is fast and efficient

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, X.; Oers, van M.M.; Vlak, J.M.; Braakman, I.

    2015-01-01

    Folding of influenza virus hemagglutinin (HA) in the endoplasmic reticulum has been well defined inmammalian cells. In different mammalian cell lines the protein follows the same folding pathway withidentical folding intermediates, but folds with very different kinetics. To examine the effect of

  5. Serological response to filamentous hemagglutinin and lymphocytosis-promoting toxin of Bordetella pertussis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burstyn, D G; Baraff, L J; Peppler, M S; Leake, R D; St Geme, J; Manclark, C R

    1983-01-01

    Serum antibody responses to the filamentous hemagglutinin and the lymphocytosis-promoting toxin of Bordetella pertussis after vaccination with diphtheria and tetanus toxoids and pertussis vaccine, adsorbed, were assayed by using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The effect of early immunization, during the first week of life, on the antibody response also was determined. After vaccination, immunoglobulin G (IgG) and IgM directed against both the filamentous hemagglutinin and the lymphocytosis-promoting toxin were detected. Generally, antibody titers increased with subsequent injections and the age of the children. Maternal antibodies against filamentous hemagglutinin and lymphocytosis-promoting toxin were detected in cord blood. The ability of an infant to produce serum IgG anti-lymphocytosis-promoting toxin after vaccination with pertussis vaccine was inversely related to the cord blood serum IgG anti-lymphocytosis-promoting toxin titer at birth. A good antibody response was observed in infants with low cord blood titers, and a poor antibody response was seen in infants with high cord blood values. The IgM anti-lymphocytosis-promoting toxin response was good in groups with both low and high cord blood titer, with no significant difference observed between the two groups. No IgA anti-lymphocytosis-promoting toxin or IgA anti-filamentous hemagglutinin titers were observed in vaccines. IgA antibodies were observed in convalescent sera from two adults and may be presumptive evidence of infection with B. pertussis. PMID:6309662

  6. Filamentous hemagglutinin of Bordetella pertussis: a key adhesin with immunomodulatory properties?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Romero, Rodrigo, Villarino; Osička, Radim; Šebo, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 9, č. 12 (2014), s. 1339-1360 ISSN 1746-0913 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) P302/11/0580; GA ČR(CZ) GA13-14547S Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : Bordetella * adhesion * integrins * filamentous hemagglutinin Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 4.275, year: 2014

  7. Positive Selection on Hemagglutinin and Neuraminidase Genes of H1N1 Influenza Viruses

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Li, Wenfu

    2011-04-21

    Abstract Background Since its emergence in March 2009, the pandemic 2009 H1N1 influenza A virus has posed a serious threat to public health. To trace the evolutionary path of these new pathogens, we performed a selection-pressure analysis of a large number of hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) gene sequences of H1N1 influenza viruses from different hosts. Results Phylogenetic analysis revealed that both HA and NA genes have evolved into five distinct clusters, with further analyses indicating that the pandemic 2009 strains have experienced the strongest positive selection. We also found evidence of strong selection acting on the seasonal human H1N1 isolates. However, swine viruses from North America and Eurasia were under weak positive selection, while there was no significant evidence of positive selection acting on the avian isolates. A site-by-site analysis revealed that the positively selected sites were located in both of the cleaved products of HA (HA1 and HA2), as well as NA. In addition, the pandemic 2009 strains were subject to differential selection pressures compared to seasonal human, North American swine and Eurasian swine H1N1 viruses. Conclusions Most of these positively and\\/or differentially selected sites were situated in the B-cell and\\/or T-cell antigenic regions, suggesting that selection at these sites might be responsible for the antigenic variation of the viruses. Moreover, some sites were also associated with glycosylation and receptor-binding ability. Thus, selection at these positions might have helped the pandemic 2009 H1N1 viruses to adapt to the new hosts after they were introduced from pigs to humans. Positive selection on position 274 of NA protein, associated with drug resistance, might account for the prevalence of drug-resistant variants of seasonal human H1N1 influenza viruses, but there was no evidence that positive selection was responsible for the spread of the drug resistance of the pandemic H1N1 strains.

  8. Diagnostic potential of recombinant scFv antibodies generated against hemagglutinin protein of influenza A virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roopali eRajput

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Human influenza A viruses have been the cause of enormous socio-economic losses worldwide. In order to combat such a notorious pathogen, hemagglutinin protein (HA has been a preferred target for generation of neutralizing-antibodies, as potent therapeutic/ diagnostic agents. In the present study, recombinant anti-HA single chain variable fragment (scFv antibodies were constructed using the phage display technology to aid in diagnosis and treatment of human influenza A virus infections. Spleen cells of mice hyper-immunized with A/New Caledonia/20/99 (H1N1 virus were used as the source for recombinant antibody (rAb production. The antigen-binding phages were quantified after 6 rounds of bio-panning against A/New Caledonia/20/99 (H1N1, A/California/07/2009 (H1N1-like, or A/Udorn/307/72(H3N2 viruses. The phage yield was maximum for the A/New Caledonia/20/99 (H1N1, however, considerable cross-reactivity was observed for the other virus strains as well. The HA-specific polyclonal rAb preparation was subjected to selection of single clones for identification of high reactive relatively conserved epitopes. The high affinity rAbs were tested against certain known conserved HA epitopes by peptide ELISA. Three recombinant mAbs showed reactivity with both the H1N1 strains and one (C5 showed binding with all the three viral strains. The C5 antibody was thus used for development of an ELISA test for diagnosis of influenza virus infection. Based on the sample size in the current analysis, the ELISA test demonstrated 83.9% sensitivity and 100% specificity. Thus, the ELISA, developed in our study, may prove as a cheaper alternative to the presently used real time RT-PCR test for detection of human influenza A viruses in clinical specimens, which will be beneficial, especially in the developing countries. Since, the two antibodies identified in this study are reactive to conserved HA epitopes; these may prove as potential therapeutic agents as well.

  9. A DNA Vaccine That Targets Hemagglutinin to Antigen-Presenting Cells Protects Mice against H7 Influenza.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Tor Kristian; Zhou, Fan; Cox, Rebecca; Bogen, Bjarne; Grødeland, Gunnveig

    2017-12-01

    Zoonotic influenza H7 viral infections have a case fatality rate of about 40%. Currently, no or limited human to human spread has occurred, but we may be facing a severe pandemic threat if the virus acquires the ability to transmit between humans. Novel vaccines that can be rapidly produced for global distribution are urgently needed, and DNA vaccines may be the only type of vaccine that allows for the speed necessary to quench an emerging pandemic. Here, we constructed DNA vaccines encoding the hemagglutinin (HA) from influenza A/chicken/Italy/13474/99 (H7N1). In order to increase the efficacy of DNA vaccination, HA was targeted to either major histocompatibility complex class II molecules or chemokine receptors 1, 3, and 5 (CCR1/3/5) that are expressed on antigen-presenting cells (APC). A single DNA vaccination with APC-targeted HA significantly increased antibody levels in sera compared to nontargeted control vaccines. The antibodies were confirmed neutralizing in an H7 pseudotype-based neutralization assay. Furthermore, the APC-targeted vaccines increased the levels of antigen-specific cytotoxic T cells, and a single DNA vaccination could confer protection against a lethal challenge with influenza A/turkey/Italy/3889/1999 (H7N1) in mice. In conclusion, we have developed a vaccine that rapidly could contribute protection against a pandemic threat from avian influenza. IMPORTANCE Highly pathogenic avian influenza H7 constitute a pandemic threat that can cause severe illness and death in infected individuals. Vaccination is the main method of prophylaxis against influenza, but current vaccine strategies fall short in a pandemic situation due to a prolonged production time and insufficient production capabilities. In contrast, a DNA vaccine can be rapidly produced and deployed to prevent the potential escalation of a highly pathogenic influenza pandemic. We here demonstrate that a single DNA delivery of hemagglutinin from an H7 influenza could mediate full

  10. Identification and regulation of expression of a gene encoding a filamentous hemagglutinin-related protein in Bordetella holmesii

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    Gross Roy

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bordetella holmesii is a human pathogen closely related to B. pertussis, the etiological agent of whooping cough. It is able to cause disease in immunocompromised patients, but also whooping cough-like symptoms in otherwise healthy individuals. However, virtually nothing was known so far about the underlying virulence mechanisms and previous attempts to identify virulence factors related to those of B. pertussis were not successful. Results By use of a PCR approach we were able to identify a B. holmesii gene encoding a protein with significant sequence similarities to the filamentous hemagglutinin (FHA of B. avium and to a lesser extent to the FHA proteins of B. pertussis, B. parapertussis, and B. bronchiseptica. For these human and animal pathogens FHA is a crucial virulence factor required for successful colonization of the host. Interestingly, the B. holmesii protein shows a relatively high overall sequence similarity with the B. avium protein, while sequence conservation with the FHA proteins of the human and mammalian pathogens is quite limited and is most prominent in signal sequences required for their export to the cell surface. In the other Bordetellae expression of the fhaB gene encoding FHA was shown to be regulated by the master regulator of virulence, the BvgAS two-component system. Recently, we identified orthologs of BvgAS in B. holmesii, and here we show that this system also contributes to regulation of fhaB expression in B. holmesii. Accordingly, the purified BvgA response regulator of B. holmesii was shown to bind specifically in the upstream region of the fhaB promoter in vitro in a manner similar to that previously described for the BvgA protein of B. pertussis. Moreover, by deletion analysis of the fhaB promoter region we show that the BvgA binding sites are relevant for in vivo transcription from this promoter in B. holmesii. Conclusion The data reported here show that B. holmesii is endowed with a

  11. Two glycosylation sites in H5N1 influenza virus hemagglutinin that affect binding preference by computer-based analysis.

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    Wentian Chen

    Full Text Available Increasing numbers of H5N1 influenza viruses (IVs are responsible for human deaths, especially in North Africa and Southeast Asian. The binding of hemagglutinin (HA on the viral surface to host sialic acid (SA receptors is a requisite step in the infection process. Phylogenetic analysis reveals that H5N1 viruses can be divided into 10 clades based on their HA sequences, with most human IVs centered from clade 1 and clade 2.1 to clade 2.3. Protein sequence alignment in various clades indicates the high conservation in the receptor-binding domains (RBDs is essential for binding with the SA receptor. Two glycosylation sites, 158N and 169N, also participate in receptor recognition. In the present work, we attempted to construct a serial H5N1 HA models including diverse glycosylated HAs to simulate the binding process with various SA receptors in silico. As the SA-α-2,3-Gal and SA-α-2,6-Gal receptor adopted two distinctive topologies, straight and fishhook-like, respectively, the presence of N-glycans at 158N would decrease the affinity of HA for all of the receptors, particularly SA-α-2,6-Gal analogs. The steric clashes of the huge glycans shown at another glycosylation site, 169N, located on an adjacent HA monomer, would be more effective in preventing the binding of SA-α-2,3-Gal analogs.

  12. Two glycosylation sites in H5N1 influenza virus hemagglutinin that affect binding preference by computer-based analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wentian; Sun, Shisheng; Li, Zheng

    2012-01-01

    Increasing numbers of H5N1 influenza viruses (IVs) are responsible for human deaths, especially in North Africa and Southeast Asian. The binding of hemagglutinin (HA) on the viral surface to host sialic acid (SA) receptors is a requisite step in the infection process. Phylogenetic analysis reveals that H5N1 viruses can be divided into 10 clades based on their HA sequences, with most human IVs centered from clade 1 and clade 2.1 to clade 2.3. Protein sequence alignment in various clades indicates the high conservation in the receptor-binding domains (RBDs) is essential for binding with the SA receptor. Two glycosylation sites, 158N and 169N, also participate in receptor recognition. In the present work, we attempted to construct a serial H5N1 HA models including diverse glycosylated HAs to simulate the binding process with various SA receptors in silico. As the SA-α-2,3-Gal and SA-α-2,6-Gal receptor adopted two distinctive topologies, straight and fishhook-like, respectively, the presence of N-glycans at 158N would decrease the affinity of HA for all of the receptors, particularly SA-α-2,6-Gal analogs. The steric clashes of the huge glycans shown at another glycosylation site, 169N, located on an adjacent HA monomer, would be more effective in preventing the binding of SA-α-2,3-Gal analogs.

  13. Advances in universal influenza virus vaccine design and antibody mediated therapies based on conserved regions of the hemagglutinin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krammer, Florian; Palese, Peter; Steel, John

    2015-01-01

    The threat of novel influenza viruses emerging into the human population from animal reservoirs, as well as the short duration of protection conferred by licensed vaccines against human seasonal strains has spurred research efforts to improve upon current vaccines and develop novel therapeutics against influenza viruses. In recent years these efforts have resulted in the identification of novel, highly conserved epitopes for neutralizing antibodies on the influenza virus hemagglutinin protein, which are present in both the stalk and globular head domains of the molecule. The existence of such epitopes may allow for generation of novel therapeutic antibodies, in addition to serving as attractive targets of novel vaccine design. The aims of developing improved vaccines include eliciting broader protection from drifted strains, inducing long-lived immunity against seasonal strains, and allowing for the rational design of vaccines that can be stockpiled for use as pre-pandemic vaccines. In addition, an increased focus on influenza virus vaccine research has prompted an improved understanding of how the immune system responds to influenza virus infection.

  14. Histatin 5 binds to Porphyromonas gingivalis hemagglutinin B (HagB) and alters HagB-induced chemokine responses

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    Borgwardt, Derek S.; Martin, Aaron D.; van Hemert, Jonathan R.; Yang, Jianyi; Fischer, Carol L.; Recker, Erica N.; Nair, Prashant R.; Vidva, Robinson; Chandrashekaraiah, Shwetha; Progulske-Fox, Ann; Drake, David; Cavanaugh, Joseph E.; Vali, Shireen; Zhang, Yang; Brogden, Kim A.

    2014-01-01

    Histatins are human salivary gland peptides with anti-microbial and anti-inflammatory activities. In this study, we hypothesized that histatin 5 binds to Porphyromonas gingivalis hemagglutinin B (HagB) and attenuates HagB-induced chemokine responses in human myeloid dendritic cells. Histatin 5 bound to immobilized HagB in a surface plasmon resonance (SPR) spectroscopy-based biosensor system. SPR spectroscopy kinetic and equilibrium analyses, protein microarray studies, and I-TASSER structural modeling studies all demonstrated two histatin 5 binding sites on HagB. One site had a stronger affinity with a KD1 of 1.9 μM and one site had a weaker affinity with a KD2 of 60.0 μM. Binding has biological implications and predictive modeling studies and exposure of dendritic cells both demonstrated that 20.0 μM histatin 5 attenuated (p < 0.05) 0.02 μM HagB-induced CCL3/MIP-1α, CCL4/MIP-1β, and TNFα responses. Thus histatin 5 is capable of attenuating chemokine responses, which may help control oral inflammation.

  15. Piezoresistive measurement of Swine H1N1 Hemagglutinin peptide binding with microcantilever arrays

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    N. Bajwa

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Effective detection of Swine H1N1 Hemagglutinin peptide is crucial as it could be used as a positive control to screen for highly infectious flu strains such as Swine-Origin Influenza A (H1N1. Piezoresistive microcantilever arrays present a pathway towards highly sensitive and label-free detection of biomolecules by transducing the antigen-antibody binding into change in resistivity via induced surface stress variation. We demonstrate a mechanical transduction of Swine H1N1 Hemagglutinin peptide binding and suggest the employed technique may offer a potential platform for detection of the H1N1 virus, which could be clinically used to diagnose and provide subsequent relief.

  16. Antigenic determinants of influenza virus hemagglutinin. XI. Conformational changes detected by monoclonal antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, D C; Nestorowicz, A

    1985-08-01

    At pH 5 influenza virus hemagglutinin undergoes an irreversible conformational change (J.J. Skehel, P. M. Bayley, E. B. Brown, S. R. Martin, M. D. Waterfield, J. M. White, I. A. Wilson, and D. C. Wiley (1982). Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 79, 968-972) which parallels the appearance of fusion activity of this molecule. This paper describes experiments which explore the conformational change using a panel of monoclonal antibodies which define four of the major antigenic sites of this protein. The results indicate that three of the major antigenic sites of hemagglutinin undergo changes when exposed to acid pH. These changes have little effect on the binding avidity of influenza virus to glycophorin, the major receptor present on the red blood cell surface. These findings have been used to postulate a mechanism where the molecule flexes around a central region resulting in rearrangement in space of its component domains on exposure to low pH.

  17. Second Sialic Acid Binding Site in Newcastle Disease Virus Hemagglutinin-Neuraminidase: Implications for Fusion

    OpenAIRE

    Zaitsev, Viatcheslav; von Itzstein, Mark; Groves, Darrin; Kiefel, Milton; Takimoto, Toru; Portner, Allen; Taylor, Garry

    2004-01-01

    Paramyxoviruses are the leading cause of respiratory disease in children. Several paramyxoviruses possess a surface glycoprotein, the hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN), that is involved in attachment to sialic acid receptors, promotion of fusion, and removal of sialic acid from infected cells and progeny virions. Previously we showed that Newcastle disease virus (NDV) HN contained a pliable sialic acid recognition site that could take two states, a binding state and a catalytic state. Here we ...

  18. Computational design of protein interactions: designing proteins that neutralize influenza by inhibiting its hemagglutinin surface protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleishman, Sarel

    2012-02-01

    Molecular recognition underlies all life processes. Design of interactions not seen in nature is a test of our understanding of molecular recognition and could unlock the vast potential of subtle control over molecular interaction networks, allowing the design of novel diagnostics and therapeutics for basic and applied research. We developed the first general method for designing protein interactions. The method starts by computing a region of high affinity interactions between dismembered amino acid residues and the target surface and then identifying proteins that can harbor these residues. Designs are tested experimentally for binding the target surface and successful ones are affinity matured using yeast cell surface display. Applied to the conserved stem region of influenza hemagglutinin we designed two unrelated proteins that, following affinity maturation, bound hemagglutinin at subnanomolar dissociation constants. Co-crystal structures of hemagglutinin bound to the two designed binders were within 1Angstrom RMSd of their models, validating the accuracy of the design strategy. One of the designed proteins inhibits the conformational changes that underlie hemagglutinin's cell-invasion functions and blocks virus infectivity in cell culture, suggesting that such proteins may in future serve as diagnostics and antivirals against a wide range of pathogenic influenza strains. We have used this method to obtain experimentally validated binders of several other target proteins, demonstrating the generality of the approach. We discuss the combination of modeling and high-throughput characterization of design variants which has been key to the success of this approach, as well as how we have used the data obtained in this project to enhance our understanding of molecular recognition. References: Science 332:816 JMB, in press Protein Sci 20:753

  19. Influenza hemagglutinin stem-fragment immunogen elicits broadly neutralizing antibodies and confers heterologous protection

    OpenAIRE

    Mallajosyula, Vamsee V. A.; Citron, Michael; Ferrara, Francesca; Lu, Xianghan; Callahan, Cheryl; Heidecker, Gwendolyn J.; Sarma, Siddhartha P.; Flynn, Jessica A.; Temperton, Nigel J.; Liang, Xiaoping; Varadarajan, Raghavan

    2014-01-01

    Influenza hemagglutinin (HA) is the primary target of the humoral response during infection/vaccination. Current influenza vaccines typically fail to elicit/boost broadly neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs), thereby limiting their efficacy. Although several bnAbs bind to the conserved stem domain of HA, focusing the immune response to this conserved stem in the presence of the immunodominant, variable head domain of HA is challenging. We report the design of a thermotolerant, disulfide-free, and ...

  20. Influenza A hemagglutinin C-terminal anchoring peptide: identification and mass spectrometric study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kordyukova, Larisa V; Ksenofontov, Aleksander L; Serebryakova, Marina V; Ovchinnikova, Tatyana V; Fedorova, Natalija V; Ivanova, Valeria T; Baratova, Ludmila A

    2004-08-01

    MALDI-TOF MS and N-terminal amino acid sequencing allowed us to identify several fragments of the C-terminal peptide of Influenza A hemagglutinin (HA) containing transmembrane domains (TMD). These fragments were detected in the organic phase of chloroform-methanol extracts from bromelain-treated virus particles. Heterogeneous fatty acylation of the C-terminus was revealed. Tritium bombardment technique might open an opportunity for 3D structural investigation of the HA TMD in situ.

  1. Sialyl alpha(2-->3) lactose clusters using carbosilane dendrimer core scaffolds as influenza hemagglutinin blockers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oka, Hiroyuki; Onaga, Tomotsune; Koyama, Tetsuo; Guo, Chao-Tan; Suzuki, Yasuo; Esumi, Yasuaki; Hatano, Ken; Terunuma, Daiyo; Matsuoka, Koji

    2008-08-01

    An efficient synthesis of a series of carbosilane dendrimers uniformly functionalized with sialyl alpha(2-->3) lactose (Neu5Acalpha(2-->3)Galbeta(1-->4)Glcbeta1-->) moieties was accomplished. The results of a preliminary study on biological responses against influenza virus hemagglutinin, using the sialyl lactose clusters showed unique biological activities on the basis of the structure-activity relationship according to the carbosilane scaffolds.

  2. Acid stability of the hemagglutinin protein regulates H5N1 influenza virus pathogenicity.

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    Rebecca M DuBois

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses of the H5N1 subtype continue to threaten agriculture and human health. Here, we use biochemistry and x-ray crystallography to reveal how amino-acid variations in the hemagglutinin (HA protein contribute to the pathogenicity of H5N1 influenza virus in chickens. HA proteins from highly pathogenic (HP A/chicken/Hong Kong/YU562/2001 and moderately pathogenic (MP A/goose/Hong Kong/437-10/1999 isolates of H5N1 were found to be expressed and cleaved in similar amounts, and both proteins had similar receptor-binding properties. However, amino-acid variations at positions 104 and 115 in the vestigial esterase sub-domain of the HA1 receptor-binding domain (RBD were found to modulate the pH of HA activation such that the HP and MP HA proteins are activated for membrane fusion at pH 5.7 and 5.3, respectively. In general, an increase in H5N1 pathogenicity in chickens was found to correlate with an increase in the pH of HA activation for mutant and chimeric HA proteins in the observed range of pH 5.2 to 6.0. We determined a crystal structure of the MP HA protein at 2.50 Å resolution and two structures of HP HA at 2.95 and 3.10 Å resolution. Residues 104 and 115 that modulate the acid stability of the HA protein are situated at the N- and C-termini of the 110-helix in the vestigial esterase sub-domain, which interacts with the B loop of the HA2 stalk domain. Interactions between the 110-helix and the stalk domain appear to be important in regulating HA protein acid stability, which in turn modulates influenza virus replication and pathogenesis. Overall, an optimal activation pH of the HA protein is found to be necessary for high pathogenicity by H5N1 influenza virus in avian species.

  3. Chimeric Hemagglutinin Constructs Induce Broad Protection against Influenza B Virus Challenge in the Mouse Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ermler, Megan E; Kirkpatrick, Ericka; Sun, Weina; Hai, Rong; Amanat, Fatima; Chromikova, Veronika; Palese, Peter; Krammer, Florian

    2017-06-15

    Seasonal influenza virus epidemics represent a significant public health burden. Approximately 25% of all influenza virus infections are caused by type B viruses, and these infections can be severe, especially in children. Current influenza virus vaccines are an effective prophylaxis against infection but are impacted by rapid antigenic drift, which can lead to mismatches between vaccine strains and circulating strains. Here, we describe a broadly protective vaccine candidate based on chimeric hemagglutinins, consisting of globular head domains from exotic influenza A viruses and stalk domains from influenza B viruses. Sequential vaccination with these constructs in mice leads to the induction of broadly reactive antibodies that bind to the conserved stalk domain of influenza B virus hemagglutinin. Vaccinated mice are protected from lethal challenge with diverse influenza B viruses. Results from serum transfer experiments and antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC) assays indicate that this protection is antibody mediated and based on Fc effector functions. The present data suggest that chimeric hemagglutinin-based vaccination is a viable strategy to broadly protect against influenza B virus infection.IMPORTANCE While current influenza virus vaccines are effective, they are affected by mismatches between vaccine strains and circulating strains. Furthermore, the antiviral drug oseltamivir is less effective for treating influenza B virus infections than for treating influenza A virus infections. A vaccine that induces broad and long-lasting protection against influenza B viruses is therefore urgently needed. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  4. A Viable Recombinant Rhabdovirus Lacking Its Glycoprotein Gene and Expressing Influenza Virus Hemagglutinin and Neuraminidase Is a Potent Influenza Vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryder, Alex B.; Buonocore, Linda; Vogel, Leatrice; Nachbagauer, Raffael; Krammer, Florian

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT The emergence of novel influenza viruses that cause devastating human disease is an ongoing threat and serves as an impetus for the continued development of novel approaches to influenza vaccines. Influenza vaccine development has traditionally focused on producing humoral and/or cell-mediated immunity, often against the viral surface glycoproteins hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA). Here, we describe a new vaccine candidate that utilizes a replication-defective vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) vector backbone that lacks the native G surface glycoprotein gene (VSVΔG). The expression of the H5 HA of an H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV), A/Vietnam/1203/04 (VN1203), and the NA of the mouse-adapted H1N1 influenza virus A/Puerto Rico/8/34 (PR8) in the VSVΔG vector restored the ability of the recombinant virus to replicate in cell culture, without the requirement for the addition of trypsin. We show here that this recombinant virus vaccine candidate was nonpathogenic in mice when given by either the intramuscular or intranasal route of immunization and that the in vivo replication of VSVΔG-H5N1 is profoundly attenuated. This recombinant virus also provided protection against lethal H5N1 infection after a single dose. This novel approach to vaccination against HPAIVs may be widely applicable to other emerging strains of influenza virus. IMPORTANCE Preparation for a potentially catastrophic influenza pandemic requires novel influenza vaccines that are safe, can be produced and administered quickly, and are effective, both soon after administration and for a long duration. We have created a new influenza vaccine that utilizes an attenuated vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) vector, to deliver and express influenza virus proteins against which vaccinated animals develop potent antibody responses. The influenza virus hemagglutinin and neuraminidase proteins, expressed on the surface of VSV particles, allowed this vaccine to grow in cell

  5. A viable recombinant rhabdovirus lacking its glycoprotein gene and expressing influenza virus hemagglutinin and neuraminidase is a potent influenza vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryder, Alex B; Buonocore, Linda; Vogel, Leatrice; Nachbagauer, Raffael; Krammer, Florian; Rose, John K

    2015-03-01

    The emergence of novel influenza viruses that cause devastating human disease is an ongoing threat and serves as an impetus for the continued development of novel approaches to influenza vaccines. Influenza vaccine development has traditionally focused on producing humoral and/or cell-mediated immunity, often against the viral surface glycoproteins hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA). Here, we describe a new vaccine candidate that utilizes a replication-defective vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) vector backbone that lacks the native G surface glycoprotein gene (VSVΔG). The expression of the H5 HA of an H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV), A/Vietnam/1203/04 (VN1203), and the NA of the mouse-adapted H1N1 influenza virus A/Puerto Rico/8/34 (PR8) in the VSVΔG vector restored the ability of the recombinant virus to replicate in cell culture, without the requirement for the addition of trypsin. We show here that this recombinant virus vaccine candidate was nonpathogenic in mice when given by either the intramuscular or intranasal route of immunization and that the in vivo replication of VSVΔG-H5N1 is profoundly attenuated. This recombinant virus also provided protection against lethal H5N1 infection after a single dose. This novel approach to vaccination against HPAIVs may be widely applicable to other emerging strains of influenza virus. Preparation for a potentially catastrophic influenza pandemic requires novel influenza vaccines that are safe, can be produced and administered quickly, and are effective, both soon after administration and for a long duration. We have created a new influenza vaccine that utilizes an attenuated vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) vector, to deliver and express influenza virus proteins against which vaccinated animals develop potent antibody responses. The influenza virus hemagglutinin and neuraminidase proteins, expressed on the surface of VSV particles, allowed this vaccine to grow in cell culture and induced a

  6. A rapid Flp-In system for expression of secreted H5N1 influenza hemagglutinin vaccine immunogen in mammalian cells.

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    Hanxin Lu

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Continuing transmissions of highly pathogenic H5N1 viruses in poultry and humans underscores the need for a rapid response to potential pandemic in the form of vaccine. Recombinant technologies for production of immunogenic hemagglutinin (HA could provide an advantage over the traditional inactivated vaccine manufacturing process. Generation of stably transfected mammalian cells secreting properly folded HA proteins is important for scalable controlled manufacturing.We have developed a Flp-In based 293 stable cell lines through targeted site-specific recombination for expression of secreted hemagglutinin (HA proteins and evaluated their immunogenicity. H5N1 globular domain HA1(1-330 and HA0(1-500 proteins were purified from the supernatants of 293 Flp-In stable cell lines. Both proteins were properly folded as confirmed by binding to H5N1-neutralizing conformation-dependent human monoclonal antibodies. The HA0 (with unmodified cleavage site was monomeric, while the HA1 contained oligomeric forms. Upon rabbit immunization, both HA proteins elicited neutralizing antibodies against the homologous virus (A/Vietnam/1203/2004, clade 1 as well as cross-neutralizing antibodies against heterologous H5N1 clade 2 strains, including A/Indonesia/5/2005. These results exceeded the human antibody responses against the inactivated sub-virion H5N1 vaccine.Our data suggest that the 293 Flp-In system could serve as a platform for rapid expression of HA immunogens in mammalian cells from emerging influenza strains.

  7. An Open Receptor-Binding Cavity of Hemagglutinin-Esterase-Fusion Glycoprotein from Newly-Identified Influenza D Virus: Basis for Its Broad Cell Tropism.

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    Hao Song

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Influenza viruses cause seasonal flu each year and pandemics or epidemic sporadically, posing a major threat to public health. Recently, a new influenza D virus (IDV was isolated from pigs and cattle. Here, we reveal that the IDV utilizes 9-O-acetylated sialic acids as its receptor for virus entry. Then, we determined the crystal structures of hemagglutinin-esterase-fusion glycoprotein (HEF of IDV both in its free form and in complex with the receptor and enzymatic substrate analogs. The IDV HEF shows an extremely similar structural fold as the human-infecting influenza C virus (ICV HEF. However, IDV HEF has an open receptor-binding cavity to accommodate diverse extended glycan moieties. This structural difference provides an explanation for the phenomenon that the IDV has a broad cell tropism. As IDV HEF is structurally and functionally similar to ICV HEF, our findings highlight the potential threat of the virus to public health.

  8. Neuraminidase stalk length and additional glycosylation of the hemagglutinin influence the virulence of influenza H5N1 viruses for mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuoka, Yumiko; Swayne, David E; Thomas, Colleen; Rameix-Welti, Marie-Anne; Naffakh, Nadia; Warnes, Christine; Altholtz, Melanie; Donis, Ruben; Subbarao, Kanta

    2009-05-01

    Following circulation of avian influenza H5 and H7 viruses in poultry, the hemagglutinin (HA) can acquire additional glycosylation sites, and the neuraminidase (NA) stalk becomes shorter. We investigated whether these features play a role in the pathogenesis of infection in mammalian hosts. From 1996 to 2007, H5N1 viruses with a short NA stalk have become widespread in several avian species. Compared to viruses with a long-stalk NA, viruses with a short-stalk NA showed a decreased capacity to elute from red blood cells and an increased virulence in mice, but not in chickens. The presence of additional HA glycosylation sites had less of an effect on virulence than did NA stalk length. The short-stalk NA of H5N1 viruses circulating in Asia may contribute to virulence in humans.

  9. Development of influenza A(H7N9) candidate vaccine viruses with improved hemagglutinin antigen yield in eggs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridenour, Callie; Johnson, Adam; Winne, Emily; Hossain, Jaber; Mateu-Petit, Guaniri; Balish, Amanda; Santana, Wanda; Kim, Taejoong; Davis, Charles; Cox, Nancy J; Barr, John R; Donis, Ruben O; Villanueva, Julie; Williams, Tracie L; Chen, Li-Mei

    2015-01-01

    Background The emergence of avian influenza A(H7N9) virus in poultry causing zoonotic human infections was reported on March 31, 2013. Development of A(H7N9) candidate vaccine viruses (CVV) for pandemic preparedness purposes was initiated without delay. Candidate vaccine viruses were derived by reverse genetics using the internal genes of A/Puerto/Rico/8/34 (PR8). The resulting A(H7N9) CVVs needed improvement because they had titers and antigen yields that were suboptimal for vaccine manufacturing in eggs, especially in a pandemic situation. Methods Two CVVs derived by reverse genetics were serially passaged in embryonated eggs to improve the hemagglutinin (HA) antigen yield. The total viral protein and HA antigen yields of six egg-passaged CVVs were determined by the BCA assay and isotope dilution mass spectrometry (IDMS) analysis, respectively. CVVs were antigenically characterized by hemagglutination inhibition (HI) assays with ferret antisera. Results Improvement of total viral protein yield was observed for the six egg-passaged CVVs; HA quantification by IDMS indicated approximately a twofold increase in yield of several egg-passaged viruses as compared to that of the parental CVV. Several different amino acid substitutions were identified in the HA of all viruses after serial passage. However, HI tests indicated that the antigenic properties of two CVVs remained unchanged. Conclusions If influenza A(H7N9) viruses were to acquire sustained human-to-human transmissibility, the improved HA yield of the egg-passaged CVVs generated in this study could expedite vaccine manufacturing for pandemic mitigation. PMID:25962412

  10. Broadly-Reactive Neutralizing and Non-neutralizing Antibodies Directed against the H7 Influenza Virus Hemagglutinin Reveal Divergent Mechanisms of Protection.

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    Gene S Tan

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In the early spring of 2013, Chinese health authorities reported several cases of H7N9 influenza virus infections in humans. Since then the virus has established itself at the human-animal interface in Eastern China and continues to cause several hundred infections annually. In order to characterize the antibody response to the H7N9 virus we generated several mouse monoclonal antibodies against the hemagglutinin of the A/Shanghai/1/13 (H7N9 virus. Of particular note are two monoclonal antibodies, 1B2 and 1H5, that show broad reactivity to divergent H7 hemagglutinins. Monoclonal antibody 1B2 binds to viruses of the Eurasian and North American H7 lineages and monoclonal antibody 1H5 reacts broadly to virus isolates of the Eurasian lineage. Interestingly, 1B2 shows broad hemagglutination inhibiting and neutralizing activity, while 1H5 fails to inhibit hemagglutination and demonstrates no neutralizing activity in vitro. However, both monoclonal antibodies were highly protective in an in vivo passive transfer challenge model in mice, even at low doses. Experiments using mutant antibodies that lack the ability for Fc/Fc-receptor and Fc/complement interactions suggest that the protection provided by mAb 1H5 is, at least in part, mediated by the Fc-fragment of the mAb. These findings highlight that a protective response to a pathogen may not only be due to neutralizing antibodies, but can also be the result of highly efficacious non-neutralizing antibodies not readily detected by classical in vitro neutralization or hemagglutination inhibition assays. This is of interest because H7 influenza virus vaccines induce only low hemagglutination inhibiting antibody titers while eliciting robust antibody titers as measured by ELISA. Our data suggest that these binding but non-neutralizing antibodies contribute to protection in vivo.

  11. Influence of additional acylation site(s) of influenza B virus hemagglutinin on syncytium formation.

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    Ujike, Makoto; Nakajima, Katsuhisa; Nobusawa, Eri

    2005-01-01

    We studied the effects of an increase in the hydrophobicity of the transmembrane domain (TM) and cytoplasmic tail (CT) of influenza B virus hemagglutinin (BHA) on fusion activities. For this purpose, we created mutant HAs with novel acylation site(s) in the TM and/or CT. All mutants were able to induce hemifusion and to form fusion pores as well as could wild type (wt) BHA. However, the ability of these mutants to form syncytia was impaired, indicating that the increase in the hydrophobicity of these domains (especially the CT) affected fusion pore dilation.

  12. Biosafety Recommendations for Work with Influenza Viruses Containing a Hemagglutinin from the A/goose/Guangdong/1/96 Lineage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangadharan, Denise; Smith, Jacinta; Weyant, Robbin

    2013-06-28

    The CDC and National Institutes of Health (NIH) Biosafety in Microbiological and Biomedical Laboratories (BMBL) manual describes biosafety recommendations for work involving highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) (US Department of Health and Human Services [HHS], CDC. Biosafety in microbiological and biomedical laboratories, 5th ed. Atlanta, GA: CDC; 2009. HHS publication no. [CDC] 21-1112. Available at http://www.cdc.gov/biosafety/publications/bmbl5). The U.S. Department of Agriculture Guidelines for Avian Influenza Viruses builds on the BMBL manual and provides additional biosafety and biocontainment guidelines for laboratories working with HPAI (US Department of Agriculture, Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, Agricultural Select Agent Program. Guidelines for avian influenza viruses. Washington, DC: US Department of Agriculture; 2011. Available at http://www.selectagents.gov/Guidelines_for_Avian_Influenza_Viruses.html). The recommendations in this report, which are intended for laboratories in the United States, outline the essential baseline biosafety measures for working with the subset of influenza viruses that contain a hemagglutinin (HA) from the HPAI influenza A/goose/Guangdong/1/96 lineage, including reassortant influenza viruses created in a laboratory setting. All H5N1 influenza virus clades known to infect humans to date have been derived from this lineage (WHO/OIE/FAO H5N1 Evolution Working Group. Continued evolution of highly pathogenic avian influenza A [H5N1]: updated nomenclature. Influenza Other Respir Viruses 2012;6:1-5). In 2009, the NIH Guidelines for Research Involving Recombinant or Synthetic Nucleic Acid Molecules were amended to include specific biosafety and biocontainment recommendations for laboratories working with Recombinant Risk Group 3 influenza viruses, including HPAI H5N1 influenza viruses within the Goose/Guangdong/1/96-like H5 lineage. In February 2013, the NIH guidelines were further revised to provide additional

  13. Inhibition of influenza A virus (H1N1 fusion by benzenesulfonamide derivatives targeting viral hemagglutinin.

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    Lei Zhu

    Full Text Available Hemagglutinin (HA of the influenza virus plays a crucial role in the early stage of the viral life cycle by binding to sialic acid on the surface of host epithelial cells and mediating fusion between virus envelope and endosome membrane for the release of viral genomes into the cytoplasm. To initiate virus fusion, endosome pH is lowered by acidification causing an irreversible conformational change of HA, which in turn results in a fusogenic HA. In this study, we describe characterization of an HA inhibitor of influenza H1N1 viruses, RO5464466. One-cycle time course study in MDCK cells showed that this compound acted at an early step of influenza virus replication. Results from HA-mediated hemolysis of chicken red blood cells and trypsin sensitivity assay of isolated HA clearly showed that RO5464466 targeted HA. In cell-based assays involving multiple rounds of virus infection and replication, RO5464466 inhibited an established influenza infection. The overall production of progeny viruses, as a result of the compound's inhibitory effect on fusion, was dramatically reduced by 8 log units when compared with a negative control. Furthermore, RO5487624, a close analogue of RO5464466, with pharmacokinetic properties suitable for in vivo efficacy studies displayed a protective effect on mice that were lethally challenged with influenza H1N1 virus. These results might benefit further characterization and development of novel anti-influenza agents by targeting viral hemagglutinin.

  14. Site-specific glycosylation profile of influenza A (H1N1) hemagglutinin through tandem mass spectrometry.

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    Cruz, Esteban; Cain, Joel; Crossett, Ben; Kayser, Veysel

    2017-10-19

    The study of influenza virus evolution in humans has revealed a significant role of glycosylation profile alterations in the viral glycoproteins - hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA), in the emergence of both seasonal and pandemic strains. Viral antigenic drift can modify the number and location of glycosylation sites, altering a wide range of biological activities and the antigenic properties of the strain. In view of the key role of glycans in determining antigenicity, elucidating the glycosylation profiles of influenza strains is a requirement towards the development of improved vaccines. Sequence-based analysis of viral RNA has provided great insight into the role of glycosite modifications in altering virulence and pathogenicity. Nonetheless, this sequence-based approach can only predict potential glycosylation sites. Due to experimental challenges, experimental confirmation of the occupation of predicted glycosylation sites has only been carried out for a few strains. Herein, we utilized HCD/CID-MS/MS tandem mass spectrometry to characterize the site-specific profile of HA of an egg-grown H1N1 reference strain (A/New Caledonia/20/1999). We confirmed experimentally the occupancy of glycosylation sites identified by primary sequence analysis and determined the heterogeneity of glycan structures. Four glycosylation sequons on the stalk region (N28, N40, N304 and N498) and four on the globular head (N71, N104, N142 and N177) of the protein are occupied. Our results revealed a broad glycan microheterogeneity, i.e., a great diversity of glycan compositions present on each glycosite. The present methodology can be applied to characterize other viruses, particularly different influenza strains, to better understand the impact of glycosylation on biological activities and aid the improvement of influenza vaccines.

  15. Characterization of glycan binding specificities of influenza B viruses with correlation with hemagglutinin genotypes and clinical features.

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    Wang, Ya-Fang; Chang, Chuan-Fa; Chi, Chia-Yu; Wang, Hsuan-Chen; Wang, Jen-Ren; Su, Ih-Jen

    2012-04-01

    The carbohydrate binding specificities are different among avian and human influenza A viruses and may affect the tissue tropism and transmission of these viruses. The glycan binding biology for influenza B, however, has not been systematically characterized. Glycan binding specificities of influenza B viral isolates were analyzed and correlated to hemagglutinin (HA) genotypes and clinical manifestations. A newly developed solution glycan array was applied to characterize the receptor binding specificities of influenza B virus clinical isolates from 2001 to 2007 in Taiwan. Thirty oligosaccharides which include α-2,3 and α-2,6 linkage glycans were subjected to analysis. The glycan binding patterns of 53 influenza B isolates could be categorized into three groups and were well correlated to their HA genotypes. The Yamagata-like strains predominantly bound to α-2,6-linkage glycan (24:29, 83%) while Victoria-like strains preferentially bound to both α-2,3- and α-2,6-linkage glycans (13:24, 54%). A third group of viruses bound to sulfated glycans and these all belonged to Victoria-like strains. Based on the HA sequences, Asn-163, Glu-198, Ala-202, and Lys-203 were conserved among Victoria-like strains which may influence their carbohydrate recognition. The viruses bound to dual type glycans were more likely to be associated with the development of bronchopneumonia and gastrointestinal illness than those bound only to α-2,6 sialyl glycans (P B viruses, and will contribute to virus surveillance and vaccine strain selection. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. 'a'-Position-mutated and G4-mutated hemagglutinin-neuraminidase proteins of Newcastle disease virus impair fusion and hemagglutinin-neuraminidase-fusion interaction by different mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Fu-lu; Wen, Hong-ling; Zhang, Wen-qiang; Lin, Bin; Zhang, Yan; Sun, Cheng-xi; Ren, Gui-jie; Song, Yan-yan; Wang, Zhiyu

    2013-01-01

    To determine the effects of heptad repeat regions (HRs) and N-linked carbohydrate sites of the Newcastle disease virus hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) protein on fusion of HN and fusion (F) proteins and HN-F interaction. We mutated six 'a' residues in the HRs and four asparagines in N-linked carbohydrate sites to alanine in the HN protein. A vaccinia-T7 RNA polymerase expression system was used to express HN cDNAs in BHK-21 cells to determine the HN functions. Deglycosylation was treated with PGNase F digestion. The formation of HN-F protein complexes was determined by the coimmunoprecipitation assay. Each HR-mutated protein interfered with fusion and the HN-F interaction. The G4-mutated protein not only impaired fusion and HN-F interaction but also decreased activities in cell fusion promotion, hemadsorption and neuraminidase. It is assumed that two different mechanisms for mutations in these two regions are responsible for the decreased fusion promotion activity and the reduced ability of interaction with F protein. Mutations in the HRs impair fusion and HN-F interaction by altering the transmission of a signal from the globular domain to the F-specific region in the stalk, but the G4 mutation modulates fusion and HN-F interaction by the misfolding of some important structures. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  17. Cross-Neutralization between Human and African Bat Mumps Viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katoh, Hiroshi; Kubota, Toru; Ihara, Toshiaki; Maeda, Ken; Takeda, Makoto; Kidokoro, Minoru

    2016-04-01

    Recently, a new paramyxovirus closely related to human mumps virus (MuV) was detected in bats. We generated recombinant MuVs carrying either or both of the fusion and hemagglutinin-neuraminidase bat virus glycoproteins. These viruses showed replication kinetics similar to human MuV in cultured cells and were neutralized efficiently by serum from healthy humans.

  18. Dimerisation and structural integrity of Heparin Binding Hemagglutinin A from Mycobacterium tuberculosis: implications for bacterial agglutination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, Carla; Carullo, Paola; Pedone, Emilia; Graziano, Giuseppe; Del Vecchio, Pompea; Berisio, Rita

    2010-03-19

    Heparin Binding Hemagglutinin A (HBHA) is hitherto the sole virulence factor associated with tuberculosis dissemination from the lungs, the site of primary infection, to epithelial cells. We have previously reported the solution structure of HBHA, a dimeric and elongated molecule. Since oligomerisation of HBHA is associated with its ability to induce bacterial agglutination, we investigated this process using experimental and modelling techniques. We here identified a short segment of HBHA whose presence is mandatory for the stability of folded conformation, whose denaturation is a reversible two-state process. Our data suggest that agglutination-driven cell-cell interactions do not occur via association of HBHA monomers, nor via association of HBHA dimers and open the scenario to a possible trans-dimerisation process. Copyright 2010 Federation of European Biochemical Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Neoechinulin B and its analogues as potential entry inhibitors of influenza viruses, targeting viral hemagglutinin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xueqing; Si, Longlong; Liu, Dong; Proksch, Peter; Zhang, Lihe; Zhou, Demin; Lin, Wenhan

    2015-03-26

    A class of prenylated indole diketopiperazine alkaloids including 15 new compounds namely rubrumlines A-O obtained from marine-derived fungus Eurotium rubrum, were tested against influenza A/WSN/33 virus. Neoechinulin B (18) exerted potent inhibition against H1N1 virus infected in MDCK cells, and is able to inhibit a panel of influenza virus strains including amantadine- and oseltamivir-resistant clinical isolates. Mechanism of action studies indicated that neoechinulin B binds to influenza envelope hemagglutinin, disrupting its interaction with the sialic acid receptor and the attachment of viruses to host cells. In addition, neoechinulin B was still efficient in inhibiting influenza A/WSN/33 virus propagation even after a fifth passage. The high potency and broad-spectrum activities against influenza viruses with less drug resistance make neoechinulin B as a new lead for the development of potential inhibitor of influenza viruses. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. Roll of hemagglutinin gene in the biology of avian inflenza virus

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    Masoud Soltanialvar

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The hemagglutinin (HA, the major envelope glycoprotein of influenza, plays an important role during the early stage of infection, and changes in the HA gene prior to the emergence of pathogenic avian influenza viruses. The HA protein controls viral entry through membrane fusion of the viral envelope with the host cell membrane and allows the genetic information released to initiate new virus synthesis. Sharp antigenic variation of HA remains the critical challenge to the development of effective vaccines. Therefore, we highlight the role of HA in need of review: structure of HA, the fusion process and the HA receptor binding specificity in interspecies transmission and the impact of multiple mutations at antigenic sites and host antibodies to the parental virus, and the host susceptibility to productive infection by the drift strains.

  1. Antibodies elicited by influenza virus hemagglutinin fail to bind to synthetic peptides representing putative antigenic sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nestorowicz, A; Tregear, G W; Southwell, C N; Martyn, J; Murray, J M; White, D O; Jackson, D C

    1985-02-01

    A number of peptides of the hemagglutinin (HA) of X-31 influenza virus have been synthesised. The amino acid sequences of some of these peptides represent regions of HA which have been postulated [Wiley et al., Nature, Lond. 289, 373-378 (1981)] to form the antigenic sites of this molecule. Animals were immunized with free peptide or peptide conjugated to a carrier and the resulting antisera examined for their capacities to bind to homologous peptide, whole HA, reduced and alkylated HA, and intact virus. Not all peptides examined in this way were immunogenic. Only antibodies raised against the C-terminus of HA1 peptide displayed binding to virus. This antiserum bound to the intact HA but not to the reduced and alkylated form of the molecule. These results raise questions as to the feasibility of using synthetic peptides of the influenza HA in short linear sequences to elicit neutralising antibody.

  2. Functional and structural characterization of neutralizing epitopes of measles virus hemagglutinin protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahara, Maino; Ito, Yuri; Brindley, Melinda A; Ma, Xuemin; He, Jilan; Xu, Songtao; Fukuhara, Hideo; Sakai, Kouji; Komase, Katsuhiro; Rota, Paul A; Plemper, Richard K; Maenaka, Katsumi; Takeda, Makoto

    2013-01-01

    Effective vaccination programs have dramatically reduced the number of measles-related deaths globally. Although all the available data suggest that measles eradication is biologically feasible, a structural and biochemical basis for the single serotype nature of measles virus (MV) remains to be provided. The hemagglutinin (H) protein, which binds to two discrete proteinaceous receptors, is the major neutralizing target. Monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) recognizing distinct epitopes on the H protein were characterized using recombinant MVs encoding the H gene from different MV genotypes. The effects of various mutations on neutralization by MAbs and virus fitness were also analyzed, identifying the location of five epitopes on the H protein structure. Our data in the present study demonstrated that the H protein of MV possesses at least two conserved effective neutralizing epitopes. One, which is a previously recognized epitope, is located near the receptor-binding site (RBS), and thus MAbs that recognize this epitope blocked the receptor binding of the H protein, whereas the other epitope is located at the position distant from the RBS. Thus, a MAb that recognizes this epitope did not inhibit the receptor binding of the H protein, rather interfered with the hemagglutinin-fusion (H-F) interaction. This epitope was suggested to play a key role for formation of a higher order of an H-F protein oligomeric structure. Our data also identified one nonconserved effective neutralizing epitope. The epitope has been masked by an N-linked sugar modification in some genotype MV strains. These data would contribute to our understanding of the antigenicity of MV and support the global elimination program of measles.

  3. Enhancement of the safety of live influenza vaccine by attenuating mutations from cold-adapted hemagglutinin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Yoon Jae [Graduate Program in Biomaterials Science and Engineering, College of Life Science and Biotechnology, Yonsei University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Laboratory of Molecular Medicine, Department of Biotechnology, College of Life Science and Biotechnology, Yonsei University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Vaccine Translational Research Center, Yonsei University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Jang, Yo Han [Laboratory of Molecular Medicine, Department of Biotechnology, College of Life Science and Biotechnology, Yonsei University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Paul; Lee, Yun Ha; Lee, Young Jae [Laboratory of Molecular Medicine, Department of Biotechnology, College of Life Science and Biotechnology, Yonsei University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Vaccine Translational Research Center, Yonsei University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Byun, Young Ho; Lee, Kwang-Hee; Kim, Kyusik [Laboratory of Molecular Medicine, Department of Biotechnology, College of Life Science and Biotechnology, Yonsei University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Seong, Baik Lin, E-mail: blseong@yonsei.ac.kr [Graduate Program in Biomaterials Science and Engineering, College of Life Science and Biotechnology, Yonsei University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Laboratory of Molecular Medicine, Department of Biotechnology, College of Life Science and Biotechnology, Yonsei University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Vaccine Translational Research Center, Yonsei University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-04-15

    In our previous study, X-31ca-based H5N1 LAIVs, in particular, became more virulent in mice than the X-31ca MDV, possibly by the introduction of the surface antigens of highly pathogenic H5N1 influenza virus, implying that additional attenuation is needed in this cases to increase the safety level of the vaccine. In this report we suggest an approach to further increase the safety of LAIV through additional cold-adapted mutations in the hemagglutinin. The cold-adaptation of X-31 virus resulted in four amino acid mutations in the HA. We generated a panel of 7:1 reassortant viruses each carrying the hemagglutinins with individual single amino acid mutations. We examined their phenotypes and found a major attenuating mutation, N81K. This attenuation marker conferred additional temperature-sensitive and attenuation phenotype to the LAIV. Our data indicate that the cold-adapted mutation in the HA confers additional attenuation to the LAIV strain, without compromising its productivity and immune response. - Highlights: • Cold-adaptation process induced four amino acid mutations in the HA of X-31 virus. • The four mutations in the HA also contributed to attenuation of the X-31ca virus • N81K mutation was the most significant marker for the attenuation of X-31ca virus. • Introduction of N81K mutation into H3N2 LAIV further attenuated the vaccine. • This approach provides a useful guideline for enhancing the safety of the LAIVs.

  4. Synthesis of a cluster-forming sialylthio-D-galactose fullerene conjugate and evaluation of its interaction with influenza virus hemagglutinin and neuraminidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tollas, Szilvia; Bereczki, Ilona; Borbás, Anikó; Batta, Gyula; Vanderlinden, Evelien; Naesens, Lieve; Herczegh, Pál

    2014-06-01

    In order to obtain self assembling, multivalent ligand for influenza virus hemagglutinin α-N-acetylneuraminyl-(2-6)-D-galactopyranose has been synthesized and bonded to a water soluble fullerene derivative using 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition click reaction. The aggregating amphiphilic compound did not inhibit the influenza virus hemagglutinin, but it proved to be an inhibitor of its neuraminidase with a 50% inhibitory concentration of 81 μM. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. A global phylogenetic analysis in order to determine the host species and geography dependent features present in the evolution of avian H9N2 influenza hemagglutinin

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    Andrew R. Dalby

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available A complete phylogenetic analysis of all of the H9N2 hemagglutinin sequences that were collected between 1966 and 2012 was carried out in order to build a picture of the geographical and host specific evolution of the hemagglutinin protein. To improve the quality and applicability of the output data the sequences were divided into subsets based upon location and host species.The phylogenetic analysis of hemagglutinin reveals that the protein has distinct lineages between China and the Middle East, and that wild birds in both regions retain a distinct form of the H9 molecule, from the same lineage as the ancestral hemagglutinin. The results add further evidence to the hypothesis that the current predominant H9N2 hemagglutinin lineage might have originated in Southern China. The study also shows that there are sampling problems that affect the reliability of this and any similar analysis. This raises questions about the surveillance of H9N2 and the need for wider sampling of the virus in the environment.The results of this analysis are also consistent with a model where hemagglutinin has predominantly evolved by neutral drift punctuated by occasional selection events. These selective events have produced the current pattern of distinct lineages in the Middle East, Korea and China. This interpretation is in agreement with existing studies that have shown that there is widespread intra-country sequence evolution.

  6. Induction of Robust B Cell Responses after Influenza mRNA Vaccination Is Accompanied by Circulating Hemagglutinin-Specific ICOS+ PD-1+ CXCR3+ T Follicular Helper Cells

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    Gustaf Lindgren

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Modified mRNA vaccines have developed into an effective and well-tolerated vaccine platform that offers scalable and precise antigen production. Nevertheless, the immunological events leading to strong antibody responses elicited by mRNA vaccines are largely unknown. In this study, we demonstrate that protective levels of antibodies to hemagglutinin were induced after two immunizations of modified non-replicating mRNA encoding influenza H10 encapsulated in lipid nanoparticles (LNP in non-human primates. While both intradermal (ID and intramuscular (IM administration induced protective titers, ID delivery generated this response more rapidly. Circulating H10-specific memory B cells expanded after each immunization, along with a transient appearance of plasmablasts. The memory B cell pool waned over time but remained detectable throughout the 25-week study. Following prime immunization, H10-specific plasma cells were found in the bone marrow and persisted over time. Germinal centers were formed in vaccine-draining lymph nodes along with an increase in circulating H10-specific ICOS+ PD-1+ CXCR3+ T follicular helper cells, a population shown to correlate with high avidity antibody responses after seasonal influenza vaccination in humans. Collectively, this study demonstrates that mRNA/LNP vaccines potently induce an immunological repertoire associated with the generation of high magnitude and quality antibodies.

  7. The receptor-binding site of the measles virus hemagglutinin protein itself constitutes a conserved neutralizing epitope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahara, Maino; Ohno, Shinji; Sakai, Kouji; Ito, Yuri; Fukuhara, Hideo; Komase, Katsuhiro; Brindley, Melinda A; Rota, Paul A; Plemper, Richard K; Maenaka, Katsumi; Takeda, Makoto

    2013-03-01

    Here, we provide direct evidence that the receptor-binding site of measles virus (MV) hemagglutinin protein itself forms an effective conserved neutralizing epitope (CNE). Several receptor-interacting residues constitute the CNE. Thus, viral escape from neutralization has to be associated with loss of receptor-binding activity. Since interactions with both the signaling lymphocyte activation molecule (SLAM) and nectin4 are critical for MV pathogenesis, its escape, which results from loss of receptor-binding activity, should not occur in nature.

  8. Expression of the hemagglutinin HA1 subunit of the equine influenza virus using a baculovirus expression system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sguazza, Guillermo H; Fuentealba, Nadia A; Tizzano, Marco A; Galosi, Cecilia M; Pecoraro, Marcelo R

    2013-01-01

    Equine influenza virus is a leading cause of respiratory disease in horses worldwide. Disease prevention is by vaccination with inactivated whole virus vaccines. Most current influenza vaccines are generated in embryonated hens' eggs. Virions are harvested from allantoic fluid and chemically inactivated. Although this system has served well over the years, the use of eggs as the substrate for vaccine production has several well-recognized disadvantages (cost, egg supply, waste disposal and yield in eggs). The aim of this study was to evaluate a baculovirus system as a potential method for producing recombinant equine influenza hemagglutinin to be used as a vaccine. The hemagglutinin ectodomain (HA1 subunit) was cloned and expressed using a baculovirus expression vector. The expression was determined by SDS-PAGE and immunoblotting. A high yield, 20μg/ml of viral protein, was obtained from recombinant baculovirus-infected cells. The immune response in BALB/c mice was examined following rHA1 inoculation. Preliminary results show that recombinant hemagglutinin expressed from baculovirus elicits a strong antibody response in mice; therefore it could be used as an antigen for subunit vaccines and diagnostic tests. Copyright © 2013 Asociación Argentina de Microbiología. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  9. Glycosylation of the Hemagglutinin Protein of H5N1 Influenza Virus Increases Its Virulence in Mice by Exacerbating the Host Immune Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Dongming; Liang, Libin; Wang, Shuai; Nakao, Tomomi; Li, Yanbing; Liu, Liling; Guan, Yuntao; Fukuyama, Satoshi; Bu, Zhigao; Kawaoka, Yoshihiro; Chen, Hualan

    2017-04-01

    The highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 viruses continue to circulate in nature and threaten public health. Although several viral determinants and host factors that influence the virulence of HPAI H5N1 viruses in mammals have been identified, the detailed molecular mechanism remains poorly defined and requires further clarification. In our previous studies, we characterized two naturally isolated HPAI H5N1 viruses that had similar viral genomes but differed substantially in their lethality in mice. In this study, we explored the molecular determinants and potential mechanism for this difference in virulence. By using reverse genetics, we found that a single amino acid at position 158 of the hemagglutinin (HA) protein substantially affected the systemic replication and pathogenicity of these H5N1 influenza viruses in mice. We further found that the G158N mutation introduced an N-linked glycosylation at positions 158 to 160 of the HA protein and that this N-linked glycosylation enhanced viral productivity in infected mammalian cells and induced stronger host immune and inflammatory responses to viral infection. These findings further our understanding of the determinants of pathogenicity of H5N1 viruses in mammals.IMPORTANCE Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 viruses continue to evolve in nature and threaten human health. Key mutations in the virus hemagglutinin (HA) protein or reassortment with other pandemic viruses endow HPAI H5N1 viruses with the potential for aerosol transmissibility in mammals. A thorough understanding of the pathogenic mechanisms of these viruses will help us to develop more effective control strategies; however, such mechanisms and virulent determinants for H5N1 influenza viruses have not been fully elucidated. In this study, we identified glycosylation at positions 158 to 160 of the HA protein of two naturally occurring H5N1 viruses as an important virulence determinant. This glycosylation event enhanced viral

  10. Purification and production of monospecific antibody to the hemagglutinin from Subtype H5N1 influenza virus

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    Simson Tarigan

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to purify the hemagglutinin from H5N1 virus and to generate monospecific antibody appropriate for production of sensitive and specific immunoassay for H5N1 avian influenza. For this purpose, a local isolate H5N1 virus (A/Ck/West Java/Hamd/2006 was propagated in chicken embryos. The viral pellet was dissolved in a Triton-X-100 solution, undissolved viral particles were pelleted by ultracentrifuge, and the supernatant containing viral surface glycoproteins (Hemagglutinin and neuraminidase was collected. The neuraminidase in the supernatant was absorbed by passing the supernatant through an Oxamic-acid-superose column. After dialyzing extensively, the filtrate was further fractionated with an anion exchange chromatography (Q-sepharose column. Proteins adsorbed by the column were eluted stepwisely with 0.10, 0.25, 0.25 and 0.75 M NaCl in 20 mM Tris, ph 8. Hemagglutinin (H5 was found to be eluted from the column with the 0.5 M NaCl elution buffer. The purified H5 was free from other viral proteins based on immunoassays using commercial antibodies to H5N1 nucleoprotein and neuraminidase. When used as ELISA’s coating antigen, the purified H5 proved to be sensitive and specific for hemagglutinin H5. Cross reactions with other type-A-influenza virus, H6, H7 dan H9, were negligibly low. For the production of monospecific antiserum, the purified H5 was separated with SDS-PAGE, the band containing the H5 monomer was cut out , homogenised and injected into rabbits. The antiserum was capable of detecting the presence of inactivated H5N1 virus in a very dilute suspension, with a detection limit of 0.04 heagglutination (HA unit. The purified hemagglutinin and the serum raised against it should be useful for developing specific, sensitive and affordable immunoassay for H5N1 avian influenza.

  11. Structure-function analysis of two variants of mumps virus hemagglutinin-neuraminidase protein

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    Gerardo Santos-López

    Full Text Available A point mutation from guanine (G to adenine (A at nucleotide position 1081 in the hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN gene has been associated with neurovirulence of Urabe AM9 mumps virus vaccine. This mutation corresponds to a glutamic acid (E to lysine (K change at position 335 in the HN glycoprotein. We have experimentally demonstrated that two variants of Urabe AM9 strain (HN-A1081 and HN-G1081 differ in neurotropism, sialic acidbinding affinity and neuraminidase activity. In the present study, we performed a structure-function analysis of that amino acid substitution; the structures of HN protein of both Urabe AM9 strain variants were predicted. Based on our analysis, the E/K mutation changes the protein surface properties and to a lesser extent their conformations, which in turn reflects in activity changes. Our modeling results suggest that this E/K interchange does not affect the structure of the sialic acid binding motif; however, the electrostatic surface differs drastically due to an exposed short alpha helix. Consequently, this mutation may affect the accessibility of HN to substrates and membrane receptors of the host cells. Our findings appear to explain the observed differences in neurotropism of these vaccine strains.

  12. Genetic Predisposition To Acquire a Polybasic Cleavage Site for Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Virus Hemagglutinin

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    Naganori Nao

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses with H5 and H7 hemagglutinin (HA subtypes evolve from low-pathogenic precursors through the acquisition of multiple basic amino acid residues at the HA cleavage site. Although this mechanism has been observed to occur naturally only in these HA subtypes, little is known about the genetic basis for the acquisition of the polybasic HA cleavage site. Here we show that consecutive adenine residues and a stem-loop structure, which are frequently found in the viral RNA region encoding amino acids around the cleavage site of low-pathogenic H5 and H7 viruses isolated from waterfowl reservoirs, are important for nucleotide insertions into this RNA region. A reporter assay to detect nontemplated nucleotide insertions and deep-sequencing analysis of viral RNAs revealed that an increased number of adenine residues and enlarged stem-loop structure in the RNA region accelerated the multiple adenine and/or guanine insertions required to create codons for basic amino acids. Interestingly, nucleotide insertions associated with the HA cleavage site motif were not observed principally in the viral RNA of other subtypes tested (H1, H2, H3, and H4. Our findings suggest that the RNA editing-like activity is the key mechanism for nucleotide insertions, providing a clue as to why the acquisition of the polybasic HA cleavage site is restricted to the particular HA subtypes.

  13. The influenza hemagglutinin fusion domain is an amphipathic helical hairpin that functions by inducing membrane curvature.

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    Smrt, Sean T; Draney, Adrian W; Lorieau, Justin L

    2015-01-02

    The highly conserved N-terminal 23 residues of the hemagglutinin glycoprotein, known as the fusion peptide domain (HAfp23), is vital to the membrane fusion and infection mechanism of the influenza virus. HAfp23 has a helical hairpin structure consisting of two tightly packed amphiphilic helices that rest on the membrane surface. We demonstrate that HAfp23 is a new class of amphipathic helix that functions by leveraging the negative curvature induced by two tightly packed helices on membranes. The helical hairpin structure has an inverted wedge shape characteristic of negative curvature lipids, with a bulky hydrophobic region and a relatively small hydrophilic head region. The F3G mutation reduces this inverted wedge shape by reducing the volume of its hydrophobic base. We show that despite maintaining identical backbone structures and dynamics as the wild type HAfp23, the F3G mutant has an attenuated fusion activity that is correlated to its reduced ability to induce negative membrane curvature. The inverted wedge shape of HAfp23 is likely to play a crucial role in the initial stages of membrane fusion by stabilizing negative curvature in the fusion stalk. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  14. PAR-1 mediated apoptosis of breast cancer cells by V. cholerae hemagglutinin protease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Tanusree; Pal, Amit

    2016-05-01

    Bacterial toxins have emerged as promising agents in cancer treatment strategy. Hemagglutinin (HAP) protease secreted by Vibrio cholerae induced apoptosis in breast cancer cells and regresses tumor growth in mice model. The success of novel cancer therapies depends on their selectivity for cancer cells with limited toxicity for normal tissues. Increased expression of Protease Activated Receptor-1 (PAR-1) has been reported in different malignant cells. In this study we report that HAP induced activation and over expression of PAR-1 in breast cancer cells (EAC). Immunoprecipitation studies have shown that HAP specifically binds with PAR-1. HAP mediated activation of PAR-1 caused nuclear translocation of p50-p65 and the phosphorylation of p38 which triggered the activation of NFκB and MAP kinase signaling pathways. These signaling pathways enhanced the cellular ROS level in malignant cells that induced the intrinsic pathway of cell apoptosis. PAR-1 mediated apoptosis by HAP of malignant breast cells without effecting normal healthy cells in the same environment makes it a good therapeutic agent for treatment of cancer.

  15. Stochastic acidification, activation of hemagglutinin and escape of influenza viruses from an endosome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagache, Thibault; Sieben, Christian; Meyer, Tim; Herrmann, Andreas; Holcman, David

    2017-06-01

    Influenza viruses enter the cell inside an endosome. During the endosomal journey, acidification triggers a conformational change of the virus spike protein hemagglutinin (HA) that results in escape of the viral genome from the endosome into the cytoplasm. It is still unclear how the interplay between acidification and HA conformation changes affects the kinetics of the viral endosomal escape. We develop here a stochastic model to estimate the change of conformation of HAs inside the endosome nanodomain. Using a Markov process, we model the arrival of protons to HA binding sites and compute the kinetics of their accumulation. We compute the Mean First Passage Time (MFPT) of the number of HA bound sites to a threshold, which is used to estimate the HA activation rate for a given pH concentration. The present analysis reveals that HA proton binding sites possess a high chemical barrier, ensuring a stability of the spike protein at sub-acidic pH. We predict that activating more than 3 adjacent HAs is necessary to trigger endosomal fusion and this configuration prevents premature release of viruses from early endosomes

  16. Influenza-virus membrane fusion by cooperative fold-back of stochastically induced hemagglutinin intermediates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanovic, Tijana; Choi, Jason L; Whelan, Sean P; van Oijen, Antoine M; Harrison, Stephen C

    2013-02-19

    Influenza virus penetrates cells by fusion of viral and endosomal membranes catalyzed by the viral hemagglutinin (HA). Structures of the initial and final states of the HA trimer define the fusion endpoints, but do not specify intermediates. We have characterized these transitions by analyzing low-pH-induced fusion kinetics of individual virions and validated the analysis by computer simulation. We detect initial engagement with the target membrane of fusion peptides from independently triggered HAs within the larger virus-target contact patch; fusion then requires engagement of three or four neighboring HA trimers. Effects of mutations in HA indicate that withdrawal of the fusion peptide from a pocket in the pre-fusion trimer is rate-limiting for both events, but the requirement for cooperative action of several HAs to bring the fusing membranes together leads to a long-lived intermediate state for single, extended HA trimers. This intermediate is thus a fundamental aspect of the fusion mechanism. DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.00333.001.

  17. Modulation of NKp30- and NKp46-mediated natural killer cell responses by poxviral hemagglutinin.

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    Mostafa Jarahian

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Natural killer (NK cells are an important element in the immune defense against the orthopox family members vaccinia virus (VV and ectromelia virus (ECTV. NK cells are regulated through inhibitory and activating signaling receptors, the latter involving NKG2D and the natural cytotoxicity receptors (NCR, NKp46, NKp44 and NKp30. Here we report that VV infection results in an upregulation of ligand structures for NKp30 and NKp46 on infected cells, whereas the binding of NKp44 and NKG2D was not significantly affected. Likewise, infection with ectromelia virus (ECTV, the mousepox agent, enhanced binding of NKp30 and, to a lesser extent, NKp46. The hemagglutinin (HA molecules from VV and ECTV, which are known virulence factors, were identified as novel ligands for NKp30 and NKp46. Using NK cells with selectively silenced NCR expression and NCR-CD3ζ reporter cells, we observed that HA present on the surface of VV-infected cells, or in the form of recombinant soluble protein, was able to block NKp30-triggered activation, whereas it stimulated the activation through NKp46. The net effect of this complex influence on NK cell activity resulted in a decreased NK lysis susceptibility of infected cells at late time points of VV infection when HA was expression was pronounced. We conclude that poxviral HA represents a conserved ligand of NCR, exerting a novel immune escape mechanism through its blocking effect on NKp30-mediated activation at a late stage of infection.

  18. DC-SIGN and Influenza Hemagglutinin Dynamics in Plasma Membrane Microdomains Are Markedly Different

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    Itano, Michelle S.; Neumann, Aaron K.; Liu, Ping; Zhang, Feng; Gratton, Enrico; Parak, Wolfgang J.; Thompson, Nancy L.; Jacobson, Ken

    2011-01-01

    DC-SIGN, a Ca2+-dependent transmembrane lectin, is found assembled in microdomains on the plasma membranes of dendritic cells. These microdomains bind a large variety of pathogens and facilitate their uptake for subsequent antigen presentation. In this study, DC-SIGN dynamics in microdomains were explored with several fluorescence microscopy methods and compared with dynamics for influenza hemagglutinin (HA), which is also found in plasma membrane microdomains. Fluorescence imaging indicated that DC-SIGN microdomains may contain other C-type lectins and that the DC-SIGN cytoplasmic region is not required for microdomain formation. Fluorescence recovery after photobleaching measurements showed that neither full-length nor cytoplasmically truncated DC-SIGN in microdomains appreciably exchanged with like molecules in other microdomains and the membrane surround, whereas HA in microdomains exchanged almost completely. Line-scan fluorescence correlation spectroscopy indicated an essentially undetectable lateral mobility for DC-SIGN but an appreciable mobility for HA within their respective domains. Single-particle tracking with defined-valency quantum dots confirmed that HA has significant mobility within microdomains, whereas DC-SIGN does not. By contrast, fluorescence recovery after photobleaching indicated that inner leaflet lipids are able to move through DC-SIGN microdomains. The surprising stability of DC-SIGN microdomains may reflect structural features that enhance pathogen uptake either by providing high-avidity platforms and/or by protecting against rapid microdomain endocytosis. PMID:21641311

  19. Insight into highly conserved H1 subtype-specific epitopes in influenza virus hemagglutinin.

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    Ki Joon Cho

    Full Text Available Influenza viruses continuously undergo antigenic changes with gradual accumulation of mutations in hemagglutinin (HA that is a major determinant in subtype specificity. The identification of conserved epitopes within specific HA subtypes gives an important clue for developing new vaccines and diagnostics. We produced and characterized nine monoclonal antibodies that showed significant neutralizing activities against H1 subtype influenza viruses, and determined the complex structure of HA derived from a 2009 pandemic virus A/Korea/01/2009 (KR01 and the Fab fragment from H1-specific monoclonal antibody GC0587. The overall structure of the complex was essentially identical to the previously determined KR01 HA-Fab0757 complex structure. Both Fab0587 and Fab0757 recognize readily accessible head regions of HA, revealing broadly shared and conserved antigenic determinants among H1 subtypes. The β-strands constituted by Ser110-Glu115 and Lys169-Lys170 form H1 epitopes with distinct conformations from those of H1 and H3 HA sites. In particular, Glu112, Glu115, Lys169, and Lys171 that are highly conserved among H1 subtype HAs have close contacts with HCDR3 and LCDR3. The differences between Fab0587 and Fab0757 complexes reside mainly in HCDR3 and LCDR3, providing distinct antigenic determinants specific for 1918 pdm influenza strain. Our results demonstrate a potential key neutralizing epitope important for H1 subtype specificity in influenza virus.

  20. Computational Docking of Antibody-Antigen Complexes, Opportunities and Pitfalls Illustrated by Influenza Hemagglutinin

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    Mattia Pedotti

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Antibodies play an increasingly important role in both basic research and the pharmaceutical industry. Since their efficiency depends, in ultimate analysis, on their atomic interactions with an antigen, studying such interactions is important to understand how they function and, in the long run, to design new molecules with desired properties. Computational docking, the process of predicting the conformation of a complex from its separated components, is emerging as a fast and affordable technique for the structural characterization of antibody-antigen complexes. In this manuscript, we first describe the different computational strategies for the modeling of antibodies and docking of their complexes, and then predict the binding of two antibodies to the stalk region of influenza hemagglutinin, an important pharmaceutical target. The purpose is two-fold: on a general note, we want to illustrate the advantages and pitfalls of computational docking with a practical example, using different approaches and comparing the results to known experimental structures. On a more specific note, we want to assess if docking can be successful in characterizing the binding to the same influenza epitope of other antibodies with unknown structure, which has practical relevance for pharmaceutical and biological research. The paper clearly shows that some of the computational docking predictions can be very accurate, but the algorithm often fails to discriminate them from inaccurate solutions. It is of paramount importance, therefore, to use rapidly obtained experimental data to validate the computational results.

  1. Mouse-protecting and histamine-sensitizing activities of pertussigen and fimbrial hemagglutinin from Bordetella pertussis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munoz, J J; Arai, H; Cole, R L

    1981-01-01

    We compared the protective activities of fimbrial hemagglutinin (FHA) and pertussigen and their respective antibodies in mice infected intracerebrally with Bordetella pertussis. We found that mice were protected by a 1.7-microgram/mouse dose of pertussigen which was free of detectable FHA and was detoxified by treatment with glutaraldehyde. A pertussigen preparation made from cells grown in shake cultures that did not contain demonstrable FHA protected mice at a dose of 1.4 microgram/mouse. FHA at a dose of 10 microgram/mouse protected mice from intracerebral infection, but it also sensitized mice to histamine at a dose of 2 micrograms/mouse, which indicated that it was contaminated with pertussigen. When FHA was obtained free of demonstrable pertussigen, it failed to sensitize mice to histamine at a dose of 30 micrograms/mouse and to protect mice from infection at a dose of 12 micrograms/mouse (largest doses tested). Passive protection tests with antisera known to contain antibodies to pertussigen protected mice from intracerebral infection, whereas sera lacking anti-pertussigen antibodies but containing high concentrations of anti-FHA antibodies did not protect mice. The most important antigen for the immunization of mice against intracerebral infection with B. pertussis appears to be pertussigen. Images PMID:6260681

  2. Prediction of common epitopes on hemagglutinin of the influenza A virus (H1 subtype).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Chunyan; Xie, Xin; Li, Huijin; Zhao, Penghua; Zhao, Xiangrong; Sun, Jingying; Wang, Haifang; Liu, Yang; Li, Yan; Hu, Qiaoxia; Hu, Jun; Li, Yuan

    2015-02-01

    Influenza A virus infection is a persistent threat to public health worldwide due to hemagglutinin (HA) variation. Current vaccines against influenza A virus provide immunity to viral isolates similar to vaccine strains. Antibodies against common epitopes provide immunity to diverse influenza virus strains and protect against future pandemic influenza. Therefore, it is vital to analyze common HA antigenic epitopes of influenza virus. In this study, 14 strains of monoclonal antibodies with high sensitivity to common epitopes of influenza virus antigens identified in our previous study were selected as the tool to predict common HA epitopes. The common HA antigenic epitopes were divided into four categories by ELISA blocking experiments, and separately, into three categories according to the preliminary results of computer simulation. Comparison between the results of computer simulations and ELISA blocking experiments indicated that at least two classes of common epitopes are present in influenza virus HA. This study provides experimental data for improving the prediction of HA epitopes of influenza virus (H1 subtype) and the development of a potential universal vaccine as well as a novel approach for the prediction of epitopes on other pathogenic microorganisms. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Computational design of trimeric influenza-neutralizing proteins targeting the hemagglutinin receptor binding site

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    Strauch, Eva-Maria; Bernard, Steffen M.; La, David; Bohn, Alan J.; Lee, Peter S.; Anderson, Caitlin E.; Nieusma, Travis; Holstein, Carly A.; Garcia, Natalie K.; Hooper, Kathryn A.; Ravichandran, Rashmi; Nelson, Jorgen W.; Sheffler, William; Bloom, Jesse D.; Lee, Kelly K.; Ward, Andrew B.; Yager, Paul; Fuller, Deborah H.; Wilson, Ian A.; Baker , David (UWASH); (Scripps); (FHCRC)

    2017-06-12

    Many viral surface glycoproteins and cell surface receptors are homo-oligomers1, 2, 3, 4, and thus can potentially be targeted by geometrically matched homo-oligomers that engage all subunits simultaneously to attain high avidity and/or lock subunits together. The adaptive immune system cannot generally employ this strategy since the individual antibody binding sites are not arranged with appropriate geometry to simultaneously engage multiple sites in a single target homo-oligomer. We describe a general strategy for the computational design of homo-oligomeric protein assemblies with binding functionality precisely matched to homo-oligomeric target sites5, 6, 7, 8. In the first step, a small protein is designed that binds a single site on the target. In the second step, the designed protein is assembled into a homo-oligomer such that the designed binding sites are aligned with the target sites. We use this approach to design high-avidity trimeric proteins that bind influenza A hemagglutinin (HA) at its conserved receptor binding site. The designed trimers can both capture and detect HA in a paper-based diagnostic format, neutralizes influenza in cell culture, and completely protects mice when given as a single dose 24 h before or after challenge with influenza.

  4. Different immunity elicited by recombinant H5N1 hemagglutinin proteins containing pauci-mannose, high-mannose, or complex type N-glycans.

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    Shih-Chang Lin

    Full Text Available Highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 viruses can result in poultry and occasionally in human mortality. A safe and effective H5N1 vaccine is urgently needed to reduce the pandemic potential. Hemagglutinin (HA, a major envelope protein accounting for approximately 80% of spikes in influenza virus, is often used as a major antigen for subunit vaccine development. In this study, we conducted a systematic study of the immune response against influenza virus infection following immunization with recombinant HA proteins expressed in insect (Sf9 cells, insect cells that contain exogenous genes for elaborating N-linked glycans (Mimic and mammalian cells (CHO. While the antibody titers are higher with the insect cell derived HA proteins, the neutralization and HA inhibition titers are much higher with the mammalian cell produced HA proteins. Recombinant HA proteins containing tri- or tetra-antennary complex, terminally sialylated and asialyated-galactose type N-glycans induced better protective immunity in mice to lethal challenge. The results are highly relevant to issues that should be considered in the production of fragment vaccines.

  5. Isolation and sequence analysis of hemagglutinin gene of Influenza A H1N1 virus from Iranian clinical samples during 2009 pandemic flu

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    Seyyedeh Fahimeh Mousavi

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Influenza virus is a globally important respiratory pathogen causing high degree of morbidity and mortality annually. The novel Influenza virus (A/H1N1 which involved many populations of the world in 2009 is a sort of triple reassortment between swine, bird and human viruses. Given the important role of hemagglutinin in the infectivity of influenza virus, genome sequencing of this protein and investigation of its changes seems necessary. Material and Method: In this experimental study, the viral genome was extracted from clinical throat swab samples, in which the presence of swine influenza genome has been confirmed by Real-time PCR according to WHO protocol in Influenza Research Lab, Pasteur Institute of Iran. Full-length of HA genome was amplified using specific primers by one step-RT-PCR, cloned into pGEM-T Easy vector followed by identification with restriction enzyme analysis and sequencing. Results: Full genome of novel influenza A/H1N1 from clinical samples was amplified by PCR and the expected 1777 bp segment PCR product was visualized by electrophoresis, gel purified, cloned into pGEM-TEasy vector and then sequenced. Analysis of sequencing was accomplished by chromas software (version 1.45-Australia and the nucleotide sequence data was deposited in GenBank database under the accession number: “HQ419001.1”. Conclusion: The result of sequencing was well-matched with the recommended vaccine strain and other registered sequences in NCBI.

  6. Sublingual administration of bacteria-expressed influenza virus hemagglutinin 1 (HA1) induces protection against infection with 2009 pandemic H1N1 influenza virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, Byoung-Shik; Choi, Jung-Ah; Song, Ho-Hyun; Park, Sung-Moo; Cheon, In Su; Jang, Ji-Eun; Woo, Sun Je; Cho, Chung Hwan; Song, Min-Suk; Kim, Hyemi; Song, Kyung Joo; Lee, Jae Myun; Kim, Suhng Wook; Song, Dae Sub; Choi, Young Ki; Kim, Jae-Ouk; Nguyen, Huan Huu; Kim, Dong Wook; Bahk, Young Yil; Yun, Cheol-Heui; Song, Man Ki

    2013-02-01

    Influenza viruses are respiratory pathogens that continue to pose a significantly high risk of morbidity and mortality of humans worldwide. Vaccination is one of the most effective strategies for minimizing damages by influenza outbreaks. In addition, rapid development and production of efficient vaccine with convenient administration is required in case of influenza pandemic. In this study, we generated recombinant influenza virus hemagglutinin protein 1 (sHA1) of 2009 pandemic influenza virus as a vaccine candidate using a well-established bacterial expression system and administered it into mice via sublingual (s.l.) route. We found that s.l. immunization with the recombinant sHA1 plus cholera toxin (CT) induced mucosal antibodies as well as systemic antibodies including neutralizing Abs and provided complete protection against infection with pandemic influenza virus A/CA/04/09 (H1N1) in mice. Indeed, the protection efficacy was comparable with that induced by intramuscular (i.m.) immunization route utilized as general administration route of influenza vaccine. These results suggest that s.l. vaccination with the recombinant non-glycosylated HA1 protein offers an alternative strategy to control influenza outbreaks including pandemics.

  7. Hydrophobin fusion of an influenza virus hemagglutinin allows high transient expression in Nicotiana benthamiana, easy purification and immune response with neutralizing activity.

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    Nicolas Jacquet

    Full Text Available The expression of recombinant hemagglutinin in plants is a promising alternative to the current egg-based production system for the influenza vaccines. Protein-stabilizing fusion partners have been developed to overcome the low production yields and the high downstream process costs associated with the plant expression system. In this context, we tested the fusion of hydrophobin I to the hemagglutinin ectodomain of the influenza A (H1N1pdm09 virus controlled by the hybrid En2PMA4 transcriptional promoter to rapidly produce high levels of recombinant antigen by transient expression in agro-infiltrated Nicotiana benthamiana leaves. The fusion increased the expression level by a factor of ∼ 2.5 compared to the unfused protein allowing a high accumulation level of 8.6% of the total soluble proteins. Hemagglutinin was located in ER-derived protein bodies and was successfully purified by combining an aqueous-two phase partition system and a salting out step. Hydrophobin interactions allowed the formation of high molecular weight hemagglutinin structures, while unfused proteins were produced as monomers. Purified protein was shown to be biologically active and to induce neutralizing antibodies after mice immunization. Hydrophobin fusion to influenza hemagglutinin might therefore be a promising approach for rapid, easy, and low cost production of seasonal or pandemic influenza vaccines in plants.

  8. Technology transfer and scale-up of the Flublok recombinant hemagglutinin (HA) influenza vaccine manufacturing process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckland, Barry; Boulanger, Robert; Fino, Mireli; Srivastava, Indresh; Holtz, Kathy; Khramtsov, Nikolai; McPherson, Clifton; Meghrous, Jamal; Kubera, Paul; Cox, Manon M J

    2014-09-22

    Multiple different hemagglutinin (HA) protein antigens have been reproducibly manufactured at the 650L scale by Protein Sciences Corporation (PSC) based on an insect cell culture with baculovirus infection. Significantly, these HA protein antigens were produced by the same Universal Manufacturing process as described in the biological license application (BLA) for the first recombinant influenza vaccine approved by the FDA (Flublok). The technology is uniquely designed so that a change in vaccine composition can be readily accommodated from one HA protein antigen to another one. Here we present a vaccine candidate to combat the recently emerged H7N9 virus as an example starting with the genetic sequence for the required HA, creation of the baculovirus and ending with purified protein antigen (or vaccine component) at the 10L scale accomplished within 38 days under GMP conditions. The same process performance is being achieved at the 2L, 10L, 100L, 650L and 2500L scale. An illustration is given of how the technology was transferred from the benchmark 650L scale facility to a retrofitted microbial facility at the 2500L scale within 100 days which includes the time for facility engineering changes. The successful development, technology transfer and scale-up of the Flublok process has major implications for being ready to make vaccine rapidly on a worldwide scale as a defense against pandemic influenza. The technology described does not have the same vulnerability to mutations in the egg adapted strain, and resulting loss in vaccine efficacy, faced by egg based manufacture. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Molecular Evolution and Characterization of Hemagglutinin (H in Peste des Petits Ruminants Virus.

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    Zhongxiang Liang

    Full Text Available Peste des Petits Ruminants (PPR is an acute, highly contagious, and febrile viral disease that affects both domestic and wild small ruminants. The disease has become a major obstacle to the development of sustainable Agriculture. Hemagglutinin (H, the envelope glycoprotein of Peste des Petits Ruminants Virus (PPRV, plays a crucial role in regulating viral adsorption and entry, thus determining pathogenicity, and release of newly produced viral particles. In order to accurately understand the epidemic of the disease and the interactions between the virus and host, we launch the work. Here, we examined H gene from all four lineages of the PPRV to investigate evolutionary and epidemiologic dynamics of PPRV by the Bayesian method. In addition, we predicted positive selection sites due to selective pressures. Finally, we studied the interaction between H protein and SLAM receptor based on homology model of the complex. Phylogenetic analysis suggested that H gene can also be used to investigate evolutionary and epidemiologic dynamics of PPRV. Positive selection analysis identified four positive selection sites in H gene, in which only one common site (aa246 was detected by two methods, suggesting strong operation structural and/or functional constraint of changes on the H protein. This target site may be of interest for future mutagenesis studies. The results of homology modeling showed PPRVHv-shSLAM binding interface and MVH-maSLAM binding interface were consistent, wherein the groove in the B4 blade and B5 of the head domain of PPRVHv bound to the AGFCC' β-sheets of the membrane-distal ectodomain of shSLAM. The binding regions could provide insight on the nature of the protein for epitope vaccine design, novel drug discovery, and rational drug design against PPRV.

  10. Exploring the early stages of the pH-induced conformational change of influenza hemagglutinin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yu; Wu, Chao; Zhao, Lifeng; Huang, Niu

    2014-10-01

    Hemagglutinin (HA) mediates the membrane fusion process of influenza virus through its pH-induced conformational change. However, it remains challenging to study its structure reorganization pathways in atomic details. Here, we first applied continuous constant pH molecular dynamics approach to predict the pK(a) values of titratable residues in H2 subtype HA. The calculated net-charges in HA1 globular heads increase from 0e (pH 7.5) to +14e (pH 4.5), indicating that the charge repulsion drives the detrimerization of HA globular domains. In HA2 stem regions, critical pH sensors, such as Glu103(2), His18(1), and Glu89(1), are identified to facilitate the essential structural reorganizations in the fusing pathways, including fusion peptide release and interhelical loop transition. To probe the contribution of identified pH sensors and unveil the early steps of pH-induced conformational change, we carried out conventional molecular dynamics simulations in explicit water with determined protonation state for each titratable residue in different environmental pH conditions. Particularly, energy barriers involving previously uncharacterized hydrogen bonds and hydrophobic interactions are identified in the fusion peptide release pathway. Nevertheless, comprehensive comparisons across HA family members indicate that different HA subtypes might employ diverse pH sensor groups along with different fusion pathways. Finally, we explored the fusion inhibition mechanism of antibody CR6261 and small molecular inhibitor TBHQ, and discovered a novel druggable pocket in H2 and H5 subtypes. Our results provide the underlying mechanism for the pH-driven conformational changes and also novel insight for anti-flu drug development. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Simultaneous Targeting of Multiple Hemagglutinins to APCs for Induction of Broad Immunity against Influenza.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Ane Marie; Baranowska-Hustad, Marta; Braathen, Ranveig; Grodeland, Gunnveig; Bogen, Bjarne

    2018-02-02

    There is a need for vaccines that can confer broad immunity against highly diverse pathogens, such as influenza. The efficacy of conventional influenza vaccines is dependent on accurate matching of vaccines to circulating strains, but slow and limited production capacities increase the probability of vaccine mismatches. In contrast, DNA vaccination allows for rapid production of vaccines encoding novel influenza Ags. The efficacy of DNA vaccination is greatly improved if the DNA-encoded vaccine proteins target APCs. In this study, we have used hemagglutinin (HA) genes from each of six group 1 influenza viruses (H5, H6, H8, H9, H11, and H13), and inserted these into a DNA vaccine format that induces delivery of the HA protein Ags to MHC class II molecules on APCs. Each of the targeted DNA vaccines induced high titers of strain-specific anti-HA Abs. Importantly, when the six HA vaccines were mixed and injected simultaneously, the strain-specific Ab titers were maintained. In addition, the vaccine mixture induced Abs that cross-reacted with strains not included in the vaccine mixture (H1) and could protect mice against a heterosubtypic challenge with the H1 viruses A/Puerto Rico/8/1934 (H1N1) and A/California/07/2009 (H1N1). The data suggest that vaccination with a mixture of HAs could be useful for induction of strain-specific immunity against strains represented in the mixture and, in addition, confer some degree of cross-protection against unrelated influenza strains. Copyright © 2018 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  12. Identification of amino acid residues involved in hemin binding in Porphyromonas gingivalis hemagglutinin 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Q B; Yu, F Y; Sun, L; Zhang, Q X; Lin, M; Geng, X Y; Sun, X N; Li, J L; Liu, Y

    2015-10-01

    Porphyromonas gingivalis (P. gingivalis) is a major etiological agent in the development and progression of chronic periodontitis. It produces cysteine proteases (gingipains), including a lysine-specific gingipain and two arginine-specific gingipains. Heme binding and uptake are fundamental to the growth and virulence of P. gingivalis. The recombinant hemagglutinin 2 domain (rHA2) of gingipain binds hemin with high affinity. The aim of the present work was to identify the key residues involved in its hemin-binding activity. A functional rHA2 was expressed and bound to hemin-agarose, and then digested with endopeptidases. The peptides bound to hemin-agarose were identified by mass spectrometry and the amino acids were assessed by mutation and peptide binding inhibition analysis. The DHYAVMISK sequence was identified in peptides derived from both Asp-N and Lys-C endopeptidase digestions of rHA2. A monoclonal antibody, mAb QB, was produced and its epitope was associated with the DGFPGDHYAVMISK peptide within the HA2 domain. Hemin was shown to competitively inhibit the immunoreactivity of rHA2 or the peptide to mAb QB. The peptide DHYAVMISK inhibited hemin-binding activity; although, this inhibition was not seen when the peptide contained the H1001E mutation (DEYAVMISK). Based on these results, we propose that residue His1001 is involved in the hemin-binding mechanism of the P. gingivalis rHA2 and the peptide containing this residue, DHYAVMISK, may be an inhibitor of hemin binding. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Epitope dampening monotypic measles virus hemagglutinin glycoprotein results in resistance to cocktail of monoclonal antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lech, Patrycja J; Tobin, Gregory J; Bushnell, Ruth; Gutschenritter, Emily; Pham, Linh D; Nace, Rebecca; Verhoeyen, Els; Cosset, François-Loïc; Muller, Claude P; Russell, Stephen J; Nara, Peter L

    2013-01-01

    The measles virus (MV) is serologically monotypic. Life-long immunity is conferred by a single attack of measles or following vaccination with the MV vaccine. This is contrary to viruses such as influenza, which readily develop resistance to the immune system and recur. A better understanding of factors that restrain MV to one serotype may allow us to predict if MV will remain monotypic in the future and influence the design of novel MV vaccines and therapeutics. MV hemagglutinin (H) glycoprotein, binds to cellular receptors and subsequently triggers the fusion (F) glycoprotein to fuse the virus into the cell. H is also the major target for neutralizing antibodies. To explore if MV remains monotypic due to a lack of plasticity of the H glycoprotein, we used the technology of Immune Dampening to generate viruses with rationally designed N-linked glycosylation sites and mutations in different epitopes and screened for viruses that escaped monoclonal antibodies (mAbs). We then combined rationally designed mutations with naturally selected mutations to generate a virus resistant to a cocktail of neutralizing mAbs targeting four different epitopes simultaneously. Two epitopes were protected by engineered N-linked glycosylations and two epitopes acquired escape mutations via two consecutive rounds of artificial selection in the presence of mAbs. Three of these epitopes were targeted by mAbs known to interfere with receptor binding. Results demonstrate that, within the epitopes analyzed, H can tolerate mutations in different residues and additional N-linked glycosylations to escape mAbs. Understanding the degree of change that H can tolerate is important as we follow its evolution in a host whose immunity is vaccine induced by genotype A strains instead of multiple genetically distinct wild-type MVs.

  14. Antiviral activity of stachyflin on influenza A viruses of different hemagglutinin subtypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motohashi, Yurie; Igarashi, Manabu; Okamatsu, Masatoshi; Noshi, Takeshi; Sakoda, Yoshihiro; Yamamoto, Naoki; Ito, Kimihito; Yoshida, Ryu; Kida, Hiroshi

    2013-04-16

    The hemagglutinin (HA) of influenza viruses is a possible target for antiviral drugs because of its key roles in the initiation of infection. Although it was found that a natural compound, Stachyflin, inhibited the growth of H1 and H2 but not H3 influenza viruses in MDCK cells, inhibitory activity of the compound has not been assessed against H4-H16 influenza viruses and the precise mechanism of inhibition has not been clarified. Inhibitory activity of Stachyflin against H4-H16 influenza viruses, as well as H1-H3 viruses was examined in MDCK cells. To identify factors responsible for the susceptibility of the viruses to this compound, Stachyflin-resistant viruses were selected in MDCK cells and used for computer docking simulation. It was found that in addition to antiviral activity of Stachyflin against influenza viruses of H1 and H2 subtypes, it inhibited replication of viruses of H5 and H6 subtypes, as well as A(H1N1)pdm09 virus in MDCK cells. Stachyflin also inhibited the virus growth in the lungs of mice infected with A/WSN/1933 (H1N1) and A/chicken/Ibaraki/1/2005 (H5N2). Substitution of amino acid residues was found on the HA2 subunit of Stachyflin-resistant viruses. Docking simulation indicated that D37, K51, T107, and K121 are responsible for construction of the cavity for the binding of the compound. In addition, 3-dimensional structure of the cavity of the HA of Stachyflin-susceptible virus strains was different from that of insusceptible virus strains. Antiviral activity of Stachyflin was found against A(H1N1)pdm09, H5, and H6 viruses, and identified a potential binding pocket for Stachyflin on the HA. The present results should provide us with useful information for the development of HA inhibitors with more effective and broader spectrum.

  15. Antibodies to Antigenic Site A of Influenza H7 Hemagglutinin Provide Protection against H7N9 Challenge

    OpenAIRE

    Falko Schmeisser; Anupama Vasudevan; Swati Verma; Wei Wang; Esmeralda Alvarado; Carol Weiss; Vajini Atukorale; Clement Meseda; Weir, Jerry P.

    2015-01-01

    Identifying major antigenic and protective epitopes of the H7 hemagglutinin (HA) will be important for understanding the antibody response to vaccines developed against the novel influenza H7N9 viruses that emerged in China in 2013. To facilitate antigenic characterization of the H7N9 HA and to develop reagents for evaluation of H7N9 candidate vaccines, we generated a panel of murine monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) to the HA of A/Shanghai/2/2013 using mammalian cell-derived virus-like particles ...

  16. Development of subtype-specific and heterosubtypic antibodies to the influenza A virus hemagglutinin after primary infection in children.

    OpenAIRE

    Burlington, D B; Wright, P F; van Wyke, K L; Phelan, M A; Mayner, R E; Murphy, B R

    1985-01-01

    Children undergoing primary infection with an H1N1 or H3N2 influenza A virus developed subtype-specific hemagglutination inhibition antibodies and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay antibodies to purified hemagglutinin (HA) of the infecting virus subtype. They also developed lower titered ELISA antibodies to the noninfecting H1 or H3 HA and to H8 (an avian strain) HA. Thus, after primary infection with an influenza A virus, children develop enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, but not hemaggluti...

  17. Effects of human metapneumovirus and respiratory syncytial virus antigen insertion in two 3' proximal genome positions of bovine/human parainfluenza virus type 3 on virus replication and immunogenicity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.S. Tang (Roderick); J.H. Schickli (Jeanne); M. MacPhail (Mia); F. Fernandes (Fiona); L. Bicha (Leenas); J. Spaete (Joshua); R.A.M. Fouchier (Ron); A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert); R. Spaete (Richard); A.A. Haller (Aurelia)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractA live attenuated bovine parainfluenza virus type 3 (PIV3), harboring the fusion (F) and hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) genes of human PIV3, was used as a virus vector to express surface glycoproteins derived from two human pathogens, human metapneumovirus (hMPV) and respiratory

  18. Anti-Tumor Effects of an Oncolytic Adenovirus Expressing Hemagglutinin-Neuraminidase of Newcastle Disease Virus in Vitro and in Vivo

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    Dongyun He

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Oncolytic virotherapy has been an attractive drug platform for targeted therapy of cancer over the past few years. Viral vectors can be used to target and lyse cancer cells, but achieving good efficacy and specificity with this treatment approach is a major challenge. Here, we assessed the ability of a novel dual-specific anti-tumor oncolytic adenovirus, expressing the hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN gene from the Newcastle disease virus under the human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT promoter (Ad-hTERTp-E1a-HN, to inhibit esophageal cancer EC-109 cells in culture and to reduce tumor burden in xenografted BALB/c nude mice. In vitro, infection with Ad-hTERT-E1a-HN could inhibit the growth of EC-109 cells significantly and also protect normal human liver cell line L02 from growth suppression in 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT assays. Ad-hTERT-E1a-HN also effectively and selectively decreased the sialic acid level on EC-109 cells, but not on L02 cells. Furthermore, Ad-hTERT-E1a-HN was shown to induce the apoptosis pathway via acridine orange and ethidium bromide staining (AO/EB staining, increase reactive oxygen species (ROS, reduce mitochondrial membrane potential and release cytochrome c. In vivo, xenografted BALB/c nude mice were treated via intratumoral or intravenous injections of Ad-hTERT-E1a-HN. Although both treatments showed an obvious suppression in tumor volume, only Ad-hTERT-E1a-HN delivered via intratumoral injection elicited a complete response to treatment. These results reinforced previous findings and highlighted the potential therapeutic application of Ad-hTERT-E1a-HN for treatment of esophageal cancer in clinical trials.

  19. Hemagglutinin-targeting Artificial MicroRNAs Expressed by Adenovirus Protect Mice From Different Clades of H5N1 Infection

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    Xinying Tang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Influenza virus (IV is a continuously evolving virus that widely spreads in humans and contributes to substantial morbidity and mortality. Re-emergence of human infection with avian influenza virus H5N1 poses extra challenge to IV control. Artificial microRNA (amiRNA-mediated RNA interference has become a powerful antiviral approach due to its high specificity and rapid effect. Here, we designed several amiRNAs targeting the hemagglutinin gene of H5N1, a major determinant of pathogenicity. Expression and delivery efficiency were enhanced by presenting functional amiRNA with chimpanzee adenovirus serotype 68 (AdC68. One amiRNA, HA-1405, significantly limited H5N1 replication in vitro and inhibited 96.7% of clade 2.3.2 replication. AdC68-conjugated HA-1405 treatment remarkably decreased different clades of H5N1 plaque formation in Madin–Darby canine kidney cells. Moreover, prophylactic administration with rAd(HA-1405 markedly alleviated clinical symptoms and reduced ≃3- to 40-folds of lung viral RNA copies against four clades of H5N1 in Institute of Cancer Research (ICR mice. Our results further showed that rAd(HA-1405 conferred 70 and 40% immediate protection against lethal clade 2.3.2 and clade 2.3.4 H5N1 challenge, respectively. In conclusion, these data provided information that HA-targeting amiRNA delivered by AdC68 could be pursued as a potential agent for highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses prevention.

  20. Influenza virus M2 protein ion channel activity helps to maintain pandemic 2009 H1N1 virus hemagglutinin fusion competence during transport to the cell surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarado-Facundo, Esmeralda; Gao, Yamei; Ribas-Aparicio, Rosa María; Jiménez-Alberto, Alicia; Weiss, Carol D; Wang, Wei

    2015-02-01

    The influenza virus hemagglutinin (HA) envelope protein mediates virus entry by first binding to cell surface receptors and then fusing viral and endosomal membranes during endocytosis. Cleavage of the HA precursor (HA0) into a surface receptor-binding subunit (HA1) and a fusion-inducing transmembrane subunit (HA2) by host cell enzymes primes HA for fusion competence by repositioning the fusion peptide to the newly created N terminus of HA2. We previously reported that the influenza virus M2 protein enhances pandemic 2009 influenza A virus [(H1N1)pdm09] HA-pseudovirus infectivity, but the mechanism was unclear. In this study, using cell-cell fusion and HA-pseudovirus infectivity assays, we found that the ion channel function of M2 was required for enhancement of HA fusion and HA-pseudovirus infectivity. The M2 activity was needed only during HA biosynthesis, and proteolysis experiments indicated that M2 proton channel activity helped to protect (H1N1)pdm09 HA from premature conformational changes as it traversed low-pH compartments during transport to the cell surface. While M2 has previously been shown to protect avian influenza virus HA proteins of the H5 and H7 subtypes that have polybasic cleavage motifs, this study demonstrates that M2 can protect HA proteins from human H1N1 strains that lack a polybasic cleavage motif. This finding suggests that M2 proton channel activity may play a wider role in preserving HA fusion competence among a variety of HA subtypes, including HA proteins from emerging strains that may have reduced HA stability. Influenza virus infects cells when the hemagglutinin (HA) surface protein undergoes irreversible pH-induced conformational changes after the virus is taken into the cell by endocytosis. HA fusion competence is primed when host cell enzymes cleave the HA precursor. The proton channel function of influenza virus M2 protein has previously been shown to protect avian influenza virus HA proteins that contain a polybasic cleavage

  1. An induced pocket for the binding of potent fusion inhibitor CL-385319 with H5N1 influenza virus hemagglutinin.

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    Runming Li

    Full Text Available The influenza glycoprotein hemagglutinin (HA plays crucial roles in the early stage of virus infection, including receptor binding and membrane fusion. Therefore, HA is a potential target for developing anti-influenza drugs. Recently, we characterized a novel inhibitor of highly pathogenic H5N1 influenza virus, CL-385319, which specifically inhibits HA-mediated viral entry. Studies presented here identified the critical binding residues for CL-385319, which clustered in the stem region of the HA trimer by site-directed mutagenesis. Extensive computational simulations, including molecular docking, molecular dynamics simulations, molecular mechanics generalized Born surface area (MM_GBSA calculations, charge density and Laplacian calculations, have been carried out to uncover the detailed molecular mechanism that underlies the binding of CL-385319 to H5N1 influenza virus HA. It was found that the recognition and binding of CL-385319 to HA proceeds by a process of "induced fit" whereby the binding pocket is formed during their interaction. Occupation of this pocket by CL-385319 stabilizes the neutral pH structure of hemagglutinin, thus inhibiting the conformational rearrangements required for membrane fusion. This "induced fit" pocket may be a target for structure-based design of more potent influenza fusion inhibitors.

  2. Domestic dog origin of canine distemper virus in free-ranging wolves in Portugal as revealed by hemagglutinin gene characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Alexandra; Silva, Eliane; Santos, Nuno; Thompson, Gertrude

    2011-07-01

    Serologic evidence for canine distemper virus (CDV) has been described in grey wolves but, to our knowledge, virus strains circulating in wolves have not been characterized genetically. The emergence of CDV in several non-dog hosts has been associated with amino acid substitutions at sites 530 and 549 of the hemagglutinin (H) protein. We sequenced the H gene of wild-type canine distemper virus obtained from two free-ranging Iberian wolves (Canis lupus signatus) and from one domestic dog (Canis familiaris). More differences were found between the two wolf sequences than between one of the wolves (wolf 75) and the dog. The latter two had a very high nucleotide similarity resulting in identical H gene amino acid sequences. Possible explanations include geographic and especially temporal proximity of the CDV obtained from wolf 75 and the domestic dog, taken in 2007-2008, as opposed to that from wolf 3 taken more distantly in 1998. Analysis of the deduced amino acids of the viral hemagglutinin revealed a glycine (G) and a tyrosine (Y) at amino acid positions 530 and 549, respectively, of the partial signaling lymphocytic activation molecule (SLAM)-receptor binding region which is typically found in viral strains obtained from domestic dogs. This suggests that the CDV found in these wolves resulted from transmission events from local domestic dogs rather than from wildlife species.

  3. Generation of monoclonal pan-hemagglutinin antibodies for the quantification of multiple strains of influenza.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aziza P Manceur

    Full Text Available Vaccination is the most effective course of action to prevent influenza. About 150 million doses of influenza vaccines were distributed for the 2015-2016 season in the USA alone according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Vaccine dosage is calculated based on the concentration of hemagglutinin (HA, the main surface glycoprotein expressed by influenza which varies from strain to strain. Therefore yearly-updated strain-specific antibodies and calibrating antigens are required. Preparing these quantification reagents can take up to three months and significantly slows down the release of new vaccine lots. Therefore, to circumvent the need for strain-specific sera, two anti-HA monoclonal antibodies (mAbs against a highly conserved sequence have been produced by immunizing mice with a novel peptide-conjugate. Immunoblots demonstrate that 40 strains of influenza encompassing HA subtypes H1 to H13, as well as B strains from the Yamagata and Victoria lineage were detected when the two mAbs are combined to from a pan-HA mAb cocktail. Quantification using this pan-HA mAbs cocktail was achieved in a dot blot assay and results correlated with concentrations measured in a hemagglutination assay with a coefficient of correlation of 0.80. A competitive ELISA was also optimised with purified viral-like particles. Regardless of the quantification method used, pan-HA antibodies can be employed to accelerate process development when strain-specific antibodies are not available, and represent a valuable tool in case of pandemics. These antibodies were also expressed in CHO cells to facilitate large-scale production using bioreactor technologies which might be required to meet industrial needs for quantification reagents. Finally, a simulation model was created to predict the binding affinity of the two anti-HA antibodies to the amino acids composing the highly conserved epitope; different probabilities of interaction between a given amino acid and

  4. Heparin-binding-hemagglutinin-induced IFN-gamma release as a diagnostic tool for latent tuberculosis.

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    Jean-Michel Hougardy

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The detection of latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI is a major component of tuberculosis (TB control strategies. In addition to the tuberculosis skin test (TST, novel blood tests, based on in vitro release of IFN-gamma in response to Mycobacterium tuberculosis-specific antigens ESAT-6 and CFP-10 (IGRAs, are used for TB diagnosis. However, neither IGRAs nor the TST can separate acute TB from LTBI, and there is concern that responses in IGRAs may decline with time after infection. We have therefore evaluated the potential of the novel antigen heparin-binding hemagglutinin (HBHA for in vitro detection of LTBI. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: HBHA was compared to purified protein derivative (PPD and ESAT-6 in IGRAs on lymphocytes drawn from 205 individuals living in Belgium, a country with low TB prevalence, where BCG vaccination is not routinely used. Among these subjects, 89 had active TB, 65 had LTBI, based on well-standardized TST reactions and 51 were negative controls. HBHA was significantly more sensitive than ESAT-6 and more specific than PPD for the detection of LTBI. PPD-based tests yielded 90.00% sensitivity and 70.00% specificity for the detection of LTBI, whereas the sensitivity and specificity for the ESAT-6-based tests were 40.74% and 90.91%, and those for the HBHA-based tests were 92.06% and 93.88%, respectively. The QuantiFERON-TB Gold In-Tube (QFT-IT test applied on 20 LTBI subjects yielded 50% sensitivity. The HBHA IGRA was not influenced by prior BCG vaccination, and, in contrast to the QFT-IT test, remote (>2 years infections were detected as well as recent (<2 years infections by the HBHA-specific test. CONCLUSIONS: The use of ESAT-6- and CFP-10-based IGRAs may underestimate the incidence of LTBI, whereas the use of HBHA may combine the operational advantages of IGRAs with high sensitivity and specificity for latent infection.

  5. A novel eight amino acid insertion contributes to the hemagglutinin cleavability and the virulence of a highly pathogenic avian influenza A (H7N3) virus in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Xiangjie; Belser, Jessica A.; Tumpey, Terrence M., E-mail: tft9@cdc.gov

    2016-01-15

    In 2012, an avian influenza A H7N3 (A/Mexico/InDRE7218/2012; Mx/7218) virus was responsible for two confirmed cases of human infection and led to the death or culling of more than 22 million chickens in Jalisco, Mexico. Interestingly, this virus acquired an 8-amino acid (aa)-insertion (..PENPK-DRKSRHRR-TR/GLF) near the hemagglutinin (HA) cleavage site by nonhomologous recombination with host rRNA. It remains unclear which specific residues at the cleavage site contribute to the virulence of H7N3 viruses in mammals. Using loss-of-function approaches, we generated a series of cleavage site mutant viruses by reverse genetics and characterized the viruses in vitro and in vivo. We found that the 8-aa insertion and the arginine at position P4 of the Mx/7218 HA cleavage site are essential for intracellular HA cleavage in 293T cells, but have no effect on the pH of membrane fusion. However, we identified a role for the histidine residue at P5 position in viral fusion pH. In mice, the 8-aa insertion is required for Mx/7218 virus virulence; however, the basic residues upstream of the P4 position are dispensable for virulence. Overall, our study provides the first line of evidence that the insertion in the Mx/7218 virus HA cleavage site confers its intracellular cleavability, and consequently contributes to enhanced virulence in mice. - Highlights: • An avian influenza H7N3 virus acquired a unique 8-amino acid (aa) insertion. • The role of specific basic residues in the HA insertion in viral pathogenesis was determined. • In mice, the 8-aa insertion is required for H7N3 virus virulence. • The R residue at position P4 is essential for HA intracellular cleavage and virus virulence.

  6. Isolation and characterization of a French bean hemagglutinin with antitumor, antifungal, and anti-HIV-1 reverse transcriptase activities and an exceptionally high yield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, S K; Ng, T B

    2010-05-01

    A dimeric 64-kDa hemagglutinin was isolated with a high yield from dried Phaseolus vulgaris cultivar "French bean number 35" seeds using a chromatographic protocol that involved Blue-Sepharose, Q-Sepharose, and Superdex 75. The yield was exceptionally high (1.1g hemagglutinin per 100g seed), which is around 10-85 times higher than other Phaseolus cultivars. Its N-terminal sequence resembled those of other Phaseolus hemagglutinins. The hemagglutinating activity of the hemagglutinin was stable in the pH range 6-8, and in the temperature range 0 degrees C-50 degrees C. It inhibited HIV-1 reverse transcriptase with an IC50 of 2microM. It suppressed mycelial growth in Valsa mali with an IC50 of 10microM. It inhibited proliferation of hepatoma HepG2 cells and breast cancer MCF-7 cells with an IC50 of 100 and 2microM, respectively. It had no antiproliferative effect on normal embryonic liver WRL68 cells. Copyright 2009 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  7. Lemna (duckweed) expressed hemagglutinin from avian influenza H5N1 protects chickens against H5N1 high pathogenicity avian influenza virus challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the last two decades, transgenic plants have been explored as safe and cost effective alternative expression platforms for producing recombinant proteins. In this study, a synthetic hemagglutinin (HA) gene from the high pathogenicity avian influenza (HPAI) virus A/chicken/Indonesia/7/2003 (H5N1)...

  8. Expression of H5 hemagglutinin vaccine antigen in common duckweed (Lemna minor) protects against H5N1 high pathogenicity avian influenza virus challenge in immunized chickens

    Science.gov (United States)

    A synthetic hemagglutinin (HA) gene from the highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus A/chicken/Indonesia/7/2003 (H5N1) (Indo/03) was expressed in aquatic plant Lemna minor (rLemna-HA). In Experiment 1, efficacy of rLemna-HA was tested on specific pathogen free (SPF) birds immunized with 0.2 ...

  9. Glycosylation Characterization of an Influenza H5N7 Hemagglutinin Series with Engineered Glycosylation Patterns : Implications for Structure-Function Relationships

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Parsons, Lisa M; An, Yanming; de Vries, Robert P; de Haan, Cornelis A M; Cipollo, John F

    2017-01-01

    The glycosylation patterns of four recombinant H5 hemagglutinins (HAs) derived from A/Mallard/Denmark/64650/03 (H5N7) have been characterized. The proteins were expressed in (i) HEK293T cells to produce complex glycoforms, (ii) HEK293T cells treated with Vibrio cholera neuraminidase to provide

  10. Two single mutations in the fusion protein of Newcastle disease virus confer hemagglutinin-neuraminidase independent fusion promotion and attenuate the pathogenicity in chickens

    Science.gov (United States)

    The fusion (F) protein of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) plays an important role in viral infection and pathogenicity through mediating membrane fusion between the virion and host cells in the presence of the hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN). Previously, we obtained a velogenic NDV genotype VII muta...

  11. Efficacy of an influenza hemagglutinin-diphtheria toxoid conjugate vaccine in elderly nursing home subjects during an influenza outbreak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gravenstein, S; Drinka, P; Duthie, E H; Miller, B A; Brown, C S; Hensley, M; Circo, R; Langer, E; Ershler, W B

    1994-03-01

    To compare the efficacy of an influenza hemagglutinin-diphtheria toxoid conjugate vaccine with the commercially available influenza hemagglutinin-subunit vaccine in preventing influenza in older adults living in a nursing home. A prospective, randomized, double-blind vaccine trial with 5 months of follow-up after vaccination. Fourteen Wisconsin nursing homes. Nursing home residents at least 65 years old who were able to give informed consent and were free of malignancy and not receiving immunosuppressive therapy. Participants received, by intramuscular injection, 0.5 mL of a trivalent influenza vaccine containing 15 micrograms each of A/Leningrad/360/86 (H3N2), A/Taiwan/1/86 (H1N1), and B/Ann Arbor/1/86 (HA) or 0.5 mL of an influenza vaccine containing the same antigens conjugated to diphtheria toxoid (HA-D). Blood was obtained pre- and 1 month post-vaccination to assess for any vaccine-induced antibody titer change. Clinical surveillance for respiratory illness was performed twice weekly for 5 months. A record was kept of all signs and symptoms of new respiratory illness, and a viral culture and acute and convalescent sera were obtained. 204 participants received HA and 204 received HA-D. Both groups had similar baseline antibody levels to all influenza antigens. HA-D recipients seroconverted more frequently based on serum neutralizing activity (P < 0.05), had a greater increase in geometric mean titer (GMT), and sustained the increase in antibody titer longer than HA recipients. Vaccine hemagglutinin recall was greater in a subset of HA-D recipients as measured by lymphocyte proliferative assays (P < 0.05). During an outbreak of influenza A (H3N2 A/Shanghai/11/87-like and A/Victoria/7/87-like), fewer HA-D (29/195) than HA (43/204) recipients had laboratory-confirmed infection (P = 0.053), and, of these, fewer HA-D-treated subjects had lower respiratory tract involvement (5/29 HA-D and 17/43 HA) (P = 0.022). HA-D was more immunogenic in institutionalized elderly

  12. Large-scale FMO-MP3 calculations on the surface proteins of influenza virus, hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mochizuki, Yuji; Yamashita, Katsumi; Fukuzawa, Kaori; Takematsu, Kazutomo; Watanabe, Hirofumi; Taguchi, Naoki; Okiyama, Yoshio; Tsuboi, Misako; Nakano, Tatsuya; Tanaka, Shigenori

    2010-06-01

    Two proteins on the influenza virus surface have been well known. One is hemagglutinin (HA) associated with the infection to cells. The fragment molecular orbital (FMO) calculations were performed on a complex consisting of HA trimer and two Fab-fragments at the third-order Møller-Plesset perturbation (MP3) level. The numbers of residues and 6-31G basis functions were 2351 and 201276, and thus a massively parallel-vector computer was utilized to accelerate the processing. This FMO-MP3 job was completed in 5.8 h with 1024 processors. Another protein is neuraminidase (NA) involved in the escape from infected cells. The FMO-MP3 calculation was also applied to analyze the interactions between oseltamivir and surrounding residues in pharmacophore.

  13. Yeast expressed recombinant Hemagglutinin protein of Novel H1N1 elicits neutralising antibodies in rabbits and mice

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    Athmaram TN

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Currently available vaccines for the pandemic Influenza A (H1N1 2009 produced in chicken eggs have serious impediments viz limited availability, risk of allergic reactions and the possible selection of sub-populations differing from the naturally occurring virus, whereas the cell culture derived vaccines are time consuming and may not meet the demands of rapid global vaccination required to combat the present/future pandemic. Hemagglutinin (HA based subunit vaccine for H1N1 requires the HA protein in glycosylated form, which is impossible with the commonly used bacterial expression platform. Additionally, bacterial derived protein requires extensive purification and refolding steps for vaccine applications. For these reasons an alternative heterologous system for rapid, easy and economical production of Hemagglutinin protein in its glycosylated form is required. The HA gene of novel H1N1 A/California/04/2009 was engineered for expression in Pichia pastoris as a soluble secreted protein. The full length HA- synthetic gene having α-secretory tag was integrated into P. pastoris genome through homologous recombination. The resultant Pichia clones having multiple copy integrants of the transgene expressed full length HA protein in the culture supernatant. The Recombinant yeast derived H1N1 HA protein elicited neutralising antibodies both in mice and rabbits. The sera from immunised animals also exhibited Hemagglutination Inhibition (HI activity. Considering the safety, reliability and also economic potential of Pichia expression platform, our preliminary data indicates the feasibility of using this system as an alternative for large-scale production of recombinant influenza HA protein in the face of influenza pandemic threat.

  14. Genetic characterization of the hemagglutinin genes of wild-type measles virus circulating in china, 1993-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Songtao; Zhang, Yan; Zhu, Zhen; Liu, Chunyu; Mao, Naiying; Ji, Yixin; Wang, Huiling; Jiang, Xiaohong; Li, Chongshan; Tang, Wei; Feng, Daxing; Wang, Changyin; Zheng, Lei; Lei, Yue; Ling, Hua; Zhao, Chunfang; Ma, Yan; He, Jilan; Wang, Yan; Li, Ping; Guan, Ronghui; Zhou, Shujie; Zhou, Jianhui; Wang, Shuang; Zhang, Hong; Zheng, Huanying; Liu, Leng; Ma, Hemuti; Guan, Jing; Lu, Peishan; Feng, Yan; Zhang, Yanjun; Zhou, Shunde; Xiong, Ying; Ba, Zhuoma; Chen, Hui; Yang, Xiuhui; Bo, Fang; Ma, Yujie; Liang, Yong; Lei, Yake; Gu, Suyi; Liu, Wei; Chen, Meng; Featherstone, David; Jee, Youngmee; Bellini, William J; Rota, Paul A; Xu, Wenbo

    2013-01-01

    China experienced several large measles outbreaks in the past two decades, and a series of enhanced control measures were implemented to achieve the goal of measles elimination. Molecular epidemiologic surveillance of wild-type measles viruses (MeV) provides valuable information about the viral transmission patterns. Since 1993, virologic surveillnace has confirmed that a single endemic genotype H1 viruses have been predominantly circulating in China. A component of molecular surveillance is to monitor the genetic characteristics of the hemagglutinin (H) gene of MeV, the major target for virus neutralizing antibodies. Analysis of the sequences of the complete H gene from 56 representative wild-type MeV strains circulating in China during 1993-2009 showed that the H gene sequences were clustered into 2 groups, cluster 1 and cluster 2. Cluster1 strains were the most frequently detected cluster and had a widespread distribution in China after 2000. The predicted amino acid sequences of the H protein were relatively conserved at most of the functionally significant amino acid positions. However, most of the genotype H1 cluster1 viruses had an amino acid substitution (Ser240Asn), which removed a predicted N-linked glycosylation site. In addition, the substitution of Pro397Leu in the hemagglutinin noose epitope (HNE) was identified in 23 of 56 strains. The evolutionary rate of the H gene of the genotype H1 viruses was estimated to be approximately 0.76×10(-3) substitutions per site per year, and the ratio of dN to dS (dN/dS) was <1 indicating the absence of selective pressure. Although H genes of the genotype H1 strains were conserved and not subjected to selective pressure, several amino acid substitutions were observed in functionally important positions. Therefore the antigenic and genetic properties of H genes of wild-type MeVs should be monitored as part of routine molecular surveillance for measles in China.

  15. Conserved synthetic peptides from the hemagglutinin of influenza viruses induce broad humoral and T-cell responses in a pig model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Júlia Vergara-Alert

    Full Text Available Outbreaks involving either H5N1 or H1N1 influenza viruses (IV have recently become an increasing threat to cause potential pandemics. Pigs have an important role in this aspect. As reflected in the 2009 human H1N1 pandemia, they may act as a vehicle for mixing and generating new assortments of viruses potentially pathogenic to animals and humans. Lack of universal vaccines against the highly variable influenza virus forces scientists to continuously design vaccines à la carte, which is an expensive and risky practice overall when dealing with virulent strains. Therefore, we focused our efforts on developing a broadly protective influenza vaccine based on the Informational Spectrum Method (ISM. This theoretical prediction allows the selection of highly conserved peptide sequences from within the hemagglutinin subunit 1 protein (HA1 from either H5 or H1 viruses which are located in the flanking region of the HA binding site and with the potential to elicit broader immune responses than conventional vaccines. Confirming the theoretical predictions, immunization of conventional farm pigs with the synthetic peptides induced humoral responses in every single pig. The fact that the induced antibodies were able to recognize in vitro heterologous influenza viruses such as the pandemic H1N1 virus (pH1N1, two swine influenza field isolates (SwH1N1 and SwH3N2 and a H5N1 highly pathogenic avian virus, confirm the broad recognition of the antibodies induced. Unexpectedly, all pigs also showed T-cell responses that not only recognized the specific peptides, but also the pH1N1 virus. Finally, a partial effect on the kinetics of virus clearance was observed after the intranasal infection with the pH1N1 virus, setting forth the groundwork for the design of peptide-based vaccines against influenza viruses. Further insights into the understanding of the mechanisms involved in the protection afforded will be necessary to optimize future vaccine formulations.

  16. Both CD4+ and CD8+ Lymphocytes Participate in the IFN-γ Response to Filamentous Hemagglutinin from Bordetella pertussis in Infants, Children, and Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Violette Dirix; Virginie Verscheure; Françoise Vermeulen; Iris De Schutter; Tessa Goetghebuer; Camille Locht; Françoise Mascart

    2012-01-01

    Infant CD4+ T-cell responses to bacterial infections or vaccines have been extensively studied, whereas studies on CD8 + T-cell responses focused mainly on viral and intracellular parasite infections. Here we investigated CD8 + T-cell responses upon Bordetella pertussis infection in infants, children, and adults and pertussis vaccination in infants. Filamentous hemagglutinin-specific IFN-γ secretion by circulating lymphocytes was blocked by anti-MHC-I or -MHC-II antibodies, suggesting that CD...

  17. Casein kinase 1α mediates degradation of receptors for type I and type II interferons caused by hemagglutinin of influenza A virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Chuan; Wolf, Jennifer J; Vijayan, Madhuvanthi; Studstill, Caleb J; Ma, Wenjun; Hahm, Bumsuk

    2018-01-17

    Although influenza A virus (IAV) evades cellular defense systems to effectively propagate in the host, the viral immune evasive mechanisms are incompletely understood. Our recent data showed that hemagglutinin (HA) of IAV induces degradation of type I IFN receptor 1 (IFNAR1). Here, we demonstrate that IAV HA induces degradation of type II IFN (IFN-γ) receptor 1 (IFNGR1) as well as IFNAR1 via casein kinase 1α (CK1α), resulting in the impairment of cellular responsiveness to both type I and II IFNs. IAV infection or transient HA expression induced degradation of both IFNGR1 and IFNAR1, whereas HA gene-deficient IAV failed to downregulate the receptors. IAV HA caused the phosphorylation and ubiquitination of IFNGR1, leading to the lysosome-dependent degradation of IFNGR1. Influenza viral HA strongly decreased cellular sensitivity to type II IFNs, as it suppressed the activation of STAT1 and the induction of IFN-γ-stimulated genes in response to exogenously supplied recombinant IFN-γ. Importantly, CK1α, but not p38 MAP kinase or protein kinase D2, was proven to be critical for HA-induced degradation of both IFNGR1 and IFNAR1. Pharmacologic inhibition of CK1α or siRNA-based knockdown of CK1α repressed the degradation process of both IFNGR1 and IFNAR1 triggered by IAV infection. Further, CK1α was shown to be pivotal for proficient replication of IAV. Collectively, the results suggest that IAV HA induces degradation of IFN receptors via CK1α, creating a condition favorable for viral propagation. Therefore, the study uncovers a new immune evasive pathway of influenza virus.IMPORTANCE Influenza A virus (IAV) remains a grave threat to humans by causing seasonal and pandemic influenza. Upon infection, the innate and adaptive immunity such as the interferon (IFN) response is induced to protect hosts against IAV infection. However, IAV seems to be equipped with tactics to evade the IFN-mediated antiviral responses. Yet, the detailed mechanisms need to be elucidated

  18. Computationally Optimized Broadly Reactive Hemagglutinin Elicits Hemagglutination Inhibition Antibodies against a Panel of H3N2 Influenza Virus Cocirculating Variants.

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    Wong, Terianne M; Allen, James D; Bebin-Blackwell, Anne-Gaelle; Carter, Donald M; Alefantis, Timothy; DiNapoli, Joshua; Kleanthous, Harold; Ross, Ted M

    2017-12-15

    Each influenza season, a set of wild-type viruses, representing one H1N1, one H3N2, and one to two influenza B isolates, are selected for inclusion in the annual seasonal influenza vaccine. In order to develop broadly reactive subtype-specific influenza vaccines, a methodology called computationally optimized broadly reactive antigens (COBRA) was used to design novel hemagglutinin (HA) vaccine immunogens. COBRA technology was effectively used to design HA immunogens that elicited antibodies that neutralized H5N1 and H1N1 isolates. In this report, the development and characterization of 17 prototype H3N2 COBRA HA proteins were screened in mice and ferrets for the elicitation of antibodies with HA inhibition (HAI) activity against human seasonal H3N2 viruses that were isolated over the last 48 years. The most effective COBRA HA vaccine regimens elicited antibodies with broader HAI activity against a panel of H3N2 viruses than wild-type H3 HA vaccines. The top leading COBRA HA candidates were tested against cocirculating variants. These variants were not efficiently detected by antibodies elicited by the wild-type HA from viruses selected as the vaccine candidates. The T-11 COBRA HA vaccine elicited antibodies with HAI and neutralization activity against all cocirculating variants from 2004 to 2007. This is the first report demonstrating broader breadth of vaccine-induced antibodies against cocirculating H3N2 strains compared to the wild-type HA antigens that were represented in commercial influenza vaccines. IMPORTANCE There is a need for an improved influenza vaccine that elicits immune responses that recognize a broader number of influenza virus strains to prevent infection and transmission. Using the COBRA approach, a set of vaccines against influenza viruses in the H3N2 subtype was tested for the ability to elicit antibodies that neutralize virus infection against not only historical vaccine strains of H3N2 but also a set of cocirculating variants that circulated

  19. Properly folded bacterially expressed H1N1 hemagglutinin globular head and ectodomain vaccines protect ferrets against H1N1 pandemic influenza virus.

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    Surender Khurana

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available In the face of impending influenza pandemic, a rapid vaccine production and mass vaccination is the most effective approach to prevent the large scale mortality and morbidity that was associated with the 1918 "Spanish Flu". The traditional process of influenza vaccine production in eggs is time consuming and may not meet the demands of rapid global vaccination required to curtail influenza pandemic.Recombinant technology can be used to express the hemagglutinin (HA of the emerging new influenza strain in a variety of systems including mammalian, insect, and bacterial cells. In this study, two forms of HA proteins derived from the currently circulating novel H1N1 A/California/07/2009 virus, HA1 (1-330 and HA (1-480, were expressed and purified from E. coli under controlled redox refolding conditions that favoured proper protein folding. However, only the recombinant HA1 (1-330 protein formed oligomers, including functional trimers that bound receptor and caused agglutination of human red blood cells. These proteins were used to vaccinate ferrets prior to challenge with the A/California/07/2009 virus. Both proteins induced neutralizing antibodies, and reduced viral loads in nasal washes. However, the HA1 (1-330 protein that had higher content of multimeric forms provided better protection from fever and weight loss at a lower vaccine dose compared with HA (1-480. Protein yield for the HA1 (1-330 ranged around 40 mg/Liter, while the HA (1-480 yield was 0.4-0.8 mg/Liter.This is the first study that describes production in bacterial system of properly folded functional globular HA1 domain trimers, lacking the HA2 transmembrane protein, that elicit potent neutralizing antibody responses following vaccination and protect ferrets from in vivo challenge. The combination of bacterial expression system with established quality control methods could provide a mechanism for rapid large scale production of influenza vaccines in the face of influenza pandemic

  20. Cross-Neutralising Nanobodies Bind to a Conserved Pocket in the Hemagglutinin Stem Region Identified Using Yeast Display and Deep Mutational Scanning.

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    Tiziano Gaiotto

    Full Text Available Cross-neutralising monoclonal antibodies against influenza hemagglutinin (HA are of considerable interest as both therapeutics and diagnostic tools. We have recently described five different single domain antibodies (nanobodies which share this cross-neutralising activity and suggest their small size, high stability, and cleft binding properties may present distinct advantages over equivalent conventional antibodies. We have used yeast display in combination with deep mutational scanning to give residue level resolution of positions in the antibody-HA interface which are crucial for binding. In addition, we have mapped positions within HA predicted to have minimal effect on antibody binding when mutated. Our cross-neutralising nanobodies were shown to bind to a highly conserved pocket in the HA2 domain of A(H1N1pdm09 influenza virus overlapping with the fusion peptide suggesting their mechanism of action is through the inhibition of viral membrane fusion. We also note that the epitope overlaps with that of CR6261 and F10 which are human monoclonal antibodies in clinical development as immunotherapeutics. Although all five nanobodies mapped to the same highly conserved binding pocket we observed differences in the size of the epitope footprint which has implications in comparing the relative genetic barrier each nanobody presents to a rapidly evolving influenza virus. To further refine our epitope map, we have re-created naturally occurring mutations within this HA stem epitope and tested their effect on binding using yeast display. We have shown that a D46N mutation in the HA2 stem domain uniquely interferes with binding of R2b-E8. Further testing of this substitution in the context of full length purified HA from 1918 H1N1 pandemic (Spanish flu, 2009 H1N1 pandemic (swine flu and highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 demonstrated binding which correlated with D46 whereas binding to seasonal H1N1 strains carrying N46 was absent. In addition, our

  1. LABEL: fast and accurate lineage assignment with assessment of H5N1 and H9N2 influenza A hemagglutinins.

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    Samuel S Shepard

    Full Text Available The evolutionary classification of influenza genes into lineages is a first step in understanding their molecular epidemiology and can inform the subsequent implementation of control measures. We introduce a novel approach called Lineage Assignment By Extended Learning (LABEL to rapidly determine cladistic information for any number of genes without the need for time-consuming sequence alignment, phylogenetic tree construction, or manual annotation. Instead, LABEL relies on hidden Markov model profiles and support vector machine training to hierarchically classify gene sequences by their similarity to pre-defined lineages. We assessed LABEL by analyzing the annotated hemagglutinin genes of highly pathogenic (H5N1 and low pathogenicity (H9N2 avian influenza A viruses. Using the WHO/FAO/OIE H5N1 evolution working group nomenclature, the LABEL pipeline quickly and accurately identified the H5 lineages of uncharacterized sequences. Moreover, we developed an updated clade nomenclature for the H9 hemagglutinin gene and show a similarly fast and reliable phylogenetic assessment with LABEL. While this study was focused on hemagglutinin sequences, LABEL could be applied to the analysis of any gene and shows great potential to guide molecular epidemiology activities, accelerate database annotation, and provide a data sorting tool for other large-scale bioinformatic studies.

  2. pH Optimum of Hemagglutinin-Mediated Membrane Fusion Determines Sensitivity of Influenza A Viruses to the Interferon-Induced Antiviral State and IFITMs.

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    Gerlach, Thomas; Hensen, Luca; Matrosovich, Tatyana; Bergmann, Janina; Winkler, Michael; Peteranderl, Christin; Klenk, Hans-Dieter; Weber, Friedemann; Herold, Susanne; Pöhlmann, Stefan; Matrosovich, Mikhail

    2017-06-01

    The replication and pathogenicity of influenza A viruses (IAVs) critically depend on their ability to tolerate the antiviral interferon (IFN) response. To determine a potential role for the IAV hemagglutinin (HA) in viral sensitivity to IFN, we studied the restriction of IAV infection in IFN-β-treated human epithelial cells by using 2:6 recombinant IAVs that shared six gene segments of A/Puerto Rico/8/1934 virus (PR8) and contained HAs and neuraminidases of representative avian, human, and zoonotic H5N1 and H7N9 viruses. In A549 and Calu-3 cells, viruses displaying a higher pH optimum of HA-mediated membrane fusion, H5N1-PR8 and H7N9-PR8, were less sensitive to the IFN-induced antiviral state than their counterparts with HAs from duck and human viruses, which fused at a lower pH. The association between a high pH optimum of fusion and reduced IFN sensitivity was confirmed by using HA point mutants of A/Hong Kong/1/1968-PR8 that differed solely by their fusion properties. Furthermore, similar effects of the viral fusion pH on IFN sensitivity were observed in experiments with (i) primary human type II alveolar epithelial cells and differentiated cultures of human airway epithelial cells, (ii) nonrecombinant zoonotic and pandemic IAVs, and (iii) preparations of IFN-α and IFN-λ1. A higher pH of membrane fusion and reduced sensitivity to IFN correlated with lower restriction of the viruses in MDCK cells stably expressing the IFN-inducible transmembrane proteins IFITM2 and IFITM3, which are known to inhibit viral fusion. Our results reveal that the pH optimum of HA-driven membrane fusion of IAVs is a determinant of their sensitivity to IFN and IFITM proteins. IMPORTANCE The IFN system constitutes an important innate defense against viral infection. Substantial information is available on how IAVs avoid detection by sensors of the IFN system and disable IFN signaling pathways. Much less is known about the ability of IAVs to tolerate the antiviral activity of IFN

  3. New Insight into Filamentous Hemagglutinin Secretion Reveals a Role for Full-Length FhaB in Bordetella Virulence.

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    Melvin, Jeffrey A; Scheller, Erich V; Noël, Christopher R; Cotter, Peggy A

    2015-08-18

    Bordetella filamentous hemagglutinin (FHA), a primary component of acellular pertussis vaccines, contributes to virulence, but how it functions mechanistically is unclear. FHA is first synthesized as an ~370-kDa preproprotein called FhaB. Removal of an N-terminal signal peptide and a large C-terminal prodomain (PD) during secretion results in "mature" ~250-kDa FHA, which has been assumed to be the biologically active form of the protein. Deletion of two C-terminal subdomains of FhaB did not affect production of functional FHA, and the mutant strains were indistinguishable from wild-type bacteria for their ability to adhere to the lower respiratory tract and to suppress inflammation in the lungs of mice. However, the mutant strains, which produced altered FhaB molecules, were eliminated from the lower respiratory tract much faster than wild-type B. bronchiseptica, suggesting a defect in resistance to early immune-mediated clearance. Our results revealed, unexpectedly, that full-length FhaB plays a critical role in B. bronchiseptica persistence in the lower respiratory tract. The Bordetella filamentous hemagglutinin (FHA) is a primary component of the acellular pertussis vaccine and an important virulence factor. FHA is initially produced as a large protein that is processed during secretion to the bacterial surface. As with most processed proteins, the mature form of FHA has been assumed to be the functional form of the protein. However, our results indicate that the full-length form plays an essential role in virulence in vivo. Furthermore, we have found that FHA contains intramolecular regulators of processing and that this control of processing is integral to its virulence activities. This report highlights the advantage of studying protein maturation and function simultaneously, as a role for the full-length form of FHA was evident only from in vivo infection studies and not from in vitro studies on the production or maturation of FHA or even from in vitro

  4. Hemagglutinin of Influenza A Virus Antagonizes Type I Interferon (IFN) Responses by Inducing Degradation of Type I IFN Receptor 1.

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    Xia, Chuan; Vijayan, Madhuvanthi; Pritzl, Curtis J; Fuchs, Serge Y; McDermott, Adrian B; Hahm, Bumsuk

    2015-12-16

    Influenza A virus (IAV) employs diverse strategies to circumvent type I interferon (IFN) responses, particularly by inhibiting the synthesis of type I IFNs. However, it is poorly understood if and how IAV regulates the type I IFN receptor (IFNAR)-mediated signaling mode. In this study, we demonstrate that IAV induces the degradation of IFNAR subunit 1 (IFNAR1) to attenuate the type I IFN-induced antiviral signaling pathway. Following infection, the level of IFNAR1 protein, but not mRNA, decreased. Indeed, IFNAR1 was phosphorylated and ubiquitinated by IAV infection, which resulted in IFNAR1 elimination. The transiently overexpressed IFNAR1 displayed antiviral activity by inhibiting virus replication. Importantly, the hemagglutinin (HA) protein of IAV was proved to trigger the ubiquitination of IFNAR1, diminishing the levels of IFNAR1. Further, influenza A viral HA1 subunit, but not HA2 subunit, downregulated IFNAR1. However, viral HA-mediated degradation of IFNAR1 was not caused by the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress response. IAV HA robustly reduced cellular sensitivity to type I IFNs, suppressing the activation of STAT1/STAT2 and induction of IFN-stimulated antiviral proteins. Taken together, our findings suggest that IAV HA causes IFNAR1 degradation, which in turn helps the virus escape the powerful innate immune system. Thus, the research elucidated an influenza viral mechanism for eluding the IFNAR signaling pathway, which could provide new insights into the interplay between influenza virus and host innate immunity. Influenza A virus (IAV) infection causes significant morbidity and mortality worldwide and remains a major health concern. When triggered by influenza viral infection, host cells produce type I interferon (IFN) to block viral replication. Although IAV was shown to have diverse strategies to evade this powerful, IFN-mediated antiviral response, it is not well-defined if IAV manipulates the IFN receptor-mediated signaling pathway. Here, we

  5. Diversity of the murine antibody response targeting influenza A(H1N1pdm09) hemagglutinin.

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    Wilson, Jason R; Tzeng, Wen-Pin; Spesock, April; Music, Nedzad; Guo, Zhu; Barrington, Robert; Stevens, James; Donis, Ruben O; Katz, Jacqueline M; York, Ian A

    2014-06-01

    We infected mice with the 2009 influenza A pandemic virus (H1N1pdm09), boosted with an inactivated vaccine, and cloned immunoglobulins (Igs) from HA-specific B cells. Based on the redundancy in germline gene utilization, we inferred that between 72-130 unique IgH VDJ and 35 different IgL VJ combinations comprised the anti-HA recall response. The IgH VH1 and IgL VK14 variable gene families were employed most frequently. A representative panel of antibodies were cloned and expressed to confirm reactivity with H1N1pdm09 HA. The majority of the recombinant antibodies were of high avidity and capable of inhibiting H1N1pdm09 hemagglutination. Three of these antibodies were subtype-specific cross-reactive, binding to the HA of A/South Carolina/1/1918(H1N1), and one further reacted with A/swine/Iowa/15/1930(H1N1). These results help to define the genetic diversity of the influenza anti-HA antibody repertoire profile induced following infection and vaccination, which may facilitate the development of influenza vaccines that are more protective and broadly neutralizing. Protection against influenza viruses is mediated mainly by antibodies, and in most cases this antibody response is narrow, only providing protection against closely related viruses. In spite of this limited range of protection, recent findings indicate that individuals immune to one influenza virus may contain antibodies (generally a minority of the overall response) that are more broadly reactive. These findings have raised the possibility that influenza vaccines could induce a more broadly protective response, reducing the need for frequent vaccine strain changes. However, interpretation of these observations is hampered by the lack of quantitative characterization of the antibody repertoire. In this study, we used single-cell cloning of influenza HA-specific B cells to assess the diversity and nature of the antibody response to influenza hemagglutinin in mice. Our findings help to put bounds on the

  6. Genetic Characterization of the Hemagglutinin Genes of Wild-Type Measles Virus Circulating in China, 1993–2009

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    Zhu, Zhen; Liu, Chunyu; Mao, Naiying; Ji, Yixin; Wang, Huiling; Jiang, Xiaohong; Li, Chongshan; Tang, Wei; Feng, Daxing; Wang, Changyin; Zheng, Lei; Lei, Yue; Ling, Hua; Zhao, Chunfang; Ma, Yan; He, Jilan; Wang, Yan; Li, Ping; Guan, Ronghui; Zhou, Shujie; Zhou, Jianhui; Wang, Shuang; Zhang, Hong; Zheng, Huanying; Liu, Leng; Ma, Hemuti; Guan, Jing; Lu, Peishan; Feng, Yan; Zhang, Yanjun; Zhou, Shunde; Xiong, Ying; Ba, Zhuoma; Chen, Hui; Yang, Xiuhui; Bo, Fang; Ma, Yujie; Liang, Yong; Lei, Yake; Gu, Suyi; Liu, Wei; Chen, Meng; Featherstone, David; Jee, Youngmee; Bellini, William J.; Rota, Paul A.; Xu, Wenbo

    2013-01-01

    Background China experienced several large measles outbreaks in the past two decades, and a series of enhanced control measures were implemented to achieve the goal of measles elimination. Molecular epidemiologic surveillance of wild-type measles viruses (MeV) provides valuable information about the viral transmission patterns. Since 1993, virologic surveillnace has confirmed that a single endemic genotype H1 viruses have been predominantly circulating in China. A component of molecular surveillance is to monitor the genetic characteristics of the hemagglutinin (H) gene of MeV, the major target for virus neutralizing antibodies. Principal Findings Analysis of the sequences of the complete H gene from 56 representative wild-type MeV strains circulating in China during 1993–2009 showed that the H gene sequences were clustered into 2 groups, cluster 1 and cluster 2. Cluster1 strains were the most frequently detected cluster and had a widespread distribution in China after 2000. The predicted amino acid sequences of the H protein were relatively conserved at most of the functionally significant amino acid positions. However, most of the genotype H1 cluster1 viruses had an amino acid substitution (Ser240Asn), which removed a predicted N-linked glycosylation site. In addition, the substitution of Pro397Leu in the hemagglutinin noose epitope (HNE) was identified in 23 of 56 strains. The evolutionary rate of the H gene of the genotype H1 viruses was estimated to be approximately 0.76×10−3 substitutions per site per year, and the ratio of dN to dS (dN/dS) was <1 indicating the absence of selective pressure. Conclusions Although H genes of the genotype H1 strains were conserved and not subjected to selective pressure, several amino acid substitutions were observed in functionally important positions. Therefore the antigenic and genetic properties of H genes of wild-type MeVs should be monitored as part of routine molecular surveillance for measles in China. PMID

  7. Genetic characterization of the hemagglutinin genes of wild-type measles virus circulating in china, 1993-2009.

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    Songtao Xu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: China experienced several large measles outbreaks in the past two decades, and a series of enhanced control measures were implemented to achieve the goal of measles elimination. Molecular epidemiologic surveillance of wild-type measles viruses (MeV provides valuable information about the viral transmission patterns. Since 1993, virologic surveillnace has confirmed that a single endemic genotype H1 viruses have been predominantly circulating in China. A component of molecular surveillance is to monitor the genetic characteristics of the hemagglutinin (H gene of MeV, the major target for virus neutralizing antibodies. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Analysis of the sequences of the complete H gene from 56 representative wild-type MeV strains circulating in China during 1993-2009 showed that the H gene sequences were clustered into 2 groups, cluster 1 and cluster 2. Cluster1 strains were the most frequently detected cluster and had a widespread distribution in China after 2000. The predicted amino acid sequences of the H protein were relatively conserved at most of the functionally significant amino acid positions. However, most of the genotype H1 cluster1 viruses had an amino acid substitution (Ser240Asn, which removed a predicted N-linked glycosylation site. In addition, the substitution of Pro397Leu in the hemagglutinin noose epitope (HNE was identified in 23 of 56 strains. The evolutionary rate of the H gene of the genotype H1 viruses was estimated to be approximately 0.76×10(-3 substitutions per site per year, and the ratio of dN to dS (dN/dS was <1 indicating the absence of selective pressure. CONCLUSIONS: Although H genes of the genotype H1 strains were conserved and not subjected to selective pressure, several amino acid substitutions were observed in functionally important positions. Therefore the antigenic and genetic properties of H genes of wild-type MeVs should be monitored as part of routine molecular surveillance for measles in

  8. Newcastle Disease Virus Establishes Persistent Infection in Tumor Cells In Vitro: Contribution of the Cleavage Site of Fusion Protein and Second Sialic Acid Binding Site of Hemagglutinin-Neuraminidase.

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    Rangaswamy, Udaya S; Wang, Weijia; Cheng, Xing; McTamney, Patrick; Carroll, Danielle; Jin, Hong

    2017-08-15

    Newcastle disease virus (NDV) is an oncolytic virus being developed for the treatment of cancer. Following infection of a human ovarian cancer cell line (OVCAR3) with a recombinant low-pathogenic NDV, persistent infection was established in a subset of tumor cells. Persistently infected (PI) cells exhibited resistance to superinfection with NDV and established an antiviral state, as demonstrated by upregulation of interferon and interferon-induced genes such as myxoma resistance gene 1 (Mx1) and retinoic acid-inducing gene-I (RIG-I). Viruses released from PI cells induced higher cell-to-cell fusion than the parental virus following infection in two tumor cell lines tested, HT1080 and HeLa, and remained attenuated in chickens. Two mutations, one in the fusion (F) protein cleavage site, F117S (F117S), and another in hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN), G169R (HN169R), located in the second sialic acid binding region, were responsible for the hyperfusogenic phenotype. F117S improves F protein cleavage efficiency, facilitating cell-to-cell fusion, while HN169R possesses a multifaceted role in contributing to higher fusion, reduced receptor binding, and lower neuraminidase activity, which together result in increased fusion and reduced viral replication. Thus, establishment of persistent infection in vitro involves viral genetic changes that facilitate efficient viral spread from cell to cell as a potential mechanism to escape host antiviral responses. The results of our study also demonstrate a critical role in the viral life cycle for the second receptor binding region of the HN protein, which is conserved in several paramyxoviruses.IMPORTANCE Oncolytic Newcastle disease virus (NDV) could establish persistent infection in a tumor cell line, resulting in a steady antiviral state reflected by constitutively expressed interferon. Viruses isolated from persistently infected cells are highly fusogenic, and this phenotype has been mapped to two mutations, one each in the

  9. Molecular surveillance of low pathogenic avian influenza viruses in wild birds across the United States: inferences from the hemagglutinin gene.

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    Antoinette J Piaggio

    Full Text Available A United States interagency avian influenza surveillance plan was initiated in 2006 for early detection of highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses (HPAIV in wild birds. The plan included a variety of wild bird sampling strategies including the testing of fecal samples from aquatic areas throughout the United States from April 2006 through December 2007. Although HPAIV was not detected through this surveillance effort we were able to obtain 759 fecal samples that were positive for low pathogenic avian influenza virus (LPAIV. We used 136 DNA sequences obtained from these samples along with samples from a public influenza sequence database for a phylogenetic assessment of hemagglutinin (HA diversity in the United States. We analyzed sequences from all HA subtypes except H5, H7, H14 and H15 to examine genetic variation, exchange between Eurasia and North America, and geographic distribution of LPAIV in wild birds in the United States. This study confirms intercontinental exchange of some HA subtypes (including a newly documented H9 exchange event, as well as identifies subtypes that do not regularly experience intercontinental gene flow but have been circulating and evolving in North America for at least the past 20 years. These HA subtypes have high levels of genetic diversity with many lineages co-circulating within the wild birds of North America. The surveillance effort that provided these samples demonstrates that such efforts, albeit labor-intensive, provide important information about the ecology of LPAIV circulating in North America.

  10. Amino Acid substitutions in matrix, fusion and hemagglutinin proteins of wild measles virus for adaptation to vero cells.

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    Xin, Ji Yi; Ihara, Toshiaki; Komase, Katsuhiro; Nakayama, Tetsuo

    2011-01-01

    Wild-type measles virus (MV) is isolated in B95a but not in Vero cells. Through an adaptation process of wild-type MV to Vero cells, several amino acid substitutions were reported. Six strains were adapted to Vero cells and membrane (M), fusion (F) and hemagglutinin (H) genes were sequenced. Cell fusion was assessed and recombinant MVs were constructed, having wild-type H or M gene with or without mutations. No F gene substitution was noted. Amino-acid substitutions at positions 481 from Asn to Tyr (N481Y) and 546 from Ser to Gly (S546G) were observed in the H protein. Glu at position 89 of the M protein was substituted for Gly (E89G) and two mutations were noted at positions 62 (S62R) and 83 (S83P) in M protein. Recombinant viruses with mutation(s) detected in Vero-adapted strains induced a cytopathic effect and grew well in Vero cells, but those with the wild type did not. Recombinant viruses with mutation(s) demonstrated lower viral growth in B95a cells. Substitutions of E89G, S62R and S83P of the M protein were newly observed through adaptation to Vero cells, besides the mutations described in previous reports, with varying adaptation for each strain. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  11. Different Origins of Newcastle Disease Virus Hemagglutinin-Neuraminidase Protein Modulate the Replication Efficiency and Pathogenicity of the Virus

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    Ji-hui Jin

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the exact effects of different origins of Newcastle disease virus (NDV hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN protein to the biological characteristics of the virus, we systematically studied the correlation between the HN protein and NDV virulence by exchanging the HN of velogenic or lentogenic NDV strains with the HN from other strains of different virulence. The results revealed that the rSG10 or rLaSota derivatives bearing the HN gene of other viruses exhibited decreased or increased hemadsorption (HAd, neuraminidase and fusion promotion activities. In vitro and in vivo tests further showed that changes in replication level, tissue tropism and virulence of the chimeric viruses were also consistent with these biological activities. These findings demonstrated that the balance among three biological activities caused variation in replication and pathogenicity of the virus, which was closely related to the origin of the HN protein. Our study highlights the importance of the HN glycoprotein in modulating the virulence of NDV and contributes to a more complete understanding of the virulence of NDV.

  12. Protection against respiratory syncytial virus by inactivated influenza virus carrying a fusion protein neutralizing epitope in a chimeric hemagglutinin.

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    Lee, Yu-Na; Hwang, Hye Suk; Kim, Min-Chul; Lee, Young-Tae; Kim, Yu-Jin; Lee, F Eun-Hyung; Kang, Sang-Moo

    2016-04-01

    A desirable vaccine against respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) should induce neutralizing antibodies without eliciting abnormal T cell responses to avoid vaccine-enhanced pathology. In an approach to deliver RSV neutralizing epitopes without RSV-specific T cell antigens, we genetically engineered chimeric influenza virus expressing RSV F262-276 neutralizing epitopes in the globular head domain as a chimeric hemagglutinin (HA) protein. Immunization of mice with formalin-inactivated recombinant chimeric influenza/RSV F262-276 was able to induce RSV protective neutralizing antibodies and lower lung viral loads after challenge. Formalin-inactivated RSV immune mice showed high levels of pulmonary inflammatory cytokines, macrophages, IL-4-producing T cells, and extensive histopathology. However, RSV-specific T cell responses and enhancement of pulmonary histopathology were not observed after RSV infection of inactivated chimeric influenza/RSV F262-276. This study provides evidence that an inactivated vaccine platform of chimeric influenza/RSV virus can be developed into a safe RSV vaccine candidate without priming RSV-specific T cells and immunopathology. Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a major cause of respiratory tract illness and morbidity in children. Hence, there is a need to develop an effective vaccine against this virus. In this article, the authors engineered chimeric influenza virus to express RSV neutralizing epitopes. The positive findings in in-vivo experiments provide a beginning for future clinical trials and perhaps eventual product realization. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. The Encapsulation of Hemagglutinin in Protein Bodies Achieves a Stronger Immune Response in Mice than the Soluble Antigen.

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    Hofbauer, Anna; Melnik, Stanislav; Tschofen, Marc; Arcalis, Elsa; Phan, Hoang T; Gresch, Ulrike; Lampel, Johannes; Conrad, Udo; Stoger, Eva

    2016-01-01

    Zein is a water-insoluble polymer from maize seeds that has been widely used to produce carrier particles for the delivery of therapeutic molecules. We encapsulated a recombinant model vaccine antigen in newly formed zein bodies in planta by generating a fusion construct comprising the ectodomain of hemagglutinin subtype 5 and the N-terminal part of γ-zein. The chimeric protein was transiently produced in tobacco leaves, and H5-containing protein bodies (PBs) were used to immunize mice. An immune response was achieved in all mice treated with H5-zein, even at low doses. The fusion to zein markedly enhanced the IgG response compared the soluble H5 control, and the effect was similar to a commercial adjuvant. The co-administration of adjuvants with the H5-zein bodies did not enhance the immune response any further, suggesting that the zein portion itself mediates an adjuvant effect. While the zein portion used to induce protein body formation was only weakly immunogenic, our results indicate that zein-induced PBs are promising production and delivery vehicles for subunit vaccines.

  14. Protection against Multiple Subtypes of Influenza Viruses by Virus-Like Particle Vaccines Based on a Hemagglutinin Conserved Epitope

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    Shaoheng Chen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We selected the conserved sequence in the stalk region of influenza virus hemagglutinin (HA trimmer, the long alpha helix (LAH, as the vaccine candidate sequence, and inserted it into the major immunodominant region (MIR of hepatitis B virus core protein (HBc, and, by using the E. coli expression system, we prepared a recombinant protein vaccine LAH-HBc in the form of virus-like particles (VLP. Intranasal immunization of mice with this LAH-HBc VLP plus cholera toxin B subunit with 0.2% of cholera toxin (CTB* adjuvant could effectively elicit humoral and cellular immune responses and protect mice against a lethal challenge of homologous influenza viruses (A/Puerto Rico/8/1934 (PR8 (H1N1. In addition, passage of the immune sera containing specific antibodies to naïve mice rendered them resistant against a lethal homologous challenge. Immunization with LAH-HBc VLP vaccine plus CTB* adjuvant could also fully protect mice against a lethal challenge of the 2009 pandemic H1N1 influenza virus or the avian H9N2 virus and could partially protect mice against a lethal challenge of the avian H5N1 influenza virus. This study demonstrated that the LAH-HBc VLP vaccine based on a conserved sequence of the HA trimmer stalk region is a promising candidate vaccine for developing a universal influenza vaccine against multiple influenza viruses infections.

  15. Protection against multiple subtypes of influenza viruses by virus-like particle vaccines based on a hemagglutinin conserved epitope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shaoheng; Zheng, Dan; Li, Changgui; Zhang, Wenjie; Xu, Wenting; Liu, Xueying; Fang, Fang; Chen, Ze

    2015-01-01

    We selected the conserved sequence in the stalk region of influenza virus hemagglutinin (HA) trimmer, the long alpha helix (LAH), as the vaccine candidate sequence, and inserted it into the major immunodominant region (MIR) of hepatitis B virus core protein (HBc), and, by using the E. coli expression system, we prepared a recombinant protein vaccine LAH-HBc in the form of virus-like particles (VLP). Intranasal immunization of mice with this LAH-HBc VLP plus cholera toxin B subunit with 0.2% of cholera toxin (CTB(*)) adjuvant could effectively elicit humoral and cellular immune responses and protect mice against a lethal challenge of homologous influenza viruses (A/Puerto Rico/8/1934 (PR8) (H1N1)). In addition, passage of the immune sera containing specific antibodies to naïve mice rendered them resistant against a lethal homologous challenge. Immunization with LAH-HBc VLP vaccine plus CTB(*) adjuvant could also fully protect mice against a lethal challenge of the 2009 pandemic H1N1 influenza virus or the avian H9N2 virus and could partially protect mice against a lethal challenge of the avian H5N1 influenza virus. This study demonstrated that the LAH-HBc VLP vaccine based on a conserved sequence of the HA trimmer stalk region is a promising candidate vaccine for developing a universal influenza vaccine against multiple influenza viruses infections.

  16. The Porphyromonas gingivalis hemagglutinins HagB and HagC are major mediators of adhesion and biofilm formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connolly, E; Millhouse, E; Doyle, R; Culshaw, S; Ramage, G; Moran, G P

    2017-02-01

    Porphyromonas gingivalis is a bacterium associated with chronic periodontitis that possesses a family of genes encoding hemagglutinins required for heme acquisition. In this study we generated ΔhagB and ΔhagC mutants in strain W83 and demonstrate that both hagB and hagC are required for adherence to oral epithelial cells. Unexpectedly, a double ΔhagB/ΔhagC mutant had less severe adherence defects than either of the single mutants, but was found to exhibit increased expression of the gingipain-encoding genes rgpA and kgp, suggesting that a ΔhagB/ΔhagC mutant is only viable in populations of cells that exhibit increased expression of genes involved in heme acquisition. Disruption of hagB in the fimbriated strain ATCC33277 demonstrated that HagB is also required for stable attachment of fimbriated bacteria to oral epithelial cells. Mutants of hagC were also found to form defective single and multi-species biofilms that had reduced biomass relative to biofilms formed by the wild-type strain. This study highlights the hitherto unappreciated importance of these genes in oral colonization and biofilm formation. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Playing Hide and Seek: How Glycosylation of the Influenza Virus Hemagglutinin Can Modulate the Immune Response to Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tate, Michelle D.; Job, Emma R.; Deng, Yi-Mo; Gunalan, Vithiagaran; Maurer-Stroh, Sebastian; Reading, Patrick C.

    2014-01-01

    Seasonal influenza A viruses (IAV) originate from pandemic IAV and have undergone changes in antigenic structure, including addition of glycans to the hemagglutinin (HA) glycoprotein. The viral HA is the major target recognized by neutralizing antibodies and glycans have been proposed to shield antigenic sites on HA, thereby promoting virus survival in the face of widespread vaccination and/or infection. However, addition of glycans can also interfere with the receptor binding properties of HA and this must be compensated for by additional mutations, creating a fitness barrier to accumulation of glycosylation sites. In addition, glycans on HA are also recognized by phylogenetically ancient lectins of the innate immune system and the benefit provided by evasion of humoral immunity is balanced by attenuation of infection. Therefore, a fine balance must exist regarding the optimal pattern of HA glycosylation to offset competing pressures associated with recognition by innate defenses, evasion of humoral immunity and maintenance of virus fitness. In this review, we examine HA glycosylation patterns of IAV associated with pandemic and seasonal influenza and discuss recent advancements in our understanding of interactions between IAV glycans and components of innate and adaptive immunity. PMID:24638204

  18. Playing Hide and Seek: How Glycosylation of the Influenza Virus Hemagglutinin Can Modulate the Immune Response to Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle D. Tate

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Seasonal influenza A viruses (IAV originate from pandemic IAV and have undergone changes in antigenic structure, including addition of glycans to the hemagglutinin (HA glycoprotein. The viral HA is the major target recognized by neutralizing antibodies and glycans have been proposed to shield antigenic sites on HA, thereby promoting virus survival in the face of widespread vaccination and/or infection. However, addition of glycans can also interfere with the receptor binding properties of HA and this must be compensated for by additional mutations, creating a fitness barrier to accumulation of glycosylation sites. In addition, glycans on HA are also recognized by phylogenetically ancient lectins of the innate immune system and the benefit provided by evasion of humoral immunity is balanced by attenuation of infection. Therefore, a fine balance must exist regarding the optimal pattern of HA glycosylation to offset competing pressures associated with recognition by innate defenses, evasion of humoral immunity and maintenance of virus fitness. In this review, we examine HA glycosylation patterns of IAV associated with pandemic and seasonal influenza and discuss recent advancements in our understanding of interactions between IAV glycans and components of innate and adaptive immunity.

  19. Pseudomonas fluorescens filamentous hemagglutinin, an iron-regulated protein, is an important virulence factor that modulates bacterial pathogenicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan-yuan Sun

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Pseudomonas fluorescens is a common bacterial pathogen to a wide range of aquaculture animals including various species of fish. In this study, we employed proteomic analysis and identified filamentous hemagglutinin (FHA as an iron-responsive protein secreted by TSS, a pathogenic P. fluorescens isolate. In vitro study showed that compared to the wild type, the fha mutant TSSfha (i exhibited a largely similar vegetative growth profile but significantly retarded in the ability of biofilm growth and producing extracellular matrix, (ii displayed no apparent flagella and motility, (iii was defective in the attachment to host cells and unable to form self-aggregation, (iv displayed markedly reduced capacity of hemagglutination and surviving in host serum. In vivo infection analysis revealed that TSSfha was significantly attenuated in the ability of dissemination in fish tissues and inducing host mortality, and that antibody blocking of the natural FHA produced by the wild type TSS impaired the infectivity of the pathogen. Furthermore, when introduced into turbot as a subunit vaccine, recombinant FHA elicited a significant protection against lethal TSS challenge. Taken together, these results indicate for the first time that P. fluorescens FHA is a key virulence factor essential to multiple biological processes associated with pathogenicity.

  20. Receptor binding specificity of recent human H3N2 influenza viruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cummings Richard D

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human influenza viruses are known to bind to sialic acid linked α2-6 to galactose, but the binding specificity beyond that linkage has not been systematically examined. H3N2 human influenza isolates lost binding to chicken red cells in the 1990s but viruses isolated since 2003 have re-acquired the ability to agglutinate chicken erythrocytes. We have investigated specificity of binding, changes in hemagglutinin sequence of the recent viruses and the role of sialic acid in productive infection. Results Viruses that agglutinate, or do not agglutinate, chicken red cells show identical binding to a Glycan Array of 264 oligosaccharides, binding exclusively to a subset of α2-6-sialylsaccharides. We identified an amino acid change in hemagglutinin that seemed to correlate with chicken red cell binding but when tested by mutagenesis there was no effect. Recombinant hemagglutinins expressed on Sf-9 cells bound chicken red cells but the released recombinant baculoviruses agglutinated only human red cells. Similarly, an isolate that does not agglutinate chicken red cells show hemadsorption of chicken red cells to infected MDCK cells. We suggest that binding of chicken red cells to cell surface hemagglutinin but not to virions is due to a more favorable hemagglutinin density on the cell surface. We investigated whether a virus specific for α2-6 sialyloligosaccharides shows differential entry into cells that have varying proportions of α2-6 and α2-3 sialic acids, including human A549 and HeLa cells with high levels of α2-6 sialic acid, and CHO cells that have only α2-3 sialic acid. We found that the virus enters all cell types tested and synthesizes viral nucleoprotein, localized in the nucleus, and hemagglutinin, transported to the cell surface, but infectious progeny viruses were released only from MDCK cells. Conclusion Agglutination of chicken red cells does not correlate with altered binding to any oligosaccharide on the Glycan

  1. Amino Acids in Hemagglutinin Antigenic Site B Determine Antigenic and Receptor Binding Differences between A(H3N2)v and Ancestral Seasonal H3N2 Influenza Viruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoquan; Ilyushina, Natalia A.; Lugovtsev, Vladimir Y.; Bovin, Nicolai V.; Couzens, Laura K.; Gao, Jin

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Influenza A H3N2 variant [A(H3N2)v] viruses, which have caused human infections in the United States in recent years, originated from human seasonal H3N2 viruses that were introduced into North American swine in the mid-1990s, but they are antigenically distinct from both the ancestral and current circulating H3N2 strains. A reference A(H3N2)v virus, A/Minnesota/11/2010 (MN/10), and a seasonal H3N2 strain, A/Beijing/32/1992 (BJ/92), were chosen to determine the molecular basis for the antigenic difference between A(H3N2)v and the ancestral viruses. Viruses containing wild-type and mutant MN/10 or BJ/92 hemagglutinins (HAs) were constructed and probed for reactivity with ferret antisera against MN/10 and BJ/92 in hemagglutination inhibition assays. Among the amino acids that differ between the MN/10 and BJ/92 HAs, those in antigenic site A had little impact on the antigenic phenotype. Within antigenic site B, mutations at residues 156, 158, 189, and 193 of MN/10 HA to those in BJ/92 switched the MN/10 antigenic phenotype to that of BJ/92. Mutations at residues 156, 157, 158, 189, and 193 of BJ/92 HA to amino acids present in MN/10 were necessary for BJ/92 to become antigenically similar to MN/10. The HA amino acid substitutions responsible for switching the antigenic phenotype also impacted HA binding to sialyl receptors that are usually present in the human respiratory tract. Our study demonstrates that antigenic site B residues play a critical role in determining both the unique antigenic phenotype and receptor specificity of A(H3N2)v viruses, a finding that may facilitate future surveillance and risk assessment of novel influenza viruses. IMPORTANCE Influenza A H3N2 variant [A(H3N2)v] viruses have caused hundreds of human infections in multiple states in the United States since 2009. Most cases have been children who had contact with swine in agricultural fairs. These viruses originated from human seasonal H3N2 viruses that were introduced into the U

  2. Nanodisc-Incorporated Hemagglutinin Provides Protective Immunity against Influenza Virus Infection ▿

    OpenAIRE

    Bhattacharya, Palash; Grimme, Steve; Ganesh, Balaji; Gopisetty, Anupama; Sheng, Jian Rong; Martinez, Osvaldo; Jayarama, Shankar; Artinger, Michael; Meriggioli, Matthew; Prabhakar, Bellur S.

    2009-01-01

    Every year, influenza virus infection causes significant mortality and morbidity in human populations. Although egg-based inactivated viral vaccines are available, their effectiveness depends on the correct prediction of the circulating viral strains and is limited by the time constraint of the manufacturing process. Recombinant subunit vaccines are easier to manufacture with a relatively short lead time but are limited in their efficacy partly because the purified recombinant membrane protei...

  3. Aptamers that bind to the hemagglutinin of the recent pandemic influenza virus H1N1 and efficiently inhibit agglutination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopinath, Subash C B; Kumar, Penmetcha K R

    2013-11-01

    Influenza virus hemagglutinin (HA) mediates both receptor (glycan) binding and membrane fusion for cell entry and has been the basis for typing influenza A viruses. In this study we have selected RNA aptamers (D-12 and D-26) that specifically target the HA protein of the recent pandemic influenza virus pdmH1N1 (A/California/07/2009). Among the selected aptamers the D-26 aptamer showed higher affinity for the HA of pdmH1N1 and was able to distinguish HA derived from other sub-types of influenza A viruses. The affinity of the D-26 aptamer was further improved upon incorporation of 2'-fluoropyrimidines to a level of 67 fM. Furthermore, the high affinity D-12 and D-26 aptamers were tested for their ability to interfere with HA-glycan interactions using a chicken red blood cell (RBC) agglutination assay. At a concentration of 200 nM the D-26 aptamer completely abolished the agglutination of RBCs, whereas D-12 only did so at 400 nM. These studies suggest that the selected aptamer D-26 not only has a higher affinity and specificity for the HA of pdmH1N1 but also has a better ability to efficiently interfere with HA-glycan interactions compared with the D-12 aptamer. The D-26 aptamer warrants further study regarding its application in developing topical virucidal products against the pdmH1N1 virus and also in surveillance of the pdmH1N1 influenza virus. Copyright © 2013 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Avian adeno-associated virus-based expression of Newcastle disease virus hemagglutinin-neuraminidase protein for poultry vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perozo, F; Villegas, P; Estevez, C; Alvarado, I R; Purvis, L B; Saume, E

    2008-06-01

    The avian adeno-associated virus (AAAV) is a replication-defective nonpathogenic virus member of the family Parvoviridae that has been proved to be useful as a viral vector for gene delivery. The use of AAAV for transgenic expression of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) protein and its ability to induce immunity in chickens were assessed. Proposed advantages of this system include no interference with maternal antibodies, diminished immune response against the vector, and the ability to accommodate large fragments of genetic information. In this work the generation of recombinant AAAV virions expressing the HN protein (rAAAV-HN) was demonstrated by electron microscopy, immunocytochemistry, and western blot analysis. Serological evidence of HN protein expression after in ovo or intramuscular inoculation of the recombinant virus in specific-pathogen-free chickens was obtained. Serum from rAAAV-HN-vaccinated birds showed a systemic immune response evidenced by NDV-specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and hemagglutination inhibition testing. Positive virus neutralization in embryonated chicken eggs and indirect immunofluorescence detection of NDV infected cells by serum from rAAAV-HN vaccinated birds is also reported. A vaccine-challenge experiment in commercial broiler chickens using a Venezuelan virulent viscerotropic strain of NDV was performed. All unvaccinated controls died within 5 days postchallenge. Protection up to 80% was observed in birds vaccinated in ovo and revaccinated at 7 days of age with the rAAAV-HN. The results demonstrate the feasibility of developing and using an AAAV-based gene delivery system for poultry vaccination.

  5. Poor immune responses of newborn rhesus macaques to measles virus DNA vaccines expressing the hemagglutinin and fusion glycoproteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polack, Fernando P; Lydy, Shari L; Lee, Sok-Hyong; Rota, Paul A; Bellini, William J; Adams, Robert J; Robinson, Harriet L; Griffin, Diane E

    2013-02-01

    A vaccine that would protect young infants against measles could facilitate elimination efforts and decrease morbidity and mortality in developing countries. However, immaturity of the immune system is an important obstacle to the development of such a vaccine. In this study, DNA vaccines expressing the measles virus (MeV) hemagglutinin (H) protein or H and fusion (F) proteins, previously shown to protect juvenile macaques, were used to immunize groups of 4 newborn rhesus macaques. Monkeys were inoculated intradermally with 200 μg of each DNA at birth and at 10 months of age. As controls, 2 newborn macaques were similarly vaccinated with DNA encoding the influenza virus H5, and 4 received one dose of the current live attenuated MeV vaccine (LAV) intramuscularly. All monkeys were monitored for development of MeV-specific neutralizing and binding IgG antibody and cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) responses. These responses were poor compared to the responses induced by LAV. At 18 months of age, all monkeys were challenged intratracheally with a wild-type strain of MeV. Monkeys that received the DNA vaccine encoding H and F, but not H alone, were primed for an MeV-specific CD8(+) CTL response but not for production of antibody. LAV-vaccinated monkeys were protected from rash and viremia, while DNA-vaccinated monkeys developed rashes, similar to control monkeys, but had 10-fold lower levels of viremia. We conclude that vaccination of infant macaques with DNA encoding MeV H and F provided only partial protection from MeV infection.

  6. Cross-protection by co-immunization with influenza hemagglutinin DNA and inactivated virus vaccine using coated microneedles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yeu-Chun; Yoo, Dae-Goon; Compans, Richard W; Kang, Sang-Moo; Prausnitz, Mark R

    2013-12-10

    The need for annual revaccination against influenza is a burden on the healthcare system, leads to low vaccination rates and makes timely vaccination difficult against pandemic strains, such as during the 2009 H1N1 influenza pandemic. In an effort toward achieving a broadly protective vaccine that provides cross-protection against multiple strains of influenza, this study developed a microneedle patch to co-immunize with A/PR8 influenza hemagglutinin DNA and A/PR8 inactivated virus vaccine. We hypothesize that this dual component vaccination strategy administered to the skin using microneedles will provide cross-protection against other strains of influenza. To test this hypothesis, we developed a novel coating formulation that did not require additional excipients to increase coating solution viscosity by using the DNA vaccine itself to increase viscosity and thereby enable thick coatings of DNA vaccine and inactivated virus vaccine on metal microneedles. Co-immunization in this way not only generated robust antibody responses against A/PR8 influenza but also generated robust heterologous antibody responses against pandemic 2009 H1N1 influenza in mice. Challenge studies showed complete cross-protection against lethal challenge with live pandemic 2009 H1N1 virus. Control experiments using A/PR8 inactivated influenza virus vaccine with placebo DNA coated onto microneedles produced lower antibody titers and provided incomplete protection against challenge. Overall, this is the first study showing DNA solution as a microneedle coating agent and demonstrating cross-protection by co-immunization with inactivated virus and DNA vaccine using coated microneedles. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Modified vaccinia virus Ankara expressing the hemagglutinin of pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus induces cross-protective immunity against Eurasian 'avian-like' H1N1 swine viruses in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castrucci, Maria R; Facchini, Marzia; Di Mario, Giuseppina; Garulli, Bruno; Sciaraffia, Ester; Meola, Monica; Fabiani, Concetta; De Marco, Maria A; Cordioli, Paolo; Siccardi, Antonio; Kawaoka, Yoshihiro; Donatelli, Isabella

    2014-05-01

    To examine cross-reactivity between hemagglutinin (HA) derived from A/California/7/09 (CA/09) virus and that derived from representative Eurasian "avian-like" (EA) H1N1 swine viruses isolated in Italy between 1999 and 2008 during virological surveillance in pigs. Modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) expressing the HA gene of CA/09 virus (MVA-HA-CA/09) was used as a vaccine to investigate cross-protective immunity against H1N1 swine viruses in mice. Two classical swine H1N1 (CS) viruses and four representative EA-like H1N1 swine viruses previously isolated during outbreaks of respiratory disease in pigs on farms in Northern Italy were used in this study. Female C57BL/6 mice were vaccinated with MVA/HA/CA/09 and then challenged intranasally with H1N1 swine viruses. Cross-reactive antibody responses were determined by hemagglutination- inhibition (HI) and virus microneutralizing (MN) assays of sera from MVA-vaccinated mice. The extent of protective immunity against infection with H1N1 swine viruses was determined by measuring lung viral load on days 2 and 4 post-challenge. Systemic immunization of mice with CA/09-derived HA, vectored by MVA, elicited cross-protective immunity against recent EA-like swine viruses. This immune protection was related to the levels of cross-reactive HI antibodies in the sera of the immunized mice and was dependent on the similarity of the antigenic site Sa of H1 HAs. Our findings suggest that the herd immunity elicited in humans by the pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus could limit the transmission of recent EA-like swine HA genes into the influenza A virus gene pool in humans. © 2013 The Authors Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Influenza virus H1N1pdm09 infections in the young and old: evidence of greater antibody diversity and affinity for the hemagglutinin globular head domain (HA1 Domain) in the elderly than in young adults and children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Nitin; Dimitrova, Milena; Carter, Donald M; Crevar, Corey J; Ross, Ted M; Golding, Hana; Khurana, Surender

    2012-05-01

    The H1N1 2009 influenza virus (H1N1pdm09) pandemic had several unexpected features, including low morbidity and mortality in older populations. We performed in-depth evaluation of antibody responses generated following H1N1pdm09 infection of naïve ferrets and of 130 humans ranging from the very young (0 to 9 years old) to the very old (70 to 89 years old). In addition to hemagglutination inhibition (HI) titers, we used H1N1pdm09 whole-genome-fragment phage display libraries (GFPDL) to evaluate the antibody repertoires against internal genes, hemagglutinin (HA), and neuraminidase (NA) and also measured antibody affinity for antigenic domains within HA. GFPDL analyses of H1N1pdm09-infected ferrets demonstrated gradual development of antibody repertoires with a focus on M1 and HA1 by day 21 postinfection. In humans, H1N1pdm09 infection in the elderly (>70 years old) induced antibodies with broader epitope recognition in both the internal genes and the HA1 receptor binding domain (RBD) than for the younger age groups (0 to 69 years). Importantly, post-H1N1 infection serum antibodies from the elderly demonstrated substantially higher avidity for recombinant HA1 (rHA1) (but not HA2) than those from younger subjects (50% versus elderly following H1N1pdm09 infection, indicative of recall of long-term memory B cells or long-lived plasma cells. These findings may help explain the age-related morbidity and mortality pattern observed during the H1N1pdm09 pandemic.

  9. Modified vaccinia virus Ankara expressing the hemagglutinin of pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus induces cross-protective immunity against Eurasian ‘avian-like’ H1N1 swine viruses in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castrucci, Maria R; Facchini, Marzia; Di Mario, Giuseppina; Garulli, Bruno; Sciaraffia, Ester; Meola, Monica; Fabiani, Concetta; De Marco, Maria A; Cordioli, Paolo; Siccardi, Antonio; Kawaoka, Yoshihiro; Donatelli, Isabella

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To examine cross-reactivity between hemagglutinin (HA) derived from A/California/7/09 (CA/09) virus and that derived from representative Eurasian “avian-like” (EA) H1N1 swine viruses isolated in Italy between 1999 and 2008 during virological surveillance in pigs. Design Modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) expressing the HA gene of CA/09 virus (MVA-HA-CA/09) was used as a vaccine to investigate cross-protective immunity against H1N1 swine viruses in mice. Sample Two classical swine H1N1 (CS) viruses and four representative EA-like H1N1 swine viruses previously isolated during outbreaks of respiratory disease in pigs on farms in Northern Italy were used in this study. Setting Female C57BL/6 mice were vaccinated with MVA/HA/CA/09 and then challenged intranasally with H1N1 swine viruses. Main outcome measures Cross-reactive antibody responses were determined by hemagglutination- inhibition (HI) and virus microneutralizing (MN) assays of sera from MVA-vaccinated mice. The extent of protective immunity against infection with H1N1 swine viruses was determined by measuring lung viral load on days 2 and 4 post-challenge. Results and Conclusions Systemic immunization of mice with CA/09-derived HA, vectored by MVA, elicited cross-protective immunity against recent EA-like swine viruses. This immune protection was related to the levels of cross-reactive HI antibodies in the sera of the immunized mice and was dependent on the similarity of the antigenic site Sa of H1 HAs. Our findings suggest that the herd immunity elicited in humans by the pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus could limit the transmission of recent EA-like swine HA genes into the influenza A virus gene pool in humans. PMID:24373385

  10. Enhanced protective efficacy of H5 subtype influenza vaccine with modification of the multibasic cleavage site of hemagglutinin in retroviral pseudotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Ling; Chen, Jianjun; Meng, Jin; Chen, Yao; Li, Hongxia; Liu, Yan; Zheng, Zhenhua; Wang, Hanzhong

    2013-06-01

    Traditionally, the multibasic cleavage site (MBCS) of surface protein H5-hemagglutinin (HA) is converted to a monobasic one so as to weaken the virulence of recombinant H5N1 influenza viruses and to produce inactivated and live attenuated vaccines. Whether such modification benefits new candidate vaccines has not been adequately investigated. We previously used retroviral vectors to generate wtH5N1 pseudotypes containing the wild-type HA (wtH5) from A/swine/Anhui/ca/2004 (H5N1) virus. Here, we generated mtH5N1 pseudotypes, which contained a mutant-type HA (mtH5) with a modified monobasic cleavage site. Groups of mice were subcutaneously injected with the two types of influenza pseudotypes. Compared to the group immunized with wtH5N1 pseudotypes, the inoculation of mtH5N1 pseudotypes induced significantly higher levels of HA specific IgG and IFN-γ in immunized mice, and enhanced protection against the challenge of mouse-adapted avian influenza virus A/Chicken/Henan/12/2004 (H5N1). This study suggests modification of the H5-hemagglutinin MBCS in retroviral pseudotypes enhances protection efficacy in mice and this information may be helpful for development of vaccines from mammalian cells to fight against H5N1 influenza viruses.

  11. A latex agglutination assay to quantify the amount of hemagglutinin protein in adjuvanted low-dose influenza monovalent vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buffin, Sophie; Ikhelef, Nabila; Prudent, Julien; Dubayle, Joseline; Nougarede, Nolwenn; Varenne, Marie-Pierre; Moste, Catherine; Legastelois, Isabelle

    2018-01-01

    To formulate inactivated influenza vaccines, the concentration of hemagglutinin (HA) must be accurately determined. The standard test currently used to measure HA in influenza vaccines is the Single Radial Immunodiffusion (SRID) assay. We developed a very rapid, simple and sensitive alternative quantitative HA assay, namely the Latex Agglutination Assay (LAA). The LAA uses the Spherotest® technology, which is based on the agglutination of HA-specific immunoglobulin-coated latex beads. The amount of HA in a sample is calculated from the level of bead agglutination by a simple absorbance measurement at 405nm against a standard curve generated using a monovalent vaccine standard. In less than 2hours, tens of samples could be quantified using the LAA as opposed to 2days for the SRID assay. Ten steps are required to complete an SRID assay as compared to 6 steps for the LAA, from sample preparation through spectrophotometric analysis. Furthermore, the limit of detection of the LAA was found to be approximately 15ng HA/mL, similar to an ELISA, with the quantification of less than 1.8μg HA/mL. The quantification limit of the SRID is usually considered to be approximately 5μg HA/mL. The development of the assay and a comparison of the titers obtained by SRID and LAA for several monovalent vaccines corresponding to various strains were performed. For A/H5N1 and A/H1N1 monovalent vaccines, the LAA was found to be linear and accurate as compared to the SRID. The precision of the LAA was close to that of the standard test, and good reproducibility from one laboratory to another was observed. Moreover, the LAA enabled HA quantification in AlOOH-adjuvanted and in emulsion-adjuvanted low-dose vaccines as well as unadjuvanted vaccines. In conclusion, LAA may be useful to rapidly and accurately measure influenza HA protein in monovalent vaccines, especially in those containing less than 5μg/mL of HA in the presence of an adjuvant. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by

  12. Highly pathogenic H5N1 influenza viruses carry virulence determinants beyond the polybasic hemagglutinin cleavage site.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Bogs

    Full Text Available Highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses (HPAIV originate from avirulent precursors but differ from all other influenza viruses by the presence of a polybasic cleavage site in their hemagglutinins (HA of subtype H5 or H7. In this study, we investigated the ability of a low-pathogenic avian H5N1 strain to transform into an HPAIV. Using reverse genetics, we replaced the monobasic HA cleavage site of the low-pathogenic strain A/Teal/Germany/Wv632/2005 (H5N1 (TG05 by a polybasic motif from an HPAIV (TG05(poly. To elucidate the virulence potential of all viral genes of HPAIV, we generated two reassortants carrying the HA from the HPAIV A/Swan/Germany/R65/06 (H5N1 (R65 plus the remaining genes from TG05 (TG05-HA(R65 or in reversed composition the mutated TG05 HA plus the R65 genes (R65-HA(TG05poly. In vitro, TG05(poly and both reassortants were able to replicate without the addition of trypsin, which is characteristic for HPAIV. Moreover, in contrast to avirulent TG05, the variants TG05(poly, TG05-HA(R65, and R65-HA(TG05poly are pathogenic in chicken to an increasing degree. Whereas the HA cleavage site mutant TG05(poly led to temporary non-lethal disease in all animals, the reassortant TG05-HA(R65 caused death in 3 of 10 animals. Furthermore, the reassortant R65-HA(TG05poly displayed the highest lethality as 8 of 10 chickens died, resembling "natural" HPAIV strains. Taken together, acquisition of a polybasic HA cleavage site is only one necessary step for evolution of low-pathogenic H5N1 strains into HPAIV. However, these low-pathogenic strains may already have cryptic virulence potential. Moreover, besides the polybasic cleavage site, the additional virulence determinants of H5N1 HPAIV are located within the HA itself and in other viral proteins.

  13. Novel Feature of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, Highlighted by Characterization of the Heparin-Binding Hemagglutinin Adhesin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefrancois, Louise H.; Bodier, Christelle C.; Cochard, Thierry; Canepa, Sylvie; Raze, Dominique; Lanotte, Philippe; Sevilla, Iker A.; Stevenson, Karen; Behr, Marcel A.; Locht, Camille

    2013-01-01

    Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis comprises two genotypically defined groups, known as the cattle (C) and sheep (S) groups. Recent studies have reported phenotypic differences between M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis groups C and S, including growth rates, infectivity for macrophages, and iron metabolism. In this study, we investigated the genotypes and biological properties of the virulence factor heparin-binding hemagglutinin adhesin (HBHA) for both groups. In Mycobacterium tuberculosis, HBHA is a major adhesin involved in mycobacterium-host interactions and extrapulmonary dissemination of infection. To investigate HBHA in M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis, we studied hbhA polymorphisms by fragment analysis using the GeneMapper technology across a large collection of isolates genotyped by mycobacterial interspersed repetitive-unit–variable-number tandem-repeat (MIRU-VNTR) and IS900 restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP-IS900) analyses. Furthermore, we analyzed the structure-function relationships of recombinant HBHA proteins of types C and S by heparin-Sepharose chromatography and surface plasmon resonance (SPR) analyses. In silico analysis revealed two forms of HBHA, corresponding to the prototype genomes for the C and S types of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis. This observation was confirmed using GeneMapper on 85 M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis strains, including 67 strains of type C and 18 strains of type S. We found that HBHAs from all type C strains contain a short C-terminal domain, while those of type S present a long C-terminal domain, similar to that produced by Mycobacterium avium subsp. avium. The purification of recombinant HBHA from M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis of both types by heparin-Sepharose chromatography highlighted a correlation between their affinities for heparin and the lengths of their C-terminal domains, which was confirmed by SPR analysis. Thus, types C and S of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis may be

  14. Impact of cultivation conditions on N-glycosylation of influenza virus a hemagglutinin produced in MDCK cell culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rödig, Jana Verena; Rapp, Erdmann; Bohne, Jana; Kampe, Michael; Kaffka, Helene; Bock, Andreas; Genzel, Yvonne; Reichl, Udo

    2013-06-01

    Manufacturers worldwide produce influenza vaccines in different host systems. So far, either fertilized chicken eggs or mammalian cell lines are used. In all these vaccines, hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase are the major components. Both are highly abundant glycoproteins in the viral envelope, and particularly HA is able to induce a strong and protective immune response. The quality characteristics of glycoproteins, such as specific activity, antigenicity, immunogenicity, binding avidity, and receptor-binding specificity can strongly depend on changes or differences in their glycosylation pattern (potential N-glycosylation occupancy as well as glycan composition). In this study, capillary gel electrophoresis with laser-induced fluorescence detection (CGE-LIF) based glycoanalysis (N-glycan fingerprinting) was used to determine the impact of cultivation conditions on the HA N-glycosylation pattern of Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cell-derived influenza virus A PR/8/34 (H1N1). We found that adaptation of adherent cells to serum-free growth has only a minor impact on the HA N-glycosylation pattern. Only relative abundances of N-glycan structures are affected. In contrast, host cell adaptation to serum-free suspension growth resulted in significant changes in the HA N-glycosylation pattern regarding the presence of specific N-glycans as well as their abundance. Further controls such as different suppliers for influenza virus A PR/8/34 (H1N1) seed strains, different cultivation scales and vessels in standard or high cell density mode, different virus production media varying in either composition or trypsin activity, different temperatures during virus replication and finally, the impact of β-propiolactone inactivation resulted-at best-only in minor changes in the relative N-glycan structure abundances of the HA N-glycosylation pattern. Surprisingly, these results demonstrate a rather stable HA N-glycosylation pattern despite various (significant) changes in

  15. Molecular analyses of the hemagglutinin genes of H5 influenza viruses: origin of a virulent turkey strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawaoka, Y; Nestorowicz, A; Alexander, D J; Webster, R G

    1987-05-01

    Comparative sequence analysis of the hemagglutinin (HA) genes of a highly virulent H5N8 virus isolated from turkeys in Ireland in 1983 and a virus of the same subtype detected simultaneously in healthy ducks showed only four amino acid differences between these strains. Partial sequencing of six of the other genes and antigenic similarity of the neuraminidases established the overall genetic similarity of these two viruses. Comparison of the complete sequence of two H5 gene sequences and partial sequences of other virulent and avirulent H5 viruses provides evidence for at least two different lineages of H5 influenza virus in the world, one in Europe and the other in North America, with virulent and avirulent members in each group. In vivo studies in domestic ducks showed that all of the H5 viruses that are virulent in chickens and turkeys replicate in the internal organs of ducks but did not produce any disease signs. Additionally, both viruses isolated from turkeys and ducks in Ireland were detected in the blood. These studies provide the first conclusive evidence for the possibility that fully virulent influenza viruses in domestic poultry can arise directly from viruses in wild aquatic birds. Studies on the cleavability of the HA of virulent and avirulent H5 viruses showed that the principles established for H7 viruses (F. X. Bosch, M. Orlich, H. D. Klenk, and R. Rott, 1979, Virology 95, 197-207; F. X. Bosch, W. Garten, H. D. Klenk, and R. Rott, 1981, Virology 113, 725-735) also apply to the H5 subtype. These are (1) only the HAs of virulent influenza viruses were cleaved in tissue culture in the absence of trypsin and (2) virulent H5 influenza viruses contain a series of basic amino acids at the cleavage site of the HA, whereas avirulent strains contain only a single arginine with the exception of the avirulent Chicken/Pennsylvania virus. Thus, a series of basic amino acids at the cleavage site probably forms a recognition site for the enzyme(s) responsible for

  16. A Single-Amino-Acid Substitution at Position 225 in Hemagglutinin Alters the Transmissibility of Eurasian Avian-Like H1N1 Swine Influenza Virus in Guinea Pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zeng; Yang, Huanliang; Chen, Yan; Tao, Shiyu; Liu, Liling; Kong, Huihui; Ma, Shujie; Meng, Fei; Suzuki, Yasuo; Qiao, Chuanling; Chen, Hualan

    2017-11-01

    Efficient transmission from human to human is the prerequisite for an influenza virus to cause a pandemic; however, the molecular determinants of influenza virus transmission are still largely unknown. In this study, we explored the molecular basis for transmission of Eurasian avian-like H1N1 (EAH1N1) swine influenza viruses by comparing two viruses that are genetically similar but differ in their transmissibility in guinea pigs: the A/swine/Guangxi/18/2011 virus (GX/18) is highly transmissible by respiratory droplet in guinea pigs, whereas the A/swine/Heilongjiang/27/2012 virus (HLJ/27) does not transmit in this animal model. We used reverse genetics to generate a series of reassortants and mutants in the GX/18 background and tested their transmissibility in guinea pigs. We found that a single-amino-acid substitution of glycine (G) for glutamic acid (E) at position 225 (E225G) in the HA1 protein completely abolished the respiratory droplet transmission of GX/18, whereas the substitution of E for G at the same position (G225E) in HA1 enabled HLJ/27 to transmit in guinea pigs. We investigated the underlying mechanism and found that viruses bearing 225E in HA1 replicated more rapidly than viruses bearing 225G due to differences in assembly and budding efficiencies. Our study indicates that the amino acid 225E in HA1 plays a key role in EAH1N1 swine influenza virus transmission and provides important information for evaluating the pandemic potential of field influenza virus strains.IMPORTANCE Efficient transmission among humans is a prerequisite for a novel influenza virus to cause a human pandemic. Transmissibility of influenza viruses is a polygenic trait, and understanding the genetic determinants for transmissibility will provide useful insights for evaluating the pandemic potential of influenza viruses in the field. Several amino acids in the hemagglutinin (HA) protein of influenza viruses have been shown to be important for transmissibility, usually by

  17. Influenza A Virus with a Human-Like N2 Gene Is Circulating in Pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breum, Solvej Østergaard; Hjulsager, Charlotte Kristiane; Trebbien, Ramona

    2013-01-01

    A novel reassortant influenza A virus, H1avN2hu, has been found in Danish swine. The virus contains an H1 gene similar to the hemagglutinin (HA) gene of H1N1 avian-like swine viruses and an N2 gene most closely related to the neuraminidase (NA) gene of human H3N2 viruses from the mid-1990s....

  18. Large-scale analysis of B-cell epitopes on influenza virus hemagglutinin - implications for cross-reactivity of neutralizing antibodies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sun, Jing; Kudahl, Ulrich J.; Simon, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Influenza viruses continue to cause substantial morbidity and mortality worldwide. Fast gene mutation on surface proteins of influenza virus result in increasing resistance to current vaccines and available antiviral drugs. Broadly neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs) represent targets for prophylactic...... and therapeutic treatments of influenza. We performed a systematic bioinformatics study of cross-reactivity of neutralizing antibodies (nAbs) against influenza virus surface glycoprotein hemagglutinin (HA). This study utilized the available crystal structures of HA complexed with the antibodies for the analysis...... of tens of thousands of HA sequences. The detailed description of B-cell epitopes, measurement of epitope area similarity among different strains, and estimation of antibody neutralizing coverage provide insights into cross-reactivity status of existing nAbs against influenza virus. We have developed...

  19. Simultaneous detection of hemagglutinin and neuraminidase genes of novel influenza A (H7N9) by duplex real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan; Wu, Tao; Qi, Xian; Ge, Yiyue; Guo, Xiling; Wu, Bin; Yu, Huiyan; Zhu, Yefei; Shi, Zhiyang; Wang, Hua; Cui, Lunbiao; Zhou, Minghao

    2013-12-01

    A novel reassortant influenza A (H7N9) virus emerged recently in China. In this study, a duplex real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR) assay was developed for the simultaneous detection of hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) genes of H7N9 influenza viruses. The sensitivity of the assay was determined to be 10 RNA copies per reaction for both HA and NA genes. No cross-reactivity was observed with other influenza virus subtypes or respiratory tract viruses. One hundred and forty-six clinical and environmental specimens were tested and compared with reference methods and were found to be consistent. The assay is suitable for large-scale screening due to short turnaround times and high specificity, sensitivity, and reproducibility. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Improved immunogenicity of Newcastle disease virus inactivated vaccine following DNA vaccination using Newcastle disease virus hemagglutinin-neuraminidase and fusion protein genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firouzamandi, Masoumeh; Moeini, Hassan; Hosseini, Davood; Bejo, Mohd Hair; Omar, Abdul Rahman; Mehrbod, Parvaneh; Ideris, Aini

    2016-03-01

    The present study describes the development of DNA vaccines using the hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) and fusion (F) genes from AF2240 Newcastle disease virus strain, namely pIRES/HN, pIRES/F and pIRES-F/HN. Transient expression analysis of the constructs in Vero cells revealed the successful expression of gene inserts in vitro. Moreover, in vivo experiments showed that single vaccination with the constructed plasmid DNA (pDNA) followed by a boost with inactivated vaccine induced a significant difference in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay antibody levels (p inactivated vaccine alone. Taken together, these results indicated that recombinant pDNA could be used to increase the efficacy of the inactivated vaccine immunization procedure.

  1. Role of a Transbilayer pH Gradient in the Membrane Fusion Activity of the Influenza Virus Hemagglutinin: Use of the R18 Assay to Monitor Membrane Merging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedroso de Lima Maria C.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available It had been suggested that influenza virus-mediated membrane fusion might be dependent on a pH gradient across a target membrane. We have designed experiments in which this issue could be addressed. Two populations of liposomes were prepared, both simulating the plasma membrane of target cells, but with the pH of the internal aqueous medium buffered either at pH 7.4 (physiological cytosol pH or at pH 5.0 (endosomal pH at which influenza virus displays maximal fusion activity. By monitoring fusion using the R18 assay, we found that the internal pH of the target liposomes did not influence membrane merging as mediated by the influenza virus hemagglutinin, thus demonstrating that a transmembrane pH gradient is not required in this fusion process.

  2. Fluorescence polarization-based assay using N-glycan-conjugated quantum dots for screening in hemagglutinin blockers for influenza A viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamatsu, Masatoshi; Feng, Fei; Ohyanagi, Tatsuya; Nagahori, Noriko; Someya, Kazuhiko; Sakoda, Yoshihiro; Miura, Nobuaki; Nishimura, Shin-Ichiro; Kida, Hiroshi

    2013-02-01

    Attachment of influenza virus to susceptible cells is mediated by viral protein hemagglutinin (HA), which recognizes cell surface glycoconjugates that terminate in α-sialosides. To develop anti-influenza drugs based on inhibition of HA-mediated infection, novel fluorescent nanoparticles displaying multiple biantennary N-glycan chains with α-sialosides (A2-PC-QDs) that have high affinity for the HA were designed and constructed. The A2-PC-QDs enabled an easy and efficient fluorescence polarization (FP) assay for detection of interaction with the HA and competitive inhibition even by small molecule compounds against A2-PC-QDs-HA binding. The quantum dot (QD)-based FP assay established in the present study is a useful tool for high-throughput screening and to accelerate the development of novel and more effective blockers of the viral attachment of influenza virus. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Influenza A Virus Hemagglutinin is Required for the Assembly of Viral Components Including Bundled vRNPs at the Lipid Raft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naoki Takizawa

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The influenza glycoproteins, hemagglutinin (HA and neuraminidase (NA, which are associated with the lipid raft, have the potential to initiate virion budding. However, the role of these viral proteins in infectious virion assembly is still unclear. In addition, it is not known how the viral ribonucleoprotein complex (vRNP is tethered to the budding site. Here, we show that HA is necessary for the efficient progeny virion production and vRNP packaging in the virion. We also found that the level of HA does not affect the bundling of the eight vRNP segments, despite reduced virion production. Detergent solubilization and a subsequent membrane flotation analysis indicated that the accumulation of nucleoprotein, viral polymerases, NA, and matrix protein 1 (M1 in the lipid raft fraction was delayed without HA. Based on our results, we inferred that HA plays a role in the accumulation of viral components, including bundled vRNPs, at the lipid raft.

  4. Single electrode genosensor for simultaneous determination of sequences encoding hemagglutinin and neuraminidase of avian influenza virus type H5N1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabowska, Iwona; Malecka, Kamila; Stachyra, Anna; Góra-Sochacka, Anna; Sirko, Agnieszka; Zagórski-Ostoja, Włodzimierz; Radecka, Hanna; Radecki, Jerzy

    2013-11-05

    The duo-genosensor consisting of two different oligonucleotide probes immobilized covalently on the surface of one gold electrode via Au-S bond formation was used for simultaneous determination of two different oligonucleotide targets. One of the probes, decorated on its 5'-end with ferrocene (SH-ssDNA-Fc), is complementary to the cDNA representing a sequence encoding part of H5 hemagglutinin from H5N1 virus. The second probe, decorated on its 5'-end with methylene blue (SH-ssDNA-MB), is complementary to cDNA representing the fragment of N1 neuraminidase from the same virus. The presence of both probes on the surface of gold electrodes was confirmed with Osteryoung square-wave voltammetry (OSWV). The changes in redox activity of both redox active complexes before and after the hybridization process were used as analytical signal. The peak at +400 ± 2 mV was observed in the presence of 40 nM ssDNA used as a target for SH-ssDNA-Fc probe. This peak increased with the increase of concentration of target ssDNA. It indicates the "signal on" mode of analytical signal generation. The peak at -250 ± 4 mV, characteristic for SH-ssDNA-MB probe, was decreasing with the increase of the concentration of the complementary ssDNA target starting from 8 to 100 nM. This indicates the generation of electrochemical signal according to the "signal off" mode. The proposed duo-genosensor is capable of simultaneous, specific, and good sensitivity probing for the sequences derived from genes encoding two main markers of the influenza virus, hemagglutinin and neuraminidase.

  5. Migration and Persistence of Human Influenza A Viruses, Vietnam, 2001–2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Mai Quynh; Lam, Ha Minh; Cuong, Vuong Duc; Lam, Tommy Tsan-Yuk; Halpin, Rebecca A; Wentworth, David E; Hien, Nguyen Tran; Thanh, Le Thi; Phuong, Hoang Vu Mai; Horby, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Understanding global influenza migration and persistence is crucial for vaccine strain selection. Using 240 new human influenza A virus whole genomes collected in Vietnam during 2001–2008, we looked for persistence patterns and migratory connections between Vietnam and other countries. We found that viruses in Vietnam migrate to and from China, Hong Kong, Taiwan, Cambodia, Japan, South Korea, and the United States. We attempted to reduce geographic bias by generating phylogenies subsampled at the year and country levels. However, migration events in these phylogenies were still driven by the presence or absence of sequence data, indicating that an epidemiologic study design that controls for prevalence is required for robust migration analysis. With whole-genome data, most migration events are not detectable from the phylogeny of the hemagglutinin segment alone, although general migratory relationships between Vietnam and other countries are visible in the hemagglutinin phylogeny. It is possible that virus lineages in Vietnam persisted for >1 year. PMID:24188643

  6. Enhanced effect of BCG vaccine against pulmonary Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection in mice with lung Th17 response to mycobacterial heparin-binding hemagglutinin adhesin antigen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukui, Masayuki; Shinjo, Kikuko; Umemura, Masayuki; Shigeno, Satoko; Harakuni, Tetsuya; Arakawa, Takeshi; Matsuzaki, Goro

    2015-12-01

    Although the BCG vaccine can prevent tuberculosis (TB) in infants, its ability to prevent adult pulmonary TB is reportedly limited. Therefore, development of a novel effective vaccine against pulmonary TB has become an international research priority. We have previously reported that intranasal vaccination of mice with a mycobacterial heparin-binding hemagglutinin adhesin (HBHA) plus mucosal adjuvant cholera toxin (CT) enhances production of IFN-γ and anti-HBHA antibody and suppresses extrapulmonary bacterial dissemination after intranasal infection with BCG. In the present study, the effects of intranasal HBHA + CT vaccine on murine pulmonary Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) infection were examined. Intranasal HBHA + CT vaccination alone failed to reduce the bacterial burden in the infected lung. However, a combination vaccine consisting of s.c. BCG priming and an intranasal HBHA + CT booster significantly enhanced protective immunity against pulmonary Mtb infection on day 14 compared with BCG vaccine alone. Further, it was found that intranasal HBHA + CT vaccine enhanced not only IFN-γ but also IL-17A production by HBHA-specific T cells in the lung after pulmonary Mtb infection. Therefore, this combination vaccine may be a good candidate for a new vaccine strategy against pulmonary TB. © 2015 The Societies and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  7. On the possibility of lipid-induced regulation of conformation and immunogenicity of influenza a virus H1/N1 hemagglutinin as antigen of TI-complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vorobieva, Natalia; Sanina, Nina; Vorontsov, Vladimir; Kostetsky, Eduard; Mazeika, Andrey; Tsybulsky, Alexander; Kim, Natalia; Shnyrov, Valery

    2014-01-01

    The tubular immunostimulating complex (TI-complex) consisting of cucumarioside A2-2, cholesterol and monogalactosyldiacylglycerol (MGDG) from marine macrophytes is the perspective antigen delivery system for subunit vaccines. MGDG is a lipid matrix for the protein antigen incorporated in the TI-complex. The aim of the present work was to study the influence of MGDGs from different macrophytes on conformation and immunogenicity of the secreted recombinant uncleaved hemagglutinin monomer (HA0S) of influenza A virus H1/N1. Differential scanning calorimetry, fluorescence spectroscopy and circular dichroism showed a dependence of the conformational changes of HA0S on the microviscosity of MGDG. The most viscous MGDG from Zostera marina induced the strongest rearrangements in protein conformation. Immunization of mice with HA0S within TI-complexes comprising different MGDGs resulted in an approximately 2-fold increase of the levels of anti-HA0S antibodies and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) compared with those induced by HA0S alone. TI-complexes based on MGDG from Z. marina stimulated the maximal production of GM-CSF. However, humoral immune response (anti-HA0S antibodies), unlike cell-mediated immune response (GM-CSF), did not depend on the physicochemical properties of MGDGs. It is assumed that this is due to the different localization and conformational lipid sensitivity of the HA0S regions, which are responsible for these types of immune responses. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  8. Both CD4+ and CD8+ Lymphocytes Participate in the IFN-γ Response to Filamentous Hemagglutinin from Bordetella pertussis in Infants, Children, and Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Violette Dirix

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Infant CD4+ T-cell responses to bacterial infections or vaccines have been extensively studied, whereas studies on CD8+ T-cell responses focused mainly on viral and intracellular parasite infections. Here we investigated CD8+ T-cell responses upon Bordetella pertussis infection in infants, children, and adults and pertussis vaccination in infants. Filamentous hemagglutinin-specific IFN-γ secretion by circulating lymphocytes was blocked by anti-MHC-I or -MHC-II antibodies, suggesting that CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes are involved in IFN-γ production. Flow cytometry analyses confirmed that both cell types synthesized antigen-specific IFN-γ, although CD4+ lymphocytes were the major source of this cytokine. IFN-γ synthesis by CD8+ cells was CD4+ T cell dependent, as evidenced by selective depletion experiments. Furthermore, IFN-γ synthesis by CD4+ cells was sometimes inhibited by CD8+ lymphocytes, suggesting the presence of CD8+ regulatory T cells. The role of this dual IFN-γ secretion by CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes in pertussis remains to be investigated.

  9. Hydrophobic photolabeling identifies BHA2 as the subunit mediating the interaction of bromelain-solubilized influenza virus hemagglutinin with liposomes at low pH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harter, C.; Baechi, T.S.; Semenza, G.; Brunner, J.

    1988-03-22

    To investigate the molecular basis of the low-pH-mediated interaction of the bromelain-solubilized ectodomain of influenza virus hemagglutinin (BHA) with membranes, we have photolabeled BHA in the presence of liposomes with the two carbene-generating, membrane-directed reagents 3-(trifluoromethyl)-3-(m-(/sup 125/I)iodophenyl)diazirine ((/sup 125/I)TID) and a new analogue of a phospholipid, 1-palmitoyl-2-(11-(4-(3-(trifluoromethyl)diazirinyl)phenyl)(2-/sup 3/H) undecanoyl)-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine ((/sup 3/H)-PTPC/11). With the latter reagent, BHA was labeled in a strictly pH-dependent manner, i.e., at pH 5 only, whereas with (/sup 125/I)TID, labeling was seen also at pH 7. In all experiments, the label was selectively incorporated into the BHA2 polypeptide, demonstrating that the interaction of BHA with membranes is mediated through this subunit, possibly via its hydrophobic N-terminal segment. Similar experiments with a number of other water-soluble proteins (ovalbumin, carbonic anhydrase, alpha-lactalbumin, trypsin, and soybean trypsin inhibitor) indicate that the ability to interact with liposomes at low pH is not a property specific for BHA but is observed with other, perhaps most, proteins.

  10. Fusion activity of influenza virus PR8/34 correlates with a temperature-induced conformational change within the hemagglutinin ectodomain detected by photochemical labeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brunner, J.; Zugliani, C. (Swiss Federal Inst. of Tech., Zuerich (Switzerland)); Mischler, R. (Swiss Serum and Vaccine Inst., Bern (Switzerland))

    1991-03-05

    Fusion of influenza viruses with membranes is catalyzed by the viral spike protein hemagglutinin (HA). Under mildly acidic conditions ({approximately}pH 5) this protein undergoes a conformational change that triggers the exposure of the fusion peptide, the hydrophobic N-terminal segment of the HA2 polypeptide chain. Insertion of this segment into the target membrane (or viral membrane ) is likely to represent a key step along the fusion pathway, but the details are far from being clear. The photoreactive phospholipid 1-palmitoyl-2-(11-(4-(3-(trifluoromethyl)diazirinyl)phenyl)(2-{sup 3}H)undecanoyl)-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (({sup 3}H)PTPC/11), inserted into the bilayer of large unilamellar vesicles (LUVs), allowed the authors to investigate both the interaction of viruses with the vesicles under perfusion conditions and the fusion process itself occurring at elevated temperatures only. Despite the observed binding of viruses to LUVs at pH 5 and 0C, labeling of HA2 was very weak. They have studied also the effect of temperature on the acid-induced (pH 5) interaction of bromelain-solubilized HA (BHA) with vesicles.

  11. Phylogenetic study-based hemagglutinin (HA) gene of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (H5N1) detected from backyard chickens in Iran, 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghafouri, Syed Ali; Langeroudi, Arash Ghalyanchi; Maghsoudloo, Hossein; Tehrani, Farshad; Khaltabadifarahani, Reza; Abdollahi, Hamed; Fallah, Mohammad Hossein

    2017-02-01

    Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses of the H5N1 subtype have been diversified into multiple phylogenetic clades over the past decade and are highly genetically variable. In June 2015, one outbreak of HPAI H5N1 in backyard chickens was reported in the Nogardan village of the Mazandaran Province. Tracheal tissues were taken from the dead domestic chickens (n = 10) and processed for RT-PCR. The positive samples (n = 10) were characterized as HPAI H5N1 by sequencing analysis for the hemagglutinin and neuraminidase genes. Phylogenetic analysis of the samples revealed that the viruses belonged to clade 2.3.2.1c, and cluster with the HPAI H5N1 viruses isolated from different avian species in Bulgaria, Romania, and Nigeria in 2015. They were not closely related to other H5N1 isolates detected in previous years in Iran. Our study provides new insights into the evolution and genesis of H5N1 influenza in Iran and has important implications for targeting surveillance efforts to rapidly identify the spread of the virus into and within Iran.

  12. Identification of Low- and High-Impact Hemagglutinin Amino Acid Substitutions That Drive Antigenic Drift of Influenza A(H1N1 Viruses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William T Harvey

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Determining phenotype from genetic data is a fundamental challenge. Identification of emerging antigenic variants among circulating influenza viruses is critical to the vaccine virus selection process, with vaccine effectiveness maximized when constituents are antigenically similar to circulating viruses. Hemagglutination inhibition (HI assay data are commonly used to assess influenza antigenicity. Here, sequence and 3-D structural information of hemagglutinin (HA glycoproteins were analyzed together with corresponding HI assay data for former seasonal influenza A(H1N1 virus isolates (1997-2009 and reference viruses. The models developed identify and quantify the impact of eighteen amino acid substitutions on the antigenicity of HA, two of which were responsible for major transitions in antigenic phenotype. We used reverse genetics to demonstrate the causal effect on antigenicity for a subset of these substitutions. Information on the impact of substitutions allowed us to predict antigenic phenotypes of emerging viruses directly from HA gene sequence data and accuracy was doubled by including all substitutions causing antigenic changes over a model incorporating only the substitutions with the largest impact. The ability to quantify the phenotypic impact of specific amino acid substitutions should help refine emerging techniques that predict the evolution of virus populations from one year to the next, leading to stronger theoretical foundations for selection of candidate vaccine viruses. These techniques have great potential to be extended to other antigenically variable pathogens.

  13. Large-scale analysis of B-cell epitopes on influenza virus hemagglutinin - implications for cross-reactivity of neutralizing antibodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing eSun

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Influenza viruses continue to cause substantial morbidity and mortality worldwide. Fast gene mutation on surface proteins of influenza virus result in increasing resistance to current vaccines and available antiviral drugs. Broadly neutralizing antibodies represent targets for prophylactic and therapeutic treatments of influenza. We performed a systematic bioinformatics study of cross-reactivity of neutralizing antibodies against influenza virus surface glycoprotein hemagglutinin (HA. This study utilized the available crystal structures of HA complexed with the antibodies for the analysis of tens of thousands of HA sequences. The detailed description of B-cell epitopes, measurement of epitope area similarity among different strains, and estimation of antibody neutralizing coverage provide insights into cross-reactivity status of existing neutralizing antibodies against influenza virus. We have developed a method to assess the likely cross-reactivity potential of broadly neutralizing antibodies for influenza strains, either newly emerged or existing. Our method catalogs influenza strains by a new concept named discontinuous peptide, and then provide assessment of cross-reactivity. Potentially cross-reactive strains are those that share 100% identity with experimentally verified neutralized strains. By cataloging influenza strains and their B-cell epitopes for known broadly neutralizing antibodies, our method provides guidance for selection of representative strains for further experimental design. The knowledge of sequences, their B-cell epitopes, and differences between historical influenza strains, we enhance our preparedness and the ability to respond to the emerging pandemic threats.

  14. Effects of plant density on recombinant hemagglutinin yields in an Agrobacterium-mediated transient gene expression system using Nicotiana benthamiana plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiuchi, Naomichi; Matsuda, Ryo; Matoba, Nobuyuki; Fujiwara, Kazuhiro

    2017-08-01

    Agrobacterium-mediated transient expression systems enable plants to rapidly produce a wide range of recombinant proteins. To achieve economically feasible upstream production and downstream processing, it is beneficial to obtain high levels of two yield-related quantities of upstream production: recombinant protein content per fresh mass of harvested biomass (g gFM -1 ) and recombinant protein productivity per unit area-time (g m -2 /month). Here, we report that the density of Nicotiana benthamiana plants during upstream production had significant impacts on the yield-related quantities of recombinant hemagglutinin (HA). The two quantities were smaller at a high plant density of 400 plants m -2 than at a low plant density of 100 plants m -2 . The smaller quantities at the high plant density were attributed to: (i) a lower HA content in young leaves, which usually have high HA accumulation potentials; (ii) a lower biomass allocation to the young leaves; and (iii) a high area-time requirement for plants. Thus, plant density is a key factor for improving upstream production in Agrobacterium-mediated transient expression systems. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2017;114: 1762-1770. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Broadly neutralizing influenza hemagglutinin stem-specific antibody CR8020 targets residues that are prone to escape due to host selection pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tharakaraman, Kannan; Subramanian, Vidya; Cain, David; Sasisekharan, Viswanathan; Sasisekharan, Ram

    2014-05-14

    Broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAb) that target a conserved region of a viral antigen hold significant therapeutic promise. CR8020 is a bNAb that targets the stem region of influenza A virus (IAV) hemagglutinin (HA). CR8020 is currently being evaluated for prophylactic use against group 2 IAVs in phase II studies. Structural and computational analyses reported here indicate that CR8020 targets HA residues that are prone to antigenic drift and host selection pressure. Critically, CR8020 escape mutation is seen in certain H7N9 viruses from recent outbreaks. Furthermore, the ability of the bNAb Fc region to effectively engage activating Fcγ receptors (FCγR) is essential for antibody efficacy. In this regard, our data indicate that the membrane could sterically hinder the formation of HA-CR8020-FcγRIIa/HA-IgG-FcγRIIIa ternary complexes. Altogether, our analyses suggest that epitope mutability and accessibility to immune complex assembly are important attributes to consider when evaluating bNAb candidates for clinical development. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Platform technology to generate broadly cross-reactive antibodies to α-helical epitopes in hemagglutinin proteins from influenza a viruses.

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    Jiang, Ziqing; Gera, Lajos; Mant, Colin T; Hirsch, Brooke; Yan, Zhe; Qian, Zhaohui; Holmes, Kathryn V; Shortt, Jonathan A; Pollock, David D; Hodges, Robert S

    2016-01-21

    We have utilized a de novo designed two-stranded α-helical coiled-coil template to display conserved α-helical epitopes from the stem region of hemagglutinin (HA) glycoproteins of influenza A. The immunogens have all the surface-exposed residues of the native α-helix in the native HA protein of interest displayed on the surface of the two-stranded α-helical coiled-coil template. This template when used as an immunogen elicits polyclonal antibodies which bind to the α-helix in the native protein. We investigated the highly conserved sequence region 421-476 of HA by inserting 21 or 28 residue sequences from this region into our template. The cross-reactivity of the resulting rabbit polyclonal antibodies prepared to these immunogens was determined using a series of HA proteins from H1N1, H2N2, H3N2, H5N1, H7N7 and H7N9 virus strains which are representative of Group 1 and Group 2 virus subtypes of influenza A. Antibodies from region 449-476 were Group 1 specific. Antibodies to region 421-448 showed the greatest degree of cross-reactivity to Group 1 and Group 2 and suggested that this region has a great potential as a "universal" synthetic peptide vaccine for influenza A. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Glycosylation Characterization of an Influenza H5N7 Hemagglutinin Series with Engineered Glycosylation Patterns: Implications for Structure-Function Relationships.

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    Parsons, Lisa M; An, Yanming; de Vries, Robert P; de Haan, Cornelis A M; Cipollo, John F

    2017-02-03

    The glycosylation patterns of four recombinant H5 hemagglutinins (HAs) derived from A/Mallard/Denmark/64650/03 (H5N7) have been characterized. The proteins were expressed in (i) HEK293T cells to produce complex glycoforms, (ii) HEK293T cells treated with Vibrio cholera neuraminidase to provide asialo-complex glycoforms, (iii) HEK293S GnTI(-) cells with predominantly the canonical Man5GlcNAc2 glycoform, and (iv) Drosophila S2 insect cells producing primarily paucimannose glycoforms. Previously, these HAs were used to investigate the effect of different glycosylation states on the immune responses in chicken and mouse systems. Evidence was found that high-mannose glycans diminished antibody response via DC-SIGN interactions. We performed two semiquantitative analyses including MALDI-TOF MS permethylation analysis of released glycans and LC-MSE analysis of glycosylation site microheterogeneity. Glycosylation site occupancy was also determined by LC-MSE. Our major findings include (1) decreasing complexity of glycosylation from the stem to the globular head, (2) absence of glycosylation at N10 and N193, (3) complex glycans at N165 in HEK293T cell HA but high mannose glycans at this site in HEK293S and S2 cells, and (4) differences between the three-dimensional structures of H3 and H5 HAs that may explain glycan type preferences at selected sites. Biological implications of the findings are discussed.

  18. Immunomodulatory Effects of Hemagglutinin- (HA- Modified A20 B-Cell Lymphoma Expanded as a Brain Tumor on Adoptively Transferred HA-Specific CD4+ T Cells

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    Valentin P. Shichkin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Previously, the mouse A20 B-cell lymphoma engineered to express hemagglutinin (HA antigen (A20HA was used as a systemic tumor model. In this work, we used the A20HA cells as a brain tumor. HA-specific CD4+ T cells were transferred intravenously in a tail vein 5 days after A20HA intracranial inoculation and analyzed on days 2, 9, and 16 after the adoptive transfer by different methods. The transferred cells demonstrated state of activation as early as day 2 after the adoptive transfer and most the of viable HA-specific cells became anergic on day 16. Additionally, symptoms of systemic immunosuppression were observed in mice with massive brain tumors at a late stage of the brain tumor progression (days 20–24 after the A20HA inoculation. Despite that, a deal of HA-specific CD4+ T cells kept the functional activity even at the late stage of A20HA tumor growth. The activated HA-specific CD4+ T cells were found also in the brain of brain-tumor-bearing mice. These cells were still responding to reactivation with HA-peptide in vitro. Our data support an idea about sufficient role of both the tumor-specific and -nonspecific mechanisms inducing immunosuppression in cancer patients.

  19. Single Dose of Consensus Hemagglutinin-Based Virus-Like Particles Vaccine Protects Chickens against Divergent H5 Subtype Influenza Viruses

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    Peipei Wu

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The H5 subtype highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI virus is one of the greatest threats to global poultry industry. To develop broadly protective H5 subunit vaccine, a recombinant consensus HA sequence (rHA was constructed and expressed in virus-like particles (rHA VLPs in the baculovirus-insect cell system. The efficacy of the rHA VLPs vaccine with or without immunopotentiator (CVCVA5 was assessed in chickens. Compared to the commercial Re6 or Re6-CVCVA5 vaccines, single dose immunization of chickens with rHA VLPs or rHA-CVCVA5 vaccines induced higher levels of serum hemagglutinin inhibition titers and neutralization titers, mucosal antibodies, IFN-γ and IL-4 cytokines in sera, and cytotoxic T lymphocyte responses. The rHA VLPs vaccine was superior to the commercial Re6 vaccine in conferring cross-protection against different clades of H5 subtype viruses. This study reports that H5 subtype consensus HA VLP single dose vaccination provides broad protection against HPAI virus in chickens.

  20. [High-yield reassortant virus containing hemagglutinin and neuraminidase genes of pandemic influenza A/Moscowl/01/2009 (H1N1) virus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ignat'eva, A V; Rudneva, I A; Timofeeva, T A; Shilov, A A; Zaberezhnyĭ, A D; Aliper, T I; Kaverin, N V; L'vov, D K

    2011-01-01

    The crossing of influenza A/Moscow/01/2009 (H1N1) virus and reassortant strain X31 (H3N2) containing the genes of internal and non-structural proteins of A/Puerto Rico/8/34 (H1N1) strain gave rise to reassortant virus ReM8. The reassortant contained hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) genes of pandemic 2009 influenza virus and 6 genes of high-yield A/Puerto Rico/8/34 (H1N1) strain. The reassortant ReM8 produced higher yields in the embryonated chicken eggs than the parent pandemic virus, as suggested by infectivity and HA activity titration as well as by ELISA and the measurement of HA protein content by scanning electrophoresis in polyacrylamide gel slabs. High immunogenicity of ReM8 reassortant was demonstrated by immune protection studies in mice. The reassortant virus ReM8 is suitable as a candidate strain for the production of inactivated and subunit influenza vaccines.

  1. Influenza virus hemagglutinin spike neck architectures and interaction with model enzymes evaluated by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry and bioinformatics tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serebryakova, Marina V; Kordyukova, Larisa V; Semashko, Tatiana A; Ksenofontov, Alexander L; Rudneva, Irina A; Kropotkina, Ekaterina A; Filippova, Irina Yu; Veit, Michael; Baratova, Lyudmila A

    2011-09-01

    Interactions between model enzymes and the influenza virus hemagglutinin (HA) homotrimeric spike were addressed. We digested influenza virions (naturally occurring strains and laboratory reassortants) with bromelain or subtilisin Carlsberg and analyzed by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry the resulting HA2 C-terminal segments. All cleavage sites, together with (minor) sites detected in undigested HAs, were situated in the linker region that connects the transmembrane domain to the ectodomain. In addition to cleavage at highly favorable amino acids, various alternative enzyme preferences were found that strongly depended on the HA subtype/type. We also evaluated the surface electrostatic potentials, binding cleft topographies and spatial dimensions of stem bromelain (homologically modeled) and subtilisin Carlsberg (X-ray resolved). The results show that the enzymes (∼45Å(3)) would hardly fit into the small (∼18-20Å) linker region of the HA-spike. However, the HA membrane proximal ectodomain region was predicted to be intrinsically disordered. We propose that its motions allow steric adjustment of the enzymes' active sites to the neck of the HA spike. The subtype/type-specific architectures in this region also influenced significantly the cleavage preferences of the enzymes. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Productive replication of avian influenza viruses in chicken endothelial cells is determined by hemagglutinin cleavability and is related to innate immune escape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lion, Adrien; Richard, Mathilde; Esnault, Evelyne; Kut, Emmanuel; Soubieux, Denis; Guillory, Vanaïque; Germond, Mélody; Blondeau, Caroline; Guabiraba, Rodrigo; Short, Kirsty R; Marc, Daniel; Quéré, Pascale; Trapp, Sascha

    2018-01-01

    Endotheliotropism is a hallmark of gallinaceous poultry infections with highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses and a feature that distinguishes HPAI from low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) viruses. Here, we used chicken aortic endothelial cells (chAEC) as a novel in vitro infection model to assess the susceptibility, permissiveness, and host response of chicken endothelial cells (EC) to infections with avian influenza (AI) viruses. Our data show that productive replication of AI viruses in chAEC is critically determined by hemagglutinin cleavability, and is thus an exclusive trait of HPAI viruses. However, we provide evidence for a link between limited (i.e. trypsin-dependent) replication of certain LPAI viruses, and the viruses' ability to dampen the antiviral innate immune response in infected chAEC. Strikingly, this cell response pattern was also detected in HPAI virus-infected chAEC, suggesting that viral innate immune escape might be a prerequisite for robust AI virus replication in chicken EC. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. The Length of N-Glycans of Recombinant H5N1 Hemagglutinin Influences the Oligomerization and Immunogenicity of Vaccine Antigen

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    Edyta Kopera

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Hemagglutinin glycoprotein (HA is a principle influenza vaccine antigen. Recombinant HA-based vaccines become a potential alternative for traditional approach. Complexity and variation of HA N-glycosylation are considered as the important factors for the vaccine design. The number and location of glycan moieties in the HA molecule are also crucial. Therefore, we decided to study the effect of N-glycosylation pattern on the H5 antigen structure and its ability to induce immunological response. We also decided to change neither the number nor the position of the HA glycosylation sites but only the glycan length. Two variants of the H5 antigen with high mannose glycosylation (H5hm and with low-mannose glycosylation (H5Man5 were prepared utilizing different Pichia strains. Our structural studies demonstrated that only the highly glycosylated H5 antigen formed high molecular weight oligomers similar to viral particles. Further, the H5hm was much more immunogenic for mice than H5Man5. In summary, our results suggest that high mannose glycosylation of vaccine antigen is superior to the low glycosylation pattern. Our findings have strong implications for the recombinant HA-based influenza vaccine design.

  4. Production of an enzymatically active and immunogenic form of ectodomain of Porcine rubulavirus hemagglutinin-neuraminidase in the yeast Pichia pastoris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerriteño-Sánchez, José Luis; Santos-López, Gerardo; Rosas-Murrieta, Nora Hilda; Reyes-Leyva, Julio; Cuevas-Romero, Sandra; Herrera-Camacho, Irma

    2016-04-10

    Blue-eye disease (BED) of swine is a viral disease endemic in Mexico. The etiological agent is a paramyxovirus classified as Porcine rubulavirus (PoRV-LPMV), which exhibits in its envelope the hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) glycoprotein, the most immunogenic and a major target for vaccine development. We report in this study the obtaining of ectodomain of PoRV HN (eHN) through the Pichia pastoris expression system. The expression vector (pPICZαB-HN) was integrated by displacement into the yeast chromosome and resulted in a Mut(+) phenotype. Expressed eHN in the P. pastoris X33 strain was recovered from cell-free medium, featuring up to 67 nmol/min/mg after 6 days of expression. eHN was recognized by the serum of infected pigs with strains currently circulating in the Mexican Bajio region. eHN induces antibodies in mice after 28 days of immunization with specific recognition in ELISA test. These antibodies were able to inhibit >80% replication by viral neutralization assays in cell culture. These studies show the obtaining of a protein with similar characteristics to the native HN and which may be a candidate to propose a vaccine or to use the antigen in a serologic diagnostic test. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Improvement of H5N1 influenza vaccine viruses: influence of internal gene segments of avian and human origin on production and hemagglutinin content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abt, Marion; de Jonge, Jørgen; Laue, Michael; Wolff, Thorsten

    2011-07-18

    The H5N1-clade 1 influenza vaccine strain NIBRG-14 produces exceptionally low amounts of antigen, a problem recently encountered also for initial pandemic H1N1-2009 vaccine seeds. Here, we report on a strategy that may contribute to overcome this obstacle. Influenza vaccine viruses usually consist of two segments coding for the antigenic HA and NA proteins of a wild-type strain and the six residual internal gene segments of the vaccine donor strain A/PR/8/34 (PR8). To enhance the antigen yield from H5N1 vaccine virus we generated by reverse genetics a set of PR8-based reassortant viruses expressing the HA and NA segments of the prototypic strain A/Vietnam/1203/2004 and additional replacements of the internal M or PB1 genes of PR8. The reassortants were compared to the parental PR8 and H5N1 viruses in terms of growth in embryonated chicken eggs and the amount of incorporated antigenic HA protein. Compared to NIBRG-14, three out of six viruses displayed an increased replication in embryonated chicken eggs and higher HA content that was also maintained after ether/detergent extraction of virions. Electron microscopic analysis showed that the reassortment hardly affected particle shape and size. Two selected H5N1 reassortant viruses were investigated concerning their pathogenicity in ferrets and found to behave as low pathogenic as the PR8 donor strain. In conclusion, this study shows that replication and antigen content of PR8-derived H5N1 influenza vaccine viruses can be improved by incorporation of heterologous internal gene segments without compromising their attenuated character. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Dual function of the hemagglutinin H5 fused to chicken CD154 in a potential strategy of DIVA against avian influenza disease: preliminary study

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    A.G. Pose

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study we demonstrated that the vaccine candidate against avian influenza virus H5N1 based on the hemagglutinin H5 (HA fused to the chicken CD154 (HACD can also be used for differentiating infected from vaccinated animals (DIVA. As the strategy of DIVA requires at least two proteins, we obtained a variant of the nucleoprotein (NP49-375 in E. coli. After its purification by IMAC, the competence of the proteins NP49-375 and HACD as coating antigens in indirect ELISA assays were tested by using the sera of chickens immunized with the proteins HA and HACD and the reference sera from several avian influenza subtypes. Together with these sera, the sera from different species of birds and the sera of chickens infected with other avian viral diseases were analyzed by competition ELISA assays coated with the proteins NP49-375 and HACD. The results showed that the segment CD154 in the chimeric protein HACD did not interfere with the recognition of the molecule HA by its specific antibodies. Also, we observed variable detection levels when the reference sera were analyzed in the ELISA plates coated with the protein NP49-375. Moreover, only the antibodies of the reference serum subtype H5 were detected in the ELISA plates coated with the protein HACD. The competition ELISA assays showed percentages of inhibition of 88-91% for the positives sera and less than 20% for the negative sera. We fixed the cut-off value of these assays at 25%. No antibody detection was observed in the sera from different species of birds or the sera of chickens infected with other avian viral diseases. This study supported the fact that the ELISA assays using the proteins NP49-375 and HACD could be valuable tools for avian influenza surveillance and as a strategy of DIVA for counteracting the highly pathogenic avian influenza virus H5N1 outbreaks.

  7. B cell response and hemagglutinin stalk-reactive antibody production in different age cohorts following 2009 H1N1 influenza virus vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangster, Mark Y; Baer, Jane; Santiago, Felix W; Fitzgerald, Theresa; Ilyushina, Natalia A; Sundararajan, Aarthi; Henn, Alicia D; Krammer, Florian; Yang, Hongmei; Luke, Catherine J; Zand, Martin S; Wright, Peter F; Treanor, John J; Topham, David J; Subbarao, Kanta

    2013-06-01

    The 2009 pandemic H1N1 (pH1N1) influenza virus carried a swine-origin hemagglutinin (HA) that was closely related to the HAs of pre-1947 H1N1 viruses but highly divergent from the HAs of recently circulating H1N1 strains. Consequently, prior exposure to pH1N1-like viruses was mostly limited to individuals over the age of about 60 years. We related age and associated differences in immune history to the B cell response to an inactivated monovalent pH1N1 vaccine given intramuscularly to subjects in three age cohorts: 18 to 32 years, 60 to 69 years, and ≥70 years. The day 0 pH1N1-specific hemagglutination inhibition (HAI) and microneutralization (MN) titers were generally higher in the older cohorts, consistent with greater prevaccination exposure to pH1N1-like viruses. Most subjects in each cohort responded well to vaccination, with early formation of circulating virus-specific antibody (Ab)-secreting cells and ≥4-fold increases in HAI and MN titers. However, the response was strongest in the 18- to 32-year cohort. Circulating levels of HA stalk-reactive Abs were increased after vaccination, especially in the 18- to 32-year cohort, raising the possibility of elevated levels of cross-reactive neutralizing Abs. In the young cohort, an increase in MN activity against the seasonal influenza virus A/Brisbane/59/07 after vaccination was generally associated with an increase in the anti-Brisbane/59/07 HAI titer, suggesting an effect mediated primarily by HA head-reactive rather than stalk-reactive Abs. Our findings support recent proposals that immunization with a relatively novel HA favors the induction of Abs against conserved epitopes. They also emphasize the need to clarify how the level of circulating stalk-reactive Abs relates to resistance to influenza.

  8. Partial Protection against Porcine Influenza A Virus by a Hemagglutinin-Expressing Virus Replicon Particle Vaccine in the Absence of Neutralizing Antibodies.

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    Ricklin, Meret E; Vielle, Nathalie J; Python, Sylvie; Brechbühl, Daniel; Zumkehr, Beatrice; Posthaus, Horst; Zimmer, Gert; Summerfield, Artur

    2016-01-01

    This work was initiated by previous reports demonstrating that mismatched influenza A virus (IAV) vaccines can induce enhanced disease, probably mediated by antibodies. Our aim was, therefore, to investigate if a vaccine inducing opsonizing but not neutralizing antibodies against the hemagglutinin (HA) of a selected heterologous challenge virus would enhance disease or induce protective immune responses in the pig model. To this end, we immunized pigs with either whole inactivated virus (WIV)-vaccine or HA-expressing virus replicon particles (VRP) vaccine based on recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV). Both types of vaccines induced virus neutralizing and opsonizing antibodies against homologous virus as shown by a highly sensitive plasmacytoid dendritic cell-based opsonization assay. Opsonizing antibodies showed a broader reactivity against heterologous IAV compared with neutralizing antibodies. Pigs immunized with HA-recombinant VRP vaccine were partially protected from infection with a mismatched IAV, which was not neutralized but opsonized by the immune sera. The VRP vaccine reduced lung lesions, lung inflammatory cytokine responses, serum IFN-α responses, and viral loads in the airways. Only the VRP vaccine was able to prime IAV-specific IFNγ/TNFα dual secreting CD4(+) T cells detectable in the peripheral blood. In summary, this work demonstrates that with the virus pair selected, a WIV vaccine inducing opsonizing antibodies against HA which lack neutralizing activity, is neither protective nor does it induce enhanced disease in pigs. In contrast, VRP-expressing HA is efficacious vaccines in swine as they induced both potent antibodies and T-cell immunity resulting in a broader protective value.

  9. Chimeric Bovine Respiratory Syncytial Virus with Attachment and Fusion Glycoproteins Replaced by Bovine Parainfluenza Virus Type 3 Hemagglutinin-Neuraminidase and Fusion Proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stope, Matthias B.; Karger, Axel; Schmidt, Ulrike; Buchholz, Ursula J.

    2001-01-01

    Chimeric bovine respiratory syncytial viruses (BRSV) expressing glycoproteins of bovine parainfluenza virus type 3 (BPIV-3) instead of BRSV glycoproteins were generated from cDNA. In the BRSV antigenome cDNA, the open reading frames of the major BRSV glycoproteins, attachment protein G and fusion protein F, were replaced individually or together by those of the BPIV-3 hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) and/or fusion (F) glycoproteins. Recombinant virus could not be recovered from cDNA when the BRSV F open reading frame was replaced by the BPIV-3 F open reading frame. However, cDNA recovery of the chimeric virus rBRSV-HNF, with both glycoproteins replaced simultaneously, and of the chimeric virus rBRSV-HN, with the BRSV G protein replaced by BPIV-3 HN, was successful. The replication rates of both chimeras were similar to that of standard rBRSV. Moreover, rBRSV-HNF was neutralized by antibodies specific for BPIV-3, but not by antibodies specific to BRSV, demonstrating that the BRSV glycoproteins can be functionally replaced by BPIV-3 glycoproteins. In contrast, rBRSV-HN was neutralized by BRSV-specific antisera, but not by BPIV-3 specific sera, showing that infection of rBRSV-HN is mediated by BRSV F. Hemadsorption of cells infected with rBRSV-HNF and rBRSV-HN proved that BPIV-3 HN protein expressed by rBRSV is functional. Colocalization of the BPIV-3 glycoproteins with BRSV M protein was demonstrated by confocal laser scan microscopy. Moreover, protein analysis revealed that the BPIV-3 glycoproteins were present in chimeric virions. Taken together, these data indicate that the heterologous glycoproteins were not only expressed but were incorporated into the envelope of recombinant BRSV. Thus, the envelope glycoproteins derived from a member of the Respirovirus genus can together functionally replace their homologs in a Pneumovirus background. PMID:11533200

  10. H3N2 influenza infection elicits more cross-reactive and less clonally expanded anti-hemagglutinin antibodies than influenza vaccination.

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    M Anthony Moody

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: During the recent H1N1 influenza pandemic, excess morbidity and mortality was seen in young but not older adults suggesting that prior infection with influenza strains may have protected older subjects. In contrast, a history of recent seasonal trivalent vaccine in younger adults was not associated with protection. METHODS AND FINDINGS: To study hemagglutinin (HA antibody responses in influenza immunization and infection, we have studied the day 7 plasma cell repertoires of subjects immunized with seasonal trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine (TIV and compared them to the plasma cell repertoires of subjects experimentally infected (EI with influenza H3N2 A/Wisconsin/67/2005. The majority of circulating plasma cells after TIV produced influenza-specific antibodies, while most plasma cells after EI produced antibodies that did not react with influenza HA. While anti-HA antibodies from TIV subjects were primarily reactive with single or few HA strains, anti-HA antibodies from EI subjects were isolated that reacted with multiple HA strains. Plasma cell-derived anti-HA antibodies from TIV subjects showed more evidence of clonal expansion compared with antibodies from EI subjects. From an H3N2-infected subject, we isolated a 4-member clonal lineage of broadly cross-reactive antibodies that bound to multiple HA subtypes and neutralized both H1N1 and H3N2 viruses. This broad reactivity was not detected in post-infection plasma suggesting this broadly reactive clonal lineage was not immunodominant in this subject. CONCLUSION: The presence of broadly reactive subdominant antibody responses in some EI subjects suggests that improved vaccine designs that make broadly reactive antibody responses immunodominant could protect against novel influenza strains.

  11. H3N2 Influenza Infection Elicits More Cross-Reactive and Less Clonally Expanded Anti-Hemagglutinin Antibodies Than Influenza Vaccination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Emmanuel B.; Woods, Christopher W.; Ginsburg, Geoffrey S.; McClain, Micah T.; Denny, Thomas N.; Chen, Xi; Munshaw, Supriya; Marshall, Dawn J.; Whitesides, John F.; Drinker, Mark S.; Amos, Joshua D.; Gurley, Thaddeus C.; Eudailey, Joshua A.; Foulger, Andrew; DeRosa, Katherine R.; Parks, Robert; Meyerhoff, R. Ryan; Yu, Jae-Sung; Kozink, Daniel M.; Barefoot, Brice E.; Ramsburg, Elizabeth A.; Khurana, Surender; Golding, Hana; Vandergrift, Nathan A.; Alam, S. Munir; Tomaras, Georgia D.; Kepler, Thomas B.; Kelsoe, Garnett; Liao, Hua-Xin; Haynes, Barton F.

    2011-01-01

    Background During the recent H1N1 influenza pandemic, excess morbidity and mortality was seen in young but not older adults suggesting that prior infection with influenza strains may have protected older subjects. In contrast, a history of recent seasonal trivalent vaccine in younger adults was not associated with protection. Methods and Findings To study hemagglutinin (HA) antibody responses in influenza immunization and infection, we have studied the day 7 plasma cell repertoires of subjects immunized with seasonal trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine (TIV) and compared them to the plasma cell repertoires of subjects experimentally infected (EI) with influenza H3N2 A/Wisconsin/67/2005. The majority of circulating plasma cells after TIV produced influenza-specific antibodies, while most plasma cells after EI produced antibodies that did not react with influenza HA. While anti-HA antibodies from TIV subjects were primarily reactive with single or few HA strains, anti-HA antibodies from EI subjects were isolated that reacted with multiple HA strains. Plasma cell-derived anti-HA antibodies from TIV subjects showed more evidence of clonal expansion compared with antibodies from EI subjects. From an H3N2-infected subject, we isolated a 4-member clonal lineage of broadly cross-reactive antibodies that bound to multiple HA subtypes and neutralized both H1N1 and H3N2 viruses. This broad reactivity was not detected in post-infection plasma suggesting this broadly reactive clonal lineage was not immunodominant in this subject. Conclusion The presence of broadly reactive subdominant antibody responses in some EI subjects suggests that improved vaccine designs that make broadly reactive antibody responses immunodominant could protect against novel influenza strains. PMID:22039424

  12. Subtyping of avian influenza viruses H1 to H15 on the basis of hemagglutinin genes by PCR assay and molecular determination of pathogenic potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsukamoto, Kenji; Ashizawa, Hisayoshi; Nakanishi, Koji; Kaji, Noriyuki; Suzuki, Kotaro; Okamatsu, Masatoshi; Yamaguchi, Shigeo; Mase, Masaji

    2008-09-01

    Serious concern about the worldwide transmission of the Asian H5N1 highly pathogenic (HP) avian influenza (AI) virus by migratory birds surrounds the importance of the AI global surveillance in wild aquatic birds and underscores the requirement for a reliable subtyping method of AI viruses. PCR is advantageous due to its simplicity, lower cross-reactivity, and unlimited reagent supply. Currently, the only available hemagglutinin (HA) subtyping primer set that can subtype H1 through H15 is not fully evaluated and, since it only targets HA1, is unavailable for molecular pathotyping of AI viruses. Our preliminary experiments found that these primer sets were cross-reactive and missed some recent AI viruses. In this study, we developed new primer sets against HA cleavage sites for subtyping H1 to H15 genes and for molecular pathotyping. Our primer sets were subtype specific and detected 99% of previously identified HA genes (115/116, 1949 to March 2006), and the correct amplifications of HA genes were confirmed by sequence analyses of all 115 PCR products. The primer sets successfully subtyped most of the recent AI viruses isolated in Japan (96% [101/105], October 2006 to March 2007). Taken together, our primer sets could efficiently detect HA genes (98% [216/221]) of both previously and recently identified HA genes or of both American (29/29) and Eurasian (187/192) lineages. All 38 H5 and 13 H7 viruses were molecularly pathotyped by sequencing analyses of the HA cleavage site. In contrast, despite efficient detection of previously identified strains (98% [114/116]), the published primer sets exhibited lower specificity and lower detection efficiency against recent AI viruses (80% [84 of 105]). These results indicate that our primers are useful not only for HA subtyping but also for molecular pathotyping of both previous and recent AI viruses. These advancements will enable general diagnostic laboratories to subtype AI viruses for the surveillance in wild aquatic birds.

  13. Subtyping of Avian Influenza Viruses H1 to H15 on the Basis of Hemagglutinin Genes by PCR Assay and Molecular Determination of Pathogenic Potential▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsukamoto, Kenji; Ashizawa, Hisayoshi; Nakanishi, Koji; Kaji, Noriyuki; Suzuki, Kotaro; Okamatsu, Masatoshi; Yamaguchi, Shigeo; Mase, Masaji

    2008-01-01

    Serious concern about the worldwide transmission of the Asian H5N1 highly pathogenic (HP) avian influenza (AI) virus by migratory birds surrounds the importance of the AI global surveillance in wild aquatic birds and underscores the requirement for a reliable subtyping method of AI viruses. PCR is advantageous due to its simplicity, lower cross-reactivity, and unlimited reagent supply. Currently, the only available hemagglutinin (HA) subtyping primer set that can subtype H1 through H15 is not fully evaluated and, since it only targets HA1, is unavailable for molecular pathotyping of AI viruses. Our preliminary experiments found that these primer sets were cross-reactive and missed some recent AI viruses. In this study, we developed new primer sets against HA cleavage sites for subtyping H1 to H15 genes and for molecular pathotyping. Our primer sets were subtype specific and detected 99% of previously identified HA genes (115/116, 1949 to March 2006), and the correct amplifications of HA genes were confirmed by sequence analyses of all 115 PCR products. The primer sets successfully subtyped most of the recent AI viruses isolated in Japan (96% [101/105], October 2006 to March 2007). Taken together, our primer sets could efficiently detect HA genes (98% [216/221]) of both previously and recently identified HA genes or of both American (29/29) and Eurasian (187/192) lineages. All 38 H5 and 13 H7 viruses were molecularly pathotyped by sequencing analyses of the HA cleavage site. In contrast, despite efficient detection of previously identified strains (98% [114/116]), the published primer sets exhibited lower specificity and lower detection efficiency against recent AI viruses (80% [84 of 105]). These results indicate that our primers are useful not only for HA subtyping but also for molecular pathotyping of both previous and recent AI viruses. These advancements will enable general diagnostic laboratories to subtype AI viruses for the surveillance in wild aquatic birds

  14. Immunization with a hemagglutinin-derived synthetic peptide formulated with a CpG-DNA-liposome complex induced protection against lethal influenza virus infection in mice.

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    Jae Won Rhee

    Full Text Available Whole-virus vaccines, including inactivated or live-attenuated influenza vaccines, have been conventionally developed and supported as a prophylaxis. These currently available virus-based influenza vaccines are widely used in the clinic, but the vaccine production takes a long time and a huge number of embryonated chicken eggs. To overcome the imperfection of egg-based influenza vaccines, epitope-based peptide vaccines have been studied as an alternative approach. Here, we formulated an efficacious peptide vaccine without carriers using phosphodiester CpG-DNA and a special liposome complex. Potential epitope peptides predicted from the hemagglutinin (HA protein of the H5N1 A/Viet Nam/1203/2004 strain (NCBI database, AAW80717 were used to immunize mice along with phosphodiester CpG-DNA co-encapsulated in a phosphatidyl-β-oleoyl-γ-palmitoyl ethanolamine (DOPE:cholesterol hemisuccinate (CHEMS complex (Lipoplex(O without carriers. We identified a B cell epitope peptide (hH5N1 HA233 epitope, 14 amino acids that can potently induce epitope-specific antibodies. Furthermore, immunization with a complex of the B cell epitope and Lipoplex(O completely protects mice challenged with a lethal dose of recombinant H5N1 virus. These results suggest that our improved peptide vaccine technology can be promptly applied to vaccine development against pandemic influenza. Furthermore our results suggest that potent epitopes, which cannot be easily found using proteins or a virus as an antigen, can be screened when we use a complex of peptide epitopes and Lipoplex(O.

  15. Identification of Influenza A/PR/8/34 Donor Viruses Imparting High Hemagglutinin Yields to Candidate Vaccine Viruses in Eggs.

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    Adam Johnson

    Full Text Available One of the important lessons learned from the 2009 H1N1 pandemic is that a high yield influenza vaccine virus is essential for efficient and timely production of pandemic vaccines in eggs. The current seasonal and pre-pandemic vaccine viruses are generated either by classical reassortment or reverse genetics. Both approaches utilize a high growth virus, generally A/Puerto Rico/8/1934 (PR8, as the donor of all or most of the internal genes, and the wild type virus recommended for inclusion in the vaccine to contribute the hemagglutinin (HA and neuraminidase (NA genes encoding the surface glycoproteins. As a result of extensive adaptation through sequential egg passaging, PR8 viruses with different gene sequences and high growth properties have been selected at different laboratories in past decades. The effect of these related but distinct internal PR8 genes on the growth of vaccine viruses in eggs has not been examined previously. Here, we use reverse genetics to analyze systematically the growth and HA antigen yield of reassortant viruses with 3 different PR8 backbones. A panel of 9 different HA/NA gene pairs in combination with each of the 3 different lineages of PR8 internal genes (27 reassortant viruses was generated to evaluate their performance. Virus and HA yield assays showed that the PR8 internal genes influence HA yields in most subtypes. Although no single PR8 internal gene set outperformed the others in all candidate vaccine viruses, a combination of specific PR8 backbone with individual HA/NA pairs demonstrated improved HA yield and consequently the speed of vaccine production. These findings may be important both for production of seasonal vaccines and for a rapid global vaccine response during a pandemic.

  16. Identification of Influenza A/PR/8/34 Donor Viruses Imparting High Hemagglutinin Yields to Candidate Vaccine Viruses in Eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Adam; Chen, Li-Mei; Winne, Emily; Santana, Wanda; Metcalfe, Maureen G; Mateu-Petit, Guaniri; Ridenour, Callie; Hossain, M Jaber; Villanueva, Julie; Zaki, Sherif R; Williams, Tracie L; Cox, Nancy J; Barr, John R; Donis, Ruben O

    2015-01-01

    One of the important lessons learned from the 2009 H1N1 pandemic is that a high yield influenza vaccine virus is essential for efficient and timely production of pandemic vaccines in eggs. The current seasonal and pre-pandemic vaccine viruses are generated either by classical reassortment or reverse genetics. Both approaches utilize a high growth virus, generally A/Puerto Rico/8/1934 (PR8), as the donor of all or most of the internal genes, and the wild type virus recommended for inclusion in the vaccine to contribute the hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) genes encoding the surface glycoproteins. As a result of extensive adaptation through sequential egg passaging, PR8 viruses with different gene sequences and high growth properties have been selected at different laboratories in past decades. The effect of these related but distinct internal PR8 genes on the growth of vaccine viruses in eggs has not been examined previously. Here, we use reverse genetics to analyze systematically the growth and HA antigen yield of reassortant viruses with 3 different PR8 backbones. A panel of 9 different HA/NA gene pairs in combination with each of the 3 different lineages of PR8 internal genes (27 reassortant viruses) was generated to evaluate their performance. Virus and HA yield assays showed that the PR8 internal genes influence HA yields in most subtypes. Although no single PR8 internal gene set outperformed the others in all candidate vaccine viruses, a combination of specific PR8 backbone with individual HA/NA pairs demonstrated improved HA yield and consequently the speed of vaccine production. These findings may be important both for production of seasonal vaccines and for a rapid global vaccine response during a pandemic.

  17. The breadth of cross sub-type neutralisation activity of a single domain antibody to influenza hemagglutinin can be increased by antibody valency.

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    Simon E Hufton

    Full Text Available The response to the 2009 A(H1N1 influenza pandemic has highlighted the need for additional strategies for intervention which preclude the prior availability of the influenza strain. Here, 18 single domain VHH antibodies against the 2009 A(H1N1 hemagglutinin (HA have been isolated from a immune alpaca phage displayed library. These antibodies have been grouped as having either (i non-neutralising, (ii H1N1 restricted neutralising or (iii broad cross-subtype neutralising activity. The ability to neutralise different viral subtypes, including highly pathogenic avian influenza (H5N1, correlated with the absence of hemagglutination inhibition activity, loss of binding to HA at acid pH and the absence of binding to the head domain containing the receptor binding site. This data supports their binding to epitopes in the HA stem region and a mechanism of action other than blocking viral attachment to cell surface receptors. After conversion of cross-neutralising antibodies R1a-B6 and R1a-A5 into a bivalent format, no significant enhancement in neutralisation activity was seen against A(H1N1 and A(H5N1 viruses. However, bivalent R1a-B6 showed an 18 fold enhancement in potency against A(H9N2 virus and, surprisingly, gained the ability to neutralise an A(H2N2 virus. This demonstrates that cross-neutralising antibodies, which make lower affinity interactions with the membrane proximal stem region of more divergent HA sub-types, can be optimised by bivalency so increasing their breadth of anti-viral activity. The broad neutralising activity and favourable characteristics, such as high stability, simple engineering into bivalent molecules and low cost production make these single domain antibodies attractive candidates for diagnostics and immunotherapy of pandemic influenza.

  18. Identification of potential B cell epitope determinants by computer techniques, in hemagglutinin-neuraminidase from the porcine rubulavirus La Piedad Michoacan.

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    Zenteno-Cuevas, Roberto; Huerta-Yepez, Sara; Reyes-Leyva, Julio; Hernández-Jáuregui, Pablo; González-Bonilla, Cesar; Ramírez-Mendoza, Humberto; Agundis, Concepción; Zenteno, Edgar

    2007-01-01

    Hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) from porcine rubulavirus La Piedad Michoacan (RvpLPM) is one of the most antigenic proteins known, and is responsible for virus-host cell interaction. We analyzed the amino acid sequence of HN, using computer-assisted techniques to identify B cell epitopes. From a pool of 18 possible antigenic peptides, we evaluated the antigenicity of the 2 peptides with the highest scores and the 1 with lowest score. Antibodies from RvpLPM-infected pigs recognized the synthesized HN-A, HN-B, and HN-R peptides (optical density [OD]: 0.33 +/- 0.02 for HN-A, 0.20 +/- 0.02 for HN-B, and 0.07 +/- 0.01 for HN-R); bovine serum albumin-coupled HN-A and HN-B induced rabbit anti-RvpLPM antibodies (OD: 0.39 +/- 0.01 for HN-A and 0.35 +/- 0.02 for HN-B). Loop 5 from the outer membrane protein, OmpC, from Salmonella typhi was replaced with HN-B; this protein was then expressed in Escherichia coli UH302. BALB/c mice were challenged intraperitoneally or orogastrically with the fusion protein expressed in E. coli and murine antibodies obtained from both types of administration inhibited virus-hemagglutinating activity, as did the antibodies from RvpLPM-infected swine. These results suggest that HN-A and HN-B are peptides involved in RvpLPM cell carbohydrate recognition, and could therefore be considered potential targets for vaccine and diagnostic procedures development.

  19. Glycan analysis in cell culture-based influenza vaccine production: influence of host cell line and virus strain on the glycosylation pattern of viral hemagglutinin.

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    Schwarzer, Jana; Rapp, Erdmann; Hennig, René; Genzel, Yvonne; Jordan, Ingo; Sandig, Volker; Reichl, Udo

    2009-07-09

    Mammalian cell culture processes are commonly used for production of recombinant glycoproteins, antibodies and viral vaccines. Since several years there is an increasing interest in cell culture-based influenza vaccine production to overcome limitations of egg-based production systems, to improve vaccine supply and to increase flexibility in vaccine manufacturing. With the switch of the production system several key questions concerning the possible impact of host cell lines on antigen quality, passage-dependent selection of certain viral phenotypes or changes in hemagglutinin (HA) conformation have to be addressed to guarantee safety and efficiency of vaccines. In contrast to the production of recombinant glycoproteins, comparatively little is known regarding glycosylation of HA, derived from mammalian cell cultures. Within this study, a capillary DNA-sequencer (based on CGE-LIF technology), was utilized for N-glycan analysis of three different influenza virus strains, which were replicated in six different cell lines. Detailed results concerning the influence of the host cell line on complexity and composition of the HA N-glycosylation pattern, are presented. Strong host cell but also virus type and subtype dependence of HA N-glycosylation was found. Clear differences were already observed, by N-glycan fingerprint comparison. Further structural investigations of the N-glycan pools revealed that host cell dependence of HA N-glycosylation was mainly related to minor variations of the (monomeric) constitution of single N-glycans. To some extent, shifts in the N-glycan pool composition regarding the proportion of different N-glycan types were observed. In contrast to this, a principal switch of the N-glycan type attached to HA was observed when comparing different virus types (A and B) and subtypes (H1N1 and H3N2).

  20. Composition of hemagglutinin and neuraminidase affects the antigen yield of influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 candidate vaccine viruses.

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    Shirakura, Masayuki; Kawaguchi, Akira; Tashiro, Masato; Nobusawa, Eri

    2013-01-01

    To improve the hemagglutinin (HA) antigen yield of influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 candidate vaccine viruses, we generated 7:1, 6:2, and 5:3 genetic reassortant viruses between wild-type (H1N1)pdm09 (A/California/7/2009) (Cal7) and a high-yielding master virus, A/Puerto Rico/8/34 (PR8). These viruses contained the HA; HA and neuraminidase (NA); and HA, NA, and M genes, respectively, derived from Cal7, on a PR8 backbone. The influence of the amino acid residue at position 223 in Cal7 HA on virus growth and HA antigen yield differed between these reassortant viruses. NIIDRG-7, a 7:1 virus possessing arginine at position 223, exhibited a 10-fold higher 50% egg infectious dose (EID(50)) (10.0 log(10)EID(50)/ml) than the 5:3 and 6:2 viruses. It also had 1.5- to 3-fold higher protein (13.8 μg/ml of allantoic fluids) and HA antigen (4.1 μg/ml of allantoic fluids) yields than the 5:3 and 6:2 viruses, which possessed identical Cal7 HA proteins. However, the HA antigen yield of the other 7:1 virus, which possessed glutamine at position 223 was 60% of that of NIIDRG-7. In addition, a novel 6:2 virus possessing Cal7 HA and the NA of A/Wisconsin/10/98 (a triple reassortant swine-like H1N1 virus), produced 107% of the HA yield of NIIDRG-7. In this study, we showed that the balance between HA and NA in the influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 virus affects its protein and antigen yield.

  1. Production of polyclonal antibody against Tehran strain influenza virus (A/H1N1/2009 hemagglutinin conserved domain (HA2: brief report

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    Somayeh Zamani

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: The influenza virus is one of the most important factors for higher morbidity and mortality in the world. Recently, researchers have been focused on influenza conserved antigenic proteins such as hemagglutinin stalk domain (HA2 for vaccine production and serological studies. The HA2 plays a major role in the fusion of the virus with host cells membrane. The immunity system enables to produce antibody against HA2. The aim of this study is polyclonal antibody production against influenza HA2. Methods: This study was done in the Influenza Research Lab, Pasteur Institute of Iran, Tehran for one year from September 2013 to October 2014. In the present study, recombinant HA2 protein was produced in prokaryotic system and purified using Nickel affinity chromatography. The purified HA2 was mixed with Freund’s adjuvant (complete and incomplete and injected into two New Zealand white rabbits by intramuscularly and subcutaneously routes. Immunization was continued for several months with two weeks interval. Before each immunization, blood was drawn by venous puncture from the rabbit ear. Function of rabbit's sera was evaluated using radial immunodiffusion (RID in both forms, Single RID (SRID and Double RID (DRID. Finally, antiserum activity against HA2 was evaluated using western blotting as serological assay. Results: Sedimentary line and zone was observed in RID assays (SRID and DRID represent interaction between HA2 protein and anti- HA2 antibody. As well as, western blotting results was positive for HA2 protein. Therefore, these results showed that polyclonal antibody produced against HA2 protein can identify HA2 protein antigenic sites. Conclusion: These findings show that humoral immune responses have properly been stimulated in rabbits and these antibodies can identify HA2 protein and may be suitable for other serological methods.

  2. Removal of bacterial suspension water occupying the intercellular space of detached leaves after agroinfiltration improves the yield of recombinant hemagglutinin in a Nicotiana benthamiana transient gene expression system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiuchi, Naomichi; Matsuda, Ryo; Matoba, Nobuyuki; Fujiwara, Kazuhiro

    2016-04-01

    The use of detached leaves instead of whole plants provides an alternative means for recombinant protein production based on Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transient gene overexpression. However, the process for high-level protein production in detached leaves has not yet been established. In this study, we focused on leaf handling and maintenance conditions immediately after infiltration with Agrobacterium suspension (agroinfiltration) to improve recombinant protein expression in detached Nicotiana benthamiana leaves. We demonstrated that the residual water of bacterial suspension in detached leaves had significant impact on the yield of recombinant influenza hemagglutinin (HA). Immediately after agroinfiltration, detached leaves were stored in a dehumidified chamber to allow bacterial suspension water occupying intercellular space to be removed by transpiration. We varied the duration of this water removal treatment from 0.7 to 4.4 h, which resulted in leaf fresh weights ranging from 0.94 to 1.28 g g(-1) relative to weights measured just before agroinfiltration. We used these relative fresh weights (RFWs) as an indicator of the amount of residual water. The detached leaves were then incubated in humidified chambers for 6 days. We found that the presence of residual water significantly decreased HA yield, with a clear inverse correlation observed between HA yield and RFW. We next compared HA yields in detached leaves with those obtained from intact leaves by whole-plant expression performed at the same time. The maximum HA yield obtained from a detached leaf with a RFW of approximately 1.0, namely, 800 μg gFW(-1), was comparable to the mean HA yield of 846 μg gFW(-1) generated in intact leaves. Our results indicate the necessity of removing bacterial suspension water from agroinfiltrated detached leaves in transient overexpression systems and point to a critical factor enabling the detached-leaf system as a viable recombinant protein factory.

  3. Evaluation of an immunoglobulin G enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for pertussis toxin and filamentous hemagglutinin in diagnosis of pertussis in Senegal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simondon, F; Iteman, I; Preziosi, M P; Yam, A; Guiso, N

    1998-03-01

    The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay is widely employed for the serological diagnosis of pertussis. It is generally concluded that a significant increase in specific immunoglobulin G (IgG) or IgA against the pertussis toxin (PT) or against filamentous hemagglutinin (FHA) in paired sera correlates with Bordetella pertussis infection. However, this type of diagnosis of pertussis has mainly been applied to unvaccinated children, with timely sampling of acute- and convalescent-phase sera. In current practice and in epidemiological studies, such criteria are not always fulfilled. The aim of this study was to analyze the significance of decreases in IgG antibody titers against PT and FHA between paired sera observed in suspected cases of pertussis infection. Serological results from paired sera were available for 460 children experiencing at least 8 days of cough. An anti-PT IgG decrease was observed in 25% of the children, more frequently than the anti-FHA IgG decrease. Fourteen percent of the serologic decreases were observed in children with culture-confirmed infection, and 59% of the decreases were observed in children with confirmation criteria according to World Health Organization recommendations. Most of the decreases were observed when serum samples were collected according to a standard recommended schedule. Serologic decreases were observed more frequently among vaccinated children than among unvaccinated children. This difference, which was highly significant (P < 0.00001), was explained by the different kinetics of the antibody responses between vaccinated and unvaccinated children. The importance of the antibody response for the evaluation of vaccine efficacy, namely a bias toward higher absolute vaccine efficacy when this response is not taken into account, is discussed. This study supports an earlier recommendation that a significant decrease in PT or FHA should be added to the diagnostic criteria for pertussis.

  4. Dual Roles of the Hemagglutinin Segment-Specific Noncoding Nucleotides in the Extended Duplex Region of the Influenza A Virus RNA Promoter.

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    Wang, Jingfeng; Li, Jinghua; Zhao, Lili; Cao, Mengmeng; Deng, Tao

    2017-01-01

    We recently reported that the segment-specific noncoding regions (NCRs) of the hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) segments are subtype specific, varying significantly in sequence and length at both the 3' and 5' ends. Interestingly, we found that nucleotides CC at positions 13 and 14 at the 3' end and GUG at positions 14 to 16 at the 5' end (termed 14' and 16' to distinguish them from 3' positions) are absolutely conserved among all HA subtype-specific NCRs. These HA segment-specific NCR nucleotides are located in the extended duplex region of the viral RNA promoter. In order to understand the significance of these highly conserved HA segment-specific NCR nucleotides in the virus life cycle, we performed extensive mutagenesis on the HA segment-specific NCR nucleotides and studied their functional significance in regulating influenza A virus replication in the context of the HA segment with both RNP reconstitution and virus infection systems. We found that the base pairing of the 3'-end 13 position with the 5'-end 14' position ((3')13-(5')14') position is critical for RNA promoter activity while the identity of the base pair is critical in determining HA segment packaging. Moreover, the identity of the residue at the 3'-end 14 position is functionally more important in regulating virus genome packaging than in regulating viral RNA synthesis. Taken together, these results demonstrated that the HA segment-specific NCR nucleotides in the extended duplex region of the promoter not only form part of the promoter but also play a key role in controlling virus selective genome packaging. The segment-specific complementary nucleotides (13 to 15 in the 3' end and 14' to 16' in the 5' end) in the extended duplex region of the influenza virus RNA promoter vary significantly among different segments and have rarely been studied. Here, we performed mutagenesis analysis of the highly conserved HA segment-specific nucleotides in the extended duplex region and examined their

  5. A novel hemagglutinin protein produced in bacteria protects chickens against H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses by inducing H5 subtype-specific neutralizing antibodies

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    Sączyńska, Violetta; Romanik, Agnieszka; Florys, Katarzyna; Cecuda-Adamczewska, Violetta; Kęsik-Brodacka, Małgorzata; Śmietanka, Krzysztof; Olszewska, Monika; Domańska-Blicharz, Katarzyna; Minta, Zenon; Szewczyk, Bogusław; Płucienniczak, Grażyna; Płucienniczak, Andrzej

    2017-01-01

    The highly pathogenic (HP) H5N1 avian influenza viruses (AIVs) cause a mortality rate of up to 100% in infected chickens and pose a permanent pandemic threat. Attempts to obtain effective vaccines against H5N1 HPAIVs have focused on hemagglutinin (HA), an immunodominant viral antigen capable of eliciting neutralizing antibodies. The vast majority of vaccine projects have been performed using eukaryotic expression systems. In contrast, we used a bacterial expression system to produce vaccine HA protein (bacterial HA) according to our own design. The HA protein with the sequence of the H5N1 HPAIV strain was efficiently expressed in Escherichia coli, recovered in the form of inclusion bodies and refolded by dilution between two chromatographic purification steps. Antigenicity studies showed that the resulting antigen, referred to as rH5-E. coli, preserves conformational epitopes targeted by antibodies specific for H5-subtype HAs, inhibiting hemagglutination and/or neutralizing influenza viruses in vitro. The proper conformation of this protein and its ability to form functional oligomers were confirmed by a hemagglutination test. Consistent with the biochemical characteristics, prime-boost immunizations with adjuvanted rH5-E. coli protected 100% and 70% of specific pathogen-free, layer-type chickens against challenge with homologous and heterologous H5N1 HPAIVs, respectively. The observed protection was related to the positivity in the FluAC H5 test (IDVet) but not to hemagglutination-inhibiting antibody titers. Due to full protection, the effective contact transmission of the homologous challenge virus did not occur. Survivors from both challenges did not or only transiently shed the viruses, as established by viral RNA detection in oropharyngeal and cloacal swabs. Our results demonstrate that vaccination with rH5-E. coli could confer control of H5N1 HPAIV infection and transmission rates in chicken flocks, accompanied by reduced virus shedding. Moreover, the role of

  6. Divergent Requirement of Fc-Fcγ Receptor Interactions for In Vivo Protection against Influenza Viruses by Two Pan-H5 Hemagglutinin Antibodies.

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    Wang, Shuangshuang; Ren, Huanhuan; Jiang, Wenbo; Chen, Honglin; Hu, Hongxing; Chen, Zhiwei; Zhou, Paul

    2017-06-01

    Recent studies have shown that Fc-Fcγ receptor (FcγR) interactions are required for in vivo protection against influenza viruses by broadly reactive anti-hemagglutinin (HA) stem, but not virus strain-specific, anti-receptor binding site (RBS), antibodies (Abs). Since only a few Abs recognizing epitopes in the head region but outside the RBS have been tested against single-challenge virus strains, it remains unknown whether Fc-FcγR interactions are required for in vivo protection by Abs recognizing epitopes outside the RBS and whether the requirement is virus strain specific or epitope specific. In the present study, we therefore investigated the requirements for in vivo protection using two pan-H5 Abs, 65C6 and 100F4. We generated chimeric Abs, 65C6/IgG2a and 100F4/IgG2a, which preferentially engage activating FcγRs, and isogenic forms, 65C6/D265A and 100F4/D265A, which do not bind FcγR. Virus neutralizing activity, binding, antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC), and in vivo protection of these Abs were compared using three H5 strains, A/Shenzhen/406H/2006 (SZ06), A/chicken/Shanxi/2/2006 (SX06), and A/chicken/Netherlands/14015526/2014 (NE14). We found that all four chimeric Abs bound and neutralized the SZ06 and NE14 strains but poorly inhibited the SX06 strain. 65C6/IgG2a and 100F4/IgG2a, but not 65C6/D265A and 100F4/D265A, mediated ADCC against target cells expressing HA derived from all three virus strains. Interestingly, both 65C6/IgG2a and 65C6/D265A demonstrated comparable protection against all three virus strains in vivo; however, 100F4/IgG2a, but not 100F4/D265A, showed in vivo protection. Thus, we conclude that Fc-FcγR interactions are required for in vivo protection by 100F4, but not by 65C6, and therefore, protection is not virus strain specific but epitope specific.IMPORTANCE Abs play an important role in immune protection against influenza virus infection. Fc-FcγR interactions are required for in vivo protection by broadly

  7. Prophylactic and therapeutic activity of fully human monoclonal antibodies directed against Influenza A M2 protein

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    Gwerder Myriam

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Influenza virus infection is a prevalent disease in humans. Antibodies against hemagglutinin have been shown to prevent infection and hence hemagglutinin is the major constituent of current vaccines. Antibodies directed against the highly conserved extracellular domain of M2 have also been shown to mediate protection against Influenza A infection in various animal models. Active vaccination is generally considered the best approach to combat viral diseases. However, passive immunization is an attractive alternative, particularly in acutely exposed or immune compromized individuals, young children and the elderly. We recently described a novel method for the rapid isolation of natural human antibodies by mammalian cell display. Here we used this approach to isolate human monoclonal antibodies directed against the highly conserved extracellular domain of the Influenza A M2 protein. The identified antibodies bound M2 peptide with high affinities, recognized native cell-surface expressed M2 and protected mice from a lethal influenza virus challenge. Moreover, therapeutic treatment up to 2 days after infection was effective, suggesting that M2-specific monoclonals have a great potential as immunotherapeutic agents against Influenza infection.

  8. Cross-neutralizing antibodies to pandemic 2009 H1N1 and recent seasonal H1N1 influenza A strains influenced by a mutation in hemagglutinin subunit 2.

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    Wang, Wei; Anderson, Christine M; De Feo, Christopher J; Zhuang, Min; Yang, Hong; Vassell, Russell; Xie, Hang; Ye, Zhiping; Scott, Dorothy; Weiss, Carol D

    2011-06-01

    Pandemic 2009 H1N1 influenza A virus (2009 H1N1) differs from H1N1 strains that circulated in the past 50 years, but resembles the A/New Jersey/1976 H1N1 strain used in the 1976 swine influenza vaccine. We investigated whether sera from persons immunized with the 1976 swine influenza or recent seasonal influenza vaccines, or both, neutralize 2009 H1N1. Using retroviral pseudovirions bearing hemagglutinins on their surface (HA-pseudotypes), we found that 77% of the sera collected in 1976 after immunization with the A/New Jersey/1976 H1N1 swine influenza vaccine neutralized 2009 H1N1. Forty five percent also neutralized A/New Caledonia/20/1999 H1N1, a strain used in seasonal influenza vaccines during the 2000/01-2006/07 seasons. Among adults aged 48-64 who received the swine influenza vaccine in 1976 and recent seasonal influenza vaccines during the 2004/05-2008/09 seasons, 83% had sera that neutralized 2009 H1N1. However, 68% of age-matched subjects who received the same seasonal influenza vaccines, but did not receive the 1976 swine influenza vaccine, also had sera that neutralized 2009 H1N1. Sera from both 1976 and contemporary cohorts frequently had cross-neutralizing antibodies to 2009 H1N1 and A/New Caledonia/20/1999 that mapped to hemagglutinin subunit 2 (HA2). A conservative mutation in HA2 corresponding to a residue in the A/Solomon Islands/3/2006 and A/Brisbane/59/2007 H1N1 strains that circulated in the 2006/07 and 2007/08 influenza seasons, respectively, abrogated this neutralization. These findings highlight a cross-neutralization determinant influenced by a point mutation in HA2 and suggest that HA2 may be evolving under direct or indirect immune pressure.

  9. Recent H3N2 Viruses Have Evolved Specificity for Extended, Branched Human-type Receptors, Conferring Potential for Increased Avidity.

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    Peng, Wenjie; de Vries, Robert P; Grant, Oliver C; Thompson, Andrew J; McBride, Ryan; Tsogtbaatar, Buyankhishig; Lee, Peter S; Razi, Nahid; Wilson, Ian A; Woods, Robert J; Paulson, James C

    2017-01-11

    Human and avian influenza viruses recognize different sialic acid-containing receptors, referred to as human-type (NeuAcα2-6Gal) and avian-type (NeuAcα2-3Gal), respectively. This presents a species barrier for aerosol droplet transmission of avian viruses in humans and ferrets. Recent reports have suggested that current human H3N2 viruses no longer have strict specificity toward human-type receptors. Using an influenza receptor glycan microarray with extended airway glycans, we find that H3N2 viruses have in fact maintained human-type specificity, but they have evolved preference for a subset of receptors comprising branched glycans with extended poly-N-acetyl-lactosamine (poly-LacNAc) chains, a specificity shared with the 2009 pandemic H1N1 (Cal/04) hemagglutinin. Lipid-linked versions of extended sialoside receptors can restore susceptibility of sialidase-treated MDCK cells to infection by both recent (A/Victoria/361/11) and historical (A/Hong Kong/8/1968) H3N2 viruses. Remarkably, these human-type receptors with elongated branches have the potential to increase avidity by simultaneously binding to two subunits of a single hemagglutinin trimer. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Polarity of mature human odontoblasts.

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    Tjäderhane, L; Koivumäki, S; Pääkkönen, V; Ilvesaro, J; Soini, Y; Salo, T; Metsikkö, K; Tuukkanen, J

    2013-11-01

    Odontoblast polarization is based on histological appearance as columnar cells with asymmetric disposition of organelles and plasma membrane domains. However, little is known about the odontoblast plasma membrane organization. We investigated odontoblast membrane polarity using influenza virus hemagglutinin and vesicular stomatitis virus glycoprotein as model proteins in mature human odontoblast organ culture. We also examined the distribution patterns of aquaporin 4 and 5, which are basolateral and apical proteins in epithelial cells, respectively. Confocal microscopy immunofluorescence and electron microscopy demonstrated that the apical markers located at the surface toward pulp and basolateral markers located at the plasma membrane of odontoblast processes. Therefore, odontoblast plasma membrane polarity was different from that in epithelial cells. Also, certain lectins stained odontoblast processes while others stained the soma, reflecting the different natures of their membrane domains. Strong ZO-1 and weaker claudin expression suggest weak tight junctions in the odontoblasts. TGF-β1 showed a tendency to reinstate the expression of selected TJ genes, indicating that TGF-β1 may control odontoblast cell layer integrity by controlling tight junction protein expression.

  11. Cross-Neutralizing Antibodies to Pandemic 2009 H1N1 and Recent Seasonal H1N1 Influenza A Strains Influenced by a Mutation in Hemagglutinin Subunit 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Anderson, Christine M.; De Feo, Christopher J.; Zhuang, Min; Yang, Hong; Vassell, Russell; Xie, Hang; Ye, Zhiping; Scott, Dorothy; Weiss, Carol D.

    2011-01-01

    Pandemic 2009 H1N1 influenza A virus (2009 H1N1) differs from H1N1 strains that circulated in the past 50 years, but resembles the A/New Jersey/1976 H1N1 strain used in the 1976 swine influenza vaccine. We investigated whether sera from persons immunized with the 1976 swine influenza or recent seasonal influenza vaccines, or both, neutralize 2009 H1N1. Using retroviral pseudovirions bearing hemagglutinins on their surface (HA-pseudotypes), we found that 77% of the sera collected in 1976 after immunization with the A/New Jersey/1976 H1N1 swine influenza vaccine neutralized 2009 H1N1. Forty five percent also neutralized A/New Caledonia/20/1999 H1N1, a strain used in seasonal influenza vaccines during the 2000/01–2006/07 seasons. Among adults aged 48–64 who received the swine influenza vaccine in 1976 and recent seasonal influenza vaccines during the 2004/05–2008/09 seasons, 83% had sera that neutralized 2009 H1N1. However, 68% of age-matched subjects who received the same seasonal influenza vaccines, but did not receive the 1976 swine influenza vaccine, also had sera that neutralized 2009 H1N1. Sera from both 1976 and contemporary cohorts frequently had cross-neutralizing antibodies to 2009 H1N1 and A/New Caledonia/20/1999 that mapped to hemagglutinin subunit 2 (HA2). A conservative mutation in HA2 corresponding to a residue in the A/Solomon Islands/3/2006 and A/Brisbane/59/2007 H1N1 strains that circulated in the 2006/07 and 2007/08 influenza seasons, respectively, abrogated this neutralization. These findings highlight a cross-neutralization determinant influenced by a point mutation in HA2 and suggest that HA2 may be evolving under direct or indirect immune pressure. PMID:21695241

  12. Both CD4⁺ and CD8⁺ lymphocytes participate in the IFN-γ response to filamentous hemagglutinin from Bordetella pertussis in infants, children, and adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dirix, Violette; Verscheure, Virginie; Vermeulen, Françoise; De Schutter, Iris; Goetghebuer, Tessa; Locht, Camille; Mascart, Françoise

    2012-01-01

    Infant CD4⁺ T-cell responses to bacterial infections or vaccines have been extensively studied, whereas studies on CD8⁺ T-cell responses focused mainly on viral and intracellular parasite infections. Here we investigated CD8⁺ T-cell responses upon Bordetella pertussis infection in infants, children, and adults and pertussis vaccination in infants. Filamentous hemagglutinin-specific IFN-γ secretion by circulating lymphocytes was blocked by anti-MHC-I or -MHC-II antibodies, suggesting that CD4⁺ and CD8⁺ T lymphocytes are involved in IFN-γ production. Flow cytometry analyses confirmed that both cell types synthesized antigen-specific IFN-γ, although CD4⁺ lymphocytes were the major source of this cytokine. IFN-γ synthesis by CD8⁺ cells was CD4⁺ T cell dependent, as evidenced by selective depletion experiments. Furthermore, IFN-γ synthesis by CD4⁺ cells was sometimes inhibited by CD8⁺ lymphocytes, suggesting the presence of CD8⁺ regulatory T cells. The role of this dual IFN-γ secretion by CD4⁺ and CD8⁺ T lymphocytes in pertussis remains to be investigated.

  13. Acquisition of a novel eleven amino acid insertion directly N-terminal to a tetrabasic cleavage site confers intracellular cleavage of an H7N7 influenza virus hemagglutinin

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    Hamilton, Brian S.; Sun, Xiangjie; Chung, Changik [Department of Microbiology and Immunology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Cornell University, Ithaca NY 14853 (United States); New York Center of Excellence for Influenza Research and Surveillance, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester NY 14627 (United States); Whittaker, Gary R., E-mail: grw7@cornell.edu [Department of Microbiology and Immunology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Cornell University, Ithaca NY 14853 (United States); New York Center of Excellence for Influenza Research and Surveillance, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester NY 14627 (United States)

    2012-12-05

    A critical feature of highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses (H5N1 and H7N7) is the efficient intracellular cleavage of the hemagglutinin (HA) protein. H7N7 viruses also exist in equine species, and a unique feature of the equine H7N7 HA is the presence of an eleven amino acid insertion directly N-terminal to a tetrabasic cleavage site. Here, we show that three histidine residues within the unique insertion of the equine H7N7 HA are essential for intracellular cleavage. An asparagine residue within the insertion-derived glycosylation site was also found to be essential for intracellular cleavage. The presence of the histidine residues also appear to be involved in triggering fusion, since mutation of the histidine residues resulted in a destabilizing effect. Importantly, the addition of a tetrabasic site and the eleven amino acid insertion conferred efficient intracellular cleavage to the HA of an H7N3 low pathogenicity avian influenza virus. Our studies show that acquisition of the eleven amino acid insertion offers an alternative mechanism for intracellular cleavage of influenza HA.

  14. Analyses of Evolutionary Characteristics of the Hemagglutinin-Esterase Gene of Influenza C Virus during a Period of 68 Years Reveals Evolutionary Patterns Different from Influenza A and B Viruses

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    Yuki Furuse

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Infections with the influenza C virus causing respiratory symptoms are common, particularly among children. Since isolation and detection of the virus are rarely performed, compared with influenza A and B viruses, the small number of available sequences of the virus makes it difficult to analyze its evolutionary dynamics. Recently, we reported the full genome sequence of 102 strains of the virus. Here, we exploited the data to elucidate the evolutionary characteristics and phylodynamics of the virus compared with influenza A and B viruses. Along with our data, we obtained public sequence data of the hemagglutinin-esterase gene of the virus; the dataset consists of 218 unique sequences of the virus collected from 14 countries between 1947 and 2014. Informatics analyses revealed that (1 multiple lineages have been circulating globally; (2 there have been weak and infrequent selective bottlenecks; (3 the evolutionary rate is low because of weak positive selection and a low capability to induce mutations; and (4 there is no significant positive selection although a few mutations affecting its antigenicity have been induced. The unique evolutionary dynamics of the influenza C virus must be shaped by multiple factors, including virological, immunological, and epidemiological characteristics.

  15. Addition of N-glycosylation sites on the globular head of the H5 hemagglutinin induces the escape of highly pathogenic avian influenza A H5N1 viruses from vaccine-induced immunity.

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    Hervé, Pierre-Louis; Lorin, Valérie; Jouvion, Grégory; Da Costa, Bruno; Escriou, Nicolas

    2015-12-01

    Highly pathogenic avian influenza A H5N1 viruses remain endemic in poultry in several countries and still constitute a pandemic threat. Since the early 20th century, we experienced four influenza A pandemics. H3N2 and H1N1pdm09 viruses that respectively emerged during 1968 and 2009 pandemics are still responsible for seasonal epidemics. These viruses evolve regularly by substitutions in antigenic sites of the hemagglutinin (HA), which prevent neutralization by antibodies directed against previous strains (antigenic drift). For seasonal H3N2 viruses, an addition of N-glycosylation sites (glycosites) on H3 contributed to this drift. Here, we questioned whether additional glycosites on H5 could induce an escape of H5N1 virus from neutralization, as it was observed for seasonal H3N2 viruses. Seven H5N1 mutants were produced by adding glycosites on H5. The most glycosylated virus escaped from neutralizing antibodies, in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, a single additional glycosite was responsible for this escape. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Virus-like particles comprising H5, H7 and H9 hemagglutinins elicit protective immunity to heterologous avian influenza viruses in chickens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avian influenza (AI) viruses circulating in wild birds pose a serious threat to public health. Human and veterinary vaccines against AI subtypes are needed. Here we prepared triple-subtype VLPs that co-localized H5, H7 and H9 antigens derived from H5N1, H7N3 and H9N2 viruses. VLPs also contained inf...

  17. Rules of co-occurring mutations characterize the antigenic evolution of human influenza A/H3N2, A/H1N1 and B viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Haifen; Zhou, Xinrui; Zheng, Jie; Kwoh, Chee-Keong

    2016-12-05

    The human influenza viruses undergo rapid evolution (especially in hemagglutinin (HA), a glycoprotein on the surface of the virus), which enables the virus population to constantly evade the human immune system. Therefore, the vaccine has to be updated every year to stay effective. There is a need to characterize the evolution of influenza viruses for better selection of vaccine candidates and the prediction of pandemic strains. Studies have shown that the influenza hemagglutinin evolution is driven by the simultaneous mutations at antigenic sites. Here, we analyze simultaneous or co-occurring mutations in the HA protein of human influenza A/H3N2, A/H1N1 and B viruses to predict potential mutations, characterizing the antigenic evolution. We obtain the rules of mutation co-occurrence using association rule mining after extracting HA1 sequences and detect co-mutation sites under strong selective pressure. Then we predict the potential drifts with specific mutations of the viruses based on the rules and compare the results with the "observed" mutations in different years. The sites under frequent mutations are in antigenic regions (epitopes) or receptor binding sites. Our study demonstrates the co-occurring site mutations obtained by rule mining can capture the evolution of influenza viruses, and confirms that cooperative interactions among sites of HA1 protein drive the influenza antigenic evolution.

  18. Fitness cost of reassortment in human influenza.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villa, Mara; Lässig, Michael

    2017-11-01

    Reassortment, which is the exchange of genome sequence between viruses co-infecting a host cell, plays an important role in the evolution of segmented viruses. In the human influenza virus, reassortment happens most frequently between co-existing variants within the same lineage. This process breaks genetic linkage and fitness correlations between viral genome segments, but the resulting net effect on viral fitness has remained unclear. In this paper, we determine rate and average selective effect of reassortment processes in the human influenza lineage A/H3N2. For the surface proteins hemagglutinin and neuraminidase, reassortant variants with a mean distance of at least 3 nucleotides to their parent strains get established at a rate of about 10-2 in units of the neutral point mutation rate. Our inference is based on a new method to map reassortment events from joint genealogies of multiple genome segments, which is tested by extensive simulations. We show that intra-lineage reassortment processes are, on average, under substantial negative selection that increases in strength with increasing sequence distance between the parent strains. The deleterious effects of reassortment manifest themselves in two ways: there are fewer reassortment events than expected from a null model of neutral reassortment, and reassortant strains have fewer descendants than their non-reassortant counterparts. Our results suggest that influenza evolves under ubiquitous epistasis across proteins, which produces fitness barriers against reassortment even between co-circulating strains within one lineage.

  19. Role of Adhesins and Toxins in Invasion of Human Tracheal Epithelial Cells by Bordetella pertussis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassinet, Laurence; Gueirard, Pascale; Maitre, Bernard; Housset, Bruno; Gounon, Pierre; Guiso, Nicole

    2000-01-01

    Bordetella pertussis, the agent of whooping cough, can invade and survive in several types of eukaryotic cell, including CHO, HeLa 229, and HEp-2 cells and macrophages. In this study, we analyzed bacterial invasiveness in nonrespiratory human HeLa epithelial cells and human HTE and HAE0 tracheal epithelial cells. Invasion assays and transmission electron microscopy analysis showed that B. pertussis strains invaded and survived, without multiplying, in HTE or HAE0 cells. This phenomenon was bvg regulated, but invasive properties differed between B. pertussis strains and isolates and the B. pertussis reference strain. Studies with B. pertussis mutant strains demonstrated that filamentous hemagglutinin, the major adhesin, was involved in the invasion of human tracheal epithelial cells by bacteria but not in that of HeLa cells. Fimbriae and pertussis toxin were not found to be involved. However, we found that the production of adenylate cyclase-hemolysin prevents the invasion of HeLa and HTE cells by B. pertussis because an adenylate cyclase-hemolysin-deficient mutant was found to be more invasive than the parental strain. The effect of adenylate cyclase-hemolysin was mediated by an increase in the cyclic AMP concentration in the cells. Pertactin (PRN), an adhesin, significantly inhibited the invasion of HTE cells by bacteria, probably via its interaction with adenylate cyclase-hemolysin. Isolates producing different PRNs were taken up similarly, indicating that the differences in the sequences of the PRNs produced by these isolates do not affect invasion. We concluded that filamentous hemagglutinin production favored invasion of human tracheal cells but that adenylate cyclase-hemolysin and PRN production significantly inhibited this process. PMID:10722585

  20. Intranasal immunization of baculovirus displayed hemagglutinin confers complete protection against mouse adapted highly pathogenic H7N7 reassortant influenza virus.

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    Subaschandrabose Rajesh Kumar

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Avian influenza A H7N7 virus poses a pandemic threat to human health because of its ability for direct transmission from domestic poultry to humans and from human to human. The wide zoonotic potential of H7N7 combined with an antiviral immunity inhibition similar to pandemic 1918 H1N1 and 2009 H1N1 influenza viruses is disconcerting and increases the risk of a putative H7N7 pandemic in the future, underlining the urgent need for vaccine development against this virus. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study, we developed a recombinant vaccine by expressing the H7N7-HA protein on the surface of baculovirus (Bac-HA. The protective efficacy of the live Bac-HA vaccine construct was evaluated in a mouse model by challenging mice immunized intranasally (i.n. or subcutaneously (s.c. with high pathogenic mouse adapted H7N7 reassorted strain. Although s.c. injection of live Bac-HA induced higher specific IgG than i.n. immunization, the later resulted in an elevated neutralization titer. Interestingly, 100% protection from the lethal viral challenge was only observed for the mice immunized intranasally with live Bac-HA, whereas no protection was achieved in any other s.c. or i.n. immunized mice groups. In addition, we also observed higher mucosal IgA as well as increased IFN-γ and IL-4 responses in the splenocytes of the surviving mice coupled with a reduced viral titer and diminished histopathological signs in the lungs. CONCLUSION: Our results indicated that protection from high pathogenic H7N7 (NL/219/03 virus requires both mucosal and systemic immune responses in mice. The balance between Th1 and Th2 cytokines is also required for the protection against the H7N7 pathogen. Intranasal administration of live Bac-HA induced all these immune responses and protected the mice from lethal viral challenge. Therefore, live Bac-HA is an effective vaccine candidate against H7N7 viral infections.

  1. Spatial screening of hemagglutinin on Influenza A virus particles: Sialyl-LacNAc displays on DNA and PEG scaffolds reveal the requirements for bivalency enhanced interactions with weak monovalent binders.

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    Bandlow, Victor; Liese, Susanne; Lauster, Daniel; Ludwig, Kai; Netz, Roland R; Herrmann, Andreas; Seitz, Oliver

    2017-10-20

    Attachment of the Influenza A virus onto host cells involves multivalent interactions between virus surface hemagglutinin (HA) and sialoside-containing glyco ligands. Despite the development of extremely powerful multivalent bind-ers of the Influenza virus and other viruses, comparably little is known about the optimal spacing of HA ligands, which ought to bridge binding sites within or across the trimeric HA molecules. To explore the criteria for ligand economical high affinity binding, we systematically probed distance-affinity relationships by means of two differently behaving scaffold types based on i) flexible polyethylene glycol (PEG) conjugates and ii) rigid self-assembled DNA·PNA complexes. The bivalent scaffolds presented two sialyl-LacNAc ligands in 23-101 Å distance. A combined analysis of binding by means of microscale thermophoresis measurements and statistical mechanics models exposed the inherent limitations of PEG-based spacers. Given the distance requirements of HA, the flexibility of PEG scaffolds is too high to raise the effective concentration of glyco ligands above a value that allows interactions with the low affinity binding site. By contrast, spatial screening with less flexible, self-assembled peptide nucleic acid (PNA)·DNA complexes uncovered a well-defined and, surprisingly, bimodal distance-affinity relationship for interactions of the Influenza A virus HA with bivalent displays of the natural sialyl-LacNAc ligand. Optimal constructs conferred 10(3)-fold binding enhancements with only two ligands. We discuss the existence of secondary binding sites and shine light on the preference for intramolecular rather than intermolecular recognition of HA trimers on the virus surface.

  2. Measurement of phenotype and absolute number of circulating heparin-binding hemagglutinin, ESAT-6 and CFP-10, and purified protein derivative antigen-specific CD4 T cells can discriminate active from latent tuberculosis infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchinson, Paul; Barkham, Timothy M S; Tang, Wenying; Kemeny, David M; Chee, Cynthia Bin-Eng; Wang, Yee T

    2015-02-01

    The tuberculin skin test (TST) and interferon gamma (IFN-γ) release assays (IGRAs) are used as adjunctive tests for the evaluation of suspected cases of active tuberculosis (TB). However, a positive test does not differentiate latent from active TB. We investigated whether flow cytometric measurement of novel combinations of intracellular cytokines and surface makers on CD4 T cells could differentiate between active and latent TB after stimulation with Mycobacterium tuberculosis-specific proteins. Blood samples from 60 patients referred to the Singapore Tuberculosis Control Unit for evaluation for active TB or as TB contacts were stimulated with purified protein derivative (PPD), ESAT-6 and CFP-10, or heparin-binding hemagglutinin (HBHA). The CD4 T cell cytokine response (IFN-γ, interleukin-2 [IL-2], interleukin-17A [IL-17A], interleukin-22 [IL-22], granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor [GM-CSF], and tumor necrosis factor alpha [TNF-α]) and surface marker expression (CD27, CXCR3, and CD154) were then measured. We found that the proportion of PPD-specific CD4 T cells, defined as CD154(+) TNF-α(+) cells that were negative for CD27 and positive for GM-CSF, gave the strongest discrimination between subjects with latent and those with active TB (area under the receiver operator characteristic [ROC] curve of 0.9277; P CFP-10-responding to HBHA-responding CD4 T cells was significantly different between the two study populations. In conclusion, we found novel markers of M. tuberculosis-specific CD4 cells which differentiate between active and latent TB. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  3. SYBR green-based real-time reverse transcription-PCR for typing and subtyping of all hemagglutinin and neuraminidase genes of avian influenza viruses and comparison to standard serological subtyping tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsukamoto, K.; Javier, P.C.; Shishido, M.; Noguchi, D.; Pearce, J.; Kang, H.-M.; Jeong, O.M.; Lee, Y.-J.; Nakanishi, K.; Ashizawa, T.

    2012-01-01

    Continuing outbreaks of H5N1 highly pathogenic (HP) avian influenza virus (AIV) infections of wild birds and poultry worldwide emphasize the need for global surveillance of wild birds. To support the future surveillance activities, we developed a SYBR green-based, real-time reverse transcriptase PCR (rRT-PCR) for detecting nucleoprotein (NP) genes and subtyping 16 hemagglutinin (HA) and 9 neuraminidase (NA) genes simultaneously. Primers were improved by focusing on Eurasian or North American lineage genes; the number of mixed-base positions per primer was set to five or fewer, and the concentration of each primer set was optimized empirically. Also, 30 cycles of amplification of 1:10 dilutions of cDNAs from cultured viruses effectively reduced minor cross- or nonspecific reactions. Under these conditions, 346 HA and 345 NA genes of 349 AIVs were detected, with average sensitivities of NP, HA, and NA genes of 10 1.5, 10 2.3, and 10 3.1 50% egg infective doses, respectively. Utility of rRT-PCR for subtyping AIVs was compared with that of current standard serological tests by using 104 recent migratory duck virus isolates. As a result, all HA genes and 99% of the NA genes were genetically subtyped, while only 45% of HA genes and 74% of NA genes were serologically subtyped. Additionally, direct subtyping of AIVs in fecal samples was possible by 40 cycles of amplification: approximately 70% of HA and NA genes of NP gene-positive samples were successfully subtyped. This validation study indicates that rRT-PCR with optimized primers and reaction conditions is a powerful tool for subtyping varied AIVs in clinical and cultured samples. Copyright ?? 2012, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  4. Re-emergence of H3N2 strains carrying potential neutralizing mutations at the N-linked glycosylation site at the hemagglutinin head, post the 2009 H1N1 pandemic.

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    Ushirogawa, Hiroshi; Naito, Tadasuke; Tokunaga, Hirotoshi; Tanaka, Toshihiro; Nakano, Takashi; Terada, Kihei; Ohuchi, Masanobu; Saito, Mineki

    2016-08-08

    Seasonally prevalent H1N1 and H3N2 influenza A viruses have evolved by antigenic drift; this evolution has resulted in the acquisition of asparagine (N)-linked glycosylation sites (NGSs) in the globular head of hemagglutinin (HA), thereby affecting the antigenic and receptor-binding properties, as well as virulence. An epidemiological survey indicated that although the traditional seasonal H1N1 strain had disappeared, H3N2 became predominant again in the seasons (2010-11 and 2011-12) immediately following the H1N1 pandemic of 2009. Interestingly, although the 2009 pandemic H1N1 strain (H1N1pdm09) lacks additional NGSs, clinically isolated H3N2 strains obtained during these seasons gained N (Asn) residues at positions 45 and 144 of HA that forms additional NGSs. To investigate whether these NGSs are associated with re-emergence of H3N2 within the subtype, we tested the effect of amino acid substitutions on neutralizing activity by using the antisera raised against H3N2 strains with or without additional NGSs. Furthermore, because the N residue at position 144 of HA was identified as the site of mismatch between the vaccine and epidemic strains of 2011-2012, we generated mutant viruses by reverse genetics and tested the functional importance of this particular NGS for antibody-mediated neutralization by intranasal inoculation of mice. The results indicated that amino acid substitution at residue 144 significantly affected neutralization activity, acting as an escape mutation. Our data suggest that the newly acquired NGSs in the HA globular head may play an important role in the re-emergence of endemic seasonal H3N2 strain by aiding the escape from humoral immunity.

  5. Three mutations switch H7N9 influenza to human-type receptor specificity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    de Vries, Robert P.; Peng, Wenjie; Grant, Oliver C.; Thompson, Andrew J.; Zhu, Xueyong; Bouwman, Kim M.; de la Pena, Alba T. Torrents; van Breemen, Marielle J.; Ambepitiya Wickramasinghe, Iresha N.; de Haan, Cornelis A. M.; Yu, Wenli; McBride, Ryan; Sanders, Rogier W.; Woods, Robert J.; Verheije, Monique H.; Wilson, Ian A.; Paulson, James C.; Fernandez-Sesma, Ana

    2017-06-15

    The avian H7N9 influenza outbreak in 2013 resulted from an unprecedented incidence of influenza transmission to humans from infected poultry. The majority of human H7N9 isolates contained a hemagglutinin (HA) mutation (Q226L) that has previously been associated with a switch in receptor specificity from avian-type (NeuAcα2-3Gal) to human-type (NeuAcα2-6Gal), as documented for the avian progenitors of the 1957 (H2N2) and 1968 (H3N2) human influenza pandemic viruses. While this raised concern that the H7N9 virus was adapting to humans, the mutation was not sufficient to switch the receptor specificity of H7N9, and has not resulted in sustained transmission in humans. To determine if the H7 HA was capable of acquiring human-type receptor specificity, we conducted mutation analyses. Remarkably, three amino acid mutations conferred a switch in specificity for human-type receptors that resembled the specificity of the 2009 human H1 pandemic virus, and promoted binding to human trachea epithelial cells.

  6. A single residue substitution in the receptor-binding domain of H5N1 hemagglutinin is critical for packaging into pseudotyped lentiviral particles.

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    Dong-Jiang Tang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Serological studies for influenza infection and vaccine response often involve microneutralization and hemagglutination inhibition assays to evaluate neutralizing antibodies against human and avian influenza viruses, including H5N1. We have previously characterized lentiviral particles pseudotyped with H5-HA (H5pp and validated an H5pp-based assay as a safe alternative for high-throughput serological studies in BSL-2 facilities. Here we show that H5-HAs from different clades do not always give rise to efficient production of H5pp and the underlying mechanisms are addressed. METHODOLOGY/FINDINGS: We have carried out mutational analysis to delineate the molecular determinants responsible for efficient packaging of HA from A/Cambodia/40808/2005 (H5Cam and A/Anhui/1/2005 (H5Anh into H5pp. Our results demonstrate that a single A134V mutation in the 130-loop of the receptor binding domain is sufficient to render H5Anh the ability to generate H5Anh-pp efficiently, whereas the reverse V134A mutation greatly hampers production of H5Cam-pp. Although protein expression in total cell lysates is similar for H5Anh and H5Cam, cell surface expression of H5Cam is detected at a significantly higher level than that of H5Anh. We further demonstrate by several independent lines of evidence that the behaviour of H5Anh can be explained by a stronger binding to sialic acid receptors implicating residue 134. CONCLUSIONS: We have identified a single A134V mutation as the molecular determinant in H5-HA for efficient incorporation into H5pp envelope and delineated the underlying mechanism. The reduced binding to sialic acid receptors as a result of the A134V mutation not only exerts a critical influence in pseudotyping efficiency of H5-HA, but has also an impact at the whole virus level. Because A134V substitution has been reported as a naturally occurring mutation in human host, our results may have implications for the understanding of human host adaptation

  7. Whole-genome analysis of human influenza A virus reveals multiple persistent lineages and reassortment among recent H3N2 viruses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the evolution of influenza A viruses in humans is important for surveillance and vaccine strain selection. We performed a phylogenetic analysis of 156 complete genomes of human H3N2 influenza A viruses collected between 1999 and 2004 from New York State, United States, and observed multiple co-circulating clades with different population frequencies. Strikingly, phylogenies inferred for individual gene segments revealed that multiple reassortment events had occurred among these clades, such that one clade of H3N2 viruses present at least since 2000 had provided the hemagglutinin gene for all those H3N2 viruses sampled after the 2002-2003 influenza season. This reassortment event was the likely progenitor of the antigenically variant influenza strains that caused the A/Fujian/411/2002-like epidemic of the 2003-2004 influenza season. However, despite sharing the same hemagglutinin, these phylogenetically distinct lineages of viruses continue to co-circulate in the same population. These data, derived from the first large-scale analysis of H3N2 viruses, convincingly demonstrate that multiple lineages can co-circulate, persist, and reassort in epidemiologically significant ways, and underscore the importance of genomic analyses for future influenza surveillance.

  8. Virus-like particles displaying H5, H7, H9 hemagglutinins and N1 neuraminidase elicit protective immunity to heterologous avian influenza viruses in chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pushko, Peter; Tretyakova, Irina; Hidajat, Rachmat; Zsak, Aniko; Chrzastek, Klaudia; Tumpey, Terrence M; Kapczynski, Darrell R

    2017-01-15

    Avian influenza (AI) viruses circulating in wild birds pose a serious threat to public health. Human and veterinary vaccines against AI subtypes are needed. Here we prepared triple-subtype VLPs that co-localized H5, H7 and H9 antigens derived from H5N1, H7N3 and H9N2 viruses. VLPs also contained influenza N1 neuraminidase and retroviral gag protein. The H5/H7/H9/N1/gag VLPs were prepared using baculovirus expression. Biochemical, functional and antigenic characteristics were determined including hemagglutination and neuraminidase enzyme activities. VLPs were further evaluated in a chicken AI challenge model for safety, immunogenicity and protective efficacy against heterologous AI viruses including H5N2, H7N3 and H9N2 subtypes. All vaccinated birds survived challenges with H5N2 and H7N3 highly pathogenic AI (HPAI) viruses, while all controls died. Immune response was also detectable after challenge with low pathogenicity AI (LPAI) H9N2 virus suggesting that H5/H7/H9/N1/gag VLPs represent a promising approach for the development of broadly protective AI vaccine. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. Construction and Immunogenicity Evaluation of Recombinant Influenza A Viruses Containing Chimeric Hemagglutinin Genes Derived from Genetically Divergent Influenza A H1N1 Subtype Viruses.

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    Kara McCormick

    Full Text Available Influenza A viruses cause highly contagious diseases in a variety of hosts, including humans and pigs. To develop a vaccine that can be broadly effective against genetically divergent strains of the virus, in this study we employed molecular breeding (DNA shuffling technology to create a panel of chimeric HA genes.Each chimeric HA gene contained genetic elements from parental swine influenza A viruses that had a history of zoonotic transmission, and also from a 2009 pandemic virus. Each parental virus represents a major phylogenetic clade of influenza A H1N1 viruses. Nine shuffled HA constructs were initially screened for immunogenicity in mice by DNA immunization, and one chimeric HA (HA-129 was expressed on both a A/Puerto Rico/8/34 backbone with mutations associated with a live, attenuated phenotype (PR8LAIV-129 and a A/swine/Texas/4199-2/98 backbone (TX98-129. When delivered to mice, the PR8LAIV-129 induced antibodies against all four parental viruses, which was similar to the breadth of immunity observed when HA-129 was delivered as a DNA vaccine. This chimeric HA was then tested as a candidate vaccine in a nursery pig model, using inactivated TX98-129 virus as the backbone. The results demonstrate that pigs immunized with HA-129 developed antibodies against all four parental viruses, as well as additional primary swine H1N1 influenza virus field isolates.This study established a platform for creating novel genes of influenza viruses using a molecular breeding approach, which will have important applications toward future development of broadly protective influenza virus vaccines.

  10. Construction and Immunogenicity Evaluation of Recombinant Influenza A Viruses Containing Chimeric Hemagglutinin Genes Derived from Genetically Divergent Influenza A H1N1 Subtype Viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormick, Kara; Jiang, Zhiyong; Zhu, Longchao; Lawson, Steven R; Langenhorst, Robert; Ransburgh, Russell; Brunick, Colin; Tracy, Miranda C; Hurtig, Heather R; Mabee, Leah M; Mingo, Mark; Li, Yanhua; Webby, Richard J; Huber, Victor C; Fang, Ying

    2015-01-01

    Influenza A viruses cause highly contagious diseases in a variety of hosts, including humans and pigs. To develop a vaccine that can be broadly effective against genetically divergent strains of the virus, in this study we employed molecular breeding (DNA shuffling) technology to create a panel of chimeric HA genes. Each chimeric HA gene contained genetic elements from parental swine influenza A viruses that had a history of zoonotic transmission, and also from a 2009 pandemic virus. Each parental virus represents a major phylogenetic clade of influenza A H1N1 viruses. Nine shuffled HA constructs were initially screened for immunogenicity in mice by DNA immunization, and one chimeric HA (HA-129) was expressed on both a A/Puerto Rico/8/34 backbone with mutations associated with a live, attenuated phenotype (PR8LAIV-129) and a A/swine/Texas/4199-2/98 backbone (TX98-129). When delivered to mice, the PR8LAIV-129 induced antibodies against all four parental viruses, which was similar to the breadth of immunity observed when HA-129 was delivered as a DNA vaccine. This chimeric HA was then tested as a candidate vaccine in a nursery pig model, using inactivated TX98-129 virus as the backbone. The results demonstrate that pigs immunized with HA-129 developed antibodies against all four parental viruses, as well as additional primary swine H1N1 influenza virus field isolates. This study established a platform for creating novel genes of influenza viruses using a molecular breeding approach, which will have important applications toward future development of broadly protective influenza virus vaccines.

  11. Hemagglutinin inhibition assay with swine sera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemagglutination is based on the ability of certain viruses to agglutinate red blood cells (RBC) of certain animal species by formation of cross-linking lattices between RBC. Antibodies that have the ability to inhibit the hemagglutination property of influenza A viruses are generally thought to pro...

  12. An H10N8 influenza virus vaccine strain and mouse challenge model based on the human isolate A/Jiangxi-Donghu/346/13.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wohlbold, Teddy John; Hirsh, Ariana; Krammer, Florian

    2015-02-25

    Three human cases of H10N8 viruses were reported in China in late 2013 and early 2014, two of which were fatal. This was the first time the H10N8 subtype has been detected in humans and no vaccine candidates or antibody therapy has been developed for these viruses so far. We developed an H10N8 vaccine candidate virus based on A/Jiangxi-Donghu/346/13 that can also be used in a murine challenge model for vaccine and monoclonal antibody research. The vaccine virus is a 6:2 re-assortant virus expressing the surface glycoproteins of A/Jiangxi-Donghu/346/13 on an A/Puerto Rico/8/34 backbone. Vaccination with inactivated challenge virus or recombinant hemagglutinin or neuraminidase derived from this strain protected mice from viral challenge. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. In vitro evolution of H5N1 avian influenza virus toward human-type receptor specificity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Li-Mei; Blixt, Klas Ola; Stevens, James

    2012-01-01

    substitutions in the hemagglutinin (S227N, D187G, E190G, and Q196R) that revealed modestly increased a2-6 and minimally decreased a2-3 binding by glycan array analysis. However, a mutant virus combining Q196R with mutations from previous pandemic viruses (Q226L and G228S) revealed predominantly a2-6 binding......Acquisition of a2-6 sialoside receptor specificity by a2-3 specific highly-pathogenic avian influenza viruses (H5N1) is thought to be a prerequisite for efficient transmission in humans. By in vitro selection for binding a2-6 sialosides, we identified four variant viruses with amino acid...

  14. Expression cloning and production of Human Heavy Chain Only antibodies from murine transgenic plasma cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dubravka Drabek

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Several technologies have been developed to isolate human antibodies against different target antigens as a source of potential therapeutics, including hybridoma technology, phage and yeast display systems. For conventional antibodies this involves either random pairing of VH and VL domains in combinatorial display libraries, or isolation of cognate pairs of VH and VL domains from human B cells or from transgenic mice carrying human immunoglobulin loci followed by single cell sorting, single cell RT-PCR and bulk cloning of isolated natural VH-VL pairs. Heavy chain only antibodies (HCAbs that naturally occur in camelids require only heavy immunoglobulin chain cloning. Here, we present an automatable novel, high-throughput technology, for rapid direct cloning and production of fully human HCAbs from sorted population of transgenic mouse plasma cells carrying a human HCAb locus. Utility of the technique is demonstrated by isolation of diverse sets of sequence unique, soluble, high affinity influenza A strain X-31 hemagglutinin (HA specific HCAbs

  15. Kallikrein-Related Peptidase 5 Contributes to H3N2 Influenza Virus Infection in Human Lungs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnen, Mélia; Gueugnon, Fabien; Guillon, Antoine; Baranek, Thomas; Thibault, Virginie C; Petit-Courty, Agnès; de Veer, Simon J; Harris, Jonathan; Humbles, Alison A; Si-Tahar, Mustapha; Courty, Yves

    2017-08-15

    Hemagglutinin (HA) of influenza virus must be activated by proteolysis before the virus can become infectious. Previous studies indicated that HA cleavage is driven by membrane-bound or extracellular serine proteases in the respiratory tract. However, there is still uncertainty as to which proteases are critical for activating HAs of seasonal influenza A viruses (IAVs) in humans. This study focuses on human KLK1 and KLK5, 2 of the 15 serine proteases known as the kallikrein-related peptidases (KLKs). We find that their mRNA expression in primary human bronchial cells is stimulated by IAV infection. Both enzymes cleaved recombinant HA from several strains of the H1 and/or H3 virus subtype in vitro, but only KLK5 promoted the infectivity of A/Puerto Rico/8/34 (H1N1) and A/Scotland/20/74 (H3N2) virions in MDCK cells. We assessed the ability of treated viruses to initiate influenza in mice. The nasal instillation of only the KLK5-treated virus resulted in weight loss and lethal outcomes. The secretion of this protease in the human lower respiratory tract is enhanced during influenza. Moreover, we show that pretreatment of airway secretions with a KLK5-selective inhibitor significantly reduced the activation of influenza A/Scotland/20/74 virions, providing further evidence of its importance. Differently, increased KLK1 secretion appeared to be associated with the recruitment of inflammatory cells in human airways regardless of the origin of inflammation. Thus, our findings point to the involvement of KLK5 in the proteolytic activation and spread of seasonal influenza viruses in humans.IMPORTANCE Influenza A viruses (IAVs) cause acute infection of the respiratory tract that affects millions of people during seasonal outbreaks every year. Cleavage of the hemagglutinin precursor by host proteases is a critical step in the life cycle of these viruses. Consequently, host proteases that activate HA can be considered promising targets for the development of new antivirals

  16. Human monoclonal antibodies derived from a patient infected with 2009 pandemic influenza A virus broadly cross-neutralize group 1 influenza viruses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pan, Yang [Research Institute for Microbial Diseases, Osaka University, Suita, Osaka (Japan); Sasaki, Tadahiro [Research Institute for Microbial Diseases, Osaka University, Suita, Osaka (Japan); JST/JICA, Science and Technology Research Partnership for Sustainable Development (SATREPS), Tokyo (Japan); Kubota-Koketsu, Ritsuko [Research Institute for Microbial Diseases, Osaka University, Suita, Osaka (Japan); Kanonji Institute, The Research Foundation for Microbial Diseases of Osaka University, Kanonji, Kagawa (Japan); JST/JICA, Science and Technology Research Partnership for Sustainable Development (SATREPS), Tokyo (Japan); Inoue, Yuji [Research Institute for Microbial Diseases, Osaka University, Suita, Osaka (Japan); JST/JICA, Science and Technology Research Partnership for Sustainable Development (SATREPS), Tokyo (Japan); Yasugi, Mayo [Research Institute for Microbial Diseases, Osaka University, Suita, Osaka (Japan); Graduate School of Life and Environmental Sciences, Osaka Prefecture University, Izumisano, Osaka (Japan); JST/JICA, Science and Technology Research Partnership for Sustainable Development (SATREPS), Tokyo (Japan); Yamashita, Akifumi; Ramadhany, Ririn; Arai, Yasuha [Research Institute for Microbial Diseases, Osaka University, Suita, Osaka (Japan); Du, Anariwa [Research Institute for Microbial Diseases, Osaka University, Suita, Osaka (Japan); JST/JICA, Science and Technology Research Partnership for Sustainable Development (SATREPS), Tokyo (Japan); Boonsathorn, Naphatsawan [Research Institute for Microbial Diseases, Osaka University, Suita, Osaka (Japan); Department of Medical Sciences, Ministry of Public Health, Muang, Nonthaburi (Thailand); JST/JICA, Science and Technology Research Partnership for Sustainable Development (SATREPS), Tokyo (Japan); Ibrahim, Madiha S. [Research Institute for Microbial Diseases, Osaka University, Suita, Osaka (Japan); Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Damanhour University, Damanhour (Egypt); and others

    2014-07-18

    Highlights: • Influenza infection can elicit heterosubtypic antibodies to group 1 influenza virus. • Three human monoclonal antibodies were generated from an H1N1-infected patient. • The antibodies predominantly recognized α-helical stem of viral hemagglutinin (HA). • The antibodies inhibited HA structural activation during the fusion process. • The antibodies are potential candidates for future antibody therapy to influenza. - Abstract: Influenza viruses are a continuous threat to human public health because of their ability to evolve rapidly through genetic drift and reassortment. Three human monoclonal antibodies (HuMAbs) were generated in this study, 1H11, 2H5 and 5G2, and they cross-neutralize a diverse range of group 1 influenza A viruses, including seasonal H1N1, 2009 pandemic H1N1 (H1N1pdm) and avian H5N1 and H9N2. The three HuMAbs were prepared by fusing peripheral blood lymphocytes from an H1N1pdm-infected patient with a newly developed fusion partner cell line, SPYMEG. All the HuMAbs had little hemagglutination inhibition activity but had strong membrane-fusion inhibition activity against influenza viruses. A protease digestion assay showed the HuMAbs targeted commonly a short α-helix region in the stalk of the hemagglutinin. Furthermore, Ile45Phe and Glu47Gly double substitutions in the α-helix region made the HA unrecognizable by the HuMAbs. These two amino acid residues are highly conserved in the HAs of H1N1, H5N1 and H9N2 viruses. The HuMAbs reported here may be potential candidates for the development of therapeutic antibodies against group 1 influenza viruses.

  17. Infection and pathogenesis of canine, equine, and human influenza viruses in canine tracheas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Gaelle; Marshall, John F; Morrell, Joanna; Robb, David; McCauley, John W; Perez, Daniel R; Parrish, Colin R; Murcia, Pablo R

    2014-08-01

    Influenza A viruses (IAVs) can jump species barriers and occasionally cause epidemics, epizootics, pandemics, and panzootics. Characterizing the infection dynamics at the target tissues of natural hosts is central to understanding the mechanisms that control host range, tropism, and virulence. Canine influenza virus (CIV; H3N8) originated after the transfer of an equine influenza virus (EIV) into dogs. Thus, comparing CIV and EIV isolates provides an opportunity to study the determinants of influenza virus emergence. Here we characterize the replication of canine, equine, and human IAVs in the trachea of the dog, a species to which humans are heavily exposed. We define a phenotype of infection for CIV, which is characterized by high levels of virus replication and extensive tissue damage. CIV was compared to evolutionarily distinct EIVs, and the early EIV isolates showed an impaired ability to infect dog tracheas, while EIVs that circulated near the time of CIV emergence exhibited a CIV-like infection phenotype. Inoculating dog tracheas with various human IAVs (hIAVs) showed that they infected the tracheal epithelium with various efficiencies depending on the virus tested. Finally, we show that reassortant viruses carrying gene segments of CIV and hIAV are viable and that addition of the hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) of CIV to the 2009 human pandemic virus results in a virus that replicates at high levels and causes significant lesions. This provides important insights into the role of evolution on viral emergence and on the role of HA and NA as determinants of pathogenicity. Influenza A viruses (IAVs) have entered new host species in recent history, sometimes with devastating consequences. Canine influenza virus (CIV) H3N8 originated from a direct transfer of an equine influenza virus (EIV) in the early 2000s. We studied the infection patterns of IAVs that circulate in dogs or to which dogs are commonly exposed and showed that CIV emergence was likely

  18. Prediction of biological functions on glycosylation site migrations in human influenza H1N1 viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Shisheng; Wang, Qinzhe; Zhao, Fei; Chen, Wentian; Li, Zheng

    2012-01-01

    Protein glycosylation alteration is typically employed by various viruses for escaping immune pressures from their hosts. Our previous work had shown that not only the increase of glycosylation sites (glycosites) numbers, but also glycosite migration might be involved in the evolution of human seasonal influenza H1N1 viruses. More importantly, glycosite migration was likely a more effectively alteration way for the host adaption of human influenza H1N1 viruses. In this study, we provided more bioinformatics and statistic evidences for further predicting the significant biological functions of glycosite migration in the host adaptation of human influenza H1N1 viruses, by employing homology modeling and in silico protein glycosylation of representative HA and NA proteins as well as amino acid variability analysis at antigenic sites of HA and NA. The results showed that glycosite migrations in human influenza viruses have at least five possible functions: to more effectively mask the antigenic sites, to more effectively protect the enzymatic cleavage sites of neuraminidase (NA), to stabilize the polymeric structures, to regulate the receptor binding and catalytic activities and to balance the binding activity of hemagglutinin (HA) with the release activity of NA. The information here can provide some constructive suggestions for the function research related to protein glycosylation of influenza viruses, although these predictions still need to be supported by experimental data.

  19. Influenza A Viruses of Human Origin in Swine, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, Rejane; Gava, Danielle; Cantão, Maurício Egídio; Ciacci-Zanella, Janice Reis

    2015-01-01

    The evolutionary origins of the influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 virus that caused the first outbreak of the 2009 pandemic in Mexico remain unclear, highlighting the lack of swine surveillance in Latin American countries. Although Brazil has one of the largest swine populations in the world, influenza was not thought to be endemic in Brazil’s swine until the major outbreaks of influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 in 2009. Through phylogenetic analysis of whole-genome sequences of influenza viruses of the H1N1, H1N2, and H3N2 subtypes collected in swine in Brazil during 2009–2012, we identified multiple previously uncharacterized influenza viruses of human seasonal H1N2 and H3N2 virus origin that have circulated undetected in swine for more than a decade. Viral diversity has further increased in Brazil through reassortment between co-circulating viruses, including A(H1N1)pdm09. The circulation of multiple divergent hemagglutinin lineages challenges the design of effective cross-protective vaccines and highlights the need for additional surveillance. PMID:26196759

  20. More Human than Human.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, David

    2017-07-01

    Within the literature surrounding nonhuman animals on the one hand and cognitively disabled humans on the other, there is much discussion of where beings that do not satisfy the criteria for personhood fit in our moral deliberations. In the future, we may face a different but related problem: that we might create (or cause the creation of) beings that not only satisfy but exceed these criteria. The question becomes whether these are minimal criteria, or hierarchical, such that those who fulfill them to greater degree should be afforded greater consideration. This article questions the validity and necessity of drawing divisions among beings that satisfy the minimum requirements for personhood; considering how future beings-intelligent androids, synthezoids, even alternate-substrate sentiences-might fit alongside the "baseline" human. I ask whether these alternate beings ought to be considered different to us, and why this may or may not matter in terms of a notion of "human community." The film Blade Runner, concerned in large part with humanity and its key synthezoid antagonist Roy Batty, forms a framing touchstone for my discussion. Batty is stronger, faster, more resilient, and more intelligent than Homo sapiens. His exploits, far beyond the capability of normal humans, are contrasted with his frailty and transient lifespan, his aesthetic appreciation of the sights he has seen, and his burgeoning empathy. Not for nothing does his creator within the mythos term him "more human than human."

  1. Secondary structure of gp160 and gp120 envelope glycoproteins of human immunodeficiency virus type 1: a Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decroly, E; Cornet, B; Martin, I; Ruysschaert, J M; Vandenbranden, M

    1993-06-01

    The secondary structure of the precursor (gp160) of the envelope protein of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (BH10) and its receptor-binding subunit (gp120) was studied by Fourier-transformed attenuated total reflection spectroscopy. A higher alpha-helix/beta-sheet ratio in the gp120 subunit than in the precursor indicates a structural heterogeneity between the two subunits (gp120 and gp41), in agreement with classical secondary-structure predictions. The secondary structure of gp41 was estimated and compared with existing models. The high alpha-helical content in gp41 and the dominant beta-sheet content in gp120 resemble the distribution in influenza virus hemagglutinin subunits.

  2. Experimental adaptation of wild-type canine distemper virus (CDV) to the human entry receptor CD150.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bieringer, Maria; Han, Jung Woo; Kendl, Sabine; Khosravi, Mojtaba; Plattet, Philippe; Schneider-Schaulies, Jürgen

    2013-01-01

    Canine distemper virus (CDV), a close relative of measles virus (MV), is widespread and well known for its broad host range. When the goal of measles eradication may be achieved, and when measles vaccination will be stopped, CDV might eventually cross the species barrier to humans and emerge as a new human pathogen. In order to get an impression how fast such alterations may occur, we characterized required adaptive mutations to the human entry receptors CD150 (SLAM) and nectin-4 as first step to infect human target cells. Recombinant wild-type CDV-A75/17(red) adapted quickly to growth in human H358 epithelial cells expressing human nectin-4. Sequencing of the viral attachment proteins (hemagglutinin, H, and fusion protein, F) genes revealed that no adaptive alteration was required to utilize human nectin-4. In contrast, the virus replicated only to low titres (10(2) pfu/ml) in Vero cells expressing human CD150 (Vero-hSLAM). After three passages using these cells virus was adapted to human CD150 and replicated to high titres (10(5) pfu/ml). Sequence analyses revealed that only one amino acid exchange in the H-protein at position 540 Asp→Gly (D540G) was required for functional adaptation to human CD150. Structural modelling suggests that the adaptive mutation D540G in H reflects the sequence alteration from canine to human CD150 at position 70 and 71 from Pro to Leu (P70L) and Gly to Glu (G71E), and compensates for the gain of a negative charge in the human CD150 molecule. Using this model system our data indicate that only a minimal alteration, in this case one adaptive mutation, is required for adaptation of CDV to the human entry receptors, and help to understand the molecular basis why this adaptive mutation occurs.

  3. Experimental adaptation of wild-type canine distemper virus (CDV to the human entry receptor CD150.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Bieringer

    Full Text Available Canine distemper virus (CDV, a close relative of measles virus (MV, is widespread and well known for its broad host range. When the goal of measles eradication may be achieved, and when measles vaccination will be stopped, CDV might eventually cross the species barrier to humans and emerge as a new human pathogen. In order to get an impression how fast such alterations may occur, we characterized required adaptive mutations to the human entry receptors CD150 (SLAM and nectin-4 as first step to infect human target cells. Recombinant wild-type CDV-A75/17(red adapted quickly to growth in human H358 epithelial cells expressing human nectin-4. Sequencing of the viral attachment proteins (hemagglutinin, H, and fusion protein, F genes revealed that no adaptive alteration was required to utilize human nectin-4. In contrast, the virus replicated only to low titres (10(2 pfu/ml in Vero cells expressing human CD150 (Vero-hSLAM. After three passages using these cells virus was adapted to human CD150 and replicated to high titres (10(5 pfu/ml. Sequence analyses revealed that only one amino acid exchange in the H-protein at position 540 Asp→Gly (D540G was required for functional adaptation to human CD150. Structural modelling suggests that the adaptive mutation D540G in H reflects the sequence alteration from canine to human CD150 at position 70 and 71 from Pro to Leu (P70L and Gly to Glu (G71E, and compensates for the gain of a negative charge in the human CD150 molecule. Using this model system our data indicate that only a minimal alteration, in this case one adaptive mutation, is required for adaptation of CDV to the human entry receptors, and help to understand the molecular basis why this adaptive mutation occurs.

  4. Adaptive Mutations That Occurred during Circulation in Humans of H1N1 Influenza Virus in the 2009 Pandemic Enhance Virulence in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otte, A; Sauter, M; Daxer, M A; McHardy, A C; Klingel, K; Gabriel, G

    2015-07-01

    During the 2009 H1N1 influenza pandemic, infection attack rates were particularly high among young individuals who suffered from pneumonia with occasional death. Moreover, previously reported determinants of mammalian adaptation and pathogenicity were not present in 2009 pandemic H1N1 influenza A viruses. Thus, it was proposed that unknown viral factors might have contributed to disease severity in humans. In this study, we performed a comparative analysis of two clinical 2009 pandemic H1N1 strains that belong to the very early and later phases of the pandemic. We identified mutations in the viral hemagglutinin (HA) and the nucleoprotein (NP) that occurred during pandemic progression and mediate increased virulence in mice. Lethal disease outcome correlated with elevated viral replication in the alveolar epithelium, increased proinflammatory cytokine and chemokine responses, pneumonia, and lymphopenia in mice. These findings show that viral mutations that have occurred during pandemic circulation among humans are associated with severe disease in mice. In this study, novel determinants of 2009 pandemic H1N1 influenza pathogenicity were identified in the viral hemagglutinin (HA) and the nucleoprotein (NP) genes. In contrast to highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses, increased virulence in mice did not correlate with enhanced polymerase activity but with reduced activity. Lethal 2009 pandemic H1N1 infection in mice correlated with lymphopenia and severe pneumonia. These studies suggest that molecular mechanisms that mediate 2009 pandemic H1N1 influenza pathogenicity are distinct from those that mediate avian influenza virus pathogenicity in mice. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  5. Swine Outbreak of Pandemic Influenza A Virus on a Canadian Research Farm Supports Human-to-Swine Transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keenliside, Julia; Wilkinson, Craig; Webby, Richard; Lu, Patricia; Sorensen, Ole; Fonseca, Kevin; Barman, Subrata; Rubrum, Adam; Stigger, Evelyn; Marrie, Thomas J.; Marshall, Frank; Spady, Donald W.; Hu, Jia; Loeb, Mark; Russell, Margaret L.; Babiuk, Lorne A.

    2011-01-01

    Background. Swine outbreaks of pandemic influenza A (pH1N1) suggest human introduction of the virus into herds. This study investigates a pH1N1 outbreak occurring on a swine research farm with 37 humans and 1300 swine in Alberta, Canada, from 12 June through 4 July 2009. Methods. The staff was surveyed about symptoms, vaccinations, and livestock exposures. Clinical findings were recorded, and viral testing and molecular characterization of isolates from humans and swine were performed. Human serological testing and performance of the human influenza-like illness (ILI) case definition were also studied. Results. Humans were infected before swine. Seven of 37 humans developed ILI, and 2 (including the index case) were positive for pH1N1 by reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Swine were positive for pH1N1 by RT-PCR 6 days after contact with the human index case and developed symptoms within 24 h of their positive viral test results. Molecular characterization of the entire viral genomes from both species showed minor nucleotide heterogeneity, with 1 amino acid change each in the hemagglutinin and nucleoprotein genes. Sixty-seven percent of humans with positive serological test results and 94% of swine with positive swab specimens had few or no symptoms. Compared with serological testing, the human ILI case definition had a specificity of 100% and sensitivity of 33.3%. The only factor associated with seropositivity was working in the swine nursery. Conclusions. Epidemiologic data support human-to-swine transmission, and molecular characterization confirms that virtually identical viruses infected humans and swine in this outbreak. Both species had mild illness and recovered without sequelae. PMID:21148514

  6. [Pulmonary pathology in fatal human influenza A (H1N1) infection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Xue-jing; Li, Yong; Gong, En-cong; Wang, Jue; Lü, Fu-dong; Zhang, He-qiu; Sun, Lin; Yue, Zhu-jun; Song, Chen-chao; Zhang, Shi-Jie; Li, Ning; Dai, Jie

    2011-12-01

    To study the pulmonary pathology in patients died of fatal human influenza A(H1N1) infection. Eight cases of fatal human influenza A (H1N1) infection, including 2 autopsy cases and 6 paramortem needle puncture biopsies, were enrolled into the study. Histologic examination, immunohistochemitry, flow cytometry and Western blotting were carried out. The major pathologic changes included necrotizing bronchiolitis with surrounding inflammation, diffuse alveolar damage and pulmonary hemorrhage. Influenza viral antigen expression was detected in the lung tissue by Western blotting. Immunohistochemical study demonstrated the presence of nuclear protein and hemagglutinin virus antigens in parts of trachea, bronchial epithelium and glands, alveolar epithelium, macrophages and endothelium. Flow cytometry showed that the apoptotic rate of type II pneumocytes (32.15%, 78.15%) was significantly higher than that of the controls (1.93%, 3.77%). Necrotizing bronchiolitis, diffuse alveolar damage and pulmonary hemorrhage followed by pulmonary fibrosis in late stage are the major pathologic changes in fatal human influenza A (H1N1) infection.

  7. Broad neutralizing human monoclonal antibodies against influenza virus from vaccinated healthy donors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kubota-Koketsu, Ritsuko; Mizuta, Hiroyuki [Department of Virology, Research Institute for Microbial Diseases, Osaka University, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Oshita, Masatoshi; Ideno, Shoji [Osaka Research Laboratory, Benesis Corporation, Yodogawa-ku, Osaka 532-6505 (Japan); Yunoki, Mikihiro [Osaka Research Laboratory, Benesis Corporation, Yodogawa-ku, Osaka 532-6505 (Japan); Department of Virology, Research Institute for Microbial Diseases, Osaka University, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Kuhara, Motoki [Ina Laboratory, Medical and Biological Laboratories Corporation, Ltd., Ina, Nagano 396-0002 (Japan); Yamamoto, Naomasa [Department of Biochemistry, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Ohu University, Koriyama, Fukushima 963-8611 (Japan); Okuno, Yoshinobu [Kanonji Institute, The Research Foundation for Microbial Diseases of Osaka University, Kanonji, Kagawa 768-0061 (Japan); Ikuta, Kazuyoshi, E-mail: ikuta@biken.osaka-u.ac.jp [Department of Virology, Research Institute for Microbial Diseases, Osaka University, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan)

    2009-09-11

    Human monoclonal antibodies (HuMAbs) prepared from patients with viral infections could provide information on human epitopes important for the development of vaccines as well as potential therapeutic applications. Through the fusion of peripheral blood mononuclear cells from a total of five influenza-vaccinated volunteers, with newly developed murine-human chimera fusion partner cells, named SPYMEG, we obtained 10 hybridoma clones stably producing anti-influenza virus antibodies: one for influenza A H1N1, four for influenza A H3N2 and five for influenza B. Surprisingly, most of the HuMAbs showed broad reactivity within subtype and four (two for H3N2 and two for B) showed broad neutralizing ability. Importantly, epitope mapping revealed that the two broad neutralizing antibodies to H3N2 derived from different donors recognized the same epitope located underneath the receptor-binding site of the hemagglutinin globular region that is highly conserved among H3N2 strains.

  8. Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza A(H5N1) Viruses at the Animal-Human Interface in Vietnam, 2003-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creanga, Adrian; Hang, Nguyen Le Khanh; Cuong, Vuong Duc; Nguyen, Ha T; Phuong, Hoang Vu Mai; Thanh, Le Thi; Thach, Nguyen Co; Hien, Pham Thi; Tung, Nguyen; Jang, Yunho; Balish, Amanda; Dang, Nguyen Hoang; Duong, Mai Thuy; Huong, Ngo Thu; Hoa, Do Ngoc; Tho, Nguyen Dang; Klimov, Alexander; Kapella, Bryan K; Gubareva, Larisa; Kile, James C; Hien, Nguyen Tran; Mai, Le Quynh; Davis, C Todd

    2017-09-15

    Mutation and reassortment of highly pathogenic avian influenza A(H5N1) viruses at the animal-human interface remain a major concern for emergence of viruses with pandemic potential. To understand the relationship of H5N1 viruses circulating in poultry and those isolated from humans, comprehensive phylogenetic and molecular analyses of viruses collected from both hosts in Vietnam between 2003 and 2010 were performed. We examined the temporal and spatial distribution of human cases relative to H5N1 poultry outbreaks and characterized the genetic lineages and amino acid substitutions in each gene segment identified in humans relative to closely related viruses from avian hosts. Six hemagglutinin clades and 8 genotypes were identified in humans, all of which were initially identified in poultry. Several amino acid mutations throughout the genomes of viruses isolated from humans were identified, indicating the potential for poultry viruses infecting humans to rapidly acquire molecular markers associated with mammalian adaptation and antiviral resistance. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America 2017. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  9. H7N9 T-cell epitopes that mimic human sequences are less immunogenic and may induce Treg-mediated tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Rui; Moise, Leonard; Tassone, Ryan; Gutierrez, Andres H; Terry, Frances E; Sangare, Kotou; Ardito, Matthew T; Martin, William D; De Groot, Anne S

    2015-01-01

    Avian-origin H7N9 influenza is a novel influenza A virus (IAV) that emerged in humans in China in 2013. Using immunoinformatics tools, we identified several H7N9 T cell epitopes with T cell receptor (TCR)-facing residues identical to those of multiple epitopes from human proteins. We hypothesized that host tolerance to these peptides may impair T helper response and contribute to the low titer, weak hemagglutination inhibiting (HI) antibody responses and diminished seroconversion rates that have been observed in human H7N9 infections and vaccine trials. We found that the magnitude of human T effector responses to individual H7N9 peptides was inversely correlated with the peptide's resemblance to self. Furthermore, a promiscuous T cell epitope from the hemagglutinin (HA) protein suppressed responses to other H7N9 peptides when co-administered in vitro. Along with other highly 'human-like' peptides from H7N9, this peptide was also shown to expand FoxP3(+) regulatory T cells (Tregs). Thus, H7N9 may be camouflaged from effective human immune response by T cell epitope sequences that avert or regulate effector T cell responses through host tolerance.

  10. Human rights

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gaay Fortman, B. de

    2006-01-01

    Human rights reflect a determined effort to protect the dignity of each and every human being against abuse of power. This endeavour is as old as human history. What is relatively new is the international venture for the protection of human dignity through internationally accepted legal standards

  11. Human Rights, Human Needs, Human Development, Human Security

    OpenAIRE

    Gasper, D.R.

    2007-01-01

    Human rights, human development and human security form increasingly important, partly interconnected, partly competitive and misunderstood ethical and policy discourses. Each tries to humanize a pre-existing and unavoidable major discourse of everyday life, policy and politics; each has emerged within the United Nations world; each relies implicitly on a conceptualisation of human need; each has specific strengths. Yet mutual communication, understanding and co-operation are deficient, espec...

  12. N-terminal tagging of human P2X7 receptor disturbs calcium influx and dye uptake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreisig, Karin; Kristensen, Nikolaj Pagh; Dommer, Maja Wallentin; Jørgensen, Niklas Rye; Kornum, Birgitte Rahbek

    2017-12-30

    The P2X7 receptor is a frequently studied member of the purinergic receptor family signalling via channel opening and membrane pore formation. Fluorescent imaging is an important molecular method for studying cellular receptor expression and localization. Fusion of receptors to fluorescent proteins might cause major functional changes and requires careful functional evaluation such as has been done for the rat P2X7 receptor. This study examines fusion constructs of the human P2X7 receptor. We assessed surface expression, channel opening with calcium influx, and pore formation using YO-PRO-1 dye uptake in response to BzATP stimulation in transfected cells. We found that tagging at the N-terminal of the human P2X7 receptor with the enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP) disturbed channel opening and pore formation despite intact surface expression. A triple hemagglutinin (3HA) fused to the N-terminal also disrupted pore formation but not channel opening showing that even a small tag alters the normal function of the receptor. Together, this suggests that in contrast to what has been observed for the rat P2X7 receptor, the human P2X7 receptor contains N-terminal motifs important for signalling that prevent the construction of a functionally active fusion protein.

  13. Agglutination of human O erythrocytes by influenza A(H1N1) viruses freshly isolated from patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, T; Haruki, K; Seto, Y; Kimura, T; Minoshiro, S; Shibe, K

    1991-04-01

    The hemagglutinin titers of 10 influenza A (H1N1) viruses were examined using the erythrocytes of several species. Human O erythrocytes showed the highest agglutination titer to the viruses, whereas chicken erythrocytes showed a low titer. These findings were noted for at least 10 passages by serial dilutions of the viruses in Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells. All influenza A(H1N1) viruses, plaque-cloned directly from throat-washing specimens of patients, also agglutinated human O but not chicken erythrocytes. The results of a hemadsorption test indicated that chicken erythrocytes possess less affinity to MDCK cells infected with the A/Osaka City/2/88(H1N1) stain than to those infected with the A/Yamagata/120/86(H1N1) strain which is used as an inactivated influenza vaccine in Japan. However, there were no significant differences between the A/Osaka City/2/88 and the A/Yamagata/120/86 strains in the hemagglutination inhibition test. Since human O erythrocytes have high agglutination activity to influenza A(H1N1) and also to A(H3N2) and B viruses in MDCK cells, these erythrocytes may be useful for the serological diagnosis of influenza.

  14. Exposure to ozone modulates human airway protease/antiprotease balance contributing to increased influenza A infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew J Kesic

    Full Text Available Exposure to oxidant air pollution is associated with increased respiratory morbidities and susceptibility to infections. Ozone is a commonly encountered oxidant air pollutant, yet its effects on influenza infections in humans are not known. The greater Mexico City area was the primary site for the spring 2009 influenza A H1N1 pandemic, which also coincided with high levels of environmental ozone. Proteolytic cleavage of the viral membrane protein hemagglutinin (HA is essential for influenza virus infectivity. Recent studies suggest that HA cleavage might be cell-associated and facilitated by the type II transmembrane serine proteases (TTSPs human airway trypsin-like protease (HAT and transmembrane protease, serine 2 (TMPRSS2, whose activities are regulated by antiproteases, such as secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor (SLPI. Based on these observations, we sought to determine how acute exposure to ozone may modulate cellular protease/antiprotease expression and function, and to define their roles in a viral infection. We utilized our in vitro model of differentiated human nasal epithelial cells (NECs to determine the effects of ozone on influenza cleavage, entry, and replication. We show that ozone exposure disrupts the protease/antiprotease balance within the airway liquid. We also determined that functional forms of HAT, TMPRSS2, and SLPI are secreted from human airway epithelium, and acute exposure to ozone inversely alters their expression levels. We also show that addition of antioxidants significantly reduces virus replication through the induction of SLPI. In addition, we determined that ozone-induced cleavage of the viral HA protein is not cell-associated and that secreted endogenous proteases are sufficient to activate HA leading to a significant increase in viral replication. Our data indicate that pre-exposure to ozone disrupts the protease/antiprotease balance found in the human airway, leading to increased influenza susceptibility.

  15. Overexpression of human virus surface glycoprotein precursors induces cytosolic unfolded protein response in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sasnauskas Kęstutis

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The expression of human virus surface proteins, as well as other mammalian glycoproteins, is much more efficient in cells of higher eukaryotes rather than yeasts. The limitations to high-level expression of active viral surface glycoproteins in yeast are not well understood. To identify possible bottlenecks we performed a detailed study on overexpression of recombinant mumps hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (MuHN and measles hemagglutinin (MeH in yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, combining the analysis of recombinant proteins with a proteomic approach. Results Overexpressed recombinant MuHN and MeH proteins were present in large aggregates, were inactive and totally insoluble under native conditions. Moreover, the majority of recombinant protein was found in immature form of non-glycosylated precursors. Fractionation of yeast lysates revealed that the core of viral surface protein aggregates consists of MuHN or MeH disulfide-linked multimers involving eukaryotic translation elongation factor 1A (eEF1A and is closely associated with small heat shock proteins (sHsps that can be removed only under denaturing conditions. Complexes of large Hsps seem to be bound to aggregate core peripherally as they can be easily removed at high salt concentrations. Proteomic analysis revealed that the accumulation of unglycosylated viral protein precursors results in specific cytosolic unfolded protein response (UPR-Cyto in yeast cells, characterized by different action and regulation of small Hsps versus large chaperones of Hsp70, Hsp90 and Hsp110 families. In contrast to most environmental stresses, in the response to synthesis of recombinant MuHN and MeH, only the large Hsps were upregulated whereas sHsps were not. Interestingly, the amount of eEF1A was also increased during this stress response. Conclusions Inefficient translocation of MuHN and MeH precursors through ER membrane is a bottleneck for high-level expression in yeast. Overexpression of

  16. Human Monkeypox

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wilson, Mary E; Hughes, James M; McCollum, Andrea M; Damon, Inger K

    2014-01-01

    Human monkeypox is found primarily in forested areas of Central Africa. This article provides a basic review of the clinical, epidemiological, and biological factors that contribute to human disease...

  17. Human microbiomics

    OpenAIRE

    Rajendhran, J.; Gunasekaran, P.

    2010-01-01

    The sequencing of the human genome has driven the study of human biology in a significant way and enabled the genome-wide study to elucidate the molecular basis of complex human diseases. Recently, the role of microbiota on human physiology and health has received much attention. The influence of gut microbiome (the collective genomes of the gut microbiota) in obesity has been demonstrated, which may pave the way for new prophylactic and therapeutic strategies such as bacteriotherapy. The sig...

  18. Human Development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.R. Gasper (Des)

    2009-01-01

    textabstract‘Human development’ language spread gradually in circles of national and international development policy and planning from the 1970s and acquired a definitive form in the 1990s in the United Nations Development Programme’s Human Development Reports (HDRs). Human development was defined

  19. Human Smuggling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siegel - Rozenblit, Dina|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/152524096; Zaitch, Damian|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/183348486

    2014-01-01

    Human smuggling is based on a consensus between smuggler, smuggled, and his/her family (which usually guarantees or effectuates payment). However, unauthorized immigrants are violating immigration laws and human smugglers are profiting from enabling illegal immigration. Both human smuggling and its

  20. Generation and testing anti-influenza human monoclonal antibodies in a new humanized mouse model (DRAGA: HLA-A2. HLA-DR4. Rag1 KO. IL-2Rγc KO. NOD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza, Mirian; Ballesteros, Angela; Qi, Qiu; Sang, Luis Pow; Shashikumar, Soumya; Casares, Sofia; Brumeanu, Teodor-D

    2017-11-14

    Pandemic outbreaks of influenza type A viruses have resulted in numerous fatalities around the globe. Since the conventional influenza vaccines (CIV) provide less than 20% protection for individuals with weak immune system, it has been considered that broadly cross-neutralizing antibodies may provide a better protection. Herein, we showed that a recently generated humanized mouse (DRAGA mouse; HLA-A2. HLA-DR4. Rag1KO. IL-2Rγc KO. NOD) that lacks the murine immune system and expresses a functional human immune system can be used to generate cross-reactive, human anti-influenza monoclonal antibodies (hu-mAb). DRAGA mouse was also found to be suitable for influenza virus infection, as it can clear a sub-lethal infection and sustain a lethal infection with PR8/A/34 influenza virus. The hu-mAbs were designed for targeting a human B-cell epitope (180WGIHHPPNSKEQ QNLY195) of hemagglutinin (HA) envelope protein of PR8/A/34 (H1N1) virus with high homology among seven influenza type A viruses. A single administration of HA180-195 specific hu-mAb in PR8-infected DRAGA mice significantly delayed the lethality by reducing the lung damage. The results demonstrated that DRAGA mouse is a suitable tool to (i) generate heterotype cross-reactive, anti-influenza human monoclonal antibodies, (ii) serve as a humanized mouse model for influenza infection, and (iii) assess the efficacy of anti-influenza antibody-based therapeutics for human use.

  1. Human monoclonal antibodies broadly neutralizing against influenza B virus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayo Yasugi

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Influenza virus has the ability to evade host immune surveillance through rapid viral genetic drift and reassortment; therefore, it remains a continuous public health threat. The development of vaccines producing broadly reactive antibodies, as well as therapeutic strategies using human neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (HuMAbs with global reactivity, has been gathering great interest recently. Here, three hybridoma clones producing HuMAbs against influenza B virus, designated 5A7, 3A2 and 10C4, were prepared using peripheral lymphocytes from vaccinated volunteers, and were investigated for broad cross-reactive neutralizing activity. Of these HuMAbs, 3A2 and 10C4, which recognize the readily mutable 190-helix region near the receptor binding site in the hemagglutinin (HA protein, react only with the Yamagata lineage of influenza B virus. By contrast, HuMAb 5A7 broadly neutralizes influenza B strains that were isolated from 1985 to 2006, belonging to both Yamagata and Victoria lineages. Epitope mapping revealed that 5A7 recognizes 316G, 318C and 321W near the C terminal of HA1, a highly conserved region in influenza B virus. Indeed, no mutations in the amino acid residues of the epitope region were induced, even after the virus was passaged ten times in the presence of HuMAb 5A7. Moreover, 5A7 showed significant therapeutic efficacy in mice, even when it was administered 72 hours post-infection. These results indicate that 5A7 is a promising candidate for developing therapeutics, and provide insight for the development of a universal vaccine against influenza B virus.

  2. In Silico Prediction and Experimental Confirmation of HA Residues Conferring Enhanced Human Receptor Specificity of H5N1 Influenza A Viruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmier, Sonja; Mostafa, Ahmed; Haarmann, Thomas; Bannert, Norbert; Ziebuhr, John; Veljkovic, Veljko; Dietrich, Ursula; Pleschka, Stephan

    2015-06-01

    Newly emerging influenza A viruses (IAV) pose a major threat to human health by causing seasonal epidemics and/or pandemics, the latter often facilitated by the lack of pre-existing immunity in the general population. Early recognition of candidate pandemic influenza viruses (CPIV) is of crucial importance for restricting virus transmission and developing appropriate therapeutic and prophylactic strategies including effective vaccines. Often, the pandemic potential of newly emerging IAV is only fully recognized once the virus starts to spread efficiently causing serious disease in humans. Here, we used a novel phylogenetic algorithm based on the informational spectrum method (ISM) to identify potential CPIV by predicting mutations in the viral hemagglutinin (HA) gene that are likely to (differentially) affect critical interactions between the HA protein and target cells from bird and human origin, respectively. Predictions were subsequently validated by generating pseudotyped retrovirus particles and genetically engineered IAV containing these mutations and characterizing potential effects on virus entry and replication in cells expressing human and avian IAV receptors, respectively. Our data suggest that the ISM-based algorithm is suitable to identify CPIV among IAV strains that are circulating in animal hosts and thus may be a new tool for assessing pandemic risks associated with specific strains.

  3. Human Technology and Human Affects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fausing, Bent

    2009-01-01

    Human Technology and Human Affects  This year Samsung introduced a mobile phone with "Soul". It was made with a human touch and included itself a magical touch. Which function does technology and affects get in everyday aesthetics like this, its images and interactions included this presentation...... will ask and try to answer. The mobile phone and its devices are depicted as being able to make a unique human presence, interaction, and affect. The medium, the technology is a necessary helper to get towards this very special and lost humanity. Without the technology, no special humanity - soul...... - is the prophecy. This personification or anthropomorphism is important for the branding of new technology. The technology is seen as creating a technotranscendens towards a more qualified humanity, which is in contact with the fundamental human values like intuition, vision, and sensing; all the qualities...

  4. Legume Lectins Inhibit Human Parainfluenza Virus Type 2 Infection by Interfering with the Entry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myles O’Brien

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Three lectins with different sugar binding specificities were investigated for anti-viral activity against human parainfluenza virus type 2 (hPIV-2. The lectins, concanavalin A (Con A, lens culinaris agglutinin (LCA and peanut agglutinin (PNA, inhibited cell fusion and hemadsorption induced by hPIV-2. Virus nucleoprotein (NP gene synthesis was largely inhibited, but fusion (F and hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN gene syntheses were not. An indirect immunofluorescence study showed that Con A inhibited virus NP, F and HN protein syntheses, but LCA did not completely inhibit them, and that PNA inhibited only NP protein synthesis. Using a recombinant green fluorescence protein-expressing hPIV-2, without matrix protein (rghPIV-2ΔM, it was found that virus entry into the cells was not completely prevented. The lectins considerably reduced the number of viruses released compared with that of virus infected cells. The lectins bound to cell surface within 10 min, and many aggregates were observed at 30 min. Con A and LCA slightly disrupted actin microfilaments and microtubules, but PNA had almost no effect on them. These results indicated that the inhibitory effects of the lectins were caused mainly by the considerable prevention of virus adsorption to the cells by the lectin binding to their receptors.

  5. Variable virulence factors in Burkholderia pseudomallei (melioidosis associated with human disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derek S Sarovich

    Full Text Available Burkholderia pseudomallei is a Gram-negative environmental bacterium that causes melioidosis, a potentially life-threatening infectious disease affecting mammals, including humans. Melioidosis symptoms are both protean and diverse, ranging from mild, localized skin infections to more severe and often fatal presentations including pneumonia, septic shock with multiple internal abscesses and occasionally neurological involvement. Several ubiquitous virulence determinants in B. pseudomallei have already been discovered. However, the molecular basis for differential pathogenesis has, until now, remained elusive. Using clinical data from 556 Australian melioidosis cases spanning more than 20 years, we identified a Burkholderia mallei-like actin polymerization bimA(Bm gene that is strongly associated with neurological disease. We also report that a filamentous hemagglutinin gene, fhaB3, is associated with positive blood cultures but is negatively correlated with localized skin lesions without sepsis. We show, for the first time, that variably present virulence factors play an important role in the pathogenesis of melioidosis. Collectively, our study provides a framework for assessing other non-ubiquitous bacterial virulence factors and their association with disease, such as candidate loci identified from large-scale microbial genome-wide association studies.

  6. Variable virulence factors in Burkholderia pseudomallei (melioidosis) associated with human disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarovich, Derek S; Price, Erin P; Webb, Jessica R; Ward, Linda M; Voutsinos, Marcos Y; Tuanyok, Apichai; Mayo, Mark; Kaestli, Mirjam; Currie, Bart J

    2014-01-01

    Burkholderia pseudomallei is a Gram-negative environmental bacterium that causes melioidosis, a potentially life-threatening infectious disease affecting mammals, including humans. Melioidosis symptoms are both protean and diverse, ranging from mild, localized skin infections to more severe and often fatal presentations including pneumonia, septic shock with multiple internal abscesses and occasionally neurological involvement. Several ubiquitous virulence determinants in B. pseudomallei have already been discovered. However, the molecular basis for differential pathogenesis has, until now, remained elusive. Using clinical data from 556 Australian melioidosis cases spanning more than 20 years, we identified a Burkholderia mallei-like actin polymerization bimA(Bm) gene that is strongly associated with neurological disease. We also report that a filamentous hemagglutinin gene, fhaB3, is associated with positive blood cultures but is negatively correlated with localized skin lesions without sepsis. We show, for the first time, that variably present virulence factors play an important role in the pathogenesis of melioidosis. Collectively, our study provides a framework for assessing other non-ubiquitous bacterial virulence factors and their association with disease, such as candidate loci identified from large-scale microbial genome-wide association studies.

  7. [Detection and Analysis of Human Parainfluenza Virus Infection in Hospitalized Adults with Acute Respiratory Tract Infections].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xing-Qiao; Liu, Xue-Wei; Zhou, Tao; Pei, Xiao-Fang

    2017-11-01

    To investigate the prevalence and gene characteristics of different groups of human parainfluenza virus (HPIV) infection in hospitalized adults with acute respiratory tract infections (ARI). RT-PCR was used to detect HPIV hemagglutinin (HA) DNA,which was extracted from sputum samples of 1 039 adult patients with ARI from March,2014 to June,2016. The HA gene amplified from randomly selected positive samples were sequenced to analyze the homology and variation. 10.6% (110/1 039) of these samples were positive for HPIV,including 8 cases of HPIV-1,22 cases of HPIV-2,46 cases of HPIV-3 and 34 cases of HPIV-4. Detectable rate varied among different groups of HPIV according to seasons of the year and ages of patients. No significant differences were found between the positive samples and the reference sequences. Compared with different reference strains of different regions,the genetic distance of nucleotide is the smallest between the strains tested in this study and the reference strains of other provinces and cities in China. In Chengdu region,HPIV virus is highly detected in ARI,all subtypes were detected with HPIV-3 being the main subtype.

  8. Human Parvoviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Jianming; Söderlund-Venermo, Maria; Young, Neal S

    2017-01-01

    Parvovirus B19 (B19V) and human bocavirus 1 (HBoV1), members of the large Parvoviridae family, are human pathogens responsible for a variety of diseases. For B19V in particular, host features determine disease manifestations. These viruses are prevalent worldwide and are culturable in vitro, and serological and molecular assays are available but require careful interpretation of results. Additional human parvoviruses, including HBoV2 to -4, human parvovirus 4 (PARV4), and human bufavirus (BuV) are also reviewed. The full spectrum of parvovirus disease in humans has yet to be established. Candidate recombinant B19V vaccines have been developed but may not be commercially feasible. We review relevant features of the molecular and cellular biology of these viruses, and the human immune response that they elicit, which have allowed a deep understanding of pathophysiology. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Microbiology.

  9. Role of position 627 of PB2 and the multibasic cleavage site of the hemagglutinin in the virulence of H5N1 avian influenza virus in chickens and ducks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karel A Schat

    Full Text Available Highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza viruses have caused major disease outbreaks in domestic and free-living birds with transmission to humans resulting in 59% mortality amongst 564 cases. The mutation of the amino acid at position 627 of the viral polymerase basic-2 protein (PB2 from glutamic acid (E in avian isolates to lysine (K in human isolates is frequently found, but it is not known if this change affects the fitness and pathogenicity of the virus in birds. We show here that horizontal transmission of A/Vietnam/1203/2004 H5N1 (VN/1203 virus in chickens and ducks was not affected by the change of K to E at PB2-627. All chickens died between 21 to 48 hours post infection (pi, while 70% of the ducks survived infection. Virus replication was detected in chickens within 12 hours pi and reached peak titers in spleen, lung and brain between 18 to 24 hours for both viruses. Viral antigen in chickens was predominantly in the endothelium, while in ducks it was present in multiple cell types, including neurons, myocardium, skeletal muscle and connective tissues. Virus replicated to a high titer in chicken thrombocytes and caused upregulation of TLR3 and several cell adhesion molecules, which may explain the rapid virus dissemination and location of viral antigen in endothelium. Virus replication in ducks reached peak values between 2 and 4 days pi in spleen, lung and brain tissues and in contrast to infection in chickens, thrombocytes were not involved. In addition, infection of chickens with low pathogenic VN/1203 caused neuropathology, with E at position PB2-627 causing significantly higher infection rates than K, indicating that it enhances virulence in chickens.

  10. Human Rights/Human Needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canning, Cynthia

    1978-01-01

    The faculty of Holy Names High School developed an interdisciplinary human rights program with school-wide activities focusing on three selected themes: the United Nations Universal Declaration of Human Rights, in conjunction with Human Rights Week; Food; and Women. This article outlines major program activities. (SJL)

  11. Spatial Dynamics of Human-Origin H1 Influenza A Virus in North American Swine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Martha I.; Lemey, Philippe; Tan, Yi; Vincent, Amy; Lam, Tommy Tsan-Yuk; Detmer, Susan; Viboud, Cécile; Suchard, Marc A.; Rambaut, Andrew; Holmes, Edward C.; Gramer, Marie

    2011-01-01

    The emergence and rapid global spread of the swine-origin H1N1/09 pandemic influenza A virus in humans underscores the importance of swine populations as reservoirs for genetically diverse influenza viruses with the potential to infect humans. However, despite their significance for animal and human health, relatively little is known about the phylogeography of swine influenza viruses in the United States. This study utilizes an expansive data set of hemagglutinin (HA1) sequences (n = 1516) from swine influenza viruses collected in North America during the period 2003–2010. With these data we investigate the spatial dissemination of a novel influenza virus of the H1 subtype that was introduced into the North American swine population via two separate human-to-swine transmission events around 2003. Bayesian phylogeographic analysis reveals that the spatial dissemination of this influenza virus in the US swine population follows long-distance swine movements from the Southern US to the Midwest, a corn-rich commercial center that imports millions of swine annually. Hence, multiple genetically diverse influenza viruses are introduced and co-circulate in the Midwest, providing the opportunity for genomic reassortment. Overall, the Midwest serves primarily as an ecological sink for swine influenza in the US, with sources of virus genetic diversity instead located in the Southeast (mainly North Carolina) and South-central (mainly Oklahoma) regions. Understanding the importance of long-distance pig transportation in the evolution and spatial dissemination of the influenza virus in swine may inform future strategies for the surveillance and control of influenza, and perhaps other swine pathogens. PMID:21695237

  12. An H7N1 Influenza Virus Vaccine Induces Broadly Reactive Antibody Responses against H7N9 in Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jul-Larsen, Åsne; Margine, Irina; Hirsh, Ariana; Sjursen, Haakon; Zambon, Maria

    2014-01-01

    Emerging H7N9 influenza virus infections in Asia have once more spurred the development of effective prepandemic H7 vaccines. However, many vaccines based on avian influenza viruses—including H7—are poorly immunogenic, as measured by traditional correlates of protection. Here we reevaluated sera from an H7N1 human vaccine trial performed in 2006. We examined cross-reactive antibody responses to divergent H7 strains, including H7N9, dissected the antibody response into head- and stalk-reactive antibodies, and tested the in vivo potency of these human sera in a passive-transfer H7N9 challenge experiment with mice. Although only a low percentage of vaccinees induced neutralizing antibody responses against the homologous vaccine strain and also H7N9, we detected strong cross-reactivity to divergent H7 hemagglutinins (HAs) in a large proportion of the cohort with a quantitative enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Furthermore, H7N1 vaccination induced antibodies to both the head and stalk domains of the HA, which is in sharp contrast to seasonal inactivated vaccines. Finally, we were able to show that both neutralizing and nonneutralizing antibodies improved in vivo virus clearance in a passive-transfer H7N9 challenge mouse model. PMID:24943383

  13. Digital Humanities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brügger, Niels

    2016-01-01

    Digital humanities is an umbrella term for theories, methodologies, and practices related to humanities scholarship that use the digital computer as an integrated and essential part of its research and teaching activities. The computer can be used for establishing, finding, collecting......, and preserving material to study, as an object of study in its own right, as an analytical tool, or for collaborating, and for disseminating results. The term "digital humanities" was coined around 2001, and gained currency within academia in the following years. However, computers had been used within...... the humanities for decades, starting with research fields such as humanities computing or computational linguistics in the 1950s, and later new media studies and internet studies. The historical development of digital humanities has been characterized by a focus on three successive, but co-existing types...

  14. Isolation of a novel swine influenza virus from Oklahoma in 2011 which is distantly related to human influenza C viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hause, Ben M; Ducatez, Mariette; Collin, Emily A; Ran, Zhiguang; Liu, Runxia; Sheng, Zizhang; Armien, Anibal; Kaplan, Bryan; Chakravarty, Suvobrata; Hoppe, Adam D; Webby, Richard J; Simonson, Randy R; Li, Feng

    2013-02-01

    Of the Orthomyxoviridae family of viruses, only influenza A viruses are thought to exist as multiple subtypes and has non-human maintenance hosts. In April 2011, nasal swabs were collected for virus isolation from pigs exhibiting influenza-like illness. Subsequent electron microscopic, biochemical, and genetic studies identified an orthomyxovirus with seven RNA segments exhibiting approximately 50% overall amino acid identity to human influenza C virus. Based on its genetic organizational similarities to influenza C viruses this virus has been provisionally designated C/Oklahoma/1334/2011 (C/OK). Phylogenetic analysis of the predicted viral proteins found that the divergence between C/OK and human influenza C viruses was similar to that observed between influenza A and B viruses. No cross reactivity was observed between C/OK and human influenza C viruses using hemagglutination inhibition (HI) assays. Additionally, screening of pig and human serum samples found that 9.5% and 1.3%, respectively, of individuals had measurable HI antibody titers to C/OK virus. C/OK virus was able to infect both ferrets and pigs and transmit to naive animals by direct contact. Cell culture studies showed that C/OK virus displayed a broader cellular tropism than a human influenza C virus. The observed difference in cellular tropism was further supported by structural analysis showing that hemagglutinin esterase (HE) proteins between two viruses have conserved enzymatic but divergent receptor-binding sites. These results suggest that C/OK virus represents a new subtype of influenza C viruses that currently circulates in pigs that has not been recognized previously. The presence of multiple subtypes of co-circulating influenza C viruses raises the possibility of reassortment and antigenic shift as mechanisms of influenza C virus evolution.

  15. Isolation of a Novel Swine Influenza Virus from Oklahoma in 2011 Which Is Distantly Related to Human Influenza C Viruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hause, Ben M.; Ducatez, Mariette; Collin, Emily A.; Ran, Zhiguang; Liu, Runxia; Sheng, Zizhang; Armien, Anibal; Kaplan, Bryan; Chakravarty, Suvobrata; Hoppe, Adam D.; Webby, Richard J.; Simonson, Randy R.; Li, Feng

    2013-01-01

    Of the Orthomyxoviridae family of viruses, only influenza A viruses are thought to exist as multiple subtypes and has non-human maintenance hosts. In April 2011, nasal swabs were collected for virus isolation from pigs exhibiting influenza-like illness. Subsequent electron microscopic, biochemical, and genetic studies identified an orthomyxovirus with seven RNA segments exhibiting approximately 50% overall amino acid identity to human influenza C virus. Based on its genetic organizational similarities to influenza C viruses this virus has been provisionally designated C/Oklahoma/1334/2011 (C/OK). Phylogenetic analysis of the predicted viral proteins found that the divergence between C/OK and human influenza C viruses was similar to that observed between influenza A and B viruses. No cross reactivity was observed between C/OK and human influenza C viruses using hemagglutination inhibition (HI) assays. Additionally, screening of pig and human serum samples found that 9.5% and 1.3%, respectively, of individuals had measurable HI antibody titers to C/OK virus. C/OK virus was able to infect both ferrets and pigs and transmit to naive animals by direct contact. Cell culture studies showed that C/OK virus displayed a broader cellular tropism than a human influenza C virus. The observed difference in cellular tropism was further supported by structural analysis showing that hemagglutinin esterase (HE) proteins between two viruses have conserved enzymatic but divergent receptor-binding sites. These results suggest that C/OK virus represents a new subtype of influenza C viruses that currently circulates in pigs that has not been recognized previously. The presence of multiple subtypes of co-circulating influenza C viruses raises the possibility of reassortment and antigenic shift as mechanisms of influenza C virus evolution. PMID:23408893

  16. Human evolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Llamas, Bastien; Willerslev, Eske; Orlando, Ludovic Antoine Alexandre

    2017-01-01

    The field of human ancient DNA (aDNA) has moved from mitochondrial sequencing that suffered from contamination and provided limited biological insights, to become a fully genomic discipline that is changing our conception of human history. Recent successes include the sequencing of extinct hominins......, and true population genomic studies of Bronze Age populations. Among the emerging areas of aDNA research, the analysis of past epigenomes is set to provide more new insights into human adaptation and disease susceptibility through time. Starting as a mere curiosity, ancient human genetics has become...

  17. Human Rights, Human Needs, Human Development, Human Security - Relationships between four international human discourses.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.R. Gasper (Des)

    2007-01-01

    markdownabstractAbstract: Human rights, human development and human security form increasingly important, partly interconnected, partly competitive and misunderstood ethical and policy discourses. Each tries to humanize a pre-existing and unavoidable major discourse of everyday life, policy and

  18. Human Rights and Human Nature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vittorio Possenti

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available There seems to be two different versions of human rights in Western tradition: say Rationalistic and Christian; the former adopted in revolutionary France, the latter highly developed in Renaissance Spain. Current relativistic criticisms attempt to deny the universality of human rights alleging that this theory has been created in Western countries or it has no strong justification, and therefore cannot have universal approach; but this objection can be dismissed with an alternative justification of human rights.

  19. Think Human

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Charlotte Marie Bisgaard

    2013-01-01

    years' campaigns suggests that the theory of communication underlying the campaign has its basis in mechanical action rather than in human communication. The practice of 'Communication design' is investigated in relation to this metaphorical 'machine thinking' model of communication and contrasted...... with the human-centered theory of communication advocated by integrationism....

  20. Human trichuriasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Betson, Martha; Søe, Martin Jensen; Nejsum, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Human trichuriasis is a neglected tropical disease which affects hundreds of millions of people worldwide and is particularly prevalent among children living in areas where sanitation is poor. This review examines the current knowledge on the taxonomy, genetics and phylogeography of human Trichuris...

  1. Human kapital

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grosen, Anders; Nielsen, Peder Harbjerg

    2007-01-01

    finansiel og human kapital. Den traditionelle rådgivnings snævre synsvinkel kan føre til forkerte investeringsråd. Der skal derfor opfordres til, at de finansielle virksomheder i tilrettelæggelsen af deres rådgivning af private kunder systematisk inddrager den humane kapitals størrelse og karakteristika i...

  2. Genomewide analysis of reassortment and evolution of human influenza A(H3N2) viruses circulating between 1968 and 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westgeest, Kim B; Russell, Colin A; Lin, Xudong; Spronken, Monique I J; Bestebroer, Theo M; Bahl, Justin; van Beek, Ruud; Skepner, Eugene; Halpin, Rebecca A; de Jong, Jan C; Rimmelzwaan, Guus F; Osterhaus, Albert D M E; Smith, Derek J; Wentworth, David E; Fouchier, Ron A M; de Graaf, Miranda

    2014-03-01

    Influenza A(H3N2) viruses became widespread in humans during the 1968 H3N2 virus pandemic and have been a major cause of influenza epidemics ever since. These viruses evolve continuously by reassortment and genomic evolution. Antigenic drift is the cause for the need to update influenza vaccines frequently. Using two data sets that span the entire period of circulation of human influenza A(H3N2) viruses, it was shown that influenza A(H3N2) virus evolution can be mapped to 13 antigenic clusters. Here we analyzed the full genomes of 286 influenza A(H3N2) viruses from these two data sets to investigate the genomic evolution and reassortment patterns. Numerous reassortment events were found, scattered over the entire period of virus circulation, but most prominently in viruses circulating between 1991 and 1998. Some of these reassortment events persisted over time, and one of these coincided with an antigenic cluster transition. Furthermore, selection pressures and nucleotide and amino acid substitution rates of all proteins were studied, including those of the recently discovered PB1-N40, PA-X, PA-N155, and PA-N182 proteins. Rates of nucleotide and amino acid substitutions were most pronounced for the hemagglutinin, neuraminidase, and PB1-F2 proteins. Selection pressures were highest in hemagglutinin, neuraminidase, matrix 1, and nonstructural protein 1. This study of genotype in relation to antigenic phenotype throughout the period of circulation of human influenza A(H3N2) viruses leads to a better understanding of the evolution of these viruses. Each winter, influenza virus infects approximately 5 to 15% of the world's population, resulting in significant morbidity and mortality. Influenza A(H3N2) viruses evolve continuously by reassortment and genomic evolution. This leads to changes in antigenic recognition (antigenic drift) which make it necessary to update vaccines against influenza A(H3N2) viruses frequently. In this study, the relationship of genetic evolution

  3. Fc functional antibodies in humans with severe H7N9 and seasonal influenza

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderven, Hillary A.; Liu, Lu; Ana-Sosa-Batiz, Fernanda; Nguyen, Thi H.O.; Wan, Yanmin; Hogarth, P. Mark; Tilmanis, Danielle; Parsons, Matthew S.; Hurt, Aeron C.; Davenport, Miles P.; Kotsimbos, Tom; Cheng, Allen C.; Kedzierska, Katherine; Zhang, Xiaoyan; Xu, Jianqing; Kent, Stephen J.

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND. Both seasonal and novel avian influenza viruses can result in severe infections requiring hospitalization. Anti-influenza antibodies (Abs) with Fc-mediated effector functions, such as Ab-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC), are of growing interest in control of influenza but have not previously been studied during severe human infections. As such, the objective of this study was to examine Fc-mediated Ab functions in humans hospitalized with influenza infection. METHODS. Serum Ab response was studied in subjects hospitalized with either pandemic H7N9 avian influenza virus in China (n = 18) or circulating seasonal influenza viruses in Melbourne, Australia (n = 16). Recombinant soluble Fc receptor dimer ELISAs, natural killer (NK) cell activation assays, and Ab-dependent killing assays with influenza-infected target cells were used to assess the Fc functionality of anti-influenza hemagglutinin (HA) Abs during severe human influenza infection. RESULTS. We found that the peak generation of Fc functional HA Abs preceded that of neutralizing Abs for both severe H7N9 and seasonal influenza infections. Subjects who succumbed to complications of H7N9 infection demonstrated reduced HA-specific Fc receptor–binding Abs (in magnitude and breadth) immediately prior to death compared with those who survived. Subjects who recovered from H7N9 and severe seasonal influenza infections demonstrated increased Fc receptor–binding Abs not only against the homologous infecting strain but against HAs from different influenza A subtypes. CONCLUSION. Collectively, survivors of severe influenza infection rapidly generate a functional Ab response capable of mediating ADCC against divergent influenza viruses. Broadly binding HA Abs with Fc-mediated functions may be a useful component of protective immunity to severe influenza infection. FUNDING. The National Health and Medical Research Council ([NHMRC] grants 1023294, 1041832, and 1071916), the Australian Department of Health

  4. Novel Human-like Influenza A Viruses Circulate in Swine in Mexico and Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Martha; Culhane, Marie R.; Rovira, Albert; Torremorell, Montserrat; Guerrero, Pedro; Norambuena, Julio

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Further understanding of the genetic diversity and evolution of influenza A viruses circulating in swine (IAV-S) is important for the development of effective vaccines and our knowledge of pandemic threats. Until recently, very little was known of IAV-S diversity in Latin America, owing to a lack of surveillance. Methods: To address this gap, we sequenced and conducted a phylogenetic analysis of 69 hemagglutinin (HA) sequences from IAV-S isolates collected in swine in Mexico and Chile during 2010-2014, including the H1N1, H1N2, and H3N2 subtypes. Results: Our analysis identified multiple IAV-S lineages that appear to have been circulating undetected in swine for decades, including four novel IAV-S lineages of human seasonal virus origin that have not been previously identified in any swine populations globally. We also found evidence of repeated introductions of pandemic H1N1 viruses from humans into swine in Mexico and Chile since 2009, and incursions of H1 and H3 viruses from North American swine into Mexico. Discussion: Overall, our findings indicate that at least 12 genetically distinct HA lineages circulate in Latin American swine herds, only two of which have been found in North American swine herds. Human-to-swine transmission, spatial migration via swine movements, and genomic reassortment are the key evolutionary mechanisms that generate this viral diversity. Additional antigenic characterization and whole-genome sequencing is greatly needed to understand the diversity and independent evolution of IAV-S in Latin America.  PMID:26345598

  5. Human Computation

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2008-01-01

    What if people could play computer games and accomplish work without even realizing it? What if billions of people collaborated to solve important problems for humanity or generate training data for computers? My work aims at a general paradigm for doing exactly that: utilizing human processing power to solve computational problems in a distributed manner. In particular, I focus on harnessing human time and energy for addressing problems that computers cannot yet solve. Although computers have advanced dramatically in many respects over the last 50 years, they still do not possess the basic conceptual intelligence or perceptual capabilities...

  6. Avian Influenza virus glycoproteins restrict virus replication and spread through human airway epithelium at temperatures of the proximal airways.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret A Scull

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Transmission of avian influenza viruses from bird to human is a rare event even though avian influenza viruses infect the ciliated epithelium of human airways in vitro and ex vivo. Using an in vitro model of human ciliated airway epithelium (HAE, we demonstrate that while human and avian influenza viruses efficiently infect at temperatures of the human distal airways (37 degrees C, avian, but not human, influenza viruses are restricted for infection at the cooler temperatures of the human proximal airways (32 degrees C. These data support the hypothesis that avian influenza viruses, ordinarily adapted to the temperature of the avian enteric tract (40 degrees C, rarely infect humans, in part due to differences in host airway regional temperatures. Previously, a critical residue at position 627 in the avian influenza virus polymerase subunit, PB2, was identified as conferring temperature-dependency in mammalian cells. Here, we use reverse genetics to show that avianization of residue 627 attenuates a human virus, but does not account for the different infection between 32 degrees C and 37 degrees C. To determine the mechanism of temperature restriction of avian influenza viruses in HAE at 32 degrees C, we generated recombinant human influenza viruses in either the A/Victoria/3/75 (H3N2 or A/PR/8/34 (H1N1 genetic background that contained avian or avian-like glycoproteins. Two of these viruses, A/Victoria/3/75 with L226Q and S228G mutations in hemagglutinin (HA and neuraminidase (NA from A/Chick/Italy/1347/99 and A/PR/8/34 containing the H7 and N1 from A/Chick/Italy/1347/99, exhibited temperature restriction approaching that of wholly avian influenza viruses. These data suggest that influenza viruses bearing avian or avian-like surface glycoproteins have a reduced capacity to establish productive infection at the temperature of the human proximal airways. This temperature restriction may limit zoonotic transmission of avian influenza viruses and

  7. Human phantom

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1973-01-01

    This human phantom has been received by CERN on loan from the State Committee of the USSR for the Utilization of Atomic Energy. It is used by the Health Physics Group to study personel radiation doses near the accelerators.

  8. Human expunction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klee, Robert

    2017-10-01

    Thomas Nagel in `The Absurd' (Nagel 1971) mentions the future expunction of the human species as a `metaphor' for our ability to see our lives from the outside, which he claims is one source of our sense of life's absurdity. I argue that the future expunction (not to be confused with extinction) of everything human - indeed of everything biological in a terran sense - is not a mere metaphor but a physical certainty under the laws of nature. The causal processes by which human expunction will take place are presented in some empirical detail, so that philosophers cannot dismiss it as merely speculative. I also argue that appeals to anthropic principles or to forms of mystical cosmology are of no plausible avail in the face of human expunction under the laws of physics.

  9. Human brucellosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Franco, María Pía; Mulder, Maximilian; Gilman, Robert H.; Smits, Henk L.

    2007-01-01

    Human brucellosis still presents scientists and clinicians with several challenges, such as the understanding of pathogenic mechanisms of Brucella spp, the identification of markers for disease severity, progression, and treatment response, and the development of improved treatment regimens.

  10. Human Toxicity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jolliet, Olivier; Fantke, Peter

    2015-01-01

    This chapter reviews the human toxicological impacts of chemicals and how to assess these impacts in life cycle impact assessment (LCIA), in order to identify key processes and pollutants. The complete cause-effect pathway – from emissions of toxic substances up to damages on human health...... on characterisation factors means that results should by default be reported and interpreted in log scales when comparing scenarios or substance contribution! We conclude by outlining future trends in human toxicity modelling for LCIA, with promising developments for (a) better estimates of degradation halflives, (b......) the inclusion of ionization of chemicals in human exposure including bioaccumulation, (c) metal speciation, (d) spatialised models to differentiate the variability associated with spatialisation from the uncertainty, and (e) the assessment of chemical exposure via consumer products and occupational settings...

  11. Human ehrlichiosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đokić Milomir

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Human ehrlichiosis is a newly recognized disease. It is a tick-borne disease caused by several bacterial species of the genhus Erlichia. These are small gram-negative pleomorphic cocci, that are obligatory intracellular bacteria. Tick Ixodes is the principle vector in Europe, and Amblyomma americanum in the United States. Bacterial organisms replicate in a tick, and are transmited from infected cells in a vector to the blood cells of animals or humans. Human ehrlichiosis is a name for a group of diseases caused by different species of Ehrlichia. One of them is the disease named human monocytic ehrlichiosis, caused by Ehrlichia chaffeensis, and the other is a human granulocytic ehrlichiosis caused by Anaplasma phagocytophilia. Case report. We reported a 23-year-old patient admitted for the clinical treatment with the symptoms of high febrility (above 40 °C, headache, vomiting, general weakness and exhaustion, but without data on a tick bite. The patient was treated with trimetoprim-sulfamethoxazole for a week when Ehrlichia chaffeensis was confirmed by the immunofluoroscence test, and the therapy contimed with doxacyclin. Conclusion. Human ehrlichiosis is also present in our country, so this disease should be considered everyday, especially in infectology practice.

  12. Avian influenza A (H9N2: computational molecular analysis and phylogenetic characterization of viral surface proteins isolated between 1997 and 2009 from the human population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Idrees Muhammad

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background H9N2 avian influenza A viruses have become panzootic in Eurasia over the last decade and have caused several human infections in Asia since 1998. To study their evolution and zoonotic potential, we conducted an in silico analysis of H9N2 viruses that have infected humans between 1997 and 2009 and identified potential novel reassortments. Results A total of 22 hemagglutinin (HA and neuraminidase (NA nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequences were retrieved from the NCBI flu database. It was identified that mature peptide sequences of HA genes isolated from humans in 2009 had glutamine at position 226 (H3 of the receptor binding site, indicating a preference to bind to the human α (2-6 sialic acid receptors, which is different from previously isolated viruses and studies where the presence of leucine at the same position contributes to preference for human receptors and presence of glutamine towards avian receptors. Similarly, strains isolated in 2009 possessed new motif R-S-N-R in spite of typical R-S-S-R at the cleavage site of HA, which isn't reported before for H9N2 cases in humans. Other changes involved loss, addition, and variations in potential glycosylation sites as well as in predicted epitopes. The results of phylogenetic analysis indicated that HA and NA gene segments of H9N2 including those from current and proposed vaccine strains belong to two different Eurasian phylogenetic lineages confirming possible genetic reassortments. Conclusions These findings support the continuous evolution of avian H9N2 viruses towards human as host and are in favor of effective surveillance and better characterization studies to address this issue.

  13. Type I interferon (IFN alpha) acts directly on human memory CD4+ T cells altering their response to antigen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Kathleen M E; Lauder, Sarah; Rees, Ian W; Gallimore, Awen M; Godkin, Andrew J

    2009-09-01

    Despite its use widely as a therapeutic agent, and proposed use as vaccine adjuvant, the effect of IFNalpha on T cell function is poorly understood. As a pleiotropic innate cytokine produced rapidly in response to pathogens, it is well placed to impinge on specific immune responses. The aim of this study was to examine the impact of IFNalpha on the function of human memory CD4(+) T cells using the recall Ags purified protein derivative, tetanus toxoid, and hemagglutinin. IFNalpha administered either in vivo or added exogenously in vitro tended to enhance proliferative responses of purified protein derivative-specific T cells in marked contrast to the other cognate populations whose responses were often diminished. Purifying the memory CD4(+)CD45RO(+) T cells confirmed IFNalpha acted directly on these cells and not via an intermediate. The T cells could be divided into two broad categories depending on how IFNalpha effected their responses to cognate Ag: 1) enhanced proliferation and a striking increase in IFNgamma-production compared with smaller increases in IL-10 (increased ratio of IFNgamma:IL-10), and 2) neutral or diminished proliferation coupled with a smaller increase in IFNgamma relative to the increase in IL-10 (reduced IFNgamma:IL-10 ratio). IFNalpha has a role in modifying memory T cell responses when they are exposed to cognate Ag and may be important in vaccination strategies designed to augment particular Th memory responses.

  14. Antigenic variation of the human influenza A (H3N2) virus during the 2014-2015 winter season.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Sha; Li, XiYan; Liu, Mi; Cheng, YanHui; Peng, YouSong; Huang, WeiJuan; Tan, MinJu; Wei, HeJiang; Guo, JunFeng; Wang, DaYan; Wu, AiPing; Shu, YueLong; Jiang, TaiJiao

    2015-09-01

    The human influenza A (H3N2) virus dominated the 2014-2015 winter season in many countries and caused massive morbidity and mortality because of its antigenic variation. So far, very little is known about the antigenic patterns of the recent H3N2 virus. By systematically mapping the antigenic relationships of H3N2 strains isolated since 2010, we discovered that two groups with obvious antigenic divergence, named SW13 (A/Switzerland/9715293/2013-like strains) and HK14 (A/Hong Kong/5738/2014-like strains), co-circulated during the 2014-2015 winter season. HK14 group co-circulated with SW13 in Europe and the United States during this season, while there were few strains of HK14 in mainland China, where SW13 has dominated since 2012. Furthermore, we found that substitutions near the receptor-binding site on hemagglutinin played an important role in the antigenic variation of both the groups. These findings provide a comprehensive understanding of the recent antigenic evolution of H3N2 virus and will aid in the selection of vaccine strains.

  15. Heterosubtypic protection against pathogenic human and avian influenza viruses via in vivo electroporation of synthetic consensus DNA antigens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominick J Laddy

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The persistent evolution of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI highlights the need for novel vaccination techniques that can quickly and effectively respond to emerging viral threats. We evaluated the use of optimized consensus influenza antigens to provide broad protection against divergent strains of H5N1 influenza in three animal models of mice, ferrets, and non-human primates. We also evaluated the use of in vivo electroporation to deliver these vaccines to overcome the immunogenicity barrier encountered in larger animal models of vaccination. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Mice, ferrets and non-human primates were immunized with consensus plasmids expressing H5 hemagglutinin (pH5HA, N1 neuraminidase (pN1NA, and nucleoprotein antigen (pNP. Dramatic IFN-gamma-based cellular immune responses to both H5 and NP, largely dependent upon CD8+ T cells were seen in mice. Hemaggutination inhibition titers classically associated with protection (>1:40 were seen in all species. Responses in both ferrets and macaques demonstrate the ability of synthetic consensus antigens to induce antibodies capable of inhibiting divergent strains of the H5N1 subtype, and studies in the mouse and ferret demonstrate the ability of synthetic consensus vaccines to induce protection even in the absence of such neutralizing antibodies. After challenge, protection from morbidity and mortality was seen in mice and ferrets, with significant reductions in viral shedding and disease progression seen in vaccinated animals. CONCLUSIONS: By combining several consensus influenza antigens with in vivo electroporation, we demonstrate that these antigens induce both protective cellular and humoral immune responses in mice, ferrets and non-human primates. We also demonstrate the ability of these antigens to protect from both morbidity and mortality in a ferret model of HPAI, in both the presence and absence of neutralizing antibody, which will be critical in responding to the

  16. Genetic characterization of an adapted pandemic 2009 H1N1 influenza virus that reveals improved replication rates in human lung epithelial cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wörmann, Xenia [Department of Molecular Biology, Max Planck Institute for Infection Biology, Berlin (Germany); Lesch, Markus [Department of Molecular Biology, Max Planck Institute for Infection Biology, Berlin (Germany); Steinbeis Innovation gGmbH, Center for Systems Biomedicine, Falkensee (Germany); Welke, Robert-William [Department of Biology, Molecular Biophysics, IRI Life Sciences, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin (Germany); Okonechnikov, Konstantin; Abdurishid, Mirshat [Department of Molecular Biology, Max Planck Institute for Infection Biology, Berlin (Germany); Sieben, Christian [Department of Biology, Molecular Biophysics, IRI Life Sciences, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin (Germany); Geissner, Andreas [Department for Biomolecular Systems, Max Planck Institute for Colloids and Interfaces, Potsdam (Germany); Institute of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Free University, Berlin (Germany); Brinkmann, Volker [Department of Molecular Biology, Max Planck Institute for Infection Biology, Berlin (Germany); Kastner, Markus [Institute for Biophysics, Johannes Kepler University, Linz (Austria); Karner, Andreas [Center for Advanced Bioanalysis GmbH (CBL), Linz (Austria); Zhu, Rong; Hinterdorfer, Peter [Institute for Biophysics, Johannes Kepler University, Linz (Austria); Anish, Chakkumkal [Department for Biomolecular Systems, Max Planck Institute for Colloids and Interfaces, Potsdam (Germany); Seeberger, Peter H. [Department for Biomolecular Systems, Max Planck Institute for Colloids and Interfaces, Potsdam (Germany); Institute of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Free University, Berlin (Germany); Herrmann, Andreas [Department of Biology, Molecular Biophysics, IRI Life Sciences, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin (Germany); and others

    2016-05-15

    The 2009 influenza pandemic originated from a swine-origin H1N1 virus, which, although less pathogenic than anticipated, may acquire additional virulence-associated mutations in the future. To estimate the potential risk, we sequentially passaged the isolate A/Hamburg/04/2009 in A549 human lung epithelial cells. After passage 6, we observed a 100-fold increased replication rate. High-throughput sequencing of viral gene segments identified five dominant mutations, whose contribution to the enhanced growth was analyzed by reverse genetics. The increased replication rate was pinpointed to two mutations within the hemagglutinin (HA) gene segment (HA{sub 1} D130E, HA{sub 2} I91L), near the receptor binding site and the stem domain. The adapted virus also replicated more efficiently in mice in vivo. Enhanced replication rate correlated with increased fusion pH of the HA protein and a decrease in receptor affinity. Our data might be relevant for surveillance of pre-pandemic strains and development of high titer cell culture strains for vaccine production. - Highlights: • We observed a spontaneous mutation of a 2009-pandemic H1N1 influenza virus in vitro. • The adaptation led to a 100-fold rise in replication rate in human A549 cells. • Adaptation was caused by two mutations in the HA gene segment. • Adaptation correlates with increased fusion pH and decreased receptor affinity.

  17. [Humanized childbirth].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Su-Chen

    2005-06-01

    Childbirth is a major event in a family. The expectant parent's perception of the childbirth experience influences his or her development as a parent. Making childbirth a positive and satisfying experience for women is the responsibility of health care providers. Women want to have physical and emotional privacy during labor and delivery, and to experience both in a friendly, comfortable environment. For women expected to undergo normal deliveries, humanized childbirth is one accessible approach. This article explores the definition and evolution of humanized childbirth and the care practice that it involves. It also explores birth plans and birth experiences, and the improvements necessary to routine labor practices to enable women to participate in decision making about their childbirth experiences. The author emphasizes that when health-care providers recognize the value of humanized childbirth and make changes accordingly, the dignity of women's childbirth experiences will be enhanced.

  18. Human monkeypox.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCollum, Andrea M; Damon, Inger K

    2014-01-01

    Human monkeypox is a zoonotic Orthopoxvirus with a presentation similar to smallpox. Clinical differentiation of the disease from smallpox and varicella is difficult. Laboratory diagnostics are principal components to identification and surveillance of disease, and new tests are needed for a more precise and rapid diagnosis. The majority of human infections occur in Central Africa, where surveillance in rural areas with poor infrastructure is difficult but can be accomplished with evidence-guided tools and educational materials to inform public health workers of important principles. Contemporary epidemiological studies are needed now that populations do not receive routine smallpox vaccination. New therapeutics and vaccines offer hope for the treatment and prevention of monkeypox; however, more research must be done before they are ready to be deployed in an endemic setting. There is a need for more research in the epidemiology, ecology, and biology of the virus in endemic areas to better understand and prevent human infections.

  19. A study on salivary hemagglutinins in a Central Indian population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashish Badiye

    2014-06-01

    Conclusion: Saliva in the form of stains is encountered as physical evidence in many cases, such as anonymous letters, secret writing, sexual assault, rape, murder, disputed paternity, cigarette butt ends, etc. If analyzed properly saliva can not only help in the elimination of the innocents, but also in the actual identification of a specific individual. Like blood grouping, this can also be used for forensic purposes.

  20. Human mimicry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chartrand, T.L.; Baaren, R.B. van

    2009-01-01

    Human mimicry is ubiquitous, and often occurs without the awareness of the person mimicking or the person being mimicked. First, we briefly describe some of the major types of nonconscious mimicry—verbal, facial, emotional, and behavioral—and review the evidence for their automaticity. Next, we

  1. Practicing Humanities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gimmler, Antje

    2016-01-01

    and self-reflective democracy. Contemporary humanities have adopted a new orientation towards practices, and it is not clear how this fits with the ideals of ‘Bildung’ and ‘pure science’. A possible theoretical framework for this orientation towards practices could be found in John Dewey’s pragmatic...

  2. Human waste

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amin, Md Nurul; Kroeze, Carolien; Strokal, Maryna

    2017-01-01

    Many people practice open defecation in south Asia. As a result, lot of human waste containing nutrients such as nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) enter rivers. Rivers transport these nutrients to coastal waters, resulting in marine pollution. This source of nutrient pollution is, however, ignored in

  3. Human Parasites

    OpenAIRE

    Davis, Ryan S.; Hodgson, Erin W.

    2008-01-01

    Entomologists often get “bug” samples for identification, including those that accidentally infest residences. In the United States, we are fortunate to have very few arthropods (e.g., insects, spiders, mites, ticks, etc.) that actually infest or feed on humans.

  4. Human steroidogenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Claus Y; Ezcurra, Diego

    2014-01-01

    reviews current knowledge of the regulation of progesterone in the human ovary during the follicular phase and highlights areas where knowledge remains limited. In this review, we provide in-depth information outlining the regulation and function of gonadotropins in the complicated area of steroidogenesis...

  5. Human Parechoviruses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fischer, Thea Kølsen; Harvala, Heli; Midgley, Sofie

    2017-01-01

    Infections with human parechoviruses (HPeV) are highly prevalent, particularly in neonates, where they may cause substantial morbidity and mortality. The clinical presentation of HPeV infection is often indistinguishable from that of enterovirus (EV) infection and may vary from mild disease...

  6. Nothing Human

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wharram, C. C.

    2014-01-01

    In this essay C. C. Wharram argues that Terence's concept of translation as a form of "contamination" anticipates recent developments in philosophy, ecology, and translation studies. Placing these divergent fields of inquiry into dialogue enables us read Terence's well-known statement "I am a human being--I deem nothing…

  7. Human Trafficking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, David McKay

    2011-01-01

    The shadowy, criminal nature of human trafficking makes evaluating its nature and scope difficult. The U.S. State Department and anti-trafficking groups estimate that worldwide some 27 million people are caught in a form of forced servitude today. Public awareness of modern-day slavery is gaining momentum thanks to new abolitionist efforts. Among…

  8. Human monkeypox.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jezek, Z; Gromyko, A I; Szczeniowski, M V

    1983-01-01

    Human monkeypox, occurring in the tropical rainforest of west and central Africa, is regarded as the most important orthopoxvirus infection for epidemiological surveillance during the post-smallpox era. This disease, first recognized in Zaïre in 1970 resembles smallpox clinically but differs epidemiologically. Clinical features, their evolution and sequelae of monkeypox could be compared with discrete ordinary or modified type of smallpox. A case-fatality rate of 14% has been observed but some cases can be exceedingly mild or atypical and may easily remain undetected and unreported. Pronounced lymphadenopathy has been the only clinical feature found commonly in monkeypox but not in smallpox. Fifty-seven cases of human monkeypox have occurred since 1970, in the tropical rainforests in six west and central African countries, the majority of them (45) being reported from Zaïre. The disease appears to be more frequent in dry season. Children below ten years of age comprise 84% of the cases. Smallpox vaccination protects against monkeypox. Clusters of cases have been observed in certain areas within countries and within affected households. Human-to-human spread has possibly occurred seven times. No cases of possible tertiary spread were observed. The secondary attack rate among susceptible close household contacts was 10%, among all susceptible contacts 5%. This is much lower than that occurring with smallpox, which is between 25-40%. The limited avidity of monkeypox virus for human beings indicates that monkeypox is probably a zoonosis, although the animal reservoir(s) have not yet been identified. The low transmissibility, resulting in low frequency of disease in man indicates that monkeypox is not a public health problem. Human monkeypox has been a relatively newly recognized disease. Studies are in progress to identify the natural cycle of monkeypox virus and to define better its clinical and epidemiological characteristics. Special surveillance is maintained in

  9. Human Rights, Human Needs, Human Development, Human Security : Relationships between four international 'human' discourses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.R. Gasper (Des)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractHuman rights, human development and human security form increasingly important, partly interconnected, partly competitive and misunderstood ethical and policy discourses. Each tries to humanize a pre-existing and unavoidable major discourse of everyday life, policy and politics; each

  10. Human Development Report 2000: Human Rights and Human Development

    OpenAIRE

    United Nations Development Programme, UNDP

    2000-01-01

    The Human Development Report 2000 looks at human rights as an intrinsic part of development—and at development as a means to realizing human rights. It shows how human rights bring principles of accountability and social justice to the process of human development.

  11. Human Rights in the Humanities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harpham, Geoffrey

    2012-01-01

    Human rights are rapidly entering the academic curriculum, with programs appearing all over the country--including at Duke, Harvard, Northeastern, and Stanford Universities; the Massachusetts Institute of Technology; the Universities of Chicago, of Connecticut, of California at Berkeley, and of Minnesota; and Trinity College. Most of these…

  12. Human Protothecosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lass-Flörl, Cornelia; Mayr, Astrid

    2007-01-01

    Human protothecosis is a rare infection caused by members of the genus Prototheca. Prototheca species are generally considered to be achlorophyllic algae and are ubiquitous in nature. The occurrence of protothecosis can be local or disseminated and acute or chronic, with the latter being more common. Diseases have been classified as (i) cutaneous lesions, (ii) olecranon bursitis, or (iii) disseminated or systemic manifestations. Infections can occur in both immunocompetent and immunosuppressed patients, although more severe and disseminated infections tend to occur in immunocompromised individuals. Prototheca wickerhamii and Prototheca zopfii have been associated with human disease. Usually, treatment involves medical and surgical approaches; treatment failure is not uncommon. Antifungals such as ketoconazole, itraconazole, fluconazole, and amphotericin B are the most commonly used drugs to date. Among them, amphotericin B displays the best activity against Prototheca spp. Diagnosis is largely made upon detection of characteristic structures observed on histopathologic examination of tissue. PMID:17428884

  13. Human paleoneurology

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    The book presents an integrative review of paleoneurology, the study of endocranial morphology in fossil species. The main focus is on showing how computed methods can be used to support advances in evolutionary neuroanatomy, paleoanthropology and archaeology and how they have contributed to creating a completely new perspective in cognitive neuroscience. Moreover, thanks to its multidisciplinary approach, the book addresses students and researchers approaching human paleoneurology from different angles and for different purposes, such as biologists, physicians, anthropologists, archaeologists

  14. Human Cloning

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-07-20

    research group, headed by Douglas Melton and Kevin Eggan, submitted their proposal to a Harvard committee composed of ethicists, scientists and public...United States. Although the company offered no proof of its claim, Dr . Brigette Boisselier, Managing Director of Clonaid, stated that genetic tests would...a year of the Dolly announcement, concerns over human cloning were heightened when Dr . Richard Seed, a Chicago scientist, announced on January 7

  15. Human universe

    CERN Document Server

    Cox, Brian

    2014-01-01

    Human life is a staggeringly strange thing. On the surface of a ball of rock falling around a nuclear fireball in the blackness of a vacuum the laws of nature conspired to create a naked ape that can look up at the stars and wonder where it came from. What is a human being? Objectively, nothing of consequence. Particles of dust in an infinite arena, present for an instant in eternity. Clumps of atoms in a universe with more galaxies than people. And yet a human being is necessary for the question itself to exist, and the presence of a question in the universe - any question - is the most wonderful thing. Questions require minds, and minds bring meaning. What is meaning? I don't know, except that the universe and every pointless speck inside it means something to me. I am astonished by the existence of a single atom, and find my civilisation to be an outrageous imprint on reality. I don't understand it. Nobody does, but it makes me smile. This book asks questions about our origins, our destiny, and our place i...

  16. Human Being Human: Culture and the Soul

    OpenAIRE

    Hauke, Chris

    2005-01-01

    Human Being Human explores the classical question 'What is a human being?'\\ud \\ud In examining our human being, Christopher Hauke challenges the notion of human nature, questions the assumed superiority of human consciousness and rational thinking and pays close attention to the contradiction of living simultaneously as an autonomous individual and a member of the collective community. The main chapters include:\\ud \\ud who's in charge here?\\ud knowledge power and human being\\ud that thinking ...

  17. Evaluation of the efficacy and cross-protectivity of recent human and swine vaccines against the pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascua, Philippe Noriel Q; Song, Min-Suk; Lee, Jun Han; Park, Kuk Jin; Kwon, Hyeok-Il; Baek, Yun Hee; Hong, Seung-Pyo; Rho, Jong-Bok; Kim, Chul-Joong; Poo, Haryoung; Ryoo, Thomas S; Sung, Moon-Hee; Choi, Young Ki

    2009-12-23

    The current pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus remains transmissible among humans worldwide with cases of reverse zoonosis, providing opportunities to produce more pathogenic variants which could pose greater human health concerns. To investigate whether recent seasonal human or swine H1N1 vaccines could induce cross-reactive immune responses against infection with the pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus, mice, ferrets or mini-pigs were administered with various regimens (once or twice) and antigen content (1.77, 3.5 or 7.5 microg HA) of a-Brsibane/59/07, a-CAN01/04 or RgCA/04/09xPR8 vaccine. Receipt of a-CAN01/04 (2-doses) but not a-Brisbane/59/07 induced detectable but modest (20-40 units) cross-reactive serum antibody against CA/04/09 by hemagglutinin inhibition (HI) assays in mice. Only double administration (7.5 microg HA) of both vaccine in ferrets could elicit cross-reactivity (30-60 HI titers). Similar antigen content of a-CAN01/04 in mini-pigs also caused a modest approximately 30 HI titers (twice vaccinated). However, vaccine-induced antibody titers could not suppress active virus replication in the lungs (mice) or virus shedding (ferrets and pigs) of immunized hosts intranasally challenged with CA/04/09. Furthermore, neither ferrets nor swine could abrogate aerosol transmission of the virus into naïve contact animals. Altogether, these results suggest that neither recent human nor animal H1N1 vaccine could provide complete protectivity in all animal models. Thus, this study warrants the need for strain-specific vaccines that could yield the optimal protection desired for humans and/or animals.

  18. Introduction: Digital Humanities, Public Humanities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Christie

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available NANO: New American Notes Online: An Interdisciplinary Academic Journal for Big Ideas in a Small World. This special issue shows how both public and digital humanities research can be rendered more persuasive through engagement with cultures beyond the academy. More specifically, the aim of this special issue is to demonstrate how investments in technologies and computation are not necessarily antithetical to investments in critical theory and social justice.

  19. Human Computing, Virtual Humans and Artificial Imperfection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruttkay, Z.M.; Reidsma, Dennis; Nijholt, Antinus; Quek, F.; Yang, Y.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we raise the issue whether imperfections, characteristic of human-human communication, should be taken into account when developing virtual humans. We argue that endowing virtual humans with the imperfections of humans can help making them more ‘comfortable’ to interact with. That is,

  20. Human Capital, (Human) Capabilities and Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Grange, L.

    2011-01-01

    In this article I initiate a debate into the (de)merits of human capital theory and human capability theory and discuss implications of the debate for higher education. Human capital theory holds that economic growth depends on investment in education and that economic growth is the basis for improving the quality of human life. Human capable…

  1. Humanizing Architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft, Tanya Søndergaard

    2015-01-01

    The article proposes the urban digital gallery as an opportunity to explore the relationship between ‘human’ and ‘technology,’ through the programming of media architecture. It takes a curatorial perspective when proposing an ontological shift from considering media facades as visual spectacles...... agency and a sense of being by way of dematerializing architecture. This is achieved by way of programming the symbolic to provide new emotional realizations and situations of enlightenment in the public audience. This reflects a greater potential to humanize the digital in media architecture....

  2. Think Human

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Charlotte Marie Bisgaard

    2013-01-01

    The paper probes the background of the dire rhetoric of the Danish National Health Board’s 40 week anti-alcohol consumption campaign, in particular the model of communication implied by the campaign's strategy. Contrasting the campaign's strategy in 2011 with the results of evaluations of previous...... years' campaigns suggests that the theory of communication underlying the campaign has its basis in mechanical action rather than in human communication. The practice of 'Communication design' is investigated in relation to this metaphorical 'machine thinking' model of communication and contrasted...

  3. Susceptibility of chickens, quail, and pigeons to an H7N9 human influenza virus and subsequent egg-passaged strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchida, Yuko; Kanehira, Katsushi; Takemae, Nobuhiro; Hikono, Hirokazu; Saito, Takehiko

    2017-01-01

    H7N9 human influenza virus A/Anhui/1/2013 (Anhui2013) showed low pathogenicity in chickens, quail, and pigeons, with quail being the most susceptible among the species tested. IVPIE1-1, which was recovered from a dead chicken after intravenous inoculation of Anhui 2013, had broader tissue tropism in chickens than did the original inoculum, as well as amino acid substitutions in the polymerase acidic gene and neuraminidase gene segments, but its pathogenicity was not enhanced. Viruses obtained after passage of Anhui 2013 in 10- and 14-day-old embryonated eggs showed rapid accumulation of amino acid substitutions at the receptor-binding site of the hemagglutinin protein. Two strains obtained through egg passage, 10E4/14E17 and 10E4/10E13, replicated better in intranasally infected chickens than did the original Anhui 2013 strain, yet the new isolates showed low pathogenicity in chickens despite their amino acid substitutions. The increased virus replication in chickens of 10E4/14E17 and 10E4/10E13 was not correlated with temperature-sensitive replication, given that virus replication was suppressed at increased temperatures. The existence of highly susceptible hosts, such as quail, which permit asymptomatic infection, facilitates increased mutation of the virus through amino acid substitution at the receptor-binding site, and this might be one of the mechanisms underlying the prolonged circulation of H7N9 influenza virus.

  4. Fully human broadly neutralizing monoclonal antibodies against influenza A viruses generated from the memory B cells of a 2009 pandemic H1N1 influenza vaccine recipient

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Weibin [Molecular Virus Unit, Key Laboratory of Molecular Virology and Immunology, Institut Pasteur of Shanghai, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200025 (China); Chen, Aizhong [Key Laboratory of Molecular Cell Biology, Institute of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200031 (China); Miao, Yi [Shanghai Xuhui Central Hospital, Shanghai 200031 (China); Xia, Shengli [Center for Disease Control and Prevention of Henan Province, Zhengzhou 450016 (China); Ling, Zhiyang; Xu, Ke; Wang, Tongyan [Molecular Virus Unit, Key Laboratory of Molecular Virology and Immunology, Institut Pasteur of Shanghai, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200025 (China); Xu, Ying; Cui, Jun; Wu, Hongqiang; Hu, Guiyu; Tian, Lin; Wang, Lingling [Key Laboratory of Molecular Cell Biology, Institute of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200031 (China); Shu, Yuelong [Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing 102206 (China); Ma, Xiaowei [Hualan Biological Bacterin Company, Xinxiang 453003 (China); Xu, Bianli; Zhang, Jin [Center for Disease Control and Prevention of Henan Province, Zhengzhou 450016 (China); Lin, Xiaojun, E-mail: linxiaojun@hualan.com [Hualan Biological Bacterin Company, Xinxiang 453003 (China); Bian, Chao, E-mail: cbian@sibs.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Molecular Cell Biology, Institute of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200031 (China); Sun, Bing, E-mail: bsun@sibs.ac.cn [Molecular Virus Unit, Key Laboratory of Molecular Virology and Immunology, Institut Pasteur of Shanghai, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200025 (China); Key Laboratory of Molecular Cell Biology, Institute of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200031 (China)

    2013-01-20

    Whether the 2009 pandemic H1N1 influenza vaccine can induce heterosubtypic cross-protective anti-hemagglutinin (HA) neutralizing antibodies is an important issue. We obtained a panel of fully human monoclonal antibodies from the memory B cells of a 2009 pandemic H1N1 influenza vaccine recipient. Most of the monoclonal antibodies targeted the HA protein but not the HA1 fragment. Among the analyzed antibodies, seven mAbs exhibited neutralizing activity against several influenza A viruses of different subtypes. The conserved linear epitope targeted by the neutralizing mAbs (FIEGGWTGMVDGWYGYHH) is part of the fusion peptide on HA2. Our work suggests that a heterosubtypic neutralizing antibody response primarily targeting the HA stem region exists in recipients of the 2009 pandemic H1N1 influenza vaccine. The HA stem region contains various conserved neutralizing epitopes with the fusion peptide as an important one. This work may aid in the design of a universal influenza A virus vaccine.

  5. Full inactivation of human influenza virus by high hydrostatic pressure preserves virus structure and membrane fusion while conferring protection to mice against infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos H Dumard

    Full Text Available Whole inactivated vaccines (WIVs possess greater immunogenicity than split or subunit vaccines, and recent studies have demonstrated that WIVs with preserved fusogenic activity are more protective than non-fusogenic WIVs. In this work, we describe the inactivation of human influenza virus X-31 by high hydrostatic pressure (HHP and analyze the effects on the structure by spectroscopic measurements, light scattering, and electron microscopy. We also investigated the effects of HHP on the glycoprotein activity and fusogenic activity of the viral particles. The electron microscopy data showed pore formation on the viral envelope, but the general morphology was preserved, and small variations were seen in the particle structure. The activity of hemagglutinin (HA during the process of binding and fusion was affected in a time-dependent manner, but neuraminidase (NA activity was not affected. Infectious activity ceased after 3 hours of pressurization, and mice were protected from infection after being vaccinated. Our results revealed full viral inactivation with overall preservation of viral structure and maintenance of fusogenic activity, thereby conferring protection against infection. A strong response consisting of serum immunoglobulin IgG1, IgG2a, and serum and mucosal IgA was also detected after vaccination. Thus, our data strongly suggest that applying hydrostatic pressure may be an effective method for developing new vaccines against influenza A as well as other viruses.

  6. What happened after the initial global spread of pandemic human influenza virus A (H1N1? A population genetics approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martinez-Hernandez Fernando

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Viral population evolution dynamics of influenza A is crucial for surveillance and control. In this paper we analyzed viral genetic features during the recent pandemic caused by the new influenza human virus A H1N1, using a conventional population genetics approach based on 4689 hemagglutinin (HA and neuraminidase (NA sequences available in GenBank submitted between March and December of 2009. This analysis showed several relevant aspects: a a scarce initial genetic variability within the viral isolates from some countries that increased along 2009 when influenza was dispersed around the world; b a worldwide virus polarized behavior identified when comparing paired countries, low differentiation and high gene flow were found in some pairs and high differentiation and moderate or scarce gene flow in others, independently of their geographical closeness, c lack of positive selection in HA and NA due to increase of the population size of virus variants, d HA and NA variants spread in a few months all over the world being identified in the same countries in different months along 2009, and e containment of viral variants in Mexico at the beginning of the outbreak, probably due to the control measures applied by the government.

  7. Expression of the Surface Glycoproteins of Human Parainfluenza Virus Type 3 by Bovine Parainfluenza Virus Type 3, a Novel Attenuated Virus Vaccine Vector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haller, Aurelia A.; Miller, Tessa; Mitiku, Misrach; Coelingh, Kathleen

    2000-01-01

    Bovine parainfluenza virus type 3 (bPIV3) is being evaluated as an intranasal vaccine for protection against human PIV3 (hPIV3). In young infants, the bPIV3 vaccine appears to be infectious, attenuated, immunogenic, and genetically stable, which are desirable characteristics for an RNA virus vector. To test the potential of the bPIV3 vaccine strain as a vector, an infectious DNA clone of bPIV3 was assembled and recombinant bPIV3 (r-bPIV3) was rescued. r-bPIV3 displayed a temperature-sensitive phenotype for growth in tissue culture at 39°C and was attenuated in the lungs of Syrian golden hamsters. In order to test whether r-bPIV3 could serve as a vector, the fusion and hemagglutinin-neuraminidase genes of bPIV3 were replaced with those of hPIV3. The resulting bovine/human PIV3 was temperature sensitive for growth in Vero cells at 37°C. The replication of bovine/human PIV3 was also restricted in the lungs of hamsters, albeit not as severely as was observed for r-bPIV3. Despite the attenuation phenotypes observed for r-bPIV3 and bovine/human PIV3, both of these viruses protected hamsters completely upon challenge with hPIV3. In summary, bPIV3 was shown to function as a virus vector that may be especially suitable for vaccination of infants and children against PIV3 and other viruses. PMID:11090161

  8. High affinity anti-TIM-3 and anti-KIR monoclonal antibodies cloned from healthy human individuals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Ryser

    Full Text Available We report here the cloning of native high affinity anti-TIM-3 and anti-KIR IgG monoclonal antibodies (mAbs from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC of healthy human donors. The cells that express these mAbs are rare, present at a frequency of less than one per 105 memory B-cells. Using our proprietary multiplexed screening and cloning technology CellSpot™ we assessed the presence of memory B-cells reactive to foreign and endogenous disease-associated antigens within the same individual. When comparing the frequencies of antigen-specific memory B-cells analyzed in over 20 screening campaigns, we found a strong correlation of the presence of anti-TIM-3 memory B-cells with memory B-cells expressing mAbs against three disease-associated antigens: (i bacterial DNABII proteins that are a marker for Gram negative and Gram positive bacterial infections, (ii hemagglutinin (HA of influenza virus and (iii the extracellular domain of anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK. One of the native anti-KIR mAbs has similar characteristics as lirilumab, an anti-KIR mAb derived from immunization of humanized transgenic mice that is in ongoing clinical trials. It is interesting to speculate that these native anti-TIM-3 and anti-KIR antibodies may function as natural regulatory antibodies, analogous to the pharmacological use in cancer treatment of engineered antibodies against the same targets. Further characterization studies are needed to define the mechanisms through which these native antibodies may function in healthy and disease conditions.

  9. Human Factors Planning Guidelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    To ensure human factors considerations are fully incorporated in the system : development, the Integrated Product Team (IPT) or Program Manager initiates a : Human Factors Program (HFP) that addresses the human performance and human : resource parame...

  10. The Digital Humanities as a Humanities Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svensson, Patrik

    2012-01-01

    This article argues that the digital humanities can be seen as a humanities project in a time of significant change in the academy. The background is a number of scholarly, educational and technical challenges, the multiple epistemic traditions linked to the digital humanities, the potential reach of the field across and outside the humanities,…

  11. NATO Human View Architecture and Human Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handley, Holly A. H.; Houston, Nancy P.

    2010-01-01

    The NATO Human View is a system architectural viewpoint that focuses on the human as part of a system. Its purpose is to capture the human requirements and to inform on how the human impacts the system design. The viewpoint contains seven static models that include different aspects of the human element, such as roles, tasks, constraints, training and metrics. It also includes a Human Dynamics component to perform simulations of the human system under design. One of the static models, termed Human Networks, focuses on the human-to-human communication patterns that occur as a result of ad hoc or deliberate team formation, especially teams distributed across space and time. Parameters of human teams that effect system performance can be captured in this model. Human centered aspects of networks, such as differences in operational tempo (sense of urgency), priorities (common goal), and team history (knowledge of the other team members), can be incorporated. The information captured in the Human Network static model can then be included in the Human Dynamics component so that the impact of distributed teams is represented in the simulation. As the NATO militaries transform to a more networked force, the Human View architecture is an important tool that can be used to make recommendations on the proper mix of technological innovations and human interactions.

  12. Digital Humanities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Hans Jørn

    2015-01-01

    overgangen fra trykkekultur til digital kultur. For det første problemstillingen omkring digitalisering af litterær kulturarv med fokus på kodning og tagging af teksten samt organisering i hypertekststrukturer. For det andet reorganiseringen af det digitale dokument i dataelementer og database. For det......Artiklen præsenterer først nogle generelle problemstillinger omkring Digital Humanities (DH) med det formål at undersøge dem nærmere i relation til konkrete eksempler på forskellige digitaliseringsmåder og ændringer i dokumentproduktion. I en nærmere afgrænsning vælger artiklen den tendens i DH......, der betragter DH som forbundet med "making" og "building" af digitale objekter og former. Dette kan også karakteriseres som DH som praktisk-produktiv vending. Artiklen har valgt tre typer af digitalisering. De er valgt ud fra, at de skal repræsentere forskellige måder at håndtere digitaliseringen på...

  13. Human Rhinoviruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamson, Daryl M.; St. George, Kirsten; Walsh, Thomas J.

    2013-01-01

    Human rhinoviruses (HRVs), first discovered in the 1950s, are responsible for more than one-half of cold-like illnesses and cost billions of dollars annually in medical visits and missed days of work. Advances in molecular methods have enhanced our understanding of the genomic structure of HRV and have led to the characterization of three genetically distinct HRV groups, designated groups A, B, and C, within the genus Enterovirus and the family Picornaviridae. HRVs are traditionally associated with upper respiratory tract infection, otitis media, and sinusitis. In recent years, the increasing implementation of PCR assays for respiratory virus detection in clinical laboratories has facilitated the recognition of HRV as a lower respiratory tract pathogen, particularly in patients with asthma, infants, elderly patients, and immunocompromised hosts. Cultured isolates of HRV remain important for studies of viral characteristics and disease pathogenesis. Indeed, whether the clinical manifestations of HRV are related directly to viral pathogenicity or secondary to the host immune response is the subject of ongoing research. There are currently no approved antiviral therapies for HRVs, and treatment remains primarily supportive. This review provides a comprehensive, up-to-date assessment of the basic virology, pathogenesis, clinical epidemiology, and laboratory features of and treatment and prevention strategies for HRVs. PMID:23297263

  14. Vero/BC-F: an efficient packaging cell line stably expressing F protein to generate single round-infectious human parainfluenza virus type 2 vector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohtsuka, J; Fukumura, M; Tsurudome, M; Hara, K; Nishio, M; Kawano, M; Nosaka, T

    2014-08-01

    A stable packaging cell line (Vero/BC-F) constitutively expressing fusion (F) protein of the human parainfluenza virus type 2 (hPIV2) was established for production of the F-defective and single round-infectious hPIV2 vector in a strategy for recombinant vaccine development. The F gene expression has not evoked cytostatic or cytotoxic effects on the Vero/BC-F cells and the F protein was physiologically active to induce syncytial formation with giant polykaryocytes when transfected with a plasmid expressing hPIV2 hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN). Transduction of the F-defective replicon RNA into the Vero/BC-F cells led to the release of the infectious particles that packaged the replicon RNA (named as hPIV2ΔF) without detectable mutations, limiting the infectivity to a single round. The maximal titer of the hPIV2ΔF was 6.0 × 10(8) median tissue culture infections dose per ml. The influenza A virus M2 gene was inserted into hPIV2ΔF, and the M2 protein was found to be highly expressed in a human lung cancer cell line after transduction. Furthermore, in vivo airway infection experiments revealed that the hPIV2ΔF was capable of delivering transgenes to hamster tracheal cells. Thus, non-transmissible or single round-infectious hPIV2 vector will be potentially applicable to human gene therapy or recombinant vaccine development.

  15. Human Factors in Human-Systems Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitts, David J.; Sandor, Aniko; Litaker, Harry L., Jr.; Tillman, Barry

    2008-01-01

    Any large organization whose mission is to design and develop systems for humans, and train humans needs a well-developed integration and process plan to deal with the challenges that arise from managing multiple subsystems. Human capabilities, skills, and needs must be considered early in the design and development process, and must be continuously considered throughout the development lifecycle. This integration of human needs within system design is typically formalized through a Human-Systems Integration (HSI) program. By having an HSI program, an institution or organization can reduce lifecycle costs and increase the efficiency, usability, and quality of its products because human needs have been considered from the beginning.

  16. Humane Education: An Overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitlock, Eileen S.; Westerlund, Stuart R.

    This booklet traces the historical development of human education as it has been instilled into the young people of America from colonial times to the present and provides a future prognosis of humaneness in the schools. Humane education promotes humane behavior and is an important part of the humane movement in the United States, although until…

  17. Genetic makeup of amantadine-resistant and oseltamivir-resistant human influenza A/H1N1 viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaraket, Hassan; Saito, Reiko; Suzuki, Yasushi; Baranovich, Tatiana; Dapat, Clyde; Caperig-Dapat, Isolde; Suzuki, Hiroshi

    2010-04-01

    The emergence and widespread occurrence of antiviral drug-resistant seasonal human influenza A viruses, especially oseltamivir-resistant A/H1N1 virus, are major concerns. To understand the genetic background of antiviral drug-resistant A/H1N1 viruses, we performed full genome sequencing of prepandemic A/H1N1 strains. Seasonal influenza A/H1N1 viruses, including antiviral-susceptible viruses, amantadine-resistant viruses, and oseltamivir-resistant viruses, obtained from several areas in Japan during the 2007-2008 and 2008-2009 influenza seasons were analyzed. Sequencing of the full genomes of these viruses was performed, and the phylogenetic relationships among the sequences of each individual genome segment were inferred. Reference genome sequences from the Influenza Virus Resource database were included to determine the closest ancestor for each segment. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the oseltamivir-resistant strain evolved from a reassortant oseltamivir-susceptible strain (clade 2B) which circulated in the 2007-2008 season by acquiring the H275Y resistance-conferring mutation in the NA gene. The oseltamivir-resistant lineage (corresponding to the Northern European resistant lineage) represented 100% of the H1N1 isolates from the 2008-2009 season and further acquired at least one mutation in each of the polymerase basic protein 2 (PB2), polymerase basic protein 1 (PB1), hemagglutinin (HA), and neuraminidase (NA) genes. Therefore, a reassortment event involving two distinct oseltamivir-susceptible lineages, followed by the H275Y substitution in the NA gene and other mutations elsewhere in the genome, contributed to the emergence of the oseltamivir-resistant lineage. In contrast, amantadine-resistant viruses from the 2007-2008 season distinctly clustered in clade 2C and were characterized by extensive amino acid substitutions across their genomes, suggesting that a fitness gap among its genetic components might have driven these mutations to maintain it in the

  18. A novel antibody discovery platform identifies anti-influenza A broadly neutralizing antibodies from human memory B cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Xiaodong; Chen, Yan; Varkey, Reena; Kallewaard, Nicole; Koksal, Adem C; Zhu, Qing; Wu, Herren; Chowdhury, Partha S; Dall'Acqua, William F

    2016-07-01

    Monoclonal antibody isolation directly from circulating human B cells is a powerful tool to delineate humoral responses to pathological conditions and discover antibody therapeutics. We have developed a platform aimed at improving the efficiencies of B cell selection and V gene recovery. Here, memory B cells are activated and amplified using Epstein-Barr virus infection, co-cultured with CHO-muCD40L cells, and then assessed by functional screenings. An in vitro transcription and translation (IVTT) approach was used to analyze variable (V) genes recovered from each B cell sample and identify the relevant heavy/light chain pair(s). We achieved efficient amplification and activation of memory B cells, and eliminated the need to: 1) seed B cells at clonal level (≤1 cell/well) or perform limited dilution cloning; 2) immortalize B cells; or 3) assemble V genes into an IgG expression vector to confirm the relevant heavy/light chain pairing. Cross-reactive antibodies targeting a conserved epitope on influenza A hemagglutinin were successfully isolated from a healthy donor. In-depth analysis of the isolated antibodies suggested their potential uses as anti-influenza A antibody therapeutics and uncovered a distinct affinity maturation pathway. Importantly, our results showed that cognate heavy/light chain pairings contributed to both the expression level and binding abilities of our newly isolated VH1-69 family, influenza A neutralizing antibodies, contrasting with previous observations that light chains do not significantly contribute to the function of this group of antibodies. Our results further suggest the potential use of the IVTT as a powerful antibody developability assessment tool.

  19. Molecular characterization and phylogenetic analysis of human influenza A viruses isolated in Iran during the 2014-2015 season.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moasser, Elham; Behzadian, Farida; Moattari, Afagh; Fotouhi, Fatemeh; Rahimi, Amir; Zaraket, Hassan; Hosseini, Seyed Younes

    2017-07-01

    Influenza A viruses are an important cause of severe infectious diseases in humans and are characterized by their fast evolution rate. Global monitoring of these viruses is critical to detect newly emerging variants during annual epidemics. Here, we sought to genetically characterize influenza A/H1N1pdm09 and A/H3N2 viruses collected in Iran during the 2014-2015 influenza season. A total of 200 nasopharyngeal swabs were collected from patients with influenza-like illnesses. Swabs were screened for influenza A and B using real-time PCR. Furthermore, positive specimens with high virus load underwent virus isolation and genetic characterization of their hemagglutinin (HA) and M genes. Of the 200 specimens, 80 were influenza A-positive, including 44 A/H1N1pdm09 and 36 A/H3N2, while 18 were influenza B-positive. Phylogenetic analysis of the HA genes of the A/H1N1pdm09 viruses revealed the circulation of clade 6C, characterized by amino acid substitutions D97N, V234I and K283E. Analysis of the A/H3N2 viruses showed a genetic drift from the vaccine strain A/Texas/50/2012 with 5 mutations (T128A, R142G, N145S, P198S and S219F) belonging to the antigenic sites A, B, and D of the HA protein. The A/H3N2 viruses belonged to phylogenetic clades 3C.2 and 3C.3. The M gene trees of the Iranian A/H1N1pdm09 and A/H3N2 mirrored the clustering patterns of their corresponding HA trees. Our results reveal co-circulation of several influenza A virus strains in Iran during the 2014-2015 influenza season.

  20. Human parainfluenza virus-associated respiratory tract infection among children and genetic analysis of HPIV-3 strains in Beijing, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naiying Mao

    Full Text Available The relevance of human parainfluenza viruses (HPIVs to the epidemiology of acute respiratory infections (ARI in China is unclear. From May 2008 to September 2010, 443 nasopharyngeal aspirates (NPAs from hospitalized pediatric patients (age from 1 to 93 months in Beijing were collected and screened for HPIVs and other common respiratory viruses by real-time RT-PCR. Sixty-two of 443 samples were positive for HPIVs with 4 positive for HPIV-2 and 58 positive for HPIV-3, indicating that HPIV-3 was the predominant virus present during the study period. A phylogenetic tree based on all the available HN (hemagglutinin-neuraminidase sequences of HPIV-3 indicated that three distinct clusters (A,B, and C were circulating with some temporal and regional clustering. Cluster C was further divided into sub-clusters, C1, C2, C3 and C4. HPIV-3 from Beijing isolates belonged to sub-cluster C3, and were grouped with the isolates from two Provinces of China and the neighboring country of Japan. Genetic analysis based on entire HN gene revealed that the HPIV-3 isolates from Beijing were highly similar with 97.2%-100% identity at the nucleotide level and these could be divided into two closely related lineages, C3a and C3b. These findings suggested that there was co-circulation of multiple lineages of HPIV-3 in the Beijing region during the study period. This is the first study to describe the epidemiology and molecular characterization of HPIVs in China.

  1. IVI human factors strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-11-01

    This document focuses on human factors research that supports the Intelligent Vehicle Initiative (IVI). The status of the problem areas within categories used often by the human factors community to organize human factors process is discussed. A simi...

  2. Human Factors Job Aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-12-09

    The purpose of this Human Factors Job Aid is to serve as a desk reference for : human factors integration during system acquisition. The first chapter contains : an overview of the FAA human factors process in system acquisitions. The : remaining eig...

  3. The golden triangle of human dignity: human security, human development and human rights

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gaay Fortman, B. de

    2004-01-01

    The success or failure of processes of democratization cannot be detached from processes of development related to the aspirations of people at the grassroots. Human rights, in a more theoretical terminology, require human development in order to enhance human security.

  4. Structure and binding analysis of Polyporus squamosus lectin in complex with the Neu5Ac[alpha]2-6Gal[beta]1-4GlcNAc human-type influenza receptor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kadirvelraj, Renuka; Grant, Oliver C.; Goldstein, Irwin J.; Winter, Harry C.; Tateno, Hiroaki; Fadda, Elisa; Woods, Robert J. (Michigan-Med); (NUI-Ireland); (Georgia)

    2013-03-07

    Glycan chains that terminate in sialic acid (Neu5Ac) are frequently the receptors targeted by pathogens for initial adhesion. Carbohydrate-binding proteins (lectins) with specificity for Neu5Ac are particularly useful in the detection and isolation of sialylated glycoconjugates, such as those associated with pathogen adhesion as well as those characteristic of several diseases including cancer. Structural studies of lectins are essential in order to understand the origin of their specificity, which is particularly important when employing such reagents as diagnostic tools. Here, we report a crystallographic and molecular dynamics (MD) analysis of a lectin from Polyporus squamosus (PSL) that is specific for glycans terminating with the sequence Neu5Ac{alpha}2-6Gal{beta}. Because of its importance as a histological reagent, the PSL structure was solved (to 1.7 {angstrom}) in complex with a trisaccharide, whose sequence (Neu5Ac{alpha}2-6Gal{beta}1-4GlcNAc) is exploited by influenza A hemagglutinin for viral adhesion to human tissue. The structural data illuminate the origin of the high specificity of PSL for the Neu5Ac{alpha}2-6Gal sequence. Theoretical binding free energies derived from the MD data confirm the key interactions identified crystallographically and provide additional insight into the relative contributions from each amino acid, as well as estimates of the importance of entropic and enthalpic contributions to binding.

  5. Human-machine interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsythe, J Chris [Sandia Park, NM; Xavier, Patrick G [Albuquerque, NM; Abbott, Robert G [Albuquerque, NM; Brannon, Nathan G [Albuquerque, NM; Bernard, Michael L [Tijeras, NM; Speed, Ann E [Albuquerque, NM

    2009-04-28

    Digital technology utilizing a cognitive model based on human naturalistic decision-making processes, including pattern recognition and episodic memory, can reduce the dependency of human-machine interactions on the abilities of a human user and can enable a machine to more closely emulate human-like responses. Such a cognitive model can enable digital technology to use cognitive capacities fundamental to human-like communication and cooperation to interact with humans.

  6. Alterations in Receptor Binding Properties of Recent Human Influenza H3N2 Viruses Are Associated with Reduced Natural Killer Cell Lysis of Infected Cells▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, Rachel E.; Yamada, Eriko; Thompson, Catherine I.; Phillipson, Louisa J.; Thompson, Clare; Taylor, Elizabeth; Zambon, Maria; Osborn, Helen M. I.; Barclay, Wendy S.; Borrow, Persephone

    2007-01-01

    Natural killer (NK) cell recognition of influenza virus-infected cells involves hemagglutinin (HA) binding to sialic acid (SA) on activating NK receptors. SA also acts as a receptor for the binding of influenza virus to its target host cells. The SA binding properties of H3N2 influenza viruses have been observed to change during circulation in humans: recent isolates are unable to agglutinate chicken red blood cells and show reduced affinity for synthetic glycopolymers representing SA-α-2,3-lactose (3′SL-PAA) and SA-α-2,6-N-acetyl lactosamine (6′SLN-PAA) carbohydrates. Here, NK lysis of cells infected with human H3N2 influenza viruses isolated between 1969 and 2003 was analyzed. Cells infected with recent isolates (1999 to 2003) were found to be lysed less effectively than cells infected with older isolates (1969 to 1996). This change occurred concurrently with the acquisition of two new potential glycosylation site motifs in HA. Deletion of the potential glycosylation site motif at 133 to 135 in HA1 from a recent isolate partially restored the agglutination phenotype to a recombinant virus, indicating that the HA-SA interaction is inhibited by the glycosylation modification. Deletion of either of the recently acquired potential glycosylation sites from HA led to increased NK lysis of cells infected with recombinant viruses carrying modified HA. These results indicate that alterations in HA glycosylation may affect NK cell recognition of influenza virus-infected cells in addition to virus binding to host cells. PMID:17670834

  7. Passive immunization against dental caries and periodontal disease: development of recombinant and human monoclonal antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abiko, Y

    2000-01-01

    Indigenous micro-organisms in the oral cavity can cause two major diseases, dental caries and periodontal diseases. There is neither agreement nor consensus as to the actual mechanisms of pathogenesis of the specific virulence factors of these micro-organisms. The complexity of the bacterial community in dental plaque has made it difficult for the single bacterial agent of dental caries to be determined. However, there is considerable evidence that Streptococcus mutans is implicated as the primary causative organism of dental caries, and the cell-surface protein antigen (SA I/II) as well as glucosyltransferases (GTFs) produced by S. mutans appear to be major colonization factors. Various forms of periodontal diseases are closely associated with specific subgingival bacteria. Porphyromonas gingivalis has been implicated as an important etiological agent of adult periodontitis. Adherence of bacteria to host tissues is a prerequisite for colonization and one of the important steps in the disease process. Bacterial coaggregation factors and hemagglutinins likely play major roles in colonization in the subgingival area. Emerging evidence suggests that inhibition of these virulence factors may protect the host against caries and periodontal disease. Active and passive immunization approaches have been developed for immunotherapy of these diseases. Recent advances in mucosal immunology and the introduction of novel strategies for inducing mucosal immune responses now raise the possibility that effective and safe vaccines can be constructed. In this regard, some successful results have been reported in animal experimental models. Nevertheless, since the public at large might be skeptical about the seriousness of oral diseases, immunotherapy must be carried out with absolute safety. For this goal to be achieved, the development of safe antibodies for passive immunization is significant and important. In this review, salient advances in passive immunization against caries

  8. Special Section: Human Rights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frydenlund, Knut; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Eleven articles examine human rights in Europe. Topics include unemployment, human rights legislation, role of the Council of Europe in promoting human rights, labor unions, migrant workers, human dignity in industralized societies, and international violence. Journal available from Council of Europe, Directorate of Press and Information, 67006…

  9. Deep Sequencing of Influenza A Virus from a Human Challenge Study Reveals a Selective Bottleneck and Only Limited Intrahost Genetic Diversification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobel Leonard, Ashley; McClain, Micah T; Smith, Gavin J D; Wentworth, David E; Halpin, Rebecca A; Lin, Xudong; Ransier, Amy; Stockwell, Timothy B; Das, Suman R; Gilbert, Anthony S; Lambkin-Williams, Robert; Ginsburg, Geoffrey S; Woods, Christopher W; Koelle, Katia

    2016-12-15

    Knowledge of influenza virus evolution at the point of transmission and at the intrahost level remains limited, particularly for human hosts. Here, we analyze a unique viral data set of next-generation sequencing (NGS) samples generated from a human influenza challenge study wherein 17 healthy subjects were inoculated with cell- and egg-passaged virus. Nasal wash samples collected from 7 of these subjects were successfully deep sequenced. From these, we characterized changes in the subjects' viral populations during infection and identified differences between the virus in these samples and the viral stock used to inoculate the subjects. We first calculated pairwise genetic distances between the subjects' nasal wash samples, the viral stock, and the influenza virus A/Wisconsin/67/2005 (H3N2) reference strain used to generate the stock virus. These distances revealed that considerable viral evolution occurred at various points in the human challenge study. Further quantitative analyses indicated that (i) the viral stock contained genetic variants that originated and likely were selected for during the passaging process, (ii) direct intranasal inoculation with the viral stock resulted in a selective bottleneck that reduced nonsynonymous genetic diversity in the viral hemagglutinin and nucleoprotein, and (iii) intrahost viral evolution continued over the course of infection. These intrahost evolutionary dynamics were dominated by purifying selection. Our findings indicate that rapid viral evolution can occur during acute influenza infection in otherwise healthy human hosts when the founding population size of the virus is large, as is the case with direct intranasal inoculation. Influenza viruses circulating among humans are known to rapidly evolve over time. However, little is known about how influenza virus evolves across single transmission events and over the course of a single infection. To address these issues, we analyze influenza virus sequences from a human

  10. Antigenicity of the 2015-2016 seasonal H1N1 human influenza virus HA and NA proteins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amelia M Clark

    Full Text Available Antigenic drift of the hemagglutinin (HA and neuraminidase (NA influenza virus proteins contributes to reduced vaccine efficacy. To analyze antigenic drift in human seasonal H1N1 viruses derived from the 2009 pandemic H1N1 virus (pH1N1-like viruses accounts for the limited effectiveness (around 40% of vaccination against pH1N1-like viruses during the 2015-2016 season, nasal washes/swabs collected from adult subjects in the Rochester, NY area, were used to sequence and isolate the circulating viruses. The HA and NA proteins from viruses circulating during the 2015-2016 season encoded eighteen and fourteen amino acid differences, respectively, when compared to A/California/04/2009, a strain circulating at the origin of the 2009 pandemic. The circulating strains belonged to subclade 6B.1, defined by HA amino acid substitutions S101N, S179N, and I233T. Hemagglutination-inhibiting (HAI and HA-specific neutralizing serum antibody (Ab titers from around 50% of pH1N1-like virus-infected subjects and immune ferrets were 2-4 fold lower for the 2015-2016 circulating strains compared to the vaccine strain. In addition, using a luminex-based mPlex HA assay, the binding of human sera from subjects infected with pH1N1-like viruses to the HA proteins from circulating and vaccine strains was not identical, strongly suggesting antigenic differences in the HA protein. Additionally, NA inhibition (NAI Ab titers in human sera from pH1N1-like virus-infected subjects increased after the infection and there were measurable antigenic differences between the NA protein of circulating strains and the vaccine strain using both ferret and human antisera. Despite having been vaccinated, infected subjects exhibited low HAI Ab titers against the vaccine and circulating strains. This suggests that poor responses to the H1N1 component of the vaccine as well as antigenic differences in the HA and NA proteins of currently circulating pH1N1-like viruses could be contributing to

  11. ISS Payload Human Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellenberger, Richard; Duvall, Laura; Dory, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    The ISS Payload Human Factors Implementation Team (HFIT) is the Payload Developer's resource for Human Factors. HFIT is the interface between Payload Developers and ISS Payload Human Factors requirements in SSP 57000. ? HFIT provides recommendations on how to meet the Human Factors requirements and guidelines early in the design process. HFIT coordinates with the Payload Developer and Astronaut Office to find low cost solutions to Human Factors challenges for hardware operability issues.

  12. Human Dignity, Three Human Rights, and Pedagogy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandenberg, Donald

    1986-01-01

    A general theory of value is outlined to show that moral agency is necessary to human dignity and that liberty, equality, and fraternity are necessary to moral agency. These ideals can be implemented in schools and human dignity can be at the core of the professional ethics of teaching. (MT)

  13. Human dignity, bioethics, and human rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Häyry, Matti; Takala, Tuija

    2005-09-01

    The authors analyse and assess the Universal Draft Declaration on Bioethics and Human Rights published by UNESCO. They argue that the Draft has two main weaknesses. It unnecessarily confines the scope of bioethics to life sciences and their practical applications. And it fails to spell out the intended role of human dignity in international ethical regulation.

  14. [Humanization in health care].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Beatriz Rosana Gonçalves de; Collet, Neusa; Viera, Cláudia Silveira

    2006-01-01

    This study aims to reflect on humanization in health care, recovering the history of understanding about mankind, the human and humanity, until humanization in humanity and health. We discuss the national humanization program in hospital care and reflect on this proposal and on the issue of humanization in Brazilian health care nowadays. Communication is indispensable to establish humanization, as well as technical and material conditions. Both users and health professionals need to be heard, building a network of dialogues to think and promote singular humanization actions. For this process to take effect, there is a need to involve the whole that makes up the health service. This group involves different professionals, such as managers, public policy makers, professional councils and education institutions.

  15. Cross-reactive neuraminidase antibodies afford partial protection against H5N1 in mice and are present in unexposed humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew R Sandbulte

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A pandemic H5N1 influenza outbreak would be facilitated by an absence of immunity to the avian-derived virus in the human population. Although this condition is likely in regard to hemagglutinin-mediated immunity, the neuraminidase (NA of H5N1 viruses (avN1 and of endemic human H1N1 viruses (huN1 are classified in the same serotype. We hypothesized that an immune response to huN1 could mediate cross-protection against H5N1 influenza virus infection. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Mice were immunized against the NA of a contemporary human H1N1 strain by DNA vaccination. They were challenged with recombinant A/Puerto Rico/8/34 (PR8 viruses bearing huN1 (PR8-huN1 or avN1 (PR8-avN1 or with H5N1 virus A/Vietnam/1203/04. Additional naïve mice were injected with sera from vaccinated mice prior to H5N1 challenge. Also, serum specimens from humans were analyzed for reactivity with avN1. Immunization elicited a serum IgG response to huN1 and robust protection against the homologous challenge virus. Immunized mice were partially protected from lethal challenge with H5N1 virus or recombinant PR8-avN1. Sera transferred from immunized mice to naïve animals conferred similar protection against H5N1 mortality. Analysis of human sera showed that antibodies able to inhibit the sialidase activity of avN1 exist in some individuals. CONCLUSIONS: These data reveal that humoral immunity elicited by huN1 can partially protect against H5N1 infection in a mammalian host. Our results suggest that a portion of the human population could have some degree of resistance to H5N1 influenza, with the possibility that this could be induced or enhanced through immunization with seasonal influenza vaccines.

  16. Functional testing of an inhalable nanoparticle based influenza vaccine using a human precision cut lung slice technique.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Neuhaus

    Full Text Available Annual outbreaks of influenza infections, caused by new influenza virus subtypes and high incidences of zoonosis, make seasonal influenza one of the most unpredictable and serious health threats worldwide. Currently available vaccines, though the main prevention strategy, can neither efficiently be adapted to new circulating virus subtypes nor provide high amounts to meet the global demand fast enough. New influenza vaccines quickly adapted to current virus strains are needed. In the present study we investigated the local toxicity and capacity of a new inhalable influenza vaccine to induce an antigen-specific recall response at the site of virus entry in human precision-cut lung slices (PCLS. This new vaccine combines recombinant H1N1 influenza hemagglutinin (HAC1, produced in tobacco plants, and a silica nanoparticle (NP-based drug delivery system. We found no local cellular toxicity of the vaccine within applicable concentrations. However higher concentrations of NP (≥10(3 µg/ml dose-dependently decreased viability of human PCLS. Furthermore NP, not the protein, provoked a dose-dependent induction of TNF-α and IL-1β, indicating adjuvant properties of silica. In contrast, we found an antigen-specific induction of the T cell proliferation and differentiation cytokine, IL-2, compared to baseline level (152±49 pg/mg vs. 22±5 pg/mg, which could not be seen for the NP alone. Additionally, treatment with 10 µg/ml HAC1 caused a 6-times higher secretion of IFN-γ compared to baseline (602±307 pg/mg vs. 97±51 pg/mg. This antigen-induced IFN-γ secretion was further boosted by the adjuvant effect of silica NP for the formulated vaccine to a 12-fold increase (97±51 pg/mg vs. 1226±535 pg/mg. Thus we were able to show that the plant-produced vaccine induced an adequate innate immune response and re-activated an established antigen-specific T cell response within a non-toxic range in human PCLS at the site of virus entry.

  17. Global Law: Humanism and Human Rights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leilane Serratine Grubba

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the ideal of human rights before globalizatórios inflows. It begins with a general statement about the legal globalization, comparing it with the Global Law in the political and economic implications. Later, it approaches the ideal predicted with transnationalism. Proposes a reflection on the present Human Rights. Also, rethinks the lines of the complex web of Global Law, its institutions and its actors, which circulate between the public and private plans. There is no sense in space maintenance of the ideal of human rights only in the state or territory in international treaties originally linked to the states.

  18. Human Resource Accounting System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerullo, Michael J.

    1974-01-01

    Main objectives of human resource accounting systems are to satisfy the informational demands made by investors and by operating managers. The paper's main concern is with the internal uses of a human asset system. (Author)

  19. Telling the Human Story.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Miles

    1987-01-01

    Proposes that one of the fundamental human attributes is telling stories. Explores the debate on whether Neanderthals possessed language ability. Discusses the role of the "human story" in teaching anthropology. (DH)

  20. Human Use Index (Future)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Human land uses may have major impacts on ecosystems, affecting biodiversity, habitat, air and water quality. The human use index (also known as U-index) is the...

  1. Human Use Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Human land uses may have major impacts on ecosystems, affecting biodiversity, habitat, air and water quality. The human use index (also known as U-index) is the...

  2. Immunology Taught by Humans

    OpenAIRE

    Davis, Mark M

    2012-01-01

    After a half-century of mouse-dominated research, human immunology is making a comeback. Informed by mouse studies and powered by new techniques, human immune research is both advancing disease treatment and providing new insights into basic biology.

  3. Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Search Form Controls Cancel Submit Search The CDC Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Note: Javascript is disabled or is ... 6348 Email CDC-INFO U.S. Department of Health & Human Services HHS/Open USA.gov TOP

  4. Human Papillomavirus (HPV)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share HPV (Human Papillomavirus) Vaccine: What You Need to Know (VIS) ... Why get vaccinated? HPV vaccine prevents infection with human papillomavirus (HPV) types that are associated with many ...

  5. Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Why get vaccinated?HPV vaccine prevents infection with human papillomavirus (HPV) types that are associated with cause ... at http://www.cdc.gov/hpv. HPV Vaccine (Human Papillomavirus) Information Statement. U.S. Department of Health and ...

  6. Human Parainfluenza Viruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Search Form Controls Cancel Submit Search The CDC Human Parainfluenza Viruses (HPIVs) Note: Javascript is disabled or ... CDC.gov . Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Human parainfluenza viruses (HPIVs) commonly cause respiratory illnesses in ...

  7. Human bites (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Human bites present a high risk of infection. Besides the bacteria which can cause infection, there is ... the wound extends below the skin. Anytime a human bite has broken the skin, seek medical attention.

  8. HPV (Human Papillomavirus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Consumers Consumer Information by Audience For Women HPV (human papillomavirus) Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing ... Español In Chamorro In Urdu In Vietnamese HPV (human papillomavirus) is a sexually transmitted virus. It is ...

  9. Humane Education in Action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savesky, Kathy

    1981-01-01

    Provides a brief history and description of a field test in the United States and Canada of the National Association for the Advancement of Humane Education's humane education curriculum guide for grades 1-6. (CS)

  10. Human papillomavirus molecular biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harden, Mallory E; Munger, Karl

    Human papillomaviruses are small DNA viruses with a tropism for squamous epithelia. A unique aspect of human papillomavirus molecular biology involves dependence on the differentiation status of the host epithelial cell to complete the viral lifecycle. A small group of these viruses are the etiologic agents of several types of human cancers, including oral and anogenital tract carcinomas. This review focuses on the basic molecular biology of human papillomaviruses. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Human Resource Management System

    OpenAIRE

    Navaz, A. S. Syed; Fiaz, A. S. Syed; Prabhadevi, C.; Sangeetha, V.; Gopalakrishnan, S.

    2013-01-01

    The paper titled HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM is basically concerned with managing the Administrator of HUMAN RESOURCE Department in a company. A Human Resource Management System, refers to the systems and processes at the intersection between human resource management and information technology. It merges HRM as a discipline and in particular its basic HR activities and processes with the information technology field, whereas the programming of data processing systems evolved into standa...

  12. Has Human Evolution Stopped?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan R. Templeton

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available It has been argued that human evolution has stopped because humans now adapt to their environment via cultural evolution and not biological evolution. However, all organisms adapt to their environment, and humans are no exception. Culture defines much of the human environment, so cultural evolution has actually led to adaptive evolution in humans. Examples are given to illustrate the rapid pace of adaptive evolution in response to cultural innovations. These adaptive responses have important implications for infectious diseases, Mendelian genetic diseases, and systemic diseases in current human populations. Moreover, evolution proceeds by mechanisms other than natural selection. The recent growth in human population size has greatly increased the reservoir of mutational variants in the human gene pool, thereby enhancing the potential for human evolution. The increase in human population size coupled with our increased capacity to move across the globe has induced a rapid and ongoing evolutionary shift in how genetic variation is distributed within and among local human populations. In particular, genetic differences between human populations are rapidly diminishing and individual heterozygosity is increasing, with beneficial health effects. Finally, even when cultural evolution eliminates selection on a trait, the trait can still evolve due to natural selection on other traits. Our traits are not isolated, independent units, but rather are integrated into a functional whole, so selection on one trait can cause evolution to occur on another trait, sometimes with mildly maladaptive consequences.

  13. International Human Rights Kit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woito, Robert, Ed.

    Designed for students, educators, and citizens interested in human rights, the booklet presents resources for learning about the facts, perspectives, and existing procedures and institutions to promote human rights. Chapter one explores the relationship between human rights and war. Chapter two presents a self-survey to help readers clarify…

  14. Human Machine Learning Symbiosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Kenneth R.; Hoque, Md Tamjidul; Williams, Kim H.

    2017-01-01

    Human Machine Learning Symbiosis is a cooperative system where both the human learner and the machine learner learn from each other to create an effective and efficient learning environment adapted to the needs of the human learner. Such a system can be used in online learning modules so that the modules adapt to each learner's learning state both…

  15. Humanities Review Journal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Humanities Review Journal is published in June and December by Humanities Research Forum. The Journal publishes original, well-researched papers, review essays, interviews, resume, and commentaries, which offer new insights into the various disciplines in the Humanities. The focus is on issues about Africa.

  16. A Human Rights Glossary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flowers, Nancy

    1998-01-01

    Presents a human rights glossary that includes definitions of basic terms, treaties, charters, and groups/organizations that have been featured in previous articles in this edition of "Update on Law-Related Education"; the human rights terms have been compiled as part of the celebration of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights…

  17. Esprit: A Humanities Magazine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Donald G.; Capella, Barry John

    In March 1984, the first issue of "Esprit," a semi-annual humanities magazine for the 56 two-year colleges in New York State, was published. The magazine seeks to confront the apparent decline of student interest in the humanities, community doubts about the relevance of the humanities, and the seeming indifference to the special truths…

  18. Visible Human Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... NLM Mobile Gallery Site Navigation Home The Visible Human Project ® Overview The Visible Human Project ® is an outgrowth of the NLM's 1986 ... dimensional representations of the normal male and female human bodies. Acquisition of transverse CT, MR and cryosection ...

  19. Abnormal humoral immune response to influenza vaccination in pediatric type-1 human immunodeficiency virus infected patients receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos J Montoya

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Given that highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART has been demonstrated useful to restore immune competence in type-1 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1-infected subjects, we evaluated the specific antibody response to influenza vaccine in a cohort of HIV-1-infected children on HAART so as to analyze the quality of this immune response in patients under antiretroviral therapy. Sixteen HIV-1-infected children and 10 HIV-1 seronegative controls were immunized with a commercially available trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine containing the strains A/H1N1, A/H3N2, and B. Serum hemagglutinin inhibition (HI antibody titers were determined for the three viral strains at the time of vaccination and 1 month later. Immunization induced a significantly increased humoral response against the three influenza virus strains in controls, and only against A/H3N2 in HIV-1-infected children. The comparison of post-vaccination HI titers between HIV-1+ patients and HIV-1 negative controls showed significantly higher HI titers against the three strains in controls. In addition, post vaccination protective HI titers (defined as equal to or higher than 1:40 against the strains A/H3N2 and B were observed in a lower proportion of HIV-1+ children than in controls, while a similar proportion of individuals from each group achieved protective HI titers against the A/H1N1 strain. The CD4+ T cell count, CD4/CD8 T cells ratio, and serum viral load were not affected by influenza virus vaccination when pre- vs post-vaccination values were compared. These findings suggest that despite the fact that HAART is efficient in controlling HIV-1 replication and in increasing CD4+ T cell count in HIV-1-infected children, restoration of immune competence and response to cognate antigens remain incomplete, indicating that additional therapeutic strategies are required to achieve a full reconstitution of immune functions.

  20. Modeling Human Leukemia Immunotherapy in Humanized Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinxing Xia

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The currently available human tumor xenograft models permit modeling of human cancers in vivo, but in immunocompromised hosts. Here we report a humanized mouse (hu-mouse model made by transplantation of human fetal thymic tissue plus hematopoietic stem cells transduced with a leukemia-associated fusion gene MLL-AF9. In addition to normal human lymphohematopoietic reconstitution as seen in non-leukemic hu-mice, these hu-mice showed spontaneous development of B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL, which was transplantable to secondary recipients with an autologous human immune system. Using this model, we show that lymphopenia markedly improves the antitumor efficacy of recipient leukocyte infusion (RLI, a GVHD-free immunotherapy that induces antitumor responses in association with rejection of donor chimerism in mixed allogeneic chimeras. Our data demonstrate the potential of this leukemic hu-mouse model in modeling leukemia immunotherapy, and suggest that RLI may offer a safe treatment option for leukemia patients with severe lymphopenia.

  1. From Human Past to Human Future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert G. Bednarik

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper begins with a refutation of the orthodox model of final Pleistocene human evolution, presenting an alternative, better supported account of this crucial phase. According to this version, the transition from robust to gracile humans during that period is attributable to selective breeding rather than natural selection, rendered possible by the exponential rise of culturally guided volitional choices. The rapid human neotenization coincides with the development of numerous somatic and neural detriments and pathologies. Uniformitarian reasoning based on ontogenic homology suggests that the cognitive abilities of hominins are consistently underrated in the unstable orthodoxies of Pleistocene archaeology. A scientifically guided review establishes developmental trajectories defining recent changes in the human genome and its expressions, which then form the basis of attempts to extrapolate from them into the future. It is suggested that continuing and perhaps accelerating unfavorable genetic changes to the human species, rather than existential threats such as massive disasters, pandemics, or astrophysical events, may become the ultimate peril of humanity.

  2. Human Beings And Water

    OpenAIRE

    Pakpahan, Putra Andika

    2016-01-01

    The writer of this paper on this writing is talking about the human beings and water. Water is one of the very fundamentally things that human beings need to keep their lives. Human beings sometimes do not realise that the water is very important for them because they actually cannot live their lives without the present of water. Human beings can keep their lives without rice, but cannot without water. For instances the use of water for human beings are domestic use, cooking, washing, bathing...

  3. Rethinking medical humanities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiapperino, Luca; Boniolo, Giovanni

    2014-12-01

    This paper questions different conceptions of Medical Humanities in order to provide a clearer understanding of what they are and why they matter. Building upon former attempts, we defend a conception of Medical Humanities as a humanistic problem-based approach to medicine aiming at influencing its nature and practice. In particular, we discuss three main conceptual issues regarding the overall nature of this discipline: (i) a problem-driven approach to Medical Humanities; (ii) the need for an integration of Medical Humanities into medicine; (iii) the methodological requirements that could render Medical Humanities an effective framework for medical decision-making.

  4. Situating Human Sexual Conditioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Heather

    2017-11-01

    Conditioning is often thought of as a basic, automatic learning process that has limited applicability to higher-level human behavior. In addition, conditioning is seen as separable from, and even secondary to, "innate" processes. These ideas involve some misconceptions. The aim of this article is to provide a clearer, more refined sense of human sexual conditioning. After providing some background information and reviewing what is known from laboratory conditioning studies, human sexual conditioning is compared to sexual conditioning in nonhumans, to "innate" sexual responding, and to other types of human learning processes. Recommendations for moving forward in human sexual conditioning research are included.

  5. A Multiplex RT-PCR Assay for Detection and Differentiation of Avian-Origin Canine H3N2, Equine-Origin H3N8, Human-Origin H3N2, and H1N1/2009 Canine Influenza Viruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Honglei; Pu, Juan; Liu, Jinhua; Sun, Yipeng

    2017-01-01

    Virological and serological surveys have documented that H1N1/2009, avian-origin canine H3N2 (cH3N2), seasonal human-origin H3N2 (hH3N2), and equine-origin H3N8 influenza viruses are consistently circulating in dogs. In the present study, a multiplex reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (mRT-PCR) assay was developed for simultaneous detection and differentiation of these influenza viruses. Four primer sets were designed to target the hemagglutinin genes of H1N1/2009, cH3N2, hH3N2, and H3N8 canine influenza viruses (CIVs). This mRT-PCR assay demonstrated high specificity and sensitivity for the four CIV subtypes. Additionally, mRT-PCR results obtained from 420 clinical samples were consistent with those obtained by the conventional virus isolation method. Our mRT-PCR assay is reliable for clinical diagnosis and rapid identification of CIVs. PMID:28107507

  6. Production and characterization of soluble human TNFRI-Fc and human HO-1(HMOX1) transgenic pigs by using the F2A peptide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sol Ji; Cho, Bumrae; Koo, Ok Jae; Kim, Hwajung; Kang, Jung Taek; Hurh, Sunghoon; Kim, Su Jin; Yeom, Hye Jung; Moon, Joonho; Lee, Eun Mi; Choi, Ji Yei; Hong, Ju Ho; Jang, Goo; Hwang, Joing-Ik; Yang, Jaeseok; Lee, Byeong Chun; Ahn, Curie

    2014-06-01

    Generation of transgenic pigs for xenotransplantation is one of the most promising technologies for resolving organ shortages. Human heme oxygenase-1 (hHO-1/HMOX1) can protect transplanted organs by its strong anti-oxidative, anti-apoptotic, and anti-inflammatory effects. Soluble human TNFRI-Fc (shTNFRI-Fc) can inhibit the binding of human TNF-α (hTNF-α) to TNF receptors on porcine cells, and thereby, prevent hTNF-α-mediated inflammation and apoptosis. Herein, we successfully generated shTNFRI-Fc-F2A-HA-hHO-1 transgenic (TG) pigs expressing both shTNFRI-Fc and hemagglutinin-tagged-human heme oxygenase-1 (HA-hHO-1) by using an F2A self-cleaving peptide. shTNFRI-Fc and HA-hHO-1 transgenes containing the F2A peptide were constructed under the control of the CAG promoter. Transgene insertion and copy number in the genome of transgenic pigs was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and Southern blot analysis. Expressions of shTNFRI-Fc and HA-hHO-1 in TG pigs were confirmed using PCR, RT-PCR, western blot, ELISA, and immunohistochemistry. shTNFRI-Fc and HA-hHO-1 were expressed in various organs, including the heart, lung, and spleen. ELISA assays detected shTNFRI-Fc in the sera of TG pigs. For functional analysis, fibroblasts isolated from a shTNFRI-Fc-F2A-HA-hHO-1 TG pig (i.e., #14; 1 × 10(5) cells) were cultured with hTNF-α (20 ng/mL) and cycloheximide (10 μg/mL). The viability of shTNFRI-Fc-F2A-HA-hHO-1 TG pig fibroblasts was significantly higher than that of the wild type (wild type vs. shTNFRI-Fc-F2A-HA-hHO-1 TG at 24 h, 31.6 ± 3.2 vs. 60.4 ± 8.3 %, respectively; p hHO-1 TG pig fibroblasts was lower than that of the wild type pig fibroblasts (wild type vs. shTNFRI-Fc-F2A-HA-hHO-1 TG at 12 h, 812,452 ± 113,078 RLU vs. 88,240 ± 10,438 RLU, respectively; p hHO-1 TG pigs generated by the F2A self-cleaving peptide express both shTNFRI-Fc and HA-hHO-1 molecules, which provides protection against oxidative and inflammatory injury

  7. Integrated Environmental Modelling: human decisions, human challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glynn, Pierre D.

    2015-01-01

    Integrated Environmental Modelling (IEM) is an invaluable tool for understanding the complex, dynamic ecosystems that house our natural resources and control our environments. Human behaviour affects the ways in which the science of IEM is assembled and used for meaningful societal applications. In particular, human biases and heuristics reflect adaptation and experiential learning to issues with frequent, sharply distinguished, feedbacks. Unfortunately, human behaviour is not adapted to the more diffusely experienced problems that IEM typically seeks to address. Twelve biases are identified that affect IEM (and science in general). These biases are supported by personal observations and by the findings of behavioural scientists. A process for critical analysis is proposed that addresses some human challenges of IEM and solicits explicit description of (1) represented processes and information, (2) unrepresented processes and information, and (3) accounting for, and cognizance of, potential human biases. Several other suggestions are also made that generally complement maintaining attitudes of watchful humility, open-mindedness, honesty and transparent accountability. These suggestions include (1) creating a new area of study in the behavioural biogeosciences, (2) using structured processes for engaging the modelling and stakeholder communities in IEM, and (3) using ‘red teams’ to increase resilience of IEM constructs and use.

  8. Oxytocin and Human Evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, C Sue

    2017-08-16

    A small, but powerful neuropeptide, oxytocin coordinates processes that are central to both human reproduction and human evolution. Also embedded in the evolution of the human nervous system are unique pathways necessary for modern human sociality and cognition. Oxytocin is necessary for facilitating the birth process, especially in light of anatomical restrictions imposed by upright human locomotion, which depends on a fixed pelvis. Oxytocin, by facilitating birth, allowed the development of a large cortex and a protective bony cranium. The complex human brain in turn permitted the continuing emergence of social sensitivity, complex thinking, and language. After birth is complete, oxytocin continues to support human development by providing direct nutrition, in the form of human milk, and emotional and intellectual support through high levels of maternal behavior and selective attachment. Oxytocin also encourages social sensitivity and reciprocal attunement, on the part of both the mother and child, which are necessary for human social behavior and for rearing an emotionally healthy human child. Oxytocin supports growth during development, resilience, and healing across the lifespan. Oxytocin dynamically moderates the autonomic nervous system, and effects of oxytocin on vagal pathways allowing high levels of oxygenation and digestion necessary to support adaptation in a complex environment. Finally, oxytocin has anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory effects, helping to explain the pervasive adaptive consequences of social behavior for emotional and physical health.

  9. Human Capital and Sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garry Jacobs

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A study of sustainability needs to consider the role of all forms of capital—natural, biological, social, technological, financial, cultural—and the complex ways in which they interact. All forms of capital derive their value, utility and application from human mental awareness, creativity and social innovation. This makes human capital, including social capital, the central determinant of resource productivity and sustainability. Humanity has entered the Anthropocene Epoch in which human changes have become the predominant factor in evolution. Humanity is itself evolving from animal physicality to social vitality to mental individuality. This transition has profound bearing on human productive capabilities, adaptability, creativity and values, the organization of economy, public policy, social awareness and life styles that determine sustainability. This article examines the linkages between population, economic development, employment, education, health, social equity, cultural values, energy intensity and sustainability in the context of evolving human consciousness. It concludes that development of human capital is the critical determinant of long-term sustainability and that efforts to accelerate the evolution of human consciousness and emergence of mentally self-conscious individuals will be the most effective approach for ensuring a sustainable future. Education is the primary lever. Human choice matters.

  10. Piracy of decay-accelerating factor (CD55) signal transduction by the diffusely adhering strain Escherichia coli C1845 promotes cytoskeletal F-actin rearrangements in cultured human intestinal INT407 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peiffer, I; Servin, A L; Bernet-Camard, M F

    1998-09-01

    Diffusely adhering Escherichia coli (DAEC) C1845 (clinical isolate) harboring the fimbrial adhesin F1845 can infect cultured human differentiated intestinal epithelial cells; this process is followed by the disassembly of the actin network in the apical domain. The aim of this study was to examine the mechanism by which DAEC C1845 promotes F-actin rearrangements. For this purpose, we used a human embryonic intestinal cell line (INT407) expressing the membrane-associated glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) protein-anchored decay-accelerating factor (DAF), the receptor of the F1845 adhesin. We show here that infection of INT407 cells by DAEC C1845 can provoke dramatic F-actin rearrangements without cell entry. Clustering of phosphotyrosines was observed, revealing that the DAEC C1845-DAF interaction involves the recruitment of signal transduction molecules. A pharmacological approach with a subset of inhibitors of signal transduction molecules was used to identify the cascade of signal transduction molecules that are coupled to the DAF, that are activated upon infection, and that promote the F-actin rearrangements. DAEC C1845-induced F-actin rearrangements can be blocked dose dependently by protein tyrosine kinase, phospholipase Cgamma, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, protein kinase C, and Ca2+ inhibitors. F-actin rearrangements and blocking by inhibitors were observed after infection of the cells with two E. coli recombinants carrying the plasmids containing the fimbrial adhesin F1845 or the fimbrial hemagglutinin Dr, belonging to the same family of adhesins. These findings show that the DAEC Dr family of pathogens promotes alterations in the intestinal cell cytoskeleton by piracy of the DAF-GPI signal cascade without bacterial cell entry.

  11. [A case of human highly pathogenic avian influenza in Shenzhen, China: application of field epidemiological study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shun-Xiang; Cheng, Jin-Quan; Ma, Han-Wu; He, Jian-Fan; Cheng, Xiao-Wen; Jiang, Li-Juan; Mou, Jin; Wu, Chun-Li; Lv, Xing; Zhang, Shao-Hua; Zhang, Ya-De; Wu, Yong-Sheng; Wang, Xin

    2008-03-01

    Based on analyzing the characteristics of a case with human avian influenza and the effects of field epidemiological study. An emergency-response-system was started up to follow the probable human Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza case initially detected by the "Undefined Pneumonia Surveillance System of Shenzhen". Public health professionals administered several epidemiologic investigations and giving all the contacts of the patient with a 7-day-long medical observation for temporally related influenza-like illness. Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) with primers for H5 and N1 was applied to test respiratory tract samples and/or throat swabs of the patient and all his contacts specific for the hemagglutinin gene of influenza A H5N1. Activities and strategies such as media response,notification in the public, communications with multiple related sectors, social participation and information exchange with Hong Kong were involved in field control and management. The patient was a male, 31 years old,with an occupation as a truck driver in a factory,and had been residing in Shenzhen for 7 years. Started with an influenza-like syndrome, the patient received treatment on the 4th day of the onset, from a clinic and on the 6th day from a regular hospital. On the 8th day of the disease course, he was confirmed by Shenzhen Center for Disease Control and Prevention as human avian flu case and was then transferred to Intensive Care Unit (ICU). On the 83rd day of commence, the patients was healed and released from the hospital. The patient had no significant exposure to sick poultry or poultry that died from the illness before the onset of the disease. The patient and five family members lived together, but no family member was affected and no contact showed positive results for H5N1. A small food market with live poultry, which was under formal supervision and before illness the patient once visited, located near his apartment. Totally, 35 swabs from live

  12. Humanities, Digital Humanities, Media studies, Internet studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brügger, Niels

    Todays expanding digital landscape constitutes an important research object as well as the research environment for the Humanities at the beginning of the 21st century. Taking this state of affairs as a starting point this inaugural lecture presents a vision for how the digital affects the interp......Todays expanding digital landscape constitutes an important research object as well as the research environment for the Humanities at the beginning of the 21st century. Taking this state of affairs as a starting point this inaugural lecture presents a vision for how the digital affects...... the interplay between four areas which until now to a certain extent have been separated: Traditional Hu- manities, Digital Humanities, Media studies, and Internet studies. The vision is followed by an outline of how it can be unfolded in concrete activities, in the form of research projects, research...

  13. Human Performance in Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Patricia M.; Fiedler, Edna

    2010-01-01

    Human factors is a critical discipline for human spaceflight. Nearly every human factors research area is relevant to space exploration -- from the ergonomics of hand tools used by astronauts, to the displays and controls of a spacecraft cockpit or mission control workstation, to levels of automation designed into rovers on Mars, to organizational issues of communication between crew and ground. This chapter focuses more on the ways in which the space environment (especially altered gravity and the isolated and confined nature of long-duration spaceflight) affects crew performance, and thus has specific novel implications for human factors research and practice. We focus on four aspects of human performance: neurovestibular integration, motor control and musculo-skeletal effects, cognitive effects, and behavioral health. We also provide a sampler of recent human factors studies from NASA.

  14. Bursty human dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Karsai, Márton; Kaski, Kimmo

    2018-01-01

    This book provides a comprehensive overview on emergent bursty patterns in the dynamics of human behaviour. It presents common and alternative understanding of the investigated phenomena, and points out open questions worthy of further investigations. The book is structured as follows. In the introduction the authors discuss the motivation of the field, describe bursty phenomena in case of human behaviour, and relate it to other disciplines. The second chapter addresses the measures commonly used to characterise heterogeneous signals, bursty human dynamics, temporal paths, and correlated behaviour. These definitions are first introduced to set the basis for the discussion of the third chapter about the observations of bursty human patterns in the dynamics of individuals, dyadic interactions, and collective behaviour. The subsequent fourth chapter discusses the models of bursty human dynamics. Various mechanisms have been proposed about the source of the heterogeneities in human dynamics, which leads to the in...

  15. Outsourcing in Human Resource

    OpenAIRE

    Oliver Pamelan

    2017-01-01

    The research paper aimed to contribute to the literature of Human Resource Management Planning and employment through the widely used function of the outsourcing human resource. The research paper is based on the description of the process of outsourcing with the reference to the theories of outsourcing management activities. It also explained the effects of this function through measuring the benefits and drawbacks of the outsourcing human resource while planning the employment strategies. T...

  16. The Humanities Matter! Infographic

    OpenAIRE

    Terras, M. M.; Priego, E.; Liu, A.; Rockwell, G.; Sinclair, S.; Henseler, C.; Thomas, L.

    2013-01-01

    The Humanities are academic disciplines that seek to understand and interpret the human experience, from individuals to entire cultures, engaging in the discovery, preservation, and communication of the past and present record to enable a deeper understanding of contemporary society. The Humanities encompass literature, classics, ancient and modern languages, history, philoso - phy, media studies, the fine and performing arts, and other related subjects. It can be a challenge to show the bene...

  17. Human Resource Planning

    OpenAIRE

    Lache Cãtãlina

    2011-01-01

    The objective of human resource planning is to adapt the human capital needed to develop the enterprises’ activities and to accomplish their priority objectives on the medium and/or short term. Human resource planning is a dynamic activity, time being an essential variable, both in what regards the quantitative side (adapting the number of jobs according to the organisation’s evolution in time) and the qualitative side (harmonising the jobs’ complexity with technological changes). The quantit...

  18. Crimes against humanity

    OpenAIRE

    Podlahová, Veronika

    2014-01-01

    57 Resumé "Crimes against humanity" (the thesis title) Crimes against humanity constitute one of the three integral parts of "crimes under international law." At the same time they represent the most severe form of infringement of fundamental human rights that are as the principle value protected by the international community and its peremptory rules. Although these crimes have not emerged during the 20th century for the first time, it was the World War II., which established the term "crime...

  19. Modern Human Capital Management

    OpenAIRE

    Feldberger, Madita

    2008-01-01

    Title: Modern Human Capital Management Seminar date: 30th of May 2008 Course: Master thesis in Business Administration, 15 ECTS Authors: Madita Feldberger Supervisor: Lars Svensson Keywords: Human capital, SWOT Analysis, Strategic Map, Balanced Scorecard Research Problem: Despite of the success of Human Capital Management (HCM) in research it did not arrive yet in the HR departments of many companies. Numerous firms even have problems to set their strategic goals with focus on HR. The HR Bala...

  20. Human hemoglobin genetics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Honig, G.R.; Adams, J.G.

    1986-01-01

    This book contains the following 10 chapters: Introduction; The Human Hemoglobins; The Human Globin Genes; Hemoglobin Synthesis and Globin Gene Expression; The Globin Gene Mutations - A. Mechanisms and Classification; The Globin Gene Mutations - B. Their Phenotypes and Clinical Expression; The Genetics of the Human Globin Gene Loci: Formal Genetics and Gene Linkage; The Geographic Distribution of Globin Gene Variation; Labortory Identification, Screening, Education, and Counseling for Abnormal Hemoglobins and Thalassemias; and Approaches to the Treatment of the Hemoglobin Disorders.

  1. Human Performance Research Center

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Biochemistry:Improvements in energy metabolism, muscular strength and endurance capacity have a basis in biochemical and molecular adaptations within the human body....

  2. Human cloning 2001.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healy, David L; Weston, Gareth; Pera, Martin F; Rombauts, Luk; Trounson, Alan O

    2002-05-01

    This review summaries human cloning from a clinical perspective. Natural human clones, that is, monozygotic twins, are increasing in the general community. Iatrogenic human clones have been produced for decades in infertile couples given fertility treatment such as ovulation induction. A clear distinction must be made between therapeutic cloning using embryonic stem cells and reproductive cloning attempts. Unlike the early clinical years of in vitro fertilization, with cloning there is no animal model that is safe and dependable. Until there is such a model, 'Dolly'-style human cloning is medically unacceptable.

  3. Robotics for Human Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, Terrence; Deans, Mathew; Bualat, Maria

    2013-01-01

    Robots can do a variety of work to increase the productivity of human explorers. Robots can perform tasks that are tedious, highly repetitive or long-duration. Robots can perform precursor tasks, such as reconnaissance, which help prepare for future human activity. Robots can work in support of astronauts, assisting or performing tasks in parallel. Robots can also perform "follow-up" work, completing tasks designated or started by humans. In this paper, we summarize the development and testing of robots designed to improve future human exploration of space.

  4. [Human physiology: kidney].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natochin, Iu V

    2010-01-01

    The content of human physiology as an independent part of current physiology is discussed. Substantiated is the point that subjects of human physiology are not only special sections of physiology where functions are inherent only in human (physiology of intellectual activity, speech, labor, sport), but also in peculiarities of functions, specificity of regulation of each of physiological systems. By the example of physiology of kidney and water-salt balance there are shown borders of norm, peculiarities of regulation in human, new chapters of renal physiology which have appeared in connection with achievements of molecular physiology.

  5. Challenges for Virtual Humans in Human Computing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reidsma, Dennis; Ruttkay, Z.M.; Huang, T; Nijholt, Antinus; Pantic, Maja; Pentland, A.

    The vision of Ambient Intelligence (AmI) presumes a plethora of embedded services and devices that all endeavor to support humans in their daily activities as unobtrusively as possible. Hardware gets distributed throughout the environment, occupying even the fabric of our clothing. The environment

  6. SERUM BETA HUMAN CHORIONIC GONADOTROPHIN IN HUMAN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives To determine whether raised levels of serum Beta -HCG) are associated with higher grade and Human Chorionic Gonadotrophin ( -HCG in higher category tumors and whether in patients with raised levels of -HCG their sera the rise (above normal range) and the fall (to normal) in levels would correspond with ...

  7. Developing Human Resources through Actualizing Human Potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarken, Rodney H.

    2012-01-01

    The key to human resource development is in actualizing individual and collective thinking, feeling and choosing potentials related to our minds, hearts and wills respectively. These capacities and faculties must be balanced and regulated according to the standards of truth, love and justice for individual, community and institutional development,…

  8. Skin and the non-human human

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rösing, Lilian Munk

    2013-01-01

    ) article 'Visualizing the mind: Looking at Titian's Flaying of Marsyas', addressing features of the painting not commented on by Hart, and supplementing Hart's (Kleinian) theoretical frame by involving Didier Anzieu's 'skin ego', Slavoj Zizek's concept of the 'non-human', Giorgio Agamben's term...

  9. Human Resource Accounting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodruff, Robert L., Jr.

    1973-01-01

    An interview is reported which discussed the implications for the hiring, recruiting, screening and development of employees in the light of human resource accounting, here defined as the identification, accumulation and dissemination of information about human resources in dollar terms. (SA)

  10. Human-centred Governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bason, Christian

    2017-01-01

    Design approaches are now being applied all over the world as a powerful approach to innovating public policies and services. Christian Bason, author of Leading public design: Discovering human-centred governance, argues that by bringing design methods into play, public managers can lead change...... with citizens at the centre, and discover a new model for steering public organisations: human-centred governance....

  11. Human Mind Maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, Tom

    2016-01-01

    When students generate mind maps, or concept maps, the maps are usually on paper, computer screens, or a blackboard. Human Mind Maps require few resources and little preparation. The main requirements are space where students can move around and a little creativity and imagination. Mind maps can be used for a variety of purposes, and Human Mind…

  12. Dynamics of human movement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koopman, Hubertus F.J.M.

    2010-01-01

    The part of (bio)mechanics that studies the interaction of forces on the human skeletal system and its effect on the resulting movement is called rigid body dynamics. Some basic concepts are presented: A mathematical formulation to describe human movement and how this relates on the mechanical loads

  13. Biodemography of human ageing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vaupel, James W

    2010-01-01

    Human senescence has been delayed by a decade. This finding, documented in 1994 and bolstered since, is a fundamental discovery about the biology of human ageing, and one with profound implications for individuals, society and the economy. Remarkably, the rate of deterioration with age seems...

  14. the human genome project

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Enrique

    have resulted in the biological diversity, both past and present, on this planet. RAJ RAMESAR. MSc, PhD. Professor and Head. Division of Human Genetics. Faculty of Health Sciences. University of Cape Town. Raj Ramesar serves as Director of the MRC. Human Genetics Research Unit and. CANSA's Colorectal Cancer ...

  15. Translating the human microbiome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brown, J.; Vos, de W.M.; Distefano, P.S.; Doré, J.; Huttenhower, C.; Knight, R.; Lawley, T.D.; Raes, J.; Turnbaugh, P.

    2013-01-01

    Over the past decade, an explosion of descriptive analyses from initiatives, such as the Human Microbiome Project (HMP) and the MetaHIT project, have begun to delineate the human microbiome. Inhabitants of the intestinal tract, nasal passages, oral cavities, skin, gastrointestinal tract and

  16. Damping Effect of Humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Lars

    Passive humans (sitting or standing) might well be present on flooring-systems, footbridges or other structures that carry humans. An active croud of people might generate structural vibrations, and these might be problematic. The passive crowd of people, however, will interact with the structura...

  17. Evaluating the Humanities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brody, Howard

    2013-01-01

    How can one measure the value of teaching the humanities? The problem of assessment and accountability is prominent today, of course, in secondary and higher education. It is perhaps even more acute for those who teach the humanities in nontraditional settings, such as medical and other professional schools. The public assumes that academes can…

  18. The Humanities' Value

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harpham, Geoffrey Galt

    2009-01-01

    Why should society support the humanities when so many people are suffering from the effects of the economic crisis? What claim do the humanities, or scholarship generally, have on increasingly limited resources? Shouldn't such pursuits be considered luxuries at a time when people should be focusing on essentials? The alleviation of human…

  19. Manage "Human Capital" Strategically

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odden, Allan

    2011-01-01

    To strategically manage human capital in education means restructuring the entire human resource system so that schools not only recruit and retain smart and capable individuals, but also manage them in ways that support the strategic directions of the organization. These management practices must be aligned with a district's education improvement…

  20. Incorporating Human Interindividual Biotransformation ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    The protection of sensitive individuals within a population dictates that measures other than central tendencies be employed to estimate risk. The refinement of human health risk assessments for chemicals metabolized by the liver to reflect data on human variability can be accomplished through (1) the characterization of enzyme expression in large banks of human liver samples, (2) the employment of appropriate techniques for the quantification and extrapolation of metabolic rates derived in vitro, and (3) the judicious application of physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) modeling. While in vitro measurements of specific biochemical reactions from multiple human samples can yield qualitatively valuable data on human variance, such measures must be put into the perspective of the intact human to yield the most valuable predictions of metabolic differences among humans. For quantitative metabolism data to be the most valuable in risk assessment, they must be tied to human anatomy and physiology, and the impact of their variance evaluated under real exposure scenarios. For chemicals metabolized in the liver, the concentration of parent chemical in the liver represents the substrate concentration in the MichaelisMenten description of metabolism. Metabolic constants derived in vitro may be extrapolated to the intact liver, when appropriate conditions are met. Metabolic capacity Vmax; the maximal rate of the reaction) can be scaled directly to the concentration

  1. Damping Effect of Humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Lars

    Passive humans (sitting or standing) might well be present on flooring-systems, footbridges or other structures that carry humans. An active croud of people might generate structural vibrations, and these might be problematic. The passive crowd of people, however, will interact with the structural...

  2. HUMAN PARAGONIMIASIS IN AFRICA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Emmanuel Ameh

    Abstract. An up-to-date review on human paragonimiasis in Africa was carried out to determine the current geographical distribution of human cases and analyze the animal reservoir, snails and crustaceans which intervene in the local life cycle of Paragonimus species. Two countries, i.e., Cameroon and. Nigeria, were ...

  3. Human Rights, History of

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Baets, Antoon; Wright, James

    2015-01-01

    In this article, six basic debates about human rights are clarified from a historical perspective: the origin of human rights as moral rights connected to the natural law doctrine and opposed to positive rights; the wave of criticism of their abstract and absolute character by nineteenth-century

  4. Modeling human color categorization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Broek, Egon; Schouten, Th.E.; Kisters, P.M.F.

    A unique color space segmentation method is introduced. It is founded on features of human cognition, where 11 color categories are used in processing color. In two experiments, human subjects were asked to categorize color stimuli into these 11 color categories, which resulted in markers for a

  5. Fungi that Infect Humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köhler, Julia R; Hube, Bernhard; Puccia, Rosana; Casadevall, Arturo; Perfect, John R

    2017-06-01

    Fungi must meet four criteria to infect humans: growth at human body temperatures, circumvention or penetration of surface barriers, lysis and absorption of tissue, and resistance to immune defenses, including elevated body temperatures. Morphogenesis between small round, detachable cells and long, connected cells is the mechanism by which fungi solve problems of locomotion around or through host barriers. Secretion of lytic enzymes, and uptake systems for the released nutrients, are necessary if a fungus is to nutritionally utilize human tissue. Last, the potent human immune system evolved in the interaction with potential fungal pathogens, so few fungi meet all four conditions for a healthy human host. Paradoxically, the advances of modern medicine have made millions of people newly susceptible to fungal infections by disrupting immune defenses. This article explores how different members of four fungal phyla use different strategies to fulfill the four criteria to infect humans: the Entomophthorales, the Mucorales, the Ascomycota, and the Basidiomycota. Unique traits confer human pathogenic potential on various important members of these phyla: pathogenic Onygenales comprising thermal dimorphs such as Histoplasma and Coccidioides; the Cryptococcus spp. that infect immunocompromised as well as healthy humans; and important pathogens of immunocompromised patients-Candida, Pneumocystis, and Aspergillus spp. Also discussed are agents of neglected tropical diseases important in global health such as mycetoma and paracoccidiomycosis and common pathogens rarely implicated in serious illness such as dermatophytes. Commensalism is considered, as well as parasitism, in shaping genomes and physiological systems of hosts and fungi during evolution.

  6. Businesses’ human rights responsibilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corinne Lewis

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available There is no international human rights law standard that expresslyprohibits businesses’ arbitrary displacement of persons. Businessesdo, however, have the responsibility to avoid infringements of humanrights that could lead to displacement and also to take actions toremedy their human rights violations that might lead to displacement.

  7. Global Journal of Humanities

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal Homepage Image. Global Journal of Humanities is aimed at promoting reasearch in all areas of Humanities including philosophy, languages, linguistics, literature, history, fine/applied arts, theater arts, architecture, etc. Visit the Global Journal Series website here: http://www.globaljournalseries.com/ ...

  8. Human Granulocytic Anaplasmosis, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaowa; Wuritu; Kawamori, Fumihiko; Wu, Dongxing; Yoshikawa, Yuko; Chiya, Seizou; Fukunaga, Kazutoshi; Funato, Toyohiko; Shiojiri, Masaaki; Nakajima, Hideki; Hamauzu, Yoshiji; Takano, Ai; Kawabata, Hiroki; Ando, Shuji; Kishimoto, Toshio

    2013-01-01

    We retrospectively confirmed 2 cases of human Anaplasma phagocytophilum infection. Patient blood samples contained unique p44/msp2 for the pathogen, and antibodies bound to A. phagocytophilum antigens propagated in THP-1 rather than HL60 cells. Unless both cell lines are used for serodiagnosis of rickettsiosis-like infections, cases of human granulocytic anaplasmosis could go undetected. PMID:23460988

  9. Humane Education Projects Handbook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junior League of Ogden, UT.

    This handbook was developed to promote interest in humane education and to encourage the adoption of humane education projects. Although specifically designed to assist Junior Leagues in developing such projects, the content should prove valuable to animal welfare organizations, zoos, aquariums, nature centers, and other project-oriented groups…

  10. Human migraine models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Helle Klingenberg

    2001-01-01

    , which is a human experience. A set-up for investigations of experimental headache and migraine in humans, has been evaluated and headache mechanisms explored by using nitroglycerin and other headache-inducing agents. Nitric oxide (NO) or other parts of the NO activated cascade seems to be responsible...

  11. Overophedning af det humane

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Steen Nepper

    2016-01-01

    Anmelder Marius Gudmand-Høyer, Sverre Raffnsøe og Morten Raffnsøe-Møller (red.): "Den humane vending. En antologi", Aarhus Universitetsforlag......Anmelder Marius Gudmand-Høyer, Sverre Raffnsøe og Morten Raffnsøe-Møller (red.): "Den humane vending. En antologi", Aarhus Universitetsforlag...

  12. The Human Technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fausing, Bent

     Bent Fausing  "The Humane Technology", abstract (for The Two Cultures: Balancing Choices and Effects Oxford University July 20-26, 2008). The paper will investigate the use of technology in everyday aesthetics such as TV-commercials for mobile phones for Nokia, which slogan is, as it is well known...... for as a better humanity.      The paper will investigate how the two cultures are combined in this way in a TV-commercial. Technology points, is the conclusion, towards a forgotten pre-human and not to the often-motioned post-human condition.    ......, "Nokia - connecting people". Which function does this technology get in narratives, images, interactions and affects here?      The mobile phone and its digital camera are depicted as being able to make a unique human presence and interaction. The medium, the technology is a necessary helper to get...

  13. Humanity at the Edge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Mette N.; Gjødsbøl, Iben M.; Dam, Mie S.

    2017-01-01

    At the heart of anthropology and the social sciences lies a notion of human existence according to which humans and animals share the basic need for food, but only humans have the capacity for morality. Based on fieldwork in a pig laboratory, a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU), and a dementia...... nursing home, we follow practices of feeding precarious lives lacking most markers of human personhood, including the exercise of moral judgment. Despite the absence of such markers, laboratory researchers and caregivers in these three sites do not abstain from engaging in questions about the moral status...... of the piglets, infants, and people with dementia in their care. They continually negotiate how their charges belong to the human collectivity and thereby challenge the notion of ‘the human’ that is foundational to anthropology. Combining analytical approaches that do not operate with a fixed boundary between...

  14. Refractoriness in human atria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skibsbye, Lasse; Jespersen, Thomas; Christ, Torsten

    2016-01-01

    rhythm and chronic atrial fibrillation tissues and was neither affected by changes in frequency (1 vs. 3Hz). CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest a preferentially voltage-dependent, rather than time-dependent, effect with respect to refractoriness at physiologically relevant rates in human atria. However...... drugs. Cardiomyocyte excitability depends on availability of sodium channels, which involves both time- and voltage-dependent recovery from inactivation. This study therefore aims to characterise how sodium channel inactivation affects refractoriness in human atria. METHODS AND RESULTS: Steady......-state activation and inactivation parameters of sodium channels measured in vitro in isolated human atrial cardiomyocytes were used to parameterise a mathematical human atrial cell model. Action potential data were acquired from human atrial trabeculae of patients in either sinus rhythm or chronic atrial...

  15. Human gliomas contain morphine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Peter; Rasmussen, Mads; Zhu, Wei

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Morphine has been found in cancer cell lines originating from human and animal cells. Thus, it became important to demonstrate whether or not actual tumours contain this opiate alkaloid. MATERIAL/METHODS: Human glioma tissues were biochemically treated to isolate and separate endogeno...... of the solutions used in the study nor was it present as a residual material in blank HPLC runs. CONCLUSIONS: Morphine is present in human gliomas, suggesting that it may exert an action that effects tumour physiology/pathology.......BACKGROUND: Morphine has been found in cancer cell lines originating from human and animal cells. Thus, it became important to demonstrate whether or not actual tumours contain this opiate alkaloid. MATERIAL/METHODS: Human glioma tissues were biochemically treated to isolate and separate endogenous...

  16. The human cell atlas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Regev, Aviv; Teichmann, Sarah A.; Lander, Eric S.

    2017-01-01

    The recent advent of methods for high-throughput single-cell molecular profiling has catalyzed a growing sense in the scientific community that the time is ripe to complete the 150-year-old effort to identify all cell types in the human body. The Human Cell Atlas Project is an international...... collaborative effort that aims to define all human cell types in terms of distinctive molecular profiles (such as gene expression profiles) and to connect this information with classical cellular descriptions (such as location and morphology). An open comprehensive reference map of the molecular state of cells...... in healthy human tissues would propel the systematic study of physiological states, developmental trajectories, regulatory circuitry and interactions of cells, and also provide a framework for understanding cellular dysregulation in human disease. Here we describe the idea, its potential utility, early...

  17. Designing Human Technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Jesper

    Design is increasingly becoming a part of the university curriculum and research agenda. The keynote present and discuss Designing Human Technologies – an initiative aiming at establishing a design oriented main subject area alongside traditional main subject areas such as Natural Science......, the Humanities, and Social Science. The initiative broadens the perspective of IS and recognize reflections on aesthetics, ethics, values, connections to politics, and strategies for enabling a better future as legitimate parts of the research agenda. Designing Human Technologies is a design-oriented Strategic...... Research Initiative supporting Roskilde University’s new Humanities and Technology bachelor programme (‘HumTek’), and its three dimensions: Design, Humanities, and Technology. The research initiative involves 70 researchers from different departments and research groups at Roskilde University through...

  18. Human Milk Banking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haiden, Nadja; Ziegler, Ekhard E

    2016-01-01

    Human milk banks play an essential role by providing human milk to infants who would otherwise not be able to receive human milk. The largest group of recipients are premature infants who derive very substantial benefits from it. Human milk protects premature infants from necrotizing enterocolitis and from sepsis, two devastating medical conditions. Milk banks collect, screen, store, process, and distribute human milk. Donating women usually nurse their own infants and have a milk supply that exceeds their own infants' needs. Donor women are carefully selected and are screened for HIV-1, HIV-2, human T-cell leukemia virus 1 and 2, hepatitis B, hepatitis C, and syphilis. In the milk bank, handling, storing, processing, pooling, and bacterial screening follow standardized algorithms. Heat treatment of human milk diminishes anti-infective properties, cellular components, growth factors, and nutrients. However, the beneficial effects of donor milk remain significant and donor milk is still highly preferable in comparison to formula. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  19. Human Power Empirically Explored

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jansen, A.J.

    2011-01-18

    Harvesting energy from the users' muscular power to convert this into electricity is a relatively unknown way to power consumer products. It nevertheless offers surprising opportunities for product designers; human-powered products function independently from regular power infrastructure, are convenient and can be environmentally and economically beneficial. This work provides insight into the knowledge required to design human-powered energy systems in consumer products from a scientific perspective. It shows the developments of human-powered products from the first introduction of the BayGen Freeplay radio in 1995 till current products and provides an overview and analysis of 211 human-powered products currently on the market. Although human power is generally perceived as beneficial for the environment, this thesis shows that achieving environmental benefit is only feasible when the environmental impact of additional materials in the energy conversion system is well balanced with the energy demands of the products functionality. User testing with existing products showed a preference for speeds in the range of 70 to 190 rpm for crank lengths from 32 to 95 mm. The muscular input power varied from 5 to 21 W. The analysis of twenty graduation projects from the Faculty of Industrial Design Engineering in the field of human-powered products, offers an interesting set of additional practice based design recommendations. The knowledge based approach of human power is very powerful to support the design of human-powered products. There is substantial potential for improvements in the domains energy conversion, ergonomics and environment. This makes that human power, when applied properly, is environmentally and economically competitive over a wider range of applications than thought previously.

  20. Genetics of human hydrocephalus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jun; Williams, Michael A; Rigamonti, Daniele

    2006-10-01

    Human hydrocephalus is a common medical condition that is characterized by abnormalities in the flow or resorption of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), resulting in ventricular dilatation. Human hydrocephalus can be classified into two clinical forms, congenital and acquired. Hydrocephalus is one of the complex and multifactorial neurological disorders.A growing body of evidence indicates that genetic factors play a major role in the pathogenesis of hydrocephalus. An understanding of the genetic components and mechanism of this complex disorder may offer us significant insights into the molecular etiology of impaired brain development and an accumulation of the cerebrospinal fluid in cerebral compartments during the pathogenesis of hydrocephalus. Genetic studies in animal models have started to open the way for understanding the underlying pathology of hydrocephalus. At least 43 mutants/loci linked to hereditary hydrocephalus have been identified in animal models and humans. Up to date, 9 genes associated with hydrocephalus have been identified in animal models. In contrast, only one such gene has been identified in humans. Most of known hydrocephalus gene products are the important cytokines, growth factors or related molecules in the cellular signal pathways during early brain development. The current molecular genetic evidence from animal models indicate that in the early development stage, impaired and abnormal brain development caused by abnormal cellular signaling and functioning, all these cellular and developmental events would eventually lead to the congenital hydrocephalus. Owing to our very primitive knowledge of the genetics and molecular pathogenesis of human hydrocephalus, it is difficult to evaluate whether data gained from animal models can be extrapolated to humans. Initiation of a large population genetics study in humans will certainly provide invaluable information about the molecular and cellular etiology and the developmental mechanisms of human

  1. The Adjuvanticity of an O. volvulus-Derived rOv-ASP-1 Protein in Mice Using Sequential Vaccinations and in Non-Human Primates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing; Tricoche, Nancy; Du, Lanying; Hunter, Meredith; Zhan, Bin; Goud, Gaddam; Didier, Elizabeth S.; Liu, Jing; Lu, Lu; Marx, Preston A.; Jiang, Shibo; Lustigman, Sara

    2012-01-01

    Adjuvants potentiate antigen-specific protective immune responses and can be key elements promoting vaccine effectiveness. We previously reported that the Onchocerca volvulus recombinant protein rOv-ASP-1 can induce activation and maturation of naïve human DCs and therefore could be used as an innate adjuvant to promote balanced Th1 and Th2 responses to bystander vaccine antigens in mice. With a few vaccine antigens, it also promoted a Th1-biased response based on pronounced induction of Th1-associated IgG2a and IgG2b antibody responses and the upregulated production of Th1 cytokines, including IL-2, IFN-γ, TNF-α and IL-6. However, because it is a protein, the rOv-ASP-1 adjuvant may also induce anti-self-antibodies. Therefore, it was important to verify that the host responses to self will not affect the adjuvanticity of rOv-ASP-1 when it is used in subsequent vaccinations with the same or different vaccine antigens. In this study, we have established rOv-ASP-1's adjuvanticity in mice during the course of two sequential vaccinations using two vaccine model systems: the receptor-binding domain (RBD) of SARS-CoV spike protein and a commercial influenza virus hemagglutinin (HA) vaccine comprised of three virus strains. Moreover, the adjuvanticity of rOv-ASP-1 was retained with an efficacy similar to that obtained when it was used for a first vaccination, even though a high level of anti-rOv-ASP-1 antibodies was present in the sera of mice before the administration of the second vaccine. To further demonstrate its utility as an adjuvant for human use, we also immunized non-human primates (NHPs) with RBD plus rOv-ASP-1 and showed that rOv-ASP-1 could induce high titres of functional and protective anti-RBD antibody responses in NHPs. Notably, the rOv-ASP-1 adjuvant did not induce high titer antibodies against self in NHPs. Thus, the present study provided a sound scientific foundation for future strategies in the development of this novel protein adjuvant. PMID

  2. The adjuvanticity of an O. volvulus-derived rOv-ASP-1 protein in mice using sequential vaccinations and in non-human primates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Wang

    Full Text Available Adjuvants potentiate antigen-specific protective immune responses and can be key elements promoting vaccine effectiveness. We previously reported that the Onchocerca volvulus recombinant protein rOv-ASP-1 can induce activation and maturation of naïve human DCs and therefore could be used as an innate adjuvant to promote balanced Th1 and Th2 responses to bystander vaccine antigens in mice. With a few vaccine antigens, it also promoted a Th1-biased response based on pronounced induction of Th1-associated IgG2a and IgG2b antibody responses and the upregulated production of Th1 cytokines, including IL-2, IFN-γ, TNF-α and IL-6. However, because it is a protein, the rOv-ASP-1 adjuvant may also induce anti-self-antibodies. Therefore, it was important to verify that the host responses to self will not affect the adjuvanticity of rOv-ASP-1 when it is used in subsequent vaccinations with the same or different vaccine antigens. In this study, we have established rOv-ASP-1's adjuvanticity in mice during the course of two sequential vaccinations using two vaccine model systems: the receptor-binding domain (RBD of SARS-CoV spike protein and a commercial influenza virus hemagglutinin (HA vaccine comprised of three virus strains. Moreover, the adjuvanticity of rOv-ASP-1 was retained with an efficacy similar to that obtained when it was used for a first vaccination, even though a high level of anti-rOv-ASP-1 antibodies was present in the sera of mice before the administration of the second vaccine. To further demonstrate its utility as an adjuvant for human use, we also immunized non-human primates (NHPs with RBD plus rOv-ASP-1 and showed that rOv-ASP-1 could induce high titres of functional and protective anti-RBD antibody responses in NHPs. Notably, the rOv-ASP-1 adjuvant did not induce high titer antibodies against self in NHPs. Thus, the present study provided a sound scientific foundation for future strategies in the development of this novel protein

  3. The adjuvanticity of an O. volvulus-derived rOv-ASP-1 protein in mice using sequential vaccinations and in non-human primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing; Tricoche, Nancy; Du, Lanying; Hunter, Meredith; Zhan, Bin; Goud, Gaddam; Didier, Elizabeth S; Liu, Jing; Lu, Lu; Marx, Preston A; Jiang, Shibo; Lustigman, Sara

    2012-01-01

    Adjuvants potentiate antigen-specific protective immune responses and can be key elements promoting vaccine effectiveness. We previously reported that the Onchocerca volvulus recombinant protein rOv-ASP-1 can induce activation and maturation of naïve human DCs and therefore could be used as an innate adjuvant to promote balanced Th1 and Th2 responses to bystander vaccine antigens in mice. With a few vaccine antigens, it also promoted a Th1-biased response based on pronounced induction of Th1-associated IgG2a and IgG2b antibody responses and the upregulated production of Th1 cytokines, including IL-2, IFN-γ, TNF-α and IL-6. However, because it is a protein, the rOv-ASP-1 adjuvant may also induce anti-self-antibodies. Therefore, it was important to verify that the host responses to self will not affect the adjuvanticity of rOv-ASP-1 when it is used in subsequent vaccinations with the same or different vaccine antigens. In this study, we have established rOv-ASP-1's adjuvanticity in mice during the course of two sequential vaccinations using two vaccine model systems: the receptor-binding domain (RBD) of SARS-CoV spike protein and a commercial influenza virus hemagglutinin (HA) vaccine comprised of three virus strains. Moreover, the adjuvanticity of rOv-ASP-1 was retained with an efficacy similar to that obtained when it was used for a first vaccination, even though a high level of anti-rOv-ASP-1 antibodies was present in the sera of mice before the administration of the second vaccine. To further demonstrate its utility as an adjuvant for human use, we also immunized non-human primates (NHPs) with RBD plus rOv-ASP-1 and showed that rOv-ASP-1 could induce high titres of functional and protective anti-RBD antibody responses in NHPs. Notably, the rOv-ASP-1 adjuvant did not induce high titer antibodies against self in NHPs. Thus, the present study provided a sound scientific foundation for future strategies in the development of this novel protein adjuvant.

  4. Human Acyl-Coenzyme A:Cholesterol Acyltransferase Expressed in Chinese Hamster Ovary Cells: Membrane Topology and Active Site Location

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Song; Lu, Xiaohui; Chang, Catherine C.Y.; Chang, Ta-Yuan

    2003-01-01

    Acyl-CoA:cholesterol acyltransferase (ACAT) is a membrane-bound enzyme that produces cholesteryl esters intracellularly. Two ACAT genes (ACAT1 and ACAT2) have been identified. The expression of ACAT1 is ubiquitous, whereas that of ACAT2 is tissue restricted. Previous research indicates that ACAT1 may contain seven transmembrane domains (TMDs). To study ACAT2 topology, we inserted two different antigenic tags (hemagglutinin, monoclonal antibody Mab1) at various hydrophi...

  5. Human exposure to aluminium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exley, Christopher

    2013-10-01

    Human activities have circumvented the efficient geochemical cycling of aluminium within the lithosphere and therewith opened a door, which was previously only ajar, onto the biotic cycle to instigate and promote the accumulation of aluminium in biota and especially humans. Neither these relatively recent activities nor the entry of aluminium into the living cycle are showing any signs of abating and it is thus now imperative that we understand as fully as possible how humans are exposed to aluminium and the future consequences of a burgeoning exposure and body burden. The aluminium age is upon us and there is now an urgent need to understand how to live safely and effectively with aluminium.

  6. Aluminium in human sweat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minshall, Clare; Nadal, Jodie; Exley, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    It is of burgeoning importance that the human body burden of aluminium is understood and is measured. There are surprisingly few data to describe human excretion of systemic aluminium and almost no reliable data which relate to aluminium in sweat. We have measured the aluminium content of sweat in 20 healthy volunteers following mild exercise. The concentration of aluminium ranged from 329 to 5329μg/L. These data equate to a daily excretion of between 234 and 7192μg aluminium and they strongly suggest that perspiration is the major route of excretion of systemic aluminium in humans. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  7. Wear in human knees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.L. Wang

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Wear occurs in natural knee joints and plays a pivotal factor in causing articular cartilage degradation in osteoarthritis (OA processes. Wear particles are produced in the wear process and get involved in inflammation of human knees. This review presents progresses in the mechanical and surface morphological studies of articular cartilages, wear particles analysis techniques for wear studies and investigations of human knee synovial fluid in wear of human knees. Future work is also included for further understanding of OA symptoms and their relations which may shed light on OA causes.

  8. Human Genome Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Block, S. [The MITRE Corporation, McLean, VA (US). JASON Program Office; Cornwall, J. [The MITRE Corporation, McLean, VA (US). JASON Program Office; Dally, W. [The MITRE Corporation, McLean, VA (US). JASON Program Office; Dyson, F. [The MITRE Corporation, McLean, VA (US). JASON Program Office; Fortson, N. [The MITRE Corporation, McLean, VA (US). JASON Program Office; Joyce, G. [The MITRE Corporation, McLean, VA (US). JASON Program Office; Kimble, H. J. [The MITRE Corporation, McLean, VA (US). JASON Program Office; Lewis, N. [The MITRE Corporation, McLean, VA (US). JASON Program Office; Max, C. [The MITRE Corporation, McLean, VA (US). JASON Program Office; Prince, T. [The MITRE Corporation, McLean, VA (US). JASON Program Office; Schwitters, R. [The MITRE Corporation, McLean, VA (US). JASON Program Office; Weinberger, P. [The MITRE Corporation, McLean, VA (US). JASON Program Office; Woodin, W. H. [The MITRE Corporation, McLean, VA (US). JASON Program Office

    1998-01-04

    The study reviews Department of Energy supported aspects of the United States Human Genome Project, the joint National Institutes of Health/Department of Energy program to characterize all human genetic material, to discover the set of human genes, and to render them accessible for further biological study. The study concentrates on issues of technology, quality assurance/control, and informatics relevant to current effort on the genome project and needs beyond it. Recommendations are presented on areas of the genome program that are of particular interest to and supported by the Department of Energy.

  9. Human Capital and Development

    OpenAIRE

    Rodolfo E. Manuelli

    2015-01-01

    Perhaps no question has attracted as much attention in the economics literature as “Why are some countries richer than others?” In this article, the author revisits the “development problem” and provides some estimates of the importance of human capital in accounting for cross-country differences in output per worker. His results suggest that human capital has a central role in determining the wealth of nations and that the quality of human capital varies systematically with the level of deve...

  10. Human pancreas development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, Rachel E; Berry, Andrew A; Strutt, James P; Gerrard, David T; Hanley, Neil A

    2015-09-15

    A wealth of data and comprehensive reviews exist on pancreas development in mammals, primarily mice, and other vertebrates. By contrast, human pancreatic development has been less comprehensively reviewed. Here, we draw together those studies conducted directly in human embryonic and fetal tissue to provide an overview of what is known about human pancreatic development. We discuss the relevance of this work to manufacturing insulin-secreting β-cells from pluripotent stem cells and to different aspects of diabetes, especially permanent neonatal diabetes, and its underlying causes. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  11. Human dignity and bioethics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjanović Miloš

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available By opening the field of bioethics followed a new wave of intense debate on the theological, philosophical and legal significance of the concept of human dignity . Exactly ten years ago (December 2003 American bioethicist Ruth Maclin has proposed to divest ourselves of the concept of human dignity because it is vague, useless and redundant and that, without any loss, we can replace it by the ethical principle of personal autonomy. Her article was followed by harsh reactions and opposite views. What is this term in so broad, almost inflationary and opposite use is not a reason to deprive him, but, on the contrary, it shows how important it is and that it should be determined at least outline. As universal values and general concept, the human dignity has no pre-defined and narrow, precise meaning. It is more an evaluation horizon, the guiding principle and regulatory ideas that must constantly define and codify by many guaranted human rights and fundamental freedoms. As generic notion of each reasonable law, it is their foundation and a common denominator, legitimising basis of natural but also of positive law. As intrinsic and static value which means the humaneness, the humanity it is absolute, inherent to every human being without distinction and conditioning, as a unique and unrepeatable creation. In this meaning, the dignity is the obligation and limitation of the state, society and each of us. As an ethical and dynamic category, it is not given to us, but it is assign to us, and it is not in us, but always before us, as a guide of our actions in accordance with virtues, to treat ourselves, each other and the nature in a human way. The century in which we live is named the century of molecular biology and genetic engineering because of the enormous potential but also risks to human dignity. Because of that human dignity has become a central principle in all international documents relating to the human genome, genetics and bioethics, adopted

  12. Sulfatases and human disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diez-Roux, Graciana; Ballabio, Andrea

    2005-01-01

    Sulfatases are a highly conserved family of proteins that cleave sulfate esters from a wide range of substrates. The importance of sulfatases in human metabolism is underscored by the presence of at least eight human monogenic diseases caused by the deficiency of individual sulfatases. Sulfatase activity requires a unique posttranslational modification, which is impaired in patients with multiple sulfatase deficiency (MSD) due to a mutation of the sulfatase modifying factor 1 (SUMF1). Here we review current knowledge and future perspectives on the evolution of the sulfatase gene family, on the role of these enzymes in human metabolism, and on new developments in the therapy of sulfatase deficiencies.

  13. Propelling medical humanities in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Wei

    2017-05-23

    Advances in the study of the medical humanities and medical humanities education have been made over the past few decades. Many influential journals have published articles examining the role of medical humanities and medical humanities education, the development and evaluation of medical humanities, and the design of a curriculum for medical humanities education in Western countries. However, most articles related to medical humanities in China were published in Chinese, moreover, researchers have worked in relative isolation and published in disparate journals, so their work has not been systematically presented to and evaluated by international readers. The six companion articles featured in this issue describe the current status and challenge of medical humanities and medical humanities education in China in the hope of providing international readers with a novel and meaningful glimpse into medical humanities in China. This Journal is calling for greater publication of research on medical humanities and medical humanities education to propel medical humanities in China.

  14. Human Research Program

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Strategically, the HRP conducts research and technology development that: 1) enables the development or modification of Agency-level human health and performance...

  15. The human urine metabolome

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bouatra, Souhaila; Aziat, Farid; Mandal, Rupasri; Guo, An Chi; Wilson, Michael R; Knox, Craig; Bjorndahl, Trent C; Krishnamurthy, Ramanarayan; Saleem, Fozia; Liu, Philip; Dame, Zerihun T; Poelzer, Jenna; Huynh, Jessica; Yallou, Faizath S; Psychogios, Nick; Dong, Edison; Bogumil, Ralf; Roehring, Cornelia; Wishart, David S

    2013-01-01

    .... Many of these compounds are poorly characterized and poorly understood. In an effort to improve our understanding of this biofluid we have undertaken a comprehensive, quantitative, metabolome-wide characterization of human urine...

  16. The bionic human

    OpenAIRE

    Francalanza, Emmanuel;

    2013-01-01

    Faster, fitter and flawless? What would it take to build a Bionic Human? Emmanuel Francalanza delved into research at the Faculty of Engineering to see how Malta could contribute. 3D Art by Jean Claude Vancell.

  17. Human Resource Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, W. H.; Wyatt, L. L.

    1977-01-01

    By using the total resource approach, we have focused attention on the need to integrate human resource planning with other business plans and highlighted the importance of a productivity strategy. (Author)

  18. Human factors in aviation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Salas, Eduardo; Maurino, Daniel E

    2010-01-01

    .... HFA offers a comprehensive overview of the topic, taking readers from the general to the specific, first covering broad issues, then the more specific topics of pilot performance, human factors...

  19. Extraterritorial Human Rights Obligations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amsinck Boie, Hans Nikolaj; Torp, Kristian

    The book addresses the issue of corporate respect for human rights by examining if and how states are obligated to ensure that corporations originating from their jurisdiction respect human rights when they operate abroad. The existence of such a duty is much debated by academics at national...... and international level, and in an attempt to bring something new to the table, the book examines both if states have extraterritorial obligations in regard to their corporations and what can be required of states under such an obligation. The complex issue of states and corporate respect for human rights cannot...... adequately be addressed without including the approach to the problem taken in practice; Corporate Social Responsibility, CSR. The book therefore draws upon the concept of CSR and the approaches developed here and discusses whether states may utilize the CSR-based concept of human rights due diligence...

  20. Aerospace Human Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Kevin

    1999-01-01

    The following contains the final report on the activities related to the Cooperative Agreement between the human factors research group at NASA Ames Research Center and the Psychology Department at San Jose State University. The participating NASA Ames division has been, as the organization has changed, the Aerospace Human Factors Research Division (ASHFRD and Code FL), the Flight Management and Human Factors Research Division (Code AF), and the Human Factors Research and Technology Division (Code IH). The inclusive dates for the report are November 1, 1984 to January 31, 1999. Throughout the years, approximately 170 persons worked on the cooperative agreements in one capacity or another. The Cooperative Agreement provided for research personnel to collaborate with senior scientists in ongoing NASA ARC research. Finally, many post-MA/MS and post-doctoral personnel contributed to the projects. It is worth noting that 10 former cooperative agreement personnel were hired into civil service positions directly from the agreements.