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Sample records for human health reproductive-aged

  1. Good Health Status of Rural Women in the Reproductive Ages

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    Joan Rhule

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Women are traditionally over represented among the poor and therefore in the long run, have less access to remuneration and health resources, including health insurance and social security services. Women are disadvantaged on some fundamental economic indicators such as unemployment and access to economic resources. In 2007 in Jamaica, for instance among the 124 500 unemployed persons in the labour force, 65.4% were women (Planning Institute of Jamaica, 2008. Thus, women's health and the control that they can exercise over resources are key factors in achieving effectiveness, efficiency, and sustainability in health interventions. Aims and Objectives: This study examined the good health status of rural women in the reproductive ages of 15 to 49 years. Having extensively reviewed the literature, this paper is the first study of its kind in Jamaica and will provide pertinent information on this cohort for the purpose of public health planning. Method/Study Design: The current research extracted a sample of 3450 respondents who indicated that they were rural women ages 15 to 49 years. This sample was taken from a national cross-sectional survey from the 14 parishes in Jamaica. The survey used a stratified random probability sampling technique to draw the original 25 018 respondents. The non-response rate for the survey was 29.7%. Descriptive statistics were used to provide background information on the sample and logistic regression was used to establish a good health model. Results/Findings: Using logistic regression analyses, 6 variables emerged as statistically significant predictors of current good health status of rural women (i.e. ages 15 to 49 years in Jamaica. These are social standing (two wealthiest quintile – OR=0.524, 95%CI: 0.350,0.785; marital status (separated, divorced or widowed – OR=0.382, 95%CI: 0.147, 0.991; health insurance (OR=0.041, 95%CI: 0.024, 0.069; negative affective psychological conditions (OR=0.951, 95

  2. The Effect of Intimate Partner Violence on Mental Health Status among Women of Reproductive Ages: A Population-Based Study in a Middle Anatolian City

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    Nur, Naim

    2012-01-01

    Violence against women has been recognized as both a major public health problem and a human rights violation worldwide. Research has documented the association between physical/sexual intimate partner violence (IPV) and mental health, measured by the 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12) among women in reproductive age. This study…

  3. Knowledge about Human Papilloma Virus (HPV and HPV Vaccine at Reproductive Age in Primary Care

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    Ozde Onder

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of this study was to identify the knowledge and awareness about human papilloma virus (HPV and human papilloma virus (HPV vaccine of women in reproductive age. Material and Methods: The study covered 294 women aged between 15 and 49. A questionnaire was prepared by the researchers based on the literature review. Results: The mean age of the participants was 30.5+/-8.9 years. Only 24.5% had heard about HPV infection and 28.2% had heard HPV vaccine. Of the participants, 188 (63.9% got zero point from the knowledge questions. Conclusion: This study indicates that the women who apply primary care units have low knowledge levels; it is apperent that personal and social education is needed. Paying importance to patient education on HPV and cervical cancer in primary care health politics will increase knowledge and awareness for HPV infection and HPV vaccination. [Cukurova Med J 2015; 40(3.000: 517-524

  4. Social capital in association with health status of women in reproductive age: study protocol for a sequential explanatory mixed methods study.

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    Baheiraei, Azam; Bakouei, Fatemeh; Mohammadi, Eesa; Hosseini, Mostafa

    2014-05-09

    Women's health is a general health priority. Preserving and improving women's health is not only a basic human right, but it is also essential for the health of all nations. Women's health in Reproductive age affects long-term health of theirs, their family members, and community. Origins of health inequalities are very complicated. Health outcomes are influenced by biological, social and political factors, so to improve women's health it is necessary to recognize all these factors. Social capital is one of the social determinants of health that might play a considerable role in health inequalities. The association between social capital and health varies according on the sample studied, the type of health outcome and the context in which it is studied. This mixed methods study was designed to determine and explore of relationship between social capital and health status of women of reproductive age in Tehran (capital city of Iran) with its specific social-cultural characteristics. This study is sequential explanatory mixed methods study, follow-up explanations variant, with two strands (phases). This design will be implemented in two distinct phases. The first phase is a population-based cross-sectional survey on 770 women of reproductive age residing in any of the 22 municipal districts across Tehran. Based on a need to further understand the quantitative results, researchers will implement a second qualitative phase that is designed to help explain the initial quantitative results. Finally, the researchers will present an interpretation about explanation of quantitative results using the qualitative data. This study promotes women's health by determining the priorities and designing evidence-based interventions founded on the basic and insightful information provided on social capital and the status of the health of women.

  5. Inequalities in health and health service utilisation among reproductive age women in St. Petersburg, Russia: a cross-sectional study

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    Kuznetsova Olga

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Russian society has faced dramatic changes in terms of social stratification since the collapse of the Soviet Union. During this time, extensive reforms have taken place in the organisation of health services, including the development of the private sector. Previous studies in Russia have shown a wide gap in mortality between socioeconomic groups. There are just a few studies on health service utilisation in post-Soviet Russia and data on inequality of health service use are limited. The aim of the present study was to analyse health (self-rated health and self-reported chronic diseases and health care utilisation patterns by socioeconomic status (SES among reproductive age women in St. Petersburg. Methods The questionnaire survey was conducted in 2004 (n = 1147, with a response rate of 67%. Education and income were used as dimensions of SES. The association between SES and health and use of health services was assessed by logistic regression, adjusting for age. Results As expected low SES was associated with poor self-rated health (education: OR = 1.48; personal income: OR = 1.42: family income: OR = 2.31. University education was associated with use of a wider range of outpatient medical services and increased use of the following examinations: Pap smear (age-adjusted OR = 2.06, gynaecological examinations (age-adjusted OR = 1.62 and mammography among older (more than 40 years women (age-adjusted OR = 1.98. Personal income had similar correlations, but family income was related only to the use of mammography among older women. Conclusions Our study suggests a considerable inequality in health and utilisation of preventive health service among reproductive age women. Therefore, further studies are needed to identify barriers to health promotion resources.

  6. Inequalities in health and health service utilisation among reproductive age women in St. Petersburg, Russia: a cross-sectional study.

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    Dubikaytis, Tatiana; Larivaara, Meri; Kuznetsova, Olga; Hemminki, Elina

    2010-11-11

    Russian society has faced dramatic changes in terms of social stratification since the collapse of the Soviet Union. During this time, extensive reforms have taken place in the organisation of health services, including the development of the private sector. Previous studies in Russia have shown a wide gap in mortality between socioeconomic groups. There are just a few studies on health service utilisation in post-Soviet Russia and data on inequality of health service use are limited. The aim of the present study was to analyse health (self-rated health and self-reported chronic diseases) and health care utilisation patterns by socioeconomic status (SES) among reproductive age women in St. Petersburg. The questionnaire survey was conducted in 2004 (n = 1147), with a response rate of 67%. Education and income were used as dimensions of SES. The association between SES and health and use of health services was assessed by logistic regression, adjusting for age. As expected low SES was associated with poor self-rated health (education: OR = 1.48; personal income: OR = 1.42: family income: OR = 2.31). University education was associated with use of a wider range of outpatient medical services and increased use of the following examinations: Pap smear (age-adjusted OR = 2.06), gynaecological examinations (age-adjusted OR = 1.62) and mammography among older (more than 40 years) women (age-adjusted OR = 1.98). Personal income had similar correlations, but family income was related only to the use of mammography among older women. Our study suggests a considerable inequality in health and utilisation of preventive health service among reproductive age women. Therefore, further studies are needed to identify barriers to health promotion resources.

  7. Call to action: continuum of care for females of reproductive age to prevent obesity and ensure better health outcomes of offspring through nutrition.

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    Zive, Michelle M; Rhee, Kyung E

    2014-09-01

    The health and nutritional status of women of reproductive age has tremendous impact on the health of future populations; therefore, special attention should be paid to promoting women's health, especially a healthy weight at this critical time period. The purpose of the paper is to provide information on the nutritional needs of women at various stages of the reproductive age spectrum, including preconception/interconception and during pregnancy to achieve and maintain a healthy weight. The Socio-Ecological Model (SEM) is presented to help practitioners understand the importance of intervening where women of reproductive age live, work, and frequent.

  8. Facilitators and inhibitors of health-promoting behaviors: The experience of Iranian women of reproductive age

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    Azam Baheiraei

    2013-01-01

    Conclusions: In these women′s experience, factors influencing health-promoting behaviors were either facilitators or inhibitors; most were inhibitors. The findings of this study show that, in addition to personal factors, the pursuit of health-promoting behaviors is affected by socio-environmental factors. These results will be useful in designing interventions and plans for women′s health promotion that focus on the improvement of their environment and the modification of social factors.

  9. Association Between Depot-Medroxyprogesterone Acetate Injection and Periodontal Health in Reproductive Age Women: A Case Control Study in Iran

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    Bagheri

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background It seems that depot-medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA use can have an effect on a woman’s oral health, and cause periodontal changes in adult women. However, there is little research in this regard and consensus has not been reached in the literature. Objectives This study aimed to investigate the association between DMPA injection and periodontal health in reproductive age women. Materials and Methods This descriptive analytical study was conducted on 194 women aged 20 - 40 years in Ahvaz health care centers, southwest of Iran, during 2015. Ninety-seven women taking DMPA were assigned to the case group and 97 women who did not use DMPA were assigned to the control group. Periodontal parameters such as bleeding on probing, probing pocket depth and clinical attachment loss were measured. Data were analyzed by SPSS software version 19 using descriptive and analytic (Chi-square, Mann-Whitney and student’s t-test statistical methods. Results There was a statistically significant difference regarding bleeding on probing, probing pocket depth and clinical attachment loss between the case and control groups. Totally, 56.7% of the women in the case group had periodontitis compared to 16.5% in the control group (P < 0.0001. Conclusions Based on our findings, the use of DMPA can affect the periodontal health status of women. Therefore, women who use this method must have a strict oral hygiene care program.

  10. Community-based study of reproductive tract infections among women of the reproductive age group in the urban health training centre area in Hubli, Karnataka

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    Sangeetha S Balamurugan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Reproductive tract infections (RTIs is a global health problem including both sexually transmitted infections (STIs and non-sexually transmitted infections (non-STIs of the reproductive tract. RTI/STI is an important concern, as it possess risk for human immunodeficiency virus transmission. Hence a community study was done in Hubli, in terms of active search of the cases based on the symptoms, clinical examination, and feasible laboratory tests along with providing treatment, counseling, and follow-up. Objectives: The objective was to know the prevalence of RTIs among the reproductive age group women and the socio-demographic factors influencing the occurrence of the disease. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was done using a simple random sampling technique to select households. A pretested structured pro forma was used to collect data on RTIs from 656 women of 15-45 years, residing in the field practice area. This was followed by clinical examination and collection of samples for laboratory tests in Urban Health Training Centre, attached to Karnataka Institute of Medical Sciences, Hubli. Results: The prevalence of RTIs among the reproductive age group women was 40.4% based on their symptoms, with majority having abnormal vaginal discharge. The prevalence of RTIs based on clinical finding was 37.4% with majority having vaginitis. The laboratory test revealed a prevalence of 34.3% with majority having Candidiasis. The influence of socio-demographic factors like increased parity, poor socio-economic conditions, poor menstrual hygiene, illiteracy has its direct effect on occurrence of RTI in the community. Conclusion: This depicts that whereever possible, clinical and laboratory findings should support self-reported morbidity to know the exact prevalence of any disease in the community.

  11. Impact of Health-Promoting Educational Intervention on Lifestyle (Nutrition Behaviors, Physical Activity and Mental Health) Related to Vaginal Health Among Reproductive-Aged Women With Vaginitis.

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    Parsapure, Roxana; Rahimiforushani, Abbas; Majlessi, Fereshteh; Montazeri, Ali; Sadeghi, Roya; Garmarudi, Gholamreza

    2016-10-01

    Vaginitis is one of the most common diseases in reproductive-aged women (15 - 49 years of age). Side effects of vaginitis can affect other aspects of health, which could be prevented by promoting a healthy lifestyle related to vaginal health. This study aimed at determining the impact of health-promoting educational intervention on lifestyle (nutrition behaviors, physical activities, and mental health) related to vaginal health among reproductive-aged women with vaginitis. The data set was collected as part of an experimental study conducted on 350 reproductive-aged women with vaginitis. Participants were selected through a stratified two-stage clustered sampling and simple randomization from 10 attending health centers affiliated with Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences in five regions (North, South, East, West, and Center) of Kermanshah (a city in western Iran) in 2015. Two clinics in each region were selected; patients from the first center were chosen as the intervention group and patients from the second center made up the control group. To collect data, a questionnaire including socio-demographic and lifestyle questions was used. The questionnaire was designed and validated via the psychometric process. Educational intervention was performed over twenty sessions of 25 to 35 minutes. The intervention group was followed up with face-to-face education, a pamphlet, phone contact, and by social media. The control group continued the routine treatment without contacting the intervention group. Data were collected from both groups before the intervention and six months after the intervention. Data were analyzed using the SPSS-20 package, using the independent t-test, paired t-test, chi-square test, and analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) test. The confidence interval was 95% and P vaginal health in the intervention group (28.48 ± 0.38) and control group (23.65 ± 1.23) was significant (P 0.05). The independent t-test did not show significant statistical

  12. Zika virus: A new human teratogen? Implications for women of reproductive age.

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    Schuler-Faccini, L; Sanseverino, Mtv; Vianna, Fsl; da Silva, A A; Larrandaburu, M; Marcolongo-Pereira, C; Abeche, A M

    2016-07-01

    In 2015 an unprecedented increase of reports of newborns with microcephaly in Brazil made news headlines around the world. A possible etiological association with prenatal maternal infection by Zika virus (ZIKV) was suggested based on temporal and geographic distribution of ZIKV infection and the subsequent increase in the reports of microcephaly cases. Here we discuss ZIKV as a new human teratogen, with comments on potential treatment options.

  13. Associations between noncommunicable disease risk factors, race, education, and health insurance status among women of reproductive age in Brazil - 2011.

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    Mpofu, Jonetta Johnson; de Moura, Lenildo; Farr, Sherry L; Malta, Deborah Carvalho; Iser, Betine Moehlecke; Ivata Bernal, Regina Tomie; Robbins, Cheryl L; Lobelo, Felipe

    2016-06-01

    Noncommunicable disease (NCD) risk factors increase the risk of adverse reproductive health outcomes and are becoming increasingly common in Brazil. We analyzed VIGITEL 2011 telephone survey data for 13,745 Brazilian women aged 18-44 years in a probabilistic sample from 26 Brazilian state capitals and the Federal District. We examined associations between NCD risk factors (fruit and vegetable intake, leisure time physical activity, alcohol consumption, smoking status, BMI and hypertension status) and race, education, and insurance using chi-square tests and multivariable logistic regression models, estimating the average marginal effects to produce adjusted relative risk ratios (aRRs). Analyses were conducted using SAS 9.3 survey procedures and weighted to reflect population estimates. Women with less than a college education were more likely to report physical inactivity (adjusted relative risk (aRR) and 95% confidence interval = 1.1 (1.1-1.2)), smoking (aRR = 1.7 (1.3-2.2)), and self-reported diagnoses of hypertension (aRR = 2.0 (1.6-2.5)) compared to women with a college education or greater. Similarly, women without health insurance were more likely to report physical inactivity (aRR = 1.1 (1.1-1.2)), smoking (aRR = 1.4 (1.1-1.8)), and self-reported diagnoses of hypertension aRR = 1.4 (1.1-1.7)) compared to women with health insurance. Less variation was found by race and NCD risk factors. Targeted public health strategies and policies are needed to increase healthcare access and decrease educational and racial disparities in NCD risk factors among women of reproductive age in Brazil.

  14. Changes in Ideational Profiles of Women of Reproductive Age in Urban Nigeria: The Role of Health Communication.

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    Babalola, Stella

    2017-03-01

    Reproductive health indicators in Nigeria remain among the poorest in the world. Modern contraceptive prevalence rate has remained practically at the same level since 2003. Whereas contraceptive use is higher in urban compared with rural areas, the majority of urban women are not using a modern contraceptive method. Low contraceptive use in the country results from unfavorable ideational variables, including knowledge, values, beliefs, and norms. Ideational segmentation allows program planners to identify groups that are homogenous with respect to ideational variables and which have similar informational and skills strengthening needs. In this study, we conducted latent class analyses with longitudinal data collected from a sample of women in 2010/2011 and 2014 to identify distinct ideational segments among women of reproductive age in six Nigerian cities at the two points in time. The analysis revealed three ideational segments at baseline: (a) Inefficacious, misinformed and unsupported, labeled "Disempowered," 58.8%; (b) Efficacious, misinformed, and unsupported, labeled "Unsupported," 31.8%; and (c) efficacious, supported but misinformed, labeled "Skeptics, 9.4%. These groups differ in terms of sociodemographic characteristics and contraceptive use and intention to use. At endline, four ideational segments were identified: (a) Inefficacious, misinformed and unsupported, labeled "Disempowered," 28.9%; (b) Efficacious, supported but misinformed, labeled "Skeptics," 28.5%; (c) Efficacious, informed but unsupported, labeled "Unsupported," 27.0%; and (d) efficacious, informed and supported, labeled "Empowered," 15.6%. Exposure to Nigerian Urban Reproductive Health Initiative communication interventions was one of the most significant predictors of improvements in ideational characteristics over time. Messages tailored to the informational needs of the various ideational segments and that address their worldview are needed to increase contraceptive use.

  15. Demographic and spatial predictors of anemia in women of reproductive age in Timor-Leste: implications for health program prioritization.

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    Andrew A Lover

    Full Text Available Anemia is a significant risk factor for poor health outcomes for both the mother and neonate; however, the determinants of anemia in many epidemiological settings are poorly understood. Using a subset of a nationally representative cluster survey (2010 Demographic and Health Survey in combination with other non-contemporaneous survey data, the epidemiology of anemia among women of reproductive age in Timor-Leste has been explored. Logistic regression was used to identify risk factors, population-level impacts were estimated as population attributable fractions and spatial analytics were used to identify regions of highest risk. The DHS survey found that ∼ 21% of adult women in Timor-Leste are anemic (49,053; 95% CI: 37,095 to 61,035, with hemoglobin <12.0 g/dL. In this population, the main risk factors (adjusted odds ratio; 95% CI are: currently abstaining from sex for any reason (2.25; 1.50 to 3.38; illiteracy (2.04; 1.49 to 2.80; giving birth within the previous year (1.80; 1.29 to 2.51; consumption of fruits/vegetables low in vitamin A (1.57; 1.13 to 2.20; and the district-level confirmed malaria incidence (1.31; 1.15 to 1.49. A review of prior soil-transmitted helminth surveys in Timor-Leste indicates low-to-moderate prevalence with generally low egg counts, suggesting a limited impact on anemia in this setting, although comprehensive survey data are lacking. Examination of the population-level effects highlights the impacts of both recent births and malaria on anemia, with more limited impacts from diet; the evidence does not suggest a large contribution from geohelminths within Timor-Leste. These patterns are divergent from some other settings in the Asia-Pacific region and highlight the need for further focused research. Targeting high-burden districts and by increasing access to pre/postnatal care, raising literacy levels, increasing access to family planning, and improving malaria control should be prioritized to maximize inherently

  16. Health-promoting behaviors and social support of women of reproductive age, and strategies for advancing their health: Protocol for a mixed methods study

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    2011-01-01

    Background Determining the health-promoting behaviors of women during the important period of reproduction provides valuable information for designing appropriate intervention programs for advancing women's health. There is no study on the health-promoting behaviors of women of reproductive age in Iran. Thus, the aim of this study is to explore these health-promoting behaviors for the purpose of developing comprehensive and culturally sensitive health advancement strategies for Iranian women. Methods/Design This study has a sequential explanatory mixed methods design. The follow-up explanation model is used to elaborate the quantitative results by collecting qualitative data from participants who could best assist in elucidating the results. The study is conducted in two sequential phases. The first phase is a population-based cross-sectional survey in which 1350 Iranian women of reproductive age are selected by proportional random multistage cluster sampling of the 22 main municipal sectors of Tehran, Iran. Questionnaires are completed through a face-to-face interview. The second phase is a qualitative study in which participants are selected using purposive sampling in the form of extreme case sampling on the basis of health-promoting behavior scores. The qualitative phase is based on data collected from focus group discussions or individual in-depth interviews. A conventional qualitative content analysis approach is used, and the data are managed with a computer-assisted program. Women's health-promoting strategies are developed using the qualitative and quantitative results, a review of the related literature, and the nominal group technique among experts. Discussion The findings of this mixed methods sequential explanatory study, obtained using a culturally sensitive approach, provide insights into the health behavioral factors that need to be considered if preventive strategies and intervention programs are to be designed to promote women's health in the

  17. Co-occurring obesity and smoking among U.S. women of reproductive age: Associations with educational attainment and health biomarkers and outcomes.

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    Vurbic, Drina; Harder, Valerie S; Redner, Ryan R; Lopez, Alexa A; Phillips, Julie K; Higgins, Stephen T

    2015-11-01

    Obesity and smoking are independently associated with socioeconomic disadvantage and adverse health effects in women of reproductive age and their children, but little is known about co-occurring obesity and smoking. The purpose of this study was to investigate relationships between co-occurring obesity and smoking, socioeconomic status, and health biomarkers and outcomes in a nationally representative sample. Data from non-pregnant women of reproductive age were obtained from the U.S. National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys reported between 2007 and 2010. Linear and logistic regressions were used to examine associations between obesity and smoking alone and in combination with educational attainment and a range of health biomarkers and outcomes. Prevalence of co-occurring obesity and smoking was 8.1% (~4.1 million U.S. women of reproductive age) and increased as an inverse function of educational attainment, with the least educated women being 11.6 times more likely to be obese smokers than the most educated. Compared to women with neither condition, obese smokers had significantly poorer cardiovascular and glycemic biomarker profiles, and higher rates of menstrual irregularity, hysterectomy, oophorectomy, physical limitations, and depression. Obese smokers also had significantly worse high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol levels, physical mobility, and depression scores than those with obesity or smoking alone. Co-occurring obesity and smoking is highly associated with low educational attainment, a marker of socioeconomic disadvantage, and a broad range of adverse health biomarkers and outcomes. Interventions specifically targeting co-occurring obesity and smoking are likely necessary in efforts to reduce health disparities among disadvantaged women and their children. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Anemia and its determinants among women of reproductive age of a slum in Kolkata: A focus group discussion among health workers in a slum of Kolkata.

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    Dasgupta, Aparajita; Sarkar, Kaushik; Chowdhury, Ranadip; Ray, Arindam; Shahbabu, Bhaskar

    2016-01-01

    Anemia is a major contributor to morbidity and mortality among women of reproductive age. Progress toward reducing the burden of anemia has been little despite efforts through decades. We conducted this study to unearth the microlevel determinants of anemia among women of reproductive age. This qualitative study was conducted in Urban Health Centre (UHC), Chetla. A focus group discussion was held among all the eight health staffs, who were involved in reproductive and child health-related service delivery under UHC, Chetla. A thematic analysis of the transcript was performed. We found that socioeconomic factors like poverty and social neglect, diet and nutrition related factors, lack of personal hygiene, and worm infestation contributed to the burden of anemia, and this was reinforced by factors related to service delivery, such as lack of supply of drugs and supplements, and inadequate training of health workers as well as poor media accountability. Because of easy reversibility and implementation, health service delivery-related issues should be addressed closely through monitoring and evaluation and appropriate and timely action should be taken to improve the effectiveness of the services.

  19. The Prevalence, Subtypes and Obstetric Risk Factors of Urinary Incontinence in Reproductive Age Women Referred to Community Health Care Centers of Dezful, Iran- 2015

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    Roghaye Komeilifar

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Urinary incontinence (UI is a common health problem and has a profound effect on the quality of life and psychosocial aspects of the affected women. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence and risk factors of UI in reproductive age women. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 2000 reproductive age women from February to June 2015. The women were selected from all of the primary health care centers of Dezful, using easy access sampling method. Body mass index (BMI was measured and data were collected by demographic, detailed information regarding obstetric and International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire- Urinary incontinence – Short Form(ICIQ-SF ICIQ-SF questionnaires. Results: The women’s mean age was 33.6±8, and 57.7% (1154 of them reported UI. The prevalence of UI subtypes was recorded in 38.2% (441 stress UI (SUI, 44.9% (518 mixed UI, and 16.9% (195 urge UI. There was a significant association between the mean of pregnancies, mean of deliveries, mode of delivery, abortion, neonate>4 kg, irregular menstruation and UI (P<0.05. Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that age, irregular menstruation and vaginal delivery increased the risk of UI in this age group. Conclusion: The findings suggest that a significant proportion of reproductive age women were undiagnosed with UI and MUI was the most common type of UI in this age group. Regular menstruation was a protective factor but older age and vaginal delivery were risk factors for UI in this study.

  20. Update: Interim Guidelines for Health Care Providers Caring for Pregnant Women and Women of Reproductive Age with Possible Zika Virus Exposure - United States, 2016.

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    Oduyebo, Titilope; Petersen, Emily E; Rasmussen, Sonja A; Mead, Paul S; Meaney-Delman, Dana; Renquist, Christina M; Ellington, Sascha R; Fischer, Marc; Staples, J Erin; Powers, Ann M; Villanueva, Julie; Galang, Romeo R; Dieke, Ada; Muñoz, Jorge L; Honein, Margaret A; Jamieson, Denise J

    2016-02-12

    CDC has updated its interim guidelines for U.S. health care providers caring for pregnant women during a Zika virus outbreak (1). Updated guidelines include a new recommendation to offer serologic testing to asymptomatic pregnant women (women who do not report clinical illness consistent with Zika virus disease) who have traveled to areas with ongoing Zika virus transmission. Testing can be offered 2-12 weeks after pregnant women return from travel. This update also expands guidance to women who reside in areas with ongoing Zika virus transmission, and includes recommendations for screening, testing, and management of pregnant women and recommendations for counseling women of reproductive age (15-44 years). Pregnant women who reside in areas with ongoing Zika virus transmission have an ongoing risk for infection throughout their pregnancy. For pregnant women with clinical illness consistent with Zika virus disease,* testing is recommended during the first week of illness. For asymptomatic pregnant women residing in areas with ongoing Zika virus transmission, testing is recommended at the initiation of prenatal care with follow-up testing mid-second trimester. Local health officials should determine when to implement testing of asymptomatic pregnant women based on information about levels of Zika virus transmission and laboratory capacity. Health care providers should discuss reproductive life plans, including pregnancy intention and timing, with women of reproductive age in the context of the potential risks associated with Zika virus infection.

  1. Trends in serum lipids and hypertension prevalence among non-pregnant reproductive-age women: United States National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2008.

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    Laz, Tabassum H; Rahman, Mahbubur; Berenson, Abbey B

    2013-10-01

    Cardiovascular disease is one of the leading causes of death among reproductive-age women. In this study, we examine trends in the prevalence of dyslipidemia, hypertension, and related clinicians' advice among reproductive-age women. We conducted trend analysis of these factors among non-pregnant women aged 20-49 years (n = 5,768) using National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) data obtained between 1999 and 2008. Multiple linear regression and logistic regression analyses were used to examine linear trends over a 10-year period after adjusting for covariates. A downward trend was observed for the proportion of women with abnormal levels of low density lipoprotein (LDL; P = 0.038) and high density lipoprotein (HDL; P = 0.008) cholesterol from 1999 to 2008. In contrast, no significant changes were observed in the prevalence of abnormal total cholesterol (P = 0.948) and triglyceride levels (P = 0.300), or hypertension (P = 0.632). Based on the self-reported data, upward trends were observed in the rates of cholesterol checking (P = 0.002), high cholesterol (P = 0.012), receiving clinicians' advice to use lipid-lowering agents (P < 0.001) and patients' compliance with their advice (P < 0.001). Although rates of self-reported hypertension did not change over time (P = 0.120), receiving clinicians' advice to use antihypertensive medications (P = 0.003) and patients' compliance with these medications (P = 0.015) also increased significantly. Overall improvements in LDL and HDL cholesterol over this time period could be due to increases in related awareness, receiving advice to use medications, and patients' compliance with this advice. Use of antihypertensive medication has also increased among reproductive-age women in the US.

  2. The Relationship between Sexual Self-concept and Sexual Function in Women of Reproductive Age Referred to Health Centers in Gorgan, North East of Iran

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    Tayebe Ziaei

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background & aim: The preservation and enhancement of the sexual function are the key elements of sexual health. One of the most important predictive factors of sexual behavior and function is sexual self-concept. This construct is defined as the individuals’ understanding and evaluation of their own sexual desires and orientations. The aim of the present study was to determine the correlation between the dimensions of sexual self-concept and sexual function in the women of reproductive age. Methods: This correlational descriptive study was conducted on 79 married women of reproductive age referred to the health centers in Gorgan, Iran. The sample size was determined using the sample size formula with a power of 90% and a confidence interval of 95%. The data collection tools included the Persian multidimensional sexual self-concept questionnaire included 23 items covering five dimensions (i.e., sexual anxiety, sexual fear, sexual self-efficacy, sexual self-esteem, and sexual satisfaction and the Persian Female Sexual Function Index consisted of 19 items in six dimensions. Data analysis was performed using the Mann-Whitney U test and Spearman's rank correlation coefficient through the SPSS software (version 16. Results: The Spearman correlation test revealed a significant direct correlation between the sexual self-esteem and the positive dimensions of sexual function, including desire (P=0.002, r=0.3, arousal (P

  3. Associations between access to farmers’ markets and supermarkets, shopping patterns, fruit and vegetable consumption and health indicators among women of reproductive age in eastern North Carolina, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitts, Stephanie B Jilcott; Wu, Qiang; McGuirt, Jared T; Crawford, Thomas W; Keyserling, Thomas C; Ammerman, Alice S

    2013-01-01

    Objective We examined associations between access to food venues (farmers’ markets and supermarkets), shopping patterns, fruit and vegetable consumption and health indicators among women of reproductive age in eastern North Carolina, USA. Design Access to food venues was measured using a Geographic Information System incorporating distance, seasonality and business hours, to quantify access to farmers’ markets. Produce consumption was assessed by self-report of eating five or more fruits and vegetables daily. BMI and blood pressure were assessed by clinical measurements. Poisson regression with robust variance was used for dichotomous outcomes and multiple linear regression was used for continuous outcomes. As the study occurred in a university town and university students are likely to have different shopping patterns from non-students, we stratified analyses by student status. Setting Eastern North Carolina. Subjects Low-income women of reproductive age (18–44 years) with valid address information accessing family planning services at a local health department (n 400). Results Over a quarter reported ever shopping at farmers’ markets (114/400). A larger percentage of women who shopped at farmers’ markets consumed five or more fruits and vegetables daily (42·1%) than those who did not (24·0%; Pshopping was 11·4 (SD 9·0) km (7·1 (SD 5·6) miles), while the mean distance to the farmers’ market closest to the residence was 4·0 (SD 3·7) km (2·5 (SD 2·3) miles). Conclusions Among non-students, those who shopped at farmers’ markets were more likely to consume five or more servings of fruits and vegetables daily. Future research should further explore potential health benefits of farmers’ markets. PMID:23701901

  4. Dental caries and periodontal disease among U.S. pregnant women and nonpregnant women of reproductive age, National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1999-2004.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azofeifa, Alejandro; Yeung, Lorraine F; Alverson, C J; Beltrán-Aguilar, Eugenio

    2016-09-01

    This study assessed and compared the prevalence and severity of dental caries and the prevalence of periodontal disease among pregnant and nonpregnant women of reproductive age (15-44 years) using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, NHANES (1999-2004). Estimates were derived from a sample of 897 pregnant women and 3,971 nonpregnant women. Chi-square and two-sample t-tests were used to assess differences between groups stratified by age, race/ethnicity, education, and poverty. Bonferroni method was applied to adjust for multiple comparisons. In general, there were no statistically significant differences in the prevalence estimates of dental caries and periodontal disease between pregnant women and nonpregnant women. However, results showed significant differences when stratified by sociodemographic characteristics. For example, the prevalence of untreated dental caries among women aged 15-24 years was significantly higher in pregnant women than in nonpregnant women (41 percent versus 24 percent, P = 0.001). Regardless of their pregnancy status, racial/ethnic minorities or women with less education or lower family income had higher prevalence of untreated dental caries, severity of dental caries, and periodontal disease compared to the respective reference groups of non-Hispanic whites or women with more education or higher family income. Results of this study show few clinical differences in dental caries and periodontal disease between pregnant and nonpregnant women but persistent disparities by sociodemographic characteristics. In order to reduce oral health disparities in the United States, it is important to improve access to oral health care particularly among vulnerable groups. Integrating oral health into the overall health care could benefit and improve women's oral health outcomes. © 2016 American Association of Public Health Dentistry.

  5. Update: Interim Guidance for Health Care Providers Caring for Women of Reproductive Age with Possible Zika Virus Exposure--United States, 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Emily E; Polen, Kara N D; Meaney-Delman, Dana; Ellington, Sascha R; Oduyebo, Titilope; Cohn, Amanda; Oster, Alexandra M; Russell, Kate; Kawwass, Jennifer F; Karwowski, Mateusz P; Powers, Ann M; Bertolli, Jeanne; Brooks, John T; Kissin, Dmitry; Villanueva, Julie; Muñoz-Jordan, Jorge; Kuehnert, Matthew; Olson, Christine K; Honein, Margaret A; Rivera, Maria; Jamieson, Denise J; Rasmussen, Sonja A

    2016-04-01

    CDC has updated its interim guidance for U.S. health care providers caring for women of reproductive age with possible Zika virus exposure to include recommendations on counseling women and men with possible Zika virus exposure who are interested in conceiving. This guidance is based on limited available data on persistence of Zika virus RNA in blood and semen. Women who have Zika virus disease should wait at least 8 weeks after symptom onset to attempt conception, and men with Zika virus disease should wait at least 6 months after symptom onset to attempt conception. Women and men with possible exposure to Zika virus but without clinical illness consistent with Zika virus disease should wait at least 8 weeks after exposure to attempt conception. Possible exposure to Zika virus is defined as travel to or residence in an area of active Zika virus transmission ( http://www.cdc.gov/zika/geo/active-countries.html), or sex (vaginal intercourse, anal intercourse, or fellatio) without a condom with a man who traveled to or resided in an area of active transmission. Women and men who reside in areas of active Zika virus transmission should talk with their health care provider about attempting conception. This guidance also provides updated recommendations on testing of pregnant women with possible Zika virus exposure. These recommendations will be updated when additional data become available.

  6. Dental caries and periodontal disease among U.S. pregnant women and nonpregnant women of reproductive age, National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1999–2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azofeifa, Alejandro; Yeung, Lorraine F.; Alverson, C. J.; Beltrán-Aguilar, Eugenio

    2016-01-01

    Objectives This study assessed and compared the prevalence and severity of dental caries and the prevalence of periodontal disease among pregnant and nonpregnant women of reproductive age (15–44 years) using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, NHANES (1999–2004). Methods Estimates were derived from a sample of 897 pregnant women and 3,971 nonpregnant women. Chi-square and two-sample t-tests were used to assess differences between groups stratified by age, race/ethnicity, education, and poverty. Bonferroni method was applied to adjust for multiple comparisons. Results In general, there were no statistically significant differences in the prevalence estimates of dental caries and periodontal disease between pregnant women and nonpregnant women. However, results showed significant differences when stratified by sociodemographic characteristics. For example, the prevalence of untreated dental caries among women aged 15–24 years was significantly higher in pregnant women than in nonpregnant women (41 percent versus 24 percent, P=0.001). Regardless of their pregnancy status, racial/ethnic minorities or women with less education or lower family income had higher prevalence of untreated dental caries, severity of dental caries, and periodontal disease compared to the respective reference groups of non-Hispanic whites or women with more education or higher family income. Conclusion Results of this study show few clinical differences in dental caries and periodontal disease between pregnant and nonpregnant women but persistent disparities by sociodemographic characteristics. In order to reduce oral health disparities in the United States, it is important to improve access to oral health care particularly among vulnerable groups. Integrating oral health into the overall health care could benefit and improve women’s oral health outcomes. PMID:27154283

  7. Association of religiousness and sexual disorders: A cross-sectional study on married women of reproductive age referring to public health centers of Shiraz, South of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Ghodrati

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Sexual health status of married women in the reproductive age, one of the most important community health issues. Recent research has highlighted the effects of religious beliefs with sexual life and sexual problem may be mediated This study aimed to investigate the association of religiousness and .through individual differences in spirituality. sexual disorders in a cross-sectional study in women of reproductive . This cross-sectional study was conducted on women aged 15-45 years old referring to Shiraz health centers in 2015 with a sample size of 210. Cluster sampling was done firstly. Then, purpose ful sampling was conducted in each center. Data collection was done using Religious Attitude Questionnaire and Female Sexual Dysfunction index. Correlation coefficient and Fisher's test The mean age of the study population was 30.67±6.60 . were performed for data analysis in SPSS software. According to the findings, 74.3% had sexual dysfunction. Furthermore, the rate of impaired sexual desire was 72.9 % and 62.4% in sexual arousal . Orgasmic disorder was the highest reported sexual dysfunction. There was a statistically significant correlation between religious thoughts and different dimensions of sexual function such as sexual desire (P= 0.005, psychological stimulation (p= 0.05, lubrication (p= 0.02, orgasm (p=0.013, and satisfaction ( p= 0.001. Religious thoughts with dimensions of sexual function (libido, orgasm, etc. was associated.So, the improvement in families and society ’s sexual health could result from the increase in the individuals' knowledge about sex related issues and religious thoughts in this regard. Therefore, sexual health education, in accordance with religious values, is one of the priorities in community health system.

  8. Determinants of moderate-to-severe anaemia among women of reproductive age in Tanzania: analysis of data from the 2010 Tanzania Demographic and Health Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilunda, Calistus; Massawe, Siriel; Jackson, Caroline

    2013-12-01

    To identify determinants of moderate-to-severe anaemia among women of reproductive age in Tanzania. We included participants from the 2010 Tanzania Demographic and Health Survey, which collected data on socio-demographic and maternal health and determined haemoglobin levels from blood samples. We performed logistic regression to calculate adjusted odds ratios for associations between socio-demographic, contextual, reproductive and lifestyle factors, and moderate-to-severe anaemia and investigated interactions between certain risk factors. Of 9477 women, 20.1% were anaemic. Pregnancy was significantly associated with anaemia (adjusted OR 1.75, 95% CI 1.43-2.15), but the effect varied significantly by urban/rural residence, wealth and education. The effect of pregnancy was stronger in women without education and those who were in lower wealth groups, with significant interactions observed for each of these factors. Education was associated with a lower anaemia risk, particularly in the poorest group (OR 0.58, 95% CI 0.43-0.80), and in pregnant women. The risk of anaemia fell with rising iron supplementation coverage. Lack of toilet facilities increased anaemia risk (OR 1.26, 95% CI 1.00-1.60), whereas using hormonal contraception reduced it. There was no association with age, urban/rural residence, wealth or type of cooking fuel in adjusted analysis. Pregnant women in Tanzania are particularly at risk of moderate-to-severe anaemia, with the effect modified by urban/rural residence, education and wealth. Prevention interventions should target women with lower education or without proper sanitation facilities, and women who are pregnant, particularly if they are uneducated or in lower wealth groups. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Cause of Death in Women of Reproductive Age in Rural Nepal Obtained Through Community-Based Surveillance: Is Reducing Maternal Mortality the Right Priority for Women's Health Programs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyakurel, Ram; Sharma, Nirmala; Paudel, Deepak; Coghill, Anna; Sinden, Laura; Bost, Liberty; Larkin, Melissa; Burrus, Carla Jean; Roy, Khrist

    2015-01-01

    We used a community surveillance system to gather information regarding pregnancy outcomes and the cause of death for women of reproductive age (WRA) in Kanchanpur, Nepal. A total of 784 mother groups participated in the collection of pregnancy outcomes and mortality data. Of the 273 deaths among WRA, the leading causes of death reported were chronic diseases (94, 34.4%) poisoning, snake bites, and suicide (grouped together; 55, 20.1%), and accidents (29, 10.6%), while maternal mortality accounted for 7%. Nevertheless, the calculated maternal mortality ratio was quite high (259.3 per 100,000 live births).

  10. A study of prevalence of Sexually Transmitted Infections & response to syndromic treatment among married women of reproductive age group in rural area of Parol Primary Health Centre under Thane district

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vibha V. Gosalia

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Objectives To study prevalence of Sexually Transmitted Infections (STIs - symptomatic, clinical & laboratorial& response to syndromic treatment in among STI groups. Design Community based interventional study Setting Rual area-Parol Primary Health Centre(PHC, District Thane, Maharashtra state. Poulation Women of reproductive age groups 15 -45 years Methods Present Community based interventional study was conducted among representative group of 415 women of reproductive age groups who were selected by simple random sampling technique in Parol PHC, District Thane, Maharashtra state. All symptomatic & asymptomatic women were counseled for examination & investigations & given syndromic treatment. Follow-up done to assess impact of syndromic treatment. Main Outcome Prevalence of STI symptomatically was 39%, clinically 32.3% & Laboratorial 26%. After syndromic treatment, prevalence of STIs was significantly reduced. Statistical Analysis Z test Results Of the surveyed women (415, prevalence of STI symptomatically was 39%, clinically 32.3% & Laboratorial 26%. The most common presenting symptom was vaginal discharge (36.4% followed by Burning Micturition (24.7%, Vulval itching (17.3%, Lower abdominal pain (13% & Genital ulcer (8.6%. Clinically, 55.2% women were diagnosed as cervicitis & 44.8% as PID. Laboratorial diagnosed STIs were - vaginal candidiasis 46.3%, Bacterial vaginosis 25%, Trichmoniasis 19.4 %, Genital Herpes 7.4% & HIV 1.9%. After syndromic treatment, prevalence of STIs has statistically significantly reduced. Conclusion Syndromic Rx & health education can definitely reduce STIs.

  11. Nutritional Status of Settler and Indigenous Women of Reproductive Age Group in Khagrachari District, Bangladesh

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    Md Monoarul Haque

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Reproductive health is closely related with nutritional status of a country. Women are regarded as the nerve centers of the families and society, maternal nutrition and health is considered as the most important regulator of human fetal growth. Objective: This study was conducted with a view to assess the nutritional status of settler and indigenous women of reproductive age group (15--49 years in Khagrachari district. Materials and Methods: This cross sectional study was done in the purposively selected Panchari thana of Khagrachari district in Bangladesh from 01 May to 31 August 2013. A total of 200 reproductive aged women were interviewed. Among them 100 were indigenous and 100 were settlers. Their anthropometric measurements were taken and nutritional status was determined by body mass index (BMI recommended by World Health Organization (WHO for Asian people. Results: The mean age of the respondents was 29.8 ± 11.1 years and maximum were in the age group of 15--24 years. Among the indigenous subjects Chakma, Marma, Tripura and Boisnu were 20.5%, 20.5%, 6.5% and 2.5% respectively. Among 100 indigenous reproductive aged women 17 were underweight; but among settlers 19 were underweight. Forty nine settler women were normal and in case of indigenous women 46 were normal. But regarding overweight indigenous women went ahead than settler women and obesity was found equal in both groups. Mean difference of mid upper arm circumference (MUAC was significantly different (p<0.005 between the groups. Conclusion: This study provided a vivid picture of the nutritional status of the settler and indigenous reproductive aged women.

  12. Associations between access to farmers' markets and supermarkets, shopping patterns, fruit and vegetable consumption and health indicators among women of reproductive age in eastern North Carolina, U.S.A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jilcott Pitts, Stephanie B; Wu, Qiang; McGuirt, Jared T; Crawford, Thomas W; Keyserling, Thomas C; Ammerman, Alice S

    2013-11-01

    We examined associations between access to food venues (farmers’ markets and supermarkets), shopping patterns, fruit and vegetable consumption and health indicators among women of reproductive age in eastern North Carolina, U.S.A. Access to food venues was measured using a Geographic Information System incorporating distance, seasonality and business hours, to quantify access to farmers’ markets. Produce consumption was assessed by self-report of eating five or more fruits and vegetables daily. BMI and blood pressure were assessed by clinical measurements. Poisson regression with robust variance was used for dichotomous outcomes and multiple linear regression was used for continuous outcomes. As the study occurred in a university town and university students are likely to have different shopping patterns from non-students, we stratified analyses by student status. Eastern North Carolina. Low-income women of reproductive age (18–44 years) with valid address information accessing family planning services at a local health department (n 400). Over a quarter reported ever shopping at farmers’ markets (114/400). A larger percentage of women who shopped at farmers’ markets consumed five or more fruits and vegetables daily (42.1%) than those who did not (24.0%; P < 0.001). The mean objectively measured distance to the farmers’ markets where women reported shopping was 11.4 (SD 9.0) km (7.1 (SD 5.6) miles), while the mean distance to the farmers’ market closest to the residence was 4.0 (SD 3.7) km (2.5 (SD 2.3) miles). Among non-students, those who shopped at farmers’ markets were more likely to consume five or more servings of fruits and vegetables daily. Future research should further explore potential health benefits of farmers’ markets.

  13. Assessment of sex-related behaviours, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) knowledge and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) among men of reproductive age in Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyekale, Abayomi Samuel

    2014-12-01

    Sexually transmitted infections (STIs), including human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), are among the major public health challenges in Cameroon. This paper determined the effect of men's sex-related behaviors and HIV knowledge on reported STIs. The data came from the 2012 Cameroon's Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) that were collected from 7191 respondents in 2012. Descriptive and logistic regression methods were used for data analysis. Results showed that majority of the respondents were aware of STIs and Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS), while 3.96% reported STIs. Also, 49.45% of the men had no wife, while 75.58% and 84.58% noted that condoms and keeping of one partner could be used to prevent HIV transmission, respectively. Wrong impressions that mosquito bites and sharing of food could lead to HIV infection were held by 31.94% and 12.44% of the men, respectively. Among those that reported STIs, 33.33%, 30.18% and 13.33% respectively used condom during sex with most recent partner, second to most recent partner and third to most recent partner, compared to 24.69%, 15.04% and 4.17% among those that did not report STIs. Logistic regression results showed that probability of STI increased significantly (p knowledge that mosquito bites cause HIV and being away for more than one month, while it significantly reduced (p knowledge that having one partner prevents STIs. It was concluded that policy initiatives and programmes to enhance right sexual knowledge and behavior among men would go a long way in reducing STI incidence in Cameroon.

  14. Optimal serum and red blood cell folate concentrations in women of reproductive age for prevention of neural tube defects: World Health Organization guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordero, Amy M; Crider, Krista S; Rogers, Lisa M; Cannon, Michael J; Berry, R J

    2015-04-24

    Neural tube defects (NTDs) such as spina bifida, anencephaly, and encephalocele are serious birth defects of the brain and spine that occur during the first month of pregnancy when the neural tube fails to close completely. Randomized controlled trials and observational studies have shown that adequate daily consumption of folic acid before and during early pregnancy considerably reduces the risk for NTDs. The U.S. Public Health Service recommends that women capable of becoming pregnant consume 400 µg of folic acid daily for NTD prevention. Furthermore, fortification of staple foods (e.g., wheat flour) with folic acid has decreased folate-sensitive NTD prevalence in multiple settings and is a highly cost-effective intervention.

  15. 家庭暴力对流动人口已婚育龄妇女健康的影响%Situation of domestic violence and health outcomes among married migrant women at reproductive age

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    涂晓雯; 楼超华; 孙峰; 程艳; 高尔生

    2014-01-01

    Objective To examine the association between domestic violence and mental/general health status among married migrant women at reproductive age. Methods A total of 958 eligible married migrant women of reproductive age who were selected through community-based multiple-stage sampling method in one urban district in Shanghai and interviewed in April and May 2010. Chi-square test,Fisher’s exact test and unconditional logistic regression model were used for data analysis. Results The overall prevalence of domestic violence in husbands was 40.0%. Among 5 adverse outcomes related to general health and 6 adverse outcomes related to mental health, exposing to physical or sexual violence in the life time or in the previous year were associated with 2 adverse outcomes related to general health(including often in pain/discomfort and sleeping problems) and 4 adverse outcomes related to mental health(including often feeling nervous/tense/worry,easily getting frightened,crying more than usual,often feeling worthless on herself or being indifferent to the surroundings). Experience of control behavior was associated with 1 adverse outcome that related to general health (often in pain or discomfort) and 3 adverse outcomes related to mental health including easily get frightened,feeling worthless on herself or indifferent to the surroundings, Experience of emotional violence in the previous year was associated with pain or discomfort feelings. Compared with those who had never experienced any violence from husband after adjusting for potential influencing factors in logistic regression models,respondents who had ever experienced physical or sexual violence,control behavior or emotional violence,the numbers were respectively, presented 2.25-3.70 times,1.94-4.75 times and 2.12 times,more likely to report the above-mentioned adverse health outcomes. Conclusion Domestic violence was associated with general and mental health among married migrant women at reproductive age

  16. Associations between Dietary Intake and Urinary Bisphenol A and Phthalates Levels in Korean Women of Reproductive Age

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    Ara Jo

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Human exposure to Bisphenol A (BPA and phthalates is a growing concern due to their association with harmful effects on human health, including a variety of disorders of the female reproductive system. The objective of this study was to investigate the association between food intake and urinary BPA and phthalates in Korean women of reproductive age. A cross-sectional study was conducted with 305 reproductive aged (30–49 years females in Korea. Dietary intake was assessed using 24 h dietary recall, and urinary BPA and particular phthalates were measured using high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. After adjusting for covariates, beverage intake was positively associated with urinary BPA, and egg and egg product intake was negatively associated with urinary mono-n-butyl phthalate (MnBP as well as mono (2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl phthalate (MEOHP. Odds ratio for high BPA level (≥90th percentile in women with >100 g of beverage consumption was significantly higher than for those who consumed ≤100 g. These results suggest that, in Korean women of reproductive age, some foods such as beverages and egg may be associated with body burdens of BPA, MnBP, MEHHP and MEOHP.

  17. Associations between Dietary Intake and Urinary Bisphenol A and Phthalates Levels in Korean Women of Reproductive Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Ara; Kim, Hyesook; Chung, Hyewon; Chang, Namsoo

    2016-07-05

    Human exposure to Bisphenol A (BPA) and phthalates is a growing concern due to their association with harmful effects on human health, including a variety of disorders of the female reproductive system. The objective of this study was to investigate the association between food intake and urinary BPA and phthalates in Korean women of reproductive age. A cross-sectional study was conducted with 305 reproductive aged (30-49 years) females in Korea. Dietary intake was assessed using 24 h dietary recall, and urinary BPA and particular phthalates were measured using high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. After adjusting for covariates, beverage intake was positively associated with urinary BPA, and egg and egg product intake was negatively associated with urinary mono-n-butyl phthalate (MnBP) as well as mono (2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl) phthalate (MEOHP). Odds ratio for high BPA level (≥90th percentile) in women with >100 g of beverage consumption was significantly higher than for those who consumed ≤100 g. These results suggest that, in Korean women of reproductive age, some foods such as beverages and egg may be associated with body burdens of BPA, MnBP, MEHHP and MEOHP.

  18. [Differential mortality in women of reproductive age].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morelos, J B; Ehrenfeld, N

    1994-01-01

    "This paper begins by reviewing some conceptual frameworks for the study of female mortality and indicates some of its application problems. Next it presents results of mortality of women in reproductive-age classified by age, causes of death, and socio-demographic traits (marital status, schooling, and occupation) for ten states [in Mexico] differentiated according to level of development and well-being. The data suggests differences according to age, marital status, and schooling. Finally, testing of the mutual independence and partial independence hypotheses indicates that age, marital status, and schooling correlate to the degree of development of each state." (SUMMARY IN ENG) excerpt

  19. KNOWLEDGE OF EMERGENCY CONTRACEPTIVES AMONG WOMEN OF REPRODUCTIVE AGE GROUP

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    Singh

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND As per data from WHO, 21.6 million unsafe abortions occurred globally in 2008, out of which 47,000 women died from abortionrelated complications, contributing to 13% of global maternal mortality. (1 Emergency contraceptive can be used after intercourse to prevent pregnancy in case of unprotected intercourse, contraceptive failure or sexual assault. A considerable proportion of these abortions can be prevented by the timely use of emergency contraception. OBJECTIVES To study the knowledge of emergency contraceptives among women of reproductive age group. METHODS This is a government hospital-based prospective study done for a period of 3 months. The study included 500 women of reproductive age group (16 years to 40 years attending OPD of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Department of IGMC and RI, Pondicherry. A predesigned questionnaire is provided to women asking about awareness regarding emergency contraceptives. RESULTS Majority of them were between 20 and 30 years of age, 59.6% were from urban background and 86.8% were educated; 66% of them had used regular method of contraception some time in their life, but the awareness level of emergency contraceptives was found to be only 5.4% of which only 2% (n=10 had ever used emergency contraceptives. CONCLUSION Emergency contraceptives is an effective means of preventing unwanted pregnancies, but unfortunately majority of women lack awareness about the emergency methods. Efforts should be focused on providing health education regarding EC among females through media and health professionals.

  20. Monitoring mercury exposure in reproductive aged women inhabiting the Tapajós river basin, Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira Corvelo, Tereza Cristina; Oliveira, Érika Abdon Fiquene; de Parijós, Amanda Magno; de Oliveira, Claudia Simone Baltazar; do Socorro Pompeu de Loiola, Rosane; de Araújo, Amélia A; da Costa, Carlos Araújo; de Lima Silveira, Luiz Carlos; da Conceição Nascimento Pinheiro, Maria

    2014-07-01

    Among Amazonian communities, exposure to methylmercury is associated mainly with fish consumption that may affect fetal development in pregnant women. Therefore a temporal assessment was performed to assess the exposure of reproductive aged women to mercury who reside in the riparian communities of São Luís do Tapajós and Barreiras located in the Tapajós basin of the Brazilian Amazon from 1999 to 2012. The total mercury concentration in the 519 hair samples was assessed by cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometry. Data analysis showed that the average total mercury concentration decreased from 1.066 to 0.743 μg/g in those years. In 1999 the proportion of volunteers with mercury levels ≥ 10 μg/g was approximately 68 %. In general, exposure to mercury decreased among women of reproductive age, but the potential risks to reproduction and human health is still an issue as 22 % of the woman continued showing high mercury levels (≥ 10 μg/g) in 2012.

  1. Potential Gains in Reproductive-Aged Life Expectancy by Eliminating Maternal Mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Canudas-Romo, Vladimir; Liu, L; Zimmerman, L

    2014-01-01

    mortality rates. Associated single decrement life tables of causes of death other than maternal mortality are explored to assess the possible gains in RALE by reducing or eliminating maternal mortality. We used population-based data from the Human Mortality Database and the Demographic and Health Surveys......% of potential gains in RALE. Conclusions: Maternal mortality is a rare event, yet it is still a very important component of RALE. Averting the burden of maternal deaths could return a significant increase in the most productive ages of human life.......Objective: We assessed the change over time in the contribution of maternal mortality to a life expectancy calculated between ages 15 and 49, or Reproductive-Aged Life Expectancy (RALE). Our goal was to estimate the increase in RALE in developed countries over the twentieth century...

  2. Genetic and pharmacological factors that influence reproductive aging in nematodes.

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    Stacie E Hughes

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Age-related degenerative changes in the reproductive system are an important aspect of aging, because reproductive success is the major determinant of evolutionary fitness. Caenorhabditis elegans is a prominent organism for studies of somatic aging, since many factors that extend adult lifespan have been identified. However, mechanisms that control reproductive aging in nematodes or other animals are not well characterized. To use C. elegans to measure reproductive aging, we analyzed mated hermaphrodites that do not become sperm depleted and monitored the duration and level of progeny production. Mated hermaphrodites display a decline of progeny production that culminates in reproductive cessation before the end of the lifespan, demonstrating that hermaphrodites undergo reproductive aging. To identify factors that influence reproductive aging, we analyzed genetic, environmental, and pharmacological factors that extend lifespan. Dietary restriction and reduced insulin/insulin-like growth factor signaling delayed reproductive aging, indicating that nutritional status and a signaling pathway that responds to environmental stress influence reproductive aging. Cold temperature delayed reproductive aging. The anticonvulsant medicine ethosuximide, which affects neural activity, delayed reproductive aging, indicating that neural activity can influence reproductive aging. Some of these factors decrease early progeny production, but there is no consistent relationship between early progeny production and reproductive aging in strains with an extended lifespan. To directly examine the effects of early progeny production on reproductive aging, we used sperm availability to modulate the level of early reproduction. Early progeny production neither accelerated nor delayed reproductive aging, indicating that reproductive aging is not controlled by use-dependent mechanisms. The implications of these findings for evolutionary theories of aging are discussed.

  3. Contrasting drivers of reproductive ageing in albatrosses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froy, Hannah; Lewis, Sue; Nussey, Daniel H; Wood, Andrew G; Phillips, Richard A

    2017-09-01

    Age-related variation in reproductive performance is ubiquitous in wild vertebrate populations and has important consequences for population and evolutionary dynamics. The ageing trajectory is shaped by both within-individual processes, such as improvement and senescence, and the among-individual effects of selective appearance and disappearance. To date, few studies have compared the role of these different drivers among species or populations. In this study, we use nearly 40 years of longitudinal monitoring data to contrast the within- and among-individual processes contributing to the reproductive ageing patterns in three albatross species (two biennial and one annual breeder) and test whether these can be explained by differences in life histories. Early-life performance in all species increased with age and was predominantly influenced by within-individual improvements. However, reproductive senescence was detected in only two of the species. In the species exhibiting senescent declines, we also detected a terminal improvement in breeding success. This is suggestive of a trade-off between reproduction and survival, which was supported by evidence of selective disappearance of good breeders. We demonstrate that comparisons of closely related species which differ in specific aspects of their life history can shed light on the ecological and evolutionary forces shaping variation in ageing patterns. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Animal Ecology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of British Ecological Society.

  4. Reproductive age mortality survey (RAMOS) in Accra, Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakariah, Afisah Yakubu; Alexander, Sophie; van Roosmalen, Jos; Buekens, Pierre; Kwawukume, Enyonam Yao; Frimpong, Patrick

    2009-01-01

    Background Maternal mortality remains a severe problem in many parts of the world, despite efforts to reach MDG 5. In addition, underreporting is an issue especially in low income countries. Our objective has been to identify the magnitude of maternal deaths and the degree of underreporting of these deaths in Accra Metropolis in Ghana during a one year period. Methods A Reproductive Age Mortality survey (RAMOS) was carried out in the Accra Metropolis for the period 1st January 2002-31st December 2002. We reviewed records of female deaths aged 10–50 years in the Metropolis for the whole year 2002 using multiple sources. Maternal deaths identified through the review were compared with the officially reported maternal deaths for the same period. Results At the end of the study, a total of 179 maternal deaths out of 9,248 female deaths between the ages of 10–50 years were identified. One hundred and one (N = 101) of these were reported, giving an underreporting rate of 44%. The 179 cases consisted of 146 (81.6%) direct maternal deaths and 32 (17.9%) indirect maternal deaths and 1 (0.6%) non maternal death. The most frequent causes of direct maternal deaths were obstetric haemorrhage (57; 32%), pregnancies with abortive outcome (37; 20.8%), (pre) eclampsia (26; 14.6%) and puerperal sepsis (13; 7.3%). The most frequent indirect cause was sickle cell crisis in pregnancy (13; 7.3%). Conclusion A Reproductive Age Mortality Survey is an effective method that could be used to update data on maternal mortality in Ghana while efforts are made to improve on maternal death audits in the health facilities. Strengthening the existing community based volunteers to report deaths that take place at home and the civil registration systems of births and deaths is also highly recommended. PMID:19497092

  5. Reproductive age mortality survey (RAMOS in Accra, Ghana

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    van Roosmalen Jos

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Maternal mortality remains a severe problem in many parts of the world, despite efforts to reach MDG 5. In addition, underreporting is an issue especially in low income countries. Our objective has been to identify the magnitude of maternal deaths and the degree of underreporting of these deaths in Accra Metropolis in Ghana during a one year period. Methods A Reproductive Age Mortality survey (RAMOS was carried out in the Accra Metropolis for the period 1st January 2002-31st December 2002. We reviewed records of female deaths aged 10–50 years in the Metropolis for the whole year 2002 using multiple sources. Maternal deaths identified through the review were compared with the officially reported maternal deaths for the same period. Results At the end of the study, a total of 179 maternal deaths out of 9,248 female deaths between the ages of 10–50 years were identified. One hundred and one (N = 101 of these were reported, giving an underreporting rate of 44%. The 179 cases consisted of 146 (81.6% direct maternal deaths and 32 (17.9% indirect maternal deaths and 1 (0.6% non maternal death. The most frequent causes of direct maternal deaths were obstetric haemorrhage (57; 32%, pregnancies with abortive outcome (37; 20.8%, (pre eclampsia (26; 14.6% and puerperal sepsis (13; 7.3%. The most frequent indirect cause was sickle cell crisis in pregnancy (13; 7.3%. Conclusion A Reproductive Age Mortality Survey is an effective method that could be used to update data on maternal mortality in Ghana while efforts are made to improve on maternal death audits in the health facilities. Strengthening the existing community based volunteers to report deaths that take place at home and the civil registration systems of births and deaths is also highly recommended.

  6. STRESS BURDEN IN WOMEN IN REPRODUCTIVE AGE IN SLOVENIA – SOME CAUSES AND CONSEQUENCES

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    Majda Pahor

    2009-06-01

    Conclusions Public health activities to reduce stress burden among women in reproductive age in Slovenia (e.g. changes of legislation, changes of workplace behaviour should be focused on women with lowest education and of lowest social class, especially working in heavy industry, and on employed women with highest education.

  7. Mortality in women of reproductive age in rural South Africa

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    Dorean Nabukalu

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine causes of death and associated risk factors in women of reproductive age in rural South Africa. Methods: Deaths and person-years of observation (pyo were determined for females (aged 15–49 years resident in 15,526 households in a rural South African Demographic and Health Surveillance site from 2000 to 2009. Cause of death was ascertained by verbal autopsy and ICD-10 coded; causes were categorized as HIV/TB, non-communicable, communicable/maternal/perinatal/nutrition, injuries, and undetermined (unknown. Characteristics of women were obtained from regularly updated household visits, while HIV and self-reported health status was obtained from the annual HIV surveillance. Overall and cause-specific mortality rates (MRs with 95% confidence intervals (CI were calculated. The Weibull regression model (HR, 95%CI was used to determine risk factors associated with mortality. Results: A total of 42,703 eligible women were included; 3,098 deaths were reported for 212,607 pyo. Overall MRwas 14.6 deaths/1,000 pyo (95% CI: 14.1–15.1, peaking in 2003 (MR 18.2/1,000 pyo, 95% CI: 16.4–20.1 and declining thereafter (2009: MR 9.6/1,000 pyo, 95% CI: 8.410.9. Mortality was highest for HIV/TB (MR 10.6/1,000 pyo, 95% CI: 10.211.1, accounting for 73.1% of all deaths, ranging from 61.2% in 2009 to 82.7% in 2002. Adjusting for education level, marital status, age, employment status, area of residence, and migration, all-cause mortality was associated with external migration (adjusted hazard ratio, or aHR, 1.70, 95% CI: 1.41–2.05, self-reported poor health status (aHR 8.26, 95% CI: 2.94–23.15, and HIV-infection (aHR 7.84, 95% CI: 6.26–9.82; external migration and HIV infection were also associated with causes of mortality other than HIV/TB (aHR 1.62 CI: 1.12–2.34 and aHR 2.59, CI: 1.79–3.75. Conclusion: HIV/TB was the leading cause of death among women of reproductive age, although rates declined with the rollout of HIV treatment

  8. Study of factors affecting contraceptive use among married women of reproductive Age

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    N Bhandari

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background The use of contraception can prevent pregnancies related complication and helps in improving the women’s health and quality of their lives. Objective To explore reproductive characteristics among married women of reproductive age. To find out method of contraceptive use and side effects among married women of reproductive age. To uncover factors related to contraceptive use among married women of reproductive age. Methods This cross-sectional was carried out among (369 married couples of reproductive age group in ward number 5, 6 and 7 of Dhulikhel Municipality using purposive sampling. Those who fell in between the age group of (14-49 years and willing to participate were included and pregnant women were excluded from the study. Questionnaire was used to obtain informations. Results Among 369(81.3% of the respondents of reproductive age were using a modern contraceptive method. Regarding education 331(89.5% of women’s and 352(95.1% of husbands were literate and 275(91.6% of women were found to be involved in decision making and had good inter-spousal communication that is 280(93.3%. Among the temporary method of family planning, Depo-Provera was the choice 150(54.5% of contraceptive method. Conclusion The present study put more emphasis on increase in women’s literacy, women’s involvement in decision making and inter-spousal communication which helps to promote the effective use of contraceptive methods. As women play an important role in the decision making, women should be included in all aspects of reproductive health and family planning programs. Journal of College of Medical Sciences-Nepal, 2013, Vol-9, No-4, 24-29 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/jcmsn.v9i4.10233

  9. Social support for women of reproductive age and its predictors: a population-based study

    OpenAIRE

    Baheiraei Azam; Mirghafourvand Mojgan; Mohammadi Eesa; Charandabi Sakineh Mohammad-Alizadeh; Nedjat Saharnaz

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Social support is an exchange of resources between at least two individuals perceived by the provider or recipient to be intended to promote the health of the recipient. Social support is a major determinant of health. The objective of this study was to determine the perceived social support and its associated sociodemographic factors among women of reproductive age. Methods This was a population-based cross-sectional study with multistage random cluster sampling of 1359 w...

  10. Food Consumption and Iron Intake of Pregnant and Reproductive Aged Women

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    This study compares the eating habits and consumption of natural and fortified iron sources in pregnant and reproductive aged women. This cross-sectional study was developed in a health center located in São Paulo, SP, Brazil. We studied 61 women, of which 30 were pregnant. A food frequency questionnaire and a 24-hour recall instrument were used. The main natural sources of iron were beans and greens, although fortified foods were also an important source. There was little statistically signi...

  11. Implementing preventive iron-folic acid supplementation among women of reproductive age in some Western Pacific countries: possibilities and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smitasiri, Suttilak; Solon, Florentino S

    2005-12-01

    Lack of effective implementation mechanisms is identified as a major obstacle in the prevention and control of iron-deficiency anemia. This paper discusses experiences gained from implementing iron-folic acid supplementation in the Philippines, Vietnam, and Cambodia. The understanding of contextual elements is proposed as a foundation for planning interventions. Moreover, it is suggested that a social marketing framework should provide a way of thinking about how to influence related behaviors. The application of a social marketing framework applied using a "5 P's" approach: public relations and collaboration, product, price, place, and promotion, is described, as well as enabling factors (possibilities) and inhibiting factors (challenges) of this approach. Although a program to improve iron nutrition among women of reproductive age may not be simple to implement, it is essential to enhancing health, human development, and economic advancement in developing countries.

  12. Levels, Trends and Disparities in Public-Health-Related Indicators among Reproductive-Age Women in Bangladesh by Urban-Rural and Richest-Poorest Groups, 1993-2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Md. Mobarak Hossain; Zanuzdana, Arina; Kraemer, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    Background And Objectives Although Bangladesh has already achieved noticeable progress in the field of development and health, disparities in public health indicators for several markers are still reported. To assess public health development in Bangladesh during the last two decades, firstly, we analysed levels, trends and disparities in public-health-related indicators by rural versus urban as well as by the richest versus poorest group of women who have ever been married. Secondly, using the most recent data set we performed multiple analyses to check whether urban-rural and richest-poorest disparities were still significant. Methods The analysis was based on six nationally representative data sets from the Bangladesh Demographic and Health Surveys (BDHS) conducted in 1993-94 (n=9,640), 1996-1997 (n=9,127), 1999-2000 (n=10,544), 2004 (n=11,440), 2007 (n=10,996) and 2011 (n=17,749). The outcome variables were six selected public-health-related indicators. We performed various types of analyses, including multiple logistic regressions. Results The trend of all indicators except being overweight (1993-2011) displayed gradual improvements for both markers. However, the urban and richest groups revealed a better situation than their counterparts in both simple and multiple analyses. Disparities between richest-poorest groups were more pronounced than urban-rural disparities. For instance, the prevalence of delivery at any healthcare facility in 2011 was 20.4% in rural areas and 46.5% in urban areas, whereas it was 9.1% in the poorest group and 57.6% in the richest group. Conclusion The public health sector in Bangladesh has achieved some successes over the last two decades. However, urban-rural and richest-poorest disparities are still considerable and therefore more public health strategies and efforts are clearly needed for the rural and poorest groups of women in order to reduce these gaps further. PMID:24086485

  13. Levels, trends and disparities in public-health-related indicators among reproductive-age women in Bangladesh by urban-rural and richest-poorest groups, 1993-2011.

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    Md Mobarak Hossain Khan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Although Bangladesh has already achieved noticeable progress in the field of development and health, disparities in public health indicators for several markers are still reported. To assess public health development in Bangladesh during the last two decades, firstly, we analysed levels, trends and disparities in public-health-related indicators by rural versus urban as well as by the richest versus poorest group of women who have ever been married. Secondly, using the most recent data set we performed multiple analyses to check whether urban-rural and richest-poorest disparities were still significant. METHODS: The analysis was based on six nationally representative data sets from the Bangladesh Demographic and Health Surveys (BDHS conducted in 1993-94 (n=9,640, 1996-1997 (n=9,127, 1999-2000 (n=10,544, 2004 (n=11,440, 2007 (n=10,996 and 2011 (n=17,749. The outcome variables were six selected public-health-related indicators. We performed various types of analyses, including multiple logistic regressions. RESULTS: The trend of all indicators except being overweight (1993-2011 displayed gradual improvements for both markers. However, the urban and richest groups revealed a better situation than their counterparts in both simple and multiple analyses. Disparities between richest-poorest groups were more pronounced than urban-rural disparities. For instance, the prevalence of delivery at any healthcare facility in 2011 was 20.4% in rural areas and 46.5% in urban areas, whereas it was 9.1% in the poorest group and 57.6% in the richest group. CONCLUSION: The public health sector in Bangladesh has achieved some successes over the last two decades. However, urban-rural and richest-poorest disparities are still considerable and therefore more public health strategies and efforts are clearly needed for the rural and poorest groups of women in order to reduce these gaps further.

  14. Alcohol Consumption Practices among Married Women of Reproductive Age in Nepal: A Population Based Household Survey.

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    Narbada Thapa

    Full Text Available Alcohol chemically known as ethanol, causes several health, economic and social consequences across the world. Literatures suggest potential harm of alcohol drinking by pregnant women especially to the fetus and the mother. Despite a number of significant public health problems related to alcohol consumption, this area has been ignored in Nepal and information at the national level is limited. Thus this study aimed at finding the prevalence of alcohol consumption among married women of reproductive age.A nationally representative household survey was carried out from April to August 2013 by taking 16 districts across all 15 eco administrative regions. From the selected districts, 86 village development committees and 14 municipalities were selected as primary sampling units using probability proportionate to size, followed by random selection of 3 wards from each primary sampling unit. Finally, 30 households within each ward were selected using systematic random sampling, and one married women of reproductive age from each household. A total of 9000 married women of reproductive age were interviewed using a semi-structured questionnaire, on alcohol consumption practices including environmental factors and socio demographic characteristics and were included in the analysis.National prevalence of alcohol consumption ever among married women of reproductive age was 24.7% (95% CI:21.7-28.0, last 12 months 17.9% (95% CI:15.3-20.7 and last 30 days (current drinking 11.8% (95% CI:9.8-14.1. There was substantial variation among the districts ranging from 2% to 60%. Multivariable analysis suggests women with no education or within formal education, dalit and janajatis ethnicity, whose husbands drink alcohol, who brew alcohol at home and women from mountains were significantly at higher risk of consuming alcohol. Among the women who drank alcohol in last 12 months, a substantial proportion of them drank home brewed alcoholic beverages (95.9%, 95% CI:94

  15. In-vitro Fertilization in Women of Advanced Reproductive Age

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    Margreiter M

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Postponement of family planning can be seen as a consequence of increased life expectancy and extended education in industrialized countries. The increasing number of prospective parents undergoing in-vitro fertilization (IVF due to advanced reproductive age, however, reflects the discrepancy between socio-cultural development and physical limits. Assisted reproduction is, therefore, challenged to create and adapt treatment regimens for women of advanced reproductive age to bridge between this wish for late parenthood and the age-related decline in fecundity. Consequently, the knowledge concerning age-related changes of reproductive functions gains in importance. While follicular depletion and impaired oocyte quality, frequently also called ‘diminished ovarian reserve’, are generally acknowledged as the underlying mechanisms for the decline in maternal fecundity, the way to correctly assess the status of ovarian reserve has remained controversial. Besides increasing attempts to achieve conception, deferring pregnancy and delivery into older age also implies medical risks and ethical considerations. The use of IVF in older women, therefore, raises the issue of the utilization of preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD in the assessment of embryonic aneuploidies, as well as in attempts to optimize pregnancy rates with IVF. Moreover, expected future concepts in assisted reproduction are warranted to allow for the establishment of viable singleton pregnancies in women of advanced reproductive age.

  16. Predictors of intimate partner violence among women of reproductive age group in Sagamu local government area in Ogun State, Western Nigeria: A community-based study

    OpenAIRE

    Olorunfemi Emmanuel Amoran; Olurinde O Oni; Albert A Salako

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Worldwide, it has been estimated that violence against women is as serious a cause of death and incapacity among women of reproductive age as cancer, and a greater cause of ill health as traffic accidents and malaria combined. This study was therefore carried out to determine the prevalence and predictors of intimate partner violence among women of reproductive age group in Sagamu local government area (SLGA) of Ogun State, Nigeria. Settings: The study was conducted in SLGA Ogun...

  17. Acute coronary syndrome in women of reproductive age

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    Idris N

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Nazimah Idris1, Sharifah Sulaiha Aznal1, Sze-Piaw Chin1, Wan Azman Wan Ahmad2, Azhari Rosman3, Sinnadurai Jeyaindran4, Omar Ismail5, Robaayah Zambahari3, Kui Huan Sim6 1International Medical University, Seremban; 2University Malaya Medical Centre, PJ; 3Institut Jantung Negara, KL; 4Hospital Kuala Lumpur, KL; 5Hospital Pulau Pinang; 6Hospital Umum Sarawak, Malaysia Background: There is scarce or no data on prevalence and presentation of acute coronary syndrome (ACS among women of reproductive age. Furthermore, whether women of reproductive age presenting with ACS have the same risk factors as men and older women is not known. Objective: To analyze factors associated with ACS in women of reproductive age in comparison with older women and men of a similar age group. Methodology: A total of 9702 cases of acute coronary syndrome over a 3-year period (2006–2008 from the National Cardiovascular Disease database were analyzed, with focus on women of reproductive age (20–<40 years, looking into association with ethnicity, comorbid illness, and the ACS stratum. Comparison with older women (40–<60 years; Control 1 and men of similar age group (Control 2 was made and analyzed using Fisher's exact test and chi-square test when necessary. Results: From a total of 9702 cases, 2344 (24.2% were women. Of these, 45 (1.9% were women between 20 and <40 years, which is significantly lower than the two controls (older women 30.8%, and men of same age 6.2%, respectively; P < 0.0001. The distribution of ethnicity shows a similar pattern between the study group and the controls, but patients of Indian ethnicity were over-represented when compared with the Malaysian demographics of general population (31.3% versus 7.1%; P < 0.0001. ACS in women of reproductive age was associated with diabetes mellitus in 37.8%, hypertension in 40.0%, and dyslipidemia in 24.4% of cases, similar to men of the same age but significantly lower than the older women (P < 0.0001. Smoking

  18. On human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Spijk, Piet

    2015-05-01

    If it is true that health is a priority objective of medicine, then medical practice can only be successful if the meaning of the term "health" is known. Various attempts have been made over the years to define health. This paper proposes a new definition. In addition to current health concepts, it also takes into account the distinction between specifically human (great) health and health as the absence of disease and illness-i.e. small health. The feeling of leading a life that makes sense plays a key role in determining specifically human great health.

  19. Determination of factors affecting relapse of vaginitis among reproductive-aged women: An experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsapour, Roxana; Majlessi, Fereshteh; Rahimiforoushani, Abbas; Sadeghi, Roya

    2017-01-01

    Vaginitis is a common problem for women, especially in reproductive-aged women. It is a worldwide health problem with many side effects but could be prevented by a health-promoting lifestyle related to vagina health. The aim of this study was to determine the factors affecting relapse of vaginitis. In this experimental study, 350 reproductive-aged women with vaginitis were selected from 10 health centers in Kermanshah (Iran) during 2015 and were equally included in the intervention and control groups. To collect data, a researcher-created questionnaire, which included sociodemographic and health-promoting lifestyle questions, was used. The educational intervention was performed over 20 sessions, each lasting 25-35 minutes. An intervention group was educated by face-to-face education, pamphlets, phone contacts, text messages, and social media. Another group continued the routine clinic education and treatment without contacting the intervention group. Data were analyzed through chi-square and a logistics regression model using IBM-SPSS version 20. The results of the study indicated a significant relation between sociodemographic characteristics such as women and their husbands' literacy, job, family size, income, area for each member of family, tendency of pregnancy, body mass index (BMI), and caesarean experience (pvaginitis. In addition, significant relationships between health-promoting lifestyle dimensions and prevention of vaginitis were identified. Relapse after intervention in the intervention group was 27.7% and 72.3% in the control group. According to the logistic regression analysis, chance for relapse of vaginitis in the group that did not receive intervention was more than the same chance in the intervention group (OR=5.14). Health-promoting lifestyle intervention influences prevention of vaginitis. Health-promoting lifestyle, literacy promotion, prevention of caesarian, and obesity are beneficial to improvement in lifestyle dimensions associated with

  20. Opioid Prescriptions Among Women of Reproductive Age Enrolled in Medicaid - New York, 2008-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Brian K; Shin, Yejee; Roohan, Patrick

    2016-04-29

    Exposure to opioids during pregnancy can lead to adverse infant outcomes, including neonatal abstinence syndrome (1) and birth defects (2). Ascertaining opioid prescriptions for women who become pregnant or have no indication of contraceptive use is important to determine the number of women who are at potential risk for adverse fetal outcomes. The New York State (NYS) Department of Health (DOH) analyzed data for women aged 15-44 years (i.e., reproductive-aged women) enrolled in Medicaid to examine opioid drug prescriptions during 2008-2013. On the basis of Medicaid drug claims for any drug with an opioid ingredient, prescriptions were identified for the enrolled population of reproductive-aged women and for three subgroups: women whose diagnosis, procedure, and drug codes indicated contraceptive use or infertility; women who were not using contraceptives and not infertile; and women who had had a live birth during the reporting year. During 2008-2013, among all women of reproductive age, 20.0% received a prescription for a drug with an opioid component; the proportion was highest (27.3%) among women with an indication of contraceptive use or infertility, intermediate (17.3%) among women who had no indication of contraceptive use, and lowest (9.5%) among women who had had a live birth. Although New York's proportion of opioid prescriptions among female Medicaid recipients who had a live birth is lower than a recent U.S. estimate (3), these results suggest nearly one in 10 women in this group may have been exposed to opioids in the prenatal period.

  1. Female suprasegmental speech parameters in reproductive age and postmenopause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meurer, Eliséa Maria; Wender, Maria Celeste Osório; von Eye Corleta, Helena; Capp, Edison

    2004-05-28

    During the female vital cycle verbal processes are influenced by secondary effects of steroid hormones. Verbal expression abilities favor more effective interpersonal communications. Verbal motor fluency is produced by the synchronization among voice, resonance and articulation. The present study compared phono-articulatory characteristics between women in reproductive age and postmenopause. Acoustic variations in vocal intonation, speed of the speech and the pause pattern were measured. Forty-five reproductive age women with regular menstrual cycles and taking no hormonal contraceptives and 45 postmenopause women receiving no hormonal replacement therapy for at least 3 years were interviewed and their verbal productions were recorded. Acoustic analyses were performed using the Kay Elemetrics Motor Speech Profile. Student's t-test was employed to compare data between the two groups when they presented normal distribution, and Mann-Whitney test when they were asymmetrical. Results showed that in the postmenopause group pause pattern was longer, the speed of the speech was slower, there was a vocal deepening without reduction of the vocal extension and there was also less vocal stability. A better understanding in this field will make possible to elaborate strategies to offer a better life quality for postmenopausal women.

  2. Determination of factors affecting relapse of vaginitis among reproductive-aged women: An experimental study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsapour, Roxana; Majlessi, Fereshteh; Rahimiforoushani, Abbas; Sadeghi, Roya

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Vaginitis is a common problem for women, especially in reproductive-aged women. It is a worldwide health problem with many side effects but could be prevented by a health-promoting lifestyle related to vagina health. The aim of this study was to determine the factors affecting relapse of vaginitis. Methods In this experimental study, 350 reproductive-aged women with vaginitis were selected from 10 health centers in Kermanshah (Iran) during 2015 and were equally included in the intervention and control groups. To collect data, a researcher-created questionnaire, which included sociodemographic and health-promoting lifestyle questions, was used. The educational intervention was performed over 20 sessions, each lasting 25–35 minutes. An intervention group was educated by face-to-face education, pamphlets, phone contacts, text messages, and social media. Another group continued the routine clinic education and treatment without contacting the intervention group. Data were analyzed through chi-square and a logistics regression model using IBM-SPSS version 20. Results The results of the study indicated a significant relation between sociodemographic characteristics such as women and their husbands’ literacy, job, family size, income, area for each member of family, tendency of pregnancy, body mass index (BMI), and caesarean experience (plifestyle dimensions and prevention of vaginitis were identified. Relapse after intervention in the intervention group was 27.7% and 72.3% in the control group. According to the logistic regression analysis, chance for relapse of vaginitis in the group that did not receive intervention was more than the same chance in the intervention group (OR=5.14). Conclusion Health-promoting lifestyle intervention influences prevention of vaginitis. Health-promoting lifestyle, literacy promotion, prevention of caesarian, and obesity are beneficial to improvement in lifestyle dimensions associated with vagina health could be

  3. Prevalence of Food Addiction Among Low-Income Reproductive-Aged Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berenson, Abbey B; Laz, Tabassum H; Pohlmeier, Ali M; Rahman, Mahbubur; Cunningham, Kathryn A

    2015-09-01

    Hyperpalatable foods (i.e., high in salt, sugar, or fat) have been shown to have addictive properties that may contribute to overeating. Prior studies conducted on food addiction behaviors are mostly based on white and middle-aged women. Data are not available, however, on reproductive-aged women from other races/ethnicities or low-income women. The purpose of this study was to examine the prevalence and correlates of food addiction among multiethnic women of low socioeconomic status. We conducted a cross-sectional survey of health behaviors, including food addiction according to the Yale Food Addiction Scale (YFAS) between July 2010 and February 2011 among 18- to 40-year-old low-income women attending reproductive-health clinics (N = 1,067). Overall, 2.8% of women surveyed met the diagnosis of food addiction. The prevalence of food addiction did not differ by age group, race/ethnicity, education, income, or body mass index categories, tobacco and alcohol use, or physical activity. However, it did differ by level of depression (p addiction among low-income, reproductive-aged women. Racial differences were observed in the YFAS symptom count score, but not in the overall prevalence of food addition. Additionally, women with food addiction had higher levels of depression than women without food addiction.

  4. Social support for women of reproductive age and its predictors: a population-based study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Social support is an exchange of resources between at least two individuals perceived by the provider or recipient to be intended to promote the health of the recipient. Social support is a major determinant of health. The objective of this study was to determine the perceived social support and its associated sociodemographic factors among women of reproductive age. Methods This was a population-based cross-sectional study with multistage random cluster sampling of 1359 women of reproductive age. Data were collected using questionnaires on sociodemographic factors and perceived social support (PRQ85-Part 2). The relationship between the dependent variable (perceived social support) and the independent variables (sociodemographic characteristics) was analyzed using the multivariable linear regression model. Results The mean score of social support was 134.3 ± 17.9. Women scored highest in the “worth” dimension and lowest in the “social integration” dimension. Multivariable linear regression analysis indicated that the variables of education, spouse’s occupation, Sufficiency of income for expenses and primary support source were significantly related to the perceived social support. Conclusion Sociodemographic factors affect social support and could be considered in planning interventions to improve social support for Iranian women. PMID:22988834

  5. Status of serum vitamin D and calcium levels in women of reproductive age in national capital territory of India

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    Nighat Yaseen Sofi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: In India, Vitamin D deficiency is a major public health problem, associated with lack of sunlight exposure in spite of abundant sunshine usually accompanied by reduced dietary intake. In women of reproductive age, Vitamin D deficiency in pregnancy has been associated with an increased risk of gestational diabetes mellitus, preeclampsia, maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality. Aims: The aim of the present cross-sectional study was to evaluate the levels of serum Vitamin D 25(OH D and calcium in women of reproductive age from India. Settings and Design: A cross-sectional study was carried on a total of 224 healthy nonpregnant and nonlactating women in the reproductive age group of 20–49 years. Materials and Methods: Demographic, socioeconomic class, and biochemical parameters for the estimation of serum 25(OHD and calcium levels in women of reproductive age were studied. Statistical Analysis: Statistical Package for Social Sciences version 20.0 was utilized for conducting the statistical analysis of the data. Results: Vitamin D deficiency (<20 ng/ml was present in 88% of women. Women from middle socioeconomic class had the lowest mean serum 25(OH D levels (9.6 ± 6 ng/ml as compared to women from upper middle (11.4 ± 8 ng/ml, lower (11.2 ± 8 ng/ml, and upper (10 ± 8.6 ng/ml socioeconomic class. Serum calcium levels were found in the normal range of 8.5–10.5 mg/dl for all the study subjects. Conclusions: There is a high prevalence of hypovitaminosis D among women of reproductive age. These women may possibly have a higher risk of development of osteoporosis and pregnancy-related complications in future life.

  6. Potential gains in reproductive-aged life expectancy by eliminating maternal mortality: a demographic bonus of achieving MDG 5.

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    Vladimir Canudas-Romo

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: We assessed the change over time in the contribution of maternal mortality to a life expectancy calculated between ages 15 and 49, or Reproductive-Aged Life Expectancy (RALE. Our goal was to estimate the increase in RALE in developed countries over the twentieth century and the hypothetical gains in African countries today by eliminating maternal mortality. METHODS: Analogous to life expectancy, RALE is calculated from a life table of ages 15 to 49. Specifically, RALE is the average number of years that women at age 15 would be expected to live between 15 and 49 with current mortality rates. Associated single decrement life tables of causes of death other than maternal mortality are explored to assess the possible gains in RALE by reducing or eliminating maternal mortality. We used population-based data from the Human Mortality Database and the Demographic and Health Surveys. FINDINGS: In developed countries, five years in RALE were gained over the twentieth century, of which approximately 10%, or half a year, was attributable to reductions in maternal mortality. In sub-Saharan African countries, the possible achievable gains fluctuate between 0.24 and 1.47 years, or 6% and 44% of potential gains in RALE. CONCLUSIONS: Maternal mortality is a rare event, yet it is still a very important component of RALE. Averting the burden of maternal deaths could return a significant increase in the most productive ages of human life.

  7. [Effect of combined hormonal oral contraception on the somatic and psychic status of women of reproductive age].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vertkin, A L; Nosova, A V

    2012-01-01

    The paper is devoted to the topical problem of maintaining somatic and psychic health of the women of reproductive age by rational pregnancy planning and prevention of abortions by modern methods of contraception including combined oral hormonal contraception. Unfortunately, this approach is rarely employed in this country (5-6%). Results of retrospective analysis of medical documentation, clinical efficacy and safety of modern combined oral hormonal contraception are presented.

  8. Attitude of Reproductive Age Women towards Factors Affecting Induced Abortion in Hamedan, Iran

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    Seyede Zahra Masoumi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background & aim: Abortion is the third leading cause of maternal mortality. The attitude of women towards abortion is one of the most important factors involved in this issue. This study aimed to evaluate the attitude of women of reproductive age towards induced abortion. Methods This cross-sectional study was performed on 450 women of reproductive age in Fatemieh Hospital in Hamedan, Iran in 2014. Data was collected using abortion attitude scale consisting of five sections: socioeconomic status, family status, maternal and fetal health status, psycho -cultural background, and fertility status. Mean score less than three in each domain was considered as negative attitude, while scores higher or equal to three indicated positive attitude towards induced abortion. To analyze the data, logistic regression analysis, Chi-square and Fisher's exact tests were performed using SPSS version 21. P value of less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: In this study, induced abortion had no significant relationship with family status, maternal and fetal health, and fertility domains (82.1%, 77.3%, and 64.4%, respectively. A relationship was observed between induced abortion and socioeconomic and psycho-cultural domains (61.8% and 56%, respectively. Logistic regression analysis showed that the predictors of induced abortion were the attitude towards the effect of abortion on the health of mother and fetus (P= 0.01, as well as the psychocultural status of the mothers (P= 0.02. Conclusion: Evaluation of the results indicated a strong belief in the majority of the participants in psychocultural and socioeconomic domains as the most significant predictive factors for induced abortion. Since it is difficult to alter the socioeconomic and psychocultural domains of individuals, changes are recommended in predominant attitudes towards induced abortion.

  9. Contraceptive use and the role of contraceptive counseling in reproductive-aged women with cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maslow, Bat-Sheva L; Morse, Christopher B; Schanne, Allison; Loren, Alison; Domchek, Susan M; Gracia, Clarisa R

    2014-07-01

    Few data on contraceptive choices in women with cancer exist. Contraception is challenging for women with cancer, particularly those with breast cancer, who are limited to nonhormonal methods. This study characterized contraceptive use during cancer treatment in a group of reproductive-aged women with a recent cancer diagnosis and assessed the impact of contraceptive counseling on the methods they selected. Cross-sectional, survey study of reproductive-aged women at a large tertiary care health system with a recent cancer diagnosis. A total of 107 women completed the survey. Eighty-two women reported 101 contraceptive choices. Twenty-seven percent (27/101) of all methods selected were Tier I/II, and 35% (35/101) were Tier III/IV. Only 4 used an intrauterine device (IUD). Among women reporting sexual activity after diagnosis, 19 (27%) of 71 reported using Tier I/II methods, 21 (30%) of 71 reported using Tier III/IV methods, 16 (23%) of 71 reported abstinence and 10 (14%) of 71 reported using no method. Factors significantly associated with Tier I/II use in the multivariable model included not having a college degree [odds ratio (OR) 0.21, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.05-0.92, p=.038], intercourse during treatment (OR 5.92, 95% CI 1.48-23.66, p=.012) and non-breast cancer (OR 3.60, 95% CI 1.03-12.64, p=.046). Report of contraceptive counseling was positively associated with Tier I/II contraceptive use during cancer treatment (OR 6.92, 95% CI 1.14-42.11, p=.036). Reproductive-aged women diagnosed with cancer underutilized Tier I/II contraceptive agents, especially IUDs. Contraceptive counseling by physicians increases contraceptive use, particularly methods most effective at preventing pregnancy. The study uniquely described the contraceptive practices of over 100 women with cancer. The study sample commonly reported abstinence and use of contraceptive methods with high failure rates. Our data suggest that contraceptive counseling from a health care provider may

  10. [Human health sciences].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasada, Masataka; Toichi, Motomi; Yamane, Hiroshi

    2009-01-01

    Medical science and medical practice developed remarkably and economic conditions progressed so much in recent years in Japan. As the result, the average span of life of the Japanese is now the longest in the world and we are well off. The matter of the greatest concern of Japanese people at present is health. In fact, health foods, TV program on health and various matters concerning health overflow around us. It is fairly difficult to define health clearly and correctly. So long as anyone who wants to be in good health, he must be well physically and mentally. It is necessary to pursue the true health, and to investigate theories and techniques to obtain and concrete it, which is called human health sciences.

  11. Domestic violence among ever married women of reproductive age group in a slum area of Kolkata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Abhik; Mallik, Sarmila; Sanyal, Debasish; Dasgupta, Samir; Pal, Dipak; Mukherjee, Anindya

    2012-01-01

    Domestic violence has serious impact on women's health and well-being. A nationwide survey conducted in India observed that 37.2% of women experienced violence after marriage. To assess the prevalence of domestic violence among the ever married women in reproductive age group and to find out the types of domestic violence and factors associated with it. The study was a community based cross-sectional study, conducted in a slum area of Kolkata. Overall prevalence of domestic violence was 54%, of which 41.9% suffered from both current and lifetime physical and psychological violence. Presence of property, higher per capita income and social support were protective factors against domestic violence, whereas alcohol addiction and multiple sex partners were the important contributory factors for it. The study recommended more social support, awareness and income generation for women in the slum areas.

  12. Infertility in reproductive-age female cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Jennifer M; Kelvin, Joanne Frankel; Quinn, Gwendolyn P; Gracia, Clarisa R

    2015-05-15

    Improved survival rates among reproductive-age females diagnosed with cancer have increased the focus on long-term quality of life, including maintenance of the ability to conceive biological children. Cancer-directed therapies such as high-dose alkylating agents and radiation to the pelvis, which deplete ovarian reserve, radiation to the brain, which affects the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis, and surgical resection of reproductive structures can decrease the likelihood of having biological children. Standard fertility preservation strategies such as embryo and oocyte cryopreservation before the onset of therapy offer the opportunity to conserve fertility, but they may not be feasible because of the urgency to start cancer therapy, financial limitations, and a lack of access to reproductive endocrinologists. Ovarian tissue freezing is considered experimental, with limited data related to pregnancies, but it minimizes treatment delay. Studies evaluating gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogues have had mixed results, although a recent randomized, prospective study in women with breast cancer demonstrated a protective effect. Fertility preservation programs are increasingly being developed within cancer programs. In this article, we describe risks to infertility and options for preservation, raise psychosocial and ethical issues, and propose elements for establishing an effective fertility preservation program.

  13. Effect of reproductive ageing on pregnant mouse uterus and cervix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Rima; Moffatt, James D.; Mourmoura, Evangelia; Demaison, Luc; Seed, Paul T.; Poston, Lucilla

    2017-01-01

    Key points Older pregnant women have a greater risk of operative delivery, still birth and post‐term induction.This suggests that maternal age can influence the timing of birth and processes of parturition.We have found that increasing maternal age in C57BL/6J mice is associated with prolongation of gestation and length of labour.Older pregnant mice also had delayed progesterone withdrawal and impaired myometrial function.Uterine ageing and labour dysfunction should be investigated further in older primigravid women. Abstract Advanced maternal age (≥35 years) is associated with increased rates of operative delivery, stillbirth and post‐term labour induction. The physiological causes remain uncertain, although impaired myometrial function has been implicated. To investigate the hypothesis that maternal age directly influences successful parturition, we assessed the timing of birth and fetal outcome in pregnant C57BL/6J mice at 3 months (young) and 5 months (intermediate) vs. 8 months (older) of age using infrared video recording. Serum progesterone profiles, myometrium and cervix function, and mitochondrial electron transport chain complex enzymatic activities were also examined. Older pregnant mice had a longer mean gestation and labour duration (P changes to the enzymatic activities of the mitochondrial electron transport chain complexes. In conclusion, 8‐month‐old mice provide a useful model of reproductive ageing. The present study has identified potential causes of labour dysfunction amenable to investigation in older primigravid women. PMID:28083928

  14. Maternal mortality ratio in Lebanon in 2008: a hospital-based reproductive age mortality study (RAMOS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobeika, Elie; Abi Chaker, Samer; Harb, Hilda; Rahbany Saad, Rita; Ammar, Walid; Adib, Salim

    2014-01-01

    International agencies have recently assigned Lebanon to the group H of countries with "no national data on maternal mortality," and estimated a corresponding maternal mortality ratio (MMR) of 150 per 100,000 live births. The Ministry of Public Health addressed the discrepancy perceived between the reality of the maternal mortality ratio experience in Lebanon and the international report by facilitating a hospital-based reproductive age mortality study, sponsored by the World Health Organization Representative Office in Lebanon, aiming at providing an accurate estimate of a maternal mortality ratio for 2008. The survey allowed a detailed analysis of maternal causes of deaths. Reproductive age deaths (15-49 years) were initially identified through hospital records. A trained MD traveled to each hospital to ascertain whether recorded deaths were in fact maternal deaths or not. ICD10 codes were provided by the medical controller for each confirmed maternal deaths. There were 384 RA death cases, of which 13 were confirmed maternal deaths (339%) (numerator). In 2008, there were 84823 live births in Lebanon (denominator). The MMR in Lebanon in 2008 was thus officially estimated at 23/100,000 live births, with an "uncertainty range" from 153 to 30.6. Hemorrhage was the leading cause of death, with double the frequency of all other causes (pregnancy-induced hypertension, eclampsia, infection, and embolism). This specific enquiry responded to a punctual need to correct a clearly inadequate report, and it should be relayed by an on-going valid surveillance system. Results indicate that special attention has to be devoted to the management of peri-partum hemorrhage cases. Arab, postpartum hemorrhage, development, pregnancy management, verbal autopsy

  15. Factors affecting unmet need for family planning in married women of reproductive age group in urban slums of Lucknow

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    Anjali Pal

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Unmet need for family planning signifies the gap between the reproductive intentions of couples and their actual contraceptive behaviour. The National Family Health Surveys carried out in India in 1992-93, 1998-99 and 2004-2005 have revealed that for a sizable proportion of the population in the reproductive age group, the need for contraceptive services are not met with despite the existence of a National Policy on family planning since 1983. This study was carried out to assess the extent of unmet need for family planning among married women of reproductive age group in urban slums of Lucknow and identify the various factors affecting it. Study design: Cross sectional Setting: four urban slums of Lucknow Participants: 414 married women in the age group of 15- 44 years Study variables: age, education, occupation, religion, parity Statistical analysis: chi- square test, logistic regression analysis, fisher’s exact test Results: the extent of unmet need among married women of reproductive age group was 53.1%. The unmet need was found to be significantly associated with age, number of living sons, discussion of family planning with husband, perception of husband’s view on family planning and husbands’ behaviour towards use of family planning method. Logistic regression analysis of unmet need showed that the lower age of the woman, lesser number of living sons and husband’s discouragement towards the use of FP method were correlated with the unmet need for Family Planning.

  16. Female reproductive tract infections: understandings and care seeking behaviour among women of reproductive age in Lagos, Nigeria

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    Akinlusi Fatimat M

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Reproductive tract infections (RTI's are endemic in developing countries and entail a heavy toll on women. If untreated, RTI's can lead to adverse health outcomes such as infertility, ectopic pregnancy and increased vulnerability to transmission of the human immunodeficiency virus. It is also associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes. While RTI's and its sequelae abound in Nigeria, there is paucity of publications on the subject in the country. This study assessed the understandings and care seeking behavior with regards to RTI's among women of reproductive age in Lagos, Nigeria with the aim of improving awareness on the subject. Methods A descriptive cross sectional survey of women attending the gynaecological outpatient and family planning clinics of the Lagos State University Teaching Hospital was carried out between 1st June 2008 and 31st August 2008 using a pre-tested questionnaire. Data was analysed using the Epi-Info 3.5 statistical software of the Centre for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta U.S.A. Results Most of the respondents (77.2% had heard of RTI's. Toilet was the most perceived mode of contracting RTI's (44.6%, followed by sexual intercourse and poor hygiene. Vaginal discharge was the commonest symptom of RTI's named while inability to get pregnant was the commonest named complication. Majority of the respondent's demonstrated poor overall knowledge of symptoms and complications of RTI"s. 37.4% of the respondents had experienced symptoms of RTI's in the preceding six months. Vaginal discharge was the commonest symptom reported (21.8% and the majority of those who reported symptoms sought medical treatment. Government health centres were the most visited health facilities for treatment. Conclusion Even though most of the respondents have heard of RTI's and sought treatment when symptomatic, they demonstrated poor overall understanding of the subject. There is need to educate women on preventive

  17. Human motricity and health

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    Manuel Sérgio Vieira e Cunha

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available If human motricity science intends to study motor conduct (or actions in which the human being pursues transcendence (or surmounting, it inevitably relates to the large realm of health. What are the aspects it evinces? Transdisciplinarity, solidarity among the various knowledge types (including poetical, complexity, (where the physical is integrated but surmounted and the firm belief that to be healthy is to have in ourselves, alive and working, the capacity for surmounting anything.

  18. Human health and groundwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    The high quality of most groundwaters, consequent upon the self-purification capacity of subsurface strata, has long been a key factor in human health and wellbeing. More than 50% of the world’s population now rely on groundwater for their supply of drinking water – and in most circumstances a prope...

  19. Selenium and Human Health

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    M Abedi

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Selenium is an essential element for human health and it is toxic at high concentrations. Selenium is a constituent component of selenoproteins that have enzymatic and structural roles in human biochemistry. Selenium is a best antioxidant and catalyst for production of thyroid hormone. This element has the key role in the immune function; prevention of AIDS progression and the deactivity of toxins. Furthermore, selenium is essential for sperm motility and can reduce abortions. Selenium deficiency was also associated with adverse mood states. The findings regarding cardiovascular disease risk related to selenium deficiency is unclear, though other conditions such as vascular inflammation, oxidative stress and selenium deficiency can cause this disease too. Moreover, consuming of 60 mg of selenium per day may be associated with reduction of cancer risk. In this study, a review of studies has been performed on the biochemical function of selenium toxicity, and its effects on human health. Furthermore, certain identified cancers associated with selenium have been discussed to absorb more attention to the status of this element and also as a guide for further studies. Selenium plays the dual character (useful and harmful in human health, and then it is necessary to determine the concentration of this element in body fluids and tissues. An appropriate method for routine measurement of selenium in clinical laboratories is electro thermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ETAAS with very low detection limit and good precision.

  20. Knowledge and use of folic acid in women of reproductive age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fehr, Kelly R S; Fehr, Kelsey D H; Protudjer, Jennifer Lisa Penner

    2011-01-01

    Folic acid reduces the risk of neural tube defects. As approximately 50% of pregnancies are unintended, women of reproductive age should be aware of the importance of folic acid. We reviewed the existing literature on these women's knowledge of folic acid and neural tube defects. Databases searched were PubMed, CINAHL, and Health Reference Center Academic. We used terms such as "folic acid knowledge" and "folic acid awareness" to search articles published from 1998 to 2010. Awareness of the benefits of folic acid before conception and during pregnancy was low, although knowledge levels were associated with education and household income. Women who were already knowledgeable about folic acid cited health care professionals, magazines and newspapers, and radio and television as common sources of information. Effective knowledge translation is needed to ensure that women are informed about the benefits of folic acid during the reproductive years. This knowledge will allow them to make informed decisions about folic acid consumption. Health care professionals play an influential role in promoting folic acid knowledge among women of childbearing age. Lower levels of knowledge among women with lower levels of education and/or household income must be addressed.

  1. Coverage and factors associated with tetanus toxoid vaccination among married women of reproductive age: a cross sectional study in Peshawar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naeem, Mohammad; Khan, Muhammad Zia-ul-Islam; Abbas, Syed Hussain; Adil, Muhammad; Khan, Ayasha; Naz, Syeda Maria; Khan, Muhammad Usman

    2010-01-01

    Pakistan has one of the highest maternal mortality rates in the world, with widely prevalent maternal and neonatal tetanus. The purpose of this study was to estimate the coverage and determine the factors associated with tetanus toxoid vaccination status among females of reproductive age in Peshawar. A Cross-sectional study was conducted in Peshawar, Pakistan, from 9 June to 19 June 2010. A total of 304 females of reproductive age (17 45) years were selected from both urban and rural areas of Peshawar through random sampling. A pre-tested structured questionnaire was administered to females. Questions about demographics, income, education of husband, occupation, accessibility to health centres and frequency of visits from health workers was inquired. Knowledge and views on immunization were also asked. Overall 55.6% were vaccinated. Urban population was 54.3% while rural population was 45.7%. Reasons for not vaccinating were: No awareness (38.4%), being busy (18.1%), centre too far (18.1%), misconceptions (10.86%), and fear of reactions (4.3%). Most of the females thought immunization was effective (89.5%). Husband education, females' knowledge and views on immunization, income, distance, frequency of health visits were the main factors associated with immunization status. Majority of females are not vaccinated. Effective media campaigns on maternal tetanus vaccination should be carried. Lady health workers should be mobilised effectively to increase the vaccination coverage.

  2. [The statement of Polish Gynaecologic Society experts concerning drinking water consumption in women in reproductive age, pregnancy and breast feeding].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomasz, Niemiec

    2009-07-01

    Water is a substance essential for life. It creates the environment of our body, keeps it's homeostasis, enables every biochemical reaction and metabolic processes in human organism. Maternal hydratation is essential for homeostasis of two organisms and drinking water influences the amniotic fluid volume, fetal well-being and removes toxic metabolic products. The chemical contaminants of drinking water and products of it's chlorination and ozonization could be responsible for spontaneous abortion, birth defects and perinatal complications. Therefore it is recommended to drink natural mineral water for women in reproductive age.

  3. Contraceptive prevalence and determinants among women of reproductive age group in Ogbomoso, Oyo State, Nigeria

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    Adeyemi AS

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Adewale S Adeyemi,1 Adenike I Olugbenga-Bello,2 Oluwatosin A Adeoye,3 Moshood O Salawu,3 Adesola A Aderinoye,3 Michael A Agbaje1 1Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, 2Department of Community Medicine, Faculty of Clinical Sciences, College of Health Sciences, Ladoke Akintola University of Technology (LAUTECH, Osogbo, Osun State, 3Department of Community Medicine, LAUTECH Teaching Hospital, Ogbomoso, Oyo State, Nigeria Background: The fertility rate in Nigeria is 5.7 children per woman. The contraceptive prevalence rate has been found to be low at 15% in 2013, compared to other countries such as the US and Pakistan. Objective: The study aimed to assess the contraceptive prevalence among women of reproductive age in Ogbomoso town, and determinants of use, with a view to make appropriate recommendations that will enhance the uptake of family planning services. Materials and methods: This is a descriptive cross-sectional study conducted with 560 respondents, using a multistage sampling technique. Data were retrieved using a semi-structured, pretested questionnaire. Results: All the respondents were aware of contraception; however, only 49.7% (271 had ever used any method, while 25.4% (69 of the number who had ever used contraception were currently using a method. The methods being used were the traditional type (four [5.9%], natural type (two [3.0%], and modern type (63 [91.1%]. The predictors of contraception use included the age group of 40–49 years (odds ratio [OR] 14.1; confidence interval [CI] 3.06–73.24; P=0.0001; the married women were approximately four times more likely to use contraception than the single women (OR 4.5; CI 3.03–6.72; P<0.0001. The women with tertiary level of education were three times more likely to use contraception than those without formal education (OR 3.1; CI 1.13–9.95; P=0.0268, and the odds ratio of respondents with a positive attitude to using contraception more than those with negative attitude was 2

  4. An Intervention Study of Reproductive Tract Infections among Married Women of Reproductive Age in Shanghai

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zong-min JIANG; Yu-yan LI; Jun-qing WU; Wen-ying LI; Zeng-yu WEN; Er-sheng GAO; Xiao-ping ZHOU; Ben-cheng ZHOU

    2007-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the impacts of reproductive tract infections (RTIs) intervention on RTIs-related knowledge, attitudes, practices and prevalence of married women at reproductive age.Methods Four sub-districts from Xuhui district, Shanghai were selected by multistage cluster random sampling and residence committees were randomly assigned to either an intervention group or a control one. RTIs intervention was implemented in intervention group, while routine family planning program was conducted in control group.Results Compared with control group, intervention group have improved the following targets: the increment of RTI knowledge score was higher than that in control group (OR=9.22, 95%CI: 7.01-12.14); the increment score of individual health behaviors (6.31)was higher than that in control group (4.50) (OR=1.60, 95%CI: 1.21-2.10); the increase of condom use frequency in intervention group was higher than that in control group (4.12% vs 0.69%) (OR=1.84, 95%CI: 1.31 -2.57); the decreased RTIs rate was higher than that in control group (7.45% vs 0.96%) (OR=0.68, 95%CI: 0.49-0.95).Conclusion It is an effective way to conduct community-based intervention to increase women's RTIs knowledge, improve RTIs-related attitudes, promote good individual health behaviors, so as to decrease RTIs prevalence.

  5. [Anemia in women of reproductive age. The results of a national probability survey].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, H; González-Cossío, T; Flores, M; Rivera-Dommarco, J; Lezana, M A; Sepúlveda-Amor, J

    1995-01-01

    Iron deficiency is one of the most prevalent forms of malnutrition which is clinically known as anemia. Functional consequences of anemia include impairment of cardiovascular performance, limitation in productivity, higher incidence of low birth weight and premature delivery, and increased maternal mortality. This paper presents a descriptive analysis of anemia in women of reproductive age in Mexico. Data were collected by the Ministry of Health through a National Nutrition Survey in 1988, which draw a representative sample from four regions: North, Center, South and Federal District. Anemia was more prevalent in pregnant (18.17%) than in non-pregnant women (15.38%). Those women living in predominantly indigenous communities had higher prevalence of anemia (24.02%) than non-indigenous women (14.67%). Anemia was more prevalent in urban areas (15.54%) than in rural (13.56%). Mean +/- standard deviation values for hemoglobin were lower in pregnant women (12.5 +/- 1.6 g/dL) than in non-pregnant ones (13.7 +/- 1.6 g/dL). Consistently, the Northern and Southern regions were worse off than the Center and the Federal District. These data indicate that anemia is a public health problem in Mexico. The functional consequences of this deficiency justify interventions to treat and prevent it.

  6. Vitamin D status and determinants of deficiency among non-pregnant Jordanian women of reproductive age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, E K; Khatib, I M D; Aburto, N J; Sullivan, K M; Scanlon, K S; Wirth, J P; Serdula, M K

    2012-06-01

    Vitamin D deficiency, a risk factor for osteomalacia and osteoporosis, is a re-emerging health problem globally. While sunlight is an important vitamin D source, previous investigations among women whose culture encourages skin covering have been small, not nationally representative, or both. We investigated serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D(3)) status and factors associated with deficiency in a nationally representative survey of 2013 Jordanian women of reproductive age in Spring 2010. We measured 25(OH)D(3) concentrations by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry and calculated prevalence ratios for deficiency associated with skin covering and other factors. Results showed 60.3% (95% CI: 57.1-63.4%) deficiency (education, prevalence of deficiency was 1.30 times higher for urban women of the same education level (95% CI: 1.08-1.57, P = 0.006), 1.18 times higher for urban women completing less than secondary education (95% CI: 0.98-1.43, P = 0.09), and 0.66 times lower for rural women completing less than secondary education (95% CI: 0.52-0.84, P = 0.001). Vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency pose significant public health problems in Jordanian women. Prevalence of deficiency is significantly higher among urban women and among women who cover with a scarf/hijab or niqab.

  7. Prevalence of Underweight, Overweight, and Obesity Among Reproductive-Age Women and Adolescent Girls in Rural China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yuan; Pan, An; Yang, Ying; Wang, Yuanyuan; Xu, Jihong; Zhang, Ya; Liu, Dujia; Wang, Qiaomei; Shen, Haiping; Zhang, Yiping; Yan, Donghai; Peng, Zuoqi; Hu, Frank B; Ma, Xu

    2016-12-01

    To provide prevalence and trends of underweight, overweight, and obesity among reproductive-age women and adolescent girls in rural China. We measured weight and height in 16 742 344 women aged 20 to 49 years and 178 556 girls aged 15 to 19 years from the National Free Preconception Health Examination Project between 2010 and 2014. Among women, the prevalence of underweight was 7.8% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 7.7%, 7.9%), and overweight or obesity was 16.5% (95% CI = 16.4%, 16.6%; World Health Organization criteria). Among adolescents, prevalence of underweight was 6.0% (95% CI = 5.7%, 6.2%; Centers for Disease Control and Prevention criteria) and overweight or obesity was 8.3% (95% CI = 7.9% to 8.8%; International Obesity Task Force criteria). According to Chinese criteria, overweight and obesity prevalence was 24.8% (95% CI = 24.7%, 24.9%) for women and 17.2% (95% CI = 16.6%, 17.8%) for adolescents, and underweight prevalence was 2.9% (95% CI = 2.8%, 3.1%) for adolescents. Considerable disparities existed in prevalence and trends within subpopulations (age groups, parity, region, education levels, and socioeconomic status). Our results reveal coexisting underweight and overweight or obesity among rural women and adolescents of reproductive age, which requires public health attention.

  8. Association between food insecurity and anemia among women of reproductive age

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    Bishwajit Ghose

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Food insecurity and hidden hunger (micronutrient deficiency affect about two billion people globally. Household food insecurity (HFI has been shown to be associated with one or multiple micronutrient (MMN deficiencies among women and children. Chronic food insecurity leads to various deficiency disorders, among which anemia stands out as the most prevalent one. As a high malnutrition prevalent country, Bangladesh has one of the highest rates of anemia among all Asian countries. In this study, we wanted to investigate for any association exists between HFI and anemia among women of reproductive age in Bangladesh. Methodology: Information about demographics, socioeconomic and anemia status on 5,666 married women ageing between 13 and 40 years were collected from a nationally representative cross-sectional survey Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey (BDHS 2011. Food security was measured by the Household Food Insecurity Access Scale (HFIAS. Capillary hemoglobin concentration (Hb measured by HemoCue® was used as the biomarker of anemia. Data were analysed using cross-tabulation, chi-square tests and multiple logistic regression methods. Results: Anemia prevalence was 41.7%. Logistic regression showed statistically significant association with anemia and type of residency (p = 0.459; OR = 0.953, 95%CI = 0.840–1.082, wealth status (Poorest: p < 0.001; OR = 1.369, 95%CI = 1.176–1.594; and average: p = 0.030; 95%CI = 1.017–1.398, educational attainment (p < 0.001; OR = 1.276, 95%CI = 1.132–1.439 and household food insecurity (p < 0.001; 95%CI = 1.348–1.830. Women who reported food insecurity were about 1.6 times more likely to suffer from anemia compared to their food secure counterparts. Conclusion: HFI is a significant predictor of anemia among women of reproductive age in Bangladesh. Programs targeting HFI could prove beneficial for anemia reduction strategies. Gender aspects of food and nutrition insecurity should be taken

  9. Nanotechnology and human health

    CERN Document Server

    Malsch, Ineke

    2013-01-01

    Addressing medium- and long-term expectations for human health, this book reviews current scientific and technical developments in nanotechnology for biomedical, agrofood, and environmental applications. This collection of perspectives on the ethical, legal, and societal implications of bionanotechnology provides unique insight into contemporary technological developments. Readers with a technical background will benefit from the overview of the state-of-the-art research in their field, while readers with a social science background will benefit from the discussion of realistic prospects of na

  10. Family Planning Practice Among Rural Reproductive-Age Married Women in Myanmar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jirapongsuwan, Ann; Latt, Kyaw Thu; Siri, Sukhontha; Munsawaengsub, Chokchai

    2016-05-01

    A cross-sectional study was undertaken to investigate family planning (FP) practices and associated factors among reproductive-age married women. Data were collected by interviewing the 300 married women living in a rural area of Myanmar. The questionnaire had reliability coefficients ranging from .8 to .9. Results indicated that 73.3% of women performed FP, and contraceptive injection was the most common method. Significant associations were found with age 21 to 35 years (adjusted odds ratio [adj OR] = 3.748, 95% CI = 2.179-6.445), adequacy of income (adj OR = 2.520, 95% CI = 1.477-4.290), good attitude toward FP (adj OR = 0.386, 95% CI = 0.228-0.656), good support from health care providers (adj OR = 0.129, 95% CI = 0.054-0.313), good support from family (adj OR = 0.304, 95% CI = 0.163-0.565), good support from friends (adj OR = 0.344, 95% CI = 0.193-0.613), and FP practice. It is recommended that designing FP programs with peers and family involvement could increase the practice of FP among rural Myanmar women. © 2016 APJPH.

  11. TGF-beta Sma/Mab signaling mutations uncouple reproductive aging from somatic aging.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shijing Luo

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Female reproductive cessation is one of the earliest age-related declines humans experience, occurring in mid-adulthood. Similarly, Caenorhabditis elegans' reproductive span is short relative to its total life span, with reproduction ceasing about a third into its 15-20 day adulthood. All of the known mutations and treatments that extend C. elegans' reproductive period also regulate longevity, suggesting that reproductive span is normally linked to life span. C. elegans has two canonical TGF-beta signaling pathways. We recently found that the TGF-beta Dauer pathway regulates longevity through the Insulin/IGF-1 Signaling (IIS pathway; here we show that this pathway has a moderate effect on reproductive span. By contrast, TGF-beta Sma/Mab signaling mutants exhibit a substantially extended reproductive period, more than doubling reproductive span in some cases. Sma/Mab mutations extend reproductive span disproportionately to life span and act independently of known regulators of somatic aging, such as Insulin/IGF-1 Signaling and Dietary Restriction. This is the first discovery of a pathway that regulates reproductive span independently of longevity and the first identification of the TGF-beta Sma/Mab pathway as a regulator of reproductive aging. Our results suggest that longevity and reproductive span regulation can be uncoupled, although they appear to normally be linked through regulatory pathways.

  12. Dioxin-like compounds and endometriosis: a study on Italian and Belgian women of reproductive age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Felip, Elena; Porpora, Maria Grazia; di Domenico, Alessandro; Ingelido, Anna Maria; Cardelli, Massimo; Cosmi, Ermelando V; Donnez, Jacques

    2004-04-21

    Compounds with dioxin-like toxicity are suspected to adversely affect human reproduction even at current background exposures. Endometriosis, a gynecological disorder often associated with infertility, has been hypothesized to be linked to dioxins and similar chemicals, a hypothesis supported by the outcome of experimental studies on animal models. Endometriosis severity and incidence in Belgium is one of the highest of the world: in this country, the general population exposure to dioxin-like compounds has been, on average, higher than in most industrialized countries. Here we show the results of a pilot case-control study carried out on 22 Italian and 18 Belgian women of reproductive age, with and without endometriosis. No significant differences were found in dioxin-like compound body burdens between cases and controls on a country basis, whereas the body burdens of the Italian women resulted to be significantly lower than that of the Belgian. In particular, total TEQs in Italian and Belgian women without endometriosis were respectively 18 and 45 pg WHO-TE/g lb.

  13. Determinants of Unintended Pregnancy among Women of Reproductive Age in Developing Countries: A Narrative Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumera Aziz Ali Aziz Ali

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & aim: Thecurrent population of the world is seven billion, and developing countries account for its 97%. Approximately 210 million pregnancies annually occur worldwide and 75-80 million of them are reported to be unintended. Multiple factors can contribute to unintended pregnancy, which need to be assessed to design interventions reducing the incidence of unintended pregnancies.This study aimed to identify the determinants of unintended pregnancy among women of reproductive age in developing countries. Methods:This review of the literature was carried out by retrieving articles from various databases such as PubMed, Google scholar, and Science Direct and using mesh terms and phrases including ‘unintended pregnancy’, ‘contraception’, and ‘determinants of unintended pregnancy’. The reviewed studies included descriptive studies, population council reports, demographic and health survey reports, the United Nations Children's Fund statistics, and the World Health Organization reports. Results: The most common determinants of unintended pregnancy in the literature were reported under the headings of sociodemographic, socioeconomic, sociocultural, fertility related, contraceptive methods, and access related factors. Conclusion: Multiple factors can predict unintended pregnancy, and these findings have significant policy implications. Policymakers and healthcare providers can benefit from the evidence on determinants of unwanted pregnancy to design and implement policies and programs that can support couples to have their desired number of children, without facing unnecessary threats to their health. Furthermore, more studies are needed to be done in future to assess the available cost-effective interventions for reducing unintended pregnancy and ultimately, to improve women’s and children’s health.

  14. Cocoa and human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellam, Samantha; Williamson, Gary

    2013-01-01

    Cocoa is a dry, powdered, nonfat component product prepared from the seeds of the Theobroma cacao L. tree and is a common ingredient of many food products, particularly chocolate. Nutritionally, cocoa contains biologically active substances that may affect human health: flavonoids (epicatechin and oligomeric procyanidins), theobromine, and magnesium. Theobromine and epicatechin are absorbed efficiently in the small intestine, and the nature of their conjugates and metabolites are now known. Oligomeric procyanidins are poorly absorbed in the small intestine, but catabolites are very efficiently absorbed after microbial biotransformation in the colon. A significant number of studies, using in vitro and in vivo approaches, on the effects of cocoa and its constituent flavonoids have been conducted. Most human intervention studies have been performed on cocoa as an ingredient, whereas many in vitro studies have been performed on individual components. Approximately 70 human intervention studies have been carried out on cocoa and cocoa-containing products over the past 12 years, with a variety of endpoints. These studies indicate that the most robust biomarkers affected are endothelial function, blood pressure, and cholesterol level. Mechanistically, supporting evidence shows that epicatechin affects nitric oxide synthesis and breakdown (via inhibition of nicotinamide adenine di-nucleotide phosphate oxidase) and the substrate arginine (via inhibition of arginase), among other targets. Evidence further supports cocoa as a biologically active ingredient with potential benefits on biomarkers related to cardiovascular disease. However, the calorie and sugar content of chocolate and its contribution to the total diet should be taken into account in intervention studies.

  15. Knowledge on uterine prolapse among married women of reproductive age in Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shrestha B

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Binjwala Shrestha,1,2 Bhimsen Devkota,3,4 Badri Bahadur Khadka,5 Bishnu Choulagai,1,2 Durga Prasad Pahari,1 Sharad Onta,1 Max Petzold,6 Alexandra Krettek2,7 1Department of Community Medicine and Public Health, Institute of Medicine, Tribhuvan University, Kathmandu, Nepal; 2Department of Internal Medicine and Clinical Nutrition, Institute of Medicine, Sahlgrenska Academy at University of Gothenburg, Sweden; 3Development Resource Centre, Kathmandu, Nepal; 4Institute of Education, Tribhuvan University, Kathmandu, Nepal; 5National Health Education Information and Communication Centre, Ministry of Health and Population, Government of Nepal, Kathmandu, Nepal; 6Akademistatistik – Centre for Applied Biostatistics, Occupational and Environmental Medicine, University of Gothenburg, Sweden; 7Nordic School of Public Health NHV, Gothenburg, Sweden Background: Uterine prolapse (UP, which affects about 10% of women of reproductive age in Nepal, is the most frequently reported cause of poor health in women of reproductive age and postmenopausal women. Currently, women's awareness of UP is unknown, and attempts to unravel the UP problem are inadequate. This study aims to assess UP knowledge among married reproductive women, and determine the association between UP knowledge and socioeconomic characteristics. Methods: Our cross-sectional descriptive study investigated 25 districts representing all five administrative regions, three ecological zones, and urban and rural settings. We used structured questionnaires to interview 4,693 married women aged 15–49 years. We assessed UP knowledge by asking women whether they had ever heard about UP, followed by specific questions about symptoms and preventive measures. Descriptive statistics characterized the study population regarding socioeconomic status, assessed how many participants had ever heard about UP, and determined UP knowledge level among participants who had heard about the condition. Simple regression

  16. Sexual dysfunction among female patients of reproductive age in a hospital setting in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fajewonyomi, Benjamin A; Orji, Ernest O; Adeyemo, Adenike O

    2007-03-01

    Although sexual dysfunction is an important public-health problem in Nigeria, little research has been conducted on this topic in Nigeria. This cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the prevalence of sexual dysfunction and their correlates among female patients of reproductive age using a questionnaire. Respondents were recruited from the out-patients clinics of a teaching hospital setting in Ile-Ife/ Ijesa administrative health zone, Osun State, Nigeria. Of 384 female patients interviewed, 242 (63%) were sexually dysfunctional. Types of sexual dysfunction included disorder of desire (n=20; 8.3%), disorder of arousal (n=l 3; 5.4%), disorder of orgasm (n=154; 63.6%), and painful coitus (dyspareunia) (n=55; 22.7%). The peak age of sexual dysfunction was observed among the age-group of 26-30 years. Women with higher educational status were mostly affected. The reasons for unsatisfactory sexual life mainly included psychosexual factors and medical illnesses, among which included uncaring partners, present illness, excessive domestic duties, lack of adequate foreplay, present medication, competition among wives in a polygamous family setting, previous sexual abuse, and guilt-feeling of previous pregnancy termination among infertile women. The culture of male dominance in the local environment which makes women afraid of rejection and threats of divorce if they ever complain about sexually-related matters might perpetrate sexual dysfunction among the affected individuals. Sexual dysfunction is a real social and psychological problem in the local environment demanding urgent attention. It is imperative to carry out further research in society at large so that the health and lifestyles of affected women and their partners could be improved.

  17. Awareness and use of folic acid among reproductive age and pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köken, Gülengül N; Derbent, Aysel Uysal; Erol, Onur; Saygın, Nimet; Ayık, Hülya; Karaca, Mehmet

    2013-01-01

    Folic acid supplementation during the pre-conception period and first trimester of pregnancy reduces the incidence of neural tube defects (NTDs). In this study, our aim is to investigate knowledge and use of folic acid among women attending our clinic. Between January 2012 and June 2012, 817 participants, consisting of 345 pregnant and 472 non-pregnant women, were enrolled in this survey. A questionnaire including socio-demographic information, knowledge and use of folic acid was applied. 48.2% of participants were aware of folic acid for the prevention of congenital anomalies. Knowledge and use of folic acid increase with socio-economic status and educational level. Participants who were already knowledgeable about folic acid cited health care professionals as common sources of information. Although 88.2% of the pregnancies were planned among the currently pregnant women, only 14.2% of them stated that they had used folic acid in the pre-conception period. The use of folic acid during the first trimester among pregnant women was 48.6%. Furthermore, 18.4% of participants had not used folic acid and 29.3% of them had not remembered whether they had or not. Even though 94.4% of health care professionals had heard about folic acid, 28.3% reported that they had used folic acid before pregnancy. It is thought that there is a relatively high incidence of NTD in Turkey, which is due to inadequate information about NTDs and the use of folic acid. Primarily health care professionals such as midwives, nurses and family physicians should aim to inform all reproductive age women about folic acid for the prevention of NTDs, who should be encouraged to take the supplement when planning pregnancy.

  18. Prevalence of Trichomonas vaginalis and Candida albicans among Brazilian Women of Reproductive Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glehn, Mateus De Paula; Ferreira, Lana Cristina Evangelista Sá; Da Silva, Hian Delfino Ferreira; Machado, Eleuza Rodrigues

    2016-01-01

    Introduction There are no studies assessing the simultaneous occurrence of Candida albicans (C. albicans) and Trichomonas vaginalis (T. vaginalis) in the primary health care in Brazil. Despite different conditions to establishment of each one, the co-detection of both has been reported by some authors in previous studies from other regions. Aim To compare the prevalence of T. vaginalis and C. albicans in correlation with associated variables. Materials and Methods A cross-sectional study conducted in a family health clinic in the Federal District of Brazil, between November 2014 and March 2015. Vaginal swabs were collected from 201 women of the reproductive age selected from women registered at the family health clinic. Minors and pregnant women were excluded. The rates of T. vaginalis and Candida albicans prevalence were evaluated with vaginal pH, the whiff test, sexual practices and other social and demographic variables. Difference between proportions was assessed by Z-Test. Results C. albicans was present in 20% of the women, while 16% of them had T. vaginalis. The simultaneous occurrence of the agents was found in 1.5%. Significant differences were found between prevalence rates for the variables race/skin colour, practice of anilingus and lifetime number of sexual partners. Conclusion The prevalence of T. vaginalis exceeds C.albicans among women with higher numbers of sexual partners. The prevalence of C. albicans was higher than T. vaginalis among white women and those who practice active and receptive anilingus. The simultaneous occurrence of the two microorganisms was uncommon. PMID:28050410

  19. Determinants of undernutrition among women of reproductive age in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-05-01

    May 1, 2015 ... overnutrition, and that half a million related to undernutrition.3 Over one half of ... who gave birth two months prior to the survey, had undernutrition, while 48% of ... families, they ignore their own health, which results in undernutrition, .... married, 16% were chronically undernourished, whereas 10% of.

  20. Influence of pregnancy perceptions on patterns of seeking antenatal care among women in reproductive age of Masaka District, Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atekyereza, Peter R; Mubiru, Kenneth

    2014-10-01

    Maternal mortality remains a challenge in Sub-Saharan Africa including Uganda. Antenatal Care (ANC) is one of the recommended measures to improve maternal and child health. However, the influence of pregnancy definition and perception on patterns of seeking regular and timely antenatal care among women in the reproductive age group (15-49 years) is not known. The objectives of this study were to: (i) understand the women's social definitions and perceptions on their pregnancy; (ii) understand the socio-cultural beliefs related to pregnancy among women of the reproductive age group; and, (iii) examine the influence of social definitions, perceptions and beliefs about pregnancy on women's antenatal care seeking behaviour patterns to inform the decentralised health care delivery system in Uganda. A total of 45 women, mothers and expectant women who were purposively selected from Kimanya sub county of Masaka district in Uganda participated in the study. Ten key informant interviews and four Focus Group Discussions (FGDs) were also conducted. Key findings indicate that the women's socio-definitions and perceptions of pregnancy influence their seeking behaviour on antenatal health care. To the women with a positive orientation towards antenatal care, pregnancy provides joy, happiness, pride, promotes their social status and safe-guards their marriage. Pregnancy is rewarding with care, love, support and gifts. Women who shun antenatal care perceive pregnancy to be a source of misery, sadness, pain and suffering. It is an uncomfortable and regrettable experience. Women also hold socio-cultural beliefs on pregnancy, which are culturally constructed and rooted in taboos, rituals and practices of their communities. It is therefore important to sensitise women and those who attend to them when they are pregnant to understand these perceptions and definitions to motivate them to seek antenatal and postnatal care for better maternal and child health.

  1. Combined hormonal contraception use in reproductive-age women with contraindications to estrogen use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauring, Julianne R; Lehman, Erik B; Deimling, Timothy A; Legro, Richard S; Chuang, Cynthia H

    2016-09-01

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's US Medical Eligibility Criteria for Contraceptive Use recommends that combined hormonal contraceptives (ie, birth control pills, contraceptive patch, vaginal ring) should be avoided in women with specific medical conditions because of the increased risk of cardiovascular events associated with estrogen use. Whether women with category 3 (theoretical or proven risk usually outweigh the advantages) or category 4 (unacceptable health risk) contraindications are appropriately avoiding estrogen-containing combined hormonal contraceptives is unknown. We describe the prevalence of combined hormonal contraceptive use among a sample of reproductive-age women with medical contraindications to estrogen use. Our hypothesis was that women with categories 3 and 4 contraindications would use estrogen-containing contraception less often than women without medical contraindications. We also explored whether inappropriate estrogen-containing contraceptive use is related to contraceptive provider characteristics. Data are from the baseline survey of the MyNewOptions study, which included privately insured women residing in Pennsylvania aged 18-40 years, who were sexually active and not intending pregnancy in the next year. Women were surveyed about their medical conditions, contraceptive use, and characteristics of their contraceptive provider. Women were considered to have a contraindication to combined hormonal contraceptives if they reported a category 3 or category 4 contraindication: hypertension, smokers older than age 35 years, a history of venous thromboembolism, diabetes with complications, coronary artery disease, systemic lupus erythematosus with antiphospholipid antibodies, breast cancer, or migraine headaches with aura. χ(2) tests for general association were used to compare combined hormonal contraceptives use, contraceptive health provider characteristics, and sociodemographic data in women with and without

  2. Prevalence and Associated Factors of Secondhand Smoke Exposure among Internal Chinese Migrant Women of Reproductive Age: Evidence from China's Labor-Force Dynamic Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Xiao; Luo, Xiaofeng; Ling, Li

    2016-04-01

    Secondhand smoke (SHS) is a major risk factor for poor health outcomes among women in China, where proportionately few women smoke. This is especially the case as it pertains to women's reproductive health, specifically migrant women who are exposed to SHS more than the population at large. There are several factors which may increase migrant women's risk of SHS exposure. This paper aims to investigate the prevalence and associated factors of SHS exposure among internal Chinese migrant women of reproductive age. The data used were derived from the 2014 Chinese Labor Dynamic Survey, a national representative panel survey. The age-adjusted rate of SHS exposure of women of reproductive age with migration experience was of 43.46% (95% CI: 40.73%-46.40%), higher than those without migration experience (35.28% (95% CI: 33.66%-36.97%)). Multivariate analysis showed that participants with a marital status of "Widowed" had statistically lower exposure rates, while those with a status of "Cohabitation" had statistically higher exposure. Those with an undergraduate degree or above had statistically lower SHS exposure. Those with increasing levels of social support, and those who currently smoke or drink alcohol, had statistically higher SHS exposure. Participants' different work-places had an effect on their SHS exposure, with outdoor workers statistically more exposed. Our findings suggest that urgent tobacco control measures should be taken to reduce smoking prevalence and SHS exposure. Specific attention should be paid to protecting migrant women of reproductive age from SHS.

  3. Inappropriate use of combined hormonal contraceptives for birth control among women of reproductive age in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jingbo; Hu, X Henry

    2013-07-01

    To describe the extent of inappropriate use of combined hormonal contraceptives (CHC) according to the United States Medical Eligibility Criteria (U.S. MEC). We analyzed Kantar Health's 2010 U.S. National Health and Wellness Survey data, which is an annual population-based survey of 75,000 U.S. adults via internet. A stratified random sampling framework was used to construct a sample that reflects the U.S. census by age, gender, and ethnicity. The analysis included nonpregnant females aged 18-44 years who used CHC, including oral, patch, or vaginal rings in the past 6 months. Women classified into category 3 (theoretical or proven risks usually outweigh the advantages of using the method) or 4 (unacceptable health risk) according to the U.S. MEC were defined as having high-risk conditions, or inappropriate CHC use. The proportions of women who had inappropriate CHC use were then projected to the U.S. population by diseases/conditions and demographic characteristics incorporating sampling weights. We identified 2963 adult females of reproductive age (mean 29.3±6.0) (i.e., 20.4% of all adult females of reproductive age in the database) as being CHC users. Among them, 23.7% (95% CI: 22.8%-24.5%) had at least one high-risk condition and 9.3% (95% CI: 9.2%-9.4%) had at least one condition of unacceptable risk. The three most common high-risk conditions were migraine (12.7%), multiple risk factors for arterial cardiovascular disease (9.3%), and hypertension (6.1%). Women with relatively higher proportions of inappropriate CHC use were age ≥35, not finished college, and Medicaid recipients. A large portion of women used CHC inappropriately. Hormone-free and progestin-only contraceptives are available options with potentially less risk for them.

  4. Kinetics of myo-inositol loading in women of reproductive age.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenen, P.; Merkus, J.M.W.M.; Sweep, C.G.J.; Wevers, R.A.; Janssen, F.; Steegers-Theunissen, R.P.M.

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Myo-inositol plays a key role in an important intracellular signalling pathway. A deranged myo-inositol metabolism has been associated with neural tube defects. A myo-inositol loading test was performed to investigate the kinetics in healthy women of reproductive age. METHODS: Five healt

  5. Iron supplementation benefits physical performance in women of reproductive age: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasricha, Sant-Rayn; Low, Michael; Thompson, Jane; Farrell, Ann; De-Regil, Luz-Maria

    2014-06-01

    Animal and human observational studies suggest that iron deficiency impairs physical exercise performance, but findings from randomized trials on the effects of iron are equivocal. Iron deficiency and anemia are especially common in women of reproductive age (WRA). Clear evidence of benefit from iron supplementation would inform clinical and public health guidelines. Therefore, we performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to determine the effect of iron supplementation compared with control on exercise performance in WRA. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Clinical Trials, MEDLINE, Scopus (comprising Embase and MEDLINE), WHO regional databases, and other sources in July 2013. Randomized controlled trials that measured exercise outcomes in WRA randomized to daily oral iron supplementation vs. control were eligible. Random-effects meta-analysis was used to calculate mean differences (MDs) and standardized MDs (SMDs). Risk of bias was assessed using the Cochrane risk-of-bias tool. Of 6757 titles screened, 24 eligible studies were identified, 22 of which contained extractable data. Only 3 studies were at overall low risk of bias. Iron supplementation improved both maximal exercise performance, demonstrated by an increase in maximal oxygen consumption (VO2 max) [for relative VO2 max, MD: 2.35 mL/(kg ⋅ min); 95% CI: 0.82, 3.88; P = 0.003, 18 studies; for absolute VO2 max, MD: 0.11 L/min; 95% CI: 0.03, 0.20; P = 0.01, 9 studies; for overall VO2 max, SMD: 0.37; 95% CI: 0.11, 0.62; P = 0.005, 20 studies], and submaximal exercise performance, demonstrated by a lower heart rate (MD: -4.05 beats per minute; 95% CI: -7.25, -0.85; P = 0.01, 6 studies) and proportion of VO2 max (MD: -2.68%; 95% CI: -4.94, -0.41; P = 0.02, 6 studies) required to achieve defined workloads. Daily iron supplementation significantly improves maximal and submaximal exercise performance in WRA, providing a rationale to prevent and treat iron deficiency in this group. This trial was

  6. Prevalence and associated factors of contraceptive discontinuation and switching among Bangladeshi married women of reproductive age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahumud RA

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Rashidul Alam Mahumud,1 Md Golam Hossain,2 Abdur Razzaque Sarkar,1 Md Nurul Islam,2 Md Ripter Hossain,2 Aik Saw,3 Jahangir AM Khan1,4 1Health Economics and Financing Research Group, Center for Equity and Health Systems, International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh, Dhaka, Bangladesh; 2Department of Statistics, University of Rajshahi, Rajshahi, Bangladesh; 3Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, National Orthopaedic Centre of Excellence for Research and Learning, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia; 4Adjunct Faculty, Health Economics Unit, Department of Learning, Informatics, Management and Ethics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden Introduction: Contraceptive discontinuation is a worldwide incident that may be connected with low incentive to avoid pregnancy. Contraceptive discontinuation highly contributes to unplanned pregnancy and unwanted births.Objectives: The objective of this study was to observe the prevalence of discontinuation and switching of contraceptive methods among Bangladeshi married women. In addition, the sociodemographic factors associated with contraceptive discontinuation and switching were assessed.Methods: Secondary cross-sectional data was used in this study. A total of 16,273 married Bangladeshi women of reproductive age (15–49 years were considered in the present study, from the Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey, 2011. Logistic regression models were used to determine the relationships between key sociodemographic factors and user status.Results: The prevalence of discontinuation and switching of contraceptive method among women were 38.4% and 15.4%, respectively. The logistic regression model demonstrated that women in early reproductive years (25–29 years and 30–34 years significantly more often (odds ratio [OR] =0.84 and 0.71, respectively discontinued use of contraceptives. Significantly higher rates of discontinuation were pronounced among women who

  7. Impacts on human health

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Genthe, Bettina

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available employment. Current use of fossil-fuel causes substantial ill-health from air pollution and occupational hazards. Nevertheless, health challenges still exist (lower health scores) dealing with rural conditions such as distance from medical facilities...] ecological degradation, the pumping and treatment of extraneous water, compliance to the conditions of the environmental authorisation and the management and sustainable closure thereof, until the Minister has issued [an] a closure certificate in terms...

  8. Care-seeking patterns for fatal non-communicable diseases among women of reproductive age in rural northwest Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sikder Shegufta S

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Though non-communicable diseases contribute to an increasing share of the disease burden in South Asia, health systems in most rural communities are ill-equipped to deal with chronic illness. This analysis seeks to describe care-seeking behavior among women of reproductive age who died from fatal non-communicable diseases as recorded in northwest rural Bangladesh between 2001 and 2007. Methods This analysis utilized data from a large population-based cohort trial in northwest rural Bangladesh. To conduct verbal autopsies of women who died while under study surveillance, physicians interviewed family members to elicit the biomedical symptoms that the women experienced as well as a narrative of the events leading to deaths. We performed qualitative textual analysis of verbal autopsy narratives for 250 women of reproductive age who died from non-communicable diseases between 2001 and 2007. Results The majority of women (94% sought at least one provider for their illnesses. Approximately 71% of women first visited non-certified providers such as village doctors and traditional healers, while 23% first sought care from medically certified providers. After the first point of care, women appeared to switch to medically certified practitioners when treatment from non-certified providers failed to resolve their illness. Conclusions This study suggests that treatment seeking patterns for non-communicable diseases are affected by many of the sociocultural factors that influence care seeking for pregnancy-related illnesses. Families in northwest rural Bangladesh typically delayed seeking treatment from medically certified providers for NCDs due to the cost of services, distance to facilities, established relationships with non-certified providers, and lack of recognition of the severity of illnesses. Most women did not realize initially that they were suffering from a chronic illness. Since women typically reached medically certified

  9. Nutrition, health and human rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brundtland, G H

    1999-07-01

    This paper presents the speech delivered by Gro Harlem Brundtland, Director-General of WHO, on issues related to nutrition from a health and a human rights perspective. According to Brundtland, nutrition is a universal factor that both affects and defines the health of all people. It affects not only growth and physical development of a child, but also his cognitive and social development. However, inequity, poverty, underdevelopment, as well as inadequate access to food, health and care still exist which have resulted to the deaths of millions of children and left many more suffering from diseases. Poverty has also been identified as the main obstacle to the attainment of health. The existence of structural poverty and ill health eventually leads to poor development, which includes poor nutrition, poor health, and poor human rights. The impact of poverty on health is further worsened by discrimination on the basis of race, color, sex, language, or religion. To address this issue, the WHO will renew their focus on the political and legal links between health and human rights. A human rights perspective provides the international community with an opportunity to support the development of public health policies and practices that promote healthy nutrition as a center of all social and economic development.

  10. Health implications of human trafficking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Tiffany A

    2014-01-01

    Freedom is arguably the most cherished right in the United States. But each year, approximately 14,500 to 17,500 women, men and children are trafficked into the United States for the purposes of forced labor or sexual exploitation. Human trafficking has significant effects on both physical and mental health. This article describes the features of human trafficking, its physical and mental health effects and the vital role nurses can play in providing care to this vulnerable population.

  11. Association of frequent use of food labels with weight loss behaviors among low-income reproductive-age women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laz, Tabassum H; Rahman, Mahbubur; Berenson, Abbey B

    2015-01-01

    To examine whether frequent use of food labels is associated with weight loss behaviors among low-income reproductive-age women. A self-administered survey of 1245 women aged 16 to 40 years assessed the frequency of food label use and weight loss behaviors during the past 12 months. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to examine the association between frequent use of food labels and weight loss behaviors after adjusting for confounders. Overall, 10.4% to 19.6% of women frequently used food labels to obtain information on different sections (ingredient list, nutrient claims, nutrition panel, serving size, or health claims), dietary components (calories, total fat, saturated fat, cholesterol, sodium/salt, fiber, sugar, vitamins, or minerals), and food products (desserts, snacks, frozen dinners, cereals, salad dressings, table spreads, or raw/processed meat). Women who used food labels frequently were more likely to engage in healthy weight loss behaviors compared to those who used them infrequently or did not use them at all. For example, the odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) of "began to exercise/exercised more" for the 3 categories of food label use mentioned above were 2.24 and 1.65-3.04; 2.52 and 1.90-3.32; and 1.85 and 1.36-2.52, respectively. The odds of healthy weight loss behaviors were 2 to 4 times higher when food labels were used frequently to seek information on calories and nutrients such as total fat, saturated fat, or cholesterol. However, frequent food label users were also more likely to practice a few unhealthy weight loss behaviors, such as taking diet pills, medicines, herbs, or supplements without a prescription. Frequent use of food labels was associated with increased healthy weight loss behaviors among reproductive-age women, which can be incorporated into obesity preventive strategies with distinct awareness regarding unhealthy weight loss behaviors.

  12. Hair chemical element contents and influence factors of reproductive-age women in the West Ujimqin Banner, Inner Mongolia, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Shanshan; Yuan, Haodong; Ma, Xiaoling; Liu, Ying

    2017-01-01

    Women have an increased risk for chemical element deficiencies during reproductive age, particularly due to higher chemical element requirements and poor diets. Twenty-one chemical elements (Al, B, Ba, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Se, Si, Sn, Sr, Ti, V and Zn) in hair samples, which were collected from 71 non-pregnant and 236 pregnant women living in the West Ujimqin Banner, central Inner Mongolia, China, were measured, and the environment, dietary habits and ethnic group influence factors associated with the biomarker were analyzed. The results indicated that the average values of the chemical element contents from hair were greatly different compared to those from other areas, especially the Al, Cd, Pb, Ca and Sr contents. There was no significant difference among the three ethnicities for any element except Mn and Ti in non-pregnant women. Compared to non-pregnant women, in the first trimester group, the levels of nine chemical elements (Ba, Cd, Cu, Pb, Se, Si, Sn and Ti) decreased, while the others increased, and the contents of all of the chemical elements decreased in the second trimester group, while in the third trimester, there was a slight increase. Three chemical elements (Cu, Mn and Zn) displayed a synergistic correlation between each other in the third trimester group, which may protect the placenta from some oxidant damage. The high levels of Cd and Pb in hair likely originate from house renovations and traffic pollution. This study provided basic and useful information on the levels of chemical elements in reproductive-age women, and the results of this study are helpful to control the contents and improve the health of pregnant and non-pregnant women. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Epidemiological correlates of contraceptive prevalence in married women of reproductive age group in rural area

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    Sujata K. Murarkar, S. G. Soundale

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In spite of availability of a wide range of contraceptives and mass media campaigns population control is a distant dream to achieve. It is pertinent to identify the factors responsible for poor contraceptive acceptance. The study was conducted to find out contraceptive prevalence in married women of reproductive age group and to study epidemiological correlates affecting contraceptive practices. A cross-sectional population based study covered 512 married women in reproductive age group in the village Chanai, Taluka- Ambajogai, Dist.-Breed. They were interviewed by predesigned and pretested questionnaire. Out of 512 married women 48.63% were contraceptive acceptors. Contraceptive acceptance was more in women who are graduate and above(82.76%, women from nuclear family (58.79%, Upper middle socioeconomic class (79.62%.Contraceptive acceptance was lowest in agricultural laborer(38.87% .A significant association was found between contraceptive acceptance and literacy status, occupation, type of family, socioeconomic status and age at marriage.

  14. Prevalence of Food Addiction Among Low-Income Reproductive-Aged Women

    OpenAIRE

    Berenson, Abbey B.; Laz, Tabassum H.; Pohlmeier, Ali M.; Rahman, Mahbubur; Cunningham, Kathryn A.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Hyperpalatable foods (i.e., high in salt, sugar, or fat) have been shown to have addictive properties that may contribute to overeating. Prior studies conducted on food addiction behaviors are mostly based on white and middle-aged women. Data are not available, however, on reproductive-aged women from other races/ethnicities or low-income women. The purpose of this study was to examine the prevalence and correlates of food addiction among multiethnic women of low socioeconomic sta...

  15. Comparison of aerobic conjunctival bacterial flora in pregnant, reproductive-aged and postmenopausal women

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    Melike Balikoglu-Yilmaz

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To evaluate the effect of hormonal status on aerobic conjunctival flora in women.METHODS: One hundred fifty-eight women [reproductive-aged (n=55, pregnant (n=51, and postmenopausal (n=52] who admitted to outpatient clinic of Obstetrics and Gynecology Department of Denizli State Hospital were enrolled. Age, body-mass index (BMI, obstetric history, cigarette smoking, drug usage, presence of systemic disease, and intraocular pressure (IOP were recorded for each patient. The samples were taken from the lower fornix with two culture swabs and directly incubated in culture containing 5% sheep blood, eosin-methylene blue and chocolate agar. The other swab specimen was Gram stained. All growths and microscopic results were analyzed.RESULTS: The coagulase-negative Staphylococcus was the predominant organism isolated in the conjunctival samples in both three groups. The aerobic microorganism growth rate for all isolated aerobic organisms revealed no significant change in the three groups (P >0.05. The conjunctival culture positivity rates were similar in the three groups (49% in reproductive-aged, 57% in pregnant and 58% in postmenopausal women (P >0.05. Age, IOP, BMI, gravidity, parity, cigarette smoking, drug usage, and presence of systemic diseases did not have an effect on culture positivity in three groups.CONCLUSION: Results of this study showed that conjunctival aerobic flora and bacterial colonization did not differ between reproductive-aged, pregnant and postmenopausal women.

  16. Mathematical modelling of decline in follicle pool during female reproductive ageing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thilagam, Alagu

    2016-03-01

    The factors which govern the subtle links between follicle loss and mammalian female reproductive ageing remain unclear despite extensive studies undertaken to understand the critical physiological and biochemical mechanisms that underly the accelerated decline in follicle numbers in women older than 37 years. It is not certain whether there is a sole control by the ovary or whether other factors which affect ageing also intersect with the ovarian effect. There is convincing experimental evidence for an interplay of several processes that seem to influence the follicle loss-female reproductive ageing links, with specific hormones (follicle-stimulating hormone, anti-Müllerian hormone, dehydroepiandrosterone) noted to play important roles in follicular dynamics and ovarian ageing. In this work, we examine the subtle links between the rate of follicular decline with ageing and the role of hormones via a series of non-autonomous equations. Simulation results based on the time evolution of the number of ovarian follicles and biochemical changes in the ovarian environment influenced by hormone levels is compared with empirical data based on follicle loss-reproductive ageing correlation studies. © Crown copyright 2015.

  17. Comparison of aerobic conjunctival bacterial flora in pregnant, reproductive-aged and postmenopausal women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balikoglu-Yilmaz, Melike; Sen, Emine; Sevket, Osman; Polat, Yusuf; Karabulut, Aysun; Uysal, Omer

    2012-01-01

    AIM To evaluate the effect of hormonal status on aerobic conjunctival flora in women. METHODS One hundred fifty-eight women [reproductive-aged (n=55), pregnant (n=51), and postmenopausal (n=52)] who admitted to outpatient clinic of Obstetrics and Gynecology Department of Denizli State Hospital were enrolled. Age, body-mass index (BMI), obstetric history, cigarette smoking, drug usage, presence of systemic disease, and intraocular pressure (IOP) were recorded for each patient. The samples were taken from the lower fornix with two culture swabs and directly incubated in culture containing 5% sheep blood, eosin-methylene blue and chocolate agar. The other swab specimen was Gram stained. All growths and microscopic results were analyzed. RESULTS The coagulase-negative Staphylococcus was the predominant organism isolated in the conjunctival samples in both three groups. The aerobic microorganism growth rate for all isolated aerobic organisms revealed no significant change in the three groups (P >0.05). The conjunctival culture positivity rates were similar in the three groups (49% in reproductive-aged, 57% in pregnant and 58% in postmenopausal women) (P >0.05). Age, IOP, BMI, gravidity, parity, cigarette smoking, drug usage, and presence of systemic diseases did not have an effect on culture positivity in three groups. CONCLUSION Results of this study showed that conjunctival aerobic flora and bacterial colonization did not differ between reproductive-aged, pregnant and postmenopausal women. PMID:23275909

  18. Health, Human Capital, and Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleakley, Hoyt

    2010-09-01

    How much does disease depress development in human capital and income around the world? I discuss a range of micro evidence, which finds that health is both human capital itself and an input to producing other forms of human capital. I use a standard model to integrate these results, and suggest a re-interpretation of much of the micro literature. I then discuss the aggregate implications of micro estimates, but note the complications in extrapolating to general equilibrium, especially because of health's effect on population size. I also review the macro evidence on this topic, which consists of either cross-country comparisons or measuring responses to health shocks. Micro estimates are 1-2 orders of magnitude smaller than the cross-country relationship, but nevertheless imply high benefit-to-cost ratios from improving certain forms of health.

  19. Common causes of vaginal infections and antibiotic susceptibility of aerobic bacterial isolates in women of reproductive age attending at Felegehiwot Referral Hospital, Ethiopia: a cross sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulu, Wondemagegn; Yimer, Mulat; Zenebe, Yohannes; Abera, Bayeh

    2015-05-13

    Bacterial vaginosis, candidal, trichomonal and Gonococcal vaginal infections are a major health problems associated with gynecologic complications and increase in replication, shedding and transmission of HIV and other STIs in women of reproductive age. The study aimed at determining the prevalence of common vaginal infections and antimicrobial susceptibility profiles of aerobic bacterial isolates in women of reproductive age, attending Felegehiwot referral Hospital. A hospital based cross sectional study was conducted from May to November, 2013. Simple random sampling technique was used. Demographic variables were collected using a structured questionnaire. Clinical data were collected by physicians. Two vaginal swab specimens were collected from each participant. Wet mount and Gram staining were carried out to identify motile T.vaginalis, budding yeast and clue cells. All vaginal specimens were cultured for aerobic bacterial isolates using standard microbiology methods. Antimicrobial susceptibility was performed using disc diffusion technique as per the standard by Kirby-Bauer method. The results were analyzed using descriptive, chi-square and fisher's exact test as appropriate. A total of 409 women in reproductive age (15 - 49 years) participated in the study. The median age of the women was 28 years. Overall, 63 (15.4 %) of women had vaginal infections. The proportion of vaginal infection was higher in non-pregnant (17.3 %) than pregnant women (13.3 %) (P = 0.002). The most common identified vaginal infections were candidiasis (8.3 %) and bacterial vaginosis (2.8 %) followed by trichomoniasis (2.1 %). The isolation rate of N. gonorrhoeae and group B Streptococcus colonization was 4 (1 %) and 6 (1.2 %), respectively. Bacterial vaginosis was higher in non-pregnant (5.6 %) than pregnant women (0.5 %) (P = 0.002). Religion, age, living in rural area and having lower abdominal pain were significantly associated with bacterial vaginosis and

  20. Sexually transmitted infections, bacterial vaginosis, and candidiasis in women of reproductive age in rural Northeast Brazil: a population-based study

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    Fabíola Araújo Oliveira

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Population-based data on sexually transmitted infections (STI, bacterial vaginosis (BV, and candidiasis reflect the epidemiological situation more accurately than studies performed in specific populations, but such data are scarce. To determine the prevalence of STI, BV, and candidiasis among women of reproductive age from a resource-poor community in Northeast Brazil, a population-based cross sectional study was undertaken. All women from seven hamlets and the centre of Pacoti municipality in the state of Ceará, aged 12 to 49 years, were invited to participate. The women were asked about socio-demographic characteristics and genital symptoms, and thereafter examined gynaecologically. Laboratory testing included polymerase chain reaction (PCR for human papillomavirus (HPV, ligase chain reaction (LCR for Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae, ELISA for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV, venereal disease research laboratory (VDRL and fluorescent treponema antibody absorption test (FTA-ABS for syphilis, and analysis of wet mounts, gram stains and Pap smears for trichomoniasis, candidiasis, and BV. Only women who had initiated sexual life were included in the analysis (n = 592. The prevalences of STI were: HPV 11.7% (95% confidence interval: 9.3-14.7, chlamydia 4.5% (3.0-6.6, trichomoniasis 4.1% (2.7-6.1, gonorrhoea 1.2% (0.5-2.6, syphilis 0.2% (0.0-1.1, and HIV 0%. The prevalence of BV and candidiasis was 20% (16.9-23.6 and 12.5% (10.0-15.5, respectively. The most common gynaecological complaint was lower abdominal pain. STI are common in women in rural Brazil and represent an important health threat in view of the HIV pandemic.

  1. Forests, Trees and Human Health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, Kjell Svenne Bernhard; Sangster, Marcus; Konijnendijk, Cecil Cornelis

    2011-01-01

    The link between modern lifestyles and increasing levels of chronic heart disease, obesity, stress and poor mental health is a concern across the world. The cost of dealing with these conditions places a large burden on national public health budgets so that policymakers are increasingly looking...... Union’s COST Action E39 ‘Forests, Trees and Human Health and Wellbeing’, and draws together work carried out over four years by scientists from 25 countries working in the fields of forestry, health, environment and social sciences. While the focus is primarily on health priorities defined within Europe...... at prevention as a cost-effective alternative to medical treatment. Attention is turning towards interactions between the environment and lifestyles. Exploring the relationships between health, natural environments in general, and forests in particular, this groundbreaking book is the outcome of the European...

  2. Health, Human Capital, and Development*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleakley, Hoyt

    2013-01-01

    How much does disease depress development in human capital and income around the world? I discuss a range of micro evidence, which finds that health is both human capital itself and an input to producing other forms of human capital. I use a standard model to integrate these results, and suggest a re-interpretation of much of the micro literature. I then discuss the aggregate implications of micro estimates, but note the complications in extrapolating to general equilibrium, especially because of health’s effect on population size. I also review the macro evidence on this topic, which consists of either cross-country comparisons or measuring responses to health shocks. Micro estimates are 1–2 orders of magnitude smaller than the cross-country relationship, but nevertheless imply high benefit-to-cost ratios from improving certain forms of health. PMID:24147187

  3. Soil biodiversity and human health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Six, Johan; Pereg, Lily; Brevik, Eric

    2017-04-01

    Biodiversity is important for the maintenance of soil quality. Healthy, biodiverse soils are crucial for human health and wellbeing from several reasons, for example: biodiversity has been shown to be important in controlling populations of pathogens; healthy, well-covered soils can reduce disease outbreaks; carbon-rich soils may also reduce outbreaks of human and animal parasites; exposure to soil microbes can reduce allergies; soils have provided many of our current antibiotics; soil organisms can provide biological disease and pest control agents, healthy soils mean healthier and more abundant foods; soil microbes can enhance crop plant resilience; healthy soils promote good clean air quality, less prone to wind and water erosion; and healthy soils provide clean and safe water through filtration, decontamination by microbes and removal of pollutants. Soil microbes and other biota provide many benefits to human health. Soil microbes are a source of medicines, such as antibiotics, anticancer drugs and many more. Organisms that affect soil health and thus human health include those involved in nutrient cycling, decomposition of organic matter and determining soil structure (e.g. aggregation). Again these are related to food security but also affect human health in other ways. Many beneficial organisms have been isolated from soil - plant growth promoting and disease suppressive microbes used as inoculants, foliar inoculants for improvement of ruminant digestion systems and inoculants used in bioremediation of toxic compounds in the environment. Soil biodiversity is highly recognised now as an important feature of healthy soil and imbalances have been shown to give advantage to harmful over beneficial organisms. This presentation will highlight the many connections of biodiversity to soil quality and human health.

  4. Soil biodiversity and human health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wall, Diana H.; Nielsen, Uffe N.; Six, Johan

    2015-12-01

    Soil biodiversity is increasingly recognized as providing benefits to human health because it can suppress disease-causing soil organisms and provide clean air, water and food. Poor land-management practices and environmental change are, however, affecting belowground communities globally, and the resulting declines in soil biodiversity reduce and impair these benefits. Importantly, current research indicates that soil biodiversity can be maintained and partially restored if managed sustainably. Promoting the ecological complexity and robustness of soil biodiversity through improved management practices represents an underutilized resource with the ability to improve human health.

  5. Human health monitoring technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Byung-Hyun; Yook, Jong-Gwan

    2017-05-01

    Monitoring vital signs from human body is very important to healthcare and medical diagnosis, because they contain valuable information about arterial occlusions, arrhythmia, atherosclerosis, autonomous nervous system pathologies, stress level, and obstructive sleep apnea. Existing methods, such as electrocardiogram (ECG) sensor and photoplethysmogram (PPG) sensor, requires direct contact to the skin and it can causes skin irritation and the inconvenience of long-term wearing. For reducing the inconvenience in the conventional sensors, microwave and millimeter-wave sensors have been proposed since 1970s using micro-Doppler effect from one's cardiopulmonary activity. The Doppler radar sensor can remotely detect the respiration and heartbeat up to few meters away from the subject, but they have a multiple subject issue and are not suitable for an ambulatory subject. As a compromise, a noncontact proximity vital sign sensor has been recently proposed and developed. The purpose of this paper is to review the noncontact proximity vital sign sensors for detection of respiration, heartbeat rate, and/or wrist pulse. This sensor basically employs near-field perturbation of radio-frequency (RF) planar resonator due to the proximity of the one's chest or radial artery at the wrist. Various sensing systems based on the SAW filter, phase-locked loop (PLL) synthesizer, reflectometer, and interferometer have been proposed. These self-sustained systems can measure the nearfield perturbation and transform it into DC voltage variation. Consequently, they can detect the respiration and heartbeat rate near the chest of subject and pulse from radial artery at the wrist.

  6. Psychosocial burden differences between women of reproductive age and menopausal age due to abnormal Pap smear: A pilot study of the East Coast of Malaysia

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    Shabbir Ahmad Sheikh

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: Psychosocial burden due to abnormal Pap smear results in terms of mental stress, overwhelming beliefs, and feelings of guilt and worry of HPV infection and possibility of cervical cancer were noted more in reproductive age groups as compared to the menopausal age group. Health-care providers should be aware of these psychosocial effects whereby they can refer such patients to a gynecologic oncologist for proper counseling at the proper time so that the negative impact due to this psychosocial burden can be prevented.

  7. Increased Risk of Mortality Due to Interpersonal Violence in Foreign-Born Women of Reproductive Age: A Swedish Register-Based Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernbrant, Cecilia; Essén, Birgitta; Esscher, Annika; Östergren, Per-Olof; Cantor-Graae, Elizabeth

    2016-10-01

    Violence against women is an increasing public health concern, with assault leading to death as the most extreme outcome. Previous findings indicate that foreign-born women living in Sweden are more exposed to interpersonal violence than Swedish-born women. The current study investigates mortality due to interpersonal violence in comparison with other external causes of death among women of reproductive age in Sweden, with focus on country of birth. Foreign-born women and especially those from countries with low and very low gender equity levels had increased risk of mortality due to interpersonal violence, thus implicating lack of empowerment as a contributing factor.

  8. Maternal mortality in Kassala State - Eastern Sudan: community-based study using Reproductive age mortality survey (RAMOS

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    Mohammed Abdalla A

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The maternal mortality ratio in Sudan was estimated at 750/100,000 live births. Sudan was one of eleven countries that are responsible for 65% of global maternal deaths according to a recent World Health Organization (WHO estimate. Maternal mortality in Kassala State was high in national demographic surveys. This study was conducted to investigate the causes and contributing factors of maternal deaths and to identify any discrepancies in rates and causes between different areas. Methods A reproductive age mortality survey (RAMOS was conducted to study maternal mortality in Kassala State. Deaths of women of reproductive age (WRA in four purposively selected areas were identified by interviewing key informants in each village followed by verbal autopsy. Results Over a three-year period, 168 maternal deaths were identified among 26,066 WRA. Verbal autopsies were conducted in 148 (88.1% of these cases. Of these, 64 (43.2% were due to pregnancy and childbirth complications. Maternal mortality rates and ratios were 80.6 per 100,000 WRA and 713.6 per 100,000 live births (LB, respectively. There was a wide discrepancy between urban and rural maternal mortality ratios (369 and 872100,000 LB, respectively. Direct obstetric causes were responsible for 58.4% of deaths. Severe anemia (20.3% and acute febrile illness (9.4% were the major indirect causes of maternal death whereas obstetric hemorrhage (15.6%, obstructed labor (14.1% and puerperal sepsis (10.9% were the major obstetric causes. Of the contributing factors, we found delay of referral in 73.4% of cases in spite of a high problem recognition rate (75%. 67.2% of deaths occurred at home, indicating under utilization of health facilities, and transportation problems were found in 54.7% of deaths. There was a high illiteracy rate among the deceased and their husbands (62.5% and 48.4%, respectively. Conclusions Maternal mortality rates and ratios were found to be high, with a wide

  9. Human Rights and Health Services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skitsou, Alexandra; Bekos, Christos; Charalambous, George

    2016-01-01

    , ongoing education of health professionals along with relevant education of the community and the broad application of triage in the emergency departments will all contribute to delivering health services more effectively. Keywords: Cyprus, health services, patient rights...... and their families to be essential. Conclusions: The paper concludes that implementing guidelines in accordance with international best practices, the establishment of at-home treatment and nursing facilities, counseling the mentally ill in a way that promotes their social integration and occupational rehabilitation......Background: It has been observed that health services provided to certain patients in Cyprus do not fully meet their human rights. Objective: This study was conducted to identify the main shortcomings of the Health System in Cyprus. Methodology: The relevant administrative decisions...

  10. Household food insecurity in Mexico is associated with the co-occurrence of overweight and anemia among women of reproductive age, but not female adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Andrew D; Mundo-Rosas, Verónica; Cantoral, Alejandra; Levy, Teresa Shamah

    2016-12-14

    We aimed to determine the association between household food insecurity (HFI) and the co-occurrence of overweight and anemia among women of reproductive age in the Mexican population. We analyzed data on 4,039 nonpregnant female adolescents (15-19 years) and 10,760 nonpregnant adult women of reproductive age (20-49 years) from the 2012 National Health and Nutrition Survey of Mexico. The survey uses a two-stage sampling design, stratified by rural and urban regions. The Latin American and Caribbean Food Security Scale was used to assess HFI. We assessed overweight and obesity in women based on World Health Organization classifications for body mass index, and BMI-for-age Z-scores for female adolescents, and defined anemia as an altitude-adjusted hemoglobin (Hb) concentration < 120 g/L based on measurement of capillary Hb concentrations. In multiple logistic regression models adjusting for potential confounding covariates, HFI was not associated with the co-occurrence of anemia and overweight among female adolescents. The adjusted odds of women of reproductive age from mildly and moderately food-insecure households, respectively, experiencing concurrent anemia and overweight were 48% (OR: 1.48; 95% CI: 1.15, 1.91) and 49% (OR: 1.49; 95% CI: 1.08, 2.06) higher than among women from food-secure households. Severe HFI was not associated with concurrent overweight and anemia among female adolescents or women. HFI may be a shared mechanism for dual forms of malnutrition within the same individual, simultaneously contributing to overconsumption and dietary inadequacy.

  11. Perception on prevention of mother-to-child-transmission (PMTCT of HIV among women of reproductive age group in Osogbo, Southwestern Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olugbenga-Bello AI

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available AI Olugbenga-Bello,1 WO Adebimpe,2 FF Osundina,3 ST Abdulsalam3 1Department of Community Medicine, Faculty of Clinical Sciences, College of Health Sciences, Ladoke Akintola University of Technology (LAUTECH, Osogbo, Osun State, Nigeria; 2Department of Community Medicine, Osun State University, Osogbo, Osun State, Nigera; 3Department of Community Medicine, Ladoke Akintola University of Technology (LAUTECH Teaching Hospital, Ogbomoso, Oyo State, Nigeria Introduction: The fastest growing group of adults living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV, is women. As more women contract the virus, the number of children infected in utero, intra-partum, and during breastfeeding has been growing. This study assessed the knowledge and attitude of women of child bearing age towards the prevention of mother-to-child-transmission (PMTCT of HIV. Materials and methods: This is a descriptive cross sectional survey of 420 women of the reproductive age group (15–49 years selected using a multistage sampling technique. Data were obtained using interviewer-administered, pretested, semistructured questionnaires. The data were analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS software version 15. Results: A high level of awareness about HIV/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS was observed among the respondents (99.8%. The knowledge about MTCT and PMTCT of HIV was high, 92.1% and 91.4%, respectively. However, a significant portion (71.27% of the study population had poor attitudes towards PMTCT of HIV. Conclusion: Despite the high level of awareness of HIV/AIDS, and good knowledge about MTCT and PMTCT of HIV/AIDS among the respondents, the attitude towards PMTCT is poor. There is need for the involvement of the stakeholders in bridging the gap between knowledge and attitude of prevention of MTCT of HIV among women. Keywords: HIV/AIDS, PMTCT, women, perception, knowledge, attitude

  12. Ovarian reserve in women of late reproductive age by the method of treatment of PCOS

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    Ketevan Beltadze

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: The prevalence of polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS particularly is increased in adolescents. Very few longitudinal follow-up for assessment of ovarian reserve in women of late reproductive age with previously confirmed PCOS have been conducted, especially after its diagnosis and treatment in adolescence. Objective: The aim of the present study was to compare of the ovarian reserve of the women of late reproductive age by the method of treatment of PCOS in adolescence. Materials and Methods: This cross sectional study in an unselected population was conducted from January to June 2014. A total of 123 women of late reproductive age were included. They had been diagnosed with PCOS between 1984 and 1990 when they were 13-18 yr. From these, first group of the study was consisted of 67 participants who underwent conservative treatment with antiandrogens and combined oral contraceptives and second group of the study was consisted of 56 participants after surgery (34-bilateral ovarian drilling and 22- ovarian wedge resection. At the time of investigation patients were 35-45 yr. The participants were collected via analysis of histories at primary diagnosis of PCOS in adolescence and at the time of the investigation analyses of reproductive hormones were conducted. Data were compared between the groups. Results: After conservative treatment PCOS women had higher levels of anti- mullerian hormone and lower follicle-stimulating hormone levels (p=0.02 and p=0.04, respectively. The number of antral follicles and mean ovarian volume were significantly greater also, than in women who underwent surgical treatment (p=0.03 and p=0.04, respectively. Conclusion: Our data suggest that PCOS patients who underwent conservative treatment have the better ovarian reserve than women who underwent surgical treatment of PCOS in adolescence.

  13. Waist circumference and insulin resistance: a community based cross sectional study on reproductive aged Iranian women

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    Zadeh-Vakili Azita

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although the positive relationship between insulin resistance (IR and central obesity is well known, the direct relationship between waist circumference and IR is not clear yet and there is no consensus regarding the cut off value for waist circumference as a surrogate index for central obesity. The present study was aimed to determine the optimal cut-off value of waist circumference (WC for predicting IR in reproductive aged Iranian women. Methods Using the stratified, multistage probability cluster sampling method 1036 women were randomly selected from among reproductive aged women of different geographic regions of Iran. Following implementation of exclusion criteria, complete data for 907 women remained for analysis. Insulin resistance was evaluated by the homeostasis model assessment (HOMA-IR and its cut off value was defined as the 95th percentile of HOMA-IR value for 129 subjects, without any metabolic abnormality. The optimal cut-off of WC in relation to HOMA-IR was calculated based on the receiver operating characteristics (ROC curve analysis using the Youden index and the area under curve (AUC. Results The mean age of the total sample of 907 subjects was 34.4 ± 7.6 years (range, 18 - 45 years. After adjustment for age the odds ratios (OR of elevated HOMA-IR were progressively higher with increasing levels of waist circumference; the age adjusted OR of IR for women with WC > 95 cm in comparison to those subjects with WC Conclusions Waist circumference is directly related to insulin resistance and the optimal cut-off value for waist circumference reflecting insulin resistance is considered to be 88.5 cm for reproductive aged Iranian women.

  14. Geographic Variation and Factors Associated with Female Genital Mutilation among Reproductive Age Women in Ethiopia: A National Population Based Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setegn, Tesfaye; Lakew, Yihunie; Deribe, Kebede

    2016-01-01

    Female genital mutilation (FGM) is a common traditional practice in developing nations including Ethiopia. It poses complex and serious long-term health risks for women and girls and can lead to death. In Ethiopia, the geographic distribution and factors associated with FGM practices are poorly understood. Therefore, we assessed the spatial distribution and factors associated with FGM among reproductive age women in the country. We used population based national representative surveys. Data from two (2000 and 2005) Ethiopian demographic and health surveys (EDHS) were used in this analysis. Briefly, EDHS used a stratified, two-stage cluster sampling design. A total of 15,367 (from EDHS 2000) and 14,070 (from EDHS 2005) women of reproductive age (15-49 years) were included in the analysis. Three outcome variables were used (prevalence of FGM among women, prevalence of FGM among daughters and support for the continuation of FGM). The data were weighted and descriptive statistics (percentage change), bivariate and multivariable logistic regression analyses were carried out. Multicollinearity of variables was assessed using variance inflation factors (VIF) with a reference value of 10 before interpreting the final output. The geographic variation and clustering of weighted FGM prevalence were analyzed and visualized on maps using ArcGIS. Z-scores were used to assess the statistical difference of geographic clustering of FGM prevalence spots. The trend of FGM weighted prevalence has been decreasing. Being wealthy, Muslim and in higher age categories are associated with increased odds of FGM among women. Similarly, daughters from Muslim women have increased odds of experiencing FGM. Women in the higher age categories have increased odds of having daughters who experience FGM. The odds of FGM among daughters decrease with increased maternal education. Mass media exposure, being wealthy and higher paternal and maternal education are associated with decreased odds of women

  15. Geographic Variation and Factors Associated with Female Genital Mutilation among Reproductive Age Women in Ethiopia: A National Population Based Survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tesfaye Setegn

    Full Text Available Female genital mutilation (FGM is a common traditional practice in developing nations including Ethiopia. It poses complex and serious long-term health risks for women and girls and can lead to death. In Ethiopia, the geographic distribution and factors associated with FGM practices are poorly understood. Therefore, we assessed the spatial distribution and factors associated with FGM among reproductive age women in the country.We used population based national representative surveys. Data from two (2000 and 2005 Ethiopian demographic and health surveys (EDHS were used in this analysis. Briefly, EDHS used a stratified, two-stage cluster sampling design. A total of 15,367 (from EDHS 2000 and 14,070 (from EDHS 2005 women of reproductive age (15-49 years were included in the analysis. Three outcome variables were used (prevalence of FGM among women, prevalence of FGM among daughters and support for the continuation of FGM. The data were weighted and descriptive statistics (percentage change, bivariate and multivariable logistic regression analyses were carried out. Multicollinearity of variables was assessed using variance inflation factors (VIF with a reference value of 10 before interpreting the final output. The geographic variation and clustering of weighted FGM prevalence were analyzed and visualized on maps using ArcGIS. Z-scores were used to assess the statistical difference of geographic clustering of FGM prevalence spots.The trend of FGM weighted prevalence has been decreasing. Being wealthy, Muslim and in higher age categories are associated with increased odds of FGM among women. Similarly, daughters from Muslim women have increased odds of experiencing FGM. Women in the higher age categories have increased odds of having daughters who experience FGM. The odds of FGM among daughters decrease with increased maternal education. Mass media exposure, being wealthy and higher paternal and maternal education are associated with decreased odds

  16. Climate Change and Human Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan C. Semenza

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Climate change impacts on human health span the trajectory of time—past, present, and future. The key finding from the Working Group II, Fifth Assessment Report (AR5 of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC states that health impacts due to climate change have already occurred in the past, are currently occurring and will continue to occur, at least for the foreseeable future, even with immediate reductions in greenhouse gas emissions [1]. According to the IPCC, there has been increased heat-related mortality and decreased cold-related mortality in some regions as a result of warming (Box 1. Moreover, local changes in temperature and rainfall have altered the distribution of some water-borne illnesses and disease vectors. Impacts of climate-related extremes include alteration of ecosystems, disruption of food production and water supply, damage to infrastructure and settlements, morbidity and mortality, and consequences for mental health and human well-being [1]. [...

  17. Cluster Headache: Special Considerations for Treatment of Female Patients of Reproductive Age and Pediatric Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanderPluym, Juliana

    2016-01-01

    Cluster headache is a rare disorder that is more common in adult male patients. It has a unique phenotype of unilateral, severe, to very severe headaches lasting 15 to 180 min with ipsilateral autonomic symptoms. Time to correct diagnosis can be protracted. A number of treatment options exist for the standard cluster headache patient, but special considerations must be made for female patients of reproductive age and pediatric patients. The objective of this article is to explore the current literature pertaining to special considerations in cluster headache management, including treatment of pregnant or breastfeeding patients and pediatric patients.

  18. Comparing Sexual Function in Females of Reproductive Age Referred to Rural and Urban Healthcare Centers in Ahvaz, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javadifar

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background Healthy sexual function can be considered as an important element to improve personal and public hygiene. The sexual desire plays an important role in mental health and improving the quality of life. Objectives The current study aimed to compare sexual function of females in urban and rural areas. Methods The current descriptive study adopted 800 females of reproductive age (range 15 - 45 years referred to rural and urban healthcare centers in Ahvaz, Iran, in 2015. Samples were randomly selected. Applied instruments in the study were demographic information and female sexual dysfunction questionnaires (FSFI. Independent T-test, Chi-square and logistic regression were employed to analyze data by SPSS ver. 22. Results The result showed a significant statistical difference between females in urban and rural areas in terms of sexual desire, vaginal lubrication, intercourse pain and sexual function (P 0.05. Frequency of sexual dysfunction was 59.9% in females in rural and36.5% in urban areas and the difference between the groups was statistically significant (0.000. In both groups, the highest sexual disorder frequency was related to intercourse pain. Conclusions According to the obtained results, females in the rural areas had lower sexual function than the ones in the urban areas. It is suggested to establish female sexual health units in healthcare centers to give female sexual function consultation adjusted with awareness and culture of females and consider the existing problems.

  19. Wind turbines and human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knopper, Loren D; Ollson, Christopher A; McCallum, Lindsay C; Whitfield Aslund, Melissa L; Berger, Robert G; Souweine, Kathleen; McDaniel, Mary

    2014-01-01

    The association between wind turbines and health effects is highly debated. Some argue that reported health effects are related to wind turbine operation [electromagnetic fields (EMF), shadow flicker, audible noise, low-frequency noise, infrasound]. Others suggest that when turbines are sited correctly, effects are more likely attributable to a number of subjective variables that result in an annoyed/stressed state. In this review, we provide a bibliographic-like summary and analysis of the science around this issue specifically in terms of noise (including audible, low-frequency noise, and infrasound), EMF, and shadow flicker. Now there are roughly 60 scientific peer-reviewed articles on this issue. The available scientific evidence suggests that EMF, shadow flicker, low-frequency noise, and infrasound from wind turbines are not likely to affect human health; some studies have found that audible noise from wind turbines can be annoying to some. Annoyance may be associated with some self-reported health effects (e.g., sleep disturbance) especially at sound pressure levels >40 dB(A). Because environmental noise above certain levels is a recognized factor in a number of health issues, siting restrictions have been implemented in many jurisdictions to limit noise exposure. These setbacks should help alleviate annoyance from noise. Subjective variables (attitudes and expectations) are also linked to annoyance and have the potential to facilitate other health complaints via the nocebo effect. Therefore, it is possible that a segment of the population may remain annoyed (or report other health impacts) even when noise limits are enforced. Based on the findings and scientific merit of the available studies, the weight of evidence suggests that when sited properly, wind turbines are not related to adverse health. Stemming from this review, we provide a number of recommended best practices for wind turbine development in the context of human health.

  20. Wind turbines and human health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loren eKnopper

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The association between wind turbines and health effects is highly debated. Some argue that reported health effects are related to wind turbine operation (electromagnetic fields (EMF, shadow flicker, audible noise, low frequency noise, infrasound. Others suggest that when turbines are sited correctly, effects are more likely attributable to a number of subjective variables that result in an annoyed/stressed state. In this review we provide a bibliographic-like summary and analysis of the science around this issue specifically in terms of noise (including audible, low frequency noise and infrasound, EMF and shadow flicker. Now there are roughly 60 scientific peer-reviewed articles on this issue. The available scientific evidence suggests that EMF, shadow flicker, low frequency noise and infrasound from wind turbines are not likely to affect human health; some studies have found that audible noise from wind turbines can be annoying to some. Annoyance may be associated with some self-reported health effects (e.g., sleep disturbance especially at sound pressure levels >40 dB(A. Because environmental noise above certain levels is a recognized factor in a number of health issues, siting restrictions have been implemented in many jurisdictions to limit noise exposure. These setbacks should help alleviate annoyance from noise. Subjective variables (attitudes and expectations are also linked to annoyance and have the potential to facilitate other health complaints via the nocebo effect. Therefore, it is possible that a segment of the population may remain annoyed (or report other health impacts even when noise limits are enforced. Based on the findings and scientific merit of the available studies, the weight of evidence suggests that when sited properly, wind turbines are not related to adverse health. Stemming from this review, we provide a number of recommended best practices for wind turbine development in the context of human health.

  1. To estimate the effect of relationship of salt iodine level and prevalence of goiter among women of reproductive age group (15-49 years).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kousar, Junaid; Kawoosa, Zaffar; Hamid, Sajad; Munshi, Iftikhar Hussain; Hamid, Shahnawaz; Rashid, Arsalaan F

    2013-12-01

    The present study is a Cross-Sectional Study and was conducted in Post-graduate department of Community Medicine, Govt. Medical College, Srinagar between Feb. 2012 and Jan. 2013. The sample size of 1,041 was estimated. The study was conducted to estimate the effect of relationship of salt iodine level and prevalence of goiter among women of reproductive age group in two districts of Kashmir valley, district Srinagar and district Ganderbal, which were selected randomly. A frame of the blocks and villages in the two districts and their population was formed. From each district 10% of the blocks were selected using simple random sampling. From each block, 5% of the villages were selected using simple random sampling. A door to door survey was conducted in the selected villages and all the women in the reproductive age group (15-49 years) identified and examined clinically for goiter after taking informed consent. Salt samples (one teaspoonful) from every household were taken and assessed for iodine content on spot and the iodine content of salt was assessed qualitatively by spot testing kits. The results of the present study have indicated that iodine deficiency continues to be a health problem. Almost the whole population consumes powdered salt but the storage and cooking practices diminish the iodine content of salt and results in decreased intake. Thus the need of the hour is to make people aware about proper storage and cooking practices. Women in the reproductive age group especially need to be made aware about the importance of consumption of adequately iodized salt because of the wide range of ill effects of iodine deficiency on the developing fetus and the growing child. In addition monitoring of iodine content of salt at distributor level should be done.

  2. Factors associated with cervical cancer screening amongst women of reproductive age from Yucatan, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conde-Ferraez, Laura; Suarez Allen, Rosa Etelvina; Carrillo Martinez, Jorge Ramiro; Ayora-Talavera, Guadalupe; Gonzalez-Losa, Maria Del Refugio

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to analyse the participation of women of reproductive age in a cancer screening program, and survey reasons for non-screening in a region from Mexico with high cervical cancer mortality. A total of 281 obstetric patients from a previous HPV study in a social security hospital during 2008-2009 were included. Reasons for not participating in the screening were directly asked. HPV positive patients were invited to participate in an informative workshop, and they filled in a knowledge questionnaire. The women ranged in age from 14-47 years; 123 (43.8%) had never participated in screening, of which 97 (78.9%) had their first sexual intercourse 2 to 10 years ago, resulting in 25% HPV positive. Screening history was strongly associated with 2 or more gestations (OR= 10.07, p=0.00) and older age (OR=6.69 p=0.00). When 197 women were contacted and interviewed, reasons referred for non-screening were ignorance, lack of interest or time, recent sexual onset, shame and fear. More than 50% of the workshop participants showed knowledge of HPV, while 38.9% and 25% knew about Pap smear and cervical cancer. A high percentage of women of reproductive age have never had a Pap smear. Promoting the screening program in medical facilities seems to be important in this population. New approaches to inform vulnerable individuals on the benefits of screening need to be implemented, especially for young women.

  3. Oocyte or embryo donation to women of advanced reproductive age: an Ethics Committee opinion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    Advanced reproductive age (ARA) is a risk factor for female infertility, pregnancy loss, fetal anomalies, stillbirth, and obstetric complications. Oocyte donation reverses the age-related decline in implantation and birth rates of women in their 40s and 50s and restores pregnancy potential beyond menopause. However, obstetrical complications in older patients remain high, particularly related to operative delivery and hypertensive and cardiovascular risks. Physicians should perform a thorough medical evaluation designed to assess the physical fitness of a patient for pregnancy before deciding to attempt transfer of embryos to any woman of advanced reproductive age (>45 years). Embryo transfer should be strongly discouraged or denied to women of ARA with underlying conditions that increase or exacerbate obstetrical risks. Because of concerns related to the high-risk nature of pregnancy, as well as longevity, treatment of women over the age of 55 should generally be discouraged. This statement replaces the earlier ASRM Ethics Committee document of the same name, last published in 2013 (Fertil Steril 2013;100:337-40). Copyright © 2016 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Prevention of congenital Chagas disease by Benznidazole treatment in reproductive-age women. An observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez, María G; Vigliano, Carlos; Lococo, Bruno; Bertocchi, Graciela; Viotti, Rodolfo

    2017-10-01

    Since the decline in new cases of infection by insect/vector, congenital Chagas disease has become more relevant in the transmission of Chagas disease. Treatment with benznidazole significantly reduces the parasitemia, which constitutes an important factor linked to vertical transmission. The objective of this study was to evaluate whether treatment with benznidazole previously administered to women of childbearing age can prevent or reduce the incidence of new cases of congenital Chagas disease. An historical cohort study that included all women in reproductive age (15-45 years) assisted in our center was designed. We included 67 mothers with chronic Chagas disease; 35 women had not been treated prior to pregnancy, 15 had been treated prior to pregnancy and 17 gave birth prior and after treatment with benznidazole. Eight mothers gave birth to 16 children with congenital Chagas disease (8/67, 12%). The prevalence of congenital Chagas was 16/114 (14%) children born to untreated mothers and 0/42 (0%) children born to benznidazole- treated mothers, p=0.01. No significant differences were observed in clinical, serologic, epidemiological or socioeconomic baseline variables between mothers with and without children born with congenital Chagas. A 32% conversion rate to negative serology was observed in benznidazole-treated women after long-term follow up. Antiparasitic treatment administered to women in reproductive age can prevent the occurrence of congenital Chagas disease. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. An epidemiological study on vaginitis in 6,150 women of reproductive age in Shanghai.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Haixia; Huang, Zhonghua; Wu, Zhaoxia; Qi, Xulin; Lin, Dongfang

    2017-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence and risk factors for vaginitis, the proportion of pathogens, and cognition of reproductive age patients on the harmful effects of vaginitis, its risk factors, and treatment. This retrospective study enrolled 6,150 patients admitted to the Shanghai Jinshan Central Hospital from 2011 to 2015 with a chief complaint of abnormal vaginal discharge. A questionnaire was designed to survey the cognition of patients on the harmful effects of vaginitis. Routine gynecological examinations and laboratory tests were performed and the risk factors for contracting vaginitis were analyzed by multifactor logistic regression analysis. The positive pathogen rate was 65.63% (4,036/6,150). Trichomonas infections were diagnosed in 1,416 (35.08%) cases including 761 (18.86%) cases of single trichomonas infections, which was significantly higher than the proportion of any other single pathogen infection (Pvaginal infections as well as the risk of ectopic pregnancy and infertility, and on how to prevent vaginal infections. Logistic multifactor regression analysis revealed that advanced age, a low educational level, farmers, childbearing history and a low income were the risk factors for vaginitis. Women of reproductive age showed a high rate of vaginal infections and more attention should be paid to women with a low education level and income to reduce the incidence of vaginal infections in this population.

  6. Prevalence of anemia and correlated factors in the reproductive age women in rural areas of tabas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Sadeghian

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available To find out the prevalence and relationship of anemia in reproductive age women in rural area of Tabas, center of Iran. Iron deficiency anemia is the most common nutritional problem, affecting about 41.8% of pregnant and 30.2% of non-pregnant women worldwide.A cross-sectional study was conducted on the random sample of 382 reproductive age women in rural areas of Tabas in March 2010. Independent sample t-test, one way analysis of variance (ANOVA and logistic regression were applied for the data analysis.The obtained data revealed a total response rate of 13.8% for prevalence of anemia, while 14.5% and 5.9% belonged to non-pregnant and pregnant participants, respectively. Low socioeconomic status (odds ratio 3.35 and high parity index (odds ratio 2.31 were associated with higher prevalence of anemia.Although this study was conducted in a rural area of Tabas, where their average incomes were lower than average income of major cities in Iran, the prevalence of anemia was lower than the rate reported in previous studies carried out in other locations of Iran, even in high risk (pregnant women groups.

  7. Poverty, equity, human rights and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braveman, Paula; Gruskin, Sofia

    2003-01-01

    Those concerned with poverty and health have sometimes viewed equity and human rights as abstract concepts with little practical application, and links between health, equity and human rights have not been examined systematically. Examination of the concepts of poverty, equity, and human rights in relation to health and to each other demonstrates that they are closely linked conceptually and operationally and that each provides valuable, unique guidance for health institutions' work. Equity and human rights perspectives can contribute concretely to health institutions' efforts to tackle poverty and health, and focusing on poverty is essential to operationalizing those commitments. Both equity and human rights principles dictate the necessity to strive for equal opportunity for health for groups of people who have suffered marginalization or discrimination. Health institutions can deal with poverty and health within a framework encompassing equity and human rights concerns in five general ways: (1) institutionalizing the systematic and routine application of equity and human rights perspectives to all health sector actions; (2) strengthening and extending the public health functions, other than health care, that create the conditions necessary for health; (3) implementing equitable health care financing, which should help reduce poverty while increasing access for the poor; (4) ensuring that health services respond effectively to the major causes of preventable ill-health among the poor and disadvantaged; and (5) monitoring, advocating and taking action to address the potential health equity and human rights implications of policies in all sectors affecting health, not only the health sector.

  8. In-home Smoking in Households with Women of Reproductive Age in Nepal: Does Women's Empowerment Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Shanta; Murugan, Vithya; Karki, Yagya B; Mathur, Amit

    2017-02-01

    Authors examined the prevalence and predictors of in-home smoking in households with women of reproductive age. They analyzed data from 9,837 ever married women from 2011 Nepal Demographic Health Survey. About 17 percent of women and 66 percent of their husbands smoked and 58 percent of the women lived in homes that permitted in-home smoking. About 6 percent of the women were pregnant and 42 percent had given birth within the past five years. In-home tobacco use was equally prevalent in homes with and without young children and irrespective of women's pregnancy status. Husband's use of tobacco doubled the odds of in-home smoking (odds ratio [OR] = 2.36; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.52-3.69) and wife's use of tobacco quadrupled the odds of in-home smoking controlling for other factors (OR = 3.94; 95% CI = 3.30-4.70). In addition, employed women were 39 percent more likely to allow in-home smoking than their unemployed counterparts (OR = 1.39; 95% CI = 1.19-1.63). Protective factors against in-home smoking were women's education, intrahousehold decision-making ability, household wealth, and urban residence. To reduce in-home smoking, social workers should increase awareness about the adverse consequences of secondhand smoke by providing counseling services to male and female tobacco users. © 2016 National Association of Social Workers.

  9. Nutritional transition in children under five years and women of reproductive age: a 15-years trend analysis in Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loret de Mola, Christian; Quispe, Renato; Valle, Giancarlo A; Poterico, Julio A

    2014-01-01

    Rapid urbanization, increase in food availability, and changes in diet and lifestyle patterns have been changing nutritional profiles in developing nations. We aimed to describe nutritional changes in children under 5 years and women of reproductive age in Peru, during a 15-year period of rapid economic development and social policy enhancement. Trend analyses of anthropometric measures in children of preschool age and women between 15-49 years, using the Peruvian National Demographic and Family Health Surveys (DHS) from 1996 to 2011. WHO growth curves were used to define stunting, underweight, wasting and overweight in children 19 years, body mass index (BMI) was analyzed both categorically and as a continuous variable. To statistically analyze the trends, we used regression models: Linear and Poisson for continuous and binary outcomes, respectively. We analyzed data from 123 642 women and 64 135 children, from 1996 to 2011. Decreases over time were evidenced for underweight (pPeru shows different patterns for urban and rural populations. Public policies should emphasize targeting both malnutrition conditions--undernutrition/stunting, overweight/obesity and anemia--considering age and place of residence in rapid developing societies like Peru.

  10. Dust, Climate, and Human Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maynard, N. G.

    2003-12-01

    Air pollution from both natural and anthropogenic causes is considered to be one of the most serious world-wide environment-related health problems, and is expected to become worse with changes in the global climate. Dust storms from the atmospheric transport of desert soil dust that has been lifted and carried by the winds - often over significant distances - have become an increasingly important emerging air quality issue for many populations. Recent studies have shown that the dust storms can cause significant health impacts from the dust itself as well as the accompanying pollutants, pesticides, metals, salt, plant debris, and other inorganic and organic materials, including viable microorganisms (bacteria, viruses and fungi). For example, thousands of tons of Asian desert sediments, some containing pesticides and herbicides from farming regions, are commonly transported into the Arctic during dust storm events. These chemicals have been identified in animal and human tissues among Arctic indigenous populations. Millions of tons of airborne desert dust are being tracked by satellite imagery, which clearly shows the magnitude as well as the temporal and spatial variability of dust storms across the "dust belt" regions of North Africa, the Middle East, and China. This paper summarizes the most recent findings on the effects of airborne desert dust on human health as well as potential climate influences on dust and health

  11. Human capital, schooling and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, T Paul

    2003-06-01

    A consensus has been forged in the last decade that recent periods of sustained growth in total factor productivity and reduced poverty are closely associated with improvements in a population's child nutrition, adult health, and schooling, particularly in low-income countries. Estimates of the productive returns from these three forms of human capital investment are nonetheless qualified by a number of limitations in our data and analytical methods. This paper reviews the problems that occupy researchers in this field and summarizes accumulating evidence of empirical regularities. Social experiments must be designed to assess how randomized policy interventions motivate families and individuals to invest in human capital, and then measure the changed wage opportunities of those who have been induced to make these investments. Statistical estimation of wage functions that seek to represent the relationship between wage rates and a variety of human capital stocks may yield biased estimates of private rates of return from these investments for a variety of reasons. The paper summarizes several of these problems and illustrates how data and statistical methods can be used to deal with some of them. The measures of labor productivity and the proxies specified for schooling and adult health are first discussed, and then the functional relationships between human capital and wages are described. Three types of estimation problem are discussed: (1) bias due to omitted variables, such as ability or frailty; (2) bias due to the measurement of an aggregation of multiple sources of human capital, e.g. genetic and socially reproducible variation, which may contribute to different gains in worker productivity; and (3) errors in measurement of the human capital stocks. Empirical examples and illustrative estimates are surveyed.

  12. Trends and determinants of mortality in women of reproductive age in rural Guinea-Bissau, West Africa--a cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mane, Maram; Fisker, Ane B; Ravn, Henrik;

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There are few studies reporting mortality of women of reproductive age (WRA) in developing countries. The trend and patterns of their mortality may be important for documenting the health status of the population in general. METHODS: We used a prospective open cohort of women aged 12...... to 49 years living in the Bandim Health Project's rural Health and Demographic Surveillance System (HDSS) in 5 regions of Guinea-Bissau from 1996 to 2007. Information on in- and out-migration and deaths were collected through the HDSS routine procedures. We assessed the trends in mortality...... and the associated determinants using Cox regression models. RESULTS: We followed 27,185 WRA for 141,693 person-years-at-risk (PYO) among whom 9,093 moved out and 1,006 died. Overall standardized mortality rate was 759 per 100,000 PYO. WRA mortality did not decline, but three periods could be distinguished: a stable...

  13. Solar radiation and human health

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juzeniene, Asta; Moan, Kristin; Moan, Johan [Department of Radiation Biology, Institute for Cancer Research, The Norwegian Radium Hospital, Oslo University Hospital, Montebello, N-0310 Oslo (Norway); Brekke, Paal [Norwegian Space Centre, PO Box 113, Skoeyen, N-0212 Oslo (Norway); Dahlback, Arne [Department of Physics, University of Oslo, Blindern, 0316 Oslo (Norway); Andersson-Engels, Stefan [Department of Physics, Lund University, PO Box 118, SE-221 00 Lund (Sweden); Reichrath, Joerg [Klinik fuer Dermatologie, Venerologie und Allergologie, Universitaetsklinikum des Saarlandes, D-66421 Homburg/Saar (Germany); Holick, Michael F [Department of Medicine, Section of Endocrinology, Nutrition and Diabetes, Vitamin D, Skin and Bone Research Laboratory, Boston University Medical Center, 85 E. Newton St., M-1013, Boston, MA 02118 (United States); Grant, William B, E-mail: asta.juzeniene@rr-research.no, E-mail: kmoan@hotmail.com, E-mail: paal.brekke@spacecentre.no, E-mail: arne.dahlback@fys.uio.no, E-mail: j.e.moan@fys.uio.no, E-mail: stefan.andersson-engels@fysik.lth.se, E-mail: joerg.reichrath@uks.eu, E-mail: mfholick@bu.edu, E-mail: wbgrant@infionline.net [Sunlight, Nutrition and Health Research Center (SUNARC), PO Box 641603, San Francisco, CA 94164-1603 (United States)

    2011-06-15

    The Sun has played a major role in the development of life on Earth. In Western culture, people are warned against Sun exposure because of its adverse effects: erythema, photoimmunosuppression, photoageing, photocarcinogenesis, cataracts and photokeratitis. However, Sun exposure is also beneficial, since moderate doses give beneficial physiological effects: vitamin D synthesis, reduction of blood pressure and mental health. Shortage of Sun exposure may be even more dangerous to human health than excessive exposure. Avoiding Sun exposure leads to vitamin D deficiency which is associated not only with rickets and osteomalacia, but also with increased risk of cardiovascular disease, multiple sclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis, diabetes, influenza, many types of cancer and adverse pregnancy outcomes. Solar radiation induces nitric oxide release in tissue and immediate pigment darkening which certainly play important roles, although these are still unknown. Action spectra relevant for health are described. We will also review what is known about spectral and intensity variations of terrestrial solar radiation as well as its penetration through the atmosphere and into human skin and tissue.

  14. Solar radiation and human health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juzeniene, Asta; Brekke, Pål; Dahlback, Arne; Andersson-Engels, Stefan; Reichrath, Jörg; Moan, Kristin; Holick, Michael F.; Grant, William B.; Moan, Johan

    2011-06-01

    The Sun has played a major role in the development of life on Earth. In Western culture, people are warned against Sun exposure because of its adverse effects: erythema, photoimmunosuppression, photoageing, photocarcinogenesis, cataracts and photokeratitis. However, Sun exposure is also beneficial, since moderate doses give beneficial physiological effects: vitamin D synthesis, reduction of blood pressure and mental health. Shortage of Sun exposure may be even more dangerous to human health than excessive exposure. Avoiding Sun exposure leads to vitamin D deficiency which is associated not only with rickets and osteomalacia, but also with increased risk of cardiovascular disease, multiple sclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis, diabetes, influenza, many types of cancer and adverse pregnancy outcomes. Solar radiation induces nitric oxide release in tissue and immediate pigment darkening which certainly play important roles, although these are still unknown. Action spectra relevant for health are described. We will also review what is known about spectral and intensity variations of terrestrial solar radiation as well as its penetration through the atmosphere and into human skin and tissue.

  15. Knowledge and Attitude of Married Women in the Reproductive Age Group Regarding Emergency Contraception in Selected Rural Areas of Udupi District

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preethi Fernandes

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Unwanted pregnancy is still a major problem in the modern world despite the widely available contraception services. This study was conducted to determine the knowledge and attitude of married women in the reproductive age group regarding emergency contraception in selected rural areas of Udupi district, India. Material and Methods: The study group comprised of 350 married women in the reproductive age group residing in rural areas of Udupi district, India. A structured questionnaire and an attitude scale were used to assess the knowledge and the attitude. Results: Majority, 69.1% of the married women belonged to Hindu religion, 46.9% had an educational qualification of 10th standard and below. About 13.1% of the married women had undergone abortion. Nearly 96.9% of the married women had heard about emergency contraceptives and only 2% of the married women had used emergency contraceptive pills. About 63.7% out of 339 married women had got information about emergency contraceptive pills from health personnel and about 77.7% from television. Majority 84% had poor knowledge on emergency contraception. About 99.7% had favourable attitude on the use of emergency contraceptives. There was a significant association between knowledge scores and selected variable like education, knowledge and the attitude scores had a correlation. Conclusion: The study identifies the knowledge and attitude of the rural married women regarding emergency contraception, hence to help them to plan future pregnancies and prevent any unwanted or unintended pregnancies.

  16. The utility of metformin therapy in reproductive-aged women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nathan, Nisha; Sullivan, Shannon D

    2014-01-01

    Metformin, an insulin-sensitizing drug commonly used to treat Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM), has been increasingly used off-label for the treatment of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), which affects at least 5-10% of reproductive- age women. With very little risk associated with its use, metformin provides many important benefits to women with PCOS, including regulating menstrual cycles, improving clinical signs of hyperandrogenism, ameliorating metabolic syndrome, inducing ovulation, improving pregnancy rates and pregnancy outcomes, preventing gestational diabetes, and preventing progression to T2DM. Here, we review the indications for metformin in women with PCOS, with a focus on the use of metformin during pre-conception and pregnancy.

  17. Direct and indirect genetic effects of sex-specific mitonuclear epistasis on reproductive ageing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Immonen, Elina; Collet, Marie; Goenaga, Julieta

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondria are involved in ageing and their function requires coordinated action of both mitochondrial and nuclear genes. Epistasis between the two genomes can influence lifespan but whether this also holds for reproductive senescence is unclear. Maternal inheritance of mitochondria predicts sex...... to slower senescence relative to novel mitonuclear combinations. We found no evidence for mitonuclear coadaptation in males. Mitonuclear epistasis not only affected age-specific ejaculate weight, but also influenced male age-dependent indirect effects on traits expressed by their female partners (fecundity...... beetle Callosobruchus maculatus, using introgression lines harbouring distinct mitonuclear genotypes. Our results reveal both direct and indirect sex-specific effects of mitonuclear epistasis on reproductive ageing. Females harbouring coadapted mitonuclear genotypes showed higher lifetime fecundity due...

  18. Knowledge, non-use, use and source of information on contraceptive methods among women in various stages of reproductive age in rural Lagos, Southwest Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afolabi BM

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Bamgboye M Afolabi,1 Emmanuel NU Ezedinachi,2 Iwara Arikpo,2 Abiodun Ogunwale,3 Damilola Fatimah Ganiyu,1 Rashidat A Abu,1 Adewunmi A Ajibade1 1Health, Environment and Development Foundation, Yaba, Lagos, Nigeria; 2Institute of Tropical Disease and Research, University of Calabar, Calabar, Nigeria; 3Project Hope, Washington, DC, USA Background: Contraceptives are advocated to be used against unwanted pregnancy and sexually transmitted diseases as unsafe abortion contributes to high maternal mortality in Nigeria while unwanted pregnancies have terminated the educational development of many females. Objective: This questionnaire-based survey aimed to describe the knowledge, nonuse, and use of various contraceptive methods among women in different child-bearing age groups in rural Lagos, Nigeria. Materials and methods: Between 2012 and 2013, 816 females in rural communities within Lagos State were surveyed for their knowledge, source of information, and use of contraceptives. They were grouped into early, mid, and late reproductive age. Statistical analysis of data harvested from respondents was carried out using STATA 13 software. Results: In all, 816 females in different stages of reproductive age were involved in the study, among whom 19% were single, 78% married, 3% divorced, and 0.5% widowed. About 6% had no formal education, while the majority (81% were of the Yoruba ethnic group. Married respondents were approximately thrice more likely to know of contraceptives than single respondents (χ2=29.9, P=0.000, odds ratio =2.9, 95% confidence interval =1.9, 4.2. Condom use was the most widely known and used method of contraceptive regardless of marital status and reproductive age status. Information about contraceptives was mainly from health facilities among married and divorced women and from school or educational institution among singles. Overall prevalence of contraceptive use was 51.9%. Nonuse of contraceptives was 43% among married women

  19. Associations between vaginal pathogenic community and bacterial vaginosis in Chinese reproductive-age women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Zongxin; Liu, Xia; Luo, Yueqiu; Wu, Xiaoxing; Yuan, Li; Tong, Xiaojuan; Li, Lanjuan; Xiang, Charlie

    2013-01-01

    Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is one of the most common urogenital infections among women of reproductive age that represents shifts in microbiota from Lactobacillus spp. to diverse anaerobes. The aim of our study was to evalute the diagnostic values of Gardnerella, Atopobium, Eggerthella, Megasphaera typeI, Leptotrichia/Sneathia and Prevotella, defined as a vaginal pathogenic community for BV and their associations with vaginal pH and Nugent scores. We investigated the vaginal pathogenic bacteria and Lactobacillus spp. with species-specific real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) in 50 BV-positive and 50 BV-negative Chinese women of reproductive age. Relative to BV-negative subjects, a siginificant decline in Lactobacillus and an obvious increase in bacteria in the vaginal pathogenic community were observed in BV-postive subjects (P<0.05). With the exception of Megasphaera typeI, other vaginal pathogenic bacteria were highly predictable for BV with a better sensitivity and specificity. The vaginal pathogenic community was positively associated with vaginal pH and Nugent scores, while Lactobacillus spp., such as L. iners and L. crispatus was negatively associated with them (P<0.05). Our data implied that the prevalance of vaginal pathogenic bacteria as well as the depletion of Lactobacillus was highly accurate for BV diagnosis. Vaginal microbiota shifts, especially the overgrowth of the vaginal pathogenic community, showed well diagnostic values in predicting BV. Postive correlations between those vaginal pathogenic bacteria and vaginal pH, Nugent score indicated the vaginal pathogenic community rather than a single vaginal microorganism, was participated in the onset of BV directly.

  20. Risk of hypertension related to road traffic noise among reproductive-age women

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    Inga Bendokiene

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic noise exposure is associated with adverse pathophysiological effects, which may contribute to the progression of hypertension. However, evidence supporting its effect on women is still inconsistent. The aim of the study was to examine the hypertension risk related to road traffic noise in residential settings in an urban community amongst reproductive-aged women. Cross-sectional study data including 3,121 pregnant women, 20-45 years old, and a geographic information system (GIS to assess the average road noise (LAeq 24 hr for every subject at the current residential address were used. Effects on physician-diagnosed hypertension were estimated by logistic regression with adjustments for age, social status, marital status, education, alcohol consumption, ethnic group, parity, body mass index, chronic disease, and exposure duration. The prevalence of hypertension amongst women aged 20-45 years in the lowest exposure category was 13.1% in comparison to 13.6% and 18.1% amongst those exposed to the medium and the highest exposure category, respectively. After making adjustments for the selected variables, no exposure effects [Odds ratio (OR ≈ 1.0] were noted in the medium exposure category [51-60 dB(A]. However, a slight increase was noted in the highest exposure category [≥61 dB(A, OR 1.36; 95% CI 0.86-2.15]. The effect was more pronounced amongst women aged 30-45 years and a positive exposure-response relation was indicated for hypertension: An effect was seen at noise levels 51-60 dB(A (OR = 1.03; 95% CI 0.72-1.49 and at >61 dB(A (OR = 1.94, 95% CI 1.01-3.72. The present study shows some evidence for an association between the residential road traffic noise and hypertension amongst reproductive-aged women, and an exposure-response relationship.

  1. Unmet need for family planning among married women of reproductive age group in urban Tamil Nadu

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    Malini M Bhattathiry

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Unmet need for family planning (FP, which refers to the condition in which there is the desire to avoid or post-pone child bearing, without the use of any means of contraception, has been a core concept in the field of international population for more than three decades. Objectives: The very objective of this study is to determine the prevalence of "unmet need for FP" and its socio-demographic determinants among married reproductive age group women in Chidambaram. Materials and Methods: The study was a community-based cross-sectional study of married women of the reproductive age group, between 15 and 49 years. The sample size required was 700. The cluster sampling method was adopted. Unmarried, separated, divorced and widows were excluded. Results: The prevalence of unmet need for FP was 39%, with spacing as 12% and limiting as 27%. The major reason for unmet need for FP among the married group was 18%, for low perceived risk of pregnancy, 9%, feared the side effects of contraception 5% lacked information on contraceptives, 4% had husbands who opposed it and 3% gave medical reasons. Higher education, late marriage, more than the desired family size, poor knowledge of FP, poor informed choice in FP and poor male participation were found to be associated with high unmet need for FP. Conclusion: Unmet need for younger women was spacing of births, whereas for older women, it was a limitation of births. Efforts should be made to identify the issues in a case by case approach. Male participation in reproductive issues should be addressed.

  2. Electronic cigarettes: human health effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callahan-Lyon, Priscilla

    2014-05-01

    With the rapid increase in use of electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS), such as electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes), users and non-users are exposed to the aerosol and product constituents. This is a review of published data on the human health effects of exposure to e-cigarettes and their components. Literature searches were conducted through September 2013 using multiple electronic databases. Forty-four articles are included in this analysis. E-cigarette aerosols may contain propylene glycol, glycerol, flavourings, other chemicals and, usually, nicotine. Aerosolised propylene glycol and glycerol produce mouth and throat irritation and dry cough. No data on the effects of flavouring inhalation were identified. Data on short-term health effects are limited and there are no adequate data on long-term effects. Aerosol exposure may be associated with respiratory function impairment, and serum cotinine levels are similar to those in traditional cigarette smokers. The high nicotine concentrations of some products increase exposure risks for non-users, particularly children. The dangers of secondhand and thirdhand aerosol exposure have not been thoroughly evaluated. Scientific evidence regarding the human health effects of e-cigarettes is limited. While e-cigarette aerosol may contain fewer toxicants than cigarette smoke, studies evaluating whether e-cigarettes are less harmful than cigarettes are inconclusive. Some evidence suggests that e-cigarette use may facilitate smoking cessation, but definitive data are lacking. No e-cigarette has been approved by FDA as a cessation aid. Environmental concerns and issues regarding non-user exposure exist. The health impact of e-cigarettes, for users and the public, cannot be determined with currently available data.

  3. Clinical and morphological characteristics and prognosis of BRCA-associated breast cancer in women of the reproductive age

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    D. E. Avtomonov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available During last years one should note an unstoppable increase of the breast cancer incidence among patients of reproductive age. A group of pa- tients of young age with the breast cancer whose disease is associated with the BRCA1/2 genes is of particular scientific interest. However, until now no single opinion on survival results in the given group of oncological patients has been evolved yet. In this article, preliminary data on general and non-recurrence survival of patients of the reproductive age are given, depending on BRCA1 gene status.

  4. (Public) Health and Human Rights in Practice.

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    Annas, George J; Mariner, Wendy K

    2016-02-01

    Public health's reliance on law to define and carry out public activities makes it impossible to define a set of ethical principles unique to public health. Public health ethics must be encompassed within--and consistent with--a broader set of principles that define the power and limits of governmental institutions. These include human rights, health law, and even medical ethics. The human right to health requires governments not only to respect individual human rights and personal freedoms, but also, importantly, to protect people from harm from external sources and third parties, and to fulfill the health needs of the population. Even if human rights are the natural language for public health, not all public health professionals are comfortable with the language of human rights. Some argue that individual human rights--such as autonomy and privacy--unfairly limit the permissible means to achieve the goal of health protection. We argue that public health should welcome and promote the human rights framework. In almost every instance, this will make public health more effective in the long run, because the goals of public health and human rights are the same: to promote human flourishing. Copyright © 2016 by Duke University Press.

  5. Biodiversity, air quality and human health

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    David J. Nowak; Sarah Jovan; Christina Branquinho; Sofia Augusto; Manuel C. Ribeiro; Conor E. Kretsch

    2015-01-01

    Air pollution is a significant problem in cities across the world. It affects human health and well-being, ecosystem health, crops, climate, visibility and human-made materials. Health effects related to air pollution include its impact on the pulmonary, cardiac, vascular and neurological systems (Section 2). Trees affect air quality through a number of means (Section...

  6. Nutritional transition in children under five years and women of reproductive age: a 15-years trend analysis in Peru.

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    Christian Loret de Mola

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Rapid urbanization, increase in food availability, and changes in diet and lifestyle patterns have been changing nutritional profiles in developing nations. We aimed to describe nutritional changes in children under 5 years and women of reproductive age in Peru, during a 15-year period of rapid economic development and social policy enhancement. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Trend analyses of anthropometric measures in children of preschool age and women between 15-49 years, using the Peruvian National Demographic and Family Health Surveys (DHS from 1996 to 2011. WHO growth curves were used to define stunting, underweight, wasting and overweight in children 19 years, body mass index (BMI was analyzed both categorically and as a continuous variable. To statistically analyze the trends, we used regression models: Linear and Poisson for continuous and binary outcomes, respectively. RESULTS: We analyzed data from 123 642 women and 64 135 children, from 1996 to 2011. Decreases over time were evidenced for underweight (p<0.001, wasting (p<0.001, and stunting (p<0.001 in children under 5 y. This effect was particularly noted in urban settings. Overweight levels in children reduced (p<0.001, however this reduction stopped, in urban settings, since 2005 (∼12%. Anemia decreased in children and women (p<0.001; with higher reduction in urban (↓43% than in rural children (↓24%. BMI in women aged 15-19 years increased (p<0.001 across time, with noticeable BMI-curve shift in women older than 30 years. Moreover, obesity doubled during this period in women more than 19 y. CONCLUSION: Nutrition transition in Peru shows different patterns for urban and rural populations. Public policies should emphasize targeting both malnutrition conditions--undernutrition/stunting, overweight/obesity and anemia--considering age and place of residence in rapid developing societies like Peru.

  7. Prevalence of Pelvic Inflammatory Disease in Sexually Experienced Women of Reproductive Age - United States, 2013-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreisel, Kristen; Torrone, Elizabeth; Bernstein, Kyle; Hong, Jaeyoung; Gorwitz, Rachel

    2017-01-27

    Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) is a clinical syndrome of the female reproductive tract characterized by inflammation of the endometrium, fallopian tubes, or peritoneum (1). PID occurs when microorganisms ascend from the vagina or cervix to the fallopian tubes and other upper genital tract structures (1). PID can result from untreated bacterial infections, including chlamydia and gonorrhea, and can lead to infertility, ectopic pregnancy, and chronic pelvic pain (1). Because there is no single diagnostic test for PID, clinicians rely on nonspecific signs and symptoms for diagnosis. The purpose of these analyses was to assess the burden of self-reported PID in a nationally representative sample using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2013-2014 cycle. Starting in 2013, NHANES female participants aged 18-44 years were asked about a lifetime history of PID diagnosis. Based on these data, the estimated prevalence of self-reported lifetime PID was 4.4% in sexually experienced women of reproductive age (18-44 years). The prevalence of self-reported lifetime PID was highest in women at increased risk, such as women reporting a previous sexually transmitted infection (STI) diagnosis. Stratified by race/ethnicity and having a previous STI diagnosis, non-Hispanic black (black) and non-Hispanic white (white) women reporting a previous STI diagnosis had nearly equal self-reported lifetime PID prevalence (10.0% versus 10.3%). However, the lifetime prevalence of PID among black women was 2.2 times that among white women if no previous STI was diagnosed (6.0% versus 2.7%). These findings suggest that PID is prevalent and associated with previous STI diagnoses; therefore, it is important for clinicians to screen female patients for chlamydia and gonorrhea to reduce the incidence of PID.

  8. Trends in Testosterone Replacement Therapy Use from 2003 to 2013 among Reproductive-Age Men in the United States.

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    Rao, Pravin Kumar; Boulet, Sheree L; Mehta, Akanksha; Hotaling, James; Eisenberg, Michael L; Honig, Stanton C; Warner, Lee; Kissin, Dmitry M; Nangia, Ajay K; Ross, Lawrence S

    2017-04-01

    Although testosterone replacement therapy use in the United States has increased dramatically in the last decade, to our knowledge trends in testosterone replacement therapy use among reproductive-age men have not been investigated. We assessed changes in testosterone replacement therapy use and practice patterns among 18 to 45-year-old American men from 2003 to 2013 and compared them to older men. This is a retrospective, cross-sectional analysis of men 18 to 45 and 56 to 64 years old who were enrolled in the Truven Health MarketScan® Commercial Claims Databases throughout each given calendar year from 2003 to 2013, including 5,094,868 men in 2013. Trends in the yearly rates of testosterone replacement therapy use were calculated using Poisson regression. Among testosterone replacement therapy users, the Cochran-Armitage test was used to assess temporal trends in age, formulation type, semen analysis and serum testosterone level testing during the 12 months preceding the documented use of testosterone replacement therapy. Between 2003 and 2013, there was a fourfold increase in the rate of testosterone use among 18 to 45-year-old men from 29.2/10,000 person-years to 118.1/10,000 person-years (p testosterone replacement therapy users, topical gel formulations were initially most used. Injection use then doubled between 2009 and 2012 (23.5% and 46.2%, respectively) and surpassed topical gel use in 2013. In men 56 to 64 years old there was a statistically significant threefold increase in testosterone replacement therapy use (p testosterone replacement therapy use increased fourfold in men 18 to 45 years old compared to threefold in older men. This younger age group should be a focus for future studies due to effects on fertility and unknown long-term sequelae. Copyright © 2017 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Optimizing a Male Reproductive Aging Mouse Model by d-Galactose Injection

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    Chun-Hou Liao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The d-galactose (d-gal-injected animal model, which is typically established by administering consecutive subcutaneous d-gal injections to animals for approximately six or eight weeks, has been frequently used for aging research. In addition, this animal model has been demonstrated to accelerate aging in the brain, kidneys, liver and blood cells. However, studies on aging in male reproductive organs that have used this animal model remain few. Therefore, the current study aimed to optimize a model of male reproductive aging by administering d-gal injections to male mice and to determine the possible mechanism expediting senescence processes during spermatogenesis. In this study, C57Bl/6 mice were randomized into five groups (each containing 8–10 mice according to the daily intraperitoneal injection of vehicle control or 100 or 200 mg/kg dosages of d-gal for a period of six or eight weeks. First, mice subjected to d-gal injections for six or eight weeks demonstrated considerably decreased superoxide dismutase activity in the serum and testis lysates compared to those in the control group. The lipid peroxidation in testis also increased in the d-gal-injected groups. Furthermore, the d-gal-injected groups exhibited a decreased ratio of testis weight/body weight and sperm count compared to the control group. The percentages of both immotile sperm and abnormal sperm increased considerably in the d-gal-injected groups compared to those of the control group. To determine the genes influenced by the d-gal injection during murine spermatogenesis, a c-DNA microarray was conducted to compare testicular RNA samples between the treated groups and the control group. The d-gal-injected groups exhibited RNA transcripts of nine spermatogenesis-related genes (Cycl2, Hk1, Pltp, Utp3, Cabyr, Zpbp2, Speer2, Csnka2ip and Katnb1 that were up- or down-regulated by at least two-fold compared to the control group. Several of these genes are critical for forming sperm

  10. Knowledge of direct obstetric causes of maternal mortality and associated factors among reproductive age women in Aneded woreda, Northwest Ethiopia; a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Getachew, Fikreselassie; Kassa, Getachew Mullu; Ayana, Mulatu; Amsalu, Endawoke

    2017-01-01

    in Ethiopia, 20,000 women die each year from complications related to pregnancy and childbirth with much more maternal morbidity occurring for each maternal death. Good knowledge of women related with direct causes of maternal mortality is important in reducing maternal morbidity and mortality. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess knowledge of direct obstetric causes of maternal mortality and associated factors among reproductive age of women in Aneded woreda, Northwest Ethiopia. A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted using multi-stage sampling followed by simple random sampling technique. The study was conducted in Aneded woreda, Northwest Ethiopia. A total of 844 reproductive age women were included in the study. Pre-tested semi-structured questionnaire was used to collect the data. Data was collected through face-to-face interviews by 12 data collectors. Data was cleaned, coded and entered into Epi-data, then exported and analyzed using SPSS software. Bivariate and multivariable logistic regression analysis were computed to identify factors related to knowledge of obstetric causes of maternal mortality. The crude and adjusted odds ratios together with their corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CI) were computed. A P-value less than 0.05 was used to declare statistical significance. This study found that almost half (49.6%) of respondents have good knowledge level towards obstetric causes of maternal mortality. Significant variables associated with knowledge towards obstetric causes of maternal mortality were; being government employee (AOR=3.6, 95% CI=1.4-8.9), respondents who had additional monthly income from family members (AOR=1.54, 95% CI=1.04-2.27), respondents who attended primary school and above (AOR=1.6, 95% CI=1.13-2.25), distance of health facility in which the time it took less than 20 minutes (AOR=2.25, 95% CI(1.24-4.09), 20-39minutes (AOR=3.06, 95% CI=1.66-5.64), 40-60 minutes (AOR=2.38, 95% CI=1.52-5.26), and previous

  11. HYSTEROSCOPIC EVALUATION OF WOMEN IN REPRODUCTIVE AGE GROUP WITH ABNORMAL UTERINE BLEEDING

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    E. Vanaja Reddy

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Abnormal uterine bleeding is the most common complaint in gynaecology and an important source of morbidity. This study evaluates the usefulness of hysteroscopy in the diagnosis of abnormal uterine bleeding in comparison to dilatation and curettage in reproductive age group. MATERIALS AND METHODS Between September 2011 to July 2013, women with AUB attending Gynaec OP were subjected to hysteroscopy and subsequent dilatation and curettage. Data was collected and analysed. RESULTS AUB was more common in 30-34 yrs. The most common presenting complaint was menorrhagia. Normal hysteroscopic view was seen in 50% cases. Abnormalities seen were endometrial hyperplasia, polyps, submucous myoma synechiae and rue. Both hysteroscopy and curettage gave specificity of 70%, but the ability to diagnose focal lesion (sensitivity was more with hysteroscopy in comparison to curettage 70 vis. 36. 43 patients had the same tissue diagnosis in both hysteroscopy and curettage. Hysteroscopy revealed more information than curettage in 42% and curettage had more information in 15% cases, 100% accuracy was seen in case of myoma, IUCD, adhesions and polyps with hysteroscopy. CONCLUSION This study confirms the conclusion of many others that hysteroscopy is superior to dilatation and curettage in evaluating patients with abnormal uterine bleeding.

  12. Status of Dietary Intake of Calcium in Women of Reproductive Age in Delhi, India

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    Nighat Yaseen Sofi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Calcium (Ca plays an important role in bone formation. Attaining optimal bone mass and peak bone densities is essential to prevent osteoporotic fractures in future life. In conditions of Ca deficiency, Ca from the bones maintains the blood levels of Ca leading to its depletion in bones. Calcium depletion leads to poor bone density and a higher risk of osteoporosis particularly in women who have repeated episodes of pregnancy and lactation.Aim & Objective: To assess the dietary intake of calcium.Material Methods: the study was conducted among 200 healthy women of reproductive age group of 20-49 years.Result: The dietary intake of calcium was less than the Recommended Dietary Allowances of 600mg/day. Women from upper socioeconomic class had a higher intake of dietary calcium 435±268 mg/day as compared to women from low socioeconomic class with a dietary intake of 295±163 mg/day.Conclusion: The dietary intake of calcium improved with an increase in socioeconomic class.

  13. Low Prevalence of Iron and Vitamin A Deficiency among Cambodian Women of Reproductive Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieringa, Frank T; Sophonneary, Prak; Whitney, Sophie; Mao, Bunsoth; Berger, Jacques; Conkle, Joel; Dijkhuizen, Marjoleine A; Laillou, Arnaud

    2016-04-01

    Nearly half of women of reproductive age (WRA) in Cambodia are anemic. To guide interventions, national data on nutritional causes of anemia, including iron deficiency and vitamin A deficiency, are needed. In 2012, a national household survey in WRA on antibodies to routine vaccine-preventable disease immunity was performed. We used serum samples from this survey to estimate the prevalence of iron and vitamin A deficiency in 2112 Cambodian WRA, aged 15 to 39 years. Iron deficiency was classified as low or marginal iron stores (ferritin concentrations corrected for inflammation iron deficient erythropoiesis (soluble transferrin receptor concentrations >8.3 mg/L; sTfR), or low total body iron (TBI) derived from Fer and sTfR concentrations (status was classified using retinol binding protein (RBP) concentrations corrected for inflammation as deficient (iron stores, low TBI and iron deficient erythropoiesis was 8.1%, 5.0% and 9.3% respectively. Almost 40% of the women had marginal iron stores. Iron status was better in women living in urban areas compared to rural areas (p deficiency was iron and vitamin A deficiency to the high prevalence of anemia in Cambodian WRA may be limited. The etiology of anemia in Cambodia needs to be elucidated further to guide current policies on anemia.

  14. Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: Important Underrecognised Cardiometabolic Risk Factor in Reproductive-Age Women

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    Dinka Pavicic Baldani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS is the most common endocrine disorder amongst women of reproductive age. Although PCOS is diagnosed exclusively based on reproductive criteria, it is also a metabolic disorder. Insulin resistance, impaired glucose tolerance, type 2 diabetes mellitus, obesity, and dyslipidemia are more common in women with PCOS than in age-comparable women without PCOS. Many of the metabolic abnormalities that manifest in PCOS are worsened by the concurrent incidence of obesity. However, some of these metabolic perturbations occur even in lean women with PCOS and therefore are rightfully recognized as intrinsic to PCOS. The intrinsic factors that produce these metabolic disturbances are reviewed in this paper. The consequences of obesity and the other metabolic aberrations are also discussed. The metabolic perturbations in PCOS patients lead to chronic low-grade inflammation and to cardiovascular impairments that heighten the risk of having cardiovascular disease. Even though many studies have shown an elevation in surrogate biomarkers of cardiovascular disease in PCOS women, it is still not clear to what extent and magnitude the elevation precipitates more frequent and earlier events.

  15. Intravaginal hormonal contraception for women of reproductive age with excessive body mass

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    I. B. Gridina

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available There are a number of disadvantages inherent in all oral hormonal contraceptives: need for daily administration, fluctuations of hormone levels throughout the day, metabolism in the gastrointestinal tract, the effect of the first passage through the liver. All this became a prerequisite to the creation of prolonged oral hormonal methods of contraception, which would be devoid of these shortcomings. One of such method of hormonal contraception is intravaginal hormonal system. The aim was to determine the safety and efficacy of its use in women of reproductive age with overweight. 43 women were included. State of lipid metabolism, changes of the hemostatic system, blood pressure and weight fluctuations in the past 6 months of using intravaginal hormonal contraceptive system were studied. Results. It is established that hormonal intravaginal contraceptive ring gives minimal metabolic effects. Conclusion. This suggests that this ring can be used successfully in patients with excessive body mass, because there is no effect of the ring on hemostasis, lipid metabolism and body weight.

  16. Clinicoetiological Characterization of Infectious Vaginitis amongst Women of Reproductive Age Group from Navi Mumbai, India

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    Anuradha Narayankhedkar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Vaginitis is one of the commonest reproductive tract infections in sexually active women. In the present study clinicoetiological characterization of infectious vaginitis amongst 380 women of reproductive age group (18–45 years was done. Bacterial vaginosis (BV was detected by Nugent’s scoring, Candida infection by culture, and trichomoniasis (TV by wet mount. One hundred and ten (28.9% women presented with symptoms of vaginitis. The presenting symptoms were vaginal discharge 106 (96.4%, vulval itching/irritation 19 (17.3%, malodor 5 (4.5%, pain in abdomen 3 (2.7%, and dysuria 1 (0.9%. The commonest etiology detected was Candida in 33 (30% cases, of which 18 (54.5% were C. albicans and 15 (45.5% non-albicans Candida (NAC infections. The NAC isolates were C. glabrata (n=10, C. tropicalis (n=3, and C. krusei (n=2. BV and TV were observed in 19 (17.3% and 2 (1.8% cases, respectively. A statistically significant association between Candida infection and presence of curdy-white discharge (p=0.001 and vulval itching/irritation (p=0.007 was noted. To conclude, we observed the etiological predominance of Candida infection, with considerable prevalence of NAC, indicating the need for microbiological investigation up to species level in cases of Candida infections, to ensure appropriate management.

  17. Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: Important Underrecognised Cardiometabolic Risk Factor in Reproductive-Age Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldani, Dinka Pavicic; Skrgatic, Lana; Ougouag, Roya

    2015-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrine disorder amongst women of reproductive age. Although PCOS is diagnosed exclusively based on reproductive criteria, it is also a metabolic disorder. Insulin resistance, impaired glucose tolerance, type 2 diabetes mellitus, obesity, and dyslipidemia are more common in women with PCOS than in age-comparable women without PCOS. Many of the metabolic abnormalities that manifest in PCOS are worsened by the concurrent incidence of obesity. However, some of these metabolic perturbations occur even in lean women with PCOS and therefore are rightfully recognized as intrinsic to PCOS. The intrinsic factors that produce these metabolic disturbances are reviewed in this paper. The consequences of obesity and the other metabolic aberrations are also discussed. The metabolic perturbations in PCOS patients lead to chronic low-grade inflammation and to cardiovascular impairments that heighten the risk of having cardiovascular disease. Even though many studies have shown an elevation in surrogate biomarkers of cardiovascular disease in PCOS women, it is still not clear to what extent and magnitude the elevation precipitates more frequent and earlier events. PMID:26124830

  18. Physically and sexually violent experiences of reproductive-aged women displaced by Hurricane Katrina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picardo, Carla W; Burton, Shirley; Naponick, John

    2010-01-01

    Measure the frequency of physical and sexual abuse in a sample of reproductive aged women displaced by Hurricane Katrina, and compare those experiences to the year before Hurricane Katrina. Sixty-six English-speaking women aged 18-49 years residing in Louisiana Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) housing were screened for physical and sexual abuse seven to nine months after Hurricane Katrina, using modified 30x7 cluster sampling methodology. Twenty-three percent (95% confidence interval [CI], 14, 34%) of women reported being hit or verbally threatened since Hurricane Katrina. Abuse had increased for 33% (95% CI, 13, 63%) and decreased for 13% (95% CI, 4, 37%) of women. Twenty percent (95% CI, 6, 51%) of abused women were with a new partner, while 13% (95% CI, 4, 39%) reported new abuse with the same partner. Four women reported sexual abuse since Hurricane Katrina. Compared to before the storm, the frequency of sexual abuse was the same for two women, and one reported new abuse with the same partner. Physical abuse was not uncommon among displaced women following Hurricane Katrina. Increasing and new abuse were the most commonly reported experiences. Violence against women should not be overlooked as a continued, and perhaps escalating, occurrence requiring attention following displacement after disasters of such magnitude as Hurricane Katrina.

  19. Antioxidant relevance to human health.

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    Wahlqvist, Mark L

    2013-01-01

    Human ecology requires both oxygen and water with the generation from food of an immediate energy source, ATP, by oxidative phosphorylation. A continuing balance between oxidation and antioxidation is necessary for longer less-disabled lives, taking account of oxidative stresses and the critical roles of oxidants in defence against infection, tissue repair and signalling. Antioxidant capacity is derived both exogenously (from food, beverage and sunlight) and endogenously (from enzymatic and non-enzymatic pathways). A number of oxidant food factors service antioxidant metallo-enzymes. The capacity operates extra- or intracellularly. Uric acid is the major antioxidant in primate blood. Uric acid synthesis is increased by dietary fructose from fruit, sugary foods and drinks. This indirect antioxidant effect of fruit is separate from that attributable to its flavonoids. Alcohol also increases serum uric acid. Urate excess and retention is associated with disease. The high prevalence of hyperuricaemia in NE Asia presents a major public health dilemma in regard to putative benefits and risks. Foods with high antioxidant activity include berries, nuts and legumes, tomatoes and sweet potato leaves. Each of the antioxidants in these foods is pleiotropic being inter-alia anti-inflammatory, anti-angiogenic or anti-neoplastic. Moreover, food matrices and patterns contribute to the safety of antioxidant consumption. There is no evidence to date that isolated antioxidants as food supplements improve health outcomes or survival; and some that indicate unacceptable risk. Their use as biomarkers of food cannot justify their isolated use. Nevertheless, a spectrum of dietary pluripotential antioxidants for tissues, metabolic and immune systems is advantageous.

  20. Public health nursing, ethics and human rights.

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    Ivanov, Luba L; Oden, Tami L

    2013-05-01

    Public health nursing has a code of ethics that guides practice. This includes the American Nurses Association Code of Ethics for Nurses, Principles of the Ethical Practice of Public Health, and the Scope and Standards of Public Health Nursing. Human rights and Rights-based care in public health nursing practice are relatively new. They reflect human rights principles as outlined in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and applied to public health practice. As our health care system is restructured and there are new advances in technology and genetics, a focus on providing care that is ethical and respects human rights is needed. Public health nurses can be in the forefront of providing care that reflects an ethical base and a rights-based approach to practice with populations.

  1. Physical activity and human health

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    Paulina Wojciechowska

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The dynamic development of the automotive industry, transport, and the media means that human life has become much easier. At the same time, the comfortable living conditions have decreased physical activity. Biologically conditioned, the need of activity has been minimised by the ever-increasing pace of life. As a result, it may lead to the loss of physical and mental health. Active recreation is not only an excellent source of activity, but also a source of satisfaction. Youths and adults should therefore spend their free time primarily on various forms of physical activity. Aim of the research : To evaluate the physical fitness of students who regularly practice physical exercise, those who occasionally practice, and those not practicing any form of physical activity. Material and methods : In the research we used a questionnaire of the Ruffier test and an orthostatic test. The study involved a group of 15 people aged 20–25 years. Participation in the study was entirely voluntary and anonymous. The study group consisted only of women. Results obtained from the questionnaire survey were fully reflected during exercise tests performed. Results and conclusions: Only regularly practiced physical activity has an effect on our body. Regular exercise increases our body’s physical capacity. Activity is the best means of prevention of lifestyle diseases. Youths and adults should spend their free time mainly doing various forms of physical activity.

  2. Prevalence and related factors for anorgasmia among reproductive aged women in Hesarak, Iran

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    Mitra Tadayon Najafabady

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Orgasmic dysfunction in women is characterized by persistent or recurrent delay in or absence of orgasm following a normal sexual excitement phase. Research has shown that almost two thirds of women have concerns about their sexual relationship. Sexual dysfunction has many problems for couples; some researchers found that up to 67% of divorces related to sexual disorders. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this cross-sectional study was to assess the prevalence and related factors of anorgasmia among reproductive age Iranian women. METHODS: This study was conducted in 2006-7 in Hesarak, Karaj, Iran. A total of 1200 women were randomly recruited to the study. Sexual satisfaction questions were prepared according to the Enrich Sexual Satisfaction Questionnaire. Orgasms were assessed according to the relevant questions in the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI questionnaire. The data were analyzed using SPSS version 11; Chi-square, Mann-Whitney and independent t-test were used for statistical purposes. RESULTS: This study showed that the prevalence of anorgasmia among Iranian women in Hesarak, Karaj, was 26.3%. There was a significant difference between the anorgasmic and normal orgasm groups regarding the women's age, age at marriage, duration of marriage and education during puberty (p<0.05. Some psychological factors, e.g. anxiety, fatigue, pain, feeling of guilt, anti-masculine feelings and embarrassment in sexual relationships were higher in the anorgasmic group (p<0.001. DISCUSSION: The results of this study showed that the prevalence of anorgasmia in Hesarak is high and most of the anorgasmic women were highly unsatisfied with their sexual relationship compared to the normal orgasm group. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of anorgasmia among Iranian women in Hesarak, Karaj, is high and some socio-demographic and psychological factors have a strong relationship with anorgasmia.

  3. Anti-Müllerian hormone in reproductive age women with systemic lupus erythematosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velarde-Ochoa, María Del Carmen; Esquivel-Valerio, Jorge Antonio; Vega-Morales, David; Skinner-Taylor, Cassandra Michele; Galarza-Delgado, Dionicio Ángel; Garza-Elizondo, Mario Alberto

    2015-01-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is an inflammatory autoimmune systemic and chronic disease. Fertility in SLE patients is considered normal; factors that have been associated in these patients with ovarian failure are: disease activity, autoantibodies, and the use of cytotoxic agents. The anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) is a marker that helps to determine the follicular reserve. Determinate the objective was to determine AMH levels in women of reproductive age with SLE. We included 65 women with SLE classified according to the 1997 ACR criteria, 18- to 40-years old. We obtained demographic, clinical, obstetric, and gynecological characteristics as well as serum levels of AMH. We performed a bivariate analysis among patients with low ovarian reserve and those with normal ovarian reserve. We also performed a correlation analysis between activity and damage index and between the cumulative cyclophosphamide dose and AMH levels. We found a median of serum AMH in SLE patients of .61 ng/mL. The prevalence of low ovarian reserve in our study was 3.07%. We found a median MEX-SLEDAI score of 1 point and the median SLICC score was 2 points. Twenty-five patients (38.4%) had used cyclophosphamide and their cumulative average dose was 7.5 grams. We found a median of AMH of .61 ng/mL in our population. The prevalence of low ovarian reserve in SLE patients was 3.07%. We did not find a correlation between AMH levels, the use of cyclophosphamide, and disease activity. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  4. Contraceptive Utilisation Among Mothers of Reproductive Age in Ajman, United Arab Emirates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayakumary Muttappallymyalil

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study aimed to determine contraceptive utilisation among mothers aged 18–49 years old in Ajman, United Arab Emirates (UAE. Methods: This cross-sectional study was carried out from May to November 2013. A total of 400 participants were recruited from two primary healthcare centres and one private hospital in Ajman. An interviewer-administered validated questionnaire was used for data collection. Results: The frequency of previous and current contraceptive use was 68.0% and 61.8%, respectively. Expatriates more frequently used contraceptives in comparison to Emiratis (77.3% versus 54.3%, respectively. Contraceptive use increased significantly with age (75.5% among >35-year-olds versus 57.3% among ≤25-year-olds; P <0.050 and education level (83.3% among postgraduates versus 60.0% among those with primary education; P <0.050. In addition, contraceptive use was significantly higher among those living in a nuclear family system (P <0.050. A univariate analysis indicated significant associations between contraceptive use and age, nationality, education level, type of family system, employment sector, parity, knowledge of birth control measures and source of birth control information (P <0.050 each. However, no significant associations were found via multivariate analysis. Conclusion: Healthcare practitioners can play a pivotal role in providing contraceptive advice which could lead to an improvement in contraceptive utilisation. Efforts are recommended to raise awareness regarding newer forms of contraceptives among mothers of reproductive age in the UAE.

  5. Characterization of the vaginal micro- and mycobiome in asymptomatic reproductive-age Estonian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drell, Tiina; Lillsaar, Triin; Tummeleht, Lea; Simm, Jaak; Aaspõllu, Anu; Väin, Edda; Saarma, Ivo; Salumets, Andres; Donders, Gilbert G G; Metsis, Madis

    2013-01-01

    The application of high-throughput sequencing methods has raised doubt in the concept of the uniform healthy vaginal microbiota consisting predominantly of lactobacilli by revealing the existence of more variable bacterial community composition. As this needs to be analyzed more extensively and there is little straightforward data regarding the vaginal mycobiome of asymptomatic women we aimed to define bacterial and fungal communities in vaginal samples from 494 asymptomatic, reproductive-age Estonian women. The composition of the vaginal microbiota was determined by amplifying bacterial 16S rRNA and fungal internal transcribed spacer-1 (ITS-1) regions and subsequently sequencing them using 454 Life Sciences pyrosequencing. We delineated five major bacterial community groups with distinctive diversity and species composition. Lactobacilli were among the most abundant bacteria in all groups, but also members of genus Gardnerella had high relative abundance in some of the groups. Microbial diversity increased with higher vaginal pH values, and was also higher when a malodorous discharge was present, indicating that some of the women who consider themselves healthy may potentially have asymptomatic bacterial vaginosis (BV). Our study is the first of its kind to analyze the mycobiome that colonizes the healthy vaginal environment using barcoded pyrosequencing technology. We observed 196 fungal operational taxonomic units (OTUs), including 16 OTUs of Candida spp., which is more diverse than previously recognized. However, assessing true fungal diversity was complicated because of the problems regarding the possible air-borne contamination and bioinformatics used for identification of fungal taxons as significant proportion of fungal sequences were assigned to unspecified OTUs.

  6. Contraceptive practices among married women of reproductive age in Bangladesh: a review of the evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huda, Fauzia Akhter; Robertson, Yolande; Chowdhuri, Sabiha; Sarker, Bidhan Krishna; Reichenbach, Laura; Somrongthong, Ratana

    2017-06-06

    Bangladesh has experienced a sevenfold increase in its contraceptive prevalence rate (CPR) in less than forty years from 8% in 1975 to 62% in 2014. However, despite this progress, almost one-third of pregnancies are still unintended which may be attributed to unmet need for family planning and discontinuation and switching of methods after initiation of their use. We conducted an extensive literature review on contraceptive use among married women of reproductive age (MWRA) in Bangladesh. A total of 263 articles were identified through database search and after final screening ten articles were included in this synthesis. Findings showed that method discontinuation and switching, method failure, and method mix may offset achievements in the CPR. Most of the women know of at least one contraceptive method. Oral pill is the most widely used (27%) method, followed by injectables (12.4%), condoms (6.4%), female sterilization (4.6%), male sterilization (1.2%), implants (1.7%), and IUDs (0.6%). There has been a decline in the use of long acting and permanent methods over the last two decades. Within 12 months of initiation, the rate of method discontinuation particularly the short-acting methods remain high at 36%. It is important to recognize the trends as married Bangladeshi women, on average, wanted 1.6 children, but the rate of actual children was 2.3. A renewed commitment from government bodies and independent organizations is needed to implement and monitor family planning strategies in order to ensure the adherence to and provision of the most appropriate contraceptive method for couples.

  7. A Culture Of Health And Human Rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariner, Wendy K; Annas, George J

    2016-11-01

    A culture of health can be seen as a social norm that values health as the nation's priority or as an appeal to improve the social determinants of health. Better population health will require changing social and economic policies. Effective changes are unlikely unless health advocates can leverage a framework broader than health to mobilize political action in collaboration with non-health sector advocates. We suggest that human rights-the dominant international source of norms for government responsibilities-provides this broader framework. Human rights, as expressed in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and enforceable treaties, require governments to assure their populations nondiscriminatory access to food, water, education, work, social security, and a standard of living adequate for health and well-being. The policies needed to realize human rights also improve population health, well-being, and equity. Aspirations for human rights are strong enough to endure beyond inevitable setbacks to specific causes. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

  8. The primate vaginal microbiome: comparative context and implications for human health and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stumpf, Rebecca M; Wilson, Brenda A; Rivera, Angel; Yildirim, Suleyman; Yeoman, Carl J; Polk, John D; White, Bryan A; Leigh, Steven R

    2013-12-01

    The primate body hosts trillions of microbes. Interactions between primate hosts and these microbes profoundly affect primate physiology, reproduction, health, survival, and ultimately, evolution. It is increasingly clear that primate health cannot be understood fully without knowledge of host-microbial interactions. Our goals here are to review what is known about microbiomes of the female reproductive tract and to explore several factors that influence variation within individuals, as well as within and between primate species. Much of our knowledge of microbial variation derives from studies of humans, and from microbes located in nonreproductive regions (e.g., the gut). We review work suggesting that the vaginal microbiota affects female health, fecundity, and pregnancy outcomes, demonstrating the selective potential for these agents. We explore the factors that correlate with microbial variation within species. Initial colonization by microbes depends on the manner of birth; most microbial variation is structured by estrogen levels that change with age (i.e., at puberty and menopause) and through the menstrual cycle. Microbial communities vary by location within the vagina and can depend on the sampling methods used (e.g., swab, lavage, or pap smear). Interindividual differences also exist, and while this variation is not completely understood, evidence points more to differences in estrogen levels, rather than differences in external physical environment. When comparing across species, reproductive-age humans show distinct microbial communities, generally dominated by Lactobacillus, unlike other primates. We develop evolutionary hypotheses to explain the marked differences in microbial communities. While much remains to be done to test these hypotheses, we argue that the ample variation in primate mating and reproductive behavior offers excellent opportunities to evaluate host-microbe coevolution and adaptation.

  9. Frequency of development of bacterial vaginitis in symptomatic and asymptomatic women of reproductive age, aged 18 – 45 years old

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Ioannidou

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of the current study was to investigate the frequency of development of bacterial vaginitis (BV in women of reproductive age, aged 18 to 45 years old. Those women undertook a microbiological examination of vaginal secretion either in the context of preventive control or because of the appearance of clinical symptoms.Material and method: A microbiological test of vaginal secretion was done in 500 women of reproductive age, aged 18 to 45 years old. Those women came for examination, either in the context of preventive control or because they had disturbing symptoms in the genital area. The following factors were recorded: age, existence of clinical symptoms such as itching, burning, excessive vaginal secretion, pain, as well as history of vaginitis. During the sample intake, the presence of pathological secretion, rush or pain were recorded. The diagnosis of bacterial vaginitis was based on the Amsel’s criteria.Results: Out of the 500 women of reproductive age, BV was detected to 145 (29% and 33% of them were asymptomatic. 86,2% of the women reported excessive smelly vaginal secretion. Furthermore, 95,8% of women were found with excessive vaginal secretion and last but not least in 73% of women, pain was detected. History of vaginitis was reported by the 83,3% of women with BV.Conclusion: It can be argued that BV was detected in a great number of women of reproductive age. The high percentages of asymptomatic women with BV, as well as the serious complications, and the fact that BV constitutes a predisposition factor for infection with HIV, impose the application of preventive laboratory control in order to avoid bacterial vaginitis.

  10. Evaluation of Acute Coronary Syndrome and Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Women of Reproductive Age in Northwest Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Razieh Parizad

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Acute Coronary Syndrome (ACS is rare in women of reproductive age; however with increase in risk factors of Coronary Artery Disease (CAD in this age group, the possibility of ACS in young women is expected to rise and become a significant problem in future. It seems that pattern of risk factors and disease course may be different in this group. This study was conducted to determine the status of ACS in women of reproductive age. Materials and Methods: This is a descriptive study of women aged between 15-45 years who were admitted with ACS during the past five years from 21 March 2008 until 20 March 2013. The definition of ACS was designed to be compatible with current guidelines. Statistical analyses were performed with SPSS version 17.0. Results: Women of reproductive age who were admitted with ACS diagnosis were 1.16% of all ACS cases. Significant number of patients (22 patients who are 42% of all patients had atypical chest pain and 17 (32% had unusual symptoms. Unstable Angina (UA was the most common type of ACS. Most of the patients had one or more CAD risk factors. Percutaneous Coronary Intervention (PCI or Coronary Artery Bypass Graft Surgery (CABG was performed in 25(42% of the female patients with documented ACS. In recent years, the prevalence of CAD has increased considerably in in this specific group. Conclusion: ACS is rare in women of reproductive age but may occur. The clinical presentation of the women of this study is compatible to other similar investigations.

  11. Climate change and human health: a One Health approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patz, Jonathan A; Hahn, Micah B

    2013-01-01

    Climate change adds complexity and uncertainty to human health issues such as emerging infectious diseases, food security, and national sustainability planning that intensify the importance of interdisciplinary and collaborative research. Collaboration between veterinary, medical, and public health professionals to understand the ecological interactions and reactions to flux in a system can facilitate clearer understanding of climate change impacts on environmental, animal, and human health. Here we present a brief introduction to climate science and projections for the next century and a review of current knowledge on the impacts of climate-driven environmental change on human health. We then turn to the links between ecological and evolutionary responses to climate change and health. The literature on climate impacts on biological systems is rich in both content and historical data, but the connections between these changes and human health is less understood. We discuss five mechanisms by which climate changes impacts on biological systems will be felt by the human population: Modifications in Vector, Reservoir, and Pathogen Lifecycles; Diseases of Domestic and Wild Animals and Plants; Disruption of Synchrony Between Interacting Species; Trophic Cascades; and Alteration or Destruction of Habitat. Each species responds to environmental changes differently, and in order to predict the movement of disease through ecosystems, we have to rely on expertise from the fields of veterinary, medical, and public health, and these health professionals must take into account the dynamic nature of ecosystems in a changing climate.

  12. Ecological determinants of health: food and environment on human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Alice M L

    2017-04-01

    Human health and diseases are determined by many complex factors. Health threats from the human-animal-ecosystems interface (HAEI) and zoonotic diseases (zoonoses) impose an increasing risk continuously to public health, from those emerging pathogens transmitted through contact with animals, food, water and contaminated environments. Immense challenges forced on the ecological perspectives on food and the eco-environments, including aquaculture, agriculture and the entire food systems. Impacts of food and eco-environments on human health will be examined amongst the importance of human interventions for intended purposes in lowering the adverse effects on the biodiversity. The complexity of relevant conditions defined as factors contributing to the ecological determinants of health will be illuminated from different perspectives based on concepts, citations, examples and models, in conjunction with harmful consequential effects of human-induced disturbances to our environments and food systems, together with the burdens from ecosystem disruption, environmental hazards and loss of ecosystem functions. The eco-health literacy should be further promoting under the "One Health" vision, with "One World" concept under Ecological Public Health Model for sustaining our environments and the planet earth for all beings, which is coincidentally echoing Confucian's theory for the environmental ethics of ecological harmony.

  13. Ovarian reserve in the women of late reproductive age after conservative treatment of polycystic ovary syndrome in adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltadze, K; Barbakadze, L

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess of the ovarian reserve of the women of late reproductive age after the conservative treatment of polycystic ovary syndrome in adolescence. A total of 67 women of late reproductive age with confirmed primary PCOS in adolescence and 70 age-matched controls were included in the study. The patients with PCOS underwent clinical investigation and conservative treatment with antiandrogens and oral contraceptive pills (OCPs) between 1984 and 1990y. and at the time of original diagnosis they were 13-18 years. The patients were collected via analysis of histories at primary diagnosis of PCOS in adolescence and at the time of the follow-up investigation of reproductive hormones was conducted. Data were compared between the study and control groups. After conservative treatment PCOS patients had higher levels of anti-Müllerian hormone and greater number of antral follicles than controls (рadolescence have the better ovarian reserve in late reproductive age compared with age-matched controls.

  14. Access to essential maternal health interventions and human rights violations among vulnerable communities in eastern Burma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luke C Mullany

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Health indicators are poor and human rights violations are widespread in eastern Burma. Reproductive and maternal health indicators have not been measured in this setting but are necessary as part of an evaluation of a multi-ethnic pilot project exploring strategies to increase access to essential maternal health interventions. The goal of this study is to estimate coverage of maternal health services prior to this project and associations between exposure to human rights violations and access to such services. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Selected communities in the Shan, Mon, Karen, and Karenni regions of eastern Burma that were accessible to community-based organizations operating from Thailand were surveyed to estimate coverage of reproductive, maternal, and family planning services, and to assess exposure to household-level human rights violations within the pilot-project target population. Two-stage cluster sampling surveys among ever-married women of reproductive age (15-45 y documented access to essential antenatal care interventions, skilled attendance at birth, postnatal care, and family planning services. Mid-upper arm circumference, hemoglobin by color scale, and Plasmodium falciparum parasitemia by rapid diagnostic dipstick were measured. Exposure to human rights violations in the prior 12 mo was recorded. Between September 2006 and January 2007, 2,914 surveys were conducted. Eighty-eight percent of women reported a home delivery for their last pregnancy (within previous 5 y. Skilled attendance at birth (5.1%, any (39.3% or > or = 4 (16.7% antenatal visits, use of an insecticide-treated bed net (21.6%, and receipt of iron supplements (11.8% were low. At the time of the survey, more than 60% of women had hemoglobin level estimates < or = 11.0 g/dl and 7.2% were Pf positive. Unmet need for contraceptives exceeded 60%. Violations of rights were widely reported: 32.1% of Karenni households reported forced labor and 10% of Karen

  15. HEALTH, VITAL GOALS, AND CENTRAL HUMAN CAPABILITIES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatapuram, Sridhar

    2013-01-01

    I argue for a conception of health as a person's ability to achieve or exercise a cluster of basic human activities. These basic activities are in turn specified through free-standing ethical reasoning about what constitutes a minimal conception of a human life with equal human dignity in the modern world. I arrive at this conception of health by closely following and modifying Lennart Nordenfelt's theory of health which presents health as the ability to achieve vital goals. Despite its strengths I transform Nordenfelt's argument in order to overcome three significant drawbacks. Nordenfelt makes vital goals relative to each community or context and significantly reflective of personal preferences. By doing so, Nordenfelt's conception of health faces problems with both socially relative concepts of health and subjectively defined wellbeing. Moreover, Nordenfelt does not ever explicitly specify a set of vital goals. The theory of health advanced here replaces Nordenfelt's (seemingly) empty set of preferences and society-relative vital goals with a human species-wide conception of basic vital goals, or ‘central human capabilities and functionings’. These central human capabilities come out of the capabilities approach (CA) now familiar in political philosophy and economics, and particularly reflect the work of Martha Nussbaum. As a result, the health of an individual should be understood as the ability to achieve a basic cluster of beings and doings—or having the overarching capability, a meta-capability, to achieve a set of central or vital inter-related capabilities and functionings. PMID:22420910

  16. Health, vital goals, and central human capabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatapuram, Sridhar

    2013-06-01

    I argue for a conception of health as a person's ability to achieve or exercise a cluster of basic human activities. These basic activities are in turn specified through free-standing ethical reasoning about what constitutes a minimal conception of a human life with equal human dignity in the modern world. I arrive at this conception of health by closely following and modifying Lennart Nordenfelt's theory of health which presents health as the ability to achieve vital goals. Despite its strengths I transform Nordenfelt's argument in order to overcome three significant drawbacks. Nordenfelt makes vital goals relative to each community or context and significantly reflective of personal preferences. By doing so, Nordenfelt's conception of health faces problems with both socially relative concepts of health and subjectively defined wellbeing. Moreover, Nordenfelt does not ever explicitly specify a set of vital goals. The theory of health advanced here replaces Nordenfelt's (seemingly) empty set of preferences and society-relative vital goals with a human species-wide conception of basic vital goals, or 'central human capabilities and functionings'. These central human capabilities come out of the capabilities approach (CA) now familiar in political philosophy and economics, and particularly reflect the work of Martha Nussbaum. As a result, the health of an individual should be understood as the ability to achieve a basic cluster of beings and doings-or having the overarching capability, a meta-capability, to achieve a set of central or vital inter-related capabilities and functionings.

  17. The human microbiota associated with overall health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiaofei; Wang, Zhujun; Zhang, Xuewu

    2015-03-01

    Human body harbors diverse microbes, the main components include bacteria, eukaryotes and viruses. Emerging evidences show that the human microbiota is intrinsically linked with overall health. The development of next-generation sequencing provides an unprecedented opportunity to investigate the complex microbial communities that are associated with the human body. Many factors like host genetics and environmental factors have a major impact on the composition and dynamic changes of human microbiota. The purpose of this paper is to present an overview of the relationship between human health and human microbiota (skin, nasal, throat, oral, vaginal and gut microbiota), then to focus on the factors modulating the composition of the microbiota and the future challenges to manipulate the microbiota for personalized health.

  18. NASA Human Health and Performance Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Jeffrey R.

    2012-01-01

    In May 2007, what was then the Space Life Sciences Directorate, issued the 2007 Space Life Sciences Strategy for Human Space Exploration. In January 2012, leadership and key directorate personnel were once again brought together to assess the current and expected future environment against its 2007 Strategy and the Agency and Johnson Space Center goals and strategies. The result was a refined vision and mission, and revised goals, objectives, and strategies. One of the first changes implemented was to rename the directorate from Space Life Sciences to Human Health and Performance to better reflect our vision and mission. The most significant change in the directorate from 2007 to the present is the integration of the Human Research Program and Crew Health and Safety activities. Subsequently, the Human Health and Performance Directorate underwent a reorganization to achieve enhanced integration of research and development with operations to better support human spaceflight and International Space Station utilization. These changes also enable a more effective and efficient approach to human system risk mitigation. Since 2007, we have also made significant advances in external collaboration and implementation of new business models within the directorate and the Agency, and through two newly established virtual centers, the NASA Human Health and Performance Center and the Center of Excellence for Collaborative Innovation. Our 2012 Strategy builds upon these successes to address the Agency's increased emphasis on societal relevance and being a leader in research and development and innovative business and communications practices. The 2012 Human Health and Performance Vision is to lead the world in human health and performance innovations for life in space and on Earth. Our mission is to enable optimization of human health and performance throughout all phases of spaceflight. All HH&P functions are ultimately aimed at achieving this mission. Our activities enable

  19. Transformative combinations: women's health and human rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamin, A E

    1997-01-01

    From the human rights perspective proposed in this article, a woman's good or ill health reflects more than biology or individual behaviors; it reflects her enjoyment (or lack thereof) of fundamental human rights that enable her to exercise basic power over the course and quality of her life. The "structural" view of health that such a human rights perspective suggests is concerned first with identifying the effects of social, economic, and political relations on women's health and then with promoting "interventions" aimed at transforming the laws, institutions, and structures that deny women's rights and well-being. Yet, traditional human rights law and practice have been limited to narrowly defined abuses by public officials against individuals that fail to capture the most pervasive denials of women's rights, which, though rooted in systematic discrimination, are frequently played out in so-called "private" institutions, primarily within the family. The experiences of women's health advocates in addressing complex women's health issues makes it clear that women's lack of access to economic and political power in the public sphere creates the conditions under which they are discriminated against and physically and sexually abused in the private sphere. Combining the pragmatic understanding of women's health professionals with an expansive conception of human rights norms has the potential to transform the fields of women's health and human rights.

  20. An Overview of Soils and Human Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brevik, Eric C.

    2013-04-01

    Few people recognize the connection between soils and human health, even though soils are actually very important to health. Soils influence health through the nutrients taken up by plants and the animals that eat those plants, nutrients that are needed for adequate nutrition for growth and development. Soils can also act to harm human health in three major ways: i) toxic levels of substances or disease-causing organisms may enter the human food chain from the soil ii) humans can encounter pathogenic organisms through direct contact with the soil or inhaling dust from the soil, and iii) degraded soils produce nutrient-deficient foods leading to malnutrition. Soils have also been a major source of medicines. Therefore, soils form an integral link in the holistic view of human health. In this presentation, soils and their influence on human health are discussed from a broad perspective, including both direct influences of soils on health and indirect influences through things such as climate change, occupational exposure to soil amendments, and the role of soils in providing food security.

  1. Predictors of intimate partner violence among women of reproductive age group in Sagamu local government area in Ogun State, Western Nigeria: A community-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olorunfemi Emmanuel Amoran

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Worldwide, it has been estimated that violence against women is as serious a cause of death and incapacity among women of reproductive age as cancer, and a greater cause of ill health as traffic accidents and malaria combined. This study was therefore carried out to determine the prevalence and predictors of intimate partner violence among women of reproductive age group in Sagamu local government area (SLGA of Ogun State, Nigeria. Settings: The study was conducted in SLGA Ogun State, which is located in the South Western part of Nigeria. A total of 500 women were interviewed in this study. One participant per each household was selected into the study. Methodology: This analytical cross-sectional study was conducted between April 22, and May 13, 2013. Multistage sampling technique was used to select the participants into the study. A semi-structured questionnaire was used to collect relevant information. Results: The overall rate of intimate partner violence in the last 12 months among respondents was 16.0% and was the most common (65.0% among age 25–39 years (P = 0.003 and those with primary education (P = 0.001. About 12.3% of the respondents had an abnormal General Health Questionnaire (GHQ. Those who had abnormal GHQ were strongly statistically associated with intimate partner violence (P = 0.0001. Strain relationship (odds ratio [OR] =3.7, confidence interval [CI] =1.74–7.87, thinking that violence is acceptable (OR = 1.96, CI = 1.24–3.09 were predisposing factors for intimate partner violence while being mentally healthy (OR = 0.51, CI = 0.34–0.75 reduce the occurrence of violence by half after controlling for the effect of confounders. Conclusion: This study suggests that women education and healthy mental health is essential to the reduction of violence among intimate partners. Resolving it requires the provision of counseling services by educational and mental health sectors working together at the community

  2. EFFICACY OF ANTIOXIDANTS IN HUMAN HEALTH | Waling ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EFFICACY OF ANTIOXIDANTS IN HUMAN HEALTH. ... African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development ... add variety to household diets and nutrients, and improve household incomes for improved food security situation.

  3. Revised Human Health Risk Assessment on Chlorpyrifos

    Science.gov (United States)

    We have revised our human health risk assessment and drinking water exposure assessment for chlorpyrifos that supported our October 2015 proposal to revoke all food residue tolerances for chlorpyrifos. Learn about the revised analysis.

  4. Assessing Human Health Risk from Pesticides

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA protects human health and the environment by evaluating the risk associated with pesticides before allowing them to be used in the United States. Learn about the tools and processes used in risk assessment for pesticides.

  5. Nutritional Ecology and Human Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raubenheimer, David; Simpson, Stephen J

    2016-07-17

    In contrast to the spectacular advances in the first half of the twentieth century with micronutrient-related diseases, human nutrition science has failed to stem the more recent rise of obesity and associated cardiometabolic disease (OACD). This failure has triggered debate on the problems and limitations of the field and what change is needed to address these. We briefly review the two broad historical phases of human nutrition science and then provide an overview of the main problems that have been implicated in the poor progress of the field with solving OACD. We next introduce the field of nutritional ecology and show how its ecological-evolutionary foundations can enrich human nutrition science by providing the theory to help address its limitations. We end by introducing a modeling approach from nutritional ecology, termed nutritional geometry, and demonstrate how it can help to implement ecological and evolutionary theory in human nutrition to provide new direction and to better understand and manage OACD.

  6. Democracy, Human Rights and Women's Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safaei, Jalil

    2012-01-01

    Significant improvements in human rights and democracy have been made since the adoption of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights by the United Nations in 1948. Yet, human rights, especially women's rights, are still being violated in many parts of the developing world. The adverse effects of such violations on women's and children's health are well known, but they are rarely measured. This study uses cross-national data from over 145 countries to estimate the impact of democracy and respect for human rights on various measures of women's health while controlling for confounding socio-economic factors such as income, education, fertility and healthcare. It finds that democracy and regards for human rights contribute positively to women's health outcomes, as do socio-economic variables.

  7. Ultraviolet Radiation: Human Exposure and Health Risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenkate, Thomas D.

    1998-01-01

    Provides an overview of human exposure to ultraviolet radiation and associated health effects as well as risk estimates for acute and chronic conditions resulting from such exposure. Demonstrates substantial reductions in health risk that can be achieved through preventive actions. Also includes a risk assessment model for skin cancer. Contains 36…

  8. Climate change and human health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Warren, John A; Berner, James E; Curtis, Tine

    2005-01-01

    or degradation of permafrost. Climate change can result in damage to sanitation infrastructure resulting in the spread of disease or threatening a community's ability to maintain its economy, geographic location and cultural tradition, leading to mental stress. Through monitoring of some basic indicators...... communities can begin to develop a response to climate change. With this information, planners, engineers, health care professionals and governments can begin to develop approaches to address the challenges related to climate change....

  9. Grounding & human health - a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamieson, I. A.; Jamieson, S. S.; ApSimon, H. M.; Bell, J. N. B.

    2011-06-01

    Whilst grounding is often undertaken in industry as a matter of good practice in situations where the risk of excess charge exists, little thought is usually given to the biological effects that such measures may have, or possible benefits that may arise from the more widespread application of electrostatic and other 'electromagnetic hygiene' measures in hospitals and the general built environment. Research, which is still in its infancy, indicates that grounding the human body using suitable methodologies, particularly in low electromagnetic field environments, can significantly enhance biological functioning. It is proposed that there are often a number of electrostatic and 'electromagnetic hygiene' factors that need to be addressed before the beneficial effects of grounding the human body can be fully realised in many everyday environments.

  10. Survey of Attitudes toward Uterus Transplantation among Japanese Women of Reproductive Age: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iori Kisu

    Full Text Available Uterus transplantation (UTx is a potential option for women with uterine factor infertility to have a child, but there has been no large-scale survey of the views on UTx in women of reproductive age in Japan. The present study was aimed to clarify the views of Japanese women of reproductive age on UTx for uterine factor infertility.A questionnaire on UTx was conducted by an Internet research company in December 2014 as a cross-sectional study in 3,892 randomly chosen women aged 25 to 39 years old. Responses were analyzed from 3,098 subjects (mean age 32.1±4.2 years old, after exclusion of inappropriate respondents in screening.Of the respondents, 62.1%, 34.7% and 18.1% favored adoption, UTx and gestational surrogacy, respectively. In contrast, 7.0%, 21.9% and 63.3% opposed adoption, UTx and gestational surrogacy, respectively. In choices of candidates for UTx based on highest priority, deceased persons (33.8% and mothers (19.0% were favored as donors, and women with congenital absence of the uterus (54.4% and hysterectomy due to a malignant uterine tumor (20.0% as recipients. Regarding societal acceptance of UTx, the answer rates were 15.7% for "UTx should be permitted", 77.6% for "UTx should be permitted with discussion", and 6.7% for "UTx should not be permitted, even with discussion". Regarding personal opinions on UTx, 44.2% were in favor, 47.5% had no opinion, and 8.3% were against.Our results suggest that many Japanese women of reproductive age feel that UTx is socially and individually acceptable, but that concerns requiring further discussion remain among these women. There was also a tendency for UTx to be viewed more favorably than gestational surrogacy.

  11. Factors influencing use of long-acting versus short-acting contraceptive methods among reproductive-age women in a resource-limited setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tibaijuka, Leevan; Odongo, Robert; Welikhe, Emma; Mukisa, Wilber; Kugonza, Lilian; Busingye, Imelda; Nabukalu, Phelomena; Ngonzi, Joseph; Asiimwe, Stephen B; Bajunirwe, Francis

    2017-04-04

    Unplanned pregnancy remains a common problem in many resource-limited settings, mostly due to limited access to modern family planning (FP) services. In particular, use of the more effective long-acting reversible contraceptive (LARC) methods (i.e., intrauterine devices and hormonal implants) remains low compared to the short-acting methods (i.e., condoms, hormonal pills, injectable hormones, and spermicides). Among reproductive-age women attending FP and antenatal care clinics in Uganda, we assessed perceptions and practices regarding the use of modern contraceptive methods. We specifically aimed to evaluate factors influencing method selection. We performed a mixed-methods cross-sectional study, in which we administered structured interviews to 180 clients, and conducted 4 focus group discussions (FGDs) with 36 clients and 8 in-depth personal qualitative interviews with health service providers. We summarized quantitative data and performed latent content analysis on transcripts from the FGDs and qualitative interviews. The prevalence of ever use for LARC methods was 23%. Method characteristics (e.g., client control) appeared to drive method selection more often than structural factors (such as method availability) or individual client characteristics (such as knowledge and perceptions). The most common reasons for choosing LARC methods were: longer protection; better child-spacing; and effectiveness. The most common reasons for not choosing LARC methods included requiring a client-controlled method and desiring to conceive in the near future. The most common reasons for choosing short-acting methods were ease of access; lower cost; privacy; perceived fewer side effects; and freedom to stop using a method without involving the health provider. The personal characteristics of clients, which appeared to be important were client knowledge and number of children. The structural factor which appeared to be important was method availability. Our results suggest that

  12. Poorer Subjective Sleep Quality Is Related to Higher Fantasy-Induced Sexual Arousal in Women of Reproductive Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Rui M; Oliveira, Tânia F

    2016-11-16

    Lack of sleep enhances erections and lubrication the next day. This raises the possibility that poorer subjective sleep quality is related to sexual arousal. To test this hypothesis, sexual arousal was elicited in 70 Portuguese women of reproductive age by means of fantasy. The level of salivary testosterone before and shortly after fantasy was determined by luminescence immunoassays. Participants completed the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), reported their sexual arousal before and during fantasy, and how anxious they were after the fantasy. The hypothesis was confirmed. Anxiety did not explain the association, but testosterone response (poststimulus minus baseline) had a slight explanatory effect.

  13. Prevalence of VDRL sero-positivity in women in reproductive age group in an urban slum community in Bombay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandit, D D; Angadi, S A; Chavan, M K; Pai, N P

    1995-01-01

    A cross sectional survey was carried in an Urban Slum Community in Bombay having a population of 60,000. A total of 393 women in reproductive age group were screened for VDRL reactivity. The highest prevalence was in 15 to 29 years of age group. The sero-positivity rate at 1:8 dilution and above was 0.50%. The seropositivity rate can be further brought down by properly planned and implemented STD (Sexually Transmitted Diseases) Control activities at a community level.

  14. Disparities in Risk Factors Associated with Obesity between Zanzibar and Tanzania Mainland among Women of Reproductive Age Based on the 2010 TDHS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mtumwa, Abdalla H.; Ntwenya, Julius Edward; Vuai, Said A. H.

    2016-01-01

    The occurrence of overweight and obesity has serious health implications. The 2010 Tanzania Demographic and Health Survey data set was reanalysed to compare the prevalences of overweight and obesity between Mainland Tanzania and Zanzibar and to determine how demographic factors can predict overweight and obesity across the United Republic of Tanzania. About 7.92% of the Tanzanian women of reproductive age were obese, 15% were overweight, and 11.5% were underweight. Women from Mainland Tanzania (6.56%) were significantly less likely (AOR = 0.66, 95% CI: 0.53–0.82) to be affected by obesity as compared to women from Zanzibar (12.19%). The common predictors of obesity in Mainland Tanzania and Zanzibar were wealth index, marital status, and age. Whereas the place of residence and education level emerged as predictors of obesity in the Mainland Tanzania alone, the number of meals per day did so in Zanzibar. Most importantly, Zanzibar had a greater prevalence of obesity compared to Mainland Tanzania.

  15. EVA Health and Human Performance Benchmarking Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abercromby, A. F.; Norcross, J.; Jarvis, S. L.

    2016-01-01

    Multiple HRP Risks and Gaps require detailed characterization of human health and performance during exploration extravehicular activity (EVA) tasks; however, a rigorous and comprehensive methodology for characterizing and comparing the health and human performance implications of current and future EVA spacesuit designs does not exist. This study will identify and implement functional tasks and metrics, both objective and subjective, that are relevant to health and human performance, such as metabolic expenditure, suit fit, discomfort, suited postural stability, cognitive performance, and potentially biochemical responses for humans working inside different EVA suits doing functional tasks under the appropriate simulated reduced gravity environments. This study will provide health and human performance benchmark data for humans working in current EVA suits (EMU, Mark III, and Z2) as well as shirtsleeves using a standard set of tasks and metrics with quantified reliability. Results and methodologies developed during this test will provide benchmark data against which future EVA suits, and different suit configurations (eg, varied pressure, mass, CG) may be reliably compared in subsequent tests. Results will also inform fitness for duty standards as well as design requirements and operations concepts for future EVA suits and other exploration systems.

  16. Climate change and human health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Warren, John A; Berner, James E; Curtis, Tine

    2005-01-01

    In northern regions, climate change can include changes in precipitation magnitude and frequency, reductions in sea ice extent and thickness, and climate warming and cooling. These changes can increase the frequency and severity of storms, flooding, or erosion; other changes may include drought...... or degradation of permafrost. Climate change can result in damage to sanitation infrastructure resulting in the spread of disease or threatening a community's ability to maintain its economy, geographic location and cultural tradition, leading to mental stress. Through monitoring of some basic indicators...... communities can begin to develop a response to climate change. With this information, planners, engineers, health care professionals and governments can begin to develop approaches to address the challenges related to climate change....

  17. Knowledge, Attitude and Practice (KAP towards Modern Contraceptives Among Married Women of Reproductive Age in Mpwapwa District, Central Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Lwelamira

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This study was undertaken in Mpwapwa District in Central Zone of Tanzania between July to August, 2009 to assess knowledge, attitude and practice towards modern contraceptives among married women of reproductive age (15-49 years. Specific objectives of the study were to ascertain knowledge and attitude towards modern contraceptives, to determine the extent of use of modern contraceptives and identify factors associated with current use of modern contraceptive in the study population. Study design involved a crosssectional survey that involved 160 women randomly selected from eight villages with nearly equal number of respondents per village. Data from respondents were collected using a pre-tested semi-structured questionnaire. Furthermore, eight Focus Groups Discussions (FGDs, with one FGD per village were also carried out to collect qualitative information. Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS program version 12 was used to analyse quantitative data. Qualitative data were analysed using Content Analysis (CA. Results of this study revealed knowledge of modern contraceptives in a study population to be high. Furthermore, findings of this study indicated substantial proportion of respondents to have positive attitude towards modern contraceptives and hence more room for increasing modern contraceptive use in a study population. For example, half (50% of respondent that were aware of modern contraceptives thought that benefits of modern contraceptives outweigh negative effects and 42% agreed that they could recommend use of modern contraceptive to a friend. However, despite presence of positive attitude towards modern contraceptives by a good number of women in a study population, negative attitude of husband towards modern contraceptives can be one of the obstacles for the success of campaigns to increase modern contraceptive use in the study area. Two- third (65.8% of study participants indicated that their husband doesn’t approve

  18. Regular-fat dairy and human health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astrup, Arne; Bradley, Beth H Rice; Brenna, J Thomas

    2016-01-01

    In recent history, some dietary recommendations have treated dairy fat as an unnecessary source of calories and saturated fat in the human diet. These assumptions, however, have recently been brought into question by current research on regular fat dairy products and human health. In an effort...... dairy foods have on human health. The emerging scientific evidence indicates that the consumption of regular fat dairy foods is not associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease and inversely associated with weight gain and the risk of obesity. Dairy foods, including regular-fat milk...... to disseminate, explore and discuss the state of the science on the relationship between regular fat dairy products and health, symposia were programmed by dairy industry organizations in Europe and North America at The Eurofed Lipids Congress (2014) in France, The Dairy Nutrition Annual Symposium (2014...

  19. Human resources for health in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Mohan; Rao, Krishna D; Kumar, A K Shiva; Chatterjee, Mirai; Sundararaman, Thiagarajan

    2011-02-12

    India has a severe shortage of human resources for health. It has a shortage of qualified health workers and the workforce is concentrated in urban areas. Bringing qualified health workers to rural, remote, and underserved areas is very challenging. Many Indians, especially those living in rural areas, receive care from unqualified providers. The migration of qualified allopathic doctors and nurses is substantial and further strains the system. Nurses do not have much authority or say within the health system, and the resources to train them are still inadequate. Little attention is paid during medical education to the medical and public health needs of the population, and the rapid privatisation of medical and nursing education has implications for its quality and governance. Such issues are a result of underinvestment in and poor governance of the health sector--two issues that the government urgently needs to address. A comprehensive national policy for human resources is needed to achieve universal health care in India. The public sector will need to redesign appropriate packages of monetary and non-monetary incentives to encourage qualified health workers to work in rural and remote areas. Such a policy might also encourage task-shifting and mainstreaming doctors and practitioners who practice traditional Indian medicine (ayurveda, yoga and naturopathy, unani, and siddha) and homoeopathy to work in these areas while adopting other innovative ways of augmenting human resources for health. At the same time, additional investments will be needed to improve the relevance, quantity, and quality of nursing, medical, and public health education in the country.

  20. Promotion of health and human functionality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cristhina de Oliveira Brasil

    2013-08-01

    Organization, signatory of Resolution WHA54.21-OMS54.21, which recommends the use of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF, translated into Portuguese in 2003. The main paradigm that ICF brings is the shift from an approach based on the disease to an approach focused on the human functionality (3. Only in May 2012 the National Health Council (Conselho nacioinal de Saúde – CNS approved the resolution 452 for the Ministry of Health to adopt the ICF, among other uses, as a generator of indicators of human functionality (4. Human functionality, according to the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF of the World Health Organization, is a comprehensive term that designates the elements of the body, its functions and structures, the human activities and participation in the social processes, indicating the positive aspects of the interaction of individuals with certain health conditions and thee context in which he lives with regard to personal and environmental factors (structural and attitudinal (3. However, health information appears incomplete, since data regarding the human functionality is not yet meaningful enough to support the developed policies so that they could accomplish the expected results in the face of the disabilities posed by the deficiencies, limitations in activities and restrictions of participation(5. Given the above, a change in direction is required in the paths of public health policies in Brazil, disposing of the exclusively biological approach to the disease, and starting to see it as a problem produced by the society. Therefore, it is necessary to develop information that record not only the disease but the additional aspects of the individuals´ health status. The human functionality is directly influenced both by the presence of diseases, mainly the chronic ones (featuring the change induced by the epidemiologic transition, as by the occurance of negative context, like the

  1. Promotion of Health and Human Functionality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cristhina de Oliveira Brasil

    2013-03-01

    Organization, signatory of Resolution WHA54.21-OMS54.21, which recommends the use of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF, translated into Portuguese in 2003. The main paradigm that ICF brings is the shift from an approach based on the disease to an approach focused on the human functionality (3. Only in May 2012 the National Health Council (Conselho nacioinal de Saúde – CNS approved the resolution 452 for the Ministry of Health to adopt the ICF, among other uses, as a generator of indicators of human functionality (4. Human functionality, according to the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF of the World Health Organization, is a comprehensive term that designates the elements of the body, its functions and structures, the human activities and participation in the social processes, indicating the positive aspects of the interaction of individuals with certain health conditions and thee context in which he lives with regard to personal and environmental factors (structural and attitudinal (3. However, health information appears incomplete, since data regarding the human functionality is not yet meaningful enough to support the developed policies so that they could accomplish the expected results in the face of the disabilities posed by the deficiencies, limitations in activities and restrictions of participation(5.Given the above, a change in direction is required in the paths of public health policies in Brazil, disposing of the exclusively biological approach to the disease, and starting to see it as a problem produced by the society. Therefore, it is necessary to develop information that record not only the disease but the additional aspects of the individuals´ health status.The human functionality is directly influenced both by the presence of diseases, mainly the chronic ones (featuring the change induced by the epidemiologic transition, as by the occurance of negative context, like the diverse

  2. Whole grains and human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slavin, Joanne

    2004-06-01

    Epidemiological studies find that whole-grain intake is protective against cancer, CVD, diabetes, and obesity. Despite recommendations to consume three servings of whole grains daily, usual intake in Western countries is only about one serving/d. Whole grains are rich in nutrients and phytochemicals with known health benefits. Whole grains have high concentrations of dietary fibre, resistant starch, and oligosaccharides. Whole grains are rich in antioxidants including trace minerals and phenolic compounds and these compounds have been linked to disease prevention. Other protective compounds in whole grains include phytate, phyto-oestrogens such as lignan, plant stanols and sterols, and vitamins and minerals. Published whole-grain feeding studies report improvements in biomarkers with whole-grain consumption, such as weight loss, blood-lipid improvement, and antioxidant protection. Although it is difficult to separate the protective properties of whole grains from dietary fibre and other components, the disease protection seen from whole grains in prospective epidemiological studies far exceeds the protection from isolated nutrients and phytochemicals in whole grains.

  3. Prevalence and Clinical Predictors of Insulin Resistance in Reproductive-Aged Thai Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thanyarat Wongwananuruk

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To determine the prevalence of insulin resistance (IR and its predictors in reproductive-aged Thai women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS. Methods. A cross-sectional study was conducted from May 2007 to January 2009. Participants were 250 Thai women with PCOS. Information regarding medical history and physical examination and results of 75 gram OGTT were recorded. Results. The overall prevalence of IR was 20.0%, comprising the prevalence of impaired fasting glucose, impaired glucose tolerance, and diabetic mellitus of 3.2%, 13.6%, and 5.6%, respectively. Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that the independent predictors for IR were age of ≥30 years old, waist circumference (WC of ≥80 cm, presence of acanthosis nigricans (AN, and dyslipidemia with odds ratios (95% confidence interval of 2.14 (1.01–4.52, 3.53 (1.28–9.75, 2.63 (1.17–5.88, and 3.07 (1.16–8.11, respectively. Conclusion. The overall prevalence of IR in reproductive-aged Thai women with PCOS is 20.0%. Age ≥30 years old, WC ≥80 cm, the presence of AN, and dyslipidemia are the significant clinical predictors.

  4. Validation of wet mount microscopy against Trichomonas culture among women of reproductive age group in Western province, Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banneheke, H; Fernandopulle, R; Gunasekara, U; Barua, A; Fernando, N; Wickremasinghe, R

    2015-06-01

    Wet mount microscopy is the most commonly used diagnostic method for trichomoniasis in clinical diagnostic services all over the world including Sri Lanka due to its availability, simplicity and is relatively inexpensive. However, Trichomonas culture and PCR are the gold standard tests. Unfortunately, neither the culture nor PCR is available for the diagnosis of trichomoniasis in Sri Lanka. Thus, it is important to validate the wet mount microscopy as it is the only available diagnostic test and has not been validated to date in Sri Lanka. The objective was to evaluate the validity and reliability of wet mount microscopy against gold standard Trichomonas culture among clinic based population of reproductive age group women in Western province, Sri Lanka. Women attending hospital and institutional based clinics were enrolled. They were interviewed and high vaginal swabs were taken for laboratory diagnosis by culture and wet mount microscopy. There were 601 participants in the age group of 15-45 years. Wet mount microscopy showed 68% sensitivity, 100% specificity, 100% positive (PPV) and 98% negative predictive values (NPV) (P=0.001, kappa=0.803) respectively against the gold standard culture. The area under the ROC curve was 0.840. Sensitivity of wet mount microscopy is low. However it has high validity and reliability as a specific diagnostic test for trichomoniasis. If it is to be used among women of reproductive age group in Western province, Sri Lanka, a culture method could be adopted as a second test to confirm the negative wet mount for symptomatic patients.

  5. Green Infrastructure, Ecosystem Services, and Human Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coutts, Christopher; Hahn, Micah

    2015-08-18

    Contemporary ecological models of health prominently feature the natural environment as fundamental to the ecosystem services that support human life, health, and well-being. The natural environment encompasses and permeates all other spheres of influence on health. Reviews of the natural environment and health literature have tended, at times intentionally, to focus on a limited subset of ecosystem services as well as health benefits stemming from the presence, and access and exposure to, green infrastructure. The sweeping influence of green infrastructure on the myriad ecosystem services essential to health has therefore often been underrepresented. This survey of the literature aims to provide a more comprehensive picture-in the form of a primer-of the many simultaneously acting health co-benefits of green infrastructure. It is hoped that a more accurately exhaustive list of benefits will not only instigate further research into the health co-benefits of green infrastructure but also promote consilience in the many fields, including public health, that must be involved in the landscape conservation necessary to protect and improve health and well-being.

  6. INTERDEPENDENCE BETWEEN SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT AND HUMAN HEALTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorina MOCUTA

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable development in Romania can be achieved only through consensus orchestrated prioritizing people's attitudes and values. In order to achieve a maximum performance, cultural change must precede structural and functional changes, such an approach leading to a lasting transformation. Cultural change is not about social traditions, history, language, art, etc.., But those on the behavior, mentality, attitude towards work, economy and society. Sustainable development have to mean quality and achieve only limited natural capital, social and anthropogenic own or attracted. A drawing resources must be addressed by cost and their global rarity. Sustainable development for Romania, represents the effective management of resources in the national competitiveness and national foreign goods and services. Human health suppliers, health organizations that offer health services and those who need these services, meet on a market, called health services market, whose mechanism has features different from the other markets, not only from the point of view of the two forces, demand and supply, but also from the third party who pays. In the context of globalization, human development, defined as a process of people’s expanding possibilities to choose, cannot exist without an appropriate health. People often make choices in the economic, social and political fields, situated in the centre of development policies. From the human health perspective, attention is aimed at quality of the economic development, and not quantity, in three critical domains: expectation and quality of life, educational level and access to all the necessary economic resources in order to lead a decent life.

  7. Soil, Food Security and Human Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Margaret

    2017-04-01

    "Upon this handful of soil our survival depends. Husband it and it will grow food, our fuel, and our shelter and surround us with beauty. Abuse it and the soil will collapse and die, taking humanity with it" Vedas Sanskrit Scripture, 1500 BC. As the world's population increases issues of food security become more pressing as does the need to sustain soil fertility and to minimize soil degradation. Soil and land are finite resources, and agricultural land is under severe competition from many other uses. Lack of adequate food and food of poor nutritional quality lead to under-nutrition of different degrees, all of which can cause ill- or suboptimal-health. The soil can affect human health directly and indirectly. Direct effects of soil or its constituents result from its ingestion, inhalation or absorption. For example, hook worms enter the body through the skin and cause anaemia, and fungi and dust can be inhaled resulting in respiratory problems. The soil is the source of actinomycetes on which our earliest antibiotics are based (actinomycin, neomycin and streptomycin). Furthermore, it is a potential reservoir of new antibiotics with methods such as functional metagenomics to identify antibiotic resistant genes. Indirect effects of soil arise from the quantity and quality of food that humans consume. Trace elements can have both beneficial and toxic effects on humans, especially where the range for optimal intake is narrow as for selenium. Deficiencies of four trace elements, iodine, iron, selenium and zinc, will be considered because of their substantial effects on human health. Relations between soil and human health are often difficult to extricate because of the many confounding factors present such as the source of food, social factors and so on. Nevertheless, recent scientific understanding of soil processes and factors that affect human health are enabling greater insight into the effects of soil on our health. Multidisciplinary research that includes soil

  8. Clinical Trials: A Crucial Key to Human Health Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Clinical Trials: A Crucial Key to Human Health Research Past ... the forefront of human health research today are clinical trials—studies that use human volunteers to help medical ...

  9. Oceans and Human Health: Linking Ocean, Organism, and Human Health for Sustainable Management of Coastal Ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandifer, P. A.; Trtanj, J.; Collier, T. K.

    2012-12-01

    Scientists and policy-makers are increasingly recognizing that sustainable coastal communities depend on healthy and resilient economies, ecosystems, and people, and that the condition or "health" of the coastal ocean and humans are intimately and inextricably connected. A wealth of ecosystem services provided by ocean and coastal environments are crucial for human survival and well being. Nonetheless, the health of coastal communities, their economies, connected ecosystems and ecosystem services, and people are under increasing threats from health risks associated with environmental degradation, climate change, and unwise land use practices, all of which contribute to growing burdens of naturally-occurring and introduced pathogens, noxious algae, and chemical contaminants. The occurrence, frequency, intensity, geographic range, and number and kinds of ocean health threats are increasing, with concomitant health and economic effects and eroding public confidence in the safety and wholesomeness of coastal environments and resources. Concerns in the research and public health communities, many summarized in the seminal 1999 NRC Report, From Monsoons to Microbes and the 2004 final report of the US Commission on Ocean Policy, resulted in establishment of a new "meta-discipline" known as Oceans and Human Health (OHH). OHH brings together practitioners in oceanography, marine biology, ecology, biomedical science, medicine, economics and other social sciences, epidemiology, environmental management, and public health to focus on water- and food-borne causes of human and animal illnesses associated with ocean and coastal systems and on health benefits of seafood and other marine products. It integrates information across multiple disciplines to increase knowledge of ocean health risks and benefits and communicate such information to enhance public safety. Recognizing the need for a comprehensive approach to ocean health threats and benefits, Congress passed the Oceans and

  10. STUDY OF FACTORS AFFECTING TOTAL NUMBER OF LIVING CHILDREN AMONG MARRIED WOMEN OF REPRODUCTIVE AGE GROUP IN A SLUM AREA IN MUMBAI.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KG Makade

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background:Marriages and having children is a universal phenomenon in India and in slum areas of cities there is a tendency to have more number of children in married women due to many interrelated causes. In the current study we have tried to explore some of the reasons for having more number of children in urban slum area. Objective: To study the effect of education,age at marriage of women and socioeconomic status of the family onnumber of children among married women of reproductive age group in a slum area of Mumbai. Materials and Methods: A cross sectional observational study was carried out in the field practice area of an Urban Health Training Centre of a teaching hospital in Mumbai. Results:A sample of 342 women was taken by random sampling. Questionnaire was administered in the local language.It was found that illiteracy, marriage before 18 years of age and low socioeconomic status,are significantly associated with more than 3living children.Out of these, socioeconomic status of the family had the greatest influence on bearing of the total number of children, followed by the age of women at marriage and then educational status of the women. Conclusion:Improvement in education, socioeconomic status and increasing the age at marriage can prove to be very effective for the control of population.

  11. Premature reproductive aging in female rats after developmental exposure to mixtures of endocrine disrupters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Pernille Rosenskjold; Petersen, Marta Axelstad; Christiansen, Sofie;

    2013-01-01

    of 13 estrogenic and anti-androgenic chemicals, including phthalates, pesticides, UV-filters, bisphenol A, butylparaben and paracetamol, and the mixture ratio was chosen to reflect high-end human intakes. Groups received combined exposures of 0,100, 150, 200 or 450 times high-end human intake levels...

  12. Nearby green space and human health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ekkel, E.D.; Vries, de Sjerp

    2017-01-01

    There is growing scientific recognition that contact with nature in general, and contact with urban green more specific, have the potential to positively contribute to human health. For the purpose of developing healthy urban neighbourhoods, this raises the question how to take scientific

  13. Unsaturated fatty acids, desaturases, and human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyungjae; Park, Woo Jung

    2014-02-01

    With the increasing concern for health and nutrition, dietary fat has attracted considerable attention. The composition of fatty acids in a diet is important since they are associated with major diseases, such as cancers, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. The biosynthesis of unsaturated fatty acids (UFA) requires the expression of dietary fat-associated genes, such as SCD, FADS1, FADS2, and FADS3, which encode a variety of desaturases, to catalyze the addition of a double bond in a fatty acid chain. Recent studies using new molecular techniques and genomics, as well as clinical trials have shown that these genes and UFA are closely related to physiological conditions and chronic diseases; it was found that the existence of alternative transcripts of the desaturase genes and desaturase isoforms might affect human health and lipid metabolism in different ways. In this review, we provide an overview of UFA and desaturases associated with human health and nutrition. Moreover, recent findings of UFA, desaturases, and their associated genes in human systems are discussed. Consequently, this review may help elucidate the complicated physiology of UFA in human health and diseases.

  14. Nearby green space and human health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ekkel, E.D.; Vries, de Sjerp

    2017-01-01

    There is growing scientific recognition that contact with nature in general, and contact with urban green more specific, have the potential to positively contribute to human health. For the purpose of developing healthy urban neighbourhoods, this raises the question how to take scientific evidenc

  15. [Human papillomavirus and cervical cancer in México: a constant struggle].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Poveda, Kirvis; Madrid-Marina, Vicente

    2015-01-01

    Given that human papillomavirus and cervical cancer are a health problem in México, since they affect women of reproductive age and have a negative impact on our society, it is crucial to prevent those diseases and to raise awareness among physicians who deal with their clinical and therapeutic management. That is the reason why we show three Original contributions and 13 Current themes in this supplement of the Revista Médica del Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social.

  16. Climate change, human health, and epidemiological transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Bruce; Charles, Joel W; Temte, Jonathan L

    2015-01-01

    The health of populations depends on the availability of clean air, water, food, and sanitation, exposure to pathogens, toxins and environmental hazards, and numerous genetic, behavioral and social factors. For many thousands of years, human life expectancy was low, and population growth was slow. The development of technology-based civilizations facilitated what Abdel Omran called "epidemiological transition," with increasing life expectancy and rapid population growth. To a large extent, the spectacular growth of human populations during the past two centuries was made possible by the energy extracted from fossil fuels. We have now learned, however, that greenhouse gases from fossil fuel combustion are warming the planet's surface, causing changes in oceanic and atmospheric systems, and disrupting weather and hydrological patterns. Climate change poses unprecedented threats to human health by impacts on food and water security, heat waves and droughts, violent storms, infectious disease, and rising sea levels. Whether or not humanity can reduce greenhouse gas emissions quickly enough to slow climate change to a rate that will allow societies to successfully adapt is not yet known. This essay reviews the current state of relevant knowledge, and points in a few directions that those interested in human health may wish to consider. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. An Animal-Source Food Supplement Increases Micronutrient Intakes and Iron Status among Reproductive-Age Women in Rural Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Andrew G; Ngu, Tu; Nga, Hoang T; Quyen, Phi N; Hong Anh, Pham T; King, Janet C

    2017-06-01

    Background: Few studies have examined the impact of local animal-source foods (ASFs) on the nutritional status of reproductive-age women in developing countries.Objective: We hypothesized that a midmorning snack of local ASF for 6 mo would reduce dietary micronutrient deficiencies [usual intake less than the estimated average requirement (EAR)] and improve blood biomarkers of iron, zinc, and vitamins A and B-12 status among nonpregnant, reproductive-age women in rural Vietnam.Methods: One hundred seventeen women, 18-30 y old, were randomly assigned to receive either an ASF (mean: 144 kcal, 8.9 mg Fe, 2.7 mg Zn, 1050 μg retinoic acid equivalent vitamin A, and 5.5 μg vitamin B-12) or a control snack (mean: 150 kcal, 2.0 mg Fe, 0.9 mg Zn, 0 μg retinoic acid equivalent vitamin A, and 0 μg vitamin B-12) 5 d/wk for 6 mo. Usual nutrient intakes were estimated by repeated 24-h dietary recalls. Blood samples were collected at baseline and 3 and 6 mo. Because of the relation between nutritional status and inflammation, serum C-reactive protein, α-1-acid-glycoprotein, and urinary tract infections (UTIs) were also monitored.Results: Eighty-nine women (47 in the ASF group and 42 controls) completed the study. In the ASF group, intakes of iron and vitamins A and B-12 below the EAR were eliminated, and the prevalence of a low zinc intake was reduced to 9.6% compared with 64.7% in controls (P vitamin B-12 concentrations did not differ. UTI relative risk was 3.9 (P < 0.05) among women assigned to the ASF group who had a low whole-body iron status at baseline.Conclusions: Adding a small amount of locally produced ASF to the diets of reproductive-age Vietnamese women improved micronutrient intakes and iron status. However, the increased UTI incidence in women in the ASF group with initially lower iron stores warrants further investigation. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  18. COMMENTARY: GLOBALIZATION, HEALTH SECTOR REFORM, AND THE HUMAN RIGHT TO HEALTH: IMPLICATIONS FOR FUTURE HEALTH POLICY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuftan, Claudio

    2015-01-01

    The author here distills his long-time personal experience with the deleterious effects of globalization on health and on the health sector reforms embarked on in many of the more than 50 countries where he has worked in the last 25 years. He highlights the role that the "human right to health" framework can and should play in countering globalization's negative effects on health and in shaping future health policy. This is a testimonial article.

  19. Weekly iron-folic acid supplementation with regular deworming is cost-effective in preventing anaemia in women of reproductive age in Vietnam.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerard J Casey

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: To estimate the cost and cost-effectiveness of a project administering de-worming and weekly iron-folic acid supplementation to control anaemia in women of reproductive age in Yen Bai province, Vietnam. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Cost effectiveness was evaluated using data on programmatic costs based on two surveys in 2006 and 2009 and impact on anaemia and iron status collected in 2006, 2007, and 2008. Data on initial costs for training and educational materials were obtained from the records of the National Institute of Malariology, Parasitology and Entomology and the Yen Bai Malaria Control Program. Structured questionnaires for health workers at district, commune and village level were used to collect ongoing distribution and monitoring costs, and for participants to collect transport and loss of earnings costs. The cost per woman treated (defined as consuming at least 75% of the recommended intake was USD0.76 per annum. This estimate includes financial costs (for supplies, training, and costs of health care workers' time. Prevalence of anaemia fell from 38% at baseline, to 20% after 12 months. Thus, the cost-effectiveness of the project is assessed at USD 4.24 per anaemia case prevented per year. Based on estimated productivity gains for adult women, the benefit:cost ratio is 6.7∶1. Cost of the supplements and anthelminthics was 47% of the total, while costs of training, monitoring, and health workers' time accounted for 53%. CONCLUSION: The study shows that weekly iron-folic acid supplementation and regular de-worming is a low-cost and cost-effective intervention and would be appropriate for population-based introduction in settings with a high prevalence of anaemia and iron deficiency and low malaria infection rates.

  20. Food insufficiency in the households of reproductive-age Ecuadorian women: association with food and nutritional status indicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weigel, M Margaret; Armijos, Maria Mercedes

    2015-01-01

    Data from a nationally representative survey of Ecuadorian households with reproductive-aged women (n = 10,784) were used to analyze the prevalence of household food insufficiency (HFI) and its association with sociodemographic characteristics, food acquisition and expenditure patterns, dietary diversity, and anthropometric indicators. Fifteen percent of households had food insufficiency and 15% had marginal food sufficiency. HFI was associated with poverty-linked indicators. Marginally food sufficient households reported social and economic capital than food which appeared protective against HFI. Food insufficiency was associated with reduced household acquisition/expenditures on high quality protein and micronutrient-rich food sources. HFI was not associated with adult or adolescent female overweight/obesity but was associated with short adult stature (nutrition transition in Ecuador is expected to continue to modify population food security, diet, and nutrition. Systematic surveillance of household level food security is needed to inform recent food-related policies and programs implemented by the Ecuadorian government.

  1. Nutritional anemia and its epidemiological correlates among women of reproductive age in an urban slum of Bhubaneswar, Orissa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panigrahi, Ansuman; Sahoo, Prasun Bikash

    2011-01-01

    The present cross-sectional study involving 240 women of reproductive age as the study population was carried out in the beneficiary slum area, the field practice area of Community Medicine department to find out the burden of nutritional anemia and study its epidemiological correlates. The prevalence of anemia was found to be 60.8%, of which 39.6, 20.0 and 1.2% women had mild, moderate and severe anemia, respectively. Almost 63, 21.2 and 15.7% of the study subjects had microcytic hypochromic picture, indicative of iron deficiency anemia, normocytic hypochromic picture suggestive of early stage of iron deficiency anemia and dimorphic/ macrocytic hypochromic anemia implying iron deficiency anemia and or folate/vitamin B12 deficiency respectively. Statistical analyses have shown that epidemiological factors like age, education of respondents, socioeconomic status, history of excessive menstrual bleeding and inadequate intake of green leafy vegetables and pulses were found to be significantly associated with anemia.

  2. Factors Predicting Consumption of Fonio Grain (Digitaria exilis) among Urban Malian Women of Reproductive Age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fanou-Fogny, N.M.L.; Dam, van B.; Koreissi, Y.; Dossa, R.A.M.; Brouwer, I.D.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To identify factors influencing intention to consume an indigenous nutritious grain, fonio (Digitaria exilis), among women in Mali. Design: A cross-sectional questionnaire survey based on the Theory of Planned Behavior and the Health Belief Model. Setting and Participants: One hundred and

  3. Anti-Mullerian hormone serum concentrations in normoovulatory and anovulatory women of reproductive age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.S.E. Laven (Joop); J.A. Visser (Jenny); A.P.N. Themmen (Axel); F.H. de Jong (Frank); B.C.J.M. Fauser (Bart); A.G.M.G.J. Mulders (Annemarie)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractAnti-Mullerian hormone (AMH) concentrations correlate with the number of antral follicles as well as age and constitute an endocrine marker for ovarian aging. In normogonadotropic anovulatory infertile women [World Health Organization (WHO) class 2], the number of early

  4. Factors Predicting Consumption of Fonio Grain ("Digitaria exilis") among Urban Malian Women of Reproductive Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanou-Fogny, Nadia; van Dam, Bianca; Koreissi, Yara; Dossa, Romain A. M.; Brouwer, Inge D.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To identify factors influencing intention to consume an indigenous nutritious grain, fonio ("Digitaria exilis"), among women in Mali. Design: A cross-sectional questionnaire survey based on the Theory of Planned Behavior and the Health Belief Model. Setting and Participants: One hundred and eight women (31.5 plus or minus 10.5…

  5. [The medical social characteristics of women of active reproductive age and their families].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    The article presents the comparative medical social characteristics ofreproductive attitudes and reproductive behavior of urban families in present conditions. The risk factors leading to small number of children in families of various types are analyzed. The health characteristics of'women with one, two, three and more children are presented.

  6. Improvement of the Vietnamese diet for women of reproductive age by micronutrient fortification of staples foods and condiments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnaud Laillou

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A micronutrient survey carried out in 2010 among randomly selected Vietnamese women in reproductive age indicated that anemia and micronutrient deficiencies are still prevalent. The objective of this study was thus to analyze the dietary micronutrient intakes of these women, to select the food vehicles to be fortified and to calculate their contributions to meet the recommended nutrient intake (RNI for iron, zinc, vitamin A and folic acid. MAIN FINDINGS: Consumption data showed that the median intake was 38.4% of the RNI for iron, 61.1% for vitamin A and 91.8% for zinc. However, more than 50% of the women had daily zinc consumption below the RNI. Rice and vegetable oil were consumed daily in significant amounts (median: 320.4 g/capita/day and 8.6 g/capita/day respectively by over 90% of the women, making them suitable vehicles for fortification. Based on consumption data, fortified vegetable oil could contribute to an additional vitamin A intake of 27.1% of the RNI and fortified rice could increase the intake of iron by 41.4% of the RNI, zinc by 15.5% and folate by 34.1%. Other food vehicles, such as fish and soy sauces and flavoring powders, consumed respectively by 63% and 90% of the population could contribute to increase micronutrient intakes if they are properly fortified and promoted. Wheat flower was consumed by 39% of the women and by less than 20% women from the lowest socioeconomic strata. CONCLUSION: The fortification of edible vegetable oils with vitamin A and of rice with iron, zinc and folic acid are the most promising fortification strategies to increase micronutrient intakes of women in reproductive age in Vietnam. While rice fortification will be implemented, fortification of fish and soy sauces with iron, that has been proven to be effective, has to be supported and fortification of flavouring powders with micronutrients investigated.

  7. [Concentration of ferritin, transferrin and iron as a markers of iron deficiency in healthy women in reproductive age].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chełchowska, Magdalena; Laskowska-Klita, Teresa; Leibschang, Jerzy

    2007-01-01

    Iron deficiency anemia in pregnancy continues to be a clinical problem, which contributes to maternal and fetal morbidity. Iron store deficiency leads to iron deficient erythropoiesis and to negative iron balance when the iron supply is insufficient to maintain normal concentration of hemoglobin. The aim of this study was aimed to establish concentration of ferritin, transferrin and iron as a markers of iron deficiency in healthy women in reproductive age came for control examination to Institute of Mother and Child in Warsaw. In serum of 108 healthy, multiparas in age up to 40 years from urban agglomerations, middle-class non-pregnant women concentration of iron, ferritin, transferrin and transferrin saturation were determined by commercially available kits (Hoffman-La Roche, Switzerland). Mean concentration of iron, ferritin and transferrin were among normal values. Low level of iron (below 49 microg/dl) was observed in serum of 12%, this of ferritin (below 20 ng/ml) in 22% and of transferrin (below 252 mg/dl) in 15% of studied women. Transferrin saturation lower than 15% was observed in 9 patients. The obtained values were age dependent. The lowest values of total iron were observed in the youngest group I (below 25 years old) and were accompanied with ferritin level below 20 ng/ml in 26% of women. Low ferritin values were also observed in serum of 22% patients of group II (25-35 years old) and only in 14% of women older than 35 years (group III). Saturation of transferrin lower than 15%, which indicated deficiency of iron for erythropoiesis, was observed in 26%, 13% and 19% patients of group I, II and III respectively. Obtained results indicated that in population of studied women in reproductive age, subclinical iron deficiency in 20% and negative iron balance in 10% could be observed. Therefore, iron status, especially store ferritin, should be assessed very carefully as a component of medical care.

  8. Applications of deuterium oxide in human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bila, Wendell Costa; Mariano, Reysla Maria da Silveira; Silva, Valmin Ramos; Santos, Maria Emília Soares Martins Dos; Lamounier, Joel Alves; Ferriolli, Eduardo; Galdino, Alexsandro Sobreira

    2017-02-06

    The main aim goal of this review was to gather information about recent publications related to deuterium oxide (D2O), and its use as a scientific tool related to human health. Searches were made in electronic databases Pubmed, Scielo, Lilacs, Medline and Cochrane. Moreover, the following patent databases were consulted: EPO (Espacenet patent search), USPTO (United States Patent and Trademark Office) and Google Patents, which cover researches worldwide related to innovations using D2O.

  9. Organic Fertilisation, Soil Quality and Human Health

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Chapters: 1) Convergence or divide in the movement for sustainable and just agriculture. 2) No-till agriculture in the USA. 3) Organic fertilizers in sub-Saharan farming systems. 4) Biofuel Production Byproducts as Soil Amendments. 5) Pseudomonas and microbes for disease-suppressive soils. 6) Conservation Tillage Impact on Soil Aggregation, Organic Matter Turnover and Biodiversity. 7) Sustainable agricultural NP turnover in the 27 European countries. 8) Tomato production for human health, not...

  10. A cyto-epidemiological study on married women in reproductive age group (15-49 years regarding reproductive tract infection in a rural community of West Bengal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shamima Yasmin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Reproductive tract infection (RTI represents a major public health problem in India. Women are either not aware of the symptoms of RTI or refuse to seek health care due to economic and time constrains unless suffering from alarming symptoms. Objectives: To find out the prevalence of women with suggestive symptoms of RTI; to identify clinical and cytological abnormalities among the symptomatic women and to find out association between socio-demographic profile and risk factors with RTI symptomatic and cytology positive patients. Materials and Methods: A total of 385 married women in reproductive age group residing in Baligori sub-center area in Tarakeswar block of Hooghly district, West Bengal, India, were screened for symptom suggestive of RTI; symptomatic women went through gynecological examination and cancer cervix screening by Pap smear. Analysis of results was done by Odds ratio and multivariate logistic regression. Results: Overall, 23.6% of the study population had symptoms suggestive of RTI. Most of them (68.1% had abnormal vaginal discharge. Among the symptomatic women, cytology proved that 24.4% were suffering from acute cervicitis, 4.7% from A Squamous Cell of Undetermined Significance (ASCUS and 2.3% from Low Grade Intra epithelial Lesion (LSIL Squamous. Statistically significant association was observed for age, number of children, contact history of husband, pond bathing, menstrual hygiene, intra uterine device insertion, non-usage of barrier method, and history of abortion among women symptomatic for RTI and asymptomatic women. Conclusions: Prevalence of suggestive symptoms of RTI in women was found to be high (23.6%, and among them 7% had cervical dysplasia. Therefore, enhancing awareness and organizing screening camps are absolute necessity and must be held at frequent intervals to curb the menace due to cervical cancer.

  11. A dynamic human health risk assessment system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Umesh; Singh, Gurmit; Pant, A B

    2012-05-01

    An online human health risk assessment system (OHHRAS) has been designed and developed in the form of a prototype database-driven system and made available for the population of India through a website - www.healthriskindia.in. OHHRAS provide the three utilities, that is, health survey, health status, and bio-calculators. The first utility health survey is functional on the basis of database being developed dynamically and gives the desired output to the user on the basis of input criteria entered into the system; the second utility health status is providing the output on the basis of dynamic questionnaire and ticked (selected) answers and generates the health status reports based on multiple matches set as per advise of medical experts and the third utility bio-calculators are very useful for the scientists/researchers as online statistical analysis tool that gives more accuracy and save the time of user. The whole system and database-driven website has been designed and developed by using the software (mainly are PHP, My-SQL, Deamweaver, C++ etc.) and made available publically through a database-driven website (www.healthriskindia.in), which are very useful for researchers, academia, students, and general masses of all sectors.

  12. Floods and human health: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alderman, Katarzyna; Turner, Lyle R; Tong, Shilu

    2012-10-15

    Floods are the most common type of disaster globally, responsible for almost 53,000 deaths in the last decade alone (23:1 low- versus high-income countries). This review assessed recent epidemiological evidence on the impacts of floods on human health. Published articles (2004-2011) on the quantitative relationship between floods and health were systematically reviewed. 35 relevant epidemiological studies were identified. Health outcomes were categorized into short- and long-term and were found to depend on the flood characteristics and people's vulnerability. It was found that long-term health effects are currently not well understood. Mortality rates were found to increase by up to 50% in the first year post-flood. After floods, it was found there is an increased risk of disease outbreaks such as hepatitis E, gastrointestinal disease and leptospirosis, particularly in areas with poor hygiene and displaced populations. Psychological distress in survivors (prevalence 8.6% to 53% two years post-flood) can also exacerbate their physical illness. There is a need for effective policies to reduce and prevent flood-related morbidity and mortality. Such steps are contingent upon the improved understanding of potential health impacts of floods. Global trends in urbanization, burden of disease, malnutrition and maternal and child health must be better reflected in flood preparedness and mitigation programs. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Farm Animal Welfare and Human Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Alan M

    2016-09-01

    The paper examines the relationship between farm animal welfare, industrial farm animal production, and human health consequences. The data suggest that when the animal welfare of land-based farm animals is compromised, there are resulting significant negative human health consequences due to environmental degradation, the use of non-therapeutic levels of antibiotics for growth promotion, and the consequences of intensification. This paper accepts that even if meat and fish consumption is reduced, meat and fish will be part of the diet of the future. Industrial production modified from the current intensified systems will still be required to feed the world in 2050 and beyond. This paper identifies the concept of sustainable intensification and suggests that if farm animal welfare is improved, many of the human health consequences of intensified industrial production can be eliminated or reduced. In water-based farm animal production, many new systems are resulting in a product that actually protects the environment and can be done at industrial levels without the use of antibiotics.

  14. Nitrite in feed: From Animal health to human health

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cockburn, Andrew [Institute for Research on Environment and Sustainability, Devonshire Building, University of Newcastle upon Tyne, Newcastle upon Tyne, NE17RU (United Kingdom); Brambilla, Gianfranco [Istituto Superiore di Sanità, Toxicological chemistry unit, Viale Regina Elena 299, 00161 Rome (Italy); Fernández, Maria-Luisa [Departamento de Medio Ambiente, Instituto Nacional de Investigación y Tecnología Agraria y Alimentaria (INIA), Ministerio de Ciencia e Innovación, Carretera de la Coruña, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Arcella, Davide [Unit on Data Collection and Exposure, European Food Safety Authority, Largo N. Palli 5/A43100 Parma (Italy); Bordajandi, Luisa R. [Unit on Contaminants in the Food chain, European Food Safety Authority, Largo N. Palli 5/A, 43100 Parma (Italy); Cottrill, Bruce [Policy Delivery Group, Animal Health and Welfare, ADAS, Wolverhampton (United Kingdom); Peteghem, Carlos van [University of Gent, Harelbekestraat 72, 9000 Gent (Belgium); Dorne, Jean-Lou, E-mail: jean-lou.dorne@efsa.europa.eu [Unit on Contaminants in the Food chain, European Food Safety Authority, Largo N. Palli 5/A, 43100 Parma (Italy)

    2013-08-01

    Nitrite is widely consumed from the diet by animals and humans. However the largest contribution to exposure results from the in vivo conversion of exogenously derived nitrate to nitrite. Because of its potential to cause to methaemoglobin (MetHb) formation at excessive levels of intake, nitrite is regulated in feed and water as an undesirable substance. Forages and contaminated water have been shown to contain high levels of nitrate and represent the largest contributor to nitrite exposure for food-producing animals. Interspecies differences in sensitivity to nitrite intoxication principally result from physiological and anatomical differences in nitrite handling. In the case of livestock both pigs and cattle are relatively susceptible. With pigs this is due to a combination of low levels of bacterial nitrite reductase and hence potential to reduce nitrite to ammonia as well as reduced capacity to detoxify MetHb back to haemoglobin (Hb) due to intrinsically low levels of MetHb reductase. In cattle the sensitivity is due to the potential for high dietary intake and high levels of rumen conversion of nitrate to nitrite, and an adaptable gut flora which at normal loadings shunts nitrite to ammonia for biosynthesis. However when this escape mechanism gets overloaded, nitrite builds up and can enter the blood stream resulting in methemoglobinemia. Looking at livestock case histories reported in the literature no-observed-effect levels of 3.3 mg/kg body weight (b.w.) per day for nitrite in pigs and cattle were estimated and related to the total daily nitrite intake that would result from complete feed at the EU maximum permissible level. This resulted in margins of safety of 9-fold and 5-fold for pigs and cattle, respectively. Recognising that the bulkiness of animal feed limits their consumption, these margins in conjunction with good agricultural practise were considered satisfactory for the protection of livestock health. A human health risk assessment was also

  15. Survival analysis of timing of first marriage among women of reproductive age in Nigeria: regional differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adebowale, Stephen A; Fagbamigbe, Francis A; Okareh, Titus O; Lawal, Ganiyu O

    2012-12-01

    Early marriage is common among women in developing countries. Age at first marriage (AFM) has health implication on women and their under-five children. In Nigeria, few studies have explored AFM; the current study was designed to fill the gap. Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey, 2008 dataset on married women aged 15-49 (N = 24,986) was used. Chi-square, OLS regression and Cox proportional hazard models were used in the analysis. The mean AFM was 17.8 +/- 4.8 years and significant difference existed between the mean AFM of women in the North (16.0 +/- 3.6) and South (20.4 +/- 5.0) (p marriage (p marriage was more common in all the regions in the North than the South and the hazard was highest in the North West and North East. Women who reside in rural area (H.R = 1.15; C.I = 1.11-1.18) married early than their counterparts in the urban area. Age at first marriage was directly related to levels of education (p marriage more common in the North than the South. Education has influence on AFM; therefore, women should have at least secondary education before marriage in Nigeria.

  16. Different dietary lifestyles and serum zinc and copper in women of reproductive age

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breskin, M.W.; Worthington-Roberts, B.S.; Monsen, E.R.

    1986-03-01

    Nutrient intakes and biochemical measures of zinc and copper were compared in non-pregnant young women representing different dietary lifestyles, viz, those who habitually ate red meat (RM), fish or poultry (FP), or lacto-ovo-vegetarian (LV) sources of protein. All were in good health and concerned about their diets; none was using supplements or oral contraceptives. Three-day food records were analyzed for nutrient content. Serum and drinking water samples were assayed for zinc and copper (AAS), and serum, for ceruloplasmin (RID). Sign. diff. in dietary Zn or Cu content were not reflected by serum(Zn) or (Cu), but the incidence of serum(Zn) < the 95% CI for RM eaters was sign. higher in FP and LV groups (X/sup 2/ = 20.65, p < 0.001). Thus, use of diets limited in animal protein sources may be associated with an increase risk of low serum (Zn).

  17. Ovarian antral follicle subclasses and anti-mullerian hormone during normal reproductive aging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentzen, J G; Forman, J L; Johannsen, T H

    2013-01-01

    CONTEXT: The interindividual variation in the age-related decline of ovarian follicles is wide. Hence, it is important to identify reliable, sensitive, and specific markers to assess the ovarian reserve of the individual woman. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to characterize the relation...... between age and ovarian reserve parameters in a population of healthy women with regular menstrual cycle. DESIGN AND SETTING: We conducted a prospective, population-based, cross-sectional study. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 366 health care workers aged 21-41 years employed at a University Hospital were...... declined by 5.6% per year (95% confidence interval 3.7-7.4%, P age (P = .04), the proportion...

  18. Hypertension in Reproductive-Aged Women With Polycystic Ovary Syndrome and Association With Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joham, Anju E; Boyle, Jacqueline A; Zoungas, Sophia; Teede, Helena J

    2015-07-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common disorder with metabolic complications, yet the prevalence of hypertension is unclear. We aim to assess hypertension prevalence and the impact of obesity in women reporting PCOS compared to those not reporting PCOS. This is a cross-sectional analysis of data from a large longitudinal study, the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health (ALSWH). Women from the general community were randomly selected from the national health insurance database. Standardized data collection occurred at 6 survey time points. Data from Survey 4 in 2006 (n = 8,612, age: 28-33 years) were examined for this study. The main outcome measures studied were self-reported PCOS and hypertension. Reported PCOS prevalence was 5.8% (95% confidence interval (CI): 5.3%-6.4%). Women with PCOS had higher body mass index (BMI). Hypertension prevalence was 5.5% (95% CI: 3.3-7.7) in women reporting PCOS and 2.0% (95% CI: 1.6-2.3) in women not reporting PCOS (P < 0.001). Hypertension was associated with BMI (odds ratio: 1.07, 95% CI: 1.05-1.10, P < 0.001) with a trend towards an association with PCOS (P = 0.09). On subgroup analysis, hypertension was not associated with BMI in women reporting PCOS but was associated in those not reporting PCOS. In this large community-based cohort, we note increased prevalence of hypertension and higher BMI in young women reporting PCOS. BMI association with hypertension appeared clear in women not reporting PCOS. Yet in women with PCOS, hypertension appeared to not be associated with BMI, akin to observations on diabetes risk in PCOS, suggesting that metabolic abnormalities in PCOS may be independent of BMI. © American Journal of Hypertension, Ltd 2014. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Opportunity for selection in human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govindaraju, Diddahally R

    2014-01-01

    Natural selection defined by differential survival and reproduction of individuals in populations is influenced by genetic, developmental, and environmental factors operating at every age and stage in human life history: generation of gametes, conception, birth, maturation, reproduction, senescence, and death. Biological systems are built upon a hierarchical organization nesting subcellular organelles, cells, tissues, and organs within individuals, individuals within families, and families within populations, and the latter among other populations. Natural selection often acts simultaneously at more than one level of biological organization and on specific traits, which we define as multilevel selection. Under this model, the individual is a fundamental unit of biological organization and also of selection, imbedded in a larger evolutionary context, just as it is a unit of medical intervention imbedded in larger biological, cultural, and environmental contexts. Here, we view human health and life span as necessary consequences of natural selection, operating at all levels and phases of biological hierarchy in human life history as well as in sociological and environmental milieu. An understanding of the spectrum of opportunities for natural selection will help us develop novel approaches to improving healthy life span through specific and global interventions that simultaneously focus on multiple levels of biological organization. Indeed, many opportunities exist to apply multilevel selection models employed in evolutionary biology and biodemography to improving human health at all hierarchical levels. Multilevel selection perspective provides a rational theoretical foundation for a synthesis of medicine and evolution that could lead to discovering effective predictive, preventive, palliative, potentially curative, and individualized approaches in medicine and in global health programs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. [Agrochemicals and human health: contributions of healthcare professionals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Siqueira, Soraia Lemos; Kruse, Maria Henriqueta Luce

    2008-09-01

    This paper focuses on the scientific production of health professionals, especially nurses, about agrochemicals and human health. The essay combines and presents information by means of literature review, with a view to acknowledge the contribution of each author and their use for the human health field. Thirty-two research articles, published in Brazilian journals, were located. The analysis of these articles highlights that healthcare professionals' contributions focus on human health, especially, workers' health and food quality. With a view to minimize the effects from agrochemicals on human and environmental health, the authors exposes action suggestions both for health professionals and for the institutions associated.

  1. IRON STATUS OF WOMEN OF REPRODUCTIVE AGE LIVING IN PEARL MILLET CONSUMING AREAS OF BANASKANTHA, GUJARAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanisha S Nambiar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Anemia is a major health problem in India, especially among women and children (NFHS III, 2006.  The Indian Council of medical Research study reported the prevalence of anemia among pregnant women was 84.9% and in adolescent girls was 90.1% based on their study from 16 districts of India (Food and Nutrition Bulletin, 2006. Pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum (Bajra, grown extensively in the arid and semi-arid tropical regions of the world, is one of the most important cereals for food security and consumed as a staple food for rural and tribal population dwelling in this area. Pearl millet has high amounts of iron (8mg/100g, NIN 2010 along with several other factors such as phytates, oxalates and polyphones, which may decrease the bio available iron. IFPRI (Pray and Nagarjan, 2009 has identified Banaskantha, district in Gujarat as one of the important pearl millet producing belts of India. The present study aimed to assess the background information, morbidity profile and dietary intake focusing on the pearl millet consumption of women residing in the pearl millet producing belts of Banaskantha and to assess the status and immunity profile from a subsample of this population.

  2. Climate change, air quality, and human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinney, Patrick L

    2008-11-01

    Weather and climate play important roles in determining patterns of air quality over multiple scales in time and space, owing to the fact that emissions, transport, dilution, chemical transformation, and eventual deposition of air pollutants all can be influenced by meteorologic variables such as temperature, humidity, wind speed and direction, and mixing height. There is growing recognition that development of optimal control strategies for key pollutants like ozone and fine particles now requires assessment of potential future climate conditions and their influence on the attainment of air quality objectives. In addition, other air contaminants of relevance to human health, including smoke from wildfires and airborne pollens and molds, may be influenced by climate change. In this study, the focus is on the ways in which health-relevant measures of air quality, including ozone, particulate matter, and aeroallergens, may be affected by climate variability and change. The small but growing literature focusing on climate impacts on air quality, how these influences may play out in future decades, and the implications for human health is reviewed. Based on the observed and anticipated impacts, adaptation strategies and research needs are discussed.

  3. Vitamin D and Human Health: Celebrating Diversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Spedding

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This Special Issue of Nutrients: Vitamin D and Human Health celebrates diversity in vitamin D research with articles from bench-to-bedside, examining mechanisms, epidemiology, and clinical issues in the management of non-skeletal disease following themes set by an earlier review in Nutrients [1]. Vitamin D became synonymous with calcium and bone metabolism originating from Casimir Funk’s concept of “Vitamines”. This suggests that vitamin D is an amine found in food with a single mode of action affecting calcium and bone metabolism [2], whereas vitamin D is a secosteroid hormone derived from sunshine with a plethora of physiological functions (autocrine, paracrine, endocrine [3], and epigenetic [4] associating vitamin D deficiency with many illnesses [1]. Deficiency is pandemic and most prevalent where sun exposure is limited by culture climate and skin colour [5]. Whilst reports have focused on diet and bone metabolism [6], this Special Issue of Nutrients about Vitamin D and Human Health focuses on non-skeletal disease, and research driven by industry and community health concerns.

  4. Metals in cosmetics: implications for human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borowska, Sylwia; Brzóska, Malgorzata M

    2015-06-01

    Cosmetics, preparations repeatedly applied directly to the human skin, mucous membranes, hair and nails, should be safe for health, however, recently there has been increasing concern about their safety. Unfortunately, using these products in some cases is related to the occurrence of unfavourable effects resulting from intentional or the accidental presence of chemical substances, including toxic metals. Heavy metals such as lead, mercury, cadmium, arsenic and nickel, as well as aluminium, classified as a light metal, are detected in various types of cosmetics (colour cosmetics, face and body care products, hair cosmetics, herbal cosmetics, etc.). In addition, necessary, but harmful when they occur in excessive amounts, elements such as copper, iron, chromium and cobalt are also present in cosmetic products. Metals occurring in cosmetics may undergo retention and act directly in the skin or be absorbed through the skin into the blood, accumulate in the body and exert toxic effects in various organs. Some cases of topical (mainly allergic contact dermatitis) and systemic effects owing to exposure to metals present in cosmetics have been reported. Literature data show that in commercially available cosmetics toxic metals may be present in amounts creating a danger to human health. Thus, the present review article focused on the problems related to the presence of heavy metals and aluminium in cosmetics, including their sources, concentrations and law regulations as well as danger for the health of these products users. Owing to the growing usage of cosmetics it is necessary to pay special attention to these problems.

  5. EFFECTS OF ARSENIC EXPOSURE IN HUMAN HEALTH

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    Aline Sueli de Lima Rodrigues

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, ingestion of inorganic arsenic from drinking water has emerged as an important public health concern. It enters drinking water supplies from natural deposits in the earth or from agricultural and industrial practices, mainly the mining. The health consequences of chronic arsenic exposure include increased risk for various forms of cancer and numerous pathologic effects, such as cutaneous effects (hyperpigmentation and hyperkeratoses, gastrointestinal effects, vascular effects, diabetes mellitus, and peripheral neuropathy. This way, this study presents through a critical revision of the literature, the more relevant current aspects on the immunological consequences, carcinogenic and resulting genetics of the human intoxication for arsenic. They were identified and analyzed 50 works published on the subject among the years of 1979 and 2008, being used as main sources LILACS-BIREME MEDLINE/Index Medicus, SciELO and PubMed. The specific Arsênio e saúde humana effects of the intoxication for arsenic about the human health are not still completely elucidated. Thus, is possible that this element affects functions still unknown, becoming important the scientificexploration on the subject.

  6. Raisins in human health: A review

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    Restani Patrizia

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the last years, the scientific research in the field of non-alcoholic grape products has increased significantly. Raisins are often evaluated negatively from the nutritional point of view, mainly for their high sugar content. On the other hand, some in vitroand in vivostudies have suggested that raisins could have healthy effects due to their positive phytochemical profile. The aim of this work was the collection of scientific studies performed in humans to assess critically the health-promoting effects of raisins, as a part of the normal/Mediterranean diet. In most cases, the beneficial effects of raisins have been assessed in intervention studies focused on cardiovascular area, diabetes and oral health, where a decrease in postprandial glycemia and insulinemia both in diabetic and healthy subjects has been observed. The positive effects were generally evident after a short-term consumption of about 70 g/die of raisins in comparison to a similar quantity of snacks or glucose solution. Surprisingly, some positive findings were shown in oral health. On these bases several findings support the suitability of raisins as a source of healthy compounds for human diet, but limits in the data published till now clearly support the need of new specifically designed trials.

  7. Diagnostic Markers of Primary Infertility in Women of Reproductive Age with Hypothalamic Dysfunction in the Pubertal Period

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    Irina V. Zhukovets

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to assess fertility in women of reproductive age with hypothalamic dysfunction (HD in the pubertal period and to determine the diagnostic significance of pro-inflammatory (TNF-α and IL-1β, anti-inflammatory cytokine (IL-10 and NF-kB activity in the diagnosis of primary infertility in these women. Materials and Methods: Fertility was assessed in 86 women of reproductive age with HD in the pubertal period. A comparative characteristic of fertile women (Group 1, n=46 and primary infertility women (Group 2, n=21 with HD in the pubertal period was performed. FPG and FPI were determined after 8 to 12 hours of fasting. Serum IRI concentrations were measured using an ELISA kit. The levels of TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-10 were determined in the venous blood serum after a 12-hour fasting, as well as in UA on the 21st day of the menstrual cycle using ELISA kits. The activity of NF-kB was determined in UA on the 21st day of the menstrual cycle using an enzyme immunoassay kit. Results: BMI in Group 1 was significantly lower than in Group 2: 22.63±2.68 kg/m2 versus 27.05±4.03kg/m2 (p=0.000. WC in women of Group 1 was 66.11±5.66cm versus 78.52±10.54cm in Group 2 (p = 0.000; WC >80cm was found in 2(4.4% and 14(66.7% women, respectively (p = 0.000. The average levels of FPG and FPI were significantly higher in Group 2. Serum levels of TNF-α and IL-1β in Group 2 were significantly higher than in Group 1. The serum level of anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 was significantly lower in Group 2; accordingly, the TNF-α/IL-10 ratio in Group 2 was 1.8 times higher than in Group 1. The IL-1β level in UA (P=0.000 and the TNF-α/IL-10 ratio (P=0.02 were significantly higher in women of Group 2 than Group 1, which indicated the pronounced inflammatory effects of TNF-α in the endometrium. Imbalance in the production of pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory factors indicated the activation of the Th-1 immune response with the formation of the

  8. The effect of face-to-face with telephone-based counseling on sexual satisfaction among reproductive aged women in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zargar Shoushtari, Shirin; Afshari, Poorandokht; Abedi, Parvin; Tabesh, Hamed

    2015-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate and compare the effect of face-to-face with telephone-based counseling on sexual satisfaction in women of reproductive age in Iran. This study was a randomized controlled trial in which 46 married women who got married 1-5 years ago were randomly selected and assigned to 1 of 2 groups (face-to-face and telephone-based counseling). Two groups received counseling by a trained midwife once a week for 4 weeks. The sexual satisfaction (using the Sexual Satisfaction Index) score was calculated in the beginning of the study and after 4 weeks. An independent t test, chi-square test, likelihood ratio test, Fisher's exact test, and linear-by-linear test were used for analyzing data. The mean score of sexual satisfaction in the face-to-face group was 93.6 (SD = 7.1) and improved significantly to 108.08 (SD = 5.44) after intervention (p =.001). The mean score of sexual satisfaction in the telephone-based counseling was 93.52 (SD = 5) and increased to 113 (SD = 6.07) after 4 weeks (p =.001). Telephone-based counseling could increase the sexual satisfaction better than face-to-face counseling (mean difference: 20.34 [SD = 7.38] vs. 14.47 [SD = 5.32], p =.003). The telephone-based counseling is an effective and affordable method to solve the sexual problems and could increase the sexual satisfaction. Using this method in public health centers is recommended.

  9. Prevalence of water pipe use and its correlates in Iranian women of reproductive age in Tehran: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baheiraei, Azam; Mirghafourvand, Mojgan; Nedjat, Saharnaz; Mohammadi, Eesa; Mohammad-Alizadeh Charandabi, Sakineh

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of water pipe smoking and its associated sociodemographic factors among Iranian women of reproductive age in Tehran. This was a population-based cross-sectional study of 1,359 Iranian women aged 15-49 years. The multistage random cluster technique was used to obtain the sample. Questionnaire-based interviews with questions relating to water pipe smoking and sociodemographic variables were used to collect the data. The multivariate logistic regression model was used to analyse the relationships between the dependent variable (water pipe smoking) and the independent variables (sociodemographic characteristics). The prevalence of water pipe smoking was 6.3% among Iranian women. Water pipe smoking was more likely in the age range of 15-24 years [odds ratio (OR) = 4.8, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) = 2.7-8.6] compared to the age range of 35 years or older, in women with a university education (OR = 1.9, 95% CI = 1.3-3.0) compared to women with a high-school diploma or lower, and in women with an average crowding index score (OR = 4.7, 95% CI = 2.1-10.6) compared to women living in small families. The findings of this study show that Iranian women with a university education and the younger age group (15-24 years) were at most risk of water pipe smoking. The findings of this study about associated factors may contribute to the development of efficient health promotion programmes for the prevention and cessation of water pipe smoking. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  10. Bayesian mapping of HIV infection among women of reproductive age in Rwanda.

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    François Niragire

    Full Text Available HIV prevalence is rising and has been consistently higher among women in Rwanda whereas a decreasing national HIV prevalence rate in the adult population has stabilised since 2005. Factors explaining the increased vulnerability of women to HIV infection are not currently well understood. A statistical mapping at smaller geographic units and the identification of key HIV risk factors are crucial for pragmatic and more efficient interventions. The data used in this study were extracted from the 2010 Rwanda Demographic and Health Survey data for 6952 women. A full Bayesian geo-additive logistic regression model was fitted to data in order to assess the effect of key risk factors and map district-level spatial effects on the risk of HIV infection. The results showed that women who had STIs, concurrent sexual partners in the 12 months prior to the survey, a sex debut at earlier age than 19 years, were living in a woman-headed or high-economic status household were significantly associated with a higher risk of HIV infection. There was a protective effect of high HIV knowledge and perception. Women occupied in agriculture, and those residing in rural areas were also associated with lower risk of being infected. This study provides district-level maps of the variation of HIV infection among women of child-bearing age in Rwanda. The maps highlight areas where women are at a higher risk of infection; the aspect that proximate and distal factors alone could not uncover. There are distinctive geographic patterns, although statistically insignificant, of the risk of HIV infection suggesting potential effectiveness of district specific interventions. The results also suggest that changes in sexual behaviour can yield significant results in controlling HIV infection in Rwanda.

  11. Cytomegalovirus IgM Seroprevalence among Women of Reproductive Age in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chengbin; Dollard, Sheila C; Amin, Minal M; Bialek, Stephanie R

    2016-01-01

    Cytomegalovirus (CMV) IgM indicates recent active CMV infection. CMV IgM seroprevalence is a useful marker for prevalence of transmission. Using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) III 1988-1994, we present estimates of CMV IgM prevalence by race/ethnicity, provide a comparison of IgM seroprevalence among all women and among CMV IgG positive women, and explore factors possibly associated with IgM seroprevalence, including socioeconomic status and exposure to young children. There was no difference in IgM seroprevalence by race/ethnicity among all women (3.1%, 2.2%, and 1.6% for non-Hispanic white, non-Hispanic black and Mexican American, respectively; P = 0.11). CMV IgM seroprevalence decreased significantly with increasing age in non-Hispanic black women (Pwomen (P = 0.07), while no apparent trend with age was seen in non-Hispanic white women (P = 0.99). Among 4001 IgG+ women, 118 were IgM+, resulting in 4.9% IgM seroprevalence. In IgG+ women, IgM seroprevalence varied significantly by age (5.3%, 7.3%, and 3.7% for women of 12-19, 20-29, and 30-49 years; P = 0.04) and race/ethnicity (6.1%, 2.7%, and 2.0% for non-Hispanic white, non-Hispanic black, and Mexican American; P<0.001). The factors reported associated with IgG seroprevalence were not associated with IgM seroprevalence. The patterns of CMV IgM seroprevalence by age, race/ethnicity, and IgG serostatus may help understanding the epidemiology of congenital CMV infection as a consequence of vertical transmission and are useful for identifying target populations for intervention to reduce CMV transmission.

  12. Diet and organochlorine contaminants in women of reproductive age under 40 years old.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campoy, C; Olea-Serrano, F; Jiménez, M; Bayés, R; Cañabate, F; Rosales, M J; Blanca, E; Olea, N

    2001-11-01

    The diet of the breast-feeding mother impacts on the quality and quantity of the milk that she feeds her child. Milk can be a vehicle for toxins, such as drugs and their metabolites, viruses, nicotine, caffeine, alcohol, and organochlorine molecules such as PCBs, DDT, HCB, HCH and dioxins, which can harm the health of the breast-feeding child. The 24-h recall diet was considered appropriate to adequately study the diet of breast-feeding mothers and was used in the present preliminary study to establish the possible relationship between the food items consumed and the presence of pesticides in her milk. Two groups of randomly selected healthy breast-feeding volunteers aged between 17 and 35 years from two different areas were recruited: 34 from intensive agriculture zone, El Ejido (Almeria), from the "Hospital de Poniente" and 21 urban zone, the city of Granada, from the "Clinico" University Hospital. Application of the Spearman Correlation Test to the results from Almeria showed a certain positive correlation between the total intake of fats and both the p,p'DDD (rho=0.53, p< or =0.05) and methoxychlor (rho=0.48, p< or =0.05) in mature milk, and between the energy supplied by vegetables and the endosulfan-lactone in mature milk (rho=0.50, p< or =0.05). Among the group of breast-feeding women from Granada, there was a strong correlation between the intake of fats and both the p,p'DDT in transition milk (rho=0.90, p< or =0.05) and the p,p'DDD in mature milk (rho=0.90, p< or =0.05). In conclusion, there is a statistically significant relationship between the consumption of fatty foods and some organochlorine molecules and between the consumption of vegetables and pesticides, and the latter relationship occurs in Almeria but not in Granada.

  13. Human health and the environment: in harmony or in conflict?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resnik, David B

    2009-09-01

    Health policy frameworks usually construe environmental protection and human health as harmonious values. Policies that protect the environment, such as pollution control and pesticide regulation, also benefit human health. In recent years, however, it has become apparent that promoting human health sometimes undermines environmental protection. Some actions, policies, or technologies that reduce human morbidity, mortality, and disease can have detrimental effects on the environment. Since human health and environmental protection are sometimes at odds, political leaders, citizens, and government officials need a way to mediate and resolve conflicts between these values. Unfortunately, few approaches to applied bioethics have the conceptual tools to do accomplish this task. Theories of health care ethics have little to say about the environment, and theories of environmental ethics don't say much about human health. In this essay, I defend an approach to ethical decision-making that gives policy-makers some tools for balancing promotion of human health and protection of the environment.

  14. Health and human development: nursing and the human right to health in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventura, Carla Aparecida Arena

    2008-03-01

    This article aims at understanding the influence of the right to health legal framework to Brazilian Nursing. To achieve this purpose the historical evolution of the right to development is described and the concept of right to health is introduced. Then, the right to health in Brazil and Nursing actions to guarantee this right in their daily practice is discussed. In Brazil, health is a right of all and a duty of the State. However, there is a great inequality in the distribution of health services among regions, rural and urban areas, the rich and the poor. Nursing professionals face several challenges in their practice to provide the care as stated by the laws. They play an important role as transformation agents, helping the community to acquire a sense of collective identity regarding their human rights and right to health.

  15. Isotretinoin use and compliance with the Dutch Pregnancy Prevention Programme: a retrospective cohort study in females of reproductive age using pharmacy dispensing data.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teichert, M.; Visser, L.E.; Dufour, M.; Rodenburg, E.; Straus, S.M.; Smet, P.A.G.M. de; Stricker, B.H.C.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Isotretinoin is very effective in the treatment of severe acne. However, because of the teratogenic properties of this agent an isotretinoin Pregnancy Prevention Programme (PPP) was implemented in the Netherlands to guarantee that treatment is contraindicated in women of reproductive age

  16. Insulin sensitizing drugs for weight loss in women of reproductive age who are overweight or obese : systematic review and meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieuwenhuis-Ruifrok, A. E.; Kuchenbecker, W. K. H.; Hoek, A.; Middleton, P.; Norman, R. J.

    2009-01-01

    Women of reproductive age, who are overweight or obese, are prone to infertility. Weight loss in these women leads to increased fecundity, higher chances of conception after infertility treatment and improved pregnancy outcome. In spite of the advantages, most patients have difficulty in losing weig

  17. Evaluation of the macula, retinal nerve fiber layer and choroid thickness in postmenopausal women and reproductive-age women using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ataş, Mustafa; Açmaz, Gökhan; Aksoy, Hüseyin; Demircan, Süleyman; Göktaş, Altan; Arifoğlu, Hasan Basri; Zararsız, Gökmen

    2014-03-01

    Menopause is a physiological life period that potentially affects various organs and systems. Therefore, a wide spectrum of signs and symptoms of eyes may be clinically observed in the postmenopausal period. To evaluate the macular, retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) and choroidal thickness alterations by using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) in postmenopausal women and compare with healthy reproductive-age women controls. The study population included a healthy reproductive-age control group (n = 72) and postmenopausal study group (n = 72). Retinal thickness parameters were measured by SD-OCT. Peripapillary RNFL thickness parameters, macular thickness and choroidal thickness were evaluated. Superior inner macula, temporal inner macula, inferior inner macula, nasal inner macula, inferior outer macula and choroid thickness were significantly thinner in the postmenopausal study group than the healthy reproductive-age control group (p = 0.007, p = 0.037, p = 0.027, p = 0.006, p = 0.016, p choroid thickness was significantly thinner in the postmenopausal study group than controls (p (†) = 0.005). This study revealed that choroidal thickness measured by SD-OCT was significantly thinner in postmenopausal women than healthy reproductive-age women. We can speculate that the decrease in choroidal thickness in postmenopausal women may indicate a reduced estrogen-dependent vasodilatory effect in ophthalmic artery secondary to menopausal estrogen deficiency.

  18. An Analysis of the Influence of Selected Genetic and Hormonal Factors on the Occurrence of Depressive Symptoms in Late-Reproductive-Age Women

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    Anna Jurczak

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study was to analyze the influence of genetic and hormonal factors on incidences of depressive symptoms in late-reproductive-age women. Methods: The study was performed using the Beck Depression Inventory, the PCR, and genetic tests of 347 healthy late-reproductive-age Polish women. Results: The relationship between the level of anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH and depressive symptoms was not statistically significant (p > 0.05. Increases in age and FSH levels were accompanied by a decrease in AMH level in a significant way (p < 0.05. There were no statistically significant relationships between the distribution of genotypes and the frequency of alleles of the investigated polymorphisms and depressive symptoms according to the Beck Depression Inventory. Conclusions: (1 The presence of the s/s genotype of the 5-HTTLPR polymorphism in the serotonin transporter promoter region and the 3/3 genotype of the 30-bp VNTR polymorphism in the monoamine oxidase A promoter region does not contribute to the development of depressive symptoms in late-reproductive-age women. (2 A relationship between the level of anti-Müllerian hormone and depressive symptoms was not confirmed in the group of healthy late-reproductive-age women. (3 AMH level correlates negatively with FSH level and age, which confirms that AMH can be regarded as a factor reflecting the ovarian reserve.

  19. An Analysis of the Influence of Selected Genetic and Hormonal Factors on the Occurrence of Depressive Symptoms in Late-Reproductive-Age Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurczak, Anna; Szkup, Małgorzata; Samochowiec, Agnieszka; Grzywacz, Anna; Samochowiec, Jerzy; Karakiewicz, Beata; Dołęgowska, Barbara; Grochans, Elżbieta

    2015-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study was to analyze the influence of genetic and hormonal factors on incidences of depressive symptoms in late-reproductive-age women. Methods: The study was performed using the Beck Depression Inventory, the PCR, and genetic tests of 347 healthy late-reproductive-age Polish women. Results: The relationship between the level of anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) and depressive symptoms was not statistically significant (p > 0.05). Increases in age and FSH levels were accompanied by a decrease in AMH level in a significant way (p < 0.05). There were no statistically significant relationships between the distribution of genotypes and the frequency of alleles of the investigated polymorphisms and depressive symptoms according to the Beck Depression Inventory. Conclusions: (1) The presence of the s/s genotype of the 5-HTTLPR polymorphism in the serotonin transporter promoter region and the 3/3 genotype of the 30-bp VNTR polymorphism in the monoamine oxidase A promoter region does not contribute to the development of depressive symptoms in late-reproductive-age women. (2) A relationship between the level of anti-Müllerian hormone and depressive symptoms was not confirmed in the group of healthy late-reproductive-age women. (3) AMH level correlates negatively with FSH level and age, which confirms that AMH can be regarded as a factor reflecting the ovarian reserve. PMID:25826396

  20. Companion animals and human health: an overview.

    OpenAIRE

    Edney, A T

    1995-01-01

    Domestic animals share our environment in a variety of ways. One of these ways is as companions in and around our homes. Although a wide variety of species are kept in households for this purpose, the great majority are dogs and cats. Sharing our environment with such animals has a profound effect on the health of the humans concerned. As keeping companion animals is a very widespread activity, about 50% of all households in the Western world have some sort of animal, the effects are far reac...

  1. Climate Change, Soils, and Human Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brevik, Eric C.

    2013-04-01

    According to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, global temperatures are expected to increase 1.1 to 6.4 degrees C during the 21st century and precipitation patterns will be altered by climate change (IPCC, 2007). Soils are intricately linked to the atmospheric/climate system through the carbon, nitrogen, and hydrologic cycles. Altered climate will, therefore, have an effect on soil processes and properties. Studies into the effects of climate change on soil processes and properties are still incomplete, but have revealed that climate change will impact soil organic matter dynamics including soil organisms and the multiple soil properties that are tied to organic matter, soil water, and soil erosion. The exact direction and magnitude of those impacts will be dependent on the amount of change in atmospheric gases, temperature, and precipitation amounts and patterns. Recent studies give reason to believe at least some soils may become net sources of atmospheric carbon as temperatures rise; this is particularly true of high latitude regions with permanently frozen soils. Soil erosion by both wind and water is also likely to increase. These soil changes will lead to both direct and indirect impacts on human health. Possible indirect impacts include temperature extremes, food safety and air quality issues, increased and/or expanded disease incidences, and occupational health issues. Potential direct impacts include decreased food security and increased atmospheric dust levels. However, there are still many things we need to know more about. How climate change will affect the nitrogen cycle and, in turn, how the nitrogen cycle will affect carbon sequestration in soils is a major research need, as is a better understanding of soil water-CO2 level-temperature relationships. Knowledge of the response of plants to elevated atmospheric CO2 given limitations in nutrients like nitrogen and phosphorus and how that affects soil organic matter dynamics is a critical

  2. Integrating Human and Ecosystem Health Through Ecosystem Services Frameworks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Adriana E S; Graham, Hilary; White, Piran C L

    2015-12-01

    The pace and scale of environmental change is undermining the conditions for human health. Yet the environment and human health remain poorly integrated within research, policy and practice. The ecosystem services (ES) approach provides a way of promoting integration via the frameworks used to represent relationships between environment and society in simple visual forms. To assess this potential, we undertook a scoping review of ES frameworks and assessed how each represented seven key dimensions, including ecosystem and human health. Of the 84 ES frameworks identified, the majority did not include human health (62%) or include feedback mechanisms between ecosystems and human health (75%). While ecosystem drivers of human health are included in some ES frameworks, more comprehensive frameworks are required to drive forward research and policy on environmental change and human health.

  3. Nutritional anemia and its epidemiological correlates among women of reproductive age in an urban slum of Bhubaneswar, Orissa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ansuman Panigrahi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The present cross-sectional study involving 240 women of reproductive age as the study population was carried out in the beneficiary slum area, the field practice area of Community Medicine department to find out the burden of nutritional anemia and study its epidemiological correlates. The prevalence of anemia was found to be 60.8%, of which 39.6, 20.0 and 1.2% women had mild, moderate and severe anemia, respectively. Almost 63, 21.2 and 15.7% of the study subjects had microcytic hypochromic picture, indicative of iron deficiency anemia, normocytic hypochromic picture suggestive of early stage of iron deficiency anemia and dimorphic/ macrocytic hypochromic anemia implying iron deficiency anemia and or folate/vitamin B12 deficiency respectively. Statistical analyses have shown that epidemiological factors like age, education of respondents, socioeconomic status, history of excessive menstrual bleeding and inadequate intake of green leafy vegetables and pulses were found to be significantly associated with anemia.

  4. VOLUNTARY SURGICAL CONTRACEPTION OF WOMEN OF LATE REPRODUCTIVE AGE SUFFERING FROM PELVIC ORGAN PROLAPSE – FEATURES AND BENEFITS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nigina Nasimova

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In recent years there has been a noticeable "rejuvenation" of pelvic organ prolapse. Inconsistency of the pelvic floor muscles, including the omission of sexual organs, is extremely common pathology, observed almost a third of women of reproductive age. The search for effective, convenient methods of contraception for this category of patients is an important problem of modern gynecology.We proposed a method of transvaginal voluntary surgical contraception, produced in conjunction with surgical treatment of descent and prolapse of the vaginal walls. Studied the nearest and long-term results of surgery in 50 women to which, during the surgical treatment of genital prolapse at the same time was performed transvaginal occlusion of the fallopian tubes. Control groups consisted of 30 women to which in the first step before surgical correction of pelvic organ prolapse have been performed minilaparotomy and voluntary surgical sterilization (VSS. Our method consists in penetrating into the abdominal cavity through the anterior vaginal vault, downgrading the fallopian tubes with a hook of Ramathibodi and tubal sterilization by Pomeroy method. Intra - and postoperative complications were not observed. In the late postoperative periods - the effectiveness of the method was 100%. Marked tendency to improve the quality of sexual life tells about the positive impact of elimination of genital prolapse with simultaneous DCA on the quality of life of women.

  5. [Influence of ionizing radiation of low intensity on the processes of reproduction, aging and dying off of Escherichia coli bacteria].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morozov, I I; Petin, V G; Morozova, G V

    2002-01-01

    The influence of 60Co gamma-ray irradiation of low intensity (0.1-0.4, 0.76 x 10(3) microGy/h) on the processes of reproduction, aging and dying off of E. coli B/r and E. coli BS-1 bacteria have been investigated. It was shown that the reproduction of this bacteria strains was not dependent on the dose rate in the range 0.1-0.4 microGy/h. It was shown in comparison with the irradiated E. coli B/r cells dynamics of the aging and dying off of the irradiated E. coli BS-1 is decreased in the process of prolonged (about 190 days) irradiation with a dose rate of 0.76 x 10(3) microGy/h. It is proposed the relationship between the revealed phenomenon of the decrease in the intensity of the irradiated E. coli BS-1 cell aging and dying and the Vavilov-Cerenkov emission.

  6. Median Urinary Iodine Concentrations Are Indicative of Adequate Iodine Status among Women of Reproductive Age in Prey Veng, Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karakochuk, Crystal D; Michaux, Kristina D; Chai, Tze L; Chan, Benny B; Whitfield, Kyly C; Barr, Susan I; McLean, Judy; Talukder, Aminuzzaman; Hou, Kroeun; Ly, Sokhoing; Green, Tim J

    2016-03-03

    Iodine deficiency disorders are estimated to affect over 1.9 million people worldwide. Iodine deficiency is especially serious for women during pregnancy and lactation because of the negative consequences for both mother and infant. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to determine the median urinary iodine concentration (UIC) as a population-level indicator of iodine status among rural women farmers of reproductive age (18-45 years) in the province of Prey Veng, Cambodia. A total of 450 women provided a spot morning urine sample in 2012. Of those women, 93% (n = 420) were non-pregnant and 7% (n = 30) were pregnant at the time of collection. UIC was quantified using the Sandell-Kolthoff reaction with modifications. The median UIC of non-pregnant (139 μg/L) and pregnant women (157 μg/L) were indicative of adequate iodine status using the WHO/UNICEF/ICCIDD epidemiological criteria for both groups (median UIC between 100-199 and 150-249 μg/L, respectively). We conclude that non-pregnant and pregnant women in rural Prey Veng, Cambodia had adequate iodine status based on single spot morning urine samples collected in 2012. More research is warranted to investigate iodine status among larger and more representative populations of women in Cambodia, especially in light of recent policy changes to the national program for universal salt iodization.

  7. Median Urinary Iodine Concentrations Are Indicative of Adequate Iodine Status among Women of Reproductive Age in Prey Veng, Cambodia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crystal D. Karakochuk

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Iodine deficiency disorders are estimated to affect over 1.9 million people worldwide. Iodine deficiency is especially serious for women during pregnancy and lactation because of the negative consequences for both mother and infant. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to determine the median urinary iodine concentration (UIC as a population-level indicator of iodine status among rural women farmers of reproductive age (18–45 years in the province of Prey Veng, Cambodia. A total of 450 women provided a spot morning urine sample in 2012. Of those women, 93% (n = 420 were non-pregnant and 7% (n = 30 were pregnant at the time of collection. UIC was quantified using the Sandell-Kolthoff reaction with modifications. The median UIC of non-pregnant (139 μg/L and pregnant women (157 μg/L were indicative of adequate iodine status using the WHO/UNICEF/ICCIDD epidemiological criteria for both groups (median UIC between 100–199 and 150–249 μg/L, respectively. We conclude that non-pregnant and pregnant women in rural Prey Veng, Cambodia had adequate iodine status based on single spot morning urine samples collected in 2012. More research is warranted to investigate iodine status among larger and more representative populations of women in Cambodia, especially in light of recent policy changes to the national program for universal salt iodization.

  8. Determinants of negative preference for female fetuses amongst women of reproductive age group at rural medical college

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepti Shrivastava

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: India is experiencing lowest child sex ratio of the world. The deficit of girl children has been progressively increasing, in spite of so many laws to favour them like Sharda act, act against dowry and law against female feticide, i.e. PC & PNDT. The present study attempted to explore the determinants of negative preference of female fetuses at rural setup and preferences for prevention of female foeticide. Methods: In a prospective, multicentric, cohort study, 2203 married women of reproductive age group were interviewed by pretested piloted structured questionnaire. SPSS software was used for statistical analysis. Results: Common causes for not preferring daughters were related to their marriages expenses, dowry along with exogamy and practices regarding death ceremonies of parents. Self deprived image of today’s woman by herself is mainly responsible for not allowing her to welcome another girl child in a family. Conclusions: Female foeticide is still in practice inspite of awareness programmes and existing law. Main reason for it is societal need due to marriage related customs and cultures along with unethical practices by service providers. To increase in self-esteem of women can only reduce the volume of service receiver along with upliftment of moral and ethical values of service providers from the beginning of their medical training can prevent it to happen. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2013; 2(1.000: 67-73

  9. Update on human health effects of boron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Forrest H

    2014-10-01

    In vitro, animal, and human experiments have shown that boron is a bioactive element in nutritional amounts that beneficially affects bone growth and central nervous system function, alleviates arthritic symptoms, facilitates hormone action and is associated with a reduced risk for some types of cancer. The diverse effects of boron suggest that it influences the formation and/or activity of substances that are involved in numerous biochemical processes. Several findings suggest that this influence is through the formation of boroesters in biomolecules containing cis-hydroxyl groups. These biomolecules include those that contain ribose (e.g., S-adenosylmethionine, diadenosine phosphates, and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide). In addition, boron may form boroester complexes with phosphoinositides, glycoproteins, and glycolipids that affect cell membrane integrity and function. Both animal and human data indicate that an intake of less than 1.0mg/day inhibits the health benefits of boron. Dietary surveys indicate such an intake is not rare. Thus, increasing boron intake by consuming a diet rich in fruits, vegetables, nuts and pulses should be recognized as a reasonable dietary recommendation to enhance health and well-being.

  10. Does genetic diversity predict health in humans?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanne C Lie

    Full Text Available Genetic diversity, especially at genes important for immune functioning within the Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC, has been associated with fitness-related traits, including disease resistance, in many species. Recently, genetic diversity has been associated with mate preferences in humans. Here we asked whether these preferences are adaptive in terms of obtaining healthier mates. We investigated whether genetic diversity (heterozygosity and standardized mean d(2 at MHC and nonMHC microsatellite loci, predicted health in 153 individuals. Individuals with greater allelic diversity (d(2 at nonMHC loci and at one MHC locus, linked to HLA-DRB1, reported fewer symptoms over a four-month period than individuals with lower d(2. In contrast, there were no associations between MHC or nonMHC heterozygosity and health. NonMHC-d(2 has previously been found to predict male preferences for female faces. Thus, the current findings suggest that nonMHC diversity may play a role in both natural and sexual selection acting on human populations.

  11. Selenium, selenoproteins and human health: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, K M; Arthur, J R

    2001-04-01

    Selenium is of fundamental importance to human health. It is an essential component of several major metabolic pathways, including thyroid hormone metabolism, antioxidant defence systems, and immune function. The decline in blood selenium concentration in the UK and other European Union countries has therefore several potential public health implications, particularly in relation to the chronic disease prevalence of the Western world such as cancer and cardiovascular disease. Ten years have elapsed since recommended dietary intakes of selenium were introduced on the basis of blood glutathione peroxidase activity. Since then 30 new selenoproteins have been identified, of which 15 have been purified to allow characterisation of their biological function. The long term health implications in relation to declining selenium intakes have not yet been thoroughly examined, yet the implicit importance of selenium to human health is recognised universally. Selenium is incorporated as selenocysteine at the active site of a wide range of selenoproteins. The four glutathione peroxidase enzymes (classical GPx1, gastrointestinal GPx2, plasma GPx3, phospholipid hydroperoxide GPx4)) which represent a major class of functionally important selenoproteins, were the first to be characterised. Thioredoxin reductase (TR) is a recently identified seleno-cysteine containing enzyme which catalyzes the NADPH dependent reduction of thioredoxin and therefore plays a regulatory role in its metabolic activity. Approximately 60% of Se in plasma is incorporated in selenoprotein P which contains 10 Se atoms per molecule as selenocysteine, and may serve as a transport protein for Se. However, selenoprotein-P is also expressed in many tissues which suggests that although it may facilitate whole body Se distribution, this may not be its sole function. A second major class of selenoproteins are the iodothyronine deiodinase enzymes which catalyse the 5'5-mono-deiodination of the prohormone thyroxine (T4

  12. Civil aviation, air pollution and human health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Roy M.; Masiol, Mauro; Vardoulakis, Sotiris

    2015-04-01

    Air pollutant emissions from aircraft have been subjected to less rigorous control than road traffic emissions, and the rapid growth of global aviation is a matter of concern in relation to human exposures to pollutants, and consequent effects upon health. Yim et al (2015 Environ. Res. Lett. 3 034001) estimate exposures globally arising from aircraft engine emissions of primary particulate matter, and from secondary sulphates and ozone, and use concentration-response functions to calculate the impact upon mortality, which is monetised using the value of statistical life. This study makes a valuable contribution to estimating the magnitude of public health impact at various scales, ranging from local, near airport, regional and global. The results highlight the need to implement future mitigation actions to limit impacts of aviation upon air quality and public health. The approach adopted in Yim et al only accounts for the air pollutants emitted by aircraft engine exhausts. Whilst aircraft emissions are often considered as dominant near runways, there are a number of other sources and processes related to aviation that still need to be accounted for. This includes impacts of nitrate aerosol formed from NOx emissions, but probably more important, are the other airport-related emissions from ground service equipment and road traffic. By inclusion of these, and consideration of non-fatal impacts, future research will generate comprehensive estimates of impact related to aviation and airports.

  13. Aging, human immunodeficiency virus, and bone health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim C Mansky

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Kim C ManskyDivision of Orthodontics, Department of Developmental and Surgical Sciences, School of Dentistry, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, USAAbstract: Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART has had a profound impact on improving the long-term prognosis for individuals infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV. HAART has been available for close to two decades, and now a significant number of patients with access to HAART are over the age of 50 years. Many clinical studies have indicated that HIV infection, as well as components of HAART, can increase the risk in these individuals to a variety of noninfectious complications, including a risk to bone health. There is a significant need for detailed mechanistic analysis of the aging, HIV-infected population regarding the risk of HIV infection and therapy in order to maintain bone health. Insights from basic mechanistic studies will help to shed light on the role of HIV infection and the components of HAART that impact bone health, and will help in identifying preventative countermeasures, particularly for individuals 50 years of age and older.Keywords: osteopenia, osteomalacia, osteoporosis, bisphosphonates, tenofovir, osteoimmunology

  14. Linking human health and livestock health: a "one-health" platform for integrated analysis of human health, livestock health, and economic welfare in livestock dependent communities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S M Thumbi

    Full Text Available For most rural households in sub-Saharan Africa, healthy livestock play a key role in averting the burden associated with zoonotic diseases, and in meeting household nutritional and socio-economic needs. However, there is limited understanding of the complex nutritional, socio-economic, and zoonotic pathways that link livestock health to human health and welfare. Here we describe a platform for integrated human health, animal health and economic welfare analysis designed to address this challenge. We provide baseline epidemiological data on disease syndromes in humans and the animals they keep, and provide examples of relationships between human health, animal health and household socio-economic status.We designed a study to obtain syndromic disease data in animals along with economic and behavioral information for 1500 rural households in Western Kenya already participating in a human syndromic disease surveillance study. Data collection started in February 2013, and each household is visited bi-weekly and data on four human syndromes (fever, jaundice, diarrhea and respiratory illness and nine animal syndromes (death, respiratory, reproductive, musculoskeletal, nervous, urogenital, digestive, udder disorders, and skin disorders in cattle, sheep, goats and chickens are collected. Additionally, data from a comprehensive socio-economic survey is collected every 3 months in each of the study households.Data from the first year of study showed 93% of the households owned at least one form of livestock (55%, 19%, 41% and 88% own cattle, sheep, goats and chickens respectively. Digestive disorders, mainly diarrhea episodes, were the most common syndromes observed in cattle, goats and sheep, accounting for 56% of all livestock syndromes, followed by respiratory illnesses (18%. In humans, respiratory illnesses accounted for 54% of all illnesses reported, followed by acute febrile illnesses (40% and diarrhea illnesses (5%. While controlling for household

  15. Health and Human Rights : In Search of the Legal Dimension

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toebes, Brigit

    2015-01-01

    Abstract: – This paper explores the legal contours of the field of ‘health and human rights’ as a new and emerging field of human rights law. After an analysis of its conceptual foundations, it explains illustrates how health and human rights evolved from a phase of standard-setting to a field that

  16. Impact on human health of climate changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franchini, Massimo; Mannucci, Pier Mannuccio

    2015-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that climate is rapidly changing. These changes, which are mainly driven by the dramatic increase of greenhouse gas emissions from anthropogenic activities, have the potential to affect human health in several ways. These include a global rise in average temperature, an increased frequency of heat waves, of weather events such as hurricanes, cyclones and drought periods, plus an altered distribution of allergens and vector-borne infectious diseases. The cardiopulmonary system and the gastrointestinal tract are particularly vulnerable to the adverse effects of global warming. Moreover, some infectious diseases and their animal vectors are influenced by climate changes, resulting in higher risk of typhus, cholera, malaria, dengue and West Nile virus infection. On the other hand, at mid latitudes warming may reduce the rate of diseases related to cold temperatures (such as pneumonia, bronchitis and arthritis), but these benefits are unlikely to rebalance the risks associated to warming.

  17. Unraveling Anthocyanin Bioavailability for Human Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lila, Mary Ann; Burton-Freeman, Britt; Grace, Mary; Kalt, Wilhelmina

    2016-01-01

    This review considers the bioavailability of health-protective anthocyanin pigments from foods, in light of the multiple molecular structures and complicated traffic patterns taken by anthocyanins both as flavonoid metabolites and as phenolic acid metabolites within the body. Anthocyanins have generally been considered to have notoriously poor bioavailability, based on the very low levels typically detected in routine human blood draws after ingestion. Although some investigations have assessed anthocyanin bioavailability solely based on the measurement of parent anthocyanins or phenolic acid breakdown products, more recent research has increasingly revealed the presence, qualitative diversity, relatively high concentrations, and tenacity of molecular intermediates of anthocyanins that retain the unique flavonoid C6-C3-C6 backbone structure. We argue that the persistence of anthocyanin metabolites suggests enterohepatic recycling, leading to prolonged residence time, and supports the notion that anthocyanins are far more bioavailable than previously suggested.

  18. RADIATION AND EFFECTS ON HUMAN HEALTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakan YAREN

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available In modern world, living without radiation is impossible. Radiation is defined as ?energy transmitted through space as waves or particles? and also determined as ?particles or waves emitted from the nucleus of unstable radioactive atoms to become stable? Mainly two types of radiation are exist; ionising radiation and non-ionising radiation. Ionising radiation is consist of alpha, beta particules, neutrons, x rays and gamma rays. Ionising radiation which can be measured by ion chambers, geiger-Mueller detectors, Scintillation Counters, fluorescent counters etc. Has harmfull effects on human health in levels of molecular, cellular, tissue, organs and organ systems. These harmfull effects can also be named somatic and genetic. One of the most encountered problem is ?Acute Radiation Syndrom? which has three sub syndroms called haematopoetic syndrom, gastrointestinal syndrom and neurovascular syndrom. Exposure time, distance and armorisation are the key elements of protection from radiation. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2005; 4(4.000: 199-208

  19. Current Situation of Social Support of Shanghai Women of Reproductive Age During Pregnant and Puer - peral Period%上海市育龄妇女的孕产期社会支持现状分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈珉惺; 金春林; 余旬; 朱丽萍; 杜莉

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the social support situation of Shanghai women of reproductive age and explore improvement strategies of improving health services of the pregnant and lying - in women. Methods Women of reproductive age who met the inclusion criteria were enrolled as research objects from the selected 9 districts through convenience sampling method from September to December 2015. Their basic information(including age,occupation,educational level,family income per month,number of pregnancies,delivery times,pregnancy preparation situation,household register situation)and social support situation(number of social support channels,utilization rate,social support channels) were surveyed by self - designed questionnaires. Results We distributed 226 questionnaires and recovered 204 questionnaires with an effective returning rate of 90. 3%. Of all the research objects,the age ranges from 18 to 42,of which 60. 3% (123 / 204)aged from 21 to 30;68. 5%(98 / 204)were enterprise workers,81. 3% (166 / 204)reached the educational level of college degree or above;61. 3%(125 / 204)family income per month ≥5 000 CNY;71. 6% (146 / 204)had not in pregnancy yet;64. 7% (132 / 204)had not already had children;97. 1% (198 / 204)were in ready pregnancy and 83. 3% (170 / 204)had locality household register. The educational level of nonlocal census register women of reproductive age was lower than that of locality household register women, their family income per month was higher than that of locality household register women(P ﹤ 0. 05). Both numbers of active and passive channels of nonlocal census register women of reproductive age were less than those of locality household register women (P ﹤ 0. 05). The number of active and passive channels showed no significant difference in women of different reproductive ages (P ﹥ 0. 05). There was no significant difference in the utilization rate of active and passive channels between nonlocal census register women of reproductive

  20. Genital Chlamydia trachomatis Infection among Women of Reproductive Age Attending the Gynecology Clinic of Hawassa University Referral Hospital, Southern Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadesse, Endale; Teshome, Million; Amsalu, Anteneh; Shimelis, Techalew

    2016-01-01

    Background Urogenital infection with Chlamydia trachomatis(CT) is one of the most common bacterial sexually transmitted infections (STIs) world-wide, especially in developing nations where routine laboratory diagnosis is unavailable. Little is known about the epidemiology of this infection in Ethiopia where other STIs are prevalent. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence and associated factors of CT infection among women of reproductive age. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted among 322 consecutive women aged between 15–49 years at Hawassa University Referral Hospital from November 2014 to April 2015. Data on socio-demography and potential risk factors for genital infection were collected using structured questionnaires. Moreover, endocervical swabs were collected from all participants, screened for CT antigen using rapid immunochromatography assay, and cultured following the standard bacteriological method to isolate Neisseria gonorrhoeae. Result In this study, the overall prevalence of CT antigen and N. gonorrhoeae infection was 61(18.9%) and 1(0.31%), respectively. Women aged 15–24 years had the highest prevalence of CT infection (24.2%), followed by those aged 25–34 years (16.8%) and those aged 35–49 years (9.6%). CTinfection was associated with women who had unprotected sex within the last six months (aOR = 3.459; 95% CI = 1.459–8.222) and were sexually active for 6–10 years (aOR = 3.076; 95% CI = 1.152–8.209). None of the clinical symptoms and diagnoses was significantly associated with CT antigen positivity. Conclusions The high prevalence of genital CT infection in this study highlights the need for further large-scale studies on the general population. Thus, screening of women regardless of their symptoms should be in place. PMID:28006003

  1. [Infertility rate in married couples of reproductive age in China: a systematic review and meta-analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Qin-Qin; Zhang, Ya-Li; Ren, Ai-Guo

    2013-08-01

    To estimate the infertility rates and to examine factors that contribute to the variations in infertility rates among studies. Wanfang, CQVIP, CNKI, and PubMed Database were searched for infertility relevant population-based prevalence studies between 1980 and 2012. Meta-analysis and meta-regression were used to calculate the pooled size of effect and to identify the sources of variation. A total of 27 articles using data from regional surveys were included in the review. Results showed that the combined prevalence was 5.7% (95% CI: 5.3%-6.1%). Combined prevalence rates of 1-year and 2-year infertility in newly married couples were 12.5% (95% CI: 9.5%-15.4%) and 6.6% (95% CI: 4.9%-8.4%), respectively, while were respectively 6.4% (95% CI: 4.2%-8.6%) and 3.0% (95% CI: 2.6%-3.3%), in women of reproductive age. Results from Meta-regression showed that the prevalence of 2-year infertility was lower than that of 1-year while infertility in regions was seen higher under the poor socioeconomic condition than in the better regions. Infertility in studies using cohort or prospective studies was seen to be higher than in other studies. Owing to the inconsistency in determining the numerator and denominator that were used to calculate the prevalence of infertility as well as the inconsistency in criteria used to define the infertility, an agreed definition on infertility needs to be followed, in order to facilitate the comparison among studies.

  2. Prevalence of polycystic ovary syndrome in Chinese obese women of reproductive age with or without metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Peiwen; Xi, Liuqing; Shi, Juan; Li, Wanyu; Zhao, Shaoqian; Deng, Yuying; Wang, Rui; Sun, Yingkai; Gu, Bin; Yuan, Lihui; Zhang, Yifei; Gu, Weiqiong; Wang, Weiqing; Hong, Jie

    2017-04-01

    To compare the prevalence of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and related clinical characteristics between metabolically unhealthy obese (MUO) and metabolically healthy obese (MHO) women of reproductive age. Cross-sectional clinical study. Tertiary hospital. We studied 299 MUO and 122 MHO Chinese women matched on body mass index. Metabolically healthy obese was defined as obesity with no more than one metabolic abnormality. Diagnosis of PCOS was based on the revised Rotterdam criteria. Each subject underwent physical examination, laboratory evaluation, and gynecologic ultrasound for a diagnosis of PCOS or metabolic syndrome (MetS). Prevalence of PCOS was calculated in both groups. Insulin resistance was determined by homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance or by the insulin sensitivity index derived from Bergman's minimal model. Fat distribution was measured with computerized tomography scan. Prevalence of PCOS and its components did not differ between MUO and BMI-matched MHO groups (67.89% and 66.96%, respectively). In logistic regression analysis, MetS did not predict the presence of PCOS after adjusting for confounding factors. The MHO group had lower visceral adipose tissue, relatively higher insulin sensitivity, and better β-cell function, compared with those in the MUO group; but there were no significant differences in sex hormones (except for free T and sex hormone-binding globulin) and ultrasound manifestations between MHO and MUO women. For the first time, our findings suggest that MetS does not add additional risk for PCOS. In addition, we found that both MUO and MHO are associated with insulin resistance to some extent. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Vitamin D deficiency is a risk factor for obesity and diabetes type 2 in women at late reproductive age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grineva, E N; Karonova, T; Micheeva, E; Belyaeva, O; Nikitina, I L

    2013-07-01

    It was suggested that glucose metabolism and body fat content depend on serum levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D]. We studied 320 healthy women at late reproductive age of 40 to 52 years old (mean age 46.1±4.5) from St. Petersburg (North-West region of Russia). 25(ОН)D levels were from 19.4 to 134.0 nMol/L (mean 52.9±22.7). Vitamin D deficiency (lower than 50 nMol/L) and insufficiency (50-75 nMol/L) was revealed in 59.1% and 27.8% of women, respectively. The study showed that low 25(OH)D levels were associated with obesity (r=-0.35, p$#X003C0.01), increased plasma glucose levels after OGTT (r=-0.31, p$#X003C0.01) and decreased insulin sensitivity index (r=-0.28, p$#X003C0.01). We found that 25(OH)D levels below 50 nMol/L were associated with obesity risk (OR 2.25[1.05-3.95], CI 95%) but not with risk of impaired glucose metabolism (1.07[0.54-2.12],CI95%). Our results showed that vitamin D insufficiency is highly prevalent in the population of healthy women. Low 25(OH)D levels correlated with high body fat, glucose levels and decreased insulin sensitivity. We conclude that vitamin D deficiency is a potential risk factor for obesity and development of insulin resistance leading to diabetes type 2.

  4. Arsenic and human health effects: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdul, Khaja Shameem Mohammed; Jayasinghe, Sudheera Sammanthi; Chandana, Ediriweera P S; Jayasumana, Channa; De Silva, P Mangala C S

    2015-11-01

    Arsenic (As) is ubiquitous in nature and humans being exposed to arsenic via atmospheric air, ground water and food sources are certain. Major sources of arsenic contamination could be either through geological or via anthropogenic activities. In physiological individuals, organ system is described as group of organs that transact collectively and associate with other systems for conventional body functions. Arsenic has been associated with persuading a variety of complications in body organ systems: integumentary, nervous, respiratory, cardiovascular, hematopoietic, immune, endocrine, hepatic, renal, reproductive system and development. In this review, we outline the effects of arsenic on the human body with a main focus on assorted organ systems with respective disease conditions. Additionally, underlying mechanisms of disease development in each organ system due to arsenic have also been explored. Strikingly, arsenic has been able to induce epigenetic changes (in utero) and genetic mutations (a leading cause of cancer) in the body. Occurrence of various arsenic induced health effects involving emerging areas such as epigenetics and cancer along with their respective mechanisms are also briefly discussed.

  5. Pollution's Price--The Cost in Human Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newill, Vaun A.

    1973-01-01

    Discusses the detrimental effects of air pollution, and especially sulfur dioxide, on human health. Any relaxation of existing national air pollution standards because of the energy crisis could be costly in terms of the nation's health. (JR)

  6. The Chernobyl Catastrophe. Consequences on Human Health

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yablokov, A.; Labunska, I.; Blokov, I. (eds.)

    2006-04-15

    Twenty years after the Chernobyl disaster, the need for continued study of its far-reaching consequences remains as great as ever. Several million people (by various estimates, from 5 to 8 million) still reside in areas that will remain highly contaminated by Chernobyl's radioactive pollution for many years to come. Since the half-life of the major (though far from the only) radioactive element released, caesium-137 (137Cs), is a little over 30 years, the radiological (and hence health) consequences of this nuclear accident will continue to be experienced for centuries to come. This event had its greatest impacts on three neighbouring former Soviet republics: Ukraine, Belarus, and Russia. The impacts, however, extended far more widely. More than half of the caesium-137 emitted as a result of the explosion was carried in the atmosphere to other European countries. At least fourteen other countries in Europe (Austria, Sweden, Finland, Norway, Slovenia, Poland, Romania, Hungary, Switzerland, Czech Republic, Italy, Bulgaria, Republic of Moldova and Greece) were contaminated by radiation levels above the 1 Ci/km{sup 2} (or 37 kBq/m{sup 2}), limit used to define areas as 'contaminated'. Lower, but nonetheless substantial quantities of radioactivity linked to the Chernobyl accident were detected all over the European continent, from Scandinavia to the Mediterranean, and in Asia. Despite the documented geographical extent and seriousness of the contamination caused by the accident, the totality of impacts on ecosystems, human health, economic performance and social structures remains unknown. In all cases, however, such impacts are likely to be extensive and long lasting. Drawing together contributions from numerous research scientists and health professionals, including many from the Ukraine, Belarus and the Russian Federation, this report addresses one of these aspects, namely the nature and scope of the long-term consequences for human health. The range

  7. Human Immunodeficiency Virus Related Knowledge, Risk ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    married women of reproductive age (MWRA) in Mid‑Western Development Region, Nepal. Subjects and ..... sources like health care workers and newspapers. Findings of this study correspond to the Indian, Nigerian and Iranian studies cited ...

  8. Effect of climate change on human health and some adaptive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of climate change on human health and some adaptive strategies – a review. ... The impact of human-induced climate change and ozone depletion are now ... and death that is more premature and disease related to air pollution.

  9. Abdominal CT scanning in reproductive-age women with right lower quadrant abdominal pain: does its use reduce negative appendectomy rates and healthcare costs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morse, Bryan C; Roettger, Richard H; Kalbaugh, Corey A; Blackhurst, Dawn W; Hines, William B

    2007-06-01

    Although acute appendicitis is the most frequent cause of the acute abdomen in the United States, its accurate diagnosis in reproductive-age women remains difficult. Problems in making the diagnosis are evidenced by negative appendectomy rates in this group of 20 per cent to 45 per cent. Abdominal CT scanning has been used in diagnosing acute appendicitis, but its reliability and usefulness remains controversial. There is concern that the use of CT scanning to make this diagnosis leads to increased and unwarranted healthcare charges and costs. The purpose of our study is to determine if abdominal CT scanning is an effective test in making the diagnosis of acute appendicitis in reproductive-age women (age, 16-49 years) with right lower quadrant abdominal pain and to determine if its use is cost-effective. From January 2003 to December 2006, 439 patients were identified from our academic surgical database and confirmed by chart review as undergoing an appendectomy with a pre- or postoperative diagnosis of acute appendicitis. Data, including age, presence and results of preoperative abdominal CT scans, operative findings, and pathology reports were reviewed. Comparison of patients receiving a preoperative CT scan with those who did not was performed using chi-squared analysis. In the subgroup of reproductive-age women, there was a significant difference in negative appendectomy rates of 17 per cent in the group that received abdominal CT scans versus 42 per cent in the group that did not (P accounting for the patient and insurance company costs, abdominal CT scan savings averaged $1412 per patient. Abdominal CT scanning is a reliable, useful, and cost-effective test for evaluating right lower quadrant abdominal pain and making the diagnosis of acute appendicitis in reproductive-age women.

  10. Pregnancy Followed by Delivery May Affect Circulating Soluble Lectin-Like Oxidized Low-Density Lipoprotein Receptor-1 Levels in Women of Reproductive Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Balin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Objective. It is known that menopause or lack of endogenous estrogen is a risk factor for endothelial dysfunction and CAD. Lectin-like oxidized low-density lipoprotein receptor-1 (LOX-1 is involved inmultiple phases of vascular dysfunction.The purpose of the current study was to determine the association between soluble LOX-1 (sLOX-1 and pregnancy followed by delivery in women of reproductive age. Materials/Methods. Sixty-eight subjects with pregnancy followed by delivery (group 1 and 57 subjects with nongravidity (group 2 were included in this study. Levels of sLOX-1 were measured in serum by EL SA. Results. Plasma levels of sLOX-1 were significantly lower in Group 1 than Group 2 in women of reproductive age (0.52±0.18 ng/mL and 0.78±0.13, resp., <0.001. There were strong correlations between sLOX-1 levels and the number of gravida (=−0.645, <0.001. The levels of sLOX-1 highly correlated with the number of parous (=−0.683, <0.001. Conclusion. Our study demonstrated that serum sLOX-1 levels were associated with pregnancy followed by delivery that might predict endothelial dysfunction. We conclude that pregnancy followed by delivery may delay the beginning and progress of arteriosclerosis and its clinical manifestations in women of reproductive age.

  11. Fertility sparing surgery for stage IA type I and G2 endometrial cancer in reproductive-aged patients: evidence-based approach and future perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitale, Salvatore Giovanni; Rossetti, Diego; Tropea, Alessandro; Biondi, Antonio; Laganà, Antonio Simone

    2017-02-10

    Fertility-sparing surgery (FSS) in reproductive-age patients affected by endometrial cancer (EC) gained growing attention in the last decade, although the first reports were already published in 1990-2000s. Nevertheless, only few patients undergoing FSS for stage I, type I EC had been reported in each case series, without a robust multicenter study. In the available literature there are even fewer reported cases of conservative treatment of Stage IA and G2 EC. Considering these important gaps in our current knowledge, the purpose of this review was to summarize the available evidence about conservative treatments for stage IA type I and G2 EC, to improve the pretreatment counseling for reproductive-age patients. According to our overview, women who have low-risk disease (G1 or G2, endometrioid histotype confined to the endometrium) are candidates for progestin therapy. In addition, FSS could be considered a valid option for reproductive-aged patients with stage IA type I and G2 EC. Nevertheless, we solicit new trials to clarify the medium- and long-term outcomes in this kind of patients.

  12. The predictability of serum anti-Müllerian level in IVF/ICSI outcomes for patients of advanced reproductive age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Ming-Huei

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The role of serum anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH as predictor of in-vitro fertilization outcomes has been much debated. The aim of the present study is to investigate the practicability of combining serum AMH level with biological age as a simple screening method for counseling IVF candidates of advanced reproductive age with potential poor outcomes prior to treatment initiation. Methods A total of 1,538 reference patients and 116 infertile patients aged greater than or equal to 40 years enrolled in IVF/ICSI cycles were recruited in this retrospective analysis. A reference chart of the age-related distribution of serum AMH level for Asian population was first created. IVF/ICSI patients aged greater than or equal to 40 years were then divided into three groups according to the low, middle and high tertiles the serum AMH tertiles derived from the reference population of matching age. The cycle outcomes were analyzed and compared among each individual group. Results For reference subjects aged greater than or equal to 40 years, the serum AMH of the low, middle and high tertiles were equal or lesser than 0.48, 0.49-1.22 and equal or greater than 1.23 ng/mL respectively. IVF/ICSI patients aged greater than or equal to 40 years with AMH levels in the low tertile had the highest cycle cancellation rate (47.6% with zero clinical pregnancy. The nadir AMH level that has achieved live birth was 0.56 ng/mL, which was equivalent to the 36.4th percentile of AMH level from the age-matched reference group. The optimum cut-off levels of AMH for the prediction of nonpregnancy and cycle cancellation were 1.05 and 0.68 ng/mL, respectively. Conclusions Two criteria: (1 age greater than or equal to 40 years and (2 serum AMH level in the lowest tertile (equal or lesser than 33.3rd percentile of the matching age group, may be used as markers of futility for counseling IVF/ICSI candidates.

  13. The Chernobyl catastrophe: Consequences on human health

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yablokov, A.; Labunska, I.; Blokov, I.; Santillo, D.; Johnston, P.; Stringer, R.; Sadownichik, T. (eds.); Antipkin, Yu.G. [Institute of Paediatrics, Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Academy of Medical Sciences, Kiev (Ukraine); Arabskaya, L.P. [Institute of Paediatrics, Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Academy of Medical Sciences, Kiev (Ukraine); Bazyka, D.A. [Research Centre for Radiation Medicine, Academy of Medical Sciences, Kiev (Ukraine)] (and others)

    2006-04-15

    This new Greenpeace report estimates that the full consequences of the Chernobyl disaster could top a quarter of a million cancers cases and nearly 100,000 fatal cancers. It reports that the report involved 52 respected scientists and includes information never before published in English. It challenges the International Atomic Energy Agency Chernobyl Forum report, which predicted 4,000 additional deaths attributable to the accident as a gross simplification of the real breadth of human suffering. Their data, based on Belarus national cancer statistics, predicts approximately 270,000 cancers and 93,000 fatal cancer cases caused by Chernobyl. The report also concludes that on the basis of demographic data, during the last 15 years, 60,000 people have additionally died in Russia because of the Chernobyl accident, and estimates of the total death toll for the Ukraine and Belarus could reach another 140,000. The report also looks into the ongoing health impacts of Chernobyl and concludes that radiation from the disaster has had a devastating effect on survivors; damaging immune and endocrine systems, leading to accelerated ageing, cardiovascular and blood illnesses, psychological illnesses, chromosomal aberrations and an increase in foetal deformations.

  14. Governance and human resources for health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dieleman, Marjolein; Hilhorst, Thea

    2011-11-24

    Despite an increase in efforts to address shortage and performance of Human Resources for Health (HRH), HRH problems continue to hamper quality service delivery. We believe that the influence of governance is undervalued in addressing the HRH crisis, both globally and at country level. This thematic series has aimed to expand the evidence base on the role of governance in addressing the HRH crisis. The six articles comprising the series present a range of experiences. The articles report on governance in relation to developing a joint vision, building adherence and strengthening accountability, and on governance with respect to planning, implementation, and monitoring. Other governance issues warrant attention as well, such as corruption and transparency in decision-making in HRH policies and strategies. Acknowledging and dealing with governance should be part and parcel of HRH planning and implementation. To date, few experiences have been shared on improving governance for HRH policy making and implementation, and many questions remain unanswered. There is an urgent need to document experiences and for mutual learning.

  15. 75 FR 21508 - Health and Human Services Acquisition Regulation; Corrections

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-26

    ... maintenance, and other activities involving live vertebrate animals conducted under contract (see Public Health Service Policy on Humane Care and Use of Laboratory Animals (PHS Policy), Rev. 1986, Repr. 1996... Compliance with the Public Health Service Policy on Humane Care and Use of Laboratory Animals,...

  16. Environmental Health Research Involving Human Subjects: Ethical Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David B. Resnik

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This article reviews some of the ethical issues that arise in environmental health research with human subjects, such as minimizing risks to subjects, balancing benefits and risks in research, intentional exposure studies with human subjects, protecting third parties in research, informing subjects about environmental hazards, communicating health information to subjects, and protecting privacy and confidentiality.

  17. Epidemiological characteristics of HIV-positive women of reproductive age from 2006 to 2011 in Henan province%河南省2006-2011年HIV阳性育龄妇女流行病学特征分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李洁; 马彦民; 杨文杰; 孙定勇; 朱谦; 王哲

    2013-01-01

    Objective To study the epidemiological characteristics of human immunodeficiency virus(HIV)-positive women of reproductive age in Henan province from 2006 to 2011.Methods Data on HIV-positive women of reproductive age from "AIDS-Infected Family Follow-up Management and Analysis System" and "Henan Province AIDS Data Analysis System" were collected and analyzed to examine the characteristics and change of the women from 2006 to 2011.Results During 2006-2011,the number of HIV positive women of reproductive age gradually increased and the proportions of the women aged between 18-20 years and 41-50 years increased.The number of conception and birth in HIV-positive women of reproductive age were stable.The average CD4+ count among the women increased from 322 cell/μL to 399 cell/μL.The proportion of higher CD4+ level and lower viral load(VL) increased from 37.11% to 52.30% and 30.86% to 63.00%,respectively.On the contrary,the proportions of lower CD4+ level and higher VL decreased from 30.36% to 18.62% and 50.62% to 6.56%,respectively.The ratio of the women with sexual life ≥4 time/per month increased.The proportion of condom use in every sexual activity presentsed a decrease trend.Conclusion The population of HIV-positive women of reproductive age in Henan province increased gradually and presented a trend of younger age; the ratio of unprotected sexual behavior increased.HIV-positive women of reproductive age is a priority population in the prevention of HIV transmission from mother to child and between couples.%目的 了解河南省2006-2011年艾滋病病毒(HIV)阳性育龄妇女流行病学特征及变化趋势.方法 通过“河南省艾滋病感染家庭随访管理分析系统”和“河南省艾滋病防治数据综合分析系统”收集河南省2006-2011年HIV阳性育龄妇女相关资料,对HIV阳性育龄妇女的流行病学特征及6年来的变化进行分析.结果 2006-2011年河南省HIV阳性育龄妇女例数略有上升,18

  18. The Foundations of a Human Right to Health: Human Rights and Bioethics in Dialogue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Audrey

    2015-06-11

    Human rights, including the right to health, are grounded in protecting and promoting human dignity. Although commitment to human dignity is a widely shared value, the precise meaning and requirements behind the term are elusive. It is also unclear as to how a commitment to human dignity translates into specific human rights, such as the right to the highest attainable standard of health, and delineates their scope and obligations. The resulting lack of clarity about the foundations of and justification for the right to health has been problematic in a number of ways. This article identifies the strengths of and some of the issues with the grounding of the right to health in human dignity. It then examines ethical and philosophical expositions of human dignity and several alternative foundations proposed for the right to health, including capability theory and the work of Norman Daniels, to assess whether any offer a richer and more adequate conceptual grounding for the right to health.

  19. [Human rights, an opportunity for public policies in health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco-Giraldo, Alvaro; Alvarez-Dardet, Carlos

    2008-01-01

    Human rights outlined a better scenario for public policies in health. For it requires intersectoral and interdisciplinary approach. This article emphasizes the perspective of public health policies based on human rights, clarifies the relationship of public policies with the exercise of human rights, beyond the right to health. It recognizes the need to implement genuinely democratic and participatory mechanisms. It considers the universal declaration of human rights and other institutional expressions about the same as the international covenant on economic, social and cultural rights, discusses the ranking of the same and defend its entirety on the determinants of health through its cohesion and political factor. It defines a framework for public health and human rights that trend by strengthening social rights, as a new area of operation, based on public policies to address the determinants of health, upholding social justice, beyond the health field and the biological and behavioural risk factors to decisions arising from political power, exceeds medical solutions and access to health services. In conclusion, it promoting respect for human rights by greater understanding of them and strengthens the importance of indirect health policies (such as food, environment and health, violence gender) and the role of international policies in the global world.

  20. [Human resources for health in Ecuador's new model of care].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinosa, Verónica; de la Torre, Daniel; Acuña, Cecilia; Cadena, Cristina

    2017-06-08

    Describe strategies implemented by Ecuador's Ministry of Public Health (MPH) to strengthen human resources for health leadership and respond to the new model of care, as a part of the reform process in the period 2012-2015. A documentary review was carried out of primary and secondary sources on development of human resources for health before and after the reform. In the study period, Ecuador developed a new institutional and regulatory framework for developing human resources for health to respond to the requirements of a model of care based on primary health care. The MPH consolidated its steering role by forging strategic partnerships, implementing human resources planning methods, and making an unprecedented investment in health worker training, hiring, and wage increases. These elements constitute the initial core for development of human resources for health policy and a health-services study program consistent with the reform's objectives. Within the framework of the reform carried out from 2012 to 2015, intersectoral work by the MPH has led to considerable achievements in development of human resources for health. Notable achievements include strengthening of the steering role, development and implementation of standards and regulatory instruments, creation of new professional profiles, and hiring of professionals to implement the comprehensive health care model, which helped to solve problems carried over from the years prior to the reform.

  1. Humanization policy in primary health care: a systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nora, Carlise Rigon Dalla; Junges, José Roque

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze humanization practices in primary health care in the Brazilian Unified Health System according to the principles of the National Humanization Policy. METHODS A systematic review of the literature was carried out, followed by a meta-synthesis, using the following databases: BDENF (nursing database), BDTD (Brazilian digital library of theses and dissertations), CINAHL (Cumulative Index to nursing and allied health literature), LILACS (Latin American and Caribbean health care sciences literature), MedLine (International health care sciences literature), PAHO (Pan-American Health Care Organization Library) and SciELO (Scientific Electronic Library Online). The following descriptors were used: Humanization; Humanizing Health Care; Reception: Humanized care: Humanization in health care; Bonding; Family Health Care Program; Primary Care; Public Health and Sistema Único de Saúde (the Brazilian public health care system). Research articles, case studies, reports of experiences, dissertations, theses and chapters of books written in Portuguese, English or Spanish, published between 2003 and 2011, were included in the analysis. RESULTS Among the 4,127 publications found on the topic, 40 studies were evaluated and included in the analysis, producing three main categories: the first referring to the infrastructure and organization of the primary care service, made clear the dissatisfaction with the physical structure and equipment of the services and with the flow of attendance, which can facilitate or make difficult the access. The second, referring to the health work process, showed issues about the insufficient number of professionals, fragmentation of the work processes, the professional profile and responsibility. The third category, referring to the relational technologies, indicated the reception, bonding, listening, respect and dialog with the service users. CONCLUSIONS Although many practices were cited as humanizing they do not produce changes

  2. Occupational health nursing practice through the Human Caring lens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noel, Dianne L

    2010-01-01

    Many health care and academic centers have adopted Watson's Theory of Human Caring as their guiding principle; the theory is also used in other disciplines, such as library science. Human caring theory offers occupational health nurses as structure that not only defines a focus for practice, but also provides a basis for moral and philosophical practice analyses. In particular, nurses may find this theory useful in confirming the definition of "caring" and reconsidering what nursing is all about. More importantly, consideration and application of this theory may lead to research on its applicability to the field of occupational health nursing. This article presents the science and philosophy of human caring, specifically Watson's Theory of Human Caring. Two case studies are presented that demonstrate how the theory could be used to evaluate occupational health nursing practice. To demonstrate its possible relevance as an occupational health nursing framework, an analysis of and comparison to existing occupational health nursing guidelines are detailed and discussed.

  3. [Medical assistance for health and human reproduction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canesqui, A M

    1987-12-01

    Brazil's federal health policy is examined, with separate focus on the periods before and after 1964. Special attention is given to sanitation and to maternal and child health care. The impact of government involvement on health policy development and the policy's subsequent effects on demographic processes, especially fertility, are also discussed. Data are from official and other published sources. (SUMMARY IN ENG)

  4. Appearance of Symmetry, Beauty, and Health in Human Faces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaidel, D.W.; Aarde, S.M.; Baig, K.

    2005-01-01

    Symmetry is an important concept in biology, being related to mate selection strategies, health, and survival of species. In human faces, the relevance of left-right symmetry to attractiveness and health is not well understood. We compared the appearance of facial attractiveness, health, and symmetry in three separate experiments. Participants…

  5. Global health rights: Employing human rights to develop and implement the Framework Convention on Global Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gable, Lance; Meier, Benjamin Mason

    2013-06-14

    The Framework Convention on Global Health (FCGH) represents an important idea for addressing the expanding array of governance challenges in global health. Proponents of the FCGH suggest that it could further the right to health through its incorporation of rights into national laws and policies, using litigation and community empowerment to advance rights claims and prominently establish the right to health as central to global health governance. Building on efforts to expand development and influence of the right to health through the implementation of the FCGH, in this article we find that human rights correspondingly holds promise in justifying the FCGH. By employing human rights as a means to develop and implement the FCGH, the existing and evolving frameworks of human rights can complement efforts to reform global health governance, with the FCGH and human rights serving as mutually reinforcing bases of norms and accountability in global health.

  6. Human and animal sentinels for shared health risks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Rabinowitz, MD, MPH

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The tracking of sentinel health events in humans in order to detect and manage disease risks facing a larger population is a well accepted technique applied to influenza, occupational conditions and emerging infectious diseases. Similarly, animal health professionals routinely track disease events in sentinel animal colonies and sentinel herds. The use of animals as sentinels for human health threats, or of humans as sentinels for animal disease risk, dates back at least to the era when coal miners brought caged canaries into mines to provide early warning of toxic gases. Yet the full potential of linking animal and human health information to provide warning of such ‘shared risks’ from environmental hazards has not been realised. Reasons appear to include the professional segregation of human and animal health communities, the separation of human and animal surveillance data and evidence gaps in the linkages between human and animal responses to environmental health hazards. The ‘One Health initiative’ and growing international collaboration in response to pandemic threats, coupled with development in the fields of informatics and genomics, hold promise for improved sentinel event coordination in order to detect and reduce environmental health threats shared between species.

  7. Public health ethics and more-than-human solidarity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rock, Melanie J; Degeling, Chris

    2015-03-01

    This article contributes to the literature on One Health and public health ethics by expanding the principle of solidarity. We conceptualise solidarity to encompass not only practices intended to assist other people, but also practices intended to assist non-human others, including animals, plants, or places. To illustrate how manifestations of humanist and more-than-human solidarity may selectively complement one another, or collide, recent responses to Hendra virus in Australia and Rabies virus in Canada serve as case examples. Given that caring relationships are foundational to health promotion, people's efforts to care for non-human others are highly relevant to public health, even when these efforts conflict with edicts issued in the name of public health. In its most optimistic explication, One Health aims to attain optimal health for humans, non-human animals and their shared environments. As a field, public health ethics needs to move beyond an exclusive preoccupation with humans, so as to account for moral complexity arising from people's diverse connections with places, plants, and non-human animals.

  8. One Health in NSW: coordination of human and animal health sector management of zoonoses of public health significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamson, Sheena; Marich, Andrew; Roth, Ian

    2011-07-01

    Zoonoses of public health significance may occur in wildlife, livestock or companion animals, and may be detected by the human or animal health sectors. Of particular public health interest are foodborne, arboviral and emerging zoonoses (known/unknown, endemic/exotic). A coordinated One Health approach to the management of zoonoses in NSW uses measures including: mutually agreed intersectoral procedures for detection and response; surveillance and notification systems for defined endemic and exotic diseases; joint meetings and exercises to ensure currency of response plans; and intersectoral communication during a response. This One Health approach is effective and ensures the interests of both the human health and animal health sectors are addressed.

  9. The application of humanization theory to health-promoting practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norton, Elizabeth

    2015-05-01

    It has been identified that if public health interventions do not account for what it means to be human, they are likely to fail. The aim of this article is to introduce humanization theory and to show how it can be applied to health-promoting practice. Health promotion can feature humanizing and dehumanizing elements, and these appear to impact on how people may (or may not) engage with interventions. The primary prevention of skin cancer in young people is an illustration of this. The practice implications of applying humanization theory to health promotion are potentially vast and complex; however, it is proposed that considering the dimensions of humanization may be a useful activity to inform the early stages of health-promotion intervention designs. Furthermore, developing the qualitative research evidence base about peoples' experiences of humanizing dimensions of health promotion would also be a valuable step towards ensuring that interventions account for the 'human dimension'. Applying humanization theory to the specific example of skin cancer prevention in young people has been a new venture but based on work so far, suggestions for humanizing principles for skin cancer prevention would need to be inclusive of the needs of young people, to support them and to involve them in research and intervention development.

  10. Interpreting the International Right to Health in a Human Rights-Based Approach to Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Paul

    2016-12-01

    This article tracks the shifting place of the international right to health, and human rights-based approaches to health, in the scholarly literature and United Nations (UN). From 1993 to 1994, the focus began to move from the right to health toward human rights-based approaches to health, including human rights guidance adopted by UN agencies in relation to specific health issues. There is a compelling case for a human rights-based approach to health, but it runs the risk of playing down the right to health, as evidenced by an examination of some UN human rights guidance. The right to health has important and distinctive qualities that are not provided by other rights-consequently, playing down the right to health can diminish rights-based approaches to health, as well as the right to health itself. Because general comments, the reports of UN Special Rapporteurs, and UN agencies' guidance are exercises in interpretation, I discuss methods of legal interpretation. I suggest that the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights permits distinctive interpretative methods within the boundaries established by the Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties. I call for the right to health to be placed explicitly at the center of a rights-based approach and interpreted in accordance with public international law and international human rights law.

  11. Health indicators and human development in the Arab region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boutayeb, Abdesslam; Serghini, Mansour

    2006-12-28

    The present paper deals with the relationship between health indicators and human development in the Arab region. Beyond descriptive analysis showing geographic similarities and disparities inter countries, the main purpose is to point out health deficiencies and to propose pragmatic strategies susceptible to improve health conditions and consequently enhance human development in the Arab world. Data analysis using Principal Components Analysis is used to compare the achievements of the Arab countries in terms of direct and indirect health indicators. The variables (indicators) are seen to be well represented on the circle of correlation, allowing for interesting interpretation and analysis. The 19 countries are projected on the first and second plane respectively. The results given by the present analysis give a good panorama of the Arab countries with their geographic similarities and disparities. The high correlation between health indicators and human development is well illustrated and consequently, countries are classified by groups having similar human development. The analysis shows clearly how health deficits are impeding human development in the majority of Arab countries and allows us to formulate suggestions to improve health conditions and enhance human development in the Arab World. The discussion is based on the link between different direct and indirect health indicators and the relationship between these indicators and human development index. Without including the GDP indicator, our analysis has shown that the 19 Arab countries may be classified, independently of their geographic proximity, in three different groups according to their global human development level (Low, Medium and High). Consequently, while identifying health deficiencies in each group, the focus was made on the countries presenting a high potential of improvement in health indicators. In particular, maternal mortality and infant mortality which are really challenging health

  12. Health indicators and human development in the Arab region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serghini Mansour

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The present paper deals with the relationship between health indicators and human development in the Arab region. Beyond descriptive analysis showing geographic similarities and disparities inter countries, the main purpose is to point out health deficiencies and to propose pragmatic strategies susceptible to improve health conditions and consequently enhance human development in the Arab world. Methods Data analysis using Principal Components Analysis is used to compare the achievements of the Arab countries in terms of direct and indirect health indicators. The variables (indicators are seen to be well represented on the circle of correlation, allowing for interesting interpretation and analysis. The 19 countries are projected on the first and second plane respectively. Results The results given by the present analysis give a good panorama of the Arab countries with their geographic similarities and disparities. The high correlation between health indicators and human development is well illustrated and consequently, countries are classified by groups having similar human development. The analysis shows clearly how health deficits are impeding human development in the majority of Arab countries and allows us to formulate suggestions to improve health conditions and enhance human development in the Arab World. Discussion The discussion is based on the link between different direct and indirect health indicators and the relationship between these indicators and human development index. Without including the GDP indicator, our analysis has shown that the 19 Arab countries may be classified, independently of their geographic proximity, in three different groups according to their global human development level (Low, Medium and High. Consequently, while identifying health deficiencies in each group, the focus was made on the countries presenting a high potential of improvement in health indicators. In particular, maternal

  13. Globalization, human rights, and the social determinants of health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Audrey R

    2009-02-01

    Globalization, a process characterized by the growing interdependence of the world's people, impacts health systems and the social determinants of health in ways that are detrimental to health equity. In a world in which there are few countervailing normative and policy approaches to the dominant neoliberal regime underpinning globalization, the human rights paradigm constitutes a widely shared foundation for challenging globalization's effects. The substantive rights enumerated in human rights instruments include the right to the highest attainable level of physical and mental health and others that are relevant to the determinants of health. The rights stipulated in these documents impose extensive legal obligations on states that have ratified these documents and confer health entitlements on their residents. Human rights norms have also inspired civil society efforts to improve access to essential medicines and medical services, particularly for HIV/AIDS. Nevertheless, many factors reduce the potential counterweight human rights might exert, including and specifically the nature of the human rights approach, weak political commitments to promoting and protecting health rights on the part of some states and their lack of institutional and economic resources to do so. Global economic markets and the relative power of global economic institutions are also shrinking national policy space. This article reviews the potential contributions and limitations of human rights to achieving greater equity in shaping the social determinants of health.

  14. [Human resources for health in Chile: the reform's pending challenge].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Méndez, Claudio A

    2009-09-01

    Omission of human resources from health policy development has been identified as a barrier in the health sector reform's adoption phase. Since 2002, Chile's health care system has been undergoing a transformation based on the principles of health as a human right, equity, solidarity, efficiency, and social participation. While the reform has set forth the redefinition of the medical professions, continuing education, scheduled accreditation, and the introduction of career development incentives, it has not considered management options tailored to the new setting, a human resources strategy that has the consensus of key players and sector policy, or a process for understanding the needs of health care staff and professionals. However, there is still time to undo the shortcomings, in large part because the reform's implementation phase only recently has begun. Overcoming this challenge is in the hands of the experts charged with designing public health strategies and policies.

  15. The relationship between health and mating success in humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Gillian 

    2017-01-01

    Health has been claimed to play an important role in human sexual selection, especially in terms of mate choice. Our preferences for attractive individuals are said to represent evolved adaptations for finding high-quality, healthy mates. If this is true, then we expect health to predict mating success in humans. We tested this hypothesis using several important physiological indicators of health, including immune function, oxidative stress and semen quality, and self-reported measures of sexual behaviour that contribute to mating success. In contrast to our hypothesis, we did not find a relationship between the physiological measures of health and sexual behaviour. Our results provide little support for claims that health, at least the health measures we used, increases mating success in relatively healthy humans. PMID:28280558

  16. The relationship between health and mating success in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foo, Yong Zhi; Simmons, Leigh W; Rhodes, Gillian

    2017-01-01

    Health has been claimed to play an important role in human sexual selection, especially in terms of mate choice. Our preferences for attractive individuals are said to represent evolved adaptations for finding high-quality, healthy mates. If this is true, then we expect health to predict mating success in humans. We tested this hypothesis using several important physiological indicators of health, including immune function, oxidative stress and semen quality, and self-reported measures of sexual behaviour that contribute to mating success. In contrast to our hypothesis, we did not find a relationship between the physiological measures of health and sexual behaviour. Our results provide little support for claims that health, at least the health measures we used, increases mating success in relatively healthy humans.

  17. Developing Hydrogeological Site Characterization Strategies based on Human Health Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Barros, F.; Rubin, Y.; Maxwell, R. M.

    2013-12-01

    In order to provide better sustainable groundwater quality management and minimize the impact of contamination in humans, improved understanding and quantification of the interaction between hydrogeological models, geological site information and human health are needed. Considering the joint influence of these components in the overall human health risk assessment and the corresponding sources of uncertainty aid decision makers to better allocate resources in data acquisition campaigns. This is important to (1) achieve remediation goals in a cost-effective manner, (2) protect human health and (3) keep water supplies clean in order to keep with quality standards. Such task is challenging since a full characterization of the subsurface is unfeasible due to financial and technological constraints. In addition, human exposure and physiological response to contamination are subject to uncertainty and variability. Normally, sampling strategies are developed with the goal of reducing uncertainty, but less often they are developed in the context of their impacts on the overall system uncertainty. Therefore, quantifying the impact from each of these components (hydrogeological, behavioral and physiological) in final human health risk prediction can provide guidance for decision makers to best allocate resources towards minimal prediction uncertainty. In this presentation, a multi-component human health risk-based framework is presented which allows decision makers to set priorities through an information entropy-based visualization tool. Results highlight the role of characteristic length-scales characterizing flow and transport in determining data needs within an integrated hydrogeological-health framework. Conditions where uncertainty reduction in human health risk predictions may benefit from better understanding of the health component, as opposed to a more detailed hydrogeological characterization, are also discussed. Finally, results illustrate how different dose

  18. Terroir as a Concept to Improve Human Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brevik, Eric C.; Steffan, Joshua J.; Burgess, Lynn C.; Cerdà, Artemi; Pereg, Lily

    2017-04-01

    Soil is important to human health because of the ability of healthy soils to supply nutrients through food products, medications derived from soil, its ability to clean water, and for many other positive reasons. On the other hand, degraded soils can have negative impacts on human health through processes such as dust generation and by acting as a point of human contact with heavy metals, organic chemicals, and pathogens. Despite the definite links between soil and human health, it is likely that most people don't think about soil when considering human health issues. In fact, there appears to be a disconnect between most people in our modern society and soil, and when people do notice soil it often seems to be in a negative context, leading to terms such as "soiled", "dirty", "dirt poor", etc. People pay attention to and care for things that matter to them, and creating a more positive public image of soil has the possibility of improving human health by leading to careful and caring treatment of the soil resource. The concept of terroir is a good example of a setting within which soils have a more positive image. While terroir originally established a connection between those who love wine and the soils that produce those wines, the concept has been expanded to many additional products such as cacao, cheese, coffee, fruits, olive oil, and vegetables. If the terroir concept could be expanded to include additional products that are important to people and expanded into parts of the world where it is not currently well known, that may provide an increased positive perception of soil, and thereby indirectly improve human health. It may even be possible to provide a terroir link to direct health benefits, such as medications derived from a given soil environment, and therefore provide a very focused emphasis on soil and human health issues. Therefore, we advocate a concerted effort to expand the terroir concept as a means to improve overall human health.

  19. Health and Human Rights in Karen State, Eastern Myanmar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, William W; Mullany, Luke C; Shwe Oo, Eh Kalu; Richards, Adam K; Iacopino, Vincent; Beyrer, Chris

    2015-01-01

    Decades of conflict in eastern Myanmar have resulted in high prevalence of human rights violations and poor health outcomes. While recent ceasefire agreements have reduced conflict in this area, it is unknown whether this has resulted in concomitant reductions in human rights violations. We conducted a two-stage cluster survey of 686 households in eastern Myanmar to assess health status, access to healthcare, food security, exposure to human rights violations and identification of alleged perpetrators over the 12 months prior to January 2012, a period of near-absence of conflict in this region. Household hunger (FANTA-2 scale) was moderate/high in 91 (13.2%) households, while the proportion of households reporting food shortages in each month of 2011 ranged from 19.9% in December to 47.0% in September, with food insecurity peaking just prior to the harvest. Diarrhea prevalence in children was 14.2% and in everyone it was 5.8%. Forced labor was the most common human rights violation (185 households, 24.9%), and 210 households (30.6%) reported experiencing one or more human rights violations in 2011. Multiple logistic regression analysis identified associations between human rights violations and poor health outcomes. Human rights violations and their health consequences persist despite reduced intensity of conflict in eastern Myanmar. Ceasefire agreements should include language that protects human rights, and reconciliation efforts should address the health consequences of decades of human rights violations.

  20. Health and Human Rights in Karen State, Eastern Myanmar.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William W Davis

    Full Text Available Decades of conflict in eastern Myanmar have resulted in high prevalence of human rights violations and poor health outcomes. While recent ceasefire agreements have reduced conflict in this area, it is unknown whether this has resulted in concomitant reductions in human rights violations.We conducted a two-stage cluster survey of 686 households in eastern Myanmar to assess health status, access to healthcare, food security, exposure to human rights violations and identification of alleged perpetrators over the 12 months prior to January 2012, a period of near-absence of conflict in this region. Household hunger (FANTA-2 scale was moderate/high in 91 (13.2% households, while the proportion of households reporting food shortages in each month of 2011 ranged from 19.9% in December to 47.0% in September, with food insecurity peaking just prior to the harvest. Diarrhea prevalence in children was 14.2% and in everyone it was 5.8%. Forced labor was the most common human rights violation (185 households, 24.9%, and 210 households (30.6% reported experiencing one or more human rights violations in 2011. Multiple logistic regression analysis identified associations between human rights violations and poor health outcomes.Human rights violations and their health consequences persist despite reduced intensity of conflict in eastern Myanmar. Ceasefire agreements should include language that protects human rights, and reconciliation efforts should address the health consequences of decades of human rights violations.

  1. Health and Human Rights in Karen State, Eastern Myanmar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, William W.; Mullany, Luke C.; Shwe Oo, Eh Kalu; Richards, Adam K.; Iacopino, Vincent; Beyrer, Chris

    2015-01-01

    Background Decades of conflict in eastern Myanmar have resulted in high prevalence of human rights violations and poor health outcomes. While recent ceasefire agreements have reduced conflict in this area, it is unknown whether this has resulted in concomitant reductions in human rights violations. Methods and Findings We conducted a two-stage cluster survey of 686 households in eastern Myanmar to assess health status, access to healthcare, food security, exposure to human rights violations and identification of alleged perpetrators over the 12 months prior to January 2012, a period of near-absence of conflict in this region. Household hunger (FANTA-2 scale) was moderate/high in 91 (13.2%) households, while the proportion of households reporting food shortages in each month of 2011 ranged from 19.9% in December to 47.0% in September, with food insecurity peaking just prior to the harvest. Diarrhea prevalence in children was 14.2% and in everyone it was 5.8%. Forced labor was the most common human rights violation (185 households, 24.9%), and 210 households (30.6%) reported experiencing one or more human rights violations in 2011. Multiple logistic regression analysis identified associations between human rights violations and poor health outcomes. Conclusion Human rights violations and their health consequences persist despite reduced intensity of conflict in eastern Myanmar. Ceasefire agreements should include language that protects human rights, and reconciliation efforts should address the health consequences of decades of human rights violations. PMID:26308850

  2. Correlating Estrogen Levels and Cognitive Functions in Regularly Menstruating Females of Reproductive Age Group and Post Menopausal Women of North India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepti Khattar

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available To correlate serum estrogen levels with cognitive functions calculated objectively as per Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE in the females in reproductive age group and those attaining menopause.This study was conducted in Christian Medical College and Hospital, Ludhiana, Punjab, India. 150 subjects (100 postmenopausal females and 50 regularly menstruating females of the reproductive age group were included. The cognitive functions of all the females and serum estrogen levels (i.e Estradiol E2 were assessed.The E2 levels in normal menstruating females were found to be higher (mean = 188.062 pg/ml as compared to the menopausal females and the difference in E2 levels was found to be significant (p < 0.001. However, the difference in serum estrogen levels of subjects in the two menopausal groups was insignificant. MMSE, showed that scores of normal menstruating females were higher (mean score = 29.92 as compared to post menopausal females for 1-5 years (mean score = 26.72 and post menopausal females for last 6-10 years (mean score = 26.30.We observed that the cognition functions declined in post menopausal women, whereas the scores were higher in the women of reproductive age group, meaning thereby, that it is the serum estrogen level that is bringing about this difference. Another finding was that the decline in cognition following menopause was not progressive. Therefore, this correlation would open up the gates for the use of estrogen therapy for various neuropsychological disorders pertaining to cognition in the postmenopausal females.

  3. The Pan American Health Organization and the mainstreaming of human rights in regional health governance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Benjamin Mason; Ayala, Ana S

    2014-01-01

    In the absence of centralized human rights leadership in an increasingly fragmented global health policy landscape, regional health offices have stepped forward to advance the rights-based approach to health. Reviewing the efforts of the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO), this article explores the evolution of human rights in PAHO policy, assesses efforts to mainstream human rights in the Pan American Sanitary Bureau (PASB), and analyzes the future of the rights-based approach through regional health governance, providing lessons for other regional health offices and global health institutions. This article explores PAHO's 15-year effort to mainstream human rights through PASB technical units, national capacity-building, the Inter-American human rights system, and the PAHO Directing Council. Through documentary analysis of PAHO policies and semi-structured interviews with key PASB stakeholders, the authors analyze the understandings and actions of policymakers and technical officers in implementing human rights through PAHO governance. Analyzing the themes arising from this narrative, the authors examine the structural role of secretariat leadership, state support, legal expertise, and technical unit commitment in facilitating a rights-based approach to the health in the Americas. Human rights are increasingly framing PAHO efforts, and this analysis of the structures underlying PAHO's approach provides an understanding of the institutional determinants of the rights-based approach to health, highlighting generalizable themes for the mainstreaming of human rights through regional health governance. With this regional-level understanding of health governance, future national-level research can begin to understand the causal forces linking regional human rights work with national policy reforms and public health outcomes. © 2014 American Society of Law, Medicine & Ethics, Inc.

  4. Human monitoring, smart health and assisted living techniques and technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Longhi, Sauro; Freddi, Alessandro

    2017-01-01

    This book covers the three main scientific and technological areas critical for improving people's quality of life - namely human monitoring, smart health and assisted living - from both the research and development points of view.

  5. Agricultural productivity, malnutrition and human health in sub ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Agricultural productivity, malnutrition and human health in sub-Saharan Africa: A review. ... keep animals with low genetic merit, employ crude implements and primitive ... involved in procurement and distribution of improved agricultural inputs.

  6. An urgent issue of public health and human rights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Carballo

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Although sexual violence permeates most societies, especially in situations of social disruption, it is an area of public health and human rights where we can collectively already do a great deal and show results quickly.

  7. Framework for Human Health Risk Assessment to Inform Decision Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    The purpose of this document is to describe a Framework for conducting human health risk assessments that are responsive to the needs of decision‐making processes in the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA).

  8. Ecosystem Services Connect Environmental Change to Human Health Outcomes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bayles, Brett R.; Brauman, Kate A.; Adkins, Joshua N.; Allan, Brian F.; Ellis, Alicia M.; Goldberg, Tony L.; Golden, Christopher D.; Grigsby-Toussaint, Diana S.; Myers, Samuel S.; Ofosky, Steven A.; Ricketts, Taylor H.; Ristaino, Jean B.

    2016-06-29

    Global environmental change, driven in large part by human activities, profoundly impacts the structure and functioning of Earth’s ecosystems (Millennium Ecosystem Assessment 2005). We are beginning to push beyond planetary boundaries (Steffan et al. 2015), and the consequences for human health remain largely unknown (Myers et al. 2013). Growing evidence suggests that ecological transformations can dramatically affect human health in ways that are both obvious and obscure (Myers and Patz 2009; Myers et al. 2013). The framework of ecosystem services, designed to evaluate the benefits that people derive from ecosystem products and processes, provides a compelling framework for integrating the many factors that influence the human health response to global change, as well as for integrating health impacts into broader analyses of the impacts of this change

  9. Human Health Effects Associated with Exposure to Toxic Cyanobacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reports of toxic cyanobacteria blooms are increasing worldwide. Warming and eutrophic surface water systems support the development of blooms. We examine the evidence for adverse human health effects associated with exposure to toxic blooms in drinking water, recreational water a...

  10. Human Health Effects Associated with Exposure to Toxic Cyanobacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reports of toxic cyanobacteria blooms are increasing worldwide. Warming and eutrophic surface water systems support the development of blooms. We examine the evidence for adverse human health effects associated with exposure to toxic blooms in drinking water, recreational water a...

  11. Abstract: Rwanda Human Resources for Health Program: Genesis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract: Rwanda Human Resources for Health Program: Genesis and Evolution ... a program to dramatically improve nursing and midwifery education and practice. ... academic institutions requires flexibility, respect, and thoughtful planning.

  12. Human rights and public health working together: an approach to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Safety Promotion: A Journal of Injury and Violence Prevention. Journal Home ... and violence against women, will be considered. In conclusion ... Keywords: human rights, public health, child injuries, violence prevention. African Safety ...

  13. Climate change and human health: impacts, vulnerability and public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haines, A; Kovats, R S; Campbell-Lendrum, D; Corvalan, C

    2006-07-01

    It is now widely accepted that climate change is occurring as a result of the accumulation of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere arising from the combustion of fossil fuels. Climate change may affect health through a range of pathways, for example as a result of increased frequency and intensity of heat waves, reduction in cold related deaths, increased floods and droughts, changes in the distribution of vector-borne diseases and effects on the risk of disasters and malnutrition. The overall balance of effects on health is likely to be negative and populations in low-income countries are likely to be particularly vulnerable to the adverse effects. The experience of the 2003 heat wave in Europe shows that high-income countries may also be adversely affected. Adaptation to climate change requires public health strategies and improved surveillance. Mitigation of climate change by reducing the use of fossil fuels and increasing a number of uses of the renewable energy technologies should improve health in the near-term by reducing exposure to air pollution.

  14. Urgent need for human resources to promote global cardiovascular health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vedanthan, Rajesh; Fuster, Valentin

    2011-02-01

    The World Health Organization estimates the existence of a global shortage of over 4 million health-care workers. Given the growing global burden of cardiovascular disease (CVD), the shortfall in global human resources for health (HRH) is probably even greater than predicted. A critical challenge going forward is to determine how to integrate CVD-related human resource needs into the overall global HRH agenda. We describe the CVD implications of core HRH objectives, including coverage, motivation, and competence, in addition to issues such as health-care worker migration and the need for input from multiple stakeholders to successfully address the current problems. We emphasize gaps in knowledge regarding HRH for global CVD-related care and research opportunities. In light of the current global epidemiologic transition from communicable to noncommunicable diseases, now is the time for the global health community to focus on CVD-related human resource needs.

  15. Health care, human worth and the limits of the particular.

    OpenAIRE

    1997-01-01

    An ethics concerned with health care developments and systems must be historically continuous, especially as it concerns the application to managed structures of key moral-epistemic concepts such as care, love and empathy. These concepts are traditionally most at home in the personal, individual domain. Human beings have non-instrumental worth just because they are human beings and not by virtue of their capacities. Managed health care systems tend to abstract from this worth in respect of bo...

  16. Bioethics and health and human rights: a critical view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benatar, D

    2006-01-01

    Recent decades have seen the emergence of two new fields of inquiry into ethical issues in medicine. These are the fields of bioethics and of health and human rights. In this critical review of these fields, the author argues that bioethics, partly because it has been construed so broadly, suffers from quality control problems. The author also argues that the field of health and human rights is superfluous because it does nothing that cannot be done by either bioethics of the law.

  17. Bioethics and health and human rights: a critical view

    OpenAIRE

    Benatar, D

    2006-01-01

    Recent decades have seen the emergence of two new fields of inquiry into ethical issues in medicine. These are the fields of bioethics and of health and human rights. In this critical review of these fields, the author argues that bioethics, partly because it has been construed so broadly, suffers from quality control problems. The author also argues that the field of health and human rights is superfluous because it does nothing that cannot be done by either bioethics of the law.

  18. [One Health--mutual health of humans, animals and the environment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukura, Antti; Hänninen, Marja-Liisa

    2016-01-01

    The detection in the early 2000's of new, pandemically spreading viral diseases and threats led to "One Health", a holistic concept of the inevitability of collaboration between human and animal health and the protection of the ecosystem. The movement initiated by physicians and veterinarians emerges form the idea that the health of humans and animals is interconnected and connected with the environment and that changes occurring in the environment will have a significant impact on health. Problems associated with health, such as antimicrobial resistance or zoonoses, require global solutions.

  19. Human Health Countermeasures (HHC) Element Management Plan: Human Research Program. Revision B

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norsk, Peter; Baumann, David

    2012-01-01

    NASA s Human Research Program (HRP) is an applied research and technology program within the Human Exploration and Operations Mission Directorate (HEOMD) that addresses human health and performance risk mitigation strategies in support of exploration missions. The HRP research and technology development is focused on the highest priority risks to crew health and safety with the goal of ensuring mission success and maintaining long-term crew health. Crew health and performance standards, defined by the NASA Chief Health and Medical Officer (CHMO), set the acceptable risk level for exploration missions. The HRP conducts research to inform these standards as well as provide deliverables, such as countermeasures, that ensure standards can be met to maximize human performance and mission success. The Human Health Countermeasures (HHC) Element was formed as part of the HRP to develop a scientifically-based, integrated approach to understanding and mitigating the health risks associated with human spaceflight. These health risks have been organized into four research portfolios that group similar or related risks. A fifth portfolio exists for managing technology developments and infrastructure projects. The HHC Element portfolios consist of: a) Vision and Cardiovascular; b) Exercise and Performance; c) Multisystem; d) Bone; and e) Technology and Infrastructure. The HHC identifies gaps associated with the health risks and plans human physiology research that will result in knowledge required to more fully understand risks and will result in validated countermeasures to mitigate risks.

  20. Human Rights and the Political Economy of Universal Health Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Health system financing is a critical factor in securing universal health care and achieving equity in access and payment. The human rights framework offers valuable guidance for designing a financing strategy that meets these goals. This article presents a rights-based approach to health care financing developed by the human right to health care movement in the United States. Grounded in a human rights analysis of private, market-based health insurance, advocates make the case for public financing through progressive taxation. Financing mechanisms are measured against the twin goals of guaranteeing access to care and advancing economic equity. The added focus on the redistributive potential of health care financing recasts health reform as an economic policy intervention that can help fulfill broader economic and social rights obligations. Based on a review of recent universal health care reform efforts in the state of Vermont, this article reports on a rights-based public financing plan and model, which includes a new business tax directed against wage disparities. The modeling results suggest that a health system financed through equitable taxation could produce significant redistributive effects, thus increasing economic equity while generating sufficient funds to provide comprehensive health care as a universal public good. PMID:28559677

  1. 76 FR 39399 - Chlorpyrifos Registration Review; Preliminary Human Health Risk Assessment; Notice of Availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-06

    ... AGENCY Chlorpyrifos Registration Review; Preliminary Human Health Risk Assessment; Notice of Availability... availability of EPA's preliminary human health risk assessment for the registration review of chlorpyrifos and... comprehensive preliminary human health risk assessment for all chlorpyrifos uses. After reviewing comments...

  2. 76 FR 52945 - Chlorpyrifos Registration Review; Preliminary Human Health Risk Assessment; Extension of Comment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-24

    ... AGENCY Chlorpyrifos Registration Review; Preliminary Human Health Risk Assessment; Extension of Comment... availability of the chlorpyrifos registration review; preliminary human health risk assessment. This document... for the chlorpyrifos reregistration review, preliminary human health risk assessment, established in...

  3. Climate Change in the US: Potential Consequences for Human Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maynard, Nancy G.

    2001-01-01

    The U.S. National Assessment identified five major areas of consequences of climate change in the United States: temperature-related illnesses and deaths, health effects related to extreme weather events, air pollution-related health effects, water- and food-borne diseases, and insect-, tick-, and rodent-borne diseases. The U.S. National Assessment final conclusions about these potential health effects will be described. In addition, a summary of some of the new tools for studying human health aspects of climate change as well as environment-health linkages through remotely sensed data and observations will be provided.

  4. The evolution of human rights in World Health Organization policy and the future of human rights through global health governance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, B M; Onzivu, W

    2014-02-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO) was intended to serve at the forefront of efforts to realize human rights to advance global health, and yet this promise of a rights-based approach to health has long been threatened by political constraints in international relations, organizational resistance to legal discourses, and medical ambivalence toward human rights. Through legal research on international treaty obligations, historical research in the WHO organizational archives, and interview research with global health stakeholders, this research examines WHO's contributions to (and, in many cases, negligence of) the rights-based approach to health. Based upon such research, this article analyzes the evolving role of WHO in the development and implementation of human rights for global health, reviews the current state of human rights leadership in the WHO Secretariat, and looks to future institutions to reclaim the mantle of human rights as a normative framework for global health governance. Copyright © 2013 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. The quest for One Health: Human Resource training aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angwara Kiwara

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Appropriately trained Human Resources for Health (HRH are key inputs into One Health. ‘… more than 50% of all infectious diseases of humans originate from animals and that, of the emerging diseases about 75% could be traced back to animal origin’ (Rweyemamu et al. 2006. A comprehensive understanding of the social determinants of health, through an appropriate training model for HRH, is a key input. This study aimed to explore if human and veterinary medical schools were using such a model or providing time for this model in their curricula. Specific objectives were to: determine the time that human and veterinary medical schools’ curricula provide for subjects or courses related to the social determinants of health; analyse the curricula contents to establish how they relate to the social determinants of health; and explore how a bio-medical model may influence the graduates’ understanding and practice of One Health. A review of human and veterinary graduate-level medical schools’ curricula in East Africa was performed in April 2013 and May 2013. The findings were: in the curricula, SDH contents for knowledge enhancement about One Health are minimal and that teaching is Germ Theory model-driven and partisan. Out of the total training time for physicians and veterinarians, less than 10% was provided for the social determinants of health-related courses. In conclusion, the curricula and training times provided are inadequate for graduates to fully understand the social determinants of health and their role in One Health. Furthermore, the Germ Theory model that has been adopted addresses secondary causes and is inappropriate. There is a need for more in-depth model. This article suggests that a vicious cycle of ill-health model must be taught.

  6. NASA Space Flight Human-System Standard Human Factors, Habitability, and Environmental Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holubec, Keith; Connolly, Janis

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the history, and development of NASA-STD-3001, NASA Space Flight Human-System Standard Human Factors, Habitability, and Environmental Health, and the related Human Integration Design Handbook. Currently being developed from NASA-STD-3000, this project standard currently in review will be available in two volumes, (i.e., Volume 1 -- VCrew Health and Volume 2 -- Human Factors, Habitability, and Environmental Health) and the handbook will be both available as a pdf file and as a interactive website.

  7. Beyond toxicity: human health and the natural environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frumkin, H

    2001-04-01

    Research and teaching in environmental health have centered on the hazardous effects of various environmental exposures, such as toxic chemicals, radiation, and biological and physical agents. However, some kinds of environmental exposures may have positive health effects. According to E.O. Wilson's "biophilia" hypothesis, humans are innately attracted to other living organisms. Later authors have expanded this concept to suggest that humans have an innate bond with nature more generally. This implies that certain kinds of contact with the natural world may benefit health. Evidence supporting this hypothesis is presented from four aspects of the natural world: animals, plants, landscapes, and wilderness. Finally, the implications of this hypothesis for a broader agenda for environmental health, encompassing not only toxic outcomes but also salutary ones, are discussed. This agenda implies research on a range of potentially healthful environmental exposures, collaboration among professionals in a range of disciplines from public health to landscape architecture to city planning, and interventions based on research outcomes.

  8. Peanut fatty acids and their impact on human health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peanuts contain a large amount of fat. Much of it is unsaturated, giving peanuts a positive effect on human health. A number of positive health effects from consuming peanuts have been reported in the scientific literature. These include lowering blood pressure, decreasing the risk of heart disea...

  9. An economic perspective on oceans and human health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Legat, Audrey; French, Veronica; McDonough, Niall

    2016-01-01

    Human health and wellbeing are intrinsically connected to our seas and oceans through a complex relationship comprising both positive and negative influences. Although significant public health impacts result from this relationship, the economic implications are rarely analysed. We reviewed the l

  10. School Health Education about Human Sexuality. Position Statement. Revised

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Beverly J.; Mancuso, Patty; Cagginello, Joan B.; Board, Connie; Clark, Sandra; Harvel, Robin; Kelts, Susan

    2012-01-01

    It is the position of the National Association of School Nurses (NASN) that age-appropriate health education about human sexuality should be included as part of a comprehensive school health education program and be accessible to all students in schools. NASN recognizes the role of parents and families as the primary source of education about…

  11. Human Trafficking: A Review for Mental Health Professionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakushko, Oksana

    2009-01-01

    This article provides a review of current research on human trafficking for mental health practitioners and scholars. In addition to an overview of definitions, causes and processes of trafficking, the article highlights mental health consequences of trafficking along with suggestions for treatment of survivors. Directions for counseling services,…

  12. The food, GI tract functionality and human health cluster

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mattila-Sandholm, T.; Blaut, M.; Daly, C.; Vuyst, de L.; Dore, J.; Gibson, G.; Goossens, H.; Knorr, D.; Lucas, J.; Lahteenmaki, L.; Mercenier, A.M.E.; Saarela, M.; Shanahan, F.; Vos, de W.M.

    2002-01-01

    The Food, GI-tract Functionality and Human Health (PROEUHEALTH) Cluster brings together eight complementary, multicentre interdisciplinary research projects. All have the common aim of improving the health and quality of life of European comsumers. The collaboration involves 64 different research gr

  13. Assessment of iodine and non-iodine deficiency hypothyroidism in women of reproductive ages in the sub-Himalayan plains of West Bengal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Arabinda; Biswas, Utpal; Mukherjee, Ashoke; Sarker, Krishna Chandra; Samajdar, Kausik; Mukherjee, Gautam

    2009-01-01

    Indian women of reproductive age groups commonly suffer from hypothyroidism which may be due to iodine or non iodine deficiency causes. This study was undertaken with a view to ascertain the leading cause of hypothyroidism in women of reproductive age group residing in the sub-Himalayan plain areas of Darjeeling district of West Bengal. Serum TSH, T4, T3 and Urinary Iodine Excretion (UIE) levels were measured in 101 non pregnant women. Our results reveal that among 37.62% (n=38) of bio-chemically established hypothyroid women; majority 76.32% (n=29) are suffering from iodine deficiency and the rest 23.68% (n=9) have Hypothyroidism due to other causes. Moreover, iodine deficiency persists among 57.42% (n=58) of the women in our study. We conclude that iodine deficiency disorders are still a major problem in this region and hypothyroidism due to iodine deficiency is more prevalent than the non iodine deficiency causes. Hence lacunae in the iodine supplementation process needs to be reviewed.

  14. The Association of the Dietary FatandFunctional OvarianCystsin Women ofReproductive Age Referring toThree Hospitals in Mashhad, Iran, 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahin Tafazoli

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background:Functionalovariancysts (FOC areoneofthe most commongynecologicalproblemsamongwomen of reproductive age. Some studieshave shownthatdiet mayaffectthefunction of the ovaries, so this study was performed to determine the association between the amount of dietary fatandfunctionalovariancysts. Methods: This case-control study was performed on 264 female patients (132 with cyst in the case group and 132 in the control group aged 13 to 49. The case group had ovarian cyst with a size of less than 8 cm and the control group didn’t have any ovarian cyst. Data were collected by questionnaires including a demographic questionnaire, and medical and midwifery characteristics questionnaire; the amount of fat in the diet was measured using foodfrequency questionnaire(FFQ. Data were analyzed using SPSS software. P<0.05 was considered significant. Results: The meanof fat consumption in the case group was 119.84±103.09gandin the control group it was109.90±54.66g. The result of data analysis showed thatthere was nostatistically significantrelationship between theamount offatin the dietandFOC in confidence level of 95% (P=0.056. Conclusion: According to the findings of thisstudy,the amount of fat consumption was higher in womenwithovariancysts; however, thisdifference wasnot statistically significant. Inthisregard, it is recommendedthat womenof reproductive age should reduce theirfat intake.

  15. The human health programme under AMAP. AMAP Human Health Group. Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, J C

    1998-10-01

    The human health programme of the first phase of AMAP was planned at an international meeting held in Nuuk, Greenland, October 1992. As the most vulnerable period to adverse effects of contaminants is during fetal development, it was decided to concentrate on analyses of umbilical cord blood and maternal blood. The programme was designed as a core programme in which 150 sample pairs should be collected in each of the 8 arctic countries and analyzed for persistant organic pollutants (POPs) and heavy metals (mercury, lead and cadmium). As some essential elements such as copper, zinc and selenium interfere with heavy metal toxicity these elements should also be analyzed. Additional analyses such as nickel and arsenic in urine, mercury in hair, and POPs in breast milk could be incorporated regionally according to specific local conditions. Radionucleides were not a major focus in the human programme as this issue was be dealt with by AMAP's radiation group. Implementation of the programme was a problem in most of the countries due to lack of funding. However, an offer from Canada to analyze all contaminants in 50 samples from each country enabled the first comparative circumpolar study of human exposure to contaminants to be completed. The study confirmed that in general the most important source of exposure to both POPs and mercury is food of marine origin and that Greenlanders and Inuit from the Canadian Arctic, due to their traditional lifestyle, are among the most highly exposed populations in the Arctic. This is not a result of local pollution in Greenland and Canada, but is due to long range transport of persistent contaminants through the atmosphere and their biomagnification in the marine food chain. For these reasons the most important recommendation of the first AMAP assessment is that priority should be given to the expeditious completion of negotiations to establish protocols for the control of POPs and heavy metals under the Convention on Long Range

  16. Human Genome Sequencing in Health and Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzaga-Jauregui, Claudia; Lupski, James R.; Gibbs, Richard A.

    2013-01-01

    Following the “finished,” euchromatic, haploid human reference genome sequence, the rapid development of novel, faster, and cheaper sequencing technologies is making possible the era of personalized human genomics. Personal diploid human genome sequences have been generated, and each has contributed to our better understanding of variation in the human genome. We have consequently begun to appreciate the vastness of individual genetic variation from single nucleotide to structural variants. Translation of genome-scale variation into medically useful information is, however, in its infancy. This review summarizes the initial steps undertaken in clinical implementation of personal genome information, and describes the application of whole-genome and exome sequencing to identify the cause of genetic diseases and to suggest adjuvant therapies. Better analysis tools and a deeper understanding of the biology of our genome are necessary in order to decipher, interpret, and optimize clinical utility of what the variation in the human genome can teach us. Personal genome sequencing may eventually become an instrument of common medical practice, providing information that assists in the formulation of a differential diagnosis. We outline herein some of the remaining challenges. PMID:22248320

  17. The impact of Arabidopsis on human health: diversifying our portfolio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Alan M; Chory, Joanne; Dangl, Jeffery L; Estelle, Mark; Jacobsen, Steven E; Meyerowitz, Elliot M; Nordborg, Magnus; Weigel, Detlef

    2008-06-13

    Studies of the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana may seem to have little impact on advances in medical research, yet a survey of the scientific literature shows that this is a misconception. Many discoveries with direct relevance to human health and disease have been elaborated using Arabidopsis, and several processes important to human biology are more easily studied in this versatile model plant.

  18. Human Health and Toxic Cyanobacteria – What do we know?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Human Health and Toxic Cyanobacteria – What do we know?Elizabeth D. HilbornWarm, eutrophic surface water systems support the development of toxic cyanobacteria blooms in North Carolina and worldwide. These conditions are increasing with expanding human populations and clima...

  19. Ultraviolet radiation, human health, and the urban forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon M. Heisler; Richard H. Grant

    2000-01-01

    Excess exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation from the sun, particularly the ultraviolet B (UVB) portion, has been linked with adverse effects on human health ranging from skin cancers to eye diseases such as cataracts. Trees may prevent even greater disease rates in humans by reducing UV exposure. Tree shade greatly reduces UV irradiance when both the sun and sky are...

  20. Human Health and Toxic Cyanobacteria – What do we know?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Human Health and Toxic Cyanobacteria – What do we know?Elizabeth D. HilbornWarm, eutrophic surface water systems support the development of toxic cyanobacteria blooms in North Carolina and worldwide. These conditions are increasing with expanding human populations and clima...

  1. Global health policies that support the use of banked donor human milk: a human rights issue

    OpenAIRE

    Arnold Lois DW

    2006-01-01

    Abstract This review examines the role of donor human milk banking in international human rights documents and global health policies. For countries looking to improve child health, promotion, protection and support of donor human milk banks has an important role to play for the most vulnerable of infants and children. This review is based on qualitative triangulation research conducted for a doctoral dissertation. The three methods used in triangulation were 1) writing as a method of inquiry...

  2. Regular-fat dairy and human health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astrup, Arne; Bradley, Beth H Rice; Brenna, J Thomas;

    2016-01-01

    to disseminate, explore and discuss the state of the science on the relationship between regular fat dairy products and health, symposia were programmed by dairy industry organizations in Europe and North America at The Eurofed Lipids Congress (2014) in France, The Dairy Nutrition Annual Symposium (2014...

  3. Policy and evidence in Canadian health human resources planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, C Ruth

    2013-01-01

    The health human resources supply in Canada swings reactively between over- and under-supply. There are numerous policy actors in this arena, each of whom could contribute to good data collection and an agreed-on process for decision-making. This could form the basis for evidence-informed policy. Absent these tools for pan-Canadian health human resources policy development, smaller health jurisdictions are experimenting with quality improvement initiatives which, when properly evaluated, can discover useful methods of aligning patient and community needs with healthcare resources.

  4. Human Experimentation: Impact on Health Education Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vacalis, T. Demetri; Griffis, Kathleen

    1980-01-01

    The problems of the use of humans as subjects of medical research and the protection of their rights are discussed. Issues include the use of informed consent, the evaluation of risks and benefits, and the review of research plans by a committee. (JD)

  5. Faecalibacterium prausnitzii and human intestinal health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miquel, S.; Martin, R.; Rossi, O.; Bermudez-Humaran, L.G.; Chatel, J.M.; Sokol, H.; Thomas, M.; Wells, J.M.; Langella, P.

    2013-01-01

    Faecalibacterium prausnitzii is the most abundant bacterium in the human intestinal microbiota of healthy adults, representing more than 5% of the total bacterial population. Over the past five years, an increasing number of studies have clearly described the importance of this highly metabolically

  6. Faecalibacterium prausnitzii and human intestinal health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miquel, S.; Martin, R.; Rossi, O.; Bermudez-Humaran, L.G.; Chatel, J.M.; Sokol, H.; Thomas, M.; Wells, J.M.; Langella, P.

    2013-01-01

    Faecalibacterium prausnitzii is the most abundant bacterium in the human intestinal microbiota of healthy adults, representing more than 5% of the total bacterial population. Over the past five years, an increasing number of studies have clearly described the importance of this highly metabolically

  7. Folate, vitamin B12 and human health

    Science.gov (United States)

    During the past decade the role of folate and vitamin B12 in human nutrition have been under constant re-examination. Basic knowledge on the metabolism and interactions between these essential nutrients has expanded and multiple complexities have been unraveled. These micronutrients have shared func...

  8. How chaosity and randomness control human health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yulmetyev, Renat M.; Yulmetyeva, Dinara; Gafarov, Fail M.

    2005-08-01

    We discuss the fundamental role that chaosity and randomness play in the determination of quality and efficiency of medical treatment. The statistical parameter of non-Markovity from non-equilibrium statistical physics of condensed matters is offered as a quantitative information measure of chaosity and randomness. The role of chaosity and randomness is determined by the phenomenological property, which includes quantitative informational measures of chaosity and randomness and pathology (disease) in a covariant form. Manifestations of the statistical informational behavior of chaosity and randomness are examined while analyzing the chaotic dynamics of RR intervals from human ECG's, the electric signals of a human muscle's tremor of legs in a normal state and at Parkinson disease, the electric potentials of the human brain core from EEG's during epileptic seizure and a human hand finger tremor in Parkinson's disease. The existence of the above stated informational measure allows to introduce the quantitative factor of the quality of treatment. The above-stated examples confirm the existence of new phenomenological property, which is important not only for the decision of medical problems, but also for the analysis of the wide range of problems of physics of complex systems of life and lifeless nature.

  9. Parasite zoonoses and wildlife: One Health, spillover and human activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, R C Andrew

    2013-11-01

    This review examines parasite zoonoses and wildlife in the context of the One Health triad that encompasses humans, domestic animals, wildlife and the changing ecosystems in which they live. Human (anthropogenic) activities influence the flow of all parasite infections within the One Health triad and the nature and impact of resulting spillover events are examined. Examples of spillover from wildlife to humans and/or domestic animals, and vice versa, are discussed, as well as emerging issues, particularly the need for parasite surveillance of wildlife populations. Emphasis is given to Trypanosoma cruzi and related species in Australian wildlife, Trichinella, Echinococcus, Giardia, Baylisascaris, Toxoplasma and Leishmania.

  10. A Brief History of Soils and Human Health Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brevik, Eric C.; Sauer, Thomas J.

    2013-04-01

    The idea that there are links between soils and human health is an ancient one. The Bible depicts Moses as understanding that fertile soil was essential to the well-being of his people in approximately 1400 B.C. as they entered Canaan, and in 400 B.C. Hippocrates provided a list of things that should be considered in a proper medical evaluation, including the ground. Moving into the 18th and 19th Centuries, some North American farmers have been documented as recognizing a link between soils and human vitality. However, the recognition of links between soils and human health by these early people was based on casual observations leading to logical conclusions rather than scientific investigation. In the 1900s the idea that soils influence human health gained considerable traction. At least three chapters in the 1938 USDA Yearbook of Agriculture included recognition of the importance of soil as the origin of many of the mineral elements necessary for human health and in the 1957 USDA Yearbook of Agriculture scientists realized that soils were not only important in the supply of essential nutrients, but that they could also supply toxic levels of elements to the human diet. The U.S. Department of Agriculture established the Plant, Soil and Nutrition Research Unit (PSNRU) on the Cornell University campus in 1940 with a mission to conduct research at the interface of human nutrition and agriculture to improve the nutritional quality and health-promoting properties of food crops. A major human health breakthrough in 1940 was the isolation of antibiotic compounds from soil organisms by the research group at Rutgers University lead by Selman Waksman. Soil microorganisms create antibiotic compounds in an effort to gain a competitive advantage in the soil ecosystem. Humans have been able to isolate those compounds and use them advantageously in the fight against bacterial infections. Waksman was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1952, the only soil

  11. Women trafficked into prostitution: determinants, human rights and health needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajic-Veljanoski, Olga; Stewart, Donna E

    2007-09-01

    Human trafficking is an international challenge that increasingly affects industrialized countries. It represents a gross violation of a person's right to liberty and freedom of movement, and is often accompanied by violence and degrading treatment which can have detrimental effects on health. In this article, we review the definition and extent of human trafficking, and focus on the human rights abuses and determinants of trafficking in women. Mental health and other health outcomes are reviewed, and differences between countries in organized activities for victim assistance and protection are assessed. Finally, we discuss the roles of mental health and other healthcare providers in identifying and helping trafficked women, and recommend a tailored multidisciplinary approach for victim assistance.

  12. Human Resources for Health Challenges in Nigeria and Nurse Migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salami, Bukola; Dada, Foluke O; Adelakun, Folake E

    2016-05-01

    The emigration of sub-Saharan African health professionals to developed Western nations is an aspect of increasing global mobility. This article focuses on the human resources for health challenges in Nigeria and the emigration of nurses from Nigeria as the country faces mounting human resources for health challenges. Human resources for health issues in Nigeria contribute to poor population health in the country, alongside threats from terrorism, infectious disease outbreaks, and political corruption. Health inequities within Nigeria mirror the geographical disparities in human resources for health distribution and are worsened by the emigration of Nigerian nurses to developed countries such as the United States and the United Kingdom. Nigerian nurses are motivated to emigrate to work in healthier work environments, improve their economic prospects, and advance their careers. Like other migrant African nurses, they experience barriers to integration, including racism and discrimination, in receiving countries. We explore the factors and processes that shape this migration. Given the forces of globalization, source countries and destination countries must implement policies to more responsibly manage migration of nurses. This can be done by implementing measures to retain nurses, promote the return migration of expatriate nurses, and ensure the integration of migrant nurses upon arrival in destination countries.

  13. Challenging orthodoxies: the road ahead for health and human rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, Paul

    2008-01-01

    Two decades of work delivering health care in poor communities provide a standpoint from which to challenge conventional doctrines in human rights and public health. These orthodoxies include the priority often assigned to civil and political rights over economic and social rights and a narrow concept of cost-effectiveness in public health policy. An analysis based on economic and social rights underscores, for example, that effectively treating infectious diseases in poor communities requires ensuring that people receive adequate food The challenge of maternal mortality in low-income settings similarly shows the need for an approach to rights that is simultaneously comprehensive and pragmatic. In many settings, paying community health workers for their efforts on behalf of their neighbors can also be seen as a critical strategy to realize right. Across contexts, the yield on the expanded and pragmatic view of health and human rights adumbrated here may be considerable. In forthcoming issues, Health and Human Rights will continue to investigate the conceptual, but above all the practical aspects of such issues, seeking to shift the health and rights agenda in a way that may make sense to the world's poor and marginalized, the chief victims of contemporary human rights violations.

  14. Space Toxicology: Human Health during Space Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan-Mayberry, Noreen; James, John T.; Tyl, ROchelle; Lam, Chiu-Wing

    2010-01-01

    Space Toxicology is a unique and targeted discipline for spaceflight, space habitation and occupation of celestial bodies including planets, moons and asteroids. Astronaut explorers face distinctive health challenges and limited resources for rescue and medical care during space operation. A central goal of space toxicology is to protect the health of the astronaut by assessing potential chemical exposures during spaceflight and setting safe limits that will protect the astronaut against chemical exposures, in a physiologically altered state. In order to maintain sustained occupation in space on the International Space Station (ISS), toxicological risks must be assessed and managed within the context of isolation continuous exposures, reuse of air and water, limited rescue options, and the need to use highly toxic compounds for propulsion. As we begin to explore other celestial bodies in situ toxicological risks, such as inhalation of reactive mineral dusts, must also be managed.

  15. Bioactivity of grape chemicals for human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iriti, Marcello; Faoro, Franco

    2009-05-01

    Grapevine (Vitis vinifera) products, grape and grape juice, represent a valuable source of bioactive phytochemicals, synthesized by three secondary metabolic pathways (phenylpropanoid, isoprenoid and alkaloid biosynthetic routes) and stored in different plant tissues. In the last decades, compelling evidence suggested that regular consumption of these products may contribute to reducing the incidence of chronic illnesses, such as cancer, cardiovascular diseases, ischemic stroke, neurodegenerative disorders and aging, in a context of the Mediterranean dietary tradition. The health benefits arising from grape product intake can be ascribed to the potpourri of biologically active chemicals occurring in grapes. Among them, the recently discovered presence of melatonin adds a new element to the already complex grape chemistry. Melatonin, and its possible synergistic action with the great variety of polyphenols, contributes to further explaining the observed health benefits associated with regular grape product consumption.

  16. Human resource issues in university health services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meilman, P W

    2001-07-01

    To provide first-rate services to students, college health services need the best possible staff. Managers and supervisors play a critical role in guiding the work of their employees so as to enhance performance. Reference checks for new employees and regular performance appraisal dialogues for ongoing employees are important tools in this process. The author discusses these issues and suggests formats for reference checks and performance appraisals.

  17. Human resource leadership: the key to improved results in health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neil, Mary L

    2008-01-01

    This article is the lead article in the Human Resources for Health journal's first quarterly feature. The series of seven articles has been contributed by Management Sciences for Health (MSH) under the theme of leadership and management in public health and will be published article by article over the next few weeks. The journal has invited Dr Manuel M. Dayrit, Director of the WHO Department of Human Resources for Health and former Minister of Health for the Philippines to launch the feature with an opening editorial to be found in the journal's blog. This opening article describes the human resource challenges that managers around the world report and analyses why solutions often fail to be implemented. Despite rising attention to the acute shortage of health care workers, solutions to the human resource (HR) crisis are difficult to achieve, especially in the poorest countries. Although we are aware of the issues and have developed HR strategies, the problem is that some old systems of leading and managing human resources for health do not work in today's context. The Leadership Development Program (LDP) is grounded on the belief that good leadership and management can be learned and practiced at all levels. The case studies in this issue were chosen to illustrate results from using the LDP at different levels of the health sector. The LDP makes a profound difference in health managers' attitudes towards their work. Rather than feeling defeated by a workplace climate that lacks motivation, hope, and commitment to change, people report that they are mobilized to take action to change the status quo. The lesson is that without this capacity at all levels, global policy and national HR strategies will fail to make a difference.

  18. Human resource leadership: the key to improved results in health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O'Neil Mary L

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This article is the lead article in the Human Resources for Health journal's first quarterly feature. The series of seven articles has been contributed by Management Sciences for Health (MSH under the theme of leadership and management in public health and will be published article by article over the next few weeks. The journal has invited Dr Manuel M. Dayrit, Director of the WHO Department of Human Resources for Health and former Minister of Health for the Philippines to launch the feature with an opening editorial to be found in the journal's blog. This opening article describes the human resource challenges that managers around the world report and analyses why solutions often fail to be implemented. Despite rising attention to the acute shortage of health care workers, solutions to the human resource (HR crisis are difficult to achieve, especially in the poorest countries. Although we are aware of the issues and have developed HR strategies, the problem is that some old systems of leading and managing human resources for health do not work in today's context. The Leadership Development Program (LDP is grounded on the belief that good leadership and management can be learned and practiced at all levels. The case studies in this issue were chosen to illustrate results from using the LDP at different levels of the health sector. The LDP makes a profound difference in health managers' attitudes towards their work. Rather than feeling defeated by a workplace climate that lacks motivation, hope, and commitment to change, people report that they are mobilized to take action to change the status quo. The lesson is that without this capacity at all levels, global policy and national HR strategies will fail to make a difference.

  19. Human resource leadership: the key to improved results in health

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neil, Mary L

    2008-01-01

    This article is the lead article in the Human Resources for Health journal's first quarterly feature. The series of seven articles has been contributed by Management Sciences for Health (MSH) under the theme of leadership and management in public health and will be published article by article over the next few weeks. The journal has invited Dr Manuel M. Dayrit, Director of the WHO Department of Human Resources for Health and former Minister of Health for the Philippines to launch the feature with an opening editorial to be found in the journal's blog. This opening article describes the human resource challenges that managers around the world report and analyses why solutions often fail to be implemented. Despite rising attention to the acute shortage of health care workers, solutions to the human resource (HR) crisis are difficult to achieve, especially in the poorest countries. Although we are aware of the issues and have developed HR strategies, the problem is that some old systems of leading and managing human resources for health do not work in today's context. The Leadership Development Program (LDP) is grounded on the belief that good leadership and management can be learned and practiced at all levels. The case studies in this issue were chosen to illustrate results from using the LDP at different levels of the health sector. The LDP makes a profound difference in health managers' attitudes towards their work. Rather than feeling defeated by a workplace climate that lacks motivation, hope, and commitment to change, people report that they are mobilized to take action to change the status quo. The lesson is that without this capacity at all levels, global policy and national HR strategies will fail to make a difference. PMID:18570657

  20. Dogs as a diagnostic tool for ill health in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Deborah L

    2012-01-01

    Researchers have long reported that dogs and cats improve the physical and psychological health of their human caregivers, and while it is still inconclusive, a substantial amount of research now lends support for the commonly held view that pets are good for us. Recently, studies have directed attention toward exploring the use of animals, most notably dogs, in the detection of disease and other types of health problems in people. This article reviews the evidence for dogs' ability to detect ill health in humans, focusing specifically on the detection of cancer, epileptic seizures, and hypoglycemia. The author describes the research carried out in this area and evaluates it in an effort to determine whether dogs have a role to play in modern health care as an alert tool or screening system for ill health. Where necessary, the author has highlighted weaknesses in the work and proposed directions for future studies.

  1. Introducing human rights and health into a nursing curriculum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Mayers

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available An important component of nursing programmes in South Africa has been teaching of the principles of ethical practice and relevant ethical codes. A number of factors have contributed to the need to include human rights as an integral component of nursing curricula in South Africa. These include the Bill of Rights in the Constitution of South Africa and the implications thereof for health care delivery, the primary health care approach in the delivery of health care in South Africa, the development and acceptance o f Patients’ Rights Charters, and the recognition of the role that health professionals played - whether through lack of knowledge and awareness or direct involvement - in the human rights violations in the health sector exposed during the hearings of the Truth and Reconciliation Commission.

  2. Helminth genomics: The implications for human health.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul J Brindley

    Full Text Available More than two billion people (one-third of humanity are infected with parasitic roundworms or flatworms, collectively known as helminth parasites. These infections cause diseases that are responsible for enormous levels of morbidity and mortality, delays in the physical development of children, loss of productivity among the workforce, and maintenance of poverty. Genomes of the major helminth species that affect humans, and many others of agricultural and veterinary significance, are now the subject of intensive genome sequencing and annotation. Draft genome sequences of the filarial worm Brugia malayi and two of the human schistosomes, Schistosoma japonicum and S. mansoni, are now available, among others. These genome data will provide the basis for a comprehensive understanding of the molecular mechanisms involved in helminth nutrition and metabolism, host-dependent development and maturation, immune evasion, and evolution. They are likely also to predict new potential vaccine candidates and drug targets. In this review, we present an overview of these efforts and emphasize the potential impact and importance of these new findings.

  3. Health and Human Rights: New challenges for social responsiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leslie London

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available South Africa’s struggle against apartheid discrimination, including struggles in the health sector, laid the basis for a vibrant engagement of staff and students in human rights research, teaching and outreach in the Health Sciences Faculty at the University of Cape Town (UCT. This article provides a brief overview of this background context, then shows how this engagement has continued with new challenges emerging in the post-apartheid democratic period. Teaching at undergraduate and postgraduate levels has been complemented by a programme of ‘Training the Trainers’ in health and human rights. The programme targets teachers of health professionals at institutions in South and Southern Africa, resulting in national adoption of human rights competencies as an essential component of health professionals’ skills base. Research has also extended lessons learnt from the apartheid period into work with vulnerable groups, such as rural farm workers and the deaf, and seeks to build the capacity of marginal populations to change the conditions of their vulnerability in order to realize their rights. Partnerships with civil society organisations have been a strong thread, creating new knowledge and new ways of joint work towards realizing the right to health, including advocacy engagement in civil society movements and regional networks. Further, a focus on health professionals’ practice, in terms of dealing with potential dual loyalty conflicts and their role as gatekeepers in the health services on matters of patients’ rights, has shaped the research agenda. This article illustrates how knowledge production for the public good extends beyond notions of enhancing economic productivity for national development and provides a base for transdisciplinary and transinstitutional engagement. Additionally, non-traditional forms of knowledge networking and transfer have also been explored, including engagement with policy-makers and health managers

  4. Healthy Diet and Nutrition Education Program among Women of Reproductive Age: a Necessity of Multilevel Strategies or Community Responsibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yashvee Dunneram

    2015-07-01

    Conclusion: NE programmes have been effective in positive behavior modifi-cation measured in terms of eating pattern and health quality. Thus, it is recommended that health professionals use multiple intervention strategies at community level to ensure improved outcomes. Political support is also required to create culturally sensitive methods of delivering nutritional programmes. Finally, as policy is dependent on program cost, nutritional programmes need to combine methods of cost analysis to show cost effectiveness of supplying adequate nutrition for women throughout the lifecycle.

  5. Profiles of four women. Health and human rights activists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiner, L; Sollom, R

    1997-01-01

    This article briefly profiles four women physicians working for health and human rights around the world. Dr. Ruchama Marton, an Israeli psychiatrist and activist for peace in the Middle East, is a founder of Physicians for Human Rights/Israel. Dr. Jane Green Schaller is a US pediatrician whose 1985 trip to South Africa initiated her human rights involvement, which includes the founding of Physicians for Human Rights. Dr. Judith van Heerden, a primary care physician in South Africa, has worked for reform of prison health care, to establish hospice care, and, most recently, for acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) education for medical students. Dr. Ma Thida, the only physician not interviewed for this article, is currently held in a Burmese prison because of her work on behalf of the National League for Democracy. The profiles suggest the breadth of human rights work worldwide and are a testament to what physicians can do.

  6. Optimization of human, animal, and environmental health by using the One Health approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleeman, Jonathan M.; DeLiberto, Thomas; Nguyen, Natalie

    2017-01-01

    Emerging diseases are increasing burdens on public health, negatively affecting the world economy, causing extinction of species, and disrupting ecological integrity. One Health recognizes that human, domestic animal, and wildlife health are interconnected within ecosystem health and provides a framework for the development of multidisciplinary solutions to global health challenges. To date, most health-promoting interventions have focused largely on single-sector outcomes. For example, risk for transmission of zoonotic pathogens from bush-meat hunting is primarily focused on human hygiene and personal protection. However, bush-meat hunting is a complex issue promoting the need for holistic strategies to reduce transmission of zoonotic disease while addressing food security and wildlife conservation issues. Temporal and spatial separation of humans and wildlife, risk communication, and other preventative strategies should allow wildlife and humans to co-exist. Upstream surveillance, vaccination, and other tools to prevent pathogen spillover are also needed. Clear multi-sector outcomes should be defined, and a systems-based approach is needed to develop interventions that reduce risks and balance the needs of humans, wildlife, and the environment. The ultimate goal is long-term action to reduce forces driving emerging diseases and provide interdisciplinary scientific approaches to management of risks, thereby achieving optimal outcomes for human, animal, and environmental health.

  7. Imprisonment and women's health: concerns about gender sensitivity, human rights and public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Bergh, Brenda J; Gatherer, Alex; Fraser, Andrew; Moller, Lars

    2011-09-01

    The health of prisoners is among the poorest of any population group and the apparent inequalities pose both a challenge and an opportunity for country health systems. The high rates of imprisonment in many countries, the resulting overcrowding, characteristics of prison populations and the disproportionate prevalence of health problems in prison should make prison health a matter of public health importance.Women prisoners constitute a minority within all prison systems and their special health needs are frequently neglected. The urgent need to review current services is clear from research, expert opinion and experience from countries worldwide. Current provision of health care to imprisoned women fails to meet their needs and is, in too many cases, far short of what is required by human rights and international recommendations. The evidence includes a lack of gender sensitivity in policies and practices in prisons, violations of women's human rights and failure to accept that imprisoned women have more and different health-care needs compared with male prisoners, often related to reproductive health issues, mental health problems, drug dependencies and histories of violence and abuse. Additional needs stem from their frequent status as a mother and usually the primary carer for her children.National governments, policy-makers and prison management need to address gender insensitivity and social injustice in prisons. There are immediate steps which could be taken to deal with public health neglect, abuses of human rights and failures in gender sensitivity.

  8. Social responsibility of nursing in policies of health humanization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mercedes Trentini

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: new conceptions of the world have focused on restructuring health policies and designing a new healthcare model.Objective: to reflect on the humanization policy as part of health promotion with emphasis on nursing care.Content: The article mentions paradigm changes and refers to the biomedical model and the new condition of diversity in models of care practices for health promotion and co-responsibility of nursing in generating and sustaining the humanization of nursing care. It rethinks strategies and commitment to co-responsibility by nursing staff in promoting population health. Participation of nurses in promoting humanization care has shown signs of development in its acceptance, bonding healthcare service professionals and its users. An interview-conversation as a strategy for collecting information is highlighted, whether to care or to research based on a humanization framework.Conclusions: Sensitive listening, modality of dialogue, and the conversational interview method are relationship techniques and means to acquire skills for policy development in humanizing care in health promotion.

  9. Human health risk assessment of heavy metals in urban stormwater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yukun; Egodawatta, Prasanna; McGree, James; Liu, An; Goonetilleke, Ashantha

    2016-07-01

    Toxic chemical pollutants such as heavy metals (HMs) are commonly present in urban stormwater. These pollutants can pose a significant risk to human health and hence a significant barrier for urban stormwater reuse. The primary aim of this study was to develop an approach for quantitatively assessing the risk to human health due to the presence of HMs in stormwater. This approach will lead to informed decision making in relation to risk management of urban stormwater reuse, enabling efficient implementation of appropriate treatment strategies. In this study, risks to human health from heavy metals were assessed as hazard index (HI) and quantified as a function of traffic and land use related parameters. Traffic and land use are the primary factors influencing heavy metal loads in the urban environment. The risks posed by heavy metals associated with total solids and fine solids (heavy metal does not pose a significant risk, the presence of multiple heavy metals could be detrimental to human health. These findings suggest that stormwater guidelines should consider the combined risk from multiple heavy metals rather than the threshold concentration of an individual species. Furthermore, it was found that risk to human health from heavy metals in stormwater is significantly influenced by traffic volume and the risk associated with stormwater from industrial areas is generally higher than that from commercial and residential areas.

  10. Part 1: The Human Gut Microbiome in Health and Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Bull, Matthew J.; Plummer, Nigel T.

    2014-01-01

    The bacterial cells harbored within the human gastrointestinal tract (GIT) outnumber the host’s cells by a factor of 10 and the genes encoded by the bacteria resident within the GIT outnumber their host’s genes by more than 100 times. These human digestive-tract associated microbes are referred to as the gut microbiome. The human gut microbiome and its role in both health and disease has been the subject of extensive research, establishing its involvement in human metabolism, nutrition, physi...

  11. Indoor air and human health: major indoor air pollutants and their health implications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-01-01

    This publication is a collection of abstracts of papers presented at the Indoor Air and Human Health symposium. Session titles include: Radon, Microorganisms, Passive Cigarette Smoke, Combustion Products, Organics, and Panel and Audience Discussion.

  12. Human adipose dynamics and metabolic health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Bin; Zhang, Tracy; Xu, Haiyan

    2013-04-01

    The two types of adipose tissue in humans, white and brown, have distinct developmental origins and functions. Human white adipose tissue plays a pivotal role in maintaining whole-body energy homeostasis by storing triglycerides when energy is in surplus, releasing free fatty acids as a fuel during energy shortage, and secreting adipokines that are important for regulating lipid and glucose metabolism. The size of white adipose mass needs to be kept at a proper set point. Dramatic expansion of white fat mass causes obesity--now become a global epidemic disease--and increases the risk for the development of many life-threatening diseases. The absence of white adipose tissue or abnormal white adipose tissue redistribution leads to lipodystrophy, a condition often associated with metabolic disorders. Brown adipose tissue is a thermogenic organ whose mass is inversely correlated with body mass index and age. Therapeutic approaches targeting adipose tissue have been proven to be effective in improving obesity-related metabolic disorders, and promising new therapies could be developed in the near future. © 2013 New York Academy of Sciences.

  13. Facing the challenges in human resources for humanitarian health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mowafi, Hani; Nowak, Kristin; Hein, Karen

    2007-01-01

    The human resources crisis in humanitarian health care parallels that seen in the broader area of health care. This crisis is exacerbated by the lack of resources in areas in which humanitarian action is needed--difficult environments that often are remote and insecure--and the requirement of specific skill sets is not routinely gained during traditional medical training. While there is ample data to suggest that health outcomes improve when worker density is increased, this remains an area of critical under-investment in humanitarian health care. In addition to under-investment, other factors limit the availability of human resources for health (HRH) in humanitarian work including: (1) over-reliance on degrees as surrogates for specific competencies; (2) under-development and under-utilization of national staff and beneficiaries as humanitarian health workers; (3) lack of standardized training modules to ensure adequate preparation for work in complex emergencies; (4) and the draining of limited available HRH from countries with low prevalence and high need to wealthier, developed nations also facing HRH shortages. A working group of humanitarian health experts from implementing agencies, United Nations agencies, private and governmental financiers, and members of academia gathered at Hanover, New Hampshire for a conference to discuss elements of the HRH problem in humanitarian health care and how to solve them. Several key elements of successful solutions were highlighted, including: (1) the need to develop a set of standards of what would constitute "adequate training" for humanitarian health work; (2) increasing the utilization and professional development of national staff; (3) "training with a purpose" specific to humanitarian health work (not simply relying on professional degrees as surrogates); (4) and developing specific health task-based competencies thereby increasing the pool of potential workers. Such steps would accomplish several key goals, such as

  14. [The virtual library in equity, health, and human development].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdés, América

    2002-01-01

    This article attempts to describe the rationale that has led to the development of information sources dealing with equity, health, and human development in countries of Latin America and the Caribbean within the context of the Virtual Health Library (Biblioteca Virtual en Salud, BVS). Such information sources include the scientific literature, databases in printed and electronic format, institutional directories and lists of specialists, lists of events and courses, distance education programs, specialty journals and bulletins, as well as other means of disseminating health information. The pages that follow deal with the development of a Virtual Library in Equity, Health, and Human Development, an effort rooted in the conviction that decision-making and policy geared toward achieving greater equity in health must, of necessity, be based on coherent, well-organized, and readily accessible first-rate scientific information. Information is useless unless it is converted into knowledge that benefits society. The Virtual Library in Equity, Health, and Human Development is a coordinated effort to develop a decentralized regional network of scientific information sources, with strict quality control, from which public officials can draw data and practical examples that can help them set health and development policies geared toward achieving greater equity for all.

  15. Human resources for health policies: a critical component in health policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dussault Gilles

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In the last few years, increasing attention has been paid to the development of health policies. But side by side with the presumed benefits of policy, many analysts share the opinion that a major drawback of health policies is their failure to make room for issues of human resources. Current approaches in human resources suggest a number of weaknesses: a reactive, ad hoc attitude towards problems of human resources; dispersal of accountability within human resources management (HRM; a limited notion of personnel administration that fails to encompass all aspects of HRM; and finally the short-term perspective of HRM. There are three broad arguments for modernizing the ways in which human resources for health are managed: • the central role of the workforce in the health sector; • the various challenges thrown up by health system reforms; • the need to anticipate the effect on the health workforce (and consequently on service provision arising from various macroscopic social trends impinging on health systems. The absence of appropriate human resources policies is responsible, in many countries, for a chronic imbalance with multifaceted effects on the health workforce: quantitative mismatch, qualitative disparity, unequal distribution and a lack of coordination between HRM actions and health policy needs. Four proposals have been put forward to modernize how the policy process is conducted in the development of human resources for health (HRH: • to move beyond the traditional approach of personnel administration to a more global concept of HRM; • to give more weight to the integrated, interdependent and systemic nature of the different components of HRM when preparing and implementing policy; • to foster a more proactive attitude among human resources (HR policy-makers and managers; • to promote the full commitment of all professionals and sectors in all phases of the process. The development of explicit human resources

  16. Reproductive health and hormonal status of women with polycystic ovary syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Gulammakhmudova Dilobar Valijanovna

    2015-01-01

    In this work there have studied reproductive health, also features of reproductive and hormonal disturbances at polycystosys ovarian syndrome (POS) among of women at the active reproductive age, which belongs to the uzbek population.

  17. Nutrition, microRNAs, and Human Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Juan; Zhou, Beiyan; Ross, Sharon A; Zempleni, Janos

    2017-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRs) hybridize with complementary sequences in mRNA and silence genes by destabilizing mRNA or preventing translation of mRNA. Over 60% of human protein-coding genes are regulated by miRs, and 1881 high-confidence miRs are encoded in the human genome. Evidence suggests that miRs not only are synthesized endogenously, but also might be obtained from dietary sources, and that food compounds alter the expression of endogenous miR genes. The main food matrices for studies of biological activity of dietary miRs include plant foods and cow milk. Encapsulation of miRs in exosomes and exosome-like particles confers protection against RNA degradation and creates a pathway for intestinal and vascular endothelial transport by endocytosis, as well as delivery to peripheral tissues. Evidence suggests that the amount of miRs absorbed from nutritionally relevant quantities of foods is sufficient to elicit biological effects, and that endogenous synthesis of miRs is insufficient to compensate for dietary miR depletion and rescue wild-type phenotypes. In addition, nutrition alters the expression of endogenous miR genes, thereby compounding the effects of nutrition-miR interactions in gene regulation and disease diagnosis in liquid biopsies. For example, food components and dietary preferences may modulate serum miR profiles that may influence biological processes. The complex crosstalk between nutrition, miRs, and gene targets poses a challenge to gene network analysis and studies of human disease. Novel pipelines and databases have been developed recently, including a dietary miR database for archiving reported miRs in 15 dietary resources. miRs derived from diet and endogenous synthesis have been implicated in physiologic and pathologic conditions, including those linked with nutrition and metabolism. In fact, several miRs are actively regulated in response to overnutrition and tissue inflammation, and are involved in facilitating the development of chronic

  18. Human rights and correctional health policy: a view from Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogan, Mary

    2017-03-13

    Purpose Correctional healthcare should promote the protection of human rights. The purpose of this paper is to bring a discussion of human rights into debates on how such policy should be best organized. Design/methodology/approach The paper achieves its aim by providing an analysis of European prison law and policy in the area of prison health, through assessing decisions of the European Court of Human Rights, as well as policies created by the European Committee for the Prevention of Torture. Findings The paper describes the position of the European Court of Human Rights on the topics of access to healthcare, ill health and release from prison, mental illness in prison, and the duty to provide rehabilitative programming for those seeking to reduce their level of "risk." It also argues that human rights law can be a source of practical reform, and that legal frameworks have much to offer healthcare leaders seeking to uphold the dignity of those in their care. Originality/value This paper will provide a rare example of the engagement of human rights law with correctional health policy. It provides practical recommendations arising out of an analysis of European human rights law in the area of prisons.

  19. IMPORTANCE OF CAROTENOIDS FOR HUMAN HEALTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Semih ÖTLEŞ

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Carotenoids are brightly yellow to red pigments occuring in plants and are introduced into humans through dietary intake of vegetables and fruits. They do not dissolve in water, they can give maximum absorption in UV region at 400-450 nm., and they are stable in alkali. Some carotenoids have provitamin A activity and they are important because of the synthesis of Vitamin A needed to be taken into the body. In addition to this function, carotenoids play very important roles in preventing diseases caused by Vitamin A deficiency, coronary heart diseases, and cancer. They are effective in preventing or at least slowering cancer as a result of their antioxidative properties. Studies are shown that cancer risk (especially the lung cancer decreases with the intake of carotenoids. As a conclusion vegetables and fruits-rich diet is always important and valuable for healty populations.

  20. [Water for human consumption and health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fara, G M; D'Alessandro, D

    2003-01-01

    Providing enough water of good quality to all human communities is a difficult task, which has been satisfied only recently and only for the developed world. A large part of the developing world still suffers from scarcity and/or bad quality of water supply. Examples from the past are described, including the cholera epidemics of London 1848-1853 and the chromium pollution of the Milan area, 1958. A synthetic description of the different kinds of biological and chemical pollution are also described, then the complex mechanisms of biological and chemical pollution of the waters are illustrated, which require complicated interventions for reclamation after pollution or, better, even more complicated surveillance to avoid pollution. Finally the problem of safeguard of waters during the distribution is illustrated, when a bad maintenance of the aqueducts can inactivate all the precautions taken during the supply an the treatment of waters.

  1. Global disparities in health and human rights: a critical commentary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benatar, S R

    1998-02-01

    Widening disparities in health and human rights at a global level represent the dark side of progress associated with escalation of economic and military exploitation and exponential population growth in the 20th century. Even the most basic universal human rights cannot be achieved for all under these circumstances. The goal of improved population health will be similarly elusive while medical care is commodified and exploited for commercial gain in the marketplace. Recognition of the powerful forces that polarize our world and commitment to reversing them are essential for the achievement of human rights for all, for the improvement of public health, and for the peaceful progress required to protect the "rational self-interest" of the most privileged people on earth against the escalation of war, disease, and other destructive forces arising from widespread poverty and ecological degradation.

  2. The Knowledge, Attitude and Practices regarding HBV Infection of Married Women in the Reproductive Age Group living in Cantonment Area, Sunjawan, Jammu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashmi Sharma, C.L. Sharma, Ruchi Khajuria

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to know the knowledge, attitude and practices of 300 marriedwomen in the reproductive age group living in the cantonment area Sunjawan, Jammu regardingHBV infection. Only 20% of the women were found aware of the mode of transmission of HBV.However, 50% of the women were having the misconceptions regarding mode of transmission ofHBV. 4% of women, 30% of children up to 5 years and 15% of children above 5 years were fullyimmunized with hepatitis B vaccine. 80% of children up to 5 years and 75% of children above 5years were fully immunized as per universal immunization programme. Hence, the results of thestudy clearly indicated the low immunization rate with vaccine against HBV than that under universalimmunization programme and further potentiated the need for implementation of therecommendations in 9th five year plan of India regarding introduction of immunization againstHBV in universal immunization programme at the earliest .

  3. Human resources for health and universal health coverage: fostering equity and effective coverage

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Achieving universal health coverage (UHC) involves distributing resources, especially human resources for health (HRH), to match population needs. This paper explores the policy lessons on HRH from four countries that have achieved sustained improvements in UHC: Brazil, Ghana, Mexico and Thailand. Its purpose is to inform global policy and financial commitments on HRH in support of UHC.

  4. Climate change and human health : Indian context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poonam K. Singh & Ramesh C. Dhiman

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The article reviews the issue of climate change and health in the Indian context. The importance of climatechange leading to estimated loss of above 2.5 million DALYs in southeast Asia, mortality due to heat waves, andthe importance of air quality related respiratory diseases, disasters due to excessive floods, malnutrition due toreduction in rice, maize and sorghum crops etc. Latest work undertaken in India, vis-a-vis current scenario andneed for further work has been discussed. There is felt need of further studies on assessing the impact on dengueand chikungunya as the transmission dynamics of these diseases involve water availability, storage and lifestyle, etc. Uncertainties and knowledge gaps identified in the studies undertaken so far have also been highlighted.As regards to vector borne diseases, there is a need to concentrate in the areas which are presently free frommalaria and with use of best available tools of interventions in already disease endemic areas like northeasternstates, the risk of climate change impacts can be minimized.

  5. Recommendations for the evaluation and management of patients with rheumatic autoimmune and inflammatory diseases during the reproductive age, pregnancy, postpartum and breastfeeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez López, Juan Antonio; García Vivar, M Luz; Cáliz, Rafael; Freire, Mercedes; Galindo, María; Hernández, Maria Victoria; López Longo, Francisco Javier; Martínez Taboada, Víctor; Pego Reigosa, Jose María; Rubio, Esteban; Trujillo, Elisa; Vela-Casasempere, Paloma

    To develop recommendations on the evaluation and management of patients with rheumatic autoimmune and inflammatory diseases during the reproductive age, pregnancy, post-partum and breastfeeding based on the best evidence and experience. Recommendations were generated using nominal group and Delphi techniques. An expert panel of 12 rheumatologists was established. A systematic literature review and a narrative review (websites, clinical guidelines and other relevant documentation) were performed and presented to the panel in its 1(st) meeting to be discussed and to help define recommendations. A first draft of recommendations was generated and circulated for comments and wording refinement. A national survey analyzing different aspects of this topic was undertaken separately, followed by a Delphi process (2 rounds). Agreement with each recommendation was ranked on a scale of 1 (total disagreement) to 10 (total agreement), and was considered to be achieved if at least 70% voted≥7. The level of evidence and grade of recommendation were assessed using the Oxford Centre for Evidence-based Medicine Levels of Evidence. A total of 14 recommendations were generated for the preconception period (oral and hormonal contraception, reproductive techniques), pregnancy (planning, treatment and follow-up), and breastfeeding (treatment and follow-up). High-risk situations such as lupus or antiphospholipid syndrome were included. A consensus>90% was reached for all but one recommendation. These recommendations are intended to provide rheumatologists, patients, families and other stakeholders with a consensus on the evaluation and management of patients with autoimmune and inflammatory diseases during the reproductive age, pregnancy, postpartum and breastfeeding. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Reumatología y Colegio Mexicano de Reumatología. All rights reserved.

  6. Climate change, human health, and biomedical research: analysis of the National Institutes of Health research portfolio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jessup, Christine M; Balbus, John M; Christian, Carole; Haque, Ehsanul; Howe, Sally E; Newton, Sheila A; Reid, Britt C; Roberts, Luci; Wilhelm, Erin; Rosenthal, Joshua P

    2013-04-01

    According to a wide variety of analyses and projections, the potential effects of global climate change on human health are large and diverse. The U.S. National Institutes of Health (NIH), through its basic, clinical, and population research portfolio of grants, has been increasing efforts to understand how the complex interrelationships among humans, ecosystems, climate, climate variability, and climate change affect domestic and global health. In this commentary we present a systematic review and categorization of the fiscal year (FY) 2008 NIH climate and health research portfolio. A list of candidate climate and health projects funded from FY 2008 budget appropriations were identified and characterized based on their relevance to climate change and health and based on climate pathway, health impact, study type, and objective. This analysis identified seven FY 2008 projects focused on climate change, 85 climate-related projects, and 706 projects that focused on disease areas associated with climate change but did not study those associations. Of the nearly 53,000 awards that NIH made in 2008, approximately 0.17% focused on or were related to climate. Given the nature and scale of the potential effects of climate change on human health and the degree of uncertainty that we have about these effects, we think that it is helpful for the NIH to engage in open discussions with science and policy communities about government-wide needs and opportunities in climate and health, and about how NIH's strengths in human health research can contribute to understanding the health implications of global climate change. This internal review has been used to inform more recent initiatives by the NIH in climate and health.

  7. Impacts of Gut Bacteria on Human Health and Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Jie Zhang

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Gut bacteria are an important component of the microbiota ecosystem in the human gut, which is colonized by 1014 microbes, ten times more than the human cells. Gut bacteria play an important role in human health, such as supplying essential nutrients, synthesizing vitamin K, aiding in the digestion of cellulose, and promoting angiogenesis and enteric nerve function. However, they can also be potentially harmful due to the change of their composition when the gut ecosystem undergoes abnormal changes in the light of the use of antibiotics, illness, stress, aging, bad dietary habits, and lifestyle. Dysbiosis of the gut bacteria communities can cause many chronic diseases, such as inflammatory bowel disease, obesity, cancer, and autism. This review summarizes and discusses the roles and potential mechanisms of gut bacteria in human health and diseases.

  8. Human Trafficking: The Role of the Health Care Provider

    OpenAIRE

    Dovydaitis, Tiffany

    2010-01-01

    Human trafficking is a major public health problem, both domestically and internationally. Health care providers are often the only professionals to interact with trafficking victims who are still in captivity. The expert assessment and interview skills of providers contribute to their readiness to identify victims of trafficking. The purpose of this article is to provide clinicians with knowledge on trafficking and give specific tools that they may use to assist victims in the clinical setti...

  9. Mental health and human rights: never waste a serious crisis

    OpenAIRE

    Minas, Harry

    2009-01-01

    A serious health and human rights crisis is unfolding in Indonesia. Media reports in the Jakarta press have highlighted the high death rates in shelters for people with mental illness that are run by the Jakarta Social Affairs Agency. This crisis represents an opportunity to bring about systematic and substantial changes in the Indonesian mental health system. In order to realise this opportunity the necessary elements of an approach are presented and briefly discussed.

  10. Training Trainers in health and human rights: Implementing curriculum change in South African health sciences institutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baldwin-Ragaven Laurel

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The complicity of the South African health sector in apartheid and the international relevance of human rights as a professional obligation prompted moves to include human rights competencies in the curricula of health professionals in South Africa. A Train-the-Trainers course in Health and Human Rights was established in 1998 to equip faculty members from health sciences institutions nationwide with the necessary skills, attitudes and knowledge to teach human rights to their students. This study followed up participants to determine the extent of curriculum implementation, support needed as well as barriers encountered in integrating human rights into health sciences teaching and learning. Methods A survey including both quantitative and qualitative components was distributed in 2007 to past course participants from 1998-2006 via telephone, fax and electronic communication. Results Out of 162 past participants, 46 (28% completed the survey, the majority of whom were still employed in academic settings (67%. Twenty-two respondents (48% implemented a total of 33 formal human rights courses into the curricula at their institutions. Respondents were nine times more likely (relative risk 9.26; 95% CI 5.14-16.66 to implement human rights education after completing the training. Seventy-two extracurricular activities were offered by 21 respondents, many of whom had successfully implemented formal curricula. Enabling factors for implementation included: prior teaching experience in human rights, general institutional support and the presence of allies - most commonly coworkers as well as deans. Frequently cited barriers to implementation included: budget restrictions, time constraints and perceived apathy of colleagues or students. Overall, respondents noted personal enrichment and optimism in teaching human rights. Conclusion This Train-the-Trainer course provides the historical context, educational tools, and collective motivation

  11. [Human resources and health work: challenges for a research agenda].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assunção, Ada Avila; Belisário, Soraya Almeida; Campos, Francisco Eduardo; D'Avila, Luciana Souza

    2007-01-01

    This article discusses several key concepts for human resources policy in health in the context of Latin America's regional integration efforts. The article focuses on different concepts of integration to emphasize the analytical distinction between regional and conceptual integration. It also presents labor and human resources concepts before discussing, in the final analysis, the challenges that a common research agenda faces in the context of current health sector reforms in Latin America. The conclusion emphasizes the need to develop a technology and research system capable of supporting the agenda for exchange between MERCOSUR member countries.

  12. Prebiotics from marine macroalgae for human and animal health applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Sullivan, Laurie; Murphy, Brian; McLoughlin, Peter; Duggan, Patrick; Lawlor, Peadar G; Hughes, Helen; Gardiner, Gillian E

    2010-07-01

    The marine environment is an untapped source of bioactive compounds. Specifically, marine macroalgae (seaweeds) are rich in polysaccharides that could potentially be exploited as prebiotic functional ingredients for both human and animal health applications. Prebiotics are non-digestible, selectively fermented compounds that stimulate the growth and/or activity of beneficial gut microbiota which, in turn, confer health benefits on the host. This review will introduce the concept and potential applications of prebiotics, followed by an outline of the chemistry of seaweed polysaccharides. Their potential for use as prebiotics for both humans and animals will be highlighted by reviewing data from both in vitro and in vivo studies conducted to date.

  13. Prebiotics from marine macroalgae for human and animal health applications.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Sullivan, Laurie

    2010-01-01

    The marine environment is an untapped source of bioactive compounds. Specifically, marine macroalgae (seaweeds) are rich in polysaccharides that could potentially be exploited as prebiotic functional ingredients for both human and animal health applications. Prebiotics are non-digestible, selectively fermented compounds that stimulate the growth and\\/or activity of beneficial gut microbiota which, in turn, confer health benefits on the host. This review will introduce the concept and potential applications of prebiotics, followed by an outline of the chemistry of seaweed polysaccharides. Their potential for use as prebiotics for both humans and animals will be highlighted by reviewing data from both in vitro and in vivo studies conducted to date.

  14. Impact of mycotoxins on human health in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shephard, G S

    2008-02-01

    Adverse human health effects from the consumption of mycotoxins have occurred for many centuries. Although mycotoxin contamination of agricultural products still occurs in the developed world, the application of modern agricultural practices and the presence of a legislatively regulated food processing and marketing system have greatly reduced mycotoxin exposure in these populations. At the mycotoxin contamination levels generally found in food products traded in these market economies, adverse human health effects have largely been overcome. However, in the developing world, where climatic and crop storage conditions are frequently conducive to fungal growth and mycotoxin production, much of the population relies on subsistence farming or on unregulated local markets. The extent to which mycotoxins affect human health is difficult to investigate in countries whose health systems lack capacity and in which resources are limited. Aflatoxin B(1), the toxin on which major resources have been expended, has long been linked to liver cancer, yet its other effects, such as immune suppression and growth faltering previously observed in veterinary studies, are only now being investigated and characterized in human populations. The extent to which factors such as immune suppression contribute to the overall burden of infectious disease is difficult to quantify, but is undoubtedly significant. Thus, food safety remains an important opportunity for addressing current health problems in developing countries.

  15. Ten years development of human resources in Serbian health system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krstic, Maja; Grozdanov, Jasmina; Ivanovic, Ivan; Korac, Vesna; Vasic, Milena

    2010-01-01

    A key component of any healthcare reform process is to ensure that the services are delivered by the right numbers of staff with appropriate skills and training. In 2007, public health institutions in Serbia had 2% more employees than before the economic transition. Nevertheless, the trend of the total number of employees in the Serbian health care system still preserved a mild rising trend. The most prominent changes in the structure of human resources were effectuated in the total numbers of physicians, nurses and administrative and technical staff. Development of medical science and practice in Serbia is characterized by more intensive processes of specializations, resulting in increased number of specialists among medical doctors. Health care provided in in-patient institutions still employs most of the doctors. The number of unemployed physicians, dentists and pharmacists has been rising since 2000. Another aspect that explains the rise of unemployed, university educated human resources is the rising number of graduated physicians, dentist and pharmacists. Health care policy makers may recognize the need for more integrated planning of human resources in health care, in particular, making management of human resources responsive to system needs and design, instead of vice versa.

  16. Nanotechnology and human health: risks and benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cattaneo, Anna Giulia; Gornati, Rosalba; Sabbioni, Enrico; Chiriva-Internati, Maurizio; Cobos, Everardo; Jenkins, Marjorie R; Bernardini, Giovanni

    2010-11-01

    Nanotechnology is expected to be promising in many fields of medical applications, mainly in cancer treatment. While a large number of very attractive exploitations open up for the clinics, regulatory agencies are very careful in admitting new nanomaterials for human use because of their potential toxicity. The very active research on new nanomaterials that are potentially useful in medicine has not been counterbalanced by an adequate knowledge of their pharmacokinetics and toxicity. The different nanocarriers used to transport and release the active molecules to the target tissues should be treated as additives, with potential side effects of themselves or by virtue of their dissolution or aggregation inside the body. Only recently has a systematic classification of nanomaterials been proposed, posing the basis for dedicated modeling at the nanoscale level. The use of in silico methods, such as nano-QSAR and PSAR, while highly desirable to expedite and rationalize the following stages of toxicological research, are not an alternative, but an introduction to mandatory experimental work.

  17. Mapping the governance of human resources for health in Serbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santric Milicevic, Milena; Vasic, Milena; Edwards, Matt

    2015-12-01

    This article maps the current governance of human resources for health (HRH) in relation to universal health coverage in Serbia since the health sector reforms in 2003. The study adapts the Global Health Workforce Alliance/World Health Organization four-dimensional framework of HRH in the context of governance for universal health coverage. A set of proxies was established for the availability, accessibility, acceptability and quality of HRH. Analysis of official HRH documentation from relevant institutions and reports were used to construct a governance profile of HRH for Serbia from the introduction of the reform in 2003 up to 2013. The results show that all Serbian districts (except Sremski) surpass the availability threshold of 59.4 skilled midwives, nurses and physicians per 10,000 inhabitants. District accessibility of health workforce greatly differed from the national average with variances from +26% to -34%. Analysis of national averages and patient load of general practitioners showed variances among districts by ± 21%, whilst hospital discharges per 100 inhabitants deviated between +52% and -45%. Pre-service and in-service education of health workforce is regulated and accredited. However, through its efforts to respond to population health needs Serbia lacks a single coordinating entity to take overall responsibility for effective and coordinated HRH planning, management and development within the broader landscape of health strategy development. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Acanthamoeba: biology and increasing importance in human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Naveed Ahmed

    2006-07-01

    Acanthamoeba is an opportunistic protozoan that is widely distributed in the environment and is well recognized to produce serious human infections, including a blinding keratitis and a fatal encephalitis. This review presents our current understanding of the burden of Acanthamoeba infections on human health, their pathogenesis and pathophysiology, and molecular mechanisms associated with the disease, as well as virulence traits of Acanthamoeba that may be targets for therapeutic interventions and/or the development of preventative measures.

  19. Human rights, cultural pluralism, and international health research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Patricia A

    2005-01-01

    In the field of bioethics, scholars have begun to consider carefully the impact of structural issues on global population health, including socioeconomic and political factors influencing the disproportionate burden of disease throughout the world. Human rights and social justice are key considerations for both population health and biomedical research. In this paper, I will briefly explore approaches to human rights in bioethics and review guidelines for ethical conduct in international health research, focusing specifically on health research conducted in resource-poor settings. I will demonstrate the potential for addressing human rights considerations in international health research with special attention to the importance of collaborative partnerships, capacity building, and respect for cultural traditions. Strengthening professional knowledge about international research ethics increases awareness of ethical concerns associated with study design and informed consent among researchers working in resource-poor settings. But this is not enough. Technological and financial resources are also necessary to build capacity for local communities to ensure that research results are integrated into existing health systems. Problematic issues surrounding the application of ethical guidelines in resource-poor settings are embedded in social history, cultural context, and the global political economy. Resolving the moral complexities requires a commitment to engaged dialogue and action among investigators, funding agencies, policy makers, governmental institutions, and private industry.

  20. [The prospective model of human resources' management in health institution].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rastorgueva, T I; Shchepin, V O

    2009-01-01

    The article postulates the actuality of developing the concept of the psychological aspects of institution management as projected into health care area where the medical personnel is working in the conditions of higher responsibility, emotional and intellectual overloads under permanent nervous psychological stress. This contingent of medical institutions stuff very often ignore the positive psychological interventions both due to the poor labor management and the corresponding knowledge lacking. The topicality of this research vector is determined by the deficiency of the human resources' management studies in the public health field. The need in searching the investigation prospective directions is ascertained by the unexploredness of personnel management in national health care.

  1. So many, yet few: Human resources for health in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rao Krishna D

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In many developing countries, such as India, information on human resources in the health sector is incomplete and unreliable. This prevents effective workforce planning and management. This paper aims to address this deficit by producing a more complete picture of India’s health workforce. Methods Both the Census of India and nationally representative household surveys collect data on self-reported occupations. A representative sample drawn from the 2001 census was used to estimate key workforce indicators. Nationally representative household survey data and official estimates were used to compare and supplement census results. Results India faces a substantial overall deficit of health workers; the density of doctors, nurses and midwifes is a quarter of the 2.3/1000 population World Health Organization benchmark. Importantly, a substantial portion of the doctors (37%, particularly in rural areas (63% appears to be unqualified. The workforce is composed of at least as many doctors as nurses making for an inefficient skill-mix. Women comprise only one-third of the workforce. Most workers are located in urban areas and in the private sector. States with poorer health and service use outcomes have a lower health worker density. Conclusions Among the important human resources challenges that India faces is increasing the presence of qualified health workers in underserved areas and a more efficient skill mix. An important first step is to ensure the availability of reliable and comprehensive workforce information through live workforce registers.

  2. Private sector, human resources and health franchising in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prata, Ndola; Montagu, Dominic; Jefferys, Emma

    2005-04-01

    In much of the developing world, private health care providers and pharmacies are the most important sources of medicine and medical care and yet these providers are frequently not considered in planning for public health. This paper presents the available evidence, by socioeconomic status, on which strata of society benefit from publicly provided care and which strata use private health care. Using data from The World Bank's Health Nutrition and Population Poverty Thematic Reports on 22 countries in Africa, an assessment was made of the use of public and private health services, by asset quintile groups, for treatment of diarrhoea and acute respiratory infections, proxies for publicly subsidized services. The evidence and theory on using franchise networks to supplement government programmes in the delivery of public health services was assessed. Examples from health franchises in Africa and Asia are provided to illustrate the potential for franchise systems to leverage private providers and so increase delivery-point availability for public-benefit services. We argue that based on the established demand for private medical services in Africa, these providers should be included in future planning on human resources for public health. Having explored the range of systems that have been tested for working with private providers, from contracting to vouchers to behavioural change and provider education, we conclude that franchising has the greatest potential for integration into large-scale programmes in Africa to address critical illnesses of public health importance.

  3. [Crisis in human resources for health: millennium development goals for maternal and child health threatened].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltman, Jogchum J; Stekelenburg, Jelle; van Roosmalen, Jos

    2010-01-01

    International migration of health care workers from low-income countries to the West has increased considerably in recent years, thereby jeopardizing the achievements of The Millennium Development Goals, especially number 4 (reduction of child mortality) and 5 (improvement of maternal health).This migration, as well as the HIV/AIDS epidemic, lack of training of health care personnel and poverty, are mainly responsible for this health care personnel deficit. It is essential that awareness be raised amongst donors and local governments so that staffing increases, and that infection prevention measures be in place for their health care personnel. Western countries should conduct a more ethical recruitment of health care workers, otherwise a new millennium development goal will have to be created: to reduce the human resources for health crisis.

  4. Role of condom negotiation on condom use among women of reproductive age in three districts in Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Exavery Amon

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background HIV/AIDS remains being a disease of great public health concern worldwide. In regions such as sub-Saharan Africa (SSA where women are disproportionately infected with HIV, women are reportedly less likely capable of negotiating condom use. However, while knowledge of condom use for HIV prevention is extensive among men and women in many countries including Tanzania, evidence is limited about the role of condom negotiation on condom use among women in rural Tanzania. Methods Data originate from a cross-sectional survey of random households conducted in 2011 in Rufiji, Kilombero and Ulanga districts in Tanzania. The survey assessed health-seeking behaviour among women and children using a structured interviewer-administered questionnaire. A total of 2,614 women who were sexually experienced and aged 15-49 years were extracted from the main database for the current analysis. Linkage between condom negotiation and condom use at the last sexual intercourse was assessed using multivariate logistic regression. Results Prevalence of condom use at the last sexual intercourse was 22.2% overall, ranging from12.2% among married women to 54.9% among unmarried (single women. Majority of the women (73.4% reported being confident to negotiate condom use, and these women were significantly more likely than those who were not confident to have used a condom at the last sexual intercourse (OR = 3.13, 95% CI 2.22-4.41. This effect was controlled for marital status, age, education, religion, number of sexual partners, household wealth and knowledge of HIV prevention by condom use. Conclusion Confidence to negotiate condom use is a significant predictor of actual condom use among women in rural Tanzania. Women, especially unmarried ones, those in multiple partnerships or anyone needing protection should be empowered with condom negotiation skills for increased use of condoms in order to enhance their sexual and reproductive health outcomes.

  5. What is the importance of zoonotic trichomonads for human health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maritz, Julia M; Land, Kirkwood M; Carlton, Jane M; Hirt, Robert P

    2014-07-01

    Trichomonads are common parasites of many vertebrate and invertebrate species, with four species classically recognized as human parasites: Dientamoeba fragilis, Pentatrichomonas hominis, Trichomonas vaginalis, and Trichomonas tenax. The latter two species are considered human-specific; by contrast, D. fragilis and P. hominis have been isolated from domestic and farm mammals, demonstrating a wide host range and potential zoonotic origin. Several new studies have highlighted the zoonotic dimension of trichomonads. First, species typically known to infect birds and domestic mammals have been identified in human clinical samples. Second, several phylogenetic analyses have identified animal-derived trichomonads as close sister taxa of the two human-specific species. It is our opinion, therefore, that these observations prompt further investigation into the importance of zoonotic trichomonads for human health. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Assessment factors for human health risk assessment: A discussion paper

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeire, T.; Stevenson, H.; Pieters, M.N.; Rennen, M.; Slob, W.; Hakkert, B.C.

    1999-01-01

    The general goal of this discussion paper is to contribute toward the further harmonization of human health risk assessment. It first discusses the development of a formal, harmonized set of assessment factors. The status quo with regard to assessment factors is reviewed, that is, the type of factor

  7. Minnows as a Classroom Model for Human Environmental Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Daniel N.; Hesselbach, Renee; Kane, Andrew S.; Petering, David H.; Petering, Louise; Berg, Craig A.

    2013-01-01

    Understanding human environmental health is difficult for high school students, as is the process of scientific investigation. This module provides a framework to address both concerns through an inquiry-based approach using a hypothesis-driven set of experiments that draws upon a real-life concern, environmental exposures to lead (Pb2+). Students…

  8. Human Ecology and Health Advancement: The Newcastle Experience and Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Jenny; Honari, Morteza

    1992-01-01

    Argues for the necessity of adopting a human ecological framework for the advancement of health. Focusing on the Australian experience, highlights the difficulties in moving beyond the narrow mold of Western Medical Science to a more holistic, quality of life orientation, and suggests that the role of education at all levels of the community is…

  9. Human Health Effects, Task Force Assessment, Preliminary Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aronow, Wilbert S.; And Others

    Presented in this preliminary report is one of seven assessments conducted by a special task force of Project Clean Air, the Human Health Effects Task Force. The reports summarize assessments of the state of knowledge on various air pollution problems, particularly in California, and make tentative recommendations as to what the University of…

  10. Human health risk assessment of long chain alcohols (LCOH)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Veenstra, Gauke; Sanderson, Hans; Webb, Catherine

    2009-01-01

    Representative chemicals from the long chain alcohols category have been extensively tested to define their toxicological hazard properties. These chemicals show low acute and repeat dose toxicity with high-dose effects (if any) related to minimal liver toxicity. These chemicals do not show evide...... of human health are documented for the uses of these chemicals. © 2008....

  11. Water Quality Criteria for Human Health and Aquatic Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collaborative effort with the Office of Water to provide science in support of the development and implementation of new or revised ambient water quality criteria for microbial and chemical contaminants for human health and aquatic life. The research also addresses implementation...

  12. Water Quality Criteria for Human Health and Aquatic Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collaborative effort with the Office of Water to provide science in support of the development and implementation of new or revised ambient water quality criteria for microbial and chemical contaminants for human health and aquatic life. The research also addresses implementation...

  13. Human Ecology and Health Advancement: The Newcastle Experience and Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Jenny; Honari, Morteza

    1992-01-01

    Argues for the necessity of adopting a human ecological framework for the advancement of health. Focusing on the Australian experience, highlights the difficulties in moving beyond the narrow mold of Western Medical Science to a more holistic, quality of life orientation, and suggests that the role of education at all levels of the community is…

  14. Human rights and public health : towards a balanced relationship

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toebes, Brigit

    This contribution attempts to scope the multiple and complex relationships between measures to protect health and the protection of human rights. The article begins with a discussion of the meaning and current understandings of the notion of ‘public health’, after which it explores how ‘public

  15. Pedagogic of health: usage of healthsaving research methods in practices of future specialists of human health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kubovich O.V.

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available It was defined the indexes of physical development and physical health of 29 first-class children of general school. On the basis of conducted anthropometric, psychometric and statistical researches were decline indexes of physical development and physical health of pupils of schools of western region in comparing to schools of central Ukraine. In practical activity of future specialist of human health were used methods that can be used with a diagnostic purpose and for organization of health work at school.

  16. Data-driven human rights: using the electronic health record to promote human rights in jail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glowa-Kollisch, Sarah; Andrade, Kelly; Stazesky, Richard; Teixeira, Paul; Kaba, Fatos; Macdonald, Ross; Rosner, Zachary; Selling, Daniel; Parsons, Amanda; Venters, Homer

    2014-06-14

    The electronic health record (EHR) is a commonplace innovation designed to promote efficiency, quality, and continuity of health services. In the New York City jail system, we implemented an EHR across 12 jails between 2008 and 2011. During the same time, our work increasingly focused on the importance of human rights as an essential element to the provision of medical and mental health care for our patients. Consequently, we made major modifications to the EHR to allow for better surveillance of vulnerable populations and enable reporting and analysis of patterns of abuse, neglect, and other patient concerns related to human rights. These modifications have improved our ability to find and care for patients injured in jail and those with mental health exacerbations. More work is needed, however, to optimize the potential of the EHR as a tool to promote human rights among patients in jail.

  17. Health care, human worth and the limits of the particular.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherry, C

    1997-10-01

    An ethics concerned with health care developments and systems must be historically continuous, especially as it concerns the application to managed structures of key moral-epistemic concepts such as care, love and empathy. These concepts are traditionally most at home in the personal, individual domain. Human beings have non-instrumental worth just because they are human beings and not by virtue of their capacities. Managed health care systems tend to abstract from this worth in respect of both individuals' distinctness and individual identity. The first, a common feature of quantitative approaches to health care assessment and delivery, is avoidable. The second, by contrast, is necessarily sacrificed in impersonally managed structures. Failure to distinguish the two encourages confusion and distress, and the demand for impossible medico-moral relationships.

  18. DOE/FDA/EPA: Workshop on methylmercury and human health

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moskowitz, P.D.; Saroff, L.; Bolger, M.; Cicmanec, J.; Durkee, S. [eds.

    1994-12-31

    In the US the general population is exposed to methylmercury (MeHg) principally through the consumption of fish. There is continuing discussion about the sources of this form of mercury (Hg), the magnitudes and trends in exposures to consumers, and the significance of the sources and their contributions to human health. In response to these discussions, the US Department of Energy, the US Food and Drug Administration, and the US Environmental Protection Agency cosponsored a two-day workshop to discuss data and methods available for characterizing the risk to human health presented by MeHg. This workshop was attended by 45 individuals representing various Federal and state organizations and interested stakeholders. The agenda covered: Agency interests; probabilistic approach to risk assessment; emission sources; atmospheric transport; biogeochemical cycling; exposure assessment; health effects of MeHg; and research needs.

  19. Managing information technology human resources in health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahesh, Sathiadev; Crow, Stephen M

    2012-01-01

    The health care sector has seen a major increase in the use of information technology (IT). The increasing permeation of IT into the enterprise has resulted in many non-IT employees acquiring IT-related skills and becoming an essential part of the IT-enabled enterprise. Health care IT employees work in a continually changing environment dealing with new specializations that are often unfamiliar to other personnel. The widespread use of outsourcing and offshoring in IT has introduced a third layer of complexity in the traditional hierarchy and its approach to managing human resources. This article studies 3 major issues in managing these human resources in an IT-enabled health care enterprise and recommends solutions to the problem.

  20. Perilous Effects of Heavy Metals Contamination on Human Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naseem Zahra

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Heavy metals form a versatile group of high density elements that vary considerably in their biological roles and chemical properties. Although many heavy metals are essential trace elements yet they have long been recognized as environmental pollutants due their toxic effects. Increased industrialization, urbanization anthropogenic activities like mining, smelting and other agricultural activities have resulted in accumulation of heavy metals in the environment. Heavy metals such as nickel, cadmium, zinc, copper, mercury, arsenic and chromium are not easily degradable and tend to build up in soil. These heavy metals through various routes such as fish and plants make their way into the human body and are known to have serious detrimental effects on human health at elevated levels. The harmful effects of some important heavy metals on human health have been discussed.

  1. Biochemical and physiological effects of phenols on human health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danuta Wojcieszyńska

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction of phenol compounds into environment results from human activities.. Moreover plants produce polyphenols as by products of metabolism Their influence on human health is very important. It is observed, that polyphenols found in groceries are the most abundant dietary antioxidants, anti-inflammatory, anti allergic, antiarteriosclerotic and antitumour factors. Alkylphenols, chlorophenols, nitrophenols or biphenyls can be toxic for body systems and because of their similarity to ligands of steroid receptors they can influence the activity of endocrine system. Their appearance in organisms enhances the risk of developing type 2 diabetes mellitus, hypertension, dyslipidemia, cancer, problems with fertility. Moreover strong genotoxic activities of these compounds is observed. Because they influence human health in many different ways continuous monitoring of phenols content in environment seems to be very important.

  2. Health as a basic human need: would this be enough?

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Campos, Thana Cristina

    2012-01-01

    Although the value of health is universally agreed upon, its definition is not. Both the WHO and the UN define health in terms of well-being. They advocate a globally shared responsibility that all of us - states, international organizations, pharmaceutical corporations, civil society, and individuals - bear for the health (that is, the well-being) of the world's population. In this paper I argue that this current well-being conception of health is troublesome. Its problem resides precisely in the fact that the well-being conception of health, as an all-encompassing label, does not properly distinguish between the different realities of health and the different demands of justice, which arise in each case. In addressing responsibilities related to the right to health, we need to work with a more differentiated vocabulary, which can account for these different realities. A crucial distinction to bear in mind, for the purposes of moral deliberation and the crafting of political and legal institutions, is the difference between basic and non-basic health needs. This distinction is crucial because we have presumably more stringent obligations and rights in relation to human needs that are basic, as they justify stronger moral claims, than those grounded on non-basic human needs. It is important to keep this moral distinction in mind because many of the world's problems regarding the right to health relate to basic health needs. By conflating these needs with less essential ones, we risk confusing different types of moral claims and weakening the overall case for establishing duties regarding the right to health. There is, therefore, a practical need to reevaluate the current normative conception of health so that it distinguishes, within the broad scope of well-being, between what is basic and what is not. My aim here is to shed light onto this distinction and to show the need for this differentiation. I do so, first, by providing, on the basis of David Miller

  3. Iodine Status of Women of Reproductive Age in Sierra Leone and Its Association with Household Coverage with Adequately Iodized Salt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohner, Fabian; Wirth, James P; Woodruff, Bradley A; Chiwile, Faraja; Yankson, Hannah; Sesay, Fatmata; Koroma, Aminata S; Petry, Nicolai; Pyne-Bailey, Solade; Dominguez, Elisa; Kupka, Roland; Hodges, Mary H; de Onis, Mercedes

    2016-02-03

    Salt iodization programs are a public health success in tackling iodine deficiency. Yet, a large proportion of the world's population remains at risk for iodine deficiency. In a nationally representative cross-sectional survey in Sierra Leone, household salt samples and women's urine samples were quantitatively analyzed for iodine content. Salt was collected from 1123 households, and urine samples from 817 non-pregnant and 154 pregnant women. Household coverage with adequately iodized salt (≥15 mg/kg iodine) was 80.7%. The median urinary iodine concentration (UIC) of pregnant women was 175.8 µg/L and of non-pregnant women 190.8 µg/L. Women living in households with adequately iodized salt had higher median UIC (for pregnant women: 180.6 µg/L vs. 100.8 µg/L, respectively, p iodine status even with the persistence of other risk factors for deficiency.

  4. Sustainable Health for All? The Tension Between Human Security and the Right to Health Care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander K. Lautensach

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the current global environmental crisis medical aid and disaster relief is given by the UN and its branches, by governments and by NGOs, who regard it as their duty to address large-scale humanitarian catastrophes. The duty to give medical aid rests on traditional interpretations of health security and on the bioethical imperatives to relieve suffering and to save lives. However, those principles are not easily reconciled in the current situation of global environmental change and the threats it poses to human security. The global demand for health care has already outpaced resources in many regions, and those resources are likely to decline further. An ethic based on more comprehensive concepts of human security can lessen the contra­dictions between ethical priorities because it takes into account environmental security. How­ever, that approach leads to clashes with common interpretations of human rights, including the so-called right to health care. The argument presented in this paper states that, under the imperative of ensuring the survival for humanity in acceptable and sustainable ways, the latest generation of human rights pertaining to health care and environmental quality have become ungrantable. While this does not render them negligible, it does necessitate a new approach to global development aid and health security, with severe consequences for individual autonomy.

  5. Prospective Association of Intimate Partner Violence with Receipt of Clinical Preventive Services in Women of Reproductive Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCall-Hosenfeld, Jennifer S.; Chuang, Cynthia H.; Weisman, Carol S.

    2013-01-01

    Background Women who experience intimate partner violence (IPV) have a greater risk for adverse health outcomes, suggesting the importance of preventive services in this group. Little prior research has explored how IPV exposure impacts receipt of relevant preventive services. We assess the prospective association of IPV exposure with receiving specific preventive services. Methods Women in the Central Pennsylvania Women’s Health Study’s longitudinal cohort study (conducted 2004–2007; n = 1,420) identified past-year exposure to IPV at baseline and receipt of IPV-relevant preventive services (counseling for safety and violence concerns, tests for sexually transmitted infections [STIs], counseling for STIs, Pap testing, counseling for smoking/tobacco use, alcohol/drug use, and birth control) at 2-year follow-up. Multiple logistic regression analysis assessed the impact of IPV on service receipt, controlling for relevant covariates. Findings Women exposed to IPV had greater odds of receiving safety and violence counseling (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 2.40; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.25–4.61), and tests for STIs (AOR, 2.46; 95% CI, 1.41–4.28) compared with women who had not been exposed to IPV. Independent of other predictors, including IPV, women who saw an obstetrician-gynecologist were more likely to receive Pap tests, STI/HIV testing and counseling, and birth control counseling, compared with women who had not seen an obstetrician-gynecologist. Conclusion Overall rates of preventive service receipt for all women in the sample were low. Women exposed to IPV were more likely to receive safety and violence counseling and STI testing, and seeing an obstetrician-gynecologist increased the odds of receiving several preventive services. PMID:23481691

  6. Reduced quality and accelerated follicle loss with female reproductive aging - does decline in theca dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) underlie the problem?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Judith H

    2013-12-13

    Infertility, spontaneous abortion and conception of trisomic offspring increase exponentially with age in mammals but in women there is an apparent acceleration in the rate from about age 37. The problems mostly commonly occur when the ovarian pool of follicles is depleted to a critical level with age but are also found in low follicular reserve of other etiologies. Since recent clinical studies have indicated that dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) supplementation may reverse the problem of oocyte quality, this review of the literature was undertaken in an attempt to find an explanation of why this is effective? In affected ovaries, oxygenation of follicular fluid is low, ultrastructural disturbances especially of mitochondria, occur in granulosa cells and oocytes, and considerable disturbances of meiosis occur. There is, however, no evidence to date that primordial follicles are compromised. In females with normal fertility, pre-antral ovarian theca cells respond to stimulation by inhibin B to provide androgen-based support for the developing follicle. With depletion of follicle numbers, inhibin B is reduced with consequent reduction in theca DHEA. Theca cells are the sole ovarian site of synthesis of DHEA, which is both a precursor of androstenedione and an essential ligand for peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα), the key promoter of genes affecting fatty acid metabolism and fat transport and genes critical to mitochondrial function. As well as inducing a plethora of deleterious changes in follicular cytoplasmic structure and function, the omega 9 palmitate/oleate ratio is increased by lowered activity of PPARα. This provides conditions for increased ceramide synthesis and follicular loss through ceramide-induced apoptosis is accelerated. In humans critical theca DHEA synthesis occurs at about 70 days prior to ovulation thus effective supplementation needs to be undertaken about four months prior to intended conception; timing which is also

  7. Climate change and human health: present and future risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMichael, Anthony J; Woodruff, Rosalie E; Hales, Simon

    2006-03-11

    There is near unanimous scientific consensus that greenhouse gas emissions generated by human activity will change Earth's climate. The recent (globally averaged) warming by 0.5 degrees C is partly attributable to such anthropogenic emissions. Climate change will affect human health in many ways-mostly adversely. Here, we summarise the epidemiological evidence of how climate variations and trends affect various health outcomes. We assess the little evidence there is that recent global warming has already affected some health outcomes. We review the published estimates of future health effects of climate change over coming decades. Research so far has mostly focused on thermal stress, extreme weather events, and infectious diseases, with some attention to estimates of future regional food yields and hunger prevalence. An emerging broader approach addresses a wider spectrum of health risks due to the social, demographic, and economic disruptions of climate change. Evidence and anticipation of adverse health effects will strengthen the case for pre-emptive policies, and will also guide priorities for planned adaptive strategies.

  8. Gender, health, and human rights in sites of political exclusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurie, M; Petchesky, R P

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the intersections of gender, health and human rights in sites of political exclusion. We apply the political theory of Giorgio Agamben on 'states of exception', seeking to better understand how the recent 'war on terror', that seemingly knows no limits of time or space, is driving health outcomes in refugee and Internally Displaced Persons (IDP) camps. Reproductive health, militarization, and gender-based violence in camps are explored in depth. The evidence presented reveals a number of contradictions of refugee and IDP camps, further highlighting the need for a more rights based humanitarianism. We conclude that foregrounding states of exception, as a way of understanding current gender dynamics in the social determinants of health, is both epidemiologically necessary and conceptually useful. We find that, in these sites of exclusion, the indispensability of a human rights approach to gender and health equity issues is revealed most directly. Furthermore, we are able to make new connections between the 'crisis of humanitarianism', gender, and health.

  9. Dr. Louis Sullivan: Treating America's Most Critical Health and Human Services Ills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, William E,; Matthews, Frank L.

    1989-01-01

    Interview with Dr. Louis Sullivan, Secretary of Health and Human Services. Discusses his views on health education, budget, access to health care, minority health, abortion, infant mortality, drugs, the Head Start Program, federal planning effects, and family influences. (JS)

  10. Human trafficking: the role of the health care provider.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dovydaitis, Tiffany

    2010-01-01

    Human trafficking is a major public health problem, both domestically and internationally. Health care providers are often the only professionals to interact with trafficking victims who are still in captivity. The expert assessment and interview skills of providers contribute to their readiness to identify victims of trafficking. The purpose of this article is to provide clinicians with knowledge on trafficking and give specific tools that they may use to assist victims in the clinical setting. Definitions, statistics, and common health care problems of trafficking victims are reviewed. The role of the health care provider is outlined through a case study and clinical practice tools are provided. Suggestions for future research are also briefly addressed.

  11. Global diets link environmental sustainability and human health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilman, David; Clark, Michael

    2014-11-01

    Diets link environmental and human health. Rising incomes and urbanization are driving a global dietary transition in which traditional diets are replaced by diets higher in refined sugars, refined fats, oils and meats. By 2050 these dietary trends, if unchecked, would be a major contributor to an estimated 80 per cent increase in global agricultural greenhouse gas emissions from food production and to global land clearing. Moreover, these dietary shifts are greatly increasing the incidence of type II diabetes, coronary heart disease and other chronic non-communicable diseases that lower global life expectancies. Alternative diets that offer substantial health benefits could, if widely adopted, reduce global agricultural greenhouse gas emissions, reduce land clearing and resultant species extinctions, and help prevent such diet-related chronic non-communicable diseases. The implementation of dietary solutions to the tightly linked diet-environment-health trilemma is a global challenge, and opportunity, of great environmental and public health importance.

  12. Global diets link environmental sustainability and human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilman, David; Clark, Michael

    2014-11-27

    Diets link environmental and human health. Rising incomes and urbanization are driving a global dietary transition in which traditional diets are replaced by diets higher in refined sugars, refined fats, oils and meats. By 2050 these dietary trends, if unchecked, would be a major contributor to an estimated 80 per cent increase in global agricultural greenhouse gas emissions from food production and to global land clearing. Moreover, these dietary shifts are greatly increasing the incidence of type II diabetes, coronary heart disease and other chronic non-communicable diseases that lower global life expectancies. Alternative diets that offer substantial health benefits could, if widely adopted, reduce global agricultural greenhouse gas emissions, reduce land clearing and resultant species extinctions, and help prevent such diet-related chronic non-communicable diseases. The implementation of dietary solutions to the tightly linked diet-environment-health trilemma is a global challenge, and opportunity, of great environmental and public health importance.

  13. Human Trafficking: The Role of the Health Care Provider

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dovydaitis, Tiffany

    2011-01-01

    Human trafficking is a major public health problem, both domestically and internationally. Health care providers are often the only professionals to interact with trafficking victims who are still in captivity. The expert assessment and interview skills of providers contribute to their readiness to identify victims of trafficking. The purpose of this article is to provide clinicians with knowledge on trafficking and give specific tools that they may use to assist victims in the clinical setting. Definitions, statistics, and common health care problems of trafficking victims are reviewed. The role of the health care provider is outlined through a case study and clinical practice tools are provided. Suggestions for future research are also briefly addressed. PMID:20732668

  14. Valuable human capital: the aging health care worker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Sandra K; Collins, Kevin S

    2006-01-01

    With the workforce growing older and the supply of younger workers diminishing, it is critical for health care managers to understand the factors necessary to capitalize on their vintage employees. Retaining this segment of the workforce has a multitude of benefits including the preservation of valuable intellectual capital, which is necessary to ensure that health care organizations maintain their competitive advantage in the consumer-driven market. Retaining the aging employee is possible if health care managers learn the motivators and training differences associated with this category of the workforce. These employees should be considered a valuable resource of human capital because without their extensive expertise, intense loyalty and work ethic, and superior customer service skills, health care organizations could suffer severe economic repercussions in the near future.

  15. Community Based Study Of Self Reported Morbidity Of Reproductive Tract Among Women Of Reproductive Age In Rural Area Of Rajasthan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rathore Monika

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Research questions: What is the prevalence of morbidity of reproductive tract among women in a rural area of Rajasthan? Objectives: 1. To assess the load of reproductive morbidity among the rural women. 2. To study the association of potential risk factors with reproductive tract infection. Study design: Cross-sectional. Setting: A village of Bikaner (rural western Rajasthan. Participants: 1044 rural women aged 15-45. Study period: June 2000 to October 2000. Statistical analysis: Percentages and Chi square test. Results: The prevalence of self reported morbidity related to reproductive tracts was 31.8% and reproductive tract infections (RTIs was 22.3%. Only 12.5% of symptomatic women consulted health personnel for their illness before this survey. Prevalence of RTIs was significantly associated with age, married life, gravida status, invasive contraceptives, gynaecological surgical interventions and type of family. Conclusion: There was a moderately high prevalence of self reported morbidity of reproductive tract, whereas, treatment seeking behavior was low. Many factors were found to be associated with RTIs.

  16. Iodine Status of Women of Reproductive Age in Sierra Leone and Its Association with Household Coverage with Adequately Iodized Salt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabian Rohner

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Salt iodization programs are a public health success in tackling iodine deficiency. Yet, a large proportion of the world’s population remains at risk for iodine deficiency. In a nationally representative cross-sectional survey in Sierra Leone, household salt samples and women’s urine samples were quantitatively analyzed for iodine content. Salt was collected from 1123 households, and urine samples from 817 non-pregnant and 154 pregnant women. Household coverage with adequately iodized salt (≥15 mg/kg iodine was 80.7%. The median urinary iodine concentration (UIC of pregnant women was 175.8 µg/L and of non-pregnant women 190.8 µg/L. Women living in households with adequately iodized salt had higher median UIC (for pregnant women: 180.6 µg/L vs. 100.8 µg/L, respectively, p < 0.05; and for non-pregnant women: 211.3 µg/L vs. 97.8 µg/L, p < 0.001. Differences in UIC by residence, region, household wealth, and women’s education were much smaller in women living in households with adequately iodized salt than in households without. Despite the high household coverage of iodized salt in Sierra Leone, it is important to reach the 20% of households not consuming adequately iodized salt. Salt iodization has the potential for increasing equity in iodine status even with the persistence of other risk factors for deficiency.

  17. Do women of reproductive age presenting with pelvic floor dysfunction have undisclosed anal incontinence: A retrospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Julie; Grzeskowiak, Luke; Murphy, Elizabeth Mary Ann; Wilson, Anne; Clifton, Vicki L

    2017-02-01

    Indirect and direct trauma following vaginal birth can negatively impact on the pelvic floor function increasing the risk of anal incontinence. It is often difficult for women to openly disclose that they have anal incontinence and there are limited data collection tools available for the identification of these women in a clinical setting. This study aims to describe the prevalence of undisclosed anal incontinence in antenatal and postnatal women with pelvic floor dysfunction. Retrospective cohort study of 230 antenatal and postnatal women referred to a Continence Nursing Service in a large tertiary hospital in South Australia, Australia, with pelvic floor dysfunction. A criteria list was utilised to access the primary reason for referral, anal incontinence assessments and attendance to an appointment. Anal incontinence was identified in 26% of women (n=59). Anal incontinence was the primary reason for referral amongst 8 women, with the remaining 51 women identified as having anal incontinence following clinical screening via phone consultation. Eighty six percent of women stated they had not previously disclosed anal incontinence to health professionals. Overall, 71% of symptomatic women (n=28 antenatal and n=14 postnatal women) attended appointments to a service specialising in pelvic floor dysfunction. Women presenting with urinary incontinence or other markers of pelvic floor dysfunction should be actively screened for anal incontinence as the prevalence of this condition is high amongst childbearing women. Copyright © 2016 Australian College of Midwives. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Global health policies that support the use of banked donor human milk: a human rights issue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnold Lois DW

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This review examines the role of donor human milk banking in international human rights documents and global health policies. For countries looking to improve child health, promotion, protection and support of donor human milk banks has an important role to play for the most vulnerable of infants and children. This review is based on qualitative triangulation research conducted for a doctoral dissertation. The three methods used in triangulation were 1 writing as a method of inquiry, 2 an integrative research review, and 3 personal experience and knowledge of the topic. Discussion of the international human rights documents and global health policies shows that there is a wealth of documentation to support promotion, protection and support of donor milk banking as an integral part of child health and survival. By utilizing these policy documents, health ministries, professional associations, and donor milk banking associations can find rationales for establishing, increasing or continuing to provide milk banking services in any country, and thereby improve the health of children and future generations of adults.

  19. Neglecting human ecology: The common element of global health failures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanley, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    Attempts to control malaria, AIDS, and maternal mortality in Africa have been woefully inadequate. This has involved adopting an almost exclusively technical preventive approach in the context of AIDS even though emphasizing human behavior holds the most promise. But on the other hand, it has also involved abandoning highly effective technical measures, as in the case of malaria. This suggests that the failure, at root, is anthropological in nature. The common element, it is argued here, is the failure to place the human ecology resolutely above destructive ideologies. Sound public-health approaches have been spurned in favor of predetermined preventive approaches in the service of ideological aims rather than of man and the common good. This article examines the ideological forces that have ultimately driven global health policy, and proposes that a more humane anthropology would be beneficial. Lay Summary: The scourges of malaria, AIDS, and maternal mortality have persisted in Africa, even though sensible and available means of addressing these epidemics, when stressed, have met with success. The reluctance to consistently emphasize the soundest public-health approaches—whether technical or behavioral in nature—indicate that global health policy has to a large extent been improperly concerned with advancing ideological agendas. The challenge we face today is not primarily technical but philosophical; the healing professions would perform a service by cultivating a higher view of man and an appreciation for objective moral truths that protect him. PMID:27833184

  20. 77 FR 10758 - National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Proposed Collection; Comment Request...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-23

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Child Health and Human Development... Research, Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, Building 6100... comment on proposed data collection projects, the National Institute of Child Health and ]...

  1. 77 FR 19677 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-02

    ... Institute of Child Health and Human Development Special Emphasis Panel, ZHD1 DSG-H 53 1. Date: April 16-17... Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, NIH, 6100 Executive Blvd., Room... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health...

  2. Human Microbiome and its Association With Health and Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Althani, Asmaa A; Marei, Hany E; Hamdi, Wedad S; Nasrallah, Gheyath K; El Zowalaty, Mohamed E; Al Khodor, Souhaila; Al-Asmakh, Maha; Abdel-Aziz, Hassan; Cenciarelli, Carlo

    2016-08-01

    Human microbiota are distinct communities of microorganisms that resides at different body niches. Exploration of the human microbiome has become a reality due to the availability of powerful metagenomics and metatranscriptomic analysis technologies. Recent advances in sequencing and bioinformatics over the past decade help provide a deep insight into the nature of the host-microbial interactions and identification of potential deriver genes and pathways associated with human health, well-being, and predisposition to different diseases. In the present review, we outline recent studies devoted to elucidate the possible link between the microbiota and various type of diseases. The present review also highlights the potential utilization of microbiota as a potential therapeutic option to treat a wide array of human diseases. J. Cell. Physiol. 231: 1688-1694, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Synthetic Biology and Human Health: Potential Applications for Spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karouia, Fathi; Carr, Christopher; Cai, Yizhi; Chen, Y.; Grenon, Marlene; Larios-Sanz, Maia; Jones, Jeffrey A.; Santos, Orlando

    2011-01-01

    Human space travelers experience a unique environment that affects homeostasis and physiologic adaptation. Spaceflight-related changes have been reported in the musculo-skeletal, cardiovascular, neurovestibular, endocrine, and immune systems. The spacecraft environment further subjects the traveler to noise and gravitational forces, as well as airborne chemical, microbiological contaminants, and radiation exposure. As humans prepare for longer duration missions effective countermeasures must be developed, verified, and implemented to ensure mission success. Over the past ten years, synthetic biology has opened new avenues for research and development in areas such as biological control, biomaterials, sustainable energy production, bioremediation, and biomedical therapies. The latter in particular is of great interest to the implementation of long-duration