WorldWideScience

Sample records for human hair hair

  1. Photo yellowing of human hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueira, A C S; Richena, M; Dicelio, L E; Joekes, I

    2007-09-25

    In general, human hair is claimed to turn yellower after sun exposure. This is particularly affirmed for white hair. However, quantitative data relating yellowness to hair type and to the radiation wavelength are missing. This work shows results of the effect of full or UVB-filtered radiation of a mercury vapor or a xenon-arc lamp on the yellowness of virgin white, dark-brown, blond and red hair. All hair types showed a substantial change in yellowness after irradiation, which is dependent on the hair type and radiation wavelength. Surprisingly, white hair turns less yellow after both full and UVB-filtered radiation exposure. This effect is more pronounced when UVB is filtered from the radiation system. The only radiation that shows a photo-yellowing effect on white hair is infrared. As the yellowness of white hair is commonly related to tryptophan degradation, fluorescence experiments with hair solutions were performed to identify the natural degradation of tryptophan which occurs in hair after light irradiation. Pigmented hairs were also studied, as well as hair treated with a bleaching solution. Although we observe a decrease in tryptophan content of hair after lamp radiation, a direct correlation with hair yellowness was not achieved. Results are discussed in terms of hair type, composition and melanin content.

  2. Integral hair lipid in human hair follicle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Won-Soo

    2011-12-01

    Integral hair lipid (IHL) is bound to the keratinized cell surface to make an environmentally resistant lipid envelope. It is mainly positioned on the hair cuticle and inner root sheath. IHL in the hair follicle may regard as hair barrier to be similar to the epidermal lipid layer functioning as skin barrier. Major constituents of IHL are fatty acid, phytosphingosine, ceramide in decreasing order. Minor constituents of IHL are cholesterol, cholesterol sulfate and cholesterol oleate. Cuticle or cortical cell surface in hair are abundant in fatty acids unlike the keratinized area of epidermis or sebaceous gland, and about 30-40% of such fatty acids are composed of 18-methyl-eicosanoic acid which is known to be bound to proteins by ester or thioester bond. Various factors including moisture, solvent, oxidative damage during bleaching or permanent waving affect IHL. Photochemical changes also can occur in IHL as well as in hair protein and hair pigment. Lipid metabolism is thought to play an essential role in lipid envelope of hair, but also involvement in hair development and function. Copyright © 2011 Japanese Society for Investigative Dermatology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Bleaching of Black Human Hair

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林琳

    2001-01-01

    Bleaching of black human hair has been studied systematically. On the basis of experimental data the technology of human hair bleaching through five processes was established. The optimum technology of improving the whiteness and reducing damage on fibers has been found. The technology can provide good luster,smooth handle and relatively high strength retention to human hair used for wigs or drama articles, meeting the needs of people better. Moreover, it also has important reference value to bleaching of other colored fibers.

  4. Harvesting electricity from human hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tulachan, Brindan; Singh, Sushil K; Philip, Deepu; Das, Mainak

    2016-01-01

    Electrical conductivity of human hair is a debatable issue among hair experts and scientists. There are unsubstantiated claims that hair conducts electricity. However, hair experts provided ample evidence that hair is an insulator. Although wet hair exhibited drastic reduction in resistivity; scientists regarded hair as a proton semiconductor at the best. Here, we demonstrate that hair filaments generate electricity on absorbing water vapor between 50 degrees and 80 degrees C. This electricity can operate low power electronic systems. Essentially, we are exposing the hydrated hair polymer to a high temperature (50 degrees-80 degrees C). It has long been speculated that when certain biopolymers are simultaneously hydrated and exposed to high temperature, they exhibit significant proton hopping at a specific temperature regime. This happens due to rapid movement of water molecules on the polymer surface. This lead us to speculate that the observed flow of current is partly ionic and partly due to "proton hopping" in the hydrated nano spaces of hair filament. Such proton hopping is exceptionally high when the hydrated hair polymer is exposed to a temperature between 50 degrees and 80 degrees C. Differential scanning calorimetry data further corroborated the results and indicated that indeed at this temperature range, there is an enormous movement of water molecules on the hair polymer surface. This enormously rapid movement of water molecules lead to the "making and breaking" of innumerable hydrogen bonds and thus resulting in hopping of the protons. What is challenging is "how to tap these hopping protons to obtain useful electricity?" We achieved this by placing a bundle of hair between two different electrodes having different electro negativities, and exposing it to water vapor (water + heat). The two different electrodes offered directionality to the hopping protons and the existing ions and thus resulting in the generation of useful current. Further, by

  5. Photodamage determination of human hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, Estibalitz; Barba, Clara; Alonso, Cristina; Martí, Meritxell; Parra, José Luis; Coderch, Luisa

    2012-01-05

    Sunlight on human hair causes photo-degradation. This results in bleaching due to melanin oxidation through free radicals, and induces keratin impairment. Protein degradation, tryptophan degradation, lipidic peroxidation and electron paramagnetic resonance can be used to evaluate proteic and lipidic photodecomposition and free radical formation in hair fibres subjected to antioxidant action and different UV intensities. All these methodologies have been optimised to determine protein, lipid and melanin degradation in hair subjected to different UV intensities. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Human hair growth ex vivo is correlated with in vivo hair growth: selective categorization of hair follicles for more reliable hair follicle organ culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Oh Sang; Oh, Jun Kyu; Kim, Mi Hyang; Park, So Hyun; Pyo, Hyun Keol; Kim, Kyu Han; Cho, Kwang Hyun; Eun, Hee Chul

    2006-02-01

    Of the numerous assays used to assess hair growth, hair follicle organ culture model is one of the most popular and powerful in vitro systems. Changes in hair growth are commonly employed as a measurement of follicular activity. Hair cycle stage of mouse vibrissa follicles in vivo is known to determine subsequent hair growth and follicle behavior in vitro and it is recommended that follicles be taken at precisely the same cyclic stage. This study was performed to evaluate whether categorization of human hair follicles by the growth in vivo could be used to select follicles of the defined anagen stage for more consistent culture. Occipital scalp samples were obtained from three subjects, 2 weeks later after hair bleaching. Hair growth and follicle length of isolated anagen VI follicles were measured under a videomicroscope. Follicles were categorized into four groups according to hair growth and some were cultured ex vivo for 6 days. Follicles showed considerable variations with respect to hair growth and follicle length; however, these two variables were relatively well correlated. Hair growth in culture was closely related with hair growth rate in vivo. Moreover, minoxidil uniquely demonstrated a significant increase of hair growth in categorized hair follicles assumed at a similar early anagen VI stage of hair cycle. Selection of follicles at a defined stage based on hair-growth rate would permit a more reliable outcome in human hair follicle organ culture.

  7. Putting the Human Hair Follicle Cycle on the Map.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panteleyev, Andrey A

    2016-01-01

    A detailed characterization of the normal (in situ) human hair follicle cycle, supplemented with expressional data on specific hair follicle markers, has been awaited by basic hair researchers and dermatologists. Combining this hair cycle guide, together with a thorough analysis of the human-on-mouse hair xenograft model, provides solid ground for examining human hair cycle biology and pathology and for hair cycle-related pharmacological testing.

  8. Ion beam microanalysis of human hair follicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kertesz, Zs. [Institute of Nuclear Research of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, H-4001 Debrecen, P.O. Box 51 (Hungary)]. E-mail: zsofi@atomki.hu; Szikszai, Z. [Institute of Nuclear Research of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, H-4001 Debrecen, P.O. Box 51 (Hungary); Pelicon, P. [Jozef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, P.O. Box 3000, Ljubljana (Slovenia); Simcic, J. [Jozef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, P.O. Box 3000, Ljubljana (Slovenia); Telek, A. [Department of Physiology and Cell Physiology Research Group of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, University of Debrecen, Medical and Health Science Center, Research Center for Molecular Medicine, H-4012, Debrecen, Nagyerdei krt. 98 (Hungary); Biro, T. [Department of Physiology and Cell Physiology Research Group of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, University of Debrecen, Medical and Health Science Center, Research Center for Molecular Medicine, H-4012, Debrecen, Nagyerdei krt. 98 (Hungary)

    2007-07-15

    Hair follicle is an appendage organ of the skin which is of importance to the survival of mammals and still maintains significance for the human race - not just biologically, but also through cosmetic and commercial considerations. However data on composition of hair follicles are scarce and mostly limited to the hair shaft. In this study we provide detailed information on the elemental distribution in human hair follicles in different growth phases (anagen and catagen) using a scanning proton microprobe. The analysis of skin samples obtained from human adults undergoing plastic surgery and of organ-cultured human hair follicles may yield a new insight into the function, development and cyclic activity of the hair follicle.

  9. Ion beam microanalysis of human hair follicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kertész, Zs.; Szikszai, Z.; Pelicon, P.; Simčič, J.; Telek, A.; Bíró, T.

    2007-07-01

    Hair follicle is an appendage organ of the skin which is of importance to the survival of mammals and still maintains significance for the human race - not just biologically, but also through cosmetic and commercial considerations. However data on composition of hair follicles are scarce and mostly limited to the hair shaft. In this study we provide detailed information on the elemental distribution in human hair follicles in different growth phases (anagen and catagen) using a scanning proton microprobe. The analysis of skin samples obtained from human adults undergoing plastic surgery and of organ-cultured human hair follicles may yield a new insight into the function, development and cyclic activity of the hair follicle.

  10. 6-Gingerol inhibits hair shaft growth in cultured human hair follicles and modulates hair growth in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Miao

    Full Text Available Ginger (Zingiber officinale has been traditionally used to check hair loss and stimulate hair growth in East Asia. Several companies produce shampoo containing an extract of ginger claimed to have anti-hair loss and hair growth promotion properties. However, there is no scientific evidence to back up these claims. This study was undertaken to measure 6-gingerol, the main active component of ginger, on hair shaft elongation in vitro and hair growth in vivo, and to investigate its effect on human dermal papilla cells (DPCs in vivo and in vitro. 6-Gingerol suppressed hair growth in hair follicles in culture and the proliferation of cultured DPCs. The growth inhibition of DPCs by 6-gingerol in vitro may reflect a decrease in the Bcl-2/Bax ratio. Similar results were obtained in vivo. The results of this study showed that 6-gingerol does not have the ability to promote hair growth, on the contrary, can suppress human hair growth via its inhibitory and pro-apoptotic effects on DPCs in vitro, and can cause prolongation of telogen phase in vivo. Thus, 6-gingerol rather than being a hair growth stimulating drug, it is a potential hair growth suppressive drug; i.e. for hair removal.

  11. Biophysics of Human Hair Structural, Nanomechanical, and Nanotribological Studies

    CERN Document Server

    Bhushan, Bharat

    2010-01-01

    This book presents the biophysics of hair. It deals with the structure of hair, its mechanical properties, the nanomechanical characterization, tensile deformation, tribological characterization, the thickness distribution and binding interactions on hair surface. Another important topic of the book is the health of hair, human hair and skin, hair care, cleaning and conditioning treatments and damaging processes. It is the first book on the biophysical properties of hair.

  12. Human hair genealogies and stem cell latency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tavaré Simon

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Stem cells divide to reproduce themselves and produce differentiated progeny. A fundamental problem in human biology has been the inability to measure how often stem cells divide. Although it is impossible to observe every division directly, one method for counting divisions is to count replication errors; the greater the number of divisions, the greater the numbers of errors. Stem cells with more divisions should produce progeny with more replication errors. Methods To test this approach, epigenetic errors (methylation in CpG-rich molecular clocks were measured from human hairs. Hairs exhibit growth and replacement cycles and "new" hairs physically reappear even on "old" heads. Errors may accumulate in long-lived stem cells, or in their differentiated progeny that are eventually shed. Results Average hair errors increased until two years of age, and then were constant despite decades of replacement, consistent with new hairs arising from infrequently dividing bulge stem cells. Errors were significantly more frequent in longer hairs, consistent with long-lived but eventually shed mitotic follicle cells. Conclusion Constant average hair methylation regardless of age contrasts with the age-related methylation observed in human intestine, suggesting that error accumulation and therefore stem cell latency differs among tissues. Epigenetic molecular clocks imply similar mitotic ages for hairs on young and old human heads, consistent with a restart with each new hair, and with genealogies surreptitiously written within somatic cell genomes.

  13. Chronological ageing of human hair keratin fibres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thibaut, S; de Becker, E; Bernard, B A; Huart, M; Fiat, F; Baghdadli, N; Luengo, G S; Leroy, F; Angevin, P; Kermoal, A M; Muller, S; Peron, M; Provot, G; Kravtchenko, S; Saint-Léger, D; Desbois, G; Gauchet, L; Nowbuth, K; Galliano, A; Kempf, J Y; Silberzan, I

    2010-12-01

    Examination of very long hair (length > 2.4 m) using a large range of evaluation methods including physical, chemical, biochemical and microscopic techniques has enabled to attain a detailed understanding of natural ageing of human hair keratin fibres. Scrutinizing hair that has undergone little or no oxidative aggression--because of the absence of action of chemical agents such as bleaching or dyeing--from the root to the tip shows the deterioration process, which gradually takes place from the outside to the inside of the hair shaft: first, a progressive abrasion of the cuticle, whilst the cortex structure remains unaltered, is evidenced along a length of roughly 1 m onwards together with constant shine, hydrophobicity and friction characteristics. Further along the fibre, a significant damage to cuticle scales occurs, which correlates well with ceramides and 18-Methyl Eicosanoic Acid (18-MEA) decline, and progressive decrease in keratin-associated protein content. Most physical descriptors of mechanical and optical properties decay significantly. This detailed description of natural ageing of human hair fibres by a fine analysis of hair components and physical parameters in relationship with cosmetic characteristics provides a time-dependent 'damage scale' of human hair, which may help in designing new targeted hair care formulations.

  14. The human hair: from anatomy to physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buffoli, Barbara; Rinaldi, Fabio; Labanca, Mauro; Sorbellini, Elisabetta; Trink, Anna; Guanziroli, Elena; Rezzani, Rita; Rodella, Luigi F

    2014-03-01

    Hair is a unique character of mammals and has several functions, from protection of the skin to sexual and social communication. In literature, there are various studies about hair that take into consideration different aspects within many fields of science, including biology, dermatology, cosmetics, forensic sciences, and medicine. We carried out a search of studies published in PubMed up to 2013. In this review, we summarized the principal anatomical and physiological aspects of the different types of human hair, and we considered the clinical significance of the different structures and the distribution of the hair in the human body. This review could be the basis for improvement and progression in the field of hair research. © 2013 The International Society of Dermatology.

  15. The use of human hair as biodosimeter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tepe Çam, S; Polat, M; Seyhan, N

    2014-12-01

    The potential use of human hair samples as biologic dosimeter was investigated by electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy. The hair samples were obtained from female volunteers and classified according to the color, age and whether they are natural or dyed. Natural black, brown, red, blonde and dyed black hair samples were irradiated at low doses (5-50Gy) and high doses (75-750Gy) by gamma source giving the dose rate of 0.25Gy/s in The Sarayköy Establishment of Turkish Atomic Energy Authority. While the peak heights and g-values (2.0021-2.0023) determined from recorded spectra of hair were color dependent, the peak-to-peak line widths were varied according to natural or dyed hair (ΔHpp: 0.522-0.744mT). In all samples, the linear dose-response curves at low doses saturated after ~300Gy. In black hair samples taken from different individuals, differences in the structure of the spectrum and signal intensities were not observed. The EPR signal intensities of samples stored at room temperature for 22 days fell to their half-values in 44h in black hair, 41h in blonde and brown hairs, 35h in dyed black hair and in 17h in red hair. The activation energies of samples annealed at high temperatures for different periods of time were correlated well with those obtained in the literature. In conclusion, hair samples can be used as a biological dosimeter considering the limitations showed in this study. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Red Ginseng Extract Promotes the Hair Growth in Cultured Human Hair Follicles

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Gyeong-Hun; Park, Ki-young; Cho, Hong-il; Lee, Sang-Min; Han, Ji Su; Won, Chong Hyun; Chang, Sung Eun; Lee, Mi Woo; Choi, Jee Ho; Moon, Kee Chan; Shin, Hyoseung; KANG, YONG JUNG; Lee, Dong Hun

    2015-01-01

    Ginseng has been shown to promote hair growth in several recent studies. However, its effects on human hair follicles and its mechanisms of action have not been sufficiently elucidated. This study aimed to investigate the hair growth-promoting effects of red ginseng extract (RGE) and its ginsenosides. The proliferative activities of cultured human hair follicles treated with RGE and ginsenoside-Rb1 were assessed using Ki-67 immunostaining. Their effects on isolated human dermal papilla cells ...

  17. To grow or not to grow: hair morphogenesis and human genetic hair disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duverger, Olivier; Morasso, Maria I

    2014-01-01

    Mouse models have greatly helped in elucidating the molecular mechanisms involved in hair formation and regeneration. Recent publications have reviewed the genes involved in mouse hair development based on the phenotype of transgenic, knockout and mutant animal models. While much of this information has been instrumental in determining molecular aspects of human hair development and cycling, mice exhibit a specific pattern of hair morphogenesis and hair distribution throughout the body that cannot be directly correlated to human hair. In this mini-review, we discuss specific aspects of human hair follicle development and present an up-to-date summary of human genetic disorders associated with abnormalities in hair follicle morphogenesis, structure or regeneration. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Multiphoton fluorescence lifetime imaging of human hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehlers, Alexander; Riemann, Iris; Stark, Martin; König, Karsten

    2007-02-01

    In vivo and in vitro multiphoton imaging was used to perform high resolution optical sectioning of human hair by nonlinear excitation of endogenous as well as exogenous fluorophores. Multiphoton fluorescence lifetime imaging (FLIM) based on time-resolved single photon counting and near-infrared femtosecond laser pulse excitation was employed to analyze the various fluorescent hair components. Time-resolved multiphoton imaging of intratissue pigments has the potential (i) to identify endogenous keratin and melanin, (ii) to obtain information on intrahair dye accumulation, (iii) to study bleaching effects, and (iv) to monitor the intratissue diffusion of pharmaceutical and cosmetical components along hair shafts.

  19. Hair Removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Surgery? Choosing the Right Sport for You Shyness Hair Removal KidsHealth > For Teens > Hair Removal Print A ... you need any of them? Different Types of Hair Before removing hair, it helps to know about ...

  20. Oily hair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hair - oily ... are some tips for preventing and treating oily hair: Shampoo your hair every day. Leaving the shampoo on your head ... minutes before rinsing may help. Avoid brushing your hair too often or too vigorously, since the brushing ...

  1. Dyeing regions of oxidative hair dyes in human hair investigated by nanoscale secondary ion mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kojima, Toru; Yamada, Hiromi; Yamamoto, Toshihiko; Matsushita, Yasuyuki; Fukushima, Kazuhiko

    2013-06-01

    To develop more effective oxidative hair coloring products, it is important to understand the localization of colored chromophores, which are formed from oxidative dyes, in the fine structure of hair. However, the dyeing regions of oxidative hair dyes in the fine structure of hair have not been extensively examined. In this study, we investigated the distribution and localization of colored chromophores formed by an oxidative hair coloring product in the fine structure of human hair by using a stable isotope-labeled oxidative dye with nanoscale secondary ion mass spectrometry (NanoSIMS). First, formation of the colored chromophore from a deuterium-labeled oxidative dye was examined by visible spectra similarly to a study of its formation using nonlabeled oxidative dye. Furthermore, the formation of binuclear indo dye containing deuterium in its chemical structure was confirmed using time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS) analysis. As a result of the NanoSIMS image on a cross-sectional dyed hair, although deuterium ions were detected in whole hair cross-section, quite a few of them were detected at particulate regions. These particulate regions of the dyed black hair in which deuterium ions were intensely detected were identified as melanin granules, by comparing the dyeing behaviors of black and white hair. NanoSIMS analysis revealed that melanin granules of black human hair are important dyeing regions in oxidative hair coloring. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Accidental neutron dosimetry with human hair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekendahl, Daniela; Bečková, Věra; Zdychová, Vlasta; Bulánek, Boris; Prouza, Zdeněk; Štefánik, Milan

    2014-11-01

    Human hair contains sulfur, which can be activated by fast neutrons. The 32S(n,p)32P reaction with a threshold of 2.5 MeV was used for fast neutron dose estimation. It is a very important parameter for individual dose reconstruction with regards to the heterogeneity of the neutron transfer to the human body. Samples of human hair were irradiated in a radial channel of a training reactor VR-1. 32P activity in hair was measured both, directly by means of a proportional counter, and as ash dispersed in a liquid scintillator. Based on neutron spectrum estimation, a relationship between the neutron dose and induced activity was derived. The experiment verified the practical feasibility of this dosimetry method in cases of criticality accidents or malevolent acts with nuclear materials.

  3. Ingrown Hair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diseases and Conditions Ingrown hair By Mayo Clinic Staff An ingrown hair occurs when a shaved or tweezed hair grows back into the skin. It can cause ... and tiny bumps in the area where the hair was removed. Ingrown hair is a common condition ...

  4. Dry hair

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... normally style your hair? Do you use a hair dryer? What type? How often? What other symptoms are also present? Diagnostic tests that may be performed include: Examination of the hair under a microscope Blood tests

  5. Hair Removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Loss Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Hair Removal KidsHealth > For Teens > Hair Removal A A A ... recommend an electrologist with the proper credentials. Laser Hair Removal How It Works: A laser is directed through ...

  6. Nanotribological effects of hair care products and environment on human hair using atomic force microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latorre, Carmen; Bhushan, Bharat

    2005-07-01

    Tribological properties are useful in the study of human hair and other biological materials. Major sources of investigation for conditioner treated hair includes localization of conditioner, mechanisms related to changes in surface roughness, friction, and adhesion on the nanoscale due to conditioner agents, and how the products change the microstructure of the cuticle. The paper presents nanotribological studies investigating surface roughness, friction, and adhesion using atomic force/friction force microscopy (AFM/FFM). Test samples include virgin and chemically damaged hair, both with and without commercial conditioner treatment, as well as chemically damaged hair with experimental conditioner treatments. Friction force mapping provides insight into the localized change in friction caused by the application of hair care materials. Adhesive force maps to study adhesion on the cuticle surface provide information about localization and distribution of conditioner as well. A discussion is presented on these properties of hair as a function of relative humidity, temperature, durability, and conditioning treatments.

  7. Hair Dye and Hair Relaxers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... For Consumers Consumer Information by Audience For Women Hair Dye and Hair Relaxers Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing ... products. If you have a bad reaction to hair dyes and relaxers, you should: Stop using the ...

  8. Hair cosmetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draelos, Z K

    1991-01-01

    Alterations in the cuticle, cortex, and medulla are necessary to modify the hair cosmetically. The hair can be modified externally by the use of shampoos to remove excess sebum, conditioners to restore shine, and styling aids to increase manageability. Several different formulations of all these products exist, depending on the needs of the patient. Furthermore, the hair can be modified both externally and internally through the use of hair dyes, permanent waving lotions, and hair straighteners. Use of these products causes external damage to the hair shaft by disrupting the overlapping cuticular scales, rendering the hair susceptible to static electricity and the effects of humidity while decreasing manageability and shine. Internal damage created by these products decreases the hair shaft's elastic properties, allowing increased hair breakage. The dermatologist can better aid the patient with hair difficulties if he or she has an understanding of the formulation and effects of products designed to cleanse, beautify, and modify the hair.

  9. Red ginseng extract promotes the hair growth in cultured human hair follicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Gyeong-Hun; Park, Ki-young; Cho, Hong-il; Lee, Sang-Min; Han, Ji Su; Won, Chong Hyun; Chang, Sung Eun; Lee, Mi Woo; Choi, Jee Ho; Moon, Kee Chan; Shin, Hyoseung; Kang, Yong Jung; Lee, Dong Hun

    2015-03-01

    Ginseng has been shown to promote hair growth in several recent studies. However, its effects on human hair follicles and its mechanisms of action have not been sufficiently elucidated. This study aimed to investigate the hair growth-promoting effects of red ginseng extract (RGE) and its ginsenosides. The proliferative activities of cultured human hair follicles treated with RGE and ginsenoside-Rb1 were assessed using Ki-67 immunostaining. Their effects on isolated human dermal papilla cells (hDPCs) were evaluated using cytotoxicity assays, immunoblot analysis of signaling proteins, and the determination of associated growth factors. We examined the ability of RGE and ginsenosides to protect hair matrix keratinocyte proliferation against dihydrotestosterone (DHT)-induced suppression and their effects on the expression of androgen receptor. The in vivo hair growth-promoting effect of RGE was also investigated in C57BL/6 mice. Both RGE and ginsenoside-Rb1 enhanced the proliferation of hair matrix keratinocytes. hDPCs treated with RGE or ginsenoside-Rb1 exhibited substantial cell proliferation and the associated phosphorylation of ERK and AKT. Moreover, RGE, ginsenoside-Rb1, and ginsenoside-Rg3 abrogated the DHT-induced suppression of hair matrix keratinocyte proliferation and the DHT-induced upregulation of the mRNA expression of androgen receptor in hDPCs. Murine experiments revealed that the subcutaneous injection of 3% RGE resulted in more rapid hair growth than the negative control. In conclusion, RGE and its ginsenosides may enhance hDPC proliferation, activate ERK and AKT signaling pathways in hDPCs, upregulate hair matrix keratinocyte proliferation, and inhibit the DHT-induced androgen receptor transcription. These results suggest that red ginseng may promote hair growth in humans.

  10. The influence of hair bleach on the ultrastructure of human hair with special reference to hair damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imai, Takehito

    2011-05-01

    The influence of human hair bleaching agents with different bleaching strength on the ultrastructure of human hair was studied using a transmission electron microscope (TEM) and an energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer equipped with TEM (EDS-TEM). Two kinds of bleaching agents were used: a lightener agent with a weak bleaching effect and a powder-bleach with a stronger bleaching effect. From the comparison of the bleaching properties obtained by the electronic staining of black and white hair samples, it was suggested that the permeability of hair was increased by bleaching, and there was an increase of the stainability of hair subjected to electronic staining. The bleaching action provoked the decomposition of melanin granules and the flow out of granular contents into the intermacrofibrillar matrix. Some metal elements were detected in the melanin granular matrix by EDS-TEM. As a result, the diffusion of metal elements into the intermacrofibrillar matrix promoted further damage to the hair by catalytic action with the hydrogen peroxide in the bleaching agents outside the melanin granules. Further study will lead us to the edge of the development of a new bleaching agent, which reacts only with melanin granules and causes the minimum of damage to outside the melanin granules.

  11. Hair Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to support hair growth. Some teens who are vegetarians also lose their hair if they don't get enough protein from non-meat sources. And some athletes are at higher risk for hair loss because they may be more likely to develop iron-deficiency anemia. Disruption of the hair growth cycle. Some ...

  12. Chemical processing and shampooing impact cortisol measured in human hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, M Camille; Karban, Laura V; Benitez, Patrick; Goodteacher, Angela; Laudenslager, Mark L

    2014-08-01

    The assessment of cortisol in hair has gained popularity as a means to measure retrospective hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal activity in a number of species; however, cortisol levels from human hair subjected to typical chemicals for cosmetic or hygienic purposes may be altered by the chemicals used. The purposed of this study was to determine if exposure of hair to chemical processing or shampooing impacts cortisol values. Human hair not exposed to prior chemical processing was cut from the posterior vertex region of the head of 106 human subjects as close to the scalp as possible. The hair sample was divided into 4-6 full-length clusters depending on quantity of hair available. Each hair sample was processed for baseline (native) cortisol and remaining clusters were exposed to five standard chemical hair treatments (Experiment 1) or were shampooed 15 or 30 times (Experiment 2). Hair was ground and cortisol levels were determined by enzyme immunoassay (EIA). Comparisons were made between native hair and processed hair using paired t-tests and Pearson correlation. Hair cortisol as assessed by EIA was significantly altered by chemical processing but in somewhat different ways. Exposure to bleach (harshest exposure), demi-perm (least exposure) or 15-30 shampoos resulted in a significant decrease in cortisol level while exposure to varying percentages of peroxides increased cortisol measured. There were no differences in cortisol levels associated with sex, age or tobacco use in the native hair for this particular group. Chemical processing and frequent shampooing affect cortisol levels measured in hair. Chemically processed or excessively shampooed hair should be avoided when recruiting subjects for hair cortisol studies.

  13. Shape variability and classification of human hair: a worldwide approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De la Mettrie, Roland; Saint-Léger, Didier; Loussouarn, Geneviève; Garcel, Annelise; Porter, Crystal; Langaney, André

    2007-06-01

    Human hair has been commonly classified according to three conventional ethnic human subgroups, that is, African, Asian, and European. Such broad classification hardly accounts for the high complexity of human biological diversity, resulting from both multiple and past or recent mixed origins. The research reported here is intended to develop a more factual and scientific approach based on physical features of human hair. The aim of the study is dual: (1) to define hair types according to specific shape criteria through objective and simple measurements taken on hairs from 1442 subjects from 18 different countries and (2) to define such hair types without referring to human ethnicity. The driving principle is simple: Because hair can be found in many different human subgroups, defining a straight or a curly hair should provide a more objective approach than a debatable ethnicity-based classification. The proposed method is simple to use and requires the measurement of only three easily accessible descriptors of hair shape: curve diameter (CD), curl index (i), and number of waves (w). This method leads to a worldwide coherent classification of hair in eight well-defined categories. The new hair categories, as described, should be more appropriate and more reliable than conventional standards in cosmetic and forensic sciences. Furthermore, the classification can be useful for testing whether hair shape diversity follows the continuous geographic and historical pattern suggested for human genetic variation or presents major discontinuities between some large human subdivisions, as claimed by earlier classical anthropology.

  14. Hair Treatments and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... treatments include hair coloring, hair curling (permanents), hair bleaching, and hair straightening (relaxers) agents. For this fact sheet, hair ... permanent wave chemicals include ammonium thioglycolate and ammonia. Hair bleaching chemicals include hydrogen peroxide. Hair straighteners (relaxers) use ...

  15. Biosorption of uranium by human black hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saini, Amardeep Singh; Melo, Jose Savio

    2015-04-01

    Naturally available low cost materials have gained importance as effective alternative to conventional sorbents for the removal of metal ions from water. The present study describes the use of black hair waste as a sorbent for the removal of uranium ions from an aqueous medium. Alkali treatment of the biomass resulted in a significant increase in its uptake capacity. The optimum pH and contact time for uranium removal were 4.5 and 2 h respectively. It was observed that the experimental data fits well in Ho's pseudo-second order kinetic model. Binding of uranium to the biomass was confirmed using FT-IR spectroscopy. Thus, the present study could demonstrate the utility of human black hair to remove uranium from aqueous medium.

  16. Photoinduced formation of thiols in human hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedorkova, M V; Brandt, N N; Chikishev, A Yu; Smolina, N V; Balabushevich, N G; Gusev, S A; Lipatova, V A; Botchey, V M; Dobretsov, G E; Mikhalchik, E V

    2016-11-01

    Raman, scanning electron, and optical microscopy of hair and spectrophotometry of soluble hair proteins are used to study the effect of UV-vis radiation on white hair. The samples of a healthy subject are irradiated using a mercury lamp and compared with non-irradiated (control) hair. The cuticle damage with partial exfoliation is revealed with the aid of SEM and optical microscopy of semifine sections. Gel filtration chromatography shows that the molecular weight of soluble proteins ranges from 5 to 7kDa. Absorption spectroscopy proves an increase in amount of thiols in a heavier fraction of the soluble proteins of irradiated samples under study. Raman data indicate a decrease in the amount of SS and CS bonds in cystines and an increase in the amount of SH bonds due to irradiation. Such changes are more pronounced in peripheral regions of hair. Conformational changes of hair keratins presumably related to the cleavage of disulfide bonds, follow from variations in amide I and low-frequency Raman bands. An increase in the content of thiols in proteins revealed by both photometric data on soluble proteins and Raman microspectroscopy of hair cuts can be used to develop a protocol of the analysis of photoinduced hair modification. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Age, Health and Attractiveness Perception of Virtual (Rendered) Human Hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fink, Bernhard; Hufschmidt, Carla; Hirn, Thomas; Will, Susanne; McKelvey, Graham; Lankhof, John

    2016-01-01

    The social significance of physical appearance and beauty has been documented in many studies. It is known that even subtle manipulations of facial morphology and skin condition can alter people's perception of a person's age, health and attractiveness. While the variation in facial morphology and skin condition cues has been studied quite extensively, comparably little is known on the effect of hair on social perception. This has been partly caused by the technical difficulty of creating appropriate stimuli for investigations of people's response to systematic variation of certain hair characteristics, such as color and style, while keeping other features constant. Here, we present a modeling approach to the investigation of human hair perception using computer-generated, virtual (rendered) human hair. In three experiments, we manipulated hair diameter (Experiment 1), hair density (Experiment 2), and hair style (Experiment 3) of human (female) head hair and studied perceptions of age, health and attractiveness. Our results show that even subtle changes in these features have an impact on hair perception. We discuss our findings with reference to previous studies on condition-dependent quality cues in women that influence human social perception, thereby suggesting that hair is a salient feature of human physical appearance, which contributes to the perception of beauty.

  18. Age, Health and Attractiveness Perception of Virtual (Rendered) Human Hair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fink, Bernhard; Hufschmidt, Carla; Hirn, Thomas; Will, Susanne; McKelvey, Graham; Lankhof, John

    2016-01-01

    The social significance of physical appearance and beauty has been documented in many studies. It is known that even subtle manipulations of facial morphology and skin condition can alter people’s perception of a person’s age, health and attractiveness. While the variation in facial morphology and skin condition cues has been studied quite extensively, comparably little is known on the effect of hair on social perception. This has been partly caused by the technical difficulty of creating appropriate stimuli for investigations of people’s response to systematic variation of certain hair characteristics, such as color and style, while keeping other features constant. Here, we present a modeling approach to the investigation of human hair perception using computer-generated, virtual (rendered) human hair. In three experiments, we manipulated hair diameter (Experiment 1), hair density (Experiment 2), and hair style (Experiment 3) of human (female) head hair and studied perceptions of age, health and attractiveness. Our results show that even subtle changes in these features have an impact on hair perception. We discuss our findings with reference to previous studies on condition-dependent quality cues in women that influence human social perception, thereby suggesting that hair is a salient feature of human physical appearance, which contributes to the perception of beauty. PMID:28066276

  19. Hair Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... loss at the scarred areas. These conditions include lichen planus, some types of lupus and sarcoidosis. Hair- ... increase your risk of hair loss, including: Family history Age Poor nutrition Certain medical conditions, such as ...

  20. Hair transplant

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007205.htm Hair transplant To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. A hair transplant is a surgical procedure to improve baldness. Description ...

  1. Your Hair

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or some other combination? Hair color comes from melanin (say: MEL-uh-nun), the substance that gives ... its pigment. The lighter someone's hair, the less melanin there is. A person with brown or black ...

  2. Body Hair

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... To avoid spreading infections, don’t share razors. Hair removal creams, gels, and liquids (depilatories) These use chemicals ... electrologist with a current license or certification. Laser hair removal Light is beamed through the skin to stop ...

  3. Hair Transplants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Skin Scars Skin Growths Skin Lesions Spider Veins Stretch Marks Sun-damaged Skin Unwanted Hair Unwanted Tattoos Varicose ... Skin Scars Skin Growths Skin Lesions Spider Veins Stretch Marks Sun-damaged Skin Unwanted Hair Unwanted Tattoos Varicose ...

  4. A Guide to Studying Human Hair Follicle Cycling In Vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Ji Won; Kloepper, Jennifer; Langan, Ewan A; Kim, Yongsoo; Yeo, Joongyeub; Kim, Min Ji; Hsi, Tsai-Ching; Rose, Christian; Yoon, Ghil Suk; Lee, Seok-Jong; Seykora, John; Kim, Jung Chul; Sung, Young Kwan; Kim, Moonkyu; Paus, Ralf; Plikus, Maksim V

    2016-01-01

    Hair follicles (HFs) undergo lifelong cyclical transformations, progressing through stages of rapid growth (anagen), regression (catagen), and relative "quiescence" (telogen). Given that HF cycling abnormalities underlie many human hair growth disorders, the accurate classification of individual cycle stages within skin biopsies is clinically important and essential for hair research. For preclinical human hair research purposes, human scalp skin can be xenografted onto immunocompromised mice to study human HF cycling and manipulate long-lasting anagen in vivo. Although available for mice, a comprehensive guide on how to recognize different human hair cycle stages in vivo is lacking. In this article, we present such a guide, which uses objective, well-defined, and reproducible criteria, and integrates simple morphological indicators with advanced, (immuno)-histochemical markers. This guide also characterizes human HF cycling in xenografts and highlights the utility of this model for in vivo hair research. Detailed schematic drawings and representative micrographs provide examples of how best to identify human HF stages, even in suboptimally sectioned tissue, and practical recommendations are given for designing human-on-mouse hair cycle experiments. Thus, this guide seeks to offer a benchmark for human hair cycle stage classification, for both hair research experts and newcomers to the field.

  5. Root hairs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grierson, C.; Nielsen, E.; Ketelaar, T.; Schiefelbein, J.

    2014-01-01

    Roots hairs are cylindrical extensions of root epidermal cells that are important for acquisition of nutrients, microbe interactions, and plant anchorage. The molecular mechanisms involved in the specification, differentiation, and physiology of root hairs in Arabidopsis are reviewed here. Root hair

  6. Hair cosmetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Madnani

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The hair cosmetic industry has undergone a revolutionary change over the last two decades. The focus has dramatically veered from merely cleaning to repair, increasing the tensile strength, reducing oxidative damage, and stimulating growth. Newer shorter procedures to make hair look naturally more lustrous, smooth, and manageable have evolved. Specialized grooming products have been formulated to cleanse, calm, and condition the hair, and are tailored for different hair-types, for example, dry, dry-damaged, oily, colored, and gray hair. Other products are formulated to alter the color or structure of the hair shaft, for example, hair dyes, perming/relaxing. Hair sprays and waxes/gels, can alter the ′lift′ of the hair-shaft. Although dermatologists are experts in managing scalp and hair diseases, the esthetic applications of newer cosmetic therapies still remain elusive. This article attempts to fill the lacunae in our knowledge of hair cosmetics and esthetic procedures relevant in today′s rapidly changing beauty-enhancing industry, with special emphasis on the Indian scenario for chemical and ′natural′ hair products.

  7. Hair cosmetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madnani, Nina; Khan, Kaleem

    2013-01-01

    The hair cosmetic industry has undergone a revolutionary change over the last two decades. The focus has dramatically veered from merely cleaning to repair, increasing the tensile strength, reducing oxidative damage, and stimulating growth. Newer shorter procedures to make hair look naturally more lustrous, smooth, and manageable have evolved. Specialized grooming products have been formulated to cleanse, calm, and condition the hair, and are tailored for different hair-types, for example, dry, dry-damaged, oily, colored, and gray hair. Other products are formulated to alter the color or structure of the hair shaft, for example, hair dyes, perming/relaxing. Hair sprays and waxes/gels, can alter the 'lift' of the hair-shaft. Although dermatologists are experts in managing scalp and hair diseases, the esthetic applications of newer cosmetic therapies still remain elusive. This article attempts to fill the lacunae in our knowledge of hair cosmetics and esthetic procedures relevant in today's rapidly changing beauty-enhancing industry, with special emphasis on the Indian scenario for chemical and 'natural' hair products.

  8. The uptake of water hardness metals by human hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, A O; Marsh, J M; Wickett, R R

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this work was to examine the variables that influence the interaction between water hardness metals and human hair. Hair extracts various constituents from the tap water used during daily hygiene practices and chemical treatments. Calcium and magnesium metal ions are the most prevalent and give water "hardness." Inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES) was employed to quantify the metal content of hair, which was studied as a function of the following variables: hair condition (oxidative damage), level of water hardness, and water pH. We have demonstrated that these variables impact water hardness metal uptake to varying extents, and the effects are driven primarily by the binding capacity (available anionic sites) of the hair. The condition of the hair, a key representation of the binding capacity, was most influential. Interestingly, water hardness levels had only a small effect on uptake; hair became saturated with notable amounts of water hardness metals even after repeated exposure to soft water. Water pH influenced metal uptake since side chains of hair proteins deprotonate with increasing alkalinity. These insights highlight the importance to the hair care industry of understanding the interaction between water hardness metals and hair.

  9. Protease activity, localization and inhibition in the human hair follicle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhogal, R K; Mouser, P E; Higgins, C A; Turner, G A

    2014-02-01

    In humans, the process of hair shedding, referred to as exogen, is believed to occur independently of the other hair cycle phases. Although the actual mechanisms involved in hair shedding are not fully known, it has been hypothesized that the processes leading to the final step of hair shedding may be driven by proteases and/or protease inhibitor activity. In this study, we investigated the presence of proteases and protease activity in naturally shed human hairs and assessed enzyme inhibition activity of test materials. We measured enzyme activity using a fluorescence-based assay and protein localization by indirect immunohistochemistry (IHC). We also developed an ex vivo skin model for measuring the force required to pull hair fibres from skin. Our data demonstrate the presence of protease activity in the tissue material surrounding club roots. We also demonstrated the localization of specific serine protease protein expression in human hair follicle by IHC. These data provide evidence demonstrating the presence of proteases around the hair club roots, which may play a role during exogen. We further tested the hypothesis that a novel protease inhibitor system (combination of Trichogen) and climbazole) could inhibit protease activity in hair fibre club root extracts collected from a range of ethnic groups (U.K., Brazil, China, first-generation Mexicans in the U.S.A., Thailand and Turkey) in both males and females. Furthermore, we demonstrated that this combination is capable of increasing the force required to remove hair in an ex vivo skin model system. These studies indicate the presence of proteolytic activity in the tissue surrounding the human hair club root and show that it is possible to inhibit this activity with a combination of Trichogen and climbazole. This technology may have potential to reduce excessive hair shedding. © 2013 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  10. Human Hair Reconstruction: Close, But Yet So Far.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi, Parvaneh; Youssef, Khalil Kass; Abbasalizadeh, Saeed; Baharvand, Hossein; Aghdami, Nasser

    2016-12-01

    Billions of dollars are annually invested in pharmaceutical industry and cosmetic sector with intent to develop new drugs and treatment strategies for alopecia. Because the hair looks an important characteristic of humans-an effective appendage in perception, expression of beauty, and preservation of self-esteem-the global market for hair loss treatment products is exponentially increasing. However, current methods to treat hair loss endure yet multiple challenges, such as unfavorable outcomes, nonpermanent and patient-dependent results, as well as unpredictable impacts, which limit their application. Over recent years, remarkable advances in the fields of regenerative medicine and hair tissue engineering have raised new hopes for introducing novel cell-based approaches to treat hair loss. Through cell-based approaches, it is possible to produce hair-like structures in the laboratory setting or manipulate cells in their native niche (in vivo lineage reprogramming) to reconstruct the hair follicle. However, challenging issues still exist with the functionality of cultured human hair cells, the proper selection of nonhair cell sources in cases of shortage of donor hair, and the development of defined culture conditions. Moreover, in the case of in vivo lineage reprogramming, selecting appropriate induction factors and their efficient delivery to guide resident cells into a hair fate-with the aim of reconstructing functional hair-still needs further explorations. In this study, we highlight recent advances and current challenges in hair loss treatment using cell-based approaches and provide novel insights for crucial steps, which must be taken into account to develop reproducible, safe, and efficient cell-based treatment.

  11. The persistence of human scalp hair on clothing fabrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dachs, J; McNaught, I J; Robertson, J

    2003-12-17

    This study reports the persistence behaviour of human scalp hairs under a number of different circumstances. The effects of artificial dyeing of hairs, the presence or absence of roots and different types of fabrics on the persistence of hair on a variety of garments were investigated. The garments were made from cotton, polycotton, cotton/acrylic, polyester and wool. The results indicated that neither artificial dyes nor the presence or absence of roots had statistically significant effects on the persistence of hair. In contrast, the type of fabric had a major impact and it was found that, generally, hairs persist longer on rougher fabrics. The rate of loss of hairs from non-woollen fabrics during normal wear was found to follow an exponential decay curve. In contrast, the rate of loss from the woollen garments was quite linear, indicating a constant, even loss, and thus suggests that a different process is involved in the persistence of hairs on woollen garments from that on non-woollen garments. The speed at which hair was lost from fabrics decreased in the order polyester, cotton/acrylic, polycotton, cotton, smooth wool, rough wool, so that wool gives the best chance of recovering samples of hair. Due to the uniqueness of each case, it is advised that caution be used when making any interpretations and before drawing any conclusions.

  12. Hair breakage index: an alternative tool for damage assessment of human hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mhaskar, Sudhakar; Kalghatgi, Bhargavi; Chavan, Madhavi; Rout, Suryamani; Gode, Vaishali

    2011-01-01

    Improper hair care, mechanical abrasion, sun damage and chemical treatment changes the physical and morphological characteristics of hair. Several methods involving microscopic techniques, protein loss and assessment of tensile properties of the hair are generally used to evaluate the extent of damage caused. These are also used to determine the protective effect of hair care products. In the present investigation, the hair breakage index (HBI) was used as an alternative tool to determine the change in the properties of hair on weathering. HBI is a measure of the diameter of hair in a given cross sectional area of a marked region of hair on the scalp. The hair diameter changes as we progress towards the tip of the hair due to breakage. The ratio of the diameter of hair bundle in the distal region to the diameter of hair bundle in the proximal region from the scalp is used as an indicator of hair breakage. Higher HBI value is an indicator of hair damage.A study was conducted for duration of 16 weeks to assess the effect of weathering due to grooming practices on HBI values. The HBI and break stress for a group of 30 subjects were measured at baseline and at the end of 16 weeks (NU). Since Coconut oil (CNO) is known to have a positive benefit on tensile properties of hair, another matched group of 30 subjects who oiled their hair daily with CNO was used as a positive control (CNO). The HBI and break stress for this group were also measured at the baseline and after 16 weeks. It was observed that the HBI significantly increased in the NU group versus the CNO user group. The break stress also significantly decreased in the NU group suggesting its correlation with the HBI data. This study demonstrates the usefulness of HBI as a simple and effective tool for determining hair damage and its protection by different hair care products.

  13. comparative analysis of mercury content in human hair and cosmetic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Total mercury (T-Hg) concentrations were analysed in human hairs and cosmetic .... (SDE = Standard Error; d.l. = detection limit of 0.001 ppm; ** Mean was calculated ... Hotel attendants. 23. 1. 2. 350.0 ± 4.5. 18. 1. 2. 360.0 ± 8.5. Hair saloon.

  14. Friction and wear of human hair fibres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, James; Johnson, Simon A.; Avery, Andrew R.; Adams, Michael J.

    2016-06-01

    An experimental study of the tribological properties of hair fibres is reported, and the effect of surface treatment on the evolution of friction and wear during sliding. Specifically, orthogonally crossed fibre/fibre contacts under a compressive normal load over a series of 10 000 cycle studies are investigated. Reciprocating sliding at a velocity of 0.4 mm s-1, over a track length of 0.8 mm, was performed at 18 °C and 40%-50% relative humidity. Hair fibres retaining their natural sebum were studied, as well as those stripped of their sebum via hexane cleaning, and hair fibres conditioned using a commercially available product. Surface topography modifications resulting from wear were imaged using scanning electron microscopy and quantified using white light interferometry. Hair fibres that presented sebum or conditioned product at the fibre/fibre junction exhibited initial coefficients of friction at least 25% lower than those that were cleaned with hexane. Coefficients of friction were observed to depend on the directionality of sliding for hexane cleaned hair fibres after sufficient wear cycles that cuticle lifting was present, typically on the order 1000 cycles. Cuticle flattening was observed for fibre/fibre junctions exposed to 10 mN compressive normal loads, whereas loads of 100 mN introduced substantial cuticle wear and fibre damage.

  15. Stem cells from human hair follicles: first mechanical isolation for immediate autologous clinical use in androgenetic alopecia and hair loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentile, Pietro; Scioli, Maria G; Bielli, Alessandra; Orlandi, Augusto; Cervelli, Valerio

    2017-01-01

    Hair follicles are known to contain a well-characterized niche for adult stem cells: the bulge, which contains epithelial and melanocytic stem cells. Stem cells in the hair bulge, a clearly demarcated structure within the lower permanent portion of hair follicles, can generate the interfollicular epidermis, hair follicle structures, and sebaceous glands. The bulge epithelial stem cells can also reconstitute in an artificial in vivo system to a new hair follicle. In this study, we have developed a new method to isolate human adult stem cells by mechanical centrifugation of punch biopsy from human hair follicles without culture condition. Here, we used human follicle stem cells (HFSCs), to improve the hair density in 11 patients (38 to 61 years old) affected by AGA in stage 3-5 as determined by the Norwood-Hamilton classification scale. The primary outcomes were microscopic identification and counting of HFSCs. The secondary outcomes were clinical preliminary results and safety and feasibility in HFSCs-treated scalp. Each scalp tissue suspension contained about 3,728.5±664.5 cells. The percentage of hair follicle-derived mesenchymal stem cells CD44+ [from dermal papilla (DP)] was about 5%+0.7% whereas the percentage of hair follicle epithelial stem cells CD200+ (from the bulge) was about 2.6%+0.3%. In total, 23 weeks after the last treatment with HFSCs mean hair count and hair density increases over baseline values. In particular, a 29%±5% increase in hair density for the treated area and less than a 1% increase in hair density for the placebo area. We have shown that the isolated cells are capable to improve the hair density in patients affected by androgenetic alopecia (AGA). These cells appear to be located in the bulge area of human.

  16. Hair casts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sweta S Parmar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Hair casts or pseudonits are circumferential concretions,which cover the hair shaft in such a way that, it could be easily removed. They are thin, cylindrical, and elongated in length. We present an unusual case of an 8-year-old girl presenting with hair casts. Occurrence of these is unusual, and they may have varied associations. This patient was suffering from developmental delay. It is commonly misdiagnosed as and very important to differentiate from pediculosis capitis.

  17. Isolation and Quantification of Glycosaminoglycans from Human Hair Shaft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonovas, Stefanos; Sitaras, Nikolaos

    2016-01-01

    Background There is evidence that glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) are present in the hair shaft within the follicle but there are no studies regarding GAGs isolation and measurement in the human hair shaft over the scalp surface, it means, in the free hair shaft. Objective The purpose of our research was to isolate and measure the total GAGs from human free hair shaft. Methods Seventy-five healthy individuals participated in the study, 58 adults, men and women over the age of 50 and 17 children (aged 4~9). GAGs in hair samples, received from the parietal and the occipital areas, were isolated with 4 M guanidine HCl and measured by the uronic acid-carbazole reaction assay. Results GAGs concentration was significantly higher in the occipital area than in the parietal area, in all study groups. GAG levels from both areas were significantly higher in children than in adults. GAG levels were not associated with gender, hair color or type. Conclusion We report the presence of GAGs in the human free hair shaft and the correlation of hair GAG levels with the scalp area and participants' age. PMID:27746630

  18. Distribution of glycolipid and unsaturated fatty acids in human hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Toshie; Yoshida, Satoshi

    2014-09-01

    It has been recognized that human hair lipids play crucial roles in the integrity of cells and matrices, while the details of distribution and structure of the minor lipids are hardly known. Here we investigated the lipids at the hair surface, at the interface between cuticle and cortex and in the interior of hair (cortex, medulla and melanin granules). Hair lipids and fatty acids and their metabolites were detected and characterized by using infrared spectroscopy and several mass spectrometry techniques (FTIR, ToF-SIMS, GCMS, and ESI-MS). As a result, it was found that unsaturated fatty acids were present more in the cortex of hair than at the hair surface. At the interface between cuticle and cortex, it is suggested that steryl glycoside-like lipids containing N-acetylglucosamine were present, and contributing to the adhesion between the cuticle and cortex of hair. Oxidative metabolites derived from integral fatty acids such as linoleic and alpha-linolenic acids were found in the hair bulb and melanin granules. Especially the oxidative metabolites of alpha-linolenic acid were integrated into the lipids non-covalently and tightly bound to melanin granules (namely, melanin lipids) and suggested as being involved in the biosynthetic processes of melanosome.

  19. Structure and mechanical behavior of human hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yang; Yang, Wen; Wang, Bin; Meyers, Marc André

    2017-04-01

    The understanding of the mechanical behavior of hair under various conditions broadens our knowledge in biological materials science and contributes to the cosmetic industry. The hierarchical organization of hair is studied from the intermediate filament to the structural levels. The effects of strain rate, relative humidity, and temperature are evaluated. Hair exhibits a high tensile strength, 150-270MPa, which is significantly dependent on strain rate and humidity. The strain-rate sensitivity, approximately 0.06-0.1, is comparable to that of other keratinous materials and common synthetic polymers. The structures of the internal cortex and surface cuticle are affected by the large tensile extension. One distinguishing feature, the unwinding of the α-helix and the possible transformation to β-sheet structure of keratin under tension, which affects the ductility of hair, is analytically evaluated and incorporated into a constitutive equation. A good agreement with the experimental results is obtained. This model elucidates the tensile response of the α-keratin fibers. The contributions of elastic and plastic strains on reloading are evaluated and correlated to structural changes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Analysis of human hair to assess exposure to organophosphate flame retardants: Influence of hair segments and gender differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Lin; Zheng, Xiao-Bo; Zheng, Jing; Lei, Wei-Xiang; Li, Hong-Fang; Wang, Mei-Huan; He, Chun-Tao; Chen, She-Jun; Yuan, Jian-Gang; Luo, Xiao-Jun; Yu, Yun-Jiang; Yang, Zhong-Yi; Mai, Bi-Xian

    2016-07-01

    Hair is a promising, non-invasive, human biomonitoring matrix that can provide insight into retrospective and integral exposure to organic pollutants. In the present study, we measured the concentrations of organophosphate flame retardants (PFRs) in hair and serum samples from university students in Guangzhou, China, and compared the PFR concentrations in the female hair segments using paired distal (5~10cm from the root) and proximal (0~5cm from the root) samples. PFRs were not detected in the serum samples. All PFRs except tricresyl phosphate (TMPP) and tri-n-propyl phosphate (TPP) were detected in more than half of all hair samples. The concentrations of total PFRs varied from 10.1 to 604ng/g, with a median of 148ng/g. Tris(chloroisopropyl) phosphate (TCIPP) and tri(2-ethylexyl) phosphate (TEHP) were the predominant PFRs in hair. The concentrations of most PFRs in the distal segments were 1.5~8.6 times higher than those in the proximal segments of the hair (t-test, pPFR concentrations-distal/PFR concentrations-proximal) were positively and significantly correlated with log KOA of PFRs (pPFR concentrations were observed in female hair than in male hair. In contrast, female hair exhibited significantly lower PFR concentrations than male hair when using the same hair position for both genders (0-5cm from the scalp). The controversial results regarding gender differences in PFRs in hair highlight the importance of segmental analysis when using hair as an indicator of human exposure to PFRs.

  1. An ESR study on biological dosimeters: Human hair

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colak, Seyda, E-mail: seyda@hacettepe.edu.t [Hacettepe University, Physics Engineering Department, 06800 Ankara (Turkey); Ozbey, Turan [Hacettepe University, Physics Engineering Department, 06800 Ankara (Turkey)

    2011-05-15

    In the present work, characteristic features of the radicals found in untreated, gamma and UV-irradiated and mechanical damaged human hair samples were investigated by ESR spectroscopy. Heights of the resonance peaks measured with respect to the spectrum base line were used to monitor microwave power, dose-response, storage time and temperature dependent kinetic features of the radical species contributing to the formation of recorded experimental ESR spectra. Peak heights and g-values (2.0037-2.0052) determined from recorded spectra of hair were color dependent with {Delta}Hpp-0.47 mT. The act of cutting hair samples gene rates sulfur centered radicals which are found in the a-keratin structure of hair. The variations of the peak heights with temperature were related with the water content found in the hair samples. In the 6-1100 Gy dose range, a linear + quadratic dose-response curve was recorded for hair and the mean radiation yield (G{sub mean}) was calculated to be 0.4. The gamma radiation induced radicals were stable for a several hours at room temperature storage conditions. Based on these findings it was concluded that human hair samples could be used as biological/personnel dosimeters and that ESR spectroscopy could be successfully used as a potential technique for monitoring its dosimetric behaviours.

  2. A prototypic mathematical model of the human hair cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Nuaimi, Yusur; Goodfellow, Marc; Paus, Ralf; Baier, Gerold

    2012-10-07

    The human hair cycle is a complex, dynamic organ-transformation process during which the hair follicle repetitively progresses from a growth phase (anagen) to a rapid apoptosis-driven involution (catagen) and finally a relative quiescent phase (telogen) before returning to anagen. At present no theory satisfactorily explains the origin of the hair cycle rhythm. Based on experimental evidence we propose a prototypic model that focuses on the dynamics of hair matrix keratinocytes. We argue that a plausible feedback-control structure between two key compartments (matrix keratinocytes and dermal papilla) leads to dynamic instabilities in the population dynamics resulting in rhythmic hair growth. The underlying oscillation consists of an autonomous switching between two quasi-steady states. Additional features of the model, namely bistability and excitability, lead to new hypotheses about the impact of interventions on hair growth. We show how in silico testing may facilitate testing of candidate hair growth modulatory agents in human HF organ culture or in clinical trials. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. New approach for assessing human perfluoroalkyl exposure via hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Andreia; Jacobs, Griet; Vanermen, Guido; Covaci, Adrian; Voorspoels, Stefan

    2015-11-01

    In the recent years hair has been increasingly used as alternative matrix in human biomonitoring (HBM) of environmental pollutants. Sampling advantages and time integration of exposure assessment seems the most attractive features of hair matrix. In the current study, a novel miniaturized method was developed and validated for measuring 15 perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS), including perfluoro n-butanoic acid (PFBA), perfluoro n-pentanoic acid (PFPeA), perfluoro n-hexanoic acid (PFHxA), perfluoro n-heptanoic acid (PFHpA), perfluor n-octanoic acid (PFOA), perfluoro n-nonanoic acid (PFNA), perfluoro tetradecanoic acid (PFTeDA), perfluorobutane sulfonic acid (PFBS), perfluoro pentane sulfonic acid (PFPeS), perfluorohexane sulfonic acid (PFHxS), perfluoroheptane sulfonic acid (PFHpS), perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS), perfluorononane sulfonic acid (PFNS), perfluorodecane sulfonic acid (PFDS) and perfluorododecane sulfonic acid (PFDoS) in human hair by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). After extraction using ethyl acetate, dispersive ENVI-Carb was used for clean-up. Good intra- and inter-day precision for low (LQ 5 ng/g hair) and high spike (HQ 15n g/g) levels were achieved (in general RSD hair and 3-13 pg/g hair, respectively. The method limit of quantification (LOQm) ranged between 6 and 301 pg/g hair. The PFAS levels were measured in 30 human hair samples indicating that the levels are low (14-1534 pg/g hair). Some PFAS were not present in any hair sample (e.g. PFHpA, PFTeDA, PFNA, PFPeS, PFHpS, PFOS and PFNS), while other PFAS were frequently detected (PFBA, PFPeA, PFHxA, PFOA, PFBS, PFHxS, PFOS, PFDS and PFDoS) in human hair. Although levels in general were low, there is evidence of higher human exposure to some analytes, such as PFBA, PFPeA, PFHxA, PFOA, PFBS, PFHxS, and PFDoS. The current study shows that hair is a suitable alternative non-invasive matrix for exposure assessment of PFAS.

  4. Pterins in human hair follicle cells and in the synchronized murine hair cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schallreuter, K U; Beazley, W D; Hibberts, N A; Tobin, D J; Paus, R; Wood, J M

    1998-10-01

    Human dermal papilla cells (HDPC) express mRNA for the key enzymes for de novo synthesis/recycling and regulation of the pterin (6R)-L-erythro-5,6,7,8-tetrahydrobiopterin (6BH4). HDPC had significantly higher enzyme activities and 6BH4 levels in a comparative study with dermal fibroblasts, epidermal melanocytes, and keratinocytes under in vitro conditions. In addition, a significantly more rapid uptake of 14C-L-phenylalanine was demonstrated in HDPC compared with fibroblasts, whereas the differences in turnover to L-tyrosine were insignificant, suggesting a pooling of L-phenylalanine in HDPC. These results suggested that HDPC driven 6BH4 synthesis could be of major functional importance in the hair cycle. In order to follow this hypothesis in vivo, expression of enzyme activities and levels of the produced cofactor during the synchronized hair cycle were determined employing the murine model C57BL/6. These data revealed a significantly increased de novo synthesis for 6BH4 via GTP-cyclohydrolase I concomitant with high levels of 6BH4, and the induction of phenylalanine hydroxylase activities during the telogen/early anagen stage (days 0-1). Pterin levels and enzyme activities fall on day 3 and plateau during the rest of the entire cycle. In addition, thioredoxin reductase and glutathione reductase activities were measured, where the latter enzyme remained constant but thioredoxin reductase activities showed a biphasic behavior. The first peak coincided with the induction of 6BH4 de novo synthesis at the beginning of the hair cycle. The second peak was observed at mid-anagen, when melanogenesis takes place. Taken together, our results show the presence of autocrine pterin synthesis/recycling in human hair follicle cells under in vitro conditions, and a possible role for 6BH4 in the synchronized murine hair cycle.

  5. Tryptophan and kynurenine determination in human hair by liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dario, Michelli F; Freire, Thamires Batello; Pinto, Claudinéia Aparecida Sales de Oliveira; Prado, María Segunda Aurora; Baby, André R; Velasco, Maria Valéria R

    2017-09-18

    Tryptophan, an amino acid found in hair proteinaceous structure is used as a marker of hair photodegradation. Also, protein loss caused by several chemical/physical treatments can be inferred by tryptophan quantification. Kynurenine is a photo-oxidation product of tryptophan, expected to be detected when hair is exposed mainly to UVB (290-320nm) radiation range. Tryptophan from hair is usually quantified directly as a solid or after alkaline hydrolysis, spectrofluorimetrically. However, these types of measure are not sufficiently specific and present several interfering substances. Thus, this work aimed to propose a quantification method for both tryptophan and kynurenine in hair samples, after alkali hydrolysis process, by using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with fluorimetric and UV detection. The tryptophan and kynurenine quantification method was developed and validated. Black, white, bleached and dyed (blond and auburn) hair tresses were used in this study. Tryptophan and kynurenine were separated within ∼9min by HPLC. Both black and white virgin hair samples presented similar concentrations of tryptophan, while bleaching caused a reduction in the tryptophan content as well as dyeing process. Unexpectedly, UV/vis radiation did not promote significantly the conversion of tryptophan into its photo-oxidation product and consequently, kynurenine was not detected. Thus, this works presented an acceptable method for quantification of tryptophan and its photooxidation metabolite kynurenine in hair samples. Also, the results indicated that bleaching and dyeing processes promoted protein/amino acids loss but tryptophan is not extensively degraded in human hair by solar radiation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Hair Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of hair loss have found patients’ self-esteem, body image and self-confidence to be negatively affected. 1-2 Known psychosocial complications include depression, low self-esteem, altered self-image, and less frequent and enjoyable ...

  7. Hair loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... SA, Stough DB, Rogers NE. Hair restoration. In: Bolognia JL, Jorizzo JL, Schaffer JV, eds. Dermatology . 3rd ... Sinclair RD, El Shabrawi-Caelen L. Alopecias. In: Bolognia JL, Jorizzo JL, Schaffer JV, eds. Dermatology . 3rd ...

  8. Hair Removal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hædersdal, Merete

    2011-01-01

    and chromophore. Longer wavelengths and cooling are safer for patients with darker skin types. Hair removal with lasers and IPL sources are generally safe treatment procedures when performed by properly educated operators. However, safety issues must be addressed since burns and adverse events do occur. New...... suitable for targeting follicular and hair shaft melanin: normal mode ruby laser (694 nm), normal mode alexandrite laser (755 nm), pulsed diode lasers (800, 810 nm), long-pulse Nd:YAG laser (1,064 nm), and intense pulsed light (IPL) sources (590-1,200 nm). The ideal patient has thick dark terminal hair...... systems. Evidence has been found for long-term hair removal efficacy beyond 6 months after repetitive treatments with alexandrite, diode, and long-pulse Nd:YAG lasers, whereas the current long-term evidence is sparse for IPL devices. Treatment parameters must be adjusted to patient skin type...

  9. Hair removal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haedersdal, Merete; Haak, Christina S

    2011-01-01

    and chromophore. Longer wavelengths and cooling are safer for patients with darker skin types. Hair removal with lasers and IPL sources are generally safe treatment procedures when performed by properly educated operators. However, safety issues must be addressed since burns and adverse events do occur. New...... suitable for targeting follicular and hair shaft melanin: normal mode ruby laser (694 nm), normal mode alexandrite laser (755 nm), pulsed diode lasers (800, 810 nm), long-pulse Nd:YAG laser (1,064 nm), and intense pulsed light (IPL) sources (590-1,200 nm). The ideal patient has thick dark terminal hair...... systems. Evidence has been found for long-term hair removal efficacy beyond 6 months after repetitive treatments with alexandrite, diode, and long-pulse Nd:YAG lasers, whereas the current long-term evidence is sparse for IPL devices. Treatment parameters must be adjusted to patient skin type...

  10. Hair shape of curly hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, Bruno A

    2003-06-01

    The hair follicle is a unique composite organ, composed of epithelial and dermal compartments interacting with each other in a surprisingly autonomous way. This is a self-renewing organ that seems to be a true paradigm of epithelial and mesenchymal interactions. Each of the follicular compartments is endowed with a specific differentiation pathway under the control of an intricate network of growth factors, cytokines, and hormones. As observed for ethnic hairs, even the shape of the hair shaft is intrinsically programmed from the bulb.

  11. Plucked Human Hair Shafts and Biomolecular Medical Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Schembri

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The hair follicle is a skin integument at the boundary between an organism and its immediate environment. The biological role of the human hair follicle has lost some of its ancestral importance. However, an indepth investigation of this miniorgan reveals hidden complexity with huge research potential. An essential consideration when dealing with human research is the awareness of potential harm and thus the absolute need not to harm—a rule aptly qualified by the Latin term “primum non nocere” (first do no harm. The plucked hair shaft offers such advantages. The use of stem cells found in hair follicles cells is gaining momentum in the field of regenerative medicine. Furthermore, current diagnostic and clinical applications of plucked hair follicles include their use as autologous and/or three-dimensional epidermal equivalents, together with their utilization as surrogate tissue in pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamics studies. Consequently, the use of noninvasive diagnostic procedures on hair follicle shafts, posing as a surrogate molecular model for internal organs in the individual patient for a spectrum of human disease conditions, can possibly become a reality in the near future.

  12. Analysis of the expression pattern of involucrin in human scalp skin and hair follicles: hair cycle-associated alterations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adly, Mohamed A; Assaf, Hanan A

    2012-10-01

    Involucrin is a structural component of the keratinocyte cornified envelope that is expressed early in the keratinocyte differentiation process. It is a component of the initial envelope scaffolding and considered as a marker for keratinocyte terminal differentiation. The expression pattern of involucrin in human scalp skin and hair follicle cycle stages is not fully explored. This study addresses this issue and tests the hypothesis that "the expression of involucrin undergoes hair follicle cycle-dependent changes". A total of 50 normal human scalp skin biopsies were examined (healthy females, 51-62 years) using immunofluorescence staining methods and real-time PCR analysis. In each case, 50 hair follicles were analyzed (35, 10 and 5 follicles in anagen, catagen and telogen, respectively). Involucrin was prominently expressed in the human scalp skin and hair follicles, on both gene and protein levels. The protein expression showed hair follicle cycle-associated changes i.e. a very strong expression during early and mature anagen, intermediate to strong expression during catagen and prominent decline in the telogen phase. The expression value of involucrin in both anagen and catagen was statistically significantly higher than that of telogen hair follicles (p < 0.001). This study provides the first morphologic indication that involucrin is differentially expressed in the human scalp skin and hair follicles and reports that involucrin expression pattern undergoes hair cycle-dependent changes. The clinical ramifications of these findings are open for further investigations.

  13. From Hair in India to Hair India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trüeb, Ralph M

    2017-01-01

    In all cultures, human hair and hairdo have been a powerful metaphor. Tracing back the importance and significance of human hair to the dawn of civilization on the Indian subcontinent, we find that all the Vedic gods are depicted as having uncut hair in mythological stories as well as in legendary pictures. The same is true of the Hindu avatars, and the epic heroes of the Ramayana, and the Mahabharata. Finally, there are a number of hair peculiarities in India pertinent to the creed and religious practices of the Hindu, the Jain, and the Sikh. Shiva Nataraja is a depiction of the Hindu God Shiva as the cosmic dancer who performs his divine dance as creator, preserver, and destroyer of the universe and conveys the Indian conception of the never-ending cycle of time. The same principle manifests in the hair cycle, in which perpetual cycles of growth, regression, and resting underly the growth and shedding of hair. Finally, The Hair Research Society of India was founded as a nonprofit organisation dedicated to research and education in the science of hair. Notably, the HRSI reached milestones in the journey of academic pursuit with the launch of the International Journal of Trichology, and with the establishment of the Hair India conference. Ultimately, the society aims at saving the public from being taken for a ride by quackery, and at creating the awareness that the science of hair represents a subspecialty of Dermatology. In analogy again, the dwarf on which the Nataraja dances represents the demon of egotism, and thus symbolizes Shiva's, respectively, the HRSI's victory over ignorance. PMID:28761257

  14. [Hair shaft abnormalities].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itin, P H; Düggelin, M

    2002-05-01

    Hair shaft disorders may lead to brittleness and uncombable hair. In general the hair feels dry and lusterless. Hair shaft abnormalities may occur as localized or generalized disorders. Genetic predisposition or exogenous factors are able to produce and maintain hair shaft abnormalities. In addition to an extensive history and physical examination the most important diagnostic examination to analyze a hair shaft problem is light microscopy. Therapy of hair shaft disorders should focus to the cause. In addition, minimizing traumatic influences to hair shafts, such as dry hair with an electric dryer, permanent waves and dyes is important. A short hair style is more suitable for such patients with hair shaft disorders.

  15. [Hair shaft anomalies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itin, P H

    1997-06-01

    Hair shaft disorders lead to brittle and uncombable hair. As a rule the hair feels dry and lusterless. Hair shaft abnormalities may present as localized of generalized alterations. Genetic predisposition and exogenous factors are able to produce hair shaft abnormalities. The most important examination to analyze a hair shaft problem is light microscopy. Treatment of hair shaft disorders should focus on the cause. In addition, minimizing traumatic influences to hair shafts, such as electric dryer, permanent waves and dyes is important.

  16. Hair root characteristics of the human scalp hair in health and disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.D.R. Peereboom-Wynia

    1982-01-01

    textabstractMorphological data on hair follicles have been available for over a hundred years, but only in recent years has a substantial advance been made in our knowledge of types and distribution of hair, its structure, metabolism, biochemistry and clinical patterns, and hormonal influences on ha

  17. Hair root characteristics of the human scalp hair in health and disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.D.R. Peereboom-Wynia

    1982-01-01

    textabstractMorphological data on hair follicles have been available for over a hundred years, but only in recent years has a substantial advance been made in our knowledge of types and distribution of hair, its structure, metabolism, biochemistry and clinical patterns, and hormonal influences on

  18. Hair follicle growth controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenn, K S; Combates, N J; Eilertsen, K J; Gordon, J S; Pardinas, J R; Parimoo, S; Prouty, S M

    1996-10-01

    Research in hair biology has embarked in the pursuit for molecules that control hair growth. Many molecules already have been associated with the controls of hair patterning, hair maturation, and hair cycling and differentiation. Knowing how these molecules work gives us the tools for understanding and treating patients with hair disorders.

  19. Structural change of human hair induced by mercury exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Xueqing; Du, Rong; Li, Yufeng; Li, Bai; Cai, Quan; Mo, Guang; Gong, Yu; Chen, Zhongjun; Wu, Zhonghua

    2013-10-01

    Mercury is one of the most hazardous pollutants in the environment. In this paper, the structural change of human hair induced by mercury exposure was studied. Human hair samples were, respectively, collected from the normal Beijing area and the Hg-contaminated Wanshan area of the Guizhou Province, China. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy was used to detect the element contents. A small angle X-ray scattering technique was used to probe the structural change. Three reflections with 8.8, 6.7, and 4.5 nm spacing were compared between the normal and the Hg-contaminated hair samples. The results confirm that the 4.5 nm reflection is from the ordered fibrillar structure of glycosaminoglycan (GAG) in proteoglycan (PG) that composes the matrix around the intermediate filaments. The increase of Ca content makes the regular oriented fibrillar structure of GAG transform to a random oriented one, broadening the angular extent of the reflection with 4.5 nm spacing. However, overdose Hg makes the core proteins where the ordered fibrils of GAG are attached become coiled, which destroys the ordered arrangements of fibrillar GAG in PG, resulting in the disappearance of the reflections with 4.5 nm spacing. The disappearance of the 4.5 nm reflection can be used as a bioindicator of overdose Hg contamination to the human body. A supercoiled-coil model of hair nanoscale structure and a possible mechanism of mercury effect in human hair are proposed in this paper.

  20. Effects of IGF-binding protein 5 in dysregulating the shape of human hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sriwiriyanont, Penkanok; Hachiya, Akira; Pickens, William L; Moriwaki, Shigeru; Kitahara, Takashi; Visscher, Marty O; Kitzmiller, William J; Bello, Alexander; Takema, Yoshinori; Kobinger, Gary P

    2011-02-01

    The hair follicle has a unique dynamic property to cyclically regenerate throughout life. Despite significant progress in hair structure and hair shape determination using animal models, the mechanisms controlling the architecture and the shape of the human hair remain largely unexplored. In this study, comparison of the genetic expression of several human genes, especially those involved in growth, development, and differentiation, between Caucasian curly hair and naturally straight hair was performed. Thereafter, analyses using human recombinant and lentiviral vector technologies were conducted to further dissect and elucidate a molecular mechanism that regulates hair growth and development, particularly in controlling the shape of the hair shaft. Overexpression of IGF-binding protein 5 (IGFBP-5) in the human hair xenografts obtained from straight- and curly-haired individuals was found to result in the decreased expression of several extracellular matrix proteins and disassembly of adhesional junctions, resulting in twisted hair shafts as well as an unusual deposition of hair cuticle that may be derived from the disturbance of normal proliferation and differentiation. This study provides evidence that IGFBP-5 has an effect on human hair shape, and that lentiviral transduction regimen can be used for functional analysis of genes involved in human hair morphogenesis.

  1. Analysis of human hair by Raman microspectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plascencia-Castro, A. S.; Cordova-Fraga, T.; Piña-Ruiz, A. L.; Hernández-Rayas, A.; Bernal, J. J.

    2017-04-01

    Raman microspectroscopy is an optical compound identification technique, which is widely used nowadays for different field applications. A crucial part of this technique is the focus given to the sample in the microscope because it depends on which part of the sample it will analyze. In this work, the effects of irradiating a natural hair samples, obtained from women aged 18 to 55, with a monochromatic light of the Raman spectrometer in two different focus is presented. Two different spectra were obtained with a peak in common. Depending on the information wanted, how the sample is focused plays a crucial role, either way the spectra is information-rich and may be used for biomedical applications.

  2. Hair colouring, permanent styling and hair structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, S; Sinclair, R

    2003-07-01

    Hair is an important component of body image and has immense psychological importance for both men and women. Women, in particular, over the ages have modified their appearance through changing their hair colour or style. Hair can be straight, wavy or curly, blonde, black, brown or red. These natural variations are an important part of our identity that can be manipulated according to the dictates of fashion, culture or society. Different types of hair have varying affinity for the different colouring and waving methods. Damaged hair also has a different affinity for hair products than normal healthy hair. The hair shaft is remarkably strong and resistant to the extremes of nature. Hair cosmetics are widely available and manipulate the structural properties of hair. Whilst most procedures are safe, there is considerable potential for damage to the hair and hair problems of acute onset, including hair breakage, hair loss and loss of condition, are frequently blamed on the last product used on the hair. Hair problems are particularly prevalent among people who repeatedly alter the natural style of their hair.

  3. In vitro characterization of cocaine binding sites in human hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, R E; Tsai, W J; Tsao, L I; Su, T P; Cone, E J

    1997-09-01

    In vitro studies were performed to characterize [3H]cocaine binding to dark and light ethnic hair types. In vitro binding to hair was selective, was reversible and increased linearly with increasing hair concentration. Scatchard analyses revealed high-affinity (6-112 nM) and low-affinity (906-4433 nM) binding in hair. Competition studies demonstrated that the potencies of 3beta-(4-bromophenyl)tropane-2beta-carboxylic acid methyl ester, and 5-(4-chlorophenyl)-2,5-dihydro-3H-imidazol[2,1-alpha]isoindole-5-ol and 2beta-carbomethoxy-3beta-(4-fluorophenyl)tropane were similar to or less than that of (-)-cocaine. The potency of (-)-cocaine was 10-fold greater than that of (+)-cocaine at inhibiting radioligand specific binding to hair. Multivariate analysis indicated that significantly greater nonspecific and specific radioligand binding occurred in dark hair than in light hair. Multivariate analysis also demonstrated a significant ethnicity x sex effect on specific and nonspecific binding to hair. Greater radioligand binding occurred in male Africoid hair than in female Africoid hair and in all Caucasoid hair types. Melanin was considered the most likely binding site for cocaine in hair. Typically, the concentration of melanin is much greater in dark than in light hair. Scatchard analysis indicated that dark hair had a 5- to 43-fold greater binding capacity than light hair. Differences in radioligand binding between hair types appeared to be due to differences in the density of binding sites formed by melanin in hair.

  4. Peptide structure: Its effect on penetration into human hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Carla J S M; Vasconcelos, Andreia; Cavaco-Paulo, Artur

    2007-01-01

    The influence of the peptide structure on its penetration inside hair was studied, together with the effect of hair bleaching (oxidation). For that reason, the outcome of positioning a charged sequence (KAKAK) either at the N or C terminal on hair penetration has been studied for peptides with 17 residues each. It was observed that the penetration of these peptides into hair was driven by electrostatic interactions, where the position of the charged group at the peptide structure was of major importance. The penetration was only achieved for damaged hair due to its higher negative charge at the membrane surface. It was also observed that the peptides were able to restore the original tensile strength of bleached hair. Consequently, the knowledge of hair surface properties is of extreme importance when designing peptides directed for hair treatment.

  5. Determination of opiates in human fingernail--comparison to hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Min; Chen, Hang; Xiang, Ping

    2014-09-15

    6-Monoacetylmorphine in keratinized matrices can be used to discriminate between heroin users and individuals exposed to other sources of morphine alkaloids. Frozen pulverization is effective in preventing 6-monoacetylmorphine hydrolysis. The main aim of this study was to develop an LC-MS/MS method for the determination of five opiates in human fingernails using a frozen pulverization preparation method and to investigate the correlation between the concentration of opiates in nail and hair samples from subjects whose urine specimens were positive for morphine. Borate buffer (500 μL; pH 9.2) was added to 20mg of pulverized fingernail, followed by ultrasonication and liquid-liquid extraction. Analytes were analyzed on an Allure PFP propyl column by gradient elution. The mass spectrometer was operated in the positive electrospray ionization mode and multiple reactions monitoring mode. A total of 12 of 18 fingernail samples contained detectable 6-monoacetylmorphine (mean=0.43 ng/mg, range=0.10-1.37 ng/mg), morphine (mean=1.74 ng/mg, range=0.58-3.16 ng/mg) and codeine (range from hair samples obtained from the same subjects were positive at the revised Society of Hair Testing cutoff level of 0.2 ng/mg. The concentrations of 6-monoacetylmorphine, acetylcodeine and codeine in hair were significantly higher than those in nails. However, the concentration of MOR in nails was significantly higher than that in hair, except for one sample. All of the ratios of 6-MAM/MOR were below 0.57. It is proposed that nails may be an alternative to hair for documenting heroin abuse.

  6. Hair care and dyeing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draelos, Zoe Diana

    2015-01-01

    Alopecia can be effectively camouflaged or worsened through the use of hair care techniques and dyeing. Proper hair care, involving hair styling and the use of mild shampoos and body-building conditioners, can amplify thinning scalp hair; however, chemical processing, including hair dyeing, permanent waving, and hair straightening, can encourage further hair loss through breakage. Many patients suffering from alopecia attempt to improve their hair through extensive manipulation, which only increases problems. Frequent haircuts to minimize split ends, accompanied by gentle handling of the fragile fibers, is best. This chapter offers the dermatologist insight into hair care recommendations for the alopecia patient.

  7. Female Pattern Hair Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... are signs of hormone imbalance, such as excess facial or body hair, a hormone evaluation should be done. Hormonal changes are a common cause of female hair loss. Many women do not realize that hair loss can occur ...

  8. Premature graying of hair

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pandhi, Deepika; Khanna, Deepshikha

    2013-01-01

    .... It needs to be differentiated from various genetic hypomelanotic hair disorders. Reduction in melanogenically active melanocytes in the hair bulb of gray anagen hair follicles with resultant pigment loss is central to the pathogenesis of graying...

  9. Hair Pulling (Trichotillomania)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Facts for Families Guide Facts for Families - Vietnamese Hair Pulling (Trichotillomania) No. 96; Reviewed July 2013 It ... for children and adolescents to play with their hair. However, frequent or obsessive hair pulling can lead ...

  10. Hair dye poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hair tint poisoning ... Different types of hair dye contain different harmful ingredients. The harmful ingredients in permanent dyes are: Naphthylamine Other aromatic amino compounds Phenylenediamines Toluene ...

  11. From conditioning shampoo to nanomechanics and haptics of human hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Claudia; Sugiharto, Albert Budiman; Max, Eva; Fery, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    Shampoo treatment and hair conditioning have a direct impact on our wellbeing via properties like combability and haptic perception of hair. Therefore, systematic investigations leading to quality improvement of hair care products are of major interest. The aim of our work is a better understanding of complex testing and the correlation with quantitative parameters. The motivation for the development of physical testing methods for hair feel relates to the fact that an ingredient supplier like BASF can only find new, so far not yet toxicologically approved chemistries for hair cosmetics, if an in-vitro method exists.In this work, the effects of different shampoo treatments with conditioning polymers are investigated. The employed physical test method, dry friction measurements and AFM observe friction phenomena on a macroscopic as well as on a nanoscale directly on hair. They are an approach to complement sensoric evaluation with an objective in-vitro method.

  12. Quantitative Morphological and Biochemical Studies on Human Downy Hairs using 3-D Quantitative Phase Imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, SangYun; Lee, Yuhyun; Park, Sungjin; Shin, Heejae; Yang, Jongwon; Ko, Kwanhong; Park, HyunJoo; Park, YongKeun

    2015-01-01

    This study presents the morphological and biochemical findings on human downy arm hairs using 3-D quantitative phase imaging techniques. 3-D refractive index tomograms and high-resolution 2-D synthetic aperture images of individual downy arm hairs were measured using a Mach-Zehnder laser interferometric microscopy equipped with a two-axis galvanometer mirror. From the measured quantitative images, the biochemical and morphological parameters of downy hairs were non-invasively quantified including the mean refractive index, volume, cylinder, and effective radius of individual hairs. In addition, the effects of hydrogen peroxide on individual downy hairs were investigated.

  13. Determinants of hair cortisol and hair cortisone concentrations in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staufenbiel, Sabine M; Penninx, Brenda W J H; de Rijke, Yolanda B; van den Akker, Erica L T; van Rossum, Elisabeth F C

    2015-10-01

    The analysis of hair cortisol concentrations (HairF) is a promising new tool for the assessment of long-term cortisol. With the development of multiple steroid analyses by means of liquid chromatography tandem-mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS), the analysis of cortisone in hair (HairE) has also been facilitated. However, the influence of various types of determinants on HairF and HairE is still largely unknown. This study systematically assesses the influence of sociodemographic, health, lifestyle, and hair (treatment) characteristics on HairF and HairE. Data of 760 psychiatrically healthy participants (71.8% female, mean age 45.89 years) of the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety (NESDA) were used. HairF and HairE were measured in the proximal 3 cm of scalp hair, using LC-MS/MS. HairF and HairE strongly correlated. In simple linear regressions, HairF and HairE were higher in older age, in presence of diabetes mellitus, and in men compared to women. More frequent washing of the hair was associated with lower HairF and HairE. Darker hair colours were associated with higher HairF and HairE. An effect of season and of use of oral contraceptives was found for HairF. After full mutual adjustment, only age, presence of diabetes mellitus, hair washing frequency, and season remained significant determinants of HairF. This large-scale study shows that HairF and HairE are upregulated in older age and in the presence of diabetes mellitus. This suggests that these levels are important for somatic health and should be taken into account when using hair corticosteroid analysis in future studies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Distributions of sulphur and other elements in human hair follicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ollerhead, R.W.; Legge, G.J.F.; Jones, L.N.

    1989-04-01

    Distributions of sulphur and other elements have been measured in several different specimens of human hair follicles. Whole specimens, longitudinal bisections, and 10 /mu/m thick longitudinal sections have been analyzed by PIXE using the Melbourne scanning proton microprobe. Elemental maps consistently showed that sulphur contents of the presumptive hair shaft (PHS) were uniformly low from 0 to 400 /mu/m (bulb end), increased continuously from about 400 to 800 /mu/m, and reached a plateau. Sulphur levels were uniformly low in the inner rooth sheath. These observations are consistent with previous protein analysis of PHS sections, indicating sequential synthesis of the major classes of keratin proteins. Maps of other elements indicated that Si, Ca, and Fe tended to be concentrated randomly, whereas, P, Cl, K, and Zn were more uniformly distributed. Average relative concentrations of Si, P, Cl, K, Ca, Fe, Cu, and Zn were estimated from total X-ray spectra. (orig.).

  15. Ultrastructure of Amelanotic Melanocytes from Human Hair Follicles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ruzhi Zhang; Wenyuan Zhu; Mingyu Xia; Daguang Wang; Huijun Ma

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the ultra structure of amelanotic melanocytes (AMMC). Methods: The hair follicles obtained from normal human scalp by 0.50% collagenase type V treatment were washed with 0.1mol/L phosphate buffer salt (PBS). Hair-follicle cell suspensions were prepared by trypsin treatment and cultured in melanocyte medium. Remaining keratinocytes were removed by differential trypsinization. 100μg/ml geneticin was used to eliminate the contaminating fibroblasts. At third passage, the cells were trypsinized, and then washed in phosphate-buffered saline and processed for transmission electron microscopy. Results: Under transmission electron microscope, the cultured cells showed round or oval shape, with single large nuclear and the karyotheca were double deck. There were obvious euchromosome within the nucleus, and sparse heterochromosome. There were various organelles in the cytoplasm, including plentiful melanosomes with nearly similar size, mitochondria, rough endoplasmic reticule (RER) and ribosome. The electron density granules in most of the melanosomes disposed along concentric circularities. Golgi apparatus in the cells was inconspicuous. Conclusion: The ultra structure of AMMC from human hair follicles is different from that of epidermal melanocytes, and these characteristics determine the functional immature of AMMC.

  16. An overview of chemical straightening of human hair: technical aspects, potential risks to hair fibre and health and legal issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda-Vilela, A L; Botelho, A J; Muehlmann, L A

    2014-02-01

    Personal image, as it relates to external beauty, has attracted much attention from the cosmetic industry, and capillary aesthetics is a leader in consumption in this area. There is a great diversity of products targeting both the treatment and beautification of hair. Among them, hair straighteners stand out with a high demand by costumers aiming at beauty, social acceptance and ease of daily hair maintenance. However, this kind of treatment affects the chemical structure of keratin and of the hair fibre, bringing up some safety concerns. Moreover, the development of hair is a dynamic and cyclic process, where the duration of growth cycles depends not only on where hair grows, but also on issues such as the individual's age, dietary habits and hormonal factors. Thus, although hair fibres are composed of dead epidermal cells, when they emerge from the scalp, there is a huge variation in natural wave and the response to hair cosmetics. Although it is possible to give the hair a cosmetically favourable appearance through the use of cosmetic products, for good results in any hair treatment, it is essential to understand the mechanisms of the process. Important information, such as the composition and structure of the hair fibres, and the composition of products and techniques available for hair straightening, must be taken into account so that the straightening process can be designed appropriately, avoiding undesirable side effects for hair fibre and for health. This review aims to address the morphology, chemical composition and molecular structure of hair fibres, as well as the products and techniques used for chemical hair relaxing, their potential risk to hair fibre and to health and the legal aspects of their use. © 2013 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  17. Hair cosmetics: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavazzoni Dias, Maria Fernanda Reis

    2015-01-01

    Hair cosmetics are an important tool that helps to increase patient's adhesion to alopecia and scalp treatments. This article reviews the formulations and the mode of action of hair cosmetics: Shampoos, conditioners, hair straightening products, hair dyes and henna; regarding their prescription and safetiness. The dermatologist's knowledge of hair care products, their use, and their possible side effects can extend to an understanding of cosmetic resources and help dermatologists to better treat hair and scalp conditions according to the diversity of hair types and ethnicity.

  18. Topographical and Tribological Characteristics of Asian Human Hair Cuticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Ling Chang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The topography and frictional force of Asian black male and female hair cuticles at different locations are determined using atomic force microscopy (AFM and friction force microscopy (FFM. The frictional values, mapped for comparison with surface morphology, corresponded qualitatively with the structures’ plane surface characteristics. The results indicate that the hair surface was damaged and modified at different temperatures and heating times. The height of the female hair at a blowing temperature of 60°C after a duration of 2 min between the cuticle edge and cuticle surface was approximately 440–556 nm. The adhesion phenomenon occurs on the hair surface and interface. The cuticles do not vary after the heating; however, the hair damage sustained increases with serious deterioration.

  19. Strategies to enhance epithelial-mesenchymal interactions for human hair follicle bioengineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohyama, Manabu; Veraitch, Ophelia

    2013-05-01

    Hair follicle morphogenesis and regeneration depend on intensive but well-orchestrated interactions between epithelial and mesenchymal components. Accordingly, the enhancement of this crosstalk represents a promising approach to achieve successful bioengineering of human hair follicles. The present article summarizes the techniques, both currently available and potentially feasible, to promote epithelial-mesenchymal interactions (EMIs) necessary for human hair follicle regeneration. The strategies include the preparation of epithelial components with high receptivity to trichogenic dermal signals and/or mesenchymal cell populations with potent hair inductive capacity. In this regard, bulge epithelial stem cells, keratinocytes predisposed to hair follicle fate or keratinocyte precursor cells with plasticity may provide favorable epithelial cell populations. Dermal papilla cells sustaining intrinsic hair inductive capacity, putative dermal papilla precursor cells in the dermal sheath/neonatal dermis or trichogenic dermal cells derived from undifferentiated stem/progenitor cells are promising candidates as hair inductive dermal cells. The most established protocol for in vivo hair follicle reconstitution is co-grafting of epithelial and mesenchymal components into immunodeficient mice. In theory, combination of individually optimized cellular components of respective lineages should elicit most intensive EMIs to form hair follicles. Still, EMIs can be further ameliorated by the modulation of non-cell autonomous conditions, including cell compartmentalization to replicate the positional relationship in vivo and humanization of host environment by preparing human stromal bed. These approaches may not always synergistically intensify EMIs, however, step-by-step investigation probing optimal combinations should maximally enhance EMIs to achieve successful human hair follicle bioengineering.

  20. The detection of cortisol in human sweat: implications for measurement of cortisol in hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Evan; Koren, Gideon; Rieder, Michael; Van Uum, Stan H M

    2014-02-01

    Hair cortisol analysis has been shown to be an effective measure of chronic stress. Cortisol is assumed to incorporate into hair via serum, sebum, and sweat sources; however, the extent to which sweat contributes to hair cortisol content is unknown. Sweat and saliva samples were collected from 17 subjects after a period of intensive exercise and analyzed by salivary enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Subsequently, an in vitro test on exposure of hair to hydrocortisone was conducted. Residual hair samples were immersed in a 50-ng/mL hydrocortisone solution for periods lasting 15 minutes to 24 hours, followed by a wash or no-wash condition. Hair cortisol content was determined using our modified protocol for a salivary ELISA. Postexercise control sweat cortisol concentrations ranged from 8.16 to 141.7 ng/mL and correlated significantly with the log-transformed time of day. Sweat cortisol levels significantly correlated with salivary cortisol concentrations. In vitro hair exposure to a 50-ng/mL hydrocortisone solution (mimicking sweat) for 60 minutes or more resulted in significantly increased hair cortisol concentrations. Washing with isopropanol did not affect immersion-increased hair cortisol concentrations. Human sweat contains cortisol in concentrations comparable with salivary cortisol levels. This study suggests that perfuse sweating after intense exercise may increase cortisol concentrations detected in hair. This increase likely cannot be effectively decreased with conventional washing procedures and should be considered carefully in studies using hair cortisol as a biomarker of chronic stress.

  1. [Hair and their environment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piérard-Franchimont, C; Piérard, G E

    2015-02-01

    Hair is influenced by the effects of the daily environment. Some toxic xenobiotics slow down or block the cell renewal of the hair matrix, thus inhibiting hair growth. The ultraviolet light obviously influences the physical structure and physiology of the hair follicle. Tobacco is similarly responsible for negative influences on the evolution of various alopecias. Several cosmetic procedures for maintaining and making hair more attractive are not always harmless, and they occasionally represent a possible origin for alopecia.

  2. Brief communication: Hair density and body mass in mammals and the evolution of human hairlessness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandel, Aaron A

    2013-09-01

    Humans are unusual among mammals in appearing hairless. Several hypotheses propose explanations for this phenotype, but few data are available to test these hypotheses. To elucidate the evolutionary history of human "hairlessness," a comparative approach is needed. One previous study on primate hair density concluded that great apes have systematically less dense hair than smaller primates. While there is a negative correlation between body size and hair density, it remains unclear whether great apes have less dense hair than is expected for their body size. To revisit the scaling relationship between hair density and body size in mammals, I compiled data from the literature on 23 primates and 29 nonprimate mammals and conducted Phylogenetic Generalized Least Squares regressions. Among anthropoids, there is a significant negative correlation between hair density and body mass. Chimpanzees display the largest residuals, exhibiting less dense hair than is expected for their body size. There is a negative correlation between hair density and body mass among the broader mammalian sample, although the functional significance of this scaling relationship remains to be tested. Results indicate that all primates, and chimpanzees in particular, are relatively hairless compared to other mammals. This suggests that there may have been selective pressures acting on the ancestor of humans and chimpanzees that led to an initial reduction in hair density. To further understand the evolution of human hairlessness, a systematic study of hair density and physiology in a wide range of species is necessary. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Aging of hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trüeb, Ralph M

    2005-06-01

    The appearance of hair plays an important role in people's overall physical appearance and self-perception. With today's increasing life expectation, the desire to look youthful plays a bigger role than ever. The hair care industry has become aware of this and also more capable to deliver active products that are directed toward meeting this consumer demand. The discovery of pharmacological targets and the development of safe and effective drugs also indicate strategies of the drug industry for maintenance of healthy and beautiful hair. Hair aging comprises weathering of the hair shaft and aging of the hair follicle. The latter manifests as decrease of melanocyte function or graying, and decrease in hair production in androgenetic and senescent alopecia. The scalp is also subject to intrinsic or physiologic aging and extrinsic aging caused by external factors. Intrinsic factors are related to individual genetic and epigenetic mechanisms with interindividual variation. Prototypes are familial premature graying and androgenetic alopecia. Extrinsic factors include ultraviolet radiation and smoking. Experimental evidence supports the hypothesis that oxidative stress plays a role in skin and hair aging. Topical anti-aging compounds for hair include humefactants, hair conditioners, photoprotectors, and antioxidants. Current available treatment modalities with proven efficacy for treatment of androgenetic alopecia are topical minoxidil, oral finasteride, and autologous hair transplantation. In the absence of another way to reverse hair graying, hair colorants are the mainstays of recovering lost hair color. Topical liposome targeting for melanins, genes, and proteins selectively to hair follicles are under current investigation.

  4. The relationship between levels of PCBs and pesticides in human hair and blood: preliminary result.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altshul, Larisa; Covaci, Adrian; Hauser, Russ

    2004-08-01

    Human hair as a biologic measure of exposure to persistent organic pollutants (POPs) has some advantages over the more commonly used blood and adipose tissue samples. However, one of the primary limitations is the difficulty in distinguishing between exogenous and endogenous contamination. In addition, there are currently no standardized methods for hair sample collection, washing, and chemical analysis. There is also very limited information describing the correlation between levels of organic contaminants in hair and other body compartments. To explore levels of POPs in blood and hair, samples from 10 volunteers were collected and analyzed for select organochlorine pesticides and 57 individual polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners. We demonstrated that the method for analyzing organic contaminants in human hair was reliable and reproducible. Washing hair with shampoo decreased levels of PCBs, pesticides, and lipids by 25-33% on average and up to 62% for low-chlorinated congeners. The percentage of lipids and the levels of organochlorines in hair were higher than in serum. We found strong correlation (r = 0.8) between p,p -DDE (dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene) levels in hair and blood and moderate correlations for the more persistent PCB congeners, but no correlations or weak correlations for other organochlorines. The present study provides preliminary evidence on the utility of hair analysis for POPs; however, further larger studies are recommended before hair analysis can be successfully applied in epidemiologic studies on POPs.

  5. AFM studies of environmental effects on nanomechanical properties and cellular structure of human hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhushan, Bharat; Chen, Nianhuan

    2006-01-01

    Characterization of cellular structure and physical and mechanical properties of hair are essential to develop better cosmetic products and advance biological and cosmetic science. Although the morphology of the cellular structure of human hair has been traditionally investigated using scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy, these techniques provide limited capability to in situ study of the physical and mechanical properties of human hair in various environments. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) overcomes these problems and can be used for characterization in ambient conditions without requiring specific sample preparations and surface treatment. In this study, film thickness, adhesive forces and effective Young's modulus of various hair surfaces were measured at different environments (humidity and temperature) using force calibration plot technique with an AFM. Torsional resonance mode phase contrast images were also taken in order to characterize the morphology and cellular structure changes of human hair at different humidity. The correlation between the nanomechanical properties and the cellular structure of hair is discussed.

  6. Compositional changes of human hair melanin resulting from bleach treatment investigated by nanoscale secondary ion mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kojima, Toru; Yamada, Hiromi; Isobe, Mitsuru; Yamamoto, Toshihiko; Takeuchi, Miyuki; Aoki, Dan; Matsushita, Yasuyuki; Fukushima, Kazuhiko

    2014-11-01

    It is important to understand the influence of bleach treatment on human hair because it is one of the most important chemical treatments in hair cosmetic processes. A comparison of the elemental composition of melanin between virgin hair and bleached hair would provide important information about the structural changes of melanin. To investigate the elemental composition of melanin granules in virgin black hair and bleached hair, these hair cross-sections are analyzed by using a nanoscale secondary ion mass spectrometry (NanoSIMS). The virgin black hair and bleached hair samples were embedded in resin and smooth hair cross-sections were obtained using an ultramicrotome. NanoSIMS measurements were performed using a Cs(+) primary ion beam to detect negative secondary ions. More intensive (16) O(-) ions were detected from the melanin granules of bleached hair than from those of virgin black hair in NanoSIMS (16) O(-) ion image. In addition, it was indicated that (16) O(-) ion intensity and (16) O(-) /(12) C(14) N(-) ion intensity ratio of melanin granules in bleached hair were higher than those in virgin black hair. Nanoscale secondary ion mass spectrometry analysis of the cross-sections of virgin black hair and bleached hair indicated that the oxygen content in melanin granules was increased by bleach treatment. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. New trichoscopy findings in trichotillomania: flame hairs, V-sign, hook hairs, hair powder, tulip hairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakowska, Adriana; Slowinska, Monika; Olszewska, Malgorzata; Rudnicka, Lidia

    2014-05-01

    Differential diagnosis of trichotillomania is often difficult in clinical practice. Trichoscopy (hair and scalp dermoscopy) effectively supports differential diagnosis of various hair and scalp diseases. The aim of this study was to assess the usefulness of trichoscopy in diagnosing trichotillomania. The study included 370 patients (44 with trichotillomania, 314 with alopecia areata and 12 with tinea capitis). Statistical analysis revealed that the main and most characteristic trichoscopic findings of trichotillomania are: irregularly broken hairs (44/44; 100% of patients), v-sign (24/44; 57%), flame hairs (11/44; 25%), hair powder (7/44; 16%) and coiled hairs (17/44; 39%). Flame hairs, v-sign, tulip hairs, and hair powder were newly identified in this study. In conclusion, we describe here specific trichoscopy features, which may be applied in quick, non-invasive, in-office differential diagnosis of trichotillomania.

  8. Fourier-transform Raman spectroscopic study of human hair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhtar, W.; Edwards, H. G. M.; Farwell, D. W.; Nutbrown, M.

    1997-07-01

    Fourier-transform Raman microscopic spectra of normal, untreated and bleached hair fibres are presented. Vibrational assignments are made and differences are ascribed to the production of cysteic acid from cysteine. Changes in conformation associated with the disulphide bond in the keratotic component are noted from the ν(CSSC) vibrational modes at wave numbers near 500 cm -1. Raman spectra of hair root ends have also been investigated with a diminution in cysteine content being observed. Application of the technique to the biomedical investigation of healthy and diseased hair is proposed.

  9. "Miniguts" from plucked human hair meet Crohn's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohwieler, M; Renz, S; Liebau, S; Lin, Q; Lechel, A; Klaus, J; Perkhofer, L; Zenke, M; Seufferlein, T; Illing, A; Müller, M; Kleger, A

    2016-08-01

    Human pluripotent stem cells represent a powerful tool to study human embryonic development and disease but also open up novel strategies for cell replacement therapies. Their capacity to give rise to every cell type of the human body, meanwhile, enables researchers to generate high yields of mesodermal, ectodermal, but also endodermal-derived tissues such as hepatic, pancreatic, or intestinal cells. Another progress in the field came with the advent of 3-dimensional culture conditions, so-called organoids, which facilitate maturation of stem cells and in turn more faithfully recapitulate human tissue architecture. While several studies reported the derivation of organoid cultures from adult intestinal tissue, the derivation of intestinal organoids derived from plucked human hair of Crohn's disease patients has not been reported. The current research project reports such successful generation and characterization of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) derived from hair sheet keratinocyte cultures of a patient with Crohn's disease. Stepwise differentiation along the intestinal lineage showed no differences in intermediate stages such as definitive endoderm formation. We also directed the patterned primitive gut tube toward intestinal organoids resembling the cellular architecture of human "miniguts". As expected from current pathophysiological knowledge on Crohn's disease, there were no obvious morphological differences in the "miniguts" derived from healthy control and diseased patient-induced pluripotent stem cells. Taken together, our platform will enable for detailed and complementary phenotyping of the pathophysiology of Crohn's disease in a novel disease-in-a-dish format.

  10. Ageing effects on the diameter, nanomechanical properties and tactile perception of human hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, W; Zhang, S G; Zhang, J K; Chen, S; Zhu, H; Ge, S R

    2016-04-01

    The typical changes to hair associated with ageing are greying, thinning, dryness and brittleness. Research on the influence of ageing on hair properties will enable a detailed understanding of the natural ageing process. The studies were carried out using an SEM (scanning electron microscope), a TriboIndenter and an artificial finger. Three characteristic features of tactile perception that could reflect the perceptual dimensions of the fineness, roughness and slipperiness of hair were extracted. The influences of ageing on the diameter, surface topography, nanomechanical properties and tactile perception of hair were determined. In the three age group hair samples, the children's group hair samples have the smallest diameter. The hair cuticles in the children and young adult groups were relatively complete and less damaged than in the elderly group. The hardness and elastic modulus of the young adult group's hair samples were higher than those in the elderly and children's groups. For all groups, loss modulus E" was smaller than storage modulus E'. Vertical deviations (R) and coefficient of friction (μ) increased, and spectral centroid (SC) decreased, with the increase in age. Ageing decreased the tactile perception of hair. Ageing influences the diameter, surface topography, hardness, loss modulus, storage modulus and tactile perception of human hair. © 2015 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  11. New aspects of the structure of human hair on the basis of optical microscopic observations of disassembled hair parts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamauchi, Asao; Yamauchi, Kiyoshi

    2015-01-01

    Infant' and adult' scalp hair fibers were disassembled to various cellular components and blocks by chemical and enzymatic treatments, followed by random scission with rapidly rotating cutters. The hair fibers were also fractured by the use of a vise. The optical microscopic inspection of these specimens led to the discovery of many previously unknown structures in the hair shaft. In particular, a cuticular cell (Cu) was found to take a trowel-like shape consisting of a part with a blade-like shape (CuB) and a part with a handle-like shape (CuH), where CuB overlapped one another and fused partially to build the honeycomb-like structure on a large cuticular thin plate (CuP). Whereas CuH was closely similar to the cortical cell in dimensions and richness of macrofibrils (Mf). It was considered that human hair is stabilized structurally and physicochemically by the presence of the honeycomb-like structure, the CuP and the Mf.

  12. The cross-sectional size and shape of human terminal scalp hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchinson, P E; Thompson, J R

    1997-02-01

    Change in size of the hair shaft with distance form the scalp has been investigated, using a rotatory profile method of diameter measurement, in terminal human scalp hair of long-haired young Caucasian women. As the whole length of hairs having completed anagen are rarely found intact, two types of hair were investigated: those including segments produced at the onset of anagen ('anagen hairs'), and those including segments produced at the end of anagen ('telogen hairs'). In addition, a method of determining the cause of any size variation has been described and employed. Changes were found in the major axis of the hair cross-section, cross-sectional area and ellipticity with distance from the scalp, while the minor cross-sectional axis remained constant. It was established that these changes were the result of intrafollicular rather than extrafollicular mechanisms. Finally, a composite picture of the cross-sectional size and shape of the 'average' whole anagen hair of the study has been constructed. From the distal tip towards the scalp for approximately 6-8 cm, there was an abrupt increase in size, representing a starting-up phase of early anagen. Following this, the hair was at its greatest cross-sectional size and ellipticity which then progressively decreased through anagen (20% decrease for cross-sectional area and 13% for ellipticity). In contrast, the minor axis of the hair cross-section, remained constant throughout anagen. The hair was not therefore a uniformly sized cylinder. It was approximately spear-shaped, being broadened out in one plane distally where it was more elliptical. Subsequently as anagen progressed the hair shaft became smaller and more circular.

  13. AFM friction and adhesion mapping of the substructures of human hair cuticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, James R., E-mail: james.smith@port.ac.uk [School of Pharmacy and Biomedical Sciences, University of Portsmouth, St Michael' s Building, White Swan Road, Portsmouth, PO1 2DT (United Kingdom); Tsibouklis, John; Nevell, Thomas G. [School of Pharmacy and Biomedical Sciences, University of Portsmouth, St Michael' s Building, White Swan Road, Portsmouth, PO1 2DT (United Kingdom); Breakspear, Steven [School of Pharmacy and Biomedical Sciences, University of Portsmouth, St Michael' s Building, White Swan Road, Portsmouth, PO1 2DT (United Kingdom); Global R and D–Hair Beauty Laboratory, Kao Corporation, 2-1-3, Bunka Sumida-ku, Tokyo, 131-8501 (Japan)

    2013-11-15

    Using atomic force microscopy, values of the microscale friction coefficient, the tip (silicon nitride) - surface adhesion force and the corresponding adhesion energy, for the substructures that constitute the surface of human hair (European brown hair) have been determined from Amonton plots. The values, mapped for comparison with surface topography, corresponded qualitatively with the substructures’ plane surface characteristics. Localised maps and values of the frictional coefficient, extracted avoiding scale edge effects, are likely to inform the formulation of hair-care products and treatments.

  14. Kinetics and equilibrium of solute diffusion into human hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Liming; Chen, Longjian; Han, Lujia; Lian, Guoping

    2012-12-01

    The uptake kinetics of five molecules by hair has been measured and the effects of pH and physical chemical properties of molecules were investigated. A theoretical model is proposed to analyze the experimental data. The results indicate that the binding affinity of solute to hair, as characterized by hair-water partition coefficient, scales to the hydrophobicity of the solute and decreases dramatically as the pH increases to the dissociation constant. The effective diffusion coefficient of solute depended not only on the molecular size as most previous studies suggested, but also on the binding affinity as well as solute dissociation. It appears that the uptake of molecules by hair is due to both hydrophobic interaction and ionic charge interaction. Based on theoretical considerations of the cellular structure, composition and physical chemical properties of hair, quantitative-structure-property-relationships (QSPR) have been proposed to predict the hair-water partition coefficient (PC) and the effective diffusion coefficient (D (e)) of solute. The proposed QSPR models fit well with the experimental data. This paper could be taken as a reference for investigating the adsorption properties for polymeric materials, fibres, and biomaterials.

  15. Nanotribological and nanomechanical characterization of human hair using a nanoscratch technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei Guohua [Nanotribology Laboratory for Information Storage and MEMS/NEMS, Ohio State University, 650 Ackerman Road, Suite 255, Columbus, OH 43202 (United States); Bhushan, Bharat [Nanotribology Laboratory for Information Storage and MEMS/NEMS, Ohio State University, 650 Ackerman Road, Suite 255, Columbus, OH 43202 (United States)]. E-mail: bhushan.2@osu.edu

    2006-06-15

    Human hair ({approx}50-100 {mu}m in diameter) is a nanocomposite biological fiber with well-characterized microstructures, and is of great interest for both cosmetic science and materials science. Characterization of nanotribological and nanomechanical properties of human hair including the coefficient of friction and scratch resistance is essential to develop better shampoo and conditioner products and advance biological and cosmetic science. In this paper, the coefficient of friction and scratch resistance of Caucasian and Asian hair at virgin, chemo-mechanically damaged, and conditioner-treated conditions are measured using a nanoscratch technique with a Nano Indenter II system. The scratch tests were performed on both the single cuticle cell and multiple cuticle cells of each hair sample, and the scratch wear tracks were studied using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) after the scratch tests. The effect of soaking on the coefficient of friction, scratch resistance, hardness and Young's modulus of hair surface were also studied by performing experiments on hair samples which had been soaked in de-ionized water for 5 min. The nanotribological and nanomechanical properties of human hair as a function of hair structure (hair of different ethnicity), damage, treatment and soaking are discussed.

  16. Mercury concentration change in human hair after the ingestion of canned tuna fish

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inasmasu, T.; Ogo, A.; Yanagawa, M.; Keshino, M.; Hirakoba, A.; Takahashi, K.; Ishinish, N.

    1986-10-01

    The concentration of mercury in the hair of man has been conveniently used as an indicator of environmental exposure to mercury. In particular, studies concerning the relationship between the concentration of mercury in the hair and the dietary intake of mercury have revealed that the amount of fish consumed significantly affects the mercury concentration in the scalp hair. However, the quantitative relationship between the mercury concentration in the hair and the dietary intake of mercury has been scarcely proven. This is because mercury concentration in hair sampled reflects the degree of exposure from diet in the past, and because the dietary measurements of mercury generally depend on individuals remembering accurately or having recorded their intake of fish in the past. In an attempt to elucidate this problem. The authors assessed the mercury concentration in the hair of human subjects who ingested a certain amount of canned tuna fish.

  17. Investigation of human hair fibers using lateral force microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMullen, R L; Kelty, S P

    2001-01-01

    Atomic force microscopy (AFM) and lateral force microscopy (LFM) were used to investigate the morphologic and surface changes associated with various surface modifications to human hair. These included extraction with a series of solvents, bleaching, and treatment with a cationic copolymer. The study assessed the ability of these techniques to distinguish the changes in surface properties, including morphology and friction coefficient, as manifested in changes brought about by the indicated surface modifications. While topographic morphology can easily be investigated with contact AFM. LFM offers an additional tool for probing the surface distribution of oils and waxes. The removal of surface lipids from the fiber surface was accomplished using soxhlet extraction with t-butanol and n-hexane, while the free internal lipids (within the fiber structure) were removed by extraction with a mixture of chloroform and methanol (70:30, v/v). In addition, the surface of hair was modified with the cationic polymer, co(vinyl pyrrolidone-methacrylamidopropyl trimethylammonium chloride [PVP/MAPTAC]), and its distribution on the surface was monitored. Ambient AFM and LFM studies of surface modified and native fibers clearly indicate that when investigated as a function of tip loading force, the different modifications result in changes of the friction coefficient, which increase in this order: native, bleached, solvent extracted, and polymer-treated hair. Friction images show surface variations that are interpreted as areas of varying lipid film coverage. In addition, topographic images of the fibers show the presence of small pores, which become increasingly prevalent upon solvent extraction.

  18. Forensic Science: Hair Identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Elhannan L.

    1980-01-01

    Presented is an activity in which students use a microscope to do a forensic hair comparative study and a medullary classification. Mounting methods, medulla types, hair photographs, and activities are described. (DS)

  19. Hair removal in adolescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Pereira

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Due to hormonal stimulation during puberty, changes occur in hair type and distribution. In both sexes, body and facial unwanted hair may have a negative psychological impact on the teenager. There are several available methods of hair removal, but the choice of the most suitable one for each individual can raise doubts. Objective: To review the main methods of hair removal and clarify their indications, advantages and disadvantages. Development: There are several removal methods currently available. Shaving and depilation with chemicals products are temporary methods, that need frequent repetition, because hair removal is next to the cutaneous surface. The epilating methods in which there is full hair extraction include: epilation with wax, thread, tweezers, epilating machines, laser, intense pulsed light, and electrolysis. Conclusions: The age of beginning hair removal and the method choice must be individualized and take into consideration the skin and hair type, location, dermatological and endocrine problems, removal frequency, cost and personal preferences.

  20. Hair straightener poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002706.htm Hair straightener poisoning To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Hair straightener poisoning occurs when someone swallows products that ...

  1. Hair spray poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002705.htm Hair spray poisoning To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Hair spray poisoning occurs when someone breathes in (inhales) ...

  2. Mercury analysis in hair

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esteban, Marta; Schindler, Birgit K; Jiménez-Guerrero, José A

    2015-01-01

    Human biomonitoring (HBM) is an effective tool for assessing actual exposure to chemicals that takes into account all routes of intake. Although hair analysis is considered to be an optimal biomarker for assessing mercury exposure, the lack of harmonization as regards sampling and analytical...... assurance program (QAP) for assessing mercury levels in hair samples from more than 1800 mother-child pairs recruited in 17 European countries. To ensure the comparability of the results, standard operating procedures (SOPs) for sampling and for mercury analysis were drafted and distributed to participating...

  3. Boys With Long Hair

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙利英

    2005-01-01

    Long hair is popular among the young people.Even the boy students in high school join in this group.Some boy students would rather wear long hair,some even change their hair's color into golden,red,brown and pink.Why?

  4. Developmental regulation of planar cell polarity and hair-bundle morphogenesis in auditory hair cells: lessons from human and mouse genetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xiaowei; Sipe, Conor W

    2016-01-01

    Hearing loss is the most common and costly sensory defect in humans and genetic causes underlie a significant proportion of affected individuals. In mammals, sound is detected by hair cells (HCs) housed in the cochlea of the inner ear, whose function depends on a highly specialized mechanotransduction organelle, the hair bundle. Understanding the factors that regulate the development and functional maturation of the hair bundle is crucial for understanding the pathophysiology of human deafness. Genetic analysis of deafness genes in animal models, together with complementary forward genetic screens and conditional knock-out mutations in essential genes, have provided great insights into the molecular machinery underpinning hair-bundle development and function. In this review, we highlight recent advances in our understanding of hair-bundle morphogenesis, with an emphasis on the molecular pathways governing hair-bundle polarity and orientation. We next discuss the proteins and structural elements important for hair-cell mechanotransduction as well as hair-bundle cohesion and maintenance. In addition, developmental signals thought to regulate tonotopic features of HCs are introduced. Finally, novel approaches that complement classic genetics for studying the molecular etiology of human deafness are presented. WIREs Dev Biol 2016, 5:85-101. doi: 10.1002/wdev.202 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website.

  5. Optical properties of the medulla and the cortex of human scalp hair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharin, Aleksey; Varghese, Babu; Verhagen, Rieko; Uzunbajakava, Natallia

    2009-03-01

    An increasing number of applications, including non- or minimally invasive diagnostics and treatment as well as various cosmetic procedures, has resulted in a need to determine the optical properties of hair and its structures. We report on the measurement of the total attenuation coefficient of the cortex and the medulla of blond, gray, and Asian black human scalp hair at a 633-nm wavelength. Our results show that for blond and gray hair the total attenuation coefficient of the medulla is more than 200 times higher compared to that of the cortex. This difference is only 1.5 times for Asian black hair. Furthermore, we present the total attenuation coefficient of the cortex of blond, gray, light brown, and Asian black hair measured at wavelengths of 409, 532, 633, 800, and 1064 nm. The total attenuation coefficient consistently decreases with an increase in wavelength, as well as with a decrease in hair pigmentation. Additionally, we demonstrate the dependence of the total attenuation coefficient of the cortex and the medulla of Asian black hair on the polarization of incident light. A similar dependence is observed for the cortex of blond and gray hair but not for the medulla of these hair types.

  6. Characterization of human ovarian teratoma hair by using AFM, FT-IR, and Raman spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyung Sook; Lee, Jinwoo; Jung, Min-Hyung; Choi, Young Joon; Park, Hun-Kuk

    2011-12-01

    The structural, physical, and chemical properties of hair taken from an ovarian teratoma (teratoma hair) was first examined by atomic force microscopy (AFM), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), and Raman spectroscopy. The similarities and differences between the teratoma hair and scalp hair were also investigated. Teratoma hair showed a similar morphology and chemical composition to scalp hair. Teratoma hair was covered with a cuticle in the same manner as scalp hair and showed the same amide bonding modes as scalp hair according to FT-IR and Raman spectroscopy. On the other hand, teratoma hair showed different physical properties and cysteic acid bands from scalp hair: the surface was rougher and the adhesive force was lower than the scalp hair. The cystine oxides modes did not change with the position unlike scalp hair. These differences can be understood by environmental effects not by the intrinsic properties of the teratoma hair.

  7. Induction of hair follicle regeneration in rat ear by mi-croencapsulated human hair dermal papilla cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIN Chang-min; LI Yu; JI Ying-chang; HUANG Keng; CAI Xiang-na; LI Guo-qiang

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To induce hair follicle regeneration in rat ear by microencapsulated dermal papillae (DP) cells.Methods: Intact dermal papillae were obtained from human scalp follicles which were digested with collagenase I. The human hair DP cells were encapsulated with alginate-polylysine-alginate (APA) by a high-voltage electric field droplet generator. The diameters of the DP cell microcapsules were optimized by regulating the voltage, the distance be-tween the needle head and the solution surface and the injection speed. Then DP cell microencapsulations were xenotransplanted into ears of 20 SD rats with a novel method. One rat was killed every week at the postoperative 2-12 weeks and the implantation sites were biopsied for histo-logical observation.Results: The DP cell microencapsulations were found in a group of round, smooth and transparent microcapsules under a phase-contrast microscope. The optimal combina-tion of parameters to obtain 0.4 mm DP cell microcapsules was voltage 7.0 kV, injection speed 55 mm/h, and distance 10mm. After 4-12 weeks, 18 of 20 DP cell microcapsule implan-tations had produced high-density hair. Histological obser-vation indicated that both large follicles and sebaceous gland structures were formed in the rat ear within 3-12 weeks.Conclusions: These findings show that the DP cell microencapsulation maintain the capacity for initiating the follicle regeneration and can be considered as a substitute for fresh isolated dermal papillae.

  8. Ultrastructural localization of hair keratins, high sulfur keratin-associated proteins and sulfhydryl oxidase in the human hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alibardi, Lorenzo

    2017-03-01

    Hardening of the human hair shaft during cornification results from the bonding of keratins and keratin-associated proteins. In situ hybridization and light immunocytochemical studies have shown the general distribution of different keratins and some associated proteins but not determined their ultrastructural localization. I report here the localization of hair keratins, two high-sulfur keratin-associated proteins and sulfhydryl oxidase has been studied under the transmission electron microscope in the cornification zone of the human hair. The ultrastructural study on keratin distribution in general confirms previous light microscopic studies. Sulfur-rich KAP1 is mainly cortical but the labeling disappears in fully cornified cortical cells while a diffuse labeling is also present in differentiating cuticle cells. Sulfur-rich K26 immunolocalization is only detected in the exocuticle and endocuticle. Sparse labeling for sulfhydryl oxidase occurs in differentiating cortical cells but is weak and uneven in cuticle cells and absent in medulla and inner root sheath. Labeling disappears in the upper fully cornified cortex and cuticle. The observations indicate that sulfhydryl oxidase and keratin associated proteins are initially produced in the cytoplasm among keratin bundles accumulating in cortical and cuticle cells but these proteins undergo changes during the following cornification that alter the epitopes tagged by the antibodies.

  9. Determination of physicochemical properties of delipidized hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMullen, Roger L; Laura, Donna; Chen, Susan; Koelmel, Donald; Zhang, Guojin; Gillece, Timothy

    2013-01-01

    Using various physicochemical methods of analysis, we examined human hair in its virgin and delipidized state. Free lipids were removed by a solvent extraction technique (covalently bound lipids were not removed) using a series of solvents with varying polarity. We analyzed the surface properties of hair by conducting mechanical combing and dynamic contact angle analysis. In addition, we used inverse gas chromatography surface energy analysis to explore the chemical composition of the hair surface based on interactions of various nonpolar and polar probes with biological molecules residing on the hair surface. Further, we investigated the importance that free lipids play in the internal structural properties of hair using dynamic scanning calorimetry and tensile strength measurements. The microstructure of the hair surface was probed by atomic force microscopy, whereas the lipid content of hair's morphological components was determined by infrared spectroscopic imaging. We also monitored the water management properties of virgin and delipidized hair by dynamic vapor sorption, which yielded unique water sorption isotherms for each hair type. Using all these techniques, differences were found in the chemical composition and physical behavior of virgin and delipidized hair. To better understand the influence of hair lipid composition on hair styling treatments, we conducted mechanical analyses of hair shaped into omega loops to determine the stiffness, elasticity, and flexibility of hair-polymer assemblies. Although there were no discernible differences between untreated virgin and delipidized hair, in terms of stiffness and elasticity, we found that treatment with hair styling agents produced different effects depending on the hair type used. Likewise, streaming potential measurements were carried out to monitor the binding capacity of rinse-off treatments on virgin and delipidized hair. Using this technique, we monitored the surface potential of hair and found

  10. Hair dye contact allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søsted, Heidi; Rastogi, Suresh Chandra; Andersen, Klaus Ejner

    2004-01-01

    Colouring of hair can cause severe allergic contact dermatitis. The most frequently reported hair dye allergens are p-phenylenediamine (PPD) and toluene-2,5-diamine, which are included in, respectively, the patch test standard series and the hairdressers series. The aim of the present study...... was to identify dye precursors and couplers in hair dyeing products causing clinical hair dye dermatitis and to compare the data with the contents of these compounds in a randomly selected set of similar products. The patient material comprised 9 cases of characteristic clinical allergic hair dye reaction, where...... exposure history and patch testing had identified a specific hair dye product as the cause of the reaction. The 9 products used by the patients were subjected to chemical analysis. 8 hair dye products contained toluene-2,5-diamine (0.18 to 0.98%). PPD (0.27%) was found in 1 product, and m-aminophenol (0...

  11. Hair cosmetics: dyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra-Tapia, A; Gonzalez-Guerra, E

    2014-11-01

    Hair plays a significant role in body image, and its appearance can be changed relatively easily without resort to surgical procedures. Cosmetics and techniques have therefore been used to change hair appearance since time immemorial. The cosmetics industry has developed efficient products that can be used on healthy hair or act on concomitant diseases of the hair and scalp. Dyes embellish the hair by bleaching or coloring it briefly, for temporary periods of longer duration, or permanently, depending on the composition of a dye (oxidative or nonoxidative) and its degree of penetration of the hair shaft. The dermatologist's knowledge of dyes, their use, and their possible side effects (contact eczema, cancer, increased porosity, brittleness) can extend to an understanding of cosmetic resources that also treat hair and scalp conditions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and AEDV. All rights reserved.

  12. Chemical and photochemical degradation of human hair: a free-volume microprobe study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrashekara, M N; Ranganathaiah, C

    2010-12-02

    The microstructural changes in human hair due to chemical and photochemical oxidative processes have been monitored in terms of free volume employing Positron Annihilation Lifetime Spectroscopy (PALS). The results show that upon UV exposure the photosensitive amino acid residues present in the amorphous domains of virgin/bleached hair cross-link under ambient conditions. Further, the bleached hair readily undergoes photodamage in comparison with the virgin hair implying the diminished photoprotective action of the melanin granules within it. Swelling of hair fiber was evident in the early stages of UV exposure (bleaching, and humidification subsequent to irradiation. Swelling and cross-linking were the two main processes observed following UV exposure, which oppositely affect the free volume holes size. Supplementary techniques such as DSC and XRD were used to support/extend the interpretation of the PALS results. The UV irradiation resulted in reduction of the average crystallite size in hair, which is attributed to the possible fragmentation of protein domains. The present work is the first positron lifetime measurement on human hair that demonstrates the ability of PALS to provide information on hair damage at molecular level, a vital input for cosmetic industry and applicable to biopolymers research as well. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Analysis of structural changes in bleached keratin fibers (black and white human hair) using Raman spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzuhara, Akio

    2006-04-15

    To investigate the influence of bleaching treatments on keratin fibers, the structure of cross-sections at various depths of bleached human hair (black and white human hair) was directly analyzed without isolating the cuticle and cortex, using Raman spectroscopy. The S-S band intensity existing from the cuticle region to the center of cortex region of virgin white human hair decreased, while the S-O band intensity at 1040 cm(-1), assigned to cysteic acid, increased by performing the bleaching treatment. Especially, the S-O band intensity of the cuticle region increased remarkably compared with that of the cortex region. Also, the amide III (unordered) band intensity in the cortex region increased, indicating that some of the proteins existing throughout the cortex region changed to the random coil form. Moreover, it has been found that the S-S band intensity existing from the cuticle region to the center of the cortex region of the virgin black human hair decreased remarkably, while the S-O band intensity increased significantly compared with that of the virgin white human hair by performing the bleaching treatment. From these experiments, we concluded that the melanin granules including metal ions act as a decomposition accelerator for the oxidizing agent, thereby leading to a higher level of disulfide (-SS-) group cleavage in the black human hair compared with that of the white human hair. Copyright 2006 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Human Hair “Waste” and Its Utilization: Gaps and Possibilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ankush Gupta

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Human hair is considered a waste material in most parts of the world and its accumulation in waste streams causes many environmental problems; however, it has many known uses. Preventing waste of such a material requires both addressing the problems in the current usage and developing its utilization systems at locations where they are missing. With focus on developing systematic utilization of human hair waste, this paper first reviews the possible uses of human hair gathered from large scale trades, local/traditional knowledge, upcoming innovations, and scientific research; along with the socioeconomic systems that have evolved around the known uses. Concerns and gaps in these systems are identified and possible directions to address these gaps are discussed. For expanding hair utilization to new contexts, important considerations such as knowledge, skill, and technology requirements and potential markets are discussed. Finally, a policy framework for socially and environmentally healthy utilization of human hair is outlined. This study shows that human hair is a highly versatile material with significant potential in several critical areas such as agriculture, medical applications, construction materials, and pollution control. Moreover, these uses are diverse enough for entrepreneurs ranging from unskilled to highly technical individuals and for the wide variety of human hair waste available in different locations.

  15. Human hair shaft proteomic profiling: individual differences, site specificity and cuticle analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chelsea N. Laatsch

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Hair from different individuals can be distinguished by physical properties. Although some data exist on other species, examination of the individual molecular differences within the human hair shaft has not been thoroughly investigated. Shotgun proteomic analysis revealed considerable variation in profile among samples from Caucasian, African–American, Kenyan and Korean subjects. Within these ethnic groups, prominent keratin proteins served to distinguish individual profiles. Differences between ethnic groups, less marked, relied to a large extent on levels of keratin associated proteins. In samples from Caucasian subjects, hair shafts from axillary, beard, pubic and scalp regions exhibited distinguishable profiles, with the last being most different from the others. Finally, the profile of isolated hair cuticle cells was distinguished from that of total hair shaft by levels of more than 20 proteins, the majority of which were prominent keratins. The cuticle also exhibited relatively high levels of epidermal transglutaminase (TGM3, accounting for its observed low degree of protein extraction by denaturants. In addition to providing insight into hair structure, present findings may lead to improvements in differentiating hair from various ethnic origins and offer an approach to extending use of hair in crime scene evidence for distinguishing among individuals.

  16. Correlates of cortisol in human hair: implications for epidemiologic studies on health effects of chronic stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wosu, Adaeze C; Valdimarsdóttir, Unnur; Shields, Alexandra E; Williams, David R; Williams, Michelle A

    2013-12-01

    Assessment of cortisol concentrations in hair is one of the latest innovations for measuring long-term cortisol exposure. We performed a systematic review of correlates of cortisol in human hair to inform the design, analysis, and interpretation of future epidemiologic studies. Relevant publications were identified through electronic searches on PubMed, WorldCat, and Web of Science using keywords, "cortisol," "hair," "confounders," "chronic," "stress," and "correlates." Thirty-nine studies were included in this review. Notwithstanding scarce data and some inconsistencies, investigators have found hair cortisol concentrations to be associated with stress-related psychiatric symptoms and disorders (e.g., post-traumatic stress disorder), medical conditions indicating chronic activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (e.g., Cushing's syndrome), and other life situations associated with elevated risk of chronic stress (e.g., shiftwork). Results from some studies suggest that physical activity, adiposity, and substance abuse may be correlates of hair cortisol concentrations. In contrast to measures of short-term cortisol release (saliva, blood, and urine), cigarette smoking and use of oral contraceptives appear not to be associated with hair cortisol concentrations. Studies of pregnant women indicate increased hair cortisol concentrations across successive trimesters. The study of hair cortisol presents a unique opportunity to assess chronic alterations in cortisol concentrations in epidemiologic studies.

  17. Noninvasive method for assessing the human circadian clock using hair follicle cells

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Makoto Akashi; Haruhiko Soma; Takuro Yamamoto; Asuka Tsugitomi; Shiko Yamashita; Takuya Yamamoto; Eisuke Nishida; Akio Yasuda; James K. Liao; Koichi Node; Joseph S. Takahashi

    2010-01-01

    .... This limitation has greatly hampered our understanding of human circadian rhythm. Here we report a convenient, reliable, and less invasive method for detecting human clock gene expression using biopsy samples of hair follicle cells from the head or chin...

  18. Reduction-induced surface modification of human hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamath, Yash K; Ruetsch, Sigrid B

    2010-01-01

    A microfluorometric method has been developed to characterize lipid removal or "delipidation" of the human hair cuticula during light exposure and chemical grooming processes such as oxidation (bleaching) and reduction. In the case of photochemical and chemical oxidation, lipid removal ("delipidation" of the F-layer or lipid-layer) from the outer beta-layer of the exposed scale faces and generation of cysteic acid groups occurs. This "delipidation," which ultimately results in "acidification" of the scale faces, leading to a change in surface chemistry from hydrophobic to hydrophilic, can be detected and quantified by microfluorometry by tagging, e.g., with the cationic fluorochrome Rhodamine B. In the case of reduction, similar tagging of the acid sites on the scale faces is possible, but this time, Rhodamine B reacts with the mixed disulfide containing a carboxyl group that will be ionized above a pH of about 4. In addition to this, we have shown by microfluorometric scanning that the negative charges generated in the cuticle surface can be used to bind low-molecular-weight quaternary conditioners. This process can be considered as "relipidation" or "refatting" of the scale faces. We have shown in earlier studies (1) that this entire process of oxidation-induced "delipidation" and subsequent "relipidation" of the acidic scale faces with a cationic conditioning molecule can also be reliably quantified by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Furthermore, single-fiber wettability scanning using the Wilhelmy technique, which is highly sensitive to any changes in surface chemistry, is well-suited to detect and characterize treatment-induced changes in the chemical nature of the hair surface from hydrophobic to hydrophilic.

  19. Hair cosmetics and camouflage technics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahide Eriş Eken

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Hair is composed of a mixture of trace elements in small quantities, proteins, lipids and water. Proteins consist of helical polypeptide amino acid molecules. In the hair cells; polypeptide chains of keratin protein would be organized in filaments. In recent years, hair cosmetics showed a significant change and development. The content of shampoos which is used to cleanse the hair has enhanced significantly. Hair conditioner, hair styling products, pomades, brilliantine, and gloss sprays, hair protective products, camouflage products are most commonly used hair cosmetics. Hair shaping procedures are frequently applied.

  20. Human hair follicle: reservoir function and selective targeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blume-Peytavi, U; Vogt, A

    2011-10-01

    Penetration of topically applied compounds may occur via the stratum corneum, skin appendages and hair follicles. The follicular infundibulum increases the surface area, disrupts the epidermal barrier towards the lower parts of the follicle, and serves as a reservoir. Topical delivery of active compounds to specific targets within the skin, especially to distinct hair follicle compartments or cell populations, may help to treat local inflammatory reactions selectively, with reduced systemic side-effects. Various in vitro and in vivo methods exist for studying the hair follicle structure and follicular penetration pathways. These include cyanoacrylate skin surface stripping, confocal microscopy and cyanoacrylate scalp follicle biopsy. The complex anatomical structure as well as the cyclical activity of the hair follicle must be taken into consideration when designing delivery systems. In addition, delivery into and retention inside the infundibular reservoir are controlled by, for example, molecule or particle size, their polarity and the type of preparation. Preferred penetration depth and storage time must also be considered. Particles with release mechanisms should be preferred; however, the release of drugs from nanoparticles still requires further investigations.

  1. Human systemic exposure to [14C]-paraphenylenediamine-containing oxidative hair dyes: Absorption, kinetics, metabolism, excretion and safety assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nohynek, G.J.; Skare, J.A.; Meuling, W.J.A.; Wehmeyer, K.R.; Bie, A.T.H.J. de; Vaes, W.H.J.; Dufour, E.K.; Fautz, R.; Steiling, W.; Bramante, M.; Toutain, H.

    2015-01-01

    Systemic exposure was measured in humans after hair dyeing with oxidative hair dyes containing 2.0% (A) or 1.0% (B) [14C]-p-phenylenediamine (PPD). Hair was dyed, rinsed, dried, clipped and shaved; blood and urine samples were collected for 48 hours after application. [14C] was measured in all

  2. Circumferential ′ Woolly Hair Naevus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thadeus J

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Woolly hair naevus presents as a circumscribed area of tightly coiled hair since birth, in an individual of non-negroid origin. We report a 10 year old boy of Indian origin who presented with woolly hair in the periphery of the scalp and normal straight hair in the center-mimicking a straight hair naevus.

  3. Development and validation of an extraction method for the analysis of perfluoroalkyl substances in human hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Da-Hye; Oh, Jeong-Eun

    2017-02-16

    Human hair has many advantages as a non-invasive sample; however, analytical methods for detecting perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in human hair are still in the development stage. Therefore, the aim of this study was to develop and validate a method for monitoring 11 PFASs in human hair. Solid-phase extraction (SPE), ion-pairing extraction (IPE), a combined method (SPE+IPE) and solvent extraction with ENVI-carb clean-up were compared to develop an optimal extraction method using two types of hair sample (powder and piece forms). Analysis of PFASs was performed using liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry. Among the four different extraction procedures, the SPE method using powdered hair showed the best extraction efficiency and recoveries ranged from 85.8 to 102%. The method detection limits for the SPE method were 0.114-0.796 ng/g and good precision (below 10%) and accuracy (66.4-110%) were obtained. In light of these results, SPE is considered the optimal method for PFAS extraction from hair. It was also successfully used to detect PFASs in human hair samples.

  4. Analysis of internal structure changes in black human hair keratin fibers with aging using Raman spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzuhara, Akio; Fujiwara, Nobuki; Hori, Teruo

    To investigate the internal structure changes in virgin black human hair keratin fibers due to aging, the structure of cross-sections at various depths of virgin black human hair (sections of new growth hair: 2 mm from the scalp) from a group of eight Japanese females in their twenties and another group of eight Japanese females in their fifties were analyzed using Raman spectroscopy. For the first time, we have succeeded in recording the Raman spectra of virgin black human hair, which had been impossible due to high melanin granule content. The key points of this method are to cross-section hair samples to a thickness of 1.50-microm, to select points at various depths of the cortex with the fewest possible melanin granules, and to optimize laser power, cross slit width as well as total acquisition time. The reproducibility of the Raman bands, namely the alpha-helix (alpha) content, the beta-sheet and/or random coil (beta/R) content, the disulfide (--SS--) content, and random coil content of two adjoining cross-sections of a single hair keratin fiber was clearly good. The --SS-- content of virgin black human hair from the Japanese females in their fifties for the cortex region decreased compared with that of the Japanese females in their twenties. On the other hand, the beta/R and alpha contents of the cortex region did not change.

  5. Detection of nandrolone, testosterone, and their esters in rat and human hair samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höld, K M; Borges, C R; Wilkins, D G; Rollins, D E; Joseph, R E

    1999-10-01

    Nandrolone and testosterone are anabolic androgenic steroids occasionally abused by athletes. A sensitive, specific, and reproducible gas chromatography-mass spectrometry method for the quantitative determination of nandrolone, testosterone, and their esters in hair has been developed. The limits of quantitation of this method, based on 20 mg of hair, were 50 pg/mg for nandrolone and testosterone, 100 pg/mg for testosterone acetate, and 200 pg/mg for nandrolone-decanoate. Nandrolone-d3 and testosterone-d3 were used as internal standards. This method has been applied to the analysis of these compounds incorporated into rat and human hair. Male Long-Evans rats were given nandrolone decanoate 60 mg/kg intraperitoneally (i.p.) once daily for 10 days over a time period of 14 days. Two of the three rats contained nandrolone in the pigmented hair collected at day 21 at a concentration of 63 and 76 pg/mg, respectively. No drug was found in the corresponding nonpigmented hair. The rat hair samples that tested positive for nandrolone contained also nandrolone decanoate in concentrations of 0.9 and 1.2 ng/mg, respectively. In a separate experiment rats were given testosterone acetate 10 mg/kg i.p. once daily for five days. No testosterone or testosterone acetate was detected in the rat hair samples. Hair specimens were also obtained from four self-reported steroid users. The hair of two subjects were determined to be positive for testosterone in concentrations of 54 and 81 pg/mg. These data demonstrate that it is possible to detect the steroids nandrolone, testosterone, and nandrolone decanoate in hair after systemic administration.

  6. Proteomic Analysis of Hair Follicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishioka, Noriaki; Terada, Masahiro; Yamada, Shin; Seki, Masaya; Takahashi, Rika; Majima, Hideyuki J.; Higashibata, Akira; Mukai, Chiaki

    2013-02-01

    Hair root cells actively divide in a hair follicle, and they sensitively reflect physical conditions. By analyzing the human hair, we can know stress levels on the human body and metabolic conditions caused by microgravity environment and cosmic radiation. The Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) has initiated a human research study to investigate the effects of long-term space flight on gene expression and mineral metabolism by analyzing hair samples of astronauts who stayed in the International Space Station (ISS) for 6 months. During long-term flights, the physiological effects on astronauts include muscle atrophy and bone calcium loss. Furthermore, radiation and psychological effects are important issue to consider. Therefore, an understanding of the effects of the space environment is important for developing countermeasures against the effects experienced by astronauts. In this experiment, we identify functionally important target proteins that integrate transcriptome, mineral metabolism and proteome profiles from human hair. To compare the protein expression data with the gene expression data from hair roots, we developed the protein processing method. We extracted the protein from five strands of hair using ISOGEN reagents. Then, these extracted proteins were analyzed by LC-MS/MS. These collected profiles will give us useful physiological information to examine the effect of space flight.

  7. Female hair restoration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unger, Robin H

    2013-08-01

    Female hair loss is a devastating issue for women that has only relatively recently been publicly acknowledged as a significant problem. Hair transplant surgery is extremely successful in correcting the most cosmetically problematic areas of alopecia. This article discusses the surgical technique of hair transplantation in women in detail, including pearls to reduce postoperative sequelae and planning strategies to ensure a high degree of patient satisfaction. A brief overview of some of the medical treatments found to be helpful in slowing or reversing female pattern hair loss is included, addressing the available hormonal and topical treatments.

  8. Laser hair removal pearls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tierney, Emily P; Goldberg, David J

    2008-03-01

    A number of lasers and light devices are now available for the treatment of unwanted hair. The goal of laser hair removal is to damage stem cells in the bulge of the follicle through the targeting of melanin, the endogenous chromophore for laser and light devices utilized to remove hair. The competing chromophores in the skin and hair, oxyhemoglobin and water, have a decreased absorption between 690 nm and 1000 nm, thus making this an ideal range for laser and light sources. Pearls of laser hair removal are presented in this review, focusing on four areas of recent development: 1 treatment of blond, white and gray hair; 2 paradoxical hypertrichosis; 3 laser hair removal in children; and 4 comparison of lasers and IPL. Laser and light-based technologies to remove hair represents one of the most exciting areas where discoveries by dermatologists have led to novel treatment approaches. It is likely that in the next decade, continued advancements in this field will bring us closer to the development of a more permanent and painless form of hair removal.

  9. Photoaggravation of Hair Aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Won-Soo

    2009-01-01

    Photoaggravation of hair aging includes various chemical and physical changes in fiber properties which lead to an increase in fiber porosity, loss of mechanical strength and an increase in surface roughness. These changes come from lipid oxidation, disulfide bond cleavage, tryptophan degradation and cysteic acid formation. Hair exposed to sunlight is claimed to be more brittle, stiffer and drier than before irradiation and exhibits a reduced water-absorption capacity. Hair pigments function to provide photochemical protection to hair proteins. Hair pigments accomplish this protection by absorbing and filtering the impinging radiation and subsequently dissipating this energy as heat. However, in the process of protecting the hair proteins from light, the pigments are degraded or bleached. Dark hair is more resistant to photodegradation than light hair, because of the higher photostability of eumelanin compared to pheomelanin. Integral lipids of hair fibers are degraded by ultraviolet light, as well as by visible light, helping to explain the weakening of the cell membrane complex exposed to light radiation. PMID:20927230

  10. Carcinogenicity of hair dye components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Duuren, B L

    1980-03-01

    The available animal carcinogenicity data on hair dye components was reviewed. From this review it became clear that certain hair dye components, some of which are still in hair dye formulations now on the market, are animal carcinogens. The compounds of concern that are still in use are: 3-amino-4-methoxyaniline, 2-nitro-4-aminoaniline and 3-nitro-4-hydroxyaniline. Certain azo dyes formerly used, and related compounds still in use, contain the benzidine moiety. Two of these compounds, Direct Blue 6 and Direct Black 38, have been shown to be metabolized in animals to the human carcinogen benzidine. Furthermore, skin absorption studies carried out with radiolabeled hair dye components applied to animal or human skin have conclusively shown that these compounds are systemically absorbed and excreted. Known cocarcinogens such as catechol and pyrogallol, which enhance benzo(a)pyrene carcinogenicity on mouse skin, are used as hair dye components. It is not known whether such compounds will enhance the carcinogenicity of substituted aniline hair dye chemicals. The available epidemiologic data are not sufficient to link hair dye use with an increased incidence in human cancer.

  11. Comparison of human hair and nail low-sulfur protein compositions on two-dimensional electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dekio, S; Jidoi, J

    1989-08-01

    Compositions of human normal hair and nail low-sulfur proteins were compared using two-dimensional electrophoresis of their S-carboxymethylated (SCM) derivatives. Six SCM low-sulfur protein components with molecular weights (MWs) of 76,000, 73,000, 72,000, 64,000, 61,000 and 55,000 were common to the hair and nail. One component with a MW of 61,000 was specific to hair, and two components, both with a MW of 50,000, were specific to nail.

  12. Retained intracorneal human hair fragment: An unusual case of occupational trauma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varshini Shanker

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A 32-year old male hairdresser presented with redness and irritation of the left eye for past 15 days. A fragment of hair was found embedded in deep corneal stroma with minimal scarring. No evidence was found of previous or current inflammation incited by this foreign body. The position and depth of the hair fragment was documented by anterior segment optical coherence tomography (AS-OCT and its effect on the corneal endothelium was assessed by specular microscopy. Hairdressers should take adequate precautions to prevent ocular injury although human hair appears to be well tolerated by the cornea.

  13. Analysis of the expression pattern of the carrier protein transthyretin and its receptor megalin in the human scalp skin and hair follicles: hair cycle-associated changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adly, Mohamed A

    2010-12-01

    Transthyretin is a serum and cerebrospinal fluid protein synthesized early in development by the liver, choroid plexus and several other tissues. It is a carrier protein for the antioxidant vitamins, retinol, and thyroid hormones. Transthyretin helps internalize thyroxine and retinol-binding protein into cells by binding to megalin, which is a multi-ligand receptor expressed on the luminal surface of various epithelia. We investigated the expression of transthyretin and its receptor megalin in the human skin; however, their expression pattern in the hair follicle is still to be elucidated. This study addresses this issue and tests the hypothesis that "the expression of transthyretin and megalin undergoes hair follicle cycle-dependent changes." A total of 50 normal human scalp skin biopsies were examined (healthy females, 53-62 years) using immunofluorescence staining methods and real-time PCR. In each case, 50 hair follicles were analyzed (35, 10, and 5 follicles in anagen, catagen, and telogen, respectively). Transthyretin and megalin were prominently expressed in the human scalp skin and hair follicles, on both gene and protein levels. The concentrations of transthyretin and megalin were 0.12 and 0.03 Ul/ml, respectively, as indicated by PCR. The expression showed hair follicle cycle-associated changes i.e., strong expression during early and mature anagen, very weak expression during catagen and moderate expression during telogen. The expression values of these proteins in the anagen were statistically significantly higher than those of either catagen or telogen hair follicles (P ≤ 0.001). This study provides the first morphologic indication that transthyretin and megalin are variably expressed in the human scalp skin and hair follicles. It also reports variations in the expression of these proteins during hair follicle cycling. The clinical ramifications of these findings are open for further investigations.

  14. Disappearance of 6-acetylmorphine, morphine and codeine from human scalp hair after discontinuation of opiate abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Min; Xiang, Ping; Sun, Yingying; Shen, Baohua

    2013-04-10

    Opiates continue to be used at high rates in East and Southeast Asia. Hair analysis for drugs of abuse has been developed into a powerful and widely used tool in forensic and clinical toxicology. Specifically, testing the proximal segment of scalp hair to confirm morphine (MOR) positive urine samples could solve the poppy seed problem. Human scalp hair grows approximately 1cm per month and can therefore reflect a retrospective timeline of drug exposure. This study is the first to investigate the disappearance of 6-acetylmorphine (6-AM), MOR and codeine (COD) from human scalp hair after the discontinuation of drug use. Thirty-two healthy women (ages 21-51 years) with a known history of heroin abuse, who went to a rehabilitation centre and ceased consuming heroin (for 4-5 months), were recruited into the study. A pharmacokinetic analysis in seven individual hair segments was performed using a first-order kinetic. Assuming a rate of hair growth of 1cm/month, the mean hair elimination half-lives of 6-AM, MOR and COD were 0.88 months (95% CI, 0.74-1.03), 0.73 months (95% CI, 0.64-0.81), and 0.61 months (95% CI, 0.54-0.69), respectively. Our results suggest that to evaluate the discontinuation of opiate abuse after a 6-month period of abstinence, the results from a 3-cm proximal hair segment should be free of 6-AM at the proposed 0.2 ng/mg cutoff level. This finding should become the basis for the interpretation of results from segmental hair analyses in the evaluation of drug abstinence.

  15. A closer look at the complex hydrophilic/hydrophobic interactions forces at the human hair surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baghdadli, N.; Luengo, G. S.; Recherche, L.

    2008-03-01

    The complex chemical structure of the hair surface is far from being completely understood. Current understanding is based on Rivett's model1 that was proposed to explain the macroscopic hydrophobic nature of the surface of natural hair. In this model covalently-linked fatty acids are chemically grafted to the amorphous protein (keratin) through a thio-ester linkage2,3. Nevertheless, experience like wetting and electrical properties of human hair surface4 shows that the complexity of the hair surface is not fully understand based on this model in literature. Recent studies in our laboratory show for the first time microscopic evidence of the heterogeneous physico-chemical character of the hair surface. By using Chemical Force Microscopy, the presence of hydrophobic and ionic species are detected and localized, before and after a cosmetic treatment (bleaching). Based on force curve analysis the mapping of the local distribution of hydrophilic and hydrophobic groups of hair surface is obtained. A discussion on a more plausible hair model and its implications will be presented based on these new results.

  16. Redox proteomic evaluation of bleaching and alkali damage in human hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyer, J M; Bell, F; Koehn, H; Vernon, J A; Cornellison, C D; Clerens, S; Harland, D P

    2013-12-01

    Protein modification and damage in human hair, resulting from environmental, cosmetic and grooming stresses, create changes to visual and tactile characteristics and correlates with consumer perception of quality. This study outlines molecular-level evaluation of modification resulting from peroxide (bleaching) and alkaline straightening (relaxing) treatments. Redox proteomic profiling of virgin, bleached and relaxed hair tresses was performed, with comprehensive qualitative characterization of modification and semi-quantitative evaluation of damage through adaptation of a new damage scoring system. Modifications were mapped to specific locations in the hair proteome and a range of potential damage marker peptides identified. Virgin hair contained a baseline level of modification, consistent with environmental oxidative insult during hair growth. Hydrogen peroxide bleaching resulted in significantly increased levels of oxidative damage observable at the molecular level. This treatment also resulted in enhanced levels of dehydroalanine and dehydration products; modifications typically associated with alkali or thermal treatment and not previously been reported as a product of hair bleaching. Relaxation treatment with sodium hydroxide increased the formation of dehydroalanine and dehydration products and moderately enhanced the levels of oxidation. Cysteine was the predominant modification site for both bleaching and alkali damage. This study validates the utility and power of redox proteomic-based approaches to characterizing hair modification. This offers potential application to a wide range of damage types, as well as evaluation of new damage mitigation and repair technologies. © 2013 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  17. A closer look at the complex hydrophilic/hydrophobic interactions forces at the human hair surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baghdadli, N; Luengo, G S; Recherche, L [Avenue Eugene Schueller, Aulnay-Sous Bois, 93100 (France)], E-mail: nbaghdadli@rd.loreal.com, E-mail: gluengo@rd.loreal.com

    2008-03-15

    The complex chemical structure of the hair surface is far from being completely understood. Current understanding is based on Rivett's model{sup 1} that was proposed to explain the macroscopic hydrophobic nature of the surface of natural hair. In this model covalently-linked fatty acids are chemically grafted to the amorphous protein (keratin) through a thio-ester linkage{sup 2,3}. Nevertheless, experience like wetting and electrical properties of human hair surface{sup 4} shows that the complexity of the hair surface is not fully understand based on this model in literature. Recent studies in our laboratory show for the first time microscopic evidence of the heterogeneous physico-chemical character of the hair surface. By using Chemical Force Microscopy, the presence of hydrophobic and ionic species are detected and localized, before and after a cosmetic treatment (bleaching). Based on force curve analysis the mapping of the local distribution of hydrophilic and hydrophobic groups of hair surface is obtained. A discussion on a more plausible hair model and its implications will be presented based on these new results.

  18. Correlates of Cortisol in Human Hair: Implications for Epidemiologic Studies on Health Effects of Chronic Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wosu, Adaeze C.; Valdimarsdóttir, Unnur; Shields, Alexandra E.; Williams, David R.; Williams, Michelle A.

    2013-01-01

    Assessment of cortisol concentrations in hair is one of the latest innovations for measuring long-term cortisol exposure. We performed a systematic review of correlates of cortisol in human hair to inform the design, analysis and interpretation of future epidemiologic studies. Relevant publications were identified through electronic searches on PubMed, WorldCat, and Web of Science using keywords, “cortisol” “hair” “confounders” “chronic” “stress” and “correlates.” Thirty-nine studies were included in this review. Notwithstanding scarce data and some inconsistencies, investigators have found hair cortisol concentrations to be associated with stress-related psychiatric symptoms and disorders (e.g., PTSD), medical conditions indicating chronic activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (e.g., Cushing´s syndrome) and other life situations associated with elevated risk of chronic stress (e.g., shiftwork). Results from some studies suggest that physical activity, adiposity, and substance abuse may be correlates of hair cortisol concentrations. In contrast to measures of short-term cortisol release (saliva, blood, and urine), cigarette smoking and use of oral contraceptives appear to not be associated with hair cortisol concentrations. Studies of pregnant women indicate increased hair cortisol concentrations across successive trimesters. The study of hair cortisol presents a unique opportunity to assess chronic alterations in cortisol concentrations in epidemiologic studies. PMID:24184029

  19. Significant damage of the skin and hair following hair bleaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Mi-Sook; Lee, Chang-Moon; Jeong, Won-Ji; Kim, Seong-Jin; Lee, Ki-Young

    2010-10-01

    Scalp burns can be caused by hair bleaching with excess procedures such as unnecessary heating and excessive treatment with bleaching agents. The aim of this study was to investigate the morphological and histological changes of the hair and skin after bleaching. Ammonium persulfate and hydrogen peroxide (6% or 9%) solution mixed at a ratio of 1:2 (weight ratio) were sufficiently applied to human hairs and rat skin. The bleached hairs were brightened up to yellow by increasing the concentration of hydrogen peroxide and time of bleach treatment. After bleaching, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to observe that the cuticle scales of the hairs were irregular and lifted. The mechanical properties of the bleached hairs, such as tensile strength and elongation, were slightly different than the untreated hairs. The tested rat skin showed severe swelling after treatment of the bleaching agent (9% hydrogen peroxide). The rat skin bleached with 9% hydrogen peroxide exhibited epidermal thinning and subepidermal vesicle formation. The extracellular matrix of the skin was seriously disrupted after bleaching. Therefore, the use of only suitable bleaching procedures is suggested in order to avoid injuries. © 2010 Japanese Dermatological Association.

  20. Keratins and lipids in ethnic hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, C F; Fernandes, M M; Gomes, A C; Coderch, L; Martí, M; Méndez, S; Gales, L; Azoia, N G; Shimanovich, U; Cavaco-Paulo, A

    2013-06-01

    Human hair has an important and undeniable relevance in society due to its important role in visual appearance and social communication. Hair is mainly composed of structural proteins, mainly keratin and keratin associated proteins and lipids. Herein, we report a comprehensive study of the content and distribution of the lipids among ethnic hair, African, Asian and Caucasian hair. More interestingly, we also report the study of the interaction between those two main components of hair, specifically, the influence of the hair internal lipids in the structure of the hair keratin. This was achieved by the use of a complete set of analytical tools, such as thin layer chromatography-flame ionization detector, X-ray analysis, molecular dynamics simulation and confocal microscopy. The experimental results indicated different amounts of lipids on ethnic hair compositions and higher percentage of hair internal lipids in African hair. In this type of hair, the axial diffraction of keratin was not observed in X-ray analysis, but after hair lipids removal, the keratin returned to its typical packing arrangement. In molecular dynamic simulation, lipids were shown to intercalate dimers of keratin, changing its structure. From those results, we assume that keratin structure may be influenced by higher concentration of lipids in African hair. © 2013 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  1. Age, Health and Attractiveness Perception of Virtual (Rendered) Human Hair

    OpenAIRE

    Fink, Bernhard; Hufschmidt, Carla; Hirn, Thomas; Will, Susanne; McKelvey, Graham; Lankhof, John

    2016-01-01

    The social significance of physical appearance and beauty has been documented in many studies. It is known that even subtle manipulations of facial morphology and skin condition can alter people’s perception of a person’s age, health and attractiveness. While the variation in facial morphology and skin condition cues has been studied quite extensively, comparably little is known on the effect of hair on social perception. This has been partly caused by the technical difficulty of creating app...

  2. Diffuse heterochromia of scalp hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, W S; Lee, I W; Ahn, S K

    1996-11-01

    Heterochromia of hair is the presence of more than one distinct color of hair in the same person. A color difference between scalp hair and a mustache or sideburns is not uncommon. Pubic and axillary hair and eyebrows and eyelashes are often darker than scalp hair in a fair-haired person. Rarely, a circumscribed patch of hair of different colors occurs. However, diffuse heterochromia of black and red scalp hair has not been previously reported. We describe a father and son with this condition.

  3. Novel preparation and characterization of human hair-based nanofibers using electrospinning process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Mira; Shin, Hye Kyoung; Panthi, Gopal; Rabbani, Mohammad Mahbub; Alam, Al-Mahmnur; Choi, Jawun; Chung, Hea-Jong; Hong, Seong-Tshool; Kim, Hak-Yong

    2015-05-01

    Human hair-based biocomposite nanofibers (NFs) have been fabricated by an electrospinning technique. Aqueous keratin extracted from human hair was successfully blended with poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA). The focus here is on transforming into keratin/PVA nanofibrous membranes and insoluble property of electrospun NFs. The resulting hair-based NFs were characterized using Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), differential scanning colorimetry (DSC), and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). Toward the potential use of these NFs after cross-linking with various weight fractions of glyoxal, its physicochemical properties, such as morphology, mechanical strength, crystallinity, and chemical structure were investigated. Keratin/PVA ratio of 2/1 NFs with 6 wt%-glyoxal showed good uniformity in fiber morphology and suitable mechanical properties, and excellent antibacterial activity providing a potential application of hair-based NFs in biomedical field.

  4. Effect of SDS on human hair: Study on the molecular structure and morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Bhawana; Umapathy, Siva

    2011-05-01

    This paper presents a model study to understand the effect of surfactants on the physicochemical properties of human hair. FT-IR ATR spectroscopy has been employed to understand the chemical changes induced by sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) on human scalp hair. In particular, the SDS induced changes in the secondary structure of protein present in the outer protective layer of hair, i.e. cuticle, have been investigated. Conformational changes in the secondary structure of protein were studied by curve fitting of the amide I band after every phase of SDS treatment. It has been found that SDS brings rearrangements in the protein backbone conformations by transforming β -sheet structure to random coil and β -turn. Additionally, AFM and SEM studies were carried out to understand the morphological changes induced on the hair surface. SEM and AFM images demonstrated the rupture and partial erosion of cuticle sublayers. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Hair and nail relationship.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baran, R.; Dawber, R.P.; Haneke, E.

    2005-01-01

    Hair and nails are often stated to have much in common in relation to their origin, anatomical structures, and common involvement in many diseases. Hair and nails are predominantly epithelial structures derived from primitive epidermis and made up of keratinous fibrils embedded in a sulfur-rich matr

  6. Hair and nail relationship.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baran, R.; Dawber, R.P.; Haneke, E.

    2005-01-01

    Hair and nails are often stated to have much in common in relation to their origin, anatomical structures, and common involvement in many diseases. Hair and nails are predominantly epithelial structures derived from primitive epidermis and made up of keratinous fibrils embedded in a sulfur-rich matr

  7. Help! It's Hair Loss!

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... los dientes Video: Getting an X-ray Help! It's Hair Loss! KidsHealth > For Kids > Help! It's Hair Loss! Print A A A What's in ... part above the skin, is dead. (That's why it doesn't hurt to get a haircut!) This ...

  8. Prevention of hair surface aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiesche, Erik Schulze Zur; Körner, Andrea; Schäfer, Karola; Wortmann, Franz-Josef

    2011-01-01

    The hydrophobic character of the surface of human hair is particularly attributed to the lipid components of the epicuticle and to a layer of covalently bound fatty acids. This outer f-layer mainly consists of 18-methyl eicosanoic acid (18-MEA), which is covalently bound to the underlying protein matrix, forming the epicuticle as composite surface structure. Daily weathering and chemical treatments, specifically oxidative bleaching, decrease the hydrophobicity of the outer hair surface drastically.Multiple daily stress, simulated by an automatic test device including shampooing, blow drying and sun light exposure, changed the lipid composition of hair significantly. A marked loss of 18-MEA was observed. Decreasing contact angles are the direct consequence. A new method to determine the "pseudo-static" contact angle on hair was developed. The results correlate with the corresponding data obtained by dynamic contact angle measurements according to Wilhelmy. Besides that, the resorption time of water droplets by the hair surface provides additional information about the intactness of the outer f-layer.Specific proteolipids, which are lipid-modified keratins, are able to reconstruct the surface layer of damaged hair by creating renewed surface hydrophobicity and extending the water resorption time by the hair surface.

  9. The Relationship between Levels of PCBs and Pesticides in Human Hair and Blood: Preliminary Results

    OpenAIRE

    Covaci, Adrian; Altshul, Larisa M.; Hauser, Russ B.

    2004-01-01

    Human hair as a biologic measure of exposure to persistent organic pollutants (POPs) has some advantages over the more commonly used blood and adipose tissue samples. However, one of the primary limitations is the difficulty in distinguishing between exogenous and endogenous contamination. In addition, there are currently no standardized methods for hair sample collection, washing, and chemical analysis. There is also very limited information describing the correlation between levels of organ...

  10. Flexible Rechargeable Zinc-Air Batteries through Morphological Emulation of Human Hair Array.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Jing; Hassan, Fathy Mohamed; Li, Jingde; Lee, Dong Un; Ghannoum, Abdul Rahman; Lui, Gregory; Hoque, Md Ariful; Chen, Zhongwei

    2016-08-01

    An electrically rechargeable, nanoarchitectured air electrode that morphologically emulates a human hair array is demonstrated in a zinc-air battery. The hair-like array of mesoporous cobalt oxide nanopetals in nitrogen-doped carbon nanotubes is grown directly on a stainless-steel mesh. This electrode produces both flexibility and improved battery performance, and thus fully manifests the advantages of flexible rechargeable zinc-air batteries in practical applications.

  11. Measurement of stress-strain behaviour of human hair fibres using optical techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, J; Kwon, H J

    2013-06-01

    Many studies have presented stress-strain relationship of human hair, but most of them have been based on an engineering stress-strain curve, which is not a true representation of stress-strain behaviour. In this study, a more accurate 'true' stress-strain curve of human hair was determined by applying optical techniques to the images of the hair deformed under tension. This was achieved by applying digital image cross-correlation (DIC) to 10× magnified images of hair fibres taken under increasing tension to estimate the strain increments. True strain was calculated by summation of the strain increments according to the theoretical definition of 'true' strain. The variation in diameter with the increase in longitudinal elongation was also measured from the 40× magnified images to estimate the Poisson's ratio and true stress. By combining the true strain and the true stress, a true stress-strain curve could be determined, which demonstrated much higher stress values than the conventional engineering stress-strain curve at the same degree of deformation. Four regions were identified in the true stress-strain relationship and empirical constitutive equations were proposed for each region. Theoretical analysis on the necking condition using the constitutive equations provided the insight into the failure mechanism of human hair. This analysis indicated that local thinning caused by necking does not occur in the hair fibres, but, rather, relatively uniform deformation takes place until final failure (fracture) eventually occurs.

  12. Inorganic replication of human hair and in situ synthesis of gold nanoparticles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Shuxia; HE Junhui

    2007-01-01

    The structure of hair was replicated via a sol-gel process using human hair as a template.When using silicate and tetraethoxysilane(TEOS)as the precursor,the cell structure of the hair cuticle was not well replicated.When using Ti(OnBu)4 as the precursor,however,titania microtubes were obtained,with nanopores in their walls and nanoporous platelets on meir outer surfaces,which were derived from cuticle cells on the hair surfaces.The nanopores in the microtubes acted as an effective nanoreactor for in situ synthesis of Au nanoparticles.The microchannels,nanopores and noble metal nanoparticles may provide a unique combination that would be attractive in applications such as catalysis,adsorption,and separation.

  13. Evaluating the Expression of Mesenchymal Stem Cells Markers in Human Hair Follicle Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammadreza Behvarz

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Adult stem cells are undifferentiated cells that replace dead or injured cells. There are adult stem cells in some regions of human tissues and hair follicle is one of the tissues that have adult stem cell source and these cells have an important role in hair life cycle. In this study, we investigated the isolation of hair follicle stem cells (HFSCs and expression of mesenchymal stem cell markers on the isolated cells.   Methods : Human hair follicles obtained from men scalp tissue by micro punch technique. Hair follicles isolated and cultured in culture flasks in DMEM-F12 + FBS. After outgrowth of stem cells from hair bulges, they analyzed by flow cytometry for detection of stem cell markers.  Results: 23 to 27 days after isolation and culture of HFSCs in uncoated cell culture flasks, cell surface markers expression studied by flow cytometry. Flow cytometric analysis showed 25.26% Stro-1, 50.85% CD90, 45.24% CD105, 61.20% CD44, 8.20% CD45, 11.86% CD146, 2.72% CD106, 7.21% CD166 and 26.74% CD19 expression in HFSCs.   Conclusion: In this study, isolated stem cells significantly expressed some of the mesenchymal stem cell markers higher than other markers. These markers give certain characteristics to HFSCs, and introduce the cells as an alternative option for cell therapy, tissue engineering and regenerative medicine.

  14. Ex vivo organ culture of human hair follicles: a model epithelial-neuroectodermal-mesenchymal interaction system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobin, Desmond J

    2011-01-01

    The development of hair follicle organ culture techniques is a significant milestone in cutaneous biology research. The hair follicle, or more accurately the "pilo-sebaceous unit", encapsulates all the important physiologic processes found in the human body; controlled cell growth/death, interactions between cells of different histologic type, cell differentiation and migration, and hormone responsitivity to name a few. Thus, the value of the hair follicle as a model for biological scientific research goes way beyond its scope for cutaneous biology or dermatology alone. Indeed, the recent and dramatic upturn in interest in hair follicle biology has focused principally on the pursuit of two of biology's holy grails; post-embryonic morphogenesis and control of cyclical tissue activity. The hair follicle organ culture model, pioneered by Philpott and colleagues, ushered in an exceptionally accessible way to assess how cells of epithelial (e.g., keratinocytes), mesenchymal (e.g., fibroblasts), and neuroectodermal (e.g., melanocytes) origin interact in a three-dimensional manner. Moreover, this assay system allows us to assess how various natural and pharmacologic agents affect complex tissues for growth modulation. In this article, I focus on the culture of the human hair follicle mini-organ, discussing both the practical issues involved and some possible research applications of this assay.

  15. A highly resistant structure between cuticle and cortex of human hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, T; Yoshida, S

    2017-06-01

    To clarify the presence and properties of a unique structure which is located between the cuticle and cortex of human hair. Whole hair fibre and longitudinally split hair were used. Treated with a mixture of urea, reductant and alkaline, hair was split at the interface between cuticle and cortex. The residues in the solution were observed by microscope, and the distribution of lipids and protein was determined. From the treated longitudinally split hair, a membrane-like structure which was located at the interface between cuticle and cortex was obtained. This structure showed especially high resistance against chemical treatment and was thought to be the region into which the proximal roots of the cuticle cells are embedded. It was supposed that some steryl glucoside-like lipid, of which the presence in the cuticle and cortex interface was previously reported, is located in this structure. This study proposed the presence of a membrane-like structure, which is highly resistant against chemical treatment, at the region between cuticle and cortex of human hair. This may protect cortex from external stimuli more firmly than the surface part of cuticle. © 2016 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  16. Hair dyeing, hair washing and hair cortisol concentrations among women from the healthy start study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Sheila K.; Larsen, Sofus C.; Olsen, Nanna J.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Hair cortisol concentration (HCC) has been suggested as a promising marker for chronic stress. However, studies investigating the influence of hair dyeing and hair washing frequency on HCC have shown inconsistent results. Objective: To examine associations between HCC and hair dyeing...... status or weekly hair washing frequency among women. Methods: This cross-sectional study was based on data from 266 mothers participating in the Healthy Start intervention study. HCC was measured in the proximal end of the hair (1–2 cm closest to the scalp) while hair dyeing status, frequency of hair...... washing and covariates were reported by the women. Linear regression analyses were applied to assess the associations between HCC and hair dyeing or weekly frequency of hair washing. Results: No statistically significant difference (p = 0.91) in HCC was found between women who dyed hair (adjusted mean...

  17. The structure of people's hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Fei-Chi; Zhang, Yuchen; Rheinstädter, Maikel C

    2014-01-01

    Hair is a filamentous biomaterial consisting mainly of proteins in particular keratin. The structure of human hair is well known: the medulla is a loosely packed, disordered region near the centre of the hair surrounded by the cortex, which contains the major part of the fibre mass, mainly consisting of keratin proteins and structural lipids. The cortex is surrounded by the cuticle, a layer of dead, overlapping cells forming a protective layer around the hair. The corresponding structures have been studied extensively using a variety of different techniques, such as light, electron and atomic force microscopes, and also X-ray diffraction. We were interested in the question how much the molecular hair structure differs from person to person, between male and female hair, hair of different appearances such as colour and waviness. We included hair from parent and child, identical and fraternal twins in the study to see if genetically similar hair would show similar structural features. The molecular structure of the hair samples was studied using high-resolution X-ray diffraction, which covers length scales from molecules up to the organization of secondary structures. Signals due to the coiled-coil phase of α-helical keratin proteins, intermediate keratin filaments in the cortex and from the lipid layers in the cell membrane complex were observed in the specimen of all individuals, with very small deviations. Despite the relatively small number of individuals (12) included in this study, some conclusions can be drawn. While the general features were observed in all individuals and the corresponding molecular structures were almost identical, additional signals were observed in some specimen and assigned to different types of lipids in the cell membrane complex. Genetics seem to play a role in this composition as identical patterns were observed in hair from father and daughter and identical twins, however, not for fraternal twins. Identification and characterization

  18. The Current Status of Microscopical Hair Comparisons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter F. Rowe

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Although the microscopical comparison of human hairs has been accepted in courts of law for over a century, recent advances in DNA technology have called this type of forensic examination into question. In a number of cases, post-conviction DNA testing has exonerated defendants who were convicted in part on the results of microscopical hair comparisons. A federal judge has held a Daubert hearing on the microscopical comparison of human hairs and has concluded that this type of examination does not meet the criteria for admission of scientific evidence in federal courts. A review of the available scientific literature on microscopical hair comparisons (including studies conducted by the Royal Canadian Mounted Police and the Federal Bureau of Investigation leads to three conclusions: (1 microscopical comparisons of human hairs can yield scientifically defensible conclusions that can contribute to criminal investigations and criminal prosecutions, (2 the reliability of microscopical hair comparisons is strongly affected by the training of the forensic hair examiner, (3 forensic hair examiners cannot offer estimates of the probability of a match of a questioned hair with a hair from a randomly selected person. In order for microscopical hair examinations to survive challenges under the U.S. Supreme Court’s Daubert decision, hair microscopists must be better trained and undergo frequent proficiency testing. More research on the error rates of microscopical hair comparisons should be undertaken, and guidelines for the permissible interpretations of such comparisons should be established. Until these issues have been addressed and satisfactorily resolved, microscopical hair comparisons should be regarded by law enforcement agencies and courts of law as merely presumptive in nature, and all microscopical hair comparisons should be confirmed by nuclear DNA profiling or mitochondrial DNA sequencing.

  19. DSC of human hair: a tool for claim support or incorrect data analysis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popescu, C; Gummer, C

    2016-10-01

    Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) data are increasingly used to substantiate product claims of hair repair. Decreasing peak temperatures may indicate structural changes and chemical damage. Increasing the DSC, wet peak temperature is, therefore, often considered as proof of hair repair. A detailed understanding of the technique and hair structure indicates that this may not be a sound approach. Surveying the rich literature on the use of dynamic thermal analysis (DTA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) for the analyses of human hair and the effect of cosmetic treatments, we underline some of the problems of hair structure and data interpretation. To overcome some of the difficulties of data interpretation, we advise that DSC acquired data should be supported by other techniques when used for claim substantiation. In this way, one can provide meaningful interpretation of the hair science and robust data for product claims support. © 2016 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  20. Hair as a marker for pesticides exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith-Baker, Charlotte; Saleh, Mahmoud A

    2011-01-01

    Rats were orally treated with mixtures of chlorinated pesticides. Hair was collected and analyzed for pesticide residues over a period of up to four weeks. Quantitative and qualitative analysis of the recovered pesticides in hair were determined using gas chromatography with electron capture detector. Results suggest that hair can be used as a biomarker for the monitoring of organochlorinated pesticide residues at low parts per billion levels. Chlorinated pesticides were also detected in human hair of environmentally exposed and occupationally exposed individuals, which indicates that hair can be used for monitoring pesticides exposure.

  1. Human systemic exposure to a [14C]-para-phenylenediamine- containing oxidative hair dye and correlation with in vitro percutaneous absorption in human or pig skin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hueber-Becker, F.; Nohynek, G.J.; Meuling, W.J.A.; Benech-Kieffer, F.; Toutain, H.

    2004-01-01

    We investigated the absorption of a commercial [14C]-PPD- containing oxidative dark-shade hair dye in human volunteers as well as in vitro using human or pig ear skin. The hair of eight male volunteers was cut to a standard length, dyed, washed, dried, clipped and collected. Hair, washing water,

  2. Human systemic exposure to a [14C]-para-phenylenediamine- containing oxidative hair dye and correlation with in vitro percutaneous absorption in human or pig skin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hueber-Becker, F.; Nohynek, G.J.; Meuling, W.J.A.; Benech-Kieffer, F.; Toutain, H.

    2004-01-01

    We investigated the absorption of a commercial [14C]-PPD- containing oxidative dark-shade hair dye in human volunteers as well as in vitro using human or pig ear skin. The hair of eight male volunteers was cut to a standard length, dyed, washed, dried, clipped and collected. Hair, washing water, mat

  3. Implication of Human Hair in Regaining Spilled Oil Further Creating A Production Rise in Oyster Mushrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, A.; Srivastava, P.; Singh, U.

    2016-12-01

    It is estimated that 4.9 million liters of petroleum are spilled into U.S. waters from vessels and pipelines in a typical year. Oil spill may be as huge as of 8 million barrels (The Persian Gulf oil spill of 1991). Oil-water separation processes using polymeric or inorganic membranes have been proposed as effective and cost competitive technologies but in present the commercial use of membrane in treatment of spilled oil is currently limited by their low efficiency as well as high capital and operating cost. Indian hair-market is a billion-dollar industry yearly exporting thousands of tones of thick and dark hairs. Hairs contain keratin, a family of fibrous structural proteins been proved to adsorb oils. Laboratory results conclude that one gram of human hair can selectively adsorb about 15.5301 grams of crude oil over water, following Frendlich's isotherm. We seek hair mats made up of hairs of size ≤5 inches, costing 37/ton from selected parts of Indian hair market. With a known adsorbing efficiency of 95% towards crude oil, an estimated desorption efficiency of 70% oil worth 0.8M per year can be regained in crude form from U.S. waters only. To ensure solid waste management of hairs, hair mats left with 30% of adsorbed oil can be utilized in the cultivation of oyster mushrooms, a 20-34/kg crop that grows best in 20-25°C ,80-90% relative humidity and oily conditions. This will reduce the growing period of crop ensuring yearly profit of $6.06M in U.S. only engaging variety of stakeholders over borders. Results thus obtained in this study present an economic, safer and sustainable technique to minimize oil loss due to oil spill in waters further ensuring a low labor-low cost technique of waste management that enhances the growth of an in-demand crop. Keywords: Oil Spill, Human Hair Mats, Adsorb, Oyster Mushrooms

  4. Diversity in human hair growth, diameter, colour and shape. An in vivo study on young adults from 24 different ethnic groups observed in the five continents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loussouarn, Geneviève; Lozano, Isabelle; Panhard, Ségolène; Collaudin, Catherine; El Rawadi, Charles; Genain, Gilles

    2016-04-01

    Based on previous findings, from a worldwide study, classified the shapes of human hair into 8 major types, from straight to highly curly. This clearly extended the usual classification of hair into African, Asian or Caucasian types. However, determinations of hair growth parameters and hair density were excluded from such studies. To measure and compare the hair growth profiles of young adults without alopecia living in the five continents. 2249 young adults (18-35 years, females and males) without alopecia, originating from 24 various human ethnic groups were included in the study. Total hair density, telogen percentage and growth rate on three different scalp areas were measured, using non-invasive validated techniques. Natural hair colour level, curliness and hair diameter were additionally recorded, when practically possible. Diversity in hair growth parameters among the entire cohort was a key finding, with differences linked to scalp area, gender and geographic origin. Statistical approaches depicted African hair as having lower density and a slower growth rate. Asian hair showed a thicker diameter, with faster growth. Caucasian hair showed a high total hair density. On the one hand, this inter-continental study of hair growth parameters provides initial valuable base-line data on hair in young adults without alopecia, and on the other hand, further extends our knowledge of this unique human appendage, with some mosaic features, observed worldwide.

  5. Changes in structure and geometric properties of human hair by aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagase, Shinobu; Kajiura, Yoshio; Mamada, Akira; Abe, Hiroko; Shibuichi, Satoshi; Satoh, Naoki; Itou, Takashi; Shinohara, Yuya; Amemiya, Yoshiyuki

    2009-01-01

    To clarify hair changes by aging, the effect of age on hair properties was investigated from macro- to microscopic view points. Sensory hair luster tests were performed on 230 Japanese females from 10 to 70 years of age, revealing that hair luster decreases with age. The age dependence of the hair diameter and the ellipticity of the hair cross section could not explain luster reduction by aging. It has been determined that an irregular increase in fiber curvature occurs with age and is a cause of luster reduction with aging. A detailed structural analysis by synchrotron radiation microbeam X-ray diffraction revealed that the inhomogeneity in the lateral distribution of the hair microstructure increased with age and relates to the irregular increase in curvature. Such an increase in curvature is one of the important factors that leads to a poor alignment of hairs and luster reduction, and is related to the appearance of aging hair.

  6. Hair Shaft Abnormality in Children: a Narrative Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghasem Rahmatpour Rokni

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background Hair is an ectodermal structure, and its formation is regulated by master genes important in embryology. Hair shaft consists of three major regions: the medulla, cortex and cuticle. Hair shaft abnormality will divide structural hair abnormalities into two broad categories - those associated with increased hair fragility and those not associated with increased hair fragility. We conducted a review study to assess hair shaft abnormality in children. Materials and Methods We conducted a review of all papers published on hair shaft abnormalities. A literature search was performed using PubMed, Scopus and Google Scholar on papers publish from 1990 to 2016. The search terms were: hair shaft abnormality, Hair loss, Hair fragility. All abstracts and full text English-language articles were studied. Results While common developmental and structural features are shared in hair follicles and hair shafts. Anomalies of the hair shaft are separated into those with and those without increased hair fragility. Conclusion Although hair has no vital function, it may serve as an indicator for human health. Clinical and morphological hair abnormalities can be clues to specific complex disorders. Hair shaft abnormalities can be inherited or acquired, can reflect a local problem or a systemic disease.

  7. Hair Image Generation Using Connected Texels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Xiaopeng; CHEN Yanyun; WU Enhua

    2001-01-01

    Generation of photo-realistic images of human hair is a challenging topic in computer graphics. The difficulty in solving the problem in this aspect comes mainly from the extremely large number of hairs and the high complexity of the hair shapes. Regarding to the modeling and rendering of hair-type objects,Kajiya proposed a so-called texel model for producing furry surfaces. However,Kajiya's model could be only used for the generation of short hairs. In this paper,a concise and practical approach is presented to solve the problem of rendering long hairs, and in particular the method of rendering the smooth segmental texels for the generation of long hairs is addressed.

  8. Hair Loss (Alopecia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... e.g., death of a loved one or divorce) can cause hair loss. Dieting and poor nutrition ... Immediately stopping some medicines can cause serious side effects. If you think a medicine may be causing ...

  9. Internal structure changes in bleached black human hair resulting from chemical treatments: A Raman spectroscopic investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzuhara, Akio

    2014-11-01

    In order to investigate in detail the influence of chemical treatments (reduction, hydrolyzed eggwhite protein (HEWP) treatment, and oxidation) on damaged hair keratin fibers, the structure of cross-sections at various depths of excessively bleached (damaged) black human hair resulting from a permanent waving process was directly analyzed using Raman spectroscopy. It was found that L-cysteine (CYS) largely reacted with the gauche-gauche-gauche (GGG) conformation of disulfide (-SS-) groups (while CYS did not react with the trans-gauche-trans (TGT) conformation). In particular, not only the GGG content, but also the cysteic acid content existing throughout the cortex region of the excessively bleached human hair remarkably decreased by performing the oxidation process after reduction. On the other hand, the GGG content of the excessively bleached black human hair increased, while the TGT content decreased by performing the oxidation process after reduction and then HEWP treatment processes. From these experiments, the authors concluded that some of the keratin associated protein (KAP), which has a rich -SS- content and cysteic acid content was eluted from the cortex region along with the disconnection of -SS- groups, thereby leading to the remarkable reduction in the reconnection of -SS- groups of the excessively bleached black human hair after the permanent waving process (the reduction and oxidation processes). Also, the authors concluded that the HEWP treatment process in the permanent waving process caused the reconstruction of the KAP, thereby contributing to the acceleration of the reconnection of -SS- groups during the oxidation process.

  10. Acoustic absorption measurement of human hair and skin within the audible frequency range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, B F

    2000-11-01

    Utilizing the two-microphone impedance tube method, the acoustic absorption of human skin and hair is measured in the frequency range 1-6 kHz. Various locations on a number of human subjects are measured to determine if the presence of bone or an air pocket affects the acoustic absorption of human skin. The absorption coefficient of human hair is also measured. Additional techniques are utilized to minimize errors due to sample mounting methods. Techniques are employed to minimize potential errors in sensor and sample locations. The results of these measurements are compared to relevant historical papers on similar investigations. Results for skin measurements compare well with previous work. Measured hair absorption data do not agree with previous work in the area but do coincide with expected trends, which previous works do not.

  11. Black Hair is Beautiful

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1994-01-01

    On June 9, the 1994 ⅩⅢ Asian Make-up and Hairstyling Competition was held in Beijing. More than 200 contestants from 12 countries and regions across Asia participated. The competition is now considered the largest and most prestigious exchange activity in Asian beauty and hair circles. Black Hair is Beautiful" was the theme of this competition, which stressed Asian physical characteristics and aesthetics.

  12. Managing hair loss in midlife women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirmirani, Paradi

    2013-02-01

    Hair is considered one of the most defining aspects of human appearance. Hair loss, or alopecia in women is often met with significant emotional distress and anxiety. In midlife, women may encounter various hormonal and age-related physiologic changes that can lead to alterations in hair texture and growth. The most significant hormonal alteration is the onset of menopause in which there is a cessation of ovarian estrogen production. This decrease in estrogen is known to have deleterious effects on the skin and cutaneous appendages. As our understanding of the molecular and hormonal controls on the hair follicle has grown, there has been increased interest in the various modulators of hair growth, including the potential role of estrogen. Further study of hair changes in midlife women provides an important opportunity for identification of the complex regulation of hair growth as well as identification of treatment targets that may specifically benefit women. In this review, management of hair loss in midlife women is discussed with a focus on three most commonly encountered clinical conditions: female pattern hair loss, hair shaft alterations due to hair care, and telogen effluvium.

  13. Advances and challenges in hair restoration of curly Afrocentric hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Nicole E; Callender, Valerie D

    2014-04-01

    Although the biochemical composition of hair is similar among racial and ethnic groups, the hair structure between them varies, and individuals with curly hair pose specific challenges and special considerations when a surgical option for alopecia is considered. Hair restoration in this population should therefore be approached with knowledge on the clinical characteristics of curly hair, hair grooming techniques that may influence the management, unique indications for the procedure, surgical instrumentation used, and the complications that may arise. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Biologic rhythms derived from Siberian mammoths' hairs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mike Spilde

    Full Text Available Hair is preserved for millennia in permafrost; it enshrines a record of biologic rhythms and offers a glimpse at chronobiology as it was in extinct animals. Here we compare biologic rhythms gleaned from mammoth's hairs with those of modern human hair. Four mammoths' hairs came from varying locations in Siberia 4600 km, four time zones, apart ranging in age between 18,000 and 20,000 years before present. We used two contemporaneous human hairs for comparison. Power spectra derived from hydrogen isotope ratios along the length of the hairs gave insight into biologic rhythms, which were different in the mammoths depending on location and differed from humans. Hair growth for mammoths was ∼31 cms/year and ∼16 cms/year for humans. Recurrent annual rhythms of slow and fast growth varying from 3.4 weeks/cycles to 8.7 weeks/cycles for slow periods and 1.2 weeks/cycles to 2.2 weeks/cycles for fast periods were identified in mammoth's hairs. The mineral content of mammoth's hairs was measured by electron microprobe analysis (k-ratios, which showed no differences in sulfur amongst the mammoth hairs but significantly more iron then in human hair. The fractal nature of the data derived from the hairs became evident in Mandelbrot sets derived from hydrogen isotope ratios, mineral content and geographic location. Confocal microscopy and scanning electron microscopy showed varied degrees of preservation of the cuticle largely independent of age but not location of the specimens. X-ray fluorescence microprobe and fluorescence computed micro-tomography analyses allowed evaluation of metal distribution and visualization of hollow tubes in the mammoth's hairs. Seasonal variations in iron and copper content combined with spectral analyses gave insights into variation in food intake of the animals. Biologic rhythms gleaned from power spectral plots obtained by modern methods revealed life style and behavior of extinct mega-fauna.

  15. Determination of amphetamine, methamphetamine, MDA and MDMA in human hair by GC-EI-MS after derivatization with perfluorooctanoyl chloride

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Sys Stybe; Jornil, Jakob

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a quantitative gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS) method to determine the classical amphetamines and their methylenedioxylated derivatives in human hair. The procedure involved liquid-liquid extraction of hydrolysed hair spiked with deuterated internal....../mg and of quantification from 0.24 to 0.46 ng/mg, depending on compound. The method was applied on 40 authentic hair samples (segmented or pooled hair), of which 15 cases involved amphetamine and/or ecstasy. The hair concentrations ranged from LOD to 3.2 ng/mg of AM in 7 cases, to 0.4 ng/mg of MDA in 3 cases and to 5.9 ng....../mg of MDMA in 13 cases. MA was only detected once at trace level. The method, including the derivatization procedure, is simple and robust with a sensitivity that is satisfactory for measurement of amphetamines and ecstasy in hair from abusers....

  16. Preliminary analysis of the distribution of water in human hair by small-angle neutron scattering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamath, Yash; Murthy, N Sanjeeva; Ramaprasad, Ram

    2014-01-01

    Diffusion and distribution of water in hair can reveal the internal structure of hair that determines the penetration of various products used to treat hair. The distribution of water into different morphological components in unmodified hair, cuticle-free hair, and hair saturated with oil at various levels of humidity was examined using small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) by substituting water with deuterium oxide (D(2)O). Infrared spectroscopy was used to follow hydrogen-deuterium exchange. Water present in hair gives basically two types of responses in SANS: (i) interference patterns, and (ii) central diffuse scattering (CDS) around the beam stop. The amount of water in the matrix between the intermediate filaments that gives rise to interference patterns remained essentially constant over the 50-98% humidity range without swelling this region of the fiber extensively. This observation suggests that a significant fraction of water in the hair, which contributes to the CDS, is likely located in a different morphological region of hair that is more like pores in a fibrous structure, which leads to significant additional swelling of the fiber. Comparison of the scattering of hair treated with oil shows that soybean oil, which diffuses less into hair, allows more water into hair than coconut oil. These preliminary results illustrate the utility of SANS for evaluating and understanding the diffusion of deuterated liquids into different morphological structures in hair.

  17. Essential of Hair Care Cosmetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurora Alessandrini

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, hair care and style play a very important role in people’s physical aspect and self-perception. Hair cosmetics can be distinguished into two main categories: cosmetics with temporary effect on the hair, for example shampoos, conditioners, sprays, and temporary colors; and cosmetics with permanent effect on the hair, such as permanent waves, relaxers, bleaches and permanent colors. These cosmetic procedures may induce hair abnormalities. We provide an overview on the most important characteristics of these procedures, analyzing components and effects on the hair. Finally, we evaluated new camouflage techniques and tattoo scalp.

  18. Investigating Residential History Using Stable Hydrogen and Oxygen Isotopes of Human Hair and Drinking Water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mant, Madeleine; Nagel, Ashley; Prowse, Tracy

    2016-07-01

    The relationship between isotopic signals in human hair and geographic region has potential forensic applications for identifying unknown individuals' place of recent residence. This study analyzes δ(2) H and δ(18) O isotopes in residential tap water and bulk hair samples from 17 volunteers representing 12 locations in Ontario, Canada. There is a strong correlation (R(2) = 0.9) between δ(2) H and δ(18) O values of the water samples. In contrast, the δ(2) H and δ(18) O values of the hair samples are weakly correlated (R(2) = 0.3), and the greater variability in the data is linked to dietary factors. This study demonstrates that the δ(2) H and δ(18) O values of hair and drinking water can be used to help identify potential place of residence in forensic cases, particularly in relation to proximity to large bodies of water such as the Great Lakes, but interpretations are complicated by the contribution of both water and diet to δ(2) H and δ(18) O values in hair.

  19. Teaching Your Child Healthy Hair Care Habits

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... public", "mcat1=de12", ]; for (var c = 0; c Teaching your child healthy hair care habits Many common ... your hair. Damaged hair looks and feels unhealthy. Teaching your child how to shampoo Healthy hair care ...

  20. Showering effectiveness for human hair decontamination of the nerve agent VX.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Josse, Denis; Wartelle, Julien; Cruz, Catherine

    2015-05-05

    In this work, our goals were to establish whether hair decontamination by showering one hour post-exposure to the highly toxic organophosphate nerve agent VX was effective, whether it required the addition of a detergent to water and, if it could be improved by using the adsorbent Fuller's Earth (FE) or the Reactive Skin Decontamination Lotion (RSDL) 30 min prior to showering. Hair exposure to VX and decontamination was performed by using an in vitro model. Hair showering led to 72% reduction of contamination. Addition of detergent to water slightly increased the decontamination effectiveness. Hair treatment with FE or RSDL improved the decontamination rate. Combination of FE use and showering, which yielded a decontamination factor of 41, was demonstrated to be the most effective hair decontamination procedure. Hair wiping after showering was shown to contribute to hair decontamination. Altogether, our results highlighted the importance of considering hair decontamination as an important part of body surface decontamination protocols.

  1. The biology of hair diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westgate, Gillian E; Botchkareva, Natalia V; Tobin, Desmond J

    2013-08-01

    Hair diversity, its style, colour, shape and growth pattern is one of our most defining characteristics. The natural versus temporary style is influenced by what happens to our hair during our lifetime, such as genetic hair loss, sudden hair shedding, greying and pathological hair loss in the various forms of alopecia because of genetics, illness or medication. Despite the size and global value of the hair care market, our knowledge of what controls the innate and within-lifetime characteristics of hair diversity remains poorly understood. In the last decade, drivers of knowledge have moved into the arena of genetics where hair traits are obvious and measurable and genetic polymorphisms are being found that raise valuable questions about the biology of hair growth. The recent discovery that the gene for trichohyalin contributes to hair shape comes as no surprise to the hair biologists who have believed for 100 years that hair shape is linked to the structure and function of the inner root sheath. Further conundrums awaiting elucidation include the polymorphisms in the androgen receptor (AR) described in male pattern alopecia whose location on the X chromosome places this genetic contributor into the female line. The genetics of female hair loss is less clear with polymorphisms in the AR not associated with female pattern hair loss. Lifestyle choices are also implicated in hair diversity. Greying, which also has a strong genetic component, is often suggested to have a lifestyle (stress) influence and hair follicle melanocytes show declining antioxidant protection with age and lowered resistance to stress. It is likely that hair research will undergo a renaissance on the back of the rising information from genetic studies as well as the latest contributions from the field of epigenetics. © 2013 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  2. Immunopotentiator from Pantoea agglomerans 1 (IP-PA1) Promotes Murine Hair Growth and Human Dermal Papilla Cell Gene Expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakame, Koji; Okawa, Hiroshi; Komatsu, Ken-Ich; Nakata, Akifumi; Sato, Keisuke; Ingawa, Hiroyuki; Kohchi, Chie; Nishizawa, Takashi; Soma, Gen-Ichiro

    2016-07-01

    The lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-like compound derived from Pantoea agglomerans (immunopotentiator from Pantoea agglomerans 1 (IP-PA1)) has been used not only as dietary supplement or cosmetic for humans, but also by Japanese veterinarians as an anti-tumor, anti-allergy, "keep a fine coat of fur" and hair growth-promoting functional food for dogs and cats. In the present study, we focused on the hair growth-promoting effects of IP-PA1 on a hair-shaved animal model and its mechanism of action. We also investigated its potential on gene expression after stimulating human dermal papilla cells with IP-PA1. The hair on the back of a C3H/HeN mouse was shaved and IP-PA1 was orally administered or applied to the skin. The status of hair growth was observed and recorded for 14 days. Skin was collected and histological tissue examination was performed with respect to hair growth status using hematoxylin and eosin staining. After IP-PA1 administration (2 and 10 μg/ml) to human dermal papilla cell culture system for 24 h, fibroblast growth factor-7 (FGF-7) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) mRNA expression were measured using real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis. IP-PA1, when given orally, showed a tendency to promote hair growth in mice. In addition, skin application also significantly promoted hair growth, while histopathological examinations further demonstrated hair elongation from dermal papilla cells. In the human dermal papilla cell culture system, significant FGF-7 and VEGF mRNA expressions were observed (p<0.05). An underlying mechanism of gene expression by which IP-PA1 promotes hair growth was suggested to be different from that of medicine and traditional hair tonics, such as minoxidil and adenosine. Copyright© 2016 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  3. Nanotribological characterization of human head hair by friction force microscopy in dry atmosphere and aqueous environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikogeorgos, Nikos; Fletcher, Ian W; Boardman, Christopher; Doyle, Peter; Ortuoste, Nerea; Leggett, Graham J

    2010-06-01

    Friction force microscopy was employed for the tribological investigation of human head hair in two different environments: a dry atmosphere and de-ionized water. The fibers were immobilized by embedding them in indium. The effects of bleaching, conditioning, and immersion in methanolic KOH were quantified in terms of the relative coefficient of friction (μ). The virgin fibers were clearly distinguished in terms of friction coefficient from the chemically damaged ones in both environments, while all categories of hair exhibited higher friction coefficients in the aqueous environment. Secondary ion mass spectroscopy was used as a complementary technique to examine the presence of fatty acids on the cuticular surface of the different categories of hair as well as the conditioner distribution. Neither bleaching nor 30 min treatment in methanolic KOH was found adequate to completely remove the fatty acids from the fibers' surface. Conditioner species were detected along the whole cuticular surface.

  4. Society of Hair Testing guidelines for drug testing in hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Gail A A; Kronstrand, Robert; Kintz, Pascal

    2012-05-10

    The Society of Hair Testing (SoHT) Guidelines for Drug Testing in Hair provide laboratories with recommended best practice guidelines whether they are currently offering drug testing in hair, or plan to offer a hair testing service in the future. The guidelines include reference to recommended sample collection and storage procedures, through sample preparation, pre-treatment and analysis and the use of cut-offs.

  5. Body hair transplant: An additional source of donor hair in hair restoration surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poswal Arvind

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Androgenic alopecia (pattern baldness is a condition in which there is androgen mediated progressive miniaturization and loss of hair follicles in a genetically susceptible individual. A 47-year-old male patient with advanced degree of hair loss (Norwood 6 category wanted to go for full hair restoration surgery. Due to the limited availability of donor hair in the scalp, a small session with 700-chest hair was performed. On follow-up at eight months it was observed that chest hair grew and formed a cosmetically acceptable forelock.

  6. Hair breakage during combing. IV. Brushing and combing hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, Clarence; Kamath, Yash

    2007-01-01

    During combing of hair, longer fiber breaks (>2.5 cm) occur principally by impact loading of looped crossover hairs, while short segment breaks (bleaching hair, a longer comb stroke, increasing fiber curvature, wet combing versus dry combing, and brushing versus combing all provide for an increase in long segment breaks and this ratio, with the largest effect produced by brushing.

  7. Laser assisted hair-removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhary, S; Elsaie, M L; Nouri, K

    2009-10-01

    A number of lasers and light devices are now available for the treatment of unwanted hair. The goal of laser hair removal is to damage stem cells in the bulge of the hair follicle by targeting melanin, the endogenous chromophore for laser and light devices utilized to remove hair. The competing chromophores in the skin and hair, oxyhemoglobin and water, have a decreased absorption between 690 nm and 1000 nm, thus making this an ideal range for laser and light sources. Laser hair removal is achieved through follicular unit destruction based on selective photothermolysis. The principle of selective photothermolysis predicts that the thermal injury will be restricted to a given target if there is sufficient selective absorption of light and the pulse duration is shorter than the thermal relaxation time of the target. This review will focus on the mechanisms of laser assisted hair removal and provide an update on the newer technologies emerging in the field of lasers assisted hair removal.

  8. Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs) in Human Hair and Serum from E-Waste Recycling Workers in Southern China: Concentrations, Chiral Signatures, Correlations, and Source Identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jing; Yu, Le-Huan; Chen, She-Jun; Hu, Guo-Cheng; Chen, Ke-Hui; Yan, Xiao; Luo, Xiao-Jun; Zhang, Sukun; Yu, Yun-Jiang; Yang, Zhong-Yi; Mai, Bi-Xian

    2016-02-01

    Hair is increasingly used as a biomarker for human exposure to persistent organic pollutants (POPs). However, the internal and external sources of hair POPs remain a controversial issue. This study analyzed polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in human hair and serum from electronic waste recycling workers. The median concentrations were 894 ng/g and 2868 ng/g lipid in hair and serum, respectively. The PCB concentrations in male and female serum were similar, while concentrations in male hair were significantly lower than in female hair. Significant correlations between the hair and serum PCB levels and congener profiles suggest that air is the predominant PCB source in hair and that hair and blood PCB levels are largely dependent on recent accumulation. The PCB95, 132, and 183 chiral signatures in serum were significantly nonracemic, with mean enantiomer fractions (EFs) of 0.440-0.693. Nevertheless, the hair EFs were essentially racemic (mean EFs = 0.495-0.503). Source apportionment using the Chemical Mass Balance model also indicated primary external PCB sources in human hair from the study area. Air, blood, and indoor dust are responsible for, on average, 64.2%, 27.2%, and 8.79% of the hair PCBs, respectively. This study evidenced that hair is a reliable matrix for monitoring human POP exposure.

  9. TOTAL AND METHYL MERCURY LEVELS IN HUMAN SCALP HAIRS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柴之芳; 关铭; 等

    1994-01-01

    The contents of total and methyl mercury in scalp hair samples of 1179 fishermen living at a typical Hg-polluted region in Northeast China and 27 lying-in women and their new born babies in Beijing have been determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis,gas chromatography(electron coupling)and other techniques.Only 18 of all fishermen have the Hg contents above 5μg/g,which indicates that the Hg pollution there has been substantially alleviated.The longitudinal Hg patterns of the lying-in women show a gradually lowering tendency during pregnant period.Further,the Hg contents of the new-born babies are generally above or close to those of their mothers,confirming the mechanism that the methyl Hg,an organic species of Hg with high toxicity,is readily able to penetrate the placental barrier and accumulated in fetus.Thus,the mercury poison has occurred at the early stage of pregnancy.

  10. Human hair as a potential biomonitor for assessing persistent organic pollutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hong; Chai, Zhifang; Sun, Huibin

    2007-07-01

    To explore human biomonitor of persistent organic pollutants (POP) for public health risk assessment, extractable organohalogens (EOX), extractable persistent organohalogens (EPOX) and some selected organochlorine pesticides (OCP) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) in children hair from urban and rural regions of Beijing, China, were measured by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) and gas chromatography-electron capture detector (GC-ECD). The results indicated that about 96% of the total halogens existed as water-soluble polar compounds; about 25 to 50% of EOX were sulfuric acid-resistant EPOX; organochlorines were the major fraction of the organohalogens; and 88 to 99.6% of extractable persistent organochlorines (EPOCl) cannot be attributed to the selected OCP and PCB. HCH, DDT and 2-5CB were the major contributors to hair OCP and PCB. Further, gamma-HCH, p,p'-DDE, p,p'-DDT and PCB-52 were the predominant individuals of HCH, DDT and 2-5CB, respectively. The concentration distributions of EPOCl, HCH, DDT and PCB in children hair were generally in the order of urban>rural and girls>boys, except for PCB congeners with random distributions between genders. Pearson positive correlations between hair lipid and the detected parameters of hair gamma-HCH (phair alpha/gamma and p,p'-DDE/p,p'-DDT suggested that fresh input of HCH and DDT might exist in Beijing area. Hair can reflect body's integral exposure to POP from endogenous and exogenous sources, which, thus, can be used as a potential biomonitor in assessing POP exposure for public health purposes.

  11. Segmented heterochromia in scalp hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Kyeong Han; Kim, Daehwan; Sohn, Seonghyang; Lee, Won Soo

    2003-12-01

    Segmented heterochromia of scalp hair is characterized by the irregularly alternating segmentation of hair into dark and light bands and is known to be associated with iron deficiency anemia. The authors report the case of an 11-year-old boy with segmented heterochromia associated with iron deficiency anemia. After 11 months of iron replacement, the boy's segmented heterochromic hair recovered completely.

  12. Why Does Hair Turn Gray?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... can get gray hair at any age. Some people go gray at a young age — as early as when they are in ... around the same age that our parents or grandparents first did. Gray hair is more noticeable in people with darker hair because it stands out, but ...

  13. Thinning Hair and Hair Loss: Could it be Female Pattern Hair Loss?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... effective treatment for FPHL. Supplements: Many supplements, including biotin and folic acid, are said to help grow ... that the supplement helps regrow hair. Hair loss shampoos: These shampoos tend to do one of the ...

  14. Determination of ethyl glucuronide in human hair samples: A multivariate analysis of the impact of extraction conditions on quantitative results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Alexander; Jungen, Hilke; Iwersen-Bergmann, Stefanie; Raduenz, Lars; Lezius, Susanne; Andresen-Streichert, Hilke

    2017-02-01

    Ethyl glucuronide (EtG), a minor metabolite of ethanol, is used as a direct alcohol biomarker for the prolonged detection of ethanol consumption. Hair testing for EtG offers retrospective, long-term detection of ethanol exposition for several months and has gained practical importance in forensic and clinical toxicology. Since quantitative results of EtG hair testings are included in interpretations, a rugged quantitation of EtG in hair matrix is important. As generally known, sample preparation is critical in hair testing, and the scope of this study was on extraction of EtG from hair matrix. The influence of extraction solvent, ultrasonication, incubation temperature, incubation time, solvent amount and hair particle size on quantitative results was investigated by a multifactorial experimental design using a validated analytical method and twelve different batches of authentic human hair material. Eight series of extraction experiments in a Plackett-Burman setup were carried out on each hair material with the studied factors at high or low levels. The effect of pulverization was further studied by two additional experimental series. Five independent samplings were performed for each run, resulting in a total number of 600 determinations. Considerable differences in quantitative EtG results were observed, concentrations above and below interpretative cut-offs were obtained from the same hair materials using different extraction conditions. Statistical analysis revealed extraction solvent and temperature as the most important experimental factors with significant influence on quantitative results. The impact of pulverization depended on other experimental factors and the different hair matrices themselves proved to be important predictors of extraction efficiency. A standardization of extraction procedures should be discussed, since it will probably reduce interlaboratory variabilities and improve the quality and acceptance of hair EtG analysis. Copyright © 2016

  15. Human Mesenchymal Stem Cell-Derived Conditioned Media for Hair Regeneration Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramdasi, Sushilkumar; Tiwari, Shashi Kant

    Hair loss can have major psychological impact on affected population belonging to varied ethnic background. Hair is a mini organ in itself and serves many distinguishing functions ranging from maintaining body temperature to promoting social interactions. Major cause of hair loss is androgenic alopecia. Hair follicles possess receptor for androgen. However, DHT (Dihydrotestosterone) in excess results into shrinkage of hair follicle affecting hair growth adversely. The present review is focused on etiology of hair loss, traditional treatment approach and their limitations with side effects with special emphasis on unique properties of stem cells, favourable growth factors secreted by stem cells and strategies to enhance favourable growth factor/cytokine production for hair loss therapeutics. We discussed in details the present available treatment options for hair loss like drugs (Finasteride and Minoxidil), follicular hair transplant, laser therapy and serum therapy. These treatment options have their own disadvantages and side effects with appropriate alerts from regulatory authorities. The side effects of these modalities cannot be ignored and demands alternate therapy approach with less or no side effects. We feel that the stem cell therapy is advancing and is a promising modality in near future owing to its advantages and promising outcomes. This review article discusses possible stem cell therapy for hair regrowth and its advantages. We focused on use of conditioned media derived from stem cells instead of using stem cells directly for the therapy.

  16. Human Hair and the Impact of Cosmetic Procedures: A Review on Cleansing and Shape-Modulating Cosmetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Célia F. Cruz

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Hair can be strategically divided into two distinct parts: the hair follicle, deeply buried in the skin, and the visible hair fiber. The study of the hair follicle is mainly addressed by biological sciences while the hair fiber is mainly studied from a physicochemical perspective by cosmetic sciences. This paper reviews the key topics in hair follicle biology and hair fiber biochemistry, in particular the ones associated with the genetically determined cosmetic attributes: hair texture and shape. The traditional and widespread hair care procedures that transiently or permanently affect these hair fiber features are then described in detail. When hair is often exposed to some particularly aggressive cosmetic treatments, hair fibers become damaged. The future of hair cosmetics, which are continuously evolving based on ongoing research, will be the development of more efficient and safer procedures according to consumers’ needs and concerns.

  17. Hair organ regeneration via the bioengineered hair follicular unit transplantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asakawa, Kyosuke; Toyoshima, Koh-ei; Ishibashi, Naoko; Tobe, Hirofumi; Iwadate, Ayako; Kanayama, Tatsuya; Hasegawa, Tomoko; Nakao, Kazuhisa; Toki, Hiroshi; Noguchi, Shotaro; Ogawa, Miho; Sato, Akio; Tsuji, Takashi

    2012-01-01

    Organ regenerative therapy aims to reproduce fully functional organs to replace organs that have been lost or damaged as a result of disease, injury, or aging. For the fully functional regeneration of ectodermal organs, a concept has been proposed in which a bioengineered organ is developed by reproducing the embryonic processes of organogenesis. Here, we show that a bioengineered hair follicle germ, which was reconstituted with embryonic skin-derived epithelial and mesenchymal cells and ectopically transplanted, was able to develop histologically correct hair follicles. The bioengineered hair follicles properly connected to the host skin epithelium by intracutaneous transplantation and reproduced the stem cell niche and hair cycles. The bioengineered hair follicles also autonomously connected with nerves and the arrector pili muscle at the permanent region and exhibited piloerection ability. Our findings indicate that the bioengineered hair follicles could restore physiological hair functions and could be applicable to surgical treatments for alopecia. PMID:22645640

  18. Documenting the diet in ancient human populations through stable isotope analysis of hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macko, S A; Engel, M H; Andrusevich, V; Lubec, G; O'Connell, T C; Hedges, R E

    1999-01-29

    Fundamental to the understanding of human history is the ability to make interpretations based on artefacts and other remains which are used to gather information about an ancient population. Sequestered in the organic matrices of these remains can be information, for example, concerning incidence of disease, genetic defects and diet. Stable isotopic compositions, especially those made on isolates of collagen from bones, have been used to help suggest principal dietary components. A significant problem in the use of collagen is its long-term stability, and the possibility of isotopic alteration during early diagenesis, or through contaminating condensation reactions. In this study, we suggest that a commonly overlooked material, human hair, may represent an ideal material to be used in addressing human diets of ancient civilizations. Through the analysis of the amino-acid composition of modern hair, as well as samples that were subjected to radiation (thus simulating ageing of the hair) and hair from humans that is up to 5200 years old, we have observed little in the way of chemical change. The principal amino acids observed in all of these samples are essentially identical in relative abundances and content. Dominating the compositions are serine, glutamic acid, threonine, glycine and leucine, respectively accounting for approximately 15%, 17%, 10%, 8% and 8% of the total hydrolysable amino acids. Even minor components (for example, alanine, valine, isoleucine) show similar constancy between the samples of different ages. This constancy clearly indicates minimal alteration of the amino-acid composition of the hair. Further, it would indicate that hair is well preserved and is amenable to isotopic analysis as a tool for distinguishing sources of nutrition. Based on this observation, we have isotopically characterized modern individuals for whom the diet has been documented. Both stable nitrogen and carbon isotope compositions were assessed, and together provide an

  19. Investigations of cosmetically treated human hair by differential scanning calorimetry in water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wortmann, F-J; Springob, C; Sendelbach, G

    2002-01-01

    By applying differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) on human hair in water, the thermal stability of hair' major morphological components is determined. Against the background of the two-phase model for alpha-keratins, these components are identified as the partially helical, fibrous intermediate filaments (IF) and the intermediate filament associated-proteins (IFAP) as a cross-linked, amorphous matrix. DSC yields the denaturation enthalpy deltaH(D), which depends on the amount and structural integrity of the alpha-helical material, and the temperature T(D), which is kinetically controlled by the cross-link density of the matrix. To assess the effects of cosmetic treatments, hairs were investigated that had undergone either multiple bleaching or perm-waving treatments. The respective dependencies between denaturation temperature and enthalpy show that both morphological components are similarly affected by bleaching, while reductive damage, in comparison, is more pronounced in the IFs. For both types of treatments, changes in enthalpy follow apparent first-order kinetics with respect to the number of treatments as well as treatment time (perm-waving), yielding characteristic reaction rate constants. It appears that DSC in water is an especially suitable method to determine the kinetics of damage formation in human hair resulting from cosmetic treatments.

  20. Hair shafts in trichoscopy: clues for diagnosis of hair and scalp diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudnicka, Lidia; Rakowska, Adriana; Kerzeja, Marta; Olszewska, Małgorzata

    2013-10-01

    Trichoscopy (hair and scalp dermoscopy) analyzes the structure and size of growing hair shafts, providing diagnostic clues for inherited and acquired causes of hair loss. Types of hair shaft abnormalities observed include exclamation mark hairs (alopecia areata, trichotillomania, chemotherapy-induced alopecia), Pohl-Pinkus constrictions (alopecia areata, chemotherapy-induced alopecia, blood loss, malnutrition), comma hairs (tinea capitis), corkscrew hairs (tinea capitis), coiled hairs (trichotillomania), flame hairs (trichotillomania), and tulip hairs (in trichotillomania, alopecia areata). Trichoscopy allows differential diagnosis of most genetic hair shaft disorders. This article proposes a classification of hair shaft abnormalities observed by trichoscopy. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. Predicting hair cortisol levels with hair pigmentation genes: A possible hair pigmentation bias

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neumann, A. (Alexander); G. Noppe (Gerard); F. Liu; M.H. Kayser (Manfred); F.C. Verhulst (Frank); V.W.V. Jaddoe (Vincent); E.F.C. van Rossum (Liesbeth); H.W. Tiemeier (Henning)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractCortisol concentrations in hair are used to create hormone profiles spanning months. This method allows assessment of chronic cortisol exposure, but might be biased by hair pigmentation: dark hair was previously related to higher concentrations. It is unclear whether this association

  2. Dechlorane Plus in human hair from an e-waste recycling area in South China: comparison with dust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jing; Wang, Jing; Luo, Xiao-Jun; Tian, Mi; He, Luo-Yiyi; Yuan, Jian-Gang; Mai, Bi-Xian; Yang, Zhong-Yi

    2010-12-15

    Dechlorane Plus (DP) and a dechlorination product, 1,6,7,8,9,14,15,16,17,17,18-octadeca-7,15-diene (anti-Cl(11)-DP), were measured in human hair and indoor dust collected from an e-waste recycling area and two control areas (rural and urban) in South China. DP was detected in hair and dust samples at concentrations ranging from 0.02-58.32 ng/g and 2.78-4197 ng/g, respectively. anti-Cl(11)-DP, mainly detected in human hair and dust samples from the e-waste recycling area, ranged from nd (nondetected) to 0.23 ng/g in hair and from nd to 20.22 ng/g in dust. Average values of anti-DP fractional abundance (f(anti) ratio) in hair of e-waste dismantling workers (0.55 ± 0.11) and dust from e-waste recycling workshops (0.54 ± 0.15) were significantly lower than those in other groups (0.62-0.76 means for hair and 0.66-0.76 means for dust). Significantly positive correlation between DP concentrations in dust and hair and similarity in f(anti) ratios between hair and dust suggest that ingestion of dust comprise one of the major routes for DP exposure. Significantly positive relationships were also observed between anti-Cl(11)-DP and anti-DP for both hair and dust samples with similar regression line slopes. The ratios of anti-Cl(11)-DP to anti-DP between hair and dust show no significant difference. These results suggest that anti-Cl(11)-DP in the human body is likely accumulated from the environmental matrix and not formed from biotransformation of the parent DP.

  3. Drug-induced hair loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-01

    Hair loss can have major psychological consequences. It can be due to a wide variety of causes, including hormonal disorders, dietary factors, infections, inflammation, trauma, emotional factors, and cancer. Drugs can also induce hair loss, by interacting with the hair growth cycle. Drug-induced hair loss may be immediate or delayed, sudden or gradual, and diffuse or localised. It is usually reversible after drug discontinuation. The drugs most often implicated in hair loss are anticancer agents, interferon, azole antifungals, lithium, immunosuppressants, and many other drugs belonging to a variety of pharmacological classes.

  4. Raman spectroscopic analyses of preserved historical specimens of human hair attributed to Robert Stephenson and Sir Isaac Newton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Howell G M; Hassan, Nik F N; Wilson, Andrew S

    2004-10-01

    The Raman spectra of two historical specimens of human hair attributed to the engineer Robert Stephenson and scientist Sir Isaac Newton, preserved in private collections are reported. Comparisons are made with the Raman spectra of modern hair specimens and with hair from archaeological excavations. The hair spectra collected with a laser excitation of 785 nm are of a better quality than those collected using 1064 nm. The historical hair specimens are remarkably well-defined spectroscopically in terms of the amide I vibrational mode and the [small nu](SS), ascribed to a predominantly gauche-gauche-gauche CSSC conformation. The contrast with degraded hair specimens recovered from archaeological excavations is striking. The presence of a weak feature near 2590 cm(-1) in the hair samples attributed to a [small nu](SH) vibration could be indicative of a reduction process operative on the CSSC cystine keratotic linkages and a possible origin of this is bacterial biodegradation identified histologically. This study demonstrates the molecular information available from non-destructive Raman spectroscopic analysis from single hair shafts or small bundles of fibres which complements information available from histological and destructive analytical techniques for rare biological specimens subjected to conservation or curation procedures in museums or private collections.

  5. Biological evaluation of human hair keratin scaffolds for skin wound repair and regeneration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Songmei; Sang, Lin [National Engineering Research Center for Biomaterials, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064 (China); Zhang, Yaping [Engineering Research Center of Biomass Materials, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Southwest University of Science and Technology, Mianyang 621010 (China); Wang, Xiaoliang [National Engineering Research Center for Biomaterials, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064 (China); Li, Xudong, E-mail: xli20004@yahoo.com [National Engineering Research Center for Biomaterials, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064 (China)

    2013-03-01

    The cytocompatibility, in vivo biodegradation and wound healing of keratin biomaterials were investigated. For the purposes, three groups of keratin scaffolds were fabricated by freeze-drying reduced solutions at 2 wt.%, 4 wt.% and 8 wt.% keratins extracted from human hairs. These scaffolds exhibited evenly distributed high porous structures with pore size of 120-220 {mu}m and the porosity > 90%. NIH3T3 cells proliferated well on these scaffolds in culture lasting up to 22 days. Confocal micrographs stained with AO visually revealed cell attachment and infiltration as well as scaffold architectural stability. In vivo animal experiments were conducted with 4 wt.% keratin scaffolds. Early degradation of subcutaneously implanted scaffolds occurred at 3 weeks in the outermost surface, in concomitant with inflammatory response. At 5 weeks, the overall porous structure of scaffolds severely deteriorated while the early inflammatory response in the outermost surface obviously subsided. A faster keratin biodegradation was observed in repairing full-thickness skin defects. Compared with the blank control, keratin scaffolds gave rise to more blood vessels at 2 weeks and better complete wound repair at 3 weeks with a thicker epidermis, less contraction and newly formed hair follicles. These preliminary results suggest that human hair keratin scaffolds are promising dermal substitutes for skin regeneration. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Preparation of highly-interconnected human hair keratin scaffolds. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Long-term cell culturing and in vivo animal experiments with keratin scaffolds. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Biodegradation is dependent on implantation site and function Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Early vascularization and better repair in treating full-thickness skin wounds. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A thicker epidermis, less contraction and newly formed hair follicles are observed.

  6. Adsorption and lubricating properties of poly(l-lysine)-graft-poly(ethylene glycol) on human-hair surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seunghwan; Zürcher, Stefan; Dorcier, Antoine; Luengo, Gustavo S; Spencer, Nicholas D

    2009-09-01

    We have characterized the adsorption and lubricating properties of the polycation-PEG graft copolymer poly(l-lysine)-graft-poly(ethylene glycol) (PLL-g-PEG) on human-hair surfaces by means of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), fluorescence microscopy, and atomic force microscopy (AFM). XPS measurements indicated that PLL-g-PEG copolymers spontaneously adsorbed onto the surface of bleached-hair samples (a good model of a weathered, damaged hair surface for cosmetic care applications) from an aqueous solution. Further treatment with cationic surfactants present in common shampoo formulations removed the adsorbed PLL-g-PEG from the hair samples. Fluorescence microscopy showed that the adsorption of PLL-g-PEG onto the hair samples from an aqueous polymer solution occurred inhomogeneously. Nanotribological studies with AFM (friction vs load plots) revealed that the relationship between load and friction was approximately linear for all hair samples, while the slopes of the plots varied considerably along the hair sample surface. Under ambient, "dry" conditions, the frictional properties of the bleached, bleached + PLL-g-PEG-treated, and bleached + PLL-g-PEG-treated and subsequently surfactant-treated hair samples did not reveal a clear difference. In distilled water, however, the bleached + PLL-g-PEG-treated hair samples showed statistically lower frictional properties than simply bleached or bleached + PLL-g-PEG-treated and subsequently surfactant-treated hair samples. Overall, the three instrumental techniques have consistently shown that the adsorption of PLL-g-PEG onto the hair sample surface occurs unevenly, which can be ascribed to the intrinsically heterogeneous properties of the human-hair surface. A control experiment, involving an injection of concentrated PLL-g-PEG solution into a liquid cell where an AFM tip was already scanning over a specific area (line scan mode), revealed an immediate and apparent reduction in the frictional force. Despite the

  7. Female pattern hair loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Archana Singal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Female pattern hair loss (FPHL is a common cause of hair loss in women characterized by diffuse reduction in hair density over the crown and frontal scalp with retention of the frontal hairline. Its prevalence increases with advancing age and is associated with significant psychological morbidity. The pathophysiology of FPHL is still not completely understood and seems to be multifactorial. Although androgens have been implicated, the involvement of androgen-independent mechanisms is evident from frequent lack of clinical or biochemical markers of hyperandrogenism in affected women. The role of genetic polymorphisms involving the androgen and estrogen receptors is being increasingly recognized in its causation and predicting treatment response to anti-androgens. There are different clinical patterns and classifications of FPHL, knowledge of which facilitates patient management and research. Chronic telogen effluvium remains as the most important differential diagnosis. Thorough history, clinical examination, and evaluation are essential to confirm diagnosis. Patients with clinical signs of androgen excess require assessment of biochemical parameters and imaging studies. It is prudent to screen the patients for metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular risk factors. The treatment comprises medical and/or surgical modalities. Medical treatment should be initiated early as it effectively arrests hair loss progression rather than stimulating regrowth. Minoxidil continues to be the first line therapy whereas anti-androgens form the second line of treatment. The progressive nature of FPHL mandates long-term treatment for sustained effect. Medical therapy may be supplemented with cosmetic concealment in those desirous of greater hair density. Surgery may be worthwhile in some carefully selected patients.

  8. Levels and risk factors of antimony contamination in human hair from an electronic waste recycling area, Guiyu, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yue; Ni, Wenqing; Chen, Yaowen; Wang, Xiaoling; Zhang, Jingwen; Wu, Kusheng

    2015-05-01

    The primitive electronic waste (e-waste) recycling has brought a series of environmental pollutants in Guiyu, China. Antimony is one of the important metal contaminants and has aroused the global concerns recently. We aimed to investigate concentrations of antimony in human hair from Guiyu and compared them with those from a control area where no e-waste recycling exists, and assessed the potential risk factors. A total of 205 human hair samples from Guiyu and 80 samples from Jinping were collected for analysis. All volunteers were asked to complete a questionnaire including socio-demographic characteristics and other possible factors related to hair antimony exposure. The concentrations of hair antimony were analyzed using atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Our results indicated that the level of hair antimony in volunteers from Guiyu (median, 160.78; range, 6.99-4412.59 ng/g) was significantly higher than those from Jinping (median, 61.74; range, 2.98-628.43 ng/g). The residents who engaged in e-waste recycling activities in Guiyu had higher hair antimony concentrations than others (P < 0.001). There was no significant difference of hair antimony concentrations among different occupation types in e-waste recycling. Multiple stepwise regression analysis indicated that hair antimony concentrations were associated with education level (β = -0.064), the time of residence in Guiyu (β = 0.112), living house also served as e-waste workshop (β = 0.099), the work related to e-waste (β = 0.169), and smoking (β = 0.018). The elevated hair antimony concentrations implied that the residents in Guiyu might be at high risk of antimony contamination, especially the e-waste recycling workers. Work related to e-waste recycling activities and long-time residence in Guiyu contributed to the high hair antimony exposure.

  9. Distribution and chemical speciation of arsenic in ancient human hair using synchrotron radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakoulli, Ioanna; Prikhodko, Sergey V; Fischer, Christian; Cilluffo, Marianne; Uribe, Mauricio; Bechtel, Hans A; Fakra, Sirine C; Marcus, Matthew A

    2014-01-07

    Pre-Columbian populations that inhabited the Tarapacá mid river valley in the Atacama Desert in Chile during the Middle Horizon and Late Intermediate Period (AD 500-1450) show patterns of chronic poisoning due to exposure to geogenic arsenic. Exposure of these people to arsenic was assessed using synchrotron-based elemental X-ray fluorescence mapping, X-ray absorption spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and Fourier transform infrared spectromicroscopy measurements on ancient human hair. These combined techniques of high sensitivity and specificity enabled the discrimination between endogenous and exogenous processes that has been an analytical challenge for archeological studies and criminal investigations in which hair is used as a proxy of premortem metabolism. The high concentration of arsenic mainly in the form of inorganic As(III) and As(V) detected in the hair suggests chronic arsenicism through ingestion of As-polluted water rather than external contamination by the deposition of heavy metals due to metallophilic soil microbes or diffusion of arsenic from the soil. A decrease in arsenic concentration from the proximal to the distal end of the hair shaft analyzed may indicate a change in the diet due to mobility, though chemical or microbiologically induced processes during burial cannot be entirely ruled out.

  10. Human platelet lysate versus minoxidil stimulates hair growth by activating anagen promoting signaling pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dastan, Maryam; Najafzadeh, Nowruz; Abedelahi, Ali; Sarvi, Mohammadreza; Niapour, Ali

    2016-12-01

    Minoxidil and human platelet lysate (HPL) are commonly used to treat patients with hair loss. However, the roles of HPL versus minoxidil in hair follicle biology largely remain unknown. Here, we hypothesized that bulge and dermal papilla (DP) cells may express specific genes, including Kras, Erk, Akt, Shh and β-catenin after exposure to minoxidil or HPL. The mouse hair follicles were isolated on day 10 after depilation and bulge or DP regions were dissected. The bulge and DP cells were cultured for 14days in DMEM/F12 medium. Then, the cells were treated with 100μM minoxidil and 10% HPL for 10 days. Nuclear morphology was identified using DAPi staining. Reverse transcriptase and real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis were also performed to examine the expression of Kras, Erk, Akt, Shh and β-catenin mRNA levels in the treated bulge and DP regions after organ culture. Here, we found that minoxidil influences bulge and DP cell survival (Pminoxidil treatment in both bulge and DP cells. HPL mediated Erk upregulation in both bulge and DP cells (Pminoxidil-treated bulge cells. In contrast, the expression of β-cateinin and Shh in the DP cells was not meaningfully increased after treatment with HPL. Our results suggest that minoxidil and HPL can promote hair growth by activating the main anagen inducing signaling pathways. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. Local structure of human hair spatially resolved by sub-micron X-ray beam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanić, Vesna; Bettini, Jefferson; Montoro, Fabiano Emmanuel; Stein, Aaron; Evans-Lutterodt, Kenneth

    2015-11-30

    Human hair has three main regions, the medulla, the cortex, and the cuticle. An existing model for the cortex suggests that the α-keratin- based intermediate filaments (IFs) align with the hair's axis, but are orientationally disordered in-plane. We found that there is a new region in the cortex near the cuticle's boundary in which the IFs are aligned with the hair's axis, but additionally, they are orientationally ordered in-plane due to the presence of the cuticle/hair boundary. Further into the cortex, the IF arrangement becomes disordered, eventually losing all in-plane orientation. We also find that in the cuticle, a key diffraction feature is absent, indicating the presence of the β-keratin rather than that of the α-keratin phase. This is direct structural evidence that the cuticle contains β-keratin sheets. This work highlights the importance of using a sub-micron x-ray beam to unravel the structures of poorly ordered, multi-phase systems.

  12. The spatial patterns of water management practices are reflected in the strontium isotope ratios of human hair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tipple, B. J.; Valenzuela, L. O.; Ehleringer, J.

    2012-12-01

    Element concentrations and isotopes of human tissues are commonly used to understand how emissions and processes within urban ecosystems affect health. Thus, it is important to understand how these elements are incorporated and flow through the urban environment and are ultimately incorporated into human tissues. Here, we designed an experiment to identify the relative importance of strontium (Sr) sources (bedrock, dust, food, and water) to hair Sr isotope ratios (87Sr/86Sr). To understand the contribution of Sr to human hair, we collected hair from individuals living in Salt Lake City, Utah. In addition to sample location, we compiled information regarding age, sex, ethnicity, and dietary habits. We found a significant association between 87Sr/86Sr value of hair and collection location. There were no significant relationships between 87Sr/86Sr value of hair and age, ethnicity, or sex. We had not predicted a relationship between 87Sr/86Sr values and collection location, because of the close proximities of sites to one another (all within an 8-km radius). We found that tap water 87Sr/86Sr values across the Salt Lake Valley varied with water management practice and this variation corresponded to hair 87Sr/86Sr value. These data suggest an additional geographically controlled source of Sr may be an important contributor to the 87Sr/86Sr value of hair. These findings suggest that local water is an important source of Sr in human hair and that hair is a sensitive temporal carrier of this environmental information. These observations have important implications to future studies of humans with regard to urban ecology, human health, forensic sciences, and anthropology.

  13. Study of colouring effect of herbal hair formulations on graying hair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijender Singh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To screen the hair colouring properties of hair colorants/ herbal hair colouring formulations. Materials and Methods: The dried aqueous herbal extracts of Gudhal leaves (Hibiscus rosa-sinensis, Jatamansi rhizome (Nardostachys jatamansi, Kuth roots (Saussurea lappa, Kattha (Acacia catechu, Amla dried fruit (Embelica officinalis, were prepared. Coffee powder (Coffea arabicaand Henna powder (Lowsonia inermis were taken in the form of powder (# 40. Fourteen herbal hair colorants were prepared from these dried aqueous herbal extracts and powders. Activities of hair colorants were observed on sheep wool fibers. On the basis of the above observation six hair colorants were selected. These six formulations were taken for trials on human beings. Observation: The formulation coded HD-3 gave maximum colouring effect on sheep wool fibers as well as on human beings and percentage of acceptance among the volunteers were in the following order: HD- 3 > HD- 4 > HD-1 > HD-13 > HD-14 > HD-11. Results and Discussion: The remarkable results were obtained from five herbal hair colorants, viz., HD-1, HD- 3, HD- 4, HD-13 and HD-14 on sheep wool fibers and human beings. Formulation HD-3, having gudhal, jatamansi, kuth, kattha, amla, coffee and henna, was the maximum accepted formulation and suggested that these herbs in combination acts synergistically in hair colouring action. It also concluded that jatamansi, present in different hair colorants, was responsible to provide maximum blackening on hair

  14. Effect of ethnicity and treatments on in situ tensile response and morphological changes of human hair characterized by atomic force microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seshadri, Indira P. [Nanotribology Laboratory for Information Storage and MEMS/NEMS (NLIM), 201 W. 19th Avenue, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Bhushan, Bharat [Nanotribology Laboratory for Information Storage and MEMS/NEMS (NLIM), 201 W. 19th Avenue, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States)], E-mail: bhushan.2@osu.edu

    2008-08-15

    Human hair fibers experience tensile forces during grooming and styling processes. The tensile response of hair is hence of considerable interest to the cosmetics industry. In this study, in situ tensile characterization studies have been carried out in an atomic force microscope (AFM) on different hair under different conditions. A custom-built AFM sample stage allows hair fibers to be loaded in tension. A technique to locate and image the same control area at different strains has been developed to study the changes in morphology that occur with deformation. Virgin Caucasian, Asian and African hair were studied to understand the differences between different ethnic hair types. Also, the tensile response and morphological changes of virgin, chemically damaged and conditioner-treated Caucasian hair after soaking were compared against the corresponding dry tensile response. Finally, virgin, damaged and treated Caucasian hair fibers were subjected to fatigue cycling to simulate combing/detangling, and their tensile response studied.

  15. Differentiating the stem cell pool of human hair follicle outer root sheath into functional melanocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Marie; Dieckmann, Christina; Rabe, Katrin; Simon, Jan-Christoph; Savkovic, Vuk

    2014-01-01

    Bench-to-Bedside concepts for regenerative therapy place significant weight on noninvasive approaches, with harvesting of the starting material as a header. This is particularly important in autologous treatments, which use one's bodily constituents for therapy. Precisely the stretch between obtaining therapeutic elements invasively and noninvasively places non-intrusive "sampling" rather than "biopsy" in the center of the road map of developing an autologous regenerative therapy. We focus on such a noninvasively available source of adult stem cells that we carry with us throughout our life, available at our fingertips-or shall we say hair roots, by a simple plucking of hair: the human hair follicle. This chapter describes an explant procedure for cultivating melanocytes differentiated from the stem cell pool of the hair follicle Outer Root Sheath (ORS). In vivo, the most abundant derivatives of the heterogeneous ORS stem cell pool are epidermal cells-melanocytes and keratinocytes which complete their differentiation-either spontaneously or upon picking up regenerative cues from damaged skin-and migrate from the ORS towards the adjacent regenerating area of the epidermis. We have taken advantage of the ORS developmental potential by optimizing explant primary culture, expansion and melanogenic differentiation of resident ORS stem cells towards end-stage melanocytes in order to obtain functional melanocytes noninvasively for the purposes of transplantation and use them for the treatment of depigmentation disorders. Our protocol specifies sampling of hair with their ORS, follicle medium-air interface primary culture, stimulation of cell outgrowth, adherent culture and differentiation of ORS stem cells and precursors towards fully functional melanocytes. Along with cultivation, we describe selection techniques for establishing and maintaining a pure melanocyte population and methods suitable for determining melanocyte identity.

  16. Demonstration of Protein-Based Human Identification Using the Hair Shaft Proteome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leppert, Tami; Anex, Deon S.; Hilmer, Jonathan K.; Matsunami, Nori; Baird, Lisa; Stevens, Jeffery; Parsawar, Krishna; Durbin-Johnson, Blythe P.; Rocke, David M.; Nelson, Chad; Fairbanks, Daniel J.; Wilson, Andrew S.; Rice, Robert H.; Woodward, Scott R.; Bothner, Brian; Hart, Bradley R.; Leppert, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Human identification from biological material is largely dependent on the ability to characterize genetic polymorphisms in DNA. Unfortunately, DNA can degrade in the environment, sometimes below the level at which it can be amplified by PCR. Protein however is chemically more robust than DNA and can persist for longer periods. Protein also contains genetic variation in the form of single amino acid polymorphisms. These can be used to infer the status of non-synonymous single nucleotide polymorphism alleles. To demonstrate this, we used mass spectrometry-based shotgun proteomics to characterize hair shaft proteins in 66 European-American subjects. A total of 596 single nucleotide polymorphism alleles were correctly imputed in 32 loci from 22 genes of subjects’ DNA and directly validated using Sanger sequencing. Estimates of the probability of resulting individual non-synonymous single nucleotide polymorphism allelic profiles in the European population, using the product rule, resulted in a maximum power of discrimination of 1 in 12,500. Imputed non-synonymous single nucleotide polymorphism profiles from European–American subjects were considerably less frequent in the African population (maximum likelihood ratio = 11,000). The converse was true for hair shafts collected from an additional 10 subjects with African ancestry, where some profiles were more frequent in the African population. Genetically variant peptides were also identified in hair shaft datasets from six archaeological skeletal remains (up to 260 years old). This study demonstrates that quantifiable measures of identity discrimination and biogeographic background can be obtained from detecting genetically variant peptides in hair shaft protein, including hair from bioarchaeological contexts. PMID:27603779

  17. Method development for assessing the human exposure to organophosphate flame retardants in hair and nails.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Andreia; Covaci, Adrian; Voorspoels, Stefan

    2017-02-01

    In the present study, a new extraction method based on acid digestion and SPE clean-up (Oasis Wax) was developed for measuring four PFR metabolites (i.e. dibutyl phosphate (DBP), diphenyl phosphate (DPhP), bis(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl)phosphate (BDCPP) and bis(2-butoxy ethyl) phosphate (BBEP)) in hair and nails. The method optimization was done according to a combinatorial design (Taguchi) where several parameters were efficiently optimized. Precision was lower for hair than for nails (RSD % 18 and 28%). Recoveries were >74%. High DBP levels in procedural blanks were traced back to the use of SPE cartridges. Therefore a new SPE pre-treatment was tested, reducing significantly DBP levels (hair, finger, and toe nails collected over two months in two volunteers (female and male). DPhP levels were extremely high (in μg/g range) in both finger and toe nails in the female. BDCPP and BBEP were the minor metabolites detected in nails (average levels of 28-64 ng/g and hair (0.23-0.25 ng/g). Results showed that there is a possible contribution from both an external (via deposition) and an internal exposure, however it was not possible to fully understand their extent. Since there were no records of lifestyle and due to the small sample size, the major exposure source could not be addressed here. Nevertheless, there is evidence that hair and nails (finger and toe) might be good indicators of human exposure to PFRs, especially to TPhP. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Quantifying hair shape and hair damage induced during reshaping of hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMullen, Roger L; Zhang, Guojin; Gillece, Timothy

    2015-01-01

    The manipulation of hair shape, either to straighten or curl hair, is carried out on a grand scale in the hair care consumer market. Often, such changes are brought about through chemical or physical treatment, resulting in changes to hair chemistry. In this article, we review existing and present new data on methods to assess the efficacy of such treatments, mostly concentrating on imaging technologies used in conjunction with image analysis. In addition, we introduce spectroscopic imaging techniques and fluorescence spectrophotometry as tools to assess the biochemical state of the hair fiber as a result of hair shape modification regimens. Finally, we demonstrate how the structural integrity of the fiber is monitored with dynamic scanning calorimetry and traditional mechanical testing of the tensile properties of hair.

  19. [Laser hair removal for urethral hair after hypospadias repair].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneko, Tomoyuki; Nishimatsu, Hiroaki; Ogushi, Tetsuo; Sugimoto, Masayuki; Asakage, Yasuyuki; Kitamura, Tadaichi

    2008-01-01

    A 56-year-old male was admitted for induration of ventral side of the penile shaft. Computed tomography showed a large urethral calculus in the distal urethra. About 50 years previously, he had undergone multi-staged urethroplasty for hypospadias. He had also suffered from recurrent urethral calculi managed by urethrolithotomy 5 and 2 years before the admission. Urethrolithotomy revealed hair-bearing urethral calculus. Instillation of depilating agent containing thioglycolate into the neourethra for preventing hair regrowth was ineffective. Transurethral laser hair removal of neourethra was subsequently performed. All the neourethral follicles were ablated with GaAlAs diode laser (wave length 810 nm; at a power of 15W for 2 seconds) through a side-firing laser fiber. Another three operations were performed for a few regrown hairs at a power of 20-30W. Convalescence was uneventful. The patient is free of hair regrowth except for a hair at five months of follow-up.

  20. Active Hair-Bundle Motility by the Vertebrate Hair Cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinevez, J.-Y.; Martin, P.; Jülicher, F.

    2009-02-01

    The hair bundle is both a mechano-sensory antenna and a force generator that might help the vertebrate hair cell from the inner ear to amplify its responsiveness to small stimuli. To study active hair-bundle motility, we combined calcium iontophoresis with mechanical stimulation of single hair bundles from the bullfrog's sacculus. A hair bundle could oscillate spontaneously, or be quiescent but display non-monotonic movements in response to abrupt force steps. Extracellular calcium changes or static biases to the bundle's position at rest could affect the kinetics of bundle motion and evoke transitions between the different classes of motility. The calcium-dependent location of a bundle's operating point within its nonlinear force-displacement relation controlled the type of movements observed. A unified theoretical description, in which mechanical activity stems from myosin-based adaptation and electro-mechanical feedback by Ca2+, could account for the fast and slow manifestations of active hair-bundle motility.

  1. Promotive Effect of Minoxidil Combined with All-trans Retinoic Acid (tretinoin) on Human Hair Growth in Vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Oh Sang; Pyo, Hyun Keol; Oh, Youn Jin; Han, Ji Hyun; Lee, Se Rah; Chung, Jin Ho; Eun, Hee Chul

    2007-01-01

    Minoxidil induces hair growth in male pattern baldness and prolongs the anagen phase. All-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) has been reported to act synergistically with minoxidil in vivo: they can enhance more dense hair regrowth than either compound alone. We evaluated the effect of minoxidil combined with ATRA on hair growth in vitro. The effect of co-treatment of minoxidil and ATRA on hair growth was studied in hair follicle organ culture. In cultured human dermal papilla cells (DPCs) and normal human epidermal keratinocytes, the expressions of Erk, Akt, Bcl-2, Bax, P53 and P21 were evaluated by immunoblot analysis. Minoxidil plus ATRA additively promoted hair growth in vitro, compared with minoxidil alone. In addition, minoxidil plus ATRA elevated phosphorylated Erk, phosphorylated Akt and the ratio of Bcl-2/Bax, but decreased the expressions of P53 and P21 more effectively than by minoxidil alone. Our results suggest that minoxidil plus ATRA would additively enhance hair growth by mediating dual functions: 1) the prolongation of cell survival by activating the Erk and Akt signaling pathways, and 2) the prevention of apoptosis of DPCs and epithelial cells by increasing the ratio of Bcl-2/Bax and downregulating the expressions of P53 and P21. PMID:17449938

  2. Metagenomic analyses of bacteria on human hairs: a qualitative assessment for applications in forensic science

    OpenAIRE

    Tridico, Silvana R; Murray, Dáithí C.; Addison, Jayne; Kirkbride, Kenneth P; Bunce, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Background Mammalian hairs are one of the most ubiquitous types of trace evidence collected in the course of forensic investigations. However, hairs that are naturally shed or that lack roots are problematic substrates for DNA profiling; these hair types often contain insufficient nuclear DNA to yield short tandem repeat (STR) profiles. Whilst there have been a number of initial investigations evaluating the value of metagenomics analyses for forensic applications (e.g. examination of compute...

  3. Hair follicle proteoglycans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Couchman, J R

    1993-01-01

    structure. These classes include cell surface proteoglycans, basement membrane proteoglycans, small leucine-rich proteoglycans, large proteoglycans aggregating with hyaluronan, and intracellular granule proteoglycans. They have a wide range of functions, but little is known of the proteoglycans...... that are present in the epithelial and stromal compartments of hair follicles. However, the transmembrane proteoglycan syndecan may be important in follicle morphogenesis, both with respect to the epithelium and dermal papilla cells. Syndecan may possess both heparan and chondroitin sulfate chains, interacts...... basement membranes, including those surrounding the epithelial compartment of hair follicles. Additionally, and quite unlike the dermis, the dermal papilla is enriched in basement-membrane components, especially a chondroitin 6-sulfate-containing proteoglycan, BM-CSPG. The function of this proteoglycan...

  4. Sources of variation in hair cortisol in wild and captive non-human primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fourie, Nicolaas H; Brown, Janine L; Jolly, Clifford J; Phillips-Conroy, Jane E; Rogers, Jeffrey; Bernstein, Robin M

    2016-04-01

    Hair cortisol analysis is a potentially powerful tool for evaluating adrenal function and chronic stress. However, the technique has only recently been applied widely to studies of wildlife, including primates, and there are numerous practical and technical factors that should be considered to ensure good quality data and the validity of results and conclusions. Here we report on various intrinsic and extrinsic sources of variation in hair cortisol measurements in wild and captive primates. Hair samples from both wild and captive primates revealed that age and sex can affect hair cortisol concentrations; these effects need to be controlled for when making comparisons between individual animals or populations. Hair growth rates also showed considerable inter-specific variation among a number of primate species. We describe technical limitations of hair analyses and variation in cortisol concentrations as a function of asynchronous hair growth, anatomical site of collection, and the amount and numbers of hair/s used for cortisol extraction. We discuss these sources of variation and their implications for proper study design and interpretation of results.

  5. Hair Styling Appliances

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    Key tool of Redken Laboratories new line of hair styling appliances is an instrument called a thermograph, a heat sensing device originally developed by Hughes Aircraft Co. under U.S. Army and NASA funding. Redken Laboratories bought one of the early models of the Hughes Probeye Thermal Video System or TVS which detects the various degrees of heat emitted by an object and displays the results in color on a TV monitor with colors representing different temperatures detected.

  6. Without Turning A Hair

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周立

    2003-01-01

    [英语对话] A:You see,our happiness depends on other people,and theirs depends on us, too. B:I know the philosophy.but in practice many things do not work that way. A:You don’t care?What about when people are trying to enrage you? B:I remain as what I am without turning a hair,of course.[对话译文

  7. Normal and aging hair biology and structure 'aging and hair'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodier, Molly; Hordinsky, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Much like an individual's hairstyle, hair fibers along the scalp see a number of changes over the course of one's lifetime. As the decades pass, the shine and volume synonymous with youthful hair may give way to thin, dull, and brittle hair commonly associated with aging. These changes are a result of a compilation of genetic and environmental elements influencing the cells of the hair follicle, specifically the hair follicle stem cells and melanocytes. Telomere shortening, decrease in cell numbers, and particular transcription factors have all been implicated in this process. In turn, these molecular alterations lead to structural modifications of the hair fiber, decrease in melanin production, and lengthening of the telogen phase of the hair cycle. Despite this inevitable progression with aging, there exists an array of treatments such as light therapy, minoxidil, and finasteride which have been designed to mitigate the effects of aging, particularly balding and thinning hair. Although each works through a different mechanism, all aim to maintain or potentially restore the youthful quality of hair. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  8. Rotating black hole hair

    CERN Document Server

    Gregory, Ruth; Wills, Danielle

    2013-01-01

    A Kerr black hole sporting cosmic string hair is studied in the context of the abelian Higgs model vortex. It is shown that a such a system displays much richer phenomenology than its static Schwarzschild or Reissner--Nordstrom cousins, for example, the rotation generates a near horizon `electric' field. In the case of an extremal rotating black hole, two phases of the Higgs hair are possible: Large black holes exhibit standard hair, with the vortex piercing the event horizon. Small black holes on the other hand, exhibit a flux-expelled solution, with the gauge and scalar field remaining identically in their false vacuum state on the event horizon. This solution however is extremely sensitive to confirm numerically, and we conjecture that it is unstable due to a supperradiant mechanism similar to the Kerr-adS instability. Finally, we compute the gravitational back reaction of the vortex, which turns out to be far more nuanced than a simple conical deficit. While the string produces a conical effect, it is con...

  9. Analysis of internal structure changes in black human hair keratin fibers resulting from bleaching treatments using Raman spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzuhara, Akio

    2013-09-01

    In order to investigate in detail the internal structure changes in virgin black human hair keratin fibers resulting from bleaching treatments, the structure of cross-sections at various depths of black human hair, which had been impossible due to high melanin grande content, was directly analyzed using Raman spectroscopy. The gauche-gauche-gauche (GGG) content of the sbnd SSsbnd groups existing from the cuticle region to the center of cortex region of the virgin black human hair remarkably decreased, while the gauche-gauche-trans and trans-gauche-trans contents were not changed by performing the excessive bleaching treatment. In particular, it was found that not only the β-sheet and/or random coil content, but also the α-helix content existing throughout the cortex region of virgin black human hair decreased. In addition, the transmission electron microscope observation shows that the proteins in the cell membrane complex, the cuticle and cortex of the virgin black human hair were remarkably eluted by performing the excessive bleaching treatment. From these experiments, the author concluded that the sbnd SSsbnd groups, which have a GGG conformation were decomposed and finally converted to cysteic acid, and the α-helix structure of some of the proteins existing in the keratin was changed to the random coil structure, or eluted from the cortex region, thereby leading to the reduction in the protein density of the virgin human hair after the excessive bleaching treatment.

  10. [Neurocutaneous syndrome with hair alterations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camacho-Martínez, F

    1997-09-01

    There are multiple neurocutaneous syndromes that may show hair alterations such as the interglabellar peak or 'widow's peak', which is an alteration of the hair implantation, in addition to the genohypotrichosis, hypertrichosis and hair shaft dysplasias. In this chapter we will focus on the latter. Out of the unspecific hair shaft dysplasias the only ones showing neurological alterations are trichorrhexis invaginata, observed in the syndrome of Netherton. Among the specific dysplasias we would like to point out monilethrix, and very especially the moniliform hair syndrome, the trichorrhexis nodosa, the pili torti and trichotiodystrophy. The latter is actually a group of syndromes which associates a series of diverse symptoms that have in common hair brittleness, fertility problems and physical and mental retardation, and they constitute the basic syndrome know as 'BIDS syndrome.

  11. Hair removal on dermoscopy images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maglogiannis, Ilias; Delibasis, Kostantinos

    2015-08-01

    Digital Dermoscopy is a tool commonly used by dermatologists for assisting the diagnosis of skin lesions. The presence of hair in such dermoscopic images frequently occludes significant diagnostic information and reduces their value. In this work we propose algorithms that successfully identify and remove hair from the dermoscopic images. The proposed algorithms consist of two parts; the first deals with the identification of hair, while the second part concerns the image restoration using interpolation. For the evaluation of the algorithms we used ground truth images with synthetic hair and compared the results with the commonly used in the literature DullRazor tool. According to the experimental results the proposed hair removal algorithms can be used successfully in the detection and removal of both dark and light colored hair.

  12. Biologic Rhythms Derived from Siberian Mammoths Hairs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M Spilde; A Lanzirotti; C Qualls; G Phillips; A Ali; L Agenbroad; O Appenzeller

    2011-12-31

    Hair is preserved for millennia in permafrost; it enshrines a record of biologic rhythms and offers a glimpse at chronobiology as it was in extinct animals. Here we compare biologic rhythms gleaned from mammoth's hairs with those of modern human hair. Four mammoths' hairs came from varying locations in Siberia 4600 km, four time zones, apart ranging in age between 18,000 and 20,000 years before present. We used two contemporaneous human hairs for comparison. Power spectra derived from hydrogen isotope ratios along the length of the hairs gave insight into biologic rhythms, which were different in the mammoths depending on location and differed from humans. Hair growth for mammoths was {approx}31 cms/year and {approx}16 cms/year for humans. Recurrent annual rhythms of slow and fast growth varying from 3.4 weeks/cycles to 8.7 weeks/cycles for slow periods and 1.2 weeks/cycles to 2.2 weeks/cycles for fast periods were identified in mammoth's hairs. The mineral content of mammoth's hairs was measured by electron microprobe analysis (k-ratios), which showed no differences in sulfur amongst the mammoth hairs but significantly more iron then in human hair. The fractal nature of the data derived from the hairs became evident in Mandelbrot sets derived from hydrogen isotope ratios, mineral content and geographic location. Confocal microscopy and scanning electron microscopy showed varied degrees of preservation of the cuticle largely independent of age but not location of the specimens. X-ray fluorescence microprobe and fluorescence computed micro-tomography analyses allowed evaluation of metal distribution and visualization of hollow tubes in the mammoth's hairs. Seasonal variations in iron and copper content combined with spectral analyses gave insights into variation in food intake of the animals. Biologic rhythms gleaned from power spectral plots obtained by modern methods revealed life style and behavior of extinct mega-fauna.

  13. Polychlorinated biphenyls in human hair at an e-waste site in China: composition profiles and chiral signatures in comparison to dust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jing; Yan, Xiao; Chen, She-Jun; Peng, Xiao-Wu; Hu, Guo-Cheng; Chen, Ke-Hui; Luo, Xiao-Jun; Mai, Bi-Xian; Yang, Zhong-Yi

    2013-04-01

    We analyzed the polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in human hair collected from an electronic waste (e-waste) recycling area in southern China and compared their composition profiles and chiral signatures to those of workplace and domestic dust. The PCB concentrations showed significant age dependence in dismantling workers' hair but not in residents' hair. Among residents, PCB concentrations decreased in the following order: elderly people>students>pre-school children>adults. The PCB homologue and congener profiles of the workers' hair were similar to those of the workplace dust. However, the PCB homologue profile of the residents' hair was clearly different from that of the domestic dust. The chiral congener CB95 generally exhibited a racemic or near-racemic composition in both hair and dust, with enantiomer fractions (EFs) ranging from 0.485 to 0.525 in hair and from 0.479 to 0.504 in dust. The EFs of CB132 in dust (0.477-0.513) were closer to a racemic chiral signature than those in hair (0.378-0.521), but this difference was not significant. Our results suggest that the chiral signature of PCBs may be a better tool than the PCB composition profile for identifying the external and internal sources of organic contaminants in human hair. Further measurements of chiral PCB signatures in hair and blood from the same individuals are needed to identify the external and internal sources of PCBs in human hair.

  14. Mercury contamination in human hair and fish from Cambodia: levels, specific accumulation and risk assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agusa, Tetsuro [Center for Marine Environmental Studies (CMES), Ehime University, Bunkyo-cho 2-5, Matsuyama 790-8577 (Japan); Kunito, Takashi [Department of Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Science, Shinshu University, 3-1-1 Asahi, Matsumoto, Nagano 390-8621 (Japan); Iwata, Hisato [Center for Marine Environmental Studies (CMES), Ehime University, Bunkyo-cho 2-5, Matsuyama 790-8577 (Japan); Monirith, In [Center for Marine Environmental Studies (CMES), Ehime University, Bunkyo-cho 2-5, Matsuyama 790-8577 (Japan); Tana, Touch Seang [Social and Cultural Observation Unit (OBSES) of the Cabinet of the Council of Ministers, Phnom Penh (Cambodia); Subramanian, Annamalai [Center for Marine Environmental Studies (CMES), Ehime University, Bunkyo-cho 2-5, Matsuyama 790-8577 (Japan); Tanabe, Shinsuke [Center for Marine Environmental Studies (CMES), Ehime University, Bunkyo-cho 2-5, Matsuyama 790-8577 (Japan)]. E-mail: shinsuke@agr.ehime-u.ac.jp

    2005-03-01

    Mercury (Hg) concentrations in human hair and fish samples from Phnom Penh, Kien Svay, Tomnup Rolork and Batrong, Cambodia, collected in November 1999 and December 2000 were determined to understand the status of contamination, and age- and sex-dependent accumulation in humans and to assess the intake of mercury via fish consumption. Mercury concentrations in human hair ranged from 0.54 to 190 {mu}g/g dry wt. About 3% of the samples contained Hg levels exceeding the no observed adverse effects level (NOAEL) of WHO (50 {mu}g/g) and the levels in some hair samples of women also exceeded the NOAEL (10 {mu}g/g) associated with fetus neurotoxicity. A weak but significant positive correlation was observed between age and Hg levels in hair of residents. Mercury concentrations in muscle of marine and freshwater fish from Cambodia ranged from <0.01 to 0.96 {mu}g/g wet wt. Mercury intake rates were estimated on the basis of the Hg content in fish and daily fish consumption. Three samples of marine fish including sharp-tooth snapper and obtuse barracuda, and one sample of sharp-tooth snapper exceeded the guidelines by US EPA and by Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA), respectively, which indicates that some fish specimens examined (9% and 3% for US EPA and JECFA guidelines, respectively) were hazardous for consumption at the ingestion rate of Cambodian people (32.6 g/day). It is suggested that fish is probably the main source of Hg for Cambodian people. However, extremely high Hg concentrations were observed in some individuals and could not be explained by Hg intake from fish consumption, indicating some other contamination sources of Hg in Cambodia. - A source other than fish may be responsible for high Hg in some Cambodians.

  15. Sub-nm 3D observation of human hair melanin by high-voltage STEM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imai, Takehito; Higuchi, Kimitaka; Yamamoto, Yuta; Arai, Shigeo; Nakano, Takashi; Tanaka, Nobuo

    2016-04-01

    The ultrastructure of melanin granules in human hair was studied using 1,000 kV high-voltage scanning transmission electron microscopy to successfully reconstruct three-dimensional images of the whole melanin granule. It was revealed that the melanin granule was composed of a membrane-like outer structure that included many spherical vesicles, and an inner matrix containing a sheet-like structure in the elongated direction of the melanin granule and a sheet-like arrays structure in the cross direction. The outer structure of the melanin granule was maintained even after exposure to hair-bleaching agents to decompose the melanin granule, suggesting that the outer structure was a highly robust structure and composition compared with the inner matrix . © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Japanese Society of Microscopy. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. The amazing miniorgan: Hair follicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Çiler Çelik Özenci

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Hair is a primary characteristic of mammals, and exerts a wide range of functions including thermoregulation, physical protection, sensory activity, and social interactions. The hair shaft consists of terminally differentiated keratinocytes that are produced by the hair follicle. Hair follicle development takes place during fetal skin development and relies on tightly regulated ectodermal–mesodermal interactions. Hair follicles form during embryonic development and, after birth, undergo recurrent cycling of growth (anagen, apoptosis-driven regression (catagen, and relative quiescence (telogen. As a functional mini-organ, the hair follicle develops in an environment with dynamic and alternating changes of diverse molecular signals. Our molecular understanding of hair follicle biology relies heavily on genetically engineered mouse models with abnormalities in hair structure, growth, and/or pigmentation and significant advances have been made toward the identification of key signaling pathways and the regulatory genes involved. In this review, the basic concepts of hair follicle, a mini-complex organ, biology will be presented and its importance in clinical applications will be summarized.

  17. Laboratory Investigation Of Partial Replacement Of Coarse Aggregate By Plastic Chips And Cement By Human Hair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.S.Balaji

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The use of plastic is increasing day by day, although steps were taken to reduce its consumption. The suitability of recycled plastics as coarse aggregate in concrete and its advantage are discussed here. Experimental investigation was done using M20 mix and tests were carried out as per recommended procedures by relevant codes. As 100% replacement of natural coarse aggregate (NCA with plastic coarse aggregate (PCA is not feasible, partial replacement were examined. And also Hair is used as a fibred reinforcing material in concrete as partial replacement of cement. It has a high tensile strength which is equal to that of a copper wire with similar diameter. It is also available in abundance and at a very low cost. Tests were conducted to determine the properties of plastic aggregate and human hair such as density, specific gravity and crushing value. Experiments were conducted on concrete cubes with various percentages of human hair i.e. 0%, 0.5%, 1%, 1.5%, 2%, and 3% by weight of cement and with constant percentage of plastic aggregate as 20%.

  18. Biometrics from the carbon isotope ratio analysis of amino acids in human hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Glen P; An, Yan; Konstantynova, Kateryna I; Rashaid, Ayat H B

    2015-01-01

    This study compares and contrasts the ability to classify individuals into different grouping factors through either bulk isotope ratio analysis or amino-acid-specific isotope ratio analysis of human hair. Using LC-IRMS, we measured the isotope ratios of 14 amino acids in hair proteins independently, and leucine/isoleucine as a co-eluting pair, to provide 15 variables for classification. Multivariate analysis confirmed that the essential amino acids and non-essential amino acids were mostly independent variables in the classification rules, thereby enabling the separation of dietary factors of isotope intake from intrinsic or phenotypic factors of isotope fractionation. Multivariate analysis revealed at least two potential sources of non-dietary factors influencing the carbon isotope ratio values of the amino acids in human hair: body mass index (BMI) and age. These results provide evidence that compound-specific isotope ratio analysis has the potential to go beyond region-of-origin or geospatial movements of individuals-obtainable through bulk isotope measurements-to the provision of physical and characteristic traits about the individuals, such as age and BMI. Further development and refinement, for example to genetic, metabolic, disease and hormonal factors could ultimately be of great assistance in forensic and clinical casework.

  19. The proteomic profile of hair damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinclair, R; Flagler, M J; Jones, L; Rufaut, N; Davis, M G

    2012-06-01

    Monilethrix is a congenital hair shaft disorder with associated fragility. Many of the changes seen in monilethrix hair on light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy are also seen in hair weathering and cosmetic damage to hair. We used monilethrix as a model to investigate the relationship between hair protein structure and hair strength and resistance to cosmetic insult. We applied proteomic techniques to identify novel peptide damage markers for chemical oxidative damage to hair. The findings suggest that specific sites in the protein structure of hair are targeted during oxidative damage from bleaching, a unique insight into how chemical damage compromises the structural integrity of the hair shaft at the molecular level. Applying proteomics to the study of congenital and acquired hair shaft disorders can deliver new insights into hair damage and novel strategies to strengthen hair. © 2012 The Authors. BJD © 2012 British Association of Dermatologists.

  20. Removing Pubic Hair (For Young Women)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... are special reasons you shouldn’t shave your pubic hair. Call your health care provider if you develop folliculitis or symptoms of infection. Tags: body hair , shaving Related Content Hair Removal I can see tiny black spots under my ...

  1. Quaternary and secondary structural imaging of a human hair by a VSFG-detected IR super-resolution microscope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakai, Makoto, E-mail: makotos@res.titech.ac.jp [Chemical Resources Laboratory, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 4259 Nagatsuta-cho, Midori-ku, Yokohama 226-8503 (Japan); Kikuchi, Katsuya [Chemical Resources Laboratory, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 4259 Nagatsuta-cho, Midori-ku, Yokohama 226-8503 (Japan); Fujii, Masaaki, E-mail: mfujii@res.titech.ac.jp [Chemical Resources Laboratory, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 4259 Nagatsuta-cho, Midori-ku, Yokohama 226-8503 (Japan)

    2013-06-20

    Highlights: ► IR super-resolution image of cross section of a human black hair were measured. ► For the amide III band, human hair gave strong VSFG signals at the cortex area. ► Distribution of α-helix based quaternary structure of keratin proteins was observed. ► The VSFG signal disappeared completely when the amide I band was monitored. ► The α-helix of keratin proteins is well aligned along the axial direction in hair. - Abstract: IR super-resolution images of cross sections of a human black hair were measured by using a home-made vibrational sum-frequency generation (VSFG) detected IR microscope in the 6–9 μm region with a sub-micrometer spatial resolution. For the amide III band, the sample gave clear strong signals at the cortex area. This enabled us to measure the distribution of intermediate filaments, which have an α-helix based quaternary structure of keratin proteins in the hair. On the other hand, the VSFG signal disappeared completely when the amide I band was monitored by the same polarization of incident light. From the polarization dependence of VSFG, it is concluded that the α-helix of keratin proteins are well aligned along the axial direction in human hair.

  2. Dietary heterogeneity among Western industrialized countries reflected in the stable isotope ratios of human hair.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano O Valenzuela

    Full Text Available Although the globalization of food production is often assumed to result in a homogenization of consumption patterns with a convergence towards a Western style diet, the resources used to make global food products may still be locally produced (glocalization. Stable isotope ratios of human hair can quantify the extent to which residents of industrialized nations have converged on a standardized diet or whether there is persistent heterogeneity and glocalization among countries as a result of different dietary patterns and the use of local food products. Here we report isotopic differences among carbon, nitrogen and sulfur isotope ratios of human hair collected in thirteen Western European countries and in the USA. European hair samples had significantly lower δ(13C values (-22.7 to -18.3‰, and significantly higher δ(15N (7.8 to 10.3‰ and δ(34S (4.8 to 8.3‰ values than samples from the USA (δ(13C: -21.9 to -15.0‰, δ(15N: 6.7 to 9.9‰, δ(34S: -1.2 to 9.9‰. Within Europe, we detected differences in hair δ(13C and δ(34S values among countries and covariation of isotope ratios with latitude and longitude. This geographic structuring of isotopic data suggests heterogeneity in the food resources used by citizens of industrialized nations and supports the presence of different dietary patterns within Western Europe despite globalization trends. Here we showed the potential of stable isotope analysis as a population-wide tool for dietary screening, particularly as a complement of dietary surveys, that can provide additional information on assimilated macronutrients and independent verification of data obtained by those self-reporting instruments.

  3. Effect of shampoo, conditioner and permanent waving on the molecular structure of human hair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuchen; Alsop, Richard J.; Soomro, Asfia; Yang, Fei-Chi

    2015-01-01

    The hair is a filamentous biomaterial consisting of the cuticle, the cortex and the medulla, all held together by the cell membrane complex. The cortex mostly consists of helical keratin proteins that spiral together to form coiled-coil dimers, intermediate filaments, micro-fibrils and macro-fibrils. We used X-ray diffraction to study hair structure on the molecular level, at length scales between ∼3–90 Å, in hopes of developing a diagnostic method for diseases affecting hair structure allowing for fast and noninvasive screening. However, such an approach can only be successful if common hair treatments do not affect molecular hair structure. We found that a single use of shampoo and conditioner has no effect on packing of keratin molecules, structure of the intermediate filaments or internal lipid composition of the membrane complex. Permanent waving treatments are known to break and reform disulfide linkages in the hair. Single application of a perming product was found to deeply penetrate the hair and reduce the number of keratin coiled-coils and change the structure of the intermediate filaments. Signals related to the coiled-coil structure of the α-keratin molecules at 5 and 9.5 Å were found to be decreased while a signal associated with the organization of the intermediate filaments at 47 Å was significantly elevated in permed hair. Both these observations are related to breaking of the bonds between two coiled-coil keratin dimers. PMID:26557428

  4. Human hair mercury levels in the Wanshan mercury mining area, Guizhou Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ping; Feng, Xinbin; Qiu, Guangle; Shang, Lihai; Li, Guanghui

    2009-12-01

    The total mercury (T-Hg) and methyl mercury (Me-Hg) concentrations in the hair were measured to evaluate mercury (Hg) exposure for the residents in Da-shui-xi Village (DSX) and Xia-chang-xi Village (XCX) in the Wanshan Hg mining area, Guizhou Province, Southwestern China. The mean concentrations in the hair of DSX residents were 5.5 ± 2.7 μg/g and 1.9 ± 0.9 μg/g for T-Hg and Me-Hg, respectively. The concentrations in the hair of XCX residents were 3.3 ± 1.4 μg/g and 1.2 ± 0.5 μg/g for T-Hg and Me-Hg, respectively. Hair Me-Hg concentrations were significantly correlated to T-Hg (r = 0.42, P < 0.01) in the two sites; on average, hair Me-Hg concentration accounted for 40 and 44% of T-Hg for DSX and XCX residents, respectively. Age has no obvious correlation with hair Hg and the hair Hg levels showed a significant gender difference, with higher T-Hg and Me-Hg concentrations in the hair from males than females. The rice collected from the two sites showed high levels of T-Hg and Me-Hg concentration. The results indicated a certain Hg exposure for the residents in DSX and XCX in the Wanshan Hg mining area.

  5. Effect of shampoo, conditioner and permanent waving on the molecular structure of human hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuchen; Alsop, Richard J; Soomro, Asfia; Yang, Fei-Chi; Rheinstädter, Maikel C

    2015-01-01

    The hair is a filamentous biomaterial consisting of the cuticle, the cortex and the medulla, all held together by the cell membrane complex. The cortex mostly consists of helical keratin proteins that spiral together to form coiled-coil dimers, intermediate filaments, micro-fibrils and macro-fibrils. We used X-ray diffraction to study hair structure on the molecular level, at length scales between ∼3-90 Å, in hopes of developing a diagnostic method for diseases affecting hair structure allowing for fast and noninvasive screening. However, such an approach can only be successful if common hair treatments do not affect molecular hair structure. We found that a single use of shampoo and conditioner has no effect on packing of keratin molecules, structure of the intermediate filaments or internal lipid composition of the membrane complex. Permanent waving treatments are known to break and reform disulfide linkages in the hair. Single application of a perming product was found to deeply penetrate the hair and reduce the number of keratin coiled-coils and change the structure of the intermediate filaments. Signals related to the coiled-coil structure of the α-keratin molecules at 5 and 9.5 Å were found to be decreased while a signal associated with the organization of the intermediate filaments at 47 Å was significantly elevated in permed hair. Both these observations are related to breaking of the bonds between two coiled-coil keratin dimers.

  6. Smokers′ hair: Does smoking cause premature hair graying?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayman A Zayed

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: To determine if there is a significant association between premature hair graying and cigarette smoking. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional observational study was conducted in a nonclinical setting on 207 participants on August 24 until 25, 2010. Participants were classified into two groups [premature hair graying (PHG and normal hair graying]. PHG was defined as the first appearance of gray hair before the age of 30. Data were collected using an interview questionnaire and measurements of body mass index, waist circumference, fasting blood glucose and blood pressure. Collected data were statistically analyzed using SPSS 16, Chicago, IL. Results: Of the 207 subjects, 104 (50.2% had first appearance of gray hair before the age of 30 (PHG group while the other 103 (49.8% were considered normal hair graying group. The prevalence of smokers in the "PHG" group was higher (40.2% vs. 24.7%, P = 0.031. Smokers had earlier onset of hair graying (smokers: 31 (7.4 vs. nonsmokers: 34 (8.6, P = 0.034. Using multiple logistic regression with conditional likelihood, smokers were two and half times (95% CI: 1.5-4.6 more prone to develop PHG. Conclusion: This study suggests that there is a significant relation (with adjusted odds ratio of two and half between onset of gray hair before the age of 30 and cigarette smoking.

  7. Application of XANES profiles to X-ray spectromicroscopy for biomedical specimens: part II. Mapping oxidation state of cysteine in human hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Takafumi; Takehara, Kouji; Shimizu, Norio; Kitajima, Yoshinori; Shinohara, Kunio; Ito, Atsushi

    2011-01-01

    Human hair fibers are primarily composed of keratin protein, characterized by a very high content of cysteine, a sulfur-containing amino acid, which ordinarily forms cystine via a disulfide bond. It is known that some cystine residues are converted to cysteic acid during permanent waving or hair coloring, although details of their distribution and extent are still unclear. In this study, by using difference in XANES profiles of cystine and cysteic acid at the S-K absorption edge, the formation of cysteic acid was confirmed for homogenized samples of permed or bleached hair. Furthermore chemical mapping of cysteic acid was performed on hair-section samples with X-ray contact microscopy. The peripheral region, cuticle, in bleached hair showed the highest content of cysteic acid compared with the other parts, while permed hair showed relatively uniform distribution. This finding suggests that perming and bleaching damage hair by different mechanisms.

  8. Levels and sources of brominated flame retardants in human hair from urban, e-waste, and rural areas in South China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jing; Luo, Xiao-Jun; Yuan, Jian-Gang; Wang, Jing; Wang, Yu-Tao; Chen, Shen-Jun; Mai, Bi-Xian; Yang, Zhong-Yi

    2011-12-01

    Human hair and indoor dust from urban, e-waste, and rural areas in south China were collected and analyzed for brominated flame retardants (BFRs). BFRs concentrations in hair from occupational e-waste recycling workers were higher than those from non-occupational exposed residents in other sampling areas. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and decabromodiphenyl ethane (DBDPE) are two major BFRs in hair samples. The PBDE congener profiles in hair from the e-waste area are different from those from urban and rural areas with relatively higher contribution of lower brominated congeners. DBDPE, instead of BDE209, has become the major BFR in non-e-waste recycling areas. Significant correlations were found between hair level and dust level for DBDPE and BTBPE but not for PBDEs. The different PBDE congener profiles between dust and hair may suggest that exogenous exposure to the PBDE adsorbed on dust is not a major source of hair PBDEs.

  9. Understanding breakage in curly hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camacho-Bragado, G A; Balooch, G; Dixon-Parks, F; Porter, C; Bryant, H

    2015-07-01

    In 2005, the L'Oréal Institute for hair and skin research carried out a multiethnic study to investigate hair breakage in women residing in the U.S.A. In this study it was reported that a large percentage (96%) of the African-American respondents experience breakage. A combination of structural differences and grooming-induced stresses seem to contribute to the higher breakage incidence in the African-American group as the chemical composition of African-American hair is not significantly different from other ethnic groups. Some authors have proposed that the repeated elongation, torsion and flexion actions may affect the components of the hair fibre. However, considering the different properties of cuticle and cortex, one would expect a different wearing mechanism of each, leading to the ultimate failure of hair. Knowing in detail how each part of the structure fails can potentially lead to better ways to protect the hair from physical insults. To investigate crack propagation and fracture mechanisms in African-American hair. Virgin hair of excellent quality was collected, with informed consent, from a female African-American volunteer. A series of controlled mechanical stresses was applied to 10-mm hair sections using a high-resolution mechanical stage (20 mN) up to the fracture of the fibre. The surface was monitored using scanning electron microscopy imaging during the stress application. X-ray tomographic microscopy images were acquired and quantified to detect changes in energy absorption as a function of applied stress that could be linked to increase in crack density. Analysis of the mechanical response of hair combined with the two imaging techniques led us to propose the following mechanism of hair breakage: cuticle sliding; failure of the cuticle-cortex interface; nucleation of intercellular cracks and growth of cracks at the cuticle-cortex junction; and propagation of intercellular cracks towards the surface of the hair and final breakage when these

  10. Giant axonal neuropathy alters the structure of keratin intermediate filaments in human hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soomro, Asfia; Alsop, Richard J; Negishi, Atsuko; Kreplak, Laurent; Fudge, Douglas; Kuczmarski, Edward R; Goldman, Robert D; Rheinstädter, Maikel C

    2017-04-01

    Giant axonal neuropathy (GAN) follows an autosomal recessive genetic inheritance and impedes the peripheral and central nervous system due to axonal swellings that are packed with neurofilaments. The patients display a number of phenotypes, including hypotonia, muscle weakness, decreased reflexes, ataxia, seizures, intellectual disability, pale skin and often curled hair. We used X-ray diffraction and tensile testing to determine potential changes to the structure of keratin intermediate filaments (IFs) in the hair of patients with GAN. A statistically significant decrease in the 47 and the 27 Å diffraction signals were observed. Tensile tests determined that the hair was slightly stiffer, stronger and more extensible in GAN patients. These results suggest that the structure of keratin IFs in hair is altered in GAN, and the findings are compatible with an increased positional disorder of the keratin tetramers within the hair fibres. © 2017 The Author(s).

  11. Deposition of JWH-018, JWH-073 and their metabolites in hair and effect of hair pigmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jihyun; In, Sanghwan; Park, Yuran; Park, Meejung; Kim, Eunmi; Lee, Sooyeun

    2013-12-01

    Analysis of drugs in hair is often used as a routine method to obtain detailed information about drug ingestion. However, few studies have been conducted on deposition of synthetic cannabinoids and metabolites in hair. The first purpose of this study was to establish and validate an analytical method for detection of JWH-018, JWH-073, and their metabolites in hair, by use of UHPLC-MS-MS, for forensic application. The second purpose was to investigate the distribution of synthetic cannabinoids metabolites in hair and the effect of hair pigmentation, by use of an animal model. For this, JWH-073 was chosen as a representative synthetic cannabinoid. Finally, the developed method was applied to hair samples from 18 individuals suspected of synthetic cannabinoids use. JWH-018, JWH-073, and their metabolites were extracted from hair with methanol. The extract was then filtered and analyzed by UHPLC-MS-MS with an electrospray ion source in positive-ionization mode. Validation proved the method was selective, sensitive, accurate, and precise, with acceptable linearity within the calibration ranges. No significant variations were observed when different sources of both human and rat hair were used. The animal study demonstrated that JWH-073 N-COOH M was the major metabolite of JWH-073 in rat hair, and hair pigmentation did not have a significant effect on incorporation of JWH-073 and its metabolites into hair. In the analysis of 18 authentic hair samples, only JWH-018, JWH-018 N-5-OH M, and JWH-073 were detected, with wide variation in concentrations.

  12. Permeant lipophilicity and vehicle composition influence accumulation of dyes in hair follicles of human skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grams, Ylva Y; Alaruikka, Soile; Lashley, Lisa; Caussin, Julia; Whitehead, Lynne; Bouwstra, Joke A

    2003-04-01

    In skin and hair research drug targeting to the hair follicle is of great interest. Therefore the influence of permeant lipophilicity and vehicle composition on local accumulation has been examined using confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). Formulations saturated with either Oregon Green 488, Bodipy FL C(5) or Bodipy 564/570 C(5) were prepared. The dyes were applied in citric acid buffer, 8% (w/v) surfactants in citric acid buffer or 8% (w/v) surfactants/20% (w/v) propylene glycol in citric acid buffer. Flow-through diffusion experiments were performed with fresh human scalp skin, after which the skin was imaged using CLSM. Diffusion studies showed for Oregon Green 488 (low lipophilicity) a higher flux when applied in citric acid buffer compared to surfactants. In contrast the fluxes of the more lipophilic dyes (Bodipy FL C(5) and Bodipy 564/570 C(5)) are highest when applied in surfactants/propylene glycol. CLSM studies revealed that follicular accumulation increased with (i) a lipophilic dye and (ii) application of lipophilic dyes in surfactants-propylene glycol. Therefore we conclude that targeting to the hair follicle can be increased by the use of lipophilic drugs in combination with surfactant solutions and propylene glycol.

  13. Quantitative analysis of mephedrone using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectroscopy: application to human hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Syeda A B; Deshmukh, Nawed I K; Barker, James; Petróczi, Andrea; Cross, Paul; Archer, Roland; Naughton, Declan P

    2012-03-01

    Recent abuse of designer drugs such as mephedrone has presented a requirement for sensitive, reliable and reproducible methods for the detection of these controlled drugs in different matrices. This study focuses on a fully developed validated method for the quantitative analysis of mephedrone and its two metabolites 4-methylephedrine and 4-methylnorephedrine in human hair. The calibration curve was found to be linear in the range 5-100 pg/mg for mephedrone and 10-150 pg/mg for 4-methylephedrine and 4-methylnorephedrine. The method was successfully validated for the intraday precision, interday precision, limit of detection, accuracy and extraction recovery. Five out of 154 hair samples were confirmed to be positive for mephedrone. Due to the structural similarities to other methcathinones and amphetamines, one can propose the metabolism for mephedrone based on a similar pathway that has been previously used for these psychoactive drugs. The outlined method can be valuable for the future detection of mephedrone and its two metabolites in hair.

  14. Generation of Integration-free Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells Using Hair-derived Keratinocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Sandy S C; Pébay, Alice; Wong, Raymond C B

    2015-08-20

    Recent advances in reprogramming allow us to turn somatic cells into human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs). Disease modeling using patient-specific hiPSCs allows the study of the underlying mechanism for pathogenesis, also providing a platform for the development of in vitro drug screening and gene therapy to improve treatment options. The promising potential of hiPSCs for regenerative medicine is also evident from the increasing number of publications (>7000) on iPSCs in recent years. Various cell types from distinct lineages have been successfully used for hiPSC generation, including skin fibroblasts, hematopoietic cells and epidermal keratinocytes. While skin biopsies and blood collection are routinely performed in many labs as a source of somatic cells for the generation of hiPSCs, the collection and subsequent derivation of hair keratinocytes are less commonly used. Hair-derived keratinocytes represent a non-invasive approach to obtain cell samples from patients. Here we outline a simple non-invasive method for the derivation of keratinocytes from plucked hair. We also provide instructions for maintenance of keratinocytes and subsequent reprogramming to generate integration-free hiPSC using episomal vectors.

  15. VirtualShave: automated hair removal from digital dermatoscopic images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorese, M; Peserico, E; Silletti, A

    2011-01-01

    VirtualShave is a novel tool to remove hair from digital dermatoscopic images. First, individual hairs are identified using a top-hat filter followed by morphological postprocessing. Then, they are replaced through PDE-based inpainting with an estimate of the underlying occluded skin. VirtualShave's performance is comparable to that of a human operator removing hair manually, and the resulting images are almost indistinguishable from those of hair-free skin.

  16. A GC-MS method for the detection and quantitation of ten major drugs of abuse in human hair samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orfanidis, A; Mastrogianni, O; Koukou, A; Psarros, G; Gika, H; Theodoridis, G; Raikos, N

    2017-03-15

    A sensitive analytical method has been developed in order to identify and quantify major drugs of abuse (DOA), namely morphine, codeine, 6-monoacetylmorphine, cocaine, ecgonine methyl ester, benzoylecgonine, amphetamine, methamphetamine, methylenedioxymethamphetamine and methylenedioxyamphetamine in human hair. Samples of hair were extracted with methanol under ultrasonication at 50°C after a three step rinsing process to remove external contamination and dirt hair. Derivatization with BSTFA was selected in order to increase detection sensitivity of GC/MS analysis. Optimization of derivatization parameters was based on experiments for the selection of derivatization time, temperature and volume of derivatising agent. Validation of the method included evaluation of linearity which ranged from 2 to 350ng/mg of hair mean concentration for all DOA, evaluation of sensitivity, accuracy, precision and repeatability. Limits of detection ranged from 0.05 to 0.46ng/mg of hair. The developed method was applied for the analysis of hair samples obtained from three human subjects and were found positive in cocaine, and opiates. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. Investigation of hair dye deposition, hair color loss, and hair damage during multiple oxidative dyeing and shampooing cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guojin; McMullen, Roger L; Kulcsar, Lidia

    2016-01-01

    Color fastness is a major concern for consumers and manufacturers of oxidative hair dye products. Hair dye loss results from multiple wash cycles in which the hair dye is dissolved by water and leaches from the hair shaft. In this study, we carried out a series of measurements to help us better understand the kinetics of the leaching process and pathways associated with its escape from the fiber. Hair dye leaching kinetics was measured by suspending hair in a dissolution apparatus and monitoring the dye concentration in solution (leached dye) with an ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometer. The physical state of dye deposited in hair fibers was evaluated by a reflectance light microscopy technique, based on image stacking, allowing enhanced depth of field imaging. The dye distribution within the fiber was monitored by infrared spectroscopic imaging of hair fiber cross sections. Damage to the ultrafine structure of the hair cuticle (surface, endocuticle, and cell membrane complex) and cortex (cell membrane complex) was determined in hair cross sections and on the hair fiber surface with atomic force microscopy. Using differential scanning calorimetry, we investigated how consecutive coloring and leaching processes affect the internal proteins of hair. Further, to probe the surface properties of hair we utilized contact angle measurements. This study was conducted on both pigmented and nonpigmented hair to gain insight into the influence of melanin on the hair dye deposition and leaching processes. Both types of hair were colored utilizing a commercial oxidative hair dye product based on pyrazole chemistry.

  18. Professionalizing hair care in Tonga

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N. Besnier

    2013-01-01

    In the course of the last two decades, Nuku'alofa, the capital of Tonga, witnessed an explosion of a particular kind of business, hair salons. For owners, workers, and customers alike, hair salons represent modernity and cosmopolitanism, and they thus attract a particular kind of clientele and labou

  19. "Dissection" of a Hair Dryer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenstein, Stan; Simpson, Jeff

    2008-01-01

    The electrical design of the common hair dryer is based almost entirely on relatively simple principles learned in introductory physics classes. Just as biology students dissect a frog to see the principles of anatomy in action, physics students can "dissect" a hair dryer to see how principles of electricity are used in a real system. They can…

  20. Guidelines for laser hair removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casey, Angela S; Goldberg, David

    2008-03-01

    Requests for removal of unwanted body hair are common in dermatologic and surgical practices. Technology continues to improve the achievement of a more permanent reduction through the use of lasers. Despite the increased use of lasers, to date, few guidelines exist in terms of how to approach laser hair removal. Specifically, one must understand the mechanism of hair growth and how lasers work to target the hair follicle. There is significant variation among practitioners in pre-and post-laser recommendations to patients as well as intervals between treatment sessions. We performed a thorough review of the literature in order to determine evidence for the ideal interval between treatment sessions and the ideal number of sessions. We also sought to establish, based on published reports, the recommendations for shaving, plucking, waxing or other hair removal methods prior to laser hair removal and the guidelines for sun exposure before and after laser treatments. Finally, we searched the literature to find out whether there are areas that should not be treated with laser hair removal. The evidence and recommendations in this article aim to help guide practitioners in their approach to laser hair removal.

  1. Hair loss induced by lopinavir-ritonavir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrás-Blasco, Joaquín; Belda, Alberto; Rosique-Robles, Dolores; Casterá, Elvira; Abad, Javier; Amorós-Quiles, Isabel

    2007-08-01

    A 38-year-old Caucasian woman with uncontrolled human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection was treated with highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) consisting of zidovudine, lamivudine, and nevirapine. Because her therapeutic response was inadequate, the HAART regimen was changed to abacavir, lamivudine, and lopinavir-ritonavir. Three months after this therapy was started, the patient developed progressive and notable hair loss. Her hair became fair and thin, and her appearance deteriorated considerably. Hair loss due to HAART was diagnosed. Lopinavir-ritonavir was stopped, and efavirenz was substituted; abacavir and lamivudine were continued. After 4 weeks, her hair growth substantially improved, as evidenced by rapid growth of new hair. Her general condition also improved. No relapse was observed with the new HAART regimen, and the patient's hair loss completely reversed in 8 weeks. Alopecia is a possible adverse event in HIV-infected patients treated with protease inhibitors, particularly indinavir. Our patient's severe and generalized alopecia was temporally related to the initiation and discontinuation of lopinavir-ritonavir. On the basis of the Naranjo adverse drug reaction probability scale, the adverse reaction was considered probable. Although generalized hair loss due to lopinavir-ritonavir is rare, clinicians should be aware of this potential adverse reaction of this widely used drug. If alopecia is severe or particularly distressing to the patient, the offending drug should be discontinued, and therapy with another HIV drug should be started.

  2. A toddler with hair fascination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, Patricia; Needlman, Robert D; Stein, Martin T

    2010-04-01

    Joseph is a 24-months old boy referred by his pediatrician because of an "obsession" with pulling and eating hair. When Joseph was 14 months old, he enjoyed touching and twirling his mother's long hair. She observed that it seemed to provide comfort to him. At 18 months, he initiated pulling out and eating his own hair, twirling his mother's hair around his thumb and then sucking on it. Currently, he searches the carpet or a hard floor and looks for hair to eat. The identical behavior is observed at daycare. Joseph's teacher commented, "He pulled hair from a girl who has the longest hair of all the children. We try to distract him from this habit, but he is not distracted for long." Less frequently, Joseph has also eaten sand, chalk, and crayons at daycare. Joseph's mother describes him as a "happy and outgoing" child who interacts with his peers and has a best friend at the daycare. There have not been recent changes or stressful events in his life. Joseph separates from his mother with ease and he sleeps comfortably through the night in his own bed. There have been no episodes of nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, or constipation. Strands of hair are occasionally seen in the stool. Prenatal and perinatal history was unremarkable. Joseph was breast-fed for 11 months, described as an "easy" baby, achieved motor, social, and language developmental milestones at the usual time, and has been in excellent health. He lives with his mother and maternal grandparents; the biological father has never been involved in his care. At 20 months, Joseph's pediatrician suggested cutting his hair. After several haircuts, Joseph stopped pulling his own hair. However, he continued to search the floor for hair. Hemoglobin and a blood lead level were normal. Joseph appeared pleasant and friendly with normal growth parameters and facial features. He was sitting comfortably on his mother's lap, sucking on his thumb. Social interactions with his mother were appropriate and reciprocal. He

  3. Valproic Acid Induces Hair Regeneration in Murine Model and Activates Alkaline Phosphatase Activity in Human Dermal Papilla Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Soung-Hoon; Yoon, Juyong; Shin, Seung Ho; Zahoor, Muhamad; Kim, Hyoung Jun; Park, Phil June; Park, Won-Seok; Min, Do Sik; Kim, Hyun-Yi; Choi, Kang-Yell

    2012-01-01

    Background Alopecia is the common hair loss problem that can affect many people. However, current therapies for treatment of alopecia are limited by low efficacy and potentially undesirable side effects. We have identified a new function for valproic acid (VPA), a GSK3β inhibitor that activates the Wnt/β-catenin pathway, to promote hair re-growth in vitro and in vivo. Methodology/ Principal Findings Topical application of VPA to male C3H mice critically stimulated hair re-growth and induced terminally differentiated epidermal markers such as filaggrin and loricrin, and the dermal papilla marker alkaline phosphatase (ALP). VPA induced ALP in human dermal papilla cells by up-regulating the Wnt/β-catenin pathway, whereas minoxidil (MNX), a drug commonly used to treat alopecia, did not significantly affect the Wnt/β-catenin pathway. VPA analogs and other GSK3β inhibitors that activate the Wnt/β-catenin pathway such as 4-phenyl butyric acid, LiCl, and BeCl2 also exhibited hair growth-promoting activities in vivo. Importantly, VPA, but not MNX, successfully stimulate hair growth in the wounds of C3H mice. Conclusions/ Significance Our findings indicate that small molecules that activate the Wnt/β-catenin pathway, such as VPA, can potentially be developed as drugs to stimulate hair re-growth. PMID:22506014

  4. Valproic acid induces hair regeneration in murine model and activates alkaline phosphatase activity in human dermal papilla cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soung-Hoon Lee

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Alopecia is the common hair loss problem that can affect many people. However, current therapies for treatment of alopecia are limited by low efficacy and potentially undesirable side effects. We have identified a new function for valproic acid (VPA, a GSK3β inhibitor that activates the Wnt/β-catenin pathway, to promote hair re-growth in vitro and in vivo. METHODOLOGY/ PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Topical application of VPA to male C3H mice critically stimulated hair re-growth and induced terminally differentiated epidermal markers such as filaggrin and loricrin, and the dermal papilla marker alkaline phosphatase (ALP. VPA induced ALP in human dermal papilla cells by up-regulating the Wnt/β-catenin pathway, whereas minoxidil (MNX, a drug commonly used to treat alopecia, did not significantly affect the Wnt/β-catenin pathway. VPA analogs and other GSK3β inhibitors that activate the Wnt/β-catenin pathway such as 4-phenyl butyric acid, LiCl, and BeCl(2 also exhibited hair growth-promoting activities in vivo. Importantly, VPA, but not MNX, successfully stimulate hair growth in the wounds of C3H mice. CONCLUSIONS/ SIGNIFICANCE: Our findings indicate that small molecules that activate the Wnt/β-catenin pathway, such as VPA, can potentially be developed as drugs to stimulate hair re-growth.

  5. Genuine cosmic hair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kastor, David; Ray, Sourya; Traschen, Jennie

    2017-02-01

    We show that asymptotically future de Sitter (AFdS) spacetimes carry ‘genuine’ cosmic hair; information that is analogous to the mass and angular momentum of asymptotically flat spacetimes and that characterizes how an AFdS spacetime approaches its asymptotic form. We define new ‘cosmological tension’ charges associated with future asymptotic spatial translation symmetries, which are analytic continuations of the ADM mass and tensions of asymptotically planar AdS spacetimes, and which measure the leading anisotropic corrections to the isotropic, exponential de Sitter expansion rate. A cosmological Smarr relation, holding for AFdS spacetimes having exact spatial translation symmetry, is derived. This formula relates cosmological tension, which is evaluated at future infinity, to properties of the cosmology at early times, together with a ‘cosmological volume’ contribution that is analogous to the thermodynamic volume of AdS black holes. Smarr relations for different spatial directions imply that the difference in expansion rates between two directions at late times is related in a simple way to their difference at early times. Hence information about the very early universe can be inferred from cosmic hair, which is potentially observable in a late time de Sitter phase. Cosmological tension charges and related quantities are evaluated for Kasner–de Sitter spacetimes, which serve as our primary examples.

  6. Biomedical Analyses of Mice Body Hair Exposed to Long-term Space Flight as a Compliment of Human Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukai, Chiaki

    Introduction: To understand the effect of space environment characterized by microgravity and radiation on protein and mineral metabolisms is important for developing the countermeasures to the adverse effects happening on the astronauts who stay long-term in space. Thus JAXA has started a human research to study the effects of long-term exposure in space flight on gene expression and mineral metabolism by analyzing astronaut's hair grown in space since December 2009 (Experiment nicknamed "HAIR"). Ten human subjects who are the crew of the International Space Station (ISS) will be expected to complete this experiment. Thanks to the tissue sharing program of space-flown mice which is presented and organized by AGI(Italian Space Agency), we can also have an opportunity to analyze rodents samples which will greatly compliment human hair experiment by enable us to conduct more detailed analysis with the expansion of skin analysis which is not include in human experiment. The purpose of this flown-mice experiment is to study the effects of long-term exposure to space environment such as microgravity and space radiation on mineral and protein metabolism, the biological responses to the stress levels, and the initial process of skin carcinogenesis by analyzing hair shaft, its root cells, and skin. Approach and Method In this experiment, we analyzed hair shaft, hair root and skin. Hair samples with skin were taken from 3-month space-flown mice and ground-control mice in the AGI's tissue sharing program in 2009. The sample numbers of space-flown mice and control-mice were three and six, respectively. And they were at the Mice Drawer System (MDS) in ISS and in the laboratory of Geneva University. For the hair shaft, the mineral balance is investi-gated by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDX). For hair root, the extracted RNA undergoes DNA microarray analysis, and will be further examined particular interests of gene-expression by real time Reverse Transcription

  7. A meeting of two chronobiological systems: circadian proteins Period1 and BMAL1 modulate the human hair cycle clock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Nuaimi, Yusur; Hardman, Jonathan A; Bíró, Tamás; Haslam, Iain S; Philpott, Michael P; Tóth, Balázs I; Farjo, Nilofer; Farjo, Bessam; Baier, Gerold; Watson, Rachel E B; Grimaldi, Benedetto; Kloepper, Jennifer E; Paus, Ralf

    2014-03-01

    The hair follicle (HF) is a continuously remodeled mini organ that cycles between growth (anagen), regression (catagen), and relative quiescence (telogen). As the anagen-to-catagen transformation of microdissected human scalp HFs can be observed in organ culture, it permits the study of the unknown controls of autonomous, rhythmic tissue remodeling of the HF, which intersects developmental, chronobiological, and growth-regulatory mechanisms. The hypothesis that the peripheral clock system is involved in hair cycle control, i.e., the anagen-to-catagen transformation, was tested. Here we show that in the absence of central clock influences, isolated, organ-cultured human HFs show circadian changes in the gene and protein expression of core clock genes (CLOCK, BMAL1, and Period1) and clock-controlled genes (c-Myc, NR1D1, and CDKN1A), with Period1 expression being hair cycle dependent. Knockdown of either BMAL1 or Period1 in human anagen HFs significantly prolonged anagen. This provides evidence that peripheral core clock genes modulate human HF cycling and are an integral component of the human hair cycle clock. Specifically, our study identifies BMAL1 and Period1 as potential therapeutic targets for modulating human hair growth.

  8. The hair follicle as a target for gene therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, S; Domashenko, A; Cotsarelis, G

    2001-01-01

    The hair follicle possesses progenitor cells for continued hair follicle cycling and for epidermal keratinocytes, melanocytes and Langerhans cells. These different cell types can be targeted by topical gene delivery to mouse skin. Using a combination of liposomes and DNA, we demonstrated the feasibility of targeting hair follicle cells in human scalp xenografts as well. We defined liposome composition and stage of the hair cycle as important parameters influencing transfection of human hair follicles. Transfection occurred only during anagen onset. Considerations and obstacles for using gene therapy to treat alopecias and skin disease are discussed. A theoretical framework for future gene therapy treatments for cutaneous and systemic disorders is presented.

  9. Photodynamic therapy for hair removal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed H. M. Ali

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Unwanted hair is one of the most common medical problems affecting women of reproductive age inducing a lot of psychological stress and threatening their femininity and self-esteem. Old methods of removing unwanted hair include shaving, waxing, chemical depilation, and electrolysis, all of which have temporary results. However laser-assisted hair removal is the most efficient method of long-term hair removal currently available. It is desirable to develop a reduced cost photodynamic therapy (PDT system whose properties should include high efficiency and low side-effects. Method: Mice skin tissues were used in this study and divided into six groups such as controls, free methylene blue (MB incubation, liposome methylene blue (MB incubation, laser without methylene blue (MB, free methylene blue (MB for 3 and 4 hrs and laser, liposome methylene blue (MB for 3 hrs and laser. Methylene blue (MBwas applied to wax epilated areas. The areas were irradiated with CW He-Ne laser system that emits orange-red light with wavelength 632.8 nm and 10 mW at energy density of 5 J/ cm2 for 10 minutes. The UV-visible absorption spectrum was collected by Cary spectrophotometer. Results: Methylene blue (MB is selectively absorbed by actively growing hair follicles due to its cationic property. Methylene blue (MBuntreated sections showed that hair follicle and sebaceous gland are intact and there is no change due to the laser exposure. Free methylene blue (MB sections incubated for 3 hrs showed that He:Ne laser induced destruction in hair follicles, leaving an intact epidermis. Treated section with free methylene blue (MB for 4 hrs showed degeneration and necrosis in hair follicle, leaving an intact epidermis. Liposomal methylene blue (MB sections incubated for 3 hrs showed He:Ne laser induced destruction in hair follicles with intradermal leucocytic infiltration. Conclusions: Low power CW He:Ne laser and methylene blue (MB offered a successful PDT system

  10. The structure of people’s hair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei-Chi Yang

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Hair is a filamentous biomaterial consisting mainly of proteins in particular keratin. The structure of human hair is well known: the medulla is a loosely packed, disordered region near the centre of the hair surrounded by the cortex, which contains the major part of the fibre mass, mainly consisting of keratin proteins and structural lipids. The cortex is surrounded by the cuticle, a layer of dead, overlapping cells forming a protective layer around the hair. The corresponding structures have been studied extensively using a variety of different techniques, such as light, electron and atomic force microscopes, and also X-ray diffraction. We were interested in the question how much the molecular hair structure differs from person to person, between male and female hair, hair of different appearances such as colour and waviness. We included hair from parent and child, identical and fraternal twins in the study to see if genetically similar hair would show similar structural features.The molecular structure of the hair samples was studied using high-resolution X-ray diffraction, which covers length scales from molecules up to the organization of secondary structures. Signals due to the coiled-coil phase of α-helical keratin proteins, intermediate keratin filaments in the cortex and from the lipid layers in the cell membrane complex were observed in the specimen of all individuals, with very small deviations. Despite the relatively small number of individuals (12 included in this study, some conclusions can be drawn. While the general features were observed in all individuals and the corresponding molecular structures were almost identical, additional signals were observed in some specimen and assigned to different types of lipids in the cell membrane complex. Genetics seem to play a role in this composition as identical patterns were observed in hair from father and daughter and identical twins, however, not for fraternal twins. Identification

  11. 28 CFR 551.4 - Hair length.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... to an inmate hair care services which comply with applicable health and sanitation requirements. ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hair length. 551.4 Section 551.4 Judicial... Hair length. (a) The Warden may not restrict hair length if the inmate keeps it neat and clean. (b)...

  12. Analysis of disulphide bonds found in human hair by Raman spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pina-Ruiz, A. L.; Cordova-Fraga, T.; Plascencia-Castro, A. S.; Hernandez-Rayas, A.; Ruvalcaba, J. M.

    2017-04-01

    Raman spectroscopy offers information-rich spectra, making it a technique easy to use in areas such as biology, chemistry, and in the field. Human hair spectra has been recorded obtaining interesting information about its composition. Correlating information obtained from these spectra to bone health and determining if Raman spectroscopy could be used as a diagnostic tool of bone health is proposed. Spectra from healthy women were compared to the spectra of women who have suffered a bone fracture, all which were aged 39-60. This technique has potential to become a regular diagnostic tool and further investigation to improve and validate this method are needed.

  13. Removal of unwanted facial hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shenenberger, Donald W; Utecht, Lynn M

    2002-11-15

    Unwanted facial hair is a common problem that is seldom discussed in the primary care setting. Although men occasionally request removal of unwanted facial hair, women most often seek help with this condition. Physicians generally neglect to address the problem if the patient does not first request help. The condition may be caused by androgen overproduction, increased sensitivity to circulating androgens, or other metabolic and endocrine disorders, and should be properly evaluated. Options for hair removal vary in efficacy, degree of discomfort, and cost. Clinical studies on the efficacy of many therapies are lacking. Short of surgical removal of the hair follicle, the only permanent treatment is electrolysis. However, the practice of electrolysis lacks standardization, and regulation of the procedure varies from state to state. Shaving, epilation, and depilation are the most commonly attempted initial options for facial hair removal. Although these methods are less expensive, they are only temporary. Laser hair removal, although better studied than most methods and more strictly regulated, has yet to be proved permanent in all patients. Eflornithine, a topical treatment, is simple to apply and has minimal side effects. By the time most patients consult a physician, they have tried several methods of hair removal. Family physicians can properly educate patients and recommend treatment for this common condition if they are armed with basic knowledge about the treatment options.

  14. A survey on hair modeling: styling, simulation, and rendering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Kelly; Bertails, Florence; Kim, Tae-Yong; Marschner, Stephen R; Cani, Marie-Paule; Lin, Ming C

    2007-01-01

    Realistic hair modeling is a fundamental part of creating virtual humans in computer graphics. This paper surveys the state of the art in the major topics of hair modeling: hairstyling, hair simulation, and hair rendering. Because of the difficult, often unsolved problems that arise in all these areas, a broad diversity of approaches are used, each with strengths that make it appropriate for particular applications. We discuss each of these major topics in turn, presenting the unique challenges facing each area and describing solutions that have been presented over the years to handle these complex issues. Finally, we outline some of the remaining computational challenges in hair modeling.

  15. I think I'm losing my hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cargnello, J

    1997-06-01

    As humans have evolved our hair has diminished to the point of being vestigial, yet it has assumed enormous psychological and social importance. For many, hair loss is synonymous with ageing, loss of attractiveness and desirability and has the potential to undermine self confidence and social interactions. Those affected are likely to seek out treatment, at any cost, both conventional and unconventional. The plethora of 'cures' for baldness and hair restoration clinics are testimony to the importance society places on a full head of hair and to the vulnerability of persons with hair loss.

  16. Advances in Understanding Hair Growth [version 1; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno A. Bernard

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In this short review, I introduce an integrated vision of human hair follicle behavior and describe opposing influences that control hair follicle homeostasis, from morphogenesis to hair cycling. The interdependence and complementary roles of these influences allow us to propose that the hair follicle is a true paradigm of a “Yin Yang” type, that is a cold/slow-hot/fast duality. Moreover, a new promising field is emerging, suggesting that glycans are key elements of hair follicle growth control.

  17. Quantitative analysis of toxic and essential elements in human hair. Clinical validity of results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosanovic, Melita; Jokanovic, Milan

    2011-03-01

    Over the last three decades, there has been an increasing awareness of environmental and occupational exposures to toxic or potentially toxic trace elements. The evolution of biological monitoring includes knowledge of kinetics of toxic and/or essential elements and adverse health effects related to their exposure. The debate whether a hair is a valid sample for biomonitoring or not is still attracting the attention of analysts, health care professionals, and environmentalists. Although researchers have found many correlations of essential elements to diseases, metabolic disorders, environmental exposures, and nutritional status, opponents of the concept of hair analysis object that hair samples are unreliable due to the influence of external factors. This review discusses validity of hair as a sample for biomonitoring of essential and toxic elements, with emphasis on pre-analytical, analytical, and post-analytical factors influencing results.

  18. Black hole hair removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Nabamita; Mandal, Ipsita; Sen, Ashoke

    2009-07-01

    Macroscopic entropy of an extremal black hole is expected to be determined completely by its near horizon geometry. Thus two black holes with identical near horizon geometries should have identical macroscopic entropy, and the expected equality between macroscopic and microscopic entropies will then imply that they have identical degeneracies of microstates. An apparent counterexample is provided by the 4D-5D lift relating BMPV black hole to a four dimensional black hole. The two black holes have identical near horizon geometries but different microscopic spectrum. We suggest that this discrepancy can be accounted for by black hole hair — degrees of freedom living outside the horizon and contributing to the degeneracies. We identify these degrees of freedom for both the four and the five dimensional black holes and show that after their contributions are removed from the microscopic degeneracies of the respective systems, the result for the four and five dimensional black holes match exactly.

  19. Black Hole Hair Removal

    CERN Document Server

    Banerjee, Nabamita; Sen, Ashoke

    2009-01-01

    Macroscopic entropy of an extremal black hole is expected to be determined completely by its near horizon geometry. Thus two black holes with identical near horizon geometries should have identical macroscopic entropy, and the expected equality between macroscopic and microscopic entropies will then imply that they have identical degeneracies of microstates. An apparent counterexample is provided by the 4D-5D lift relating BMPV black hole to a four dimensional black hole. The two black holes have identical near horizon geometries but different microscopic spectrum. We suggest that this discrepancy can be accounted for by black hole hair, -- degrees of freedom living outside the horizon and contributing to the degeneracies. We identify these degrees of freedom for both the four and the five dimensional black holes and show that after their contributions are removed from the microscopic degeneracies of the respective systems, the result for the four and five dimensional black holes match exactly.

  20. Genuine Cosmic Hair

    CERN Document Server

    Kastor, David; Traschen, Jennie

    2016-01-01

    We show that asymptotically future deSitter (AFdS) spacetimes carry 'genuine' cosmic hair; information that is analogous to the mass and angular momentum of asymptotically flat spacetimes and that characterizes how an AFdS spacetime approaches its asymptotic form. We define new 'cosmological tension' charges associated with future asymptotic spatial translation symmetries, which are analytic continuations of the ADM mass and tensions of asymptotically planar AdS spacetimes, and which measure the leading anisotropic corrections to the isotropic, exponential deSitter expansion rate. A cosmological Smarr relation, holding for AFdS spacetimes having exact spatial translation symmetry, is derived. This formula relates cosmological tension, which is evaluated at future infinity, to properties of the cosmology at early times, together with a 'cosmological volume' contribution that is analogous to the thermodynamic volume of AdS black holes. Smarr relations for different spatial directions imply that the difference i...

  1. Contact Allergy to Hair Dyes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Louise Anna Schuttelaar

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Many strong and extreme sensitizing chemicals, such as para-phenylenediamine (PPD, toluene-2,5-diamine (TDA and other aromatic amines or cross-reacting substances, are ingredients in hair dye products. The chemistry of hair dyeing and the immunological reactions to the potent sensitizing hair dye components are complex and have not been fully clarified up until now. Recently 2-methoxymethyl-p-phenylenediamine (ME-PPD, a PPD derivate with moderate skin-sensitizing properties, was developed. Although developed for the prevention of sensitization, ME-PPD appears to be tolerated in some PPD/TDA-allergic individuals.

  2. Do You Have Hair Loss or Hair Shedding?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... loved one who is sick, going through a divorce, losing a job) Had high fever Undergone an ... hair loss, talk with your doctor. Serious side effects can occur if you immediately stop a treatment ...

  3. Value of the concept of minimal detectable dosage in human hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kintz, Pascal

    2012-05-10

    The influence on drug incorporation of melanin affinity, lipophilicity, and membrane permeability is of paramount importance. Despite their high lipophilicity, some drugs have quite low incorporation rate into hair, suggesting that the higher incorporation rates of basic drugs (cocaine, amphetamines.) than neutral (steroids, benzodiazepines, cannabinoids…) or acidic ones are strongly related to the penetrating ability of the drug to break through the membrane based on the pH gradient between blood and the acidic hair matrix. When using hair analysis as a matrix during investigative analysis, e.g. workplace drug testing, doping, driving under the influence, drug-facilitated crime, the question of importance is to know whether the analytical procedure was sensitive enough to identify traces of drugs; this is particularly important when the urine sample(s) of the subject was positive and the hair sample(s) was negative. It has been accepted in the forensic community that a negative hair result cannot exclude the administration of a particular drug, or one of its precursors and the negative findings should not overrule a positive urine result. Nevertheless, the negative hair findings can, on occasion, cast doubt on the positive urine analysis, resulting in substantial legal debate and various consequences for the subject. The concept of minimal detectable dosage in hair is of interest to document the negative findings, but limited data is currently available in the scientific literature. Such data includes cocaine, codeine, ketamine, some benzodiazepines and some unusual compounds. Until laboratories will have sensitive enough methodologies to detect a single use of drug, care should be taken to compare urine and hair findings.

  4. Essentials of Hair Care often Neglected: Hair Cleansing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draelos, Zoe D

    2010-01-01

    Why does the selection of hair cleansing products and conditioners seem complex? Why are there clear, opalescent, green, blue, glittery, cheap, expensive, thick, thin, fragrant, and unscented varieties of shampoos and conditioners? Why the whole cleansing process cannot be simplified by using the same bar soap used on the body for the hair? Does the shampoo selected really make a difference? What can a conditioner accomplish?

  5. Alterations in Hair Follicle Dynamics in Women

    OpenAIRE

    Claudine Piérard-Franchimont; Piérard, Gérald E.

    2013-01-01

    Endocrine changes supervening after parturition and menopause participate in the control of sebum production and hair growth modulation. The ensuing conditions include some peculiar aspects of hair loss (effluvium), alopecia, and facial hirsutism. The hair cycling is of major clinical relevance because most hair growth disorders result from disturbances in this chronobiological feature. Of note, any correlation between a biologic abnormality and hair cycling disturbance does not prove a relat...

  6. Hair analysis: another approach for the assessment of human exposure to selected persistent organochlorine pollutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Covaci, Adrian; Tutudaki, Maria; Tsatsakis, Aristidis M; Schepens, Paul

    2002-01-01

    Hair analysis was used for the assessment of exposure to organochlorine pollutants in specimens from Greece, Romania and Belgium. A simple method (using 3 N HCI as incubation reagent, liquid-liquid extraction with hexane/ dichloromethane (DCM), alumina/acid silica clean-up and GC-ECD/GC-MS analysis) was used for screening of specimens. The highest organochlorine load (up to 148 ng/g hair for the sum of PCB, DDT and hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) isomers) was found in samples from a group of Greek women with past occupational exposure to pesticides. DDTs were the main organochlorine pollutants in Greek samples (up to 70%), while in Belgian hair samples their contribution was reduced to 40%. PCB mean concentration was higher in Belgian specimens (up to 14 ng/g hair). Lindane (y-HCH) was the main HCH isomer found in the samples (up to 82% in the Greek samples). Contribution of p,p'-DDT to the sum of DDTs was higher in Greek samples and indicates recent exposure to technical DDT. Similar PCB 153/sum PCBs ratios were found for each of the three countries suggesting similar sources of pollution with PCBs (mainly dietary). Artificially coloured hair samples were found to have lower, but not statistically significant concentrations of organochlorine pollutants than the non-coloured hair.

  7. ToF-SIMS analysis of elemental distributions in human hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kempson, Ivan M; Skinner, William M

    2005-02-15

    Elemental distributions on whole and longitudinal sections of hairs plucked from the scalp were studied with the surface sensitive technique time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS). Endogenous and environmental influences on the distributions of elemental species were identified. The cuticle scales appear to play the major role in the accumulation of exogenous products. The functionality of the outer surfaces and scale edges each preferentially bind different elemental species. The majority of elements considered accumulated longitudinally on the outer surface of the hair above the scalp level. Internally, most elemental signals (especially Al) decreased longitudinally once exposed to the environment with the exception of Si, which showed an increase. Images of elemental distributions within the medulla suggest that regions of different reactivity exist and show a variable ability to accumulate elemental species. The greatest signal intensities were observed in the cuticle and medulla regions rather than the cortex. The cuticle is continually exposed to environmental contamination and the medulla may, or may not, exist in a hair. Therefore, the components of a hair that potentially contribute the most to the elemental concentrations (i.e. the cuticle and medulla) are also the most variable, and as such greatly complicate the interpretation of elemental concentrations in hair. Results also suggest that bleaching hair can enhance the accumulation of contaminants.

  8. A novel concept to derive iodine status of human populations from frequency distribution properties of a hair iodine concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prejac, J; Višnjević, V; Drmić, S; Skalny, A A; Mimica, N; Momčilović, B

    2014-04-01

    Today, human iodine deficiency is next to iron the most common nutritional deficiency in developed European and underdeveloped third world countries, respectively. A current biological indicator of iodine status is urinary iodine that reflects the very recent iodine exposure, whereas some long term indicator of iodine status remains to be identified. We analyzed hair iodine in a prospective, observational, cross-sectional, and exploratory study involving 870 apparently healthy Croatians (270 men and 600 women). Hair iodine was analyzed with the inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP MS). Population (n870) hair iodine (IH) respective median was 0.499μgg(-1) (0.482 and 0.508μgg(-1)) for men and women, respectively, suggesting no sex related difference. We studied the hair iodine uptake by the logistic sigmoid saturation curve of the median derivatives to assess iodine deficiency, adequacy and excess. We estimated the overt iodine deficiency to occur when hair iodine concentration is below 0.15μgg(-1). Then there was a saturation range interval of about 0.15-2.0μgg(-1) (r(2)=0.994). Eventually, the sigmoid curve became saturated at about 2.0μgg(-1) and upward, suggesting excessive iodine exposure. Hair appears to be a valuable and robust long term biological indicator tissue for assessing the iodine body status. We propose adequate iodine status to correspond with the hair iodine (IH) uptake saturation of 0.565-0.739μgg(-1) (55-65%).

  9. Difference in the distributions between Ca content and the degree of oxidative damage in human hair determined by x-ray imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, A.; Inoue, T.; Kawai, T.; Taki, Y.; Inoue, S.; Shimizu, T.; Shinohara, K.

    2016-01-01

    In order to examine the cause of Ca distribution in human hair, the distributions of Ca and oxidation of cystine, a major sulfur-containing amino acid in hair, were compared in submicron resolution with X-ray spectromicroscopy at the Ca-K and S-K absorption edges. Ca distribution was also detected with high sensitivity by X-ray Fluorescence Analysis (XRF) in a few micron resolution. Hair samples were treated with bleach followed by Ca soaking. The increase of Ca content was in parallel with the progression of the oxidation by bleach treatment, beginning from the cuticle, the outer region of the hair. This increase was dependent on the concentration of bleach solution and treatment time. On the other hand Ca content in medulla, the central region of the hair, was apparent even in hair with no bleach treatment, and seemed to be little influenced by the Ca soaking following bleach treatment.

  10. Simultaneous determination of 18 abused opioids and metabolites in human hair using LC-MS/MS and illegal opioids abuse proven by hair analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jihyun; Ji, Dajeong; Kang, Soyoung; Park, Meejung; Yang, Wonkyung; Kim, Eunmi; Choi, Hwakyung; Lee, Sooyeun

    2014-02-01

    Natural and synthetic opioids have efficient analgesic activity but can also be addictive. Thus, the determination of opioids and their metabolites in biological specimens is of interest in clinical and forensic toxicology laboratories. The analysis of drugs in hair provides valuable information on previous chronic drug use and has been successfully applied to the diagnosis of drug abuse, tolerance, compliance and gestational drug exposure. Despite the abuse of prescription opioids along with heroin and other illegal opiates, few studies have been conducted on the simultaneous determination of the broad range of opioids covering those drugs in hair. In the present study, an analytical method for the simultaneous detection in hair of 18 opioids and metabolites considered to have a high abuse risk based on the results of urine drug screening was established and validated using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) for the purpose of clinical and forensic applications. The drugs and metabolites were extracted from hair using methanol and analyzed using LC-MS/MS. The validation results proved that the method was selective, accurate and precise with acceptable linearity within calibration ranges. No significant variation was observed by different sources of matrices. The limits of detection and the limits of quantification ranged from 0.05 to 0.25ng/10mg hair and from 0.05 to 0.5ng/10mg hair, respectively. The developed method was successfully applied to 15 hair samples from opioids users. This method will be very useful for monitoring the inappropriate use of opioid drugs.

  11. Hox in hair growth and development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awgulewitsch, Alexander

    2003-05-01

    The evolutionarily conserved Hox gene family of transcriptional regulators has originally been known for specifying positional identities along the longitudinal body axis of bilateral metazoans, including mouse and man. It is believed that subsequent to this archaic role, subsets of Hox genes have been co-opted for patterning functions in phylogenetically more recent structures, such as limbs and epithelial appendages. Among these, the hair follicle is of particular interest, as it is the only organ undergoing cyclical phases of regression and regeneration during the entire life span of an organism. Furthermore, the hair follicle is increasingly capturing the attention of developmental geneticists, as this abundantly available miniature organ mimics key aspects of embryonic patterning and, in addition, presents a model for studying organ renewal. The first Hox gene shown to play a universal role in hair follicle development is Hoxc13, as both Hoxc13-deficient and overexpressing mice exhibit severe hair growth and patterning defects. Differential gene expression analyses in the skin of these mutants, as well as in vitro DNA binding studies performed with potential targets for HOXC13 transcriptional regulation in human hair, identified genes encoding hair-specific keratins and keratin-associated proteins (KAPs) as major groups of presumptive Hoxc13 downstream effectors in the control of hair growth. The Hoxc13 mutant might thus serve as a paradigm for studying hair-specific roles of Hoxc13 and other members of this gene family, whose distinct spatio-temporally restricted expression patterns during hair development and cycling suggest discrete functions in follicular patterning and hair cycle control. The main conclusion from a discussion of these potential roles vis-à-vis current expression data in mouse and man, and from the perspective of the results obtained with the Hoxc13 transgenic models, is that members of the Hox family are likely to fulfill essential roles

  12. Archaeologies of Hair: an introduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven P. Ashby

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This collection of short articles represents an original attempt to bring together scholarship that is usually divided along lines of specialism in time, place, method, or discipline. The shared focus of its contributions is on hair: more than an infrequently preserved element of human remains, but a widespread (and arguably cross-cultural symbol of power, of fertility, of identity and the self. Moreover, its care and treatment using various forms of material culture, and its artistic representation in diverse media, offer a unique opportunity to examine the interface between the body and material culture. Where exceptional taphonomic conditions facilitate the preservation of hair and associated organic material, the result is some of the richest assemblages of human remains and associated material culture in the archaeological record (e.g. Wilson et al. 2007; Fletcher 1998. In contrast, 'everyday' objects associated with haircare are among the most taphonomically robust, frequently encountered and recognisable personal items known to archaeologists (e.g. Stephens 2008; Ashby 2011, and provide us with insight into the making of personal and bodily identities, even in the absence of human remains themselves. When studied in an interdisciplinary framework, the interpretative potential of this material is clear, but such work has been rare. This collection aims to set a new agenda for cross-disciplinary research focused on the nexus of human and artefactual remains, by highlighting the rich and diverse potential of this material when studied through archaeological, biochemical, artistic, historical, sociological and anthropological lenses.

  13. Levels and sources of brominated flame retardants in human hair from urban, e-waste, and rural areas in South China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng Jing [State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China); State Key Laboratory for Biocontrol, School of Life Sciences, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou 510275 (China); Luo Xiaojun, E-mail: luoxiaoj@gig.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Yuan Jiangang [State Key Laboratory for Biocontrol, School of Life Sciences, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou 510275 (China); Wang Jing [State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Science, Beijing 100049 (China); Wang Yutao [State Key Laboratory for Biocontrol, School of Life Sciences, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou 510275 (China); Chen Shenjun; Mai Bixian [State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Yang Zhongyi, E-mail: adsyzy@mail.sysu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory for Biocontrol, School of Life Sciences, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou 510275 (China)

    2011-12-15

    Human hair and indoor dust from urban, e-waste, and rural areas in south China were collected and analyzed for brominated flame retardants (BFRs). BFRs concentrations in hair from occupational e-waste recycling workers were higher than those from non-occupational exposed residents in other sampling areas. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and decabromodiphenyl ethane (DBDPE) are two major BFRs in hair samples. The PBDE congener profiles in hair from the e-waste area are different from those from urban and rural areas with relatively higher contribution of lower brominated congeners. DBDPE, instead of BDE209, has become the major BFR in non-e-waste recycling areas. Significant correlations were found between hair level and dust level for DBDPE and BTBPE but not for PBDEs. The different PBDE congener profiles between dust and hair may suggest that exogenous exposure to the PBDE adsorbed on dust is not a major source of hair PBDEs. - Highlights: > In this study we examine BFRs in human hair and indoor dust from the South China. > We find that the composition of BFR in the e-waste area is different from other areas. > DBDPE, instead of BDE209, has become the major BFR in non-e-waste recycling areas. > The PBDE congener pattern in hair is different from those in indoor dust. > In this study we conclude that exogenous exposure to the PBDE is not a major source of hair PBDEs. - BFR levels in hair from different areas in South China were determined and endogenous pathway was found to be the major source of hair BFRs.

  14. Degradation of human hair keratin scaffold material used to repair injured skeletal muscles of rabbits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIAO Dong-fang; LU Yan-meng; FU Wen-yu; PIAO Ying-jie

    2002-01-01

    Objective:To explore the mechanism of the degradation of human hair keratin (HHK) scaffold material implanted in damaged skeletal muscle tissues. Methods: Six New Zealand rabbits with HHK scaffold material implants (composed of 3 different types of HHK material with varied degradation speed) after musclectomy were divided into 3 groups (2 in each group) to observe the degradation of the material at 1, 3, 6weeks after operation. Another rabbit without operation was used as the control group. The degradation of HHK was observed with light microscopy, histochemistry of ubiquitin and electron microscopy. Results:Light microscopy showed that human hair cuticles fell off from the HHK material and emerged, and the macrophagocytes and multinucleate giant cells were attached onto the surface of the material, which became homogeneous at the first postoperative week. The HHK scaffold material was degraded into particles that was phagocytosed by macrophagocytes and multinucleate giant cells at the third week. Ubiquitin enzymatic histochemistry showed that the macrophagocytes and the multinucleate giant cells were positive at the first week. Under electron microscope, HHK scaffold material was degraded into particles, and at the sixth week,part of HHK scaffold material was further degraded. Conclusion: Large mass of the HHK scaffold material is degraded via ubiquitin system, and the resultant particles are phagocytosed and degraded with the cooperation of lysosome and ubiquitin.

  15. Radioimmunoassay of hair for determining opiate-abuse histories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baumgartner, A.M.; Jones, P.F.; Baumgartner, W.A.; Black, C.T.

    1979-07-01

    Heroin and morphine metabolites can be detected in hair with the use of commerically available radioimmunoassay reagents and with minor sample preparation. Hair samples obtained from morphine-treated mice and heroin users contained nanogram levels of the drug per milligram of hair (single human hair). The results of the hair analyses for all subjects admitting the use of heroin were positive, whereas the results of only 30% of thin-layer chromatographic urinanalyses of these same subjects were positive. In addition, differences in drug concentration for sections of hair near the scalp and near the distal end correlated with the length of time the drug had been used. These results exemplify the potential advantages of the use of hair analysis over urine and serum analyses in terms of accessibility, sample stability, and long-term retention of information.

  16. Treatments for unwanted facial hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, J; Lui, H

    Twenty-two percent of women in North America have unwanted facial hair, which can cause embarrassment and result in a significant emotional burden. Treatment options include plucking, waxing (including the sugar forms), depilatories, bleaching, shaving, electrolysis, laser, intense pulsed light (IPL), and eflornithine 13.9% cream (Vaniqa, Barrier Therapeutics in Canada and Shire Pharmaceuticals elsewhere). Eflornithine 13.9% cream is a topical treatment that does not remove the hairs, but acts to reduce the rate of growth and appears to be effective for unwanted facial hair on the mustache and chin area. Eflornithine 13.9% cream can be used in combination with other treatments such as lasers and IPL to give the patient the best chance for successful hair removal.

  17. Hair dryer burns in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prescott, P R

    1990-11-01

    Three children with burn injuries caused by home hair dryers are described. In one patient the injury was believed to be accidental, and in the other two cases the injuries were deliberately caused by a caretaker. The lack of prior experience with hair dryer burns initially led to suspicion of other causes. The characteristics of each case aided in the final determination of accidental vs nonaccidental injury. These cases prompted testing of home hair dryers to determine their heat output. At the highest heat settings, the dryers rapidly generated temperatures in excess of 110 degrees C. After the dryers were turned off, the protective grills maintained sufficient temperatures to cause full-thickness burns for up to 2 minutes. These cases and the results of testing demonstrate that hair dryers must be added to the list of known causes of accidental and nonaccidental burns in children.

  18. Hair-Thread Tourniquet Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emre Gokcen

    2016-01-01

    Two month-old male infant was brought to the emergency service with the complaint of fever, uneasiness, and swelling on 4th-5th toes of right foot.  Apparent swelling, rubescence and increase in heat were seen and a constrictive band was observed to surround proximal phalanges of both toes in the physical examination of the patient (Figure 1.  A hair was found on the constrictive band surrounding both toes. The hair was removed by means of forceps. Oral antibiotic was administered to the patient. The patient was treated successfully by not letting a necrosis develop on the toes. It should be remembered that hair-thread tourniquet syndrome may be observed in the infant patients applying to the hospital with the complaints of unexplained fever and uneasiness. Figure 1: Appearance of the toes right after the hair was removed. Arrows show the constrictive band. 

  19. Hair bleaching and skin burning

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Forster, K; Lingitz, R; Prattes, G; Schneider, G; Sutter, S; Schintler, M; Trop, M

    2012-01-01

    .... We report a unique case of a 16-yr-old girl who suffered full-thickness chemical and thermal burns to the nape of her neck and superficial burns to the occiput after her hair had been dyed blond...

  20. Growing hairs in shorn cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecília José Veríssimo

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The shearing operation can provide double benefits to the cattle: they can become more heat tolerant and the tick infestation decreases. The cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus causes great losses to dairy cattle, especially to the Holstein cattle because they are very susceptible to this tick. Its control is becoming each day more difficult, owing to the increasing resistance to acaricides they are acquiring. The objective of this work was to study the growing of haircoat following shearing. We made our experiment with 17 animals, 7 females and 10 males. They were shaved on the anterior third (head, neck, dewlap, scapula and arm of one side, at random. The work was performed in two steps: they were shorn for the first time on August 2nd 2012, with a size 10 blade in a clipper Oster model GoldenA5, which left the fur coat 2 mm long. Then we evaluated the hair length growing by collecting fortnightly three sample of hairs in the middle of the scapula, with  electric pliers, modified for this purpose, in both sides of the animals, sheared and non-sheared, until 30 days after this shearing. The three hair samples were put inside a little plastic bag per animal. Meanwhile, as we thought that the animals shearing had to be done closer to the skin, we decided to shear them again (in the same side shorn before, on October 2nd 2012. We changed our procedure using the same machine, but now with a blade size 30, which left the fur coat 1mm thick. After that, we collected again, fortnightly, samples of hairs on both sides during 2 months. The 10 longest hairs in the plastig bag were measured using a graph paper and the average per animal was calculated in each data and blade. A random design was applied for statistical analysis, the hair length of both sides, sheared and non sheared were compared by a two related samples tests – Wilcoxon, in a non parametric test, using the SPSSP 12.0 program, in each data within each blade. Using blade size

  1. Potential of human γD-crystallin for hair damage repair: insights into the mechanical properties and biocompatibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, A; Matamá, T; Cruz, C F; Gomes, A C; Cavaco-Paulo, A M

    2013-10-01

    The objective of this work was to develop a new strategy to physically 'repair' chemically damaged hair. Hence the human eye γD-crystallin, a protein from the superfamily characterized structurally by the Greek key motif, was studied. The human γD-crystallin was chosen based on the ability of proteins belonging to this superfamily to be involved in the coating of specific structures. Two crystallins were used on the study, the wild type (Protein Data Bank ID: 1HK0) and the mutant protein. The mutant form was intended to induce a strong and quick protein polymerization as well to have new possible points of anchorage to hair. The ability of both crystallins to bind to damaged hair and even penetrate into its cortex was checked by fluorescence microscopy, confocal microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Furthermore the reinforcement of hair mechanical resistance, the potential cytotoxic/inflammatory effect of crystallins were studied in order to have a fully comprehension about the protein based formulation. Although the chemical over-bleaching treatment induced a decrease of 20% on the resistance of the hair, the crystallins which bind and penetrate the hair fibre were able to recover and even to improve its mechanical properties when compared to the virgin hair. Moreover none of the crystallins displayed a toxic effect in fibroblasts for all the range of tested concentrations upon 72 h of exposure. The active aggregation process of mutant crystallin induced an inflammatory response in fibroblasts in the first 24 h of contact, measured by the amount of released pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-6 to the medium. In contrast contact with wild type crystallin did not lead to significant inflammation. Outcome from protein formulation characterization supports the hypothesis that the γD-crystallin it is able to recover and improve the mechanical properties of chemical damaged hair. Therefore it can be considered as a very promising strengthening agent for the

  2. Mercury in human hair and blood samples from people living in Wanshan mercury mine area, Guizhou, China: an XAS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yu-Feng; Chen, Chunying; Li, Bai; Li, Wei; Qu, Liya; Dong, Zeqin; Nomura, Masaharu; Gao, Yuxi; Zhao, Jinxuan; Hu, Wei; Zhao, Yuliang; Chai, Zhifang

    2008-03-01

    Human hair and blood samples from persons living in the town of Wanshan, a mercury mine area in Guizhou Province of China, were collected and the quantitative speciation and structural information of Hg and S in hair samples and of Hg in erythrocyte and serum samples were studied using X-ray absorption spectroscopy. Least-squares fitting of the X-ray absorption near-edge spectra found that inorganic mercury is the major mercury species in hair samples (91.74%), while inorganic and methyl mercury are both about 50% of total mercury in RBC and serum samples, which is in agreement with the data obtained by acidic extraction, fractionation of Hg(2+) and CH(3)Hg(+) and quantification by ICP-MS. Curve-fitting analysis revealed that the Hg-S bond length and coordination number in hair were 0.248+/-0.002 nm and 3.10, respectively, while the S-Hg bond length and coordination number in hair were 0.236+/-0.002 nm and 4.05. The Hg-S bond length and coordination number in RBC were 0.251+/-0.003 nm and 4.09, respectively, while they were 0.228+/-0.002 nm and 4.08 in serum, respectively. The techniques for speciation, structural and binding information described in this study will find the potential application in similar studies of other elements.

  3. Bona fide colour: DNA prediction of human eye and hair colour from ancient and contemporary skeletal remains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draus-Barini, Jolanta; Walsh, Susan; Pośpiech, Ewelina; Kupiec, Tomasz; Głąb, Henryk; Branicki, Wojciech; Kayser, Manfred

    2013-01-14

    DNA analysis of ancient skeletal remains is invaluable in evolutionary biology for exploring the history of species, including humans. Contemporary human bones and teeth, however, are relevant in forensic DNA analyses that deal with the identification of perpetrators, missing persons, disaster victims or family relationships. They may also provide useful information towards unravelling controversies that surround famous historical individuals. Retrieving information about a deceased person's externally visible characteristics can be informative in both types of DNA analyses. Recently, we demonstrated that human eye and hair colour can be reliably predicted from DNA using the HIrisPlex system. Here we test the feasibility of the novel HIrisPlex system at establishing eye and hair colour of deceased individuals from skeletal remains of various post-mortem time ranges and storage conditions. Twenty-one teeth between 1 and approximately 800 years of age and 5 contemporary bones were subjected to DNA extraction using standard organic protocol followed by analysis using the HIrisPlex system. Twenty-three out of 26 bone DNA extracts yielded the full 24 SNP HIrisPlex profile, therefore successfully allowing model-based eye and hair colour prediction. HIrisPlex analysis of a tooth from the Polish general Władysław Sikorski (1881 to 1943) revealed blue eye colour and blond hair colour, which was positively verified from reliable documentation. The partial profiles collected in the remaining three cases (two contemporary samples and a 14th century sample) were sufficient for eye colour prediction. Overall, we demonstrate that the HIrisPlex system is suitable, sufficiently sensitive and robust to successfully predict eye and hair colour from ancient and contemporary skeletal remains. Our findings, therefore, highlight the HIrisPlex system as a promising tool in future routine forensic casework involving skeletal remains, including ancient DNA studies, for the prediction of

  4. Trace element determination study in human hair by neutron activation analysis; Estudo da determinacao de elementos traco em cabelos humanos pelo metodo de analise por ativacao com neutrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frazao, Selma Violato

    2008-07-01

    Human hair analysis studies have been subject of continuous interest due to the fact that they can be used as an important tool to evaluate trace element levels in the human body. These determinations have been carried out to use hair for environmental and occupational monitoring, to identify intoxication or poisoning by toxic metals, to assess nutritional status, to diagnose and to prevent diseases and in forensic sciences. Although hair analysis presents several advantages over other human tissue or fluid analyses, such as organ tissue, blood, urine and saliva, there are some controversies regarding the use of hair analysis data. These controversies arise from the fact that it is difficult to establish reliable reference values for trace elements in hair. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the factors that affect element concentrations in hair samples from a population considered healthy and residing in the Sao Paulo metropolitan area. The collected human head hair was cut in small pieces, washed, dried and analyzed by neutron activation analysis (NAA). Aliquots of hair samples and synthetic elemental standards were irradiated at the IEA-R1 nuclear research reactor for 16 h under a thermal neutron flux of about 5x10{sup 12} n cm{sup -2} s{sup -1} for As, Br, Ca, Co, Cr, Cs, Cu, Fe, K, La, Na, Sb, Sc, Se and Zn determinations. The induced gamma activities of the standards and samples were measured using a gamma ray spectrometer coupled to an hiperpure Ge detector. For quality control of the results, IAEA- 85 Human Hair and INCT-TL-1 Tea Leaves certified reference materials (CRMs) were analyzed. Results obtained in these CRMs presented for most of elements, good agreement with the values of the certificates (relative errors less than 10%) and good precision (variation coefficients less than 13.6%). Results of replicate hair sample analysis showed good reproducibility indicating homogeneity of the prepared sample. Results obtained in the analyses of dyed and

  5. Determination of trace elements in human hair. Reference intervals for 28 elements in nonoccupationally exposed adults in the US and effects of hair treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiPietro, E S; Phillips, D L; Paschal, D C; Neese, J W

    1989-10-01

    The concentrations of 28 elements in hair of three populations of non-occupationally exposed adults in the US (n = 271) were determined. The 10th, 50th, and 90th percentiles, and geometric means for these data were obtained to define reference intervals for these elements. The effects of various hair treatments, age, and sex on concentrations of 17 selected elements in hair were determined for these populations. Age had little effect on elemental concentrations. Males tended to have higher Cd and Pb levels, but lower Mg and Ti levels than females. Males using dandruff shampoo had significantly higher concentrations of Na, Se, and Ti than those using only regular shampoo and/or conditioners. Ba, Ca, Cu, Mg, Na, and Sr were all elevated in females using permanents or color treatments, compared to those using only dandruff shampoo, regular shampoo, and/or conditioners.

  6. Hair growth-promoting effect of Geranium sibiricum extract in human dermal papilla cells and C57BL/6 mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boisvert, William A; Yu, Miri; Choi, Youngbin; Jeong, Gi Hee; Zhang, Yi-Lin; Cho, Sunghun; Choi, Changsun; Lee, Sanghyun; Lee, Bog-Hieu

    2017-02-13

    Geranium sibiricum L. has been used as a medicinal plant to treat diarrhea, bacterial infection, and cancer in Bulgaria, Peru, and Korea. However, its hair growth-promoting effect was not investigated so far. This study examined the effects of Geranium sibiricum L. extract (GSE) on hair growth, using in vitro and in vivo models. Antioxidant, proliferation and migration assay of GSE was performed with human dermal papilla cells (hDPCs). Hair-growth promoting effect was measured in animal model. Relative expression of interleukin-1, vascular endothelial growth factor, hepatocyte growth factor, and transforming growth factor beta 1 was determined by real time RT-PCR. Expression of Ki-67 and stem cell factor were analyzed by immunohistochemistry. GSE treatment proliferated and migrated human dermal papilla cells (hDPCs) more than treatment of 10 μM minoxidil. GSE significantly stimulated the expression of Ki-67 protein and the mRNA levels of hepatocyte growth factor and vascular endothelial growth factor in hDPCs. Topical application of 1,000 ppm GSE for 3 weeks promoted more significant hair growth on shaved C57BL/6 mice than did 5% minoxidil. The histological morphology of hair follicles demonstrated an active anagen phase with the induction of stem cell factor. GSE treatment significantly reduced the number of mast cells and the expression of transforming growth factor beta 1 in mouse skin tissues. These results demonstrated that GSE promotes hair growth in vitro and in vivo by regulating growth factors and the cellular response.

  7. Evaluation of the use of human hair for biomonitoring the deficiency of essential and exposure to toxic elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodrigues, Jairo L.; Batista, Bruno L.; Nunes, Juliana A.; Passos, Carlos J.S. [Laboratorio de Toxicologia e Essencialidade de Metais, Depto. de Analises Clinicas, Toxicologicas e Bromatologicas, Faculdade de Ciencias Farmaceuticas de Ribeirao Preto-USP, Avenida do Cafe s/n, Monte Alegre, 14040-903, Ribeirao Preto-SP (Brazil); Barbosa, Fernando [Laboratorio de Toxicologia e Essencialidade de Metais, Depto. de Analises Clinicas, Toxicologicas e Bromatologicas, Faculdade de Ciencias Farmaceuticas de Ribeirao Preto-USP, Avenida do Cafe s/n, Monte Alegre, 14040-903, Ribeirao Preto-SP (Brazil)], E-mail: fbarbosa@fcfrp.usp.br

    2008-11-01

    Monitoring the nutritional status of essential elements and assessing exposure of individuals to toxic elements is of great importance for human health. Thus, the appropriate selection and measurement of biomarkers of internal dose is of critical importance. Due to their many advantages, hair samples have been widely used to assess human exposure to different contaminants. However, the validity of this biomarker in evaluating the level of trace elements in the human body is debatable. In the present study, we evaluated the relationship between levels of trace elements in hair and whole blood or plasma in a Brazilian population. Hair, blood and plasma were collected from 280 adult volunteers for metal determination. An ICP-MS was used for sample analysis. Manganese, copper, lead and strontium levels in blood varied from 5.1 to 14.7, from 494.8 to 2383.8, from 5.9 to 330.1 and from 11.6 to 87.3 {mu}g/L, respectively. Corresponding levels in hair varied from 0.05 to 6.71, from 0.02 to 37.59, from 0.02 to 30.63 and from 0.9 to 12.6 {mu}g/g. Trace element levels in plasma varied from 0.07 to 8.62, from 118.2 to 1577.7 and from 2.31 to 34.2 {mu}g/L for Mn, Cu and Sr, respectively. There was a weak correlation (r = 0.22, p < 0.001) between lead levels in hair and blood. Moreover, copper and strontium levels in blood correlate with those levels in plasma (r = 0.64 , p < 0.001 for Cu) and (r = 0.22, p < 0.05 for Sr). However, for Cu, Mn and Sr there was no correlation between levels in hair and blood. Our findings suggest that while the idea of measuring trace elements in hair is attractive, hair is not an appropriate biomarker for evaluating Cu, Mn and Sr deficiency or Pb exposure.

  8. Dermatologic Microsutures Using Human Hair: A Useful Technique in Cutaneous Stitching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Azrak, Mohammed; Ogawa, Rei

    2017-01-01

    Background: Facial wounds are challenging for dermatologic surgeons, particularly traumatic facial wounds, because they can yield disfiguring scars. To obtain good results, narrow needles and sutures are needed. Hair filaments have a very small diameter (0.06-0.1 mm) and could serve as suture threads for facial wounds. Objective: To determine the aesthetic outcomes by using autologous hair to suture facial wounds. Patients and Methods: This case series study examined the aesthetic outcomes of all consecutive female patients with traumatic facial wounds who underwent autologous hair-based stitching in 2009-2016. Autologous hair ampoules were generated from an insulin needle. Micro instruments were used for wound stitching. Results: In total, 54 females (mean age, 10.8; range, 3-45) years had 56 traumatic wounds. Mean wound length was 3.6 (range, 1-12) cm. Injury depth varied from cutaneous-only to muscle involvement. Suturing yielded good edge coaptation, nice healing, and excellent aesthetic outcomes; the scars were often scarcely visible. Suture marks were not detected. Cutaneous reactions did not occur. Conclusion: Autologous hair can serve as a thread for closing facial wounds. It is low cost and thus suitable in settings characterized by facility and equipment limitations. It is also suitable for the battlefield.

  9. Effect of photodamage on the outermost cuticle layer of human hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richena, M; Rezende, C A

    2015-12-01

    The surface of the hair is the region most exposed to solar radiation and to the environment in general. Many of the well-known damaging effects of sun exposure on hair must start or even be restricted to the most external cuticle layers. As such, this work investigates morphological, ultrastructural and chemical changes in the outermost cuticle layer of dark brown hair, using atomic force microscopy (AFM), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR). The results showed that after 230 h of irradiation with a mercury lamp, small bumps with globular shape (heights lying in the 1-5 nm range) appeared on the cuticle surface and their size increased with increasing irradiation times. In addition, the enlargement of pre-existing holes was also observed (holes increase around 350% in depth) and the height of the steps formed between the edges of two cuticle scales increased around 65%, as a result of 500 h of irradiation. The damages in hair strands were accurately identified by analyzing exactly the same surface region before and after irradiation by AFM images. Finally, the results were discussed in terms of the chemical differences between the non-irradiated and the irradiated hair, for instance, the increased level of cystine oxidation as a consequence of photodegradation.

  10. Pharmacologic inhibition of JAK-STAT signaling promotes hair growth

    OpenAIRE

    Harel, Sivan; Higgins, Claire A.; Cerise, Jane E.; Dai, Zhenpeng; Chen, James C.; Clynes, Raphael; Angela M Christiano

    2015-01-01

    Several forms of hair loss in humans are characterized by the inability of hair follicles to enter the growth phase (anagen) of the hair cycle after being arrested in the resting phase (telogen). Current pharmacologic therapies have been largely unsuccessful in targeting pathways that can be selectively modulated to induce entry into anagen. We show that topical treatment of mouse and human skin with small-molecule inhibitors of the Janus kinase (JAK)–signal transducer and activator of transc...

  11. Pharmacologic inhibition of JAK-STAT signaling promotes hair growth.

    OpenAIRE

    Harel, S.; Higgins, CA; Cerise, JE; Dai, Z.; Chen, JC; Clynes, R; Christiano, AM

    2015-01-01

    Several forms of hair loss in humans are characterized by the inability of hair follicles to enter the growth phase (anagen) of the hair cycle after being arrested in the resting phase (telogen). Current pharmacologic therapies have been largely unsuccessful in targeting pathways that can be selectively modulated to induce entry into anagen. We show that topical treatment of mouse and human skin with small-molecule inhibitors of the Janus kinase (JAK)-signal transducer and activator of transc...

  12. Keratin film made of human hair as a nail plate model for studying drug permeation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lusiana; Reichl, Stephan; Müller-Goymann, Christel C

    2011-08-01

    The limited source of human nail plate for studying drug permeation inspired us to develop a nail plate model made of human hair keratin. The manufacturing process consisted of keratin extraction, dialysis, molding, solvent evaporation, and curing, producing a water-resistant film. The permeability of the film was examined using three markers: sodium fluorescein, rhodamine B, and fluorescein isothiocyanate-dextran as water-soluble, lipid-soluble, and large molecule models, respectively. Bovine hoof was used for comparison. First investigation showed that keratin films (thickness 120 μm) resembled hooves (thickness 100 μm) except that these films were more permeable to rhodamine B compared with hooves (1.8-fold, pnail plate substitute. However, inclusion of the penetration enhancer must be carefully interpreted. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Nutrition and hair: deficiencies and supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finner, Andreas M

    2013-01-01

    Hair follicle cells have a high turnover. A caloric deprivation or deficiency of several components, such as proteins, minerals, essential fatty acids, and vitamins, caused by inborn errors or reduced uptake, can lead to structural abnormalities, pigmentation changes, or hair loss, although exact data are often lacking. The diagnosis is established through a careful history, clinical examination of hair loss activity, and hair quality and confirmed through targeted laboratory tests. Examples of genetic hair disorders caused by reduced nutritional components are zinc deficiency in acrodermatitis enteropathica and copper deficiency in Menkes kinky hair syndrome.

  14. Automatic hair detection in the wild

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Julian, Pauline; Dehais, Christophe; Lauze, Francois Bernard

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents an algorithm for segmenting the hair region in uncontrolled, real life conditions images. Our method is based on a simple statistical hair shape model representing the upper hair part. We detect this region by minimizing an energy which uses active shape and active contour....... The upper hair region then allows us to learn the hair appearance parameters (color and texture) for the image considered. Finally, those parameters drive a pixel-wise segmentation technique that yields the desired (complete) hair region. We demonstrate the applicability of our method on several real images....

  15. Repigmentation of hair following adalimumab therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tintle, Suzanne J; Dabade, Tushar S; Kalish, Robert A; Rosmarin, David M

    2015-06-16

    Repigmentation of canities, or age-related grey or white hair, is a rare occurrence. Generalized repigmentation of grey-white hair has been reported following inflammatory processes, and heterochromia (localized patches of hair repigmentation) is even more unusual, reported in association with medication use and malignancy. Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) inhibitors are increasingly utilized medications for inflammatory disorders, including psoriasis, rheumatoid arthritis, and inflammatory bowel disease. Hair loss, or alopecia, has been described among the side effects of these medications, but changes in hair pigmentation in association with this class of drugs have not previously been reported. We describe a patient with hair repigmentation associated with adalimumab therapy.

  16. Determination of hair structure and shape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlake, Thomas

    2007-04-01

    The hair follicle attracted significant attention as a model for the investigation of diverse biological problems. Whereas its morphology and the structure of the hair shaft are known in detail, the molecular biology of this miniorgan is significantly less characterised. Many efforts focussed on the development of the hair follicle and its stem cell reservoir; by contrast, the follicular product, the hair, which is interesting not only in terms of cosmetics was neglected. This review highlights our current knowledge of the control of hair structure and shape with emphasis on mouse hair follicle biology and discusses continuing problems.

  17. Quantitative analysis of steroid hormones in human hair using a column-switching LC-APCI-MS/MS assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Wei; Stalder, Tobias; Foley, Paul; Rauh, Manfred; Deng, Huihua; Kirschbaum, Clemens

    2013-06-01

    The analysis of steroid hormones in hair is increasingly used in the field of stress-related research to obtain a retrospective index of integrated long-term hormone secretion. Here, most laboratories have so far relied on immunochemical assays originally developed for salivary analyses. Although these assays are fast and easy to perform, they have a reduced reliability and specificity due to cross-reactivity with other substances and are limited to the detection of one hormone at a time. Here, we report the development of a LC-MS/MS-based method for simultaneous identification of endogenous concentrations of seven steroid hormones (cortisol, cortisone, testosterone, progesterone, corticosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and androstenedione) in human hair. Hair samples were washed with isopropanol and steroid hormones were extracted from 10mg whole, nonpulverized hair by methanol incubation. A column switching strategy for on-line solid phase extraction (SPE) was applied, followed by analyte detection on an AB Sciex API 5000 QTrap mass spectrometer. Results indicated linearity of the method for all steroids over ranges of 0.09-90pg/mg (0.9-900pg/mg for DHEA) with correlation coefficients ranging between 0.9995 and 0.9999. Intra- and inter-assay coefficients of variation were between 3.7 and 9.1%. The limits of quantification (LOQ) were below (or equal to) 0.1pg/mg for all steroids, except of DHEA for which the LOQ was 0.9pg/mg. An analysis of 30 natural hair samples (15 men/15 women) using this method confirmed that all steroid hormones could be quantified at endogenous levels in each individual. In addition, the use of whole hair samples and on-line SPE resulted in a significant reduction in sample throughput times, increasing the applicability of this method for research questions where a larger number of samples needs to be processed.

  18. Potential synergistic effects of human placental extract and minoxidil on hair growth-promoting activity in C57BL/6J mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, T-R; Oh, C T; Park, H M; Han, H J; Ji, H J; Kim, B J

    2015-08-01

    Human placenta extract (HPE) has been used to alleviate tiredness and promote wound healing, and for its antiageing functions; however, it has not yet been studied for its effects on hair growth. In the present study, we evaluated the in vitro effect of HPE on hair growth by observing its actions on human dermal papilla cells (DPCs). To define how HPE promotes induction of anagen hair growth during the telogen phase, and to understand the synergistic molecular mechanisms of HPE and minoxidil (MXD) actions on hair growth. We examined the effects of HPE and MXD on C57BL6/J mice using haematoxylin and eosin staining, quantitative histomorphometry, hair growth scoring, immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence on the dorsal skins of C57BL/6J mice. We found that HPE synergistically augmented the effects of MXD, a promoter of hair growth. In particular, histomorphometric analysis data indicated that subcutaneous injection of HPE induced an earlier anagen phase and prolonged the anagen phase. It also stimulated increases in both the number and size of hair follicles in groups treated with HPE alone and HPE + MXD. From our data, we conclude that HPE increases β-catenin and Wnt3a expression levels. Overall, our findings suggest that HPE in combination with MXD has hair growth-promoting activity and is a potential novel therapeutic treatment for alopecia or baldness in humans. © 2015 British Association of Dermatologists.

  19. Body hair counts during hair length reduction procedures: a comparative study between Computer Assisted Image Analysis after Manual Processing (CAIAMP) and Trichoscan(™).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Neste, D J J

    2015-08-01

    To compare two measurement methods for body hair. Calibration of computer assisted image analysis after manual processing (CAIAMP) showed variation hair and skin' were taken before hair dye, after hair dye or after hair length reduction without hair extraction or destruction. Data in the same targets were compared with Trichoscan(™) quoted for 'unambiguous evaluation of the hair growth after shaving'. CAIAMP detected a total of 337 hair and showed no statistically significant differences with the three procedures confirming 'good natural contrast between hair and skin' and that reduction methods did not affect hair counts. While CAIAMP found a mean number of 19 thick hair (≥30 μm) before dye, 18 after dye and 20 after hair reduction, Trichoscan(™) found in the same sites respectively 44, 73 and 61. Trichoscan(™) generated counts differed statistically significantly from CAIAMP-data. Automated analyses were considered un-specifically influenced by hair medulla and natural or artificial skin background. Quality control including all steps of human intervention and measurement technology are mandatory for body hair measurements during experimental or clinical trials on body hair grooming, shaving or removal. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Thyroxine differentially modulates the peripheral clock: lessons from the human hair follicle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan A Hardman

    Full Text Available The human hair follicle (HF exhibits peripheral clock activity, with knock-down of clock genes (BMAL1 and PER1 prolonging active hair growth (anagen and increasing pigmentation. Similarly, thyroid hormones prolong anagen and stimulate pigmentation in cultured human HFs. In addition they are recognized as key regulators of the central clock that controls circadian rhythmicity. Therefore, we asked whether thyroxine (T4 also influences peripheral clock activity in the human HF. Over 24 hours we found a significant reduction in protein levels of BMAL1 and PER1, with their transcript levels also decreasing significantly. Furthermore, while all clock genes maintained their rhythmicity in both the control and T4 treated HFs, there was a significant reduction in the amplitude of BMAL1 and PER1 in T4 (100 nM treated HFs. Accompanying this, cell-cycle progression marker Cyclin D1 was also assessed appearing to show an induced circadian rhythmicity by T4 however, this was not significant. Contrary to short term cultures, after 6 days, transcript and/or protein levels of all core clock genes (BMAL1, PER1, clock, CRY1, CRY2 were up-regulated in T4 treated HFs. BMAL1 and PER1 mRNA was also up-regulated in the HF bulge, the location of HF epithelial stem cells. Together this provides the first direct evidence that T4 modulates the expression of the peripheral molecular clock. Thus, patients with thyroid dysfunction may also show a disordered peripheral clock, which raises the possibility that short term, pulsatile treatment with T4 might permit one to modulate circadian activity in peripheral tissues as a target to treat clock-related disease.

  1. Soft Hair on Black Holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawking, Stephen W.; Perry, Malcolm J.; Strominger, Andrew

    2016-06-01

    It has recently been shown that Bondi-van der Burg-Metzner-Sachs supertranslation symmetries imply an infinite number of conservation laws for all gravitational theories in asymptotically Minkowskian spacetimes. These laws require black holes to carry a large amount of soft (i.e., zero-energy) supertranslation hair. The presence of a Maxwell field similarly implies soft electric hair. This Letter gives an explicit description of soft hair in terms of soft gravitons or photons on the black hole horizon, and shows that complete information about their quantum state is stored on a holographic plate at the future boundary of the horizon. Charge conservation is used to give an infinite number of exact relations between the evaporation products of black holes which have different soft hair but are otherwise identical. It is further argued that soft hair which is spatially localized to much less than a Planck length cannot be excited in a physically realizable process, giving an effective number of soft degrees of freedom proportional to the horizon area in Planck units.

  2. Soft Hair on Black Holes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawking, Stephen W; Perry, Malcolm J; Strominger, Andrew

    2016-06-10

    It has recently been shown that Bondi-van der Burg-Metzner-Sachs supertranslation symmetries imply an infinite number of conservation laws for all gravitational theories in asymptotically Minkowskian spacetimes. These laws require black holes to carry a large amount of soft (i.e., zero-energy) supertranslation hair. The presence of a Maxwell field similarly implies soft electric hair. This Letter gives an explicit description of soft hair in terms of soft gravitons or photons on the black hole horizon, and shows that complete information about their quantum state is stored on a holographic plate at the future boundary of the horizon. Charge conservation is used to give an infinite number of exact relations between the evaporation products of black holes which have different soft hair but are otherwise identical. It is further argued that soft hair which is spatially localized to much less than a Planck length cannot be excited in a physically realizable process, giving an effective number of soft degrees of freedom proportional to the horizon area in Planck units.

  3. Soft Hair on Black Holes

    CERN Document Server

    Hawking, Stephen W; Strominger, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    It has recently been shown that BMS supertranslation symmetries imply an infinite number of conservation laws for all gravitational theories in asymptotically Minkowskian spacetimes. These laws require black holes to carry a large amount of soft ($i.e.$ zero-energy) supertranslation hair. The presence of a Maxwell field similarly implies soft electric hair. This paper gives an explicit description of soft hair in terms of soft gravitons or photons on the black hole horizon, and shows that complete information about their quantum state is stored on a holographic plate at the future boundary of the horizon. Charge conservation is used to give an infinite number of exact relations between the evaporation products of black holes which have different soft hair but are otherwise identical. It is further argued that soft hair which is spatially localized to much less than a Planck length cannot be excited in a physically realizable process, giving an effective number of soft degrees of freedom proportional to the ho...

  4. Sensitive analysis of anti-HIV drugs, efavirenz, lopinavir and ritonavir, in human hair by liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yong; Gandhi, Monica; Greenblatt, Ruth M; Gee, Winnie; Lin, Emil T; Messenkoff, Nicholas

    2008-11-01

    A highly sensitive and selective method using liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) was developed and validated for the measurement of three antiretroviral agents, efavirenz, lopinavir and ritonavir, in human hair. Hair samples from adherent HIV-infected patients on antiretroviral therapies were cut into about 1 mm length segments and drugs were extracted by first shaking the samples with methanol in a 37 degrees C water bath overnight (>14 h), followed by methyl tert-butyl ether/ethyl acetate (1:1) extraction under weak alkaline conditions. The extracted lopinavir and ritonavir were separated by reversed-phase chromatography and detected by tandem mass spectrometry in electrospray positive ionization mode with multiple reaction monitoring (MRM), while efavirenz was monitored in negative ionization MRM mode. This method was validated from 0.01 to 4.0 ng/mg hair for ritonavir and 0.05-20 ng/mg hair for lopinavir and efavirenz by using 2 mg of a human hair sample. The interday and intraday assay precision (coefficients of variation, CV) for spiked quality control (QC) samples at low, medium and high concentrations were within 15% and accuracy ranged from 89% to 110%. Assay reproducibility was also demonstrated by analysis of incurred hair QC samples (CV hair samples of HIV-infected women on antiretroviral therapy in an observational study using small amounts of hair.

  5. The effect of hair bundle shape on hair bundle hydrodynamics of inner ear hair cells at low and high frequencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shatz, L F

    2000-03-01

    The relationship between size and shape of the hair bundle of a hair cell in the inner ear and its sensitivity at asymptotically high and low frequencies was determined, thereby extending the results of an analysis of hair bundle hydrodynamics in two dimensions (Freeman and Weiss, 1990. Hydrodynamic analysis of a two-dimensional model for micromechanical resonance of free-standing hair bundles. Hear. Res. 48, 37-68) to three dimensions. A hemispheroid was used to represent the hair bundle. The hemispheroid had a number of advantages: it could represent shapes that range from thin, pencil-like shapes, to wide, flat, disk-like shapes. Also analytic methods could be used in the high frequency range to obtain an exact solution to the equations of motion. In the low frequency range, where an approximate solution was found using boundary element methods, the sensitivity of the responses of hair cells was mainly proportional to the cube of the heights of their hair bundles, and at high frequencies, the sensitivity of the hair cells was mainly proportional to the inverse of their heights. An excellent match was obtained between measurements of sensitivity curves in the basillar papilla of the alligator and bobtail lizards and the model's predictions. These results also suggest why hair bundles of hair cells in vestibular organs which are sensitive to low frequencies have ranges of heights that are an order of magnitude larger than the range of heights of hair bundles of hair cells found in auditory organs.

  6. Determination of organochlorines, polychlorinated biphenyls and polybrominated diphenyl ethers in human hair: estimation of external and internal exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Dasheng; Feng, Chao; Lin, Yuanjie; Wang, Dongli; Ip, Ho Sai Simon; Qiu, Xinlei; Wang, Guoquan; She, Jianwen

    2014-11-01

    A novel method was developed for the analysis of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in human hair samples. External contaminants of hair were extracted with acetone under sonication, while washed hair was further hydrolyzed in formic acid and acetone (1:4, v/v) with microwave assisted extraction (MAE) for internal contaminant measurements. Both internal and external extracts were cleaned up with gel permeation chromatography (GPC) and then solid phase extraction (SPE), before analyzed by a large volume injection-gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LVI-GC-MS/MS) using triple quadruple mass analyzer. Good linearity (R(2)⩾ 0.996) was established within a concentration range between 0.1 and 100 ng mL(-)(1) among all target analytes. The method was validated for accuracy, precision and sensitivity. The developed method is intended to be cost effective and robust for the routine human hair analysis of PCBs, PBDEs and OCPs including acid-labile OCPs. The described method has been applied in pilot biomonitoring study and the preliminary data suggested that the contaminant profiles with the use of partial least-squares analysis discriminant analysis (PLA-DA) could be useful in differentiating external and internal exposure.

  7. Mechanical characterization of curly hair: Influence of the use of nonconventional hair straightening treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leite, M G A; Maia Campos, P M B G

    2017-03-21

    Hair straighteners are very popular around the world, although they can cause great damage to the hair. Thus, the characterization of the mechanical properties of curly hair using advanced techniques is very important to clarify how hair straighteners act on hair fibers and to contribute to the development of effective products. On this basis, we chose two nonconventional hair straighteners (formaldehyde and glyoxylic acid) to investigate how hair straightening treatments affect the mechanical properties of curly hair. The mechanical properties of curly hair were evaluated using a tensile test, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) measurements, scanning electronic microscopy (SEM), a torsion modulus, dynamic vapor sorption (DVS), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis. The techniques used effectively helped the understanding of the influence of nonconventional hair straighteners on hair properties. For the break stress and the break extension tests, formaldehyde showed a marked decrease in these parameters, with great hair damage. Glyoxylic acid had a slight effect compared to formaldehyde treatment. Both treatments showed an increase in shear modulus, a decrease in water sorption and damage to the hair surface. A combination of the techniques used in this study permitted a better understanding of nonconventional hair straightener treatments and also supported the choice of the better treatment, considering a good relationship between efficacy and safety. Thus, it is very important to determine the properties of hair for the development of cosmetics used to improve the beauty of curly hair. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Finding cannabinoids in hair does not prove cannabis consumption

    OpenAIRE

    Bjoern Moosmann; Nadine Roth; Volker Auwärter

    2015-01-01

    Hair analysis for cannabinoids is extensively applied in workplace drug testing and in child protection cases, although valid data on incorporation of the main analytical targets, ∆9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and 11-nor-9-carboxy-THC (THC-COOH), into human hair is widely missing. Furthermore, ∆9-tetrahydrocannabinolic acid A (THCA-A), the biogenetic precursor of THC, is found in the hair of persons who solely handled cannabis material. In the light of the serious consequences of positive tes...

  9. 'Uncombable' Hair? Maybe Genes Are to Blame

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gov/news/fullstory_162727.html 'Uncombable' Hair? Maybe Genes Are to Blame Condition is rare, tends to ... combed normally. Now researchers say they've found genes linked to what's known as "uncombable hair syndrome." " ...

  10. Hair transplantation in alopecia androgenetica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Gurinderjit

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available One hundred patients suffering from male pattern baldness were given 3 to 4 sittings of hair transplantation at an interval of about 4 to 6 weeks each. They included 46 patients of type III baldness, 23 patients of type III (vertex baldness, and 31 patients of type IV baldness. It needed 3 sittings in type III as well as type III (vertex patients, whereas type IV patients needed 4 sittings for cosmetically acceptable results. Sixty percent patients of type III (including type III vertex showed excellent results; whereas 24 percent patients showed good response. Thirty-four percent patients of type IV got excellent cosmetic appearance; whereas, good results could be obtained in 17 percent patients. The reasons for poor results in certain patients were poor density of hair at donor sites and poor growth of hair in some of the transplanted plugs.

  11. Ethnic hair care products may increase false positives in hair drug testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidwell, David A; Smith, Frederick P; Shepherd, Arica R

    2015-12-01

    The question of why different races appear more susceptible to hair contamination by external drugs remains controversial. This research studied susceptibility of head hair to external cocaine and methamphetamine when hair products have been applied. Three different chemical classes of ethnic hair products were applied to Caucasian, Asian, and African hair. Some products increased the methamphetamine and cocaine concentrations in all hair types. A unique finding of this research is that certain ethnic hair products can replace moisture as a diffusion medium, thereby increasing the susceptibility to contamination over 100-fold compared to petroleum-based products.

  12. Management of hair loss diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manabu Ohyama

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The treatment of hair loss diseases is sometimes difficult because of insufficient efficacy and limited options. However, recent advances in understanding of the pathophysiology and development of new remedies have improved the treatment of refractory hair loss conditions. In this article, an update on the management of hair loss diseases is provided, especially focusing on recently reported therapeutic approaches for alopecia areata (AA. An accurate diagnosis is indispensable to optimize treatment. Dry dermoscopy represents new diagnostic techniques, which could enable the differentiation of barely indistinguishable alopecias, e.g. AA and trichotillomania. An organized scalp biopsy adopting both vertical and transverse sectioning approaches also provides a deep insight into the pathophysiology of ongoing alopecias. Among various treatments for AA, intraregional corticosteroid and contact immunotherapy have been recognized as first-line therapies. However, some AA cases are refractory to both treatments. Recent studies have demonstrated the efficacy of pulse corticosteroid therapy or the combination of oral psoralen ultraviolet A therapy and systemic corticosteroids for severe AA. Previous clinical observations have suggested the potential role of antihistamines as supportive medications for AA. Experimental evaluation using AA model mice further supports their effectiveness in AA treatment. Finasteride opens up new possibilities for the treatment of androgenetic alopecia. For androgenetic alopecia patients refractory to finasteride, the combination of finasteride with topical minoxidil or the administration of dutasteride, another 5 alpha-reductase inhibitor, may provide better outcomes. Scarring alopecia is the most difficult form of hair loss disorder to treat. The bulge stem cell area is destroyed by unnecessary immune reactions with resultant permanent loss of hair follicle structures in scarring alopecia. Currently, treatment options for

  13. Topical liposome targeting of dyes, melanins, genes, and proteins selectively to hair follicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, R M

    1998-01-01

    For therapeutic and cosmetic modification of hair, we have developed a hair-follicle-selective macromolecule and small molecule targeting system with topical application of phosphatidylcholine-based liposomes. Liposome-entrapped melanins, proteins, genes, and small-molecules have been selectively targeted to the hair follicle and hair shafts of mice. Liposomal delivery of these molecules is time dependent. Negligible amounts of delivered molecules enter the dermis, epidermis, or bloodstream thereby demonstrating selective follicle delivery. Naked molecules are trapped in the stratum corneum and are unable to enter the follicle. The potential of the hair-follicle liposome delivery system for therapeutic use for hair disease as well as for cosmesis has been demonstrated in 3-dimensional histoculture of hair-growing skin and mouse in vivo models. Topical liposome selective delivery to hair follicles has demonstrated the ability to color hair with melanin, the delivery of the active lac-Z gene to hair matrix cells and delivery of proteins as well. Liposome-targeting of molecules to hair follicles has also been achieved in human scalp in histoculture. Liposomes thus have high potential in selective hair follicle targeting of large and small molecules, including genes, opening the field of gene therapy and other molecular therapy of the hair process to restore hair growth, physiologically restore or alter hair pigment, and to prevent or accelerate hair loss.

  14. Matrix solid phase dispersion assisted enzymatic hydrolysis as a novel approach for cocaine and opiates isolation from human hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Míguez-Framil, Martha; Cabarcos, Pamela; Tabernero, María Jesús; Bermejo, Ana María; Bermejo-Barrera, Pilar; Moreda-Piñeiro, Antonio

    2013-11-05

    The possibility of assisting enzymatic hydrolysis (EH) procedures by sample disruption mechanisms inherent to matrix solid phase dispersion (MSPD) has been explored in the current study. EH of hair specimens from poly-drug abusers was assisted by dispersing/blending the sample (0.05 g) with alumina (2.25 g) before loading the dissolved enzyme (6 mL of 1 mg mL(-1) Pronase E in 1.4 M/1.4 M Tris/HCl, pH 7.3) through the hair-alumina solid phase packaged inside a disposable MSPD syringe. The MSPD-EH method was developed, and it proved to offer quantitative results when isolating cocaine, benzoylecgonine (BZE), codeine, morphine and 6-monoacethylmorphine (6-MAM) from human hair samples. The procedure allows an on column clean-up/pre-concentration procedure of the isolated targets by attaching a previously conditioned Oasis HLB cartridge to the end of the MSPD syringe. The EH procedure of human hair with Pronase E can therefore be shortened to approximately 30 min. Within this time, sample blending/dispersion, MSPD syringe package, elution (EH when dissolved Pronase E is passing through the sample-dispersant bed), and extract clean-up and target pre-concentration stages are achieved. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was used for determining each target after elution from the Oasis HLB cartridges with 2 mL of 2% (v/v) acetic acid in methanol, concentration by N2 stream evaporation, and dried extract derivatization with N-methyl-tert-butylsilyltrifluoroacetamide (BSTFA) and chlorotrimethylsilane (TMCS). The method was validated according to the guidance for bioanalytical method validation of the US Department of Health and Human Services, Food and Drug Administration. The simplicity of the proposed approach makes it a useful procedure for screening/quantifying drugs of abuse in hair specimens from poly-drug abusers.

  15. Immunohistochemical study of hair follicle stem cells in regenerated hair follicles induced by Wnt10b

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yiming; Xing, Yizhan; Guo, Haiying; Ma, Xiaogen; Li, Yuhong

    2016-01-01

    The regulation of the periodic regeneration of hair follicles is complicated. Although Wnt10b has been reported to induce hair follicle regeneration, the characteristics of induced hair follicles, especially the target cells of Wnt10b, have not yet been clearly elucidated. Thus, we systematically evaluated the expression and proliferation patterns of Wnt10b-induced hair follicles. We found that Wnt10b promoted the proliferation of hair follicle stem cells from 24 hours after AdWnt10b injection. Seventy-two hours after AdWnt10b injection, cells outside of bulge area began to proliferate. When the induced hair follicle entered full anagen, although the hair follicle stem cells were normal, canonical Wnt signaling was maintained in the hair precortex cells. Our results reveal that the target cells that overexpressed Wnt10b included hair follicle stem cells, hair precortex cells, and matrix cells.

  16. Characterization of hair follicle development in engineered skin substitutes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Penkanok Sriwiriyanont

    Full Text Available Generation of skin appendages in engineered skin substitutes has been limited by lack of trichogenic potency in cultured postnatal cells. To investigate the feasibility and the limitation of hair regeneration, engineered skin substitutes were prepared with chimeric populations of cultured human keratinocytes from neonatal foreskins and cultured murine dermal papilla cells from adult GFP transgenic mice and grafted orthotopically to full-thickness wounds on athymic mice. Non-cultured dissociated neonatal murine-only skin cells, or cultured human-only skin keratinocytes and fibroblasts without dermal papilla cells served as positive and negative controls respectively. In this study, neonatal murine-only skin substitutes formed external hairs and sebaceous glands, chimeric skin substitutes formed pigmented hairs without sebaceous glands, and human-only skin substitutes formed no follicles or glands. Although chimeric hair cannot erupt readily, removal of upper skin layer exposed keratinized hair shafts at the skin surface. Development of incomplete pilosebaceous units in chimeric hair corresponded with upregulation of hair-related genes, LEF1 and WNT10B, and downregulation of a marker of sebaceous glands, Steroyl-CoA desaturase. Transepidermal water loss was normal in all conditions. This study demonstrated that while sebaceous glands may be involved in hair eruption, they are not required for hair development in engineered skin substitutes.

  17. ``Dissection'' of a Hair Dryer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenstein, Stan; Simpson, Jeff

    2008-12-01

    The electrical design of the common hair dryer is based almost entirely on relatively simple principles learned in introductory physics classes. Just as biology students dissect a frog to see the principles of anatomy in action, physics students can "dissect" a hair dryer to see how principles of electricity are used in a real system. They can discover how engineers solve problems such as how to vary between low and high heat and fan speed by simply moving the position of a single switch. Principles of alternating versus direct current, series and parallel circuits, electrical safety, voltage dividing, ac rectification, power, and measurement of resistance and continuity all come in to play.

  18. The hair of the Prophet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rytter, Mikkel

    2017-01-01

    This paper explore the politics of (in)visibility in Islam by discussing the affective presence and agency of relics - in this case a single hair of the Prophet Muhammad. The relic is obviously not the Prophet, but it is also not-not the Prophet, as the hair is filled with the baraka (blessings......) of the Prophet and thereby seems to confirm Sir James Frazer’s thesis of ‘sympathetic magic’ where part and wholes are forever connected. Based on a study of the Naqshbandi Mujaddidi Saifi tariqa, this paper set out to ‘follow the hair’ in different settings in Denmark, Norway and Pakistan in order to discuss...

  19. Natural remedies in hair care and treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ercan Karabacak

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available For thousands of years, people benefited from natural products to have healthy hair. Nowadays this one of complementary and alternative medicine methods are preferred as an increasing frequency. Natural products used in hair care may vary by geographic region and ethnic origin. In this review, natural products used in hair care and diseases were studied.

  20. Natural remedies in hair care and treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Ercan Karabacak; Bilal Doğan

    2014-01-01

    For thousands of years, people benefited from natural products to have healthy hair. Nowadays this one of complementary and alternative medicine methods are preferred as an increasing frequency. Natural products used in hair care may vary by geographic region and ethnic origin. In this review, natural products used in hair care and diseases were studied.

  1. Diseases that turn African hair silky.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajose, Frances O A

    2012-11-01

    African hair in its natural state poses tenacious grooming challenges; consequently a large portion of the African cosmetic industry is focused on means to relax the tight curls of African hair to make the hair more manageable. In malnourished and hypoproteinemic states, African hair straightens in an uncomplimentary manner. Recently, we observed that in certain diseases African hair changes to a desirable silky wavy texture. To identify the diseases that turn African hair silky and their parameters we examined 5612 dermatology patients at a tertiary hospital in Nigeria. We then studied the clinical and basic laboratory parameters of those patients whose diseases were accompanied by the silky hair change. Silky hair change similar to the hair of the African neonatal child was observed in five diseases, namely AIDS, rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, pulmonary tuberculosis with cachexia, and Behçet's disease. Our study identified retrogression of African hair to the neonatal structure in five diseases. Anemia of chronic illness, high erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and mild hypocalcemia were significant laboratory parameters. This is an important observation, which should excite and advance research into the nature and structure of African hair. The causes of structural hair changes should include these five diseases. © 2012 The International Society of Dermatology.

  2. Influence of different oils on penetration of human hair by fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahuguna, S; Kushwaha, R K

    1993-02-01

    Synopsis The hair perforating ability of Microsporum gypseum and Trichophyton vanbreuseghemii was tested in presence of seventeen oils. Clove, olive and turpentine oils were found to be fully inhibitory for hair penetration by both fungi. Hair segments smeared with cantheridine oil and keocarpin hair vitalizer failed to reveal any perforation by T. vanbreuseghemii whereas arnica and shikakai oils showed little perforation by this fungus. Résumé La capacité de pénétration du Microsporum gypseum et du Trichophyton vanbreuseghemii a été testée en présence de 17 huiles. Les huiles de clou de girofle, d'olive et de térébenthine se sont avérées complétement inhibitrices du pouvoir de pénétration des 2 levures sur les cheveux. Des cheveux frottés avec de l'huile de cantharidine et un produit vitalisant des cheveux à kéocarpine n'ont révélé aucune pénétration par le T. vanbreuseghemii alors que l'huile d'arnica et l'huile de shikakai ont favorisé une légère pénétration par cette levure.

  3. STUDY ON MORPHOLOGICAL AND STRUCTURAL CHANGES INDUCED BY ULTRASONIC DEGR EASING OF WOOL AND HUMAN HAIR WASTES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BĂLĂU MÎNDRU Tudorel

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Recovery and reuse of wool and hair waste is a challenge with the ultimate goal environment protection. One of the early stages of the recovery process is the operation of scouring-degreasing wool and human hair waste. In recent decades the use of ultrasound technology has established an important place in different industrial processes and has started to revolutionize environmental protection. The power of ultrasound can enhance a wide variety of chemical and physical processes, mainly due to the phenomenon known as cavitation in a liquid medium. The objective of the present work is to develop eco-friendly effective degreasing system for keratin fiber waste with the aid of ultrasound, using distilled water and also trichlorethylene as a medium of propagation-degreasing, and realized a comparative analysis of efficiency of fat extraction by Soxhlet classical method and via ultrasonication. This work investigate the effect that ultrasonic irradiation has on the structure of wool and hair fibers. Thus were highlighted both morphological and structural changes of treated materials using optical microscopy, and FTIR spectroscopy. By using the unconventional method of cleaning and degreasing with an ultrasonic resonator tube are possible reductions in utility and solvents consumption together with changes in the cuticular layer of wool and hair fibers.

  4. Hair Shaft Damage from Heat and Drying Time of Hair Dryer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yoonhee; Kim, Youn-Duk; Hyun, Hye-Jin; Pi, Long-quan; Jin, Xinghai

    2011-01-01

    Background Hair dryers are commonly used and can cause hair damage such as roughness, dryness and loss of hair color. It is important to understand the best way to dry hair without causing damage. Objective The study assessed changes in the ultra-structure, morphology, moisture content, and color of hair after repeated shampooing and drying with a hair dryer at a range of temperatures. Methods A standardized drying time was used to completely dry each hair tress, and each tress was treated a total of 30 times. Air flow was set on the hair dryer. The tresses were divided into the following five test groups: (a) no treatment, (b) drying without using a hair dryer (room temperature, 20℃), (c) drying with a hair dryer for 60 seconds at a distance of 15 cm (47℃), (d) drying with a hair dryer for 30 seconds at a distance of 10 cm (61℃), (e) drying with a hair dryer for 15 seconds at a distance of 5 cm (95℃). Scanning and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and lipid TEM were performed. Water content was analyzed by a halogen moisture analyzer and hair color was measured with a spectrophotometer. Results Hair surfaces tended to become more damaged as the temperature increased. No cortex damage was ever noted, suggesting that the surface of hair might play a role as a barrier to prevent cortex damage. Cell membrane complex was damaged only in the naturally dried group without hair dryer. Moisture content decreased in all treated groups compared to the untreated control group. However, the differences in moisture content among the groups were not statistically significant. Drying under the ambient and 95℃ conditions appeared to change hair color, especially into lightness, after just 10 treatments. Conclusion Although using a hair dryer causes more surface damage than natural drying, using a hair dryer at a distance of 15 cm with continuous motion causes less damage than drying hair naturally. PMID:22148012

  5. Distribution and localization of hydrophobic and ionic chemical groups at the surface of bleached human hair fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korte, Michael; Akari, Sabri; Kühn, Harald; Baghdadli, Nawel; Möhwald, Helmuth; Luengo, Gustavo S

    2014-10-21

    A chemical mapping with high lateral resolution using an atomic force microscope in the pulsed force mode with chemically modified tips, introduced as "dynamic chemical force microscopy" (dCFM), was carried out to investigate the chemical properties of the cuticle of human hair and its changes following an oxidative treatment. Chemically modified atomic force microscopy (AFM) tips, CH3- and NH2-terminated, were applied to achieve a defined chemical contrast (hydrophobic and ionic) in aqueous medium. A comparative Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy-attenuated total reflection identified the dominant chemical groups of the surface vicinity of the hair fiber resulting from the bleaching process. The combined experimental results lead to the conclusion that the hydrophobic top layer is partially removed after bleaching, resulting mostly in hydrophilic SO3(-) end groups at the top of the surface of the hair, with a mean surface density "δ(mean)" of negatively charged groups of approximately 2.2 molecules/nm(2), corresponding to ∼600 μg/m(2) cysteic acid. This indicates that thioester bonds are disrupted and fatty acids are removed as a result of cysteine oxidation. At the molecular level, our results indicate a clustered "self-assembled monolayer" alignment of cysteic acid with a crystal-like structuring, reminiscent of the "fluid mosaic model of cell membranes", with a surface energy of approximately 0.04 N/m. Despite previous extensive works of AFM on human hair, this is, to our knowledge, the first time that the hydrophobic and ionic sites at the top surface of hair have been imaged at the nanoscale with dCFM.

  6. Finding cannabinoids in hair does not prove cannabis consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moosmann, Bjoern; Roth, Nadine; Auwärter, Volker

    2015-10-07

    Hair analysis for cannabinoids is extensively applied in workplace drug testing and in child protection cases, although valid data on incorporation of the main analytical targets, ∆9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and 11-nor-9-carboxy-THC (THC-COOH), into human hair is widely missing. Furthermore, ∆9-tetrahydrocannabinolic acid A (THCA-A), the biogenetic precursor of THC, is found in the hair of persons who solely handled cannabis material. In the light of the serious consequences of positive test results the mechanisms of drug incorporation into hair urgently need scientific evaluation. Here we show that neither THC nor THCA-A are incorporated into human hair in relevant amounts after systemic uptake. THC-COOH, which is considered an incontestable proof of THC uptake according to the current scientific doctrine, was found in hair, but was also present in older hair segments, which already grew before the oral THC intake and in sebum/sweat samples. Our studies show that all three cannabinoids can be present in hair of non-consuming individuals because of transfer through cannabis consumers, via their hands, their sebum/sweat, or cannabis smoke. This is of concern for e.g. child-custody cases as cannabinoid findings in a child's hair may be caused by close contact to cannabis consumers rather than by inhalation of side-stream smoke.

  7. Simultaneous quantitation of amphetamines and opiates in human hair by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hsiu-Chuan; Liu, Ray H; Lin, Dong-Liang

    2015-04-01

    In this study, an incubation, solid-phase extraction (SPE) and LC-MS-MS procedure was developed, validated and used for simultaneous analysis of amphetamine (AP), methamphetamine (MA), morphine (MOR), codeine (COD), 6-acetylmorphine (6-AM) and 6-acetylcodeine (6-AC) in hair. Hair samples were initially cut into sections, washed with dichloromethane, then sonicated in a methanol-trifluoroacetic acid mixture. The resulting solutions were processed with a SPE procedure before undergoing LC-MS-MS analysis. Mass spectrometric analysis was performed in positive-ion, multiple reactions monitoring (MRM) mode, using appropriate collision energy for each selected precursor ion. The overall protocol, when applied to the analysis of hair (50 mg) samples fortified with 100-10,000 pg/mg of the analytes, was found to achieve 55.5-74.6% recovery of the six analytes with the following analytical parameters: (i) intra- and interday precision/accuracy data for the six analytes in the 1.6-7.6%/-6.0-12.8% and 1.3-6.6%/-6.9-9.3% ranges, respectively; (ii) r(2) > 0.998 for all six analytes and (iii) LOD 2 pg/mg for AP and MA, and 8 pg/mg for MOR, COD, 6-AM and 6-AC; LOQ 10 pg/mg for all six analytes. This method was then utilized to (i) analyze hair samples collected from 86 self-reported drug users and (ii) evaluate the deposition pattern of drugs in head hairs from four female MA and heroin users in a rehabilitation facility. This relatively simple protocol was found superior over the GC-MS methods we have previously developed and utilized in our laboratory for the analysis of these six analytes.

  8. Hairdressers' skin exposure to hair dyes during different hair dyeing tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lind, Marie-Louise; Johnsson, Stina; Lidén, Carola; Meding, Birgitta; Boman, Anders

    2017-08-09

    The high risk of occupational skin disease among hairdressers, caused by skin exposure to irritants and sensitizers, such as hair dye substances, is of great concern. The aim of the present study was to assess how the various tasks involved in hair dyeing contribute to hairdressers' exposure to hair dye, in order to enable the formulation of well-founded recommendations on working routines that will reduce exposure and prevent occupational disease. Skin exposure to hair dye was measured for 20 hairdressers applying highlights and all-over hair colour with the hand rinsing technique. Resorcinol was used as a proxy for hair dye exposure. Applying hair dye and cutting the newly dyed hair were the tasks that contributed most to exposure in treatments for highlights. After cutting all-over-coloured hair, all hairdressers had measurable amounts of hair dyes on both hands. Hairdressers are exposed to hair dye ingredients during all steps of the hair dyeing procedure. Cutting newly dyed hair contributes significantly to exposure. As initial steps for the prevention of occupational disease resulting from hair dye exposure, we suggest cutting hair before dyeing it, and wearing gloves during all other work tasks. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Simultaneous determination of five naphthoylindole-based synthetic cannabinoids and metabolites and their deposition in human and rat hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jihyun; Park, Yuran; Park, Meejung; Kim, Eunmi; Yang, Wonkyung; Baeck, Seungkyung; Lee, Sooyeun; Han, Sangbeom

    2015-01-01

    The continuing appearance of new synthetic cannabinoids has been a major issue in the field of forensic and clinical toxicology. In response to that, analytical methods for synthetic cannabinoids have been increasingly established in a variety of biological matrices. Since most of synthetic cannabinoids with structure similarity share some enzymatic metabolites, making the interpretation of analytical results and the discovery of the parent drug actually ingested very complicated, the investigation on metabolites of the first generation of synthetic cannabinoids with their relatively short side chains in chemical structure could be more important. Therefore, in the present study, we developed the analytical method for AM-2201, JWH-122 and MAM-2201 with JWH-018 as a precursor and their monohydroxylated metabolites in hair matrix. Also, using a rat model, AM-2201 and its monohydroxylated metabolites were identified and then the ratios of metabolite-to-parent drug were estimated to be used as criteria on external contamination. All analytes were extracted with methanol from washed and cut hair samples and the extracts were injected into LC-MS/MS with electrospray ion source in the positive ionization mode. Matrix effect and recovery were evaluated in hair matrices and no significant variations were observed. The validation results for precision and accuracy were satisfactory in both human and rat hair. The LOD and LOQ were 0.5 pg/10mg and 1.0 pg/10mg in human hair and 0.5 pg/20mg and 1.0 pg/20mg in pigmented and non-pigmented rat hair, respectively. Additionally, as a result of the animal study, there were not significant differences in the effect of pigmentation on the distribution of AM-2201 and its monohydroxylated metabolites in hair. Wide variations were observed for the concentrations of the naphthoylindole-based synthetic cannabinoids and metabolites in authentic hair samples from nine cases; those were 0.4-59.2 pg/mg for JWH-018, 0.1-0.8 pg/mg for JWH-073, 1

  10. The biology, structure, and function of eyebrow hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Jennifer V

    2014-01-01

    Eyebrow hair serves many important biologic and aesthetic functions. This article reviews the structure and function of the hair follicle, as well as hair follicle morphogenesis and cycling. Eyebrow hair follicles share the same basic structure as hair follicles elsewhere on the body, but are distinguished by their shorter anagen (growing) phase. Knowledge of the hair follicle structure and cycle is important for understanding the pathophysiology of alopecia, as diseases affecting the stem cell portion of the hair follicle in the bulge region may cause permanent hair loss. Furthermore, therapeutic agents that target distinct phases and hormones involved in the hair cycle may be useful for promoting hair growth.

  11. Investigation of scale effects and directionality dependence on friction and adhesion of human hair using AFM and macroscale friction test apparatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaTorre, Carmen; Bhushan, Bharat

    2006-01-01

    Macroscale testing of human hair tribological properties has been widely used to aid in the development of better shampoos and conditioners. Recently, literature has focused on using the atomic force microscope (AFM) to study surface roughness, coefficient of friction, adhesive force, and wear (tribological properties) on the nanoscale in order to increase understanding about how shampoos and conditioners interact with the hair cuticle. Since there are both similarities and differences when comparing the tribological trends at both scales, it is thus recognized that scale effects are an important aspect of studying the tribology of hair. However, no microscale tribological data for hair exists in literature. This is unfortunate because many interactions between hair-skin, hair-comb, and hair-hair contact takes place at microasperities ranging from a few mum to hundreds of mum. Thus, to bridge the gap between the macro- and nanoscale data, as well as to gain a full understanding of the mechanisms behind the trends, it is now worthwhile to look at hair tribology on the microscale. Presented in this paper are coefficient of friction and adhesive force data on various scales for virgin and chemically damaged hair, both with and without conditioner treatment. Macroscale coefficient of friction was determined using a traditional friction test apparatus. Microscale and nanoscale tribological characterization was performed with AFM tips of various radii. The nano-, micro-, and macroscale trends are compared and the mechanisms behind the scale effects are discussed. Since the coefficient of friction changes drastically (on any scale) depending on whether the direction of motion is along or against the cuticle scales, the directionality dependence and responsible mechanisms are discussed.

  12. Investigation of scale effects and directionality dependence on friction and adhesion of human hair using AFM and macroscale friction test apparatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LaTorre, Carmen [Nanotribology Laboratory for Information Storage and MEMS/NEMS (NLIM), Ohio State University, Suite 255, 650 Ackerman Road, Columbus, OH 43202 (United States); Bhushan, Bharat [Nanotribology Laboratory for Information Storage and MEMS/NEMS (NLIM), Ohio State University, Suite 255, 650 Ackerman Road, Columbus, OH 43202 (United States)]. E-mail: bhushan.2@osu.edu

    2006-06-15

    Macroscale testing of human hair tribological properties has been widely used to aid in the development of better shampoos and conditioners. Recently, literature has focused on using the atomic force microscope (AFM) to study surface roughness, coefficient of friction, adhesive force, and wear (tribological properties) on the nanoscale in order to increase understanding about how shampoos and conditioners interact with the hair cuticle. Since there are both similarities and differences when comparing the tribological trends at both scales, it is thus recognized that scale effects are an important aspect of studying the tribology of hair. However, no microscale tribological data for hair exists in literature. This is unfortunate because many interactions between hair-skin, hair-comb, and hair-hair contact takes place at microasperities ranging from a few {mu}m to hundreds of {mu}m. Thus, to bridge the gap between the macro- and nanoscale data, as well as to gain a full understanding of the mechanisms behind the trends, it is now worthwhile to look at hair tribology on the microscale. Presented in this paper are coefficient of friction and adhesive force data on various scales for virgin and chemically damaged hair, both with and without conditioner treatment. Macroscale coefficient of friction was determined using a traditional friction test apparatus. Microscale and nanoscale tribological characterization was performed with AFM tips of various radii. The nano-, micro-, and macroscale trends are compared and the mechanisms behind the scale effects are discussed. Since the coefficient of friction changes drastically (on any scale) depending on whether the direction of motion is along or against the cuticle scales, the directionality dependence and responsible mechanisms are discussed.

  13. Isoelectric focusing of human hair keratins: correlation with sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) patterns and effect of cosmetic treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Calvo, M S; Carracedo, A; Muñoz, I; Concheiro, L

    1992-03-01

    A new isoelectric focusing (IEF) technique in polyacrylamide gels with 6M urea and 1.5% Nonidet P40 has been developed to characterize human hair samples. The phenotypes demonstrated with this procedure has been correlated with the sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) patterns described by other authors. The method described can be applied in the forensic science analysis of a single human hair. Using the same IEF technique we have studied the changes in electrophoretic patterns of cosmetically treated hair. The characteristics of the modifications observed and its utility in forensic science work are also discussed in this paper.

  14. [Determination of amphetamines in human hair using dynamic liquid-phase microextraction and gas chromatography/selected ion monitoring-mass spectrometry after microwave derivatization].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Dan; Meng, Pinjia; He, Hongyuan

    2007-01-01

    Human hair is an important specimen for drug abuse analysis owing to its easy collection, long surveillance time window and good correlation between the "degree of addiction" and actual drug concentration. A simple method for determination of 4 amphetamines in human hair was developed. The hair was digested under basic condition, and the drugs in it were extracted using microvolume of chloroform. The organic layer was then transferred into another tube to be derivatized with N-methyl-bis (trifluoroacetamide) (MBTFA) by microwave heating. Finally the reacted solution was detected by gas chromatography/selected ion monitoring-mass spectrometry (GC/SIM-MS) directly. 2-Methyl-phenyl ethylamine was used as an internal standard. Good linearities were obtained for 4 amphetamines with correlation coefficients better than 0.996. The limits of detection, based on a signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) of 3:1, were all about 50 pg/mg for amphetamine (AM) , methamphetamine (MAM), methylenedioxy-amphetamine (MDA), and methylenedioxy-methamphetamine (MDMA) in hair. The reproducibility of the method was satisfactory, with the relative standard deviations of 6.0% for AM, 13.9% for MAM, 10.2% for MDA and 9.2% for MDMA. Some real hair from the drug abusers was analyzed with this method. The minimal hair is less than 5 mg (about 20 cm). The method is highly sensitive, easy to operate, time-saving and economic, which can be used for trace analysis of amphetamines in human hair.

  15. Screening for exogenous androgen anabolic steroids in human hair by liquid chromatography/orbitrap-high resolution mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strano-Rossi, Sabina, E-mail: sabina.stranorossi@rm.unicatt.it [Institute of Legal Medicine, Catholic University of Sacred Heart, L.go F. Vito, 1, 00168 Rome (Italy); Castrignanò, Erika; Anzillotti, Luca; Odoardi, Sara; De-Giorgio, Fabio [Institute of Legal Medicine, Catholic University of Sacred Heart, L.go F. Vito, 1, 00168 Rome (Italy); Bermejo, Ana [Institute of Legal Medicine, University of Santiago de Compostela, Av S. Francisco s/n, Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Pascali, Vincenzo L. [Institute of Legal Medicine, Catholic University of Sacred Heart, L.go F. Vito, 1, 00168 Rome (Italy)

    2013-09-02

    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •LC–HRMS screening method for the detection of a variety of anabolics in hair. •Detection of unmetabolized anabolic steroids and their esters in hair matrix by simple keratin pretreatment. •Identification of target compounds by retention time, accurate mass and isotopic cluster. •Quantitative determination of detected compounds. •Possibility to a retrospective re-analysis of the acquired datafile in case a further analyte is to be screened. -- Abstract: A method for the screening of various anabolic steroids and their esters in human hair, based on liquid-chromatography–high resolution mass spectrometry using an Exactive benchtop Orbitrap mass spectrometer, has been set up and validated. This method involved methanolic incubation of 30 mg of hair and analysis of the relevant extract in HPLC using a C18 column. The mass detector, with nominal resolving power of 100,000, operated in full scan mode in APCI under positive ionization mode. Analytes were identified by exact mass, correspondence of isotopic cluster and retention times. The limits of detection obtained varied from 10 to 50 pg mg{sup −1}, and limits of quantitation were 0.5 ng mg{sup −1} for all compounds. The method was linear for all analytes in the ranges from the LOQ to 6 ng mg{sup −1}, giving correlation coefficients >0.99 for all analytes. Also accuracy (intended as %E) and repeatability (%CV) were always lower than 15%. Specificity was assessed by analysing ten blank samples and fifteen samples from polidrug abusers. This method was applied to a real-life case, resulting in the identification of testosterone undecanoate in the hair of a suspect. The analyte identity was confirmed by the analysis of its in-source fragmentation and comparison to a certified standard. Thanks to the scan acquisition, this method also enables retrospective re-analysis of the acquired datafile in case a further analyte needs to be screened.

  16. Clofazimine-induced Hair Pigmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philip, Mariam; Samson, Joan Felicita; Simi, Puthenveedu Salahudeen

    2012-01-01

    A 45-year-old man was treated with WHO multibacillary multidrug therapy for borderline leprosy and high dose daily Clofazimine for lepra reaction. Along with the expected side effect of skin pigmentation, the patient also noticed darkening of previously grey hair. This colour persisted eight months after completing multibacillary multidrug therapy. PMID:23180930

  17. Clofazimine-induced Hair Pigmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philip, Mariam; Samson, Joan Felicita; Simi, Puthenveedu Salahudeen

    2012-07-01

    A 45-year-old man was treated with WHO multibacillary multidrug therapy for borderline leprosy and high dose daily Clofazimine for lepra reaction. Along with the expected side effect of skin pigmentation, the patient also noticed darkening of previously grey hair. This colour persisted eight months after completing multibacillary multidrug therapy.

  18. Sensory hair cell death and regeneration in fishes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerry D. Monroe

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Sensory hair cells are specialized mechanotransductive receptors required for hearing and vestibular function. Loss of hair cells in humans and other mammals is permanent and causes reduced hearing and balance. In the early 1980’s, it was shown that hair cells continue to be added to the inner ear sensory epithelia in cartilaginous and bony fishes. Soon thereafter, hair cell regeneration was documented in the chick cochlea following acoustic trauma. Since then, research using chick and other avian models has led to great insights into hair cell death and regeneration. However, with the rise of the zebrafish as a model organism for studying disease and developmental processes, there has been an increased interest in studying sensory hair cell death and regeneration in its lateral line and inner ears. Advances derived from studies in zebrafish and other fish species include understanding the effect of ototoxins on hair cells and finding otoprotectants to mitigate ototoxin damage, the role of cellular proliferation versus direct transdifferentiation during hair cell regeneration, and elucidating cellular pathways involved in the regeneration process. This review will summarize research on hair cell death and regeneration using fish models, indicate the potential strengths and weaknesses of these models, and discuss several emerging areas of future studies.

  19. Alterations in hair follicle dynamics in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piérard-Franchimont, Claudine; Piérard, Gérald E

    2013-01-01

    Endocrine changes supervening after parturition and menopause participate in the control of sebum production and hair growth modulation. The ensuing conditions include some peculiar aspects of hair loss (effluvium), alopecia, and facial hirsutism. The hair cycling is of major clinical relevance because most hair growth disorders result from disturbances in this chronobiological feature. Of note, any correlation between a biologic abnormality and hair cycling disturbance does not prove a relationship of causality. The proportion of postmenopausal women is rising in the overall population. Therefore, the prevalence of these hair follicle disturbances is globally on the rise. Current therapies aim at correcting the underlying hormonal imbalances, and at improving the overall cosmetic appearance. However, in absence of pathogenic diagnosis and causality criteria, chances are low that a treatment given by the whims of fate will adequately control hair effluvium. The risk and frequency of therapeutic inertia are further increased. When the hair loss is not controlled and/or compensated by growth of new hairs, several clinical aspects of alopecia inexorably develop. Currently, there is little evidence supporting any specific treatment for these endocrine hair disorders in post-partum and postmenopausal women. Current hair treatment strategies are symptomatic and nonspecific so current researchers aim at developing new, targeted methods.

  20. Alterations in Hair Follicle Dynamics in Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudine Piérard-Franchimont

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Endocrine changes supervening after parturition and menopause participate in the control of sebum production and hair growth modulation. The ensuing conditions include some peculiar aspects of hair loss (effluvium, alopecia, and facial hirsutism. The hair cycling is of major clinical relevance because most hair growth disorders result from disturbances in this chronobiological feature. Of note, any correlation between a biologic abnormality and hair cycling disturbance does not prove a relationship of causality. The proportion of postmenopausal women is rising in the overall population. Therefore, the prevalence of these hair follicle disturbances is globally on the rise. Current therapies aim at correcting the underlying hormonal imbalances, and at improving the overall cosmetic appearance. However, in absence of pathogenic diagnosis and causality criteria, chances are low that a treatment given by the whims of fate will adequately control hair effluvium. The risk and frequency of therapeutic inertia are further increased. When the hair loss is not controlled and/or compensated by growth of new hairs, several clinical aspects of alopecia inexorably develop. Currently, there is little evidence supporting any specific treatment for these endocrine hair disorders in post-partum and postmenopausal women. Current hair treatment strategies are symptomatic and nonspecific so current researchers aim at developing new, targeted methods.

  1. Female pattern hair loss: Current treatment concepts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quan Q Dinh

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Quan Q Dinh, Rodney SinclairDepartment of Dermatology, St Vincent’s Hospital, Fitzroy, Victoria, AustraliaAbstract: Fewer than 45% of women go through life with a full head of hair. Female pattern hair loss is the commonest cause of hair loss in women and prevalence increases with advancing age. Affected women may experience psychological distress and impaired social functioning. In most cases the diagnosis can be made clinically and the condition treated medically. While many women using oral antiandrogens and topical minoxidil will regrow some hair, early diagnosis and initiation of treatment is desirable as these treatments are more effective at arresting progression of hair loss than stimulating regrowth. Adjunctive nonpharmacological treatment modalities such as counseling, cosmetic camouflage and hair transplantation are important measures for some patients. The histology of female pattern hair loss is identical to that of male androgenetic alopecia. While the clinical pattern of the hair loss differs between men, the response to oral antiandrogens suggests that female pattern hair loss is an androgen dependant condition, at least in the majority of cases. Female pattern hair loss is a chronic progressive condition. All treatments need to be continued to maintain the effect. An initial therapeutic response often takes 12 or even 24 months. Given this delay, monitoring for treatment effect through clinical photography or standardized clinical severity scales is helpful.Keywords: female pattern hair loss, androgenetic alopecia

  2. Megasessions for Robotic Hair Restoration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Joa O Carlos; Pereira Filho, Joa O Carlos; Cabrera Pereira, Joa O Pedro

    2016-11-01

    A robotic system can select and remove individual hair follicles from the donor area with great precision and without fatigue. This report describes the use of the robotic system in a megasession for hair restoration. Patients were instructed to cut their hair to 1.0 to 1.2 mm before surgery. The robot selected and removed 600 to 800 grafts per hour so the follicular units (FU)s could be transplanted manually to recipient sites. The robot arm consists of a sharp inner punch and a blunt outer punch which together separate FUs from the sur- rounding tissue. Stereoscopic cameras controlled by image processing software allow the system to identify the angle and direction of hair growth. The physician and one assistant control the harvesting with a hand-held remote control and computer monitor while the patient is positioned in an adjustable chair. When the robot has harvested all the FUs they are removed by technicians with small forceps. Hairline design, creation of recipient sites, and graft placement are performed manually by the physician. Clinical photographs before and after surgery show that patients experience excellent outcomes with the robotic megasession. Phy- sician fatigue during graft extraction is reduced because the robot performs the repetitive movements without fatigue. Variability of graft extraction is minimized because the robot's optical system can be programmed to choose the best FUs. The transection rate is reduced because the robot's graft extraction system uses two needles, a sharp one to piece the skin and a blunt needle to dissect the root without trauma. A robotic megasession for hair restoration is minimally invasive, does not result in linear scars in the donor area, and is associated with minimal fatigue and discomfort for both patient and physician. Healing is rapid and patients experience a high level of satisfaction with the results. J Drugs Dermatol. 2016;15(11):1407-1412..

  3. Influence of bleaching and coloring on ethyl glucuronide content in human hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petzel-Witt, Silvana; Pogoda, Werner; Wunder, Cora; Paulke, Alexander; Schubert-Zsilavecz, Manfred; Toennes, Stefan W

    2017-04-13

    Ethyl glucuronide (EtG) is increasingly used in forensic toxicology as a marker for alcohol use in analyses of hair samples, especially in abstinence control. Some cosmetic treatments are considered to markedly reduce the EtG content. In view of especially many women with coloured hair the present study was performed to further investigate the effect of a variety of colouring procedures (bleaching, tinting, permanent and semi-permanent dyeing, henna) on the EtG content. Untreated hair samples (n = 12, EtG 13.9-64.7 pg/mg) were re-analyzed (gas chromatography- negative chemical ionization mass spectrometry, 0.8 pg/mg quantification limit) after different treatment procedures. A decrease of the EtG content of at least 10% occurred in every case. The reduction in comparison to the untreated hair was expectedly high for permanent dyeing and bleaching with 18.1% of the initial content (median, range 0.0-50.9%) and 18.4% (0.0-46.7%), respectively. For henna this was 38.3% (0.0-83.0%), for tinting 70.4% (29.0-90.8%), for semi-permanent dyeing 41.9% (0.0-77.4%). With permanent hair dye the EtG content was decreased to below 7 pg/mg in 10 of 12 cases, in 3 cases even below the LOD (0.2 pg/mg). Surprisingly henna treatment without oxidative component had a marked influence, EtG was below 2 pg/mg in 2 of 12 samples. The study showed that all tested coloration procedures markedly affected the deposited EtG content. Even temporary or henna coloration may have a marked effect. The present data support the recommendation to exclude hair samples with colour manipulations for analysis on the EtG content as a precaution in alcohol abstinence programs. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Genetic determinants of hair, eye and skin pigmentation in Europeans.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sulem, P.; Gudbjartsson, D.F.; Stacey, S.N.; Helgason, A.; Rafnar, T.; Magnusson, K.P.; Manolescu, A.; Karason, A.; Palsson, A.; Thorleifsson, G.; Jakobsdottir, M.; Steinberg, S.; Palsson, S.; Jonasson, F.; Sigurgeirsson, B.; Thorisdottir, K.; Ragnarsson, R.; Benediktsdottir, K.R.; Aben, K.K.H.; Kiemeney, L.A.L.M.; Olafsson, J.H.; Gulcher, J.R.; Kong, A.; Thorsteinsdottir, U.; Stefansson, K.

    2007-01-01

    Hair, skin and eye colors are highly heritable and visible traits in humans. We carried out a genome-wide association scan for variants associated with hair and eye pigmentation, skin sensitivity to sun and freckling among 2,986 Icelanders. We then tested the most closely associated SNPs from six re

  5. Genetic determinants of hair, eye and skin pigmentation in Europeans.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sulem, P.; Gudbjartsson, D.F.; Stacey, S.N.; Helgason, A.; Rafnar, T.; Magnusson, K.P.; Manolescu, A.; Karason, A.; Palsson, A.; Thorleifsson, G.; Jakobsdottir, M.; Steinberg, S.; Palsson, S.; Jonasson, F.; Sigurgeirsson, B.; Thorisdottir, K.; Ragnarsson, R.; Benediktsdottir, K.R.; Aben, K.K.H.; Kiemeney, L.A.L.M.; Olafsson, J.H.; Gulcher, J.R.; Kong, A.; Thorsteinsdottir, U.; Stefansson, K.

    2007-01-01

    Hair, skin and eye colors are highly heritable and visible traits in humans. We carried out a genome-wide association scan for variants associated with hair and eye pigmentation, skin sensitivity to sun and freckling among 2,986 Icelanders. We then tested the most closely associated SNPs from six

  6. Occupational Hand Dermatitis among Hair Dressers in a Semi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    TNHJOURNALPH

    Occupational Hand Dermatitis among Hair Dressers in a Semi-urban. Community in Rivers ... hazardous effects of chemicals contained in these beauty ... detergents, shampoos, hair relaxers, dyes, industrial ... as human immunodeficiency virus and hepatitis B ... attrition) was derived by applying the formula for proportion.

  7. Hair pain (trichodynia): frequency and relationship to hair loss and patient gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willimann, Barbara; Trüeb, Ralph M

    2002-01-01

    Patients complaining of hair loss frequently claim that their hair has become painful. The aim of the study was to evaluate the frequency of this phenomenon and its relationship to hair loss. Patients seeking advice for hair loss either spontaneously reported or were questioned about painful sensations of the scalp. Hair loss activity was quantified by a hair pull, daily count and wash test. Telogen percentage was obtained by a hair pluck. The scalp surface was examined by dermatoscopy. Of 403 examined patients, 20% of women and 9% of men reported hair pain, irrespective of the cause and activity of hair loss. A minority presented scalp telangiectasia. This strongly correlated with hair pain. Hair pain (trichodynia) affects a significant proportion of patients complaining of hair loss and may increase the anxiety. The symptom neither allows discrimination of the cause nor correlates with the activity of hair loss. A higher prevalence of female patients might be connected to gender-related differences in pain perception in relation to anxiety. The role of vasoactive neuropeptides in the interaction between the central nervous system and skin reactivity is discussed. In the absence of any correlation with quantitative parameters of hair loss or specific morphologic changes of the scalp, management remains empiric and tailored to the individual. Copyright 2002 S. Karger AG, Basel

  8. Strength of Occipital Hair as an Explanation for Pilonidal Sinus Disease Caused by Intruding Hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doll, Dietrich; Bosche, Friederike D; Stauffer, Verena K; Sinicina, Inga; Hoffmann, Sebastian; van der Zypen, Dominic; Luedi, Markus M

    2017-09-01

    Pilonidal sinus disease is thought to be caused by intrusion of hair into healthy skin; loose hair in the intergluteal fold is thought to promote disease. However, compelling evidence to support these postulates is lacking; the cause of pilonidal sinus disease remains uncertain. To determine whether particular properties of hair are associated with susceptibility to pilonidal sinus disease, we compared physical properties of hairs of patients with pilonidal sinus disease with hairs from control subjects who were matched for sex, BMI, and age. This was an experimental study with establishment of a mechanical strength test for single hairs to quantify the maximum vertical force that a hair could exert, following tests of strength of occipital, lumbar, and intergluteal hair. Hair from patients with pilonidal sinus disease and matched control subjects were harvested from patients of the St. Marienhospital Vechta Department of Procto-Surgery. A total of 17 adult patients with pilonidal sinus disease and 217 control subjects were included. ANOVA and intraclass and interclass variations of data gained from mechanical strength tests of occipital, lumbar, and intergluteal hair were included. Vertical hair strength was significantly greater in patients with pilonidal sinus disease. Occipital hair exhibited 20% greater, glabella sacralis 1.1 times greater, and intergluteal hair 2 times greater strength in patients with pilonidal sinus disease than in matched control subjects (all p = 0.0001). In addition, patients with pilonidal sinus disease presented with significantly more hair at the glabella sacralis and in the intergluteal fold. The study was limited by its relatively small number of patients from a specific cohort of European patients. Occipital hair exhibited considerable vertical strength. Because occipital hair exerted the greatest force and cut hair fragments were found in the pilonidal nest in large quantities, these data suggest that pilonidal sinus disease is

  9. USGS42 and USGS43: human-hair stable hydrogen and oxygen isotopic reference materials and analytical methods for forensic science and implications for published measurement results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coplen, Tyler B; Qi, Haiping

    2012-01-10

    Because there are no internationally distributed stable hydrogen and oxygen isotopic reference materials of human hair, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has prepared two such materials, USGS42 and USGS43. These reference materials span values commonly encountered in human hair stable isotope analysis and are isotopically homogeneous at sample sizes larger than 0.2 mg. USGS42 and USGS43 human-hair isotopic reference materials are intended for calibration of δ(2)H and δ(18)O measurements of unknown human hair by quantifying (1) drift with time, (2) mass-dependent isotopic fractionation, and (3) isotope-ratio-scale contraction. While they are intended for measurements of the stable isotopes of hydrogen and oxygen, they also are suitable for measurements of the stable isotopes of carbon, nitrogen, and sulfur in human and mammalian hair. Preliminary isotopic compositions of the non-exchangeable fractions of these materials are USGS42(Tibetan hair)δ(2)H(VSMOW-SLAP) = -78.5 ± 2.3‰ (n = 62) and δ(18)O(VSMOW-SLAP) = +8.56 ± 0.10‰ (n = 18) USGS42(Indian hair)δ(2)H(VSMOW-SLAP) = -50.3 ± 2.8‰ (n = 64) and δ(18)O(VSMOW-SLAP) = +14.11 ± 0.10‰ (n = 18). Using recommended analytical protocols presented herein for δ(2)H(VSMOW-SLAP) and δ(18)O(VSMOW-SLAP) measurements, the least squares fit regression of 11 human hair reference materials is δ(2)H(VSMOW-SLAP) = 6.085δ(2)O(VSMOW-SLAP) - 136.0‰ with an R-square value of 0.95. The δ(2)H difference between the calibrated results of human hair in this investigation and a commonly accepted human-hair relationship is a remarkable 34‰. It is critical that readers pay attention to the δ(2)H(VSMOW-SLAP) and δ(18)O(VSMOW-SLAP) of isotopic reference materials in publications, and they need to adjust the δ(2)H(VSMOW-SLAP) and δ(18)O(VSMOW-SLAP) measurement results of human hair in previous publications, as needed, to ensure all results on are on the same scales.

  10. USGS42 and USGS43: Human-hair stable hydrogen and oxygen isotopic reference materials and analytical methods for forensic science and implications for published measurement results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coplen, T.B.; Qi, H.

    2012-01-01

    Because there are no internationally distributed stable hydrogen and oxygen isotopic reference materials of human hair, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has prepared two such materials, USGS42 and USGS43. These reference materials span values commonly encountered in human hair stable isotope analysis and are isotopically homogeneous at sample sizes larger than 0.2 mg. USGS42 and USGS43 human-hair isotopic reference materials are intended for calibration of δ(2)H and δ(18)O measurements of unknown human hair by quantifying (1) drift with time, (2) mass-dependent isotopic fractionation, and (3) isotope-ratio-scale contraction. While they are intended for measurements of the stable isotopes of hydrogen and oxygen, they also are suitable for measurements of the stable isotopes of carbon, nitrogen, and sulfur in human and mammalian hair. Preliminary isotopic compositions of the non-exchangeable fractions of these materials are USGS42(Tibetan hair)δ(2)H(VSMOW-SLAP) = -78.5 ± 2.3‰ (n = 62) and δ(18)O(VSMOW-SLAP) = +8.56 ± 0.10‰ (n = 18) USGS42(Indian hair)δ(2)H(VSMOW-SLAP) = -50.3 ± 2.8‰ (n = 64) and δ(18)O(VSMOW-SLAP) = +14.11 ± 0.10‰ (n = 18). Using recommended analytical protocols presented herein for δ(2)H(VSMOW-SLAP) and δ(18)O(VSMOW-SLAP) measurements, the least squares fit regression of 11 human hair reference materials is δ(2)H(VSMOW-SLAP) = 6.085δ(2)O(VSMOW-SLAP) - 136.0‰ with an R-square value of 0.95. The δ(2)H difference between the calibrated results of human hair in this investigation and a commonly accepted human-hair relationship is a remarkable 34‰. It is critical that readers pay attention to the δ(2)H(VSMOW-SLAP) and δ(18)O(VSMOW-SLAP) of isotopic reference materials in publications, and they need to adjust the δ(2)H(VSMOW-SLAP) and δ(18)O(VSMOW-SLAP) measurement results of human hair in previous publications, as needed, to ensure all results on are on the same scales.

  11. Transdifferentiation of Human Hair Follicle Mesenchymal Stem Cells into Red Blood Cells by OCT4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhijing Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Shortage of red blood cells (RBCs, erythrocytes can have potentially life-threatening consequences for rare or unusual blood type patients with massive blood loss resulting from various conditions. Erythrocytes have been derived from human pluripotent stem cells (PSCs, but the risk of potential tumorigenicity cannot be ignored, and a majority of these cells produced from PSCs express embryonic ε- and fetal γ-globins with little or no adult β-globin and remain nucleated. Here we report a method to generate erythrocytes from human hair follicle mesenchymal stem cells (hHFMSCs by enforcing OCT4 gene expression and cytokine stimulation. Cells generated from hHFMSCs expressed mainly the adult β-globin chain with minimum level of the fetal γ-globin chain. Furthermore, these cells also underwent multiple maturation events and formed enucleated erythrocytes with a biconcave disc shape. Gene expression analyses showed that OCT4 regulated the expression of genes associated with both pluripotency and erythroid development during hHFMSC transdifferentiation toward erythroid cells. These findings show that mature erythrocytes can be generated from adult somatic cells, which may serve as an alternative source of RBCs for potential autologous transfusion.

  12. Pharmacologic inhibition of JAK-STAT signaling promotes hair growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harel, Sivan; Higgins, Claire A; Cerise, Jane E; Dai, Zhenpeng; Chen, James C; Clynes, Raphael; Christiano, Angela M

    2015-10-01

    Several forms of hair loss in humans are characterized by the inability of hair follicles to enter the growth phase (anagen) of the hair cycle after being arrested in the resting phase (telogen). Current pharmacologic therapies have been largely unsuccessful in targeting pathways that can be selectively modulated to induce entry into anagen. We show that topical treatment of mouse and human skin with small-molecule inhibitors of the Janus kinase (JAK)-signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) pathway results in rapid onset of anagen and subsequent hair growth. We show that JAK inhibition regulates the activation of key hair follicle populations such as the hair germ and improves the inductivity of cultured human dermal papilla cells by controlling a molecular signature enriched in intact, fully inductive dermal papillae. Our findings open new avenues for exploration of JAK-STAT inhibition for promotion of hair growth and highlight the role of this pathway in regulating the activation of hair follicle stem cells.

  13. Uncovering the structure of human red hair pheomelanin: benzothiazolylthiazinodihydroisoquinolines as key building blocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greco, Giorgia; Panzella, Lucia; Verotta, Luisella; d'Ischia, Marco; Napolitano, Alessandra

    2011-04-25

    Biomimetic oxidation of the pheomelanin precursor 5-S-cysteinyldopa in the presence of Zn(2+) ions led to the isolation of two isomeric products, one of which could be identified as the benzothiazolylthiazinodihydroisoquinoline 5, while the other proved too unstable for a complete characterization. Both these products were converted into more stable oxidized forms, which after ethylchloroformate derivatization were characterized as the ethyl ester/ethoxycarbonyl isoquinolines 8 and 9. Compound 5 exhibited absorption characteristics similar to those of red hair pheomelanin, including a main band around 400 nm in acids. Similarly to red hair pheomelanin and synthetic pigments, 5 afforded on chemical degradation a thiazolylpyridinecarboxylic acid fragment. Model chemical studies allowed the proposal of a formation mechanism for the benzothiazole and dihydroisoquinoline systems in compound 5.

  14. The basic science of hair biology: what are the causal mechanisms for the disordered hair follicle?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breitkopf, Trisia; Leung, Gigi; Yu, Mei; Wang, Eddy; McElwee, Kevin J

    2013-01-01

    A hair disorder can be difficult to define, but patients are typically motivated to seek treatment when their hair growth patterns are significantly different from their cultural group or when growth patterns change significantly. The causes of hair disorders are many and varied, but fundamentally the disorder is a consequence of aberrant alterations of normal hair biology. The potential trigger factors for hair disorders can be attributed to inflammation, genetics, the environment, or hormones, of which the relative contributions vary for different diagnoses, between individuals, and over time. This article discusses the causal mechanisms for the disordered hair follicle.

  15. Non Invasive XRF Analysis of Human Hair for Health State Determination of Breast Tissue

    OpenAIRE

    Maziar, Asghar; Shahbazi-Gahrouei, Daryoush; Tavakoli, Mohammad Bagher; CHANGIZI, Vahid

    2015-01-01

    Background: Using hair samples to analyze the trace element concentrations is of interest among many researchers. X-ray fluorescence (XRF) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) are the most common methods in studying the structure and concentration of elements of tissues and also crystalline materials, using low energy X-ray. Objectives: In the present study, the detection ability of Wave Length X-ray Fluorescence (WLXRF) of breast cancer at early stages was evaluated and the results were compared with...

  16. [The hair follicle as a target for gene therapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotsarelis, G

    2002-05-01

    The hair follicle possesses progenitor cells required for continuous hair follicle cycling and for epidermal keratinocytes, melanocytes and Langerhans cells. These different cell types can be the target of topical gene delivery in the skin of the mouse. Using a combination of liposomes and DNA, we demonstrate the feasibility of targeting hair follicle cells in human scalp xenografts. We consider liposome composition and stage of the hair cycle as important parameters influencing transfection of human hair follicles. Transfection is possible only during the early anagen phase. Factors and obstacles for the use of gene therapy in treating alopecia and skin diseases are discussed. A theoretical framework for future treatment of cutaneous and systemic disorders using gene therapy is presented.

  17. Physiological Maturation of Regenerating Hair Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baird, Richard A.

    2003-01-01

    The bullfrog saccule, a sensor of gravity and substrate-borne vibration, is a model system for hair cell transduction. Saccular hair cells also increase in number throughout adult life and rapidly recover after hair cell damage, making this organ an ideal system for studying hair cell development, repair, and regeneration. We have used of hair cell and supporting cell immunocytochemical markers to identify damaged hair cells and hair cell precursors in organotypic cultures of the bullfrog saccule. We then used an innovative combination of confocal, electron, and time-lapse microscopy to study the fate of damaged hair cells and the origin of new hair cells after gentamicin ototoxicity in normal and mitotically blocked saccular cultures. These studies have shown that gentamicin ototoxicity produces both lethal and sublethal hair cell damage. They have also shown that hair cell recovery in this organ takes place by both the repair of sublethally damaged hair cells and by the replacement of lost hair cells by mitotic regeneration. In parallel studies, we have used biophysical and molecular biological techniques to study the differentiation and innervation of developing, repairing, and regenerating hair cells. More specifically, we have used RT-PCR to obtain the bullfrog homologues of L-type voltage- gated calcium (L-VGCC) and large-conductance Ca(2+)-activated potassium (BK) channel genes. We have then obtained probes for these genes and, using in situ hybridization, begun to examine their expression in the bullfrog saccule and amphibian papilla. We have also used fluorescent-labeled channel toxins and channel toxin derivatives to determine the time of appearance of L-type voltage-gated calcium (L-VGCC) and Ca(2+)-activated potassium (BK) channels and to study dynamic changes in the number, distribution, and co-localization of these proteins in developing, repairing, and regenerating hair cells. Using time-lapse microscopy, we are also studying the dynamic relationship

  18. Mutations in Three Genes Encoding Proteins Involved in Hair Shaft Formation Cause Uncombable Hair Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ü Basmanav, F Buket; Cau, Laura; Tafazzoli, Aylar; Méchin, Marie-Claire; Wolf, Sabrina; Romano, Maria Teresa; Valentin, Frederic; Wiegmann, Henning; Huchenq, Anne; Kandil, Rima; Garcia Bartels, Natalie; Kilic, Arzu; George, Susannah; Ralser, Damian J; Bergner, Stefan; Ferguson, David J P; Oprisoreanu, Ana-Maria; Wehner, Maria; Thiele, Holger; Altmüller, Janine; Nürnberg, Peter; Swan, Daniel; Houniet, Darren; Büchner, Aline; Weibel, Lisa; Wagner, Nicola; Grimalt, Ramon; Bygum, Anette; Serre, Guy; Blume-Peytavi, Ulrike; Sprecher, Eli; Schoch, Susanne; Oji, Vinzenz; Hamm, Henning; Farrant, Paul; Simon, Michel; Betz, Regina C

    2016-12-01

    Uncombable hair syndrome (UHS), also known as "spun glass hair syndrome," "pili trianguli et canaliculi," or "cheveux incoiffables" is a rare anomaly of the hair shaft that occurs in children and improves with age. UHS is characterized by dry, frizzy, spangly, and often fair hair that is resistant to being combed flat. Until now, both simplex and familial UHS-affected case subjects with autosomal-dominant as well as -recessive inheritance have been reported. However, none of these case subjects were linked to a molecular genetic cause. Here, we report the identification of UHS-causative mutations located in the three genes PADI3 (peptidylarginine deiminase 3), TGM3 (transglutaminase 3), and TCHH (trichohyalin) in a total of 11 children. All of these individuals carry homozygous or compound heterozygous mutations in one of these three genes, indicating an autosomal-recessive inheritance pattern in the majority of UHS case subjects. The two enzymes PADI3 and TGM3, responsible for posttranslational protein modifications, and their target structural protein TCHH are all involved in hair shaft formation. Elucidation of the molecular outcomes of the disease-causing mutations by cell culture experiments and tridimensional protein models demonstrated clear differences in the structural organization and activity of mutant and wild-type proteins. Scanning electron microscopy observations revealed morphological alterations in hair coat of Padi3 knockout mice. All together, these findings elucidate the molecular genetic causes of UHS and shed light on its pathophysiology and hair physiology in general. Copyright © 2016 American Society of Human Genetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Study of hair surface energy and conditioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Timothy; He, Yingxia; Landa, Peter; Tien, Jung-Mei

    2011-01-01

    A new test method has been developed to determine surface energy of hair fibers through measurements of contact angles at two hair/liquid interfaces. By measuring changes in surface energy of the same hair fiber before and after a cosmetic treatment, effects of active ingredients and the performance of tested formulations can be evaluated.The establishment of the method is based on Fowkes theory (1,2) described with two components, a dispersive and a non-dispersive component. The non-polar liquid used in this study was diiodomethane, and the polar liquid was benzyl alcohol. A Kruss 100 Tensiometer was used to measure contact angles of hair fibers. Virgin dark brown and regular bleached hairs were treated with selected conditioner formulations. Reductions in combing forces of hair tresses before and after respective treatments were correlated with decreases in average surface energy of hair fibers obtained from the corresponding tresses.Experimental results indicate that the average surface energy of hair fibers treated with conditioners decreases and the hydrophobicity of the hair surface increases, the results correlate well with the reduction in combing forces after respective treatments. This research work provides a new methodology to evaluate/screen conditioning performance of hair care ingredients and formulations for development of better products.

  20. Hair restoration surgery: challenges and solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Paul T

    2015-01-01

    Hair loss is a common problem affecting both men and women. The most frequent etiology is androgenetic alopecia, but other causes of hair loss such as trauma, various dermatologic diseases, and systemic diseases can cause alopecia. The loss of hair can have profound effects on one’s self esteem and emotional well-being, as one’s appearance plays a role in the work place and interpersonal relationships. It is therefore not surprising that means to remedy hair loss are widely sought. Hair transplant surgery has become increasingly popular, and the results that we are able to create today are quite remarkable, providing a natural appearance when the procedure is performed well. In spite of this, hair transplant surgery is not perfect. It is not perfect because the hair transplant surgeon is still faced with challenges that prevent the achievement of optimal results. Some of these challenges include a limit to donor hair availability, hair survival, and ways to conceal any evidence of a surgical procedure having taken place. This article examines some of the most important challenges facing hair restoration surgery today and possible solutions to these challenges. PMID:26203266

  1. Effects of human hair on trans-cranial focused ultrasound efficacy in an ex-vivo cadaver model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hananel, Arik; Snell, John W.; Kassell, Neal F.; Eames, Matthew D. C.

    2012-11-01

    Current practice before a trans-cranial MR guided Focused ultrasound procedure is shaving the patient head on treatment day. Here we present an initial attempt to evaluate the feasibility of trans-cranial FUS, in an unshaved, ex-vivo cadaver skull. We have sonicated using 220kHz and 710kHz head transducers, a cadaver skull filled with tissue mimicking phantom and covered with a wig made of human hair to evaluate feasibility of acoustic energy transfer in a full size model. Heating at focal point was measured using MR proton resonance shift thermometry. Results showed negligible effect of hair in 220kHz, and an 18% drop in temperature elevation when using 710kHz.

  2. Disheveled hair and ear (Dhe, a spontaneous mouse Lmna mutation modeling human laminopathies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul R Odgren

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Investigations of naturally-occurring mutations in animal models provide important insights and valuable disease models. Lamins A and C, along with lamin B, are type V intermediate filament proteins which constitute the proteinaceous boundary of the nucleus. LMNA mutations in humans cause a wide range of phenotypes, collectively termed laminopathies. To identify the mutation and investigate the phenotype of a spontaneous, semi-dominant mutation that we have named Disheveled hair and ear (Dhe, which causes a sparse coat and small external ears in heterozygotes and lethality in homozygotes by postnatal day 10. FINDINGS: Genetic mapping identified a point mutation in the Lmna gene, causing a single amino acid change, L52R, in the coiled coil rod domain of lamin A and C proteins. Cranial sutures in Dhe/+ mice failed to close. Gene expression for collagen types I and III in sutures was deficient. Skulls were small and disproportionate. Skeletons of Dhe/+ mice were hypomineralized and total body fat was deficient in males. In homozygotes, skin and oral mucosae were dysplastic and ulcerated. Nuclear morphometry of cultured cells revealed gene dose-dependent blebbing and wrinkling. CONCLUSION: Dhe mice should provide a useful new model for investigations of the pathogenesis of laminopathies.

  3. Somatostatin expression in human hair follicles and its potential role in immune privilege.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breitkopf, Trisia; Lo, Blanche K K; Leung, Gigi; Wang, Eddy; Yu, Mei; Carr, Nicholas; Zloty, David; Cowan, Bryce; Shapiro, Jerry; McElwee, Kevin J

    2013-07-01

    Immune privilege (IP) is believed to exist in the anagen hair follicle (HF). Studies have shown that downregulation of major histocompatibility complex Class I occurs and immunosuppressive factors are expressed in the HF bulb and bulge. However, demonstration and quantification of functional IP in HF cells are required. We examined the middle (sheath) and lower (bulb) portions of the human HF using quantitative real-time RT-PCR (qPCR), immunohistology, ELISA, in vitro coculture with peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), and flow cytometry. We found that HF cells, relative to non-follicular epidermal cells, failed to promote allogeneic PBMC proliferation and CD4(+) and CD8(+) IFNγ production. By qPCR, we found significant downregulation of Class I and Class II HLA alleles in both the bulb and sheath, and upregulation of multiple immunoregulatory genes. It is noteworthy that somatostatin (SST) was significantly upregulated relative to epidermis. By immunohistochemistry, SST was most strongly expressed in the HF outer root sheath, and, by ELISA, cultured sheath cells secreted SST. PBMCs, cultured with stimulatory allogeneic epidermal cells and SST, secreted significantly less IFNγ than controls. Addition of SST antagonists to PBMCs cocultured with allogeneic HF cells increased IFNγ secretion. The data identify SST as a secretory factor potentially contributing to the HF IP repertoire.

  4. Nonisothermal denaturation kinetics of human hair and the effects of oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wortmann, F-J; Popescu, C; Sendelbach, G

    2006-12-15

    Human hair as alpha-keratin fiber exhibits a complex morphology, which for the context of this investigation is considered as a filament/matrix-composite, comprising the intermediate filaments (IF) and a variety of amorphous protein components as matrix. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) under aqueous conditions was used to analyze the denaturation of the alpha-helical material in the IFs and to assess the changes imparted by repeated, oxidative bleaching processes. The DSC curves were submitted to kinetic analysis by applying the Friedman method and assuming first order kinetics. It was found that the course of the denaturation process remains largely unchanged through oxidation, despite the fact that pronounced decreases of denaturation temperature as well as of enthalpy occur. In parallel, the reaction rate constant at the denaturation temperature, k(TD), increases with repeated treatments, that is with cumulative chemical modification. However, this effect is in fact small compared to the overall change of k(T) through the denaturation process. This leads to conclude that once the temperature rise in combination with the chemical change has induced a suitable drop of the viscosity of the matrix around the IFs, denaturation of the remaining helical material occurs along a pathway that is largely independent of temperature and of the pretreatment history. This emphasizes the kinetic control of the matrix over the denaturation process of the helical segments in the filament/matrix composite. Copyright 2006 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis hormones stimulate mitochondrial function and biogenesis in human hair follicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidali, Silvia; Knuever, Jana; Lerchner, Johannes; Giesen, Melanie; Bíró, Tamás; Klinger, Matthias; Kofler, Barbara; Funk, Wolfgang; Poeggeler, Burkhard; Paus, Ralf

    2014-01-01

    Thyroid hormones regulate mitochondrial function. As other hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) axis hormones, i.e., thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) and thyrotropin (TSH), are expressed in human hair follicles (HFs) and regulate mitochondrial function in human epidermis, we investigated in organ-cultured human scalp HFs whether TRH (30 nM), TSH (10 mU ml(-1)), thyroxine (T4) (100 nM), and triiodothyronine (T3) (100 pM) alter intrafollicular mitochondrial energy metabolism. All HPT-axis members increased gene and protein expression of mitochondrial-encoded subunit 1 of cytochrome c oxidase (MTCO1), a subunit of respiratory chain complex IV, mitochondrial transcription factor A (TFAM), and Porin. All hormones also stimulated intrafollicular complex I/IV activity and mitochondrial biogenesis. The TSH effects on MTCO1, TFAM, and porin could be abolished by K1-70, a TSH-receptor antagonist, suggesting a TSH receptor-mediated action. Notably, as measured by calorimetry, T3 and TSH increased follicular heat production, whereas T3/T4 and TRH stimulated ATP production in cultured HF keratinocytes. HPT-axis hormones did not increase reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. Rather, T3 and T4 reduced ROS formation, and all tested HPT-axis hormones increased the transcription of ROS scavengers (catalase, superoxide dismutase 2) in HF keratinocytes. Thus, mitochondrial biology, energy metabolism, and redox state of human HFs are subject to profound (neuro-)endocrine regulation by HPT-axis hormones. The neuroendocrine control of mitochondrial biology in a complex human mini-organ revealed here may be therapeutically exploitable.

  6. Modulating hair follicle size with Wnt10b-DKK1 pair during hair regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Mingxing; Guo, Haiying; Qiu, Weiming; Lai, Xiangdong; Yang, Tian; Widelitz, Randall B.; Chuong, Cheng-Ming; Lian, Xiaohua; Yang, Li

    2015-01-01

    Hair follicles have characteristic sizes corresponding to their cycle specific stage. However, how the anagen hair follicle specifies its size remains elusive. Here, we show that in response to prolonged ectopic Wnt10b-mediated β-catenin activation, regenerating anagen hair follicles grow larger in size. In particular, the hair bulb, dermal papilla and hair shaft become enlarged. While the formation of different hair types (Guard, Awl, Auchene, and Zigzag) is unaffected. Interestingly, we found the effect of exogenous WNT10b was mainly on Zigzag and less on the other kinds of hairs. We observed dramatically enhanced proliferation within the matrix, DP and hair shaft of the enlarged AdWnt10b-treated hair follicles compared with those of normal hair follicles at P98. Furthermore, expression of CD34, a specific hair stem cell marker, was increased in its number to the bulge region after AdWnt10b treatment. Ectopic expression of CD34 throughout the ORS region was also observed. Many CD34 positive hair stem cells were actively proliferating in AdWnt10b-induced hair follicles. Importantly, subsequent co-treatment with the Wnt inhibitor, DKK1, reduced hair follicle enlargement, decreased proliferation and maintained proper hair stem cell localization. Moreover, injection of DKK1 during early anagen significantly reduced the width of prospective hairs. Together, these findings strongly suggest that a balance of Wnt10b/DKK1 governs reciprocal signaling between cutaneous epithelium and mesenchyme to regulate proper hair follicle size. PMID:24750467

  7. Comparison of hair shaft damage after chemical treatment in Asian, White European, and African hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yoonhee; Kim, Youn-Duk; Pi, Long-Quan; Lee, Sung Yul; Hong, Hannah; Lee, Won-Soo

    2014-09-01

    Diverse causes of extrinsic damage to the hair shaft have been documented and can be roughly divided into physical and chemical causes. Chemical causes of hair damage include bleaching, hair dyeing, and perming. The goal of this study was to investigate differences in patterns of serial damage in Asian, White European (WE), and African hair after chemical stress imposed by straightening and coloring treatments. Hairs were divided into control and treatment groups (straightening, coloring, and a combination of straightening and coloring). At 24 hours after the final treatment, patterns of hair damage were evaluated using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and lipid TEM. Grades of hair cuticle and cortex damage were evaluated by three dermatologists. In the TEM examination, the cuticle of Asian hair proved to be resistant to damage caused by straightening treatments, whereas the WE hair cuticle and cortex were relatively susceptible to stress imposed by coloring treatments. In the combination treatment of straightening and coloring, African hair emerged as the most resistant to stress. In the lipid TEM examination, no notable differences in cell membrane complex damage were observed among the three groups of hairs. The present study suggests that WE hair is relatively susceptible and African hair is more resistant to chemical stresses, such as those imposed by straightening and coloring. © 2013 The International Society of Dermatology.

  8. Detection and validated quantification of 21 benzodiazepines and 3 "z-drugs" in human hair by LC-MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rust, Kristina Y; Baumgartner, Markus R; Meggiolaro, Natascha; Kraemer, Thomas

    2012-02-10

    A method for detection and quantification of 21 benzodiazepines and the pharmacologically related "z-drugs" in human hair samples was developed and fully validated using liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). After methanolic and methanolic/aqueous extraction, the analytes were separated using two different LC-MS systems (AB Sciex 3200 QTRAP and AB Sciex 5500 QTRAP). Separation columns, mobile phases and MS modes for both systems were: Phenomenex Kinetex, 2.6 μm, 50/2.1; 5mM ammonium formate buffer pH 3.5/methanol, total flow 0.75 mL/min; electrospray ionization (ESI), multiple reaction monitoring (MRM), information dependent acquisition (IDA), enhanced product ion scan (EPI). The assays were found to be selective for the tested compounds (alprazolam, 7-aminoclonazepam, 7-aminoflunitrazepam, bromazepam, chlordiazepoxide, clonazepam, N-desalkylflurazepam, diazepam, flunitrazepam, flurazepam, alpha-hydroxymidazolam, lorazepam, lormetazepam, midazolam, nitrazepam, nordazepam, oxazepam, phenazepam, prazepam, temazepam, triazolam, zaleplon, zolpidem and zopiclone), all validation criteria were in the required ranges according to international guidelines, except for bromazepam. Matrix effects, and process efficiencies were in the acceptable ranges evaluated using the post-extraction addition approach. Lower limits of quantification were between 0.6 and 16 pg/mg of hair. The LC-MS/MS assay has proven to be applicable for determination of the studied analytes in human hair in numerous authentic cases (n=175). Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Hair as an indicator of the body content of polonium in humans: preliminary results from study of five male volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rääf, C L; Holstein, H; Holm, E; Roos, P

    2015-03-01

    The radionuclide (210)Po is of importance from a radiation protection view and has properties that cause special problems when attempting to determine the body content in humans. Estimates have traditionally been made from either urine and/or fecal samples, which require a time-consuming radiochemical preparation before alpha spectrometric determination. In order to find a more simple and less labor intensive method hair has been used as a bioindicator and investigated in this study. The relationship between intake and excretion in hair has been estimated in five volunteers who ingested radioactive polonium ((209)Po as a bio-tracer for (210)Po) in well determined quantities. Four of the volunteers were given 5-10 Bq (209)Po in a single intake (acute intake) and one volunteer has ingested a daily intake of 58.7 mBq (209)Po for a period of 180 d. Human hair was found to reflect the daily clearance of ingested polonium peaking at 0.001-0.01% d(-1) of the ingested amount, thereafter decreasing mono-exponentially, corresponding to a biological half-time of 10-20 days. For the case of protracted intake a mono-exponential build-up was observed with a half-time of 40 ± 5 d. In addition, after cessation of intake, a short-term component (74%) with a biological half-time of 16 ± 4 d, and a long-term component (26%) with a half-time of 93 ± 53 d were observed. It is concluded that hair can be used to detect not only the amount of ingested polonium but also whether the intake was protracted or acute. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Hair transplantation: Standard guidelines of care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patwardhan Narendra

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Hair transplantation is a surgical method of hair restoration. Physician qualification : The physician performing hair transplantation should have completed post graduation training in dermatology; he should have adequate background training in dermatosurgery at a centre that provides education training in cutaneous surgery. In addition, he should obtain specific hair transplantation training or experience at the surgical table(hands on under the supervision of an appropriately trained and experienced hair transplant surgeon. In addition to the surgical technique, training should include instruction in local anesthesia and emergency resuscitation and care. Facility : Hair transplantation can be performed safely in an outpatient day case dermatosurgical facility. The day case theatre should be equipped with facilities for monitoring and handling emergencies. A plan for handling emergencies should be in place and all nursing staff should be familiar with the emergency plan. It is preferable, but not mandatory to have a standby anesthetist. Indication for hair transplantation is pattern hair loss in males and also in females. In female pattern hair loss, investigations to rule out any underlying cause for hair loss such as anemia and thyroid deficiency should be carried out. Hair transplantation can also be performed in selected cases of scarring alopecia, eyebrows and eye lashes, by experienced surgeons. Preoperative counseling and informed consent :Detailed consent form listing details about the procedure and possible complications should be signed by the patient. The consent form should specifically state the limitations of the procedure and if more procedures are needed for proper results, it should be clearly mentioned. Patient should be provided with adequate opportunity to seek information through brochures, computer presentations, and personal discussions. Need for concomitant medical therapy should be emphasized. Patients should understand

  11. Hair shaft abnormalities--clues to diagnosis and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itin, Peter H; Fistarol, Susanna K

    2005-01-01

    Hair dysplasias are congenital or acquired alterations which often involve the hair shaft. Hair shaft abnormalities are characterized by changes in color, density, length and structure. Hair shaft alterations often result from structural changes within the hair fibers and cuticles which may lead to brittle and uncombable hair. The hair of patients with hair shaft diseases feels dry and looks lusterless. Hair shaft diseases may occur as localized or generalized disorders. Genetic predisposition or exogenous factors produce and maintain hair shaft abnormalities. Hair shaft diseases are separated into those with and those without increased hair fragility. In general, optic microscopy and polarized light microscopy of hair shafts provide important clues to the diagnosis of isolated hair shaft abnormalities or complex syndromes. To establish an exact diagnosis of dysplastic hair shafts, a structured history and physical examination of the whole patient are needed which emphasizes other skin appendages such as the nails, sweat and sebaceous glands. Profound knowledge on hair biology and embryology is necessary to understand the different symptom complexes. Therapy of hair shaft disorders should focus on the cause. In addition, minimizing traumatic influences to hair shafts, such as drying hair with an electric dryer or permanent waves and dyes, is important. A short hairstyle is more suitable for patients with hair shaft disorders.

  12. Sensitive analysis of anti-HIV drugs, efavirenz, lopinavir and ritonavir, in human hair by liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry

    OpenAIRE

    Yong HUANG; Gandhi, Monica; Greenblatt, Ruth M.; Gee, Winnie; Lin, Emil T.; Messenkoff, Nicholas

    2008-01-01

    A highly sensitive and selective method using liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) was developed and validated for the measurement of three antiretroviral agents, efavirenz, lopinavir and ritonavir, in human hair. Hair samples from adherent HIV-infected patients on antiretroviral therapies were cut into about 1 mm length segments and drugs were extracted by first shaking the samples with methanol in a 37°C water bath overnight (>14 h), followed by methyl tert...

  13. Hair as an indicator of the body content of polonium in humans: Preliminary results from study of five male volunteers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rääf, C.L.; Holstein, H.; Holm, E.

    2015-01-01

    -consuming radiochemical preparation before alpha spectrometric determination. In order to find a more simple and less labor intensive method hair has been used as a bioindicator and investigated in this study. The relationship between intake and excretion in hair has been estimated in five volunteers who ingested...

  14. Interactions between crossed hair fibers at the nanoscale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizuno, Hiroyasu; Luengo, Gustavo S; Rutland, Mark W

    2010-12-21

    The atomic force microscope fiber probe is used to directly measure the forces and friction between two human hairs under various conditions. It is shown that the forces between the hair fibers in solution can be well explained by a DLVO interaction and that cationic surfactant modifies the interactions in a manner entirely consistent with current views of adsorption behavior. A Coulombic attraction occurs between the crossed hair fibers in air due to the heterogeneity of the surface, and at shorter separations a clear dispersion interaction is observed. Exposure of the hair to a bleaching solution leads to the removal of the adhesion and solely a double-layer interaction. Two crossed hair fibers obey Amontons' classic law of friction, with a linear relation between applied load and frictional force, allowing the determination of a friction coefficient; positively charged surfactant adsorption is shown to reduce the friction coefficient between the fibers in a manner consistent with boundary lubrication by a palisade layer.

  15. Black Holes with Skyrme Hair

    CERN Document Server

    Shiiki, N; Shiiki, Noriko; Sawado, Nobuyuki

    2005-01-01

    This paper is intended to give a review of the recent developments on black holes with Skyrme hair. The Einstein-Skyrme system is known to possess black hole solutions with Skyrme hair. The spherically symmetric black hole skyrmion with B=1 was the first discovered counter example of the no-hair conjecture for black holes. Recently we found the B=2 axially symmetric black hole skyrmion. In this system, the black hole at the center of the skyrmion absorbs the baryon number partially, leaving fractional charge outside the horizon. Therefore the baryon number is no longer conserved. We examine the B=1, 2 black hole solutions in detail in this paper. The model has a natural extension to the gauged version which can describe monopole black hole skyrmions. Callan and Witten discussed the monopole catalysis of proton decay within the Skyrme model. We apply the idea to the Einstein-Maxwell-Skyrme system and obtain monopole black hole skyrmions. Remarkably there exist multi-black hole skyrmion solutions in which the g...

  16. Half-flat Quantum Hair

    CERN Document Server

    García-Compeán, Hugo; Martínez-Merino, Aldo; Santos-Silva, Roberto

    2013-01-01

    By wrapping D3-branes over 3-cycles on a Half-flat manifold we construct an effective supersymmetric Black Hole in the N=2 low-energy theory in four-dimensions. Specifically we find that the torsion cycles present in a half-flat compactification, corresponding to the mirror symmetric image of electric NS flux on a Calabi-Yau manifold, manifest in the black hole physics as quantum hair. We compute the electric and magnetic charges related to the quantum hair, and also the mass contribution to the effective black hole. We find that by wrapping a number of D3-branes equal to the order of the discrete group associated to the torsional part of the half-flat homology, the effective charge and mass terms vanishes. We compute the variation of entropy and the corresponding temperature associated with the lost of the quantum hair. We also comment on the equivalence between canceling Freed-Witten anomalies and the assumption of self-duality for the five-form field strength. Finally from a K-theoretical perspective, we c...

  17. Quantification of nanoparticle uptake into hair follicles in pig ear and human forearm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raber, A S; Mittal, A; Schäfer, J; Bakowsky, U; Reichrath, J; Vogt, T; Schaefer, U F; Hansen, S; Lehr, C-M

    2014-04-10

    Drug delivery via the hair follicle (HF) especially with nanoparticles (NP) recently gained attention due to a depot effect and facilitated absorption conditions within the lower HF. With the prospect of transdermal drug delivery, it is of interest to optimize the follicular uptake of NP. In this study, a method was developed to quantify NP uptake into HF and applied in vitro in a pig ear model and in vivo in human volunteers. The influence of NP material on HF uptake was investigated using fluorescence-labeled NP based on poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA). All NP had similar hydrodynamic sizes (163-170 nm) but different surface modifications: (i) plain PLGA, (ii) chitosan-coated PLGA (Chit.-PLGA), and (iii) Chit.-PLGA coated with different phospholipids (PL) (DPPC (100), DPPC:Chol (85:15), and DPPC:DOTAP (92:8). Differential stripping was performed, including complete mass balance. The samples were extracted for fluorescence quantification. An effect of the PL coating on follicular uptake was observed as DPPC (100) and DPPC:DOTAP (92:8) penetrated into HF to a higher extent than the other tested NP. The effect was observed both in the pig ear model as well as in human volunteers, although it was statistically significant only in the in vitro model. An excellent in vitro-in vivo correlation (IVIVC, r(2)=0.987) between both models was demonstrated, further supporting the suitability of the pig ear model as a surrogate for the in vivo situation in humans for quantifying NP uptake into HF. These findings may help to optimize NP for targeting the HF and to improve transdermal delivery.

  18. LSD in pubic hair in a fatality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaulier, Jean-michel; Maublanc, Julie; Lamballais, Florence; Bargel, Sophie; Lachâtre, Gérard

    2012-05-10

    Lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) is a potent hallucinogen, active at very low dosage and its determination in body fluids in a forensic context may present some difficulties, even more so in hair. A dedicated liquid chromatography-electrospray-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ES-MS/MS) assay in hair was used to document the case of a 24-year-old man found dead after a party. Briefly, after a decontamination step, a 50mg sample of the victim's pubic hair was cut into small pieces (LSD. A LSD concentration of 0.66pg/mg of pubic hair was observed. However, this result remains difficult to interpret owing to the concomitant LSD presence in the victim's post mortem blood and urine, the lack of previously reported LSD concentrations in hair, and the absence of data about LSD incorporation and stability in pubic hair. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Use of scalp hair as indicator of human exposure to heavy metals in an electronic waste recycling area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Thanh; Fu, Jianjie; Wang, Yawei; Liao, Chunyang; Tao, Yongqing; Jiang, Guibin

    2009-01-01

    Scalp hair samples were collected at an electronic waste (e-waste) recycling area and analyzed for trace elements and heavy metals. Elevated levels were found for Cu and Pb with geometric means (GMs) at 39.8 and 49.5 microg/g, and the levels of all elements were found in the rank order Pb > Cu > Mn > Ba > Cr > Ni > Cd > As > V. Besides Cu and Pb, Cd (GM: 0.518 microg/g) was also found to be significantly higher compared to that in hair samples from control areas. Differences with age, gender, residence status and villages could be distinguished for most of the elements. The high levels of Cd, Cu and Pb were likely found to be originated from e-waste related activities, and specific sources were discussed. This study shows that human scalp hair could be a useful biomarker to assess the extent of heavy metal exposure to workers and residents in areas with intensive e-waste recycling activities.

  20. Influence of thermal hair straightening on cannabis and cocaine content in hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ettlinger, Jana; Yegles, Michel

    2016-08-01

    It has been shown that cosmetic treatment like bleaching and perming may lead to an important decrease of drugs of abuse content in hair. Currently, hair straightening has become a regular hair treatment especially for women. The aim of this preliminary study was to investigate the effect of in vitro treatment of hair with heat straightener on cannabis and cocaine concentrations in hair. 17 positive cannabis and 7 positive cocaine hair samples were treated in vitro with a hair straightener. During this treatment hair was put sequentially 30 times in contact with heated iron plates at 200°C during 2s corresponding to a total time of contact of 1min. THC and Cannabinol (CBN) were analysed in cannabis positive hair and cocaine, benzoylecgonin (BZE) and cocaethylene were analysed in cocaine positive hair. Analyses were performed with routine methods using GC/MS in electron impact mode. Regarding cannabis results a decrease of THC concentrations was found in 11 of 17 hair samples after thermal treatment, whereas in 6 cases an increase was shown. In all the hair samples CBN concentrations was explicitly higher after the in vitro treatment. Regarding cocaine results cocaine and cocaethylene concentrations decreased after treatment in all seven hair samples; in contrast, higher concentrations of BZE were determined. The strong increase of CBN and BZE content in hair after thermal treatments may be due to the fact that THC is converted by heat into CBN and cocaine into BZE, thus changing the respective ratios of the analysed substances. In conclusion, thermal straightening should be considered as other cosmetic hair treatments for a correct interpretation of hair results. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Hair dye poisoning and the developing world

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sampathkumar Krishnaswamy

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Hair dye poisoning has been emerging as one of the important causes of intentional self harm in the developing world. Hair dyes contain paraphenylene-diamine and a host of other chemicals that can cause rhabdomyolysis, laryngeal edema, severe metabolic acidosis and acute renal failure. Intervention at the right time has been shown to improve the outcome. In this article, we review the various manifestations, clinical features and treatment modalities for hair dye poisoning.

  2. Repigmentation of hair following adalimumab therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Tintle, Suzanne J; Dabade, Tushar S; Kalish, Robert A; Rosmarin, David M.

    2015-01-01

    Repigmentation of canities, or age-related grey or white hair, is a rare occurrence. Generalized repigmentation of grey-white hair has been reported following inflammatory processes,[1] and heterochromia (localized patches of hair repigmentation) is even more unusual, reported in association with medication use and malignancy.Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) inhibitors are increasingly utilized medications for inflammatory disorders, including psoriasis, rheumatoid arthritis, and inflammatory bowe...

  3. ESTROGEN RECEPTORS OF HAIRS BLACKS AND WHITES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Laswati

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Aging is termed as same as degenerative process, in which all part of tissue organs retarted the microstructure either macrostructure, forming and function even the colour, including black hair change to white hair. Several researchers have been recommended that estrogen hormone be able ease black to white hair, but hormone without any presenting of receptor won’t be work properly. The main aim of this study were to determine amount of estrogen receptor contents in famales and males black and white hairs included the microscopically structure. Method: Twelve females and males there were 50 -56 years old each pairs black and white head hairs were plucked along with follicles. This estrogen receptors analyzed using radioreceptor binding assay there were 5mm eah hair follices including the root cutted and each pair put its in 2 ml glass tube already filled in with 500 µl 125I-estradiol and incubated in 37oC for 3 hrs. Following times were over the tube flushed twice carefully the hair won’t be flushed. Then count by putting in the gamma counter chamber for 1 minute each. The values that shown in the monitor as CPM (count per minute, recorded as receptor of estradiol. Results: Mean (±SD sum estrogen receptor in females black and white hairs were 479.3 ± 37.5 and 387.7 ± 33.0, but significantly decreased in male black hair was 316.9±17.8 and 274.0 ± 19.8. All those pairs significantly different either female black and white hairs or male black and white hair and also significantly different among groups. Conclusion: The lowest estrogen receptors recorded in male white hairs and microstructure decreasing of melanin contents.

  4. Hair Testing for Drugs of Abuse

    OpenAIRE

    Karačić, Višnja; Skender, Ljiljana

    2003-01-01

    Hair testing for drugs of abuse is a developing technology, which offers the possibility of longer detection times than is commonly obtained with urine analysis. It is the main method for evaluation of an individual’s drugs of abuse history. In many countries hair analysis is routinely used to detect drug abuse in forensic cases, occupational and traffic medicine and clinical toxicology. Hair analysis in pregnant women, neonates and infants is a useful tool for the detection of...

  5. Evaluating the effect of age and area of residence in the metal and metalloid contents in human hair and urban topsoils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peña-Fernández, Antonio; González-Muñoz, M J; Lobo-Bedmar, M C

    2016-11-01

    Monitoring the levels of trace elements in hair can allow estimating the effects of the geographical location and also can provide a notion of the metal body burden. However, the use of human hair is controversial due to the different confounding factors that could affect the presence of trace elements in hair. As a result, a comprehensive monitoring study was performed in Alcalá de Henares, one of the major cities in the Madrid region, Spain. Trace elements have been monitored in urban topsoils and in human hair of two well-defined and healthy groups of population: children (6-9 years) and adolescents (13-16 years). The city was divided into four areas or zones with different characteristics to assess the possible effect of area of residence and age in the presence of Al, As, Be, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Mn, Pb, Sn, Ti, Tl and Zn in soils and hair. There is no current hypothesis that explains the possible effect of the area of monitoring in the distribution of Be, Cr, Ni, Sn and Ti found in these urban soils, maybe because urban soils receive high disturbance, and there are many factors involved. The presence of most of the trace elements monitored was significantly higher in the hair of the children population, except for Sn and Zn. This could be attributed mainly to dietary habits. Other factors influencing metal content in hair such as environmental factors would have had a minimal effect in the population groups here studied. Finally, none of the levels of trace elements studied in hair were significantly correlated with levels measured in the topsoils of public parks in Alcalá de Henares, with the exception of Pb in adolescent participants.

  6. Preclinical and Clinical Studies Demonstrate That the Proprietary Herbal Extract DA-5512 Effectively Stimulates Hair Growth and Promotes Hair Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae Young Yu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The proprietary DA-5512 formulation comprises six herbal extracts from traditional oriental plants historically associated with therapeutic and other applications related to hair. Here, we investigated the effects of DA-5512 on the proliferation of human dermal papilla cells (hDPCs in vitro and on hair growth in C57BL/6 mice and conducted a clinical study to evaluate the efficacy and safety of DA-5512. DA-5512 significantly enhanced the viability of hDPCs in a dose-dependent manner (p<0.05, and 100 ppm of DA-5512 and 1 μM minoxidil (MXD significantly increased the number of Ki-67-positive cells, compared with the control group (p<0.05. MXD (3% and DA-5512 (1%, 5% significantly stimulated hair growth and increased the number and length of hair follicles (HFs versus the controls (each p<0.05. The groups treated with DA-5512 exhibited hair growth comparable to that induced by MXD. In clinical study, we detected a statistically significant increase in the efficacy of DA-5512 after 16 weeks compared with the groups treated with placebo or 3% MXD (p<0.05. In conclusion, DA-5512 might promote hair growth and enhance hair health and can therefore be considered an effective option for treating hair loss.

  7. Determination of terbuthylazine and desethylterbuthylazine in human urine and hair samples by eletrospray ionization-liquid chromatography/triple quadrupole mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercadante, Rosa; Polledri, Elisa; Fustinoni, Silvia

    2012-08-01

    Terbuthylazine (TBA) is a widely applied herbicide and an environmental contaminant. Following its use, humans, such as agricultural workers and rural residents, may be exposed. An isotope-dilution liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray-tandem mass spectrometry method for the determination of TBA, and its metabolite desethylterbuthylazine (DET) in human urine and hair was developed and validated. Under the optimised conditions, analytes were extracted from urine using a solid phase cartridge or from hair by sonication in methanol. Analytes were separated using a C18 reversed-phase chromatographic column and quantified, after positive ionization using a heated electrospray source, by a triple quadrupole mass detector in the selected reaction monitoring mode. Validation showed linear dynamic ranges up to 100 μg/L or 5.00 ng/mg hair, inter- and intra-run precisions <7%, and accuracies within 12% of spiked concentrations. Limits of quantification were 0.25 μg/L in urine and 0.01 ng/mg hair for both TBA and DET. Matrix effect evaluation showed that the isotope dilution approach allowed for the control of bias sources. TBA and DET were determined in specimens of agriculture workers exposed to TBA using the validated method. Hair samples contained TBA levels in the low nanogram per milligram range, and urine samples contained DET levels in the low microgram per liter range. Conversely, TBA levels in urine samples and DET levels in hair samples were always below the limit of quantification.

  8. Improved biolistic transfection of hair cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongyu Zhao

    Full Text Available Transient transfection of hair cells has proven challenging. Here we describe modifications to the Bio-Rad Helios Gene Gun that, along with an optimized protocol, improve transfection of bullfrog, chick, and mouse hair cells. The increased penetrating power afforded by our method allowed us to transfect mouse hair cells from the basal side, through the basilar membrane; this configuration protects hair bundles from damage during the procedure. We characterized the efficiency of transfection of mouse hair cells with fluorescently-tagged actin fusion protein using both the optimized procedure and a published procedure; while the efficiency of the two methods was similar, the morphology of transfected hair cells was improved with the new procedure. In addition, using the improved method, we were able to transfect hair cells in the bullfrog sacculus and chick cochlea for the first time. We used fluorescent-protein fusions of harmonin b (USH1C and PMCA2 (ATP2B2; plasma-membrane Ca(2+-ATPase isoform 2 to examine protein distribution in hair cells. While PMCA2-EGFP localization was similar to endogenous PMCA2 detected with antibodies, high levels of harmonin-EGFP were found at stereocilia tapers in bullfrog and chick, but not mouse; by contrast, harmonin-EGFP was concentrated in stereocilia tips in mouse hair cells.

  9. Black holes have no short hair

    CERN Document Server

    Quevedo, H; Quevedo, Hernando; Sudarsky, Daniel

    1996-01-01

    We show that in all theories in which black hole hair has been discovered, the region with non-trivial structure of the non-linear matter fields must extend beyond 3/2 the horizon radius, independently of all other parameters present in the theory. We argue that this is a universal lower bound that applies in every theory where hair is present. This {\\it no short hair conjecture} is then put forward as a more modest alternative to the original {\\it no hair conjecture}, the validity of which now seems doubtful.

  10. Beam shaping for cosmetic hair removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lizotte, Todd E.; Tuttle, Tracie

    2007-09-01

    Beam shaping has the potential to provide comfort to people who require or seek laser based cosmetic skin procedures. Of immediate interest is the procedure of aesthetic hair removal. Hair removal is performed using a variety of wavelengths from 480 to 1200 nm by means of filtered Xenon flash lamps (pulsed light) or 810 nm diode lasers. These wavelengths are considered the most efficient means available for hair removal applications, but current systems use simple reflector designs and plane filter windows to direct the light to the surface being exposed. Laser hair removal is achieved when these wavelengths at sufficient energy levels are applied to the epidermis. The laser energy is absorbed by the melanin (pigment) in the hair and hair follicle which in turn is transformed into heat. This heat creates the coagulation process, which causes the removal of the hair and prevents growth of new hair [1]. This paper outlines a technique of beam shaping that can be applied to a non-contact based hair removal system. Several features of the beam shaping technique including beam uniformity and heat dispersion across its operational treatment area will be analyzed. A beam shaper design and its fundamental testing will be discussed in detail.

  11. Drug-induced hair colour changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricci, Francesco; De Simone, Clara; Del Regno, Laura; Peris, Ketty

    2016-12-01

    Hair colour modifications comprise lightening/greying, darkening, or even a complete hair colour change, which may involve the scalp and/or all body hair. Systemic medications may cause hair loss or hypertrichosis, while hair colour change is an uncommon adverse effect. The rapidly increasing use of new target therapies will make the observation of these side effects more frequent. A clear relationship between drug intake and hair colour modification may be difficult to demonstrate and the underlying mechanisms of hair changes are often unknown. To assess whether a side effect is determined by a specific drug, different algorithms or scores (e.g. Naranjo, Karch, Kramer, and Begaud) have been developed. The knowledge of previous similar reports on drug reactions is a key point of most algorithms, therefore all adverse events should be recognised and reported to the scientific community. Furthermore, even if hair colour change is not a life-threatening side effect, it is of deep concern for patient's quality of life and adherence to treatment. We performed a review of the literature on systemic drugs which may induce changes in hair colour.

  12. Image Based Hair Segmentation Algorithm for the Application of Automatic Facial Caricature Synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yehu Shen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Hair is a salient feature in human face region and are one of the important cues for face analysis. Accurate detection and presentation of hair region is one of the key components for automatic synthesis of human facial caricature. In this paper, an automatic hair detection algorithm for the application of automatic synthesis of facial caricature based on a single image is proposed. Firstly, hair regions in training images are labeled manually and then the hair position prior distributions and hair color likelihood distribution function are estimated from these labels efficiently. Secondly, the energy function of the test image is constructed according to the estimated prior distributions of hair location and hair color likelihood. This energy function is further optimized according to graph cuts technique and initial hair region is obtained. Finally, K-means algorithm and image postprocessing techniques are applied to the initial hair region so that the final hair region can be segmented precisely. Experimental results show that the average processing time for each image is about 280 ms and the average hair region detection accuracy is above 90%. The proposed algorithm is applied to a facial caricature synthesis system. Experiments proved that with our proposed hair segmentation algorithm the facial caricatures are vivid and satisfying.

  13. Hair as a biomarker for exposure to tobacco smoke

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Al-Delaimy, W K

    2002-01-01

    .... There are still unresolved issues in relation to this biomarker such as influence of hair treatment, hair colour, and growth rate on nicotine levels in hair, which need to be addressed in order...

  14. Hybrid fur rendering: combining volumetric fur with explicit hair strands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Tobias Grønbeck; Falster, Viggo; Frisvad, Jeppe Revall

    2016-01-01

    Hair is typically modeled and rendered using either explicitly defined hair strand geometry or a volume texture of hair densities. Taken each on their own, these two hair representations have difficulties in the case of animal fur as it consists of very dense and thin undercoat hairs in combination...... with coarse guard hairs. Explicit hair strand geometry is not well-suited for the undercoat hairs, while volume textures are not well-suited for the guard hairs. To efficiently model and render both guard hairs and undercoat hairs, we present a hybrid technique that combines rasterization of explicitly...... defined guard hairs with ray marching of a prismatic shell volume with dynamic resolution. The latter is the key to practical combination of the two techniques, and it also enables a high degree of detail in the undercoat. We demonstrate that our hybrid technique creates a more detailed and soft fur...

  15. Hybrid fur rendering: combining volumetric fur with explicit hair strands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Tobias Grønbeck; Falster, Viggo; Frisvad, Jeppe Revall

    2016-01-01

    Hair is typically modeled and rendered using either explicitly defined hair strand geometry or a volume texture of hair densities. Taken each on their own, these two hair representations have difficulties in the case of animal fur as it consists of very dense and thin undercoat hairs in combination...... with coarse guard hairs. Explicit hair strand geometry is not well-suited for the undercoat hairs, while volume textures are not well-suited for the guard hairs. To efficiently model and render both guard hairs and undercoat hairs, we present a hybrid technique that combines rasterization of explicitly...... defined guard hairs with ray marching of a prismatic shell volume with dynamic resolution. The latter is the key to practical combination of the two techniques, and it also enables a high degree of detail in the undercoat. We demonstrate that our hybrid technique creates a more detailed and soft fur...

  16. Sensory Hairs in the Bowhead Whale, Balaena mysticetus (Cetacea, Mammalia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, Summer E; Crish, Samuel D; George, John C; Stimmelmayr, Raphaella; Thewissen, J G M

    2015-07-01

    We studied the histology and morphometrics of the hairs of bowhead whales (Balaena mysticetus). These whales are hairless except for two patches of more than 300 hairs on the rostral tip of the lower lip and chin, the rostral tip of the upper lip, and a bilateral row of approximately ten hairs caudal to the blowhole. Histological data indicate that hairs in all three of these areas are vibrissae: they show an outermost connective tissue capsule, a circumferential blood sinus system surrounding the hair shaft, and dense innervation to the follicle. Morphometric data were collected on hair diameters, epidermal recess diameters, hair follicle length, and external hair lengths. The main difference between the hairs in the different regions is that blowhole hairs have larger diameters than the hairs in the chin and rostrum regions. We speculate that the hair shaft thickness patterns in bowheads reflect functional specializations. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. You are not what you eat during physiological stress: Isotopic evaluation of human hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Ortenzio, Lori; Brickley, Megan; Schwarcz, Henry; Prowse, Tracy

    2015-07-01

    Variation in δ(13) C and δ(15) N values can be assessed to understand not only diet, but also the influence of physiological factors on an individual. The metabolic balance of an individual can impact isotopic signals in tissues that are forming during the periods of metabolic stress. Fluctuating δ(15) N values are associated with physiological stressors that alter an individual's metabolism such as infection, injury, or pregnancy. This study examines variation in δ(13) C and δ(15) N values along sequentially segmented hair in both modern and archaeological individuals. Subjects with an observable skeletal pathology, known chronic illness, or evidence of pregnancy were compared with controls exhibiting no evidence of physiological stress. The results on hair samples from individuals from 19(th) century Belleville, Ontario, four modern cadavers (two with cancer and two sudden deaths), and two living pregnant women indicate that δ(15) N values are approximately 1‰ higher in individuals with a pathological condition (e.g., infection, fracture, or cancer) and are 1‰ lower during pregnancy, whereas δ(13) C values show less variability. Higher nitrogen values may represent the recycling of nitrogen derived from the breakdown of existing proteins in the body (catabolism), whereas lower δ(15) N values are related to increased utilization of dietary and urea nitrogen for tissue synthesis during pregnancy. These findings suggest that short-term fluctuations of δ(15) N values may be the result of changes in an individual's metabolic balance, and that metabolic imbalance poses a confounding factor to ancient dietary studies when using rapidly growing tissues such as hair.

  18. [Body hair and advertising in French magazines].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Héas, S; Bodin, D; Robène, L; Misery, L

    2007-10-01

    Sociological analysis of advertising reveals the currently operative body codes within a society, and more fundamentally, depicts the (ideal) relationships between men and women, between generations, and so on. To demonstrate that sports advertising based largely on trichological stereotypes. The idealised portrayal of human relations in advertisements (N=700) taken from French magazines was analysed by means of systematic coding and use of analytical software. This approach allowed characterisation of each advertisement in relation to the entire sample, with identification of significant elements (dominant colour, stature of models, setting, etc.), and determination of frequency of appearance and occurrence as well as testing of dependency relations. There were significant differences in the portrayal of men and women in advertisements. In the 700 advertisements in the series we examined, male subjects very often had short hair (231 cases, 33%) or shaved heads (33 cases, 4.7%) while women were shown with long hair, either free (80 cases) or tied (73 cases). Women with short hair were rarely portrayed (4.3%), as were men with long hair (42 cases, 6%). Above all, with the exception of eyebrows and eyelashes, no other body hair was seen in male and female athletic figures in 238 advertisements, being visible in only 60 cases (8.6%). Facial stubble, and more particularly beards and moustaches, was fairly infrequent, despite the omnipresence of male models. The majority of advertising situations involving sporting figures show clear stereotyping. Body hair is a pertinent pointer to understanding of contemporary sports models. A clear overall male/female distinction was present throughout. Men were presented in these adverts as active figures, leaders, etc. while women tended to be passive, spectators, and in some cases, admiring onlookers. A degree of confusion between genders was noticeable as a result of the shaving and depilation trends currently in vogue in the

  19. Identification and localization of insulin-like growth factor-binding protein (IGFBP) messenger RNAs in human hair follicle dermal papilla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batch, J A; Mercuri, F A; Werther, G A

    1996-03-01

    The role of the insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) in hair follicle biology has recently been recognized, although their actions, sites of production, and modulation by the insulin-like growth factor-binding proteins (IGFBPs) have not to date been defined. IGF-I is essential for normal hair growth and development, and may be important in regulation of the hair growth cycle. In many culture systems, IGF-I actions are modulated by the IGFBPs. Thus, if IGFBPs are produced in the human hair follicle, they may play a role in targeting IGF-I to its receptor or may modulate IGF-I action by interaction with matrix proteins. We have used in situ hybridization to localize messenger RNA for the six IGFBPs in anagen hair follicles. Anti-sense and sense RNA probes for the IGFBPs (IGFBP-1 to -6) were produced, and 5-micrometer sections of adult facial skin were probed. Messenger RNA for IGFBP-3, -4, and -5 were identified, with predominantly IGFBP-3 and -5 mRNA found in the dermal papilla, and to a lesser extent IGFBP-4 mRNA. IGFBP-4 mRNA was also found at the dermal papilla/epithelial matrix border. Messenger RNAs for both IGFBP-4 and -5 were also demonstrated in the dermal sheath surrounding the hair follicle. Messenger RNAs for IGFBP-1, -2, and -6 were not identified. These studies demonstrate specific localization of IGFBP mRNAs in hair follicles, suggesting that they each play specific roles in the local modulation of IGF action during the hair growth cycle.

  20. Study of thermoluminescence (TL) and optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) from α-keratin protein found in human hairs and nails: potential use in radiation dosimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, D R; Soni, A; Rawat, N S; Bokam, G

    2016-05-01

    The thermoluminescence (TL) and optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) properties of human nails and hairs containing α-keratin proteins have been investigated. For the present studies, black hairs and finger nails were selectively collected from individuals with ages between 25 and 35 years. The collected hairs/nails were cut to a size of TL glow peaks in the temperature range from 70 to 210 ° C. Continuous wave (CW)-OSL measurements of hair samples at a wavelength of 470 nm showed the presence of two distinct OSL components with photoionization cross section (PIC) values of about 1.65 × 10(-18) cm(2) and about 3.48 × 10(-19) cm(2), while measurements of nail samples showed PIC values of about 6.98 × 10(-18) cm(2) and about 8.7 × 10(-19) cm(2), respectively. This difference in PIC values for hair and nail samples from the same individual is attributed to different arrangement of α-keratin protein concentrations in the samples. The OSL sensitivity was found to vary ± 5 times among nail and hair samples from different individuals, with significant fading (60% in 11 h) at room temperature. The remaining signal (after fading) can be useful for dose estimation when a highly sensitive OSL reader is used. In the absorbed dose range of 100 mGy-100 Gy, both the TL and OSL signals of hair and nail samples showed linear dose dependence. The results obtained in the present study suggest that OSL using hair and nail samples may provide a supplementary method of dose estimation in radiological and nuclear emergencies.

  1. Characterization of human hair melanin and its degradation products by means of magnetic resonance techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghiani, Simona; Baroni, Simona; Burgio, Daniela; Digilio, Giuseppe; Fukuhara, Masaki; Martino, Paola; Monda, Keiji; Nervi, Carlo; Kiyomine, Akira; Aime, Silvio

    2008-05-01

    Melanin granules (MGs) have been extracted from human Chinese black hairs by either acid hydrolysis (CH-type MGs) or enzymatic digestion (CP-type MGs), and their chemical structure investigated at the solid state by means of (13)C cross polarization magic angle spinning (CPMAS NMR) and EPR spectroscopy. Both types of MGs contain a large amount of protein that is tightly bound to the true melanin polymer, with CP-type MGs having a larger protein content than CH-type ones. Moreover, MGs may also contain variable amounts of lipid-like material. A high amount of paramagnetic metals is detected by EPR in CP-type MGs, in particular Fe(III). Iron can be bound in two chemical forms: as isolated high spin Fe(III) ions with rhombic symmetry and as small oxy-hydroxy Fe(III) aggregates. Iron is poorly available to chelators. CH-type MGs contain much fewer metals. CP-type MGs have then been subjected to partial bleaching by hydrogen peroxide in ammonia, yielding a residual solid, called residual oxidized melanin (ROM) and a soluble but still pigmented fraction called melanin free acid (MFA). MFA can be isolated by precipitation at acidic pH. The (13)C-CPMAS NMR and EPR spectra of these derivatives indicated that ROM has a structure very similar to that of parent MGs, whereas MFA shows a decrease of the protein content with respect to the melanin and a decreased amount of bound iron. Thus, the oxidative degradation of CP-type MGs is a process not involving the bulk of MGs, but rather it proceeds from the solvent-exposed outer parts to the interior. Copyright (c) 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. The tropical African mercury anomaly: lower than expected mercury concentrations in fish and human hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Frank J; Bokhutlo, Thethela; Somoxa, Aaron; Maethamako, Mothusi; Modisaemang, Ontlogetse; Kemosedile, Thebe; Cobb-Adams, Cristina; Mosepele, Ketlhatlogile; Chimbari, Moses

    2011-04-15

    Mercury is a neurotoxin and global pollutant, and wetlands and newly flooded areas are known to be sites of enhanced production of monomethylmercury, the form of mercury that is readily biomagnified in aquatic food chains to potentially toxic levels. The Okavango Delta in Botswana, Southern Africa, is the largest inland delta in the world and a wetland ecosystem that experiences dramatic annual flooding of large tracts of seasonal floodplains. The Delta was, therefore, expected to be home to high mercury levels in fish and to be an area where local subsistence fishing communities would be at substantial risk of mercury toxicity from fish consumption. Total mercury concentrations measured in 27 species of fish from the Okavango Delta averaged (mean±s.d., wet weight) 19±19ng g(-1) in non-piscivorous fish, and 59±53ng g(-1) in piscivorous fish. These mercury concentrations are similar to those reported for fish from lakes in other areas of tropical Africa, demonstrating that not all wetlands are sites of elevated mercury concentrations in biota. Even more intriguing is that concentrations of mercury in fish from across tropical Africa are systematically and substantially lower than those typically reported for fish from freshwater ecosystems elsewhere globally. The reasons for this apparent "African mercury anomaly" are unclear, but this finding poses a unique opportunity to improve our understanding of mercury's biogeochemical cycling in the environment. Mercury concentrations measured in human hair collected in subsistence fishing communities in the Okavango Delta were similarly low (0.21±0.22μg g(-1) dry weight) despite high levels of fish consumption, and reflect the low mercury concentrations in the fish here.

  3. Cortisol during human fetal life: Characterization of a method for processing small quantities of newborn hair from 26 to 42 weeks gestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, M Camille; D'Anna-Hernandez, Kimberly; Benitez, Patrick; Ross, Randal G; Laudenslager, Mark L

    2017-01-01

    Fetal cortisol may be reflected in hair collected shortly after birth. The objective of this study was to determine the range of human fetal hair cortisol concentrations (HCC) in live-born neonates using an approach for processing small quantities of hair. Hair was cut on the day of birth from neonates and their mothers, born between 26 and 42 weeks gestational age (GA). HCC was determined by enzyme immunoassay. Maternal sociodemographics and birth data were collected. T-tests, ANOVA, Pearson correlation, and Wilcoxon Signed Rank test were used as appropriate. Ninety maternal and neonatal hair samples were cut from 79 term (T) and 11 preterm (PT) delivered pregnancies. All samples weighed ≥2.5 mg. Fetal HCC correlated with GA (r = .25, p = .02) and birth weight (r = .25, p = .03) and was lower in PT (4.3 ± .3 LN pg/mg) than T (5.3 ± .1, LN pg/mg, p hair. Preterm neonates have significantly lower HCC than term neonates and fetal HCC is associated with GA at delivery and birth weight. Fetal HCC is significantly higher than maternal HCC cut on the same day. These data provide novel information on the intrauterine fetal cortisol environment. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. A Review: Hair Health, Concerns of Shampoo Ingredients and Scalp Nourishing Treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Chin-Hsien T; Huang, Shu-Hung; Wang, Hui-Min D

    2015-01-01

    Human hair serves a biological purpose of protecting the scalp, as well as physical attractiveness to the perception of beauty. Hair loss, graying of hair, dandruff and other conditions affecting hair conditions can be distressing to patients, as hair condition is often considered important in people's own assessment of physical beauty. Different hair types can benefit from different treatment methods to promote hair health and growth. External factors like exposure to the sun and smoking, dietary factors including malnutrition of essential fatty acids and vitamins, and chemicals applied to the hair and scalp in shampoos and other treatments can all cause damage to existing hair and impair hair growth. Specific chemicals found in many shampoos, including antimicrobial agents, surfactants and preservatives, can all impair different aspects of hair health. In this review, we aim to discuss the main hair issues, such as hair loss, followed by the safety assessments of selected ingredients in shampoo, and possible nourishment for scalp improvement. This review highlights areas of disagreement in the existing literature, and points to new directions for future studies. Key conclusions include the carcinogenic chemicals to avoid, alternatives of such ingredients, and scalp nourishing treatments with micronutrients.

  5. Study on the Prevention of Rabbit Hair from Loss

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘世春; 张华鹏; 姚穆

    2001-01-01

    A new method is presented to solve the problem of loss of rabbit hair by using ES fiber blending with rabbit hair. ES fiber is used to bond the rabbit hair to prevent the rabbit hair from losing after heat setting. The factors affecting hair loss are heat setting temperature, rabbit hair/ES fiber blend ratio, fabric heating setting, twistsof yarn, etc. Temperature of heat setting and ES fiber content are the two key factors This method has almost no detrimental effect on the coziness of the fabric, which is better than other hair loss prevention methods.

  6. Bipedality and hair loss in human evolution revisited: The impact of altitude and activity scheduling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dávid-Barrett, Tamás; Dunbar, Robin I M

    2016-05-01

    Bipedality evolved early in hominin evolution, and at some point was associated with hair loss over most of the body. One classic explanation (Wheeler 1984: J. Hum. Evol. 13, 91-98) was that these traits evolved to reduce heat overload when australopiths were foraging in more open tropical habitats where they were exposed to the direct effects of sunlight at midday. A recent critique of this model (Ruxton & Wilkinson 2011a: Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 108, 20965-20969) argued that it ignored the endogenous costs of heat generated by locomotion, and concluded that only hair loss provided a significant reduction in heat load. We add two crucial corrections to this model (the altitude at which australopiths actually lived and activity scheduling) and show that when these are included there are substantial reductions in heat load for bipedal locomotion even for furred animals. In addition, we add one further consideration to the model: we extend the analysis across the full 24 h day, and show that fur loss could not have evolved until much later because of the thermoregulatory costs this would have incurred at the altitudes where australopiths actually lived. Fur loss is most likely associated with the exploitation of open habitats at much lower altitudes at a much later date by the genus Homo.

  7. Trace elements in the human scalp hair and finger nails as affected by infection with Schistosoma mansoni

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Khatib, A.M. (Alexandria Univ. (Egypt). Dept. of Physics); Bahnassy, A.A. (King Abdulaziz Univ., Jeddah (Saudi Arabia). Faculty of Medicine); Denton, M. (California Univ., Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering)

    1995-01-01

    The concentration of 13 elements has been determined in finger nail and scalp hair of 4 groups representing normal and infected Schistosoma mansoni subjects. Samples were irradiated by thermal neutrons from a Triga Mark III Reactor, for 10 min. Measurements were made using a HPGe detector coupled with ADC and PDP 11/34 data processing equipment. The results showed significant increases of Al, Cl, I and Br in both finger nails and scalp hair of bilharzial patients above those of normal subjects while Mg, Ca, V, Mn, Cu, Sr, K, S and Na showed significant decreases. Most of the elements showed a higher concentration in finger nails than in hair. (author).

  8. Miz1 is required for hair follicle structure and hair morphogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebhardt, Anneli; Kosan, Christian; Herkert, Barbara; Möröy, Tarik; Lutz, Werner; Eilers, Martin; Elsässer, Hans-Peter

    2007-08-01

    Previous work has implicated the Myc-binding transcription factor Miz1 in the control of keratinocyte proliferation and in the cellular response to TGFbeta. Miz1 is expressed in basal keratinocytes of the interfollicular epidermis and in hair follicles. Here we have conditionally knocked out the POZ/BTB transactivation domain of Miz1 in keratinocytes using a keratin 14 (K14)-Cre mouse deleter strain. K14Cre(+)/Miz1(lox/lox) mice have rough fur as a result of altered hair follicle orientation, irregular hair pigmentation and disturbed hair fiber structure. A regional thickening of the epidermis at the hair funnel orifice was accompanied by suprabasal proliferation, indicating a delayed exit of keratinocytes from the cell cycle. In addition, the catagen of the hair cycle was delayed in K14Cre(+)/Miz1(lox/lox) mice and intrafollicular keratinocyte proliferation was increased. In aged K14Cre(+)/Miz1(lox/lox) animals, the number of hair follicles remained unchanged but the number of visible hairs, especially of zigzag hairs, was reduced and a pigmentary incontinence into the dermis developed. Our data show that Miz1 is involved in controlling proliferation and differentiation in hair follicles and in hair fiber morphogenesis.

  9. Hair bleaching and skin burning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forster, K; Lingitz, R; Prattes, G; Schneider, G; Sutter, S; Schintler, M; Trop, M

    2012-12-31

    Hairdressing-related burns are preventable and therefore each case is one too many. We report a unique case of a 16-yr-old girl who suffered full-thickness chemical and thermal burns to the nape of her neck and superficial burns to the occiput after her hair had been dyed blond and placed under a dryer to accelerate the highlighting procedure. The wound on the nape of the neck required surgical debridement and skin grafting. The grafted area resulted in subsequent scar formation.

  10. Environmental biomonitoring of essential and toxic elements in human scalp hair using accelerated microwave-assisted sample digestion and inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumakli, Hope; Duncan, A'ja V; McDaniel, Kiara; Mehari, Tsdale F; Stephenson, Jamira; Maple, Lareisha; Crawford, Zaria; Macemore, Calvin L; Babyak, Carol M; Fakayode, Sayo O

    2017-05-01

    Human scalp hair samples were collected and used to assess exposure to toxic elements and essential elements in the state of North Carolina, USA using accelerated microwave assisted acid digestion and inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES). The figures-of-merit of the ICP-OES were appropriate for elemental analysis in scalp hair with detection limits as low as 0.0001 mg/L for Cd, good linearity (R(2) > 0.9978), and percent recoveries that ranged from 96 to 106% for laboratory-fortified-blanks and 88-112% for sample spike recovery study. The concentrations of essential elements in scalp hair were larger than those of toxic elements, with Ca having the highest average concentration (3080 μg/g, s = 14,500, n = 194). Some of the maximum concentrations observed for As (65 μg/g), Ni (331 μg/g), Cd (2.96 μg/g), and Cr (84.6 μg/g) in individual samples were concerning, however. Samples were statistically analyzed to determine the influence of race, gender, smoking habits, or age on the elemental concentrations in scalp hair. Higher concentrations of essential elements were observed in the scalp hair of Caucasians, females, and non-smokers, and the differences were often significant at a 90% confidence level. Several pairs of essential elements, for example Ca-K, Ca-Mg, and Ca-Zn, were strongly correlated in Caucasian hair but uncorrelated in African-American hair. Similarly, essential elements were strongly correlated in female hair but weakly correlated in male hair. Toxic element pairs (As-Cd, As-Se, Pb-As, and Se-Cd) were strongly correlated in the hair of smokers but uncorrelated in that of non-smokers, suggesting that cigarette smoke is a common source of toxic elements in humans. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Proliferation and Differentiation of Human Hair Follicle Stem Cells on Chitosan-Skin Engineered Template in Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abu Bakar Mohd Hilmi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Hair follicles repeatedly regress and reconstitute themselves, suggesting the presence of intrinsic tissue stem cells. Among the unique characteristics of adult stem cells isolated from hair follicles is their ability to differentiate into keratinocytes. Study on chitosan skin-engineered templates (SETs as scaffolds for the proliferation of human fibroblasts have shown the promise of SETs in facilitating skin cell growth in three-dimensional culture. High proliferation in three-dimensional culture using human cells allows the researcher to extensively evaluate the cultivation of desirable cell types on chitosan SETs. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the in vitro attachment, proliferation and differentiation of hair follicle stem cells (HFSCs on a chitosan SETs. HFSCs were isolated from human scalp tissues using collagenase type I prior to propagation in supplemented CnT-07 media. The phenotype of the HFSCs was verified using the markers keratin-15 (K15 and CD200, as detected by immunocytochemical staining. The attachment and proliferation of the HFSCs on the chitosan SETs were evaluated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM, an alamar blue assay and a live/dead assay. Subsequently, the HFSCs were differentiated using CnT-2D differentiation media. The cells’ differentiation was verified using the markers involucrin and keratin-6 (K6, as detected by immunofluorescence staining. The HFSCs were successfully isolated, proliferated and differentiated according to staining positivity and microscopy imaging. HFSCs are able to proliferate and directly differentiate into keratinocytes on a chitosan SETs, which may facilitate their use in regenerative medicine.

  12. Aging changes in hair and nails

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and the scalp may become visible. As you age, your body and face also lose hair. Women's remaining facial hair may get coarser, especially on the chin and around the lips. Men may ... also change with age. They grow more slowly and may become dull ...

  13. Hair Dye Poisoning in a Paediatric Patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jolly Chandran

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Hair dye ingestion with suicidal intention has increased among rural Indian population and is associated with significant mortality. We report a teenager who presented with cervicofacial edema, respiratory distress, rhabdomyolysis, and myocarditis after ingesting the hair dye Super Vasmol 33. Early and supportive treatment can prevent morbidity and mortality.

  14. Changing trends in hair restoration surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkataram Mysore

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Androgenetic alopecia is an important and common cause for baldness. Despite recent advances, the drug therapy of this condition remains unsatisfactory. Surgical hair restoration is the only permanent method of treating this condition. Introduction of recent techniques such as follicular unit transplantation have improved the cosmetic results and patient satisfaction. This article discusses the latest trends in hair restoration surgery.

  15. Can polar bear hairs absorb environmental energy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He Ji-Huan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A polar bear (Ursus maritimus has superior ability to survive in harsh Arctic regions, why does the animal have such an excellent thermal protection? The present paper finds that the unique labyrinth cavity structure of the polar bear hair plays an important role. The hair can not only prevent body temperature loss but can also absorb energy from the environment.

  16. Fractal analysis of polar bear hairs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Qing-Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Hairs of a polar bear (Ursus maritimus are of superior properties such as the excellent thermal protection. Why do polar bears can resist such cold environment? The paper concludes that its fractal porosity plays an important role, and its fractal dimensions are very close to the golden mean, 1.618, revealing the possible optimal structure of polar bear hair.

  17. Can polar bear hairs absorb environmental energy?

    OpenAIRE

    He Ji-Huan; Wang Qing-Li; Sun Jie

    2011-01-01

    A polar bear (Ursus maritimus) has superior ability to survive in harsh Arctic regions, why does the animal have such an excellent thermal protection? The present paper finds that the unique labyrinth cavity structure of the polar bear hair plays an important role. The hair can not only prevent body temperature loss but can also absorb energy from the environment.

  18. Genetics Home Reference: uncombable hair syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... provide instructions for making proteins that help give structure to the hair strand (shaft) . The proteins produced from the PADI3 ... links. These links form dense networks that provide structure to the hair shaft and give it a cylindrical shape. PADI3 , ...

  19. Species identification key of Korean mammal hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eunok; Choi, Tae-Young; Woo, Donggul; Min, Mi-Sook; Sugita, Shoei; Lee, Hang

    2014-05-01

    The hair microstructures of Korean terrestrial mammals from 23 species (22 wild and one domestic) were analyzed using light and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to construct a hair identification key. The hairs were examined using the medulla structures and cuticular scales of guard hairs from the dorsal regions of mature adult animals. All cuticular scale structures in the hair of Rodentia, Lagomorpha, Carnivora and Insectivora showed the petal pattern, and those of Artiodactyla and Chiroptera showed the wave pattern and coronal pattern, respectively. Rodentia, Lagomorpha and Carnivora showed multicellular, and Insectivora and Artiodactyla showed unicellular regular, mesh or columnar in the medulla structures, respectively. Chiroptera did not show the medulla structures in their hair. We found that it is possible to distinguish between species and order based on general appearance, medulla structures and cuticular scales. Thus, we constructed a hair identification key with morphological characteristics from each species. This study suggests that hair identification keys could be useful in fields, such as forensic science, food safety and foraging ecology.

  20. Removing Pubic Hair (For Young Men)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... depilatories” or cream hair removers: This method of hair removal is painless, but it’s important to be aware that not all “depilatories” are safe to use in your pubic area. Be sure to read the product label ...

  1. Determination of sulfur in human hair using high resolution continuum source graphite furnace molecular absorption spectrometry and its correlation with total protein and albumin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozbek, Nil; Baysal, Asli

    2017-04-01

    Human hair is a valuable contributor for biological monitoring. It is an information storage point to assess the effects of environmental, nutritional or occupational sources on the body. Human proteins, amino acids or other compounds are among the key components to find the sources of different effects or disorders in the human body. Sulfur is a significant one of these compounds, and it has great affinity to some metals and compounds. This property of the sulfur affects the human health positively or negatively. In this manuscript, sulfur was determined in hair samples of autistic and age-match control group children via molecular absorption of CS using a high-resolution continuum source graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometer. For this purpose, hair samples were appropriately washed and dried at 75 °C. Then samples were dissolved in microwave digestion using HNO3 for sulfur determination. Extraction was performed with HCl hydrolysation by incubation for 24 h at 110 °C for total protein and albumin determination. The validity of the method for the sulfur determination was tested using hair standard reference materials. The results were in the uncertainty limits of the certified values at 95% confidence level. Finally correlation of sulfur levels of autistic children's hair with their total protein and albumin levels were done.

  2. Unconsumed precursors and couplers after formation of oxidative hair dyes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rastogi, Suresh Chandra; Søsted, Heidi; Johansen, Jeanne Duus

    2006-01-01

    Contact allergy to hair dye ingredients, especially precursors and couplers, is a well-known entity among consumers having hair colouring done at home or at a hairdresser. The aim of the present investigation was to estimate consumer exposure to some selected precursors (p-phenylenediamine, toluene......-2,5-diamine) and couplers (3-aminophenol, 4-aminophenol, resorcinol) of oxidative hair dyes during and after hair dyeing. Concentrations of unconsumed precursors and couplers in 8 hair dye formulations for non-professional use were investigated, under the conditions reflecting hair dyeing. Oxidative...... hair dye formation in the absence of hair was investigated using 6 products, and 2 products were used for experimental hair dyeing. In both presence and absence of hair, significant amounts of unconsumed precursors and couplers remained in the hair dye formulations after final colour development. Thus...

  3. Diffuse Hair Loss Induced by Sertraline Use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yüksel Kıvrak

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Hair loss is a rare side effect of psychotropic drugs. The most related drug class with this side effect is the mood stabilizers. Studies reporting the sertraline-induced alopecia are limited in number. Sertraline is a potent antidepressant which inhibits the serotonin reuptake from the presynaptic terminals selectively. The reason for hair loss could not be elucidated completely. Psychotropic drugs are usually considered to lead to hair loss through influencing the telogen phase of hair follicle. This paper reports a 21-year-old male with diffuse hair loss induced by sertraline use and improved by quitting the drug. To the best of our knowledge, there are no other case reports on sertraline-induced alopecia within 2 weeks.

  4. Is one hair lock really representative?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dussy, Franz; Carson, Nicholas; Hangartner, Sarah; Briellmann, Thomas

    2014-06-01

    When investigating someone's hair a single lock is cut, washed, extracted and analysed. The forensic institutes in Switzerland agreed to retain a second lock for a possible reassessment. We were interested in the reproducibility of the concentrations of analytes in hair locks taken from different areas of the head of the same person covering the same time period. Therefore we analysed ethyl glucuronide and caffeine as model substances in 10 hair locks from three individuals categorised as social drinkers. The individual coefficients of variation varied between 14% and 28% for ethyl glucuronide and between 13% and 62% for caffeine corresponding to factors of 1.6 to 4.2 for the highest to the lowest concentrations between the hair locks. This finding has a significant importance both when the second hair lock has to be analysed in a forensic case and if the interpretation of the result is depending on a cut-off value.

  5. Hair care practices and structural evaluation of scalp and hair shaft parameters in African American and Caucasian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewallen, Robin; Francis, Shani; Fisher, Brian; Richards, Jeanette; Li, Jim; Dawson, Tom; Swett, Katrina; McMichael, Amy

    2015-09-01

    How African American hair fragility relates to hair care practices and biologic differences between races is not well understood. To assess the differences between perceptions of hair health, hair care practices, and several biologic hair parameters between Caucasian and African American women. A questionnaire on perceptions of hair health and hair care practices was administered. Biological and structural parameters of hair shaft and scalp, including growth, density, diameter, cycle, breakage, and scalp blood flow were also assessed in this case-control study. Significant differences between the Caucasian and African American women were observed in the questionnaire and biologic study data. Regarding self-reported perceptions of hair health, there were differences in the following: hair shaft type (P hair breakage (P = 0.040), and desire to change hair (P = 0.001). Regarding self-reported hair care practices, there were differences in the following: location of haircutting (P = 0.002) and washing (P = 0.010), washing frequency (P hair dryer use (P hair shaft conditioner use (P = 0.005). The two groups had similar practices in regard to the use of hair color, frequency of hair color use, chemical curling agents, and handheld blow dryer use. Regarding biological and structural parameters, there were differences in the following: hair growth rate (P hairs (P hair cycle parameters.The differences in hair care practices and hair fiber morphology among African American women may contribute to clinically observed variation in hair fragility and growth.

  6. What is the use of elephant hair?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myhrvold, Conor L; Stone, Howard A; Bou-Zeid, Elie

    2012-01-01

    The idea that low surface densities of hairs could be a heat loss mechanism is understood in engineering and has been postulated in some thermal studies of animals. However, its biological implications, both for thermoregulation as well as for the evolution of epidermal structures, have not yet been noted. Since early epidermal structures are poorly preserved in the fossil record, we study modern elephants to infer not only the heat transfer effect of present-day sparse hair, but also its potential evolutionary origins. Here we use a combination of theoretical and empirical approaches, and a range of hair densities determined from photographs, to test whether sparse hairs increase convective heat loss from elephant skin, thus serving an intentional evolutionary purpose. Our conclusion is that elephants are covered with hair that significantly enhances their thermoregulation ability by over 5% under all scenarios considered, and by up to 23% at low wind speeds where their thermoregulation needs are greatest. The broader biological significance of this finding suggests that maintaining a low-density hair cover can be evolutionary purposeful and beneficial, which is consistent with the fact that elephants have the greatest need for heat loss of any modern terrestrial animal because of their high body-volume to skin-surface ratio. Elephant hair is the first documented example in nature where increasing heat transfer due to a low hair density covering may be a desirable effect, and therefore raises the possibility of such a covering for similarly sized animals in the past. This elephant example dispels the widely-held assumption that in modern endotherms body hair functions exclusively as an insulator and could therefore be a first step to resolving the prior paradox of why hair was able to evolve in a world much warmer than our own.

  7. Evidence for biological shaping of hair ice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Hofmann

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available An unusual ice type, called hair ice, grows on the surface of dead wood of broad-leaf trees at temperatures slightly below 0 °C. We describe this phenomenon and present physical, chemical, and biological investigations to gain insight in the properties and processes related to hair ice. Tests revealed that the biological activity of a winter-active fungus is required in the wood for enabling the growth of hair ice. We confirmed the fungus hypothesis originally suggested by Wegener (1918 by reproducing hair ice on wood samples. Treatment by heat and fungicide, respectively, suppresses the formation of hair ice. Fruiting bodies of Asco- and Basidiomycota are identified on hair-ice carrying wood. One species, Exidiopsis effusa (Ee, has been present on all investigated samples. Both hair-ice producing wood samples and those with killed fungus show essentially the same temperature variation, indicating that the heat produced by fungal metabolism is very small, that the freezing rate is not influenced by the fungus activity and that ice segregation is the common mechanism of ice growth at the wood surface. The fungus plays the role of shaping the ice hairs and to prevent them from recrystallisation. Melted hair ice indicates the presence of organic matter. Chemical analyses show a complex mixture of several thousand CHO(N,S-compounds similar to fulvic acids in dissolved organic matter (DOM. The evaluation reveals decomposed lignin as the main constituent. Further work is needed to clarify its role in hair-ice growth and to identify the recrystallisation inhibitor.

  8. What is the use of elephant hair?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Conor L Myhrvold

    Full Text Available The idea that low surface densities of hairs could be a heat loss mechanism is understood in engineering and has been postulated in some thermal studies of animals. However, its biological implications, both for thermoregulation as well as for the evolution of epidermal structures, have not yet been noted. Since early epidermal structures are poorly preserved in the fossil record, we study modern elephants to infer not only the heat transfer effect of present-day sparse hair, but also its potential evolutionary origins. Here we use a combination of theoretical and empirical approaches, and a range of hair densities determined from photographs, to test whether sparse hairs increase convective heat loss from elephant skin, thus serving an intentional evolutionary purpose. Our conclusion is that elephants are covered with hair that significantly enhances their thermoregulation ability by over 5% under all scenarios considered, and by up to 23% at low wind speeds where their thermoregulation needs are greatest. The broader biological significance of this finding suggests that maintaining a low-density hair cover can be evolutionary purposeful and beneficial, which is consistent with the fact that elephants have the greatest need for heat loss of any modern terrestrial animal because of their high body-volume to skin-surface ratio. Elephant hair is the first documented example in nature where increasing heat transfer due to a low hair density covering may be a desirable effect, and therefore raises the possibility of such a covering for similarly sized animals in the past. This elephant example dispels the widely-held assumption that in modern endotherms body hair functions exclusively as an insulator and could therefore be a first step to resolving the prior paradox of why hair was able to evolve in a world much warmer than our own.

  9. Evidence for biological shaping of hair ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, D.; Preuss, G.; Mätzler, C.

    2015-07-01

    An unusual ice type, called hair ice, grows on the surface of dead wood of broad-leaf trees at temperatures slightly below 0 °C. We describe this phenomenon and present physical, chemical, and biological investigations to gain insight in the properties and processes related to hair ice. Tests revealed that the biological activity of a winter-active fungus is required in the wood for enabling the growth of hair ice. We confirmed the fungus hypothesis originally suggested by Wegener (1918) by reproducing hair ice on wood samples. Treatment by heat and fungicide suppresses the formation of hair ice. Fruiting bodies of Asco- and Basidiomycota are identified on hair-ice-carrying wood. One species, Exidiopsis effusa (Ee), was present on all investigated samples. Both hair-ice-producing wood samples and those with killed fungus show essentially the same temperature variation, indicating that the heat produced by fungal metabolism is very small, that the freezing rate is not influenced by the fungus activity, and that ice segregation is the common mechanism of ice growth on the wood surface. The fungus plays the role of shaping the ice hairs and preventing them from recrystallisation. Melted hair ice indicates the presence of organic matter. Chemical analyses show a complex mixture of several thousand CHO(N,S) compounds similar to fulvic acids in dissolved organic matter (DOM). The evaluation reveals decomposed lignin as being the main constituent. Further work is needed to clarify its role in hair-ice growth and to identify the recrystallisation inhibitor.

  10. The Lore of the Hair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yunes, Nicolas; Yagi, Kent; Stein, Leo

    2016-03-01

    Stars can be hairy beasts, especially in theories that go beyond Einstein's. In the latter, a scalar field can be sourced and anchored to a neutron star, and if the later is in a binary system, the scalar field will emit dipole radiation. This radiation removes energy from the binary, forcing the orbit to adiabatically decay much more rapidly than due to the emission of gravitational waves as predicted in General Relativity. The detailed radio observation of binary pulsars has constrained the orbital decay of compact binaries stringently, so much so that theories that predict neutron stars with scalar hair are believed to be essentially ruled out. In this talk I will explain why this ``lore'' is actually incorrect, providing a counter-example in which scalar hair is sourced by neutron stars, yet dipole radiation is absent. I will then describe what binary systems need to be observed to constrain such theories with future astrophysical observations. I acknowledge support from NSF CAREER Grant PHY-1250636.

  11. Limits and possibilities in the geolocation of humans using multiple isotope ratios (H, O, N, C) of hair from east coast cities of the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynard, Linda M; Burt, Nicole; Koon, Hannah E C; Tuross, Noreen

    2016-01-01

    We examined multiple natural abundance isotope ratios of human hair to assess biological variability within and between geographic locations and, further, to determine how well these isotope values predict location of origin. Sampling locations feature differing seasonality and mobile populations as a robust test of the method. Serially-sampled hair from Cambridge, MA, USA, shows lower δ(2)H and δ(18)O variability over a one-year time course than model-predicted precipitation isotope ratios, but exhibits considerable differences between individuals. Along a ∼13° north-south transect in the eastern USA (Brookline, MA, 42.3 ° N, College Park, MD, 39.0 ° N, and Gainesville, FL, 29.7 ° N) δ(18)O in human hair shows relatively greater differences and tracks changes in drinking water isotope ratios more sensitively than δ(2)H. Determining the domicile of humans using isotope ratios of hair can be confounded by differing variability in hair δ(18)O and δ(2)H between locations, differential incorporation of H and O into this protein and, in some cases, by tap water δ(18)O and δ(2)H that differ significantly from predicted precipitation values. With these caveats, randomly chosen people in Florida are separated from those in the two more northerly sites on the basis of the natural abundance isotopes of carbon, nitrogen, hydrogen, and oxygen.

  12. Evaluation of human exposure to metals from some commonly used hair care products in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chukwujindu M.A. Iwegbue

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The concentrations of nine metals, namely, cadmium (Cd, lead (Pb, chromium (Cr, copper (Cu, cobalt (Co, nickel (Ni, manganese (Mn, zinc (Zn, and iron (Fe, were determined in 26 brands of hair care products including hair relaxers, conditioners and shampoos. The study was aimed at providing information on the possible risks arising from heavy metals associated with the use of these products. The concentrations of the metals were determined by means of atomic absorption spectrophotometry after digestion of the samples with a mixture of acids. The concentrations of the respective metals in hair relaxers, shampoos and conditioners were found to be 0.8–2.5, 0.6–3.0,

  13. The disposition of cocaine and opiate analytes in hair and fingernails of humans following cocaine and codeine administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ropero-Miller, J D; Goldberger, B A; Cone, E J; Joseph, R E

    2000-10-01

    This study investigated the disposition patterns of cocaine and opiates into hair and fingernail specimens collected from 8 volunteers enrolled in a 10-week inpatient clinical study. All subjects were African-American males with a confirmed drug use history. Scalp hair and fingernail scrapings were collected weekly throughout the course of the study. Head hair was collected from the posterior vertex region, and fingernail scrapings were collected along the entire ventral surface of the nail plate. The specimens were introduced to successive decontamination washes including an isopropanol wash and three phosphate buffer washes. All decontamination washes were collected and analyzed. All specimens were enzymatically digested prior to being subjected to solid-phase extraction and derivatization. Analyses were performed using electron impact gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Analytes investigated included eight cocaine analytes and five codeine analytes. The limit of quantitation for all analytes ranged from 0.1 to 0.5 ng/mg for both matrices. Cocaine was present at the highest concentrations of any analyte in both hair and nail. Benzoylecgonine and ecgonine methyl ester were the primary metabolites in both matrices and were typically less than 15% of cocaine concentrations. Codeine was the only opiate analyte identified in either hair or nail. Observed drug disposition profiles were different for hair and nails. A significant dose-response relationship was observed for hair specimens. The mean peak concentrations in hair after low dosing were half the concentration observed after high-dose administration. Generally, no clear relationship was evident between nail drug concentrations and dose. Decontamination washes removed less than 20% of the total drug present in hair, but removed most of the drug concentrations (60-100%) in nail. This investigation demonstrated that higher concentrations of drug were found in the subjects' hair than in their fingernails and that

  14. Determination of drugs in hair using GC/MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uhl, M

    1997-01-17

    An important task for the forensic toxicologist and expert witness is the detection of the noxa in biological matrices. Because of this, the identification and quantification of residues of illegal drugs in human hair is still of growing interest. Utilizing the advantages of GC/MS/MS testing human hair is performed for most common drugs of abuse like heroin and other opioides, cocaine, cannabis and amphetamine derivatives. Analyzing hair specimens for substances that present a toxicological risk is another challenge. Several quality control parameters must be observed to avoid false positive or false negative results and to gain additional information. Blank sample, blank hair as well as the combined wash extracts are tested for the presence of the relevant compounds within every series. Careful evaluation of the findings can provide an approximate measure of the intensity of drug use in the majority of cases.

  15. The Transcriptomics to Proteomics of Hair Cell Regeneration: Looking for a Hair Cell in a Haystack

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael E. Smith

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Mature mammals exhibit very limited capacity for regeneration of auditory hair cells, while all non-mammalian vertebrates examined can regenerate them. In an effort to find therapeutic targets for deafness and balance disorders, scientists have examined gene expression patterns in auditory tissues under different developmental and experimental conditions. Microarray technology has allowed the large-scale study of gene expression profiles (transcriptomics at whole-genome levels, but since mRNA expression does not necessarily correlate with protein expression, other methods, such as microRNA analysis and proteomics, are needed to better understand the process of hair cell regeneration. These technologies and some of the results of them are discussed in this review. Although there is a considerable amount of variability found between studies owing to different species, tissues and treatments, there is some concordance between cellular pathways important for hair cell regeneration. Since gene expression and proteomics data is now commonly submitted to centralized online databases, meta-analyses of these data may provide a better picture of pathways that are common to the process of hair cell regeneration and lead to potential therapeutics. Indeed, some of the proteins found to be regulated in the inner ear of animal models (e.g., IGF-1 have now gone through human clinical trials.

  16. Development, optimization, and validation of a novel extraction procedure for the removal of opiates from human hair's surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Restolho, José; Barroso, Mário; Saramago, Benilde; Dias, Mário; Afonso, Carlos A M

    2015-05-01

    Room temperature ionic liquids (ILs) have proved to be efficient extraction media for several systems, and their ability to capture volatile compounds from the atmosphere is well established. We report herein a contactless extraction procedure for the removal of opiate drugs from the surface of human hair. The compounds were chosen as a model drug, particularly due to their low volatility. Equal amounts of IL and hair (about 100 mg) were introduced in a customized Y-shaped vial, and the process occurred simply by heating. After testing several ILs, some of them (e.g. 1-methyl-3-ethanol-imidazolium tetrafluoroborate, phenyl-trimethyl-ammonium triflate or bis(dimethyl) diheptylguanidinium iodide) showed extraction efficiencies higher than 80% for the two studied compounds, morphine and 6-monoacetylmorphine. Using the design of experiments (DOE) approach as an optimization tool, and bearing in mind the hygroscopic properties of the ILs (in particular, 1-methyl-3-ethanol-imidazolium tetrafluoroborate), the process was optimized concerning the following variables: temperature (50-120 ºC), extraction time (8-24 h), IL amount (50-200 mg) and water content of the IL (0.01-60%). This study not only provided the optimum conditions for the process (120 ºC, 16 h, 100 mg of IL containing 40% of water), but has also showed that the water content of the IL represents the variable with the most significant effect on the extraction efficiency. Finally, we validated our method through the comparison of the results obtained by treating hair samples with the described procedure to those obtained using a standard washing method and criteria for positivity.

  17. Scanning Electron Microscopy Study of Hair Shaft Damage Secondary to Cosmetic Treatments of the Hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaliyadan, Feroze; Gosai, B B; Al Melhim, Walid Naief; Feroze, Kaberi; Qureshi, Habib Ahmad; Ibrahim, Sayed; Kuruvilla, Joel

    2016-01-01

    Cosmetic procedures for hair, such as bleaching, dyeing, and straightening, are commonly used around the world. It has been suggested that excessive use of such procedures can cause damage to the hair shaft. We aimed to assess hair shaft changes using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) in female volunteers who frequently use hair treatment procedures such as bleaching, dyeing, or straightening. A cross-sectional, controlled study in a sample of 25 female volunteers (19 study group and 6 controls) in the age group of 18-45 years. The study group was composed of volunteers who regularly used different cosmetic hair treatment procedures such as bleaching, dyeing, and straightening (any one of these or a combination). The control group had never used any specific hair treatment procedure. The hair shaft damage as seen on SEM was assessed using a standardized scoring system and compared among the two groups statistically. The hair shafts were also examined clinically and with light microscopy. No significant differences were seen between the test and control groups with regard to normal clinical examination and light microscopy findings. A higher degree of hair shaft damage was evident under SEM in the study group as compared to the control group. This difference was statistically significant. Regular use of procedures such as bleaching, dyeing, or straightening can lead to subtle changes in the hair shaft which can be detected early by SEM.

  18. [KINETICS OF PHOTO-INDUCED FREE RADICALS IN THE HUMAN HAIR CHESTNUT COLOR AFTER SHORT PERIODS OF RED, GREEN, BLUE AND WHITE LIGHT EXPOSURE].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tskhvediani, N; Chikvaidze, E; Tsibadze, A; Kvachadze, I; Gogoladze, T; Katsitadze, A

    2016-04-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the kinetics of photo-induced free radicals in the human hair chestnut color with short-term exposure to visible light in different frequency ranges. Studies carried out on human volunteers aged 17-21 years (n=37). Hairs of volunteers of the study were not treated with dyes and other active cosmetic preparations. Hairs bundled in a bun had a length - 1.5 cm, weight - 40 mg. At the beginning background EPR-spectrum of a sample was measured and then hairs were irradiated with visible light (blue, green, red and white) of different wavelength subsequently; exposure duration - 60 minutes; after the exposure the kinetics of photo-induced free radicals was measured within 60 minutes. The radiation source was selected LED array of the four crystals that provides a nearly monochromatic radiation spectrum having no parasitic infrared and ultraviolet radiations. The studies give a reason to assume that the impact on hairs by visible electromagnetic rays a leading factor is their frequency characteristics: on the one hand - the proximity of the blue light to ultraviolet radiation, and on the other - the red light to the infrared range.

  19. Influence of thermal hair straightening on ethyl glucuronide content in hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ettlinger, Jana; Kirchen, Luc; Yegles, Michel

    2014-06-01

    Hair analysis of ethyl glucuronide (EtG) has become a valuable marker for the detection of moderate and chronic alcohol consumption. It has been shown that bleaching and perming may decrease EtG content in hair. So far, no studies exist about the influence of thermal hair straightening on EtG content in hair. Forty-one positive EtG hair samples were treated in vitro with a hair straightener at 200°C. Duration of treatment of 1 min was chosen for this study. After washing, pulverization, incubation in ultrasonic bath, solid-phase extraction, and derivatization with heptafluorobutyric anhydride, EtG was determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry - negative ion chemical ionization (GC-MS-NICI). The EtG contents in straightened hair strands were then compared with those in the corresponding untreated strands. In 20 of 41 hair samples, a decrease of EtG content was found ranging from 0.7% to 79.3% (average 20%) whereas in 21 cases an increase was shown ranging from 2.0% to 50.9% (average 15%). The variation of the results seems to depend on hair colour. The decrease may be explained by thermic in vitro destruction of EtG. The increase may be explained by denaturation of the hair matrix by thermal treatment possibly causing a better extraction of EtG during incubation in ultrasonic bath. This in vitro study indicates that thermal hair straightening has an impact on the EtG content in hair. This has to be considered for a correct interpretation of EtG results in hair. However, these results should be confirmed by in vivo studies. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. A Comparative Analysis on Levels of Mercury in Human Scalp Hair of Students from Different Locations in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.T. Anim

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This research was carried out to assess the levels of accumulation of total mercury (Hg-T in human scalp hair samples from selected students. Thirty seven (37 human scalp hair samples were collected from students of the Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology whilst on campus and analysed for total mercury (Hg-T concentrations by cold vapour atomic absorption spectrometry. The least concentration, 0.007±0.001 μ/g was measured in a sample from a male student. The highest concentration, 5.535±0.133 μg/g was measured in a sample from a female student.5.4% of the population had Hg-T concentrations above the WHO, 1990 limit of 2 μg/g based on fish consumption. 94.6% of the population studied however measured Hg- T concentrations below the WHO limit. In general, the concentrations measured in female students were higher compared to concentrations in male students. The mean concentration of Hg-T in female students was 1.417±0.037 μg/g compared to 0.600±0.001 μg/g for male students. The higher concentrations measured in female students may be attributed to the application of Hg containing cosmetics aside environmental exposures.

  1. BODIPY-based self-assembled nanoparticles as fluorescence turn-on sensor for the selective detection of zinc in human hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Ming-Yan; Wang, Yu; Liu, Yang; Niu, Li-Ya; Feng, Liang

    2016-11-15

    Zinc plays important roles in regulating physiological and pathological processes. Regrettably, mild to moderate zinc deficiency is common worldwide. Hair Zn(2+) concentration, which reflects a zinc storage status, is useful for tracking trends in zinc status within populations. In this work, we report BODIPY-based self-assembled nanoparticles (NPs) as fluorescence turn-on sensor for the selective sensing of Zn(2+) in human hair. The BODIPY monomers (BAN) self-assemble in aqueous medium to form nonfluorescent NPs. In the presence of Zn(2+) ions, the NPs selectively show an obvious turn-on fluorescence change. This selective response of the NPs allows the determination and quantification of Zn(2+) in human hair with a detection limit of 61.3nM. This study demonstrates that the small molecule self-assembled nanoparticle is a versatile and useful tool, and shows great potential for applications in sensing of important analytes in biological systems.

  2. Contact allergy to common ingredients in hair dyes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søsted, Heidi; Rustemeyer, Thomas; Gonçalo, Margarida

    2013-01-01

    p-Phenylenediamine (PPD) is the primary patch test screening agent for hair dye contact allergy, and approximately 100 different hair dye chemicals are allowed.......p-Phenylenediamine (PPD) is the primary patch test screening agent for hair dye contact allergy, and approximately 100 different hair dye chemicals are allowed....

  3. Heterochromia of the scalp hair following Blaschko lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iorizzo, Matilde; Piraccini, Bianca Maria; Tosti, Antonella

    2007-01-01

    Heterochromia of the scalp hair is characterized by the presence of tufts of hair of a color that differs from the general hair color. It is considered a disorder of pigmentation when the tufts are asymmetrically distributed. We report four patients with isolated congenital tufts of heterochromia in the scalp hair following the Blaschko lines of the head.

  4. 36 CFR 13.1114 - May I collect goat hair?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false May I collect goat hair? 13... General Provisions § 13.1114 May I collect goat hair? The collection of naturally shed goat hair is... conditions for collecting goat hair is prohibited....

  5. An overview of unwanted female hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blume-Peytavi, U

    2011-12-01

    Unwanted facial hair (UFH) is an important but often overlooked issue, with over 40% of women experiencing some degree of UFH. In the female population a wide spectrum of unwanted hair concerns is represented - from biologically normal but undesirable to excessive unwanted hair with an underlying pathology. While women may seek to manage unwanted hair across their bodies, UFH is a particular concern, due to its negative impact on perceived femininity. There may not always be a direct correlation between degree of severity diagnosed objectively by the physician and level of concern and impact upon the patient. This review discusses the spectrum of facial hair experience and outlines the clinical approach to unwanted hair management including UFH. It highlights the importance of a treatment regimen which should respond to the causation factors and needs of the individual. This will lead to a holistic treatment approach including evaluation of the implementation of emotional coping strategies and on-going support, lifestyle modifications, pharmacological interventions (to address underlying pathologies) and the use of cosmetic hair removal methods as either a stand-alone or adjunct treatment as appropriate to the individual.

  6. Classifications of patterned hair loss: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mrinal Gupta

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Patterned hair loss is the most common cause of hair loss seen in both the sexes after puberty. Numerous classification systems have been proposed by various researchers for grading purposes. These systems vary from the simpler systems based on recession of the hairline to the more advanced multifactorial systems based on the morphological and dynamic parameters that affect the scalp and the hair itself. Most of these preexisting systems have certain limitations. Currently, the Hamilton-Norwood classification system for males and the Ludwig system for females are most commonly used to describe patterns of hair loss. In this article, we review the various classification systems for patterned hair loss in both the sexes. Relevant articles were identified through searches of MEDLINE and EMBASE. Search terms included but were not limited to androgenic alopecia classification, patterned hair loss classification, male pattern baldness classification, and female pattern hair loss classification. Further publications were identified from the reference lists of the reviewed articles.

  7. Computerized assessment of facial hair growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruber, D M; Berger, U E; Sator, M O; Horak, F; Huber, J C

    1999-10-01

    To evaluate a computer-assisted technique for objective and sensitive monitoring of facial hair growth. Prospective study. Department of Gynecological Endocrinology and Reproductive Medicine and Clinic for Ear, Nose, and Throat, General Hospital, University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria. Four men, three hirsute women, and three nonhirsute women. Using video equipment and computer software, we were able to document, analyze, and store data regarding hair growth in specific areas of interest. For digital image analysis, we used the Digi Trace System (Olympus, Vienna, Austria; Imatec, Munich, Germany). Hair growth within 20 days in well-defined regions of interest on the faces of hirsute and nonhirsute women and of men. Hair growth on day 21 was significantly different between hirsute and nonhirsute women as well as in men. The scores for individual hair growth between day 0 and day 21 also were significantly different in hirsute women and in men. No statistically significant difference in hair growth was found within the group of nonhirsute women. With digital image analysis, facial hair growth, especially in hirsute women, can be calculated in a sensitive and objective manner.

  8. Confocal Raman spectroscopy of whole hairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pudney, Paul D A; Bonnist, Eleanor Y M; Mutch, Kevin J; Nicholls, Rachel; Rieley, Hugh; Stanfield, Samuel

    2013-12-01

    This paper describes the application of Raman spectroscopy to whole hair fibers. Previously this has proved difficult because the hairs are relatively opaque, and spatial resolution diminishes with depth because of the change in refractive index. A solution is to couple confocal Raman with multivariate curve resolution (MCR) data analysis, which separates spectral differences with depth despite this reduction in resolution. Initially, it is shown that the cuticle can be separated from the cortex, showing the differences in the proteins, which can then be plotted as a function of depth, with the cuticle factor being seen only at the surface as expected. Hairs that had been treated in different ways, e.g., by bleaching, treatment with the active molecule resorcinol followed by rinsing and treatment with a full hair care product, were also examined. In all cases, changes to the hair are identified and are associated with specific parts of the fiber. Since the hair fiber is kept intact, it can be repeatedly treated and measured, hence multistep treatment processes can be followed. This method expands the potential use of Raman spectroscopy in hair research.

  9. Efficacy of metformin in human single hair fibre by ATR-FTIR spectroscopy coupled with statistical analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundaramoorthi, Kamatchi; Sethu, Gunasekaran; Ethirajulu, Sailatha; Raja Marthandam, Pavithra

    2017-03-20

    Diabetes mellitus is chronic metabolic disorder, resulting from insulin deficiency, characterized by hyperglycemia altered metabolism of carbohydrates, proteins and lipids and an increased risk of vascular complications. There are different classes of anti-diabetic drugs in allopathic system of medicine. Metformin (dimethyl biguanide) is a blood glucose lowering agent used in the treatment of non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus. Almost in all diseases the blood serves as the primary metabolic transport system in the body. Its composition is the preferred indicator with respect to the pathophysiological condition of the patient. Instead of analyzing blood to diagnose diabetes, hair could be used to detect diabetes using FTIR-ATR technique. The most important components of hair are fibrous proteins (keratins), melanins, glycogen, and lipids. Hair follicles are located 3-4mm below the surface of the skin and are surrounded by rich blood capillary system. In the present study, ten diabetic subjects were considered to evaluate the efficacy of metformin hydrochloride for the treatment of diabetes mellitus using FTIR-ATR spectroscopy. The spectra of diabetic hair fibre samples have been recorded in the mid infrared region of 4000-450cm(-1). The hair samples of the diabetic subjects before medication were taken as pre-treatment samples. The hair samples of diabetic subjects referred to medication with metformin for a period of three month were taken as post-treatment sample. Some remarkable spectral differences were elucidated between pre- and post-treatment hair fibre samples. A comparative study on the FTIR-ATR hair spectra of patients (pre- and post-treatment) along with the healthy subjects has been made. The absorption values of some of the specific bands of biomolecules present in the hair samples viz., protein, lipids and glucose for both the pre- and post-treatment subjects are noted. It was observed that, these biomarkers are significantly different between

  10. Auditory hair cell innervational patterns in lizards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, M R; Beck, J

    1988-05-22

    The pattern of afferent and efferent innervation of two to four unidirectional (UHC) and two to nine bidirectional (BHC) hair cells of five different types of lizard auditory papillae was determined by reconstruction of serial TEM sections. The species studies were Crotaphytus wislizeni (iguanid), Podarcis (Lacerta) sicula and P. muralis (lacertids), Ameiva ameiva (teiid), Coleonyx variegatus (gekkonid), and Mabuya multifasciata (scincid). The main object was to determine in which species and in which hair cell types the nerve fibers were innervating only one (exclusive innervation), or two or more hair cells (nonexclusive innervation); how many nerve fibers were supplying each hair cell; how many synapses were made by the innervating fibers; and the total number of synapses on each hair cell. In the species studies, efferent innervation was limited to the UHC, and except for the iguanid, C. wislizeni, it was nonexclusive, each fiber supplying two or more hair cells. Afferent innervation varied both with the species and the hair cell types. In Crotaphytus, both the UHC and the BHC were exclusively innervated. In Podarcis and Ameiva, the UHC were innervated exclusively by some fibers but nonexclusively by others (mixed pattern). In Coleonyx, the UHC were exclusively innervated but the BHC were nonexclusively innervated. In Mabuya, both the UHC and BHC were nonexclusively innervated. The number of afferent nerve fibers and the number of afferent synapses were always larger in the UHC than in the BHC. In Ameiva, Podarcis, and Mabuya, groups of bidirectionally oriented hair cells occur in regions of cytologically distinct UHC, and in Ameiva, unidirectionally oriented hair cells occur in cytologically distinct BHC regions.

  11. Mutant laboratory mice with abnormalities in hair follicle morphogenesis, cycling, and/or structure: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Motonobu; Schneider, Marlon R; Schmidt-Ullrich, Ruth; Paus, Ralf

    2013-01-01

    Human hair disorders comprise a number of different types of alopecia, atrichia, hypotrichosis, distinct hair shaft disorders as well as hirsutism and hypertrichosis. Their causes vary from genodermatoses (e.g. hypotrichoses) via immunological disorders (e.g. alopecia areata, autoimmune cicatrical alopecias) to hormone-dependent abnormalities (e.g. androgenetic alopecia). A large number of spontaneous mouse mutants and genetically engineered mice develop abnormalities in hair follicle morphogenesis, cycling, and/or hair shaft formation, whose analysis has proven invaluable to define the molecular regulation of hair growth, ranging from hair follicle development, and cycling to hair shaft formation and stem cell biology. Also, the accumulating reports on hair phenotypes of mouse strains provide important pointers to better understand the molecular mechanisms underlying human hair growth disorders. Since numerous new mouse mutants with a hair phenotype have been reported since the publication of our earlier review on this matter a decade ago, we present here an updated, tabulated mini-review. The updated annotated tables list a wide selection of mouse mutants with hair growth abnormalities, classified into four categories: Mutations that affect hair follicle (1) morphogenesis, (2) cycling, (3) structure, and (4) mutations that induce extrafollicular events (for example immune system defects) resulting in secondary hair growth abnormalities. This synthesis is intended to provide a useful source of reference when studying the molecular controls of hair follicle growth and differentiation, and whenever the hair phenotypes of a newly generated mouse mutant need to be compared with existing ones. Copyright © 2012 Japanese Society for Investigative Dermatology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. A rare case of woolly hair with unusual associations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biju Vasudevan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Woolly hair is a congenital abnormality of scalp hair manifesting as short, kinked hair, which may also involve the hair over the other parts of the body. Keratosis pilaris has been a well known association of woolly hair, and can also be a part of the Naxos or Carvajal syndromes. We herein present a case of woolly hair with associated keratosis pilaris, canaliform dystrophy of nails, increased interdental spaces and recurrent bullous impetigo. Although keratosis pilaris and teeth abnormalities have been reported as isolated associations with woolly hair, such a combination of findings as seen in our patient has not been reported before.

  13. Validation of a method to quantify chromium, cadmium, manganese, nickel and lead in human whole blood, urine, saliva and hair samples by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olmedo, P.; Pla, A.; Hernandez, A.F.; Lopez-Guarnido, O.; Rodrigo, L. [Department of Legal Medicine and Toxicology, University of Granada, School of Medicine (Spain); Gil, F., E-mail: fgil@ugr.es [Department of Legal Medicine and Toxicology, University of Granada, School of Medicine (Spain)

    2010-02-05

    For biological monitoring of heavy metal exposure in occupational toxicology, usually whole blood and urine samples are the most widely used and accepted matrix to assess internal xenobiotic exposure. Hair samples and saliva are also of interest in occupational and environmental health surveys but procedures for the determination of metals in saliva and hair are very scarce and to our knowledge there is no validation of a method to quantify Cr, Cd, Mn, Ni and Pb in four different human biological materials (whole blood, urine, saliva and axilary hair) by electrothermal atomization atomic absorption spectrometry (ETAAS). In the present study, quantification methods for the determination of Cr, Cd, Mn, Ni and Pb in whole blood, urine, saliva and axilary hair were validated according to the EU common standards. Pyrolisis and atomization temperatures have been determined. The main parameters evaluated were: detection and quantification limits, linearity range, repeatability, reproducibility, recovery and uncertainty. Accuracy of the methods was tested with the whole blood, urine and hair certified reference materials and recoveries of the spiked samples were acceptable ranged from 96.3 to 107.8%.

  14. On-line diffusion profile of a lipophilic model dye in different depths of a hair follicle in human scalp skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grams, Ylva Y; Whitehead, Lynne; Lamers, Gerda; Sturmann, Nico; Bouwstra, Joke A

    2005-10-01

    In skin and hair research, drug targeting to the hair follicle is of great interest in the treatment of skin diseases. The aim of this study is to visualize on-line the diffusion processes of a model fluorophore into the hair follicle at different depths using fresh human scalp skin and confocal laser scanning microscopy. Up to a depth of 500 microm in the skin, a fast increase of fluorescence is observed in the gap followed by accumulation of the dye in the hair cuticle. Penetration was also observed via the stratum corneum and the epidermis. Little label reached depths greater than 2000 microm. Fat cells accumulated the label fastest, followed by the cuticular area and the outer root sheath of the hair follicle. Sweat glands revealed very low staining, whereas the bulb at a depth of 4000 microm was visualized only by autofluorescence. From this study, we conclude that on-line visualization is a promising technique to access diffusion processes in deep skin layers even on a cellular level. Furthermore, we conclude that the gap and the cuticle play an important role in the initial diffusion period with the label in the cuticle originating from the gap.

  15. Validation of a method to quantify chromium, cadmium, manganese, nickel and lead in human whole blood, urine, saliva and hair samples by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olmedo, P; Pla, A; Hernández, A F; López-Guarnido, O; Rodrigo, L; Gil, F

    2010-02-05

    For biological monitoring of heavy metal exposure in occupational toxicology, usually whole blood and urine samples are the most widely used and accepted matrix to assess internal xenobiotic exposure. Hair samples and saliva are also of interest in occupational and environmental health surveys but procedures for the determination of metals in saliva and hair are very scarce and to our knowledge there is no validation of a method to quantify Cr, Cd, Mn, Ni and Pb in four different human biological materials (whole blood, urine, saliva and axilary hair) by electrothermal atomization atomic absorption spectrometry (ETAAS). In the present study, quantification methods for the determination of Cr, Cd, Mn, Ni and Pb in whole blood, urine, saliva and axilary hair were validated according to the EU common standards. Pyrolisis and atomization temperatures have been determined. The main parameters evaluated were: detection and quantification limits, linearity range, repeatability, reproducibility, recovery and uncertainty. Accuracy of the methods was tested with the whole blood, urine and hair certified reference materials and recoveries of the spiked samples were acceptable ranged from 96.3 to 107.8%.

  16. Assessment of human hair as an indicator of exposure to organophosphate flame retardants. Case study on a Norwegian mother-child cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucharska, Agnieszka; Cequier, Enrique; Thomsen, Cathrine; Becher, Georg; Covaci, Adrian; Voorspoels, Stefan

    2015-10-01

    A major challenge of non-invasive human biomonitoring using hair is to assess whether it can be used as an indicator of exposure to Flame Retardants, such as Organophosphate Flame Retardants (PFRs), since the contribution of atmospheric deposition (air and/or dust) cannot be neglected. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the suitability of using human hair more thoroughly by comparison of (i) levels of PFRs in human hair (from 48 mothers and 54 children), with levels measured in dust and air in their respective households; and (ii) levels of selected PFRs in hair with the levels of corresponding PFR metabolites in matching urine samples collected simultaneously. Most PFRs (tri-n-butyl phosphate (TNBP), 2-ethyl-hexyldiphenyl phosphate (EHDPHP), tri-phenyl phosphate (TPHP), tri-iso-butyl phosphate (TIBP), and tris(2-butoxyethyl) phosphate (TBOEP)) were detected in all human hair samples, tris(2-ethylhexyl) phosphate (TEHP) and tris(1,3-dichloro-iso-propyl) phosphate (TDCIPP) in 93%, tri-cresyl-phosphate (TCP) in 69% and tris(2-chloroethyl) phosphate (TCEP) in 21% of the samples. Levels of individual PFRs ranged between dust from the participants' homes. Several statistically significant associations between PFR levels in human hair and PFR levels in house dust and/or air were found, e.g. Spearman correlation (rS = 0.561, p < 0.05) between TBOEP in children's hair and in indoor air. Also, associations were found between TDCIPP in hair and its metabolite bis(1,3-dichloro-iso-propyl) phosphate (BDCIPP) in urine; they were stronger for children (e.g. Pearson correlation rP = 0.475; p = 0.001) than for mothers (rP = 0.395, p = 0.01). Levels of diphenyl phosphate (DPHP) in mothers' and children's urine were slightly correlated (rS = 0.409, p = 0.008), suggesting similar sources of exposure. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study with such design and our findings might help to understand human exposure to and body burdens of PFRs.

  17. Body to Scalp: Evolving Trends in Body Hair Transplantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, Kuldeep; Savant, Sandeep S.

    2017-01-01

    Follicular unit extraction (FUE) is becoming an increasingly popular method for hair restoration. As FUE leaves behind no linear scars, it is more suitable to harvest from various body areas including beard, chest, and extremities in hirsute individuals. Body hair characteristics such as thickness, length, and hair cycle may not completely match to that of the scalp hair. The techniques of harvesting body hairs are more time consuming, requiring higher degree of skill than regular scalp FUE. Body hair transplantation can be successfully used either alone or in combination with scalp hair in advanced grades of baldness, for improving the cosmetic appearance of hairlines and in scarring alopecia when there is paucity of donor scalp hair. Harvesting of body hairs opens up a new viable donor source for hair restoration surgeons, especially in cases of advanced Norwood grades five and above of androgenetic alopecia. PMID:28584752

  18. [Anaphylactic reaction following hair bleaching].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babilas, P; Landthaler, M; Szeimies, R-M

    2005-12-01

    Ammonium persulphate is a potent bleach and oxidizing agent that is commonly present in hair bleaches. Because bleaching is so commonly performed, hairdressers often develop allergic contact dermatitis to ammonium persulphate. In addition to this delayed reaction, asthma and rhinitis may develop as immediate reactions in those exposed to the fumes. Severe anaphylactic reactions are rare. We report a 24-year-old woman who acquired dermatitis following contact with bleaching substances while working as a hairdresser. After changing her profession, the dermatitis disappeared. Following the private use of a hairdressing bleach containing ammonium persulphate, she suffered a severe anaphylactic reaction with unconsciousness. The patient also developed an anaphylactic reaction three hours following patch testing with the hairdresser battery. The rub test with ammonium persulphate (2.5%) in a 1:100 solution was positive.

  19. Use of image analysis techniques for objective quantification of the efficacy of different hair removal methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bielfeldt, S; Brandt, M; Wilhelm, K-P

    2006-01-01

    width, and projection area. To achieve reliable data and to reduce well known image-analysis artifacts, it was important to optimize the technical equipment for use on human skin and to improve image analysis by adaptation of the image-processing procedure to the different skin characteristics of individuals, like skin color, hair color, and skin structure.

  20. THE COCHLEAR AMPLIFIER:IS IT HAIR BUNDLE MOTION OF OUTER HAIR CELLS?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Yi; He David Z

    2014-01-01

    Cochlear outer hair cells (OHCs) are involved in a mechanical feedback loop in which the fast somatic motility of OHCs is required for cochlear amplification. Alternatively, amplification is thought to arise from active hair bundle movements ob-served in non-mammalian hair cells. We measured the voltage-evoked hair bundle motions in the gerbil cochlea to determine if such movements are also present in mammalian OHCs. The OHCs displayed a large hair bundle movement that was not based on mechanotransducer channels but based on somatic motility. Significantly, bundle movements were able to generate radial motion of the tectorial membrane in situ. This result implies that the motility-associated hair bundle motion may be part of the cochlear amplifier.