WorldWideScience

Sample records for human geography classes

  1. The Geography of the Beatles Approaching Concepts of Human Geography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruse, Robert J., II

    2004-01-01

    Human geography can be taught by focusing on popular culture contexts with which undergraduate students may already be familiar such as rock music. The Geography of the Beatles introduced undergraduate students to concepts of "new" cultural geography such as space, place, representation, geopolitics, social space, and tourism-pilgrimage…

  2. Using Cocoa and Chocolate to Teach Human Geography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberts, Heike C.

    2010-01-01

    Food topics are uniquely suited to increase students' interest in human geography. A highly processed food like chocolate can be studied in a variety of different ways, making it possible to include chocolate examples and activities at various points in a human geography class. The goals of this article are to provide sufficient background…

  3. Perspectives on Population in AP® Human Geography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Max; Keller, Kenneth

    2016-01-01

    A study of human geography begins with the human population. In fact, demographic topics frequently relate to other units in the AP Human Geography course. The three main concepts elaborated upon in this article are (1) the demographic transition model, (2) Malthusian theory and its critics, and (3) pronatalist and antinatalist policies that might…

  4. School Choice in a Stratified Geography: Class, Geography, Otherness, and Moral Boundaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabay-Egozi, Limor

    2016-01-01

    Using open-ended, semi-structured interviews, this study pulls together insights on social class and geography to explore how parents choose schools differently for their children in a unique Israeli setting. Querying parents' feelings and perceptions about themselves and others in their immediate and distant locality offers an opportunity to…

  5. THE ANALYSIS OF ILLUSTRATIONS IN THE FOURTH CLASS GEOGRAPHY TEXTBOOKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IOANA CHIRCEV

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on the analysis of the illustrations found in five different Geography textbooks in Romania. The analysis is based on several criteria: number, size, clarity, pedagogical usefulness. The following conclusions have been drawn: the illustrations are numerous; most of the illustrations are too small and unclear to be efficiently used in the teaching activity; the purpose of some materials is purely illustrative; some illustrations are overcharged with details, which prevent children from understanding them. Authors and publishing houses are advised to choose the illustrations in the fourth class Geography textbooks more carefully.

  6. Human discourses, animal geographies: Imagining Umfolozi's White ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Current Writing: Text and Reception in Southern Africa ... The paper reviews recent literature in the field of animal geographies, a scholarship that reflects a developing interest in the way discursive orderings shape human attitudes to animals, as well as a concern with the spatial outcomes for animals of these discourses.

  7. Perspectives on Political Geography in AP® Human Geography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leib, Jonathan; Smothers-Marcello, Jody

    2016-01-01

    Two trends have remade the field of political geography over the past quarter-century. First, a revision of taken-for-granted concepts that amounted to "spatial determinism." Second, pioneering many new and emerging concepts such as political ecology. Both trends are important contributions to the evolving section of the AP Human…

  8. Placing Advanced Placement® Human Geography: Its Role in U.S. Geography Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bednarz, Sarah Witham

    2016-01-01

    This article examines Advanced Placement Human Geography (AP HG) in the context of its place in efforts to reform geography education. It presents a critical analysis of the AP program and its curriculum, asserting that it represents "powerful knowledge" as conceptualized by Young. It concludes with a call for research in AP HG aligned…

  9. The Nature of Geography and Its Perspectives in AP® Human Geography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Alexander B.; Hare, Phillip R.

    2016-01-01

    AP Human Geography students need to develop an understanding of what it means to examine the world around them from a geographic perspective. Focusing attention on geography's concern with spatial relationships, place characteristics, and geographic context helps student appreciate the nature of the discipline and the insights it offers. These…

  10. METEOROLOGICAL SATELLITE IMAGES IN GEOGRAPHY CLASSES: a didactic possibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Correia Maia

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The satellite images are still largely unexplored as didactic resource in geography classes, particularly about meteorology. This article aims to contribute to the development of new methodologies of interpretation and understanding, beyond the construction of pedagogical practices involving meteorological satellite images, concepts and issues related to climate issues. The aim of this paper is to present possibilities for the use of meteorological satellite images in the Teaching of Geography, aiming the promoting and the understanding of contents of air masses and fronts and climatic factors. RESUMO: As imagens de satélite ainda são pouco exploradas como recurso didático nas aulas de Geografia, principalmente aquelas relativas à meteorologia. Este artigo visa contribuir com o desenvolvimento de novas metodologias de interpretação e compreensão, além da construção de práticas pedagógicas envolvendo imagens de satélite meteorológico, conceitos e temas ligados às questões climáticas. Seu objetivo é apresentar possibilidades de utilização das imagens de satélite meteorológico no Ensino de Geografia, visando à promoção e ao entendimento dos conteúdos de massas de ar e frentes e de elementos climáticos. Palavras chave

  11. Johnston R.J. & Sidaway J.D., eds., Geography and geographers, Anglo-American human geography since 1945

    OpenAIRE

    Vandeburie, Julien

    2014-01-01

    This well-known book is in its sixth edition and focuses on Anglo-American geographers, with a historical/thematic point of view. Chapters are presented in the following order: 1. The nature of an academic discipline; 2. Foundations; 3. Growth of systematic studies and the adoption of ’scientific method’; 4. Human geography as spatial science; 5. Humanistic geography; 6. ’Radical geographies’; 7. Postmodern geographies; 8. Feminist geographies; 9. Applied geography and the relevance debate; 1...

  12. Human geography in the French Institute: new discipline or missed opportunity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staum, M S

    1987-10-01

    The geography section of the Class of Moral and Political Sciences of the French National Institute, which was in existence from December 1795 to January 1803, responded inadequately to the theoretical challenges of Montesquieu, the hygienists, Volney, and Degérando to study thoroughly native peoples to determine the effects of physical geographic conditions on the body and mind. Most geographers had no interest in human geography, and even statistical geography received only superficial discussion. Despite the emergence of the scientific journal, only a few authors partly transcended the stereotypes of the noble-ignoble savage. The only expedition partly planned by the Institute in this period had an ambitious exploration program that precluded a linguistically sophisticated study of native peoples. Bonaparte's dissolution of the Class hindered further opportunities for studying human geography during the Empire.

  13. An Investigation into Geography Teachers' Use of Current Events in Geography Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degirmenci, Yavuz; Ilter, Ilhan

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the extent to which geography teachers use current events within the context of their geography instruction, their sources of information about current events, the methods and techniques they adopt while using current events in their teaching and the skills and values they expect their students to develop. The…

  14. AP Human Geography and Success on the AP Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roncone, John; Newhalfen, Nate

    2013-01-01

    Classroom projects that explore culture and globalization enhance the curriculum and help students see how geography directly connects to their lives. These authors contend that a project-based approach can supplement the teaching of an AP Human Geography course, and visualize this course as an essential tool for students to truly understand how…

  15. TEACHING AND ASSESSING SKILLS IN ENVIRONMENTAL GEOGRAPHY IN A BILINGUAL CLASS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FLORINA PĂUNESCU

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents my experience in bilingual teaching, an integrated programme for geography and English language learning for upper secondary students. General geographical aspects are connected to the geography of Great Britain and that of the USA, with an attitude of raising students’ awareness on environmental issues. The topics are a framework for the development of (environmental geography-related knowledge and skills, cognitive skills and language aspects. Therefore, the paper presents various methods of teaching and assessing environmental issues in four distinct structured texts, which combine typical geographical skills (like completing a sketch or a mind map with methods used in English classes (like true/false questions. A special accent is on both the use of specific environmental vocabulary – synonyms, false friends, also anticipated grammar mistakes – as well as on discussions in class, based on cause-effect relationships between processes and phenomena.

  16. Human Geography Trains Diverse Perspectives on Global Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahamer, Gilbert

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Education for equity in global development and cultural diversity calls for professional capacity building to perceive diverse perspectives on complex procedures of globalisation. The discipline of human geography is such a "provider of perspectives". The purpose of this paper is to propose a historic series of how theories of geography…

  17. California's population geography: lessons for a fourth grade class.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rushdoony, H A

    1978-11-01

    Purpose of this paper is to present a model for teaching fourth grade children some aspects of the population geography of California from a nontextual approach. The objective is to interest and instruct children in the mobility of the people, and on the reasons why so many families have moved to California from other states. Students should be alerted not only to internal migration problems, but to the excess of births over deaths. Materials necessary for the lessons are transparencies, overhead projector, marking pencils, chalk and chalkboard. After showing the students that California population has approximately doubled every 20 years, the students should be encouraged to find reasons explaining why people have moved to the state, should be able to categorize those reasons under the terms industrial/manufacturing, agricultural, urban or recreational, should learn how to plot population distribution on a California regional outline map, and should attempt to explain why certain parts of California are more popular than others. The teaching model described in this paper may be replicated with modfications for any grade level and area of study.

  18. The Human Footprint in Mexico: Physical Geography and Historical Legacies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega-Rubio, Alfredo; Kolb, Melanie; Bezaury Creel, Juan E.

    2015-01-01

    Using publicly available data on land use and transportation corridors we calculated the human footprint index for the whole of Mexico to identify large-scale spatial patterns in the anthropogenic transformation of the land surface. We developed a map of the human footprint for the whole country and identified the ecological regions that have most transformed by human action. Additionally, we analyzed the extent to which (a) physical geography, expressed spatially in the form of biomes and ecoregions, compared to (b) historical geography, expressed as the spatial distribution of past human settlements, have driven the patterns of human modification of the land. Overall Mexico still has 56% of its land surface with low impact from human activities, but these areas are not evenly distributed. The lowest values are on the arid north and northwest, and the tropical southeast, while the highest values run along the coast of the Gulf of Mexico and from there inland along an east-to-west corridor that follows the Mexican transversal volcanic ranges and the associated upland plateau. The distribution of low- and high footprint areas within ecoregions forms a complex mosaic: the generally well-conserved Mexican deserts have some highly transformed agro-industrial areas, while many well-conserved, low footprint areas still persist in the highly-transformed ecoregions of central Mexico. We conclude that the spatial spread of the human footprint in Mexico is both the result of the limitations imposed by physical geography to human development at the biome level, and, within different biomes, of a complex history of past civilizations and technologies, including the 20th Century demographic explosion but also the spatial pattern of ancient settlements that were occupied by the Spanish Colony. PMID:25803839

  19. The human footprint in Mexico: physical geography and historical legacies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Abraham, Charlotte; Ezcurra, Exequiel; Garcillán, Pedro P; Ortega-Rubio, Alfredo; Kolb, Melanie; Bezaury Creel, Juan E

    2015-01-01

    Using publicly available data on land use and transportation corridors we calculated the human footprint index for the whole of Mexico to identify large-scale spatial patterns in the anthropogenic transformation of the land surface. We developed a map of the human footprint for the whole country and identified the ecological regions that have most transformed by human action. Additionally, we analyzed the extent to which (a) physical geography, expressed spatially in the form of biomes and ecoregions, compared to (b) historical geography, expressed as the spatial distribution of past human settlements, have driven the patterns of human modification of the land. Overall Mexico still has 56% of its land surface with low impact from human activities, but these areas are not evenly distributed. The lowest values are on the arid north and northwest, and the tropical southeast, while the highest values run along the coast of the Gulf of Mexico and from there inland along an east-to-west corridor that follows the Mexican transversal volcanic ranges and the associated upland plateau. The distribution of low- and high footprint areas within ecoregions forms a complex mosaic: the generally well-conserved Mexican deserts have some highly transformed agro-industrial areas, while many well-conserved, low footprint areas still persist in the highly-transformed ecoregions of central Mexico. We conclude that the spatial spread of the human footprint in Mexico is both the result of the limitations imposed by physical geography to human development at the biome level, and, within different biomes, of a complex history of past civilizations and technologies, including the 20th Century demographic explosion but also the spatial pattern of ancient settlements that were occupied by the Spanish Colony.

  20. What Can Human Geography Offer Climate Change Modelling?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grindsted, Thomas Skou

    2014-01-01

    behaviour to economic rationality when construed in sophisticated climate models and sometimes in nongeographical representations. The need to comprehensively take into consideration methodological approaches concerning the interface of society-environment interactions seems highly relevant to contemporary...... regularities, rationalities, and pre-analytic assumptions. Lastly we discuss challenges of constructing nature(s) and how we better understand the (geo) politics of climate change modeling.......The discipline of Geography may be one of the most prominent and oldest disciplines in the conceptualization of human–environment interactions that integrates elements from both natural and social sciences. Yet, much research on society–environment interactions on climate change reduces human...

  1. A Critical Approach to Discipline of Human Geography as an Apparatus for State Hegemony in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özgen, Nurettin

    2016-01-01

    This study examines the hegemony of political power on the discipline of human geography in Turkey. Throughout the history of the country, human geography curricula have been aligned with the nationalist and hegemonic power politics of state authorities instead of being guided by universal norms, thus ignoring Turkey's sociopolitical and cultural…

  2. Agriculture, Food Production, and Rural Land Use in Advanced Placement® Human Geography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moseley, William G.; Watson, Nancy H.

    2016-01-01

    ''Agriculture, Food, and Rural Land Use" constitutes a major part of the AP Human Geography course outline. This article explores challenging topics to teach, emerging research trends in agricultural geography, and sample teaching approaches for concretizing abstract topics. It addresses content identified as "essential knowledge"…

  3. Advanced Placement® Human Geography: Looking Back and Looking Ahead

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanegran, David A.; Zeigler, Donald J.

    2016-01-01

    Over the past fifteen years, AP Human Geography has grown in numbers and spread to almost every state. This article synopsizes the early history of the subject, summarizes the course and the exam, highlights positive impacts on the discipline of geography, and focuses on the following three issues: teachers who come to the course having majored in…

  4. TEACHING AND ASSESSING SKILLS IN ENVIRONMENTAL GEOGRAPHY IN A BILINGUAL CLASS

    OpenAIRE

    FLORINA PĂUNESCU

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents my experience in bilingual teaching, an integrated programme for geography and English language learning for upper secondary students. General geographical aspects are connected to the geography of Great Britain and that of the USA, with an attitude of raising students’ awareness on environmental issues. The topics are a framework for the development of (environmental) geography-related knowledge and skills, cogni...

  5. Seeing the Forest of Information for the Trees of Papers: An Information Literacy Case Study in a Geography/Geology Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, Linda; Warner, Tim

    2011-01-01

    After receiving a mini-grant for developing integrated information literacy programs, a Geography/Geology Department faculty member worked with the Science Librarian to embed information literacy in a cross-listed geology and geography course, Geog/Geol 455, Introduction to Remote Sensing. Planning for the revisions to the class started with…

  6. Field "Work" vs "Feel" Trip: Approaches to Out-of-Class Experiences in Geography Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preston, Lou

    2016-01-01

    Fieldwork is viewed as integral to geography teaching and acclaimed benefits often include holistic, student-driven learning, where all the senses are engaged and the impacts are more than cognitive. While these benefits are often assumed, in this paper, I argue that geography fieldwork in schools is often teacher-led and focused on the…

  7. Human geography of New Orleans' high-lead geochemical setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campanella, Richard; Mielke, Howard W

    2008-12-01

    Previous soil lead studies in New Orleans focused on the geochemical footprint and its health impacts. This study examines the human geography of race, income, and age in pre-Katrina metropolitan New Orleans within the context of lead accumulation in soils. Sample points of soil lead data (n = 5,467) collected in 1998-2000 were mapped in a geographic information system (GIS), binned into 9 ranges, and queried by (1) 2000 Census racial demographic data, (2) 1999 median household income, and (3) 2000 age data. The absolute population generally declines as lead levels increase except at lead levels from 200-400 to 400-1,000 mg/kg when population increases; the African-American population comprises a disproportionate share of this cohort. The high-lead areas occur in the inner city, home to the largest populations of African-Americans in New Orleans. The mean household income curve indicates that lower economic groups are at risk to higher levels of lead. A total of 44,701 children under the age of 5 years, plus 123,579 children aged 5-17, lived in census block groups containing at least one sample point with over 100 mg/kg lead, and these include 23,124 and 64,064 young people, respectively, who live near at least one point over 400 mg/kg. Lead exposure affects a panoply of outcomes that influence the health and welfare of the community. Unless corrected, children are likely to return to the same or, because of lack of lead-safe practices during renovation, even higher exposure risks than before the flooding of New Orleans.

  8. Using Web-Based GIS in Introductory Human Geography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Songer, Lynn C.

    2010-01-01

    Advocates for using a geographic information system (GIS) in education assert that GIS improves student learning. However, studies to clarify the relationship between learning and using GIS are still needed. This study examines the effects of using Web-based GIS maps in place of paper maps on students' geography content knowledge and motivation…

  9. Human Relations Class. A Syllabus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillen, Mary A.

    A junior high level human relations class develops human interaction and oral communication skills. A week-by-week syllabus contains the following components: introduction of the students to each other and to the principles of body language, transactional analysis, and group interaction; behavior contracts; group dynamics topics and exercises;…

  10. GeoHumanities, GIScience and Smart City Lifeworld approaches to geography and the new human condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travis, Charles

    2017-09-01

    The New Human Condition (NHC) is perhaps the largest cognitive challenge in history to human intelligence and agency and concerns our species' ability to cope with the consequences and responsibilities of being the major driver of planetary change in the twenty-first century (Pálsson et al., 2013; Holm et al., 2015). But despite long held assumptions about intra-disciplinary engagements between its ;human; and ;physical; branches, geography's weakness as a discipline is that it has yet to gather sufficient momentum to collectively shape and implement practical and sustainable climate change policies and actions (Castree, 2014a). However, by considering together the heuristic values of the concepts of the Anthropocene and Planetary Boundaries, the Anglo-American sphere of geography recognizes in either ironic, or unconscious manners that a new strand of environmental determinism (discredited by geographical thought and practice in the early twentieth century) has re-emerged to elide the role of human agency and broadly dominate the discussion of climate change. Mike Hulme (2011, 247) states that ;climate determinism; is ;a form of analysis and prediction in which climate is first extracted from the matrix of interdependencies that shape human life within the physical world;. Within this discourse it is often the biophysical sphere that is employed to explain the course of human behavior; consequently, this dominating perspective threatens to skew our predictions and understandings of future societies, cultures, climates and destinies. Climate change will certainly constrain human agency, but it also creates the potential for geography to play to its intra and inter disciplinary strengths and begin discussing and addressing human-environmental dilemmas in practical and realistic ways; and secondly, seize the climate change crisis as an opportunity to study where, why and for whom global environmental change matters. Firstly, this paper considers a theoretical

  11. The Value of Writing "How-to" Books in High School World History and Geography Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Kathryn; Daisey, Peggy

    2011-01-01

    This article presents a story about eighty-six ninth-grade World History and Geography students who authored a "how-to" book, while pretending that they were experts who lived in the past and had to explain how to do something relating to that time period. These students attended a large high school in the Midwest; the school's…

  12. The Freshman Nine: Helping High School Freshmen Be Successful in AP Human Geography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garner, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    Teaching AP Human Geography to freshmen seems like a daunting task and while there are many arguments both for and against offering the course to freshmen, for many teachers it is reality. In this article, the author offers nine tips to help high school freshmen be successful in the course and on the AP exam.

  13. Reframing Photographic Research Methods in Human Geography: A Long-Term Reflection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Tim

    2015-01-01

    This paper offers a long-term reflection on the introduction of a photographic research project into a third-year undergraduate Human Geography module. The findings indicate that, whilst the students valued the project, it did impact on their overall performance, their evaluation of the module and the ways in which they spoke about it. The paper…

  14. Advanced Placement Human Geography and the Annual Meetings of the National Council for Geographic Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sublett, Michael D.

    2007-01-01

    Members of the National Council for Geographic Education have been instrumental in the creation, launch, and early success of Advanced Placement Human Geography. Annual meetings of the Council have served as a forum for spreading the word about the course and its follow-up national examination and in helping teachers develop content confidence and…

  15. Commonsense Geography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McHoul, Alec

    1990-01-01

    Presents an ethnomethodological study of how Australian high school geography teachers and students rely on common sense knowledge and reasoning to facilitate learning. Analyzes portions of transcripts from a class activity in which students built a scale model of a city. Explains location categorization devices, illustrating how learning involves…

  16. Using "Petites Projects" to Further Engage Students in Geography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Richard

    2013-01-01

    The challenge of teaching AP Human Geography to high school students is to make geography relevant, engaging and "real world." Often the pace of teaching AP classes constrains the ability of teachers to do creative projects and truly engage students until after the exam is over in May. In this lesson plan, the author suggests using "Petites…

  17. Why Geography Matters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDougall, Walter A.

    2001-01-01

    It is important to learn geography, yet most Americans leave school functionally illiterate in geography. Geography is fundamental to student maturation, the process of true education, and it is a springboard to every other science and humanities subject. Knowledge of maps and geographical information is crucial to the examination of economic,…

  18. Remapping Geography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jonathan M.; Norwine, Jim

    2009-01-01

    Little that occurs in contemporary academic geography will surprise members of the National Association of Scholars, for a large part of the field has joined the other humanities and social sciences in the bawdy saloon of progressive politics, cultural nihilism, and subjective epistemology. That geographers are in there roistering with the…

  19. Human gut microbiome viewed across age and geography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gut microbial communities represent one source of human genetic and metabolic diversity. To examine how gut microbiomes differ among human populations, we characterized bacterial species in fecal samples from 531 individuals, plus the gene content of 110 of them. The cohort encompassed healthy child...

  20. A Quantitative Comparison of the Similarity between Genes and Geography in Worldwide Human Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chaolong; Zöllner, Sebastian; Rosenberg, Noah A.

    2012-01-01

    Multivariate statistical techniques such as principal components analysis (PCA) and multidimensional scaling (MDS) have been widely used to summarize the structure of human genetic variation, often in easily visualized two-dimensional maps. Many recent studies have reported similarity between geographic maps of population locations and MDS or PCA maps of genetic variation inferred from single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). However, this similarity has been evident primarily in a qualitative sense; and, because different multivariate techniques and marker sets have been used in different studies, it has not been possible to formally compare genetic variation datasets in terms of their levels of similarity with geography. In this study, using genome-wide SNP data from 128 populations worldwide, we perform a systematic analysis to quantitatively evaluate the similarity of genes and geography in different geographic regions. For each of a series of regions, we apply a Procrustes analysis approach to find an optimal transformation that maximizes the similarity between PCA maps of genetic variation and geographic maps of population locations. We consider examples in Europe, Sub-Saharan Africa, Asia, East Asia, and Central/South Asia, as well as in a worldwide sample, finding that significant similarity between genes and geography exists in general at different geographic levels. The similarity is highest in our examples for Asia and, once highly distinctive populations have been removed, Sub-Saharan Africa. Our results provide a quantitative assessment of the geographic structure of human genetic variation worldwide, supporting the view that geography plays a strong role in giving rise to human population structure. PMID:22927824

  1. A quantitative comparison of the similarity between genes and geography in worldwide human populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chaolong; Zöllner, Sebastian; Rosenberg, Noah A

    2012-08-01

    Multivariate statistical techniques such as principal components analysis (PCA) and multidimensional scaling (MDS) have been widely used to summarize the structure of human genetic variation, often in easily visualized two-dimensional maps. Many recent studies have reported similarity between geographic maps of population locations and MDS or PCA maps of genetic variation inferred from single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). However, this similarity has been evident primarily in a qualitative sense; and, because different multivariate techniques and marker sets have been used in different studies, it has not been possible to formally compare genetic variation datasets in terms of their levels of similarity with geography. In this study, using genome-wide SNP data from 128 populations worldwide, we perform a systematic analysis to quantitatively evaluate the similarity of genes and geography in different geographic regions. For each of a series of regions, we apply a Procrustes analysis approach to find an optimal transformation that maximizes the similarity between PCA maps of genetic variation and geographic maps of population locations. We consider examples in Europe, Sub-Saharan Africa, Asia, East Asia, and Central/South Asia, as well as in a worldwide sample, finding that significant similarity between genes and geography exists in general at different geographic levels. The similarity is highest in our examples for Asia and, once highly distinctive populations have been removed, Sub-Saharan Africa. Our results provide a quantitative assessment of the geographic structure of human genetic variation worldwide, supporting the view that geography plays a strong role in giving rise to human population structure.

  2. Age, human capital and the geography of innovation

    OpenAIRE

    Frosch, Katharina; Tivig, Thusnelda

    2007-01-01

    An aging labor force is often associated with a decreasing innovative performance on aggregate, firm or individual level. Using a regional knowledge production function to explain patenting activity in German districts, we propose to include the effect of age in a twofold specification: First, we account indirectly for age by including the aggregate, age-heterogeneous human capital available in each district and estimating its effect on patenting performance. Second, we assume that there is a...

  3. The Social Geography of Childcare: Making up a Middle-Class Child

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, Carol; Ball, Stephen J.; Kemp, Sophie

    2004-01-01

    Childcare is a condensate of disparate social forces and social processes. It is gendered and classed. It is subject to an excess of policy and political discourse. It is increasingly a focus for commercial exploitation. This is a paper reporting on work in progress in an ESRC funded research project (R000239232) on the choice and provision of…

  4. FIELD CLASS AS PEDAGOGICAL PRACTICE IN TEACHING OF GEOGRAPHY FOR FUNDAMENTAL EDUCATION: proposed methodology and case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Michael Pinheiro Silveira

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the context of significant change and transformation of society in recent decades at the global level, geography had to rethink its role in the condition of traditional discipline of the school curriculum. With the need for new teaching practices that apply to the daily lives of students, field classes emerge as an important activity to support the teaching of geography. At this perspective, based on recent results of the Project Expedições Geográficas (UFPR/Licenciar, this paper proposes a methodology for planning and organizing field classes at the local scale, based on three points: the pre-field (planning and organization stage, the field (realization of the activity and post-field (evaluation and discussion stage, which resulted in the case study with students from 6th grade (elementary school of Aline Picheth School, located in Curitiba/PR. Altogether six field classes were performed, with themes proposed initially, with emphasis on orientation/location, geotechnologies insertion and interpretation and recognition of landscape elements. The recorded proposals by the students during the activity denoted the fast assimilation of the contents against the reality experienced in loco, presenting satisfactory results and demonstrating the potential of the field class as an auxiliary teaching-pedagogical resource. RESUMO: No contexto das significativas mudanças e transformações da sociedade nas últimas décadas em nível global, a geografia teve de repensar sua função na condição de tradicional disciplina do currículo escolar. Com a necessidade de novas práticas pedagógicas que se apliquem ao cotidiano dos alunos, as aulas de campo surgem como importante atividade de apoio ao ensino de geografia. Nessa perspectiva, com base nos resultados recentes do Projeto Expedições Geográficas (UFPR/Licenciar, o presente trabalho propõe uma metodologia para o planejamento e organização de aulas de campo em escala local, pautada em tr

  5. From The Human-Environment Theme Towards Sustainability – Danish Geography and Education for Sustainable Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grindsted, Thomas Skou

    2013-01-01

    Research on geography in relation to education for sustainable development (ESD), has only recently climbed the research agenda. The geopolitics of intended learning outcomes in the ESD debate, carries policy that produce dilemmas and challenges confronted with disciplinary traditions....... In this article it is examined dialectically how the changing climate and the paradigm of sustainability have been dealt with in Danish geographical university education. It is shown how curriculum programs in higher geographical education have taken different approaches to address issues of sustainability...... and climate change and how geographers articulate their role and function as knowledge on human-environment interactions changes. The analysis of the geographical education reveal that geographers’ find their discipline contribute considerably to ESD, and thus the human environment theme seems...

  6. South African School Geography:

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lorraine Innes

    Academic Associate, Department of Geography, University of South Africa, ... In conclusion, a case is made for enhancing the status of school Geography by making it a recommended subject for tertiary studies in university programs offering geospatial .... response to the education crisis of the 1970s and 1980s the Human ...

  7. Emotional Geographies of Teaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hargreaves, Andy

    2001-01-01

    Introduces emotional geographies, which describe patterns of closeness and distance in human interactions that shape the emotions people experience about relationships to themselves, others, and the world around them. Using an interview-based study of elementary and secondary teachers, the paper describes five emotional geographies of…

  8. Crop domestication, global human-mediated migration, and the unresolved role of geography in pest control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yolanda H. Chen

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Ecological pest management seeks to improve pest control through the manipulation of ecological processes that promote natural enemies and suppress pests. These approaches can involve cultural practices such as reduced tillage, increased use of non-crop plants that provide food and shelter for natural enemies, and intercropping to enhance the abundance and diversity of natural enemies. A major assumption of ecological pest management is that these activities can be equally effective for all insect herbivores. Here, I propose that these strategies may only be effective for a subset of pests and geographic regions because most insect pests have complex evolutionary histories that make them difficult to manage. I discuss how crop domestication and human-mediated migration are major evolutionary events that shape the geography of interactions between plants, herbivores, and natural enemies. Insect herbivores can evolve to be pests through three major modes: 1 herbivores associated with the crop wild ancestor may shift onto the domesticated crop, 2 herbivores may host-shift from native host plants onto an introduced crop, or 3 human-mediated migration can introduce insect pests into new cropping regions. The resulting geographic structure can influence the success of pest management by altering ecological factors such as: species distributions, patterns of biodiversity, community structure, and natural enemy attack rates. I discuss how the different modes of insect pest evolution structure a set of relevant questions and approaches for ecological pest management. By acknowledging how agricultural history and geography shape the ecology and evolution of insect pests, we may collectively develop a better capacity to identify where and how ecological pest management approaches can be most broadly effective.

  9. Analysis of the Possibilities for Discussing Questions of Global Justice in Geography Classes on the Use of Methods of Empirical Social Research When Analyzing the Teaching of Geography in Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Applis, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    This study examines students' orientations with regard to questions on the implementation of justice in production structures of the global textile industry. The students worked with the Mystery Method from the Thinking Through Geography approach by David Leat and with Lawrence Kohlberg's Method of Dilemma Discussion. During this process, the…

  10. A putative marker for human pathogenic strains of Anaplasma phagocytophilum correlates with geography and host, but not human tropism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, Janet; Stephenson, Nicole; Cubilla, Michelle Pires; Qurollo, Barbara; Breitschwerdt, Edward B

    2016-03-01

    Anaplasma phagocytophilum is an Ixodes species tick-transmitted bacterium that is capable of infecting a variety of host species, although there is a diversity of bacterial strains with differing host tropism. Recent analysis of A. phagocytophilum strains suggested that "drhm", a gene locus designated "distantly related to human marker" (drhm), which was predicted to be an integral membrane protein with possible transporter functions was not present in available canine and human isolates. By assessing 117 strains from 14 host species from across the US, we extended this analysis. Phylogenetic clades were associated with geography, but not host species. Additionally, a virulent clade that lacks drhm and infects dogs, horses, and humans in northeastern US was identified. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  11. Interactive-GIS-Tutor (IGIST) Integration: Creating a Digital Space Gateway within a Textbook-Bound South African Geography Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleischmann, E. M-L.; van der Westhuizen, C. P.; Cilliers, D.

    2015-01-01

    Currently there is a global drive among political and educational institutions to implement geographic information system (GIS) practice in secondary schools. However, Geography teachers worldwide, including in South Africa, face significant practical challenges in this regard. Lack of curriculum aligned GIS resources, funds and teacher GIS…

  12. Geography, Ethnicity or Subsistence-Specific Variations in Human Microbiome Composition and Diversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinod K. Gupta

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available One of the fundamental issues in the microbiome research is characterization of the healthy human microbiota. Recent studies have elucidated substantial divergences in the microbiome structure between healthy individuals from different race and ethnicity. This review provides a comprehensive account of such geography, ethnicity or life-style-specific variations in healthy microbiome at five major body habitats—Gut, Oral-cavity, Respiratory Tract, Skin, and Urogenital Tract (UGT. The review focuses on the general trend in the human microbiome evolution—a gradual transition in the gross compositional structure along with a continual decrease in diversity of the microbiome, especially of the gut microbiome, as the human populations passed through three stages of subsistence like foraging, rural farming and industrialized urban western life. In general, gut microbiome of the hunter-gatherer populations is highly abundant with Prevotella, Proteobacteria, Spirochaetes, Clostridiales, Ruminobacter etc., while those of the urban communities are often enriched in Bacteroides, Bifidobacterium, and Firmicutes. The oral and skin microbiome are the next most diverse among different populations, while respiratory tract and UGT microbiome show lesser variations. Higher microbiome diversity is observed for oral-cavity in hunter-gatherer group with higher prevalence of Haemophilus than agricultural group. In case of skin microbiome, rural and urban Chinese populations show variation in abundance of Trabulsiella and Propionibacterium. On the basis of published data, we have characterized the core microbiota—the set of genera commonly found in all populations, irrespective of their geographic locations, ethnicity or mode of subsistence. We have also identified the major factors responsible for geography-based alterations in microbiota; though it is not yet clear which factor plays a dominant role in shaping the microbiome—nature or nurture, host genetics

  13. Human Geography and the hinterland: The case of Torsten Hägerstrand’s ‘belated’ recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brauer René

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Seeing Human Geography as a nexus of temporally oscillating concepts, this paper investigates the dissemination of scientific ideas with a focus on extra-scientific factors. While scientific progress is usually evaluated in terms of intellectual achievement of the individual researcher, geographers tend to forget about the external factors that tacitly yet critically contribute to knowledge production. While these externalities are well-documented in the natural sciences, social sciences have not yet seen comparable scrutiny. Using Torsten Hägerstrand’s rise to prominence as a concrete example, we explore this perspective in a social-science case – Human Geography. Applying an STS (Science and Technology Studies approach, we depart from a model of science as socially-materially contingent, with special focus on three extra-scientific factors: community norms, materiality and the political climate. These factors are all important in order for knowledge to be disseminated into the hinterland of Human Geography. We conclude it is these types of conditions that in practice escape the relativism of representation.

  14. Reclaiming value from academic labor: commentary by the Editors of Human Geography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John C. Finn

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available There have long been discussions about the need for an alternative publishing model for academic research. This has been made clear by the September 2017 scandal involving Third World Quarterly. The editor’s deeply problematic decision to publish an essay arguing in favor of colonialism was likely meant as click-bate to drive clicks and citations. But we should not lose sight of the fact that this latest scandal is only one recent manifestation of a long-simmering problem that has periodically commanded significant attention in the academic literature, blogs, email lists, conference sessions, and the popular press. As a direct result, over the last decade or more, new journals have been created that specifically endeavor to offer routes around corporate/capitalist academic publishing, and several existing journals have removed themselves from this profit-driven ecosystem. In this commentary, the editorial team of the journal Human Geography weighs in on what we see as the nature of the problem, what we are doing in response, what our successes have been, and what challenges remain.

  15. Effects of an Introductory Geography Course on Student Perceptions of Geography at the University of Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowlick, Forrest J.; Kolden, Crystal A.

    2013-01-01

    This case study surveyed students in geography courses at the University of Idaho, investigating perceptions of geography's role in their daily lives, relevance to careers or academics, and parts of their geographic skill. Primarily, white, younger than 20, gender-balanced students in Introduction to Physical Geography and Human Geography courses…

  16. Double-Play: Using Minor League Baseball to Apply Themes and Standards in Human Geography Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeitler, Ezra

    2013-01-01

    Growing student interest in sports provides geography teachers with a special opportunity to make connections between it and fundamental concepts in the discipline. This article examines the structure, arrangement, relationships, and distinctions among minor league baseball franchise locations, stadia, and team names, and presents examples of…

  17. How Are Non-Geography Majors Motivated in a Large Introductory World Geography Course?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Seung Won; Huynh, Niem Tu

    2015-01-01

    University students who do not declare geography as their major are at risk of poor motivation to learn in an introductory geography class. However, research exploring the role of non-majors' motivation is lacking. This study examines motivational factors impacting non-geography students' engagement and performance. The findings suggest that…

  18. Inferring modules from human protein interactome classes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaurasia Gautam

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The integration of protein-protein interaction networks derived from high-throughput screening approaches and complementary sources is a key topic in systems biology. Although integration of protein interaction data is conventionally performed, the effects of this procedure on the result of network analyses has not been examined yet. In particular, in order to optimize the fusion of heterogeneous interaction datasets, it is crucial to consider not only their degree of coverage and accuracy, but also their mutual dependencies and additional salient features. Results We examined this issue based on the analysis of modules detected by network clustering methods applied to both integrated and individual (disaggregated data sources, which we call interactome classes. Due to class diversity, we deal with variable dependencies of data features arising from structural specificities and biases, but also from possible overlaps. Since highly connected regions of the human interactome may point to potential protein complexes, we have focused on the concept of modularity, and elucidated the detection power of module extraction algorithms by independent validations based on GO, MIPS and KEGG. From the combination of protein interactions with gene expressions, a confidence scoring scheme has been proposed before proceeding via GO with further classification in permanent and transient modules. Conclusions Disaggregated interactomes are shown to be informative for inferring modularity, thus contributing to perform an effective integrative analysis. Validation of the extracted modules by multiple annotation allows for the assessment of confidence measures assigned to the modules in a protein pathway context. Notably, the proposed multilayer confidence scheme can be used for network calibration by enabling a transition from unweighted to weighted interactomes based on biological evidence.

  19. Converging social classes through humanized urban edges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abuan, M. V.; Galingan, Z. D.

    2017-10-01

    Urban open spaces are created to be used by people. It is a place of convergence and social activity. However, these places have transformed into places of divergence. When spaces become dehumanized, it separates social classes. As a result, underused spaces contribute to urban decay. Particularly an urban edge, the JP Rizal Makati Waterfront Area is the center of this paper. The JP Rizal Makati Waterfront Area is a waterfront development situated along the banks of one of Metro Manila’s major water thoroughfare --- Pasig River. The park and its physical form, urban design and landscape tend to deteriorate over time --- creating a further division of social convergence. Social hostility, crime, negligent maintenance and poor urban design are contributing factors to this sprawling decay in what used to be spaces of bringing people together. Amidst attempts to beautify and renew this portion of Makati City’s edge, the urban area still remains misspent.This paper attempts to re-humanize the waterfront development. It uses the responsive environment design principles to be able to achieve this goal.

  20. VICTORIA Class Submarine Human-in-the-Loop Experimentation Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    1472G. VICTORIA Class Submarine Human-in-the-Loop Experimentation Plan and Preliminary Results © Her Majesty the Queen in Right of...19 th International Command and Control Research and Technology Symposium Title: VICTORIA Class Submarine Human-in-the-Loop...TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2014 to 00-00-2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE VICTORIA Class Submarine Human-in-the-Loop Experimentation Plan 5a. CONTRACT

  1. [Medical geography].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauri, D

    2007-10-17

    Hippocrates already noted that geographical factors such as climate, relief, geology but also settlement patterns had influenced the distribution of diseases. The task of medical geography is to investigate the associations between geographical factors and diseases. Thereby, geographic techniques and concepts are applied on health problems. Of particular importance is the mapping of diseases whose causes are environmental-related. In addition, epidemiological, ecological but also social scientific studies play an important part in the investigation of the associations between geographical factors and diseases. In order to understand the associations between the spatial distribution of diseases and environmental exposures, geographic information systems as well as statistical analyses have recently become more important. Some authors regard medical geography merely as supporting discipline of medicine. Nevertheless, as men and environment future and as they play an important part in the diffusion of diseases being regarded as defeated, medical geography will play an important part concerning medical questions. Especially travel medicine will rely on geographic knowledge, if a patient has to be consulted who plans to travel to an unknown country of which knowledge on the geographical distribution and ecology of diseases will be necessary.

  2. The Analysis Of Environmental Effects On The Design And Production Of Arts In Use, Based On Principles Of Human Geography (Case Study: Iranian Carpet)

    OpenAIRE

    Moghanipoor, Majidreza; Marasy, Mohsen

    2016-01-01

    The main topic of this article is recognition and analysis of influences of "Arts in use", as a human phenomenon (from a geographical viewpoint) and one of physical manifestations of culture ( from the environmental viewpoint). Accordingly, opinions and concepts related to this issue have been analyzed in the field of human geography science by an interdisciplinary approach and a descriptive-analytical methodology. Therefore, an "Iranian carpet" as a centerpiece of these studies d...

  3. Turkish Geography Student Teachers' Concerns towards the Teaching Profession

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sezer, Adem

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study is to determine the levels of concern of Turkish geography student teachers towards the teaching profession. The study was conducted with 293 geography student teachers who are enrolled in the last class of the Geography Student Teachers Program of the Faculties of Education and enrolled in a Non-Thesis Master's Degree…

  4. Geography Teachers' Concepts of Working with Thinking through Geography Strategies--Results of an Empirical Reconstructive Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Applis, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    The educational standards in geography in the German-speaking world separately refer to the areas of competence of judgment and evaluation and thus attach outstanding importance to reflective value orientation in geography classes. The tasks and challenges that arise from that for geography teachers will be investigated in a…

  5. Teaching the Six Essential Elements of Geography with Quality Children's Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holloway, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    In this article the author describes how she teaches third and sixth grade classes about the six essential elements of geography at the beginning of each school year. The six elements organize the eighteen national standards and include: the world in spatial terms, places and regions, physical systems, human systems, environment and society, and…

  6. Note Taking for Geography Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kneale, Pauline E.

    1998-01-01

    Addresses geography students' questions about why, when, and how to take notes. Outlines a step-by-step process for taking notes from written sources and from class lectures. Discusses what types of notes are appropriate for various types of sources. Suggests some ideas for making notes useful for individual learning styles. (DSK)

  7. Cultural geography. Different encounters, encountering difference

    OpenAIRE

    Longhurst, Robyn

    2007-01-01

    In the first half of this paper it is argued that cultural geography is a dynamic and diverse field that extends well beyond a single branch of human geography. The boundaries between it and other sub-disciplines are often blurred. People have «different» encounters with cultural geography depending on their sub-disciplinary convergences. People also have different encounters with cultural geography depending on where they live and work. «Place matters» in the construction, production and rep...

  8. HOW HUMAN HISTORY HAS INFLUENCED GEOGRAPHY AND GENETICS OF PARASITE POPULATIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Human beings have radically altered agricultural landscapes, establishing a limited repertoire of plants and animals over vast expanses. Here, I consider what impact such a history may have had on the distribution and diversity of animal parasite, hypothesizing that certain parasites may have been '...

  9. Perspectives in geography of culture and civilizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grčić Мirko

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a comparative analysis of relevant methodological essence of "traditional" and "new" cultural geography. In the introduction is given an explanation of philosophic concepts of space, environment, place and the region in cultural geography. In second section is analyzed the meaning of civilization and the genesis of geography of civilization (géographie de civilisation. Special attention is on features of geographical posibilism as methodological paradigm, and the concept of cultural landscape as the essence of classical geography of culture and civilization. After this part are researched specific characteristics of certain academic schools and methodological perspectives in cultural geography. Postmodern paradigm and essence of "new" cultural geography are in the main focus. Postmodernism is changing the meaning of the basic concepts in cultural geography, which are analyzed in the introduction, such as space, culture, cultural region, cultural landscape and others. "New" cultural geography reassessed social and moral issues associated with the characteristics of the postmodern era. In this regard, methodological paradigm must be changed. This ascertainment is based on the interpretation of humanistic geography, where the emphasis is on the interpretation of cultural symbols, causal link and the "spirit of place" (Spiritus Loci. In accordance with modern conceptions of human in psychological notion, there are at least three theoretical directions, which find resonance in the appropriate cultural geography: behaviorism, psychoanalytic concept and cognitive concept - gestaltism and geography of perception. In conclusion is emphasized the need of finding a dialectical unity in "classical" and "new" cultural geography. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 176017

  10. Lecture classes in human anatomy: the students' perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kar, Maitreyee; Roy, Hironmoy; Ghosh, Anasuya; Tapadar, Arunabha; Chowdhury, Subhramoy; Mukherjee, Pranab; Jana, Tapan Kumar

    2013-06-01

    The human anatomy, or in brief, the body structure has fascinated man for ages. Due to the information explosion and the increase in specializations, this knowledge is available in a very sketchy manner in high school biology courses. The first comprehensive course on the human anatomy is taught to the first year medical students in medical colleges. This is in keeping with the regulations of the Medical Council of India. The anatomy lecture classes occupy a considerable time of the course, to provide the students with an effective knowledge of the gross anatomy, histology, embryology and the clinical anatomy. On the other hand, the students' feedback regarding the lecture methods and the teaching environment is crucial in judging the efficacy of the present curriculum. To obtain the students' feedback about the environment of the lecture classes, as regards the venue, the teaching and learning aids which are used, the lecture class schedule of the university (the number of classes per week, the durations of the lecture classes, etc.) and the existing departmental practices (display of the class routine in advance, synchronization between the lecture and the practical classes), so that their suggestions could help the faculty in planning the most effective teaching procedures. A semi structured questionnaire was supplied to the students to get their feedback. Most of the students found the air conditioned seminar room's environment to be more comfortable and they supported the existing durations of the lecture hours with the combined use of chalk and a board and overhead projectors (OHPs). The perceptions of the learners helped in modifying the departmental practice in the desired way.

  11. Toward a new history and geography of human genes informed by ancient DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickrell, Joseph K; Reich, David

    2014-09-01

    Genetic information contains a record of the history of our species, and technological advances have transformed our ability to access this record. Many studies have used genome-wide data from populations today to learn about the peopling of the globe and subsequent adaptation to local conditions. Implicit in this research is the assumption that the geographic locations of people today are informative about the geographic locations of their ancestors in the distant past. However, it is now clear that long-range migration, admixture, and population replacement subsequent to the initial out-of-Africa expansion have altered the genetic structure of most of the world's human populations. In light of this we argue that it is time to critically reevaluate current models of the peopling of the globe, as well as the importance of natural selection in determining the geographic distribution of phenotypes. We specifically highlight the transformative potential of ancient DNA. By accessing the genetic make-up of populations living at archaeologically known times and places, ancient DNA makes it possible to directly track migrations and responses to natural selection. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Gender, race + geography = jeopardy: marginalized women, human rights and HIV in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fried, Susana T; Kelly, Brook

    2011-11-01

    Across the United States, laws, policies, and practices put women living with HIV in jeopardy. In particular, the dignity, health, and well-being of women living with and at risk for HIV as well as the health and well-being of their families and communities is hampered by punitive laws and policies. Laws and policies that do not meet, or worse, criminalize women's sexual and reproductive rights result in the economic, social and political deprivation of marginalized women and girls-and especially those living with and at risk of HIV. These laws and policies exacerbate an already outsized HIV epidemic in underserved communities, and communities of color in the United States. This article draws from and builds on a human rights workshop that took place as part of the forum "Bringing Gender Home: Implementing Gender Responsive HIV/AIDS Programming for US Women and Girls," sponsored by the Office of Women's Health. It focuses on the damaging impact of laws, policies, and practices that criminalize women's sexuality. These laws significantly impact the well-being of women living with and at risk for HIV, and have an impact on the capacity of poor women of color in the United States to fully exercise their rights. When laws that purport to protect public health have the result of limiting women's reproductive choices, or have a disproportionate impact on marginalized groups such as sex workers, fundamental breaches of women's rights occur. Copyright © 2011 Jacobs Institute of Women's Health. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Blogging Geographies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badenhorst, Cecile; Mather, Charles

    2014-01-01

    This paper responds to the call for research on the use of new information technologies in higher education contexts. This was done through a case study on the use of blogs in an advanced seminar class. The paper argues that the use of blogs provided a way of gauging how students were coming to terms with the course material and how they were…

  14. BUILDING SKILLS IN GEOGRAPHY AND HISTORY USING SONGS IN CLASSROOM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Nunes Batista

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Music is an important and efficient pedagogical tool that allow an approach between school and a range of everyday possibilities through contemporary teaching and learning processes. Thus, this article aims to assay the odds of using music in classroom based on its potential to develop skills and competences in Human Sciences. We suggest a set of activities to be applied in Geography and History classes through the lyrics contextualization with the purpose of creating assorted situations of learning and knowledge construction.

  15. Czech Student Attitudes towards Geography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubiatko, Milan; Janko, Tomas; Mrazkova, Katerina

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates 540 Czech lower secondary students' attitudes towards geography. It examined the general influence of gender and grade level on attitudes towards geography with an emphasis on four specific areas in particular: geography as a school subject; geography and the environment; the importance of geography; and the relevance of…

  16. Are the classical historical geography of the Byzantine world and Gis technology a contradiction? On the usage of contemporary technologies in the humanities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popović St. Mihailo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article highlights the latest developments in the field of Digital Humanities. It indicates in which ways these technologies are already used in the historical and geographical science throughout the world and how they could be integrated systematically into Byzantine Studies. In the first part of the article international projects, which are based on GIS (Geographic Information Systems, and their links in the World Wide Web are presented. In the second part the author shows on the basis of his scholarly results on the historical geography of Byzantine Macedonia, how medieval written sources can be transferred into digital format in order to achieve a higher level of spatial data analysis. The neglect of this important and recent scholarly approach in the 21st century could lead to the marginalisation of Byzantine Studies in general, and of the historical geography of the Byzantine Empire in particular. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 177015: Hrišćanska kultura na Balkanu u srednjem veku: Vizantijsko carstvo, Srbi i Bugari od 9. do 15. veka

  17. Teaching Physical Geography with Toys, Household Items, and Food

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnahan, Laura; Pankratz, Mary Jo; Alberts, Heike

    2014-01-01

    While many college physical geography instructors already use a wide variety of creative teaching approaches in their classes, others have not yet been exposed to teaching with toys, household items, or food. The goal in this article is to present some ideas for teaching college-level physical geography (weather/climate and geomorphology) for…

  18. Regional Geography is Dead. Long Live Regional Geography!

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vaishar, Antonín; Werner, M.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 14, č. 3 (2006), s. 2-8 ISSN 1210-8812 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30860518 Keywords : regional geography * regions * geography * methodology * Ostrava region Subject RIV: DE - Earth Magnetism, Geodesy, Geography

  19. Geography and environmental science

    OpenAIRE

    Milinčić, Miroljub; Souliotis, Lily; Mihajlović, Ljiljana; Požar, Tea

    2014-01-01

    Geography is one of the oldest academic disciplines with a strong holistic approach in conceptualizing the interaction between nature and society, i.e. animate and inanimate parts of the environment. Over time, geography has been increasing and improving its conceptual and terminological abilities for studying and understanding complex relationships among environmental systems. For this reason, geography has advanced from a well-known science about nature and society into a relevant science a...

  20. Identifying Effective Enzyme Activity Targets for Recombinant Class I and Class II Collagenase for Successful Human Islet Isolation

    OpenAIRE

    Balamurugan, Appakalai N.; Green, Michael L.; Breite, Andrew G.; Loganathan, Gopalakrishnan; Wilhelm, Joshua J.; Tweed, Benjamin; Vargova, Lenka; Lockridge, Amber; Kuriti, Manikya; Hughes, Michael G.; Williams, Stuart K.; Hering, Bernhard J.; Dwulet, Francis E.; McCarthy, Robert C.

    2015-01-01

    Isolation following a good manufacturing practice-compliant, human islet product requires development of a robust islet isolation procedure where effective limits of key reagents are known. The enzymes used for islet isolation are critical but little is known about the doses of class I and class II collagenase required for successful islet isolation.

  1. Travessias da aula em campo na geografia escolar: a necessidade convertida para além da fábula The excursions of the class in the field in school geography: the need converted beyond the fable

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Dennys Monteiro de Oliveira

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available O ensino de geografia cultiva um vínculo de identidade com o mundo exterior: a aula em campo. Os desafios para investigação escolar das instituições, localidades e relações são enormes. Esse exercício didático é o alvo do presente texto, cujo objetivo é mostrar a preocupação e o avanço, de alguns estudiosos, na construção de uma 'teoria' das aulas de campo, aqui denominadas aulas em campo. A proposta corresponde à apresentação e discussão de certas abordagens específicas para esse tipo de aula. No entanto, esse cultivo não se realiza de forma contínua nem está no centro do planejamento da geografia escolar. Ele aparece como uma exceção contra a qual os autores aqui citados reagem, caracterizam limites e potencialidades e direcionam soluções. Para tanto, propõem seu resgate nas diversas formas de atividades externas ao espaço escolar: excursões, visitas, estudos do meio, turismo. A força pedagógica da aula em campo encontra-se, todavia, na capacidade da interação professor-aluno em apreender com o lugar-mundo e planejar-se no improviso, o que, na conclusão do artigo, aparece como defesa de uma postura estratégica da gestão do retorno à sala de aula. Chamada de autobiografia coletiva da aula anterior, o texto propõe ampliar a relevância das discussões sobre a experiência do campo para potencializar os conteúdos e métodos de aprendizagem, lembrando que a aula em campo é, tal qual inspiração artística, um vetor insubstituível de compreensão do espaço em nível escolar.The teaching of geography cultivates a link of identity with the exterior world: the field class. The challenges to the school investigation of institutions, localities and relations are huge. That didactic exercise is the subject of the present text, whose purpose is to show the concerns and progresses by some scholars in the construction of a " theory" of field classes, here denominated classes in the field. The proposal consists

  2. The Practices of Geography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bednarz, Sarah Witham

    2016-01-01

    Sarah Bednarz begins by thanking Rebecca Theobald for the invitation to contrubute to this issue of "The Geography Teacher"("TGT"). As a member of the National Council for Geographic Education (NCGE) Publications Committee and coeditor of the "Journal of Geography," Bednarz confesses that she was not favorably…

  3. Applied social geography

    OpenAIRE

    Hilpert, Markus

    2002-01-01

    Applied social geography : management of spatial planning in reflective discourse ; research perspectives towards a ‚Theory of Practice‘. - In: Geografija in njene aplikativne moˆznosti = Prospects of applied geography. - Ljubljana : Oddelek za Geografijo, Filozofska Fakulteta, 2002. S. 29-39. - (Dela / Oddelek za geografijo Filozofske fakultete v Ljubljani ; 18)

  4. Teaching Geography Using Films: A Proposal

    Science.gov (United States)

    di Palma, Maria Teresa

    2009-01-01

    Films are often used in schools to illustrate geography, but doing so may favor mainly passive learning. An experiment with twenty-eight pupils aged thirteen years (a whole class) had the aim of using cinema to promote active geographical learning. First, it was ascertained what the dominant geographical stereotypes were among the pupils and the…

  5. Geography and gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bondi, L

    1989-05-01

    Most people in Britain today work in jobs dominated very markedly by either women or men. Sex-typing occurs in many other activities. For example, child care and domestic work, whether paid or unpaid, are generally considered to be tasks for women. However, with the exception of domestic work and child care, the allocation of activities to women or men varies between societies. For example, in much of sub-Saharan Africa, women work in fields, growing basic subsistence crops for their families, whereas in much of Latin America, women's agricultural work is confined to tending animals and food processing. Inequality arises because the role of women is generally associated with inferior status, socially, politically and/or economically. When mapping the geography of gender, an example shows that female life expectancy at birth is highest in the developed countries and lowest in the poorest countries of the Third World. Regarding the relationship between gender divisions and various aspects of spatial organization within societies most attention has focused on differences in ethnic group, social class, and stage in the life cycle. In mid-19th century Britain large-scale factory production precipitated a spatial separation between home and work and created the possibility of separate spheres of life for women and men. A particular social form, namely a nuclear family with a dependent wife, can operate as a factor contributing to changes in the spatial organization of urban areas in the form of suburban growth. After decades of outward movement by affluent social groups, a return to small pockets within inner-urban areas is now evident. This process is known as gentrification. An additional factor of significance in connection with gentrification is the increasing success of middle-class women in obtaining well-paid career jobs.

  6. Responsible geographies and geographies of response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grindsted, Thomas Skou

    This dissertation engages with Danish University geographers at work and their explication of the role of geography in shaping socio-environmental debates in an era of the anthropocene. Situating sustainability concepts in a historygeographical context the dissertation examines responses and resp......This dissertation engages with Danish University geographers at work and their explication of the role of geography in shaping socio-environmental debates in an era of the anthropocene. Situating sustainability concepts in a historygeographical context the dissertation examines responses...... in higher education literature. The methodological framework is based on the social nature approach that tangles these quite distinct epistemological communities by consulting the socio-natures produced. It is concluded that though geographers find sustainability themes important to geography......, sustainability is more often implicit than it is explicit. This produces a number of dilemmas and contradictions since geographers both seek to distance themselves from produced politics while at the same time elucidating them. Geographies of response and responsibilities address the battleground over...

  7. Geography: Key to World Understanding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dando, William A.

    1990-01-01

    Delineates the nature of applied geography, asserting that geography links the natural and social sciences. Underscores geography's role in data analysis and problem solving on a global scale. Traces the discipline's history. Maps geography's status in higher education institutions. Discusses new technologies used by geographers. Summarizes career…

  8. The Rise of Applied Geography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philpponneau, Michel

    1981-01-01

    Presents an historical overview of the use of the science of geography for practical purposes. Topics discussed include British schools of geography during the 19th century, contributions of many of the founders of applied geography, forms in which geographical work can be used for practical purposes, and the status of applied geography in various…

  9. "Publish or Perish" as citation metrics used to analyze scientific output in the humanities: International case studies in economics, geography, social sciences, philosophy, and history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baneyx, Audrey

    2008-01-01

    Traditionally, the most commonly used source of bibliometric data is the Thomson ISI Web of Knowledge, in particular the (Social) Science Citation Index and the Journal Citation Reports, which provide the yearly Journal Impact Factors. This database used for the evaluation of researchers is not advantageous in the humanities, mainly because books, conference papers, and non-English journals, which are an important part of scientific activity, are not (well) covered. This paper presents the use of an alternative source of data, Google Scholar, and its benefits in calculating citation metrics in the humanities. Because of its broader range of data sources, the use of Google Scholar generally results in more comprehensive citation coverage in the humanities. This presentation compares and analyzes some international case studies with ISI Web of Knowledge and Google Scholar. The fields of economics, geography, social sciences, philosophy, and history are focused on to illustrate the differences of results between these two databases. To search for relevant publications in the Google Scholar database, the use of "Publish or Perish" and of CleanPoP, which the author developed to clean the results, are compared.

  10. Geography and Tourism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giacomo Corna Pellegrini

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper suggests that Tourism and Geography are closely intertwined, because tourists are in search of experience and geographer has as its main purpose the pursuit of knowledge. Models and hypotheses need always to be verified in theterritorial context of daily fieldwork, geographical interpretation and travel experience, were Geography and Tourism entwined in reciprocal relationship of personal attitude, nature, and field research. Environmental responsibility is another and common field were Geography can change and develop Tourism in the same mutual support in a continuous and mutual way. The case studies support it fully.

  11. MHC class II molecules regulate growth in human T cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, M; Odum, Niels; Bendtzen, K

    1994-01-01

    MHC-class-II-positive T cells are found in tissues involved in autoimmune disorders. Stimulation of class II molecules by monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) or bacterial superantigens induces protein tyrosine phosphorylation through activation of protein tyrosine kinases in T cells, and class II signals...... lines tested. Only one of three CD4+, CD45RAhigh, ROhigh T cells responded to class II costimulation. There was no correlation between T cell responsiveness to class II and the cytokine production profile of the T cell in question. Thus, T cell lines producing interferon (IFN)-gamma but not IL-4 (TH1...... modulate several T cell responses. Here, we studied further the role of class II molecules in the regulation of T cell growth. Costimulation of class II molecules by immobilized HLA-DR mAb significantly enhanced interleukin (IL)-2-supported T cell growth of the majority of CD4+, CD45RAlow, ROhigh T cell...

  12. Saussure and Linguistic Geography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Roy

    1993-01-01

    Discusses Saussures's "Cours de linguistique generale," which was published in 1916, and devotes specific attention to the significance of Part VI, which is devoted to linguistic geography. (16 references) (Author/VWL)

  13. The Tyranny of Geography

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. The Tyranny of Geography. The North-East is a hilly region. Except Assam, pop. is sparse and spread out. Under-development implies lack of infrastructure: Power is a major problem.

  14. Human activities and microbial geographies. An anthropological approach to the risk of infections in West African hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    d'Alessandro, Eugénie

    2015-07-01

    In hospital care, management of the risk of infection represents a crucial issue. Nevertheless, this question remains a neglected area in anthropological research, especially in African countries. To shed new light on this question, we conducted an anthropological investigation in the infectious disease department of a hospital in Niger. Daily observation of the work of the hospital staff for a total period of 6 months was spread out over 2008 and 2009. During our prolonged stay, we also collected 64 in-depth interviews of health care workers and attendants in the department. This study method made it possible to describe many of the practices and discourses related to the issues of medical and personal care and hospital hygiene and to compare the practices observed to standard principles for preventing hospital-acquired infections. Our ethnographic attention to the behavior of the actors showed the absence of formal spatial segmentations between different activities. The care provided by the untrained relatives serving as personal attendants introduced territorial enclaves governed by home hygiene standards into the interior of technical spaces. At the same time, privatizing equipment and space for their diverse activities, the medical staff disrupted technical chains and generated the recurrent crossing of microbial geographies. These results allow us to offer two principal guidelines for improving the quality of care and the management of risks of infection in hospitals in West Africa: (1) the essential role of the attendants in the care provided to hospital inpatients must be officially taken into account, especially by including them in the organization of medical hygiene procedures; (2) the different overlapping technical activities and social activities in the work space must be limited by their geographic and architectural segmentation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Multiple Cultures of Doing Geography Facilitate Global Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahamer, Gilbert

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: This article aims to explain why geography is a prime discipline for analysing globalisation and a multicultural view of Global Studies. The generic approach of human geography to first select an appropriate methodology is taken as a key approach. Design/methodology/approach: Concepts from aggregate disciplines such as history, economics,…

  16. Homotypic aggregation of human cell lines by HLA class II-, class Ia- and HLA-G-specific monoclonal antibodies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Odum, Niels; Ledbetter, J A; Martin, P

    1991-01-01

    Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II molecules have been implicated in cell adhesion in two ways. In addition to the well-established role of class II antigens in low-affinity adhesion provided by interactions between class II and CD4, recent data indicated that class II may also induce...... adhesion between T and B cells by activating the CD18/CD11a (LFA-1) adhesion pathway. Here we report that monoclonal antibodies (mAb) against HLA-DR (L243, p4.1, HB10a, VI15) and certain broad class II reacting mAb (TU35, TU39), but not anti-DQ (TU22, Leu-10) mAb, induced homotypic aggregation of human...... class II-positive monocytic (I937) and T leukemic (HUT78) tumor cell lines and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) transformed B-lymphoid cell lines (EBV-LCL). Class II-negative cell lines (U-937 and the EBV-LCL mutant line 616) were not induced to aggregate. An HLA-G-transfected EBV-LCL, 221-AGN...

  17. "Lesbian Migrants in the Gentrified Valley" and "Other" Geographies of Rural Gentrification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Darren P.; Holt, Louise

    2005-01-01

    This paper explores the migration and cultural consumption practices of lesbian households within processes of rural change. Taking forward Phillips' (2004. Progress in Human Geography 28, 5-30) discussion of neglected geographies of rural gentrification, and building upon Halfacree's (2001. International Journal of Population Geography 7,…

  18. Geography and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kratochvil, O

    1981-01-01

    The most important factors affecting the social, economic, and cultural development are geography, climate, and social fertility. The interaction of these different influences are described, and their relationship with the world's health as shown. Of particular interest is how the introduction of modern techniques can counteract certain of the effects of climatic and geographical factors. Health in the various population groups of the world results from the successive interplay of a long series of factors. Generally, it is known that poverty and ignorance breed disease. Possibly the extent to which economic and educational development is dependent upon climatic and other geographical factors is not fully realized. The distribution of humans over the world's surface is governed by the availability of food and water. Agriculture alone allows the congregation of large populations and the establishment of settled communities, villages, and eventually towns. Social development ensues which may give rise to culture and science. This will allow the birth of industry and the improvement of agricultural techniques. Together they will permit economic development, capable in turn of supporting a competent administration, part of which will cater to the sanitary and medical needs of the community and contribute the health of the population. Apart from the general consequences of living in isolation, or in communities of humankind's social and cultural development, there is also an immediate and direct effect upon health. Complete isolation interferes with the transmission of cultural traditions and with the transmission of most infections. Community life creates chances of mutual infection with resulting immunity. Large cities present many opportunities for acquiring numerous infections and building up resistance to them at an early age. Their endemicity will replace epidemics. The extremely cold climate of the arctic and subarctic regions is usually well tolerated provided

  19. Geography Teachers' Views on Effective Geography Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocalar, Ali Osman; Demirkaya, Hilmi

    2017-01-01

    Geography teaching is fulfilled within the frame of a specific curriculum and in order to achieve some acquirements in Turkey. Though there are course books prepared in accordance with the curriculum and activities in order to achieve the acquirements in geography teaching, they are geography teachers who will coordinate and fulfill the curriculum…

  20. What Is Innovative Geography Teaching? A Perspective from Geography Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artvinli, Eyüp

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to examine views of geography teachers on innovative geography teaching. The study group consists of 15 geography teachers (8 Females, 7 Males). The study is designed in keeping with phenomenological research. Semi-structured interview form is used as a data collection tool in the study. The collected data are analyzed…

  1. Geography Teachers' Metaphors Concerning the Concept of "Geography"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagdic, Mustafa

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is to reveal geography teachers' perception on the concept of "Geography", by means of the metaphors they use. The study was participated by 116 geography teachers working in several high-schools in Istanbul City center within the 2012-2013 academic year. Answers to the following questions were sought in…

  2. Some Thoughts on Applied Geography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gritzner, Charles F.

    1979-01-01

    The geography student should be offered the option of applied geography courses as well as the more conservative humanistic approach, in order to respond to the challenges presented by existing societal needs and vocational opportunities. (Author/CK)

  3. The Information Revolution in Geography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tikunov, Vladimir S.

    1996-01-01

    Describes a number of topics in geography that are effected by the multimedia information revolution. These include research in political geography, finance, and the geography of tourism and medicine. Considers new technologies assisting spatial modeling and visualization of data and their effects on these fields. (MJP)

  4. Whatever Happened to Economic Geography?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagan, Robert

    1985-01-01

    Maintains that economic geography is alive and well. Describes some of the challenges facing research in economic geography and highlights the changing approaches being applied to economic geography. Includes sections on structural change, economic reorganization, and internationalization of manufacturing and finances. (JDH)

  5. PEDAGOGICAL CONDITIONS OF FUTURE TEACHER TRAINING IN THE EFFECTIVE USE OF GEOGRAPHY TEXTBOOK IN THE LESSON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volkhonskaya Anastasiya Andreevna

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the problems of professional training of future teachers in the use of geography textbook in their classes. The author identifies the reasons for lack of young teachers’ attention to the textbook and the causes of insufficient training of future geography teachers in the effective use of the textbook in the class. Professional training of future teachers in the effective and proper use of the geography textbook in the class is possible only under certain pedagogical conditions. A specific feature of this work is theoretically sound pedagogical conditions of future teacher training in the effective use of geography textbook in the class, which can form and further develop the students’ readiness for effective use of geography textbook in the lessons.

  6. Job Sharing in Geography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kay, Jeanne

    1982-01-01

    Job sharing is an employment alternative in which two qualified individuals manage the responsibilities of a single position. Discusses the barriers to and the potential, advantages, disadvantages, pitfalls, and challenges of job sharing. Focuses on job sharing in the geography profession. (Author/JN)

  7. Moral Teaching in Geography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, David M.

    1995-01-01

    Argues that geography is in a unique position to highlight and emphasize moral issues that otherwise might be neglected. Contemporary issues that naturally intersect with geographic concepts include citizenship and immigration, and the allocation of resources. Recommends examining relative concepts of justice, equality, and community. (MJP)

  8. (Im)mobile Geographies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Minca, C.

    2013-01-01

    The growing tendency to evaluate – sometimes even ''measure'' – the ''productivity'' of academics is seriously affecting what we consider to be relevant geographical output. This tendency is also significantly reshaping the actual geographies of the disciplinary debate, by introducing important

  9. The Revenge of Geography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Ia. Belokrenitsky

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This author discussed the prominent book of American journalist and expert Robert D. Kaplan in the light of the recent publication of its Russian translation: [Kaplan R. Mest’ geografi i (The revenge of geography / Transl. by M. Kotov. Moscow: Ko-Libri, 2015. P.277].

  10. Geography from Money.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hargreaves, Ray

    1991-01-01

    Suggests utilizing foreign coins and banknotes as teaching aids for geography. Discusses coins portrayal of such issues as societal goals, historical commemorations, or conservation of wildlife. Cites banknotes as a source of even more geographical information than coins. Suggests sources of information, coins, and banknotes. (DK)

  11. Danish geography teachers' perceptions of their own teaching professionalism according to climate change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Søren Witzel

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports from research examining eight Geography teachers’ own perceptions of their teaching professionalism, understood as Pedagogical Content Knowledge (PCK), in relation to the topic of climate change. Apparently, Geography teachers with a strong academic profile in Physical Geography...... and natural science are more familiar to teach the sub-subject of weather formation in connection to climatic change, than Geography teachers with a strong academic profile in Human Geography and social science. The teachers orientated against Human Geography put emphasis on the more problem......-oriented/discursive aspects of teaching climate change, some of them neglecting parts of the curriculum focused on weather formation. Most of the interviewed Geography teachers emphasize the collegial cooperation with science colleagues e.g. during professional development activities, when reflecting on their own teaching...

  12. Transformation of Geography as an Interdisciplinary Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Afrakhteh

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Geography as a science of the spatial analysis of phenomena is based on three main objectives: studying spatial structures, examining the locational-spatial order of socio-economic activities, and searching spatial relationships and functions through hierarchical leveling of rural and urban settlements. The applied form of geography or “spatial planning” addresses the modification of spatial structures, the locational-spatial order of activities, and the organization of spatial relationships and functions. There are mutual interactions between structure and function in this spatial order. Science has developed a complex structure through the electronic revolution, which is called “third wave science”; also specialized studies have developed. Specialized studies result in a very deep understanding of subjects, but this deep understanding always remains just in a “spot” and its applications could be traumatic, which is because it is not regulated in combination with other dimensions of human life. This kind of science cannot be beneficial in human life or solve some important problems. The main aim of this article, which is based on qualitative content analysis, is to analyze geography as an interdisciplinary science. The findings of the study show that geographical research has interdisciplinary characteristics; otherwise it cannot explain today’s complex problems. Geography can both use the findings of other sciences, including statistics, mathematics, economics, sociology, history and psychology, and provide them with services and help.

  13. Genetics: A New Landscape for Medical Geography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrel, Margaret; Emch, Michael

    2014-01-01

    The emergence and re-emergence of human pathogens resistant to medical treatment will present a challenge to the international public health community in the coming decades. Geography is uniquely positioned to examine the progressive evolution of pathogens across space and through time, and to link molecular change to interactions between population and environmental drivers. Landscape as an organizing principle for the integration of natural and cultural forces has a long history in geography, and, more specifically, in medical geography. Here, we explore the role of landscape in medical geography, the emergent field of landscape genetics, and the great potential that exists in the combination of these two disciplines. We argue that landscape genetics can enhance medical geographic studies of local-level disease environments with quantitative tests of how human-environment interactions influence pathogenic characteristics. In turn, such analyses can expand theories of disease diffusion to the molecular scale and distinguish the important factors in ecologies of disease that drive genetic change of pathogens. PMID:24558292

  14. Social Class and the Motivational Relevance of Other Human Beings: Evidence From Visual Attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietze, Pia; Knowles, Eric D

    2016-11-01

    We theorize that people's social class affects their appraisals of others' motivational relevance-the degree to which others are seen as potentially rewarding, threatening, or otherwise worth attending to. Supporting this account, three studies indicate that social classes differ in the amount of attention their members direct toward other human beings. In Study 1, wearable technology was used to film the visual fields of pedestrians on city streets; higher-class participants looked less at other people than did lower-class participants. In Studies 2a and 2b, participants' eye movements were tracked while they viewed street scenes; higher class was associated with reduced attention to people in the images. In Study 3, a change-detection procedure assessed the degree to which human faces spontaneously attract visual attention; faces proved less effective at drawing the attention of high-class than low-class participants, which implies that class affects spontaneous relevance appraisals. The measurement and conceptualization of social class are discussed. © The Author(s) 2016.

  15. Identifying Effective Enzyme Activity Targets for Recombinant Class I and Class II Collagenase for Successful Human Islet Isolation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balamurugan, Appakalai N; Green, Michael L; Breite, Andrew G; Loganathan, Gopalakrishnan; Wilhelm, Joshua J; Tweed, Benjamin; Vargova, Lenka; Lockridge, Amber; Kuriti, Manikya; Hughes, Michael G; Williams, Stuart K; Hering, Bernhard J; Dwulet, Francis E; McCarthy, Robert C

    2016-01-01

    Isolation following a good manufacturing practice-compliant, human islet product requires development of a robust islet isolation procedure where effective limits of key reagents are known. The enzymes used for islet isolation are critical but little is known about the doses of class I and class II collagenase required for successful islet isolation. We used a factorial approach to evaluate the effect of high and low target activities of recombinant class I (rC1) and class II (rC2) collagenase on human islet yield. Consequently, 4 different enzyme formulations with divergent C1:C2 collagenase mass ratios were assessed, each supplemented with the same dose of neutral protease. Both split pancreas and whole pancreas models were used to test enzyme targets (n = 20). Islet yield/g pancreas was compared with historical enzymes (n = 42). Varying the Wunsch (rC2) and collagen degradation activity (CDA, rC1) target dose, and consequently the C1:C2 mass ratio, had no significant effect on tissue digestion. Digestions using higher doses of Wunsch and CDA resulted in comparable islet yields to those obtained with 60% and 50% of those activities, respectively. Factorial analysis revealed no significant main effect of Wunsch activity or CDA for any parameter measured. Aggregate results from 4 different collagenase formulations gave 44% higher islet yield (>5000 islet equivalents/g) in the body/tail of the pancreas (n = 12) when compared with those from the same segment using a standard natural collagenase/protease mixture (n = 6). Additionally, islet yields greater than 5000 islet equivalents/g pancreas were also obtained in whole human pancreas. A broader C1:C2 ratio can be used for human islet isolation than has been used in the past. Recombinant collagenase is an effective replacement for the natural enzyme and we have determined that high islet yield can be obtained even with low doses of rC1:rC2, which is beneficial for the survival of islets.

  16. Geography, Depreciation, and Growth

    OpenAIRE

    Solomon M. Hsiang; Amir S. Jina

    2015-01-01

    It has been proposed that geography influences economic growth for many reasons. Previous analyses of comparative development seem to have sidestepped the question of location-dependent depreciation. However the construction of new measures of tropical cyclone exposure enables us to consider the potential impact of this single source of capital depreciation. Using an estimate of asset destruction due to tropical cyclones, we identify the "sandcastle depreciation" rate, and find support for lo...

  17. Effects of Infographics on Students Achievement and Attitude towards Geography Lessons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çifçi, Taner

    2016-01-01

    Geography is a very comprehensive field of study with many subjects to study topics. Using a wide range of materials in the teaching of this course can this lesson be made effective and permanent because we do not have chances to observe natural phenomena. Therefore, in geography education materials natural environment is to be brought to class by…

  18. Atlas use in teaching geography in higher education in the U.S. and Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerry Green

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Skills in map use and interpretation are important in geography education. Atlases represent special collections of maps that can be beneficial for developing map use and interpretation and spatial analysis skills in geography students. In this study, we examine the utilization of atlases in geographic coursework. We surveyed 295 geography instructors in the U.S.and Canada about their usage of both print and digital atlases in geography courses of different level. The survey generated 54 responses. The findings indicated that about 39 percent of instructors use atlases in instruction, most of those use print atlases rather than digital atlases. It was found that most of the instructors who use atlases in their instruction teach upper-level Human Geography courses. Some other general courses, in which atlases were used are: Introduction to GIS, Remote Sensing, World Regional Geography, and Introduction to Physical Geography. As indicated by the survey responses, atlases are widely used in special topic courses such as World Forests, Geography of North America, Research Methods in Geography, Natural Hazards, Geography of Europe, History and Theory of Geography, Current World Affairs, Geography of Pennsylvania, Political Geography, Geography of Russia, North American House Types, and Geography of Consumption. In addition to analyzing the survey responses, we also provide examples of atlas use in a variety of courses. We conclude that atlases are useful for studies of spatial associations and geographic patterns, as a background information or context resource, as a source that helps to learn geographic locations, and to learn cartographic methods and map design.

  19. Imagining Geographies, Mapping Identities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Graves

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The ambition of this issue of Portal is to reach across the methodological boundaries of history, politics, literature and geography to apply their complementary perspectives to the study of identity and its relation to space and place, an aim that involves attempting to identify the many different ways the notoriously slippery concepts of identity and geography may intersect. For this issue we have selected articles that cast a fresh perspective on two areas where identity and geography intersect: the construction of identity through the imaginative recreation of place in literature: Mapping Literary Spaces; and the study of the shifting relationships of centre and periphery, exclusion and inclusion in urban settings and geopolitical confrontations: Social and Political Peripheries. Gerard Toal has written that geography is not a noun but a verb: it does not describe what space is but studies what we do with space, imaginatively and politically. The articles in this issue illustrate the exercise of the literary and political imagination and the role of materiality and memory in the creation of geographic representation. They show too a new awareness of the centrality of space in the constitution of identities, and the need for a new geocritical reading of its discourse, as the interrelations of place and community are played out on the many scales of social and political life, from the local to the global.   The special issue is organised thus: Introduction Matthew Graves (Aix-Marseille University & Liz Rechniewski (Sydney University: “Imagining Geographies, Mapping Identities.” I. Mapping Literary Spaces - Isabelle Avila (University of Paris XIII, "Les Cartes de l'Afrique au XIXe siècle et Joseph Conrad : Perceptions d'une Révolution Cartographique." - Daniela Rogobete (University of Craiova, "Global vs Glocal: Dimensions of the post-1981 Indian English Novel." II. Social and Political Peripheries - Elizabeth Rechniewski (Sydney

  20. Geography 2050, November 19, 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-04

    16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: On November 19, 2014, the American Geographical Society hosted Geography 2050, a high?level symposium including top...UU UU UU UU 04-02-2016 Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Geography 2050, November 19, 2014 The views, opinions and/or findings...ABOVE ADDRESS. University of Kansas 2385 Irving Hill Road Lawrence, KS 66044 -7552 ABSTRACT Geography 2050, November 19, 2014 Report Title On November

  1. Media development effectiveness of geography 3d muckups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasetya, S. P.; Daryono; Budiyanto, E.

    2018-01-01

    Geography examines geosphere phenomena that occurs in a space associated with humans on earth’s surface. Media 3D models are an important visual media in presenting spatial objects on the earth’s surface. This study aims to develop a decent 3D mockups media used for learning materials and test the effectiveness of media geography 3D mockups on learning outcomes. The study involved 90 students of Geography Education, Faculty of Social Sciences and Law, State University of Surabaya. Method development using a model of the Borg and Gall (1989) which has been modified into three stages, namely the introduction, development, and testing. The study produced instructional media 3D Muckups eligible to be used as a learning medium for the material hydrosphere geography, geology, and geomorphology. 3D mockups media use in learning geography materials can increase the activity of students, student interest and a positive response to raise the student learning outcomes as the material can be delivered more concrete geography. Based on observations conducted student activity occurs continuously increase in the use of 3D models for learning geography material.

  2. Aesthetics in Geography: Ideas for Teaching Geography Using Poetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirman, Joseph M.

    2007-01-01

    This article discusses how poetry can be used for teaching geography. The rational for using and writing poetry, its relationship to the National Standards for Geography, grade levels, pedagogical concerns associated with poetry writing, and subject integration are discussed. There are also classroom activities, sample discussion questions, lesson…

  3. Italian information geographies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Paradiso

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction A range of papers focusing on Italian cases of ICTs use and changes in society are presented here in this NETCOM issue. A national research group on Geography of Information Society was founded in 2007 and hosted by the Italian Geographical Society later evolved in a specialty group within AgeI, the Association of Italian Geographers. This issue brings together papers from members of the Italian specialty group along the general theme of Internet mediation in everyday life. A pre...

  4. Reasoning about geography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, A; Brown, N R

    2000-06-01

    To understand the nature and etiology of biases in geographical judgments, the authors asked people to estimate latitudes (Experiments 1 and 2) and longitudes (Experiments 3 and 4) of cities throughout the Old and New Worlds. They also examined how people's biased geographical judgments change after they receive accurate information ("seeds") about actual locations. Location profiles constructed from the pre- and postseeding location estimates conveyed detailed information about the representations underlying geography knowledge, including the subjective positioning and subregionalization of regions within continents; differential seeding effects revealed between-region dependencies. The findings implicate an important role for conceptual knowledge and plausible-reasoning processes in tasks that use subjective geographical information.

  5. AP Geography, Environmental Science Thrive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robelen, Erik W.

    2012-01-01

    Geography may not be particularly known as a hot topic among today's students--even some advocates suggest it suffers from an image problem--but by at least one measure, the subject is starting to come into its own. Across more than 30 topics covered in the Advanced Placement (AP) program, participation in geography is rising faster than any…

  6. Educational Geographers and Applied Geography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frazier, John W.

    1979-01-01

    Describes the development of applied geography programs and restructuring of curricula with an emphasis on new technique and methodology courses, though retaining the liberal arts role. Educational geographers can help the programs to succeed through curriculum analysis, auditing, advising students, and liaison with other geography sources. (CK)

  7. Applications of evolutionary economic geography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boschma, R.A.; Frenken, K.; Puranam, Krishna Kishore; Ravi Kumar Jain B., xx

    2008-01-01

    This paper is written as the first chapter of an edited volume on evolutionary economics and economic geography (Frenken, K., editor, Applied Evolutionary Economics and Economic Geography, Cheltenham: Edward Elgar, expected publication date February 2007). The paper reviews empirical applications of

  8. Industrial Dynamics and Economic Geography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Capasso, Marco|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/314016627; Stam, Erik|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/215649370; Cefis, Elena|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/274516233

    2015-01-01

    Capasso M., Stam E. and Cefis E. Industrial dynamics and economic geography, Regional Studies. How do industries emerge and evolve over space? In this special issue the fields of industrial dynamics and economic geography are brought together in order to achieve a richer and more fundamental

  9. Physical Geography and Environmental Sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Thornbush

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In this introduction to the Special Issue on Physical Geography and Environmental Sustainability, the links between a variety of physical landscapes located throughout the world and long-term wellbeing are considered from a systems approach. Twelve papers were published as part of this call, with half from Asia, especially China. They represent a contribution across topographic landscapes, from mountainous to estuarine, and cover models as well as case studies encompassing landscape and environmental changes. Remotely sensed data, statistical analysis, and GIS were often incorporated in the work, and this particularly conveys the importance of spatial analysis on inputs by physical geographers in sustainability research. Furthermore, scale variations from the local to global are presented as part of a geographical contribution. The connectedness of environments to humans and the reverse (of humans adapting to environmental change is evident in several of the papers where human impacts and adaptation are concerned. Finally, the last paper provides a comprehensive summary of the potential contribution that physical geographers can make to environmental sustainability from a multidisciplinary approach.

  10. Sources of information on medical geography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullins, L S

    1966-07-01

    Adequate research in the peripheral field of medical geography requires familiarity with the literature of medicine, geography, and other environmentally oriented fields. The pertinent literature of the two primary disciplines, as well as that of anthropology, nutrition, and human bioclimatology, is surveyed from a bibliographical point of view. A brief review of historical sources is presented, followed by a discussion of the contemporary organizations, both international and national, active in the field. Emphasis is placed on the publishing programs and projects, maps, atlases, symposia, reports, and other literature sponsored or stimulated by these organizations. Regional bibliographical surveys for East Africa, India, and the Soviet Union are also noted. Pertinent aspects of bibliographies, indexes, abstracts, library card catalogs and accession lists, and other resources are listed, with emphasis on the various subject headings and other approaches to them. Throughout, the sources of information are approached from a multidisciplinary and interdisciplinary viewpoint.

  11. Kilowatt-Class Fission Power Systems for Science and Human Precursor Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Lee S.; Gibson, Marc Andrew; Poston, Dave

    2013-01-01

    Nuclear power provides an enabling capability for NASA missions that might otherwise be constrained by power availability, mission duration, or operational robustness. NASA and the Department of Energy (DOE) are developing fission power technology to serve a wide range of future space uses. Advantages include lower mass, longer life, and greater mission flexibility than competing power system options. Kilowatt-class fission systems, designated "Kilopower," were conceived to address the need for systems to fill the gap above the current 100-W-class radioisotope power systems being developed for science missions and below the typical 100-k We-class reactor power systems being developed for human exploration missions. This paper reviews the current fission technology project and examines some Kilopower concepts that could be used to support future science missions or human precursors.

  12. An Analysis of Geography Content in Relation to Geography for Life Standards in Oman

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Nofli, Mohammed Abdullah

    2018-01-01

    Since the publication of "Geography for Life: National Geography Standards" in the United States (Geography Education Standards Project, 1994), it has been widely used to develop quality curriculum materials for what students should know and able to do in geography. This study compared geography content taught in Omani public schools…

  13. Naïve and Robust: Class-Conditional Independence in Human Classification Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarecki, Jana B.; Meder, Björn; Nelson, Jonathan D.

    2018-01-01

    Humans excel in categorization. Yet from a computational standpoint, learning a novel probabilistic classification task involves severe computational challenges. The present paper investigates one way to address these challenges: assuming class-conditional independence of features. This feature independence assumption simplifies the inference…

  14. The Human Relations Class at Sir Winston Churchill Secondary School. Research Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Katherine J.

    Human Relations was a program offered to Grade 10 students at Churchill Secondary School during the 1971-72 school year in lieu of four courses. The emphasis of the program was on the development of students as people who were more aware of themselves, of other people, and of the environment. The class took part in a variety of activities during…

  15. Improving Wellness on Campus: Service Learning in a Human Nutrition Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Bonnie

    2003-01-01

    In a human nutrition class, students are paired with university faculty or staff volunteer participants. Students teach their service learning partners how to record their food consumption and physical activity during a typical 7-day period. Using these data, students complete nutritional assessments of their partners. (Contains 2 figures.)

  16. Understanding Protein Synthesis: A Role-Play Approach in Large Undergraduate Human Anatomy and Physiology Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturges, Diana; Maurer, Trent W.; Cole, Oladipo

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the effectiveness of role play in a large undergraduate science class. The targeted population consisted of 298 students enrolled in 2 sections of an undergraduate Human Anatomy and Physiology course taught by the same instructor. The section engaged in the role-play activity served as the study group, whereas the section…

  17. Human Capital, Social Classes, and the Earnings Determination Process in Brazilian Agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neves, Jorge A.; Haller, Archibald O.; Fernandes, Danielle C.

    This paper examines the process of earnings determination in the agricultural sector of Brazil. Among the main causal factors analyzed are human capital (education and work experience), labor market segmentation, gender, social class position, level of development/modernization, and concentration of land ownership. Data on individuals employed in…

  18. A Road Map for Improving Geography Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wertheim, Jill A.; Edelson, Daniel C.; Hildebrant, Barbara; Hinde, Elizabeth; Kenney, Marianne; Kolvoord, Robert; Lanegran, David; Marcello, Jody Smothers; Morrill, Robert; Ruiz-Primo, Maria; Seixas, Peter; Shavelson, Richard

    2013-01-01

    In late 2012, both the second edition of the "Geography for Life: National Geography Standards" and the National Science Foundation-funded "Road Map for Geography Education Project" reports were released; the former document describes the conceptual goals for K-12 geography education, and the latter, a route to coordinating reform efforts to…

  19. Recent Trends in Geography Education in Louisiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohli, Robert V.; Binford, Paul E.

    2016-01-01

    Geography at elementary and middle schools in Louisiana, USA., remains a social studies strand along with civics, economics, and history, with no state-required geography course at any level. But because schools may require more geography than the state standard, this research examines the extent to which K-12 students are exposed to geography in…

  20. Geography From Another Dimension

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    The GEODESY software program is intended to promote geographical awareness among students with its remote sensing capabilities to observe the Earth's surface from distant vantage points. Students and teachers using GEODESY learn to interpret and analyze geographical data pertaining to the physical attributes of their community. For example, the program provides a digital environment of physical features, such as mountains and bodies of water, as well as man-made features, such as roads and parks, using aerial photography, satellite imagery, and geographic information systems data in accordance with National Geography Standards. The main goal is to have the students and teachers gain a better understanding of the unique forces that drive their coexistence. GEODESY was developed with technical assistance and financial support from Stennis Space Center's Commercial Remote Sensing Program Office, now known as the Earth Science Applications Directorate.

  1. Making Secondary School Geography Come Alive in Nigeria: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    human features. Hence the main focus of geography is the physical and human .... impact on students' knowledge, attitude, motivation and performance, and consequently ..... S/He also makes sure that where to sleep (if it is more than a day) ...

  2. A Study of Planet Three: A World Geography/Social Studies Course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Duncan

    This 12th grade course in world geography is based on the philosophical assumption that human beings on earth make up a global village of interdependent people. It is world geography with a planetary perspective--an inquiry into the nature of the planet and its dominant species, Homo Sapiens. Seven units cover the following topics on physical and…

  3. The geography of spatial synchrony.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Jonathan A; Sheppard, Lawrence W; Anderson, Thomas L; Kastens, Jude H; Bjørnstad, Ottar N; Liebhold, Andrew M; Reuman, Daniel C

    2017-07-01

    Spatial synchrony, defined as correlated temporal fluctuations among populations, is a fundamental feature of population dynamics, but many aspects of synchrony remain poorly understood. Few studies have examined detailed geographical patterns of synchrony; instead most focus on how synchrony declines with increasing linear distance between locations, making the simplifying assumption that distance decay is isotropic. By synthesising and extending prior work, we show how geography of synchrony, a term which we use to refer to detailed spatial variation in patterns of synchrony, can be leveraged to understand ecological processes including identification of drivers of synchrony, a long-standing challenge. We focus on three main objectives: (1) showing conceptually and theoretically four mechanisms that can generate geographies of synchrony; (2) documenting complex and pronounced geographies of synchrony in two important study systems; and (3) demonstrating a variety of methods capable of revealing the geography of synchrony and, through it, underlying organism ecology. For example, we introduce a new type of network, the synchrony network, the structure of which provides ecological insight. By documenting the importance of geographies of synchrony, advancing conceptual frameworks, and demonstrating powerful methods, we aim to help elevate the geography of synchrony into a mainstream area of study and application. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd/CNRS.

  4. An Analysis on the Use of Educational Social Networking Sites in the Course Activities of Geography Department Students: Edmodo Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teyfur, Emine; Özkan, Adem; Teyfur, Mehmet

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the views of the students of Geography Department on the use of ESNS Edmodo in the course activities. Sequential explanatory design in mixed methods research designs was used in the study. This study was conducted with a total of 41 second grade students who take Europe Geography class and study in the…

  5. Geography teachers PCK according to climate change - match between beliefs and reality?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Søren Witzel; Nielsen, Birgitte Lund

    The aim of this study is to uncover differences or similarities between Geography teachers’ own perception of their Pedagogical Content Knowledge (PCK) in relation to teaching weather formation and climate change and how they actually perform “in-action” in the lower secondary school. The concept...... with a strong academic profile in Physical Geography and natural science are more familiar to teach about weather formation in connection to teaching climate change, than Geography teachers with a strong academic profile in Human Geography and social science. The teachers orientated against Human Geography put...... more emphasis on the problem-oriented/discursive aspects e.g. how climate change affects peoples’ living conditions - some of them neglecting parts of the curriculum focusing on weather formation. Observations of the teachers “in-action” will take place during the spring of 2015....

  6. MHC Class II and CD9 in Human Eosinophils Localize to Detergent-Resistant Membrane Microdomains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akuthota, Praveen; Melo, Rossana C. N.; Spencer, Lisa A.

    2012-01-01

    Eosinophils function in murine allergic airways inflammation as professional antigen-presenting cells (APCs). In murine professional APC cell types, optimal functioning of MHC Class II depends on its lateral association in plasma membranes and colocalization with the tetraspanin CD9 into detergent-resistant membrane microdomains (DRMs). With human eosinophils, we evaluated the localization of MHC Class II (HLA-DR) to DRMs and the functional significance of such localization. In granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor–stimulated human eosinophils, antibody cross-linked HLA-DR colocalized by immunofluorescence microscopy focally on plasma membranes with CD9 and the DRM marker ganglioside GM1. In addition, HLA-DR coimmunoprecipitates with CD9 after chemical cross-linking of CD9. HLA-DR and CD9 were localized by Western blotting in eosinophil DRM subcellular fractions. DRM disruption with the cholesterol-depleting agent methyl-β-cyclodextrin decreased eosinophil surface expression of HLA-DR and CD9. We show that CD9 is abundant on the surface of eosinophils, presenting the first electron microscopy data of the ultrastructural immunolocalization of CD9 in human eosinophils. Disruption of HLA-DR–containing DRMs decreased the ability of superantigen-loaded human eosinophils to stimulate CD4+ T-cell activation (CD69 expression), proliferation, and cytokine production. Our results, which demonstrate that eosinophil MHC Class II localizes to DRMs in association with CD9 in a functionally significant manner, represent a novel insight into the organization of the antigen presentation complex of human eosinophils. PMID:21885678

  7. MHC Class II and CD9 in human eosinophils localize to detergent-resistant membrane microdomains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akuthota, Praveen; Melo, Rossana C N; Spencer, Lisa A; Weller, Peter F

    2012-02-01

    Eosinophils function in murine allergic airways inflammation as professional antigen-presenting cells (APCs). In murine professional APC cell types, optimal functioning of MHC Class II depends on its lateral association in plasma membranes and colocalization with the tetraspanin CD9 into detergent-resistant membrane microdomains (DRMs). With human eosinophils, we evaluated the localization of MHC Class II (HLA-DR) to DRMs and the functional significance of such localization. In granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor-stimulated human eosinophils, antibody cross-linked HLA-DR colocalized by immunofluorescence microscopy focally on plasma membranes with CD9 and the DRM marker ganglioside GM1. In addition, HLA-DR coimmunoprecipitates with CD9 after chemical cross-linking of CD9. HLA-DR and CD9 were localized by Western blotting in eosinophil DRM subcellular fractions. DRM disruption with the cholesterol-depleting agent methyl-β-cyclodextrin decreased eosinophil surface expression of HLA-DR and CD9. We show that CD9 is abundant on the surface of eosinophils, presenting the first electron microscopy data of the ultrastructural immunolocalization of CD9 in human eosinophils. Disruption of HLA-DR-containing DRMs decreased the ability of superantigen-loaded human eosinophils to stimulate CD4(+) T-cell activation (CD69 expression), proliferation, and cytokine production. Our results, which demonstrate that eosinophil MHC Class II localizes to DRMs in association with CD9 in a functionally significant manner, represent a novel insight into the organization of the antigen presentation complex of human eosinophils.

  8. Conceptions of Geography and Cartography in the “Human Sciences” and Archaeological Museums in Bogotá (Colombia, 1938 -1945

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel García Roldan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This article studies the maps and geographical discourses that conferred a certain order and meaning to the collections in archaeological museums in Bogotá, in order to shed light on mid-twentieth century ideas of how to value and interpret our indigenous past. The methodology used is based on a historical analysis of a series of cartographic images and the texts relating to them. This analysis has allowed us to deduce the existence of three types of maps: the map as a logotype, whose aim is to establish a close link between the limits of the national territory and the location of the indigenous societies that inhabited this territory before the arrival of the Spanish; the map as a fragment, which avoids generalizations and prefers to establish more precise links with the concrete spaces where archaeological remains were found; and finally the map as an emblem, which is supported by a scientific discourse  endowed with authority but which, when exposed, is taken out of context and used without revealing its full meaning. The idea of contrasting these types of maps is to demonstrate that the relationship between the disciplines of geography, cartography and archaeology is laced with political content and strongly marked by the institutions where such a relationship is formed.

  9. A place and space for a critical geography of precarity?

    OpenAIRE

    Waite, L

    2009-01-01

    This article explores growing interest in the term ‘precarity’ within the social sciences and asks whether there is a place for a ‘critical geography of precarity’ amid this emerging field. Referring to life worlds characterised by uncertainty and insecurity, the term precarity is double-edged as it implies both a condition and a possible rallying point for resistance. Such areas should be of concern and interest to human geography yet engagement with the concept in the discipline thus far ha...

  10. Persistence of hepatitis C virus in a white population: associations with human leukocyte antigen class 1.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Fanning, Liam J

    2012-02-03

    The aim of this study was to define novel associations between human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class 1 alleles and persistence or clearance of the hepatitis C virus (HCV) in a white population. All individuals in the study were seropositive for anti-HCV antibodies. Viral status was determined by the Roche HCV Amplicor test. HLA-A, -B, -C allelic group profile was molecularly defined by reverse line probe hybridization. The strongest individual allelic group associations with persistent HCV infection were HLA A*11 (p = 0.044) and Cw*04 (p = 0.006). However, only the HLA C*04 association survived correction for multiple comparisons. Further analysis of alleles in linkage with HLA Cw*04 revealed that the haplotype HLA A*11, Cw*04 was present in 11 individuals, 10 of whom were viremic (p = 0.05). No gene dosage effect was observed. No association between HLA class 1 allelic groups and aviremia and virus load was evident in this white population. HLA B*44 is associated with low virus load in human immunodeficiency virus disease, but this association was not evident in this HCV-infected population. Novel HLA class 1 alleles associated with persistence of HCV have been identified.

  11. Trades Between Opposition and Conjunction Class Trajectories for Early Human Missions to Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattfeld, Bryan; Stromgren, Chel; Shyface, Hilary; Komar, David R.; Cirillo, William; Goodliff, Kandyce

    2014-01-01

    Candidate human missions to Mars, including NASA's Design Reference Architecture 5.0, have focused on conjunction-class missions with long crewed durations and minimum energy trajectories to reduce total propellant requirements and total launch mass. However, in order to progressively reduce risk and gain experience in interplanetary mission operations, it may be desirable that initial human missions to Mars, whether to the surface or to Mars orbit, have shorter total crewed durations and minimal stay times at the destination. Opposition-class missions require larger total energy requirements relative to conjunction-class missions but offer the potential for much shorter mission durations, potentially reducing risk and overall systems performance requirements. This paper will present a detailed comparison of conjunction-class and opposition-class human missions to Mars vicinity with a focus on how such missions could be integrated into the initial phases of a Mars exploration campaign. The paper will present the results of a trade study that integrates trajectory/propellant analysis, element design, logistics and sparing analysis, and risk assessment to produce a comprehensive comparison of opposition and conjunction exploration mission constructs. Included in the trade study is an assessment of the risk to the crew and the trade offs between the mission duration and element, logistics, and spares mass. The analysis of the mission trade space was conducted using four simulation and analysis tools developed by NASA. Trajectory analyses for Mars destination missions were conducted using VISITOR (Versatile ImpulSive Interplanetary Trajectory OptimizeR), an in-house tool developed by NASA Langley Research Center. Architecture elements were evaluated using EXploration Architecture Model for IN-space and Earth-to-orbit (EXAMINE), a parametric modeling tool that generates exploration architectures through an integrated systems model. Logistics analysis was conducted using

  12. Applied evolutionary economics and economic geography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frenken, K.

    2007-01-01

    Applied Evolutionary Economics and Economic Geography" aims to further advance empirical methodologies in evolutionary economics, with a special emphasis on geography and firm location. It does so by bringing together a select group of leading scholars including economists, geographers and

  13. Adding geography to the new economic geography : bridging the gap between theory and empirics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosker, E.M.; Brakman, S.; Garretsen, J.H.; Schramm, M.

    2010-01-01

    For reasons of analytical tractability, new economic geography (NEG) models treat geography in a very simple way, focusing on stylized 'unidimensional' geography structures (e.g. an equidistant or line economy). All the well-known NEG results are based on these simple geography structures. When

  14. Nazi biopolitics and the dark geographies of the selva

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giaccaria, P.; Minca, C.

    2011-01-01

    This article examines the spatialities of Nazi genocidial practices. It does so by engaging with the concepts of selva and città, as inspired by Italian philosopher Giorgio Agamben and drawing upon a broader tradition in human geography. Although the historical events that we recall have been

  15. Assessing Sustainability Teaching and Learning in Geography Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widener, Jeffrey M.; Gliedt, Travis; Tziganuk, Ashlee

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This study aims to understand if geographers, who teach in a new sustainability program, are conveying new knowledge, understanding, skills and competence about the integrated and holistic concept of "sustainability", rather than individual human-environmental issues to the students. In other words, are geography professors…

  16. The viral transcription group determines the HLA class I cellular immune response against human respiratory syncytial virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnstone, Carolina; Lorente, Elena; Barriga, Alejandro; Barnea, Eilon; Infantes, Susana; Lemonnier, François A; David, Chella S; Admon, Arie; López, Daniel

    2015-04-01

    The cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-mediated killing of virus-infected cells requires previous recognition of short viral antigenic peptides bound to human leukocyte antigen class I molecules that are exposed on the surface of infected cells. The cytotoxic T-lymphocyte response is critical for the clearance of human respiratory syncytial virus infection. In this study, naturally processed viral human leukocyte antigen class I ligands were identified with mass spectrometry analysis of complex human leukocyte antigen-bound peptide pools isolated from large amounts of human respiratory syncytial virus-infected cells. Acute antiviral T-cell response characterization showed that viral transcription determines both the immunoprevalence and immunodominance of the human leukocyte antigen class I response to human respiratory syncytial virus. These findings have clear implications for antiviral vaccine design. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  17. The Viral Transcription Group Determines the HLA Class I Cellular Immune Response Against Human Respiratory Syncytial Virus*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnstone, Carolina; Lorente, Elena; Barriga, Alejandro; Barnea, Eilon; Infantes, Susana; Lemonnier, François A.; David, Chella S.; Admon, Arie; López, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    The cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-mediated killing of virus-infected cells requires previous recognition of short viral antigenic peptides bound to human leukocyte antigen class I molecules that are exposed on the surface of infected cells. The cytotoxic T-lymphocyte response is critical for the clearance of human respiratory syncytial virus infection. In this study, naturally processed viral human leukocyte antigen class I ligands were identified with mass spectrometry analysis of complex human leukocyte antigen-bound peptide pools isolated from large amounts of human respiratory syncytial virus-infected cells. Acute antiviral T-cell response characterization showed that viral transcription determines both the immunoprevalence and immunodominance of the human leukocyte antigen class I response to human respiratory syncytial virus. These findings have clear implications for antiviral vaccine design. PMID:25635267

  18. WORLD POLITICAL GEOGRAPHY: THEORETICAL MUDDLE?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Célio Augusto da Cunha

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the recent use in the Political Geography of the structuralist social theories. It is performed initially, a brief reflection on the depreciation (or appreciation of the utopias and Marxist concepts. The methodological foundations of geographical approaches based on the world-systems theory are analyzed. It is also questioned the relationship of these approaches with geopolitical analysis in the macro-scale. At last, abridged, there is a discussion about the links of imperialism and the regulation theory with the geography.

  19. Returning "Region" to World Regional Geography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rees, Peter W.; Legates, Margaret

    2013-01-01

    World regional geography textbooks rarely focus on the process of region formation, despite frequent calls to reincorporate a regional approach to teaching global geography. An instructional strategy using problem-based learning in a small honors section of a large world regional geography course is described. Using a hypothetical scenario…

  20. Turkish Primary Students' Perceptions of Geography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senyurt, Secil

    2014-01-01

    This study provides an in-depth investigation of Turkish primary school students' perceptions of geography. Gender differences in students' perceptions of geography were investigated, including definitions of geography and its field of study. The findings showed that "landforms," "our geographical regions/Turkey,"…

  1. Applied Geography Internships: Operational Canadian Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, L. T.

    1982-01-01

    Anxious to maintain student enrollments, geography departments have placed greater emphasis on the applied nature of the discipline. Described are (1) the advantages of internships in college geography curricula that enable students to gain firsthand knowledge about the usefulness of geography in real world situations and (2) operational models…

  2. Building Geography's New Frontier: Implementing the Australian Curriculum Geography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purnell, Ken

    2013-01-01

    The introduction of Geography as a compulsory learning area from Foundation year, such as Kindergarten, to Year 8 in Australia provides new opportunities for learning and teaching. Opportunities, in part, will be driven by challenges associated with the introduction of this learning area. Key challenges are about variability: in take-up of the…

  3. Teaching Energy Geographies via Videography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graybill, Jessica K.

    2016-01-01

    In our digital age of information acquisition, multimedia information streams are constant, constantly changing and often contain multiple messages about topics important to everyday life, such as energy geographies. Recognizing that college students are prime consumers of digital information, it seems that crafting of academic engagement for and…

  4. Teaching Energy Geography? It's Complicated

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, Matt

    2016-01-01

    The premise of this essay is that energy geographies are complicated, and this in itself presents some pedagogical difficulties. As someone who wants students to critically examine and confront the complexity of energy systems, it can be frustrating when students react to demonstrate frustration, apathy, or even confusion. In what follows, I will…

  5. Geospatial Technology in Geography Education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muniz Solari, Osvaldo; Demirci, A.; van der Schee, J.A.

    2015-01-01

    The book is presented as an important starting point for new research in Geography Education (GE) related to the use and application of geospatial technologies (GSTs). For this purpose, the selection of topics was based on central ideas to GE in its relationship with GSTs. The process of geospatial

  6. Geography of the asteroid belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zellner, B. H.

    1978-01-01

    The CSM classification serves as the starting point on the geography of the asteroid belt. Raw data on asteroid types are corrected for observational biases (against dark objects, for instance) to derive the distribution of types throughout the belt. Recent work on family members indicates that dynamical families have a true physical relationship, presumably indicating common origin in the breakup of a parent asteroid.

  7. Teaching Mathematics in Geography Degrees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Robert

    1978-01-01

    Examines ways of developing college students' motivation for mathematical training; describes the type of mathematical knowledge required in the geography discipline; and explores an applied approach to mathematics teaching based on a systems concept. For journal availability, see SO 506 224. (Author/AV)

  8. Human leukocyte antigen class II susceptibility conferring alleles among non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tipu, H.N.; Ahmed, T.A.; Bashir, M.M.

    2010-01-01

    To determine the frequency of Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA) class II susceptibility conferring alleles among type 2 Diabetes mellitus patients, in comparison with healthy controls. Cross-sectional comparative study. Patients with non-insulin dependent Diabetes mellitus meeting World Health Organization criteria were studied. These were compared with age and gender matched healthy control subjects. For each subject (patients as well as controls), DNA was extracted from ethylene diamine tetra-acetate sample and HLA class II DRB1 typing was carried out at allele group level (DRB1*01-DRB1*16) by sequence specific primers. Human leukocyte antigen DRB1 type was determined by agarose gel electrophoresis and results were recorded. Frequencies were determined as number of an allele divided by total number of alleles per group; p-value was computed using Pearson's chi-square test. Among the 100 patients, there were 63 males and 37 females with 68 controls. A total of 13 different HLA DRB1 alleles were detected, with DRB1*15 being the commonest in both the groups. The allele DRB1*13 had statistically significant higher frequency in patient group as compared to controls (p 0.005). HLA DRB1*13 was found with a significantly increased frequency in non-insulin dependent Diabetes mellitus. (author)

  9. A Novel Class of Small Molecule Agonists with Preference for Human over Mouse TLR4 Activation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason D Marshall

    Full Text Available The best-characterized Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4 ligands are lipopolysaccharide (LPS and its chemically modified and detoxified variant, monophosphoryl lipid A (MPL. Although both molecules are active for human TLR4, they demonstrate a potency preference for mouse TLR4 based on data from transfected cell lines and primary cells of both species. After a high throughput screening process of small molecule libraries, we have discovered a new class of TLR4 agonist with a species preference profile differing from MPL. Products of the 4-component Ugi synthesis reaction were demonstrated to potently trigger human TLR4-transfected HEK cells but not mouse TLR4, although inclusion of the human MD2 with mTLR4 was able to partially recover activity. Co-expression of CD14 was not required for optimal activity of Ugi compounds on transfected cells, as it is for LPS. The species preference profile for the panel of Ugi compounds was found to be strongly active for human and cynomolgus monkey primary cells, with reduced but still substantial activity for most Ugi compounds on guinea pig cells. Mouse, rat, rabbit, ferret, and cotton rat cells displayed little or no activity when exposed to Ugi compounds. However, engineering the human versions of TLR4 and MD2 to be expressed in mTLR4/MD2 deficient mice allowed for robust activity by Ugi compounds both in vitro and in vivo. These findings extend the range of compounds available for development as agonists of TLR4 and identify novel molecules which reverse the TLR4 triggering preference of MPL for mouse TLR4 over human TLR4. Such compounds may be amenable to formulation as more potent human-specific TLR4L-based adjuvants than typical MPL-based adjuvants.

  10. Geography, demography, and economic growth in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloom, D E; Sachs, J D

    1998-01-01

    This paper presents the effects of climate, topography, and natural ecology on public health, nutrition, demographics, technological diffusion, international trade and other determinants of economic development in Africa. The goal of this paper is to emphasize the need for intensified research on the issues at the intersection of ecology and human society. Geography was given emphasis because of three reasons: the minimal gain from another recitation of the damage caused by statism, protectionism and corruption to African economic performance; negligence of the role of natural forces in shaping economic performance; and tailoring of policies to geographical realities. The paper also discusses the general problems of tropical development and the focus of Africa's problems in worldwide tropical perspectives; demographic trends in Africa; use of standard cross-country growth equations with demographic and geographic variables, to account for the relative roles of geography; and the future growth strategies and the need for urban-based export growth in manufacturing and services. Lastly, the authors provide a summary of conclusions and discuss the agenda for future research.

  11. Distribution of class ii major histocompatibility complex antigenexpressing cells in human dental pulp with carious lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetiana Haniastuti

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dental caries is a bacterial infection which causes destruction of the hard tissues of the tooth. Exposure of the dentin to the oral environment as a result of caries inevitably results in a cellular response in the pulp. The major histocompatibility complex (MHC is a group of genes that code for cell-surface histocompatibility antigens. Cells expressing class II MHC molecules participate in the initial recognition and the processing of antigenic substances to serve as antigen-presenting cells. Purpose: The aim of the study was to elucidate the alteration in the distribution of class II MHC antigen-expressing cells in human dental pulp as carious lesions progressed toward the pulp. Methods: Fifteen third molars with caries at the occlusal site at various stages of decay and 5 intact third molars were extracted and used in this study. Before decalcifying with 10% EDTA solution (pH 7.4, all the samples were observed by micro-computed tomography to confirm the lesion condition three-dimensionally. The specimens were then processed for cryosection and immunohistochemistry using an anti-MHC class II monoclonal antibody. Results: Class II MHC antigen-expressing cells were found both in normal and carious specimens. In normal tooth, the class II MHC-immunopositive cells were observed mainly at the periphery of the pulp tissue. In teeth with caries, class II MHC-immunopositive cells were located predominantly subjacent to the carious lesions. As the caries progressed, the number of class II MHC antigen-expressing cells was increased. Conclusion: The depth of carious lesions affects the distribution of class II MHC antigen-expressing cells in the dental pulp.Latar belakang: Karies merupakan penyakit infeksi bakteri yang mengakibatkan destruksi jaringan keras gigi. Dentin yang terbuka akibat karies akan menginduksi respon imun seluler pada pulpa. Kompleks histokompatibilitas utama (MHC merupakan sekumpulan gen yang mengkode histokompatibilitas

  12. A New Informatics Geography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coiera, E

    2016-11-10

    Anyone with knowledge of information systems has experienced frustration when it comes to system implementation or use. Unanticipated challenges arise frequently and unanticipated consequences may follow. Working from first principles, to understand why information technology (IT) is often challenging, identify which IT endeavors are more likely to succeed, and predict the best role that technology can play in different tasks and settings. The fundamental purpose of IT is to enhance our ability to undertake tasks, supplying new information that changes what we decide and ultimately what occurs in the world. The value of this information (VOI) can be calculated at different stages of the decision-making process and will vary depending on how technology is used. We can imagine a task space that describes the relative benefits of task completion by humans or computers and that contains specific areas where humans or computers are superior. There is a third area where neither is strong and a final joint workspace where humans and computers working in partnership produce the best results. By understanding that information has value and that VOI can be quantified, we can make decisions about how best to support the work we do. Evaluation of the expected utility of task completion by humans or computers should allow us to decide whether solutions should depend on technology, humans, or a partnership between the two.

  13. Population structure and cultural geography of a folktale in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Robert M.; Greenhill, Simon J.; Atkinson, Quentin D.

    2013-01-01

    Despite a burgeoning science of cultural evolution, relatively little work has focused on the population structure of human cultural variation. By contrast, studies in human population genetics use a suite of tools to quantify and analyse spatial and temporal patterns of genetic variation within and between populations. Human genetic diversity can be explained largely as a result of migration and drift giving rise to gradual genetic clines, together with some discontinuities arising from geographical and cultural barriers to gene flow. Here, we adapt theory and methods from population genetics to quantify the influence of geography and ethnolinguistic boundaries on the distribution of 700 variants of a folktale in 31 European ethnolinguistic populations. We find that geographical distance and ethnolinguistic affiliation exert significant independent effects on folktale diversity and that variation between populations supports a clustering concordant with European geography. This pattern of geographical clines and clusters parallels the pattern of human genetic diversity in Europe, although the effects of geographical distance and ethnolinguistic boundaries are stronger for folktales than genes. Our findings highlight the importance of geography and population boundaries in models of human cultural variation and point to key similarities and differences between evolutionary processes operating on human genes and culture. PMID:23390109

  14. Developing and Evaluating Medical Humanities Problem-Based Learning Classes Facilitated by the Teaching Assistants Majored in the Liberal Arts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Fen-Yu; Shieh, Jeng-Yi; Kao, Tze-Wah; Wu, Chau-Chung; Chu, Tzong-Shinn; Chen, Yen-Yuan

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Although medical humanities courses taught by teachers from nonmedical backgrounds are not unusual now, few studies have compared the outcome of medical humanities courses facilitated by physicians to that by teaching assistants majored in the liberal arts. The objectives of this study were to (1) analyze the satisfaction of medical students with medical humanities problem-based learning (PBL) classes facilitated by nonmedical teaching assistants (TAF) majored in the liberal arts, and those facilitated by the attending physicians (APF) and (2) examine the satisfaction of medical students with clinical medicine-related and clinical medicine-unrelated medical humanities PBL classes. A total of 123 medical students, randomly assigned to 16 groups, participated in this study. There were 16 classes in the course: 8 of them were TAF classes; and the others were APF classes. Each week, each group rotated from 1 subject of the 16 subjects of PBL to another subject. All of the 16 groups went through all the 16 subjects in the 2013 spring semester. We examined the medical students’ satisfaction with each class, based on a rating score collected after each class was completed, using a scale from 0 (the lowest satisfaction) to 100 (the highest satisfaction). We also conducted multivariate linear regression analysis to examine the association between the independent variables and the students’ satisfaction. Medical students were more satisfied with the TAF (91.35 ± 7.75) medical humanities PBL classes than APF (90.40 ± 8.42) medical humanities PBL classes (P = 0.01). Moreover, medical students were more satisfied with the clinical medicine-unrelated topics (92.00 ± 7.10) than the clinical medicine-related topics (90.36 ± 7.99) in the medical humanities PBL course (P = 0.01). This medical humanities PBL course, including nonmedical subjects and topics, and nonmedical teaching assistants from the liberal arts as class facilitators, was

  15. Assessing the Biohazard Potential of Putative Martian Organisms for Exploration Class Human Space Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warmflash, David; Larios-Sanz, Maia; Jones, Jeffrey; Fox, George E.; McKay, David S.

    2007-01-01

    Exploration Class missions to Mars will require precautions against potential contamination by any native microorganisms that may be incidentally pathogenic to humans. While the results of NASA's Viking biology experiments of 1976 have been generally interpreted as inconclusive for surface organisms, the possibility of native surface life has never been ruled out and more recent studies suggest that the case for biological interpretation of the Viking Labeled Release data may now be stronger than it was when the experiments were originally conducted. It is possible that, prior to the first human landing on Mars, robotic craft and sample return missions will provide enough data to know with certainty whether or not future human landing sites harbor extant life forms. However, if native life is confirmed, it will be problematic to determine whether any of its species may present a medical risk to astronauts. Therefore, it will become necessary to assess empirically the risk that the planet contains pathogens based on terrestrial examples of pathogenicity and to take a reasonably cautious approach to bio-hazard protection. A survey of terrestrial pathogens was conducted with special emphasis on those pathogens whose evolution has not depended on the presence of animal hosts. The history of the development and implementation of Apollo anticontamination protocol and recent recommendations of the NRC Space Studies Board regarding Mars were reviewed. Organisms can emerge in nature in the absence of indigenous animal hosts and both infectious and non-infectious human pathogens are theoretically possible on Mars. The prospect of Martian surface life, together with the existence of a diversity of routes by which pathogenicity has emerged on Earth, suggests that the possibility of human pathogens on Mars, while low, is not zero. Since the discovery and study of Martian life can have long-term benefits for humanity, the risk that Martian life might include pathogens should not

  16. The Initial Training of Geography Teachers at the University of Porto: Model and Training, Practices and Representations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Felisbela

    2015-01-01

    Since 2008, the initial training of Geography teachers in Portugal was combined with the initial training of History teachers. This forced union has led to implications in the practices and teaching of geography. This paper intends to explore the thoughts and actions of the student teachers at the Faculty of Arts and Humanities, University of…

  17. Antigen presentation and MHC class II expression by human esophageal epithelial cells: role in eosinophilic esophagitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulder, Daniel J; Pooni, Aman; Mak, Nanette; Hurlbut, David J; Basta, Sameh; Justinich, Christopher J

    2011-02-01

    Professional antigen-presenting cells (APCs) play a crucial role in initiating immune responses. Under pathological conditions, epithelial cells at mucosal surfaces act as nonprofessional APCs, thereby regulating immune responses at the site of exposure. Epithelial cells in the esophagus may contribute to the pathogenesis of eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) by presenting antigens on the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II. Our goal was to demonstrate the ability of esophageal epithelial cells to process and present antigens on the MHC class II system and to investigate the contribution of epithelial cell antigen presentation to EoE. Immunohistochemistry detected HLA-DR, CD80, and CD86 expression and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay detected interferon-γ (IFNγ) in esophageal biopsies. Antigen presentation was studied using the human esophageal epithelial cell line HET-1A by reverse transcriptase-PCR, flow cytometry, and confocal microscopy. T helper cell lymphocyte proliferation was assessed by flow cytometry and IL-2 secretion. IFNγ and MHC class II were increased in mucosa of patients with EoE. IFNγ increased mRNA of HLA-DP, HLA-DQ, HLA-DR, and CIITA in HET-1A cells. HET-1A engulfed cell debris and processed ovalbumin. HET-1A cells expressed HLA-DR after IFNγ treatment. HET-1A stimulated T helper cell activation. In this study, we demonstrated the ability of esophageal epithelial cells to act as nonprofessional APCs in the presence of IFNγ. Esophageal epithelial cell antigen presentation may contribute to the pathophysiology of eosinophilic esophagitis. Copyright © 2011 American Society for Investigative Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Dynamics of major histocompatibility complex class I association with the human peptide-loading complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panter, Michaela S; Jain, Ankur; Leonhardt, Ralf M; Ha, Taekjip; Cresswell, Peter

    2012-09-07

    Although the human peptide-loading complex (PLC) is required for optimal major histocompatibility complex class I (MHC I) antigen presentation, its composition is still incompletely understood. The ratio of the transporter associated with antigen processing (TAP) and MHC I to tapasin, which is responsible for MHC I recruitment and peptide binding optimization, is particularly critical for modeling of the PLC. Here, we characterized the stoichiometry of the human PLC using both biophysical and biochemical approaches. By means of single-molecule pulldown (SiMPull), we determined a TAP/tapasin ratio of 1:2, consistent with previous studies of insect-cell microsomes, rat-human chimeric cells, and HeLa cells expressing truncated TAP subunits. We also report that the tapasin/MHC I ratio varies, with the PLC population comprising both 2:1 and 2:2 complexes, based on mutational and co-precipitation studies. The MHC I-saturated PLC may be particularly prevalent among peptide-selective alleles, such as HLA-C4. Additionally, MHC I association with the PLC increases when its peptide supply is reduced by inhibiting the proteasome or by blocking TAP-mediated peptide transport using viral inhibitors. Taken together, our results indicate that the composition of the human PLC varies under normal conditions and dynamically adapts to alterations in peptide supply that may arise during viral infection. These findings improve our understanding of the quality control of MHC I peptide loading and may aid the structural and functional modeling of the human PLC.

  19. USING LITERATURE IN GEOGRAPHY LESSONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ROXANA HOBAI

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Including in a novel information about relief, climate, vegetation, fauna and various aspects of socio-economic life can make literature a real source of geographical information. Using realistic literary works in Geography lessons has multiple benefits, which are not limited only to geographical knowledge. In this paper there are some fragments from literature, suggestions of activities about how to integrate the fragments during Geography lessons and the results of these activities. The activities are from fifth to twelfth grade, passing through a first example of water pollution resulting from a Hercules labour, through the lyricism of the aurora borealis description, through the dramatic life of a refugee from Darfur, through the Dobrudgea winter landscape, through the grey urban landscape of Bucharest in the 90s and so on. Students were put into learning situations that stimulated their creativity, developed communication competencies and enriched their general knowledge.

  20. Geographies of High Frequency Trading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grindsted, Thomas Skou

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates the geographies of high frequency trading. Today shares shift hands within micro seconds, giving rise to a form of financial geographies termed algorithmic capitalism. This notion refers to the different spatio-temporalities produced by high frequency trading, under...... the valuation of time. As high frequency trading accelerates financial markets, the paper examines the spatio-temporalities of automated trading by the ways in which the speed of knowledge exploitation in financial markets is not only of interest, but also the expansion between different temporalities....... The paper demonstrates how the intensification of time-space compression produces radical new dynamics in the financial market and develops information rent in HFT as convertible to a time rent and a spatio-temporal rent. The final section discusses whether high frequency trading only responds to crises...

  1. The E5 protein of human papillomavirus type 16 perturbs MHC class II antigen maturation in human foreskin keratinocytes treated with interferon-γ

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Benyue; Li Ping; Wang Exing; Brahmi, Zacharie; Dunn, Kenneth W.; Blum, Janice S.; Roman, Ann

    2003-01-01

    Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II antigens are expressed on human foreskin keratinocytes (HFKs) following exposure to interferon gamma. The expression of MHC class II proteins on the cell surface may allow keratinocytes to function as antigen-presenting cells and induce a subsequent immune response to virus infection. Invariant chain (Ii) is a chaperone protein which plays an important role in the maturation of MHC class II molecules. The sequential degradation of Ii within acidic endocytic compartments is a key process required for the successful loading of antigenic peptide onto MHC class II molecules. Since human papillomavirus (HPV) 16 E5 can inhibit the acidification of late endosomes in HFKs, the E5 protein may be able to affect proper peptide loading onto the MHC class II molecule. To test this hypothesis, HFKs were infected with either control virus or a recombinant virus expressing HPV16 E5 and the infected cells were subsequently treated with interferon-γ. ELISAs revealed a decrease of MHC class II expression on the surface of E5-expressing cells compared with control virus-infected cells after interferon treatment. Western blot analysis showed that, in cells treated with interferon gamma, E5 could prevent the breakdown of Ii and block the formation of peptide-loaded, SDS-stable mature MHC class II dimers, correlating with diminished surface MHC class II expression. These data suggest that HPV16 E5 may be able to decrease immune recognition of infected keratinocytes via disruption of MHC class II protein function

  2. Human HOX Proteins Use Diverse and Context-Dependent Motifs to Interact with TALE Class Cofactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dard, Amélie; Reboulet, Jonathan; Jia, Yunlong; Bleicher, Françoise; Duffraisse, Marilyne; Vanaker, Jean-Marc; Forcet, Christelle; Merabet, Samir

    2018-03-13

    HOX proteins achieve numerous functions by interacting with the TALE class PBX and MEIS cofactors. In contrast to this established partnership in development and disease, how HOX proteins could interact with PBX and MEIS remains unclear. Here, we present a systematic analysis of HOX/PBX/MEIS interaction properties, scanning all paralog groups with human and mouse HOX proteins in vitro and in live cells. We demonstrate that a previously characterized HOX protein motif known to be critical for HOX-PBX interactions becomes dispensable in the presence of MEIS in all except the two most anterior paralog groups. We further identify paralog-specific TALE-binding sites that are used in a highly context-dependent manner. One of these binding sites is involved in the proliferative activity of HOXA7 in breast cancer cells. Together these findings reveal an extraordinary level of interaction flexibility between HOX proteins and their major class of developmental cofactors. Copyright © 2018 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Helping Your Child Learn Geography

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    1996-01-01

    By the year 2000, all students will leave grades 4, 8, and 12 having demonstrated competency over challenging subject matter including English, mathematics, science, foreign languages, civics and government, economics, arts, history, and geography, and every school in America will ensure that all students learn to use their minds well, so they may be prepared for responsible citizenship, further learning, and productive employment in our Nation's modern economy.

  4. The Geography of Financial Literacy

    OpenAIRE

    Christopher Bumcrot; Judy Lin; Annamaria Lusardi

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores how well equipped today’s households are to make complex financial decisions in the face of often high-cost and high-risk financial instruments. Specifically we focus on financial literacy. Most importantly, we describe the geography of financial literacy, i.e., how financial literacy is distributed across the fifty US states. We describe the correlation of financial literacy and some important aggregate variables, such as state-level poverty rates. Finally, we examine the...

  5. Conceptual Design of a Mobile Application for Geography Fieldwork Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoling Wang

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The use of mobile applications on smartphones has a vast potential to support learning in the field. However, all learning technologies should be properly designed. To this end, we adopt User-Centered Design (UCD to design a mobile application, called GeoFARA (Geography Fieldwork Augmented Reality Application, for university geography fieldwork. This paper is about the conceptual design of GeoFARA based on its use and user requirements. The paper first establishes a review of selected existing mobile AR applications for outdoor use, in order to identify the innovative aspects and the improvements of GeoFARA. Thereafter, we present the results of use and user requirements derived from (1 an online survey of the current use of tools in undergraduate geography fieldwork, (2 a field experiment in which the use of paper maps and a mobile mapping tool were compared, (3 investigations during a human geography fieldwork, (4 post-fieldwork surveys among undergraduates from two universities, (5 our use case, and (6 a use scenario. Based on these requirements, a conceptual design of GeoFARA is provided in terms of technical specifications, main contents, functionalities, as well as user interactions and interfaces. This conceptual design will guide the future prototype development of GeoFARA.

  6. Geosystems: An Introduction to Physical Geography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christopherson, Robert, W.; Birkeland, Ginger

    Among the most highly regarded in physical geography, Robert Christopherson’s best-selling texts are known for their meticulous attention to detail, currency, accuracy, and rich integration of climate change science. Geosystems: An Introduction to Physical Geography,Ninth Edition is uniquely...... an interactive and engaging learning experience for your students. Here’s how: Personalize learning with Mastering Geography: Mastering Geography provides students with engaging and interactive experiences that coach them through introductory physical geography with specific wrong-answer feedback, hints......, and a wide variety of educationally effective content. Teach with current and relevant content. An emphasis on currency includes a new chapter on global climate change and provides students and instructors with the most significant and current information and applications for learning physical geography...

  7. JC polyomavirus infection is strongly controlled by human leucocyte antigen class II variants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilie Sundqvist

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available JC polyomavirus (JCV carriers with a compromised immune system, such as in HIV, or subjects on immune-modulating therapies, such as anti VLA-4 therapy may develop progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML which is a lytic infection of oligodendrocytes in the brain. Serum antibodies to JCV mark infection occur only in 50-60% of infected individuals, and high JCV-antibody titers seem to increase the risk of developing PML. We here investigated the role of human leukocyte antigen (HLA, instrumental in immune defense in JCV antibody response. Anti-JCV antibody status, as a surrogate for JCV infection, were compared to HLA class I and II alleles in 1621 Scandinavian persons with MS and 1064 population-based Swedish controls and associations were replicated in 718 German persons with MS. HLA-alleles were determined by SNP imputation, sequence specific (SSP kits and a reverse PCR sequence-specific oligonucleotide (PCR-SSO method. An initial GWAS screen displayed a strong HLA class II region signal. The HLA-DRB1*15 haplotype was strongly negatively associated to JCV sero-status in Scandinavian MS cases (OR = 0.42, p = 7×10(-15 and controls (OR = 0.53, p = 2×10(-5. In contrast, the DQB1*06:03 haplotype was positively associated with JCV sero-status, in Scandinavian MS cases (OR = 1.63, p = 0.006, and controls (OR = 2.69, p = 1×10(-5. The German dataset confirmed these findings (OR = 0.54, p = 1×10(-4 and OR = 1.58, p = 0.03 respectively for these haplotypes. HLA class II restricted immune responses, and hence CD4+ T cell immunity is pivotal for JCV infection control. Alleles within the HLA-DR1*15 haplotype are associated with a protective effect on JCV infection. Alleles within the DQB1*06:03 haplotype show an opposite association. These associations between JC virus antibody response and human leucocyte antigens supports the notion that CD4+ T cells are crucial in the immune defence to JCV and

  8. Perspectives in geography of culture and civilizations

    OpenAIRE

    Grčić Мirko; Grčić Ljiljana; Sibinović Мikica

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a comparative analysis of relevant methodological essence of "traditional" and "new" cultural geography. In the introduction is given an explanation of philosophic concepts of space, environment, place and the region in cultural geography. In second section is analyzed the meaning of civilization and the genesis of geography of civilization (géographie de civilisation). Special attention is on features of geographical posibilism as metho...

  9. Taking Stock in Geography Education around the World: An International Perspective on the Teaching of Geography

    Science.gov (United States)

    DaSilva, Edmar Bernardes; Kvasnak, Robb Neil

    2011-01-01

    The identity of geography as a discipline since the nineteenth-century naissance of contemporary academia, if not before, has been often disputed. In higher education, geography is often part of the geosciences, often located in a geography, geology, earth science, and environmental science department or departments. In the world of education…

  10. Reconciling Discourse about Geography and Teaching Geography: The Case of Singapore Pre-Service Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seow, Tricia

    2016-01-01

    This study draws upon a Foucauldian notion of discourse to explore how four pre-service geography teachers in Singapore made decisions about what geography is and how to enact their understandings of geography in their classrooms. This analysis of discursive power is particularly relevant to Singapore because of the high level of state control…

  11. Geography Education: Applying Spatial Aspects to Everyday Life: American Association of Geographers Geography Education Specialty Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wessell, Jonathan E.

    2016-01-01

    Throughout his career teaching geography, Johnathan Wessell has always stressed to his students that they already knew a lot about geography before they entered his classroom. He writes in this article that once he convinces his students of this, they begin to realize that geography is all around them, and that they, in turn, begin to shift their…

  12. Does the High School Geography Experience Influence Enrollment in University Geography Courses?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leydon, Joseph; McLaughlin, Christina; Wilson, Heather

    2017-01-01

    The literature suggests that owing to profound difficulties with high school geography curricula, teachers play a vital role in stimulating student interest and in providing a platform for continuation in the study of geography at university. Yet, with little empirical evidence offered in support, it is unclear why students select geography at…

  13. Doing comic geographies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmerson, Phil

    2016-10-01

    This article reflects on how notions of 'the comic' may be of added value to geographers' research. It is formed around the idea that there are aspects of space and society that are by nature incongruous and unsuitable to be understood through frameworks of scholarship that privilege 'reason' and objectivity above all else. The author thus reflects on how these notions of 'the comic' as a mode of thought can be applied to understanding different fields of research. Ultimately, the article draws out how using this comic mode also forms an 'inward' reflective process which can help to understand the often complicated positions that researchers hold. This article thus calls for an inclusion of the often otherwise ignored comic aspects of the world into scholarship so that we, as geographers, may provide fuller and more human critical analyses of space, culture and society.

  14. A Teacher's Bookshelf: The Historical Geography of the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danzer, Gerald A.

    1993-01-01

    Contends that historical geography helps teachers understand the link between history and geography. Presents an annotated bibliography of recommended geography books for teachers. Asserts that the most essential volume is an atlas of U.S. history. (CFR)

  15. Planetary Landscape Geography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hargitai, H.

    the landscape. Unique or common landscape forms: Depending on the given planet, one feature can have special value (or can be of different scientific importance): on Io, a impact crater would be more important, than on the Moon, etc. Current processes: Naturally, "living" landscapes (with active volcanoes, geysers, dust devils or active weather processes) are more valuable than "dead" ones. Cultural landscape values. Human presence on a extraterrestrial body is of high impor- tance. Human landing sites with footprints or landing sites with spacecraft "debris" or scientific devices makes any - otherwise unimportant - landscape valuable for us. Even the proper names of surface features will change their physical value: for a Hungarian, for example, a crater named after a Hungarian scientist will have a special value and will attract more interest than other craters. These factors are comparable with our tourist value categories. Economical landscape values. As on Earth, it makes an area more valuable if it has economically usable and profitable raw materials: minerals, rocks (impactites and other materials formed in special conditions or a long time ago). Aesthetic landscape values. We, humans, consider this as an other important factor since the German painter A. Altdorfer in the 16th century has first chosen certain land- 2 scapes that he considered to be of artistic value even without human figures present in the landscape. Parts of aesthetic landscape values are not part of the surface or local environment but of the planet or planetary system: the color of lack of the atmosphere, clouds, the characteristics of the visible moons. The abiogenic surface elements of this category are for example sand dunes, relief forms with order in their shape or distri- bution, or extreme landforms: extensive smooth plains or deep canyons. "Human presence (or life) - friendliness" values. Conditions for longer human pres- ence will be one of the most important factors when we start

  16. Human Activity Recognition from Smart-Phone Sensor Data using a Multi-Class Ensemble Learning in Home Monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghose, Soumya; Mitra, Jhimli; Karunanithi, Mohan; Dowling, Jason

    2015-01-01

    Home monitoring of chronically ill or elderly patient can reduce frequent hospitalisations and hence provide improved quality of care at a reduced cost to the community, therefore reducing the burden on the healthcare system. Activity recognition of such patients is of high importance in such a design. In this work, a system for automatic human physical activity recognition from smart-phone inertial sensors data is proposed. An ensemble of decision trees framework is adopted to train and predict the multi-class human activity system. A comparison of our proposed method with a multi-class traditional support vector machine shows significant improvement in activity recognition accuracies.

  17. Moral Geography and Exploration of the Moral Possibility Space

    OpenAIRE

    Bongrae Seok

    2017-01-01

    This article reviews Owen Flanagan’s latest book “The Geography of Morals, Varieties of Moral Possibilities” (2017). By exploring the space of moral possibility (i.e., diverse options and viewpoints of morality from different philosophical and religious traditions throughout the world), Flanagan argues that ethics is not simply a study of a priori conditions of normative rules and ideal values but a process of developing a careful understanding of varying conditions of human ecology and build...

  18. The Geography of Green Power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    OShaughnessy, Eric J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Heeter, Jenny S [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Volpi, Christina M [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-10-25

    Green power refers to the voluntary purchase of renewable electricity by retail electricity customers. Green power is unlike compliance-based renewable energy procurement imposed by law or regulation. In 2016, over six million customers procured about 95 million megawatt-hours (MWh) of green power in the United States, which represents about 28% of all U.S. renewable energy sales, excluding large hydropower. In this fact sheet, we use available data to illustrate the geography of green power demand (in terms of number of customers) and supply (in terms of MWh of generation) by state.

  19. Migrations in Slovenian geography textbooks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jurij Senegačnik

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In Slovenia, the migrations are treated in almost all geographical textbooks for different levels of education. In the textbooks for the elementary school from the sixth to ninth grade, students acquire knowledge of the migrations by the inductive approach. Difficulty level of treatment and quantity of information are increasing by the age level. In the grammar school program a trail of gaining knowledge on migration is deductive. Most attention is dedicated to migrations in general geography textbooks. The textbooks for vocational and technical school programs deal with migrations to a lesser extent and with different approaches.

  20. THEORETICAL CONCEPTIONS OF GEOGRAPHY TEACHERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eloy Montes Galbán

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of this research was to determine the current theoretical concepts handled by third stage basic education geography teachers. A non experimental descriptive study was made. Data was collected through a semi structured questionnaire. The population was conformed by the teachers who work at the National schools placed in the parishes Raul Leoni and Cacique Mara of Maracaibo city, Zulia State. There is not clarity in regard to the correct handling of the different geographic currents, and the slight notion teachers have leans towards a traditional, descriptive, retrospective memory based conception.

  1. 1. Editorial: Philosophy and Geography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuela Albertone

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available After “Erasmian Science” and “Gastronomy and Revolution”, the Journal of Interdisciplinary History of Ideas has again issued a Call for Paper, for a special issue dedicated to the historical relations of Philosophy and Geography. It will be guest-edited by Ernesto Sferrazza Papa and Simone Mammola, and appear end 2017. In the Editorial we present the contents of the Call, that can also be found, together with practical information for submission, in the News of the JIHI.

  2. Justice, fairness, and membership in a class: conceptual confusions and moral puzzles in the regulation of human subjects research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iltis, Ana S

    2011-01-01

    This essay examines conceptual difficulties with one of the ways in which justice has been understood and applied the ethical and regulatory review of human research. Justice requires the fair distribution of the benefits and burdens of research. Class membership is seen as justifying inclusion in higher hazard-no benefit research from which members of potentially vulnerable classes, such as children, typically would be excluded. I argue that class membership does not do the justificatory work it is thought to do and that the use of class membership to justify inclusion in higher hazard-no benefit research leads to unjustified discrimination of sick children and offers special protections to healthy children. © 2011 American Society of Law, Medicine & Ethics, Inc.

  3. Teaching Gender Geography in Aotearoa New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longhurst, Robyn

    2011-01-01

    In New Zealand universities, gender is still not a substantial part of the curriculum in most geography departments. Although at the University of Waikato, the situation is different. Its specific history of radical scholarship has enabled feminist academics in a variety of disciplines including geography to have had a stronger voice than in other…

  4. Teaching Geography through an Animated Lens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenna, Joshua L.; Waters, Stewart

    2017-01-01

    Geography is a fun and exciting discipline involving the interrogation of place and space. Film is a powerful and meaningful tool, which also transmits perceptions of place and space. Therefore, this article builds a rationale for utilizing film in the teaching of geography, particularly animated film. Next, it discusses two classroom-tested…

  5. English Primary Trainee Teachers' Perceptions of Geography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morley, Emma

    2012-01-01

    This paper summarises the findings of research conducted with one cohort of English undergraduate primary teacher trainees on point of entry to a 4-year course. The research examines the perceptions held of geography as a subject discipline and the purposes of teaching the subject. Two hundred and eleven trainees were asked to define geography and…

  6. How to Write Geography Teaching Paper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hua; Li, Lu

    2011-01-01

    Geography teaching paper is the paper especially to describe geography teaching reform and research achievement, its main purpose is to find solution to handle questions encountered in teaching through personal teaching practice, constant trying and exploration, and to scientifically summarize the procedure and methods to deal with the problem,…

  7. Barriers to Teaching Introductory Physical Geography Online

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritter, Michael E.

    2012-01-01

    Learning geography online is becoming an option for more students but not without controversy. Issues of faculty resources, logistics, professional recognition, and pedagogical concerns are cited as barriers to teaching online. Offering introductory physical geography online presents special challenges. As a general education course, an…

  8. Trade costs in empirical New Economic Geography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosker, E.M.; Garretsen, J.H.

    Trade costs are a crucial element of New Economic Geography (NEG) models. Without trade costs there is no role for geography. In empirical NEG studies the unavailability of direct trade cost data calls for the need to approximate these trade costs by introducing a trade cost function. In doing so,

  9. Ethnic Diversity in Geography Undergraduate Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estaville, Lawrence E.; Akiwumi, Fenda A.; Montalvo, Edris J.

    2008-01-01

    The discipline of geography in the United States has not done a good job of attracting people, other than Asians, from underrepresented ethnic groups. This article examines undergraduate geography programs in the United States to understand better the status of their ethnic diversity, particularly regarding Hispanics and African Americans, and to…

  10. The Wiley Blackwell companion to political geography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Agnew, J.; Mamadouh, V.; Secor, A.J.; Sharp, J.

    2015-01-01

    The Wiley Blackwell Companion to Political Geography aims to account for the intellectual and worldly developments that have taken place in and around political geography in the last 10 years. Bringing together established names in the field as well as new scholars, it highlights provocative

  11. Moral regulation: historical geography and scale

    OpenAIRE

    Legg, Stephen; Brown, Michael

    2013-01-01

    This paper introduces a special issue on the historical geography of moral regulation and scale. The paper examines the rich and varied work of geographers on moral geographies before looking at wider work on moral regulation influenced by Michel Foucault. Highlighting the significance of the\\ud neglected dimension of scale, the paper introduces the themes examined in the subsequent papers.

  12. The emerging empirics of evolutionary economic geography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boschma, R.A.; Frenken, K.

    2011-01-01

    Following last decade’s programmatic papers on Evolutionary Economic Geography, we report on recent empirical advances and how this empirical work can be positioned vis-a`-vis other strands of research in economic geography. First, we review studies on the path dependent nature of clustering, and

  13. The emerging empirics of evolutionary economic geography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boschma, R.A.; Frenken, K.

    2010-01-01

    Following last decade’s programmatic papers on Evolutionary Economic Geography, we report on recent empirical advances and how this empirical work can be positioned vis-à-vis other strands of research in economic geography. First, we review studies on the path dependent nature of clustering, and how

  14. The emerging empirics of evolutionary economic geography.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boschma, R.A.; Frenken, K.

    2011-01-01

    Following last decade’s programmatic papers on Evolutionary Economic Geography, we report on recent empirical advances and how this empirical work can be positioned vis-a`-vis other strands of research in economic geography. First, we review studies on the path dependent nature of clustering, and

  15. Economic development and the geography of institutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosker, E.M.; Garretsen, J.H.

    To explain cross-country income differences, research has recently focused on the so-called deep determinants of economic development, notably institutions and geography. This article shows that it is not only absolute geography, in terms of for instance climate or being landlocked, but also

  16. Beyond Science and Math: Integrating Geography Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grubbs, Michael E.; Grubbs, Steven

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses the status of World Geography Education and the importance of these concepts in developing 21st century students. Moreover, the authors also showcase how World Geography concepts can be intentionally taught through a technological/engineering, design-based learning challenge that requires students to solve a global housing…

  17. Human immune responses to H. pylori HLA Class II epitopes identified by immunoinformatic methods.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Songhua Zhang

    Full Text Available H. pylori persists in the human stomach over decades and promotes several adverse clinical sequelae including gastritis, peptic ulcers and gastric cancer that are linked to the induction and subsequent evasion of chronic gastric inflammation. Emerging evidence indicates that H. pylori infection may also protect against asthma and some other immune-mediated conditions through regulatory T cell effects outside the stomach. To characterize the complexity of the CD4+ T cell response generated during H. pylori infection, computational methods were previously used to generate a panel of 90 predicted epitopes conserved among H. pylori genomes that broadly cover HLA Class II diversity for maximum population coverage. Here, these sequences were tested individually for their ability to induce in vitro responses in peripheral blood mononuclear cells by interferon-γ ELISpot assay. The average number of spot-forming cells/million PBMCs was significantly elevated in H. pylori-infected subjects over uninfected persons. Ten of the 90 peptides stimulated IFN-γ secretion in the H. pylori-infected group only, whereas two out of the 90 peptides elicited a detectable IFN-γ response in the H. pylori-uninfected subjects but no response in the H. pylori-infected group. Cytokine ELISA measurements performed using in vitro PBMC culture supernatants demonstrated significantly higher levels of TNF-α, IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, and TGF-β1 in the H. pylori-infected subjects, whereas IL-17A expression was not related to the subjects H. pylori-infection status. Our results indicate that the human T cell responses to these 90 peptides are generally increased in actively H. pylori-infected, compared with H. pylori-naïve, subjects. This information will improve understanding of the complex immune response to H. pylori, aiding rational epitope-driven vaccine design as well as helping identify other H. pylori epitopes with potentially immunoregulatory effects.

  18. Using Location-Aware Technology for Learning Geography in a Real Digital Space outside the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowan, Pamela; Butler, Ryan

    2013-01-01

    The use of new mobile technologies is still in its infancy in many secondary schools and there is limited evidence of the educational and pedagogical benefits on pupils' learning in the formal school context. This qualitative study focuses on the use of handheld devices to teach a topic in geography to an examination class. Action research…

  19. An Examination of High School Social Science Students' Levels Motivation towards Learning Geography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yildirim, Tahsin

    2017-01-01

    This aim of this research was to examine the levels of motivation among high school social science students towards learning geography. The study group consisted of 397 students from different classes at Aksaray Ahmet Cevdet Pasa High School in the College of Social Science. The research was carried out with a scanning model, with data obtained…

  20. Accurate Typing of Human Leukocyte Antigen Class I Genes by Oxford Nanopore Sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chang; Xiao, Fangzhou; Hoisington-Lopez, Jessica; Lang, Kathrin; Quenzel, Philipp; Duffy, Brian; Mitra, Robi David

    2018-04-03

    Oxford Nanopore Technologies' MinION has expanded the current DNA sequencing toolkit by delivering long read lengths and extreme portability. The MinION has the potential to enable expedited point-of-care human leukocyte antigen (HLA) typing, an assay routinely used to assess the immunologic compatibility between organ donors and recipients, but the platform's high error rate makes it challenging to type alleles with accuracy. We developed and validated accurate typing of HLA by Oxford nanopore (Athlon), a bioinformatic pipeline that i) maps nanopore reads to a database of known HLA alleles, ii) identifies candidate alleles with the highest read coverage at different resolution levels that are represented as branching nodes and leaves of a tree structure, iii) generates consensus sequences by remapping the reads to the candidate alleles, and iv) calls the final diploid genotype by blasting consensus sequences against the reference database. Using two independent data sets generated on the R9.4 flow cell chemistry, Athlon achieved a 100% accuracy in class I HLA typing at the two-field resolution. Copyright © 2018 American Society for Investigative Pathology and the Association for Molecular Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Class I and II histone deacetylase expression in human chronic periodontitis gingival tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantley, M D; Dharmapatni, A A S S K; Algate, K; Crotti, T N; Bartold, P M; Haynes, D R

    2016-04-01

    Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi) are being considered to treat chronic inflammatory diseases at low doses. Currently HDACi that are more specific are being developed to target particular HDACs; therefore, this study aimed to determine levels and distribution of class I and II HDAC in human gingival samples obtained from patients with chronic periodontitis. Gingival biopsies were obtained from patients with and without (mild inflammation, no bone loss) periodontitis. Total RNA was isolated for real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction to determine expression of HDACs 1-10. Immunohistochemistry was used to determine protein distribution of HDACs 1, 5, 8 and 9. Factor VIII, CD3 and tartrate resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) were detected in serial sections to identify blood vessels, lymphocytes, pre-osteoclasts and osteoclasts cells respectively. Tumour necrosis factor α (TNF-α) expression was also assessed. mRNA for HDAC 1, 5, 8 and 9 were significantly upregulated in chronic periodontitis gingival tissues compared to non-periodontitis samples (p chronic periodontitis samples (p chronic periodontitis gingival tissues. HDAC 1, 5, 8 and 9 expression was higher in gingival tissues from patients with chronic periodontitis compared to non-periodontitis samples. Results suggest that these HDACs could therefore be targeted with specific acting HDACi. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. [Seed geography: its concept and basic scientific issues].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Shun-Li; Wang, Zong-Shuai; Zeren, Wangmu

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, a new concept 'seed geography' was provided, and its definition, research contents, and scientific issues were put forward. Seed geography is a newly developed interdisciplinary science from plant geography, seed ecology, and phytosociology, which studies the geographic variation patterns of seed biological traits as well as their relationships with environmental factors from macroscopic to microscopic, and the seed formation, development, and change trends. The main research contents would include geography of seed mass, geography of seed chemical components, geography of seed morphology, geography of seed cell biological characteristics, geography of seed physiological characteristics, geography of seed genetic characteristics, and geography of flower and fruit. To explore the scientific issues in seed geography would help us to better understand the long-term adaptation and evolution of seed characteristics to natural environments.

  3. Academic Performance in Human Anatomy and Physiology Classes: A 2-Yr Study of Academic Motivation and Grade Expectation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturges, Diana; Maurer, Trent W.; Allen, Deborah; Gatch, Delena Bell; Shankar, Padmini

    2016-01-01

    This project used a nonexperimental design with a convenience sample and studied the relationship between academic motivation, grade expectation, and academic performance in 1,210 students enrolled in undergraduate human anatomy and physiology (HAP) classes over a 2-yr period. A 42-item survey that included 28 items of the adapted academic…

  4. Two-Year Community: Human Anatomy Software Use in Traditional and Online Anatomy Laboratory Classes: Student-Perceived Learning Benefits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuyatt, Brian L.; Baker, Jason D.

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluates the effectiveness of human anatomy software in face-to-face and online anatomy laboratory classes. Cognitive, affective, and psychomotor perceived learning was measured for students using Pearson Education's Practice Anatomy Laboratory 2.0 software. This study determined that student-perceived learning was significantly…

  5. Lipoprotein profiles in human heterozygote carriers of a functional mutation P297S in scavenger receptor class B1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ljunggren, Stefan A.; Levels, Johannes H. M.; Hovingh, Kees; Holleboom, Adriaan G.; Vergeer, Menno; Argyri, Letta; Gkolfinopoulou, Christina; Chroni, Angeliki; Sierts, Jeroen A.; Kastelein, John J.; Kuivenhoven, Jan Albert; Lindahl, Mats; Karlsson, Helen

    2015-01-01

    The scavenger receptor class B type 1 (SR-B1) is an important HDL receptor involved in cholesterol uptake and efflux, but its physiological role in human lipoprotein metabolism is not fully understood. Heterozygous carriers of the SR-B1(P297S) mutation are characterized by increased HDL cholesterol

  6. Arginine (Di)methylated Human Leukocyte Antigen Class I Peptides Are Favorably Presented by HLA-B*07

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marino, Fabio; Mommen, Geert P M; Jeko, Anita; Meiring, Hugo D; van Gaans-van den Brink, Jacqueline A M; Scheltema, Richard A; van Els, Cécile A C M; Heck, Albert J R

    Alterations in protein post-translational modification (PTM) are recognized hallmarks of diseases. These modifications potentially provide a unique source of disease-related human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I-presented peptides that can elicit specific immune responses. While phosphorylated HLA

  7. Metabolomics and Ionomics of Potato Tuber Reveals an Influence of Cultivar and Market Class on Human Nutrients and Bioactive Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline M. Chaparro

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Potato (Solanum tuberosum L. is an important global food crop that contains phytochemicals with demonstrated effects on human health. Understanding sources of chemical variation of potato tuber can inform breeding for improved health attributes of the cooked food. Here, a comprehensive metabolomics (UPLC- and GC-MS and ionomics (ICP-MS analysis of raw and cooked potato tuber was performed on 60 unique potato genotypes that span 5 market classes including russet, red, yellow, chip, and specialty potatoes. The analyses detected 2,656 compounds that included known bioactives (43 compounds, nutrients (42, lipids (76, and 23 metals. Most nutrients and bioactives were partially degraded during cooking (44 out of 85; 52%, however genotypes with high quantities of bioactives remained highest in the cooked tuber. Chemical variation was influenced by genotype and market class. Specifically, ~53% of all detected compounds from cooked potato varied among market class and 40% varied by genotype. The most notable metabolite profiles were observed in yellow-flesh potato which had higher levels of carotenoids and specialty potatoes which had the higher levels of chlorogenic acid as compared to the other market classes. Variation in several molecules with known association to health was observed among market classes and included vitamins (e.g., pyridoxal, ~2-fold variation, bioactives (e.g., chlorogenic acid, ~40-fold variation, medicinals (e.g., kukoamines, ~6-fold variation, and minerals (e.g., calcium, iron, molybdenum, ~2-fold variation. Furthermore, more metabolite variation was observed within market class than among market class (e.g., α-tocopherol, ~1-fold variation among market class vs. ~3-fold variation within market class. Taken together, the analysis characterized significant metabolite and mineral variation in raw and cooked potato tuber, and support the potential to breed new cultivars for improved health traits.

  8. Metabolomics and Ionomics of Potato Tuber Reveals an Influence of Cultivar and Market Class on Human Nutrients and Bioactive Compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaparro, Jacqueline M.; Holm, David G.; Broeckling, Corey D.; Prenni, Jessica E.; Heuberger, Adam L.

    2018-01-01

    Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) is an important global food crop that contains phytochemicals with demonstrated effects on human health. Understanding sources of chemical variation of potato tuber can inform breeding for improved health attributes of the cooked food. Here, a comprehensive metabolomics (UPLC- and GC-MS) and ionomics (ICP-MS) analysis of raw and cooked potato tuber was performed on 60 unique potato genotypes that span 5 market classes including russet, red, yellow, chip, and specialty potatoes. The analyses detected 2,656 compounds that included known bioactives (43 compounds), nutrients (42), lipids (76), and 23 metals. Most nutrients and bioactives were partially degraded during cooking (44 out of 85; 52%), however genotypes with high quantities of bioactives remained highest in the cooked tuber. Chemical variation was influenced by genotype and market class. Specifically, ~53% of all detected compounds from cooked potato varied among market class and 40% varied by genotype. The most notable metabolite profiles were observed in yellow-flesh potato which had higher levels of carotenoids and specialty potatoes which had the higher levels of chlorogenic acid as compared to the other market classes. Variation in several molecules with known association to health was observed among market classes and included vitamins (e.g., pyridoxal, ~2-fold variation), bioactives (e.g., chlorogenic acid, ~40-fold variation), medicinals (e.g., kukoamines, ~6-fold variation), and minerals (e.g., calcium, iron, molybdenum, ~2-fold variation). Furthermore, more metabolite variation was observed within market class than among market class (e.g., α-tocopherol, ~1-fold variation among market class vs. ~3-fold variation within market class). Taken together, the analysis characterized significant metabolite and mineral variation in raw and cooked potato tuber, and support the potential to breed new cultivars for improved health traits. PMID:29876353

  9. Strengthening the ties between university and school - Bilingual geography is the future for our multifarious subject

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnikel, F.

    2003-04-01

    An incessantly growing interaction between numerous fields of human activity asks for an open-minded approach and interdisciplinarity. No subject matches geography when it comes to bridging the gaps between different aspects of human life. Geography does not only describe, analyse and explain the "natural" state of the world we live in, it does also connect the disciplines within the physical branch of the subject with disciplines in the human or anthropogenic part, which describes the state of the world "as is". Geography is, therefore, in itself multi-disciplinary. Considering the immense importance of geography as the subject dealing with our environment and facing the fact that it is this environment which is already endangered by the multiple forms of human interference, geography and its multi-disciplinary character deserve even increased attention. The growth of the world's population, future climatic change and shortages of natural resources add to the importance of geography as the one subject in school dealing with these problems. In our societies, which are constantly growing together in political and economic issues, the structures of communication additionally mainly rely on an easily accessible and widely spread language like English to serve the needs of modern international contact. In Bavaria, the signs of the times have been recognized quite early. Nearly 8000 pupils at more than 80 high-level secondary schools ("Gymnasien") attend bilingual teaching, a large part of which is performed in geography. The Adolf-Weber-Gymnasium serves as an example, since it has the largest group of pupils instructed in bilingual geography in Munich. Next term, more than 150 boys and girls from five grades will be taught geography in English. Our goal is, in contrast to concepts of bilingual teaching in some other German states, not only to improve the language capability of our pupils. It is more an investment in scientific propaedeutics. It strenghtens the ties

  10. Spatial dependence of genetic data related to human health and livestock disease resistance: a role for geography to support the One Health approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stéphane Joost

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The spatial dependence of located health and/or genetic data can be used to detect clusters likely to reveal disease prevalence or signatures of adaptation possibly associated with characteristics of the local environment (high temperatures, air or water pollution, be it in humans or animals (Murtaugh et al. 2017. Most often, geographic maps are produced to represent health data. Medical information is transmitted through thematic choropleth maps. For instance administrative units are colored according to the variable of interest. But it is key to analyse health and/or genetic data by explicitly including geographic characteristics (distances, co-location and also the potential and power of spatial statistics to detect specific patterns in the geographic distribution of disease occurrences (“make visible the invisible”. A classic example using clusters is the map produced by John Snow (Snow 1855 showing the number of deaths caused by a cholera outbreak in London. Looking at a detail of Snow's original map, it is possible to realize how he graphically represented the number of deaths, with short bold lines representing death occurrences (frequencies forming a kind of histogram placed on the street at the addresses where it happened - what we currently name georeferencing. A cluster of death people is an effect observed on the territory, and the existence of such a cluster depends on an infected water pump located at the same place (the cause. How can this spatial dependence be detected and measured? It is possible to identify spatial patterns in the geographic space by means of spatial statistics. We need to determine whether the variable of interest is randomly distributed or spatially dependent, and to check if the patterns observed are robust to random permutations. We also need to explore the data, to find out what is the range of influence of this spatial dependence. Here we focus on the functioning of one among several measures of

  11. Human cytomegalovirus alters localization of MHC class II and dendrite morphology in mature Langerhans cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Andrew W; Hertel, Laura; Louie, Ryan K; Burster, Timo; Lacaille, Vashti; Pashine, Achal; Abate, Davide A; Mocarski, Edward S; Mellins, Elizabeth D

    2006-09-15

    Hemopoietic stem cell-derived mature Langerhans-type dendritic cells (LC) are susceptible to productive infection by human CMV (HCMV). To investigate the impact of infection on this cell type, we examined HLA-DR biosynthesis and trafficking in mature LC cultures exposed to HCMV. We found decreased surface HLA-DR levels in viral Ag-positive as well as in Ag-negative mature LC. Inhibition of HLA-DR was independent of expression of unique short US2-US11 region gene products by HCMV. Indeed, exposure to UV-inactivated virus, but not to conditioned medium from infected cells, was sufficient to reduce HLA-DR on mature LC, implicating particle binding/penetration in this effect. Reduced surface levels reflected an altered distribution of HLA-DR because total cellular HLA-DR was not diminished. Accumulation of HLA-DR was not explained by altered cathepsin S activity. Mature, peptide-loaded HLA-DR molecules were retained within cells, as assessed by the proportion of SDS-stable HLA-DR dimers. A block in egress was implicated, as endocytosis of surface HLA-DR was not increased. Immunofluorescence microscopy corroborated the intracellular retention of HLA-DR and revealed markedly fewer HLA-DR-positive dendritic projections in infected mature LC. Unexpectedly, light microscopic analyses showed a dramatic loss of the dendrites themselves and immunofluorescence revealed that cytoskeletal elements crucial for the formation and maintenance of dendrites are disrupted in viral Ag-positive cells. Consistent with these dendrite effects, HCMV-infected mature LC exhibit markedly reduced chemotaxis in response to lymphoid chemokines. Thus, HCMV impedes MHC class II molecule trafficking, dendritic projections, and migration of mature LC. These changes likely contribute to the reduced activation of CD4+ T cells by HCMV-infected mature LC.

  12. Looking for an international strategy for geography education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Schee, Joop

    Geography education is under pressure in many countries in the world. Many publications in the field of geography education and a lot of papers presented at geography conferences focus on the problematic position of geography in primary and secondary education. However, describing the problem is

  13. Geography Teachers' Stories of Sustainability: An Introduction to Narrative Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Clare

    2016-01-01

    Geography teacher recruitment and retention is an important issue for the future of geography education. This Special Issue of "International Research in Geographical and Environmental Education" ("IRGEE") tackles this issue head on by focusing on geography teachers' narratives about their experiences of teaching geography, and…

  14. Making connections and thinking through emotions: between geography and psychotherapy

    OpenAIRE

    Bondi, Liz

    2005-01-01

    The current upsurge of interest in emotions within geography has the potential to contribute to critical perspectives that question conventional limits to scholarship. Three precursors of emotional geographies are discussed in this context (humanistic, feminist and non-representational geographies). Connections between emotional geographies and psychotherapy are explored with a view to resisting the equation of emotion with individualised subjective experience, and developing s...

  15. Geography, sustainability and the concept of glocalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herman Theodoor Verstappen

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Sustainability focuses on the question whether our planet can sustain the present and future global human impact. The related environmental issues and particularly global changes, such as increasing temperatures, rising sea level, deforestation and deteriorating biodiversity, have become a key subject in earth science research. The social and economic components of sustainability, however, get less scientific attention and are often ignored in political and religious circles. Emphasis is on the symptoms of the issue rather than on coping strategies. Are the growing population numbers and social discrepancies compatible with sustainability and is the free market economy of our consumption society compatible with the ecological limits of growth, social balance and human aspirations? Sustainable development is a realistic concept only if its economic aspects are shouldered by social and environmental considerations and if regional and local diversity is respected. The globalization required today thus should be coupled with decentralized glocalization. In this interdisciplinary field of regional differentiation geography can make important contributions. Earth observation from satellites and data handling using geoinformation systems are essential tools.

  16. The geography of Chinese science

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, David Emanual; Gunessee, Saileshsingh; Matthiessen, Christian Wichmann

    2014-01-01

    Chinese scientific output has increased dramatically in recent years, but its internal spatial structure has received scant attention. Estimated gravity models of intercity scientific coauthorships show that there are two types of spatial political bias in China, apart from the expected mass...... and distance effects. Intercity coauthorships involving Beijing are more common than Beijing's output volume and location would imply, and this Beijing bias is increasing over time. The second type of spatial political bias is greater intraprovincial collaboration than is accounted for by size and distance....... The geography of Chinese science is thus not only monocentric as regards overall scientific output, but also exhibits unusually hierarchical collaboration patterns. Unlike in Europe and North America, national and regional capitals are becoming ever more important as scientific coordination centers....

  17. Language Geography from Microblogging Platforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mocanu, Delia; Baronchelli, Andrea; Perra, Nicola; Gonçalves, Bruno; Vespignani, Alessandro

    2013-03-01

    Microblogging platforms have now become major open source indicators for complex social interactions. With the advent of smartphones, the everincreasing mobile Internet traffic gives us the unprecedented opportunity to complement studies of complex social phenomena with real-time location information. In this work, we show that the data nowadays accessible allows for detailed studies at different scales, ranging from country-level aggregate analysis to the analysis of linguistic communities withing specific neighborhoods. The high resolution and coverage of this data permits us to investigate such issues as the linguistic homogeneity of different countries, touristic seasonal patterns within countries, and the geographical distribution of different languages in bilingual regions. This work highlights the potentialities of geolocalized studies of open data sources that can provide an extremely detailed picture of the language geography.

  18. Indigenous Geographies: Research as Reconciliation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cindy Smithers Graeme

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Employing a reflexive and co-constructed narrative analysis, this article explores our experiences as a non-Indigenous doctoral student and a First Nations research assistant working together within the context of a community-based participatory Indigenous geography research project. Our findings revealed that within the research process there were experiences of conflict, and opportunities to reflect upon our identity and create meaningful relationships. While these experiences contributed to an improved research process, at a broader level, we suggest that they also represented our personal stories of reconciliation. In this article, we share these stories, specifically as they relate to reconciliatory processes of re-education and cultural regeneration. We conclude by proposing several policy recommendations to support research as a pathway to reconciliation in Canada.

  19. Geography Education and Citizenship Education in Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Helena Esteves

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The contribution of geography education to citizenship education is recognized by geography educators. Still, globalization created new territories and new “borders” not always easy to cross—but they all exist and coexist giving new meanings to the idea of space appropriation. Geographical space has gained all these dimensions and can no longer be viewed in terms of its materiality. This article addresses the concept of citizenship education for Portuguese geography teachers within the multicultural nature of Portuguese society and schools. A final reference is given to the importance of cities as places of citizenship education.

  20. Imagined Transcultural Histories and Geographies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bronwyn Winter

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In a globalised world, an assumption prevails that the nation has somehow lost its power to regulate our lives, being undermined by other forces, either top-down through the impact of global capitalism or bottom-up through migrations, transnational religious, ethnic or social movement communities or other transversal politics. A related idea is that ‘culture’ is now irrevocably hybridised and border-zoned, that we no longer live in a world of discrete, located, identifiable and historically grounded cultures but in some unstable and for-the-moment insterstitiality, a sort of cultural interlanguage that sits outside well-mapped structures of power. Yet, just as the nation and the boundaries it sets around culture are being conceptually chased from our maps of the world, they come galloping back to reassert themselves. They do so politically, economically, legally, symbolically. Amidst all the noise of our transnationalisms, hybridities and interstitialities, the idea of what it is to be ‘Australian’ or ‘French’ or ‘Filipino’ or ‘Asian’ reaffirms itself, in mental geographies and constructed histories, as our ‘imagined community’ (to use Benedict Anderson’s famous term [Anderson 1983], or indeed, ‘imagined Other’, even if it is an imagined ‘Other’ that we would somehow wish to incorporate into our newly hybridised Self. Using the notion of transcultural mappings, the articles in this special issue investigate this apparent paradox. They look at how the Self and Other have been mapped through imagined links between geography, history and cultural location. They interrogate the tension between the persistence of mappings of the world based on discrete national or cultural identities on one hand, and, on the other hand, the push to move beyond these carefully guarded borders and problematise precise notions of identity and belonging.

  1. RxClass

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The RxClass Browser is a web application for exploring and navigating through the class hierarchies to find the RxNorm drug members associated with each class....

  2. Expression, refolding and crystallization of murine MHC class I H-2Db in complex with human β2-microglobulin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandalova, Tatyana; Michaëlsson, Jakob; Harris, Robert A.; Ljunggren, Hans-Gustaf; Kärre, Klas; Schneider, Gunter; Achour, Adnane

    2005-01-01

    Mouse MHC class I H-2Db in complex with human β2m and the LCMV-derived peptide gp33 has been produced and crystallized. Resolution of the structure of this complex combined with the structural comparison with the previously solved crystal structure of H-2Db/mβ2m/gp33 should lead to a better understanding of how the β2m subunit affects the overall conformation of MHC complexes as well as the stability of the presented peptides. β 2 -Microglobulin (β 2 m) is non-covalently linked to the major histocompatibility (MHC) class I heavy chain and interacts with CD8 and Ly49 receptors. Murine MHC class I can bind human β 2 m (hβ 2 m) and such hybrid molecules are often used in structural and functional studies. The replacement of mouse β 2 m (mβ 2 m) by hβ 2 m has important functional consequences for MHC class I complex stability and specificity, but the structural basis for this is unknown. To investigate the impact of species-specific β 2 m subunits on MHC class I conformation, murine MHC class I H-2D b in complex with hβ 2 m and the peptide gp33 derived from lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) has been expressed, refolded in vitro and crystallized. Crystals containing two complexes per asymmetric unit and belonging to the space group P2 1 , with unit-cell parameters a = 68.1, b = 65.2, c = 101.9 Å, β = 102.4°, were obtained

  3. Assessing Tsunami Vulnerabilities of Geographies with Shallow Water Equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aras, Rifat; Shen, Yuzhong

    2012-01-01

    Tsunami preparedness is crucial for saving human lives in case of disasters that involve massive water movement. In this work, we develop a framework for visual assessment of tsunami preparedness of geographies. Shallow water equations (also called Saint Venant equations) are a set of hyperbolic partial differential equations that are derived by depth-integrating the Navier-Stokes equations and provide a great abstraction of water masses that have lower depths compared to their free surface area. Our specific contribution in this study is to use Microsoft's XNA Game Studio to import underwater and shore line geographies, create different tsunami scenarios, and visualize the propagation of the waves and their impact on the shore line geography. Most importantly, we utilized the computational power of graphical processing units (GPUs) as HLSL based shader files and delegated all of the heavy computations to the GPU. Finally, we also conducted a validation study, in which we have tested our model against a controlled shallow water experiment. We believe that such a framework with an easy to use interface that is based on readily available software libraries, which are widely available and easily distributable, would encourage not only researchers, but also educators to showcase ideas.

  4. The Influence of Class II Division 2 Malocclusions on the Harmony of the Human Face Profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perović, Tatjana

    2017-11-24

    BACKGROUND Persons with class II division 2 malocclusion are characterized by a very specific dento-skeletal and soft-tissue profile (a profile in which a protruding nose and chin, retruding lips, concave and shortened lower third of the face, and gummy smile are dominant), which is the opposite of the currently modern profiles (convex profile of protruding lips and small chin). The aim of this research was to determine the differences in parameters of harmonies of facial profiles between persons with class II division 2 malocclusions and class I, and to establish the significance of those differences. MATERIAL AND METHODS For this study, 50 patients with class II division 2 malocclusions and 50 patients with class I were selected; profile photos were recorded and a photometric analysis was done: a type of profile according to Schwarz, the shape of a nose, the prominence of chin, biometrical field, the position of lips in relation to the tangent Sn-Pg, S-line (Steiner), E-line (Riketts) and a facial angle according to Arnett. RESULTS The significant differences in profiles of persons with class II division 2 compared to class I were: position and prominence of the chin, the position of the lower and upper lip in relation to the S-line, and smaller value of a facial angle in relation to persons with class I. CONCLUSIONS The differences seen in skeletal profiles were not associated with significant differences in the profiled facial contours of the examined groups. The compensatory role of the fullness of soft tissues of the lips is probably the reason why there were not significant deviations in all the examined parameters.

  5. Two putative subunits of a peptide pump encoded in the human major histocompatability complex class 2 region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bahram, S.; Arnold, D.; Bresnahan, M.; Strominger, J.L.; Spies, T.

    1991-01-01

    The class 2 region of the human major histocompatibility complex (MHC) may encode several genes controlling the processing of endogenous antigen and the presentation of peptide epitopes by MHC class 1 molecules to cytotoxic T lymphocytes. A previously described peptide supply factor (PSF1) is a member of the multidrug-resistance family of transporters and may pump cytosolic peptides into the membrane-bound compartment where class 1 molecules assemble. A second transporter gene, PSF2, was identified 10 kilobases (kb) from PSF1, near the class 2 DOB gene. The complete sequences of PSF1 and PSF2 were determined from cDNA clones. The translation products are closely related in sequence and predicted secondary structure. Both contain a highly conserved ATP-binding fold and share 25% homology in a hydrophobic domain with a tentative number of eight membrane-spanning segments. Based on the principle dimeric organization of these two domains in other transporters, PSF1 and PSF2 may function as complementary subunits, independently as homodimers, or both. Taken together with previous genetic evidence, the coregulation of PSF1 and PSF2 by γ interferon and the to-some-degree coordinate transcription of these genes suggest a common role in peptide-loading of class 1 molecules, although a distinct function of PSF2 cannot be ruled out

  6. Geography Education and Citizenship Education in Portugal

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Helena Esteves

    2012-01-01

    The contribution of geography education to citizenship education is recognized by geography educators. Still, globalization created new territories and new “borders” not always easy to cross—but they all exist and coexist giving new meanings to the idea of space appropriation. Geographical space has gained all these dimensions and can no longer be viewed in terms of its materiality. This article addresses the concept o...

  7. The creation and circulation of public geographies

    OpenAIRE

    Kitchin, Rob; Linehan, Denis; O'Callaghan, Cian; Lawton, Philip

    2013-01-01

    In response to the commentaries, we discuss further how social media disrupts and remakes the creation and circulation of geographical knowledges and potentially reconfigures the moral economy of the social sciences. In particular, we examine questions of what is meant by public geography, the publics which such geographies serve, alternative and complementary approaches to social media, the politics of authorship within collective blogs, the politics and mechanisms of knowledge c...

  8. On the future of regional geography

    OpenAIRE

    Wood, G.

    1999-01-01

    This contribution discusses possible future prospects of regional geography. This is done against the background of current socio-spatial developments and of various theoretical and conceptional debates as they are taking place mainly in English- and French-speaking countries. By taking central elements of modern conceptions of science as a basis possible regional geographie research issues will be identified which promise to be both aeademieally stimulating and socially rel...

  9. Applied evolutionary economics and economic geography

    OpenAIRE

    Peter Sunley

    2008-01-01

    Applied Evolutionary Economics and Economic Geography aims to further advance empirical methodologies in evolutionary economics, with a special emphasis on geography and firm location. It does so by bringing together a select group of leading scholars including economists, geographers and sociologists, all of whom share an interest in explaining the uneven distribution of economic activities in space and the historical processes that have produced these patterns.

  10. Development of population geography from antropogeography to spatial-analitical approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spasovski Milena

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Population geography is a subdiscipline of Human geography and studies the distribution, concentration and density of population over the terestrial surface, as well as differences in population size, changes and characteristics, like structures, migrations, activity etc, among some places present compared to others. Population geography has had a perscientific stage as long as human history. First modern scientific treatis of population in geography was the F. Ratzels book Antropogeography in 1882. During the first half of the XX century, French geographer Vidal de la Blanche gave a capital importance of population studies in his work Principes de Geographie Humaine. In interwar years, various aspects of population were studied. After The Second World War started the renovating movement of geography and new tendencies appear in human geography and, consequently in population geography. Attempts were made to define population geography as a separate sub-discipline. The world wide trend of treating population geography as separate discipline was expressed by publishing monographs, bibliographies and textbooks. The most significant authors who worked on defining population geography were French geographers P. George (1951, 1959, Beaujen-Garnier (1965, 1966; North-american geographers: G. Trewarta (1953, 1969, W. Bunge (1962, J. Clance (1965, 1971, W. Zelinski (1966; in Great Britain: J.I. Clarke (1965; in USSR: Ju.G. Sauškin i D.N. Anučin (1950, V.V. Pokšiševskij (1966, D.I. Valentej (1973; in Poland V. Ormotski (1931, L. Kosinski (1967 A. Jagelski (1980. Those authors and their works had the significant influence on the development of population science in the world and also in Serbia. Although the development of population geography was different in different countries and scientific research centers, we can clearly defined four stages. First stage lasted untill 1960s and was characterised by works of G.Trewarta, H. Doerres Ju.G. Sauškin, D

  11. Geography and glocal scale - generational conversion/Geografia i skala glokalna - przemiana generacyjna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirveli, Marika; Lewczuk, Barbara

    2013-12-01

    The proposed text presents a conceptual change in the scope of some of the key concepts in the light of the two dictionaries (Britannica and Human Geography Dictionary) and Anglo-Saxon publications about the future of geography. Then, it combines the concept of references to the ongoing interdisciplinary studies included in the structure of the University of the Second and Third Generation. Applications built this way are of two types: (1) referring to a fundamental change in the process within the human perception of the environment for generations X and Y, and (2) referring to the process of glocalization, glocal scale and premises of the University of the Third Generation (3GU)

  12. Blue space geographies: Enabling health in place.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, Ronan; Kistemann, Thomas

    2015-09-01

    Drawing from research on therapeutic landscapes and relationships between environment, health and wellbeing, we propose the idea of 'healthy blue space' as an important new development Complementing research on healthy green space, blue space is defined as; 'health-enabling places and spaces, where water is at the centre of a range of environments with identifiable potential for the promotion of human wellbeing'. Using theoretical ideas from emotional and relational geographies and critical understandings of salutogenesis, the value of blue space to health and wellbeing is recognised and evaluated. Six individual papers from five different countries consider how health can be enabled in mixed blue space settings. Four sub-themes; embodiment, inter-subjectivity, activity and meaning, document multiple experiences within a range of healthy blue spaces. Finally, we suggest a considerable research agenda - theoretical, methodological and applied - for future work within different forms of blue space. All are suggested as having public health policy relevance in social and public space. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Mechanical Stress Downregulates MHC Class I Expression on Human Cancer Cell Membrane

    KAUST Repository

    La Rocca, Rosanna; Tallerico, Rossana; Talib Hassan, Almosawy; Das, Gobind; Tadepally, Lakshmikanth; Matteucci, Marco; Liberale, Carlo; Mesuraca, Maria; Scumaci, Domenica; Gentile, Francesco; Cojoc, Gheorghe; Perozziello, Gerardo; Ammendolia, Antonio; Gallo, Adriana; Kä rre, Klas; Cuda, Giovanni; Candeloro, Patrizio; Di Fabrizio, Enzo M.; Carbone, Ennio

    2014-01-01

    bar (1 bar = 100.000 Pascal), depending on the devices used. Moreover, Raman spectroscopy analysis, after mechanical treatment, in the range between 700–1800 cm−1, indicated a relative concentration variation of MHC class I. PCA analysis was also

  14. Defining the HLA class I-associated viral antigen repertoire from HIV-1-infected human cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ternette, Nicola; Yang, Hongbing; Partridge, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Recognition and eradication of infected cells by cytotoxic T lymphocytes is a key defense mechanism against intracellular pathogens. High-throughput definition of HLA class I-associated immunopeptidomes by mass spectrometry is an increasingly important analytical tool to advance our understanding...

  15. Human leucocyte antigen class Ib molecules in pregnancy success and early pregnancy loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Mette; Hviid, Thomas Vauvert F

    2013-01-01

    AND CONCLUSIONS The HLA class Ib molecules seem to induce suppression of the maternal immune system, but are not necessarily fundamental factors for pregnancy success. However, evidence points towards low expression of these proteins, especially HLA-G, being associated with reduced fertility. To clarify...

  16. NetMHCpan, a method for MHC class I binding prediction beyond humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoof, Ilka; Peters, B; Sidney, J

    2009-01-01

    molecules. We show that the NetMHCpan-2.0 method can accurately predict binding to uncharacterized HLA molecules, including HLA-C and HLA-G. Moreover, NetMHCpan-2.0 is demonstrated to accurately predict peptide binding to chimpanzee and macaque MHC class I molecules. The power of NetMHCpan-2.0 to guide...

  17. Defining Primary Geography from Teachers' Expertise: What Chilean Teachers Mean by Geography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salinas-Silva, Victor; Perez-Gallardo, Patricio; Arenas-Martija, Andoni

    2015-01-01

    This article examines teachers' subject expertise in a context where geography could be considered a neglected school subject. Using an empirical approach to the problem, the article aims to provide a view on the dynamics of teaching primary geography in Chile, through considering teachers' narratives on curriculum making and their associated…

  18. Geography's Crosscutting Themes: Golden Anniversary Reflections on "The Four Traditions of Geography"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Alexander B.

    2014-01-01

    William Pattison's seminal 1964 article outlining geography's four core traditions provided an informative overview of distinct strands of research and teaching in geography. His article enhanced appreciation of the discipline's intellectual diversity, but it did not address why the identified traditions should be grouped together…

  19. Geographies of knowing, geographies of ignorance: jumping scale in Southeast Asia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Schendel, W.

    2002-01-01

    'Area studies' use a geographical metaphor to visualise and naturalise particular social spaces as well as a particular scale of analysis. They produce specific geographies of knowing but also create geographies of ignorance. Taking Southeast Asia as an example, in this paper I explore how areas are

  20. Fieldwork in Geography Education: Defining or Declining? The State of Fieldwork in Canadian Undergraduate Geography Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Heather; Leydon, Joseph; Wincentak, Joanna

    2017-01-01

    This paper investigates the prevalence of fieldwork in undergraduate Geography programs in Canada. It examines the presence of fieldwork, provided through both field courses and courses that include fieldwork components, by reviewing program requirements and course offerings in undergraduate geography programs. The research explores the extent to…

  1. Rethinking (New) Economic Geography Models : Taking Geography and History More Seriously

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garretsen, Harry; Martin, Ron

    Two aspects of New Economic Geography models are often singled out for criticism, especially by geographers: the treatment of geography, typically as a pre-given, fixed and highly idealized abstract geometric space; and the treatment of history, typically as 'logical' time (the movement to

  2. Academic performance in human anatomy and physiology classes: a 2-yr study of academic motivation and grade expectation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturges, Diana; Maurer, Trent W; Allen, Deborah; Gatch, Delena Bell; Shankar, Padmini

    2016-03-01

    This project used a nonexperimental design with a convenience sample and studied the relationship between academic motivation, grade expectation, and academic performance in 1,210 students enrolled in undergraduate human anatomy and physiology (HAP) classes over a 2-yr period. A 42-item survey that included 28 items of the adapted academic motivation scale for HAP based on self-determination theory was administered in class during the first 3 wk of each semester. Students with higher grade point averages, who studied for longer hours and reported to be more motivated to succeed, did better academically in these classes. There was a significant relationship between students' scores on the adapted academic motivation scale and performance. Students were more extrinsically motivated to succeed in HAP courses than intrinsically motivated to succeed, and the analyses revealed that the most significant predictor of final grade was within the extrinsic scale (introjected and external types). Students' motivations remained stable throughout the course sequence. The data showed a significant relationship between HAP students' expected grade and their final grade in class. Finally, 65.5% of students overestimated their final grade, with 29% of students overestimating by two to four letter grades. Copyright © 2016 The American Physiological Society.

  3. Anionic Sites, Fucose Residues and Class I Human Leukocyte Antigen Fate During Interaction of Toxoplasma gondii with Endothelial Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stumbo Ana Carolina

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Toxoplasma gondii invades and proliferates in human umbilical vein endothelial cells where it resides in a parasitophorous vacuole. In order to analyze which components of the endothelial cell plasma membrane are internalized and become part of the parasitophorous vacuole membrane, the culture of endothelial cells was labeled with cationized ferritin or UEA I lectin or anti Class I human leukocytte antigen (HLA before or after infection with T. gondii. The results showed no cationized ferritin and UEA I lectin in any parasitophorous vacuole membrane, however, the Class I HLA molecule labeling was observed in some endocytic vacuoles containing parasite until 1 h of interaction with T. gondii. After 24 h parasite-host cell interaction, the labeling was absent on the vacuolar membrane, but presents only in small vesicles near parasitophorous vacuole. These results suggest the anionic site and fucose residues are excluded at the time of parasitophorous vacuole formation while Class I HLA molecules are present only on a minority of Toxoplasma-containig vacuoles.

  4. A clinical evaluation of a bioresorbable membrane and porous hydroxyapatite in the treatment of human molar class II furcations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Gita Malathi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The ultimate goal of periodontal therapy is predictable regeneration of a functional attachment apparatus destroyed as a result of periodontitis. Reconstructive procedures have been used with varying success during the past decades to accomplish this goal. Aim: To evaluate whether the use of porous hydroxyapatite alone or a bioresorbable membrane alone would enhance the clinical results in the treatment of class II furcation defects in human lower molars. Materials and Methods: Fifteen patients with chronic periodontitis, aged between 39 and 49 years, with a pair of similar bilateral class II furcation defects (classification of Hamp et al. in mandibular first molars were selected. A split-mouth design was incorporated and the selected 30 furcation defects were assigned to one of the two treatment groups, i.e., Group I treated with a bioresorbable membrane from bovine-derived collagen guided tissue regeneration membrane and Group II treated using porous hydroxyapatite bone graft material on the contralateral sides. Evaluation of clinical parameters, probing depths and attachment levels, and radiographs was done preoperatively and 6 months postoperatively. Results: Both the groups showed statistically significant mean reduction in probing depths and gain in clinical attachment levels and linear bone fill. Comparison between Group I and Group II showed insignificant difference. Conclusion: Within the limits of this study, both the treatment modalities are beneficial for the treatment of human mandibular class II furcation defects.

  5. Mechanical Stress Downregulates MHC Class I Expression on Human Cancer Cell Membrane

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    La Rocca, Rosanna; Tallerico, Rossana; Hassan, Almosawy Talib

    2014-01-01

    In our body, cells are continuously exposed to physical forces that can regulate different cell functions such as cell proliferation, differentiation and death. In this work, we employed two different strategies to mechanically stress cancer cells. The cancer and healthy cell populations were...... treated either with mechanical stress delivered by a micropump (fabricated by deep X-ray nanolithography) or by ultrasound wave stimuli. A specific down-regulation of Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) class I molecules expression on cancer cell membrane compared to different kinds of healthy cells...... between 700–1800 cm-1, indicated a relative concentration variation of MHC class I. PCA analysis was also performed to distinguish control and stressed cells within different cell lines. These mechanical induced phenotypic changes increase the tumor immunogenicity, as revealed by the related increased...

  6. JC Polyomavirus Infection Is Strongly Controlled by Human Leucocyte Antigen Class II Variants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sundqvist, Emilie; Buck, Dorothea; Warnke, Clemens

    2014-01-01

    sequence-specific oligonucleotide (PCR-SSO) method. An initial GWAS screen displayed a strong HLA class II region signal. The HLA-DRB1*15 haplotype was strongly negatively associated to JCV sero-status in Scandinavian MS cases (OR = 0.42, p = 7×10(-15)) and controls (OR = 0.53, p = 2×10(-5)). In contrast...

  7. Selective changes in expression of HLA class I polymorphic determinants in human solid tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natali, P.G.; Nicotra, M.R.; Bigotti, A.; Venturo, I.; Giacomini, P.; Marcenaro, L.; Russo, C.

    1989-01-01

    Analysis of surgical biopsies with monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) to framework determinants of major histocompatibility complex class I antigens has shown that malignant transformation is frequently associated with a marked loss of these cell surface molecules. The present study sought to determine whether more selective losses of major histocompatibility complex class I expression occur. Multiple specimens from 13 different types of primary and metastatic tumors were tested utilizing mAb BB7.2, which recognizes a polymorphic HLA-A2 epitope. In each case, expression of HLA-A,B,C molecules was determined by testing with mAb W6/32 directed to a framework HLA class I determinant. The authors have found that in HLA-A2-positive patients, HLA-A2 products are not detectable or are reduced in their expression in 70-80% of endometrial, colorectal, mammary, and renal tumors; in 40-60% of soft-tissue, skin, ovary, urinary bladder, prostate, and stomach tumors; and in 25-30% of melanomas and lung carcinomas tested. All tumors expressed the framework HLA-A,B.C determinant. The HLA-A2 epitope recognized by mAb BB7.2 is located in a portion of the HLA-A2 molecule postulated to react with the T-cell receptor. The selective loss of an HLA class I polymorphic epitope shown in this study may explain the mechanism by which tumor cells escape both T-cell recognition and natural killer cell surveillance

  8. The Geography of Financial Literacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Bumcrot

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores how well equipped today’s households are to make complex financial decisions in the face of often high-cost and high-risk financial instruments. Specifically we focus on financial literacy. Most importantly, we describe the geography of financial literacy, i.e., how financial literacy is distributed across the fifty US states. We describe the correlation of financial literacy and some important aggregate variables, such as state-level poverty rates. Finally, we examine the extent to which differences in financial literacy can be explained by states’ demographic and economic characteristics. To assess financial literacy, five questions were added to the 2009 National Financial Capability Study, covering fundamental concepts of economics and finance encountered in everyday life: simple calculations about interest rates and inflation, the workings of risk diversification, the relationship between bond prices and interest rates, and the relationship between interest payments and maturity in mortgages. We constructed an index of financial literacy based on the number of correct answers provided by each respondent to the five financial literacy questions. The financial literacy index reveals wide variation in financial literacy across states. Much of the variation is attributable to differences in the demographic makeup of the states; however, a handful of states have either higher or lower levels of financial literacy than is explained by demographics alone. Also, there is a significant correlation between the financial literacy of a state and that state’s poverty level. The findings indicate directions for policy makers and practitioners interested in targeting areas where financial literacy is low.

  9. Possible Application of Virtual Reality in Geography Teaching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Stojšić

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Virtual reality represents simulated three-dimensional environment created by hardware and software, which providing realistic experience and possibility of interaction to the end-user. Benefits provided by immersive virtual reality in educational setting were recognised in the past decades, however mass application was left out due to the lack of development and high price. Intensive development of new platforms and virtual reality devices in the last few years started up with Oculus Rift, and subsequently accelerated in the year 2014 by occurrence of Google Cardboard. Nowadays, for the first time in history, immersive virtual reality is available to millions of people. In the mid 2015 Google commenced developing Expeditions Pioneer Program aiming to massively utilise the Google Cardboard platform in education. Expeditions and other VR apps can enhance geography teaching and learning. Realistic experience acquired by utilisation of virtual reality in teaching process significantly overcome possibilities provided by images and illustrations in the textbook. Besides literature review on usage of virtual reality in education this paper presents suggestion of VR mobile apps that can be used together with the Google Cardboard head mounted displays (HMDs in geography classes, thereby emphasising advantages and disadvantages as well as possible obstacles which may occur in introducing the immersive virtual reality in the educational process.

  10. Human umbilical cord mesenchymal stromal cells suppress MHC class II expression on rat vascular endothelium and prolong survival time of cardiac allograft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Ying; Yun, Mark M; Han, Xia; Zhao, Ruidong; Zhou, Erxia; Yun, Sheng

    2014-01-01

    Background: Human umbilical cord mesenchymal stromal cells (UC-MSCs) have low immunogenicity and immune regulation. To investigate immunomodulatory effects of human UC-MSCs on MHC class II expression and allograft, we transplanted heart of transgenic rats with MHC class II expression on vascular endothelium. Methods: UC-MSCs were obtained from human umbilical cords and confirmed with flow cytometry analysis. Transgenic rat line was established using the construct of human MHC class II transactivator gene (CIITA) under mouse ICAM-2 promoter control. The induced MHC class II expression on transgenic rat vascular endothelial cells (VECs) was assessed with immunohistological staining. And the survival time of cardiac allograft was compared between the recipients with and without UC-MSC transfusion. Results: Flow cytometry confirmed that the human UC-MSCs were positive for CD29, CD44, CD73, CD90, CD105, CD271, and negative for CD34 and HLA-DR. Repeated infusion of human UC-MSCs reduced MHC class II expression on vascular endothelia of transplanted hearts, and increased survival time of allograft. The UC-MSCs increased regulatory cytokines IL10, transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 and suppressed proinflammatory cytokines IL2 and IFN-γ in vivo. The UC-MSC culture supernatant had similar effects on cytokine expression, and decreased lymphocyte proliferation in vitro. Conclusions: Repeated transfusion of the human UC-MSCs reduced MHC class II expression on vascular endothelia and prolonged the survival time of rat cardiac allograft. PMID:25126177

  11. Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA) Class I Restricted Epitope Discovery in Yellow Fewer and Dengue Viruses: Importance of HLA Binding Strength

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Ole; Nascimento, Eduardo J. M.; Maciel, Milton, Jr

    2011-01-01

    Epitopes from all available full-length sequences of yellow fever virus (YFV) and dengue fever virus (DENV) restricted by Human Leukocyte Antigen class I (HLA-I) alleles covering 12 HLA-I supertypes were predicted using the NetCTL algorithm. A subset of 179 predicted YFV and 158 predicted DENV...... inoculated twice with the 17DD YFV vaccine strain. Three of the YFV A*02:01 restricted peptides activated T-cells from the infected mice in vitro. All three peptides that elicited responses had an HLA binding affinity of 2 nM or less. The results indicate the importance of the strength of HLA binding...

  12. Ex vivo analysis of human memory CD4 T cells specific for hepatitis C virus using MHC class II tetramers

    OpenAIRE

    Day, Cheryl L.; Seth, Nilufer P.; Lucas, Michaela; Appel, Heiner; Gauthier, Laurent; Lauer, Georg M.; Robbins, Gregory K.; Szczepiorkowski, Zbigniew M.; Casson, Deborah R.; Chung, Raymond T.; Bell, Shannon; Harcourt, Gillian; Walker, Bruce D.; Klenerman, Paul; Wucherpfennig, Kai W.

    2003-01-01

    Containment of hepatitis C virus (HCV) and other chronic human viral infections is associated with persistence of virus-specific CD4 T cells, but ex vivo characterization of circulating CD4 T cells has not been achieved. To further define the phenotype and function of these cells, we developed a novel approach for the generation of tetrameric forms of MHC class II/peptide complexes that is based on the cellular peptide-exchange mechanism. HLA-DR molecules were expressed as precursors with a c...

  13. Geography literacy can develop Geography skills for high school students: is it true?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utami, W. S.; Zain, I. M.; Sumarmi

    2018-01-01

    The most important issue related to education in Indonesia is the low quality of student learning and competence. The basic thing that is important to be studied is the demands of 21st-century skills that are difficult to fulfil with the low competence of student learning. Low competence of student learning demonstrated by low capacity of scientific literacy includes geography literacy. Geography skills of Indonesian students are also low. It is shown from the students’ ability to use maps to describe and to analyze is low. The purpose of this study is to determine the correlation between the literacy skills of geography to develop geography skills of high school students in Surabaya. Written and performance tests were given to the sample of 29 high school students. The results of the tests we analyzed based on Geography literacy and its correlation to Geography skills in terms of the ability to use the media, map, and analyze the phenomenon of the geosphere. The results showed that the students who have low literacy geography have difficulty in using map.

  14. Demographic Trends (1970-2010) for Coastal Geographies

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Demographic Trends (1970-2010) were derived from Census Block Group Data for 13 different coastal geographies. For a full listing of the geographies available,...

  15. Perceptions and attitudes of geography teachers to biotechnology: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-12-03

    Dec 3, 2008 ... perceptions of geography teachers towards biotechnology and GM foods but also provided an ... Key words: Biotechnology, GM foods, perceptions, attitudes, geography education, Turkey. ..... Brazilian high school students.

  16. BRICS: an explanation in critical geography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishnendra Meena

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available BRICS, an abbreviation for Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa, a group of five influential and emerging economies successfully completed its fifth annual summit in Durban during March 26-27, 2013. A significantly unique feature of the group is its geographical spread as evident from the location of these five constituent states which are situated in four continents. The paper seeks to explain the phenomenon of the disparate group BRICS through literature in Critical Geography as it is understood that the recent phase of globalization has created spatial patterns which were hitherto not experienced and therefore not clearly recognized in the literature on International Relations and traditional geography. Such spatially variegated groupings like the BRICS could be analyzed and interpreted in Critical Geography and Critical Geopolitics literature through three important concepts: a Space b Geographical and Geopolitical Imaginations and c Region. The paper seeks to explain BRICS through these conceptual tools.

  17. Associations among Epstein-Barr virus subtypes, human leukocyte antigen class I alleles, and the development of posttransplantation lymphoproliferative disorder in bone marrow transplant recipients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Görzer, Irene; Puchhammer-Stöckl, Elisabeth; van Esser, Joost W J; Niesters, Hubert G M; Cornelissen, Jan J

    2007-01-01

    The association between Epstein-Barr virus subtype, human leukocyte antigen class I alleles, and the development of posttransplantation lymphoproliferative disorder was examined in a group of 25 bone marrow transplant recipients. A highly statistically significant correlation was observed between

  18. Kay Warren on Gender, Class, and the Unwilling Victims of Human Trafficking Law

    OpenAIRE

    Rothenberg, Janell

    2009-01-01

    Over the last decade, human trafficking has emerged as a legal category of prosecutable criminal behavior. The 2000 Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, adopted by the United Nations General Assembly, created international guidelines for the identification and prosecution of human trafficking under the auspices of the UN Office on Drugs and Crime. More than 110 UN member states are signatories to this protocol while actual attempts to translate it into practice con...

  19. MHC class I–associated peptides derive from selective regions of the human genome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Hillary; Granados, Diana Paola; Durette, Chantal; Bonneil, Eric; Courcelles, Mathieu; Rodenbrock, Anja; Laverdure, Jean-Philippe; Côté, Caroline; Thibault, Pierre

    2016-01-01

    MHC class I–associated peptides (MAPs) define the immune self for CD8+ T lymphocytes and are key targets of cancer immunosurveillance. Here, the goals of our work were to determine whether the entire set of protein-coding genes could generate MAPs and whether specific features influence the ability of discrete genes to generate MAPs. Using proteogenomics, we have identified 25,270 MAPs isolated from the B lymphocytes of 18 individuals who collectively expressed 27 high-frequency HLA-A,B allotypes. The entire MAP repertoire presented by these 27 allotypes covered only 10% of the exomic sequences expressed in B lymphocytes. Indeed, 41% of expressed protein-coding genes generated no MAPs, while 59% of genes generated up to 64 MAPs, often derived from adjacent regions and presented by different allotypes. We next identified several features of transcripts and proteins associated with efficient MAP production. From these data, we built a logistic regression model that predicts with good accuracy whether a gene generates MAPs. Our results show preferential selection of MAPs from a limited repertoire of proteins with distinctive features. The notion that the MHC class I immunopeptidome presents only a small fraction of the protein-coding genome for monitoring by the immune system has profound implications in autoimmunity and cancer immunology. PMID:27841757

  20. Mechanical Stress Downregulates MHC Class I Expression on Human Cancer Cell Membrane

    KAUST Repository

    La Rocca, Rosanna

    2014-12-26

    In our body, cells are continuously exposed to physical forces that can regulate different cell functions such as cell proliferation, differentiation and death. In this work, we employed two different strategies to mechanically stress cancer cells. The cancer and healthy cell populations were treated either with mechanical stress delivered by a micropump (fabricated by deep X-ray nanolithography) or by ultrasound wave stimuli. A specific down-regulation of Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) class I molecules expression on cancer cell membrane compared to different kinds of healthy cells (fibroblasts, macrophages, dendritic and lymphocyte cells) was observed, stimulating the cells with forces in the range of nano-newton, and pressures between 1 and 10 bar (1 bar = 100.000 Pascal), depending on the devices used. Moreover, Raman spectroscopy analysis, after mechanical treatment, in the range between 700–1800 cm−1, indicated a relative concentration variation of MHC class I. PCA analysis was also performed to distinguish control and stressed cells within different cell lines. These mechanical induced phenotypic changes increase the tumor immunogenicity, as revealed by the related increased susceptibility to Natural Killer (NK) cells cytotoxic recognition.

  1. Mechanical stress downregulates MHC class I expression on human cancer cell membrane.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosanna La Rocca

    Full Text Available In our body, cells are continuously exposed to physical forces that can regulate different cell functions such as cell proliferation, differentiation and death. In this work, we employed two different strategies to mechanically stress cancer cells. The cancer and healthy cell populations were treated either with mechanical stress delivered by a micropump (fabricated by deep X-ray nanolithography or by ultrasound wave stimuli. A specific down-regulation of Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC class I molecules expression on cancer cell membrane compared to different kinds of healthy cells (fibroblasts, macrophages, dendritic and lymphocyte cells was observed, stimulating the cells with forces in the range of nano-newton, and pressures between 1 and 10 bar (1 bar = 100.000 Pascal, depending on the devices used. Moreover, Raman spectroscopy analysis, after mechanical treatment, in the range between 700-1800 cm(-1, indicated a relative concentration variation of MHC class I. PCA analysis was also performed to distinguish control and stressed cells within different cell lines. These mechanical induced phenotypic changes increase the tumor immunogenicity, as revealed by the related increased susceptibility to Natural Killer (NK cells cytotoxic recognition.

  2. The spaces of urban economic geographies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kalsø Hansen, Høgni; Winther, Lars

    2007-01-01

    The paper focuses on the transformation of the industrial structure and the location dynamics on the edge of the metropolitan region of Copenhagen with the aim of explaining the rise of new spaces in the urban economic geography. The main concern of the paper is the role the transformation...... of Copenhagen. The recent changes in the economic geographies of the outer city of Copenhagen are used as a launch pad for discussing the theoretical and analytical challenges in understanding the industrial change in new urban forms....

  3. Conceptualizing violence for health and medical geography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeVerteuil, Geoffrey

    2015-05-01

    Despite the fact that violence is a major threat to public health, the term itself is rarely considered as a phenomenon unto itself, and rarely figures explicitly in work by health and medical geographers. In response, I propose a definitionally and conceptually more robust approach to violence using a tripartite frame (interpersonal violence, structural violence, mass intentional violence) and suggest critical interventions through which to apply this more explicit and conceptually more robust approach: violence and embodiment via substance abuse in health geography, and structural violence via mental illness in medical geography. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. The Lack of Interdisciplinarity in Undergraduate Geography Teaching in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilgili, Münür

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study is to understand and explore interdisciplinarity in geography and undergraduate geography courses in geography teaching departments in Turkey. There is a growing literature in science underscoring the importance of interdisciplinary approach and its beneficial outcomes. Increasing body of knowledge on social theory, on…

  5. Teachers Envisioning Future Geography Education at Their Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Béneker, Tine; Palings, Hans; Krause, Uwe

    2015-01-01

    One of the challenges of a geography teacher education program is preparing teachers for their leading roles in keeping geography education relevant for the young people of today. It is important to allow teachers to think about geography education and the future and to foster their curriculum-making competences. In a master course at Fontys…

  6. Live Outdoor Webcams and the Construction of Virtual Geography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Degn Johansson, Troels

    2008-01-01

    geographers coined a "virtual geography"-the geography of the Internet, and the networked geography-that sought to establish itself as a new field of study during the late 1990s. In order to substantiate for this interpretation, I would like in the first part of this article to identify a number of basic...

  7. Teachers envisioning future geography education at their schools

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beneker, Tine; Palings, Hans; Krause, Uwe

    2015-01-01

    One of the challenges of a geography teacher education program is preparing teachers for their leading roles in keeping geography education relevant for the young people of today. It is important to allow teachers to think about geography education and the future and to foster their

  8. Latent classes of polydrug and polyroute use and associations with human immunodeficiency virus risk behaviours and overdose among people who inject drugs in Tijuana, Baja California, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meacham, Meredith C; Roesch, Scott C; Strathdee, Steffanie A; Lindsay, Suzanne; Gonzalez-Zuniga, Patricia; Gaines, Tommi L

    2018-01-01

    Patterns of polydrug use among people who inject drugs (PWID) may be differentially associated with overdose and unique human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) risk factors. Subgroups of PWID in Tijuana, Mexico, were identified based on substances used, route of administration, frequency of use and co-injection indicators. Participants were PWID residing in Tijuana age ≥18 years sampled from 2011 to 2012 who reported injecting an illicit substance in the past month (n = 735). Latent class analysis identified discrete classes of polydrug use characterised by 11 indicators of past 6 months substance use. Multinomial logistic regression examined class membership association with HIV risk behaviours, overdose and other covariates using an automated three-step procedure in mplus to account for classification error. Participants were classified into five subgroups. Two polydrug and polyroute classes were defined by use of multiple substances through several routes of administration and were primarily distinguished from each other by cocaine use (class 1: 5%) or no cocaine use (class 2: 29%). The other classes consisted primarily of injectors: cocaine, methamphetamine and heroin injection (class 3: 4%); methamphetamine and heroin injection (class 4: 10%); and heroin injection (class 5: 52%). Compared with the heroin-only injection class, memberships in the two polydrug and polyroute use classes were independently associated with both HIV injection and sexual risk behaviours. Substance use patterns among PWID in Tijuana are highly heterogeneous, and polydrug and polyroute users are a high-risk subgroup who may require more tailored prevention and treatment interventions. [Meacham MC, Roesch SC, Strathdee SA, Lindsay S, Gonzalez-Zuniga P, Gaines TL. Latent classes of polydrug and polyroute use and associations with human immunodeficiency virus risk behaviours and overdose among people who inject drugs in Tijuana, Baja California, Mexico. Drug Alcohol Rev 2018;37:128-136].

  9. Structure of the human glucagon class B G-protein-coupled receptor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siu, F.Y.; He, M.; de Graaf, C.; Yang, D; Zhang, Z.; Zhou, C.; Han, G.W.; Xu, Q.; Wacker, D.; Joseph, J.S.; Wei, Liu; Lau, J.F.; Cherezov, V.; Katritch, V; Wang, M.W.; Stevens, R.C.

    2013-01-01

    Binding of the glucagon peptide to the glucagon receptor (GCGR) triggers the release of glucose from the liver during fasting; thus GCGR plays an important role in glucose homeostasis. Here we report the crystal structure of the seven transmembrane helical domain of human GCGR at 3.4 Å resolution,

  10. High resolution human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I and class II allele typing in Mexican mestizo women with sporadic breast cancer: case-control study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cantú de León, David; Yu, Neng; Yunis, Edmond J; Granados, Julio; Pérez-Montiel, Delia; Villavicencio, Verónica; Carranca, Alejandro García; Betancourt, Alejandro Mohar; Acuña-Alonzo, Victor; López-Tello, Alberto; Vargas-Alarcón, Gilberto; Barquera, Rodrigo

    2009-01-01

    The development of breast cancer is multifactorial. Hormonal, environmental factors and genetic predisposition, among others, could interact in the presentation of breast carcinoma. Human leukocyte antigen (HLA) alleles play an important role in immunity (cellular immunity) and may be important genetic traits. HLAAllele-specific interaction has not been well established. Recently, several studies had been conducted in order to do so, but the results are controversial and in some instances contradictory. We designed a case-control study to quantify the association of HLA class I and II genes and breast cancer. HLA typing was performed by high resolution sequence-specific oligotyping after DNA amplification (PCR-SSOP) of 100 breast cancer Mexican mestizo patients and 99 matched healthy controls. HLA-A frequencies that we were able to observe that there was no difference between both groups from the statistical viewpoint. HLA-B*1501 was found three times more common in the case group (OR, 3.714; p = 0.031). HLA-Cw is not a marker neither for risk, nor protection for the disease, because we did not find significant statistical differences between the two groups. DRB1*1301, which is expressed in seven cases and in only one control, observing an risk increase of up to seven times and DRB1*1602, which behaves similarly in being present solely in the cases (OR, 16.701; 95% CI, 0.947 – 294.670). DQ*0301-allele expression, which is much more common in the control group and could be protective for the presentation of the disease (OR, 0.078; 95% CI, 0.027–0.223, p = 0.00001). Our results reveal the role of the MHC genes in the pathophysiology of breast cancer, suggesting that in the development of breast cancer exists a disorder of immune regulation. The triggering factor seems to be restricted to certain ethnic groups and certain geographical regions since the relevant MHC alleles are highly diverse. This is the first study in Mexican population where high resolutions HLA

  11. Why is economic geography not an evolutionary science? ; towards an evolutionary economic geography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boschma, R.A.; Frenken, K.

    2006-01-01

    The paper explains the commonalities and differences between neoclassical, institutional and evolutionary approaches that have been influential in economic geography during the last couple of decades. By separating the three approaches in terms of theoretical content and research methodology, wecan

  12. MIDDLE-CLASS FORMATION STRATEGY IN THE REGION: PRACTICAL ASPECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuliya Pereguda

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to generalize knowledge about the formation of the middle class in the region, practical aspects of this problem. The author shows details of formation strategy, its social aspects in the view of human geography. Also in this paper, the author discloses items in regional development studying, the role of society in it and its structure, tides between processes in society and features of regional placement of productive forces. The main goal of this article is to make an analysis of the middle class in the view of human geography; show aspects of the territorial organization of the middle class, their influence on the economic development. Another purpose of this article is to disclose the essence of the mechanism of interaction between middle class and regional development, the interrelation of these two various processes. The methodology of this article is based on the human geography conceptions. The author considers aspects of regional social and economic development of regions: theoretical justification of this process and the analysis of its examples of modern Ukrainian economic activity. The thesis of this analysis is that regional development in the country has to be based on a number of the basic principles (they are picked up for the concrete territory and proved. Results. The author pays attention to the social and economic methodology of research of the middle class and regional development. She considers features of spatial manifestation of the middle class, and also categories, which anyway characterize it. Also, the author makes an analysis of indicators of the middle class, which allow identifying it in its relation to other structural elements of society. Value. In the article, there are different points of view to strategy as a category, its role in economic policy and state development. Both strategies (development strategy for the territory and strategy as the instrument of regional policy in the

  13. Makiguchi Tsunesaburo and Language, Value-Creative Composition Instruction, and the Geography of Identity in Community Studies: A Response to Politicized Imagining and Ineffective Critical Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goulah, Jason

    2013-01-01

    In this article, the author examines Makiguchi Tsunesaburo's philosophy and practice of human geography ("jinsei chirigaku"), community studies ("kyodoka"), and composition instruction based on "value-creating pedagogy" ("soka kyoikugaku") for thinking through and responding to two competing trends…

  14. Geographies of knowing, geographies of ignorance: jumping scale in Southeast Asia

    OpenAIRE

    van Schendel, W.

    2002-01-01

    'Area studies' use a geographical metaphor to visualise and naturalise particular social spaces as well as a particular scale of analysis. They produce specific geographies of knowing but also create geographies of ignorance. Taking Southeast Asia as an example, in this paper I explore how areas are imagined and how area knowledge is structured to construct area 'heartlands' as well as area `borderlands'. This is illustrated by considering a large region of Asia (here named Zomiatf) that did ...

  15. Australian Geography and the Corporate Management Paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, J. M.

    1990-01-01

    Criticizes the intrusion into Australian higher education of the corporate management model. Considers the implications of this mechanization for geography instruction. Notes centralizing tendencies and merger policies with the corresponding market imperatives of efficiency and accountability. Argues that this produces employable manpower but does…

  16. Geography: research and teaching in nurse education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Gavin J

    2006-10-01

    This paper outlines how geography might be integrated into nurse education. At one level, researching nurse education geographically could add to the current academic understanding of the many transitional places that make educational experiences and influence outcomes. At another level, as part of a nursing curriculum, teaching geographical concepts and issues to students might provide them with unique insights into core subjects.

  17. Teaching Historical Geography in the Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keighren, Innes M.

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the pedagogical and practical challenges associated with teaching historical geography, and archival research specifically, in the context of the undergraduate field trip. In so doing, it draws upon students' own reflections on the experience of conducting archival research during a field trip to New York City and presents the…

  18. Recent Trends in School Geography in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Sarfaraz

    2010-01-01

    This article critically examines the recommendations of two major Indian education reports--NCFSE 2000 and NCF 2005--prepared by the National Council of Educational Research and Training in India. The NCFSE 2000 has recommended an integrated teaching of geography as one component of the social studies. The NCF 2005 has reverted to the pre-NCFSE…

  19. Geography and Geographical Information Science: Interdisciplinary Integrators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellul, Claire

    2015-01-01

    To understand how Geography and Geographical Information Science (GIS) can contribute to Interdisciplinary Research (IDR), it is relevant to articulate the differences between the different types of such research. "Multidisciplinary" researchers work in a "parallel play" mode, completing work in their disciplinary work streams…

  20. Internationalizing Geography Education: A Focus on India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solem, Michael; Balachandran, Chandra Shekhar

    2014-01-01

    The Association of American Geographers (AAG), through its Center for Global Geography Education (CGGE) project, recently published a collection of online educational resources examining important geographic issues affecting people, places, and environments in India. The resources were created by a delegation of high school teachers and academic…

  1. Toward Securing a Future for Geography Graduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spronken-Smith, Rachel

    2013-01-01

    Geography graduates face an uncertain future. To help students think and practice as a geographer, we must teach disciplinary knowledge--particularly threshold concepts--as well as skills and attributes. We must role model and articulate our geographical reasoning using signature pedagogies and promote high-impact and signature learning…

  2. Project Marco Polo: Experiences Applying Geography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trygestad, JoAnn; Nelson, Jasmine

    1993-01-01

    Describes a summer 1992 study tour of Egypt and Greece by 15 teachers, 15 students, and 5 geography administrators. Focuses on the experiences and attitudes of one eighth-grade student. Asserts that her presentations to student and adult groups have encouraged other students to become more interested in travel and other cultures. (CFR)

  3. Geography, GIS and Employability in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seremet, Mehmet; Chalkley, Brian

    2016-01-01

    Although higher education in Turkey does not have especially well-advanced systems and resources for addressing graduate employability, two developments are making it particularly important for Turkish geography departments to give increased priority to this agenda. One is the country's new Higher Education Qualifications Framework and the other…

  4. Environmental Concerns in the Geography Curriculum: Perceptions ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this paper, I use the qualitative data generated from my PhD study to show how three of the geography teachers grapple with the meaning of environmental education, sustainable development and education for sustainable development. The data reveals that the three teachers have conceptual difficulties regarding ...

  5. Environmental Concerns in the Geography Curriculum

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    education at FET level, the last phase of schooling (Gr 10–12), is to teach ... This is followed by a section on methodology that also provides the profiles of three ..... degree with a major in geography and a Higher Diploma in Education (HDE).

  6. Capstone Portfolios and Geography Student Learning Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mossa, Joann

    2014-01-01

    Due to increasing demands regarding student learning outcomes and accreditation, a capstone portfolio was added to assess critical thinking and communication skills of geography majors at a large public university in the USA. The portfolio guidelines were designed to be adaptable to a flexible curriculum where about half of the requirements within…

  7. Teaching of Moral Values in Geography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Robin

    1983-01-01

    A framework for teaching morality within subject areas (specifically, geography) at the college level is proposed. The author suggests that rationality is the basis for substantive principles of morality; one can identify good reasons as opposed to poor ones. Examples of tensions that exist between geographical and moral education are provided.…

  8. Geography and Values in Higher Education: 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huckle, John

    1978-01-01

    The geography curriculum in higher education reflects values held by the geographical and educational communities and by society in general. Teachers should transmit an environmental ethic by adopting relevant approaches from moral and political education. For journal availability, see SO 506 224. (Author/AV)

  9. 21st Century Skills Map: Geography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partnership for 21st Century Skills, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This 21st Century Skills Map is the result of hundreds of hours of research, development and feedback from educators and business leaders across the nation. The Partnership for 21st Century Skills has issued this map for the core subject of Geography.

  10. The National Geographic Society's Teaching Geography Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bockenhauer, Mark H.

    1993-01-01

    Contends that the National Geographic Society's Teaching Geography Project is an inservice teacher education success story. Describes the origins, objectives, and development of the project. Summarizes the impact of the project and contends that its success is the result of the workshop format and guided practice in instructional strategies. (CFR)

  11. The Rise and Demise of Commercial Geography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handley, Lawrence R.

    1982-01-01

    Commercial geography, originally taught in 18th-century trading schools, reached its zenith in the mid-1920s because it was stimulated by the development of the British Empire, noted for its commercial applications, and popularized through information disseminated by geographical societies. Demise factors include America's isolationist attitudes,…

  12. Possibilities for an International Assessment in Geography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Rod; Bourke, Terri

    2017-01-01

    A recent editorial in International Research in Geographical and Environmental Education (IRGEE) highlighted an opportunity for the inclusion of geography as a subject in the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) tests. At present, TIMSS tests only encompass mathematics and physical sciences. The IRGEE editors encouraged…

  13. Applying Disciplinary Literacy in Elementary Geography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britt, Judy; Ming, Kavin

    2017-01-01

    In this article, a social studies teacher and a literacy teacher describe a vision for social studies that highlights reading practices that foster disciplinary literacy in elementary geography. Their purpose is to share a practical approach for enriching elementary social studies lessons and activities with a geographic lens. During the…

  14. Food's cultural geographies: texture, creativity, and publics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cook, I.; Jackson, P.; Hayes-Conroy, A.; Abrahamsson, S.; Sandover, R.; Sheller, M.; Henderson, H.; Hallett, L.; Imai, S.; Maye, D.; Hill, A.; Johnson, N.; Schein, R.; Winders, J.

    2013-01-01

    This chapter is about emerging cultural geographies of food. It is the result of a collaborative blog-to-paper process that led to an experimental, fragmented, dialogic text. Food is often researched precisely because it can help to vividly animate tensions between the small and intimate realms of

  15. Teaching Gender and Geography in Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Ramon, Maria-Dolors

    2011-01-01

    Since the introduction of gender themes into university teaching in geography in Spain in 1989, significant gains have been made but challenges remain in relation to placing gender into undergraduate curricula and developing teaching resources in local languages. Geographers in Spain have to meet those challenges in the near future in order to…

  16. A futures perspective in Dutch geography education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pauw, Iris; Béneker, Tine

    2015-01-01

    Geography education offers many possibilities for futures education. In The Netherlands, a future perspective is obvious in the vision behind the curriculum for secondary education, but this perspective becomes thinner and less open when elaborated in the syllabus, textbooks and examinations. From

  17. Urbanization and the Geography of Development

    OpenAIRE

    Henderson, J. Vernon

    2013-01-01

    This paper focuses on several interrelated key questions on the geography of development. Although we herald cities with their industrial bases as 'engines of growth,' does industrialization in fact drive urbanization?1 What economic activities do cities of different sizes undertake? Does this change as countries develop? If so, what are the policy implications? Do development policies hav...

  18. Internships in the Applied Geography Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Les; And Others

    1979-01-01

    Explains why an internship is a necessary part of an applied geography curriculum. Presents a case study of an internship program at Ryerson Polytechnical Institute, Toronto, which emphasizes placement in an agency with the same specialization as the student and integration of course material and field experience. (Author/DB)

  19. The coordinate transforming in geography information system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Xiang; Chen Gang

    2003-01-01

    The coordinate transforming of geography information system includes two kinds of transforming, map projection and coordinate-transforming. This paper proposed a arithmetic of coordinate-transforming, it implement the transforming between the longitude-latitude coordinate and the screen coordinate and apply it in the GIS. The preferable effect was made. (authors)

  20. Producer services, economic geography, and services tradability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vaal, A; van den Berg, M

    We investigate how the incorporation of producer services linkages affects the outcome of an economic geography model. We specify the production of manufactures such that a variety of producer services is needed to transform tradable unfinished goods into final consumption goods. We find that

  1. Implementation Challenges of the New Geography Diploma ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study focused on implementation challenges of the new Geography Diploma Syllabus in Tanzania. The study used Korogwe and Dakawa Teachers' Training Colleges as a case. Dakawa teachers' training college is located in Morogoro region while Korogwe teachers' training college is based in Korogwe district, ...

  2. Substituted 2-Phenyl-Imidazopyridines: A New Class of Drug Leads for Human African Trypanosomiasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatipaka, Hari Babu; Gillespie, J. Robert; Chatterjee, Arnab K.; Norcross, Neil R.; Hulverson, Matthew A.; Ranade, Ranae M.; Nagendar, Pendem; Creason, Sharon A.; McQueen, Joshua; Duster, Nicole A.; Nagle, Advait; Supek, Frantisek; Molteni, Valentina; Wenzler, Tanja; Brun, Reto; Glynne, Richard; Buckner, Frederick S.; Gelb, Michael H.

    2014-01-01

    A phenotypic screen of a compound library for antiparasitic activity on Trypanosoma brucei, the causative agent of human African trypanosomiasis, led to the identification of substituted 2-(3-aminophenyl) oxazolopyridines as a starting point for hit-to-lead medicinal chemistry. A total of 110 analogues were prepared, which led to the identification of 64, a substituted 2-(3-aminophenyl) imidazopyridine. This compound showed antiparasitic activity in vitro with an EC50 of 2 nM and displayed reasonable drug-like properties when tested in a number of in vitro assays. The compound was orally bioavailable and displayed good plasma and brain exposure in mice. Compound 64 cured mice infected with Trypanosoma brucei when dosed orally down to 2.5 mg/kg. Given its potent anti-parasitic properties and its ease of synthesis, compound 64 represents a new lead for the development of drugs to treat human African trypanosomiasis. PMID:24354316

  3. Understanding of human metabolic pathways of different sub-classes of phenols from Arbutus unedo fruit after an acute intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosele, Juana I; Macià, Alba; Motilva, María-José

    2016-03-01

    Arbutus unedo is a small Mediterranean fruit, commonly named strawberry tree, which is a rich source of different sub-classes of phenolic compounds, the more representative being the gallic acid derivatives, including its mono and oligomeric forms esterified with quinic and shikimic acids. In addition, galloyl derivatives, particularly gallotannins, described in A. unedo, are part of a very selective phenolic group, present in a reduced number of plant-products. The aim of the present study is to provide a better understanding of human metabolic pathways of different sub-classes of phenols from the A. unedo fruit after an acute intake by healthy adults. Therefore, the A. unedo phenolic metabolites were studied in whole blood samples (0 to 24 h), urine (24 h) and feces (12 and 24 h). Special focus was placed on the application of dried blood spot (DBS) cards for the sample collection and for the analysis of phenolic metabolites in whole blood samples. The results of the blood analysis revealed two peaks for the maximum concentrations of the main phenolic metabolites. Furthermore, it is appropriate to highlight the application of DBS cards as an efficient and accurate way to collect blood samples in post-prandial bioavailability studies. The analysis of urine (24 h) gave a wide range of phenolic metabolites showing the extensive metabolism that A. unedo phenolic compounds underwent in the human body. The results of the study provide a relevant contribution to the understanding of the in vivo human bioavailability of phenolic compounds, especially galloyl derivatives, a singular phenolic sub-group present in the A. unedo fruit.

  4. Metastatic MHC class I-negative mouse cells derived by transformation with human papillomavirus type 16

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šmahel, M.; Sobotková, E.; Bubeník, Jan; Šímová, Jana; Žák, R.; Ludvíková, V.; Mikyšková, Romana; Kovařík, J.; Jelínek, F.; Povýšil, C.; Marinov, J.; Vonka, V.

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 84, č. 3 (2001), s. 374-380 ISSN 0007-0920 R&D Projects: GA MZd NC5900; GA MZd NC5526; GA ČR GA312/99/0542; GA ČR GA312/98/0826 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5052915 Keywords : human papillomavirus * E6/E7 oncogenes * cell transformation Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.942, year: 2001

  5. MHC class I phenotype and function of human beta 2-microglobulin transgenic murine lymphocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerager, L; Pedersen, L O; Bregenholt, S

    1996-01-01

    . Based on data from cellular binding studies, Scatchard analyses and flow cytometry, it is concluded that exogenous h beta 2m does not bind to hybrid MHC class I (MHC-I) molecules composed of mouse heavy chain/h beta 2m molecules expressed on lymphocytes of transgenic mice. Immunoprecipitation and SDS......-PAGE analysis of metabolically labelled normal C57BL/6 lymph node cells showed binding of exogenous h beta 2m to MHC-I, in particular, to the H-2Db molecule through an exchange with endogenous mouse beta 2m. In contrast to normal H-2Db molecules, hybrid H-2Db expressed on the surface of transgenic lymphocytes...... binds radiolabelled peptide in the absence of exogenous added h beta 2m suggesting that a stable fraction of hybrid H-2Db molecules is empty or contain peptides with very low affinity. In a one-way allogenic mixed lymphocyte culture, transgenic splenocytes were found to be far less stimulatory than...

  6. Data Acquisition and Preprocessing in Studies on Humans: What Is Not Taught in Statistics Classes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yeyi; Hernandez, Ladia M; Mueller, Peter; Dong, Yongquan; Forman, Michele R

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to address issues in research that may be missing from statistics classes and important for (bio-)statistics students. In the context of a case study, we discuss data acquisition and preprocessing steps that fill the gap between research questions posed by subject matter scientists and statistical methodology for formal inference. Issues include participant recruitment, data collection training and standardization, variable coding, data review and verification, data cleaning and editing, and documentation. Despite the critical importance of these details in research, most of these issues are rarely discussed in an applied statistics program. One reason for the lack of more formal training is the difficulty in addressing the many challenges that can possibly arise in the course of a study in a systematic way. This article can help to bridge this gap between research questions and formal statistical inference by using an illustrative case study for a discussion. We hope that reading and discussing this paper and practicing data preprocessing exercises will sensitize statistics students to these important issues and achieve optimal conduct, quality control, analysis, and interpretation of a study.

  7. The geography teacher's set of appliances - `GEOGRAPHY nEtQUIPMENT' - Self improved school equipment used in teaching geography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pajtok-Tari, I.

    2009-04-01

    The multimedia application and the use of Internet are becoming more and more common at schools and at homes due to the widespread of computers. The multimedia programs offer a great help for geography teachers because with their use all the visual aids are not needed in the classroom. They mix the advantages of blacboards, slides, displays, overhead projectors and VCR-s. At the same time offering other opportunities which could not be provided by the aids mentioned above because of their limits. Using a projector connected to a computer students can see the visual aids prepared by the teacher projected. Their use is justified because student's books cannot contain all the increasing amount of knowledge. Success is guaranteed because students are sensitive to new approaches. Digitalizing the material and finding it on the internet that way preparing a colourful, varied geography lesson is a time-consuming process. Being the methodologist and didactic information technologist at the Geography Department of Eszterházy Károly College I have been working for years on facilitating the work of my students, colleagues and my own activity using varied visual aids and types of equipment as preparation for the geography lesson. I have created an electronic set of appliances using the Dreamweaver MX program (‘GEOGRAPHY nEtQUIPMENT', from the 1st September 2006 on the Internet), it can be a real help for the teacher in each teaching situation. The ‘GEOGRAPHY nEtQUIPMENT' is a multimedia, Internet service which can be loaded free, the teacher gets into a virtual office clicking to the different pieces (drawer, shelf, wall map, globe, laptop, Tv set etc.) the teacher can continue with the necessary school equipment. Such equipment like: lesson plans for the lessons using digital technology, photos, video clips, animation, illustrations, pieces of music, maps, collection of minerals, database, diagrams, charts, bibliography, student's books, geography lexicons, magazines

  8. Developing and Evaluating Medical Humanities Problem-Based Learning Classes Facilitated by the Teaching Assistants Majored in the Liberal Arts: A Longitudinal Crossover Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Fen-Yu; Shieh, Jeng-Yi; Kao, Tze-Wah; Wu, Chau-Chung; Chu, Tzong-Shinn; Chen, Yen-Yuan

    2016-02-01

    Although medical humanities courses taught by teachers from nonmedical backgrounds are not unusual now, few studies have compared the outcome of medical humanities courses facilitated by physicians to that by teaching assistants majored in the liberal arts. The objectives of this study were to (1) analyze the satisfaction of medical students with medical humanities problem-based learning (PBL) classes facilitated by nonmedical teaching assistants (TAF) majored in the liberal arts, and those facilitated by the attending physicians (APF) and (2) examine the satisfaction of medical students with clinical medicine-related and clinical medicine-unrelated medical humanities PBL classes.A total of 123 medical students, randomly assigned to 16 groups, participated in this study. There were 16 classes in the course: 8 of them were TAF classes; and the others were APF classes. Each week, each group rotated from 1 subject of the 16 subjects of PBL to another subject. All of the 16 groups went through all the 16 subjects in the 2013 spring semester. We examined the medical students' satisfaction with each class, based on a rating score collected after each class was completed, using a scale from 0 (the lowest satisfaction) to 100 (the highest satisfaction). We also conducted multivariate linear regression analysis to examine the association between the independent variables and the students' satisfaction.Medical students were more satisfied with the TAF (91.35 ± 7.75) medical humanities PBL classes than APF (90.40 ± 8.42) medical humanities PBL classes (P = 0.01). Moreover, medical students were more satisfied with the clinical medicine-unrelated topics (92.00 ± 7.10) than the clinical medicine-related topics (90.36 ± 7.99) in the medical humanities PBL course (P = 0.01).This medical humanities PBL course, including nonmedical subjects and topics, and nonmedical teaching assistants from the liberal arts as class facilitators, was satisfactory. This

  9. Moral Geography and Exploration of the Moral Possibility Space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bongrae Seok

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This article reviews Owen Flanagan’s latest book “The Geography of Morals, Varieties of Moral Possibilities” (2017. By exploring the space of moral possibility (i.e., diverse options and viewpoints of morality from different philosophical and religious traditions throughout the world, Flanagan argues that ethics is not simply a study of a priori conditions of normative rules and ideal values but a process of developing a careful understanding of varying conditions of human ecology and building practical views on living good life. The goal of this geographical exploration of the moral possibility space is surveying different traditions of morality and finding tractable ways of human flourishing. This article, by following the chapters of his book, explains his views on moral diversity and his interdisciplinary and naturalistic approach to ethics. It also discusses interactive and dynamic ways to expand the moral possibility space.

  10. The Geography of Film Viewing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barratt, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    While many cognitive scientists assume that the fundamental nature of human cognitive faculties is universal, recent research suggests that cognitive differences exist between Westerners and East Asians. The goal of the proposed paper is to assess the potential implications of this research for t...

  11. GEOGRAPHY AND ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY

    Science.gov (United States)

    The US Environmental Protection Agency helps state and local governments protect the environment by encouraging good environmental management and by regulating human activities to ensure clean air and water. At the Corvallis research laboratory for the EPA, we improve the ways t...

  12. GEOGRAPHY nEtQUIPMENT to study geography: the homepage and reflections from the users

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pajtok-Tari, I.

    2009-04-01

    The main objective of the GEOGRAPHY nEtQUIPMENT is to convey structured information to teachers and pupils, as well as, professors and students of geography. This learning aid is a homepage, first published in Hungarian still in 2006 (http://netszkozkeszlet.ektf.hu), to help in orientation among the rapidly growing information on the Internet, to provide extra digitalized professional materials that are not yet available digitally and to share experiences of the teachers and professors working in the same area of interest and language environment. At present, its English version is already prepared and partly available at the same address. The GEOGRAPHY nEtQUIPMENT can be used free after registration, at present the homepage counts 2807 registered users. The interested user first enters a virtual office where the entries of the Menu can be opened by clicking at the drawer, shelf, wall map, globe, laptop, TV-set, etc. These entries are professional lesson plans using digital technology, photos, video clips, animations on physical and social geography. The homepage also mirrors pieces of music, maps, collection of minerals, database links, diagrams, bibliography, lecture notes, dictionaries, scientific and popular journals, geography games, web pages, etc. The whole set of appliances is based on Dreamweaver MX program. During the past 2.5 years some experience has been gained about the GEOGRAPHY nEtQUIPMENT in use, mainly from teachers of geography, who downloaded and responded to the questionnaire. Another source of information is the group of students in the College, where future teachers of geography are trained in a one-semester course on application of the Info-Communication Technology. From the first group, i.e. 59 active teachers of geography, 54 % use the Internet "always" or "frequently" in the classroom, whereas 75 % of them rely on it for preparation to the lessons. Before trying the homepage, these numbers were 25 % and 54 %, only. From among the listed

  13. Integrating Hydrology and Historical Geography in an Interdisciplinary Environmental Masters Program in Northern Ontario, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greer, Kirsten; James, April

    2016-04-01

    Research in hydrology and other sciences are increasingly calling for new collaborations that "…simultaneously explore the biogeophysical, social and economic forces that shape an increasingly human-dominated global hydrologic system…" (Vorosmarty et al. 2015, p.104). With many environmental programs designed to help students tackle environmental problems, these initiatives are not without fundamental challenges (for example, they are often developed around a single epistemology of positivism). Many environmental graduate programs provide narrow interdisciplinary training (within the sciences, or bridging to the social sciences) but do not necessarily engage with the humanities. Geography however, has a long tradition and history of bridging the geophysical, social sciences, and humanities. In this paper, we reflect on new programming in an Interdisciplinary Master's program in Northern Ontario, Canada, inspired by the rich tradition of geography. As Canada Research Chairs trained in different geographical traditions (historical geography and hydrology), we aim to bring together approaches in the humanities and geophysical sciences to understand hydrological and environmental change over time. We are teaching in a small, predominantly undergraduate University located in Northern Ontario, Canada, a region shaped significantly by colonial histories and resource development. The Masters of Environmental Studies/Masters of Environmental Sciences (MES/MESc) program was conceived from a decade of interdisciplinary dialogue across three undergraduate departments (Geography, Biology and Chemistry, History) to promote an understanding of both humanistic and scientific approaches to environmental issues. In the fall of 2015, as part of our 2015-2020 Canada Research Chair mandates, we introduced new initiatives to further address the integration of humanities and sciences to our graduate program. We believe the new generation of environmental scientists and practioners

  14. Human β satellite DNA: Genomic organization and sequence definition of a class of highly repetitive tandem DNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waye, J.S.; Willard, H.F.

    1989-01-01

    The authors describe a class of human repetitive DNA, called β satellite, that, at a most fundamental level, exists as tandem arrays of diverged ∼68-base-pair monomer repeat units. The monomer units are organized as distinct subsets, each characterized by a multimeric higher-order repeat unit that is tandemly reiterated and represents a recent unit of amplification. They have cloned, characterized, and determined the sequence of two β satellite higher-order repeat units: one located on chromosome 9, the other on the acrocentric chromosomes (13, 14, 15, 21, and 22) and perhaps other sites in the genome. Analysis by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis reveals that these tandem arrays are localized in large domains that are marked by restriction fragment length polymorphisms. In total, β-satellite sequences comprise several million base pairs of DNA in the human genome. Analysis of this DNA family should permit insights into the nature of chromosome-specific and nonspecific modes of satellite DNA evolution and provide useful tools for probing the molecular organization and concerted evolution of the acrocentric chromosomes

  15. Towards Some New Methods in Teaching Geography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jadranka Brkić-Vejmelka

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the possibilities of applying the existing international projects in which many students and teachers could participate. It was taken into consideration as a pottentially new method of teaching geography suitable for all ages and grades. The presentation of such two programmes is trying to assure participants and non-participants of the value of such attempts in the new way of education.

  16. Quantitative Profiling of Major Neutral Lipid Classes in Human Meibum by Direct Infusion Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jianzhong; Green, Kari B.; Nichols, Kelly K.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose. The purpose of this investigation was to better understand lipid composition in human meibum. Methods. Intact lipids in meibum samples were detected by direct infusion electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) analysis in positive detection mode using sodium iodide (NaI) as an additive. The peak intensities of all major types of lipid species, that is, wax esters (WEs), cholesteryl esters (CEs), and diesters (DEs) were corrected for peak overlapping and isotopic distribution; an additional ionization efficiency correction was performed for WEs and CEs, which was simplified by the observation that the corresponding ionization efficiency was primarily dependent on the specific lipid class and saturation degree of the lipids while independent of the carbon chain length. A set of WE and CE standards was spiked in meibum samples for ionization efficiency determination and absolute quantitation. Results. The absolute amount (μmol/mg) for each of 51 WEs and 31 CEs in meibum samples was determined. The summed masses for 51 WEs and 31 CEs accounted for 48 ± 4% and 40 ± 2%, respectively, of the total meibum lipids. The mass percentages of saturated and unsaturated species were determined to be 75 ± 2% and 25 ± 1% for CEs and 14 ± 1% and 86 ± 1% for WEs. The profiles for two types of DEs were also obtained, which include 42 α,ω Type II DEs, and 21 ω Type I-St DEs. Conclusions. Major neutral lipid classes in meibum samples were quantitatively profiled by ESI-MS analysis with NaI additive. PMID:23847307

  17. Models in geography ? A sense to research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger Brunet

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Ideas on models and modelling made a conspicuous entry into geography in the 1960s. They have since evolved, through practice and under the influence of—partly justified—criticism. No serious research can dispense with modelling as a means to reach the essential and to evaluate the divergence between singular geographical objects and the models that assist their interpretation. On two conditions, which merit further definition and exploration : models must have meaning in and through the practices, objectives and intentions of human action ; and we must know how to use models—whether tried and tested or new—to understand the structure and dynamics of singular geographical objects, and not just to infer general mechanisms from them, even though they will certainly enhance our understanding of the nature and scope of general mechanisms.

  18. Human leukocyte antigen class I, class II, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha polymorphisms in a healthy elder Mexican Mestizo population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Llorente Luis

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is strong evidence that an individual's genetic background is an important predisposing factor to longevity. In the present study we analysed the frequency of HLA class I, class II, as well as the TNF-α -308 polymorphism that may be related to an increased life span in Mexican Mestizo healthy elders. Results HLA typing was performed by polymerase chain reaction sequence specific oligonucleotide (PCR SSO reverse dot blot. The TNF-α -308 polymorphism was assessed by PCR restriction fragment length polymorphism. A significant increased frequency of HLA-DRB1*11 was found in elderly women whereas this allele was not present in elderly males. The TNF2 allele was also increased in the elder group when compared to young controls. The frequencies of the remaining alleles tested were not statistically different among groups. Conclusion These data suggest an ethnicity independent tendency of HLA-DRB1*11 in elder females to increase life span and a possible role of the TNF2 allele with the successful remodelling of senescent immune system.

  19. Molecular cloning of a cDNA and chromosomal localization of a human theta-class glutathione S-transferase gene (GSTT2) to chromosome 22

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tan, K.L.; Baker, R.T.; Board, P.G. [Australian National Univ., Canberra (Australia)] [and others

    1995-01-20

    Until recently the Theta-class glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) were largely overlooked due to their low activity with the model substrate 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene (CDNB) and their failure to bind to immobilized glutathione affinity matrices. Little is known about the number of genes in this class. Recently, Pemble et al. reported the cDNA cloning of a human Theta-class GST, termed GSTT1. In this study, we describe the molecular cloning of a cDNA encoding a second human Theta-class GST (GSTT2) from a {lambda}gt11 human liver 5{prime}-stretch cDNA library. The encoded protein contains 244 amino acids and has 78.3% sequence identity with the rat subunit 12 and only 55.0% identity with human GSTT1. GSTT2 has been mapped to chromosome 22 by somatic cell hybrid analysis. The precise position of the gene was localized to subband 22q11.2 by in situ hybridization. The absence of other regions of hybridization suggests that there are no closely related sequences (e.g., reverse transcribed pseudogenes) scattered throughout the genome and that if there are closely related genes, they must be clustered near GSTT2. Southern blot analysis of human DNA digested with BamHI shows that the size of the GSTT2 gene is relatively small, as the coding sequence falls within a 3.6-kb BamHI fragment. 35 refs., 6 figs.

  20. China Dimensions Data Collection: Bibliography of Chinese Administrative Geography

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Bibliography of Chinese Administrative Geography is a historical collection of bibliographic information on 75 published books describing the administrative...

  1. GIS IN THE CLOUD: USING WEBGIS FOR TEACHING SECONDARY GEOGRAPHY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew J. Milson

    Full Text Available RESUMEN:There is no doubt among most geography educators that GIS is an important tool for teaching and learning, but its use has been slowed by issues such as the cost of the software and the management of large spatial data files. The move to cloud computing is one trend that is promising for GIS in education. The "cloud" refers to a virtual network that provides many users with access to files, services, and applications. In this article I argue that cloud computing and WebGIS have the potential to transform geography education. I will describe three case studies that make use of these emerging tools in classrooms in the US, and discuss the lessons that we can learn from these cases. PALABRAS CLAVE WEBSIG; SIG; enseñanza de la geografía; la nube de Internet; ArcGIS Online; ArcGIS Explorer Desktop (AGX. ABSTRACT There is no doubt among most geography educators that GIS is an important tool for teaching and learning, but its use has been slowed by issues such as the cost of the software and the management of large spatial data files. The move to cloud computingis one trend that is promising for GIS in education. The "cloud" refers to a virtual network that provides many users with access to files, services, and applications. In this article I argue that cloud computing and WebGIS have the potential to transform geography education. I will describe three case studies that make use of these emerging tools in classrooms in the US, and discuss the lessons that we can learn from these cases. KEY WORDS WEBGIS; GIS; cloud computing; ArcGIS Online; ArcGIS Explorer Desktop (AGX. RÉSUMÉ Il n'ya aucun doute parmi les éducateurs les plus géographie que le SIG est un outil important pour l'enseignement et l'apprentissage, mais son utilisation a été ralentie par des problèmes tels que le coût du logiciel et la gestion des grands fichiers de données spatiales. Le passage au nuage de l'internet est une tendance qui est prometteur pour les SIG dans l

  2. A viral, transporter associated with antigen processing (TAP)-independent, high affinity ligand with alternative interactions endogenously presented by the nonclassical human leukocyte antigen E class I molecule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorente, Elena; Infantes, Susana; Abia, David; Barnea, Eilon; Beer, Ilan; García, Ruth; Lasala, Fátima; Jiménez, Mercedes; Mir, Carmen; Morreale, Antonio; Admon, Arie; López, Daniel

    2012-10-12

    The transporter associated with antigen processing (TAP) enables the flow of viral peptides generated in the cytosol by the proteasome and other proteases to the endoplasmic reticulum, where they complex with nascent human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I. Later, these peptide-HLA class I complexes can be recognized by CD8(+) lymphocytes. Cancerous cells and infected cells in which TAP is blocked, as well as individuals with unusable TAP complexes, are able to present peptides on HLA class I by generating them through TAP-independent processing pathways. Here, we identify a physiologically processed HLA-E ligand derived from the D8L protein in TAP-deficient vaccinia virus-infected cells. This natural high affinity HLA-E class I ligand uses alternative interactions to the anchor motifs previously described to be presented on nonclassical HLA class I molecules. This octameric peptide was also presented on HLA-Cw1 with similar binding affinity on both classical and nonclassical class I molecules. In addition, this viral peptide inhibits HLA-E-mediated cytolysis by natural killer cells. Comparison between the amino acid sequences of the presenting HLA-E and HLA-Cw1 alleles revealed a shared structural motif in both HLA class molecules, which could be related to their observed similar cross-reactivity affinities. This motif consists of several residues located on the floor of the peptide-binding site. These data expand the role of HLA-E as an antigen-presenting molecule.

  3. Identification of neurotensin-related peptides in human thymic epithelial cell membranes and relationship with major histocompatibility complex class I molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanneste, Y; Thome, A N; Vandersmissen, E; Charlet, C; Franchimont, D; Martens, H; Lhiaubet, A M; Schimpff, R M; Rostène, W; Geenen, V

    1997-06-01

    This study shows the expression at the cell surface of human thymic epithelial cells (TEC) of a neurotensin (NT)-like immunoreactivity. NT radio-immunoassay (RIA) revealed that cultured human TEC contain +/-5 ng immunoreactive (ir) NT/10(6) cells, of which 5% is associated with plasma cell membranes. HPLC analysis of NT-ir present in human TEC showed a major peak of NT-ir corresponding to NT1-13. NT-ir was not detected in the supernatant of human TEC cultures. Using an affinity column prepared with a anti-MHC class I monoclonal antibody, NT-ir-related peptides were retained on the column and eluted together with MHC class I-related proteins. According to the elution time on HPLC of these peptides, they correspond to intact NT1-13, as well as to smaller fragments of NT1-13.

  4. Expression of a Chimeric Antigen Receptor Specific for Donor HLA Class I Enhances the Potency of Human Regulatory T Cells in Preventing Human Skin Transplant Rejection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boardman, D A; Philippeos, C; Fruhwirth, G O; Ibrahim, M A A; Hannen, R F; Cooper, D; Marelli-Berg, F M; Watt, F M; Lechler, R I; Maher, J; Smyth, L A; Lombardi, G

    2017-04-01

    Regulatory T cell (Treg) therapy using recipient-derived Tregs expanded ex vivo is currently being investigated clinically by us and others as a means of reducing allograft rejection following organ transplantation. Data from animal models has demonstrated that adoptive transfer of allospecific Tregs offers greater protection from graft rejection compared to polyclonal Tregs. Chimeric antigen receptors (CAR) are clinically translatable synthetic fusion proteins that can redirect the specificity of T cells toward designated antigens. We used CAR technology to redirect human polyclonal Tregs toward donor-MHC class I molecules, which are ubiquitously expressed in allografts. Two novel HLA-A2-specific CARs were engineered: one comprising a CD28-CD3ζ signaling domain (CAR) and one lacking an intracellular signaling domain (ΔCAR). CAR Tregs were specifically activated and significantly more suppressive than polyclonal or ΔCAR Tregs in the presence of HLA-A2, without eliciting cytotoxic activity. Furthermore, CAR and ΔCAR Tregs preferentially transmigrated across HLA-A2-expressing endothelial cell monolayers. In a human skin xenograft transplant model, adoptive transfer of CAR Tregs alleviated the alloimmune-mediated skin injury caused by transferring allogeneic peripheral blood mononuclear cells more effectively than polyclonal Tregs. Our results demonstrated that the use of CAR technology is a clinically applicable refinement of Treg therapy for organ transplantation. © 2016 The American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons.

  5. Bacterial superantigens promote acute nasopharyngeal infection by Streptococcus pyogenes in a human MHC Class II-dependent manner.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine J Kasper

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Establishing the genetic determinants of niche adaptation by microbial pathogens to specific hosts is important for the management and control of infectious disease. Streptococcus pyogenes is a globally prominent human-specific bacterial pathogen that secretes superantigens (SAgs as 'trademark' virulence factors. SAgs function to force the activation of T lymphocytes through direct binding to lateral surfaces of T cell receptors and class II major histocompatibility complex (MHC-II molecules. S. pyogenes invariably encodes multiple SAgs, often within putative mobile genetic elements, and although SAgs are documented virulence factors for diseases such as scarlet fever and the streptococcal toxic shock syndrome (STSS, how these exotoxins contribute to the fitness and evolution of S. pyogenes is unknown. Here we show that acute infection in the nasopharynx is dependent upon both bacterial SAgs and host MHC-II molecules. S. pyogenes was rapidly cleared from the nasal cavity of wild-type C57BL/6 (B6 mice, whereas infection was enhanced up to ∼10,000-fold in B6 mice that express human MHC-II. This phenotype required the SpeA superantigen, and vaccination with an MHC -II binding mutant toxoid of SpeA dramatically inhibited infection. Our findings indicate that streptococcal SAgs are critical for the establishment of nasopharyngeal infection, thus providing an explanation as to why S. pyogenes produces these potent toxins. This work also highlights that SAg redundancy exists to avoid host anti-SAg humoral immune responses and to potentially overcome host MHC-II polymorphisms.

  6. Crystal structure of a Gammadelta T-cell Receptor Specific for the Human MHC class I Homolog MICA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    B Xu; J Pizarro; M Holmes; C McBeth; V Groh; T Spies; R Strong

    2011-12-31

    {gamma}{delta} T cells play important roles in bridging innate and adaptive immunity, but their recognition mechanisms remain poorly understood. Human {gamma}{delta} T cells of the V{sub {delta}}1 subset predominate in intestinal epithelia and respond to MICA and MICB (MHC class I chain-related, A and B; MIC) self-antigens, mediating responses to tumorigenesis or viral infection. The crystal structure of an MIC-reactive V{sub {delta}}1 {gamma}{delta} T-cell receptor (TCR) showed expected overall structural homology to antibodies, {alpha}{beta}, and other {gamma}{delta} TCRs, but complementary determining region conformations and conservation of V{sub {delta}}1 use revealed an uncharacteristically flat potential binding surface. MIC, likewise, serves as a ligand for the activating immunoreceptor natural killer group 2, D (NKG2D), also expressed on {gamma}{delta} T cells. Although MIC recognition drives both the TCR-dependent stimulatory and NKG2D-dependent costimulatory signals necessary for activation, interaction analyses showed that MIC binding by the two receptors was mutually exclusive. Analysis of relative binding kinetics suggested sequential recognition, defining constraints for the temporal organization of {gamma}{delta} T-cell/target cell interfaces.

  7. Enterocin C, a class IIb bacteriocin produced by E. faecalis C901, a strain isolated from human colostrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maldonado-Barragán, Antonio; Caballero-Guerrero, Belén; Jiménez, Esther; Jiménez-Díaz, Rufino; Ruiz-Barba, José L; Rodríguez, Juan M

    2009-07-31

    Enterocin C (EntC), a class IIb bacteriocin was purified from culture supernatants of Enterococcus faecalis C901, a strain isolated from human colostrum. Enterocin C consists of two distinct peptides, named EntC1 and EntC2, whose complementary action is required for full antimicrobial activity. The structural genes entC1 and entC2 encoding enterocins EntC1 and EntC2, respectively, and that encoding the putative immunity protein (EntCI) are located in the 9-kb plasmid pEntC, harboured by E. faecalis C901. The N-terminal sequence of both antimicrobial peptides revealed that EntC1 (4284 Da) is identical to Ent1071A, one of the two peptides that form enterocin 1071 (Ent1071), a bacteriocin produced by E. faecalis BFE 1071. In contrast, EntC2 (3867 Da) presents the non-polar alanine residue at position 17 (Ala(17)) instead of the polar threonine residue (Thr(17)) in Ent1071B, the second peptide constituting Ent1071. In spite of peptide similarities, EntC differs from Ent1071 in major aspects, including the complementary activity among its constitutive peptides and its wider inhibitory spectrum of activity. Different amphiphilic alpha-helical conformations between EntC2 and Ent1071B could explain both, acquired complementary activity and increased antimicrobial spectrum.

  8. Crystal structure of a gammadelta T-cell receptor specific for the human MHC class I homolog MICA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Bin; Pizarro, Juan C; Holmes, Margaret A; McBeth, Christine; Groh, Veronika; Spies, Thomas; Strong, Roland K

    2011-02-08

    γδ T cells play important roles in bridging innate and adaptive immunity, but their recognition mechanisms remain poorly understood. Human γδ T cells of the V(δ)1 subset predominate in intestinal epithelia and respond to MICA and MICB (MHC class I chain-related, A and B; MIC) self-antigens, mediating responses to tumorigenesis or viral infection. The crystal structure of an MIC-reactive V(δ)1 γδ T-cell receptor (TCR) showed expected overall structural homology to antibodies, αβ, and other γδ TCRs, but complementary determining region conformations and conservation of V(δ)1 use revealed an uncharacteristically flat potential binding surface. MIC, likewise, serves as a ligand for the activating immunoreceptor natural killer group 2, D (NKG2D), also expressed on γδ T cells. Although MIC recognition drives both the TCR-dependent stimulatory and NKG2D-dependent costimulatory signals necessary for activation, interaction analyses showed that MIC binding by the two receptors was mutually exclusive. Analysis of relative binding kinetics suggested sequential recognition, defining constraints for the temporal organization of γδ T-cell/target cell interfaces.

  9. In and Out of Place: Geographies of Revolt in Camus's La Peste

    OpenAIRE

    Erin Tremblay Ponnou-Delaffon

    2015-01-01

    From Roland Barthes to Shoshana Felman, some of the most insightful readings of Albert Camus’s La Peste ( The Plague ) have focused on its historical dimension. In contrast, this article attends to less studied spatial representations, bringing recent insights from human geography to bear on depictions of Oran and exile in the novel. From its start, The Plague insistently connects plot, spatial setting, and notions of normativity and transgression. Understandings of place—and in particu...

  10. MHC class II molecules deliver costimulatory signals in human T cells through a functional linkage with IL-2-receptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Odum, Niels; Kanner, S B; Ledbetter, J A

    1993-01-01

    MHC class II-positive T cells are found in tissues involved in autoimmune and infectious disorders. Because stimulation of class II molecules by mAb or bacterial superantigens induces protein tyrosine phosphorylation through activation of PTK3 in T cells, we hypothesized that class II signals play...... tyrosine phosphorylation of specific substrates including PLC-gamma 1. Combined stimulation of IL-2R and class II molecules had an additive effect on tyrosine phosphorylation. Pretreatment of T cells with a protein tyrosine kinase inhibitor, herbimycin A, inhibited IL-2 and class II-induced proliferation...... a regulatory function in T cell activation. Here, we show that cross-linking HLA-DR and -DP but not -DQ molecules by immobilized mAb enhanced proliferative T cell responses to IL-2. In contrast, class II stimulation had no effect on IL-4-induced proliferation. The costimulatory effect was most pronounced...

  11. Why is economic geography not an evolutionary science? : towards an evolutionary economic geography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boschma, R.A.; Frenken, K.; Martin, R.

    2008-01-01

    The paper explains the commonalities and differences between neoclassical, institutional and evolutionary approaches that have been influential in economic geography during the last couple of decades. By separating the three approaches in terms of theoretical content and research methodology, we can

  12. Transformative Geography: Ethics and Action in Elementary and Secondary Geography Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirman, Joseph M.

    2003-01-01

    Geographic ethics are profoundly important if students are expected to be stewards of the earth and responsible citizens whose decisions about the environment will affect our planet's future. The proposed framework, founded in geography but applicable to other subject areas, guides students to moral decisions for the well-being of the planet and…

  13. Regional Geography Is Dead: Long Live Regional Geography! With an Example from Southern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Russell

    1979-01-01

    Recounts criticisms of regional geography and points out three reasons for retaining it: growth of regional science, area studies, and regional planning. Evaluates Southern Italy as an example of the uses of regional analyses. For journal availability, see SO 507 291. (Author/CK)

  14. Signaling via class IA Phosphoinositide 3-kinases (PI3K in human, breast-derived cell lines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronique Juvin

    Full Text Available We have addressed the differential roles of class I Phosphoinositide 3-kinases (PI3K in human breast-derived MCF10a (and iso-genetic derivatives and MDA-MB 231 and 468 cells. Class I PI3Ks are heterodimers of p110 catalytic (α, β, δ and γ and p50-101 regulatory subunits and make the signaling lipid, phosphatidylinositol (3,4,5-trisphosphate (PtdIns(3,4,5P3 that can activate effectors, eg protein kinase B (PKB, and responses, eg migration. The PtdIns(3,4,5P3-3-phosphatase and tumour-suppressor, PTEN inhibits this pathway. p110α, but not other p110s, has a number of onco-mutant variants that are commonly found in cancers. mRNA-seq data shows that MCF10a cells express p110β>>α>δ with undetectable p110γ. Despite this, EGF-stimulated phosphorylation of PKB depended upon p110α-, but not β- or δ- activity. EGF-stimulated chemokinesis, but not chemotaxis, was also dependent upon p110α, but not β- or δ- activity. In the presence of single, endogenous alleles of onco-mutant p110α (H1047R or E545K, basal, but not EGF-stimulated, phosphorylation of PKB was increased and the effect of EGF was fully reversed by p110α inhibitors. Cells expressing either onco-mutant displayed higher basal motility and EGF-stimulated chemokinesis.This latter effect was, however, only partially-sensitive to PI3K inhibitors. In PTEN(-/- cells, basal and EGF-stimulated phosphorylation of PKB was substantially increased, but the p110-dependency was variable between cell types. In MDA-MB 468s phosphorylation of PKB was significantly dependent on p110β, but not α- or δ- activity; in PTEN(-/- MCF10a it remained, like the parental cells, p110α-dependent. Surprisingly, loss of PTEN suppressed basal motility and EGF-stimulated chemokinesis. These results indicate that; p110α is required for EGF signaling to PKB and chemokinesis, but not chemotaxis; onco-mutant alleles of p110α augment signaling in the absence of EGF and may increase motility, in part, via acutely

  15. Human leukocyte antigen class I and II alleles and cervical adenocarcinoma: a pooled analysis of two epidemiologic studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahboobeh eSafaeian

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Associations between human leukocyte antigens (HLA alleles and cervical cancer are largely representative of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC, the major histologic subtype. We evaluated the association between HLA class I (A, B, and C and class II (DRB1 and DQB1 loci and risk of cervical adenocarcinoma (ADC, a less common but aggressive histologic subtype.We pooled data from the Eastern and Western US cervical cancer studies, and evaluated the association between individual alleles and allele combinations and ADC (n=630 ADC; n=775 controls. Risk estimates were calculated for 11 a priori (based on known associations with cervical cancer regardless of histologic type and 38 non a priori common alleles, as odds ratios (OR and 95% confidence intervals (CI, adjusted for age and study. In exploratory analysis, we compared the risk associations between subgroups with HPV16 or HPV18 DNA in ADC tumor tissues in the Western US study cases and controls. Three of the a priori alleles were significantly associated with decreased risk of ADC (DRB1*13:01 (OR=0.61; 95%CI:0.41-0.93, DRB1*13:02 (OR=0.49; 95%CI:0.31-0.77, and DQB1*06:03 (OR=0.64; 95%CI:0.42-0.95; one was associated with increased risk (B*07:02(OR=1.39; 95%CI:1.07-1.79. Among alleles not previously reported, DQB1*06:04 (OR=0.46; 95%CI: 0.27-0.78 was associated with decreased risk of ADC and C*07:02 (OR=1.41; 95%CI:1.09-1.81 was associated with increased risk. We did not observe a difference by histologic subtype. ADC was most strongly associated with increased risk with B*07:02/C*07:02 alleles (OR=1.33; 95%CI:1.01-1.76 and decreased risk with DRB1*13:02/DQB1*06:04 (OR=0.41; 95%CI:0.21-0.80. Results suggest that HLA allele associations with cervical ADC are similar to those for cervical SCC. An intriguing finding was the difference in risk associated with several alleles restricted to HPV16 or HPV18 related tumors, consistent with the hypothesis that HLA recognition is HPV type specific.

  16. RECREATIONAL GEOGRAPHY AND DEVELOPMENT OF ECOLOGICAL TOURISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. R. Arpentieva

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to theoretical analysis of the problems of ecological tourism as a component of the theory and practice of recreational geography (geography, nature. The article reveals the essence and characteristics of ecotourism identifying its issues and determining the direction and tasks of its development. Special attention is paid to types and objects of ecological tourism, main problems and aspects of its development in the context of recreational geography and tourism are highlighted, such as the lack of an overall national concept for the development of rural tourism or the lack of clearly articulated public policies. There are neither standards and regulations applicable to rural tourism nor qualified personnel, knowledge and experience in the service sector of foreign and domestic tourists.There are no regulatory legal acts in the field of rural and ecological tourism which is aggravated by the unwillingness and inability to efficiently use private recreation resources. One of the key problems connected with the development of domestic tourism, including such types as agrotourism (“green tourism”, coupled with the experience of participation in rural works, and rural tourism as a whole, attracting people to rural life. The business problems of development of ecological tourism as an independent tourism industry cannot and should not be addressed to without strategic analysis and forecasting varied (including negative consequences of tourist activity for society, culture and environment as well as without and without the development and implementation of forms of ecological tourism aimed at harmonizing nature and culture of nature management by the population.

  17. Geography of current and future global mammal extinction risk.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana D Davidson

    Full Text Available Identifying which species are at greatest risk, what makes them vulnerable, and where they are distributed are central goals for conservation science. While knowledge of which factors influence extinction risk is increasingly available for some taxonomic groups, a deeper understanding of extinction correlates and the geography of risk remains lacking. Here, we develop a predictive random forest model using both geospatial and mammalian species' trait data to uncover the statistical and geographic distributions of extinction correlates. We also explore how this geography of risk may change under a rapidly warming climate. We found distinctive macroecological relationships between species-level risk and extinction correlates, including the intrinsic biological traits of geographic range size, body size and taxonomy, and extrinsic geographic settings such as seasonality, habitat type, land use and human population density. Each extinction correlate exhibited ranges of values that were especially associated with risk, and the importance of different risk factors was not geographically uniform across the globe. We also found that about 10% of mammals not currently recognized as at-risk have biological traits and occur in environments that predispose them towards extinction. Southeast Asia had the most actually and potentially threatened species, underscoring the urgent need for conservation in this region. Additionally, nearly 40% of currently threatened species were predicted to experience rapid climate change at 0.5 km/year or more. Biological and environmental correlates of mammalian extinction risk exhibit distinct statistical and geographic distributions. These results provide insight into species-level patterns and processes underlying geographic variation in extinction risk. They also offer guidance for future conservation research focused on specific geographic regions, or evaluating the degree to which species-level patterns mirror spatial

  18. Geography of current and future global mammal extinction risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Ana D; Shoemaker, Kevin T; Weinstein, Ben; Costa, Gabriel C; Brooks, Thomas M; Ceballos, Gerardo; Radeloff, Volker C; Rondinini, Carlo; Graham, Catherine H

    2017-01-01

    Identifying which species are at greatest risk, what makes them vulnerable, and where they are distributed are central goals for conservation science. While knowledge of which factors influence extinction risk is increasingly available for some taxonomic groups, a deeper understanding of extinction correlates and the geography of risk remains lacking. Here, we develop a predictive random forest model using both geospatial and mammalian species' trait data to uncover the statistical and geographic distributions of extinction correlates. We also explore how this geography of risk may change under a rapidly warming climate. We found distinctive macroecological relationships between species-level risk and extinction correlates, including the intrinsic biological traits of geographic range size, body size and taxonomy, and extrinsic geographic settings such as seasonality, habitat type, land use and human population density. Each extinction correlate exhibited ranges of values that were especially associated with risk, and the importance of different risk factors was not geographically uniform across the globe. We also found that about 10% of mammals not currently recognized as at-risk have biological traits and occur in environments that predispose them towards extinction. Southeast Asia had the most actually and potentially threatened species, underscoring the urgent need for conservation in this region. Additionally, nearly 40% of currently threatened species were predicted to experience rapid climate change at 0.5 km/year or more. Biological and environmental correlates of mammalian extinction risk exhibit distinct statistical and geographic distributions. These results provide insight into species-level patterns and processes underlying geographic variation in extinction risk. They also offer guidance for future conservation research focused on specific geographic regions, or evaluating the degree to which species-level patterns mirror spatial variation in the

  19. Geographical Values, the Values of Geography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Pumain

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The debates of the twenty-first century render extremely topical the questions that the discipline of geography was asking at the time of its emergence as a scientific curiosity—but by reversing them:  from the theory of the effects of climate on the psychology of peoples at the time of Montesquieu, we have moved to the anthropogenic construction of the greenhouse effect and of global warming, from development according to the proximity of  differences in region, landscape and culture, we sli...

  20. Polish electoral geography and its methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zbigniew Rykiel

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Differences in the understanding of electoral geography between social sciences are discussed in the article. Main fields and spatial scales of Polish electoral geography are identified. Main methods of multidimensional statistics are discussed. A necessity of a proper choice, based on theories of voting behaviour, of explaning variables to statistical models are emphasised. Regression analysis indicates only a formal usefulness in electoral geography, for quantitative relationships between variables in the model can be evidenced, which may be meaningless not only essentially, but even statistically. The application of canonical analysis in electoral geography brought a methodological turning-point to the statistical approach. This method allowed to combine: (1 the foundation of the selection of input variables on theories of voting behaviour; (2 the analysis of dependence of the electoral results on socio-economic characteristics of areas; (3 an identification of electoral options; (4 a quantification of the role of the historical heritage in the contemporary voting behaviour; and (5 the analysis of the stability of the electoral space. A well grounded opinion was weakened about the general competitiveness of right- and left-wing parties in Poland’s political space. Parties with similar rather than different programmes compete in given areas. It was indicated that elections have only formal influence on the structure of Parliament while the electoral system is decisive. Electoral, including territorial, manipulations also play their part. The empirical analysis indicated that Poland’s political space is polarised between the right-wing-oriented areas of the south-eastern half of the country and the left-wing-oriented areas of the north-western half. The political competition between the left and the right operates merely on the national scale, while it is not reflected territorially.The quantification of the influence of the nineteenth

  1. Humanizing π-class glutathione S-transferase regulation in a mouse model alters liver toxicity in response to acetaminophen overdose.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew P Vaughn

    Full Text Available Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs metabolize drugs and xenobiotics. Yet despite high protein sequence homology, expression of π-class GSTs, the most abundant of the enzymes, varies significantly between species. In mouse liver, hepatocytes exhibit high mGstp expression, while in human liver, hepatocytes contain little or no hGSTP1 mRNA or hGSTP1 protein. π-class GSTs are known to be critical determinants of liver responses to drugs and toxins: when treated with high doses of acetaminophen, mGstp1/2+/+ mice suffer marked liver damage, while mGstp1/2-/- mice escape liver injury.To more faithfully model the contribution of π-class GSTs to human liver toxicology, we introduced hGSTP1, with its exons, introns, and flanking sequences, into the germline of mice carrying disrupted mGstp genes. In the resultant hGSTP1+mGstp1/2-/- strain, π-class GSTs were regulated differently than in wild-type mice. In the liver, enzyme expression was restricted to bile duct cells, Kupffer cells, macrophages, and endothelial cells, reminiscent of human liver, while in the prostate, enzyme production was limited to basal epithelial cells, reminiscent of human prostate. The human patterns of hGSTP1 transgene regulation were accompanied by human patterns of DNA methylation, with bisulfite genomic sequencing revealing establishment of an unmethylated CpG island sequence encompassing the gene promoter. Unlike wild-type or mGstp1/2-/- mice, when hGSTP1+mGstp1/2-/- mice were overdosed with acetaminophen, liver tissues showed limited centrilobular necrosis, suggesting that π-class GSTs may be critical determinants of toxin-induced hepatocyte injury even when not expressed by hepatocytes.By recapitulating human π-class GST expression, hGSTP1+mGstp1/2-/- mice may better model human drug and xenobiotic toxicology.

  2. GIS Adoption among Senior High School Geography Teachers in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lay, Jinn-Guey; Chen, Yu-Wen; Chi, Yu-Lin

    2013-01-01

    This article explores the adoption of geographic information system (GIS) knowledge and skills through in-service training for high school geography teachers in Taiwan. Through statistical analysis of primary data collected from a census of Taiwan's high school geography teachers, it explores what motivates these teachers to undertake GIS…

  3. Some Thoughts about a New International Geography Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Schee, Joop; Notte, Henk; Zwartjes, Luc

    2010-01-01

    An important question for geography teachers all over the world is how to define, stimulate and test geographic literacy. Although modern technology is no guarantee of quality, it offers new possibilities for teaching and testing, as can be seen in contemporary geography learning/teaching units using digital maps and interactive tests. Tests such…

  4. Australian Primary In-Service Teachers' Conceptions of Geography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preston, Lou

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports on the second part of a two pronged qualitative investigation that examines the ways in which Australian primary teachers conceptualise geography and geography teaching. In the first part of the project, 47 pre-service primary teachers were surveyed. In this paper, I draw on interviews with six in-service primary teachers to…

  5. Geography and Creativity: Developing Joyful and Imaginative Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scoffham, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    Creativity is a complex and contested notion but is now widely recognised as a feature of learning across the curriculum. This article explores how primary geography teaching can be enriched by creative practice. It goes beyond simply suggesting imaginative ways to devise geography lessons, to outline a pedagogy which places children at the heart…

  6. Music Regions and Mental Maps: Teaching Cultural Geography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shobe, Hunter; Banis, David

    2010-01-01

    Music informs understandings of place and is an excellent vehicle for teaching cultural geography. A study was developed of geography students' perception of where music genres predominate in the United States. Its approach, involving mental map exercises, reveals the usefulness and importance of maps as an iterative process in teaching cultural…

  7. European Geography Higher Education Fieldwork and the Skills Agenda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wall, Glenda P.; Speake, Janet

    2012-01-01

    The Bologna Declaration focuses on skill acquisition as a means of improving student employability and fieldwork is considered to be a pivotal teaching method for geography students to obtain such skills. This paper presents results from a major substantive survey of European geography academics and students which investigated their perspectives…

  8. Some thoughts about a new international geography test

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Schee, J.A.; Notté, H.; Zwartjes, L.

    2010-01-01

    An important question for geography teachers all over the world is how to define, stimulate and test geographic literacy. Although modern technology is no guarantee of quality, it offers new possibilities for teaching and testing, as can be seen in contemporary geography learning/teaching units

  9. Teaching Gender and Geography: The Case of the Netherlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortuijn, Joos Droogleever

    2011-01-01

    Feminist geography teaching in universities in the Netherlands originated 30 years ago in an academic context that counteracted this new development for ideological reasons. Nowadays, the neoliberal conditions of the market have replaced the conservative ideology that prevailed 30 years ago. Feminist geography is supported as far as it returns…

  10. Political Science and Political Geography: Neglected Areas, Areas for Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laponce, J. A.

    1983-01-01

    Since at least the 1950s, political scientists have tended to ignore the possible contributions of political geography to political science because of a move away from considering spatial factors on political structure. Political scientists need to use more information from geography to enhance their understanding of political power and conflict.…

  11. Mentoring: A New Approach to Geography Teacher Preparation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bednarz, Sarah Witham; Bockenhauer, Mark H.; Walk, Fred H.

    2005-01-01

    Geography teacher preparation is an ongoing problem for the discipline. Changes in certification requirements and federal and state educational policies have diminished the role of colleges and universities in educating teachers. At the same time, geography education reform efforts have resulted in higher standards and an increased quantity of…

  12. Development and Current Trends of the Czech Historical Geography

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Semotanová, Eva; Chromý, P.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 38, č. 1 (2012), s. 9-34 ISSN 0323-0988 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP410/12/G113 Institutional support: RVO:67985963 Keywords : historical geography * history of historical geography * historical landscape * Czechia Subject RIV: AB - History

  13. Digital Geography and the Race for the White House

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenreich, Todd W.

    2016-01-01

    With the 2016 presidential election right around the corner, geography provides a dynamic view of the spatial patterns and processes that shape the electorate. The major presidential campaigns know that a winning strategy must use geography to make informed decisions about where to allocate limited resources such as money and staff. In the end,…

  14. Perceptions and attitudes of geography teachers to biotechnology: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study reports the perceptions and attitudes of geography teachers towards biotechnology and genetically-modified (GM) foods in Turkey. A survey was conducted with secondary school geography teachers attending teacher workshops in various parts of the country in 2008 and was responded to by 78 teachers from ...

  15. Setting the scene: the geographies of urban governance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gupta, J.; Pfeffer, K.; Ros-Tonen, M.; Verrest, H.; Gupta, J.; Pfeffer, J.; Verrest, K.; Ros-Tonen, M.

    2015-01-01

    This chapter sets the context for the discussions on the geographies of urban governance in this book. It highlights the current themes of urban governance and how the recent wave of globalization has changed the geographies of urban governance in nine ways - by shaping dominant discourses about

  16. The Four Traditions of Geography, Professional Paper No. 25.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pattison, William D.

    Four geography concepts illustrate the varied nature of the science and provide a pluralistic basis for uniting professional and pedagogical geography and for promoting communication with laymen. The spatial tradition, based on interest in geometry and movement, separates aspects of distance, form, direction, and position from events themselves.…

  17. Geography Teachers' Usage of the Internet for Education Purposes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sezer, Adem

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine geography teachers' use of the Internet for education purposes and the extent to which Turkish Internet sites can fulfill the needs and requirements of geography teachers' Internet usage. Research is carried out using the screening method. Data were collected by means of a measurement tool that was…

  18. The Inclusion of Geography in TIMSS: Can Consensus Be Reached?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourke, Terri; Lane, Rod

    2017-01-01

    An initial call by the editors of International Research in Geographical and Environmental Education prompted a study about the inclusion of geography in the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) tests. This study found that the geography education community were overwhelmingly in favour of such a move, believing that the…

  19. Geography Teachers' Attitudes and Beliefs Regarding Classroom Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dikmenli, Yurdal; Çifçi, Taner

    2016-01-01

    This study scrutinizes geography teachers' attitude and belief levels regarding classroom management. As a matter of fact, classroom management is one of the prominent areas emphasized by all educators. Descriptive correlational survey model was used in the study. Study group includes 58 geography teachers working in Sivas province during the…

  20. Teaching Critical Thinking in World Regional Geography through Stakeholder Debate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sziarto, Kristin M.; McCarthy, Linda; Padilla, Nicholas L.

    2014-01-01

    Using a stakeholder debate based on a real-world case of regional construction--that of Turkey's application to join the European Union--improved students' critical thinking in an introductory world regional geography course. Such courses are a staple offering among US geography departments, and often the only exposure of non-majors to geographic…

  1. Bridging Geography and Education for Sustainable Development: A Korean Example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gress, Douglas R.; Tschapka, Johannes M.

    2017-01-01

    There is an apparent disconnect between geography and education for sustainable development (ESD), with geography underrepresented in publications and curricula related to sustainability though the discipline embraces the need to foment positive change. To bridge this schism, this article introduces advances in education for sustainable…

  2. Some Perceptions of English Geography Textbook Authors on Writing Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jongwon; Catling, Simon

    2016-01-01

    There has been much research into the nature and uses of school geography textbooks as teaching resources, yet the perceptions of their authors have been neglected. This study investigated the perspectives of a sample of authors of English primary and secondary school geography textbooks on their experiences as textbook authors. It enquired into…

  3. Primary Geography Education in China: Past, Current and Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xuan, Xiaowei; Duan, Yushan; Sun, Yue

    2015-01-01

    In China, geography education in primary schools (grades 1 to 6) has not been emphasized, although some scholars have done research in this area. In order to deepen the understanding of primary geography education in China, this paper examines its history, current situation, and future trends. The authors used the method of document analysis and…

  4. Influence of the geographical curriculum on competences of geography teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatjana Resnik Planinc

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyses the influence of geographical curriculum on competences of geography teacher. It is focused on complex and symbiotic relation between curriculum and achieved and recommended competences of geography teacher and their importance for geographical education. The competences should therefore be derived from the theories, concerning values, knowledge, curriculum and whole educational process, which underpin good pedagogical practice.

  5. The male-specific region of the human Y chromosome is a mosaic of discrete sequence classes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Skaletsky, Helen; Kuroda-Kawaguchi, Tomoko; Minx, Patrick J.; Cordum, Holland S.; Hillier, LaDeana; Brown, Laura G.; Repping, Sjoerd; Pyntikova, Tatyana; Ali, Johar; Bieri, Tamberlyn; Chinwalla, Asif; Delehaunty, Andrew; Delehaunty, Kim; Du, Hui; Fewell, Ginger; Fulton, Lucinda; Fulton, Robert; Graves, Tina; Hou, Shun-Fang; Latrielle, Philip; Leonard, Shawn; Mardis, Elaine; Maupin, Rachel; McPherson, John; Miner, Tracie; Nash, William; Nguyen, Christine; Ozersky, Philip; Pepin, Kymberlie; Rock, Susan; Rohlfing, Tracy; Scott, Kelsi; Schultz, Brian; Strong, Cindy; Tin-Wollam, Aye; Yang, Shiaw-Pyng; Waterston, Robert H.; Wilson, Richard K.; Rozen, Steve; Page, David C.

    2003-01-01

    The male-specific region of the Y chromosome, the MSY, differentiates the sexes and comprises 95% of the chromosome's length. Here, we report that the MSY is a mosaic of heterochromatic sequences and three classes of euchromatic sequences: X-transposed, X-degenerate and ampliconic. These classes

  6. Human leukocyte antigen (HLA class I restricted epitope discovery in yellow fewer and dengue viruses: importance of HLA binding strength.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ole Lund

    Full Text Available Epitopes from all available full-length sequences of yellow fever virus (YFV and dengue fever virus (DENV restricted by Human Leukocyte Antigen class I (HLA-I alleles covering 12 HLA-I supertypes were predicted using the NetCTL algorithm. A subset of 179 predicted YFV and 158 predicted DENV epitopes were selected using the EpiSelect algorithm to allow for optimal coverage of viral strains. The selected predicted epitopes were synthesized and approximately 75% were found to bind the predicted restricting HLA molecule with an affinity, K(D, stronger than 500 nM. The immunogenicity of 25 HLA-A*02:01, 28 HLA-A*24:02 and 28 HLA-B*07:02 binding peptides was tested in three HLA-transgenic mice models and led to the identification of 17 HLA-A*02:01, 4 HLA-A*2402 and 4 HLA-B*07:02 immunogenic peptides. The immunogenic peptides bound HLA significantly stronger than the non-immunogenic peptides. All except one of the immunogenic peptides had K(D below 100 nM and the peptides with K(D below 5 nM were more likely to be immunogenic. In addition, all the immunogenic peptides that were identified as having a high functional avidity had K(D below 20 nM. A*02:01 transgenic mice were also inoculated twice with the 17DD YFV vaccine strain. Three of the YFV A*02:01 restricted peptides activated T-cells from the infected mice in vitro. All three peptides that elicited responses had an HLA binding affinity of 2 nM or less. The results indicate the importance of the strength of HLA binding in shaping the immune response.

  7. The Eye and Refractive Geography in Pericles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matei-Chesnoiu Monica

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper highlights the cultural constructedness of vision in the early modern period by drawing on heteroglossic representations of the eye in early English texts, ranging from anatomy and physiology treatises to philosophy, poetry, emblems, and geometrical perspective in astronomy and land surveying. The argument is based on the association of word and image in early modern representations of space, mirrored in Ortelius’s notion of geography as the eye of history, which shows the importance of the visual element in the system of acquisition and transmission of knowledge in the Renaissance. In the particular case of Pericles, the play unfolds over a vast international geography and creates powerful visual effects. The imaginative spatial conventions of the play can be assimilated to the system of geometrical projection on which maps depended. Locations are used according to a geometric triangulation system to refract the imaginative and spatial vision. As in emblems, the locations unfolding in the play give the action meaning in the process of involved spectatorship. Moreover, in the theatre, the lone monocular beholder of mathematical linear perspective is multiplied into a choric array of spectators.

  8. Geography Preservice Teachers' Disposition toward Teaching Spatial Thinking through Geography: A Comparison between China and Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jinhee; Jo, Injeong; Xuan, Xiaowei; Zhou, Weiguo

    2018-01-01

    Although geography education researchers in both China and Korea acknowledge that the education of spatial thinking and the development of teachers' dispositions toward teaching spatial thinking are important, very few studies are available on the topic. This article examines the dispositions of Chinese and Korean geography preservice teachers'…

  9. Dependent Classes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gasiunas, Vaidas; Mezini, Mira; Ostermann, Klaus

    2007-01-01

    of dependent classes and a machine-checked type soundness proof in Isabelle/HOL [29], the first of this kind for a language with virtual classes and path-dependent types. [29] T.Nipkow, L.C. Poulson, and M. Wenzel. Isabelle/HOL -- A Proof Assistant for Higher-Order Logic, volume 2283 of LNCS, Springer, 2002......Virtual classes allow nested classes to be refined in subclasses. In this way nested classes can be seen as dependent abstractions of the objects of the enclosing classes. Expressing dependency via nesting, however, has two limitations: Abstractions that depend on more than one object cannot...... be modeled and a class must know all classes that depend on its objects. This paper presents dependent classes, a generalization of virtual classes that expresses similar semantics by parameterization rather than by nesting. This increases expressivity of class variations as well as the flexibility...

  10. Quietly Does It: Questioning assumptions about class, sustainability and consumption

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Smith, J.; Kostelecký, Tomáš; Jehlička, P.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 67, č. 10 (2015), s. 223-232 ISSN 0016-7185 Institutional support: RVO:68378025 Keywords : Sustainability * Ethical consumption * Class Subject RIV: DE - Earth Magnetism, Geodesy, Geography Impact factor: 2.397, year: 2015 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.geoforum.2015.03.017

  11. Comprehensive Analysis of Cytomegalovirus pp65 Antigen-Specific CD8+ T Cell Responses According to Human Leukocyte Antigen Class I Allotypes and Intraindividual Dominance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung-Joo Hyun

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available To define whether individual human leukocyte antigen (HLA class I allotypes are used preferentially in human cytomegalovirus (CMV-specific cytotoxic T lymphocyte responses, CD8+ T cell responses restricted by up to six HLA class I allotypes in an individual were measured in parallel using K562-based artificial antigen-presenting cells expressing both CMV pp65 antigen and one of 32 HLA class I allotypes (7 HLA-A, 14 HLA-B, and 11 HLA-C present in 50 healthy Korean donors. The CD8+ T cell responses to pp65 in the HLA-C allotypes were lower than responses to those in HLA-A and -B allotypes and there was no difference between the HLA-A and HLA-B loci. HLA-A*02:01, -B*07:02, and -C*08:01 showed the highest magnitude and frequency of immune responses to pp65 at each HLA class I locus. However, HLA-A*02:07, -B*59:01, -B*58:01, -B*15:11, -C*03:02, and -C*02:02 did not show any immune responses. Although each individual has up to six different HLA allotypes, 46% of the donors showed one allotype, 24% showed two allotypes, and 2% showed three allotypes that responded to pp65. Interestingly, the frequencies of HLA-A alleles were significantly correlated with the positivity of specific allotypes. Our results demonstrate that specific HLA class I allotypes are preferentially used in the CD8+ T cell immune response to pp65 and that a hierarchy among HLA class I allotypes is present in an individual.

  12. Effects of irradiation on the expression of major histocompatibility complex class I antigen and adhesion costimulation molecules ICAM-1 in human cervical cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santin, Alessandro D.; Hermonat, Paul L.; Hiserodt, John C.; Chiriva-Internati, Maurizio; Woodliff, Jeff; Theus, John W.; Barclay, David; Pecorelli, Sergio; Parham, Groesbeck P.

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: We initiated studies to analyze the effects of high doses of gamma irradiation on the surface antigen expression of MHC Class I, Class II, and ICAM-1 on human cervical carcinoma cell lines. Methods and Materials: The expression of surface antigens (MHC Class I, Class II, and ICAM-1) was evaluated by FACS analysis on two cervical cell lines at different time points, following their exposure to high doses of gamma irradiation (i.e., 25.00, 50.00, and 100.00 Gy). Results: The CaSki and SiHa cervical cancer cells we analyzed in this study expressed variable levels of MHC Class I and ICAM-1 antigens, while Class II surface antigens were not detectable. Whereas irradiation doses of 25.00 Gy were not sufficient to totally block cell replication in both cell lines, exposure to 50.00 or 100.00 Gy was able to completely inhibit cell replication. Range doses from 25.00 to 100.00 Gy significantly and consistently increased the expression of all surface antigens present on the cells prior to irradiation but were unable to induce neoexpression of antigens previously not expressed by these cells (i.e., MHC Class II). Importantly, such upregulation was shown to be dose dependent, with higher radiation doses associated with increased antigen expression. Moreover, when the kinetic of this upregulation was studied after 2 and 6 days after irradiation, it was shown to be persistent and lasted until all the cells died. Conclusions: These findings may partially explain the increased immunogenicity of tumor cells following irradiation and may suggest enhanced immune recognition in tumor tissue in patients receiving radiation therapy

  13. Meeting the Challenge of Systemic Change in Geography Education: Lucy Sprague Mitchell's Young Geographers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downs, Roger M.

    2016-01-01

    The history of K-12 geography education has been characterized by recurrent high hopes and dashed expectations. There have, however, been moments when the trajectory of geography education might have changed to offer students the opportunity to develop a thorough working knowledge of geography. Lucy Sprague Mitchell's geography program developed…

  14. STUDY ON GEOGRAPHY STUDENTS’ INTERNET USE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARIA ELIZA DULAMĂ

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study we analyze the behavior of a sample of 30 third-year students of various majors of the Faculty of Geography, “Babeş-Bolyai” University of ClujNapoca, Romania, regarding the Internet use. We applied a questionnaire containing 15 items related to: Internet activities performed; length of time students spend on the Internet; devices used to access the Internet; types of materials that students downloaded, read, viewed, forwarded or posted on the Internet; types of applications used. Taking into account the time students spent daily on the Internet and correlated with other responses we concluded that their concerns were closely related to the Internet, whether it was about communication, career, or personal life.

  15. Towards a geography of emotional analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Otrel-Cass, Kathrin

    2016-01-01

    This article is a forum response to a research article on self-reporting methods when studying discrete emotions in science education environments. Studying emotions in natural settings is a difficult task because of the complexity of deciphering verbal and non-verbal communication. In my respons...... to map out a geography of analysis that takes also into account who or what emotions are directed at.......This article is a forum response to a research article on self-reporting methods when studying discrete emotions in science education environments. Studying emotions in natural settings is a difficult task because of the complexity of deciphering verbal and non-verbal communication. In my response...

  16. Shakespearian Biography and the Geography of Collaboration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine Scheil

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The essay looks at the possibilities for reconciling two vibrant strands of Shakespeare studies. Many scholars have persuasively argued that Shakespeare’s plays were created within the collaborative environment of the London playhouses, involving a variety of influences within the performance network of early modern London. Conversely, recent archaeological work at New Place, Shakespeare’s home in Stratford, convincingly maintains that Shakespeare would have spent the majority of his time here, and not in London. Could Shakespeare have collaborated if he was not based in London? And if his primary residence was in Stratford, how could he have contributed as a collaborator with other playwrights? Resolving the contradictions between these two divergent models is particularly urgent for biographers, who have to chart a geography of Shakespeare’s writing career amid his two locales.

  17. The moral geography of home care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liaschenko, J

    1994-12-01

    One result of the historical division of labor between nurses and physicians is that nurses became the eyes and ears of the physician, extending their perceptual capabilities across space and time. This "gaze of medicine" has evolved with the rise of technology, hospitals, and the medical profession to a sort of scientific totalitarianism. Protecting and enhancing patient agency, which is part of the moral work of nursing practice, can be difficult under such circumstances. Yet the geography of sickness is changing as patients move from the hospital back to the home. Because home is thought of as private, as the patient's domain, nurses may think that supporting patient agency will be easier with this transformation of health care. But that assumption may not be warranted since the gaze of medicine will follow patients and change the landscape of the home. The challenge for nursing will be to sharpen the "gaze of nursing," which is an antidote to the strictly biomedical understanding of disease.

  18. Expression of HLA Class II Molecules in Humanized NOD.Rag1KO.IL2RgcKO Mice is Critical for Development and Function of Human T and B Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-17

    class switch was preserved in DRAG mice. The human identity of Ig heavy and Figure 4. Human T cells developed by DRAG mice are functional. At 6 months...HSC-infused DRAG and control mice were immunized with 1 flocculation unit of TT vaccine (Sanofi Pasteur ) by the intramuscular route, and the titers...and CD8 T cells with preserved integrity of both TCR and non-TCR signaling pathways. It has been suggested that low frequency and functional

  19. A Fractal Perspective on Scale in Geography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Jiang

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Scale is a fundamental concept that has attracted persistent attention in geography literature over the past several decades. However, it creates enormous confusion and frustration, particularly in the context of geographic information science, because of scale-related issues such as image resolution and the modifiable areal unit problem (MAUP. This paper argues that the confusion and frustration arise from traditional Euclidean geometric thinking, in which locations, directions, and sizes are considered absolute, and it is now time to revise this conventional thinking. Hence, we review fractal geometry, together with its underlying way of thinking, and compare it to Euclidean geometry. Under the paradigm of Euclidean geometry, everything is measurable, no matter how big or small. However, most geographic features, due to their fractal nature, are essentially unmeasurable or their sizes depend on scale. For example, the length of a coastline, the area of a lake, and the slope of a topographic surface are all scale-dependent. Seen from the perspective of fractal geometry, many scale issues, such as the MAUP, are inevitable. They appear unsolvable, but can be dealt with. To effectively deal with scale-related issues, we present topological and scaling analyses illustrated by street-related concepts such as natural streets, street blocks, and natural cities. We further contend that one of the two spatial properties, spatial heterogeneity, is de facto the fractal nature of geographic features, and it should be considered the first effect among the two, because it is global and universal across all scales, which should receive more attention from practitioners of geography.

  20. Framework for the Analysis of Geography of Transnational Corporations Investments Abroad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuznetsov Alexey V.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This article develops a methodology for studying the geography of companies — an area of human geography that remains understudied in Russia. The authors refer to foreign direct investment (FDI studies to stress the importance of analysing individual transnational corporations. Special attention is paid to FDI statistics, including international statistics provided by IMF, OECD, and UNCTAD, the official data of central banks on FDI destinations, and information on companies’ assets by geographical segments. The article emphasises limitations of classical localisation concepts (e. g. A. Lösch’s theory and key concepts of transnationalisation (e. g. J. H. Dunning’s ‘eclectic paradigm’, R. Vernon’s ‘product life cycle’, and the ‘flying geese paradigm’ developed by Japanese authors. Dynamic localisation concepts (e. g. the Uppsala model and hierarchical/wave diffusion models are considered an important contribution to the existing theoretical framework for studying FDI geography. Various patterns of spatial d istribution of FDI are examined taking Russian transboundary investments, including those distorted by the ‘neighbourhood effect’ as an example.

  1. THE MEMORY AND THE SOCIAL GEOGRAPHY AS THEORETICAL RESOURCES FOR THE (REBUILDING OF THE FEMALE MEMORY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nereida Maria Santos Mafra de

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The proposal presented here designs to accomplish a discussion concerning the doctorate thesis’s production, entitled “Memory and women’s Social Geography in Rio de Contas – Bahia: the female participation on the building process of a society”. The reflections will be constituted by taking into consideration the theoretical conceptions about: the Memory as a mean for the studied women’s memory rebuilding, taking as a basis the testimonies and the documentary proof; the Social Geography, in which will be done a analysis of this Human Geography branch on a geographic perspective of the space, as a analysis’s category of the Geographic Science, which will identify on the public and private spaces, the established relationships among men and women. The accomplished analysis will be extremely important to the appropriation concerning the historical and the social contexts that originated the knowledge about the women and the (rebuilding of the tinker, communist, praying, educator and midwife women who remained, for many centuries, invisible to the official history.

  2. Geographies of energy transition: Space, place and the low-carbon economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bridge, Gavin; Bouzarovski, Stefan; Bradshaw, Michael; Eyre, Nick

    2013-01-01

    This paper makes a case for examining energy transition as a geographical process, involving the reconfiguration of current patterns and scales of economic and social activity. The paper draws on a seminar series on the ‘Geographies of Energy Transition: security, climate, governance' hosted by the authors between 2009 and 2011, which initiated a dialogue between energy studies and the discipline of human geography. Focussing on the UK Government's policy for a low carbon transition, the paper provides a conceptual language with which to describe and assess the geographical implications of a transition towards low carbon energy. Six concepts are introduced and explained: location, landscape, territoriality, spatial differentiation, scaling, and spatial embeddedness. Examples illustrate how the geographies of a future low-carbon economy are not yet determined and that a range of divergent – and contending – potential geographical futures are in play. More attention to the spaces and places that transition to a low-carbon economy will produce can help better understand what living in a low-carbon economy will be like. It also provides a way to help evaluate the choices and pathways available. - Highlights: ► Examines transition as a geographical process, reconfiguring patterns and scales of activity. ► Provides concepts for assessing geographical implications of transition to a low-carbon economy. ► Outlines location, landscape, territoriality, uneven development, scaling, and embeddedness.

  3. Using Geocoded Databases in Teaching Urban Historical Geography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Roger P.

    1986-01-01

    Provides information regarding hardware and software requirements for using geocoded databases in urban historical geography. Reviews 11 IBM and Apple Macintosh database programs and describes the pen plotter and digitizing table interface used with the databases. (JDH)

  4. Modeling Methodologies for Representing Urban Cultural Geographies in Stability Operations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ferris, Todd P

    2008-01-01

    ... 2.0.0, in an effort to provide modeling methodologies for a single simulation tool capable of exploring the complex world of urban cultural geographies undergoing Stability Operations in an irregular warfare (IW) environment...

  5. The geography, geology and mining history of Rum Jungle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lowson, R.T.

    1975-01-01

    The geology and geography of the Rum Jungle region are described. A description is given of the effect on the environment of mining operations such as ore processing, effluent disposal and the leaching of stockpiles and overburden heaps. (author)

  6. Bifurcation theory for hexagonal agglomeration in economic geography

    CERN Document Server

    Ikeda, Kiyohiro

    2014-01-01

    This book contributes to an understanding of how bifurcation theory adapts to the analysis of economic geography. It is easily accessible not only to mathematicians and economists, but also to upper-level undergraduate and graduate students who are interested in nonlinear mathematics. The self-organization of hexagonal agglomeration patterns of industrial regions was first predicted by the central place theory in economic geography based on investigations of southern Germany. The emergence of hexagonal agglomeration in economic geography models was envisaged by Krugman. In this book, after a brief introduction of central place theory and new economic geography, the missing link between them is discovered by elucidating the mechanism of the evolution of bifurcating hexagonal patterns. Pattern formation by such bifurcation is a well-studied topic in nonlinear mathematics, and group-theoretic bifurcation analysis is a well-developed theoretical tool. A finite hexagonal lattice is used to express uniformly distri...

  7. Russian Socio-Economic Geography: Status, Challenges, Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martynov Vasilii

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The socio-economic geography studies the processes, characteristics and patterns of spatial development. In the recent decades, however, this area of scientific investigation has failed its promise, which happened for a number of external and internal reasons. The main external reason is the development of "consumer society", which does not require the search of new space and therefore ignores the "spatial" science, geography. Internal reason is the blurring of socio-economic geography along the variety of new lines of research. The discipline was, in many ways, redundant, and unselective in the application of theoretical and methodological tools liberally borrowed from other branches of both geography and economics. The only way this discipline can return to its former glory is by going all the way back to doing proper spatial research.

  8. Geography students learn more about risk and vulnerability

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Murambadoro, M

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available As part of the outreach programme the South African Risk and Vulnerability Atlas (SARVA) was introduced to geography students of the Society of South African Geographers Students. The students were attending their annual conference hosted...

  9. Exploring the Geography of America's Religious Denominations: A Presbyterian Example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heatwole, Charles A.

    1977-01-01

    The historically sectional nature of the Presbyterian Church is examined as a case study which illustrates how study of the geography of religious groups can be applied at various academic levels. (AV)

  10. Cutting Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hacker, Andrew

    1976-01-01

    Provides critical reviews of three books, "The Political Economy of Social Class", "Ethnicity: Theory and Experience," and "Ethnicity in the United States," focusing on the political economy of social class and ethnicity. (Author/AM)

  11. A novel class I HDAC inhibitor, MPT0G030, induces cell apoptosis and differentiation in human colorectal cancer cells via HDAC1/PKCδ and E-cadherin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li-Ting; Liou, Jing-Ping; Li, Yu-Hsuan; Liu, Yi-Min; Pan, Shiow-Lin; Teng, Che-Ming

    2014-07-30

    Accumulation of genetic and epigenetic changes contributes to cancer development and progression. Compared with gene mutations or deletions, epigenetic changes are reversible, which alter the chromatin structure remodeling instead of changes in DNA sequence, and therefore become a promising strategy for chemotherapy. Histone deacetylases (HDACs) are a class of enzymes that responsible for the epigenetic regulation of gene expression. MPT0G030 is a potent and selective class I HDAC inhibitor which showed broad-spectrum cytotoxicity against various human cancer cell lines. in vitro fluorometric HDAC activity assay showed that MPT0G030 effectively inhibited Class I HDACs (HDAC1~3), which were overexpressed in many malignant neoplasms. Interestingly, MPT0G030 not only induced histone acetylation and tumor suppressor p21 transcription, but also redistributed E-cadherin and activated Protein Kinase C δ (PKCδ), which was linked to cell apoptosis and differentiation. Further, activation of PKCδ was demonstrated to be modulated through HDAC1. The in vivo anticancer activity of MPT0G030 and the importance of PKCδ were confirmed in the HT-29 tumor xenograft models. Taken together, those results indicate that MPT0G030, a class I HDAC inhibitor, has great potential as a new drug candidate for cancer therapy.

  12. Dissonance: scientific paradigms underpinning the study of sound in geography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Paiva

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this article is to approach the different conceptions of sound – and its relations to the underlying scientific paradigms – that emerged throughout the history of geography. There has been a growing interest among geographers in understanding the spatialities of sound, and geographies of sound have become an emerging subfield of the discipline. For this reason, it is the right time to address how the discipline has approached sound throughout its history. Several theoretical perspectives influenced geography in the twentieth century, changing its methodologies and how its subjects were conceived. Sound, like other subjects, has been conceived very differently by geographers of competing paradigms. Concepts such as noise, soundscape, or sound as affect, among others, have dominated geographies of sound at specific periods. Due to the marginality of the subject in the discipline, assessments of these conceptual shifts are rare. I tackle this issue in this article as I provide a first attempt of writing a history of sound in geography. The article reviews debates regarding the name of the subfield, and the conceptions of sound in the successive and competing scientific paradigms in geography.

  13. THE USE OF LAPTOP COMPUTERS, TABLETS AND GOOGLE EARTH/GOOGLE MAPS APPLICATIONS DURING GEOGRAPHY CLUB SEMINARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FLORIN GALBIN

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the current study, we aim to investigate the use of Google Earth and Google Maps Applications on tablet and laptop computers. The research was carried out during the Geography Club seminars organized at “Radu Petrescu” High School in the 2013-2014 school year. The research involved 13 students in various gymnasium and high school grades. The activities included: navigation with Google Earth/Maps, image capturing techniques, virtual tours, measuring distances or river lengths, identifying relief forms, and locating geographical components of the environment. In order to retrieve students’ opinions regarding the use of tablets and laptop computers with these two applications, they were asked to respond to a questionnaire after the activities took place. Conclusions revealed that students enjoyed using these applications with laptops and tablets and that the learning process during Geography classes became more interesting.

  14. Engineering chimeric human and mouse major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I tetramers for the production of T-cell receptor (TCR) mimic antibodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentley, Carol; Yates, Jenna; Salimi, Maryam; Greig, Jenny; Wiblin, Sarah; Hassanali, Tasneem; Banham, Alison H.

    2017-01-01

    Therapeutic monoclonal antibodies targeting cell surface or secreted antigens are among the most effective classes of novel immunotherapies. However, the majority of human proteins and established cancer biomarkers are intracellular. Peptides derived from these intracellular proteins are presented on the cell surface by major histocompatibility complex class I (MHC-I) and can be targeted by a novel class of T-cell receptor mimic (TCRm) antibodies that recognise similar epitopes to T-cell receptors. Humoural immune responses to MHC-I tetramers rarely generate TCRm antibodies and many antibodies recognise the α3 domain of MHC-I and β2 microglobulin (β2m) that are not directly involved in presenting the target peptide. Here we describe the production of functional chimeric human-murine HLA-A2-H2Dd tetramers and modifications that increase their bacterial expression and refolding efficiency. These chimeric tetramers were successfully used to generate TCRm antibodies against two epitopes derived from wild type tumour suppressor p53 (RMPEAAPPV and GLAPPQHLIRV) that have been used in vaccination studies. Immunisation with chimeric tetramers yielded no antibodies recognising the human α3 domain and β2m and generated TCRm antibodies capable of specifically recognising the target peptide/MHC-I complex in fully human tetramers and on the cell surface of peptide pulsed T2 cells. Chimeric tetramers represent novel immunogens for TCRm antibody production and may also improve the yield of tetramers for groups using these reagents to monitor CD8 T-cell immune responses in HLA-A2 transgenic mouse models of immunotherapy. PMID:28448627

  15. Geography, Islands and Migration in an Era of Global Mobility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Russell King

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the changing role of islands in the age of globalization and in an era of enhanced and diversified mobility. There are many types of islands, many metaphors of insularity, and many types of migration, so the interactions are far from simple. The ‘mobilities turn’ in migration studies recognizes the diversification in motivations and time-space regimes of human migration. After brief reviews of island studies and of migration studies, and the power of geography to capture and distil the interdisciplinarity and relationality of these two study domains, the paper explores various facets of the generally intense engagement that islands have with migration. Two particular scenarios are identified for islands and migration in the global era: the heuristic role of islands as ‘spatial laboratories’ for the study of diverse migration processes in microcosm; and the way in which, especially in the Mediterranean and near-Atlantic regions, islands have become critical locations in the geopolitics of irregular migration routes. The case of Malta is taken to illustrate some of these new insular migration dynamics.

  16. The replacement of geography by standards and what to do about it

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ginger coons

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Anthropometry has historically involved “men of science” carefully measuring and noting down the dimensions of human bodies. Anthropometry is invoked to emphasize the importance of measuring the world at human scale, to achieve better economies of scale in making human-sized objects, and to make arguments and predictions about ideal states of humanity. This paper presents two projects that parse relationships between human bodies and measurement. Scanning Hands explores low-end 3D scanning as a probe and catalyst for discussion of the history of anthropometry as it relates to current 3D scanning practices. Non-Standard Bodies, an interactive wearable sculpture, tackles the imposition of remote standards on individual bodies. The goals of this paper are twofold: to explore systems of body measurement and their often-ignored ramifications; and to introduce an idea, the replacement of geography by standards, as a way of positioning and generalizing such measurement activities. 

  17. A comparison of student performance in human development classes using three different modes of delivery: Online, face-to-face, and combined

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalsow, Susan Christensen

    1999-11-01

    The problem. The dual purposes of this research were to determine if there is a difference in student performance in three Human Development classes when the modes of delivery are different and to analyze student perceptions of using Web-based learning as all or part of their course experience. Procedures. Data for this study were collected from three Human Development courses taught at Drake University. Grades from five essays, projects, and overall grades were used in the three classes and analyzed using a single factor analysis of variance to determine if there was a significant difference. Content analysis was used on the evaluation comments of the participants in the online and combined classes to determine their perceptions of Web-based learning. Findings. The single factor analysis of variance measuring student performance showed no significant difference among the online, face-to-face, and combined scores at the .05 level of significance, however, the difference was significant at the .06. The content analysis of the online and combined course showed the three major strengths of learning totally or partly online to be increased comfort in using the computer, the quality of the overall experience, and convenience in terms of increased access to educational opportunities. The barriers included lack of human interaction and access to the professor. Conclusions. The study indicates that Web-based learning is a viable option for postsecondary educational delivery in terms of student performance and learning. On the average, performance is at least as good as performance in traditional face-to-face classrooms. Improved performance, however, is contingent on adequate access to equipment, faculty skill in teaching using a new mode of delivery, and the personality of the student. The convenient access to educational opportunities and becoming more comfortable with technology are benefits that were important to these two groups. Web-based learning is not for everyone

  18. Geography of conservation spending, biodiversity, and culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClanahan, T R; Rankin, P S

    2016-10-01

    We used linear and multivariate models to examine the associations between geography, biodiversity, per capita economic output, national spending on conservation, governance, and cultural traits in 55 countries. Cultural traits and social metrics of modernization correlated positively with national spending on conservation. The global distribution of this spending culture was poorly aligned with the distribution of biodiversity. Specifically, biodiversity was greater in the tropics where cultures tended to spend relatively less on conservation and tended to have higher collectivism, formalized and hierarchical leadership, and weaker governance. Consequently, nations lacking social traits frequently associated with modernization, environmentalism, and conservation spending have the largest component of Earth's biodiversity. This has significant implications for setting policies and priorities for resource management given that biological diversity is rapidly disappearing and cultural traits change slowly. Therefore, we suggest natural resource management adapt to and use characteristics of existing social organization rather than wait for or promote social values associated with conservation spending. Supporting biocultural traditions, engaging leaders to increase conservation commitments, cross-national efforts that complement attributes of cultures, and avoiding interference with nature may work best to conserve nature in collective and hierarchical societies. Spending in modernized nations may be a symbolic response to a symptom of economic development and environmental degradation, and here conservation actions need to ensure that biodiversity is not being lost. © 2016 Society for Conservation Biology.

  19. Galactolipids from Bauhinia racemosa as a new class of antifilarial agents against human lymphatic filarial parasite, Brugia malayi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sashidhara, Koneni V; Singh, Suriya P; Misra, Sweta; Gupta, Jyoti; Misra-Bhattacharya, Shailja

    2012-04-01

    Bioassay guided fractionation of ethanolic extract of the leaves of Bauhinia racemosa led to the isolation of galactolipid and catechin class of the compounds (1-7) from the most active n-butanol fraction (F4). Among the active galactolipids, 1 emerged as the lead molecule which was active on both forms of lymphatic filarial parasite, Brugia malayi. It was found to be better than the standard drug ivermectin and diethylcarbamazine (DEC) in terms of dose and efficacy. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. Legon Journal of the Humanities

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    research articles; reviews of new and particularly noteworthy books and films ... but also social science disciplines, such as cultural studies, human geography, ... Building A New Generation of Academics in Africa (BANGA-Africa) Project.

  1. M-learning in a geography lesson

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirski, Katri

    2014-05-01

    We live in rapidly advancing world. Our homes and offices are invaded by new technological achievements. School is a part of the society and many students nowadays use smartphones and table pc's daily. Therefore it's important that schoolteachers advise them on how to manage in such a complex world of engineering miracles and show how to use this kind of equipment in their studies and everyday life. Geography is a natural substance and the best way to study nature is to see, touch and feel it directly. It's important to link the theoretical knowledge that students acquire in a classroom with a practical work in the nature. M-learning gives a great opportunity for that. M-learning, shortened from mobile learning is defined as learning across multiple contexts, through social and content interactions, using personal electronic devices. The main goal of M-learning is to bring new technological equipment to the studies for the purpose of diversifying the learning process. You can use M-learning whether students are doing individual or teamwork. By doing the practical work and thinking all the steps through the students are more actively involved in the learning process and can acquire and fix the knowledge more effectively. Personal electronic devices give the freedom to study anytime and anywhere. This means M-learning is really good for trails and other outdoor activities. In spring 2012 I did my Master's thesis about M-learning. For it I compiled a geographical trail in Tallinn city centre. There were many different geographical tasks that students had to solve. The trail included whether observation, practical work on a slope (measuring the height and the inclination of a slope), drawing a plan, questions about rocks, trees and many other tasks. The students had worksheets, where there were only geographical coordinates. They used GPS devices to get to the designated points. In every point they had a task to take a photo. After the exercises the students formed

  2. The effect of Using Mind Mapping and Learning Styles to Geography Learning outcomes of Junior High School Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sigit Purwoko

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Pengaruh Penggunaan Peta Pikiran dan Gaya Belajar terhadap Hasil Belajar Geografi Siswa SMP Abstract: This study aimed to determine the effect of the use of mind maps, learning styles and inter-action using a mind map learning style on geography learning outcomes. This study was a quasi-experimental study, with a 2 x 3 factorial design study subject consisted of two classes of class VII G as experimental class and class VII F as a control class. Variables consisted of: (1 the dependent variable is the student learning outcomes; (2 the independent variable is the use of mind maps; and (3 is the moderator variable learning styles. Geography learning outcomes were measured using an objective test, whereas learning styles with questionnaires. Measurement data are then analyzed using ANOVA two paths with SPSS v.7. Results of data analysis using ANOVA two path showed that: (1 the use of mind maps significantly effect on learning outcomes geography; (2 learning style does not significantly affect the results of learning geography; and (3 there is no interaction between the use of mind maps and learning style on learning outcomes. Key Words: mind maps, learning styles, learning outcomes   Abstrak: Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui pengaruh penggunaan peta pikiran, gaya belajar dan interaksi penggunaan peta pikiran dengan gaya belajar terhadap hasil belajar geografi. Penelitian ini merupakan penelitian eksperimen semu, dengan desain faktorial 2 x 3. Subjek penelitian terdiri dari dua kelas yaitu kelas VII G sebagai kelas eksperimen dan kelas VII F sebagai kelas kontrol. Variabel penelitian terdiri dari: (1 variabel terikat adalah hasil belajar siswa; (2 variabel bebas adalah pengguna-an peta pikiran; dan (3 variabel moderator adalah gaya belajar. Hasil belajar geografi diukur menggunakan tes objektif, sedangkan gaya belajar dengan angket. Data hasil pengukuran dianalisis menggunakan anova dua jalur dengan bantuan SPSS v.7. Hasil analisis data

  3. New Geographies of Work: A Case Study from Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brita Hermelin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes and analyses the geography of work, i.e., the spatial patterns in where paid work is done. The geography of work may diverge from the geography of employment when paid work is done at the premises of client organizations, during commuting, on business trips, on external meetings, at home or at other places. The particular patterns in the geography of work depend on a number of factors, possibilities and constraints. The paper takes its point of departure from the debate about how structural economic changes resulting from evolving service industries and the development of Information and Communication Technology (ICT entail new forms for the organization of paid work. Flexibility, reflexivity, flows and places are key concepts. The paper presents a case study from Stockholm that takes a workplace perspective and looks at knowledge-intensive work in a public sector organization. The empirical study analyses data from interviews, time diaries and a questionnaire. We analyse how the geography of work is the result of negotiations between different parties and in different arenas, and how this spatial pattern is the result of the character of work tasks and accessibility of ICT support. The discussion illustrates a complex picture of the coexistence of spatial fix and spatial flexibility, and how this may cause tensions but also convenient solutions for organizing and conducting paid work.

  4. How Can Geography and Mobile Phones Contribute to Psychotherapy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrás, Carlos; García, Yolanda; Aguilera, Adrián; Rocha, Álvaro

    2017-06-01

    Interdisciplinary relationships between Geography and Psychotherapy are an opportunity for innovation. Indeed, scientific works found on bibliographic databases and concerning this theme are scarce. Geographical sub-fields, such as the Geography of Emotions or Psychoanalytical Geography have started to emerge, theorizing about and interpreting feelings, emotions, moods, sufferings, of the chronically ill or diversified social groups and sites. But a less theoretical and more practical approach, in the sense of proposing, predicting and intervening, is lacking; as well as research into the possibilities offered by communication technologies and mobile phones. In the present work, we present the results of a review of the most relevant scientific works published internationally; we reflect on the contributions of Geography and mobile phones to psychosocial therapies and define the orientation and questions that should be posed in future research, from the point of view of geography and regarding psychotherapy. We conclude that the production of georeferenced data via mobile phones concerning the daily lives of people opens great possibilities for cognitive behavioural therapy and mental health. They allow for the development of personalized mood maps that locate the places where a person experiences greater or lesser stress on a daily basis; they allow for a cartography of emotions, a cognitive cartography of the places we access physically or through the Internet, of our feelings and psychosocial experiences. They open the door to the possibility of offering personalized psychotherapy treatments focusing on the ecological-environmental analysis of the places frequented by the person on a daily basis.

  5. New Economic Geography: the Possibilities and Restrictions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitry Alexandrovich Izotov

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes scientific publications on the new economic geography (NEG relevance. On the basis of the publications array the author determined characteristic features of the simulation and the central idea of this research direction. Analysis showed that modeling in the terms of NEG is based on the approach of general equilibrium under monopolistic competition, endogenous factors and homogeneous space. The NEG central idea can be presented as follows: the increasing economy of scale is the main force for factors migration in homogeneous space. The theoretical studies analysis revealed that the development of NEG models is carried out by consideration of different options for the migration behavior of the agglomeration subjects and inclusion of theoretical constructs from adjacent areas, in particular, new economic growth theory and urban economics models. The article shows that empirical papers mainly test the NEG provisions in the terms of the model “core- periphery”. The extremely rare cases of testing other NEG models are apparently due to the absence of statistical data; the difficulty of obtaining reliable estimates of the elasticity of substitution of goods by different countries, regions and cities. Systematization of the scientific community criticism has allowed identifying the main problems of NEG: identification in the system of socio- economic researches, spatial characteristics ignoring, research object limitations, simplicity of the backgrounds, problems with empirical evidence. Further NEG development, according to experts, depends on obtaining of its specific place in the system of socio-economic researches or NEG may remain as one of the modeling approaches in the general equilibrium framework

  6. Indonesia's cultural economy: an economic geography using two secondary data sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Gibson

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Economic geographers have become increasingly interested in the importance of the 'cultural economy' to cities and regions, but rarely have results been sought or discussed for Southeast Asia or nations in the developing world. This article responds to this lacuna by charting an economic geography of cultural production in Indonesia, examining two sources ofpublicly available data: the United Nations Statistics Division's COMTRADE database of trade statistics, and DISb2b Indonesia (a commercial database of business location details in Indonesia. Results are discussed for the period 1996- 2002, for which reliable data are available. While both sources are limited (and such limitations are discussed here, they provide enough insight for some conclusions about the character of 1ndonesia's cultural economy to emerge. In contrast to studies of cultural economy in overseas contexts, Indonesia's culture-related exports are dominated by emphasis on hardware and manufacturing output, rather than intellectual property or 'symbolic' content. In keeping with overseas examples though, the geography oflndonesiak cultural economy displays high levels of metropolitan primacy. Results suggest that theories of cultural economies must be re-shaped to include consideration of regional and international flows, in addition to locally-unique class, cultural and economic dynamics in particular cities and regions.

  7. Contribution of Arginine 13 to the Catalytic Activity of Human Class Pi Glutathione Transferase P1-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kong, Ji Na; Jo, Dong Hyeon; Do, Hyun Dong; Lee, Jin Ju; Kong, Kwang Hoon

    2010-01-01

    Arg13 is a conserved active-site residue in all known Pi class glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) and in most Alpha class GSTs. To evaluate its contribution to substrate binding and catalysis of this residue, three mutants (R13A, R13K, and R13L) were expressed in Escherichia coli and purified by GSH affinity chromatography. The substitutions of Arg13 significantly affected GSH-conjugation activity, while scarcely affecting glutathione peroxidase or steroid isomerase activities. Mutation of Arg13 into Ala largely reduced the GSH-conjugation activity by approximately 85 - 95%, whereas substitutions by Lys and Leu barely affected activity. These results suggest that, in the GSH-conjugation activity of hGST P1-1, the contribution of Arg13 toward catalytic activity is highly dependent on substrate specificities and the size of the side chain at position 13. From the kinetic parameters, introduction of larger side chains at position 13 results in stronger affinity (Leu > Lys, Arg > Ala) towards GSH. The substitutions of Arg13 with alanine and leucine significantly affected k cat , whereas substitution with Lys was similar to that of the wild type, indicating the significance of a positively charged residue at position 13. From the plots of log (k cat /K m CDNB ) against pH, the pK a values of the thiol group of GSH bound in R13A, R13K, and R13L were estimated to be 1.8, 1.4, and 1.8 pK units higher than the pK a value of the wildtype enzyme, demonstrating the contribution of the Arg13 guanidinium group to the electrostatic field in the active site. From these results, we suggest that contribution of Arg13 in substrate binding is highly dependent on the nature of the electrophilic substrates, while in the catalytic mechanism, it stabilizes the GSH thiolate through hydrogen bonding

  8. The interaction of beta 2-microglobulin (beta 2m) with mouse class I major histocompatibility antigens and its ability to support peptide binding. A comparison of human and mouse beta 2m

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, L O; Stryhn, A; Holter, T L

    1995-01-01

    of class I molecules are involved in peptide binding, whereas most of class I molecules are involved in beta 2m binding. We propose that mouse beta 2m interacts with the minor peptide binding (i.e. the "empty") fraction with a lower affinity than human beta 2m does, whereas mouse and human beta 2m interact......The function of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I molecules is to sample peptides derived from intracellular proteins and to present these peptides to CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes. In this paper, biochemical assays addressing MHC class I binding of both peptide and beta 2-microglobulin...... (beta 2m) have been used to examine the assembly of the trimolecular MHC class I/beta 2m/peptide complex. Recombinant human beta 2m and mouse beta 2ma have been generated to compare the binding of the two beta 2m to mouse class I. It is frequently assumed that human beta 2m binds to mouse class I heavy...

  9. Improving Geography Learning in the Schools: Efforts by the National Geographic Society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dulli, Robert E.

    1994-01-01

    Contends that the National Geographic Society's Geography Education Program continues to work on improving geography instruction and learning. Outlines future activities of the National Geographic Society including urban outreach and technology training. (CFR)

  10. Geografilärares och niondeklassares syn på undervisningen om klimatförändringenClimate change education: Geography teachers’ and ninth-graders’ views

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikaela Hermans

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available It has been increasingly recognised that education plays a key role in addressing human-induced climate change. The ultimate goal of climate change education (CCE is positive impacts on the climate through both individual and collective actions. The aim of this study is to investigate geography teachers’ and their ninth-graders’ views about CCE. Data was collected using semi-structured interviews with geography teachers (N = 13 and questionnaires for ninth-graders (N = 549 at eleven secondary schools from all parts of Swedish-speaking Finland. The results show that although the students’ attitudes to CCE is positive, it does not supply them with action competence. The geography teachers in this study largely miss the ultimate goal of CCE, pointing at the need for more effort to be made in the process of developing CCE at secondary school.

  11. Creating Regional Futures: A Scenario-Based Inter- and Transdisciplinary Case Study as a Model for Applied Student-Centred Learning in Geography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fromhold-Eisebith, Martina; Freyer, Bernhard; Mose, Ingo; Muhar, Andreas; Vilsmaier, Ulli

    2009-01-01

    Human geography students face changing qualification requirements due to a shift towards new topics, educational tasks and professional options regarding issues of spatial development. This "practical turn" raises the importance of inter- and transdisciplinary work, management and capability building skills, with case study projects and…

  12. TYPES OF SCIENTIFIC DESCRIPTIONS IN ROMANIAN GEOGRAPHY TEXTBOOKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VIORICA BLÎNDA

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study will provide a brief look into the numerous aspects of description as a unit of discourse and into the/as well as into those/distinctive discourse methods. The perspectives of the proposed analysis emphasize that description as a unit of discourse is no longer denigrated and that it has regained its well-defined place within the discourse (especially within the discourse of geography as a primary unit of discourse. The analysis is based on a corpus of studies represented by texts of geography available in geography textbooks. Through this study there will be outlined a number of methods and strategies of the discursive process through description.

  13. Education remix: New media, literacies, and the emerging digital geographies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lalitha Vasudevan

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available This article explores instances of youth educating themselves beyond the boundaries of school through engagement with and production of “digital geographies,” or the emerging landscapes that are being produced through the confluence of new communicative practices and available media and technologies. A framework of digital geographies, which is grounded in theories of spatiality, literacies, and multimodality, is used to analyze the social media practices and multimedia artifacts produced by two court-involved youth, who are part of an ongoing, multi-year ethnography of an alternative to incarceration program. Attention to digital geographies, and attendant communicative practices, can yield important insights about education beyond the school walls. The conclusion addresses the implications of this research for meaningful educational contexts for adolescents’ literacies and how learning might be conceptualized and designed within school.

  14. Crisis and Geography : Some Observations on Peripheral Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İbrahim Alper Arısoy

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available With a focus on the role of geographical factors in economic performance, the main research question of this study is as follows: given that the ongoing crisis in Europe in general and within the Eurozone in particular is felt much strongly in peripheral areas, how and to what extent might geography be relevant to this process? The answer to this question will be searched through historical-comparative approach, focusing on the turning points in the evolution of Europe's economic and political geography, with particular regard to the key concepts such as "core-periphery dichotomy", "centres of gravity" and "isolation". Departing from these concepts, it will be argued that the structural factors, which contribute to the high vulnerability of certain countries towards crisis, are essentially geographical. However, the role of geography and the patterns of peripherality differ from one country to another, as will be demonstrated by means of a particular focus on the case of Greece.

  15. Cloning and expression of a cDNA coding for the human platelet-derived growth factor receptor: Evidence for more than one receptor class

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gronwald, R.G.K.; Grant, F.J.; Haldeman, B.A.; Hart, C.E.; O'Hara, P.J.; Hagen, F.S.; Ross, R.; Bowen-Pope, D.F.; Murray, M.J.

    1988-01-01

    The complete nucleotide sequence of a cDNA encoding the human platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) receptor is presented. The cDNA contains an open reading frame that codes for a protein of 1106 amino acids. Comparison to the mouse PDGF receptor reveals an overall amino acid sequence identity of 86%. This sequence identity rises to 98% in the cytoplasmic split tyrosine kinase domain. RNA blot hybridization analysis of poly(A) + RNA from human dermal fibroblasts detects a major and a minor transcript using the cDNA as a probe. Baby hamster kidney cells, transfected with an expression vector containing the receptor cDNA, express an ∼ 190-kDa cell surface protein that is recognized by an anti-human PDGF receptor antibody. The recombinant PDGF receptor is functional in the transfected baby hamster kidney cells as demonstrated by ligand-induced phosphorylation of the receptor. Binding properties of the recombinant PDGF receptor were also assessed with pure preparations of BB and AB isoforms of PDGF. Unlike human dermal fibroblasts, which bind both isoforms with high affinity, the transfected baby hamster kidney cells bind only the BB isoform of PDGF with high affinity. This observation is consistent with the existence of more than one PDGF receptor class

  16. Modifying Formative Evaluation Techniques For Distance Education Class Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott L. WALKER

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Modifying Formative Evaluation Techniques For Distance Education Class Evaluation Assistant Professor Scott L. WALKERDepartment of GeographyTexas State UniversitySan Marcos, USA ABSTRACTPost-secondary classes are usually followed by mandatory summative evaluations, yet changes in teaching and course structure cannot be made with summative evaluations. Formative evaluations in online education can result in candid responses from students if a third-party facilitator is involved in the process. This paper presents a method for conducting formative evaluation in an online class by utilizing the assistance of a colleague. Results of one such evaluation are presented, as are its advantages and disadvantages.

  17. VE-cadherin expression allows identification of a new class of hematopoietic stem cells within human embryonic liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberlin, Estelle; Fleury, Maud; Clay, Denis; Petit-Cocault, Laurence; Candelier, Jean-Jacques; Mennesson, Benoît; Jaffredo, Thierry; Souyri, Michèle

    2010-11-25

    Edification of the human hematopoietic system during development is characterized by the production of waves of hematopoietic cells separated in time, formed in distinct embryonic sites (ie, yolk sac, truncal arteries including the aorta, and placenta). The embryonic liver is a major hematopoietic organ wherein hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) expand, and the future, adult-type, hematopoietic cell hierarchy becomes established. We report herein the identification of a new, transient, and rare cell population in the human embryonic liver, which coexpresses VE-cadherin, an endothelial marker, CD45, a pan-hematopoietic marker, and CD34, a common endothelial and hematopoietic marker. This population displays an outstanding self-renewal, proliferation, and differentiation potential, as detected by in vitro and in vivo hematopoietic assays compared with its VE-cadherin negative counterpart. Based on VE-cadherin expression, our data demonstrate the existence of 2 phenotypically and functionally separable populations of multipotent HSCs in the human embryo, the VE-cadherin(+) one being more primitive than the VE-cadherin(-) one, and shed a new light on the hierarchical organization of the embryonic liver HSC compartment.

  18. Building a World-Class Safety Culture: The National Ignition Facility and the Control of Human and Organizational Error

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennett, C T; Stalnaker, G

    2002-01-01

    Accidents in complex systems send us signals. They may be harbingers of a catastrophe. Some even argue that a ''normal'' consequence of operations in a complex organization may not only be the goods it produces, but also accidents and--inevitably--catastrophes. We would like to tell you the story of a large, complex organization, whose history questions the argument ''that accidents just happen.'' Starting from a less than enviable safety record, the National Ignition Facility (NIF) has accumulated over 2.5 million safe hours. The story of NIF is still unfolding. The facility is still being constructed and commissioned. But the steps NIF has taken in achieving its safety record provide a principled blueprint that may be of value to others. Describing that principled blueprint is the purpose of this paper. The first part of this paper is a case study of NIF and its effort to achieve a world-class safety record. This case study will include a description of (1) NIF's complex systems, (2) NIF's early safety history, (3) factors that may have initiated its safety culture change, and (4) the evolution of its safety blueprint. In the last part of the paper, we will compare NIF's safety culture to what safety industry experts, psychologists, and sociologists say about how to shape a culture and control organizational error

  19. Sacral geography of Orthodox Christianity and religious tourism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grčić Mirko

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introductory part of the paper briefly presents the case study of sacred geography. This scientific discipline, as a branch of cultural geography, deserves more attention due to the development of cultural tourism and the protection of cultural heritage in globalization. Aim is to systematize and display characteristics of sacred objects and places of pilgrimage in the traditional orthodox Christianity. The author hopes that this work will attract the attention of geographers and intellectual circles, and stimulate researchers to devote greater attention to this important and current issue.

  20. CULTURAL HERITAGE IN STUDIES OF GEOGRAPHY AND TERRITORIAL PLANNING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARÍA DOLORES PALAZÓN BOTELLA

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available  The Geography and Territorial Planning Degree replaces, under the provisions of the European Higher Education Area and the recommendations of the “Libro Blanco: Título de Grado en Geografía y Ordenación del Territorio”, the Geography Bachelor’s Degree. This change not only affected its name, including territory and its planning, but it also developed into a regulation of its curricula, introducing new subjects that would train the future geographer in order to make him capable of confronting new challenges in their areas of work, where cultural heritage has become an additional option. 

  1. CONTRIBUTIONS OF HISTORICAL CRITICAL PEDAGOGY TO GEOGRAPHY TEACHING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas André Teixeira

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to show some contributions of historical critical pedagogy to Geography teaching. Such thoughts aim to discuss how this teaching enters school education in the context of neoliberalism. Assuming that the emptiness in Geography teaching in school education is a result of Brazilian educational policies in neoliberalism, we intend to characterize the impairment of the critical perspective on this area of knowledge and present some contributions of historical critical pedagogy to face and overcome the current order. Besides, we seek to highlight the required knowledge to achieve an education that contributes to build a different society.

  2. Using Technology for Geography Teacher Education: Web-Based Professional Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frazier, Cheryl A.; Boehm, Richard G.

    2012-01-01

    This qualitative study explores the perceived value of a video-based online workshop in Geography, "Watershed Management," part of the Geography: Teaching with the Stars series, a 22 program professional development series for teachers of geography, social studies, and environmental science. Results indicated that teachers reported…

  3. Learning with and by Language: Bilingual Teaching Strategies for the Monolingual Language-Aware Geography Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morawski, Michael; Budke, Alexandra

    2017-01-01

    Geography lessons center on a language-based product with socially relevant geographic content. The subject of geography in secondary schools in Germany faces three major challenges that make a stronger focus on language in the monolingual geography classroom necessary. First, more than 30 percent of German pupils in secondary schools have a…

  4. Perceptions of Geography Teachers to Integrating Technology to Teaching and Their Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanli, Cennet; Sezer, Adem; Pinar, Adnan

    2016-01-01

    In present study the objective has been to manifest perceptions and practices of geography teachers towards integrating technology to teaching geography. In 5 different types of schools within Nevsehir (Turkey) city center, a total of 22 geography teachers volunteering to participate in the research were included in this study in which data were…

  5. Employing SWOT Analysis in Coursework on the Geographies of Regional Economic Development and Trade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalafsky, Ronald V.; Sonnichsen, Tyler

    2015-01-01

    The use of SWOT analysis is a means through which geography students can investigate key concepts in economic geography and essential topics in regional economic development. This article discusses the results of a course project where economic geography students employed SWOT analysis to explore medium-sized metropolitan areas across the southern…

  6. Designs, Techniques, and Reporting Strategies in Geography Education: A Review of Research Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zadrozny, Joann; McClure, Caroline; Lee, Jinhee; Jo, Injeong

    2016-01-01

    A wide variety of research is being completed and published in geography education. The purpose of this article is to provide a general overview of the different types of methodologies, research designs, and techniques used by geography education researchers. Analyzing three geography education journals, we found 191 research articles published…

  7. A Critical Account of What "Geography" Means to Primary Trainee Teachers in England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puttick, Steven; Paramore, John; Gee, Nick

    2018-01-01

    Research on trainee teachers' conceptions of geography has criticised their views for being limited, and failing to appreciate the breadth or depth of geography. A body of research in this area has developed over the past two decades, producing well-established classifications through which to analyse conceptions of geography. This contribution…

  8. Primary Geography in the Republic of Ireland: Practices, Issues and Possible Futures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pike, Susan

    2015-01-01

    In the Republic of Ireland, geography is recognized as an important subject for children to learn and all pupils take it throughout their primary school years. The current curriculum, the Primary School Curriculum-Geography, follows a tradition of innovative, child-centered geography curricula in Ireland. This article outlines the history of…

  9. What Is Geography? Perceptions of First Year Undergraduates in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Jasper; Robinson, Kirsten

    2017-01-01

    Disciplines such as Geography are well placed to respond to the changing needs of society and the effective application of geographical knowledge to real-world problems. This project surveyed first year Geography undergraduates' understanding of "What is Geography?", both before and after an exercise in which geographic topics were…

  10. Oil and the economic geography of the Middle East and North Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kortepeter, C.M.

    1990-01-01

    This book gives us the opportunity to follow the development of the field of economic geography as applied to the Middle East during the past half century. The materials are arranged under the following three headings: Geography and Petroleum: Boundaries and Boundary Disputes: and Social Geography

  11. Discussing nuclear issues at school by history and geography teachers in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guigue, J.

    1994-01-01

    A brief survey involving 30 history and geography teachers from the Paris region shows that they address nuclear energy in class. National programs allow various approaches at different levels, without really focusing on the subject. The discussion brings the question down to a trivial issue, in accordance with the general french consensus, but that does not prevent pupils from asking questions, preoccupied as they are by certain choices which have already been made for the future. In order to answer those questions to the best extent possible in view of the underlying ethical problem, teachers would welcome better training, up-to-date, pluri-disciplinary and objective information, as well as appropriate and easy-to-use educational material

  12. Word classes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rijkhoff, Jan

    2007-01-01

    in grammatical descriptions of some 50 languages, which together constitute a representative sample of the world’s languages (Hengeveld et al. 2004: 529). It appears that there are both quantitative and qualitative differences between word class systems of individual languages. Whereas some languages employ...... a parts-of-speech system that includes the categories Verb, Noun, Adjective and Adverb, other languages may use only a subset of these four lexical categories. Furthermore, quite a few languages have a major word class whose members cannot be classified in terms of the categories Verb – Noun – Adjective...... – Adverb, because they have properties that are strongly associated with at least two of these four traditional word classes (e.g. Adjective and Adverb). Finally, this article discusses some of the ways in which word class distinctions interact with other grammatical domains, such as syntax and morphology....

  13. Global Workforce Development - Addressing the Changing Geography of Investment

    Science.gov (United States)

    McElvy, G. W.; Loudin, M. G.

    2005-12-01

    The Geography of professional workforce hiring is changing significantly and rapidly in the petroleum industry, mostly in response to shifting investment patterns. These geographical changes pose daunting challenges as well as new opportunities for philanthropic institutions such as the ExxonMobil Foundation, and especially for academia. Our Angolan affiliate illustrates the challenges brought about by investment in new areas. Although we will continue to require access to numerous Angolan Geoscience graduates who can fully participate in our global Geoscience community, there is only one Angolan institution that grants a relatively small number of Geoscience degrees. Our access to other locally-educated Angolan professional graduates is similarly limited. The Petroleum sector's response to this situation has been to seek indigenous students who are already enrolled, often in North American or European academic institutions, or to sponsor Angolan students there. If one multiplies our Angolan Geoscience example by the number of competing employers in Angola, and then by the number of countries around the world that are experiencing strong economic growth, the magnitude of the unfilled demand for international educational development seems daunting. However, several academic institutions have already taken the initiative and have provided educational, linguistic, and cultural pathways that encourage Angolans and others to obtain a world-class educational preparation on their respective campuses. This strategy has indeed begun to address the need for capacity-building for many indigenous students, and has aided various industries in their efforts to build indigenous workforces. Nevertheless, growing the capacity of indigenous academic infrastructure is also essential for the long term, and only a few academic institutions have begun to explore this educational frontier. Increased engagement and collaboration in international educational activities would clearly confer

  14. Field work in geography. Region with experience in socio-environmental conflicts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Ensabella

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This article emphasizes the importance of the geographical field work in a region with socio-environmental conflict, such us the problem with water in Sierras Chicas, Cordoba. The main focus is a pedagogical experience, the Socio-Communal Practice (SCP, performed by professors, students and assistants of the subject Rural Geography, of the Bachelor’s in Geography course of studies of the Philosophy and Humanity School (PHS, in the city of La Granja, in Colón, Córdoba. The SCP is an experience that makes the students approach the social field of the territory conflicts. It is an activity that goes beyond the extension project, since it involves all the students doing the subject. And it is also a way to combine -in our case, from the geographic work- the teaching, investigation and extension functions typical of the university students. Through the SCP, we aim to make the Rural Geography students approach the field work, with local social organizations that deeply know the problems of their cities and that work together with our investigation group. In addition, this contact together with the individual thoughts, the group discussion and the debates between the university students, will broaden, in the whole society, the knowledge about the reality in which they live and with which they struggle. This article starts by defining what it is understood by SCP. Then, taking into account our practice, we develop what we consider to be the two logics that support the field work. One refers to the building of knowledge and to the different ways of learning and knowing. The other is related to the understanding of the socio-territory conflict in the area where the practice will be done: the Mesa del Agua and La Granja environment. We include a section about the description of the experience and its results, and we conclude with some reflections made taking into account the continuity of the practice

  15. Urea Derivatives of 2-Aryl-benzothiazol-5-amines: A New Class of Potential Drugs for Human African Trypanosomiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick, Donald A; Gillespie, J Robert; McQueen, Joshua; Hulverson, Matthew A; Ranade, Ranae M; Creason, Sharon A; Herbst, Zackary M; Gelb, Michael H; Buckner, Frederick S; Tidwell, Richard R

    2017-02-09

    A previous publication from this lab (Patrick, et al. Bioorg. Med. Chem. 2016, 24 , 2451 - 2465 ) explored the antitrypanosomal activities of novel derivatives of 2-(2-benzamido)ethyl-4-phenylthiazole (1), which had been identified as a hit against Trypanosoma brucei, the causative agent of human African trypanosomiasis. While a number of these compounds, particularly the urea analogues, were quite potent, these molecules as a whole exhibited poor metabolic stability. The present work describes the synthesis of 65 new analogues arising from medicinal chemistry optimization at different sites on the molecule. The most promising compounds were the urea derivatives of 2-aryl-benzothiazol-5-amines. One such analogue, (S)-2-(3,4-difluorophenyl)-5-(3-fluoro-N-pyrrolidylamido)benzothiazole (57) was chosen for in vivo efficacy studies based upon in vitro activity, metabolic stability, and brain penetration. This compound attained 5/5 cures in murine models of both early and late stage human African trypanosomiasis, representing a new lead for the development of drugs to combat this neglected disease.

  16. The ‘inside’ and ‘outside’ of prisons: Carceral geography and home visits for prisoners in Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominique Moran

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper argues that the burgeoning sub-discipline of carceral geography needs to pay particular attention to context when theorising carceral space, and that the specific context of Finland offers a new and valuable perspective. Much of the work within this new area of human geography originates in or pertains to the highly incarcerative, or ‘hypercarcerative’ contexts of the US, the UK and the Russian Federation, raising questions over the transferability of theorisations of the carceral to other less carcerative, or actively ‘de-carcerative’ settings. By focussing specifically on one such setting, the low imprisonment context of Finland, this paper discusses Goffman’s ‘total institution’ thesis with reference to the system of ‘furloughs’ or home visits for prisoners. In this paper we explore the extent to which this practice destabilises the inside/outside binary of the ‘total institution’, through the notion of heterotopia.

  17. Class size versus class composition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jones, Sam

    Raising schooling quality in low-income countries is a pressing challenge. Substantial research has considered the impact of cutting class sizes on skills acquisition. Considerably less attention has been given to the extent to which peer effects, which refer to class composition, also may affect...... bias from omitted variables, the preferred IV results indicate considerable negative effects due to larger class sizes and larger numbers of overage-for-grade peers. The latter, driven by the highly prevalent practices of grade repetition and academic redshirting, should be considered an important...

  18. Human CD4+ T cells lyse target cells via granzyme/perforin upon circumvention of MHC class II restriction by an antibody-like immunoreceptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hombach, Andreas; Köhler, Heike; Rappl, Gunter; Abken, Hinrich

    2006-10-15

    Immune elimination of tumor cells requires the close cooperation between CD8+ CTL and CD4+ Th cells. We circumvent MHC class II-restriction of CD4+ T cells by expression of a recombinant immunoreceptor with an Ab-derived binding domain redirecting specificity. Human CD4+ T cells grafted with an immunoreceptor specific for carcinoembryonic Ag (CEA) are activated to proliferate and secrete cytokines upon binding to CEA+ target cells. Notably, redirected CD4+ T cells mediate cytolysis of CEA+ tumor cells with high efficiencies. Lysis by redirected CD4+ T cells is independent of death receptor signaling via TNF-alpha or Fas, but mediated by perforin and granzyme because cytolysis is inhibited by blocking the release of cytotoxic granules, but not by blocking of Fas ligand or TNF-alpha. CD4+ T cells redirected by Ab-derived immunoreceptors in a MHC class II-independent fashion substantially extend the power of an adoptive, Ag-triggered immunotherapy not only by CD4+ T cell help, but also by cytolytic effector functions. Because cytolysis is predominantly mediated via granzyme/perforin, target cells that are resistant to death receptor signaling become sensitive to a cytolytic attack by engineered CD4+ T cells.

  19. Human Leukocyte Antigen Class II Alleles (DQB1 and DRB1 as Predictors for Response to Interferon Therapy in HCV Genotype 4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olfat Shaker

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Human leukocyte antigens class II play an important role in immune response against HCV. We investigated whether HLA class II alleles influence susceptibility to HCV infection and response to interferon therapy. HLA-DRB1 and -DQB1 loci were genotyped using PCR-SSO Luminex technology. According to our regimen, 41 (66% of patients achieved sustained virological response to combined treatment of IFN and ribavirin. Frequencies of DQB1*0313 allele and DRB1*04-DRB1*11, DQB1*0204-DQB1*0313, DQB1*0309-DQB1*0313, and DQB1*0313-DQB1*0319 haplotypes were significantly more frequent in nonresponders than in responders. In contrast, DQB1*02, DQB1*06, DRB1*13, and DRB1*15 alleles were significantly more frequent in responders than in nonresponders. Similarly, DRB1*1301, DRB1*1361, and DRB1*1369 alleles and DRB1*1301-DRB1*1328, DRB1*1301-DRB1*1361, DRB1*1301-DRB1*1369, DRB1*1328-DRB1*1361, and DRB1*1328-DRB1*1369 haplotypes were significantly found only in responders. Some alleles and linkages showed significantly different distributions between patient and healthy groups. These alleles may be used as predictors for response to treatment or to susceptibility to HCV infection in the Egyptian population.

  20. Increasing human Th17 differentiation through activation of orphan nuclear receptor retinoid acid-related orphan receptor γ (RORγ) by a class of aryl amide compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Jing; Fang, Leiping; Zhou, Ling; Wang, Shuai; Xiang, Zhijun; Li, Yuan; Wisely, Bruce; Zhang, Guifeng; An, Gang; Wang, Yonghui; Leung, Stewart; Zhong, Zhong

    2012-10-01

    In a screen for small-molecule inhibitors of retinoid acid-related orphan receptor γ (RORγ), we fortuitously discovered that a class of aryl amide compounds behaved as functional activators of the interleukin 17 (IL-17) reporter in Jurkat cells. Three of these compounds were selected for further analysis and found to activate the IL-17 reporter with potencies of ∼0.1 μM measured by EC₅₀. These compounds were shown to directly bind to RORγ by circular dichroism-based thermal stability experiments. Furthermore, they can enhance an in vitro Th17 differentiation process in human primary T cells. As RORγ remains an orphan nuclear receptor, discovery of these aryl amide compounds as functional agonists will now provide pharmacological tools for us to dissect functions of RORγ and facilitate drug discovery efforts for immune-modulating therapies.

  1. Rediscovering the Teaching of Geography with the Focus on Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, David; Solem, Michael

    2017-01-01

    This paper arises from the Keynote we co-delivered at the 2017 AGTA Conference in Melbourne. In the paper, we outline the main theoretical resources that underpin the GeoCapabilities project (www.geocapabilities.org). This project has sought to engage teachers and teacher educators in geography with the principles of "curriculum…

  2. Preparing Preservice Teachers to Incorporate Geospatial Technologies in Geography Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harte, Wendy

    2017-01-01

    This study evaluated the efficacy of geospatial technology (GT) learning experiences in two geography curriculum courses to determine their effectiveness for developing preservice teacher confidence and preparing preservice teachers to incorporate GT in their teaching practices. Surveys were used to collect data from preservice teachers at three…

  3. E-Learning for Geography's Teaching and Learning Spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Kenneth; Bednarz, Bob; Boxall, James; Chalmers, Lex; France, Derek; Kesby, Julie

    2008-01-01

    The authors embed their advocacy of educational technology in a consideration of contemporary pedagogy in geography. They provide examples of e-learning from a wide range of teaching and learning contexts. They promote the idea that considering best practice with reference to educational technology will increase the versatility of teaching…

  4. Teaching Indigenous Geography in a Neo-Colonial World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Jennifer; Hollinsworth, David

    2017-01-01

    Australian universities are increasingly embedding Indigenous content and perspectives within curriculum to promote Indigenous cultural competency. We present teaching challenges in an Indigenous geography course designed to present an engaged, intercultural learning experience. We critically reflect on student evaluations, informal discussions…

  5. Teaching gender and geography: the case of the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Droogleever Fortuijn, J.

    2011-01-01

    Feminist geography teaching in universities in the Netherlands originated 30 years ago in an academic context that counteracted this new development for ideological reasons. Nowadays, the neoliberal conditions of the market have replaced the conservative ideology that prevailed 30 years ago.

  6. The Geography of Connection: Bringing the World to Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Mary S.

    2000-01-01

    Discusses strategies used by two teachers for teaching geography to at-risk students to connect the subject matter to the student's lives. Includes techniques such as integrating music, art, language, employing simulations when teaching, using current events to improve students' reading skills, and utilizing computer technology. (CMK)

  7. Place, networks, space: theorising the geographies of social movements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nicholls, W.J.

    2009-01-01

    This essay examines how geography affects the different types of networks underlying social movements. The principal argument of the paper is that networks forged in particular places and at great distances play distinctive yet complementary functions in broad-based social movements. Not only does

  8. Geography Education Research in Serbia: A Teacher's Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajovic, Goran; Bulatovic, Jelisavka

    2017-01-01

    In all European Union countries have harmonized attitudes on the need and improving the quality geographic of education and his innovating. Modernization of geographic education is unthinkable without quality professional and personal development of teacher's geography. Renewal, modernization and supplement professional knowledge and skills…

  9. Economic Geography and Economic Development in Sub-Saharan Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosker, Maarten; Garretsen, Harry

    2012-01-01

    Sub-Saharan Africas (SSA) physical geography is often blamed for its poor economic performance. A countrys geographical location does, however, not only determine its agricultural conditions or disease environment. It also pins down a countrys relative position vis--vis other countries, affecting

  10. Field Trips as Valuable Learning Experiences in Geography Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krakowka, Amy Richmond

    2012-01-01

    Field trips have been acknowledged as valuable learning experiences in geography. This article uses Kolb's (1984) experiential learning model to discuss how students learn and how field trips can help enhance learning. Using Kolb's experiential learning theory as a guide in the design of field trips helps ensure that field trips contribute to…

  11. Factors Affecting the Enrolment of Students in Geography in Public ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The main objective of the study was to determine the relationship between availability and use of teaching/learning resources and enrolment in the subject. The study adopted a survey design. The target population consisted of Form III students, geography teachers and the head teachers of the thirty-one public secondary ...

  12. Mapping the Postcolonial across Urban and Suburban College Access Geographies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dache-Gerbino, Amalia

    2017-01-01

    In US cities, a domino effect of concentrating poverty and suburbanizing wealth shapes discourses of local higher education access for residents of color. How the racialization of space mirrors colonial binaries of Good/Evil, Black/White and Civilized/Uncivilized is part and parcel to understanding city and county geographies surrounding college…

  13. Technology geography: studying the relationships between technology, location and productivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenhuis, H.J.; de Bruijn, E.J.

    2006-01-01

    Operations management, international management, public policy and economic geography are scientific areas which come together in the study of international technology transfer. This study shows how each of these areas has its own central issues but also has specific parts that are relevant for

  14. Geography teachers' interpretation of a curriculum reform initiative ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article addresses how teachers in a specific developing world context interpreted a curriculum reform initiative. It is located within a broader interpretive study that investigated the integration of Environmental Education into the formal education system of Lesotho with particular reference to secondary school geography.

  15. Islam and Muslim Life in Current Bavarian Geography Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zecha, Stefanie; Popp, Stephan; Yasar, Aysun

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates the Islam and Muslim life in German textbooks. The study is based on the analysis of current Geography textbooks in Bavarian secondary schools. As a first step, the authors developed a system for objective analysis of the textbooks that structures the content in categories. In a second step, the authors used the qualitative…

  16. Tapping Geography's Potential for Synergy with Creative Instructional Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conway-Gomez, Kristen; Williams, Nikki; Atkinson-Palombo, Carol; Ahlqvist, Ola; Kim, Eje; Morgan, Miranda

    2011-01-01

    We define synergy, explain its importance within the context of rapidly changing academia, and provide examples of how geographic educators have used creative instructional approaches to create synergies. Both the content of geography and some of the instructional approaches used by geographic educators support the discipline's ability to deliver…

  17. Conferences in historical geography – traditional interdisciplinary meetings

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Semotanová, Eva; Chodějovská, Eva; Šimůnek, Robert

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 38, č. 1 (2012), s. 222-227 ISSN 0323-0988 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP410/12/G113 Institutional support: RVO:67985963 Keywords : history * historical geography * interdisciplinary meetings Subject RIV: AB - History

  18. Aspects of the crime geography of Calabar urban | Afangideh ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The main focus of this research is to established, through an objective empirical process, the spatial pattern and trend with regards to the crime geography of Calabar Urban. Six, of the Police posts in the town, two from each of the three zones into which the town has been sub-divided became the sample points. The crime ...

  19. Climate change science: The literacy of Geography teachers in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This response requires, among other things, teachers who are fully literate about climate change science, so that they can explain the concepts underlying the causes, impacts and solutions of climate change as accurately as possible to learners. The main intention of this study was to understand high school Geography ...

  20. Thinking in a "Worldly" Way: Mobility, Knowledge, Power and Geography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahey, Johannah; Kenway, Jane

    2010-01-01

    In order to enhance understandings of the international mobility of researchers and the implications of their mobility for knowledge production and circulation, we need to develop more sophisticated conceptual resources. Here we draw on and seek to develop ideas generated from literary theory and geography in order to highlight the links between…

  1. Geography and Powerful Knowledge: A Contribution to the Debate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maude, Alaric

    2018-01-01

    This paper is a contribution to the debate on powerful knowledge in geography that began in a 2015 issue of IRGEE and was continued by Frances Slater and Norman Graves in 2016. It addresses some of the questions raised by Slater and Graves. First, it suggests an alternative way of describing and identifying powerful knowledge than the one in their…

  2. Classroom Tests and Achievement in Problem Solving in Physical Geography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monk, Janice J.; Stallings, William M.

    1975-01-01

    Two hundred students in an undergraduate physical geography course were assigned to a group which received either factually oriented quizzes or quizzes which stressed higher level behaviors such as application and analysis. Evaluation of the results indicated that the variation in testing procedures had no discernable effect on student scores in…

  3. Examining the Geographies of Supply Chains in Introductory Coursework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalafsky, Ronald V.; Conner, Neil

    2015-01-01

    Supply chains and other trade networks are of interest to geographers, due to their ability to connect economic processes at various scales. Relatively recent research, however, suggests that core concepts and topics in economic geography are not being fully and effectively engaged in the classroom environment. With such findings as a motivation,…

  4. International business and economic geography : knowledge, time and transactions costs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McCann, Philip

    This paper sketches out how the ways in which a combination of economic geography and international business approaches can shed light on the spatial behaviour of multinational companies. The emphasis of the argument here is on the nature of the knowledge content embedded in the transactions of the

  5. Technology geography: a new area of scientific inquiry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenhuis, H.J.; de Bruijn, E.J.

    2003-01-01

    Operations management, international management, public policy and economic geography are four scientific areas, which come together in the study of international technology transfer. This paper shows how each of these four areas has its own central issues but also have specific parts that are

  6. Rethinking Postgraduate Education in Geography: The Case of the Netherlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortuijn, Joos Droogleever

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses reforms in postgraduate education in geography in the Netherlands in the context of Europeanization and globalization. Europeanization and globalization have resulted in challenges as well as opportunities for students and universities. In terms of internationalization, Europeanization and the global economic crisis have…

  7. World Geography. The Port of Baltimore Workplace Skills Development Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Sam

    This set of learning modules was developed during a project to deliver workplace literacy instruction to individuals employed in the more than 50 businesses related to the activities of the Port of Baltimore. It is intended to accomplish the following objectives: familiarize students with basic concepts of geography; give students knowledge of…

  8. Geography of College Opportunity: The Case of Education Deserts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillman, Nicholas W.

    2016-01-01

    When students choose where to attend college, they often stay in close proximity to home and work. Much of the college choice literature, however, does not engage with the importance of geography in shaping educational destinations. Using county and commuting zone data from various federal sources, this study finds that the number of local…

  9. Just Maps: The Geography Curriculum in English Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, Christine

    2007-01-01

    The wider context of this article is the assumption in the social sciences regarding the existence of a dichotomy between truth and objectivity on one hand and constructivism, subjectivism and relativism on the other. The school subject of geography serves as an appropriate focus for examining this assumption. There are three issues facing the…

  10. Assessment in Geography: Approaches to the Formulation of Objectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Russell

    1976-01-01

    In order to ascertain current assessment practices at final degree level in British university geography departments, 33 departments were surveyed. A model was then developed that conveys the value of using a range of examination techniques to suit particular teaching objectives and experiences. (LBH)

  11. Walking and Talking Geography: A Small-World Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fertig, Gary; Silverman, Rick

    2007-01-01

    When teaching geography to students in the primary grades, teachers should provide firsthand experiences that young children need to make meaningful sense of their world. David Sobel, author of "Mapmaking with Children: Sense of Place Education for the Elementary Years," suggests that teachers in the early grades adopt a small-world approach to…

  12. A Road Map for Learning Progressions Research in Geography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huynh, Niem Tu; Solem, Michael; Bednarz, Sarah Witham

    2015-01-01

    This article provides an overview of learning progressions (LP) and assesses the potential of this line of research to improve geography education. It presents the merits and limitations of three of the most common approaches used to conduct LP research and draws on one approach to propose a first draft of a LP on map reading and interpretation.…

  13. The Persistence of Outmoded Ideas in High School Geography Texts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Richard H.

    1976-01-01

    Selected secondary level geography textbooks from the period 1900-1970 indicate environmental determinism as the prevailing theme, one which persisted in such texts for 20 years after it was abandoned as a central theme at university level. Researchers should have more contact with developers of secondary level materials. (Author/AV)

  14. Introducing New Concepts of Geography in the Social Studies Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, John M.

    Ways in which geographic education lags behind recent developments in the field, as well as conceptual and practical suggestions for bringing it up to date are discussed in this document. Unlike traditional geography, which rested on variations of environmental determinism, a basic interest in man and his spatial reference underlies the concepts…

  15. Lifestyle and Landscapes: The Element of Culture in Geography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballas, Donald J.

    1978-01-01

    Addressing the study of man/land relationships, this article discusses the following: cultural geography, environmental determinism (a la Friedrich Ratzel), "possibilism" (a la Paul Vidal de la Balche), cultural landscapes (a distinction is made between cultural and natural landscapes), and environmental perception. (JC)

  16. Sustainability Issues in the Geography Curriculum for an ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Lucerne Declaration on Geographical Education for Sustainable Development proposes that the 'paradigm of sustainable development' be integrated into the teaching of geography at all levels and in all regions of the world. This study is aimed at assessing the extent to and ways in which sustainability issues have ...

  17. Opinions of the Geography Teacher Candidates toward Mind Maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyihoglu, Aysegul

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to reveal the opinions of the teacher candidates about mind mapping technique used in Geography education of undergraduate program. In this study, the qualitative research techniques were used. The study group consists of 55 teacher candidates. The teacher candidates have been asked for their opinions about the process…

  18. Module Cluster: UG - 001.00 (GSC) Urban Geography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currier, Wade R.

    This is one of several module clusters developed for the Camden Teacher Corps project. This module cluster is designed to introduce students to urban studies through the application of a geographic approach. Although geography shares with other social sciences many concepts and methods, it has contributed a distinctive set of viewpoints and a…

  19. Linking Geography and Art: Inness'"The Lackawanna Valley."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fredrich, Barbara; Fuller, Karyl

    1996-01-01

    Provides a rationale and lesson plan for incorporating geography and art at the K-4 level. The lesson plan features a landscape painting by George Innes, a simplified chronology of his life, as well as a template of questions about the artist and the spatial significance of the painting. (MJP)

  20. A Developmental Mapping Program Integrating Geography and Mathematics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muir, Sharon Pray; Cheek, Helen Neely

    Presented and discussed is a model which can be used by educators who want to develop an interdisciplinary map skills program in geography and mathematics. The model assumes that most children in elementary schools perform cognitively at Piaget's concrete operational stage, that readiness for map skills can be assessed with Piagetian or…