WorldWideScience

Sample records for human gastrointestinal diseases

  1. Interstitial cells of Cajal in human gut and gastrointestinal disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vanderwinden, J M; Rumessen, J J

    1999-01-01

    of their functional significance. Alterations of ICC reported in achalasia of cardia, infantile hypertrophic pyloric stenosis, chronic intestinal pseudoobstruction, Hirschsprung's disease, inflammatory bowel diseases, slow transit constipation, and some other disorders of GI motility as well as in gastrointestinal...... stromal tumors are reviewed, with emphasis on the place of ICC in the pathophysiology of disease....

  2. Gastrointestinal opportunistic infections in human immunodeficiency virus disease

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    Al Anazi Awadh

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Gastrointestinal (GI opportunistic infections (OIs are commonly encountered at various stages of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV disease. In view of the suppressive nature of the virus and the direct contact with the environment, the GI tract is readily accessible and is a common site for clinical expression of HIV. The subject is presented based on information obtained by electronic searches of peer-reviewed articles in medical journals, Cochrane reviews and PubMed sources. The spectrum of GI OIs ranges from oral lesions of Candidiasis, various lesions of viral infections, hepatobiliary lesions, pancreatitis and anorectal lesions. The manifestations of the disease depend on the level of immunosuppression, as determined by the CD4 counts. The advent of highly active antiretroviral therapy has altered the pattern of presentation, resorting mainly to features of antimicrobial-associated colitis and side effects of antiretroviral drugs. The diagnosis of GI OIs in HIV/ acquired immunodeficiency syndrome patients is usually straightforward. However, subtle presentations require that the physicians should have a high index of suspicion when given the setting of HIV infection.

  3. Reactive oxygen species and antioxidant defense in human gastrointestinal diseases

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    Peter Patlevič

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis, known together as inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs, and celiac disease are the most common disorders affecting not only adults but also children. Both IBDs and celiac disease are associated with oxidative stress, which may play a significant role in their etiologies. Reactive oxygen species (ROS such as superoxide radicals (O2·−, hydroxyl radicals (·−OH, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2, and singlet oxygen (1O2 are responsible for cell death via oxidation of DNA, proteins, lipids, and almost any other cellular constituent. To protect biological systems from free radical toxicity, several cellular antioxidant defense mechanisms exist to regulate the production of ROS, including enzymatic and nonenzymatic pathways. Superoxide dismutase catalyzes the dismutation of O2·− to H2O2 and oxygen. The glutathione redox cycle involves two enzymes: glutathione peroxidase, which uses glutathione to reduce organic peroxides and H2O2; and glutathione reductase, which reduces the oxidized form of glutathione with concomitant oxidation of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate. In addition to this cycle, GSH can react directly with free radicals. Studies into the effects of free radicals and antioxidant status in patients with IBDs and celiac disease are scarce, especially in pediatric patients. It is therefore very necessary to conduct additional research studies to confirm previous data about ROS status and antioxidant activities in patients with IBDs and celiac disease, especially in children.

  4. [Microbiota and gastrointestinal diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polanco Allué, I

    2015-12-01

    The bacterial colonisation is established immediately after birth, through direct contact with maternal microbiota, and may be influenced during lactation. There is emerging evidence indicating that quantitative and qualitative changes on gut microbiota contribute to alterations in the mucosal activation of the immune system, leading to intra- or extra-intestinal diseases. A balance between pathogenic and beneficial microbiota throughout childhood and adolescence is important to gastrointestinal health, including protection against pathogens, inhibition of pathogens, nutrient processing (synthesis of vitamin K), stimulation of angiogenesis, and regulation of host fat storage. Probiotics can promote an intentional modulation of intestinal microbiota favouring the health of the host. A review is presented on the modulation of intestinal microbiota on prevention, and adjuvant treatment of some paediatric gastrointestinal diseases. Copyright © 2015 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  5. Obesity and Gastrointestinal Diseases

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    Ai Fujimoto

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of obesity in the Japanese population has been increasing dramatically in step with the Westernization of lifestyles and food ways. Our study demonstrated significant associations between obesity and a number of gastrointestinal disorders in a large sample population in Japan. We demonstrated that reflux esophagitis and hiatal hernia were strongly related to obesity (BMI > 25 in the Japanese. In particular, obesity with young male was a high risk for these diseases. On the other hand, it has been reported that obesity is also associated with Barrett’s esophagus and colorectal adenoma; however, obesity was not a risk factor for these diseases in our study. The difference of ethnicity of our subjects may partly explain why we found no data to implicate obesity as a risk factor for Barrett’s esophagus. Arterial sclerosis associated with advanced age and hyperglycemia was accompanied by an increased risk of colorectal adenoma.

  6. Gastrointestinal stem cells in health and disease: from flies to humans

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    Hongjie Li

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The gastrointestinal tract of complex metazoans is highly compartmentalized. It is lined by a series of specialized epithelia that are regenerated by specific populations of stem cells. To maintain tissue homeostasis, the proliferative activity of stem and/or progenitor cells has to be carefully controlled and coordinated with regionally distinct programs of differentiation. Metaplasias and dysplasias, precancerous lesions that commonly occur in the human gastrointestinal tract, are often associated with the aberrant proliferation and differentiation of stem and/or progenitor cells. The increasingly sophisticated characterization of stem cells in the gastrointestinal tract of mammals and of the fruit fly Drosophila has provided important new insights into these processes and into the mechanisms that drive epithelial dysfunction. In this Review, we discuss recent advances in our understanding of the establishment, maintenance and regulation of diverse intestinal stem cell lineages in the gastrointestinal tract of Drosophila and mice. We also discuss the field's current understanding of the pathogenesis of epithelial dysfunctions.

  7. Gastrointestinal stem cells in health and disease: from flies to humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hongjie; Jasper, Heinrich

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The gastrointestinal tract of complex metazoans is highly compartmentalized. It is lined by a series of specialized epithelia that are regenerated by specific populations of stem cells. To maintain tissue homeostasis, the proliferative activity of stem and/or progenitor cells has to be carefully controlled and coordinated with regionally distinct programs of differentiation. Metaplasias and dysplasias, precancerous lesions that commonly occur in the human gastrointestinal tract, are often associated with the aberrant proliferation and differentiation of stem and/or progenitor cells. The increasingly sophisticated characterization of stem cells in the gastrointestinal tract of mammals and of the fruit fly Drosophila has provided important new insights into these processes and into the mechanisms that drive epithelial dysfunction. In this Review, we discuss recent advances in our understanding of the establishment, maintenance and regulation of diverse intestinal stem cell lineages in the gastrointestinal tract of Drosophila and mice. We also discuss the field's current understanding of the pathogenesis of epithelial dysfunctions. PMID:27112333

  8. Gastrointestinal motility and functional gastrointestinal diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusano, Motoyasu; Hosaka, Hiroko; Kawada, Akiyo; Kuribayashi, Shiko; Shimoyama, Yasuyuki; Zai, Hiroaki; Kawamura, Osamu; Yamada, Masanobu

    2014-01-01

    Digestive tract motility patterns are closely related to the pathophysiology of functional gastrointestinal diseases (FGID), and these patterns differ markedly between the interdigestive period and the postprandial period. The characteristic motility pattern in the interdigestive period is so-called interdigestive migrating contraction (IMC). IMCs have a housekeeping role in the intestinal tract, and could also be related to FGID. IMCs arising from the stomach are called gastrointestinal IMCs (GI-IMC), while IMCs arising from the duodenum without associated gastric contractions are called intestinal IMCs (I-IMC). It is thought that I-IMCs are abnormal in FGID. Transport of food residue to the duodenum via gastric emptying is one of the most important postprandial functions of the stomach. In patients with functional dyspepsia (FD), abnormal gastric emptying is a possible mechanism of gastric dysfunction. Accordingly, delayed gastric emptying has attracted attention, with prokinetic agents and herbal medicines often being administered in Japan to accelerate gastric emptying in patients who have anorexia associated with dyspepsia. Recently, we found that addition of monosodium L-glutamate (MSG) to a high-calorie liquid diet rich in casein promoted gastric emptying in healthy men. Therefore, another potential method of improving delayed gastric emptying could be activation of chemosensors that stimulate the autonomic nervous system of the gastrointestinal tract, suggesting a role for MSG in the management of delayed gastric emptying in patients with FD.

  9. Gastrointestinal manifestations of endocrine disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Christina Maser; Arnbjorn Toset; Sanziana Roman

    2006-01-01

    The hormonal interactions among the systems throughout the body are not fully understood; many vague clinical symptoms may in fact be manifestations of underlying endocrine diseases. The aim of the following review is to discuss gastrointestinal manifestations of surgically correctable endocrine diseases, focusing on abnormalities of thyroid function, cancer and finally autoimmune diseases. We also review manifestations of pancreatic endocrine tumors, and multiple endocrine neoplasia.

  10. Role of CCK/gastrin receptors in gastrointestinal/metabolic diseases and results of human studies using gastrin/CCK receptor agonists/antagonists in these diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berna, Marc J.; Jensen, Robert T.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, the estabished and possible roles of CCK1 and CCK2 receptors in gastrointestinal (GI) and metabolic diseases are reviewed and available results from human agonist/antagonist studies are discussed. While there is evidence for the involvement of CCK1R in numerous diseases including pancreatic disorders, motility disorders, tumor growth, regulation of satiety and a number of CCK-deficient states, the role of CCK1R in these conditions is not clearly defined. There are encouraging data from several clinical studies of CCK1R antagonists in some of these conditions, but their role as therapeutic agents remains unclear. The role of CCK2R in physiological (atrophic gastritis, pernicious anemia) and pathological (Zollinger-Ellison syndrome) hypergastrinemic states, its effects on the gastric mucosa (ECL cell hyperplasia, carcinoids, parietal cell mass) and its role in acid-peptic disorders are clearly defined. Furthermore, recent studies point to a possible role for CCK2R in a number of GI malignancies. Current data from human studies of CCK2R antagonists are presented and their potential role in the treatment of these conditions reviewed. Furthermore, the role of CCK2 receptors as targets for medical imaging is discussed. Even though cholecystokinin (CCK) and gastrin were among the first gastrointestinal hormones discovered [1,2], both their physiological roles as well as their roles in clinically relevant gastrointestinal diseases remain unclear and even controversial in many cases [3–6]. The structural characterization of CCK and gastrin [7,8], pharmacological identification [9–13] and cloning [14,15] of CCK and gastrin receptors (CCK1R, CCK2R), characterization of receptor location, peptide and receptor genes, development of receptor antagonists and receptor/agonist knockout animals [16–21] have led to important advancements in our understanding of the physiological and pathophysiological role of CCK and gastrin signaling [3]. Most of these topics

  11. Upper gastrointestinal physiology and diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldum, Helge L; Kleveland, Per M; Fossmark, Reidar

    2015-06-01

    Nordic research on physiology and pathophysiology of the upper gastrointestinal tract has flourished during the last 50 years. Swedish surgeons and physiologists were in the frontline of research on the regulation of gastric acid secretion. This research finally led to the development of omeprazole, the first proton pump inhibitor. When Swedish physiologists developed methods allowing the assessment of acid secretion in isolated oxyntic glands and isolated parietal cells, the understanding of mechanisms by which gastric acid secretion is regulated took a great step forward. Similarly, in Trondheim, Norway, the acid producing isolated rat stomach model combined with a sensitive and specific method for determination of histamine made it possible to evaluate this regulation qualitatively as well as quantitatively. In Lund, Sweden, the identification of the enterochromaffin-like cell as the cell taking part in the regulation of acid secretion by producing and releasing histamine was of fundamental importance both physiologically and clinically. Jorpes and Mutt established a center at Karolinska Institutet in Stockholm for the purification of gastrointestinal hormones in the 1960s, and Danes followed up this work by excelling in the field of determination and assessment of biological role of gastrointestinal hormones. A Finnish group was for a long period in the forefront of research on gastritis, and the authors' own studies on the classification of gastric cancer and the role of gastrin in the development of gastric neoplasia are of importance. It can, accordingly, be concluded that Nordic researchers have been central in the research on area of the upper gastrointestinal physiology and diseases.

  12. Gastrointestinal tract modelling in health and disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dong-Hua Liao; Jing-Bo Zhao; Hans Gregersen

    2009-01-01

    The gastrointestinal (GI) tract is the system of organs within multi-cellular animals that takes in food, digests it to extract energy and nutrients, and expels the remaining waste. The various patterns of GI tract function are generated by the integrated behaviour of multiple tissues and cell types. A thorough study of the GI tract requires understanding of the interactions between cells, tissues and gastrointestinal organs in health and disease. This depends on knowledge, not only of numerous cellular ionic current mechanisms and signal transduction pathways, but also of large scale GI tissue structures and the special distribution of the nervous network. A unique way of coping with this explosion in complexity is mathematical and computational modelling; providing a computational framework for the multilevel modelling and simulation of the human gastrointestinal anatomy and physiology. The aim of this review is to describe the current status of biomechanical modelling work of the GI tract in humans and animals, which can be further used to integrate the physiological, anatomical and medical knowledge of the GI system. Such modelling will aid research and ensure that medical professionals benefit, through the provision of relevant and precise information about the patient's condition and GI remodelling in animal disease models. It will also improve the accuracy and efficiency of medical procedures, which could result in reduced cost for diagnosis and treatment.

  13. Significant Association of Streptococcus bovis with Malignant Gastrointestinal Diseases

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    Salah Shanan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Streptococcus bovis is a Gram-positive bacterium causing serious human infections, including endocarditis and bacteremia, and is usually associated with underlying disease. The aims of the current study were to compare prevalence of the bacterium associated with malignant and nonmalignant gastrointestinal diseases and to determine the susceptibility of the isolated strains to different antimicrobial agents. The result showed that the prevalence of S. bovis in stool specimens from patients with malignant or with nonmalignant gastrointestinal diseases was statistically significant. This result may support the idea that there is correlation between S. bovis and the malignant gastrointestinal diseases.

  14. Gastrointestinal Symptoms in Lysosmal Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farid IMANZADEH

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available  How to Cite this Article: Imanzadeh F. Gastrointestinal Symptoms in Lysosmal Disease. Iran J Child Neurol Autumn 2012; 6:4 (suppl. 1:17-18.pls see PDF. References: 1. Semenza  GL,  Pyeritz  RE.  Respiratory complications of mucopolysaccharide storage disorders. Medicine (Baltimore 1988; 67:209. 2.   Wraith   JE,   Scarpa   M,   Beck   M,   et   al. Mucopolysaccharidosis type II (Hunter syndrome: a clinical review and recommendations for treatment in the era of enzyme replacement therapy. Eur J Pediatr 2008; 167:267. 3. Stevens JM, Kendall BE, Crockard HA, Ransford   A.   The   odontoid   process   in Morquio-Brailsford’s disease. The effects of occipitocervical fusion. J Bone Joint Surg Br 1991; 73:851. 4.   Jones AE, Croley TF. Morquio syndrome and anesthesia. Anesthesiology 1979; 51:261. 5.   Ashraf J, Crockard HA, Ransford AO, Stevens JM. Transoral decompression and posterior stabilisation in Morquio’s disease. Arch Dis Child 1991; 66:1318. 6.  Neufeld EF, Muenzer J. The metabolic and molecular bases of inherited disease, Scriver C, Beaudet AL, Valle D, Sly W (Eds, McGraw- Hill, New York 2001. p.3421. 7.   Wraith   JE.   The   mucopolysaccharidoses:   a clinical review and guide to management. Arch Dis Child 1995; 72:263. 8.   Cleary MA, Wraith JE. The presenting features of mucopolysaccharidosis type IH (Hurler syndrome. Acta Paediatr 1995; 84:337. 9.   Elsner B. Ultrastructure of the rectal wall in Hunter’s   syndrome.   Gastroenterology   1970; 58:856. 10. Cleary   MA,   Wraith   JE.   Management   of mucopolysaccharidosis type III. Arch Dis Child 1993; 69:403. 

  15. The chronic gastrointestinal manifestations of Chagas disease

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    Nilce Mitiko Matsuda

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Chagas disease is an infectious disease caused by the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi. The disease mainly affects the nervous system, digestive system and heart. The objective of this review is to revise the literature and summarize the main chronic gastrointestinal manifestations of Chagas disease. The chronic gastrointestinal manifestations of Chagas disease are mainly a result of enteric nervous system impairment caused by T. cruzi infection. The anatomical locations most commonly described to be affected by Chagas disease are salivary glands, esophagus, lower esophageal sphincter, stomach, small intestine, colon, gallbladder and biliary tree. Chagas disease has also been studied in association with Helicobacter pylori infection, interstitial cells of Cajal and the incidence of gastrointestinal cancer.

  16. [GASTROINTESTINAL INVOLVEMENT IN HUMAN BARTONELLOSIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maguiña, Ciro; Gotuzzo, Eduardo; Carcelén, Amador; Salinas, César; Cok, Jaime; Recavarren, Sixto; Bussalleu, Alejandro

    1997-01-01

    We present a prospective study of 68 patients with the acute phase of human bartonellosis, admitted to Cayetano Heredia National Hospital.Gastrointestinal symptoms were reported as follows: abdominal pain 46,3%, coluria 44,4%, vomiting 40,3%, jaundice 38,5%, diarrhea 29,9%, constipation 8,9%. The more common signs were pallor 97%, hepatomegaly 82%, fever 79,1%, malnutrition 75,2%, systolic heart murmur 77,9%, jaundice 71,6%, lymph node enlargement 70,1%.Signs observed during the hospital course were 29,4% lower extremities edema, 22,6% myalgia, 16,4% pericardial effusion, 16,4% generalized edema. The more common gastrointestinal signs were hepatomegaly 82%(52/68), jaundice 71,6% (48/68) and splenomegaly 29,4%(20/68).The -lower liver border was found between 1 to 4 below the lower rib border in 71,6%(48/67) and below 5 cm b. l. r. b. in 11,9%(8/67).60% had abnormal liver function tests, 54,6% had mainly direct bilirrubin elevationand 45,4% mainly indirect.SGOT was elevated in 28,5% and SGPT in 25%, 28,3% had elevated alkaline phosphatase. The bilirrubin media was 3,5 mg/dI (range 0,6-21), the indirect bilirrubin media was 1,6 mg/dI (range 0,5-11,5), the direct bilirrubin media was 1,9 mg/dI (range 0,3-18), The SGOT media 73,9 U/L (range 9-1250), SGPT media 65,5U/L (range 6-1596). Alkaline phosphatase 5,9 mui/ml (range 3-497). Albumin media 3,09 (range 2-4,2).Patients with bacterial coinfection (salmonella, staphilococcus, enterobacter, shigella) had a higher increase in bilirrubin and transaminases.Three patients had liver biopsies, two revealed Küpffer cells hyperplasia (moderate to severe), one revealed intracellular hyperplasia, one patient coinfected with diseminated hystoplasmosis had granulomas in the liver.Mortality(8,8%) was associated to hepatocellular involvement (SGOT media 330U/L, SGPT media 207 U/L, alkaline phosphatase media 183 mui/ml), hypoalbuminemia media = 2,4 gr/1) and generalized edema.

  17. Atypical Kawasaki disease and gastrointestinal manifestations

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, Ravinder; Ward, Colin; Walton, Mark; Persad, Rabin

    2007-01-01

    Kawasaki disease is a syndrome that usually occurs in infants and children. It is characterized by an exanthem, enanthem, fever, lymphadenopathy, and polyarteritis of variable severity. The present report describes cases in which an initial presentation of Kawasaki disease included abdominal and gastrointestinal symptomatology.

  18. Atypical Kawasaki disease and gastrointestinal manifestations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Ravinder; Ward, Colin; Walton, Mark; Persad, Rabin

    2007-01-01

    Kawasaki disease is a syndrome that usually occurs in infants and children. It is characterized by an exanthem, enanthem, fever, lymphadenopathy, and polyarteritis of variable severity. The present report describes cases in which an initial presentation of Kawasaki disease included abdominal and gastrointestinal symptomatology. PMID:19030366

  19. A meta-analysis of probiotic efficacy for gastrointestinal diseases.

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    Marina L Ritchie

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Meta-analyses on the effects of probiotics on specific gastrointestinal diseases have generally shown positive effects on disease prevention and treatment; however, the relative efficacy of probiotic use for treatment and prevention across different gastrointestinal diseases, with differing etiology and mechanisms of action, has not been addressed. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We included randomized controlled trials in humans that used a specified probiotic in the treatment or prevention of Pouchitis, Infectious diarrhea, Irritable Bowel Syndrome, Helicobacter pylori, Clostridium difficile Disease, Antibiotic Associated Diarrhea, Traveler's Diarrhea, or Necrotizing Enterocolitis. Random effects models were used to evaluate efficacy as pooled relative risks across the eight diseases as well as across probiotic species, single vs. multiple species, patient ages, dosages, and length of treatment. Probiotics had a positive significant effect across all eight gastrointestinal diseases with a relative risk of 0.58 (95% (CI 0.51-0.65. Six of the eight diseases: Pouchitis, Infectious diarrhea, Irritable Bowel Syndrome, Helicobacter pylori, Clostridium difficile Disease, and Antibiotic Associated Diarrhea, showed positive significant effects. Traveler's Diarrhea and Necrotizing Enterocolitis did not show significant effects of probiotcs. Of the 11 species and species mixtures, all showed positive significant effects except for Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus plantarum, and Bifidobacterium infantis. Across all diseases and probiotic species, positive significant effects of probiotics were observed for all age groups, single vs. multiple species, and treatment lengths. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Probiotics are generally beneficial in treatment and prevention of gastrointestinal diseases. Efficacy was not observed for Traveler's Diarrhea or Necrotizing Enterocolitis or for the probiotic species L. acidophilus, L. plantarum, and B

  20. Probiotics and Chronic Gastrointestinal Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guarner, Francisco

    Human beings are associated in a symbiotic relationship with a huge population of microorganisms. During millennia, a considerable number of microbes have evolved and adapted to live and grow in the human intestine. The intestinal habitat of an individual contains billions of microorganisms including bacteria, protozoa, archaea, fungi, and viruses (Guarner and Malagelada, 2003; Ley et al., 2006), and the number of microbial cells within the gut lumen appears to be ten times larger than the number of eukaryotic cells of the human body. Some of these bacteria are potential pathogens and can be a source of infection and sepsis under some circumstances, for instance when the integrity of the bowel barrier is physically or functionally breached. However, growing evidence suggests that important health benefits to the human host derive from the constant interaction with its microbial guests. Recognition of these benefits in recent years is drawing particular attention to the functional implications of the gut microbial communities in host physiology.

  1. The Use of Probiotics in Gastrointestinal Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen L Madsen

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Probiotics are living microorganisms that can affect the host in a beneficial manner. Prebiotics are nondigestible food ingredients that stimulate the growth and activity of probiotic bacteria already established in the colon. Efficacy of probiotic compounds has been shown in a wide range of gastrointestinal diseases. Lactobacillus GG alone, or the combination of Bifidobacterium bifidum and Streptococcus thermophilus, is effective in the treatment of Clostridium difficile, as well as in preventing the frequency and severity of infectious acute diarrhea in children. Prevention of antibiotic-induced diarrhea with the concomitant administration of either Lactobacillus GG or Saccharomyces boulardii has been demonstrated. The most successful studies involve the use of Lactobacillus GG at a dose of 1×1010 viable organisms per day and the yeast boulardii at a dose of 1 g/day. A probiotic preparation (VSL#3 - 6 g/day that uses a combination of three species of Bifidobacterium, four strains of Lactobacillus and one strain of Streptocccus has shown promise in maintaining remission in ulcerative colitis and pouchitis, as well as in preventing the postoperative recurrence of Crohn's disease. The mechanism of action of probiotics may include receptor competition, effects on mucin secretion or probiotic immunomodulation of gut-associated lymphoid tissue. Oral administration of probiotic compounds has been demonstrated to be well tolerated and safe. However, while probiotics have the potential to improve human health and to prevent and treat some diseases, major improvements are needed in labelling and quality assurance procedures for probiotic compounds. In addition, well planned and controlled clinical studies are necessary to delineate fully the potential for probiotic compounds.

  2. Animal models of gastrointestinal and liver diseases. Animal models of cystic fibrosis: gastrointestinal, pancreatic, and hepatobiliary disease and pathophysiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivier, Alicia K; Gibson-Corley, Katherine N; Meyerholz, David K

    2015-03-15

    Multiple organ systems, including the gastrointestinal tract, pancreas, and hepatobiliary systems, are affected by cystic fibrosis (CF). Many of these changes begin early in life and are difficult to study in young CF patients. Recent development of novel CF animal models has expanded opportunities in the field to better understand CF pathogenesis and evaluate traditional and innovative therapeutics. In this review, we discuss manifestations of CF disease in gastrointestinal, pancreatic, and hepatobiliary systems of humans and animal models. We also compare the similarities and limitations of animal models and discuss future directions for modeling CF.

  3. Sensory testing of the human gastrointestinal tract.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brock, C.; Arendt-Nielsen, L.; Wilder-Smith, O.H.G.; Drewes, A.M.

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this appraisal is to shed light on the various approaches to screen sensory information in the human gut. Understanding and characterization of sensory symptoms in gastrointestinal disorders is poor. Experimental methods allowing the investigator to control stimulus intensity and mo

  4. Congenital diseases of the gastrointestinal tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lentze, M

    2014-05-01

    With the rapid increase in knowledge on the genetic origin of diseases within the gastrointestinal tract the number of congenital diseases, which already manifest during childhood have drastically increased. Due to the large application of molecular genetics the number is steadily increasing. To make the access to these rare diseases fast and efficient the data base of the National Library of Medicine (Online Mendelian Inheritance of Man - OMIN) is a very helpful online tool, with which all these disease entities can be found easily (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/omim). Detailed tables are given to find most of the congenitally inherited disease, which affect the gastrointestinal tract. A variety of congenital diarrheas with disturbances of digestion, hydrolysis, absorption and secretion is described in detail: lactose intolerance, sucrose intolerance, glucose-galactose malabsorption, fructose malabsorption, trehalase and enterokinase deficiency, congenital chloride and sodium diarrhea, congenital hypomagnesaemia, primary bile acid malabsorption, acrodermatitis enteropathica and Menke's syndrome. Also described in detail are diseases with structural anomalies of the intestine like microvillous inclusion disease, congenital tufting enteropathy and IPEX syndrome. The diagnosis in the disturbances of carbohydrate hydrolysis or absorption can be established by H2-breath tests after appropriate sugar challenge. Treatment consists of elimination of the responsible sugar from the diet. The diagnosis of the congenital secretory diarrheas is established by investigation of electrolytes in blood and stool. Substitution of high doses of the responsible mineral can improve the clinical outcome. In acrodermatitis enteropathica low serum zinc level together with the typical skin lesions guide to the diagnosis. High doses of oral zinc aspartate can cure the symptoms of the disease. The diagnosis of structural congenital lesions of the intestine can be established by histology and

  5. [Gastrointestinal human myiasis caused by Eristalis tenax].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kun, M; Kreiter, A; Semenas, L

    1998-08-01

    The myiasis observed in Bariloche are characterized and the probable conditions under which the infestations took place established. The larvae obtained from faeces of 2 patients were identified as Eristalis tenax (Diptera: Syrphidae) according to Hartley (1961) and Organización Panamericana de la Salud keys (1962). These 2 cases of human gastrointestinal myiasis were the first to be registered in Bariloche (Patagonia, Argentina) and their characteristics were similar to those described for this species in other parts of the world. The lack of specific control measures in the domestic water supply system was the most probable cause of the infestation. This event extends the distribution of E. tenax and human gastrointestinal myiasis in South America to 41 degrees 03' S.

  6. Interpretability of the PedsQL gastrointestinal symptoms scales and gastrointestinal worry scales in pediatric patients with functional and organic gastrointestinal diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    The present study investigates the clinical interpretability of the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventor (PedsQL) Gastrointestinal Symptoms Scales and Worry Scales in pediatric patients with functional gastrointestinal disorders or organic gastrointestinal diseases in comparison with healthy controls....

  7. Evidence That the Enterotoxin Gene Can Be Episomal in Clostridium perfringens Isolates Associated with Non-Food-Borne Human Gastrointestinal Diseases

    OpenAIRE

    1998-01-01

    Clostridium perfringens enterotoxin (CPE) is responsible for the diarrheal and cramping symptoms of human C. perfringens type A food poisoning. CPE-producing C. perfringens isolates have also recently been associated with several non-food-borne human gastrointestinal (GI) illnesses, including antibiotic-associated diarrhea and sporadic diarrhea. The current study has used restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) analyses to compare the genoty...

  8. Patient Health Communication Mediating Effects Between Gastrointestinal Symptoms and Gastrointestinal Worry in Pediatric Inflammatory Bowel Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varni, James W; Shulman, Robert J; Self, Mariella M; Saeed, Shehzad A; Patel, Ashish S; Nurko, Samuel; Neigut, Deborah A; Saps, Miguel; Zacur, George M; Dark, Chelsea V; Bendo, Cristiane B; Pohl, John F

    2017-05-01

    To investigate the effects of patient health communication regarding their inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) to their health care providers and significant others in their daily life as a mediator in the relationship between gastrointestinal symptoms and gastrointestinal worry in pediatric patients. The Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory Gastrointestinal Symptoms, Gastrointestinal Worry, and Communication Scales, and Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory 4.0 Generic Core Scales were completed in a 9-site study by 252 pediatric patients with IBD. Gastrointestinal Symptoms Scales measuring stomach pain, constipation, or diarrhea and patient communication were tested for bivariate and multivariate linear associations with Gastrointestinal Worry Scales specific to patient worry about stomach pain or bowel movements. Mediational analyses were conducted to test the hypothesized mediating effects of patient health communication as an intervening variable in the relationship between gastrointestinal symptoms and gastrointestinal worry. The predictive effects of gastrointestinal symptoms on gastrointestinal worry were mediated in part by patient health communication with health care providers/significant others in their daily life. In predictive models using multiple regression analyses, the full conceptual model of demographic variables, gastrointestinal symptoms (stomach pain, constipation, or diarrhea), and patient communication significantly accounted for 46, 43, and 54 percent of the variance in gastrointestinal worry (all Ps < 0.001), respectively, reflecting large effect sizes. Patient health communication explains in part the effects of gastrointestinal symptoms on gastrointestinal worry in pediatric patients with IBD. Supporting patient disease-specific communication to their health care providers and significant others may improve health-related quality of life for pediatric patients with IBD.

  9. Sensory testing of the human gastrointestinal tract

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Christina Brock; Lars Arendt-Nielsen; Oliver Wilder-Smith; Asbjφrn Mohr Drewes

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this appraisal is to shed light on the various approaches to screen sensory information in the human gut. Understanding and characterization of sensory symptoms in gastrointestinal disorders is poor. Experimental methods allowing the investigator to control stimulus intensity and modality, as well as using validated methods for assessing sensory response have contributed to the understanding of pain mechanisms. Mechanical stimulation based on impedance planimetry allows direct recordings of luminal cross-sectional areas, and combined with ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging, the contribution of different gut layers can be estimated. Electrical stimulation depolarizes free nerve endings non-selectively. Consequently, the stimulation paradigm (single, train, tetanic) influences the involved sensory nerves. Visual controlled electrical stimulation combines the probes with an endoscopic approach, which allows the investigator to inspect and obtain small biopsies from the stimulation site. Thermal stimulation (cold or warm) activates selectively mucosal receptors, and chemical substances such as acid and capsaicin (either alone or in combination) are used to evoke pain and sensitization. The possibility of multimodal (e.g. mechanical, electrical, thermal and chemical) stimulation in different gut segments has developed visceral pain research. The major advantage is involvement of distinctive receptors, various sensory nerves and different pain pathways mimicking clinical pain that favors investigation of central pain mechanisms involved in allodynia, hyperalgesia and referred pain. As impairment of descending control mechanisms partly underlies the pathogenesis in chronic pain, a cold pressor test that indirectly stimulates such control mechanisms can be added. Hence, the methods undoubtedly represent a major step forward in the future characterization and treatment of patients with various diseases of the gut, which provides knowledge to

  10. Estrogen and its role in gastrointestinal health and disease.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hogan, Aisling M

    2012-02-01

    INTRODUCTION: While the concept of a role of estrogen in gastrointestinal (in particular, colonic) malignancy has generated excitement in recent years, no review has examined the role of this potent and omnipresent steroid hormone in physiological states or its contribution to the development of benign pathological processes. Understanding these effects (and mechanisms therein) may provide a platform for a deeper understanding of more complex disease processes. METHODS: A literature search was conducted using the PubMed database and the search terms were "estrogen," "estrogen AND gastrointestinal tract," "estrogen AND colon," "estrogen AND esophagus," "estrogen AND small intestine," "estrogen AND stomach," "estrogen AND gallbladder," and "estrogen AND motility." Bibliographies of extracted studies were further cross-referenced. In all, 136 full-text articles were selected for review. A logical organ-based approach was taken to enable extraction of data of clinical relevance and meaningful interpretation thereof. Insight is provided into the hypotheses, theories, controversies, and contradictions generated over the last five decades by extensive investigation of estrogen in human, animal, and cell models using techniques as diverse as autoradiographic studies of baboons to human population analysis. CONCLUSIONS: Effects from esophagus through to the colon and rectum are summarized in this first concise collection of data pertaining to estrogenic actions in gastrointestinal health and disease. Mechanisms of these actions are discussed where possible. Undoubtedly, this hormone exerts many actions yet to be elucidated, and its potential therapeutic applications remain, as yet, largely unexplored.

  11. Fecal microbiota transplantation for gastrointestinal diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuoka, Katsuyoshi; Mizuno, Shinta; Hayashi, Atsushi; Hisamatsu, Tadakazu; Naganuma, Makoto; Kanai, Takanori

    2014-01-01

    Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is a treatment to restore the normal microbial composition of the gut by introducing fecal microbiota obtained from a healthy donor into a diseased individual. There has been a growing interest in the use of FMT as a treatment of various diseases including Clostridium difficile infection (CDI), inflammatory bowel disease, and irritable bowel syndrome. Despite the increasing application of FMT, there are no standard protocols. Many aspects of FMT procedures vary regarding donor selection, preparation of fecal materials, recipient preparation, and route of administration. FMT is most successful in treating recurrent CDI. A randomized controlled trial reported a success rate of approximaetly 90%. Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a potentially good indication for FMT, although limited evidence is available on the use of FMT for the treatment of UC. Only several small case series have been reported, and the results in terms of efficacy are inconsistent. FMT can also be used to treat diseases other than gastrointestinal disorders in which the gut microbiota is disturbed, e.g., cardiovascular diseases, autoimmune diseases, and metabolic disorders. There remain many unanswered questions with regard to FMT, and more research is required in this field.

  12. Feasibility study of novel endoscopic Cerenkov luminescence imaging system in detecting and quantifying gastrointestinal disease: first human results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Hao; Li, Shujun; Yao, Liping; Liang, Jie; Nie, Yongzhan; Wu, Kaichun [Fourth Military Medical University, State Key Laboratory of Cancer Biology, Department of Digestive Diseases, Xijing Hospital, Xi' an (China); Cao, Xin; Lin, Yenan; Liu, Muhan; Liang, Jimin; Chen, Xueli [Xidian University, School of Life Science and Technology, Xi' an (China); Kang, Fei; Wang, Jing [Fourth Military Medical University, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Xijing Hospital, Xi' an (China); Wang, Min [Xi' an Children' s Hospital, Department of Gastroenterology, Xi' an (China)

    2015-06-01

    Cerenkov luminescence imaging (CLI) provides potential to use clinical radiotracers for optical imaging. The goal of this study was to present a newly developed endoscopic CLI (ECLI) system and illustrate its feasibility and potential in distinguishing and quantifying cancerous lesions of the GI tract. The ECLI system was established by integrating an electron-multiplying charge-coupled device camera with a flexible fibre endoscope. Phantom experiments and animal studies were conducted to test and illustrate the system in detecting and quantifying the presence of radionuclide in vitro and in vivo. A pilot clinical study was performed to evaluate our system in clinical settings. Phantom and mice experiments demonstrated its ability to acquire both the luminescent and photographic images with high accuracy. Linear quantitative relationships were also obtained when comparing the ECLI radiance with the radiotracer activity (r{sup 2} = 0.9779) and traditional CLI values (r{sup 2} = 0.9025). Imaging of patients revealed the potential of ECLI in the identification and quantification of cancerous tissue from normal, which showed good consistence with the clinical PET examination. The new ECLI system shows good consistence with the clinical PET examination and has great potential for clinical translation and in aiding detection of the GI tract disease. (orig.)

  13. Bacterial Pollution in River Waters and Gastrointestinal Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilia Rodríguez-Tapia

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Currently, one of Mexico’s most severe environmental problems is the high levels of pollution of many of its rivers. The present article focuses on the relationship between total coliform bacteria levels and the increase of human digestive tract diseases in the highly polluted Atoyac River in the central Mexican states of Puebla and Tlaxcala. Pollution has become a potential health hazard for people living in nearby river communities. Based on data collected from six of the most contaminated riverside municipalities, two environmental models were developed taking into consideration the health of the entire population, not simply that of its individual members. Such models estimate a health-disease function that confirm the link between Atoyac River pollution and the incidence of gastrointestinal diseases. The causal relation between pollution and gastrointestinal disease incentivizes the creation of epidemiological and public health programs aimed at reducing the environmental health impact of the pollution associated with the Atoyac River. The results presented here are the first of their kind of this river and will serve as basis for future research exploring other similarly contaminated riparian communities. As the causes of pollution are directly related to the economic development and population growth of the region, further research should be conducted for prevention of diseases, educational programs, water remediation and conservation programs that will have a positive impact on the quality of life of the population presently at risk.

  14. Bacterial Pollution in River Waters and Gastrointestinal Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Tapia, Lilia; Morales-Novelo, Jorge A

    2017-05-04

    Currently, one of Mexico's most severe environmental problems is the high levels of pollution of many of its rivers. The present article focuses on the relationship between total coliform bacteria levels and the increase of human digestive tract diseases in the highly polluted Atoyac River in the central Mexican states of Puebla and Tlaxcala. Pollution has become a potential health hazard for people living in nearby river communities. Based on data collected from six of the most contaminated riverside municipalities, two environmental models were developed taking into consideration the health of the entire population, not simply that of its individual members. Such models estimate a health-disease function that confirm the link between Atoyac River pollution and the incidence of gastrointestinal diseases. The causal relation between pollution and gastrointestinal disease incentivizes the creation of epidemiological and public health programs aimed at reducing the environmental health impact of the pollution associated with the Atoyac River. The results presented here are the first of their kind of this river and will serve as basis for future research exploring other similarly contaminated riparian communities. As the causes of pollution are directly related to the economic development and population growth of the region, further research should be conducted for prevention of diseases, educational programs, water remediation and conservation programs that will have a positive impact on the quality of life of the population presently at risk.

  15. Bacterial Pollution in River Waters and Gastrointestinal Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Tapia, Lilia; Morales-Novelo, Jorge A.

    2017-01-01

    Currently, one of Mexico’s most severe environmental problems is the high levels of pollution of many of its rivers. The present article focuses on the relationship between total coliform bacteria levels and the increase of human digestive tract diseases in the highly polluted Atoyac River in the central Mexican states of Puebla and Tlaxcala. Pollution has become a potential health hazard for people living in nearby river communities. Based on data collected from six of the most contaminated riverside municipalities, two environmental models were developed taking into consideration the health of the entire population, not simply that of its individual members. Such models estimate a health-disease function that confirm the link between Atoyac River pollution and the incidence of gastrointestinal diseases. The causal relation between pollution and gastrointestinal disease incentivizes the creation of epidemiological and public health programs aimed at reducing the environmental health impact of the pollution associated with the Atoyac River. The results presented here are the first of their kind of this river and will serve as basis for future research exploring other similarly contaminated riparian communities. As the causes of pollution are directly related to the economic development and population growth of the region, further research should be conducted for prevention of diseases, educational programs, water remediation and conservation programs that will have a positive impact on the quality of life of the population presently at risk. PMID:28471407

  16. Nutritional influences in selected gastrointestinal diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakatos, Peter Laszlo; Kiss, Lajos S; Miheller, Pal

    2011-01-01

    Nutritional factors, as sources of luminal antigens, have been thought to be important factors in the immunopathogenesis of numerous gastrointestinal diseases. In some diseases, the role of the nutritional component is causal in the susceptible host. Such diseases include celiac disease, a common heritable chronic inflammatory condition of the small intestine induced by dietary wheat, rye and barley, in susceptible individuals. Specific HLA-DQ2 and HLA-DQ8 risk alleles are necessary, but not sufficient, for disease development. The well-defined role of HLA-DQ heterodimers encoded by these alleles is to present cereal peptides to CD4+ T cells, activating an inflammatory immune response in the intestine. Genome-wide association studies have been performed which identified the IL2-IL21 risk locus and other genes with immune functions and key roles in thymic T-cell selection. Another example for this group is Wilson's disease, an autosomal recessive disorder of copper metabolism caused by mutation of the ATP7B gene, resulting in a defect of biliary copper excretion and toxic accumulation in the body, especially in the liver, brain and cornea, resulting in hepatic and/or neurological symptoms. In other diseases, however, the association is less well established. In such endeavor, epidemiological observations may become a valuable part of the overall investigations aimed at identifying dietary factors, which are involved in the initiation and perpetuation of the specific disease. As an example, relationships between nutrition and colorectal cancer have been hypothesized early on (e.g. folate, calcium, vitamin D, red meat). Similarly, intake of certain diet constituents like fat, refined sugar, fruits, vegetables and fiber was reported to be associated with the expression of inflammatory bowel diseases. In addition, in children with active Crohn's disease, enteral nutrition was found to be equally effective as corticosteroids in induction of remission, with mucosal

  17. Disseminated Gastrointestinal Mucormycosis in Immunocompromised Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tae Sun Ha

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Mucormycosis is an uncommon opportunistic fungal infection mostly affecting immunocompromised patients and gastrointestinal mucormycosis is a rare and life-threatening. We describe a 31-year-old man with a history of idiopathic cyclic neutropenia who developed perforations of the stomach and intestine and intra-abdominal bleeding due to disseminated gastrointestinal mucormycosis after the initial operation.

  18. Human papillomavirus and gastrointestinal cancer: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucchi, Dania; Stracci, Fabrizio; Buonora, Nicola; Masanotti, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) is one of the most common sexually transmitted infections worldwide. Exposure to HPV is very common, and an estimated 65%-100% of sexually active adults are exposed to HPV in their lifetime. The majority of HPV infections are asymptomatic, but there is a 10% chance that individuals will develop a persistent infection and have an increased risk of developing a carcinoma. The International Agency for Research on Cancer has found that the following cancer sites have a strong causal relationship with HPV: cervix uteri, penis, vulva, vagina, anus and oropharynx, including the base of the tongue and the tonsils. However, studies of the aetiological role of HPV in colorectal and esophageal malignancies have conflicting results. The aim of this review was to organize recent evidence and issues about the association between HPV infection and gastrointestinal tumours with a focus on esophageal, colorectal and anal cancers. The ultimate goal was to highlight possible implications for prognosis and prevention. PMID:27672265

  19. Part 2: Treatments for Chronic Gastrointestinal Disease and Gut Dysbiosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bull, Matthew J; Plummer, Nigel T

    2015-02-01

    Part 1 of this review discussed the connection between the human gut microbiota and health. Manipulation of the intestinal microbiota holds promise as a prospective therapy for gut dysbiosis, ameliorating symptoms of gastrointestinal and systemic diseases and restoring health. The concept of probiotics has existed for more than 100 y, and modern research methods have established sound scientific support for the perceived benefits of probiotic bacteria, which mainly include Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium genera. On the basis of these evidence-based functional approaches, dietary interventions that supplement the normal diet with probiotics or prebiotics are now considered as potentially viable alternatives or adjuncts to the use of steroids, immunosuppressants, and/or surgical interventions. Studies investigating the impact on gastrointestinal disorders, such as diarrhea, inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), irritable bowel syndrome (IBS); and systemic metabolic diseases, such as type 2 diabetes and obesity, in response to the use of probiotics and prebiotics are reviewed. Further, fecal microbial transplantation (FMT) is discussed as an exciting development in the treatment of gut dysbiosis using microbes.

  20. Traditional Persian topical medications for gastrointestinal diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laleh Dehghani Tafti

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Drug delivery across the skin is used for several millennia to ease gastrointestinal (GI ailments in Traditional Persian Medicine (TPM. TPM topical remedies are generally being applied on the stomach, lower abdomen, lower back and liver to alleviate GI illnesses such as dyspepsia, gastritis, GI ulcers, inflammatory bowel disease, intestinal worms and infections. The aim of the present study is to survey the topical GI remedies and plant species used as ingredients for these remedies in TPM. In addition, pharmacological activities of the mentioned plants have been discussed. For this, we searched major TPM textbooks to find plants used to cure GI problems in topical use. Additionally, scientific databases were searched to obtain pharmacological data supporting the use of TPM plants in GI diseases. Rosa × damascena, Pistacia lentiscus, Malus domestica, Olea europaea and Artemisia absinthium are among the most frequently mentioned ingredients of TPM remedies. β-asarone, amygdalin, boswellic acids, guggulsterone, crocin, crocetin, isomasticadienolic acid, and cyclotides are the most important phytochemicals present in TPM plants with GI-protective activities. Pharmacological studies demonstrated GI activities for TPM plants supporting their extensive traditional use. These plants play pivotal role in alleviating GI disorders through exhibiting numerous activities including antispasmodic, anti-ulcer, anti-secretory, anti-colitis, anti-diarrheal, antibacterial and anthelmintic properties. Several mechanisms underlie these activities including the alleviation of oxidative stress, exhibiting cytoprotective activity, down-regulation of the inflammatory cytokines, suppression of the cellular signaling pathways of inflammatory responses, improving re-epithelialization and angiogenesis, down-regulation of anti-angiogenic factors, blocking activity of acetylcholine, etc.

  1. Cancer stem cells in human gastrointestinal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taniguchi, Hiroaki; Moriya, Chiharu; Igarashi, Hisayoshi; Saitoh, Anri; Yamamoto, Hiroyuki; Adachi, Yasushi; Imai, Kohzoh

    2016-11-01

    Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are thought to be responsible for tumor initiation, drug and radiation resistance, invasive growth, metastasis, and tumor relapse, which are the main causes of cancer-related deaths. Gastrointestinal cancers are the most common malignancies and still the most frequent cause of cancer-related mortality worldwide. Because gastrointestinal CSCs are also thought to be resistant to conventional therapies, an effective and novel cancer treatment is imperative. The first reported CSCs in a gastrointestinal tumor were found in colorectal cancer in 2007. Subsequently, CSCs were reported in other gastrointestinal cancers, such as esophagus, stomach, liver, and pancreas. Specific phenotypes could be used to distinguish CSCs from non-CSCs. For example, gastrointestinal CSCs express unique surface markers, exist in a side-population fraction, show high aldehyde dehydrogenase-1 activity, form tumorspheres when cultured in non-adherent conditions, and demonstrate high tumorigenic potential in immunocompromised mice. The signal transduction pathways in gastrointestinal CSCs are similar to those involved in normal embryonic development. Moreover, CSCs are modified by the aberrant expression of several microRNAs. Thus, it is very difficult to target gastrointestinal CSCs. This review focuses on the current research on gastrointestinal CSCs and future strategies to abolish the gastrointestinal CSC phenotype.

  2. Imaging of gastrointestinal and hepatic diseases during pregnancy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hodnett, Philip A

    2012-02-03

    Imaging of the abdomen for suspected gastrointestinal and hepatic disease during pregnancy is assuming greater importance. Like clinical evaluation, imaging of the abdomen and pelvis is challenging but is vitally important to prevent delayed diagnosis or unnecessary interventions. Also choice of imaging modality is influenced by factors which could impact on fetal safety such as the use of ionising radiation and magnetic resonance imaging. This article discusses important issues in imaging of gastrointestinal and hepatic disease in pregnancy and the puerperium.

  3. Pediatric Gastrointestinal Diseases in Nigeria: Histopathologic Analysis of 74 Cases

    OpenAIRE

    Abudu; Emmanuel Kunle; Oyebadeyo; Tope Yinka; Inyang-Etoh; Emmanuel Columba

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Children are vulnerable to a vast number of diseases including gastrointestinal disorders, which may be associated with life threatening complications that sometimes result in mortality especially if left untreated. OBJECTIVE: To establish the age and sex distribution of children in the study population as well as the histopathological characteristics of gastrointestinal diseases that occurred in those children who were aged 14years and below in Sagamu, Southwestern Nigeria. MATER...

  4. Impact of Oat-Based Products on Human Gastrointestinal Tract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Staka Aiga

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Oat is rich in valuable nutrients. In comparison to other cereals, oat contains more total proteins, carbohydrate, fat, non-starch fibre, as well as unique antioxidants (one of them - avenanthramides, vitamins, and minerals. One of the most often studied components of oats is β-glucan - a type of soluble dietary fibre located throughout the starch endosperm, but with highest concentration in the bran. Many studies have shown the beneficial health effects of oat β-glucan as a soluble dietary fibre. Until now, most of the studies on this nutrient have been conducted in the cardiovascular and diabetology field. This article aimed to review the literature on studies that investigated the effects of oat-based products on human gastrointestinal tract - gastrointestinal microflora, irritable bowel syndrome, inflammatory bowel disease as well as prevention/treatment of colorectal cancer. A literature search was conducted using PubMed database. More than 80 potential articles were identified, which were selected afterwards according to aims of our study. Studies done on human were preferred. A long-term dietary intake of oat-based products improves human intestinal microflora, could have benefits in irritable bowel syndrome, and probable effects were seen in patients with ulcerative colitis, but this remains to be proven. There are few studies regarding prevention/treatment of colorectal cancer and they do not show clear benefit nor provide recommendations.

  5. Pediatric Gastrointestinal Diseases in Nigeria: Histopathologic Analysis of 74 Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abudu

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Children are vulnerable to a vast number of diseases including gastrointestinal disorders, which may be associated with life threatening complications that sometimes result in mortality especially if left untreated. OBJECTIVE: To establish the age and sex distribution of children in the study population as well as the histopathological characteristics of gastrointestinal diseases that occurred in those children who were aged 14years and below in Sagamu, Southwestern Nigeria. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Demographic data such as age, sex, and clinical summary of children in the study population were extracted from the medical records of Olabisi Onabanjo University Teaching Hospital, Sagamu, Ogun State from January 2003 to December 2009. Based on this information, a review of paraffin embedded blocks and slides as well as histopathological reports of gastrointestinal diseases that occurred in those children aged 14years and below was undertaken at the Morbid Anatomy Department of the hospital. RESULTS: Seventy–four cases of gastrointestinal diseases were seen in children aged 14years and below. The majority (39.2% of gastrointestinal diseases were accounted for by appendiceal lesions. Hirschsprung’s disease, intussusceptions, enterocolitis and jejunal atresia accounted for 29.7%, 10.8%, 6.8% and 4.1% of cases respectively. Adenocarcinoma of the intestine was the predominant gastrointestinal tumour, occurring in 5 out of 7 children. Two cases of non-Hodgkin lymphoma were also seen. The ages of the children ranged from 2 to 14 years, with a mean age of 8.6years and a peak age incidence of gastrointestinal disease in the 10-14year age group. Male children were more commonly affected with the exception of appendiceal lesions, which occurred more in females (M:F ratio= 1.6:1.0. Acute suppurative appendicitis was the most prevalent lesion of the appendix, occurring in 13 out of 29 appendiceal lesions. Moderately differentiated to poorly

  6. Probiotics, prebiotics and the gastrointestinal tract in health and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitetta, Luis; Briskey, David; Alford, Hollie; Hall, Sean; Coulson, Samantha

    2014-06-01

    The microbiome located in the human gastrointestinal tract (GIT) comprises the largest community (diverse and dense) of bacteria, and in conjunction with a conducive internal milieu, promotes the development of regulated pro- and anti-inflammatory signals within the GIT that promotes immunological and metabolic tolerance. In addition, host-microbial interactions govern GIT inflammation and provide cues for upholding metabolic regulation in both the host and microbes. Failure to regulate inflammatory responses can increase the risk of developing inflammatory conditions in the GIT. Here, we review clinical studies regarding the efficacy of probiotics/prebiotics and the role they may have in restoring host metabolic homeostasis by rescuing the inflammatory response. The clinical studies reviewed included functional constipation, antibiotic-associated diarrhoea, Clostridium difficile diarrhoea, infectious diarrhoea/gastroenteritis, irritable bowel syndrome, inflammatory bowel diseases and necrotizing enterocolitis. We have demonstrated that there was an overall reduction in risk when probiotics were administered over placebo in the majority of GIT inflammatory conditions. The effect size of a cumulative reduction in relative risk for the GIT conditions/diseases investigated was 0.65 (0.61-0.70) (z = 13.3); p prebiotics may have a significant pharmacobiotic regulatory role in maintaining host GIT homeostasis in disease states partially through reactive oxygen species signalling.

  7. Immunohistochemical analysis of carbohydrate antigens in chronic inflammatory gastrointestinal diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Motohiro; Nakayama, Jun

    2010-01-01

    Over the last four decades, immunohistochemistry (IHC) has become an invaluable technique to detect antigens in tissue sections. Compared to Western blotting analysis, IHC is advantageous in determining histological distribution and localization of the antigen. Another advantage, if one can access human formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) blocks of disease tissues, is that IHC makes it possible to analyze diseases retrospectively from archived pathological tissue specimens. In this chapter, we describe protocols used for both conventional and multiple immunostainings using FFPE tissue sections, which have been used for quantitative analysis of high endothelial venule (HEV)-like vessels and lymphocyte subsets attached to HEV-like vessels in our studies of chronic inflammatory gastrointestinal diseases. We also describe in detail a protocol using an L-selectinIgM chimera in situ binding assay on FFPE tissue sections for functional detection of L-selectin ligand carbohydrates expressed on HEV-like vessels. After presenting each protocol, we provide practical examples for its use obtained from our studies.

  8. Biomechanics of the Gastrointestinal Tract in Health and Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Jingbo; Liao, Donghua; Gregersen, Hans

    2010-01-01

    The gastrointestinal (GI) tract is functionally subjected to dimensional changes. Hence, biomechanical properties such as the stress-strain relationships are of particularly importance. These properties vary along the normal GI tract and remodel in response to growth, aging and disease. The biome......The gastrointestinal (GI) tract is functionally subjected to dimensional changes. Hence, biomechanical properties such as the stress-strain relationships are of particularly importance. These properties vary along the normal GI tract and remodel in response to growth, aging and disease...

  9. Acupuncture treatment in gastrointestinal diseases: A systematic review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Antonius Schneider; Konrad Streitberger; Stefanie Joos

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to assess the evidence for effectiveness of acupuncture (AC) treatment in gastrointestinal diseases. A systematic review of the Medline-cited literature for clinical trials was performed up to May 2006. Controlled trials assessing acupuncture point stimulation for patients with gastrointestinal diseases were considered for inclusion. The search identified 18 relevant trials meeting the inclusion criteria. Two irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) trials, 1 Crohn's disease and 1 colitis ulcerosa trial had a robust random controlled trial (RCT) design. In regard to other gastrointestinal disorders, study quality was poor. In all trials, quality of life (QoL) improved significantly independently from the kind of acupuncture, real or sham. Real AC was significantly superior to sham acupuncture with regard to disease activity scores in the Crohn and Colitis trials. Efficacy of acupuncture related to QoL in IBS may be explained by unspecific effects.This is the same for QoL in inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), whereas specific acupuncture effects may be found in clinical scores. Further trials for IBDs and in particular for all other gastrointestinal disorders would be necessary to evaluate the efficacy of acupuncture treatment. However, it must be discussed on what terms patients benefit when this harmless and obviously powerful therapy with regard to QoL is demystified by further placebo controlled trials.

  10. Gastrointestinal-active oligosaccharides from human milk and functional foods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Albrecht, S.A.

    2011-01-01

    Keywords: human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs), galacto-oligosaccharides (GOS), konjac glucomannan (KGM), breast milk, baby feces, gastrointestinal metabolization, blood-group specific conjugates, CE-LIF-MSn   Oligosaccharides, as present in human milk or supplemented to food, are renowned for

  11. Molecular characterization of bacterial communities in the human gastrointestinal tract

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zoetendal, E.G.

    2001-01-01

    The human gastrointestinal (GI) tract is a complex ecosystem in which host and microbial cells live in close contact with each other. The microbial community in the human GI tract has an important nutritional and protective function and mainly consists of anaerobic bacteria. After birth, the germ-fr

  12. Measurement of Gastrointestinal and Colonic Motor Functions in Humans and Animals

    OpenAIRE

    Camilleri, Michael; Linden, David R

    2016-01-01

    Accurately measuring the complex motor behaviors of the gastrointestinal tract has tremendous value for the understanding, diagnosis and treatment of digestive diseases. This review synthesizes the literature regarding current tests that are used in both humans and animals. There remains further opportunity to enhance such tests, especially when such tests are able to provide value in both the preclinical and the clinical settings.

  13. The Agr-like quorum-sensing system regulates sporulation and production of enterotoxin and beta2 toxin by Clostridium perfringens type A non-food-borne human gastrointestinal disease strain F5603.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jihong; Chen, Jianming; Vidal, Jorge E; McClane, Bruce A

    2011-06-01

    Clostridium perfringens type A strains producing enterotoxin (CPE) cause one of the most common bacterial food-borne illnesses, as well as many cases of non-food-borne human gastrointestinal disease. Recent studies have shown that an Agr-like quorum-sensing system controls production of chromosomally encoded alpha-toxin and perfringolysin O by C. perfringens, as well as sporulation by Clostridium botulinum and Clostridium sporogenes. The current study explored whether the Agr-like quorum-sensing system also regulates sporulation and production of two plasmid-encoded toxins (CPE and beta2 toxin) that may contribute to the pathogenesis of non-food-borne human gastrointestinal disease strain F5603. An isogenic agrB null mutant was inhibited for production of beta2 toxin during vegetative growth and in sporulating culture, providing the first evidence that, in C. perfringens, this system can control production of plasmid-encoded toxins as well as chromosomally encoded toxins. This mutant also showed reduced production of alpha-toxin and perfringolysin O during vegetative growth. Importantly, when cultured in sporulation medium, the mutant failed to efficiently form spores and was blocked for CPE production. Complementation partially or fully reversed all phenotypic changes in the mutant, confirming that they were specifically due to inactivation of the agr locus. Western blots suggest that this loss of sporulation and sporulation-specific CPE production for the agrB null mutant involves, at least in part, Agr-mediated regulation of production of Spo0A and alternative sigma factors, which are essential for C. perfringens sporulation.

  14. Elevated DMBT1 levels in neonatal gastrointestinal diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müller, Hanna; Renner, Marcus; Helmke, Burkhard M

    2016-01-01

    gastrointestinal system depending on gestational age and in patients with necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC), volvulus, intestinal perforation (IP), or herniation, representing typical diseases of preterm and term infants. We used immunohistochemistry and RNA in situ hybridization to detect DMBT1 protein and m......RNA in fetal tissues, supplemented by postmortem analysis of DMBT1 expression in died newborns and analysis of surgically removed tissues. DMBT1 expression is detectable in the early developmental stages of the gastrointestinal system. In NEC, volvulus, IP, or herniation, characterized by high systemic...... inflammatory responses, DMBT1 expression is strongly increased. High DMBT1 expression was also found in the bile ducts of older infants with sepsis or cholestasis. The study shows that DMBT1 expression is observed in the developing gastrointestinal system and up-regulated in infants with NEC, volvulus, IP...

  15. Low serum myeloperoxidase in autistic children with gastrointestinal disease

    OpenAIRE

    Russo, Anthony J; Arthur Krigsman; Bryan Jepson; et al

    2009-01-01

    Anthony J Russo1, Arthur Krigsman2, Bryan Jepson2, Andy Wakefield21Research Director, Health Research Institute/Pfeiffer Treatment Center, Warrenville, IL, USA; 2Thoughtful House Center for Children, Austin, TX, USAAim: To assess serum myeloperoxidase (MPO) levels in autistic children with severe gastrointestinal (GI) disease and to test the hypothesis that there is an association between serum MPO concentration and inflammatory GI disease, including antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANC...

  16. Functional brain imaging of gastrointestinal sensation in health and disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lukas Van Oudenhove; Steven J Coen; Qasim Aziz

    2007-01-01

    It has since long been known, from everyday experience as well as from animal and human studies, that psychological processes-both affective and cognitiveexert an influence on gastrointestinal sensorimotor function. More specifically, a link between psychological factors and visceral hypersensitivity has been suggested,mainly based on research in functional gastrointestinal disorder patients. However, until recently, the exact nature of this putative relationship remained unclear,mainly due to a lack of non-invasive methods to study the (neurobiological) mechanisms underlying this relationship in non-sleeping humans. As functional brain imaging, introduced in visceral sensory neuroscience some 10 years ago, does provide a method for in vivo study of brain-gut interactions, insight into the neurobiological mechanisms underlying visceral sensation in general and the influence of psychological factors more particularly,has rapidly grown. In this article, an overview of brain imaging evidence on gastrointestinal sensation will be given, with special emphasis on the brain mechanisms underlying the interaction between affective & cognitive processes and visceral sensation. First, the reciprocal neural pathways between the brain and the gut (braingut axis) will be briefly outlined, including brain imaging evidence in healthy volunteers. Second, functional brain imaging studies assessing the influence of psychological factors on brain processing of visceral sensation in healthy humans will be discussed in more detail.Finally, brain imaging work investigating differences in brain responses to visceral distension between healthy volunteers and functional gastrointestinal disorder patients will be highlighted.

  17. Influence of metabolic syndrome on upper gastrointestinal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sogabe, Masahiro; Okahisa, Toshiya; Kimura, Tetsuo; Okamoto, Koichi; Miyamoto, Hiroshi; Muguruma, Naoki; Takayama, Tetsuji

    2016-08-01

    A recent increase in the rate of obesity as a result of insufficient physical exercise and excess food consumption has been seen in both developed and developing countries throughout the world. Additionally, the recent increased number of obese individuals with lifestyle-related diseases associated with abnormalities in glucose metabolism, dyslipidemia, and hypertension, defined as metabolic syndrome (MS), has been problematic. Although MS has been highlighted as a risk factor for ischemic heart disease and arteriosclerotic diseases, it was also recently shown to be associated with digestive system disorders, including upper gastrointestinal diseases. Unlike high body weight and high body mass index, abdominal obesity with visceral fat accumulation is implicated in the onset of various digestive system diseases because excessive visceral fat accumulation may cause an increase in intra-abdominal pressure, inducing the release of various bioactive substances, known as adipocytokines, including tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-6, resistin, leptin, and adiponectin. This review article focuses on upper gastrointestinal disorders and their association with MS, including obesity, visceral fat accumulation, and the major upper gastrointestinal diseases.

  18. Flatography: Detection of gastrointestinal diseases by faecal gas analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Evelien; F; de; Groot; Tim; G; de; Meij; Daniel; J; Berkhout; Marc; P; van; der; Schee; Nanne; K; de; Boer

    2015-01-01

    Patients presenting with gastro-intestinal symptoms might suffer from a range of possible underlying diseases. An unmet need exists for novel cost-effective,reproducible, easy-to-perform and non-invasive tests. Hippocrates used body odours to diagnose diseases circa 460 before Christ. The art of diagnostic smelling is making a promising high-tech come-back with portable "electronic diagnostic noses". Analysis of faecal volatile organic compounds is a novel field in metabolomics with considerable potential to improve the diagnosis, phenotyping and monitoring of gastro-intestinal disease. Challenges will be to mature over the coming years by development of a standardized methodology for stool sample collection, storage, handling and analysis. Furthermore, key volatiles need to be identified to improve test accuracy and sensitivity by development of sensors tailored toward the accurate identification of disease specific volatiles. If these challenges are adequately faced, analysis of faecal volatiles has realistic potential to considerably improve screening, diagnosis and disease monitoring for gastro-intestinal diseases.

  19. Simultaneous operation for cardiac disease and gastrointestinal malignancy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Teruo; Komokata; Mikio; Fukueda; Mamoru; Kaieda; Takayuki; Ueno; Yoshihumi; Iguro; Yutaka; Imoto; Ryuzo; Sakata

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the safety of performing simulta-neous cardiac surgery and a resection of a gastrointes-tinal malignancy. METHODS: Among 3664 elective cardiac operations performed in adults at Kagoshima University Hospi-tal from January 1991 to October 2009, this study reviewed the clinical records of the patients who un-derwent concomitant cardiac surgery and a gastroin-testinal resection. Such simultaneous surgeries were performed in 15 patients between January 1991 and October 2009. The cardiac diseases included 8 cases of coronary artery disease and 7 cases with valvular heart disease. Gastrointestinal malignancies included 11 gas-tric and 4 colon cancers. Immediate postoperative andlong-term outcomes were evaluated. RESULTS: Postoperative complications occurred in 5 patients(33.3%), including strokes(n = 1), respiratory failure requiring re-intubation(n = 1), hemorrhage(n = 2), hyperbilirubinemia(n = 1) and aspiration pneu-monia(n = 1). There was 1 hospital death caused by the development of adult respiratory distress syndrome after postoperative surgical bleeding followed aortic valve replacement plus gastrectomy. There was no car-diovascular event in the patients during the follow-up period. The cumulative survival rate for all patients was 69.2% at 5 years. CONCLUSION: Simultaneous procedures are accept-able for the patients who require surgery for both car-diac diseases and gastrointestinal malignancy. In par-ticular, the combination of a standard cardiac operation, such as coronary artery bypass grafting or an isolated valve replacement and simple gastrointestinal resection, such as gastrectomy or colectomy can therefore be safely performed.

  20. PedsQL gastrointestinal symptoms scales and gastrointestinal worry scales in pediatric patients with functional and organic gastrointestinal diseases in comparison to healthy controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    The primary objective was to compare the gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms and worry of pediatric patients with functional GI disorders (FGIDs) and organic GI diseases to healthy controls utilizing the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory (PedsQL) Gastrointestinal Symptoms and Worry Scales for patient s...

  1. Gastrointestinal diseases of Napoleon in Saint Helena: causes of death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Costanzo, Jacques

    2002-01-01

    The fact that Napoleon Ist died from gastric cancer seems to be well established. Arguments for the hypothesis of chronic arsenic poisoning have recently been developed in the literature. This study, focused on the gastrointestinal diseases of Napoleon in Saint Helena, is based on a confrontation between the clinical semiological anamnesis and the anatomical data in the autopsy report by F. Antommarchi. Napoleon presented several gastrointestinal diseases: gall-bladder lithiasis complicated with angiocholitis, chronic colitis and certainly a gastric cancer. Death was consecutive to perforation of the gastric lesion leading to haemorrhagic vomitis and multiorgan failure. The description of the gastric lesions during autopsy is consistent with the diagnosis of cancer. The course of the clinical events is closely correlated with the anatomic lesions. There is strong evidence that Napoleon died from an acute complication of his gastric disease.

  2. [Enteral Nutritional Support in Gastrointestinal and Liver Diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eun Ran

    2015-06-01

    Nutritional support is important because malnutrition is a major contributor to increased morbidity and mortality, decreased quality of life, increased length of hospital stay, and higher healthcare costs. Patients with gastrointestinal disease are at an increased risk of nutritional deterioration due to therapeutic dietary restriction, fasting for the diagnostic tests, loss of appetite due to anorexia or altered nutritional requirement caused by the disease itself. Therefore, it is important that gastroenterologists are aware of the nutritional status of patients and plan a treatment strategy considering patient's nutritional status. Enteral nutrition is preferred to parenteral nutrition as it is more physiologic, has fewer complications, help to prevent mucosal atrophy and maintain gut barrier function, which decrease intestinal bacterial translocation. Hence, enteral nutrition has been considered to be the most effective route for nutritional support. In this article, we will review enteral nutrition (oral nutritional supplements, enteral tube feeding) as a treatment for the patients with gastrointestinal, liver and pancreatic disease at risk of malnutrition.

  3. Drug utilization of clarithromycin for gastrointestinal disease treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Quan Zhou; Ling-Ling Zhu; Xiao-Feng Yan; Wen-Sheng Pan; Su Zeng

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the patterns of use of clarithromycin for gastrointestinal disease treatment and promote its rational use.METHODS: Using a structured pro forma, we conducted a two-month survey of the electronic prescriptions containing immediate-release (IR) or sustained-release (SR) product of clarithromycin for outpatients with gastrointestinal diseases in a 2200-bed general hospital. Suitability of the prescription was audited retrospectively.RESULTS: One hundred and sixty-four prescriptions of SR product and 110 prescriptions of IR product were prescribed for gastrointestinal disease treatment. Among prescriptions for anti-Helicobacter pylori(H pylori) therapy, triple therapy take the dominant position (91.8%), followed by quadruple therapy (4.3%) and dual therapy (3.9%). Amoxicillin was the most frequently co-prescribed antibiotic. Furazolidone and levofloxacin are used more widely than metronidazole or tinidazole. Clarithromycin SR was administered at inappropriate time points in all prescriptions. Fifty percent of all prescriptions of clarithromycin SR, and 6.4% of prescriptions of clarithromycin IR, were prescribed at inappropriate dosing intervals. Surprisingly, disconcordance between diagnoses and indications was observed in all prescriptions of clarithromycin SR which has not been approved for treating Hpylori infection although off-label use for this purpose was reported in literature. On the contrary, only one prescription (0.9%) of clarithromycin IR was prescribed for unapproved indication (i.e. Gastro-oesophageal reflux disease). 1.4% of prescriptions for chronic gastritis or peptic ulcer treatment were irrational in that clarithromycin was not co-prescribed with gastric acid inhibitors. Clinical significant CYP3A based drug interactions with clarithromycin were identified.CONCLUSION: There is a great scope to improve the quality of clarithromycin prescribing in patients with gastrointestinal disease, especially with regard to administration

  4. Alcohol intake and cardiovascular and gastrointestinal diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tolstrup, Janne Schurmann

    aminotransferase, albumin, alkaline phosphatase, bilirubin, coagulation factors II, VII and X, -glutamyl transpeptidase and mean erythrocyte volume). In contrast, ADH1B and ADH1C genotypes were not associated with a risk of liver cirrhosis or with any of these biomarkers, and there was no indication...... of alcohol and of gallstone disease; two risk factors suggested as being the main causes of pancreatitis. In conclusion, the results show that the association between alcohol and CHD is independent of genetic variation in alcohol-degrading enzymes. The alcohol drinking pattern is independently associated...

  5. Gastrointestinal Dysfunctions in Parkinson’s Disease: Symptoms and Treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrée-Anne Poirier

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A diagnosis of Parkinson’s disease is classically established after the manifestation of motor symptoms such as rigidity, bradykinesia, and tremor. However, a growing body of evidence supports the hypothesis that nonmotor symptoms, especially gastrointestinal dysfunctions, could be considered as early biomarkers since they are ubiquitously found among confirmed patients and occur much earlier than their motor manifestations. According to Braak’s hypothesis, the disease is postulated to originate in the intestine and then spread to the brain via the vagus nerve, a phenomenon that would involve other neuronal types than the well-established dopaminergic population. It has therefore been proposed that peripheral nondopaminergic impairments might precede the alteration of dopaminergic neurons in the central nervous system and, ultimately, the emergence of motor symptoms. Considering the growing interest in the gut-brain axis in Parkinson’s disease, this review aims at providing a comprehensive picture of the multiple gastrointestinal features of the disease, along with the therapeutic approaches used to reduce their burden. Moreover, we highlight the importance of gastrointestinal symptoms with respect to the patients’ responses towards medical treatments and discuss the various possible adverse interactions that can potentially occur, which are still poorly understood.

  6. New techniques in the tissue diagnosis of gastrointestinal neuromuscular diseases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Charles H Knowles; Joanne E Martin

    2009-01-01

    Gastrointestinal neuromuscular diseases are a clinically heterogeneous group of disorders of children and adults in which symptoms are presumed or proven to arise as a result of neuromuscular (including interstitial cell of Cajal) dysfunction. Common to most of these diseases are symptoms of impaired motor activity which manifest as slowed or obstructed transit with or without evidence of transient or persistent radiological visceral dilatation. A variety of histopathological techniques and allied investigations are being increasingly applied to tissue biopsies from such patients. This review outlines some of the more recent advances in this field, particularly in the most contentious area of small bowel disease manifesting as intestinal pseudo-obstruction.

  7. Alcohol intake and cardiovascular and gastrointestinal diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tolstrup, Janne Schurmann

    Alcohol is used all over the world and in most Western societies, the average intake is high. Alcohol is associated with more than 60 diseases and globally, 4% of all deaths are attributable to alcohol. The aim of the present thesis is to study associations between alcohol intake and risk...... with increasing HDL cholesterol and non-fasting triglycerides, higher systolic and diastolic blood pressure and decreasing fibrinogen. In contrast, ADH1B and ADH1C genotypes were not associated with risk of CHD or with any of the cardiovascular biomarkers, and there was no indication that associations between...... that the association between alcohol and relative risk of CHD was similar in young adults (39-50 years), middle-aged (50-60 years) and older individuals (60+ years). However, since the incidence of CHD is low in young adults, the incidence rate difference between nondrinkers and moderate drinkers was much smaller...

  8. Gastrointestinal microbiota and some children diseases: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Thabata Koester; Polanco, Isabel

    2012-01-01

    The bacterial colonization is defined immediately after birth, through direct contact with maternal microbiota and may be influenced during lactation. There is emerging evidence indicating that quantitative and qualitative changes on gut microbiota contribute to alterations in the mucosal activation of immune system leading to intra- or extra-intestinal diseases. A balance between pathogenic and beneficial microbiota throughout childhood and adolescence is important to gastrointestinal health, including protection against pathogens, inhibition of pathogens, nutrient processing (synthesis of vitamin K), stimulation of angiogenesis, and regulation of host fat storage. Probiotics can promote an intentional modulation of intestinal microbiota favoring the health of the host. This paper is a review about modulation of intestinal microbiota on prevention and adjuvant treatment of pediatric gastrointestinal diseases.

  9. Gastrointestinal Microbiota and Some Children Diseases: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thabata Koester Weber

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The bacterial colonization is defined immediately after birth, through direct contact with maternal microbiota and may be influenced during lactation. There is emerging evidence indicating that quantitative and qualitative changes on gut microbiota contribute to alterations in the mucosal activation of immune system leading to intra- or extra-intestinal diseases. A balance between pathogenic and beneficial microbiota throughout childhood and adolescence is important to gastrointestinal health, including protection against pathogens, inhibition of pathogens, nutrient processing (synthesis of vitamin K, stimulation of angiogenesis, and regulation of host fat storage. Probiotics can promote an intentional modulation of intestinal microbiota favoring the health of the host. This paper is a review about modulation of intestinal microbiota on prevention and adjuvant treatment of pediatric gastrointestinal diseases.

  10. Gastrointestinal metabolization of human milk oligosaccharides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Albrecht, S.A.; Heuvel, van den E.G.H.M.; Gruppen, H.; Schols, H.A.

    2013-01-01

    Breast feeding has a great impact on the growth of infants both physically and psychologically. Human breast milk is beneficial to infant health because it contains the necessary macro- and micro-nutrients for tissue accretion, repair and behavioural developments. The production of milk is a complex

  11. Protection from gastrointestinal diseases with the use of probiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marteau, P R; de Vrese, M; Cellier, C J; Schrezenmeir, J

    2001-02-01

    Probiotics are nonpathogenic microorganisms that, when ingested, exert a positive influence on the health or physiology of the host. They can influence intestinal physiology either directly or indirectly through modulation of the endogenous ecosystem or immune system. The results that have been shown with a sufficient level of proof to enable probiotics to be used as treatments for gastrointestinal disturbances are 1) the good tolerance of yogurt compared with milk in subjects with primary or secondary lactose maldigestion, 2) the use of Saccharomyces boulardii and Enterococcus faecium SF 68 to prevent or shorten the duration of antibiotic-associated diarrhea, 3) the use of S. boulardii to prevent further recurrence of Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea, and 4) the use of fermented milks containing Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG to shorten the duration of diarrhea in infants with rotavirus enteritis (and probably also in gastroenteritis of other causes). Effects that are otherwise suggested for diverse probiotics include alleviation of diarrhea of miscellaneous causes; prophylaxis of gastrointestinal infections, which includes traveler's diarrhea; and immunomodulation. Trials of gastrointestinal diseases that involve the ecosystem are currently being performed, eg, Helicobacter pylori infections, inflammatory bowel disease, and colon cancer.

  12. Human breast milk and the gastrointestinal innate immune system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakaitis, Brett M; Denning, Patricia W

    2014-06-01

    The gastrointestinal (GI) tract is a large potential portal for multiple infectious agents to enter the human body. The GI system performs multiple functions as part of the neonate's innate immune system, providing critical defense during a vulnerable period. Multiple mechanisms and actions are enhanced by the presence of human breast milk. Bioactive factors found in human milk work together to create and maintain an optimal and healthy environment, allowing the intestines to deliver ideal nutrition to the host and afford protection by a variety of mechanisms.

  13. Myiasis gastrointestinal humana por Eristalis tenax Gastrointestinal human myiasis for Eristalis tenax

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Kun

    1998-08-01

    Full Text Available Son caracterizadas las myiasis registradas en Bariloche y establecidas las condiciones probables bajo las cuales se produjeron las infestaciones. Las larvas obtenidas a partir de heces de 2 pacientes fueron identificadas como Eristalis tenax (Diptera: Syrphidae de acuerdo a las claves de Hartley (1961 y Organización Panamericana de la Salud (1962. Estos 2 casos de myiasis gastrointestinal humana constituyen los primeros registrados en Bariloche (Patagonia, Argentina y sus características responden a las registradas para esta especie de Díptera en otras partes del mundo. La falta de control específico en el sistema domiciliario de suministro de agua ha sido la causa más probable de la infestación. Este registro extiende la distribución de E. tenax y de las myiasis gastrointestinales humanas en América del Sur hasta los 41º 03' S.Foram caracterizadas as miasis registradas em Bariloche (Patagonia, Argentina e estabelecidas as prováveis condições sob as quais são produzidas as infestações. As larvas obtidas a partir das fezes de dois pacientes foram identificadas como Eristalis tenax (Diptera: Syrphdae. Esses dois casos de miasis gastrointestinal humana foram os primeiros registrados em Bariloche, Argentina, e suas características respondem às registradas para esta espécie de Diptera em outras partes do mundo. A falta de controle específico no sistema domiciliário de abastecimento de água tem sido a causa mais provável de infestação. Este registro amplia a distribuição de E. tenax e das miasis gastrointestinais humanas em América do Sul até os 41º 03's.The myiasis observed in Bariloche are characterized and the probable conditions under which the infestations took place established. The larvae obtained from faeces of 2 patients were identified as Eristalis tenax (Diptera: Syrphidae according to Hartley (1961 and Organización Panamericana de la Salud keys (1962. These 2 cases of human gastrointestinal myiasis were the

  14. Early-life stress origins of gastrointestinal disease: animal models, intestinal pathophysiology, and translational implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohl, Calvin S; Medland, Julia E; Moeser, Adam J

    2015-12-15

    Early-life stress and adversity are major risk factors in the onset and severity of gastrointestinal (GI) disease in humans later in life. The mechanisms by which early-life stress leads to increased GI disease susceptibility in adult life remain poorly understood. Animal models of early-life stress have provided a foundation from which to gain a more fundamental understanding of this important GI disease paradigm. This review focuses on animal models of early-life stress-induced GI disease, with a specific emphasis on translational aspects of each model to specific human GI disease states. Early postnatal development of major GI systems and the consequences of stress on their development are discussed in detail. Relevant translational differences between species and models are highlighted.

  15. GASTROINTESTINAL EOSINOPHILIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Li; Rothenberg, Marc E.

    2007-01-01

    SYNOPSIS Gastrointestinal eosinophilia, as a broad term for abnormal eosinophil accumulation in the GI tract, involves many different disease identities. These diseases include primary eosinophil associated gastrointestinal diseases, gastrointestinal eosinophilia in HES and all gastrointestinal eosinophilic states associated with known causes. Each of these diseases has its unique features but there is no absolute boundary between them. All three groups of GI eosinophila are described in this chapter although the focus is on primary gastrointestinal eosinophilia, i.e. EGID. PMID:17868858

  16. An Unusual Case of Obscure Gastrointestinal Bleeding in a Patient with Coeliac Disease

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the journey of a patient with coeliac disease who presented with overt obscure gastrointestinal bleeding. Upper and lower gastrointestinal endoscopy did not reveal a source of bleeding, but an abdominal CT scan detected abnormal lymphadenopathy and a wireless capsule endoscopy diagnosed a jejunal tumour, which was surgically removed. Gastrointestinal bleeding is rare in celiac disease. Malignant tumours of the small intestine are generally uncommon, but celiac disease rep...

  17. Low serum myeloperoxidase in autistic children with gastrointestinal disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony J Russo

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Anthony J Russo1, Arthur Krigsman2, Bryan Jepson2, Andy Wakefield21Research Director, Health Research Institute/Pfeiffer Treatment Center, Warrenville, IL, USA; 2Thoughtful House Center for Children, Austin, TX, USAAim: To assess serum myeloperoxidase (MPO levels in autistic children with severe gastrointestinal (GI disease and to test the hypothesis that there is an association between serum MPO concentration and inflammatory GI disease, including antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA, previously seen in a subgroup of autistic children.Subjects and methods: Serum from 40 autistic children with chronic digestive disease (most with ileo-colonic lymphoid nodular hyperplasia (LNH and inflammation of the colorectum, small bowel and/or stomach, and 48 controls (12 age-matched autistic children with no GI disease, 20 age-matched children without autism or GI disease, and 16 nonautistic individuals with no family history of autism were tested using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays designed to quantitate serum MPO levels. MPO serum concentration of autistic children with GI disease was compared to GI disease severity (including LNH and erythema and presence of ANCA.Results: We found that a significant number of autistic children with chronic digestive disease had low serum levels of MPO. However, there was no significant relationship between these levels and severity of GI disease, including the presence of ANCA.Discussion: These results suggest a relationship between low MPO levels and GI disease seen in a subpopulation of autism spectrum disorders individuals. MPO concentration may therefore be a useful biomarker for GI disease in this group of autistic children.Keywords: autism spectrum disorders, autism, myeloperoxidase, GI disease, oxidative stress

  18. The management of gastrointestinal symptoms in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salat-Foix, David; Suchowersky, Oksana

    2012-02-01

    The involvement of the autonomic nervous system in Parkinson's disease causes many non-motor symptoms, among which gastrointestinal complaints are prominent. Drooling, dyspepsia, constipation, abdominal pain and fecal incontinence are frequently a source of patient distress. Dysphagia is recognized as causing both discomfort and increased risk of serious complications. Although a diagnosis can often be established based on the reports of patients and/or caregivers, and additional testing is seldom required, these diagnoses are clearly under recognized in clinical practice. These symptoms respond to the same treatment measures used in the general population, although certain drugs with a potential to increase parkinsonian symptoms should be avoided. Increased and early identification of these symptoms can result in a significant improvement in the quality of life of Parkinson's disease patients.

  19. An Unusual Case of Obscure Gastrointestinal Bleeding in a Patient with Coeliac Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Gwiggner

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the journey of a patient with coeliac disease who presented with overt obscure gastrointestinal bleeding. Upper and lower gastrointestinal endoscopy did not reveal a source of bleeding, but an abdominal CT scan detected abnormal lymphadenopathy and a wireless capsule endoscopy diagnosed a jejunal tumour, which was surgically removed. Gastrointestinal bleeding is rare in celiac disease. Malignant tumours of the small intestine are generally uncommon, but celiac disease represents a significant risk factor. Wireless capsule endoscopy has been a useful tool to investigate patients with obscure gastrointestinal bleeding.

  20. Eosinophilic Gastrointestinal Disorder in Coeliac Disease: A Case Report and Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis N. F. Lim

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Eosinophilic gastrointestinal disorder is a rare disorder characterised by eosinophilic infiltration of the gastrointestinal tract. There are various gastrointestinal manifestations with eosinophilic ascites being the most unusual and rare presentation. Diagnosis requires high index of suspicion and exclusion of various disorders associated with peripheral eosinophilia. There are no previous case reports to suggest an association between eosinophilic gastrointestinal disorder and coeliac disease in adults. We report a case of eosinophilic ascites and gastroenteritis in a 30-year-old woman with a known history of coeliac disease who responded dramatically to a course of steroids.

  1. Systematic review: exercise-induced gastrointestinal syndrome-implications for health and intestinal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, R J S; Snipe, R M J; Kitic, C M; Gibson, P R

    2017-08-01

    "Exercise-induced gastrointestinal syndrome" refers to disturbances of gastrointestinal integrity and function that are common features of strenuous exercise. To systematically review the literature to establish the impact of acute exercise on markers of gastrointestinal integrity and function in healthy populations and those with chronic gastrointestinal conditions. Search literature using five databases (PubMed, EBSCO, Web of Science, SPORTSdiscus, and Ovid Medline) to review publications that focused on the impact of acute exercise on markers of gastrointestinal injury, permeability, endotoxaemia, motility and malabsorption in healthy populations and populations with gastrointestinal diseases/disorders. As exercise intensity and duration increases, there is considerable evidence for increases in indices of intestinal injury, permeability and endotoxaemia, together with impairment of gastric emptying, slowing of small intestinal transit and malabsorption. The addition of heat stress and running mode appears to exacerbate these markers of gastrointestinal disturbance. Exercise stress of ≥2 hours at 60% VO2max appears to be the threshold whereby significant gastrointestinal perturbations manifest, irrespective of fitness status. Gastrointestinal symptoms, referable to upper- and lower-gastrointestinal tract, are common and a limiting factor in prolonged strenuous exercise. While there is evidence for health benefits of moderate exercise in patients with inflammatory bowel disease or functional gastrointestinal disorders, the safety of more strenuous exercise has not been established. Strenuous exercise has a major reversible impact on gastrointestinal integrity and function of healthy populations. The safety and health implications of prolonged strenuous exercise in patients with chronic gastrointestinal diseases/disorders, while hypothetically worrying, has not been elucidated and requires further investigation. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Infliximab stopped severe gastrointestinal bleeding in Crohn's disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Satimai Aniwan; Surasak Eakpongpaisit; Boonlert Imraporn; Surachai Amornsawadwatana; Rungsun Rerknimitr

    2012-01-01

    To report the result of rapid ulcer healing by infliximab in Crohn's patients with severe enterocolic bleeding.During 2005 and 2010,inflammatory bowel disease database of King Chulalongkorn Memorial and Samitivej hospitals were reviewed.There were seven Crohn's disease (CD) patients (4 women and 3 men; mean age 52 ± 10.4 years; range:11-86 years).Two of the seven patients developed severe gastrointestinal bleeding (GIB) as a flare up of CD whereas the other five patients presented with GIB as their first symptom for CD.Their mean hemoglobin level dropped from 12 ± 1.3 g/dL to 8.7 ± 1.3 g/dL in a 3-d period.Median packed red blood cells units needed for resuscitation was 4 units.Because of uncontrolled bleeding,surgical resection was considered.However,due to the poor surgical candidacy of these patients (n =3) and/or possible development of short bowel syndrome (n =6),surgery was not pursued.Likewise angiographic embolization was not considered in any due to the risk of large infarction.All severe GIBs successfully stopped by one or two doses of intravenous infliximab.Our data suggests that infliximab is an alternative therapy for CD with severe GIB when surgery has limitation or patient is a high risk.

  3. Hepatic metabolism of toluene after gastrointestinal uptake in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bælum, Jesper; Mølhave, Lars; Honoré Hansen, S

    1993-01-01

    The metabolism of toluene and the influence of small doses of ethanol were measured in eight male volunteers after gastrointestinal uptake, the toluene concentration in alveolar air and the urinary excretion of hippuric acid and ortho-cresol being used as the measures of metabolism. During toluene...... exposure to 2 mg.min-1 for 3 h the alveolar toluene concentration was 0.07 (range 0-0.11) mg.m-3; exposure to 6 mg.min-1 for 30 min increased the alveolar concentration to 0.9 (range 0.03-2.6) mg.m-3. Ingestion of 0.08, 0.16, and 0.32 g of ethanol per kilogram of body weight during toluene exposure of 2 mg...... doses of ethanol inhibit toluene metabolism, and the procedure is sensitive enough to measure metabolic interactions between solvents and other xenobiotics in humans....

  4. Eosinophilic gastroenteritis with refractory ulcer disease and gastrointestinal bleeding as a rare manifestation of seronegative gastrointestinal food allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raithel, Martin; Hahn, Markus; Donhuijsen, Konrad; Hagel, Alexander F; Nägel, Andreas; Rieker, Ralf J; Neurath, Markus F; Reinshagen, Max

    2014-09-17

    Gastrointestinal bleeding and iron deficiency anaemia may cause severe symptoms and may require extensive diagnostics and substantial amounts of health resources.This case report focuses on the clinical presentation of a 22 year old patient with recurrent gastrointestinal bleeding from multilocular non-healing ulcers of the stomach, duodenum and jejunum over a period of four years. Extensive gastroenterological and allergological standard diagnostic procedures showed benign ulcerative lesions with tissue eosinophilia, but no conclusive diagnosis. Multiple diagnostic procedures were performed, until finally, endoscopically guided segmental gut lavage identified locally produced, intestinal IgE antibodies by fluoro-enzyme-immunoassay.IgE antibody concentrations at the intestinal level were found to be more-fold increased for total IgE and food-specific IgE against nuts, rye flour, wheat flour, pork, beef and egg yolk compared with healthy controls.Thus, a diet eliminating these allergens was introduced along with antihistamines and administration of a hypoallergenic formula, which resulted in complete healing of the multilocular ulcers with resolution of gastrointestinal bleeding. All gastrointestinal lesions disappeared and total serum IgE levels dropped to normal within 9 months. The patient has been in remission now for more than two years.Eosinophilic gastroenteritis (EG) is well known to induce refractory ulcer disease. In this case, the mechanisms for intestinal damage and gastrointestinal bleeding were identified as local gastrointestinal type I allergy. Therefore, future diagnostics in EG should also be focused on the intestinal level as identification of causative food-specific IgE antibodies proved to be effective to induce remission in this patient.

  5. Delay in Diagnosis of Celiac Disease in Patients Without Gastrointestinal Complaints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paez, Marco A; Gramelspacher, Anna Maria; Sinacore, James; Winterfield, Laura; Venu, Mukund

    2017-06-13

    The purpose of our study is to investigate the delay in diagnosis of patients with biopsy-proven celiac disease in those who present with gastrointestinal complaints vs nongastrointestinal complaints at our tertiary care center. Celiac disease is an autoimmune disorder that affects approximately 1% of the population worldwide. Celiac disease can have variable clinical presentations; it can be characterized by predominately gastrointestinal symptoms, or it may present without any gastrointestinal symptoms. We retrospectively reviewed the charts of 687 adult patients who carried the diagnosis of celiac disease. Patients included had biopsy-proven celiac disease and were categorized based on presence or absence of gastrointestinal symptoms prior to their diagnosis. There were 101 patients with biopsy-proven celiac disease that met inclusion criteria. Fifty-two patients presented with gastrointestinal symptoms and 49 had nongastrointestinal complaints. Results from Mann-Whitney statistical analysis showed a median delay in diagnosis of 2.3 months for the gastrointestinal symptoms group and 42 months for the nongastrointestinal group (P celiac disease, the delay in diagnosis for patients without gastrointestinal symptoms remains prolonged, with an average delay of 3.5 years. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Diseases of the gastrointestinal tract in individuals diagnosed as children with atypical autism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mouridsen, Svend Erik Birkebæk; Isager, Torben; Rich, Bente

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to compare the prevalence and types of diseases (International Classification of Mental and Behavioural Disorders, 10th Edition codes K20-K93) relating to the gastrointestinal tract in a clinical sample of 89 individuals diagnosed as children with atypical autism...... of the gastrointestinal tract was particularly high (odds ratio = 1.2) in those with intelligence quotient

  7. Endoscopic features of gastrointestinal tuberculosis and crohn's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Praneeth Moka

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Endoscopic examination of the gastrointestinal (GI tract plays a very important role in the diagnosis and follow-up of patients with Crohn's disease (CD and intestinal tuberculosis (TB. The clinical, morphological, and histological features of GI TB and CD are so similar that it becomes difficult to differentiate between these two entities. In geographical regions such as India where both GI TB and CD are prevalent, differential diagnosis between the two is challenging. While there is a lot of similarities between these two disorders, these two can be differentiated from each other with a combination of clinical, endoscopic, histological, radiological, and endoscopic features. The observation of the characteristic lesions at endoscopic examination and the extent of involvement in CD and intestinal TB is an important step in differentiation between these two disorders. While the most important endoscopic characteristics such as involvement of left side of the colon and presence of longitudinal ulcerations and cobblestoning support a diagnosis of CD, predominant involvement of ileocecal region and transverse ulcers support the diagnosis of intestinal TB. In this review, we have described the usefulness and limitations of endoscopic modalities in the diagnosis and differentiation of intestinal TB and CD.

  8. The gastrointestinal mucus system in health and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, Malin E V; Sjövall, Henrik; Hansson, Gunnar C

    2013-06-01

    Mucins--large, highly glycosylated proteins--are important for the luminal protection of the gastrointestinal tract. Enterocytes have their apical surface covered by transmembrane mucins and goblet cells produce the secreted gel-forming mucins that form mucus. The small intestine has a single unattached mucus layer, which in cystic fibrosis becomes attached, accounting for the intestinal manifestations of this disease. The stomach and colon have two layers of mucus; the inner layer is attached and the outer layer is less dense and unattached. In the colon, the outer mucus layer is the habitat for commensal bacteria. The inner mucus layer is impervious to bacteria and is renewed every hour by surface goblet cells. The crypt goblet cells have the ability to restitute the mucus layer by secretion, for example after an ischaemic challenge. Proteases of certain parasites and some bacteria can cleave mucins and dissolve the mucus as part of their pathogenicity. The inner mucus layer can, however, also become penetrable to bacteria by several other mechanisms, including aberrations in the immune system. When bacteria reach the epithelial surface, the immune system is activated and inflammation is triggered. This mechanism might occur in some types of ulcerative colitis.

  9. Vitamin D/VDR, Probiotics, and Gastrointestinal Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Mei; Sun, Jun

    2017-01-01

    Vitamin D is an important factor in regulating inflammation, immune responses, and carcinoma inhibition via action of its receptor, vitamin D receptor (VDR). Recent studies have demonstrated the role of vitamin D/VDR in regulating host-bacterial interactions. Probiotics are beneficial bacteria with the power of supporting or favoring life on the host. In the current review, we will discuss the recent progress on the roles of vitamin D/VDR in gut microbiome and inflammation. We will summarize evidence of probiotics in modulating vitamin D/VDR and balancing gut microbiota in health and gastrointestinal diseases. Moreover, we will review the clinical application of probiotics in prevention and therapy of IBD or colon cancer. Despite of the gains, there remain several barriers to advocate broad use of probiotics in clinical therapy. We will also discuss the limits and future direction in scientific understanding of probiotics, vitamin D/VDR, and host responses. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  10. The fingerprint of the human gastrointestinal tract microbiota: a hypothesis of molecular mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomasello, G; Mazzola, M; Jurjus, A; Cappello, F; Carini, F; Damiani, P; Gerges Geagea, A; Zeenny, M N; Leone, A

    2017-01-01

    The precise etiology of Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IDB) remains unclear and several factors are believed to play a role in its development and progression, including the composition of microbial communities resident in the gastrointestinal tract. Human intestinal microbiota are extensive with at least 15,000-36,000 bacterial species. However, thanks to the new development in sequencing and molecular taxonomic methodologies, our understanding of the microbiota population composition, dynamics, and ecology has greatly increased. Intestinal microbiota play a critical role in the maintenance of the host intestinal barrier homeostasis, while dysbiosis, which involves reduction in the microbiome diversity, can lead to progression of inflammatory disorders, such as IBD and colorectal cancer. It is hypothesized that fingerprinting characterization of the microbiota community composition is the first step in the study of this complex bacterial ecosystem and a crucial step in the targeted therapy. Molecular fingerprinting of human gastrointestinal tract microbiota could be performed by different techniques including the semi quantitation, 16SrRNA, the DNA- microarray as well as other relatively new methods which were developed to study many complex bacterial ecosystems. These techniques provide individual data and profiles, using fast and sensitive tools for the high taxonomic level fingerprint of the human intestinal microbiota and provide estimation of the relative presence of the microbial target groups within each individual. Such personalized information serves as a remarkable and unprecedented opportunity to improve targeted medical treatment and probably develop strategies to prevent disease.

  11. Gastrointestinal stromal tumor causing small bowel intussusception in a patient with Crohn's disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    George E Theodoropoulos; Dimitrios Linardoutsos; Dimitrios Tsamis; Paraskevas Stamopoulos; Dimitrios Giannopoulos; Flora Zagouri; Nikolaos V Michalopoulos

    2009-01-01

    We report a case of jejunoileal intussusception in a 42-year-old patient with Crohn's disease caused by a gastrointestinal stromal tumor. The patient complained of vague diffuse abdominal pain for a period of 4 mo. Intussusception was suspected at computer tomography and magnetic resonance imaging scans. Segmental resection of the small intestine was performed. Pathological examination of the surgical specimen revealed a gastrointestinal stromal tumor as well as aphthous ulcerations and areas of inflammation, which were characteristic of Crohn's disease. This is the first report of small bowel intussusception due to a gastrointestinal stromal tumor coexisting with Crohn's disease.

  12. Video capsule endoscopy and the hidden gastrointestinal diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helmy Ahmed

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Video capsule endoscopy (VCE has recently been introduced to fill the gap between examinations of the upper and lower gastrointestinal tract, mainly to examine the small bowel (SB for sources of obscure bleeding in addition to many other indications. VCE represents a minute endoscope, embedded in a swallowable capsule that is propelled by peristalsis and achieves the journey to the right colon in 5-8 hours. Images captured by the capsule are recorded on a hard drive attached to the patient′s belt. Many studies have recently shown that the diagnostic yield of VCE is superior to that of push enteroscopy. This mini-review contains information on the technical aspects, indications, safety and tolerance of VCE. It is well known that radiological investigations of the small bowel (SB have a limited diagnostic yield, are relatively invasive, and often lead to late discovery of diseases, especially malignancy and profuse bleeding, at a worse stage. Also, push enteroscopy is limited by the depth of the insertion of the instrument to the proximal jejunum and, in the retrograde, to the last 50-80 cm of the terminal ileum, with an ability to visualize the entire SB only in 10-70% of cases. Introduction of video capsule endoscopy (VCE is therefore regarded a significant advance in investigating intestinal diseases, and closes the gap in evaluating the SB, "the black box" of endoscopy(1. This mini-review describes the current indications of VCE and the prerequisites for accurate examination, and briefly discusses its tolerance and safety.

  13. [Characterization, influence and manipulation of the gastrointestinal microbiota in health and disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Mazcorro, José F; Garza-González, Elvira; Marroquín-Cardona, Alicia G; Tamayo, José L

    2015-01-01

    The gastrointestinal tract harbors trillions of microorganisms that are indispensable for health. The gastrointestinal microbiota can be studied using culture and molecular methods. The applications of massive sequencing are constantly increasing, due to their high yield, increasingly accessible costs, and the availability of free software for data analysis. The present article provides a detailed review of a large number of studies on the gastrointestinal microbiota and its influence on human health; particular emphasis is placed on the evidence suggesting a relationship between the gastrointestinal microbial ecosystem and diverse physiological and immune/inflammatory processes. Discussion of the articles analyzed combines a medical approach and current concepts of microbial molecular ecology. The present revision aims to be useful to those interested in the gastrointestinal microbiota and its possible alteration to maintain, re-establish and enhance health in the human host.

  14. Probiotic-based strategies for therapeutic and prophylactic use against multiple gastrointestinal diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natallia V Varankovich

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Probiotic bacteria offer a number of potential health benefits when administered in sufficient amounts that in part include reducing the number of harmful organisms in the intestine, producing antimicrobial substances and stimulating the body's immune response. However, precisely elucidating the probiotic effect of a specific bacterium has been challenging due to the complexity of the gut’s microbial ecosystem and a lack of definitive means for its characterization. This review provides an overview of widely-used and recently-described probiotics, their impact on the human’s gut microflora as a preventative treatment of disease, human/animal models being used to help show efficacy, and discusses the potential use of probiotics in gastrointestinal diseases associated with antibiotic administration.

  15. Gastrointestinal fistula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Entero-enteral fistula; Enterocutaneous fistula; Fistula - gastrointestinal ... Most gastrointestinal fistulas occur after surgery. Other causes include: Blockage in the intestine Infection Crohn disease Radiation to the abdomen (most ...

  16. Upper Gastrointestinal Disorders in Children with End -Stage Renal Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esfahani S.T

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available This study was undertaken to define the prevalence of the upper Gastrointestinal (GI lesions, dyspeptic symptoms, H.pylori infection, and the impact of duration of dialysis on upper GI symptoms and lesions of children with End-stage renal disease. We studied 69 children with ESRD who were under regular hemodialysis therapy in our department. The age of the patients were between 4-18 years (mean: 11.3. 57(82.6% of 69 patients had GI symptoms and 12(17.4% were symptom free, the prevalence of each symptom in 57 symptomatic children was as follows: anorexia 48(84.2%, nausea/vomiting 39 (68.4%, belching/heartburn 20(35%, abdominal distention 15(26.3%, and epigastric pain 8(14%. 65(92.4% of 69 patients with ESRD had pathologic lesions and the most common lesion was gastritis .There was no case of gastric angiodysplasia in our patients. 15(21.7% of 69 patients had H. pylori infection. The prevalence of H.pylori infection in non-uremic children with upper GI symptoms is about 27% in our pediatric gastroenterology department, so there was no significant difference in prevalence of H.pylori infection between uremic and non-uremic children in our study (p value = 0.4735. There was no significant relationship between duration of dialysis and dyspeptic symptoms or upper GI lesions (p values were 0.8775 and 0.7435, respectively. Conclusions: Upper GI disorders are very common in children with ESRD, even when they have no upper GI symptoms, the most common lesion is gastritis. The prevalence of H.pylori infection is not different between children with ESRD and non-uremic children with upper GI symptoms, and duration of hemodialysis therapy has no significant effect on prevalence of GI symptoms and lesions.

  17. An Application of Expert System For Diagnozing Endoparsitism Gastrointestinal Disease In Livestock Animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rusdi Efendi

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The goal of this research is to make an expert system as a tool for diagnozing endoparsitism gastrointestinal disease for cows and sheep. The knowledge base of the system has been acquired from some interviews with some doctors from the internal diseases animal's unit at Animal's Hospital, Gadjah Mada University Jogjakarta, some text books, journals, and research papers. The inference machine of the system uses Forward Chaining and uncertainty data methods using Dempster-Shafer Theory. The system has a consultation session with an interactive dialog that can be used by the users. A user gives information such as user's data, and answers the questions about the endoparsitism gastrointestinal symptoms that might be had by his animal. From the answers, the system computes the possibility of the animal to suffer from endoparsitism gastrointestinal, informs the life cycle parasites, and suggests a therapy for it. Keywords : Expert System, diagnoze, endoparsitism gastrointestinal disease, Forward chaining method, Dempster-Shafer Teary

  18. NOD2/CARD15 genotype and common gastrointestinal diseases in 43 600 individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yazdanyar, S.; Nordestgaard, B.G.

    2010-01-01

    appendicitis, 646 irritable bowel syndrome, 1301 infectious diseases of the gastrointestinal tract, 681 anal fissure, fistula and abscess, 826 gastrointestinal cancer and 161 developed cancer in liver and pancreas. Results. Some 89% were non-carriers, 11% heterozygotes, 0.15% homozygotes and 0.23% compound...... heterozygotes. Cumulative incidences differed by genotype for appendicitis (log-rank P = 0.02), anal fissure, fistula and abscess (P = 0.003) and gastrointestinal cancer (P = 0.004), but not for any of the other endpoints. Compared with non-carriers, age and sex adjusted hazard ratios were 2.7 (95% CI 1.......4-5.5) for appendicitis amongst compound heterozygotes, 3.2 (1.3-7.8) for anal fissure, fistula and abscess amongst compound heterozygotes, and 3.8 (1.6-9.2) for gastrointestinal cancer amongst homozygotes, whilst other genotypes did not have increased risk. The increased risk of gastrointestinal cancer amongst...

  19. Obesity in Women: The Clinical Impact on Gastrointestinal and Reproductive Health and Disease Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickett-Blakely, Octavia; Uwakwe, Laura; Rashid, Farzana

    2016-06-01

    Approximately 36% of adult women in the United States are obese. Although obesity affects women similarly to men in terms of prevalence, there seem to be gender-specific differences in the pathophysiology, clinical manifestations, and treatment of obesity. Obesity is linked to comorbid diseases involving multiple organ systems, including the gastrointestinal tract, like gastroesophageal reflux disease, fatty liver disease, and gallstones. This article focuses on obesity in women, specifically the impact of obesity on gastrointestinal diseases and reproductive health, as well as the treatment of obesity in women.

  20. Oxidative stress in hoof laminar tissue of horses with lethal gastrointestinal diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laskoski, Luciane Maria; Dittrich, Rosangela Locatelli; Valadão, Carlos Augusto Araújo; Brum, Juliana Sperotto; Brandão, Yara; Brito, Harald Fernando Vicente; de Sousa, Renato Silva

    2016-03-01

    Tissue damage caused by oxidative stress is involved in the pathogenesis of several diseases in animals and man, and is believed to play a role in the development of laminitis in horses. The aim of this study was to investigate the oxidative stress associated with laminar lesions in horses with lethal gastrointestinal disorders. Laminar tissue samples of the hoof of 30 horses were used. Tissue samples were divided as follows: six healthy horses (control group-CG), and 24 horses that died after complications of gastrointestinal diseases (group suffering from gastrointestinal disorders-GDG). Superoxide dismutase (SOD2) and nitrotyrosine immunostaining and the severity of laminar lesions were evaluated. Presence of laminar lesions and immunostaining for nitrotyrosine and SOD2 were only evident in horses from the GDG group. Thus, oxidative stress may play a role in the pathogenesis of laminar lesions secondary to gastrointestinal disorders.

  1. Pattern of gastrointestinal diseases in adult patients admitted to Samtah General Hospital, Gizan region, Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aderoju Emmanuel

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available To determine the relative frequencies of gastrointestinal diseases (GI in patients admitted to Samtah General Hospital, Gizan, the records of 2,442 adults admitted to the medical and surgical services for gastrointestinal diseases during the period 1413 to 1416 were analyzed retrospectively. 1,028 patients had acute appendicitis. The remaining 1,414 patients were admitted for various other GI diseases. In these 1,414 patients the commonest diseases were gastrointestinal infections (36.4%, peptic ulcer disease (19%, gall bladder disease (18.5%, viral hepatitis and its sequelae (20.7%. Despite the high prevalence of cholelithiasis, acute pancreatitis was uncommon (0.1 %. Inflammatory bowel disease was rare. There was no gender - related difference in the prevalence of gastrointestinal infections, peptic ulcer disease and carcinoma of the stomach. Males were significantly more afflicted than females with viral hepatitis (p< 0.0001, cirrhosis of the liver (p< 0.0001, hepatocellular carcinoma (p< 0.0005, variceal bleeding (p< 0.0005, and peptic ulcer bleeding (p< 0.005. As a large proportion of our patients had preventable diseases, it is expected that immunization and other public health measures will reduce the frequency of these diseases in the future.

  2. Treatment of iron deficiency anemia associated with gastrointestinal tract diseases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ulas; D; Bayraktar; Soley; Bayraktar

    2010-01-01

    The gastrointestinal (GI) tract is a common site of bleeding that may lead to iron deficiency anemia (IDA). Treatment of IDA depends on severity and acuity of patients’ signs and symptoms. While red blood cell transfusions may be required in hemodynamically unstable patients, transfusions should be avoided in chronically anemic patients due to their potential side effects and cost. Iron studies need to be performed after episodes of GI bleeding and stores need to be replenished before anemia develops. Oral ...

  3. Low-Residue and Low-Fiber Diets in Gastrointestinal Disease Management12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanhauwaert, Erika; Matthys, Christophe; Verdonck, Lies; De Preter, Vicky

    2015-01-01

    Recently, low-residue diets were removed from the American Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics’ Nutrition Care Manual due to the lack of a scientifically accepted quantitative definition and the unavailability of a method to estimate the amount of food residue produced. This narrative review focuses on defining the similarities and/or discrepancies between low-residue and low-fiber diets and on the diagnostic and therapeutic values of these diets in gastrointestinal disease management. Diagnostically, a low-fiber/low-residue diet is used in bowel preparation. A bowel preparation is a cleansing of the intestines of fecal matter and secretions conducted before a diagnostic procedure. Therapeutically, a low-fiber/low-residue diet is part of the treatment of acute relapses in different bowel diseases. The available evidence on low-residue and low-fiber diets is summarized. The main findings showed that within human disease research, the terms “low residue” and “low fiber” are used interchangeably, and information related to the quantity of residue in the diet usually refers to the amount of fiber. Low-fiber/low-residue diets are further explored in both diagnostic and therapeutic situations. On the basis of this literature review, the authors suggest redefining a low-residue diet as a low-fiber diet and to quantitatively define a low-fiber diet as a diet with a maximum of 10 g fiber/d. A low-fiber diet instead of a low-residue diet is recommended as a diagnostic value or as specific therapy for gastrointestinal conditions. PMID:26567203

  4. Low-residue and low-fiber diets in gastrointestinal disease management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanhauwaert, Erika; Matthys, Christophe; Verdonck, Lies; De Preter, Vicky

    2015-11-01

    Recently, low-residue diets were removed from the American Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics' Nutrition Care Manual due to the lack of a scientifically accepted quantitative definition and the unavailability of a method to estimate the amount of food residue produced. This narrative review focuses on defining the similarities and/or discrepancies between low-residue and low-fiber diets and on the diagnostic and therapeutic values of these diets in gastrointestinal disease management. Diagnostically, a low-fiber/low-residue diet is used in bowel preparation. A bowel preparation is a cleansing of the intestines of fecal matter and secretions conducted before a diagnostic procedure. Therapeutically, a low-fiber/low-residue diet is part of the treatment of acute relapses in different bowel diseases. The available evidence on low-residue and low-fiber diets is summarized. The main findings showed that within human disease research, the terms "low residue" and "low fiber" are used interchangeably, and information related to the quantity of residue in the diet usually refers to the amount of fiber. Low-fiber/low-residue diets are further explored in both diagnostic and therapeutic situations. On the basis of this literature review, the authors suggest redefining a low-residue diet as a low-fiber diet and to quantitatively define a low-fiber diet as a diet with a maximum of 10 g fiber/d. A low-fiber diet instead of a low-residue diet is recommended as a diagnostic value or as specific therapy for gastrointestinal conditions. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  5. Gastrointestinal osmoreceptors and renal sodium excretion in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, L J; Skram, Thomas Ulrik; Bestle, M H;

    2000-01-01

    The hypothesis that natriuresis can be induced by stimulation of gastrointestinal osmoreceptors was tested in eight supine subjects on constant sodium intake (150 mmol NaCl/day). A sodium load equivalent to the amount contained in 10% of measured extracellular volume was administered by a nasogas......The hypothesis that natriuresis can be induced by stimulation of gastrointestinal osmoreceptors was tested in eight supine subjects on constant sodium intake (150 mmol NaCl/day). A sodium load equivalent to the amount contained in 10% of measured extracellular volume was administered......-angiotensin system....

  6. Human Environmental Disease Network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taboureau, Olivier; Audouze, Karine

    2017-01-01

    During the past decades, many epidemiological, toxicological and biological studies have been performed to assess the role of environmental chemicals as potential toxicants for diverse human disorders. However, the relationships between diseases based on chemical exposure have been rarely studied...... by computational biology. We developed a human environmental disease network (EDN) to explore and suggest novel disease-disease and chemical-disease relationships. The presented scored EDN model is built upon the integration on systems biology and chemical toxicology using chemical contaminants information...

  7. The human gastrointestinal microbiota - An unexplored frontier for pharmaceutical discovery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roeselers, G.; Bouwman, J.; Venema, K.; Montijn, R.

    2012-01-01

    The mammalian gastrointestinal tract (GIT) harbors microorganisms (the microbiota) of vast phylogentic, genomic, and metabolic diversity, and recent years have seen a rapid development in the techniques for studying these complex microbial ecosystems. It is increasingly apparent that the GIT microbi

  8. A longitudinal study of gastrointestinal diseases in individuals diagnosed with infantile autism as children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mouridsen, Svend-Erik; Rich, B; Isager, T

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background A number of studies have indicated a link between gastrointestinal (GI) diseases and autism spectrum disorders. Method The objective of this study was to compare the prevalence and types of GI diseases in a clinical sample of 118 individuals diagnosed as children with infantile...

  9. Disease burden due to gastrointestinal pathogens in a wastewater system in Kampala, Uganda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fuhrimann, Samuel; Winkler, Mirko S.; Stalder, Michelle

    2016-01-01

    strains of norovirus, rotavirus, Campylobacter spp., pathogenic E. coli, pathogenic Salmonella spp., Cryptosporidium spp. and Ascaris lumbricoides were used to estimate annual incidence of gastrointestinal illness and the resulting disease burden. The QMRA estimated a total of 59,493 disease episodes per...

  10. Coeliac Disease and Gastrointestinal Symptom Screening in Adult First-degree Relatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaquero, Luis; Rodríguez-Martín, Laura; Alvarez-Cuenllas, Begoña; Hernando, Mercedes; Iglesias-Blazquez, Cristina; Menéndez-Arias, Cristina; Vivas, Santiago

    2017-04-07

    The first-degree relatives (FDRs) of patients with coeliac disease are the main risk group for disease development. To evaluate the screening strategy in FDRs with negative coeliac serology based on human leukocyte antigen (HLA) genotyping, followed by duodenal biopsy, and to analyze the prevalence of gastrointestinal symptoms and the influence of gluten intake. Adult FDRs with negative coeliac serology were invited to participate (n = 205), and a total of 139 completed the study protocol. HLA genotyping, transglutaminase antibody assessment, and duodenal biopsy were performed. Symptomatology was assessed using questionnaires during the various phases of dietary modification (baseline diet, gluten-free diet, and gluten overload). The study included 139 participants (mean age, 42 years; 53.2% women). HLA-DQ2/8 was positive in 78.4% of the participants (homozygous, 15.1%; heterozygous, 63.3%). Histopathological alterations were noted in 37.1% of participants who underwent duodenal biopsy (Marsh I, 32.7%; Marsh IIIa, 4.4%). At baseline, symptoms were observed in 45.7% of the participants, and the proportion decreased to 24.5% after the gluten-free diet (p < 0.001). Symptoms were not associated with the presence of histological alterations or genetic risk. However, younger age (odds ratio [OR] = 0.91), female sex (OR = 2.9), and the presence of autoimmune disorders (OR = 2.8) were independently associated with a significant symptom response to the gluten-free diet. Duodenal lymphocytosis and atrophy are frequently noted in FDRs, despite negative serological markers. In addition, gastrointestinal symptoms are commonly present and associated with gluten intake regardless of the histological pathology. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  11. [Gastrointestinal bezoars].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinoza González, Ricardo

    2016-08-01

    Gastrointestinal bezoars are a concretion of indigested material that can be found in the gastrointestinal tract of humans and some animals. This material forms an intraluminal mass, more commonly located in the stomach. During a large period of history animal bezoars were considered antidotes to poisons and diseases. We report a historical overview since bezoars stones were thought to have medicinal properties. This magic conception was introduced in South America by Spanish conquerors. In Chile, bezoars are commonly found in a camelid named guanaco (Lama guanicoe). People at Central Chile and the Patagonia believed that bezoar stones had magical properties and they were traded at very high prices. In Santiago, during the eighteenth century the Jesuit apothecary sold preparations of bezoar stones. The human bezoars may be formed by non-digestible material like cellulose (phytobezoar), hair (trichobezoar), conglomerations of medications or his vehicles (pharmacobezoar or medication bezoar), milk and mucus component (lactobezoar) or other varieties of substances. This condition may be asymptomatic or can produce abdominal pain, ulceration, gastrointestinal bleeding, gastric outlet obstruction, perforation and mechanical intestinal obstruction. We report their classification, diagnostic modalities and treatment.

  12. Prevalence of clonorchiasis in patients with gastrointestinal disease: A Korean nationwide multicenter survey

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ho Gak Kim; Jimin Han; Myung-Hwan Kim; Kyu Hyun Cho; Sang Soo Lee; Im Hee Shin; Gwang Ha Kim; Jae Seon Kim; Jin Bong Kim; Tae Nyeun Kim; Tae Hyo Kim; Jae Woo Kim; Ji Kon Ryu; Yong Bum Yoon; Young-Soo Moon; Jong Ho Moon; Sung Jae Park; Chan Guk Park; Sung-Jo Bang; Chang Heon Yang; Kyo-Sang Yoo; Byung Moo Yoo; Kyu Taek Lee; Dong Ki Lee; Jae Bok Chung; Byung Seok Lee; Seung Ok Lee; Woo Jin Lee; Chang Min Cho; Young-Eun Joo; Gab Jin Cheon; Young Woo Choi

    2009-01-01

    AIM: To investigate prevalence of Clonorchis sinensis in patients with gastrointestinal symptoms, and the relation of the infection to hepatobiliary diseases in 26 hospitals in Korea. METHODS: Consecutive patients who had been admitted to the Division of Gastroenterology with gastrointestinal symptoms were enrolled from March to April 2005. Of those who had been diagnosed with clonorchiasis, epidemiology and correlation between infection and hepatobiliary diseases were surveyed by questionnaire. RESULTS: Of 3080 patients with gastrointestinal diseases, 396 (12.9%) had clonorchiasis and 1140 patients (37.2%) had a history of eating raw freshwater fish. Of those with a history of raw freshwater fish ingestion, 238 (20.9%) patients had clonorchiasis. Cholangiocarcinoma was more prevalent in C. sinensis-infected patients than noninfected patients [34/396 (8.6%) vs 145/2684 (5.4%),P = 0.015]. Cholangiocarcinoma and clonorchiasis showed statistically significant positive cross-relation ( P = 0.008). Choledocholithiasis, cholecystolithiasis,cholangitis, hepatocellular carcinoma, and biliary pancreatitis did not correlate with clonorchiasis.CONCLUSION: Infection rate of clonorchiasis was still high in patients with gastrointestinal diseases in Korea, and has not decreased very much during the last two decades. Cholangiocarcinoma was related to clonorchiasis, which suggested an etiological role for the parasite.

  13. Efficient degradation of gluten by a prolyl endoprotease in a gastrointestinal model: Implications for coeliac disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mitea, C.; Havenaar, R.; Wouter Drijfhout, J.; Edens, L.; Dekking, L.; Koning, F.; Dekking, E.H.A.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Coeliac disease is caused by an immune response to gluten. As gluten proteins are proline rich they are resistant to enzymatic digestion in the gastrointestinal tract, a property that probably contributes to the immunogenic nature of gluten. Aims: This study determined the efficiency of

  14. Efficient degradation of gluten by a prolyl endoprotease in a gastrointestinal model: Implications for coeliac disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mitea, C.; Havenaar, R.; Wouter Drijfhout, J.; Edens, L.; Dekking, L.; Koning, F.; Dekking, E.H.A.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Coeliac disease is caused by an immune response to gluten. As gluten proteins are proline rich they are resistant to enzymatic digestion in the gastrointestinal tract, a property that probably contributes to the immunogenic nature of gluten. Aims: This study determined the efficiency of

  15. NOD2/CARD15 genotype and common gastrointestinal diseases in 43 600 individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yazdanyar, S.; Nordestgaard, B.G.

    2010-01-01

    associate with risk of nine common gastrointestinal diseases. Design and setting. We genotyped 43 596 white individuals from the Danish general population followed for 31 years, during which time 782 developed oesophagitis and reflux, 1395 ulcus ventriculi and duodeni, 1384 gastritis and dyspepsia, 1407...

  16. Surveillance and management of upper gastrointestinal disease in Familial Adenomatous Polyposis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gallagher, Michelle C; Phillips, Robin K S; Bülow, Steffen

    2006-01-01

    following prophylactic colectomy, the burden of foregut disease (particularly duodenal adenomatosis) will increase. Until recently, the value of upper gastrointestinal surveillance in FAP populations has been contentious, but with improved understanding of the natural history coupled with developments...... in surgery, interventional endoscopy and medical therapy, treatment algorithms for duodenal adenomatosis in FAP are becoming clearer....

  17. Microbiological quality of urban-vended salad and its association with gastrointestinal diseases in Kumasi, Ghana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fung, Jessica; Keraita, Bernard; Konradsen, Flemming

    2011-01-01

    The influence of consumption of salads on exposure to gastrointestinal diseases was assessed in urban environments in Kumasi, Ghana. Data was collected using a cross-sectional survey involving 15 salad sellers and 213 consumers and microbiological laboratory analysis of 96 samples of ready...

  18. Epidemiological characterisics of gastrointestinal infectious diseases and viral hepatitis A in the Canton Sarajevo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zarema Obradović

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Gastrointestinal infectious diseases are a group of frequent diseases in developing countries as a result of industrialization in food production and often consuming of the food in public places. In Bosnia and Herzegovina and in Canton Sarajevo these diseases are frequent. The aim of this work is to investigate epidemiological characteristics of the most often gastrointestinal infectious diseases in Canton Sarajevo (Enterocolitis acuta, Toxiinfectio alimentaris, Salmonellosis, Amoebiasis compared with Viral Hepatitis A and to estimate the need for the implementation of vaccination against this disease.Methods: We used individual reports as well as monthly and annual bulletins about the movement of infectious diseases which are obligatory for reporting from the Epidemiology department of the Institute for public health in Canton Sarajevo. This work is a retrospective study, for the period 2005-2009. Descriptive- analytical method was used. In statistical processing we used mean, structure index and trend index.Results: The research showed that gastrointestinal infectious diseases are registered in a huge number in all the observed years. The most often was Enterocolitis acuta, and the rarest was Viral Hepatitis A. The diseases were mostly sporadic. Distinct seasonality and coherence with warm months in the year is expressed in Enterocolitis acuta and Intoxicatio alimentaris, while the other diseases are registered during the whole year.Conclusions: Incidence of gastrointestinal infectious diseases in Canton Sarajevo is high and we need to work intensively to improve sanitary conditions as the most eficient preventive measures. There is no justification for implementing of the vaccine against Viral hepatitis A.

  19. Early impairment of gut function and gut flora supporting a role for alteration of gastrointestinal mucosa in human immunodeficiency virus pathogenesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gori, Andrea; Tincati, Camilla; Rizzardini, Giuliano; Torti, Carlo; Quirino, Tiziana; Haarman, Monique; Ben Amor, Kaouther; van Schaik, Jacqueline; Vriesema, Aldwin; Knol, Jan; Marchetti, Giulia; Welling, Gjalt; Clerici, Mario

    Our results show that impairment of the gastrointestinal tracts in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive patients is present in the early phases of HIV disease. This impairment is associated with alterations in gut microbiota and intestinal inflammatory parameters. These findings support the

  20. Early impairment of gut function and gut flora supporting a role for alteration of gastrointestinal mucosa in human immunodeficiency virus pathogenesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gori, Andrea; Tincati, Camilla; Rizzardini, Giuliano; Torti, Carlo; Quirino, Tiziana; Haarman, Monique; Ben Amor, Kaouther; van Schaik, Jacqueline; Vriesema, Aldwin; Knol, Jan; Marchetti, Giulia; Welling, Gjalt; Clerici, Mario

    2008-01-01

    Our results show that impairment of the gastrointestinal tracts in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive patients is present in the early phases of HIV disease. This impairment is associated with alterations in gut microbiota and intestinal inflammatory parameters. These findings support the h

  1. Antibody response against gastrointestinal antigens in demyelinating diseases of the central nervous system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Banati, M; Csecsei, P; Koszegi, E

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Antibodies against gastrointestinal antigens may indicate altered microbiota and immune responses in the gut. Recent experimental data suggest a connection between gastrointestinal immune responses and CNS autoimmunity. METHODS: Antibodies against gliadin, tissue transglutaminase (t......TG), intrinsic factor (IF), parietal cells (PC) and Saccharomyces cerevisiae (ASCA) were screened in the sera of 45 patients with AQP4-seropositive neuromyelitis optica (NMO) and NMO spectrum diseases (NMO/NMO-SD), 17 patients with AQP4-seronegative NMO, 85 patients with clinically definite multiple sclerosis...

  2. Obesity and gastrointestinal neoplasms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izabela Binkowska-Borgosz

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Being overweight or obese is a significant public health problem in the 21st century due to its scale, common existence and its cause-effect association with multiple diseases. Excessive accumulation of adipose tissue in humans is regarded as a major risk factor for development of cardiovascular and skeletal diseases. However, data from recent years have revealed that obesity is also strongly associated with increased risk of the majority of cancers in humans, including those originating from the gastrointestinal tract. During the last few year this association has been thoroughly proven and supported by several epidemiological analyses. The authors present i the current state of knowledge regarding key (pathomechanisms that link metabolism of human adipose tissue to development/progression of neoplasms (especially in the gastrointestinal tract, as well as ii the results of selected clinical studies in which the influence of obesity on risk of gastrointestinal cancer development has been addressed.

  3. Obesity and gastrointestinal neoplasms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izabela Binkowska-Borgosz

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Being overweight or obese is a significant public health problem in the 21st century due to its scale, common existence and its cause-effect association with multiple diseases. Excessive accumulation of adipose tissue in humans is regarded as a major risk factor for development of cardiovascular and skeletal diseases. However, data from recent years have revealed that obesity is also strongly associated with increased risk of the majority of cancers in humans, including those originating from the gastrointestinal tract. During the last few year this association has been thoroughly proven and supported by several epidemiological analyses. The authors present i the current state of knowledge regarding key (pathomechanisms that link metabolism of human adipose tissue to development/progression of neoplasms (especially in the gastrointestinal tract, as well as ii the results of selected clinical studies in which the influence of obesity on risk of gastrointestinal cancer development has been addressed.

  4. Vitamin K for upper gastrointestinal bleeding in patients with acute or chronic liver diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martí-Carvajal, Arturo J; Solà, Ivan

    2012-09-12

    Upper gastrointestinal bleeding is one of the most frequent causes of morbidity and mortality in the course of liver cirrhosis. Several treatments are used for upper gastrointestinal bleeding in patients with liver diseases. One of them is vitamin K administration, but it is not known whether it benefits or harms patients with acute or chronic liver disease and upper gastrointestinal bleeding. To assess the beneficial and harmful effects of vitamin K for patients with acute or chronic liver disease and upper gastrointestinal bleeding. We searched the Cochrane Hepato-Biliary Group Controlled Trials Register (12 June 2012), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) in The Cochrane Library (Issue 5 of 12, 2012), MEDLINE (Ovid SP) (1946 to 12 June 2012), EMBASE (Ovid SP) (1974 to 12 June 2012), Science Citation Index EXPANDED (1900 to 12 June 2012), and LILACS (1982 to 19 June 2012). Additional randomised trials were sought from two registries of clinical trials: the Clinical Trials Search Portal of the WHO, and the Metaregister of Controlled Trials. We looked through the reference lists of the retrieved publications and review articles. Randomised clinical trials irrespective of blinding, language, or publication status for assessment of benefits and harms. Observational studies were considered for assessment of harms only. Data from randomised clinical trials were to be summarised by standard Cochrane Collaboration methodologies. We could not find any randomised trials on vitamin K for upper gastrointestinal bleeding in patients with liver diseases in which we could assess benefits and harms. We could not identify quasi-randomised studies, historically controlled or observational studies in which we could assess harms. This updated review found no randomised clinical trials on the benefits and harms of vitamin K for upper gastrointestinal bleeding in patients with liver diseases. The effects of vitamin K need to be tested in randomised clinical

  5. Vitamin K for upper gastrointestinal bleeding in people with acute or chronic liver diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martí-Carvajal, Arturo J; Solà, Ivan

    2015-06-09

    Upper gastrointestinal bleeding is one of the most frequent causes of morbidity and mortality in the course of liver cirrhosis. Several treatments are used for upper gastrointestinal bleeding in people with liver diseases. One of them is vitamin K administration, but it is not known whether it benefits or harms people with acute or chronic liver disease and upper gastrointestinal bleeding. This is an update of this Cochrane review. To assess the beneficial and harmful effects of vitamin K for people with acute or chronic liver disease and upper gastrointestinal bleeding. We searched The Cochrane Hepato-Biliary Controlled Trials Register (February 2015), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (Issue 2 of 12, 2015), MEDLINE (Ovid SP) (1946 to February 2015), EMBASE (Ovid SP) (1974 to February 2015), Science Citation Index EXPANDED (1900 to February 2015), and LILACS (1982 to 25 February 2015). We sought additional randomised trials from two registries of clinical trials: the World Health Organization Clinical Trials Search Portal and the metaRegister of Controlled Trials. We looked through the reference lists of the retrieved publications and review articles. Randomised clinical trials irrespective of blinding, language, or publication status for assessment of benefits and harms. We considered observational studies for assessment of harms only. \\We aimed to summarise data from randomised clinical trials using Standard Cochrane methodology and assess them according to the GRADE approach. We found no randomised trials on vitamin K for upper gastrointestinal bleeding in people with liver diseases assessing benefits and harms of the intervention. We identified no quasi-randomised studies, historically controlled studies, or observational studies assessing harms. This updated review found no randomised clinical trials of vitamin K for upper gastrointestinal bleeding in people with liver diseases. The benefits and harms of vitamin K need to be tested

  6. Retroviruses and human disease.

    OpenAIRE

    1987-01-01

    Over the past 25 years animal retroviruses have been favoured subjects of research by virologists, oncologists, and molecular biologists. Retroviruses have given us reverse transcriptase, oncogenes, and cloning vectors that may one day be exploited for human gene therapy. They have also given us leukaemia and the acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). Kawasaki disease and tropical spastic paraparesis are thought to be associated with retrovirus infection, and other diseases such as de Qu...

  7. Principles of DNA-Based Gut Microbiota Assessment and Therapeutic Efficacy of Fecal Microbiota Transplantation in Gastrointestinal Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cammarota, Giovanni; Pecere, Silvia; Ianiro, Gianluca; Masucci, Luca; Currò, Diego

    2016-01-01

    Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT), a process by which the normal gastrointestinal microbiota is restored, has demonstrated extraordinary cure rates for Clostridium difficile infection and low recurrence. The community of microorganisms within the human gut (or microbiota) is critical to health status and functions; therefore, together with the rise of FMT, the gastrointestinal microbiota has emerged as a 'virtual' organ with a level of complexity comparable to that of any other organ system and capable to compete with powerful known antibiotics for the treatment of several disorders. Although treatment protocols, donor selection, stool preparation and delivery methods varied widely, with a few reports following an identical protocol, FMT has diffused to other areas where the alterations of the gut microbiota ecology (or dysbiosis) have been theorized to play a causative role, including inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), among several other extra-intestinal disorders (i.e. metabolic syndrome and obesity, multiple sclerosis, cardiovascular diseases). FMT can be relatively simple to perform, but a number of challenges need to be overcome before this procedure is widely accepted in clinical practice, and currently, there is no consensus between the various gastrointestinal organizations and societies regarding the FMT procedure. In this article, we describe the modern high-throughput sequencing techniques to characterize the composition of gut microbiota and the potential for therapeutics by manipulating microbiota with FMT in several gastrointestinal disorders (C. difficile-associated diarrhea, IBD and IBS), with a look on the potential future directions of FMT. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  8. Decreased Serum Hepatocyte Growth Factor (HGF) in Autistic Children with Severe Gastrointestinal Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Russo, A.J.; Krigsman, A; Jepson, B; Wakefield, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    Aim: To assess serum Hepatocyte Growth Factor (HGF) levels in autistic children with severe gastrointestinal (GI) disease and to test the hypothesis that there is a relationship between GI pathology and HGF concentration. Subjects and Methods: Serum from 29 autistic children with chronic digestive disease (symptoms for a minimum of 6–12 months), most with ileo-colonic lymphoid nodular hyperplasia (LNH—markedly enlarged lymphoid nodules) and inflammation of the colorectum, small bowel and/or s...

  9. C-kit gene mutation in human gastrointestinal stromal tumors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ying-Yong Hou; Ai-Hua Zheng; Tai-Ming Zhang; Wen-Zhong Hou; Jian Wang; Xiang Du; Xiong-Zeng Zhu; Yun-Shan Tan; Meng-Hong Sun; Yong-Kun Wei; Jian-Fang Xu; Shao-Hua Lu; Su-Jie A-Ke-Su; Yan-Nan Zhou; Feng Gao

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the significance of c-kit gene mutation in gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST).METHODS: Fifty two cases of GIST and 28 cases of other tumors were examined. DNA samples were extracted from paraffin sections and fresh blocks. Exons 11, 9 and 13 of the c-kit gene were amplified by PCR and sequenced.RESULTS: Mutations of exon 11 were found in 14 of 25 malignant GISTs (56%), mutations of exon 11 of the c-kit gene were revealed in 2 of 19 borderline GISTs (10.5%),and no mutation was found in benign tumors. The mutation rate showed significant difference (X2=14.39, P<0.01)between malignant and benign GISTs. Most of mutations consisted of the in-frame deletion or replication from 3 to 48 bp in heterozygous and homozygous fashions, None of the mutations disrupted the downstream reading frame of the gene. Point mutations and frame deletions were most frequently observed at codons 550-560, but duplications were most concentrated at codons 570-585. No mutations of exons 9 and 13 were revealed in GISTs, Neither c-kit gene expression nor gene mutations were found in 3 leiomyomas, 8 leiomyosarcomas, 2 schwannomas, 2malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors, 2 intraabdominal fibromatoses, 2 malignant fibrous histiocytomas and 9 adenocarcinomas.CONCLUSION: C-kit gene mutations occur preferentially in malignant GISTs and might be a clinically useful adjunct marker in the evaluation of GISTs and can help to differentiate GISTs from other mesenchymal tumors of gastrointestinal tract, such as smooth muscle tumors,schwannomas, etc.

  10. [Lymphomas of the gastrointestinal tract: a neoplastic disease of underdevelopment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solidoro, A; Casanova, L; Otero, J; Santillana, S; Carracedo, C; Misad, O; Ruiz, E

    1993-01-01

    458/3,495 malignant lymphomas seen at the Instituto de Enfermedades Neoplásicas between 1965-1992, had primary extranodal disease in the GI tract. This is one of the largest institutional series reported, which would suggest that this is a relatively frequent malignancy in Peruvian population. Fifty per cent of cases had a primary in the small bowel and 38.9 per cent in the stomach. The age at presentation, the clinical picture and the location at the intestine show similarities with the so called Mediterranean lymphoma. Cases were classified according to the TNM system, and patients in stages I-II were surgically resected; 80 per cent of them were alive and free of disease at 5 years. Gastric lymphomas with inoperable disease were treated with chemotherapy with a 5-year survival of 50 per cent.

  11. Is gluten a cause of gastrointestinal symptoms in people without celiac disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biesiekierski, Jessica R; Muir, Jane G; Gibson, Peter R

    2013-12-01

    The avoidance of wheat- and gluten-containing products is a worldwide phenomenon. While celiac disease is a well-established entity, the evidence base for gluten as a trigger of symptoms in patients without celiac disease (so-called 'non-celiac gluten sensitivity' or NCGS) is limited. The problems lie in the complexity of wheat and the ability of its carbohydrate as well as protein components to trigger gastrointestinal symptoms, the potentially false assumption that response to a gluten-free diet equates to an effect of gluten withdrawal, and diagnostic criteria for coeliac disease. Recent randomized controlled re-challenge trials have suggested that gluten may worsen gastrointestinal symptoms, but failed to confirm patients with self-perceived NCGS have specific gluten sensitivity. Furthermore, mechanisms by which gluten triggers symptoms have yet to be identified. This review discusses the most recent scientific evidence and our current understanding of NCGS.

  12. Fatal Cytomegalovirus Gastrointestinal Disease in an Infant with Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuan-Ying Huang

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Although most cytomegalovirus (CMV infections are asymptomatic or cause only mild disease, the virus can cause serious disease and even mortality in immunocompromised children. In patients with WiskottAldrich syndrome (WAS, recurrent CMV infection is infrequently seen. A 3-month-old male infant was referred to Chang Gung Children's Hospital due to persistent thrombocytopenia and intermittent tachypnea. WAS complicated with CMV pneumonitis was diagnosed subsequently. He was discharged at the age of 7 months after a complete course of antiviral treatment. Unfortunately, refractory hemorrhagic gastritis developed later and recurred in spite of antiviral treatment and intravenous immunoglobulin. The patient died of recurrent gastrointestinal bleeding at the age of 23 months. This observation indicates that a case of WAS complicated with CMV gastrointestinal disease may need more vigorous treatment.

  13. Disease burden of selected gastrointestinal pathogens in Australia, 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine B. Gibney

    2014-11-01

    Conclusions: The pathogen causing the greatest disease burden varied according to the metric used, however DALYs are considered most useful given the incorporation of morbidity, mortality, and sequelae. These results can be used to prioritize public health interventions toward Salmonella and Campylobacter infections and to measure the impact of these interventions.

  14. EOSINOPHILIC INFLAMMATORY DISEASES OF THE GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT AND FOOD ALLERGY AMONG CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.V. Shumilov

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Within the structure of the inflammatory diseases of the gastrointestinal tract among children, one may single out a specific group of the chronic pathology of the digestive apparatus — eosinophilic diseases of the gastrointestinal tract and gastroenterological manifestations of the food allergy. The food allergy is characterized by the pathologic immune reactivity among commonly genetically predisposed people. Depending on the peculiarities of the immune reactivity of a sick person and the nature of the allergen, the allergic reaction may evolve with primary involvement of the different mechanisms or th2 IgE-mediated, or Th1 non-igecmediated. Clinical picture of the food allergy is the manifestation of the immunoinflammatory process caused by the interaction of the food antigens with the structures of the lymphoid tissues associated with the mucous membranes of this or that target organ. The morphological basis of the clinical picture is mostly immune inflammation with primarily eosinophilic tissue infiltration. The eosinophilic lesions of the gastrointestinal tract include eosinophilic esophagitis, eosinophilic gastroenteritis, eosinophilic enteritis, eosinophilic colitis, eosinophilic proctitis and other states. During the food allergy each of the clinical forms of the gastrointestinal tract lesion has its own peculiarities with regards to the primary development mechanism, age of manifestation, character of the run and behaviour tactics.Key words: eosinophilic inflammation, esophagitis, gastroenteritis, colitis, food allergy.

  15. Mixed Infections of Helicobacter pylori Isolated from Patients with Gastrointestinal Diseases in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Ho Lai

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Persistent Helicobacter pylori infection may induce several upper gastrointestinal diseases. Two major virulence factors of H. pylori, vacuolating cytotoxin A (VacA and cytotoxin-associated gene A (CagA, are thought to be associated with the severity of disease progression. The distribution of vacA and cag-pathogenicity island (cag-PAI alleles varies in H. pylori isolated from patients in different geographic regions. Aim. To assess the association between mixed infection of H. pylori clinical isolates from Taiwanese patients and the severity of gastrointestinal diseases. Methods. A total of 70 patients were enrolled in this study. Six distinct and well-separated colonies were isolated from each patient and 420 colonies were analyzed to determine the genotypes of virulence genes. Results. The prevalence of mixed infections of all H. pylori-infected patients was 28.6% (20/70. The rate of mixed infections in patients with duodenal ulcer (47.6% was much higher than that with other gastrointestinal diseases (P<0.05. Conclusions. H. pylori mixed infections show high genetic diversity that may enhance bacterial adaptation to the hostile environment of the stomach and contribute to disease development.

  16. Mixed Infections of Helicobacter pylori Isolated from Patients with Gastrointestinal Diseases in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ju-Chun; Chiang-Ni, Chuan; Li, Ju-Pi; Wu, Lii-Tzu; Wu, Hua-Shan; Sun, Yu-Chen; Lin, Mei-Ling; Lee, Ju-Fang

    2016-01-01

    Background. Persistent Helicobacter pylori infection may induce several upper gastrointestinal diseases. Two major virulence factors of H. pylori, vacuolating cytotoxin A (VacA) and cytotoxin-associated gene A (CagA), are thought to be associated with the severity of disease progression. The distribution of vacA and cag-pathogenicity island (cag-PAI) alleles varies in H. pylori isolated from patients in different geographic regions. Aim. To assess the association between mixed infection of H. pylori clinical isolates from Taiwanese patients and the severity of gastrointestinal diseases. Methods. A total of 70 patients were enrolled in this study. Six distinct and well-separated colonies were isolated from each patient and 420 colonies were analyzed to determine the genotypes of virulence genes. Results. The prevalence of mixed infections of all H. pylori-infected patients was 28.6% (20/70). The rate of mixed infections in patients with duodenal ulcer (47.6%) was much higher than that with other gastrointestinal diseases (P < 0.05). Conclusions. H. pylori mixed infections show high genetic diversity that may enhance bacterial adaptation to the hostile environment of the stomach and contribute to disease development. PMID:27738429

  17. 益生菌和胃肠道疾病%Probiotics and gastrointestinal diseases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋烨; 刘俊; 任宏宇

    2011-01-01

    在人类的胃肠道功能中,肠道微生物发挥了重要的作用.很多益生菌是从原有的肠道细菌中发现出来的,并被证实对一些胃肠道疾病具有临床功效.益生菌的作用具有种株特异性,既不是通过共同的机制发挥作用,也不是所有的益生菌都有益于健康.在抗炎作用上,他们有几种共同的功能,如通过不同的方式和其他微生物竞争拮抗,通过增强宿主细胞的防御功能或是正调节宿主细胞保护蛋白的表达,从而激发宿主细胞的保护功能.本文选择介绍一些益生菌:革兰氏阴性益生菌如尼氏大肠杆菌(Escherichia coli Nissle 1917),革兰氏阳性益生菌如鼠李糖乳杆菌(Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG,LGG),细菌混合物(VSL#3) 和一种酵母益生菌如鲍氏酵母菌(Saccharomyces boulardii ).%The intestinal microbiota plays a key role in maintaining the normal function of the human gastrointestinal tract. Many probiotics are derived from human gut flora, and have been confirmed to be valuable in the management of gastrointestinal diseases. Probiotic effects are strain-specific, they do not act through the same mechanisms, and nor are all probiotics good for health. Nevertheless, they do have several common characters in that they exert anti-inflammatory effects, they employ different strategies to antagonize competing microorganisms, and they induce cytoprotective changes in the host either through enhancement of barrier function, or through up-regulation of the expression of cytoprotective host proteins. In this review we focus on several probiotics: a Gram-negative probiotic (Escherichia coli Nisslel917), a Gram-positive probiotic bacterium (Lactobacillus Rhamnosus GG, LGG), a bacterial mixture (VSL#3), and a yeast probiotic (Saccharomyces boulardii).

  18. Viability of Lactobacillus delbrueckii Under Human Gastrointestinal Conditions Simulated In Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina C. Pacheco

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus is a lactic bacteria mostly used in the production of yoghurt and it has an important probiotic activity that brings benefits to the human body. However, the gastrointestinal tract has aggressive conditions, such as the acid pH in the stomach and the bile in the duodenum, that reduce the viability of this bacteria. Approach: In order to evaluate the effect of the human gastrointestinal conditions on Lactobacillus delbrueckiis viability, a simulated in vitro gastrointestinal system was designed, which consisted of two reactors where stomach and human small intestine conditions were simulated. Results: Lactobacillus delbrueckii cells were treated in human gastric conditions simulated in vitro (gastric juice adjusted to pH 2, 37°C, 90 min and 50 rpm and in intestinal conditions simulated in vitro (pancreatic juice adjusted to pH 6.8, 37°C, 150 min and 50 rpm and in presence of a sample of food or beverages. A sample of typical Mexican food was added and at the end of the treatment 73% of the cells remained viable. This means 36.5 times more viability with respect to the cells treated under the same conditions in presence of a sample of milk with 8% starch. At the end of the treatment, the viability of cells treated in simulated in vitro gastrointestinal juices without sample of food or beverage (blank was 1%. Conclusion: The results indicated that the in vitro simulated human gastrointestinal conditions were aggressive to the Lactobacillus delbrueckiis viability. To minimize this negative effect it is suggested that probiotics be consumed with some food because this could increase the probability that the bacteria reach the human colon in a large number and carry out their probiotic effect.

  19. Analyzing global gene expression of Lactobacillus plantarum in the human gastrointestinal tract

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, de M.C.

    2006-01-01

    The human gastrointestinal (GI)-tract represents a dynamic ecosystem comprising various habitats each with niche-specific microbial communites, collectively called microbiota. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are considered to be a large group of the microbiota in the upper GI-tract that is involved in he

  20. Behaviour of silver nanoparticles and silver ions in an in vitro human gastrointestinal digestion model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Walczak, A.P.; Fokkink, R.G.; Peters, R.J.B.; Tromp, P.; Herrera Rivera, Z.E.; Rietjens, I.M.C.M.; Hendriksen, P.J.M.; Bouwmeester, H.

    2013-01-01

    Oral ingestion is an important exposure route for silver nanoparticles (AgNPs), but their fate during gastrointestinal digestion is unknown. This was studied for 60 nm AgNPs and silver ions (AgNO3) using in vitro human digestion model. Samples after saliva, gastric and intestinal digestion were

  1. Isolation of DNA from bacterial samples of the human gastrointestinal tract

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zoetendal, E.G.; Heilig, G.H.J.; Klaassens, E.S.; Booijink, C.C.G.M.; Kleerebezem, M.; Smidt, H.; Vos, de W.M.

    2006-01-01

    The human gastrointestinal (GI) tract contains a complex microbial community that develops in time and space. The most widely used approaches to study microbial diversity and activity are all based on the analysis of nucleic acids, DNA, rRNA and mRNA. Here, we present a DNA isolation protocol that i

  2. Analyzing global gene expression of Lactobacillus plantarum in the human gastrointestinal tract

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, de M.C.

    2006-01-01

    The human gastrointestinal (GI)-tract represents a dynamic ecosystem comprising various habitats each with niche-specific microbial communites, collectively called microbiota. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are considered to be a large group of the microbiota in the upper GI-tract that is involved in he

  3. Recent Advances in Characterizing the Gastrointestinal Microbiome in Crohn's Disease: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Emily K.; Teo, Shu Mei; Inouye, Michael; Wagner, Josef; Kirkwood, Carl D.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The intestinal microbiota is involved in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease. A reduction in the diversity of the intestinal microbiota as well as specific taxonomic and functional shifts have been reported in Crohn's disease and may play a central role in the inflammatory process. The aim was to systematically review recent developments in the structural and functional changes observed in the gastrointestinal microbiome in patients with Crohn's Disease. Results: Seventy-two abstracts were included in this review. The effects of host genetics, disease phenotype, and inflammatory bowel disease treatment on the gastrointestinal microbiome in Crohn's disease were reviewed, and taxonomic shifts in patients with early and established disease were described. The relative abundance of Bacteroidetes is increased and Firmicutes decreased in Crohn's disease compared with healthy controls. Enterobacteriaceae, specifically Eschericia coli, is enriched in Crohn's disease. Faecalibacterium prausnitzii is found at lower abundance in Crohn's disease and in those with postoperative recurrence. Observed functional changes include major shifts in oxidative stress pathways, a decrease in butanoate and propanoate metabolism gene expression, lower levels of butyrate, and other short-chain fatty acids, decreased carbohydrate metabolism, and decreased amino acid biosynthesis. Conclusions: Changes in microbial composition and function have been described, although a causative role remains to be established. Larger, prospective, and longitudinal studies are required with deep interrogation of the microbiome if causality is to be determined, and refined microbial manipulation is to emerge as a focused therapy. PMID:25844959

  4. Antifibrinolytic amino acids for upper gastrointestinal bleeding in people with acute or chronic liver disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martí-Carvajal, Arturo J; Solà, Ivan

    2015-06-09

    Upper gastrointestinal bleeding is one of the most frequent causes of morbidity and mortality in the course of liver cirrhosis. People with liver disease frequently have haemostatic abnormalities such as hyperfibrinolysis. Therefore, antifibrinolytic amino acids have been proposed to be used as supplementary interventions alongside any of the primary treatments for upper gastrointestinal bleeding in people with liver diseases. This is an update of this Cochrane review. To assess the beneficial and harmful effects of antifibrinolytic amino acids for upper gastrointestinal bleeding in people with acute or chronic liver disease. We searched The Cochrane Hepato-Biliary Controlled Trials Register (February 2015), Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (Issue 2 of 12, 2015), MEDLINE (Ovid SP) (1946 to February 2015), EMBASE (Ovid SP) (1974 to February 2015), Science Citation Index EXPANDED (1900 to February 2015), LILACS (1982 to February 2015), World Health Organization Clinical Trials Search Portal (accessed 26 February 2015), and the metaRegister of Controlled Trials (accessed 26 February 2015). We scrutinised the reference lists of the retrieved publications. Randomised clinical trials irrespective of blinding, language, or publication status for assessment of benefits and harms. Observational studies for assessment of harms. We planned to summarise data from randomised clinical trials using standard Cochrane methodologies and assessed according to the GRADE approach. We found no randomised clinical trials assessing antifibrinolytic amino acids for treating upper gastrointestinal bleeding in people with acute or chronic liver disease. We did not identify quasi-randomised, historically controlled, or observational studies in which we could assess harms. This updated Cochrane review identified no randomised clinical trials assessing the benefits and harms of antifibrinolytic amino acids for upper gastrointestinal bleeding in people with acute or

  5. US and MRI of gastrointestinal graft-versus-host disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mentzel, Hans-Joachim; Vogt, Susanna; Behrendt, Werner; Kaiser, Werner A. [Institute for Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University of Jena (Germany); Kentouche, Karim; Gruhn, Bemd; Sauerbrey, Axel; Fuchs, Dietlinde; Zintl, Felix [Department of Paediatrics, University of Jena (Germany); Kosmehl, Hartwig [Department of Pathology, University of Jena (Germany)

    2002-03-01

    Abdominal problems often complicate the clinical course after bone marrow transplantation. Graft-versus-host disease occurs as a complication of allogenic bone marrow transplantation. In this report, the findings of intestinal involvement are described and correlated with histopathological findings. Increased bowel-wall thickness and increased vascularity were shown by US. MRI demonstrated generalised increased bowel-wall thickness associated with bowel-wall enhancement after administration of IV gadolinium. (orig.)

  6. Gastrointestinal Physiology During Head Down Tilt Bedrest in Human Subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaksman, Z.; Guthienz, J.; Putcha, L.

    2008-01-01

    Introduction: Gastrointestinal (GI) motility plays a key role in the physiology and function of the GI tract. It directly affects absorption of medications and nutrients taken by mouth, in addition to indirectly altering GI physiology by way of changes in the microfloral composition and biochemistry of the GI tract. Astronauts have reported nausea, loss of appetite and constipation during space flight all of which indicate a reduction in GI motility and function similar to the one seen in chronic bed rest patients. The purpose of this study is to determine GI motility and bacterial proliferation during -6 degree head down tilt bed rest (HTD). Methods: Healthy male and female subjects between the ages of 25-40 participated in a 60 day HTD study protocol. GI transit time (GITT) was determined using lactulose breath hydrogen test and bacterial overgrowth was measured using glucose breath hydrogen test. H. Pylori colonization was determined using C13-urea breath test (UBIT#). All three tests were conducted on 9 days before HDT, and repeated on HDT days 2, 28, 58, and again on day 7 after HDT. Results: GITT increased during HTD compared to the respective ambulatory control values; GITT was significantly lower on day 7 after HTD. A concomitant increase in bacterial colonization was also noticed during HDT starting after approximately 28 days of HDT. However, H. Pylori proliferation was not recorded during HDT as indicated by UBIT#. Conclusion: GITT significantly decreased during HDT with a concomitant increase in the proliferation of GI bacterial flora but not H. pylori.

  7. Usefulness of duodenal biopsy during routine upper gastrointestinal endoscopy for diagnosis of celiac disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    S Riestra; F Domínguez; E Fernández-Ruiz; E García-Riesco; R Nieto; E Fernández; L Rodrigo

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To describe the trend in duodenal biopsy performance during routine upper gastrointestinal endoscopy in an adult Spanish population, and to analyze its value for the diagnosis of celiac disease in clinical practice.METHODS: A 15 year-trend (1990 to 2004) in duodenal biopsy performed when undertaking upper gastrointestinal endoscopy was studied. We analysed the prevalence of celiac disease in the overall group, and in the subgroups with anaemia and/or chronic diarrhoea.RESULTS: Duodenal biopsy was performed in 1033of 13 678 upper gastrointestinal endoscopies (7.6%);an increase in the use of such was observed over the study period (1.9% in 1990-1994, 5% in 1995-1999 and 12.8% in 2000-2004). Celiac disease was diagnosed in 22 patients (2.2%), this being more frequent in women than in men (3% and 1% respectively). Fourteen out of 514 (2.7%) patients with anaemia, 12 out of 141(8.5%) with chronic diarrhoea and 8 out of 42 (19%)with anaemia plus chronic diarrhoea had celiac disease.A classical clinical presentation was observed in 55% of the cases, 23% of the patients had associated dermatitis herpetiformis and 64% presented anaemia; 9% were diagnosed by familial screening and 5% by cryptogenetic hypertransaminasaemia.CONCLUSION: Duodenal biopsy undertaken during routine upper gastrointestinal endoscopy in adults, has been gradually incorporated into clinical practice, and is a useful tool for the diagnosis of celiac disease in high risk groups such as those with anaemia and/or chronic diarrhoea.

  8. Infantile refsum disease: gastrointestinal presentation of a peroxisomal disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandel, H; Meiron, D; Schutgens, R B; Wanders, R J; Berant, M

    1992-01-01

    This article describes two siblings with infantile Refsum disease (IRD) whose initial presentation was that of malabsorption and mimicked a-beta- or homozygous hypo-beta-lipoproteinemia. Failure to recognize IRD in the first-born child precluded proper genetic counseling and prenatal diagnosis in subsequent pregnancies and also caused considerable delay in diagnosing IRD in the second child. The clinical heterogeneity of peroxisomal disorders constitutes a diagnostic challenge, which demands a high degree of awareness from the part of the clinician. This is particularly the case with IRD, where protracted diarrhea with low serum cholesterol levels appears to be a frequently occurring initial feature during the 1st months of life.

  9. Clinical value of CT three-dimensional imaging in diagnosing gastrointestinal tract diseases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shao-Yin Duan; Dan-Tong Zhang; Qing-Chi Lin; Yan-Huan Wu

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To discuss the clinical value of CT three-dimensional (3-D) imaging in diagnosing gastrointestinal tract diseases.METHODS: Three-D imaging findings of 52 patients were retrospectively analyzed. Three-D imaging methods included shaded surface display (SSD), volume rendering (VR), virtual endoscopy (VE) and multiplanar reformatting (MPR). The diagnosis results of CT 3-D were evaluated by comparison with those of endoscopy and/or surgical finding.RESULTS: Fifty-two patients with gastrointestinal tract diseases were diagnosed by CT 3-D imaging, of whom 50 cases were correctly diagnosed and 2 were misdiagnosed. There were 33 cases of gastric diseases (27 with carcinoma, 5 with peptic ulcer and 1 with leiomyoma) and 19 large intestinal diseases (10 with colon carcinoma, 2 with carcinoma of the rectum, 5 with colon polypus and 2 with tuberculosis of the ileocecal junction). Twenty-two cases with prominent lesions (9 with subsequent hollow lesions), 20 with stenosis of cavity (8 with concomitant prominent lesions) and 10 with hollow lesions (5 with concomitant prominent lesions) were shown in 3-D images. The minimal lesion shown was 1.0 cm × 0.8 cm × 0.5 cm.CONCLUSION: CT 3-D imaging, a non-invasive examination without pain, can display clearly and directly the lesions of gastrointestinal tract with accurate location and high diagnosis accuracy. It is an important complementary technique to endoscopy.

  10. Human milk glycobiome and its impact on the infant gastrointestinal microbiota

    OpenAIRE

    Zivkovic, Angela M.; German, J. Bruce; Lebrilla, Carlito B.; David A. Mills

    2010-01-01

    Human milk contains an unexpected abundance and diversity of complex oligosaccharides apparently indigestible by the developing infant and instead targeted to its cognate gastrointestinal microbiota. Recent advances in mass spectrometry-based tools have provided a view of the oligosaccharide structures produced in milk across stages of lactation and among human mothers. One postulated function for these oligosaccharides is to enrich a specific “healthy” microbiota containing bifidobacteria, a...

  11. The use of fecal calprotectin as a biomarker in gastrointestinal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burri, Emanuel; Beglinger, Christoph

    2014-02-01

    Abdominal discomfort including pain, bloating and diarrhea is common. It often arises from functional gastrointestinal disorders but may indicate inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Calprotectin is an abundant neutrophil protein that is released during inflammation. When measured in feces, it can be used to differentiate between non-organic and inflammatory intestinal disorders, especially to identify IBD. Fecal calprotectin might also be useful to monitor patients with IBD under treatment and to predict the risk of recurrence of active disease prior to clinical relapse. The use of fecal calprotectin has been investigated in a number of gastrointestinal disorders other than IBD, for example, as screening test for colorectal cancer but the available data are limited. This article summarizes the current literature on the use of fecal calprotectin in clinical practice.

  12. Helicobacter pylori and non-malignant upper gastrointestinal diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasapolli, Riccardo; Malfertheiner, Peter; Kandulski, Arne

    2016-09-01

    Peptic ulcer disease (PUD) has been further decreased over the last decades along with decreasing prevalence of Helicobacter pylori-associated PUD. A delayed H. pylori eradication has been associated with an increased risk of rehospitalization for complicated recurrent peptic ulcer and reemphasized the importance of eradication especially in patients with peptic ulcer bleeding (PUB). PUB associated with NSAID/aspirin intake and H. pylori revealed an additive interaction in gastric pathophysiology which favors the "test-and-treat" strategy for H. pylori in patients with specific risk factors. The H. pylori-negative and NSAID-negative "idiopathic PUD" have been increasingly observed and associated with slower healing tendency, higher risk of recurrence, and greater mortality. Helicobacter pylori-associated dyspepsia has been further investigated and finally defined by the Kyoto consensus. Helicobacter pylori eradication therapy is advised as first option in this group of patients. Only in the case of symptom persistence or recurrence after eradication therapy, dyspeptic patients should be classified as functional dyspepsia (FD). There were few new data in 2015 on the role of H. pylori infection in gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), and in particular Barrett's esophagus. A lower prevalence of gastric atrophy with less acid output in patients with erosive esophagitis confirmed previous findings. In patients with erosive esophagitis, no difference was observed in healing rates neither between H. pylori-positive and H. pylori-negative patients nor between patients that underwent eradication therapy compared to patients without eradication. These findings are in line with the current consensus guidelines concluding that H. pylori eradication has no effects on symptoms and does not aggravate preexisting GERD. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Peripheral aetiopathogenic drivers and mediators of Parkinson's disease and co-morbidities: role of gastrointestinal microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobbs, Sylvia M; Dobbs, R John; Weller, Clive; Charlett, André; Augustin, Aisha; Taylor, David; Ibrahim, Mohammad A A; Bjarnason, Ingvar

    2016-02-01

    We seek an aetiopathogenic model for the spectrum of Parkinson's disease (PD), functional bowel disease, depression and cognitive impairment. The adopted concept is that systemic immuno-inflammatory processes mediate neuro-inflammation. The model would be based on phenotype, exposome (including gastrointestinal microbiome), milieu (immuno-inflammatory and metabolome), human genetics and their interactions. It would enable a patient's position, to be understood in terms of drivers, perpetuators and mediators, and a future position, with and without intervention, predicted. Even the cardinal facets of PD may have different drivers: halting one may allow escape down subordinate pathways. Peptic ulceration is prodromal to PD. In our randomised placebo-controlled trial, hypokinesia improved over the year following biopsy-proven Helicobacter pylori eradication and rigidity worsened. This was independent of any (stable, long t½) antiparkinsonian medication. There are pointers to an autoimmune process: for example, surveillance-confirmed hypokinesia effect was indication specific. During surveillance, successive antimicrobial courses, other than for Helicobacter, were associated with cumulative increase in rigidity. Exhibiting laxatives appeared to stem the overall temporal increase, despite antiparkinsonian medication, in rigidity. Thus, intestinal dysbiosis may be a major source of bystander neuronal damage. There are biological gradients of objective measures of PD facets on circulating inflammatory markers and leucocyte subset counts. Moreover, lactulose hydrogen breath test positivity for small-intestinal bacterial overgrowth (present in two thirds of PD patients) is associated with the same subsets: higher natural killer and total CD4+ counts and lower neutrophils. With greater aetiopathogenic understanding, relatively low cost and on-the-shelf medication could have a major impact. A new generation of animal models, based on the gut microbiome, is envisaged.

  14. A divergent picornavirus from a turkey with gastro-intestinal disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    A novel picornavirus, turkey avisivirus (TuASV), was identified from the feces of turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo) with gastro-intestinal disease from a farm in Indiana, USA. Its genome organization is 5’UTR**IRES-II[VP0,VP3,VP1,2A,2B,2C,3A,3B,3Cpro,3Dpol]3’UTR-poly(A). TuASV only shares 34% (P1), 36% ...

  15. Scoring System for Multiple Organ Dysfunction in Adult Horses with Acute Surgical Gastrointestinal Disease

    OpenAIRE

    McConachie, E.; Giguère, S; Barton, M.H.

    2016-01-01

    Background The prevalence of multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS) in horses with acute surgical gastrointestinal (GI) disease is unknown. Currently, there are no validated criteria to confirm MODS in adult horses. Objectives To develop criteria for a MODS score for horses with acute surgical colic (MODS SGI) and evaluate the association with 6‐month survival. To compare the MODS SGI score with a MODS score extrapolated from criteria used in people (MODS EQ). Animals Adult horses that re...

  16. Dietary intakes, resting metabolic rates, and body composition in benign and malignant gastrointestinal disease.

    OpenAIRE

    Burke, M.; Bryson, E I; Kark, A E.

    1980-01-01

    Dietary protein and energy intakes were assessed in 42 patients with cancer and 24 with benign conditions of the gastrointestinal tract. The relations of dietary intake to body composition was examined. Resulting metabolic rate was measured in 51 patients. No significant differences in dietary intake or metabolic rate were found between patients with cancer and those with benign disease. There were significant positive correlations between protein and energy intakes and the ratio of total bod...

  17. Low-Residue and Low-Fiber Diets in Gastrointestinal Disease Management12

    OpenAIRE

    Vanhauwaert, Erika; Matthys, Christophe; Verdonck, Lies; De Preter, Vicky

    2015-01-01

    Recently, low-residue diets were removed from the American Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics’ Nutrition Care Manual due to the lack of a scientifically accepted quantitative definition and the unavailability of a method to estimate the amount of food residue produced. This narrative review focuses on defining the similarities and/or discrepancies between low-residue and low-fiber diets and on the diagnostic and therapeutic values of these diets in gastrointestinal disease management. Diagnos...

  18. Chili Peppers, Curcumins, and Prebiotics in Gastrointestinal Health and Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patcharatrakul, Tanisa; Gonlachanvit, Sutep

    2016-04-01

    There is growing evidence for the role of several natural products as either useful agents or adjuncts in the management of functional GI disorders (FGIDs). In this review, we examine the medical evidence for three such compounds: chili, a culinary spice; curcumin, another spice and active derivative of a root bark; and prebiotics, which are nondigestible food products. Chili may affect the pathogenesis of abdominal pain especially in functional dyspepsia and cause other symptoms. It may have a therapeutic role in FGIDs through desensitization of transient receptor potential vanilloid-1 receptor. Curcumin, the active ingredient of turmeric rhizome, has been shown in several preclinical studies and uncontrolled clinical trials as having effects on gut inflammation, gut permeability and the brain-gut axis, especially in FGIDs. Prebiotics, the non-digestible food ingredients in dietary fiber, may serve as nutrients and selectively stimulate the growth and/or activity of certain colonic bacteria. The net effect of this change on colonic microbiota may lead to the production of acidic metabolites and other compounds that help to reduce the production of toxins and suppress the growth of harmful or disease-causing enteric pathogens. Although some clinical benefit in IBS has been shown, high dose intake of prebiotics may cause more bloating from bacterial fermentation.

  19. Gastrointestinal manifestations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanowitz, H B; Simon, D; Weiss, L M; Noyer, C; Coyle, C; Wittner, M

    1996-11-01

    Gastrointestinal disease is a common problem in the setting of HIV-1 infection. As patients live longer and other opportunistic pathogens are suppressed, these problems are becoming even more important in the quality of life.

  20. Relevance of Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis Plasminogen Binding Activity in the Human Gastrointestinal Microenvironment ▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candela, Marco; Turroni, Silvia; Centanni, Manuela; Fiori, Jessica; Bergmann, Simone; Hammerschmidt, Sven; Brigidi, Patrizia

    2011-01-01

    Human plasmin(ogen) is regarded as a component of the molecular cross talk between the probiotic species Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis and the human host. However, up to now, only in vitro studies have been reported. Here, we demonstrate that the probiotic strain B. animalis subsp. lactis BI07 is capable of recruiting plasmin(ogen) present at physiological concentrations in crude extracts from human feces. Our results provide evidence that supports the significance of the B. lactis-plasmin(ogen) interaction in the human gastrointestinal tract. PMID:21821753

  1. Relevance of Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis plasminogen binding activity in the human gastrointestinal microenvironment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candela, Marco; Turroni, Silvia; Centanni, Manuela; Fiori, Jessica; Bergmann, Simone; Hammerschmidt, Sven; Brigidi, Patrizia

    2011-10-01

    Human plasmin(ogen) is regarded as a component of the molecular cross talk between the probiotic species Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis and the human host. However, up to now, only in vitro studies have been reported. Here, we demonstrate that the probiotic strain B. animalis subsp. lactis BI07 is capable of recruiting plasmin(ogen) present at physiological concentrations in crude extracts from human feces. Our results provide evidence that supports the significance of the B. lactis-plasmin(ogen) interaction in the human gastrointestinal tract.

  2. The Frequency and Severity of Gastrointestinal Symptoms in Patients with Early Parkinson’s Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hye-Young Sung

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective Although gastrointestinal dysfunctions occur in the majority of patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD, they are often unrecognized because many patients remain relatively asymptomatic in the early stage. We investigated the frequency of gastrointestinal symptoms in patients with PD using newly developed gastrointestinal symptom questionnaires. Methods Early PD patients with a symptom duration not exceeding 3 years were included in this study. All PD patients were evaluated using a questionnaire, which consisted of three relevant domains: oropharyngoesophageal (10 items; gastric (3 items; and intestinal-anorectal (7 items. The frequency of symptoms was calculated as a proportion with an item score ≥ 2. Results Of the 54 patients enrolled, 48 patients (88.9% responded that bowel symptoms developed before the onset of Parkinsonian motor symptoms, and four patients reported that the onset of two types of symptoms (i.e., bowel and neurological occurred approximately simultaneously, with only months between them. The frequencies of gastrointestinal symptoms are as follows: speech disturbance (40.7%, drooling (24.1%, sense of getting stuck (31.5%, choking (27.8%, globus pharyngis (16.7%, repetitive deglutition (29.6%, pain during swallowing (5.6%, food regurgitation (3.7%, acid reflux (7.4%, nausea/vomiting (11.1%, early satiety (16.7%, postprandial fullness (14.8%, epigastric soreness (9.3%, abdominal pain (3.7%, constipation (46.3%, excessive strain during defecation (33.3%, fecal incontinence (7.4%, tenesmus (20.4%, loose stool or diarrhea (3.7%, and difficulty in relaxing anal sphincter (11.1%. Two patients were scored at zero. Conclusions Our findings confirm that gastrointestinal dysfunction occurs in early PD in relatively high frequency.

  3. CLINICAL VALUE OF ALARM SYMPTOMS IN DIAGNOSIS OF LOWER GASTROINTESTINAL DISEASES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xiao-bo; LIU Wen-zhong; GE Zhi-zheng; XIAO Shu-dong

    2006-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the clinical value of alarm symptoms in diagnosis of lower gastrointestinal diseases. Methods Data of consecutive autochthonous patients referred to the endoscopy center of Renji Hospital during the period of Oct. 2002 to Dec. 2003 were retrospectively analyzed. The prevalence of alarm symptoms in Shanghai patients with colorectal malignancies or other organic or functional lower gastrointestinal diseases was investigated. Results 83 (4. 9% ) cases of colorectal malignancies were found in 1681 patients referred to the center for colonoscopy because of lower gastrointestinal symptoms. All these malignancies were verified to be in the progressive stage. The prevalence of alarm symptoms was 81.9% (68/83). Hematochezia ( OR 4. 1, 95% CI 3.3-5.2, P<0.001) , melena (OR6.4, 95%CI3.7-11.0, P<0.001) and anemia (OR9.6, 95%CI3. 7-25. 0, P<0.001 ) were the most common and specific alarm symptoms. All the patients without alarm symptoms were above the age of 40 years. 264 (15.7%) cases of organic colorectal diseases other than malignancies and 1334 (79.4%) cases with no causal pathology identified were found in 1681 patients, and the prevalence of alarm symptoms in these two groups was 48. 5% (128/264) and 14. 8% (197/1334), respectively. Conclusion Alarm symptoms including hematochezia, melena, and anemia were useful in distinguishing organic from functional colorectal diseases in patients over 40 years old at the onset of symptoms. Furthermore, hematochezia, melena, anemia,severe weight loss, and abdominal mass were helpful in differentiating malignant from non-malignant colorectal diseases. Colonoscopy should be recommended for patients regardless of age with these alarm symptoms, and so do patients above the age of 40 years with no alarm symptoms before the diagnosis of functional diseases are made.

  4. A critical appraisal of probiotics (as drugs or food supplements) in gastrointestinal diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passariello, Annalisa; Agricole, Pascal; Malfertheiner, Peter

    2014-06-01

    Probiotics may be registered as food supplements or drugs. This article summarizes differences in European regulations of probiotics registered as food supplements and drugs, as well as issues related to the quality of probiotic products. For registration as a drug, the European Medicines Agency demands extensive and detailed quality, efficacy and safety evidence; whereas compulsory analyses requested for food supplements consist only in a nutritional analysis. As a result, the quality of those probiotics registered as drugs, compared to food supplements, is in general controlled with higher standards. Despite these differences and whatever the status of the probiotic product, its efficacy and safety has to be documented in well conducted randomized controlled trials (RCTs). Furthermore, this paper reviews recent evidence on the use of probiotics for gastrointestinal diseases, evaluating all the existing information up to January 2014. In all eligible published studies in which use of probiotics for gastrointestinal diseases were investigated and reported, no language limitations were applied. Special focus is placed on RCTs (or their meta-analyses) showing positive results, so that the findings may be applicable to everyday clinical practice. Currently, the best documented clinical areas appear to be probiotics efficacy for the treatment of acute gastroenteritis in children and for the prevention of antibiotic-associated diarrhea both in children and in adults. In other gastrointestinal conditions, some promising observations are emerging, but no definitive conclusions can be reached at present.

  5. Parkinson's Disease and Gastrointestinal Non Motor Symptoms: Diagnostic and Therapeutic Options - A Practise Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klingelhoefer, Lisa; Reichmann, Heinz

    2015-01-01

    Gastrointestinal (GI) disturbances in Parkinson's disease (PD) are varied, involve the upper and lower GI tract and are evident in all stages of the disease. Recognition and re-evaluation of these non motor symptoms (NMS) due to the course of PD is important. They have a major impact on the efficacy of oral anti-parkinsonian medication and health related quality of life. Treatment needs to be tailored to the specific patient case with evaluation of PD stage, the specific GI NMS and comorbidities. This article provides an overview of the pharmacological and non-pharmacological therapeutic options for GI NMS in PD.

  6. Disease burden due to gastrointestinal pathogens in a wastewater system in Kampala, Uganda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fuhrimann, Samuel; Winkler, Mirko S.; Stalder, Michelle

    2016-01-01

    the drainage system or managing faecal sludge (sanitation workers); (iv) urban farmers; and (v) swimmers in Lake Victoria. The QMRA was based on measured concentrations of Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp. and Ascaris spp. eggs in wastewater samples. Published ratios between measured organism and pathogenic...... strains of norovirus, rotavirus, Campylobacter spp., pathogenic E. coli, pathogenic Salmonella spp., Cryptosporidium spp. and Ascaris lumbricoides were used to estimate annual incidence of gastrointestinal illness and the resulting disease burden. The QMRA estimated a total of 59,493 disease episodes per...

  7. Serum albumin and body weight as biomarkers for the antemortem identification of bone and gastrointestinal disease in the common marmoset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxter, Victoria K; Shaw, Gillian C; Sotuyo, Nathaniel P; Carlson, Cathy S; Olson, Erik J; Zink, M Christine; Mankowski, Joseph L; Adams, Robert J; Hutchinson, Eric K; Metcalf Pate, Kelly A

    2013-01-01

    The increasing use of the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) in research makes it important to diagnose spontaneous disease that may confound experimental studies. Bone disease and gastrointestinal disease are two major causes of morbidity and mortality in captive marmosets, but currently no effective antemortem tests are available to identify affected animals prior to the terminal stage of disease. In this study we propose that bone disease and gastrointestinal disease are associated disease entities in marmosets and aim to establish the efficacy of several economical antemortem tests in identifying and predicting disease. Tissues from marmosets were examined to define affected animals and unaffected controls. Complete blood count, serum chemistry values, body weight, quantitative radiographs, and tissue-specific biochemical markers were evaluated as candidate biomarkers for disease. Bone and gastrointestinal disease were associated, with marmosets being over seven times more likely to have either concurrent bone and gastrointestinal disease or neither disease as opposed to lesions in only one organ system. When used in tandem, serum albumin disease. Progressive body weight loss of 0.05% of peak body weight per day predicted which marmosets would develop disease prior to the terminal stage. Bone tissue-specific tests, such as quantitative analysis of radiographs and serum parathyroid hormone levels, were effective for distinguishing between marmosets with bone disease and those without. These results provide an avenue for making informed decisions regarding the removal of affected marmosets from studies in a timely manner, preserving the integrity of research results.

  8. The effect of selected factors on the survival of Bacillus cereus in the human gastrointestinal tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berthold-Pluta, Anna; Pluta, Antoni; Garbowska, Monika

    2015-05-01

    Bacillus cereus is a Gram-positive bacterium widely distributed in soil and vegetation. This bacterial species can also contaminate raw or processed foods. Pathogenic B. cereus strains can cause a range of infections in humans, as well as food poisoning of an emetic (intoxication) or diarrheal type (toxico-infection). Toxico-infections are due to the action of the Hbl toxin, Nhe toxin, and cytotoxin K produced by the microorganism in the gastrointestinal tract. This occurs once the spores or vegetative B. cereus cells survive the pH barrier of the stomach and reach the small intestine where they produce toxins in sufficient amounts. This article discusses the effect of various factors on the survival of B. cereus in the gastrointestinal tract, including low pH and the presence of digestive enzymes in the stomach, bile salts in the small intestine, and indigenous microflora in the lower parts of the gastrointestinal tract. Additional aspects also reported to affect B. cereus survival and virulence in the gastrointestinal tract include the interaction of the spores and vegetative cells with enterocytes. In vitro studies revealed that both vegetative B. cereus and spores can survive in the gastrointestinal tract suggesting that the biological form of the microorganism may have less influence on the occurrence of the symptoms of infection than was once believed. It is most likely the interaction between the pathogen and enterocytes that is necessary for the diarrheal form of B. cereus food poisoning to develop. The adhesion of B. cereus to the intestinal epithelium allows the bacterium to grow and produce enterotoxins in the proximity of the epithelium. Recent studies suggest that the human intestinal microbiota inhibits the growth of vegetative B. cereus cells considerably.

  9. Impact of pasteurization of human milk on preterm newborn in vitro digestion: Gastrointestinal disintegration, lipolysis and proteolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Samira C; Bourlieu, Claire; Ménard, Olivia; Bellanger, Amandine; Henry, Gwénaële; Rousseau, Florence; Dirson, Emelyne; Carrière, Frédéric; Dupont, Didier; Deglaire, Amélie

    2016-11-15

    Human milk feeding is an important recommendation for preterm newborns considering their vulnerability and digestive immaturity. Holder pasteurization (62.5°C, 30min) applied in milk banks modifies its biological quality and its microstructure. We investigated the impact of pasteurization of preterm human milk on its gastrointestinal kinetics of lipolysis, proteolysis and structural disintegration. An in vitro dynamic system was set up to simulate the gastrointestinal digestion of preterm newborns. A pool of preterm human milk was digested as raw or after Holder pasteurization. Pasteurization impacted the microstructure of undigested human milk, its gastrointestinal disintegration and tended to limit the intestinal lipolysis. Furthermore, the gastrointestinal bioaccessibility of some fatty acids was decreased by pasteurization, while the intestinal bioaccessibility of some amino acids was selectively modulated. The impact of pasteurization on the digestion of human milk may have nutritional relevance in vivo and potentially modulates preterm development and growth. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Age and gender affect the composition of fungal population of the human gastrointestinal tract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Strati

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The fungal component of the human gut microbiota has been neglected for long time due to the low relative abundance of fungi with respect to bacteria, and only recently few reports have explored its composition and dynamics in health or disease. The application of metagenomics methods to the full understanding of fungal communities is currently limited by the under representation of fungal DNA with respect to the bacterial one, as well as by the limited ability to discriminate passengers from colonizers. Here we investigated the gut mycobiota of a cohort of healthy subjects in order to reduce the gap of knowledge concerning fungal intestinal communities in the healthy status further screening for phenotypical traits that could reflect fungi adaptation to the host. We studied the fecal fungal populations of 111 healthy subjects by means of cultivation on fungal selective media and by amplicon-based ITS1 metagenomics analysis on a subset of 57 individuals. We then characterized the isolated fungi for their tolerance to gastrointestinal tract-like challenges and their susceptibility to antifungals. A total of 34 different fungal species were isolated showing several phenotypic characteristics associated with intestinal environment such as tolerance to body temperature (37°C, to acidic and oxidative stress and to bile salts exposure. We found a high frequency of azoles resistance in fungal isolates, with potential and significant clinical impact. Analyses of fungal communities revealed that the human gut mycobiota differs in function of individuals’ life stage in a gender-related fashion. The combination of metagenomics and fungal cultivation allowed an in-depth understanding of the fungal intestinal community structure associated to the healthy status and the commensalism-related traits of isolated fungi. We further discussed comparatively the results of sequencing and cultivation to critically evaluate the application of metagenomics

  11. Update on the Medical Management of Gastrointestinal Behçet’s Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Lopalco

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Behçet’s disease (BD is a multisystemic disorder of unknown etiology mainly defined by recurrent oral aphthosis, genital ulcers, and chronic relapsing bilateral uveitis, all of which represent the “stigmata” of disease. However, many other organs including the vascular, neurological, musculoskeletal, and gastrointestinal systems can be affected. The gastrointestinal involvement in Behçet’s disease (GIBD, along with the neurological and vascular ones, represents the most feared clinical manifestation of BD and shares many symptoms with inflammatory bowel diseases, such as Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis. Consequently, the differential diagnosis is often a daunting task, albeit the presence of typical endoscopic and pathologic findings may be a valuable aid to the exact diagnosis. To date, there are no standardized medical treatments for GIBD; therefore therapy should be tailored to the single patient and based on the severity of the clinical features and their complications. This work provides a digest of all current experience and evidence about pharmacological agents suggested by the medical literature as having a potential role for managing the dreadful features of GIBD.

  12. Update on the Medical Management of Gastrointestinal Behçet's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venerito, Vincenzo; Franceschini, Rossella; Lapadula, Giovanni; Galeazzi, Mauro; Frediani, Bruno; Iannone, Florenzo

    2017-01-01

    Behçet's disease (BD) is a multisystemic disorder of unknown etiology mainly defined by recurrent oral aphthosis, genital ulcers, and chronic relapsing bilateral uveitis, all of which represent the “stigmata” of disease. However, many other organs including the vascular, neurological, musculoskeletal, and gastrointestinal systems can be affected. The gastrointestinal involvement in Behçet's disease (GIBD), along with the neurological and vascular ones, represents the most feared clinical manifestation of BD and shares many symptoms with inflammatory bowel diseases, such as Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis. Consequently, the differential diagnosis is often a daunting task, albeit the presence of typical endoscopic and pathologic findings may be a valuable aid to the exact diagnosis. To date, there are no standardized medical treatments for GIBD; therefore therapy should be tailored to the single patient and based on the severity of the clinical features and their complications. This work provides a digest of all current experience and evidence about pharmacological agents suggested by the medical literature as having a potential role for managing the dreadful features of GIBD. PMID:28210071

  13. CD34 immunoreactivity and interstitial cells of Cajal in the human and mouse gastrointestinal tract

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vanderwinden, J M; Rumessen, J J; De Laet, M H;

    2000-01-01

    Immunoreactivity for the tyrosine kinase receptor Kit (Kit-ir) is an established marker for the interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) of the gut. Recently, the presence of CD34 immunoreactivity (CD34-ir) has been reported in Kit-ir ICC around the myenteric plexus in human small intestine. Conversely,......-localization. The ontogeny and function of CD34-ir cells in the gut, as well as the origin of gastrointestinal stromal tumors, remain unclear....

  14. Identification and localization of soluble sulfotransferases in the human gastrointestinal tract

    OpenAIRE

    Teubner, Wera; Meinl, Walter; Florian, Simone; Kretzschmar, Michael; Glatt, Hansruedi

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Soluble sulfotransferases (SULTs) are important in the regulation of messenger molecules and the elimination of xenobiotics. However, sulfo-conjugation of various substrates can also lead to the formation of reactive metabolites that may induce cancer and cause other damage. Our aim was to identify the SULT forms expressed in the human gastrointestinal tract, especially colon and rectum (common sites for cancer) and to determine their cellular localization. Normal colonic ...

  15. Campylobacter hominis sp nov., from the human gastrointestinal tract

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lawson, A.J.; On, Stephen L.W.; Logan, J.M.J.

    2001-01-01

    Sequences of 16S rDNA of a novel campylobacter from faeces of healthy humans were previously shown to originate from a new taxon, 'Candidatus Campylobacter hominis', which could not be cultured. Since phylogenetic analysis suggested that anaerobic conditions might be required for growth......, an isolation strategy was developed employing initial non-selective membrane filtration onto fastidious anaerobe agar. Campylobacters were then isolated from the resulting mixed microbial flora by a dilution strategy and/or by immunomagnetic separation with genus-specific polyclonal antibody. Isolates were...... identified by a genus and taxon-specific PCR assay, and 16S rDNA nucleotide sequence analysis was carried out. All isolates exhibited the typical Campylobacter characteristics of being non-fermentative, oxidase-positive, catalase-negative and Gram-negative. Unusually, however, they were straight rods lacking...

  16. Human Nanog pseudogene8 promotes the proliferation of gastrointestinal cancer cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uchino, Keita, E-mail: uchino13@intmed1.med.kyushu-u.ac.jp [Department of Medicine and Biosystemic Science, Kyushu University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, 3-1-1 Maidashi, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8582 (Japan); Hirano, Gen [Department of Medicine and Biosystemic Science, Kyushu University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, 3-1-1 Maidashi, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8582 (Japan); Hirahashi, Minako [Department of Anatomic Pathology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan); Isobe, Taichi; Shirakawa, Tsuyoshi; Kusaba, Hitoshi; Baba, Eishi [Department of Medicine and Biosystemic Science, Kyushu University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, 3-1-1 Maidashi, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8582 (Japan); Tsuneyoshi, Masazumi [Department of Anatomic Pathology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan); Akashi, Koichi [Department of Medicine and Biosystemic Science, Kyushu University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, 3-1-1 Maidashi, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8582 (Japan)

    2012-09-10

    There is emerging evidence that human solid tumor cells originate from cancer stem cells (CSCs). In cancer cell lines, tumor-initiating CSCs are mainly found in the side population (SP) that has the capacity to extrude dyes such as Hoechst 33342. We found that Nanog is expressed specifically in SP cells of human gastrointestinal (GI) cancer cells. Nucleotide sequencing revealed that NanogP8 but not Nanog was expressed in GI cancer cells. Transfection of NanogP8 into GI cancer cell lines promoted cell proliferation, while its inhibition by anti-Nanog siRNA suppressed the proliferation. Immunohistochemical staining of primary GI cancer tissues revealed NanogP8 protein to be strongly expressed in 3 out of 60 cases. In these cases, NanogP8 was found especially in an infiltrative part of the tumor, in proliferating cells with Ki67 expression. These data suggest that NanogP8 is involved in GI cancer development in a fraction of patients, in whom it presumably acts by supporting CSC proliferation. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nanog maintains pluripotency by regulating embryonic stem cells differentiation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nanog is expressed in cancer stem cells of human gastrointestinal cancer cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nucleotide sequencing revealed that Nanog pseudogene8 but not Nanog was expressed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nanog pseudogene8 promotes cancer stem cells proliferation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nanog pseudogene8 is involved in gastrointestinal cancer development.

  17. Factors That Increase Risk of Celiac Disease Autoimmunity After a Gastrointestinal Infection in Early Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemppainen, Kaisa M; Lynch, Kristian F; Liu, Edwin; Lönnrot, Maria; Simell, Ville; Briese, Thomas; Koletzko, Sibylle; Hagopian, William; Rewers, Marian; She, Jin-Xiong; Simell, Olli; Toppari, Jorma; Ziegler, Anette-G; Akolkar, Beena; Krischer, Jeffrey P; Lernmark, Åke; Hyöty, Heikki; Triplett, Eric W; Agardh, Daniel

    2017-05-01

    Little is known about the pathogenic mechanisms of gluten immunogenicity in patients with celiac disease. We studied temporal associations between infections and the development of celiac disease autoimmunity, and examined effects of HLA alleles, rotavirus vaccination status, and infant feeding. We monitored 6327 children in the United States and Europe carrying HLA risk genotypes for celiac disease from 1 to 4 years of age for presence of tissue transglutaminase autoantibodies (the definition of celiac disease autoimmunity), until March 31, 2015. Parental reports of gastrointestinal and respiratory infections were collected every third month from birth. We analyzed time-varying relationships among reported infections, rotavirus vaccination status, time to first introduction of gluten, breastfeeding, and risk of celiac disease autoimmunity using proportional hazard models. We identified 13,881 gastrointestinal infectious episodes (GIE) and 79,816 respiratory infectious episodes. During the follow-up period, 732 of 6327 (11.6%) children developed celiac disease autoimmunity. A GIE increased the risk of celiac disease autoimmunity within the following 3 months by 33% (hazard ratio [HR], 1.33; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.11-1.59). This risk increased 2-fold among children born in winter and introduced to gluten before age 6 months (HR, 2.08; 95% CI, 1.46-2.98), and increased 10-fold among children without HLA-DQ2 alleles and breastfed for fewer than 4 months (HR, 9.76; 95% CI, 3.87-24.8). Risk of celiac disease autoimmunity was reduced in children vaccinated against rotavirus and introduced to gluten before age 6 months (HR, 0.57; 95% CI, 0.36-0.88). Gastrointestinal infections increase the risk of celiac disease autoimmunity in children with genetic susceptibility to this autoimmune disorder. The risk is modified by HLA genotype, infant gluten consumption, breastfeeding, and rotavirus vaccination, indicating complex interactions among infections, genetic factors

  18. Gastrointestinal phosphate handling in CKD and its association with cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinman, Edward J; Light, Paul D; Suki, Wadi N

    2013-11-01

    Increases in serum concentrations of parathyroid hormone (PTH) and fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF-23) and ultimately phosphate and decreases in 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D level are thought to play a central role in the progressive nature of kidney disease and the development of cardiovascular disease in patients with chronic kidney disease. The initial changes in PTH and FGF-23 levels are adaptive to maintain serum phosphate concentration and phosphate load within defined levels by increasing urinary excretion of phosphate. Less well appreciated is the unanticipated finding that absorption of phosphate from the gastrointestinal tract is not downregulated in chronic kidney disease. This maladaptive response maintains higher levels of phosphate absorption, thereby contributing to the phosphate burden. Moreover, in response to a low-phosphate diet, as often is prescribed to such patients, gut phosphate absorption may be enhanced, undermining the potential beneficial effects of this intervention. Given the poor response to limiting phosphate intake and the use of phosphate binders, we suggest that research efforts be oriented toward better understanding of the factors that affect phosphate absorption in the gastrointestinal tract and the development of agents that directly inhibit phosphate transporters in the small intestine and/or their associated binding proteins.

  19. Risk factors of surgical site infections in patients with Crohn's disease complicated with gastrointestinal fistula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Kun; Ren, Jianan; Li, Guanwei; Hu, Qiongyuan; Wu, Xiuwen; Wang, Zhiwei; Wang, Gefei; Gu, Guosheng; Ren, Huajian; Hong, Zhiwu; Li, Jieshou

    2017-05-01

    Surgical site infection (SSI) is the most common complication following surgical procedures. This study aimed to determine risk factors associated with SSI in patients with Crohn's disease (CD) complicated with gastrointestinal fistula. This was a retrospective review of patients who underwent surgical resection in gastrointestinal fistula patients with CD between January 2013 and January 2015, identified from a prospectively maintained gastrointestinal fistula database. Demographic information, preoperative medication, intraoperative findings, and postoperative outcome data were collected. Univariate and multivariate analysis was carried out to assess possible risk factors for SSI. A total of 118 patients were identified, of whom 75.4% were men, the average age of the patients was 34.1 years, and the average body mass index (BMI) was 18.8 kg/m(2). The rate of SSI was 31.4%. On multivariate analysis, preoperative anemia (P = 0.001, OR 7.698, 95% CI 2.273-26.075), preoperative bacteria present in fistula tract (P = 0.029, OR 3.399, 95% CI 1.131-10.220), and preoperative enteral nutrition (EN) fistula tract, and preoperative EN fistula complicated with CD. Preoperative identification of these risk factors may assist in risk assessment and then to optimize preoperative preparation and perioperative care.

  20. Arcobacter in Lake Erie beach waters: an emerging gastrointestinal pathogen linked with human-associated fecal contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Cheonghoon; Agidi, Senyo; Marion, Jason W; Lee, Jiyoung

    2012-08-01

    The genus Arcobacter has been associated with human illness and fecal contamination by humans and animals. To better characterize the health risk posed by this emerging waterborne pathogen, we investigated the occurrence of Arcobacter spp. in Lake Erie beach waters. During the summer of 2010, water samples were collected 35 times from the Euclid, Villa Angela, and Headlands (East and West) beaches, located along Ohio's Lake Erie coast. After sample concentration, Arcobacter was quantified by real-time PCR targeting the Arcobacter 23S rRNA gene. Other fecal genetic markers (Bacteroides 16S rRNA gene [HuBac], Escherichia coli uidA gene, Enterococcus 23S rRNA gene, and tetracycline resistance genes) were also assessed. Arcobacter was detected frequently at all beaches, and both the occurrence and densities of Arcobacter spp. were higher at the Euclid and Villa Angela beaches (with higher levels of fecal contamination) than at the East and West Headlands beaches. The Arcobacter density in Lake Erie beach water was significantly correlated with the human-specific fecal marker HuBac according to Spearman's correlation analysis (r = 0.592; P Arcobacter sequences were closely related to Arcobacter cryaerophilus, which is known to cause gastrointestinal diseases in humans. Since human-pathogenic Arcobacter spp. are linked to human-associated fecal sources, it is important to identify and manage the human-associated contamination sources for the prevention of Arcobacter-associated public health risks at Lake Erie beaches.

  1. Genetic Mapping in Human Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Altshuler, David; Daly, Mark J; Lander, Eric S.

    2008-01-01

    Genetic mapping provides a powerful approach to identify genes and biological processes underlying any trait influenced by inheritance, including human diseases. We discuss the intellectual foundations of genetic mapping of Mendelian and complex traits in humans, examine lessons emerging from linkage analysis of Mendelian diseases and genome-wide association studies of common diseases, and discuss questions and challenges that lie ahead.

  2. Gastrointestinal infections and diarrheal disease in Ghanaian infants and children: an outpatient case-control study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ralf Krumkamp

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Diarrheal diseases are among the most frequent causes of morbidity and mortality in children worldwide, especially in resource-poor areas. This case-control study assessed the associations between gastrointestinal infections and diarrhea in children from rural Ghana. METHODS: Stool samples were collected from 548 children with diarrhea and from 686 without gastrointestinal symptoms visiting a hospital from 2007-2008. Samples were analyzed by microscopy and molecular methods. RESULTS: The organisms most frequently detected in symptomatic cases were Giardia lamblia, Shigella spp./ enteroinvasive Escherichia coli (EIEC, and Campylobacter jejuni. Infections with rotavirus (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 8.4; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 4.3-16.6, C. parvum/hominis (aOR = 2.7; 95% CI: 1.4-5.2 and norovirus (aOR = 2.0; 95%CI: 1.3-3.0 showed the strongest association with diarrhea. The highest attributable fractions (AF for diarrhea were estimated for rotavirus (AF = 14.3%; 95% CI: 10.9-17.5%, Shigella spp./EIEC (AF = 10.5%; 95% CI: 3.5-17.1%, and norovirus (AF = 8.2%; 95% CI 3.2-12.9%. Co-infections occurred frequently and most infections presented themselves independently of other infections. However, infections with E. dispar, C. jejuni, and norovirus were observed more often in the presence of G. lamblia. CONCLUSIONS: Diarrheal diseases in children from a rural area in sub-Saharan Africa are mainly due to infections with rotavirus, Shigella spp./EIEC, and norovirus. These associations are strongly age-dependent, which should be considered when diagnosing causes of diarrhea. The presented results are informative for both clinicians treating gastrointestinal infections as well as public health experts designing control programs against diarrheal diseases.

  3. Gastrointestinal Fibroblasts Have Specialized, Diverse Transcriptional Phenotypes: A Comprehensive Gene Expression Analysis of Human Fibroblasts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youichi Higuchi

    Full Text Available Fibroblasts are the principal stromal cells that exist in whole organs and play vital roles in many biological processes. Although the functional diversity of fibroblasts has been estimated, a comprehensive analysis of fibroblasts from the whole body has not been performed and their transcriptional diversity has not been sufficiently explored. The aim of this study was to elucidate the transcriptional diversity of human fibroblasts within the whole body.Global gene expression analysis was performed on 63 human primary fibroblasts from 13 organs. Of these, 32 fibroblasts from gastrointestinal organs (gastrointestinal fibroblasts: GIFs were obtained from a pair of 2 anatomical sites: the submucosal layer (submucosal fibroblasts: SMFs and the subperitoneal layer (subperitoneal fibroblasts: SPFs. Using hierarchical clustering analysis, we elucidated identifiable subgroups of fibroblasts and analyzed the transcriptional character of each subgroup.In unsupervised clustering, 2 major clusters that separate GIFs and non-GIFs were observed. Organ- and anatomical site-dependent clusters within GIFs were also observed. The signature genes that discriminated GIFs from non-GIFs, SMFs from SPFs, and the fibroblasts of one organ from another organ consisted of genes associated with transcriptional regulation, signaling ligands, and extracellular matrix remodeling.GIFs are characteristic fibroblasts with specific gene expressions from transcriptional regulation, signaling ligands, and extracellular matrix remodeling related genes. In addition, the anatomical site- and organ-dependent diversity of GIFs was also discovered. These features of GIFs contribute to their specific physiological function and homeostatic maintenance, and create a functional diversity of the gastrointestinal tract.

  4. Subclinical infection and asymptomatic carriage of gastrointestinal zoonoses: occupational exposure, environmental pathways, and the anonymous spread of disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quilliam, R S; Cross, P; Williams, A Prysor; Edwards-Jones, G; Salmon, R L; Rigby, D; Chalmers, R M; Thomas, D Rh; Jones, D L

    2013-10-01

    Asymptomatic carriage of gastrointestinal zoonoses is more common in people whose profession involves them working directly with domesticated animals. Subclinical infections (defined as an infection in which symptoms are either asymptomatic or sufficiently mild to escape diagnosis) are important within a community as unknowing (asymptomatic) carriers of pathogens do not change their behaviour to prevent the spread of disease; therefore the public health significance of asymptomatic human excretion of zoonoses should not be underestimated. However, optimal strategies for managing diseases where asymptomatic carriage instigates further infection remain unresolved, and the impact on disease management is unclear. In this review we consider the environmental pathways associated with prolonged antigenic exposure and critically assess the significance of asymptomatic carriage in disease outbreaks. Although screening high-risk groups for occupationally acquired diseases would be logistically problematical, there may be an economic case for identifying and treating asymptomatic carriage if the costs of screening and treatment are less than the costs of identifying and treating those individuals infected by asymptomatic hosts.

  5. Confocal Laser Endomicroscopy in Gastrointestinal and Pancreatobiliary Diseases: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Fugazza

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Confocal laser endomicroscopy (CLE is an endoscopic-assisted technique developed to obtain histopathological diagnoses of gastrointestinal and pancreatobiliary diseases in real time. The objective of this systematic review is to analyze the current literature on CLE and to evaluate the applicability and diagnostic yield of CLE in patients with gastrointestinal and pancreatobiliary diseases. A literature search was performed on MEDLINE, EMBASE, Scopus, and Cochrane Oral Health Group Specialized Register, using pertinent keywords without time limitations. Both prospective and retrospective clinical studies that evaluated the sensitivity, specificity, or accuracy of CLE were eligible for inclusion. Of 662 articles identified, 102 studies were included in the systematic review. The studies were conducted between 2004 and 2015 in 16 different countries. CLE demonstrated high sensitivity and specificity in the detection of dysplasia in Barrett’s esophagus, gastric neoplasms and polyps, colorectal cancers in inflammatory bowel disease, malignant pancreatobiliary strictures, and pancreatic cysts. Although CLE has several promising applications, its use has been limited by its low availability, high cost, and need of specific operator training. Further clinical trials with a particular focus on cost-effectiveness and medicoeconomic analyses, as well as standardized institutional training, are advocated to implement CLE in routine clinical practice.

  6. Part 1: The Human Gut Microbiome in Health and Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Bull, Matthew J.; Plummer, Nigel T.

    2014-01-01

    The bacterial cells harbored within the human gastrointestinal tract (GIT) outnumber the host’s cells by a factor of 10 and the genes encoded by the bacteria resident within the GIT outnumber their host’s genes by more than 100 times. These human digestive-tract associated microbes are referred to as the gut microbiome. The human gut microbiome and its role in both health and disease has been the subject of extensive research, establishing its involvement in human metabolism, nutrition, physi...

  7. Human development index is associated with mortality-to-incidence ratios of gastrointestinal cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Qi-Da; Zhang, Qi; Chen, Wei; Bai, Xue-Li; Liang, Ting-Bo

    2013-08-28

    To identify the role of human development in the incidence and mortality rates of gastrointestinal cancers worldwide. The age-standardized incidence and mortality rates for gastrointestinal cancers, including cancers of the esophagus, stomach, pancreas, liver, gallbladder, and colorectum, were obtained from the GLOBOCAN 2008 database and United States Cancer Statistics (USCS) report. The human development index (HDI) data were calculated according to the 2011 Human Development Report. We estimated the mortality-to-incidence ratios (MIRs) at the regional and national levels, and explored the association of the MIR with development levels as measured by the HDI using a modified "drug dose to inhibition response" model. Furthermore, countries were divided into four groups according to the HDI distribution, and the MIRs of the four HDI groups were compared by one-way ANOVA followed by the Tukey-Kramer post-hoc test. State-specific MIRs in the United States were predicted from the estimated HDI using the fitted non-linear model, and were compared with the actual MIRs calculated from data in the USCS report. The worldwide incidence and mortality rates of gastrointestinal cancers were as high as 39.4 and 54.9 cases per 100000 individuals, respectively. Linear and non-linear regression analyses revealed an inverse correlation between the MIR of gastrointestinal cancers and the HDI at the regional and national levels (β < 0; P = 0.0028 for regional level and < 0.0001 for national level, ANOVA). The MIR differed significantly among the four HDI areas (very high HDI, 0.620 ± 0.033; high HDI, 0.807 ± 0.018; medium HDI, 0.857 ± 0.021; low HDI, 0.953 ± 0.011; P < 0.001, one-way ANOVA). Prediction of the MIRs for individual United States states using best-fitted non-linear models showed little deviation from the actual MIRs in the United States. Except for 28 data points (9.93% of 282), the actual MIRs of all gastrointestinal cancers were mostly located in the prediction

  8. Modulation of Ingestive Behavior and Gastrointestinal Motility by Ghrelin in Diabetic Animals and Humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Yen Chen

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Acyl ghrelin, a 28-amino acid peptide hormone, is the endogenous cognate ligand for the growth hormone secretagogue receptor. Ghrelin is involved in stimulating growth hormone release, eliciting feeding behavior, inducing adiposity and stimulating gastrointestinal motility. Ghrelin is unique for its post-translational modification of O-n-octanoylation at serine 3 through ghrelin O-acyltransferase, and is the only peripheral signal to enhance food intake. Plasma ghrelin levels manifest “biphasic changes” in diabetes mellitus (DM. In the early stage of DM, the stomach significantly increases the secretion of ghrelin into the plasma, and elevated plasma ghrelin levels are correlated with diabetic hyperphagic feeding and accelerated gastrointestinal motility. In the late stage of DM, plasma ghrelin levels may be lower, which might be linked with anorexia/muscle wasting, delayed gastrointestinal transit, and even gastroparesis. Therefore, the unique ghrelin system may be the most important player compared to the other hindgut hormones participating in the “entero-insular axis”. Further studies using either knockdown or knockout of ghrelin gene products and ghrelin O-acyltransferase may unravel the pathogenesis of DM, and show benefits in combating this disease and metabolic syndrome.

  9. Gastrointestinal bleeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marek, T A

    2011-11-01

    Gastrointestinal bleeding remains one of the most important emergencies in gastroenterology. Despite this, only about 100 abstracts concerning gastrointestinal bleeding (excluding bleeding complicating endoscopic procedures) were presented at this year's Digestive Disease Week (DDW; 7-10 May 2011; Chicago, Illinois, USA), accounting for less than 2% of all presented lectures and posters. It seems that the number of such abstracts has been decreasing over recent years. This may be due in part to the high level of medical care already achieved, especially in the areas of pharmacotherapy and endoscopic treatment of gastrointestinal bleeding. In this review of gastrointestinal bleeding, priority has been given to large epidemiological studies reflecting "real life," and abstracts dealing more or less directly with endoscopic management. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  10. Gastrointestinal tattoos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snider, T E; Goodell, W M; Pulitzer, D R

    1994-06-01

    Tattooing of the gastrointestinal tract is used to facilitate the relocation of biopsy sites or other sites of interest at the time of subsequent biopsy or surgery. Submucosal injection of sterile india ink produces a zone of blue-black coloration that is grossly visible from both the mucosal and serosal surfaces. The pathology of gastrointestinal tattoos has only been briefly mentioned previously in the medical literature. We report two cases of gastrointestinal tattooing: one that was done to mark the margin of resection in a patient with gastric lymphoma, and the second that occurred unintentionally following the administration of activated charcoal for drug overdosage in a patient with undiagnosed active inflammatory bowel disease. Unintentional tattooing of the gastrointestinal tract has, therefore, not been reported.

  11. Probiotic-induced changes in the intestinal epithelium: implications in gastrointestinal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramakrishna, B S

    2009-01-01

    There is resurgent interest in the use of probiotics to maintain gastrointestinal and systemic health, driven by recent advances in knowledge of bacterial interactions with the epithelium and innate immune system of the intestine. The effects of probiotic bacteria on the intestinal epithelium and their downstream consequences are reviewed. Probiotics prevent pathogen adherence and invasion of the epithelium, partly by blocking adherence sites but also by upregulating gene expression of MUC2 and of antimicrobial peptides. Metabolic effects of probiotics on the intestinal epithelium include production of short chain fatty acids which influence epithelial cell metabolism, turnover and apoptosis. Bacterial metabolism of unabsorbed dietary constituents with production of free radicals and phenolic metabolites can lead to DNA damage and cancer; probiotics restore eubiosis and potentially prevent this. Probiotics alter expression and redistribution of tight junction proteins and reduce intestinal permeability limiting absorption of noxious molecules from the gut lumen. Most studied are the effects of probiotics on epithelial cells which are the first line of innate immune-capable cells that encounter luminal flora. Probiotics, through secreted molecules, influence the innate inflammatory response of epithelial cells to stimuli from the gut lumen, and reduce mucosal inflammation. Through effects on dendritic, and possibly epithelial, cells they influence naïve T cells in the lamina propria of the gut and thus influence adaptive immunity. These varied effects of probiotics have implications for the treatment of several gastrointestinal diseases including antibiotic-associated colitis, acute gastroenteritis, inflammatory bowel disease, colon cancer, and irritable bowel syndrome.

  12. In Vitro Culture Conditions for Maintaining a Complex Population of Human Gastrointestinal Tract Microbiota

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bong-Soo Kim

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A stable intestinal microbiota is important in maintaining human physiology and health. Although there have been a number of studies using in vitro and in vivo approaches to determine the impact of diet and xenobiotics on intestinal microbiota, there is no consensus for the best in vitro culture conditions for growth of the human gastrointestinal microbiota. To investigate the dynamics and activities of intestinal microbiota, it is important for the culture conditions to support the growth of a wide range of intestinal bacteria and maintain a complex microbial community representative of the human gastrointestinal tract. Here, we compared the bacterial community in three culture media: brain heart infusion broth and high- and low-carbohydrate medium with different growth supplements. The bacterial community was analyzed using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE, pyrosequencing and real-time PCR. Based on the molecular analysis, this study indicated that the 3% fecal inoculum in low-concentration carbohydrate medium with 1% autoclaved fecal supernatant provided enhanced growth conditions to conduct in vitro studies representative of the human intestinal microbiota.

  13. Human papillomavirus and gastrointestinal cancer in Iranian population: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omrani-Navai, Versa; Alizadeh-Navaei, Reza; Yahyapour, Yousef; Hedayatizadeh-Omran, Akbar; Abediankenari, Saeid; Janbabaei, Ghasem; Toghani, Fatima

    2017-01-01

    Gastrointestinal (GI) malignancies are the most common cancers and account for nearly half of all cancer-related deaths in Iran. There was a strong association between human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and urogenital cancers, in particular the cervix. However, there is no clear causal relationship in all types of cancers, including gastrointestinal cancers. Therefore, the present study as a systematic review and meta-analysis was designed to evaluate the prevalence and relation of HPV in GI cancers. This systematic review and meta-analysis study assess the prevalence of human papillomavirus in GI cancers in Iran. Data were collected by searching electronic databases, including PubMed, Google Scholar, Scopus, SID and Iranmedex by English and Persian key words up to August 2016. Key words included: Human Papillomavirus, HPV, Cancer, Neoplasm, Carcinoma, Esophageal, colorectal, Gastrointestinal and Iran articles were entered in the EndNote software and duplicate papers were excluded. Data were extracted and analyzed by comprehensive meta-analysis software, Version 2 (CMA.V2) and random effects model. Finally, we included 17 studies in this meta-analysis. The prevalence of HPV in Iranian patients with GI cancers was 16.4% (CI95%: 10.4-24.9). Considering all HPV types, the odds ratio of GI cancers in positive patients was 3.03 (CI95%: 1.42-6.45) while in patients with HPV-16 was 3.62 (CI: 1.43-4.82). The results show a strong relationship between HPV infection especially high-risk HPV type 16 and GI cancers in Iranian population.

  14. Therapeutic Effects and Mechanisms of Action of Rifaximin in Gastrointestinal Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DuPont, Herbert L

    2015-08-01

    Emerging preclinical and clinic evidence described herein suggests that the mechanism of action of rifaximin is not restricted to direct antibacterial effects within the gastrointestinal tract. Data from this study were derived from general and clinical trial-specific PubMed searches of English-language articles on rifaximin available through December 3, 2014. Search terms included rifaximin alone and in combination (using the Boolean operation "AND") with travelers' diarrhea, hepatic encephalopathy, liver cirrhosis, irritable bowel syndrome, inflammatory bowel disease, and Crohn's disease. Rifaximin appears to reduce bacterial virulence and pathogenicity by inhibiting bacterial translocation across the gastrointestinal epithelial lining. Rifaximin was shown to decrease bacterial adherence to epithelial cells and subsequent internalization in a bacteria- and cell type-specific manner, without an alteration in bacterial counts, but with a down-regulation in epithelial proinflammatory cytokine expression. Rifaximin also appears to modulate gut-immune signaling. In animal models of inflammatory bowel disease, rifaximin produced therapeutic effects by activating the pregnane X receptor and thereby reducing levels of the proinflammatory transcription factor nuclear factor κB. Therefore, for a given disease state, rifaximin may act through several mechanisms of action to exert its therapeutic effects. Clinically, rifaximin 600 mg/d significantly reduced symptoms of travelers' diarrhea (eg, time to last unformed stool vs placebo [32.0 hours vs 65.5 hours, respectively; P=.001]). For the prevention of hepatic encephalopathy recurrence, data indicate that treating 4 patients with rifaximin 1100 mg/d for 6 months would prevent 1 episode of hepatic encephalopathy. For diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome, a significantly greater percentage (40.7%) of patients treated with rifaximin 1650 mg/d for 2 weeks experienced adequate global irritable bowel syndrome symptom

  15. The role of ferric carboxymaltose in the treatment of iron deficiency anemia in patients with gastrointestinal disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koduru, Pramoda; Abraham, Bincy P.

    2016-01-01

    Iron deficiency anemia (IDA) is the most common form of nutritional anemia worldwide. Iron plays a pivotal role in vital functioning of almost every organ system. IDA affects both physical and psychological functioning of humans. Oral iron is considered as first-line therapy for the treatment of IDA due to low cost, good safety profile and ease of administration. However, the absorption of oral iron is affected by several factors and incidence of gastrointestinal side effects can lead to lack of adherence to therapy as well as poor efficacy. This has led to the emergence of intravenous iron therapy which is clearly superior to oral iron with higher increment of hemoglobin levels and rapid replenishment of iron stores. Ferric carboxymaltose (FCM) is a novel non-dextran intravenous iron form which has been approved for use in patients with iron deficiency who have had inadequate response to oral iron therapy, intolerance to oral iron, or nondialysis-dependent chronic kidney disease. The safety and efficacy of using FCM for the treatment of IDA has been demonstrated in several clinical trials. One dose can provide a large amount of iron and has a very short infusion time. It should be considered as first-line therapy in patients with active inflammation like inflammatory bowel disease when gastrointestinal absorption of oral iron may be compromised. It should also be given to patients who have inadequate response to oral iron therapy. It has been shown to be noninferior to other intravenous iron formulations with a good safety profile and produced fewer anaphylactic reactions. PMID:26770269

  16. PCR Expression Analysis Of the Estrogeninducible Gene Bcei in Gastrointestinal and Other Human Tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iris Wundrack

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available A polymerase chain reaction (PCR assay was developed to test for tumor cell specific expression of the BCEI gene. This new marker gene, reported at first for human breast cancer, was found specifically active in various gastrointestinal carcinomas by previously applying immunohistochemistry and RNA (Northern blot analysis. Presently, by using reverse transcription -PCR analysis, a series of primary tumor tissues and established tumor cell lines were testcd for BCEI transcription. This approach was compared to immunostaining achieved by an antibody directed against the BCEI gene’s product. The result demonstrate the superior sensitivity of PCR by indicating the gene’ s expression in cases where immunohistochemical testing remained negative.

  17. Horizontal gene transfer in the human gastrointestinal tract: potential spread of antibiotic resistance genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huddleston JR

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Jennifer R HuddlestonBiology Department, Abilene Christian University, Abilene, TX, USAAbstract: Bacterial infections are becoming increasingly difficult to treat due to widespread antibiotic resistance among pathogens. This review aims to give an overview of the major horizontal transfer mechanisms and their evolution and then demonstrate the human lower gastrointestinal tract as an environment in which horizontal gene transfer of resistance determinants occurs. Finally, implications for antibiotic usage and the development of resistant infections and persistence of antibiotic resistance genes in populations as a result of horizontal gene transfer in the large intestine will be discussed.Keywords: gut microbiome, conjugation, natural transformation, transduction

  18. CONSUMPTION OF CARBONATED BEVERAGES AND THE RISK FOR GASTROINTESTINAL DISEASE: A SYSTEMATIC REVIEW

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    Puspo Edi Giriwono

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTIssues of different effects of carbonated soft drinks to human health have been circulated and analyzed in both scientific and non-scientific approaches. However, there is few publications discussing the specific effect of carbonation on human health and, more often than not, studies have largely concentrated on the effect of sugar or calorie content in carbonated beverages in affecting our health. Thus the effect of carbonation itself on human health is then lost in arguments contradicting or reaffirming the effect of carbonated soft drinks. We conducted this systematic review to specifically observe current findings on the effect of carbonation in beverages on human health. This systematic review was conducted using Scirus search engine to list articles relevant with keywords such as CO2, carbonated beverage, carbonation, sparkling water, gastrointestinal, gastro-esophageal and adenocarcinoma. Next, articles were obtained from numerous databases and screened for their relevance and context. Finally, peer reading and discussion were conducted for the writing of this article. The results of this systematic review observed three major article subjects currently correlated with exclusive effect of carbonation on gastrointestinal health. Published studies indicate that oral cavity/dental health, gastro-esophageal reflux and most recently esophageal adenocarcinoma are discussed frequently and observed in population studies in different countries consuming significant quantities of carbonated beverages. Eight articles (40% discussed dominant factors not correlated with carbonation which significantly affect dental erosions. Six (33% articles observed no clear clinical significance carbonation promotes or exacerbate gastro-esophageal reflux. Interestingly, five (27% articles reported insignificant correlation, even inversed, of carbonation on esophageal carcinoma.Currently available scientific studies on populations in multiple countries show

  19. Human milk glycobiome and its impact on the infant gastrointestinal microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zivkovic, Angela M; German, J Bruce; Lebrilla, Carlito B; Mills, David A

    2011-03-15

    Human milk contains an unexpected abundance and diversity of complex oligosaccharides apparently indigestible by the developing infant and instead targeted to its cognate gastrointestinal microbiota. Recent advances in mass spectrometry-based tools have provided a view of the oligosaccharide structures produced in milk across stages of lactation and among human mothers. One postulated function for these oligosaccharides is to enrich a specific "healthy" microbiota containing bifidobacteria, a genus commonly observed in the feces of breast-fed infants. Isolated culture studies indeed show selective growth of infant-borne bifidobacteria on milk oligosaccharides or core components therein. Parallel glycoprofiling documented that numerous Bifidobacterium longum subsp. infantis strains preferentially consume small mass oligosaccharides that are abundant early in the lactation cycle. Genome sequencing of numerous B. longum subsp. infantis strains shows a bias toward genes required to use mammalian-derived carbohydrates by comparison with adult-borne bifidobacteria. This intriguing strategy of mammalian lactation to selectively nourish genetically compatible bacteria in infants with a complex array of free oligosaccharides serves as a model of how to influence the human supraorganismal system, which includes the gastrointestinal microbiota.

  20. The use of BLT humanized mice to investigate the immune reconstitution of the gastrointestinal tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahl, Angela; Victor Garcia, J

    2014-08-01

    The gastrointestinal (GI) track represents an important battlefield where pathogens first try to gain entry into a host. It is also a universe where highly diverse and ever changing inhabitants co-exist in an exceptional equilibrium without parallel in any other organ system of the body. The gut as an organ has its own well-developed and fully functional immune organization that is similar and yet different in many important ways to the rest of the immune system. Both a compromised and an overactive immune system in the gut can have dire and severe consequences to human health. It has therefore been of great interest to develop animal models that recapitulate key aspects of the human condition to better understand the interplay of the host immune system with its friends and its foes. However, reconstitution of the GI tract in humanized mice has been difficult and highly variable in different systems. A better molecular understanding of the development of the gut immune system in mice has provided critical cues that have been recently used to develop novel humanized mouse models that fully recapitulate the genesis and key functions of the gut immune system of humans. Of particular interest is the presence of human gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT) aggregates in the gut of NOD/SCID BLT humanized mice that demonstrate the faithful development of bona fide human plasma cells capable of migrating to the lamina propria and producing human IgA1 and IgA2.

  1. Zoonotic gastrointestinal parasite burden of local dogs in Zaria, Northern Nigeria: Implications for human health

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    Christopher I. Ogbaje

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Zoonotic gastrointestinal parasites of dogs are of the global problem particularly in the developing countries. Dogs are the most common pet animals worldwide and have been reported to be hosts of many intestinal parasites of zoonotic importance globally. In Nigeria, gastrointestinal helminthes of dogs is currently endemic in 20 of the 36 states. Aim: In general, dogs are the closest animals to humans and for that reason we decided to carry out a survey study to check the incidence of these parasites in dogs and to ascertain the level of environmental contamination in the study area. Materials and Methods: Fecal samples were collected from dog patients presented to small animal clinic of Veterinary Teaching Hospital of Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Ahmadu Bello University Zaria, dog’s fecal droppings from the streets, and residential Quarters of the University and gastrointestinal tracts (GIT of dogs from dogs slaughtering house at Basawa Barrack, Zaria. Three methods were used in the analysis of the samples; simple flotation, sedimentation, and GIT processing methods within 48 h of collection. Results: Out of 224 samples analyzed 76(33.9% were positive of at least one of the parasites. Of the 101 samples from streets and residential quarters of ABU, Zaria, Isospora spp. 12(11.9% recorded the highest prevalence rate followed by Taenia spp. 6(5.9%, then Toxocara canis, Ancylostoma caninum, and Dipylidium caninum were 5.0%, 4.0%, and 1.0%, respectively. Isospora spp. (19.0% recorded the highest prevalence rate for the 100 samples collected from small animal clinic. Other parasites encountered were T. canis (8.0%, A. caninum (8.0% and Taenia spp. (5.0%. Parasites observed from the 23 gastrointestinal contents from “dog slaughtered houses” were T. canis (17.3%, Isospora spp.(13.1% and A. caninum (4.3. Conclusion: The study revealed that zoonotic gastrointestinal parasites of dogs are endemic in Zaria and the general public in the

  2. HELICOBACTER PYLORI INFECTION IN PATIENTS WITH DIFFERENT GASTROINTESTINAL DISEASES FROM NORTHERN BRAZIL

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    Igor Dias Ferreira VINAGRE

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background - The mechanisms whereby Helicobacter pylori produces different pathological manifestations in the stomach and duodenum are not fully understood. Considering the geographic diversity in the prevalence of virulence factors of this microorganism and their association with the development of different diseases, the search for pathogenicity markers such as CagA and VacA alleles by molecular techniques has intensified. Objectives - To investigate the presence of H. pylori infection and the frequency of different genotypes of this bacterium in patients with gastrointestinal diseases from Northern Brazil, and to establish their association with the histopathological findings. Methods - In a prospective study, samples were collected from 554 patients with different gastrointestinal diseases (gastritis, duodenal ulcer, gastric ulcer, and gastric cancer seen at a referral hospital attending the entire State of Pará, located in the metropolitan region of Belém. Data such as gender and age obtained with an epidemiological questionnaire were analyzed. The presence of H. pylori and the bacterial genotype were investigated by PCR. Gastric biopsies were assessed histologically. Results - The prevalence of H. pylori infection was 91%. Infection was more frequent among patients with gastric ulcer and gastric cancer. In these groups, there was a predominance of men and older patients when compared to the other two groups studied. The predominant bacterial genotype was s1m1cagA+, which was more frequent among patients with gastric ulcer, duodenal ulcer and gastric cancer. A significant association was observed between s1m1cagA+ strains and a higher degree of inflammation, neutrophil activity and development of intestinal metaplasia. Conclusion - The present study demonstrates a high incidence of H. pylori infection in the patients analyzed, especially among those with gastric ulcer and gastric cancer. Virulent s1m1cagA+ strains predominated and were

  3. HELICOBACTER PYLORI INFECTION IN PATIENTS WITH DIFFERENT GASTROINTESTINAL DISEASES FROM NORTHERN BRAZIL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinagre, Igor Dias Ferreira; Queiroz, André Lima de; Silva Júnior, Mário Ribeiro da; Vinagre, Ruth Maria Dias Ferreira; Martins, Luisa Caricio

    2015-12-01

    The mechanisms whereby Helicobacter pylori produces different pathological manifestations in the stomach and duodenum are not fully understood. Considering the geographic diversity in the prevalence of virulence factors of this microorganism and their association with the development of different diseases, the search for pathogenicity markers such as CagA and VacA alleles by molecular techniques has intensified. To investigate the presence of H. pylori infection and the frequency of different genotypes of this bacterium in patients with gastrointestinal diseases from Northern Brazil, and to establish their association with the histopathological findings. In a prospective study, samples were collected from 554 patients with different gastrointestinal diseases (gastritis, duodenal ulcer, gastric ulcer, and gastric cancer) seen at a referral hospital attending the entire State of Pará, located in the metropolitan region of Belém. Data such as gender and age obtained with an epidemiological questionnaire were analyzed. The presence of H. pylori and the bacterial genotype were investigated by PCR. Gastric biopsies were assessed histologically. The prevalence of H. pylori infection was 91%. Infection was more frequent among patients with gastric ulcer and gastric cancer. In these groups, there was a predominance of men and older patients when compared to the other two groups studied. The predominant bacterial genotype was s1m1cagA+, which was more frequent among patients with gastric ulcer, duodenal ulcer and gastric cancer. A significant association was observed between s1m1cagA+ strains and a higher degree of inflammation, neutrophil activity and development of intestinal metaplasia. The present study demonstrates a high incidence of H. pylori infection in the patients analyzed, especially among those with gastric ulcer and gastric cancer. Virulent s1m1cagA+ strains predominated and were associated with more severe lesions.

  4. [Detection of Helicobacter pylori in children and adolescents using the monoclonal coproantigen immunoassay and its association with gastrointestinal diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo-Montoya, Verónica; Ruiz-Bustos, Eduardo; Valencia-Juillerat, Mauro Eduardo; Álvarez-Hernández, Gerardo; Sotelo-Cruz, Norberto

    Infection by Helicobacter pylori (H. pilory) affects 50% of the world population. Simple methods for its detection are now available. To identify H. pylori by using a monoclonal coproantigen technique in paediatric patients, and to determine its association with gastrointestinal diseases. The study included a total of 110 subjects aged 1 to 18 years. The study variables included: Family history of gastrointestinal disease, age, gender, gastrointestinal symptoms, as well as apparently healthy (asymptomatic) subjects. The monoclonal coproantigen test was performed on stool samples. Two groups, I symptomatic (n=29), and II asymptomatic (n=81) were compared using parametric and non-parametric statistics. Of the 110 patients, 59 (54%) were male. The relationship between a family history of gastritis and a positive for H. pylori, was significant for mothers (pH. pylori and various signs and symptoms, such as epigastric pain (pH. pylori detection, was positive in 28% of both groups, and showed significant relationships with family gastrointestinal diseases and gastrointestinal symptoms. Copyright © 2016 Academia Mexicana de Cirugía A.C. Publicado por Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  5. Role of Toll-like receptors in health and diseases of gastrointestinal tract

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Greg Harris; Rhonda KuoLee; Wangxue Chen

    2006-01-01

    The human gastrointestinal (GI) tract is colonized by non-pathogenic commensal microflora and frequently exposed to many pathogenic organisms.For the maintenance of GI homeostasis, the host must discriminate between pathogenic and non-pathogenic organisms and initiate effective and appropriate immune and inflammatory responses. Mammalian toll-like receptors (TLRs) are members of the pattern-recognition receptor (PRR) family that plays a central role in the initiation of innate cellular immune responses and the subsequent adaptive immune responses to microbial pathogens. Recent studies have shown that gastrointestinal epithelial cells express almost all TLR subtypes characterized to date and that the expression and activation of TLRs in the GI tract are tightly and coordinately regulated. This review summarizes the current understanding of the crucial dual roles of TLRs in the development of host innate and adaptive immune responses to GI infections and the maintenance of the immune tolerance to commensal bacteria through down-regulation of surface expression of TLRs in intestinal epithelial cells.

  6. The Microbiota, Chemical Symbiosis, and Human Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redinbo, Matthew R.

    2014-01-01

    Our understanding of mammalian-microbial mutualism has expanded by combing microbial sequencing with evolving molecular and cellular methods, and unique model systems. Here, the recent literature linking the microbiota to diseases of three of the key mammalian mucosal epithelial compartments – nasal, lung and gastrointestinal (GI) tract – is reviewed with a focus on new knowledge about the taxa, species, proteins and chemistry that promote health and impact progression toward disease. The information presented is further organized by specific diseases now associated with the microbiota:, Staphylococcus aureus infection and rhinosinusitis in the nasal-sinus mucosa; cystic fibrosis (CF), chronic obstructive pulmonary disorder (COPD), and asthma in the pulmonary tissues. For the vast and microbially dynamic GI compartment, several disorders are considered, including obesity, atherosclerosis, Crohn’s disease, ulcerative colitis, drug toxicity, and even autism. Our appreciation of the chemical symbiosis ongoing between human systems and the microbiota continues to grow, and suggest new opportunities for modulating this symbiosis using designed interventions. PMID:25305474

  7. Risk of cancer onset in sub-Saharan Africans affected with chronic gastrointestinal parasitic diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waku, M; Napolitano, L; Clementini, E; Staniscia, T; Spagnolli, C; Andama, A; Kasiriye, P; Innocenti, P

    2005-01-01

    Gastrointestinal Schistosomiasis and Amebiasis are uncommon in the western world, while such infections are frequent in the African community. In addition to the problems associated with the clinical symptoms of these parasitic infections, it is important to stress the increase in cancer of the Gastro-Intestinal (GI) tract. In this study we evaluate the prevalence of cancer in patients affected by chronic inflammatory diseases caused by the above named parasites. In three years, from January 2000 to December 2003, we observed a total of 1199 subject. Of these, 950 presented with complaints of diarrhoea, vomiting, abdominal pain, melena, hematemesis, rectal discharges and alteration of bowel habits. A total of 818 patients were evaluated in Uganda (Mulago and Arua hospitals) and 381 at Luisa Guidotti Hospital in Zimbabwe. An exhaustive clinical history was collected for each patient and then physical and laboratory examinations were performed. The clinical files of all patients previously admitted to the respective hospitals were obtained and the information taken from these files was then integrated with our clinical findings. Subjects who were found free of gastro-intestinal disease after examinations and did not have a clinical history of infective GI disease but presented with other pathologies, were regarded as control group. The control group was composed of 249 subjects. The subjects who were positive on examination underwent further investigations. The number of patients affected by schistosomiasis and amebiasis were 221 and 224 respectively. The number of patients who suffered from aspecific enterocolitis was 454, intestinal tuberculosis was present in 21 patients and we found 30 patients with esophageal candidiasis. Patients who had the above mentioned GI diseases were then divided into 3 groups. First group was composed of patients who had a clinical history of infective GI diseases and were re-admitted for similar symptoms, and on examination were

  8. Human in vivo and in vitro studies on gastrointestinal absorption of titanium dioxide nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Kate; Morton, Jackie; Smith, Ian; Jurkschat, Kerstin; Harding, Anne-Helen; Evans, Gareth

    2015-03-04

    The study was designed to conduct human in vivo and in vitro studies on the gastrointestinal absorption of nanoparticles, using titanium dioxide as a model compound, and to compare nanoparticle behaviour with that of larger particles. A supplier's characterisation data may not fully describe a particle formulation. Most particles tested agreed with their supplied characterisation when assessed by particle number but significant proportions of 'nanoparticle formulations' were particles >100nm when assessed by particle weight. Oral doses are measured by weight and it is therefore important that the weight characterisation is taken into consideration. The human volunteer studies demonstrated that very little titanium dioxide is absorbed gastrointestinally after an oral challenge. There was no demonstrable difference in absorption for any of the three particle sizes tested. All tested formulations were shown to agglomerate in simulated gastric fluid, particularly in the smaller particle formulations. Further agglomeration was observed when dispersing formulations in polymeric or elemental foods. Virtually no translocation of titanium dioxide particles across the cell layer was demonstrated. This study found no evidence that nanoparticulate titanium dioxide is more likely to be absorbed in the gut than micron-sized particles.

  9. Incidence and Clinical Features of Peptic Ulcer Disease In Acute Upper Gastrointestinal Bleeding: -Experience of Moroccan University Hospital Unit-

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    Y. Cherradi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Peptic ulcer disease (PUD has been recognized as the leading cause of acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding (AUGIB. This study aims to report general features of bleeding peptic ulcers in patients who benefit of urgent endoscopy in our department after an acute upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage. Results: A total of 1809 patients were explored for acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding in our unit since 2003 to 2008. Gastroduodenal peptic ulcers were the most frequent diagnosed etiology. They present 38% of all reported causes of bleeding (n=527 (table I. 25% were located at duodenal mucosa (n= 347 and 13% were gastric ulcers (n=180. No esophageal ulcers were reported. Incidence of both duodenal and gastric ulcers decreases during the last years. Conclusion: In our department, incidence of bleeding peptic ulcer disease is decreasing but they continue to be the first cause of AUGIB.

  10. Comparison of five in vitro digestion models to in vivo experimental results: Lead bioaccessibility in the human gastrointestinal tract

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiele, T.R. van de; Oomen, A.G.; Wragg, J.; Cave, M.; Minekus, M.; Hack, A.; Cornelis, C.; Rompelberg, C.J.M.; Zwart, L.L. de; Klinck, B.; Wijnen, J. van; Verstraete, W.; Sips, A.J.A.M.

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a multi-laboratory comparison study of in vitro models assessing bioaccessibility of soil-bound lead in the human gastrointestinal tract under simulated fasted and fed conditions. Oral bioavailability data from a previous human in vivo study on the same soil served as a reference

  11. Pre-existing diseases of patients increase susceptibility to hypoxemia during gastrointestinal endoscopy.

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    Yanhua Long

    Full Text Available Hypoxemia is the most common adverse event that happened during gastrointestinal endoscopy. To estimate risk of hypoxemia prior to endoscopy, American Society of Anesthesiology (ASA classification scores were used as a major predictive factor. But the accuracy of ASA scores for predicting hypoxemia incidence was doubted here, considering that the classification system ignores much information about general health status and fitness of patient that may contribute to hypoxemia. In this retrospective review of clinical data collected prospectively, the data on 4904 procedures were analyzed. The Pearson's chi-square test or the Fisher exact test was employed to analyze variance of categorical factors. Continuous variables were statistically evaluated using t-tests or Analysis of variance (ANOVA. As a result, only 245 (5.0% of the enrolled 4904 patients were found to present hypoxemia during endoscopy. Multivariable logistic regressions revealed that independent risk factors for hypoxemia include high BMI (BMI 30 versus 20, Odd ratio: 1.52, 95% CI: 1.13-2.05; P = 0.0098, hypertension (Odd ratio: 2.28, 95% CI: 1.44-3.60; P = 0.0004, diabetes (Odd ratio: 2.37, 95% CI: 1.30-4.34; P = 0.005, gastrointestinal diseases (Odd ratio: 1.77, 95% CI: 1.21-2.60; P = 0.0033, heart diseases (Odd ratio: 1.97, 95% CI: 1.06-3.68; P = 0.0325 and the procedures that combined esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD and colonoscopy (Odd ratio: 4.84, 95% CI: 1.61-15.51; P = 0.0292; EGD as reference. It is noteworthy that ASA classification scores were not included as an independent predictive factor, and susceptibility of youth to hypoxemia during endoscopy was as high as old subjects. In conclusion, some certain pre-existing diseases of patients were newly identified as independent risk factors for hypoxemia during GI endoscopy. High ASA scores are a confounding predictive factor of pre-existing diseases. We thus recommend that youth (≤18 yrs, obese

  12. New Insight for the Diagnosis of Gastrointestinal Acute Graft-versus-Host Disease

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    Florent Malard

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Allogeneic stem cell transplantation (allo-SCT is a curative therapy for different life-threatening malignant and nonmalignant hematologic disorders. Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD remains a major source of morbidity and mortality following allo-SCT, which limits the use of this treatment in a broader spectrum of patients. Early diagnostic of GVHD is essential to initiate treatment as soon as possible. Unfortunately, the diagnosis of GVHD may be difficult to establish, because of the nonspecific nature of the associated symptoms and of the numerous differential diagnosis. This is particularly true regarding gastrointestinal (GI acute GVHD. In the recent years many progress has been made in medical imaging test and endoscopic techniques. The interest of these different techniques in the diagnosis of GI acute GVHD has been evaluated in several studies. With this background we review the contributions, limitations, and future prospect of these techniques in the diagnosis of GI acute GVHD.

  13. Gastro-intestinal complications as one of causes of death in patients with rheumatic diseases

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    V N Sorotskaya

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To assess frequency of gastro-intestinal (Gl bleeding and ulcer perforation as direct cause of death in pts with rheumatic diseases. Material and methods. Statistical analysis of Tula region patient care institutions documentation was performed to assess frequency and character of severe GI complications leading to death of pts. 300 cases of death which took place during 5 years (1996-2000 in 3 rheumatologic (105 cases and 10 therapeutic (195 cases departments of Tula region patient care institutions were studied. Results. Gl bleeding and ulcer perforation were the direct causes of death in 15 pts with rheumatic diseases i.e. in 5% from the whole number of died. GI complications caused death in 4 pts with chronic rheumatic heart disease (HRHD (1,7%, in 7 (15,2%with rheumatoid arthritis -, in 2 with ankylosing spondylitis and systemic lupus erythematosus (8,0 and 22,2% respectively. Pts with systemic sclerosis did not die because of GI damage. GI changes most frequently localized in duodenum (8 pts. 4 pts had complications connected with gastric ulcer and in 2 diffuse erosive damage of Gl mucosa was the source of bleeding. Conclusion. Severe Gl complications quite often lead to death of pts with rheumatic diseases in Tula region.

  14. Update on clinical and research application of fecal biomarkers for gastrointestinal diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqui, Imran; Majid, Hafsa; Abid, Shahab

    2017-01-01

    Gastrointestinal (GI) diseases comprise a large spectrum of clinical conditions ranging from indigestion to inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs) and carcinomas. Endoscopy is the usual method employed to diagnose these condition. Another noninvasive way to assess and diagnose GI conditions are fecal biomarkers. Fecal biomarkers provide information regarding a specific disease process and are perhaps more acceptable to clinicians and patients alike because of their non-invasivity compared to endoscopy. Aim of this review was to evaluate the current status of the fecal biomarkers in clinical and research for in GI diseases. Multiple types of fecal biomarkers are discussed in this review including; markers to assess IBD, which are released as a results of an inflammatory insults to intestinal epithelia such as antimicrobial peptides (lactoferrin) or inflammation related proteins (calprotectin). While markers related to function of digestion are primarily related to partially digested food or mucosal proteins such as abnormal amount of fecal fat α1-antitrypsin, elastase and secretary IgA. The upcoming fecal biomarker like M2 pyruvate kinase and neutrophil gelatinase associated lipocalin are discussed as well. Apart from above mention, the fecal biomarkers under exploration for possible clinical use in future are also discussed. These include cathelicidins, osteoprotegerin, β-glucuronidase, Eosinophil proteins, etc. PMID:28217373

  15. Neural control disturbances of the gastrointestinal tract and visceral pain in inflammatory bowel diseases 

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    Katarzyna Ciesielczyk

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD is a chronic intestinal inflammatory condition, the etiology of which is composed of factors such as the environment, genetic predisposition, gut dysbiosis and inadequate immune response. The pathologic findings in Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis are related to dysfunction of gastrointestinal secretion and motility and also disturbed visceral sensory function, with accompanying intestinal and parenteral complications. The systemic inflammatory response affects neurological control via the gut-brain axis, which modulates the cooperation of the autonomic nervous system (ANS, enteric nervous system (ENS and gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT. In chronic inflammation the intestinal neuropathy disrupts peristalsis and intestinal secretion as well as causing unpleasant symptoms of the patients. Pain receptors are stimulated by inflammatory mediators, and due to the intensified activation of the nociceptive system visceral hypersensitivity through central and peripheral sensitization is generated. Chronic visceral pain negatively influences the course of disease and the quality of the patient’s life. The growing knowledge about the neurological control dysfunction of the intestine and immune system dysregulation could provide proper directives for treatment of inflammatory bowel diseases.

  16. Prospective cohort study of gastrointestinal complications and vascular diseases in patients taking aspirin: rationale and design of the MAGIC Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Origasa, Hideki; Goto, Shinya; Shimada, Kazuyuki; Uchiyama, Shinichiro; Okada, Yasushi; Sugano, Kentaro; Hiraishi, Hideyuki; Uemura, Naomi; Ikeda, Yasuo

    2011-12-01

    Although aspirin has been widely prescribed for the prevention of cardiovascular events, its risk of gastrointestinal complications is of great concern. Despite expectations for such, few data are available on the prevalence or incidence of gastrointestinal complications in aspirin users in Japan. The Management of Aspirin-induced GastroIntestinal Complications (MAGIC) is the first attempt at collaboration among cardiologists, neurologists, and gastroenterologists to obtain such findings. We aim to share all about the MAGIC study. The MAGIC is a prospective cohort study involving patients taking low-dose aspirin (81 mg to 325 mg per day) for longer than 1 month. Participants are recruited from multiple disease categories, including those with coronary artery disease, cerebrovascular disease, atrial fibrillation, and other cardiovascular conditions requiring antithrombotic therapy. Its duration of follow-up is 1 year. At baseline and 1 year follow-up, all participants will undergo endoscopic examination. The primary outcome is upper gastrointestinal complications, classified as erosions, ulcers, and bleeding. Secondary outcomes include LANZA score, non-fatal cardiovascular events, any bleeding, cancer, and death. 1,533 participants were entered in the MAGIC cohort. By underlying disease, about 45% of them had coronary artery diseases, followed by cerebrovascular diseases (35%), atrial fibrillation (10%) and other cardiovascular diseases (10%). The MAGIC study will yield important findings with regard to the prevalence and incidence of gastrointestinal complications and related risk factors for low-dose aspirin users. It may also report that use of anti-secretory agents such as proton pump inhibitors reduces the risk of such complications.

  17. The Gastrointestinal Aspects of Halitosis

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    Sivan Kinberg

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Halitosis is a common human condition for which the exact pathophysiological mechanism is unclear. It has been attributed mainly to oral pathologies. Halitosis resulting from gastrointestinal disorders is considered to be extremely rare. However, halitosis has often been reported among the symptoms related to Helicobacter pylori infection and gastroesophageal reflux disease.

  18. CD4+ T cell depletion during all stages of HIV disease occurs predominantly in the gastrointestinal tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenchley, Jason M; Schacker, Timothy W; Ruff, Laura E; Price, David A; Taylor, Jodie H; Beilman, Gregory J; Nguyen, Phuong L; Khoruts, Alexander; Larson, Matthew; Haase, Ashley T; Douek, Daniel C

    2004-09-20

    The mechanisms underlying CD4(+) T cell depletion in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection are not well understood. Comparative studies of lymphoid tissues, where the vast majority of T cells reside, and peripheral blood can potentially illuminate the pathogenesis of HIV-associated disease. Here, we studied the effect of HIV infection on the activation and depletion of defined subsets of CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells in the blood, gastrointestinal (GI) tract, and lymph node (LN). We also measured HIV-specific T cell frequencies in LNs and blood, and LN collagen deposition to define architectural changes associated with chronic inflammation. The major findings to emerge are the following: the GI tract has the most substantial CD4(+) T cell depletion at all stages of HIV disease; this depletion occurs preferentially within CCR5(+) CD4(+) T cells; HIV-associated immune activation results in abnormal accumulation of effector-type T cells within LNs; HIV-specific T cells in LNs do not account for all effector T cells; and T cell activation in LNs is associated with abnormal collagen deposition. Taken together, these findings define the nature and extent of CD4(+) T cell depletion in lymphoid tissue and point to mechanisms of profound depletion of specific T cell subsets related to elimination of CCR5(+) CD4(+) T cell targets and disruption of T cell homeostasis that accompanies chronic immune activation.

  19. Hospitalizations of the elderly in the United States for non-specific gastrointestinal diseases: A search for etilogical clues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nonspecific gastrointestinal (GI) disease is a common cause of GI-related hospitalizations in U.S. elderly (82.9% of all cases) and it peaks concurrently with viral enteritis, suggesting a lack of diagnostic testing. The lack of etiological specificity in the current coding syste...

  20. A prospective study of the safety of lower gastrointestinal endoscopy during pregnancy in patients with inflammatory bowel disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. de Lima (Alison); Z. Zelinkova (Zuzana); C.J. van der Woude (Janneke)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractIntroduction: Women with inflammatory bowel disease [IBD] have a higher risk of undergoing gastrointestinal [GI] endoscopy during pregnancy than healthy women. Data on endoscopic procedures during pregnancy in IBD women are limited. The aim of this study was to investigate the safety of

  1. Evaluation of point-of-care test calprotectin and lactoferrin for inflammatory bowel disease among children with chronic gastrointestinal symptoms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holtman, Gea A; Lisman-van Leeuwen, Yvonne; van Rheenen, Patrick F; Kollen, Boudewijn J; Escher, Johanna C; Kindermann, Angelika; de Rijke, Yolanda B; Berger, Marjolein Y

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Faecal calprotectin is considered to be a valid test for ruling out inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) in children with chronic gastrointestinal symptoms in specialist care. In contrast, faecal lactoferrin has higher specificity. The recent availability of both as point-of-care tests (POCT

  2. Asian consensus on the relationship between obesity and gastrointestinal and liver diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Jianyi Calvin; Loo, Wai Mun; Goh, Khean Lee; Sugano, Kentaro; Chan, Wah Kheong; Chiu, Wai Yan Philip; Choi, Myung-Gyu; Gonlachanvit, Sutep; Lee, Wei-Jei; Lee, Wei Jie Jonathan; Lee, Yeong Yeh; Lesmana, Laurentius A; Li, You-Ming; Liu, Chun Jen; Matsuura, Bunzo; Nakajima, Atsushi; Ng, Enders Kwok Wai; Sollano, Jose D; Wong, Simon Kin Hung; Wong, Vincent W S; Yang, Yunsheng; Ho, Khek Yu; Dan, Yock Young

    2016-08-01

    The incidence of obesity is increasing in Asia, with implications on gastrointestinal (GI) and liver diseases. The Gut and Obesity in Asia Workgroup comprises regional experts with the aim of studying relationship between obesity and the GI and liver diseases in Asia. Through literature review and the modified Delphi process, consensus statements examining the impact of obesity on esophageal, gastric, pancreatic, colorectal, and liver diseases, exploring relationship between gut microbiome and obesity, and assessing obesity therapies have been produced by the Gut and Obesity in Asia Workgroup. Sixteen experts participated with 9/15 statements having strong consensus (>80% agreement). The prevalence of obesity in Asia is increasing (100% percentage agreement in brackets), and this increased prevalence of obesity will result in a greater burden of obesity-related GI and liver diseases (93.8%). There was consensus that obesity increases the risk of gastric cancer (75%) and colorectal neoplasia (87.5%). Obesity was also associated with Barrett's esophagus and esophageal adenocarcinoma (66.7%) and pancreatic cancer (66.7%) in Asia. The prevalence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in Asia is on the rise (100%), and the risk of NAFLD in Asia (100%) is increased by obesity. Obesity is a risk factor for the development of hepatocellular carcinoma (93.8%). Regarding therapy, it was agreed that bariatric surgery was an effective treatment modality for obesity (93.8%) but there was less agreement on its benefit for NAFLD (62.5%). These experts' consensus on obesity and GI diseases in Asia forms the basis for further research, and its translation into addressing this emerging issue. © 2016 Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology Foundation and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  3. Parkinson Disease-Mediated Gastrointestinal Disorders and Rational for Combinatorial Therapies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed A. Ali

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A gradual loss of dopamine-producing nerve cells gives rise to a common neurodegenerative Parkinson’s disease (PD. This disease causes a neurotransmitter imbalance in the brain and initiates a cascade of complications in the rest of the body that appears as distressing symptoms which include gait problems, tremor, gastrointestinal (GI disorders and cognitive decline. To aid dopamine deficiency, treatment in PD patients includes oral medications, in addition to other methods such as deep brain stimulation and surgical lesioning. Scientists are extensively studying molecular and signaling mechanisms, particularly those involving phenotypic transcription factors and their co-regulatory proteins that are associated with neuronal stem cell (SC fate determination, maintenance and disease state, and their role in the pathogenesis of PD. Advancement in scientific research and “personalized medicine” to augment current therapeutic intervention and minimize the side effects of chemotherapy may lead to the development of more effective therapeutic strategies in the near future. This review focuses on PD and associated GI complications and summarizes the current therapeutic modalities that include stem cell studies and combinatorial drug treatment.

  4. Animal Farm: Considerations in Animal Gastrointestinal Physiology and Relevance to Drug Delivery in Humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatton, Grace B; Yadav, Vipul; Basit, Abdul W; Merchant, Hamid A

    2015-09-01

    "All animals are equal, but some are more equal than others" was the illustrious quote derived from British writer George Orwell's famed work, Animal Farm. Extending beyond the remit of political allegory, however, this statement would appear to hold true for the selection of appropriate animal models to simulate human physiology in preclinical studies. There remain definite gaps in our current knowledge with respect to animal physiology, notably those of intra- and inter-species differences in gastrointestinal (GI) function, which may affect oral drug delivery and absorption. Factors such as cost and availability have often influenced the choice of animal species without clear justification for their similarity to humans, and lack of standardization in techniques employed in past studies using various animals may also have contributed to the generation of contradictory results. As it stands, attempts to identify a single animal species as appropriately representative of human physiology and which may able to adequately simulate human in vivo conditions are limited. In this review, we have compiled and critically reviewed data from numerous studies of GI anatomy and physiology of various animal species commonly used in drug delivery modeling, commenting on the appropriateness of these animals for in vivo comparison and extrapolation to humans.

  5. MR findings of acute graft-versus-host disease involving gastrointestinal tracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Jae Joon; Kim, Myeong Jin; Kim, Joo Hee; Lee, Jong Tae; Yoo, Hyung Sik [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Yang, Hee Chul [National Health Insurance Corporation Ilsan Hospital, Ilsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-10-01

    To evaluate the MR findings of gastrointestinal graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) after allogenic bone marrow transplantation. Five patients (M:F=3:2, age range: 9-58 years) with suspected gastrointestinal GVHD underwent abdominal MRI, and the findings were evaluated. Because of acute myelocytic leukemia (n=4) or non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (n=1), all had undergone allogenic bone marrow transplantation 2-6 (mean, 3.5) weeks earlier. T2-weighted half-fourier acquisition snapshot turbo spin-echo, T1-weighted spoiled gradient-echo (SGE), and postcontrast T1-weighted SGE MR imaging, with and without fat-suppression, was performed. All five patients showed bowel wall thickening and marked contrast enhancement in the jejunum (n=5), ileum (n=4), duodenum (n=3), sigmoid colon (n=3), gastric antrum (n=2), and rectum (n=2). Bowel wall thickening showed a target appearance in the jejunum (n=2, 40.4%), lieum (n=1, 25.0%), sigmoid colon (n=1, 33.3%), and rectum (n=1, 50.0%), while the remaining cases showed diffuse wall thickening without layering. Small amount of ascites was noted in four patients (80%), and multiple small conglomerated retroperitoneal lymph nodes in three (60%). In all patients, a signal intensity of slightly enlarged liver due to iron overload secondary to multiple blood transfusions, gave rise to decreased signal intensity at both T1- and T2-weighted MR imaging. In patients with GVHD, the commonly noted MR findings were bowel was thickening with contrast enhancement, ascites and retroperitoneal lymphadenopathy.

  6. Viral diseases and human evolution

    OpenAIRE

    2000-01-01

    The interaction of man with viral agents was possibly a key factor shaping human evolution, culture and civilization from its outset. Evidence of the effect of disease, since the early stages of human speciation, through pre-historical times to the present suggest that the types of viruses associated with man changed in time. As human populations progressed technologically, they grew in numbers and density. As a consequence different viruses found suitable conditions to thrive and establish l...

  7. Viral diseases and human evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leal Élcio de Souza

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The interaction of man with viral agents was possibly a key factor shaping human evolution, culture and civilization from its outset. Evidence of the effect of disease, since the early stages of human speciation, through pre-historical times to the present suggest that the types of viruses associated with man changed in time. As human populations progressed technologically, they grew in numbers and density. As a consequence different viruses found suitable conditions to thrive and establish long-lasting associations with man. Although not all viral agents cause disease and some may in fact be considered beneficial, the present situation of overpopulation, poverty and ecological inbalance may have devastating effets on human progress. Recently emerged diseases causing massive pandemics (eg., HIV-1 and HCV, dengue, etc. are becoming formidable challenges, which may have a direct impact on the fate of our species.

  8. THERAPEUTIC EFFICACY OF PROBIOTICS AND SHORT CHAIN FATTY ACIDS IN GASTROINTESTINAL DISEASE: EVALUATION OF METABOLIC, HORMONAL AND INFLAMMATORY PARAMETERS

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    In these three years we studied probiotics and postbiotics efficacy and their mechanism/s in preventing or limiting gastrointestinal diseases, such as hepatic steatosis and ulcerative colitis. On the basis of strength anatomical correlation between liver and gut, we wanted to observe if microorganisms present in gut and their postbiotic derivatives, the short chain fatty acids, were able to prevent or cure not only local intestinal disease but also to limit extraintestinal and systemic pathol...

  9. Nutritional risk and gastrointestinal dysautonomia symptoms in Parkinson's disease outpatients hospitalised on a scheduled basis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barichella, Michela; Cereda, Emanuele; Madio, Carmen; Iorio, Laura; Pusani, Chiara; Cancello, Raffaella; Caccialanza, Riccardo; Pezzoli, Gianni; Cassani, Erica

    2013-07-28

    Dysautonomia symptoms of nutritional interest may often occur in Parkinson's disease (PD), but the role played in affecting the risk of malnutrition still needs to be clarified. A total of 208 consecutive PD outpatients hospitalised on a scheduled basis were assessed for nutritional risk by the Malnutrition Universal Screening Tool. Presence of dysautonomia symptoms (dysphagia, sialorrhoea and constipation) was investigated using clinical rating scales. In our population, prevalence of nutritional risk was 17·2 (95 % CI 12·1, 24·0) % and relied mainly on unintentional weight loss. Sialorrhoea, dysphagia, dysphagia to liquids and constipation were observed in 10·6, 11·0, 14·4 and 59·6 % of the patients, respectively. Nutritional risk was independently associated with the number of dysautonomia symptoms (OR 1·39 (95 % CI 1·00, 1·96); P= 0·048) but not with single symptoms. An independent association was also found with the severity of motor symptoms (Hoehn-Yahr stage, OR 1·48 (95 % CI 1·00, 2·55); P= 0·049) and levodopa dose (OR 1·16 (95 % CI 1·04, 1·31) mg/kg per d; P= 0·009). Nutritional risk in PD outpatients appears to depend mainly on dysautonomic syndrome, disease severity and levodopa dosage. Implications for outcome deserve further investigation. The assessment of nutritional status and of gastrointestinal dysautonomia symptoms should be part of the routine work-up of a PD patient.

  10. Subnormal concentrations of serum cobalamin (vitamin B12) in cats with gastrointestinal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, K W; Fyfe, J; Cornetta, A; Sachs, A; Strauss-Ayali, D; Lamb, S V; Reimers, T J

    2001-01-01

    The present study sought to determine the spectrum of diseases associated with subnormal concentrations of serum cobalamin in cats undergoing investigation of suspected gastrointestinal problems. The solid-phase boil radioassay (RA) for cobalamin employed in the present study was immunologically specific, precise, and accurate, with a sensitivity of 15 pg/mL. The RA yielded results that strongly correlated with those obtained by bioassay (Spearmann rho = .805; P cats (range 900-2,800 pg/mL; mean +/- SD, 1,775 +/- 535 pg/mL; n = 33). Cats with subnormal cobalamin concentrations (mean +/- SD; 384 +/- 272 pg/mL, range 3-883 pg/mL) were middle-aged or older and were presented for weight loss. diarrhea, vomiting, anorexia, and thickened intestines. Definitive diagnoses in 22 cats included inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), intestinal lymphoma, cholangiohepatitis or cholangits, and pancreatic inflammation. Serum concentrations of cobalamin were particularly low in cats with intestinal lymphoma, three-fifths of whom also had subnormal serum concentrations of folate (disease in the intestines, pancreas, or hepatobiliary system in many cats made it difficult to determine the cause of subnormal cobalamin concentrations. The circulating half-life of parenteral cyanocobalamin was shorter in 2 cats with IBD (5 days) than in 4 healthy cats (12.75 days). The presence of subnormal serum concentrations of cobalamin in 49 of 80 cats evaluated suggests that the measurement of serum cobalamin may be a useful indirect indicator of enteric or pancreatic disease in cats. The rapid depletion of circulating cobalamin in cats suggests that cats may be highly susceptible to cobalamin deficiency. However, the relationship of subnormal serum cobalamin concentrations to cobalamin deficiency and the effect of cobalamin deficiency on cats remain to be determined.

  11. Gastrointestinal Morbidity in Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acosta, Andres; Camilleri, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Obesity is a complex disease that results from increased energy intake and decreased energy expenditure. The gastrointestinal system plays a key role in the pathogenesis of obesity and facilitates caloric imbalance. Changes in gastrointestinal hormones and the inhibition of mechanisms that curtail caloric intake result in weight gain. It is not clear if the gastrointestinal role in obesity is a cause or an effect of this disease. Obesity is often associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Obesity is also associated with gastrointestinal disorders, which are more frequent and present earlier than T2DM and CVD. Diseases such as gastro-esophageal reflux disease, cholelithiasis or non-alcoholic steatohepatitis are directly related to body weight and abdominal adiposity. Our objective is to assess the role of each gastrointestinal organ in obesity and the gastrointestinal morbidity resulting in those organs from effects of obesity. PMID:24602085

  12. Functional Development of the Human Gastrointestinal Tract: Hormone- and Growth Factor-Mediated Regulatory Mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Ménard

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The present review focuses on the control of gastrointestinal (GI tract development. The first section addresses the differences in general mechanisms of GI development in humans versus rodents, highlighting that morphogenesis of specific digestive organs and the differentiation of digestive epithelia occur not only at different stages of ontogeny but also at different rates. The second section provides an overview of studies from the author's laboratory at the Université de Sherbrooke pertaining to the development of the human fetal small intestine and colon. While both segments share similar morphological and functional characteristics, they are nevertheless modulated by distinct regulatory mechanisms. Using the organ culture approach, the author and colleagues were able to establish that hormones and growth factors, such as glucocorticoids, epidermal growth factor, insulin and keratinocyte growth factor, not only exert differential effects within these two segments, they can also trigger opposite responses in comparison with animal models. In the third section, emphasis is placed on the functional development of human fetal stomach and its various epithelial cell types; in particular, the glandular chief cells responsible for the synthesis and secretion of gastric enzymes such as pepsinogen-5 and gastric lipase. Bearing in mind that limitations of available cell models have, until now, greatly impeded the comprehension of molecular mechanisms regulating human gastric epithelial cell functions, the last section focuses on new human gastric epithelial cell models recently developed in the author's laboratory. These models comprise a novel primary culture system of human fetal gastric epithelium including, for the first time, functional chief cells, and human gastric epithelium cell lines cloned from the parental NCI-N87 strain. These new cells lines could serve important applications in the study of pathogenic action and epithelial

  13. A Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial of Oral Human Immunoglobulin for Gastrointestinal Dysfunction in Children with Autistic Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handen, Benjamin L.; Melmed, Raun D.; Hansen, Robin L.; Aman, Michael G.; Burnham, David L.; Bruss, Jon B.; McDougle, Christopher J.

    2009-01-01

    Controversy exists regarding the extent and possible causal relationship between gastrointestinal symptoms and autism. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel groups, dose-ranging study of oral, human immunoglobulin (IGOH 140, 420, or 840 mg/day) was utilized with 125 children (ages 2-17 years) with autism and persistent GI…

  14. Chemoprevention in gastrointestinal physiology and disease. Targeting the progression of cancer with natural products: a focus on gastrointestinal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoogar, Roxane; Kim, Byung-Chang; Morris, Jay; Wargovich, Michael J

    2016-05-01

    The last decade has witnessed remarkable progress in the utilization of natural products for the prevention and treatment of human cancer. Many agents now in the pipeline for clinical trial testing have evolved from our understanding of how human nutritional patterns account for widespread differences in cancer risk. In this review, we have focused on many of these promising agents arguing that they may provide a new strategy for cancer control: natural products once thought to be only preventive in their mode of action now are being explored for efficacy in tandem with cancer therapeutics. Natural products may reduce off-target toxicity of therapeutics while making cancers more amenable to therapy. On the horizon is the use of certain natural products, in their own right, as mitigants of late-stage cancer, a new frontier for small-molecule natural product drug discovery.

  15. Intestinal microbiota and children gastrointestinal diseases%肠道微生态与儿童期胃肠疾病

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张琳; 梁庆红; 王烨; 李方芳

    2014-01-01

    栖息在肠道的微生物群构成了人体肠道复杂的微生态体系.新生儿出生时就有肠道微生物群的即刻定植,其定植过程受分娩方式、喂养方式和所接触周围环境的影响.大量研究表明肠道微生态学的变化通过对肠黏膜免疫功能的影响而致肠内或肠外疾病.肠道正常菌群具有抵抗致病菌侵入、营养支持和调节宿主脂肪代谢等作用,在维持肠道微生态平衡、保护胃肠道健康方面发挥重要作用.益生菌通过促进和调节肠道微生态平衡维护机体健康.现就肠道微生态学变化与儿童期胃肠疾病的关系进行综述.%The microbiota of the human gastrointestinal tract inhabits a complex ecosystem.Intestinal normal flora is obtained by newborn after birth,and suffers influences on the type of delivery,the type of feeding and contamination from the environment.There is emerging evidence indicating that quantitative and qualitative changes on gut microbiota contribute to alterations in the mucosal activation of immune system leading to intra-or extra-intestinal diseases.A balance between pathogenic and beneficial microbiota throughout childhood is important to gastrointestinal health,including protection against pathogens,inhibition of pathogens,nutrient processing,and regulation of host fat storage.Probiotics can promote an intentional modulation of intestinal microbiota favoring the health of the host.This paper is a review about modulation of intestinal microbiota on prevention and adjuvant treatment of intra-and extra intestinal pediatric diseases.

  16. Gastrointestinal Symptoms in Celiac Disease Patients on a Long-Term Gluten-Free Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilvi Laurikka

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Experience suggests that many celiac patients suffer from persistent symptoms despite a long-term gluten-free diet (GFD. We investigated the prevalence and severity of these symptoms in patients with variable duration of GFD. Altogether, 856 patients were classified into untreated (n = 128, short-term GFD (1–2 years, n = 93 and long-term GFD (≥3 years, n = 635 groups. Analyses were made of clinical and histological data and dietary adherence. Symptoms were evaluated by the validated GSRS questionnaire. One-hundred-sixty healthy subjects comprised the control group. Further, the severity of symptoms was compared with that in peptic ulcer, reflux disease, inflammatory bowel disease (IBD and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS. Altogether, 93% of the short-term and 94% of the long-term treated patients had a strict GFD and recovered mucosa. Untreated patients had more diarrhea, indigestion and abdominal pain than those on GFD and controls. There were no differences in symptoms between the short- and long-term GFD groups, but both yielded poorer GSRS total score than controls (p = 0.03 and p = 0.05, respectively. Furthermore, patients treated 1–2 years had more diarrhea (p = 0.03 and those treated >10 years more reflux (p = 0.04 than controls. Long-term treated celiac patients showed relatively mild symptoms compared with other gastrointestinal diseases. Based on our results, good response to GFD sustained in long-term follow-up, but not all patients reach the level of healthy individuals.

  17. Linking Microbiota to Human Diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Hao; Tremaroli, Valentina; Bäckhed, F

    2015-01-01

    diabetes (T2D), and irritable bowel syndrome, and some animal experiments have suggested causality. However, few studies have validated causality in humans and the underlying mechanisms remain largely to be elucidated. We discuss how systems biology approaches combined with new experimental technologies......The human gut microbiota encompasses a densely populated ecosystem that provides essential functions for host development, immune maturation, and metabolism. Alterations to the gut microbiota have been observed in numerous diseases, including human metabolic diseases such as obesity, type 2...... may disentangle some of the mechanistic details in the complex interactions of diet, microbiota, and host metabolism and may provide testable hypotheses for advancing our current understanding of human-microbiota interaction....

  18. Chromatin remodeling and human disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Cheng; Sloan, Emily A; Boerkoel, Cornelius F

    2003-06-01

    In the past few years, there has been a nascent convergence of scientific understanding of inherited human diseases with epigenetics. Identified epigenetic processes involved in human disease include covalent DNA modifications, covalent histone modifications, and histone relocation. Each of these processes influences chromatin structure and thereby regulates gene expression and DNA methylation, replication, recombination, and repair. The importance of these processes for nearly all aspects of normal growth and development is illustrated by the array of multi-system disorders and neoplasias caused by their dysregulation.

  19. The use of formulation technology to assess regional gastrointestinal drug absorption in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basit, Abdul W; Podczeck, Fridrun; Newton, J Michael; Waddington, Wendy A; Ell, Peter J; Lacey, Larry F

    2004-02-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the feasibility of using oral modified-release formulations for the purposes of site-specific targeting and regional drug absorption assessment in man. An immediate release pellet formulation containing ranitidine as the model drug of choice for the study was fabricated by extrusion-spheronisation, and then film coated with either the enteric polymer polyvinyl acetate phthalate or the bacteria-degradable polymer amylose, in combination with ethylcellulose, to effect drug release within the small intestine and colon, respectively. Optimised formulations were evaluated in vivo in ten healthy volunteers, who each received, on four separate occasions, the immediate release, small intestinal release and colonic release formulations (each equivalent to 150mg ranitidine), and an intravenous injection of ranitidine (equivalent to 50mg ranitidine). Blood samples were collected and assessed for ranitidine concentration, and radiolabelled placebo pellets were co-administered with the coated ranitidine pellets to monitor their gastrointestinal transit using a gamma camera. Ranitidine was rapidly released and absorbed from the immediate release formulation, whereas the enteric formulation (10% coat weight gain) delayed drug release until some or all of the pellets had emptied into the small intestine. The amylose-ethylcellulose coated formulation (coat ratio 1:3, coat weight gain 25%) retarded ranitidine release until the pellets had reached the colon. The mean absolute bioavailability of ranitidine from the immediate release, small intestinal release and colonic release formulations were 50.6, 46.1 and 5.5%, respectively. These data are in general agreement to those obtained from a previous regional intubation study. The present study therefore demonstrates the practical potential of utilising a non-invasive, formulation-based approach to assess drug absorption from different regions of the human gastrointestinal tract.

  20. Epistaxis in end stage liver disease masquerading as severe upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camus, Marine; Jensen, Dennis M; Matthews, Jason D; Ohning, Gordon V; Kovacs, Thomas O; Jutabha, Rome; Ghassemi, Kevin A; Machicado, Gustavo A; Dulai, Gareth S

    2014-10-14

    To describe the prevalence, diagnosis, treatment, and outcomes of end stage liver disease (ESLD) patients with severe epistaxis thought to be severe upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage (UGIH). This observational single center study included all consecutive patients with ESLD and epistaxis identified from consecutive subjects hospitalized with suspected UGIH and prospectively enrolled in our databases of severe UGIH between 1998 and 2011. A total of 1249 patients were registered for severe UGIH in the data basis, 461 (36.9%) were cirrhotics. Epistaxis rather than UGIH was the bleeding source in 20 patients. All patients had severe coagulopathy. Epistaxis was initially controlled in all cases. Fifteen (75%) subjects required posterior nasal packing and 2 (10%) embolization in addition to correction of coagulopathy. Five (25%) patients died in the hospital, 12 (60%) received orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT), and 3 (15%) were discharged without OLT. The mortality rate was 63% in patients without OLT. Severe epistaxis in patients with ESLD is (1) a diagnosis of exclusion that requires upper endoscopy to exclude severe UGIH; and (2) associated with a high mortality rate in patients not receiving OLT.

  1. Review of commonly used clinical pathology parameters for general gastrointestinal disease with emphasis on small animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiner, Jörg M

    2014-01-01

    A wide variety of markers are available to assess the function and pathology of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. This review describes some of these markers with special emphasis given to markers used in dogs and cats. Small intestinal disease can be confirmed and localized by the measurement of serum concentrations of folate and cobalamin. Fecal α1-proteinase inhibitor concentration can increase in individuals with excessive GI protein loss. A wide variety of inflammatory markers are available for a variety of species that can be used to assess the inflammatory activity of various types of inflammatory cells in the GI tract, although most of these markers assess neutrophilic inflammation, such as neutrophil elastase, calprotectin, or S100A12. N-methylhistamine can serve as a marker of mast cell infiltration. Markers for lymphocytic or eosinophilic inflammation are currently under investigation. Exocrine pancreatic function can be assessed by measurement of serum concentrations of pancreatic lipase immunoreactivity (PLI) and trypsin-like immunoreactivity (TLI). Serum PLI concentration is increased in individuals with pancreatitis and has been shown to be highly specific for exocrine pancreatic function and sensitive for pancreatitis. Serum TLI concentration is severely decreased in individuals with exocrine pancreatic insufficiency.

  2. Gastrointestinal factors contribute to glucometabolic disturbances in nondiabetic patients with end-stage renal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idorn, Thomas; Knop, Filip K; Jørgensen, Morten; Holst, Jens J; Hornum, Mads; Feldt-Rasmussen, Bo

    2013-05-01

    Nondiabetic patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) have disturbed glucose metabolism, the underlying pathophysiology of which is unclear. To help elucidate this, we studied patients with ESRD and either normal or impaired glucose tolerance (10 each NGT or IGT, respectively) and 11 controls using an oral glucose tolerance test and an isoglycemic intravenous glucose infusion on separate days. Plasma glucose, insulin, glucagon, and incretin hormones were measured repeatedly, and gastrointestinal-mediated glucose disposal (GIGD) based on glucose amounts utilized, and incretin effect based on incremental insulin responses, were calculated. The GIGD was significantly reduced in both ESRD groups compared with controls. Incretin effects were 69% (controls), 55% (ESRD with NGT), and 41% (ESRD with IGT), with a significant difference between controls and ESRDs with IGT. Fasting concentrations of glucagon and incretin hormones were significantly increased in patients with ESRD. Glucagon suppression was significantly impaired in both groups with ESRD compared with controls, while the baseline-corrected incretin hormone responses were unaltered between groups. Thus, patients with ESRD had reduced GIGD, a diminished incretin effect in those with IGT, and severe fasting hyperglucagonemia that seemed irrepressible in response to glucose stimuli. These factors may contribute to disturbed glucose metabolism in ESRD.

  3. UPPER GASTRO-INTESTINAL BLEEDING IN THE YOUNG - GASTRIC GIST TUMOR OR PEPTIC ULCER DISEASE?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayodele Atolagbe

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available GIST tumors is very unusual in the young and middle aged and a high index of suspicion is needed for the diagnosis in young patients who present with upper gastrointestinal bleeding. Appropriate imaging such as a Computed tomographic scan (CT scan may identify this tumor which may easily be misdiagnosed as a bleeding Peptic Ulcer Disease in the young. We present a case of a healthy 38 year old man with no alcohol use who presented with epigastric pain and melena and subsequent torrential bleeding uncontrolled during endoscopy necessitating an emergency exploratory laparotomy by the general surgery team. The bleeding intraluminal component of the tumor with gross splenic and pancreatic involvement was identified and surgical management consisted of a wedge resection of the greater curvature of the stomach incorporating the tumor and the spleen with successful dissection of the tumor off the tail of the pancreas. Histology was positive for C-KIT and DOG-1 markers. Postoperative course was uneventful and he is presently on Imatinib Mesylate.

  4. [Metagenomics in studying gastrointestinal tract microorganism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Bo; Yang, Yunjuan; Li, Junjun; Tang, Xianghua; Mu, Yuelin; Huang, Zunxi

    2013-12-01

    Animal gastrointestinal tract contains a complex community of microbes, whose composition ultimately reflects the co-evolution of microorganisms with their animal host. The gut microbial community of humans and animals has received significant attention from researchers because of its association with health and disease. The application of metagenomics technology enables researchers to study not only the microbial composition but also the function of microbes in the gastrointestinal tract. In this paper, combined with our own findings, we summarized advances in studying gastrointestinal tract microorganism with metagenomics and the bioinformatics technology.

  5. Medicinal plants--prophylactic and therapeutic options for gastrointestinal and respiratory diseases in calves and piglets? A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayrle, Hannah; Mevissen, Meike; Kaske, Martin; Nathues, Heiko; Gruetzner, Niels; Melzig, Matthias; Walkenhorst, Michael

    2016-06-06

    Gastrointestinal and respiratory diseases in calves and piglets lead to significant economic losses in livestock husbandry. A high morbidity has been reported for diarrhea (calves ≤ 35%; piglets ≤ 50%) and for respiratory diseases (calves ≤ 80%; piglets ≤ 40%). Despite a highly diverse etiology and pathophysiology of these diseases, treatment with antimicrobials is often the first-line therapy. Multi-antimicrobial resistance in pathogens results in international accordance to strengthen the research in novel treatment options. Medicinal plants bear a potential as alternative or additional treatment. Based on the versatile effects of their plant specific multi-component-compositions, medicinal plants can potentially act as 'multi-target drugs'. Regarding the plurality of medicinal plants, the aim of this systematic review was to identify potential medicinal plant species for prevention and treatment of gastrointestinal and respiratory diseases and for modulation of the immune system and inflammation in calves and piglets. Based on nine initial sources including standard textbooks and European ethnoveterinary studies, a total of 223 medicinal plant species related to the treatment of gastrointestinal and respiratory diseases was identified. A defined search strategy was established using the PRISMA statement to evaluate 30 medicinal plant species starting from 20'000 peer-reviewed articles published in the last 20 years (1994-2014). This strategy led to 418 references (257 in vitro, 84 in vivo and 77 clinical trials, thereof 48 clinical trials in veterinary medicine) to evaluate effects of medicinal plants and their efficacy in detail. The findings indicate that the most promising candidates for gastrointestinal diseases are Allium sativum L., Mentha x piperita L. and Salvia officinalis L.; for diseases of the respiratory tract Echinacea purpurea (L.) MOENCH, Thymus vulgaris L. and Althea officinalis L. were found most promising, and Echinacea purpurea (L

  6. Autoimmune diseases, gastrointestinal disorders and the microbiome in schizophrenia: More than a gut feeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Severance, Emily G.; Yolken, Robert H.; Eaton, William W.

    2014-01-01

    Autoimmunity, gastrointestinal (GI) disorders and schizophrenia have been associated with one another for a long time. This paper reviews these connections and provides a context by which multiple risk factors for schizophrenia may be related. Epidemiological studies strongly link schizophrenia with autoimmune disorders including enteropathic celiac disease. Exposure to wheat gluten and bovine milk casein also contribute to non-celiac food sensitivities in susceptible individuals. Co-morbid GI inflammation accompanies humoral immunity to food antigens, occurs early during the course of schizophrenia and appears to be independent from antipsychotic-generated motility effects. This inflammation impacts endothelial barrier permeability and can precipitate translocation of gut bacteria into systemic circulation. Infection by the neurotropic gut pathogen, Toxoplasma gondii, will elicit an inflammatory GI environment. Such processes trigger innate immunity, including activation of complement C1q, which also functions at synapses in the brain. The emerging field of microbiome research lies at the center of these interactions with evidence that the abundance and diversity of resident gut microbiota contribute to digestion, inflammation, gut permeability and behavior. Dietary modifications of core bacterial compositions may explain inefficient gluten digestion and how immigrant status in certain situations is a risk factor for schizophrenia. Gut microbiome research in schizophrenia is in its infancy, but data in related fields suggest disease-associated altered phylogenetic compositions. In summary, this review surveys associative and experimental data linking autoimmunity, GI activity and schizophrenia, and proposes that understanding of disrupted biological pathways outside of the brain can lend valuable information regarding pathogeneses of complex, polygenic brain disorders. PMID:25034760

  7. [Carbon monoxide in human physiology--its role in the gastrointestinal tract].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasnos, Katarzyna; Magierowski, Marcin; Kwiecień, Sławomir; Brzozowski, Tomasz

    2014-01-30

    Carbon monoxide (CO) is produced endogenously in the body as a byproduct of heme degradation catalyzed by the action of heme oxygenase (HO) enzymes. An inducible form, HO-1, responds to many factors such as oxidative stress, hypoxia, heme, bacterial endotoxins, proinflammatory cytokines and heavy metals. HO-2 is constitutively expressed under basal conditions in most human tissues including brain and gonads. Recent data show that CO is a gaseous mediator with multidirectional biological activity. It is involved in maintaining cellular homeostasis and many physiological and pathophysiological processes. CO shares many properties with another established vasodilatator and neurotransmitter - nitric oxide (NO). Both CO and NO are involved in neural transmission, modulation of blood vessel function and inhibition of platelet aggregation. The binding to guanylate cyclase, stimulation of the production of cGMP, activation of Ca2+-dependent potassium channels and stimulation of mitogen-activated protein kinases are well known cellular targets of CO action. Since CO is nowadays a subject of extensive investigation in many centers worldwide, the aim of the present study was to present the role of CO in various aspects of human physiology with special focus on its activity in the gastrointestinal tract.

  8. A wireless capsule system with ASIC for monitoring the physiological signals of the human gastrointestinal tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Fei; Yan, Guozheng; Zhao, Kai; Lu, Li; Gao, Jinyang; Liu, Gang

    2014-12-01

    This paper presents the design of a wireless capsule system for monitoring the physiological signals of the human gastrointestinal (GI) tract. The primary components of the system include a wireless capsule, a portable data recorder, and a workstation. Temperature, pH, and pressure sensors; an RF transceiver; a controlling and processing application specific integrated circuit (ASIC); and batteries were applied in a wireless capsule. Decreasing capsule size, improving sensor precision, and reducing power needs were the primary challenges; these were resolved by employing micro sensors, optimized architecture, and an ASIC design that include power management, clock management, a programmable gain amplifier (PGA), an A/D converter (ADC), and a serial peripheral interface (SPI) communication unit. The ASIC has been fabricated in 0.18- μm CMOS technology with a die area of 5.0 mm × 5.0 mm. The wireless capsule integrating the ASIC controller measures Φ 11 mm × 26 mm. A data recorder and a workstation were developed, and 20 cases of human experiments were conducted in hospitals. Preprocessing in the workstation can significantly improve the quality of the data, and 76 original features were determined by mathematical statistics. Based on the 13 optimal features achieved in the evaluation of the features, the clustering algorithm can identify the patients who lack GI motility with a recognition rate reaching 83.3%.

  9. A piglet model for studying Candida albicans colonization of the human oro-gastrointestinal tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoeflinger, Jennifer L; Coleman, David A; Oh, Soon-Hwan; Miller, Michael J; Hoyer, Lois L

    2014-08-01

    Pigs from a variety of sources were surveyed for oro-gastrointestinal (oro-GIT) carriage of Candida albicans. Candida albicans-positive animals were readily located, but we also identified C. albicans-free pigs. We hypothesized that pigs could be stably colonized with a C. albicans strain of choice, simply by feeding yeast cells. Piglets were farrowed routinely and remained with the sow for 4 days to acquire a normal microbiota. Piglets were then placed in an artificial rearing environment and fed sow milk replacer. Piglets were inoculated orally with one of three different C. albicans strains. Piglets were weighed daily, and culture swabs were collected to detect C. albicans orally, rectally and in the piglet's environment. Stable C. albicans colonization over the course of the study did not affect piglet growth. Necropsy revealed mucosally associated C. albicans throughout the oro-GIT with the highest abundance in the esophagus. Uninoculated control piglets remained C. albicans-negative. These data establish the piglet as a model to study C. albicans colonization of the human oro-GIT. Similarities between oro-GIT colonization in humans and pigs, as well as the ease of working with the piglet model, suggest its adaptability for use among investigators interested in understanding C. albicans-host commensal interactions.

  10. Gluten causes gastrointestinal symptoms in subjects without celiac disease: a double-blind randomized placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biesiekierski, Jessica R; Newnham, Evan D; Irving, Peter M; Barrett, Jacqueline S; Haines, Melissa; Doecke, James D; Shepherd, Susan J; Muir, Jane G; Gibson, Peter R

    2011-03-01

    Despite increased prescription of a gluten-free diet for gastrointestinal symptoms in individuals who do not have celiac disease, there is minimal evidence that suggests that gluten is a trigger. The aims of this study were to determine whether gluten ingestion can induce symptoms in non-celiac individuals and to examine the mechanism. A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled rechallenge trial was undertaken in patients with irritable bowel syndrome in whom celiac disease was excluded and who were symptomatically controlled on a gluten-free diet. Participants received either gluten or placebo in the form of two bread slices plus one muffin per day with a gluten-free diet for up to 6 weeks. Symptoms were evaluated using a visual analog scale and markers of intestinal inflammation, injury, and immune activation were monitored. A total of 34 patients (aged 29-59 years, 4 men) completed the study as per protocol. Overall, 56% had human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-DQ2 and/or HLA-DQ8. Adherence to diet and supplements was very high. Of 19 patients (68%) in the gluten group, 13 reported that symptoms were not adequately controlled compared with 6 of 15 (40%) on placebo (P=0.0001; generalized estimating equation). On a visual analog scale, patients were significantly worse with gluten within 1 week for overall symptoms (P=0.047), pain (P=0.016), bloating (P=0.031), satisfaction with stool consistency (P=0.024), and tiredness (P=0.001). Anti-gliadin antibodies were not induced. There were no significant changes in fecal lactoferrin, levels of celiac antibodies, highly sensitive C-reactive protein, or intestinal permeability. There were no differences in any end point in individuals with or without DQ2/DQ8. "Non-celiac gluten intolerance" may exist, but no clues to the mechanism were elucidated.

  11. Endoscopic laser surgery of patients with pretumoral diseases and tumors of the organs of respiration and gastro-intestinal tract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poddubny, Boris K.; Ungiadze, G. V.; Kuvshinov, Yury P.; Efimov, Oleg N.; Mazurov, S. T.

    1996-01-01

    The result of treatment of 566 patients with precancerous diseases, cancer and benign tumors of respiratory and gastro-intestinal tract are presented. The `Raduga-1' as a source of laser radiation has been used. The wavelength of radiation 1060 nm. The maximum of basic radiation at the end of lightguide is 50 W. It is shown that the method of endoscopic laser destruction is a highly effective one and may be recommended for radical treatment.

  12. Risk factors for upper gastrointestinal bleeding in coronary artery disease patients receiving both aspirin and clopidogrel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Kuang-Wei; Luo, Jiing-Chyuan; Leu, Hsin-Bang; Huang, Chin-Chou; Hou, Ming-Chih; Chen, Tseng-Shing; Lu, Ching-Liang; Lin, Han-Chieh; Lee, Fa-Yauh; Chang, Full-Young

    2013-01-01

    Dual therapy (aspirin and clopidogrel) increases the risk of upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIB). Acute coronary syndrome (ACS), a critical ill condition, may increase the risk of UGIB due to stress-related mucosal disease and the impact of receiving dual antiplatelet agents. We identified risk factors of UGIB in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) receiving dual therapy. Patients who received dual therapy due to ACS or postpercutaneous coronary intervention (elective, primary, or urgent) were enrolled retrospectively. We assessed the occurrence of UGIB and identified the risk factors for UGIB at early stage (dual therapy ≤ 2 weeks) and late stage (> 2 weeks) by Cox regression analysis. During a mean follow-up period of 125 days, 67 (12.5 %) out of 534 patients developed UGIB (32 patients at early stage, 35 patients at late stage). Cox regression analysis showed that use of proton pump inhibitor therapy has a protective role in these patients [hazard ratio (HR): 0.10, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.01-0.71]. ACS (HR: 2.67, 95% CI: 1.33-5.34) has a high risk of developing UGIB at an early stage. Old age (>75 years of age) (HR: 2.13, 95% CI: 1.02-4.47) and prior history of peptic ulcer disease (HR: 3.27, 95% CI: 1.28-8.34) each have an associated high risk for developing UGIB at a late stage. The use of mechanical ventilation (HR: 5.85, 95% CI: 2.19-15.58) also increased UGIB risk at both the early and late stages. ACS and mechanical ventilation are important risk factors of UGIB at the early stage (≤ 2 weeks). Additionally, old age (>75 years), past peptic ulcer disease history, and the use of mechanical ventilation play important roles in the occurrence of UGIB at late stage (>2 weeks). However, it was also noted that use of PPI plays a protective role in patients with CAD receiving aspirin and clopidogrel therapy. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. The application of Traditional Chinese Drugs(TCD) by Non- oral Gastrointestinal Administration in Complicated and Serious Diseases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Lirong; HE Gang

    2002-01-01

    Objective To discuss the curative efficacy of TCD compounds by non- oral gastrointestinal administration in order to solve the problem on dosage forms of TCD in rescue of complicated and serious diseases. Method Gastric tube perfusion or retention enema or drainage tube was applied for theadministration of TCD decoctions, pills or powders. Results In rescuing MOF patients with intestinal paralysis after cesarean section due to retained stillbirth who got no effect by gastrointestinal decompression and anal exsufflation for 48 hours, they were survived after gastric tube perfusion of JiaWei HuangLong Decoction. In dying patients with shock due to poisoned bacterial dysentery, they were saved after retention enema of AnGong NiuHuang Pill. In infants with fever due to sporadic encephalitis who got convulsion, trismus and drank no water, their convulsions disappeared overnight after retention enema of AnGong NiuHuang Pill plus cornu saigae tataricae powder. Conclusion It has been showed that under present situation that TCD injections couldn' t meet the need of complicated and serious diseases, the application of TCD by non - oral gastrointestinal administration in rescuing complicated and serious diseases was an effective emergency measure.

  14. Orthotopic transplantation model of human gastrointestinal cancer and detection of micrometastases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jun Hui Cui; Uwe Krueger; Doris Henne-Bruns; Bernd Kremer; Holger Kalthoff

    2001-01-01

    AIM To establish a relevant animal model ofhuman gastrointestinal cancer, which can beused for repetitive investigations, so as toimprove our understanding and management ofcarcinogenesis and cancer metastasis.METHODS Intact tissues of human colorectaland pancreatic cancers were transplanted innude mice. The biological characteristics of theoriginal and the corresponding transplantedtumors were investigated by HE staining, PASstaining and immunostaining. The metastases inthe livers and lungs of nude mice wereinvestigated by immunostaining withbiotinylated mab KL-1 and by RT-PCR using CK20specific primers.RESULTS There were totally 9 of 16 surgicalspecimens growing in nude mice subcutaneouslyand/.or orthotopically (4 of 6 colorectal and 5 of10 pancreatic cancer). Tumor cell content of thespecimens and freezing of tissue specimens areimportant factors influencing the growth oftransplanted tumor. In the group of fresh tumortissues with greater than 50% tumor cellcontent, the success rate of the transplantationwas 100% (3 cases of pancreatic cancer and 3cases of colorectal cancer). The orthotopicallytransplanted tumors resemble the original tumormorphologically and biologically, including TAAexpression such as CEA byimmunohistochemistry, and CEA level in theserum of mice. Ki-67 labeling index and theexpression of TAA especially K-ras, 17-lA andRA-96, are associated with the potential of tumorgrowth in nude mice. Micrometastases in thelungs and livers of tumor bearing mice can bedetected by immunostaining with biotinylatedmab KL-1 and CK20-specific RT-PCR.CONCLUSION An orthotopic transplantationmodel for human colon and pancreatic cancer innude mice has been set up. We have alsoestablished sensitive detection methods withCK-immunohistochemistry and CK20-RT-PCR tostudy xenotransplanted human cancer and itsmetastatic cancer cells in the liver and lung ofnude mice. This study may be helpful inunderstanding the mechanism of cancermetastasis and in developing new

  15. Proteins aggregation and human diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Chin-Kun

    2015-04-01

    Many human diseases and the death of most supercentenarians are related to protein aggregation. Neurodegenerative diseases include Alzheimer's disease (AD), Huntington's disease (HD), Parkinson's disease (PD), frontotemporallobar degeneration, etc. Such diseases are due to progressive loss of structure or function of neurons caused by protein aggregation. For example, AD is considered to be related to aggregation of Aβ40 (peptide with 40 amino acids) and Aβ42 (peptide with 42 amino acids) and HD is considered to be related to aggregation of polyQ (polyglutamine) peptides. In this paper, we briefly review our recent discovery of key factors for protein aggregation. We used a lattice model to study the aggregation rates of proteins and found that the probability for a protein sequence to appear in the conformation of the aggregated state can be used to determine the temperature at which proteins can aggregate most quickly. We used molecular dynamics and simple models of polymer chains to study relaxation and aggregation of proteins under various conditions and found that when the bending-angle dependent and torsion-angle dependent interactions are zero or very small, then protein chains tend to aggregate at lower temperatures. All atom models were used to identify a key peptide chain for the aggregation of insulin chains and to find that two polyQ chains prefer anti-parallel conformation. It is pointed out that in many cases, protein aggregation does not result from protein mis-folding. A potential drug from Chinese medicine was found for Alzheimer's disease.

  16. Chagas disease and human migration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Guhl

    2000-08-01

    Full Text Available Human Chagas disease is a purely accidental occurrence. As humans came into contact with the natural foci of infection might then have become infected as a single addition to the already extensive host range of Trypanosoma cruzi that includes other primates. Thus began a process of adaptation and domiciliation to human habitations through which the vectors had direct access to abundant food as well as protection from climatic changes and predators. Our work deals with the extraction and specific amplification by polymerase chain reaction of T. cruzi DNA obtained from mummified human tissues and the positive diagnosis of Chagas disease in a series of 4,000-year-old Pre-Hispanic human mummies from the northern coast of Chile. The area has been inhabited at least for 7,000 years, first by hunters, fishers and gatherers, and then gradually by more permanent settlements. The studied specimens belonged to the Chinchorro culture, a people inhabiting the area now occupied by the modern city of Arica. These were essentially fishers with a complex religious ideology, which accounts for the preservation of their dead in the way of mummified bodies, further enhanced by the extremely dry conditions of the desert. Chinchorro mummies are, perhaps, the oldest preserved bodies known to date.

  17. Sangre de grado Croton palanostigma induces apoptosis in human gastrointestinal cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandoval, Manuel; Okuhama, Nataly N; Clark, Melinda; Angeles, Fausto M; Lao, Juan; Bustamante, Sergio; Miller, Mark J S

    2002-05-01

    Sangre de grado is an ethnomedicinal red tree sap obtained from Croton spp. that is used to treat gastrointestinal ulcers, cancer and to promote wound healing. To evaluate the potential role of sangre de grado (SdG) in cancer we examined its effects on human cancer cells, AGS (stomach), HT29 and T84 (colon). Viability of cells treated with SdG (10-200 microg/ml) decreased (P100 microg/ml). When cells in suspension were treated with SdG (100 microg/ml) cell adherence was severely compromised (>85%). Cells treated with SdG (100 microg/ml) underwent apoptosis as detected by nucleus condensation and DNA fragmentation determined by ELISA, and flow cytometry. Morphological changes as assessed by acridine orange. These effects were similar to that observed with Taxol (30 microM). A significant alteration of microtubular architecture was equally observed in both stomach and colon cancer cells exposed to SdG (100 microg/ml). The induction of apoptosis and microtubule damage in AGS, HT29 and T84 cells suggest that sangre de grado should be evaluated further as a potential source of anti-cancer agents.

  18. Effects of Genetically Modified Milk Containing Human Beta-Defensin-3 on Gastrointestinal Health of Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Chen

    Full Text Available This study was performed to investigate the effects of genetically modified (GM milk containing human beta-defensin-3 (HBD3 on mice by a 90-day feeding study. The examined parameters included the digestibility of GM milk, general physical examination, gastric emptying function, intestinal permeability, intestinal microflora composition of mice, and the possibility of horizontal gene transfer (HGT. The emphasis was placed on the effects on gastrointestinal (GI tract due to the fact that GI tract was the first site contacting with food and played crucial roles in metabolic reactions, nutrition absorption and immunity regulation in the host. However, the traditional methods for analyzing the potential toxicological risk of GM product pay little attention on GI health. In this study, the results showed GM milk was easy to be digested in simulated gastric fluid, and it did not have adverse effects on general and GI health compared to conventional milk. And there is little possibility of HGT. This study may enrich the safety assessment of GM product on GI health.

  19. Specific expression of human intelectin-1 in malignant pleural mesothelioma and gastrointestinal goblet cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kota Washimi

    Full Text Available Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM is a fatal tumor. It is often hard to discriminate MPM from metastatic tumors of other types because currently, there are no reliable immunopathological markers for MPM. MPM is differentially diagnosed by some immunohistochemical tests on pathology specimens. In the present study, we investigated the expression of intelectin-1, a new mesothelioma marker, in normal tissues in the whole body and in many cancers, including MPM, by immunohistochemical analysis. We found that in normal tissues, human intelectin-1 was mainly secreted from gastrointestinal goblet cells along with mucus into the intestinal lumen, and it was also expressed, to a lesser extent, in mesothelial cells and urinary epithelial cells. Eighty-eight percent of epithelioid-type MPMs expressed intelectin-1, whereas sarcomatoid-type MPMs, biphasic MPMs, and poorly differentiated MPMs were rarely positive for intelectin-1. Intelectin-1 was not expressed in other cancers, except in mucus-producing adenocarcinoma. These results suggest that intelectin-1 is a better marker for epithelioid-type MPM than other mesothelioma markers because of its specificity and the simplicity of pathological assessment. Pleural intelectin-1 could be a useful diagnostic marker for MPM with applications in histopathological identification of MPM.

  20. Behaviour of silver nanoparticles and silver ions in an in vitro human gastrointestinal digestion model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walczak, Agata P; Fokkink, Remco; Peters, Ruud; Tromp, Peter; Herrera Rivera, Zahira E; Rietjens, Ivonne M C M; Hendriksen, Peter J M; Bouwmeester, Hans

    2013-11-01

    Oral ingestion is an important exposure route for silver nanoparticles (AgNPs), but their fate during gastrointestinal digestion is unknown. This was studied for 60 nm AgNPs and silver ions (AgNO₃) using in vitro human digestion model. Samples after saliva, gastric and intestinal digestion were analysed with SP-ICPMS, DLS and SEM-EDX. In presence of proteins, after gastric digestion the number of particles dropped significantly, to rise back to original values after the intestinal digestion. SEM-EDX revealed that reduction in number of particles was caused by their clustering. These clusters were composed of AgNPs and chlorine. During intestinal digestion, these clusters disintegrated back into single 60 nm AgNPs. The authors conclude that these AgNPs under physiological conditions can reach the intestinal wall in their initial size and composition. Importantly, intestinal digestion of AgNO₃ in presence of proteins resulted in particle formation. These nanoparticles (of 20-30 nm) were composed of silver, sulphur and chlorine.

  1. A New High-Throughput Approach to Genotype Ancient Human Gastrointestinal Parasites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Côté, Nathalie M L; Daligault, Julien; Pruvost, Mélanie; Bennett, E Andrew; Gorgé, Olivier; Guimaraes, Silvia; Capelli, Nicolas; Le Bailly, Matthieu; Geigl, Eva-Maria; Grange, Thierry

    2016-01-01

    Human gastrointestinal parasites are good indicators for hygienic conditions and health status of past and present individuals and communities. While microscopic analysis of eggs in sediments of archeological sites often allows their taxonomic identification, this method is rarely effective at the species level, and requires both the survival of intact eggs and their proper identification. Genotyping via PCR-based approaches has the potential to achieve a precise species-level taxonomic determination. However, so far it has mostly been applied to individual eggs isolated from archeological samples. To increase the throughput and taxonomic accuracy, as well as reduce costs of genotyping methods, we adapted a PCR-based approach coupled with next-generation sequencing to perform precise taxonomic identification of parasitic helminths directly from archeological sediments. Our study of twenty-five 100 to 7,200 year-old archeological samples proved this to be a powerful, reliable and efficient approach for species determination even in the absence of preserved eggs, either as a stand-alone method or as a complement to microscopic studies.

  2. Disease burden due to gastrointestinal infections among people living along the major wastewater system in Hanoi, Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fuhrimann, Samuel; Nauta, Maarten; Pham-Duc, Phuc

    2017-01-01

    and aquaculture. The QMRA was developed on the basis of measured concentration of . Escherichia coli and . Salmonella spp. and . Ascaris spp. eggs in water samples. Published ratios between measured organisms and pathogenic strains of norovirus, rotavirus, . Campylobacter spp. ., pathogenic . E. . . coli......, pathogenic . Salmonella spp., . Cryptosporidium spp. and . Ascaris lumbricoides were employed to estimate annual risk of gastrointestinal infection and disease burden. Results: The QMRA estimated a disease burden of 0.011 disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) per person per year in urban farmers, 0...

  3. Disease burden due to gastrointestinal infections among people living along the major wastewater system in Hanoi, Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fuhrimann, Samuel; Nauta, Maarten; Pham-Duc, Phuc

    2017-01-01

    conveyance and treatment systems; (ii) urban farmers using wastewater from To Lich River; (iii) community members in urban areas exposed to flooding events in the districts of Hoang Mai and Thanh Tri; and (iv) peri-urban farmers in Thanh Tri district, where Red River water is used for agriculture.......006 DALYs for sanitation workers, 0.0005 DALYs for urban communities at risk of flooding events and 0.0004 DALYs for peri-urban farmers. Urban farmers had considerably higher incidence estimates for gastrointestinal disease episodes per year (2.0) compared to the other exposure groups (≤ 1.0). Conclusions......Background: Despite recent improvements of wastewater treatment capacities in urban areas of Hanoi, Vietnam, microbial pollution is still considerable. There is a paucity of burden estimates due to gastrointestinal infection in people living along the wastewater system, and among people who...

  4. Validity of peptic ulcer disease and upper gastrointestinal bleeding diagnoses in administrative databases: a systematic review protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montedori, Alessandro; Abraha, Iosief; Chiatti, Carlos; Cozzolino, Francesco; Orso, Massimiliano; Luchetta, Maria Laura; Rimland, Joseph M; Ambrosio, Giuseppe

    2016-09-15

    Administrative healthcare databases are useful to investigate the epidemiology, health outcomes, quality indicators and healthcare utilisation concerning peptic ulcers and gastrointestinal bleeding, but the databases need to be validated in order to be a reliable source for research. The aim of this protocol is to perform the first systematic review of studies reporting the validation of International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision and 10th version (ICD-9 and ICD-10) codes for peptic ulcer and upper gastrointestinal bleeding diagnoses. MEDLINE, EMBASE, Web of Science and the Cochrane Library databases will be searched, using appropriate search strategies. We will include validation studies that used administrative data to identify peptic ulcer disease and upper gastrointestinal bleeding diagnoses or studies that evaluated the validity of peptic ulcer and upper gastrointestinal bleeding codes in administrative data. The following inclusion criteria will be used: (a) the presence of a reference standard case definition for the diseases of interest; (b) the presence of at least one test measure (eg, sensitivity, etc) and (c) the use of an administrative database as a source of data. Pairs of reviewers will independently abstract data using standardised forms and will evaluate quality using the checklist of the Standards for Reporting of Diagnostic Accuracy (STARD) criteria. This systematic review protocol has been produced in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis Protocol (PRISMA-P) 2015 statement. Ethics approval is not required given that this is a protocol for a systematic review. We will submit results of this study to a peer-reviewed journal for publication. The results will serve as a guide for researchers validating administrative healthcare databases to determine appropriate case definitions for peptic ulcer disease and upper gastrointestinal bleeding, as well as to perform outcome research using

  5. [Alzheimer's disease and human memory].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eustache, F; Giffard, B; Rauchs, G; Chételat, G; Piolino, P; Desgranges, B

    2006-10-01

    Memory disorders observed in Alzheimer's disease gave rise, from the eighties, to a detailed analysis into the framework of cognitive neuropsychology which aimed at describing the deficits of very specific processes. Beyond their clinical interest, these studies contributed to the modelisation of human memory thanks to the characterization of different memory systems and their relationships. The first part of this paper gives an overview of the memory deficits in Alzheimer's disease and insists on particular cognitive phenomena. Hence, several examples are developed in the domains of semantic memory (such as hyperpriming and hypopriming effects) and autobiographical memory. Recent results highlight the existence of severe autobiographical amnesia observed in all neurodegenerative diseases, though with contrasting profiles: Ribot's gradient in Alzheimer's disease (showing that remote memories are better preserved than recent ones), reverse gradient in semantic dementia and no clear gradient in the frontal variant of frontotemporal dementia. The second part of this article presents advances in cognitive neuroscience searching to disclose the cerebral substrates of these cognitive deficits in Alzheimer's disease. The studies using functional imaging techniques are the most informative regarding this problematic. While showing the dysfunctions of an extended network, they emphasize the selectivity of cerebral damages that are at the root of very specific cognitive dysfunctions, coming close in that way to the conceptions of cognitive neuropsychology. These neuroimaging studies unravel the existence of compensatory mechanisms, which until recently were clearly missing in the literature on neurodegenerative diseases. These different researches lead to a wide conception of human memory, not just limited to simple instrumental processes (encoding, storage, retrieval), but necessarily covering models of identity and continuity of the subject, which interact in a dynamic way

  6. Transfer RNA and human disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamie A Abbott

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Pathological mutations in tRNA genes and tRNA processing enzymes are numerous and result in very complicated clinical phenotypes. Mitochondrial tRNA (mt-tRNA genes are hotspots for pathological mutations and over 200 mt-tRNA mutations have been linked to various disease states. Often these mutations prevent tRNA aminoacylation. Disrupting this primary function affects protein synthesis and the expression, folding, and function of oxidative phosphorylation enzymes. Mitochondrial tRNA mutations manifest in a wide panoply of diseases related to cellular energetics, including COX deficiency (cytochrome C oxidase, mitochondrial myopathy, MERRF (Myoclonic Epilepsy with Ragged Red Fibers, and MELAS (mitochondrial encephalomyopathy, lactic acidosis, and stroke-like episodes. Diseases caused by mt-tRNA mutations can also affect very specific tissue types, as in the case of neurosensory non-syndromic hearing loss and pigmentary retinopathy, diabetes mellitus, and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Importantly, mitochondrial heteroplasmy plays a role in disease severity and age of onset as well. Not surprisingly, mutations in enzymes that modify cytoplasmic and mitochondrial tRNAs are also linked to a diverse range of clinical phenotypes. In addition to compromised aminoacylation of the tRNAs, mutated modifying enzymes can also impact tRNA expression and abundance, tRNA modifications, tRNA folding, and even tRNA maturation (e.g., splicing. Some of these pathological mutations in tRNAs and processing enzymes are likely to affect non-canonical tRNA functions, and contribute to the diseases without significantly impacting on translation. This chapter will review recent literature on the relation of mitochondrial and cytoplasmic tRNA, and enzymes that process tRNAs, to human disease. We explore the mechanisms involved in the clinical presentation of these various diseases with an emphasis on neurological disease.

  7. Study of orthotopic transplantation model of human gastrointestinal cancerand detection of micrometastases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jun Hui Cui; Uwe Krueger; Doris Henne-Bruns; Bernd Kremer; Holger Kalthoff

    2000-01-01

    AIM To establish a relevant animal model of human gastrointestinal cancer, which can be used forrepetitive investigations and may improve our understanding of carcinogenesis and cancer metastasis.METHODS Intact tissue of human colorectal and pancreatic cancers was transplanted in nude mice. Thebiological characteristics of the original and corresponding transplanted tumors were investigated by HEstaining, PAS staining and immunostaining. The metastases in livers and lungs of the nude mice wereinvestigated by immunostaining with biotinylated mab KL-1 and by RT-PCR using CK20 specific primers.RESULTS Nine of 16 surgical specimens grew in the nude mice subcutaneously and/or orthotopically (4 of6 colorectal and 5 of 10 pancreatic cancer). Tumor cell content of the specimens and freezing of tissuespecimens are important factors influencing the growth of transplanted tumor. In the group of fresh tumortissues with greater than 50% tumor cell content, transplantation rate was 100% (3 cases of pancreatic cancerand 3 cases of colorectal cancer). The orthotopically transplanted tumors resembled the original tumormorphologically and biologically, including TAA expression such as CEA by immunohistochemistry, andCEA level in the serum of mice. Ki-67 labeling index and the expression of TAA especially K-ras, 17-1A and RA-96, were associated with the potential of tumor growth in nude mice. Micrometastases in the lungs andlivers of tumor bearing mice could be detected by immunostaining with biotinylated mab KL-1 and CK20-sepcific RT-PCR.CONCLUSION An orthotopic transplantation model for human colon and pancreatic cancer in nude micehas been established. The sensitive detection methods with CK-immunohistochemistry and CK20-RT-PCRwere also established to study xenotransplanted human cancer and its metastatic cancer cells in the liver andlung of nude mice. This study may be helpful in understanding the mechanism of cancer metastasis and indeveloping new diagnostic methods and

  8. Esophageal stenting for benign and malignant disease : European Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy (ESGE) Clinical Guideline

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spaander, Manon C W; Baron, Todd H; Siersema, Peter D; Fuccio, Lorenzo; Schumacher, Brigitte; Escorsell, Àngels; Garcia-Pagán, Juan-Carlos; Dumonceau, Jean-Marc; Conio, Massimo; de Ceglie, Antonella; Skowronek, Janusz; Nordsmark, Marianne; Seufferlein, Thomas; Van Gossum, André; Hassan, Cesare; Repici, Alessandro; Bruno, Marco J

    2016-01-01

    This Guideline is an official statement of the European Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy (ESGE), endorsed by the European Society for Radiotherapy and Oncology (ESTRO), the European Society of Digestive Endoscopy (ESDO), and the European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism (ESPEN). Th

  9. Teduglutide, a glucagon-like peptide-2 analog for the treatment of gastrointestinal diseases, including short bowel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazbeck, Roger

    2010-12-01

    Glucagon-like peptide-2 (GLP-2) is a potent intestinotrophic growth factor with therapeutic potential for the prevention or treatment of an expanding number of gastrointestinal diseases, including short bowel syndrome (SBS). Teduglutide, being developed by NPS Allelix and licensee Nycomed, is a protease-resistant analog of GLP-2 for the potential treatment of gastrointestinal disease. Teduglutide has prolonged biological activity compared with native GLP-2, and preclinical studies demonstrated significant intestinotrophic activity in models of SBS, experimental colitis and chemotherapy-induced intestinal mucositis. Patients with SBS rely on parenteral nutrition (PN) following bowel resection, and in a phase III clinical trial with teduglutide, > 20% reduction in PN was observed in patients with SBS receiving teduglutide. A phase II clinical trial for teduglutide in Crohn's disease observed remission rates of 55.6% in patients. At the time of publication, phase III clinical trials for SBS were ongoing, as were preclinical studies for chemotherapy-induced mucositis and pediatric indications. Teduglutide represents a novel, efficacious drug capable of increasing intestinal growth and improving intestinal function, and may change clinical management of intestinal disease and damage.

  10. Studies on the usefulness of negative contrast medium for CT-fatty emulsion-in diseases of the gastrointestinal tract

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uchida, Tsuneo; Kameda, Kyoko; Tanaka, Koji; Nishimura, Shigeru; Higashide, Toshiaki (Osaka Police Hospital (Japan))

    1983-09-01

    Investigation was made on the usefulness of negative contrast medium for CT-fatty emulsion-, which is applicable to the whole area of the gastrointestinal tract, in diagnoses of diseases of the stomach, pancreas, colon and the organs adjacent to the three. After the administration of the drug, CT was performed and the thickness of the walls were measured for the normal upper gastrointestinal tract in 50 patients and for the normal colon in 25. The normal gastric walls did not exceed 5 mm and the walls of the colon measured about 2.1 mm. Gastric tumors were projected at 80.4%. Especially, the drug was useful for the early diagnosis of schirrus. The pancreas was more clearly projected in 88.4% of the patients. The reconstruction method using the present drug was useful for the investigation of the relationship between the two organs, the stomach and the duodenum, and the pancreas. When CT was performed on a patient laying this right side on the bed, invasion of pancreatic cancer and gastric antrum cancer into the circumferntial organs could be diagnosed. The drug was useful for the identification of tumors in the colon and intrapelvic lesions. The medium was also given to four patients with colitis ulcerosa and the obtained findings on the wall features were same as those obtained by barium enema. The present drug was little associated with side effects and is considered to be an excellent negative contrast medium for all the gastrointestinal tracts.

  11. The role of KCNQ1 in mouse and human gastrointestinal cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Than, B L N; Goos, J A C M; Sarver, A L; O'Sullivan, M G; Rod, A; Starr, T K; Fijneman, R J A; Meijer, G A; Zhao, L; Zhang, Y; Largaespada, D A; Scott, P M; Cormier, R T

    2014-07-17

    Kcnq1, which encodes for the pore-forming α-subunit of a voltage-gated potassium channel, was identified as a gastrointestinal (GI) tract cancer susceptibility gene in multiple Sleeping Beauty DNA transposon-based forward genetic screens in mice. To confirm that Kcnq1 has a functional role in GI tract cancer, we created Apc(Min) mice that carried a targeted deletion mutation in Kcnq1. Results demonstrated that Kcnq1 is a tumor suppressor gene as Kcnq1 mutant mice developed significantly more intestinal tumors, especially in the proximal small intestine and colon, and some of these tumors progressed to become aggressive adenocarcinomas. Gross tissue abnormalities were also observed in the rectum, pancreas and stomach. Colon organoid formation was significantly increased in organoids created from Kcnq1 mutant mice compared with wild-type littermate controls, suggesting a role for Kcnq1 in the regulation of the intestinal crypt stem cell compartment. To identify gene expression changes due to loss of Kcnq1, we carried out microarray studies in the colon and proximal small intestine. We identified altered genes involved in innate immune responses, goblet and Paneth cell function, ion channels, intestinal stem cells, epidermal growth factor receptor and other growth regulatory signaling pathways. We also found genes implicated in inflammation and in cellular detoxification. Pathway analysis using Ingenuity Pathway Analysis and Gene Set Enrichment Analysis confirmed the importance of these gene clusters and further identified significant overlap with genes regulated by MUC2 and CFTR, two important regulators of intestinal homeostasis. To investigate the role of KCNQ1 in human colorectal cancer (CRC), we measured protein levels of KCNQ1 by immunohistochemistry in tissue microarrays containing samples from CRC patients with liver metastases who had undergone hepatic resection. Results showed that low expression of KCNQ1 expression was significantly associated with poor

  12. Human Microbiota and Ophthalmic Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Louise J; Liu, Ji

    2016-09-01

    The human ocular surface, consisting of the cornea and conjunctiva, is colonized by an expansive, diverse microbial community. Molecular-based methods, such as 16S rRNA sequencing, has allowed for more comprehensive and precise identification of the species composition of the ocular surface microbiota compared to traditional culture-based methods. Evidence suggests that the normal microbiota plays a protective immunological role in preventing the proliferation of pathogenic species and thus, alterations in the homeostatic microbiome may be linked to ophthalmic pathologies. Further investigation of the ocular surface microbiome, as well as the microbiome of other areas of the body such as the oral mucosa and gut, and their role in the pathophysiology of diseases is a significant, emerging field of research, and may someday enable the development of novel probiotic approaches for the treatment and prevention of ophthalmic diseases.

  13. Gene therapy for type 1 diabetes mellitus in rats by gastrointestinal administration of chitosan nanoparticles containing human insulin gene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To study the expression of human insulin gene in gastrointestinal tracts of diabetic rats. METHODS: pCHV.Ins, an expression plasmid of the human insulin gene, wrapped with chitosan nanoparticles, was transfected to the diabetic rats through lavage and coloclysis, respectively. Fasting blood glucose and plasma insulin levels were measured for 7 d. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis and Western blot analysis were performed to confirm the expression of human insulin gene. RESULTS: Compared with the control group, the fasting blood glucose levels in the lavage and coloclysis groups were decreased significantly in 4 d (5.63 ± 0.48 mmol/L and 5.07 ± 0.37 mmol/L vs 22.12± 1.31 mmol/L, respectively, P < 0.01), while the plasma insulin levels were much higher (32.26±1.81 μIU/mL and 32.79 ± 1.84 μIU/mL vs 14.23 ± 1.38 μIU/mL, respectively, P<0.01). The human insulin gene mRNA and human insulin were only detected in the lavage and coloclysis groups. CONCLUSION: Human insulin gene wrapped with chitosan nanoparticles can be successfully transfected to rats through gastrointestinal tract, indicating that chitosan is a promising non-viral vector.

  14. Human Cytomegalovirus and Autoimmune Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Halenius

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV represents a prototypic pathogenic member of the β-subgroup of the herpesvirus family. A range of HCMV features like its lytic replication in multiple tissues, the lifelong persistence through periods of latency and intermitting reactivation, the extraordinary large proteome, and extensive manipulation of adaptive and innate immunity make HCMV a high profile candidate for involvement in autoimmune disorders. We surveyed the available literature for reports on HCMV association with onset or exacerbation of autoimmune disease. A causative linkage between HCMV and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE, systemic sclerosis (SSc, diabetes mellitus type 1, and rheumatoid arthritis (RA is suggested by the literature. However, a clear association of HCMV seroprevalence and disease could not be established, leaving the question open whether HCMV could play a coresponsible role for onset of disease. For convincing conclusions population-based prospective studies must be performed in the future. Specific immunopathogenic mechanisms by which HCMV could contribute to the course of autoimmune disease have been suggested, for example, molecular mimicry by UL94 in SSc and UL83/pp65 in SLE patients, as well as aggravation of joint inflammation by induction and expansion of CD4+/CD28− T-cells in RA patients. Further studies are needed to validate these findings and to lay the grounds for targeted therapeutic intervention.

  15. Aluminium and human breast diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darbre, P D; Pugazhendhi, D; Mannello, F

    2011-11-01

    The human breast is exposed to aluminium from many sources including diet and personal care products, but dermal application of aluminium-based antiperspirant salts provides a local long-term source of exposure. Recent measurements have shown that aluminium is present in both tissue and fat of the human breast but at levels which vary both between breasts and between tissue samples from the same breast. We have recently found increased levels of aluminium in noninvasively collected nipple aspirate fluids taken from breast cancer patients (mean 268 ± 28 μg/l) compared with control healthy subjects (mean 131 ± 10 μg/l) providing evidence of raised aluminium levels in the breast microenvironment when cancer is present. The measurement of higher levels of aluminium in type I human breast cyst fluids (median 150 μg/l) compared with human serum (median 6 μg/l) or human milk (median 25 μg/l) warrants further investigation into any possible role of aluminium in development of this benign breast disease. Emerging evidence for aluminium in several breast structures now requires biomarkers of aluminium action in order to ascertain whether the presence of aluminium has any biological impact. To this end, we report raised levels of proteins that modulate iron homeostasis (ferritin, transferrin) in parallel with raised aluminium in nipple aspirate fluids in vivo, and we report overexpression of mRNA for several S100 calcium binding proteins following long-term exposure of MCF-7 human breast cancer cells in vitro to aluminium chlorhydrate.

  16. Localization and biological activities of melatonin in intact and diseased gastrointestinal tract (GIT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konturek, S J; Konturek, P C; Brzozowska, I; Pawlik, M; Sliwowski, Z; Cześnikiewicz-Guzik, M; Kwiecień, S; Brzozowski, T; Bubenik, G A; Pawlik, W W

    2007-09-01

    application of Trp, the plasma MT increases in dose-dependent manner both in intact and pinealectomized animals and humans, indicating that GIT but not the pineal gland is a source of this indole. In GIT MT exhibits a wide spectrum of activities such as circadian entrainment, antioxidant and free radicals scavenging activity, Melatonin (MT), an indole formed enzymatically from L-trytophan (Trp), was first discovered in the bovine pineal gland in 1958 by Lerner et al. Melatonin is the most versatile and ubiquitous hormonal molecule produced not only in the pineal gland but also in various other tissues of invertebrates and vertebrates, particularly in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT). This review focuses on the localization, production, metabolism and the functions of MT in GIT and the duodenal unit (liver, biliary routes and pancreas), where multi-step biosynthetic pathways of this indole, similar to those in pinealocytes, have been identified. These biosynthetic steps of MT, including two major rate limiting enzymes; arylalkylamine-N-acetyltransferase (AA-NAT) and hydroxyindole-O-methyltransferase (HIOMT), transforming L-tryptophan (Trp), originally identified in pinealocytes, have been also detected in entero-endocrine (EE) cells of GIT, where this indole appears to act in endocrine, paracrine and/or luminal pathway directly or through G-protein coupled MT receptors. Studies of the distribution of MT in GIT mucosa showed that this indole is generated in GIT in much larger amounts than it is produced in the pineal gland. Melatonin acts in GIT, partly locally in paracrine fashion and is partly released into portal circulation, to be taken up by the liver. It is then metabolized and excreted with the bile to small bowel and finally returns to liver through entero-hepatic circulation. The production of MT by the pineal gland shows circadian rhythm with high night-time surge, especially at younger age, followed by the fall during the day-light time. As a highly lipophylic

  17. Life-threatening gastrointestinal system bleeding in Hodgkin disease: multidetector CT findings and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akpinar, Erhan; Türkbey, Bariş; Cil, Barbaros Erhan; Canyiğit, Murat; Dündar, Ziya; Balkanci, Ferhun

    2007-06-01

    Acute lower gastrointestinal system (GIS) bleeding is a life-threatening condition. Immediate determination of the origin of the bleeding is crucial, since hemostatic management must be initiated as rapidly as possible. Colonoscopy, radionuclide studies, and conventional angiography are considered the most important methods for assessing the origin of the bleeding. There are few published reports about the feasibility of computed tomography (CT) in acute GIS bleeding. We present multidetector CT (MDCT) findings in a case of Hodgkin disease status one month post-chemotherapy (CHOP protocol; cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, prednisone) that presented with acute lower GIS bleeding.

  18. Does imatinib turn recurrent and/or metastasized gastrointestinal stromal tumors into a chronic disease? - single center experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armbrust, Thomas; Sobotta, Michael; Gunawan, Bastian; Füzesi, Laszlo; Langer, Claus; Cameron, Silke; Ramadori, Giuliano

    2009-07-01

    Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST) are mesenchymal tumors of the gastrointestinal tract supposed to arise from the cells of Cajal because of gain-of-function mutations of the tyrosine receptor kinases c-kit or platelet-derived growth factor receptor A. Imatinib selectively inhibits the kinase activity of both receptors. Despite this breakthrough in the treatment of GIST, resistance against imatinib has been reported to be as high as 50% after the first 2 years of treatment. Outcome of 13 consecutive patients with relapsed or metastasized GIST who were treated with imatinib was analyzed. Mean duration of treatment was 53.5 months. Four patients developed progressive disease and died after a mean treatment time of 31 months in spite of increase of imatinib dosages to 800 mg daily. Two patients (23%) developed a progressive disease after 46 months or 52 months of treatment. Two patients had a stable disease and five had a partial response. The overall progression rate was 46%, the mean survival time since primary diagnosis was 85.8 months. From our experience, frequency of resistance development to imatinib may be below that given in the literature (50% after 2 years). Individual treatment in specialized centers may improve compliance.

  19. Changes, functional disorders, and diseases in the gastrointestinal tract of elderly Cambios, dolencias funcionales y enfermedades en el sistema gastrointestinal en personas mayores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Grassi

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available This article describes changes in the basic digestive functions (motility, secretion, intraluminal digestion, absorption that occur during aging. Elderly individuals frequently have oropharyngeal muscle dysmotility and altered swallowing of food. Reductions in esophageal peristalsis and lower esophageal sphincter (LES pressures are also more common in the aged and may cause gastroesophageal reflux. Gastric motility and emptying and small bowel motility are generally normal in elderly subjects, although delayed motility and gastric emptying have been reported in some cases. The propulsive motility of the colon is also decreased, and this alteration is associated with neurological and endocrine-paracrine changes in the colonic wall. Decreased gastric secretions (acid, pepsin and impairment of the mucous-bicarbonate barrier are frequently described in the elderly and may lead to gastric ulcer. Exocrine pancreatic secretion is often decreased, as is the bile salt content of bile. These changes represent the underlying mechanisms of symptomatic gastrointestinal dysfunctions in the elderly, such as dysphagia, gastroesophageal reflux disease, primary dyspepsia, irritable bowel syndrome, primary constipation, maldigestion, and reduced absorption of nutrients. Therapeutic management of these conditions is also described. The authors also review the gastrointestinal diseases that are more common in the elderly, such as atrophic gastritis, gastric ulcer, colon diverticulosis, malignant tumors, gallstones, chronic hepatitis, liver cirrhosis, Hepato Cellular Carcinoma (HCC, and chronic pancreatitis.Este artículo describe los cambios en las funciones digestivas básicas (motilidad, secreción, digestión intraluminal, absorción que ocurren en el envejecimiento. Los individuos ancianos a menudo presentan una dismotilidad de la musculatura orofaríngea y una alteración de la deglución de los alimentos. Las reducciones en el peristaltismo esofágico y de las

  20. Alternative Argets Within the Endocannabinoid System for Future Treatment of Gastrointestinal Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudolf Schicho

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Many beneficial effects of herbal and synthetic cannabinoids on gut motility and inflammation have been demonstrated, suggesting a vast potential for these compounds in the treatment of gastrointestinal disorders. These effects are based on the so-called ‘endocannabinoid system’ (ECS, a cooperating network of molecules that regulate the metabolism of the body’s own and of exogenously administered cannabinoids. The ECS in the gastrointestinal tract quickly responds to homeostatic disturbances by de novo synthesis of its components to maintain homeostasis, thereby offering many potential targets for pharmacological intervention. Of major therapeutic interest are nonpsychoactive cannabinoids or compounds that do not directly target cannabinoid receptors but still possess cannabinoid-like properties. Drugs that inhibit endocannabinoid degradation and raise the level of endocannabinoids are becoming increasingly promising alternative therapeutic tools to manipulate the ECS.

  1. Raoultella planticola bacteremia of gastrointestinal origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramírez-Quintero, Juan David

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Raoultella planticola, a bacteria found in water and soil, is rarely associated to human disease, mostly bacteremia and gastrointestinal infections. It is usually related with health care procedures or affects patients with malignant biliary disease. If properly treated, this infection is usually benign, but the germ must not be disregarded as an innocent bystander because it has homology with Klebsiella spp., and therefore the potential to acquire antimicrobial resistance mechanisms like bla KPC genes. We report the case of a patient with community-aquired R. planticola bacteremia of gastrointestinal origin.

  2. A Pleural Solitary Fibrous Tumor, Multiple Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors, Moyamoya Disease, and Hyperparathyroidism in a Patient Associated with NF1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoko Yamamoto

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1, also called von Recklinghausen’s disease, is a multisystemic disease caused by an alteration of the NF1 gene, a tumor suppressor located on the long arm of chromosome 17 (17q11.2. Loss of the gene function, due to a point mutation, leads to an increase in cell proliferation and the development of several tumors. We report a 60-year-old female patient manifesting hypercalcemia due to hyperparathyroidism, a solitary fibrous tumor (SFT of the pleura, multiple gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs, and moyamoya disease associated with NF1. The SFT and GISTs were removed by staged operations. Then, hypercalcemia was successfully controlled after resection of the parathyroid adenoma. Based on a literature review, these combinations have never been reported, and the relevant literature is briefly discussed.

  3. Transcriptional silencing of Dickkopf gene family by CpG island hypermethylation in human gastrointestinal cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tadateru Maehata; Fumio Itoh; Hiroaki Taniguchi; Hiroyuki Yamamoto; Katsuhiko Nosho; Yasushi Adachi; Nobuki Miyamoto; Chic Miyamoto; Noriyuki Akutsu; Satoshi Yamaoka

    2008-01-01

    AIM:To clarify alterations of Dickkopfs (Dkks) and Kremen2 (Krm2) in gastrointestinal cancer.METHODS:We investigated the expression profiles and epigenetic alterations of Dkks and Krm2 genes in gastrointestinal cancer using RT-PCR,tissue microarray analysis,and methylation specific PCR (MSP).Cancer cells were treated with the demethylating agent and/or histone deacetylase inhibitor.WST-8 assays and in vitro invasion assays after treatment with specific siRNA for those genes were performed.RESULTS:Dkks and Krm2 expression levels were reduced in a certain subset of the gastrointestinal cancer cell lines and cancer tissues.This was correlated with promoter hypermethylation.There were significant correlations between Dkks over-expression levels and beta-catenin over-expression in colorectal cancer.In colorectal cancers with beta-catenin over-expression,Dkk-1 expression levels were significantly lower in those with lymph node metastases than in those without.Down-regulation of Dkks expression by siRNA resulted in a significant increase in cancer cell growth and invasiveness in vitro.CONCLUSION:Down-regulation of the Dkks associated to promoter hypermethylation appears to be frequently involved in gastrointestinal tumorigenesis.

  4. Functional consequences of microbial shifts in the human gastrointestinal tract linked to antibiotic treatment and obesity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hernandez, E.; Bargiela, R.; Suarez Diez, M.; Friedrichs, A.; Pérez-Cobas, A.E.; Gosalbes, M.J.; Knecht, H.; Martinez-Martinez, M.; Seifert, J.; Bergen, von M.; Martins Dos Santos, V.A.P.

    2013-01-01

    The microbiomes in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) of individuals receiving antibiotics and those in obese subjects undergo compositional shifts, the metabolic effects and linkages of which are not clearly understood. Herein, we set to gain insight into these effects, particularly with regard to ca

  5. Oral Human Immunoglobulin for Children with Autism and Gastrointestinal Dysfunction: A Prospective, Open-Label Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Cindy K.; Melmed, Raun D.; Barstow, Leon E.; Enriquez, F. Javier; Ranger-Moore, James; Ostrem, James A.

    2006-01-01

    Immunoglobulin secretion onto mucosal surfaces is a major component of the mucosal immune system. We hypothesized that chronic gastrointestinal (GI) disturbances associated with autistic disorder (AD) may be due to an underlying deficiency in mucosal immunity, and that orally administered immunoglobulin would be effective in alleviating chronic GI…

  6. Functional consequences of microbial shifts in the human gastrointestinal tract linked to antibiotic treatment and obesity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hernandez, E.; Bargiela, R.; Suarez Diez, M.; Friedrichs, A.; Pérez-Cobas, A.E.; Gosalbes, M.J.; Knecht, H.; Martinez-Martinez, M.; Seifert, J.; Bergen, von M.; Martins Dos Santos, V.A.P.

    2013-01-01

    The microbiomes in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) of individuals receiving antibiotics and those in obese subjects undergo compositional shifts, the metabolic effects and linkages of which are not clearly understood. Herein, we set to gain insight into these effects, particularly with regard to

  7. Actions of prolonged ghrelin infusion on gastrointestinal transit and glucose homeostasis in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Falkén, Y; Hellström, P M; Sanger, G J

    2010-01-01

    Ghrelin is produced by enteroendocrine cells in the gastric mucosa and stimulates gastric emptying in healthy volunteers and patients with gastroparesis in short-term studies. The aim of this study was to evaluate effects of intravenous ghrelin on gastrointestinal motility and glucose homeostasis...

  8. Gastrointestinal microbiology enters the metagenomics era.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Daniel N; Pace, Norman R

    2008-01-01

    Advances in DNA sequence-based technologies now permit genetic analysis of complex microbial populations without the need for prior cultivation. This review summarizes the molecular methods of culture-independent microbiology ('metagenomics') and their recent application to studies of the human gastrointestinal tract in both health and disease. Culture-independent metagenomic surveys reveal unprecedented microbial biodiversity in the human intestine. Upwards of 40,000 bacterial species are estimated to comprise the collective gastrointestinal microbiome, most of which have not been characterized by culture. Diverse conditions such as antibiotic-associated diarrhea, Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis, obesity, and pouchitis have been correlated with large-scale imbalances in gastrointestinal microbiota, or 'dysbiosis'. These findings demonstrate the importance of commensal microorganisms in maintaining gastrointestinal health. Through technological and conceptual innovations in metagenomics, the complex microbial habitat of the human gastrointestinal tract is now amenable to detailed ecological analysis. Large-scale shifts in gut commensal populations, rather than occurrence of particular microorganisms, are associated with several gastroenterological conditions; redress of these imbalances may ameliorate the conditions.

  9. Mapping gene associations in human mitochondria using clinical disease phenotypes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Curt Scharfe

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Nuclear genes encode most mitochondrial proteins, and their mutations cause diverse and debilitating clinical disorders. To date, 1,200 of these mitochondrial genes have been recorded, while no standardized catalog exists of the associated clinical phenotypes. Such a catalog would be useful to develop methods to analyze human phenotypic data, to determine genotype-phenotype relations among many genes and diseases, and to support the clinical diagnosis of mitochondrial disorders. Here we establish a clinical phenotype catalog of 174 mitochondrial disease genes and study associations of diseases and genes. Phenotypic features such as clinical signs and symptoms were manually annotated from full-text medical articles and classified based on the hierarchical MeSH ontology. This classification of phenotypic features of each gene allowed for the comparison of diseases between different genes. In turn, we were then able to measure the phenotypic associations of disease genes for which we calculated a quantitative value that is based on their shared phenotypic features. The results showed that genes sharing more similar phenotypes have a stronger tendency for functional interactions, proving the usefulness of phenotype similarity values in disease gene network analysis. We then constructed a functional network of mitochondrial genes and discovered a higher connectivity for non-disease than for disease genes, and a tendency of disease genes to interact with each other. Utilizing these differences, we propose 168 candidate genes that resemble the characteristic interaction patterns of mitochondrial disease genes. Through their network associations, the candidates are further prioritized for the study of specific disorders such as optic neuropathies and Parkinson disease. Most mitochondrial disease phenotypes involve several clinical categories including neurologic, metabolic, and gastrointestinal disorders, which might indicate the effects of gene defects

  10. Rational prescription of drugs within similar therapeutic or structural class for gastrointestinal disease treatment: Drug metabolism and its related interactions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To review and summarize drug metabolism and its related interactions in prescribing drugs within the similar therapeutic or structural class for gastrointestinal disease treatment so as to promote rational use of medicines in clinical practice.METHODS: Relevant literature was identified by performing MEDLINE/Pubmed searches covering the period from 1988 to 2006. RESULTS: Seven classes of drugs were chosen, including gastric proton pump inhibitors, histamine H2-receptor antagonists, benzamide-type gastroprokinetic agents, selective 5-HT3 receptor antagonists, fluoroquinolones, macrolide antibiotics and azole antifungals. They showed significant differences in metabolic profile (I.e., the fraction of drug metabolized by cytochrome P450 (CYP), CYP reaction phenotype, impact of CYP genotype on interindividual pharmacokinetics variability and CYP-mediated drug-drug interaction potential). Many events of severe adverse drug reactions and treatment failures were closely related to the ignorance of the above issues. CONCLUSION: Clinicians should acquaint themselves with what kind of drug has less interpatient variability in clearance and whether to perform CYP genotyping prior to initiation of therapy. The relevant CYP knowledge helps clinicians to enhance the management of patients with gastrointestinal disease who may require treatment with polytherapeutic regimens.

  11. Neuropilin-2 mediated β-catenin signaling and survival in human gastro-intestinal cancer cell lines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaija Samuel

    Full Text Available NRP-2 is a high-affinity kinase-deficient receptor for ligands belonging to the class 3 semaphorin and vascular endothelial growth factor families. NRP-2 has been detected on the surface of several types of human cancer cells, but its expression and function in gastrointestinal (GI cancer cells remains to be determined. We sought to determine the function of NRP-2 in mediating downstream signals regulating the growth and survival of human gastrointestinal cancer cells. In human gastric cancer specimens, NRP-2 expression was detected in tumor tissues but not in adjacent normal mucosa. In CNDT 2.5 cells, shRNA mediated knockdown NRP-2 expression led to decreased migration and invasion in vitro (p<0.01. Focused gene-array analysis demonstrated that loss of NRP-2 reduced the expression of a critical metastasis mediator gene, S100A4. Steady-state levels and function of β-catenin, a known regulator of S100A4, were also decreased in the shNRP-2 clones. Furthermore, knockdown of NRP-2 sensitized CNDT 2.5 cells in vitro to 5FU toxicity. This effect was associated with activation of caspases 3 and 7, cleavage of PARP, and downregulation of Bcl-2. In vivo growth of CNDT 2.5 cells in the livers of nude mice was significantly decreased in the shNRP-2 group (p<0.05. Intraperitoneal administration of NRP-2 siRNA-DOPC decreased the tumor burden in mice (p = 0.01. Collectively, our results demonstrate that tumor cell-derived NRP-2 mediates critical survival signaling in gastrointestinal cancer cells.

  12. Near-infrared Raman spectroscopy for detection and classification of gastrointestinal disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Nicholas; Kendall, Catherine A.; Chandratreya, Nitya; Shepherd, Neil; Barr, Hugh

    2002-03-01

    The prospect of utilising NIR-Raman spectroscopy for analysis of gastro-intestinal (GI) tissue has been explored both with snap-frozen and formalin fixed samples. In the oesophagus large sample numbers have been employed and the full spectrum of pathology has been studied. Multivariate analysis techniques have been employed to optimally separate the groups and spectral diagnostic models have been constructed and evaluated by employing cross-validation testing. Sensitivities have been shown to vary between 73 and 100 percent and specificities between 91 and 100 percent, depending on pathology group and tissue type.

  13. Fecal transplantation - the new, inexpensive, safe, and rapidly effective approach in the treatment of gastrointestinal tract diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oprita, R; Bratu, M; Oprita, B; Diaconescu, B

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Fecal transplantation was shown to effectively reduce the reoccurrence in patients with refractory Clostridium difficile infection. New data suggest that fecal transplantation could also be efficient in other gastrointestinal diseases, for instance in inflammatory bowel disease, irritable bowel syndrome, but, there are also some data that could imply the efficacy outside the gastrointestinal tract. Fecal transplantation should be considered a unique agent, capable of treating severe diseases, with essentially no adverse reactions, presenting a cure rate of over 90%. Materials and methods. This prospective study included 33 patients, of whom 28 patients with recurrent or resistant Clostridium difficile infection, who failed to be treated with conventional therapy, which presupposed vancomycin administration and 5 patients with inflammatory bowel disease, more precisely with ulcerative colitis, refractory on biologic agents (infliximab and adalimumab). In most of the cases, fecal transplant was realized with the infusion of stool through colonoscopy. Results. Most of the patients from both groups (Clostridium difficile infection and Ulcerative Colitis) responded (31 patients) with a total relief of the symptoms, after 1 FMT for Clostridium difficile group and after more than one for the ulcerative colitis group. The so-called primary cure rate was 96.42% for Clostridium group. For ulcerative colitis, group 3 of the patients needed 3 or 4 infusions for symptom relief. One patient was categorized as non-responsive (patient with UC) and needed surgery. Due to non-fecal transplant related causes, one death was reported. Conclusions. Fecal transplant is highly effective, safe, with practically no adverse effects, inexpensive, a procedure easy to be done that could be introduced in Clostridium difficile treatment protocols. As for ulcerative colitis treatment with FMT, future randomized controlled trials are needed to prove its efficiency.

  14. CT-analysis of the course of gastrointestinal graft-versus-host disease-Patterns of involvement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ketelsen, D., E-mail: dominik.ketelsen@med.uni-tuebingen.de [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Eberhard-Karls-University, Hoppe-Seyler-Str. 3, 72076 Tuebingen (Germany); Vogel, W.; Bethge, W.; Faul, C. [Department of Internal Medicine-Oncology, Eberhard-Karls-University, Ottfried-Mueller-Str. 5, 72070 Tuebingen (Germany); Claussen, C.D.; Horger, M. [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Eberhard-Karls-University, Hoppe-Seyler-Str. 3, 72076 Tuebingen (Germany)

    2011-07-15

    Objective: To describe the main patterns of distribution of gastrointestinal graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) and their chronological course. Methods: Twenty-five adult patients (17 men, 8 women, mean age 47 years) were enrolled from 11/2003 to 11/2007. All patients underwent abdominopelvic CT shortly after onset of GVHD-related symptoms and also at follow up. The mean number of CT examinations per patient was 3.2 {+-} 2.7 with a total of 81 in a median time period of 97 days after HCT. The gastrointestinal tract was divided into 7 segments. Gastrointestinal abnormalities were defined as follows: presence of wall thickening (>4 mm), increased mucosal enhancement, bowel dilatation (>3 cm for the small bowel, >8 cm for the colon), fluid-filled loops of the bowel, bowel loop separation and double-halo sign. Results: 40% (10/25) of the patients presented a classical pattern of evolution of involved segments by GI-GVHD. In these cases, especially the small bowel was initially involved showing a retreat with time towards the terminal ileum with longer length of stay in this location. 28% (7/25) of the patients presented with a nonclassical permanently migratory involvement of the GI jumping from one GI segment to another. Other 32% (8/25) of our patients revealed a nonclassical persistent, unchanged involvement pattern of GI involvement by GVHD at time. Conclusion: Contrary to existing reports, our data collected in 25 patients diagnosed with GI-GVHD after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation suggest the presence of three different courses (classical, nonclassical migratory and nonclassical persistent) of this disorder. Awareness of this knowledge enables more accurate risk stratification.

  15. [Autopsy case of von Recklinghausen's disease associated with lung cancer, gastrointestinal stromal tumor of the stomach, and duodenal carcinoid tumor].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satoh, Miki; Wakabayashi, Osamu; Araya, Yoshikazu; Jinushi, Eisei; Yoshida, Fumiaki

    2009-09-01

    A 58-year-old man with von Recklinghausen's disease was admitted for further investigation of right chest pain. Chest X-ray revealed multiple emphysematous bullae in both lungs and a tumor shadow in the right upper lobe. Bronchofiberscopy was performed, but an adequate specimen was not obtained. The tumor was diagnosed as a non-small-cell lung cancer with direct invasion to the adjacent rib. Although chemotherapy and radiotherapy resulted in decrease in tumor size, the tumor subsequently increased in size and the patient died 14 months after the first admission. Autopsy revealed multiple emphysematous bullae, poorly differentiated adenosquamous cell carcinoma of the lung, gastrointestinal stromal tumor of the stomach, and duodenal carcinoid tumor. This case suggests the possibility that von Recklinghausen's disease associated with emphysematous bullae is a risk factor for lung cancer. It has also been suggested that the genetic abnormality responsible for von Recklinghausen's disease increases the risk for various types of malignancy. Although von Recklinghausen's disease is reportedly associated with various malignant tumors, it is quite rare for von Recklinghausen's disease to be associated with triple non-neurogenic tumors. Careful observation is mandatory for patients with von Recklinghausen's disease.

  16. Seronegative invasive gastro-intestinal cytomegalovirus disease in renal allograft recipients a diagnostic dilemma! - Tissue PCR the saviour?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Kaul

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Seronegative Invasive Gastro-intestinal cytomegalovirus disease in renal allograft recipients Background -CMV as oppurtunistic infection affecting the gastrointerstinal tract is the most common cause for tissue invasive CMV disease occuring in 10-30% of organ transplant recepients. Gastrointerstinal CMV disease can be diagnosed in presence of clinical suspecion along with histopathological findings (CMV inclusions and presence of mucosal lesion(s on endoscopic examination with collaborative evidences via molecular technique. Aims-Few cases of CMV infection affecting the gastrointerstinal tract show no evidences of dissemintion despite use of highly sensitive molecular techniques. We encountered 6 cases where in despite strong clinical suspecion of Gastrointerstinal CMV disease there were seronegative and endoscopic negative evidences for CMV, blind tissue biopsy yeilded positive results for CMV disease with excellent improvement with antiviral therapy. Conclusions-Blind biopsy specimen for tissue PCR could serve as saviour in an immunocompromised individiual who has a strong clinical symptomatology for GI-CMV disease in absence of viremia, normal endoscopy and histopathology, so that the early therapeutic interventions could help in excellent patient and graft survival.

  17. Carcinoembryonic antigen: assay following heat compared with perchloric acid extraction in patients with colon cancer, non-neoplastic gastrointestinal diseases, or chronic renal failure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Witherspoon, L.R.; Shuler, S.E.; Alyea, K.; Husserl, F.E.

    1983-10-01

    Heat inactivation has been proposed as an alternative to perchloric acid (PCA) precipitation for the extraction of carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) from human plasma. A commercial RIA kit using heat inactivation was examined and results compared with those obtained with PCA precipitation. Adequate sensitivity (1.5 ..mu..g CEA/I plasma), satisfactory analytical recovery of CEA added to plasma, and dilutional linearity of samples found to have elevated CEA concentrations, were demonstrated for the heat-inactivation assay. Between-assay precision was better with the heat inactivation than with the PCA assay. Although the absolute concentration of CEA estimated after heat inactivation was consistently lower than that estimated after PCA extraction of plasma specimens, there was excellent correlation between results obtained with the two methods in colon cancer patients free of disease, colon cancer patients with residual or recurrent disease, patients with benign gastrointestinal disease, and in patients with chronic renal failure. The heat-inactivation assay is an excellent alternative to the PCA assay.

  18. Carcinoembryonic antigen: assay following heat compared with perchloric acid extraction in patients with colon cancer, non-neoplastic gastrointestinal diseases, or chronic renal failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witherspoon, L R; Shuler, S E; Alyea, K; Husserl, F E

    1983-10-01

    Heat inactivation has been proposed as an alternative to perchloric acid (PCA) precipitation for the extraction of carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) from human plasma. We examined a commercial RIA kit using heat inactivation, and compared results with those obtained with PCA precipitation. Adequate sensitivity (1.5 micrograms CEA/l plasma), satisfactory analytical recovery of CEA added to plasma, and dilutional linearity of samples found to have elevated CEA concentrations, were demonstrated for the heat-inactivation assay. Between-assay precision was better with the heat inactivation than with the PCA assay. Although the absolute concentration of CEA estimated after heat inactivation was consistently lower than that estimated after PCA extraction of plasma specimens, there was excellent correlation between results obtained with the two methods in colon cancer patients free of disease, colon cancer patients with residual or recurrent disease, patients with benign gastrointestinal disease, and in patients with chronic renal failure. We conclude that the heat-inactivation assay is an excellent alternative to the PCA assay.

  19. Ghrelin与胃肠疾病关系的研究进展%Ghrelin in gastrointestinal diseases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马兴彬; 许伟华

    2013-01-01

    Ghrelin是生长激素促分泌素受体的内源性配体,与受体结合后产生广泛的生物学效应,可刺激生长激素分泌、调节能量代谢等作用.而在消化系统中,Ghrelin具有保护胃肠黏膜、调节胃肠动力、促进胃酸分泌及控制肿瘤细胞增殖的作用,现将其与胃肠病疾病的研究进展综述如下.%Ghrelin is an endogenous ligand of the growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHSR). Upon binding to its receptor, Ghrelin can produce a variety of biological effects, such as promoting the release of growth hormone and maintaining energy balance. Besides, it also promotes gastrointestinal motility, increases gastric acid secretion, and is involved in the genesis of tumors. This article reviews the role of Ghrelin in gastrointestinal system disease.

  20. [Does the hospital cost of care differ for inflammatory bowel disease patients with or without gastrointestinal infections? A case-control study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, C; Köhler, F; Kräplin, T; Hartmann, M; Lerch, M M; Stallmach, A

    2014-07-01

    Gastrointestinal Infections have been implicated as possible causes of exacerbation of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) or risk factors for severe flares in general. The introduction of the G-DRG reimbursement system has greatly increased the pressure to provide cost effective treatment in German hospitals. Few studies have compared the costs of treating IBD patients with or without gastrointestinal infections and none of them have specifically considered the German reimbursement situation. We performed a single center case-control retrospective chart review from 2002 to 2011 of inpatients with IBD (Department of Internal Medicine IV, University Hospital Jena) with an exacerbation of their disease. The presence of gastrointestinal infections (Salmonella, Shigella, Campylobacter, Yersinia, adeno-, rota-, norovirus and Clostridium difficile) was assessed in all inpatients with Cohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC). IBD patients with gastrointestinal infections (n = 79) were matched for age to IBD patients who were negative for gastrointestinal pathogens (n = 158). Patient level costing (PLC) was used to express the total cost of hospital care for each patient; PLC comprised a weighted daily bed cost plus cost of all medical services provided (e. g., endoscopy, microbiology, pathology) calculated according to an activity-based costing approach. All costs were discounted to 2012 values. Gastrointestinal infections in IBD patients were not associated with an increase in mortality (0%); however, they were associated with 2.3-fold higher total hospital charges (6499.10 € vs. 2817.00 €; p = 0.001) and increased length of stay in hospital (14.5 vs. 9.4 days; p costs, especially in UC. Inpatient hospital costs differ significantly for IBD patients with and without gastrointestinal infections, especially in ulcerative colitis, when care was provided in a single university hospital. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  1. [Applying uncertainty theory in caring for the family of a von Willebrand disease patient experiencing first time upper gastrointestinal bleeding].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Ai-Lun; Shun, Shiow-Ching; Lin, Chih-Yu

    2009-10-01

    The purpose of this report was to describe the nursing experience in helping a primary caregiver cope with uncertainty as his mother experienced upper gastrointestinal (UGI) bleeding underlying von Willebrand disease and Scleromyxedema in an Emergency Department between 10 and 18 July 2008. Mishel's Uncertainty Theory was applied to assess the caregiver's uncertainty and patient disease progression. Data were collected through clinical observation, chart review, and interviews. The caregiver's nursing problems were identified as (1) uncertainty caused by symptoms of the rare disease and the probability of recurrent bleeding in the future; (2) uncertainty caused by lack of knowledge about the disease; (3) uncertainty caused by lack of confidence in home caring issues after UGI bleeding. During the nursing period, we provided clinical information related to the disease and offered psychological support to the caregiver based on our Mishel's Uncertainty Scale assessment. Successful strategies utilized by our intervention helped the caregiver reduce level of uncertainty, increase confidence to care for his mother, and improve the quality of further home care.

  2. Genetically Modified Pig Models for Human Diseases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nana Fan; Liangxue Lai

    2013-01-01

    Genetically modified animal models are important for understanding the pathogenesis of human disease and developing therapeutic strategies.Although genetically modified mice have been widely used to model human diseases,some of these mouse models do not replicate important disease symptoms or pathology.Pigs are more similar to humans than mice in anatomy,physiology,and genome.Thus,pigs are considered to be better animal models to mimic some human diseases.This review describes genetically modified pigs that have been used to model various diseases including neurological,cardiovascular,and diabetic disorders.We also discuss the development in gene modification technology that can facilitate the generation of transgenic pig models for human diseases.

  3. Toxicity profiling of water contextual zinc oxide, silver, and titanium dioxide nanoparticles in human oral and gastrointestinal cell systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giovanni, Marcella; Tay, Chor Yong; Setyawati, Magdiel Inggrid; Xie, Jianping; Ong, Choon Nam; Fan, Rongli; Yue, Junqi; Zhang, Lifeng; Leong, David Tai

    2015-12-01

    Engineered nanoparticles (ENPs) are increasingly detected in water supply due to environmental release of ENPs as the by-products contained within the effluent of domestic and industrial run-off. The partial recycling of water laden with ENPs, albeit at ultra-low concentrations, may pose an uncharacterized threat to human health. In this study, we investigated the toxicity of three prevalent ENPs: zinc oxide, silver, and titanium dioxide over a wide range of concentrations that encompasses drinking water-relevant concentrations, to cellular systems representing oral and gastrointestinal tissues. Based on published in silico-predicted water-relevant ENPs concentration range from 100 pg/L to 100 µg/L, we detected no cytotoxicity to all the cellular systems. Significant cytotoxicity due to the NPs set in around 100 mg/L with decreasing extent of toxicity from zinc oxide to silver to titanium dioxide NPs. We also found that noncytotoxic zinc oxide NPs level of 10 mg/L could elevate the intracellular oxidative stress. The threshold concentrations of NPs that induced cytotoxic effect are at least two to five orders of magnitude higher than the permissible concentrations of the respective metals and metal oxides in drinking water. Based on these findings, the current estimated levels of NPs in potable water pose little cytotoxic threat to the human oral and gastrointestinal systems within our experimental boundaries.

  4. Interleukin-33 and Inflammatory Bowel Diseases: Lessons from Human Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiago Nunes

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Interleukin- (IL- 33 is a widely expressed cytokine present in different cell types, such as epithelial, mesenchymal, and inflammatory cells, supporting a predominant role in innate immunity. IL-33 can function as a proinflammatory cytokine inducing Th2 type of immune response being involved with the defense against parasitic infections of the gastrointestinal tract. In addition, it has been proposed that IL-33 can act as a signaling molecule alerting the immune system of danger or tissue damage. Recently, in the intestinal mucosa, overexpression of IL-33 has been reported in samples from patients with inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD. This review highlights the available data regarding IL-33 in human IBD and discusses emerging roles for IL-33 as a key modulator of intestinal inflammation.

  5. Fecal microbiota transplantation in gastrointestinal disease: 2015 update and the road ahead.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borody, Thomas; Fischer, Monika; Mitchell, Scott; Campbell, Jordana

    2015-01-01

    At its height, the Clostridium difficile infection epidemic caused approximately 7000 infections and 300 deaths per day in the USA. Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) has demonstrated extraordinary clinical resolution, C. difficile infection cure rates of over 90%, and low recurrence. In tandem with the rise of FMT, the gastrointestinal microbiome has emerged as a 'vital' organ armed with a wealth of microbe 'soldiers' more powerful than known antibiotics. FMTs' reputation has diffused into many new 'indications' yet these appear to be merely the tip of the iceberg when considering its potential applications. FMT as a therapeutic tool has evolved from the original format of blended donor stool and moved towards a refined product comprising a myriad of microbial components, presented aesthetically as encapsulated lyophilized powder.

  6. Efeito protetor da lactoferrina humana no trato gastrintestinal Efecto protector de la lactoferrina humana en el sistema gastrointestinal Protective effect of human lactoferrin in the gastrointestinal tract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valterlinda Alves de O. Queiroz

    2013-03-01

    ón de morbilidades gastrointestinales. FUENTES DE DATOS: Revisión no sistemática de la literatura utilizando como estrategia de búsqueda investigación bibliográfica en bases de datos, que incluyeron SciELO, Lilacs y MedLine entre 1990 y 2011. Los descriptores utilizados fueron: lactoferrina, leche materna/humana, gastrointestinal e inmunidad, en los idiomas portugués e inglés. SÍNTESIS DE LOS DATOS: La lactoferrina es la segunda proteína predominante en la leche humana, con concentraciones más elevadas en el calostro (5,0 a 6,7mg/mL respecto a la leche madura (0,2 a 2,6mg/mL. En contraste, la leche de vaca contiene tenores inferiores, 0,83mg/mL en el calostro y 0,09mg/mL en la leche madura. La lactoferrina desempeña diversas funciones fisiológicas en la protección del sistema gastrointestinal. La actividad antimicrobiana está relacionada a la capacidad de secuestrar hierro de los fluidos biológicos y/o de desestructurar la membrana de microorganismos. La lactoferrina posee además la capacidad de estimular la proliferación celular. La acción antiinflamatoria desempeñada por la lactoferrina está asociada a la capacidad de penetrar en el núcleo del leucocito y bloquear la transcripción del nuclear factor Kappa B. Frente a la importancia de la lactoferrina en la prevención de enfermedades infecciosas en niños amamantados al pecho, la industria viene, por medio de ingeniería genética, desarrollando tecnologías para expresar esta proteína recombinante humana en plantas y animales en el intento de adecuar la composición de las fórmulas infantiles a aquella de la leche humana. CONCLUSIONES: La lactoferrina humana es un péptido con potencial para prevenir morbilidades, especialmente las gastrointestinales. Evidencias científicas de los efectos protectores de la lactoferrina humana fortalecen todavía más la recomendación para la práctica de la lactancia materna.OBJECTIVE: To describe mechanisms of action of human lactoferrin to protect

  7. Primary gastrointestinal lymphoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Prasanna Ghimire; Guang-Yao Wu; Ling Zhu

    2011-01-01

    Gastrointestinal tract is the most common extranodal site involved by lymphoma with the majority being non-Hodgkin type. Although lymphoma can involve any part of the gastrointestinal tract, the most frequent sites in order of its occurrence are the stomach followed by small intestine and ileocecal region. Gastrointestinal tract lymphoma is usually secondary to the widespread nodal diseases and primary gastrointestinal tract lymphoma is relatively rare. Gastrointestinal lymphomas are usually not clinically specific and indistinguishable from other benign and malignant conditions. Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma is the most common pathological type of gastrointestinal lymphoma in essentially all sites of the gastrointestinal tract, although recently the frequency of other forms has also increased in certain regions of the world. Although some radiological features such as bulky lymph nodes and maintenance of fat plane are more suggestive of lymphoma, they are not specific,thus mandating histopathological analysis for its definitive diagnosis. There has been a tremendous leap in the diagnosis, staging and management of gastrointestinal lymphoma in the last two decades attributed to a better insight into its etiology and molecular aspect as well as the knowledge about its critical signaling pathways.

  8. Immunophenotyping in post-giardiasis functional gastrointestinal disease and chronic fatigue syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanevik Kurt

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A Giardia outbreak was associated with development of post-infectious functional gastrointestinal disorders (PI-FGID and chronic fatigue syndrome (PI-CFS. Markers of immune dysfunction have given conflicting results in CFS and FGID patient populations. The aim of this study was to evaluate a wide selection of markers of immune dysfunction in these two co-occurring post-infectious syndromes. Methods 48 patients, reporting chronic fatigue in a questionnaire study, were clinically evaluated five years after the outbreak and grouped according to Fukuda criteria for CFS (n=19 and idiopathic chronic fatigue (n=5 and Rome II criteria for FGIDs (n=54. 22 Giardia exposed non-fatigued individuals and 10 healthy unexposed individuals were recruited as controls. Peripheral blood lymphocyte subsets were analyzed by flow cytometry. Results In peripheral blood we found significantly higher CD8 T-cell levels in PI-FGID, and significantly lower NK-cell levels in PI-CFS patients. Severity of abdominal and fatigue symptoms correlated negatively with NK-cell levels. A tendency towards lower T-cell CD26 expression in FGID was seen. Conclusion Patients with PI-CFS and/or PI-FGID 5 years after Giardia lamblia infection showed alterations in NK-cell and CD8-cell populations suggesting a possible immunological abnormality in these conditions. We found no significant changes in other markers examined in this well-defined group of PI-CFS and PI-FGID elicited by a gastrointestinal infection. Controlling for co-morbid conditions is important in evaluation of CFS-biomarkers.

  9. Evaluation of Gastrointestinal Patient Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (GI-PROMIS) Symptom Scales in Subjects With Inflammatory Bowel Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochar, Bharati; Martin, Christopher F; Kappelman, Michael D; Spiegel, Brennan M; Chen, Wenli; Sandler, Robert S; Long, Millie D

    2017-08-29

    Patient reported outcomes (PROs) are important treatment endpoints in inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). We evaluated the gastrointestinal (GI) PRO Measurement Information System (PROMIS) in IBD subjects. Crohn's and Colitis Foundation of America's Partners is an Internet-based cohort of IBD subjects. Participants complete surveys, including demographics, disease characteristics, PROMIS domains, disease activity (short Crohn's disease activity index or simple clinical colitis activity index) and quality of life (QoL) indices. In a nested cross-sectional study, we used univariate and bivariate analyses to assess associations between 8 GI-PROMIS domains (reflux, swallowing, diarrhea, nausea, belly pain, gas, incontinence, and constipation) and QoL and disease activity indices. The study included 2,378 Crohn's Disease (CD) and 1,455 ulcerative colitis (UC) respondents with a median age of 41 years. Median disease duration was 11 years for CD subjects and 8 years for UC subjects; 57% of CD subjects and 42% of UC subjects were in remission. Among symptomatic CD subjects, those with active CD reported significantly worse symptoms on all 8 domains than those in remission. The same was observed for UC subjects with the exception of disrupted swallowing. IBD subjects with worse QoL reported significantly worse symptoms on all 8 domains compared to those with better QoL. In IBD subjects experiencing GI symptoms, GI-PROMIS domains were strongly associated with disease activity and QoL indices. GI-PROMIS holds potential as PRO measures in IBD and correlates with other validated indices in this population.Am J Gastroenterol advance online publication, 29 August 2017; doi:10.1038/ajg.2017.240.

  10. Uncovering disease-disease relationships through the incomplete human interactome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menche, Jörg; Sharma, Amitabh; Kitsak, Maksim; Ghiassian, Susan; Vidal, Marc; Loscalzo, Joseph; Barabási, Albert-László

    2015-01-01

    According to the disease module hypothesis the cellular components associated with a disease segregate in the same neighborhood of the human interactome, the map of biologically relevant molecular interactions. Yet, given the incompleteness of the interactome and the limited knowledge of disease-associated genes, it is not obvious if the available data has sufficient coverage to map out modules associated with each disease. Here we derive mathematical conditions for the identifiability of disease modules and show that the network-based location of each disease module determines its pathobiological relationship to other diseases. For example, diseases with overlapping network modules show significant co-expression patterns, symptom similarity, and comorbidity, while diseases residing in separated network neighborhoods are clinically distinct. These tools represent an interactome-based platform to predict molecular commonalities between clinically related diseases, even if they do not share disease genes. PMID:25700523

  11. Gastrointestinal helminth parasites of pet and stray dogs as a potential risk for human health in Bahir Dar town, north-western Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadiwos Abere

    Full Text Available Aim: A cross-sectional study was carried out from November 2011 to April 2012 to determine the prevalence and species of gastrointestinal (GI helminth parasites in pet and stray dogs as a potential risk for human health in Bahir Dar town, northwestern Ethiopia. Materials and Methods: A total of 384 and 46 faecal samples were collected from pet and stray dogs, respectively and xamined by using standard coprologic techniques. Results: The overall prevalence of GI helminth infection in pet and stray dogs was 75.26 and 84.78%, respectively. The detected parasites with their frequencies in pet dogs were Ancylostoma caninum (78.89%, Toxocara canis (39.79%, Dipylidium caninum (29.75%, Strongyloides stercoralis (29.06%, Taeniidae (23.87% and Trichuris vulpis (7.95%. Stray dogs were found more likely to be polyparasitized and presented higher prevalence of A. caninum, T. canis, S. stercoralis, Trichuris vulpis and Taeniidae (P < 0.05 than domiciled ones. Diphyllobothrium latum was detected only in 10.25% of stray dogs. Toxocara canis and A. caninum (P < 0.05 were detected more frequently in dogs with less than 6 months of age (P <0.05 than old age dogs. The sex or breed groups didn't significantly affect the prevalence of parasites. A significant variation was recorded (P < 0.05 between different feeding systems where higher prevalence was observed in uncontrolled feeding group (82.18% compared to controlled feeding (32.08%. Conclusion: Different gastrointestinal parasites in pet and stray dogs were identified in the study area that can potentially infect humans and cause serious public-health problems. Thus, concerted efforts should therefore be made to educate dog owners to embrace modern dog disease control programs and measures have to be taken on stray dogs. [Vet World 2013; 6(7.000: 388-392

  12. Human epididymis protein 4 immunostaining of malignant ascites differentiates cancer of Müllerian origin from gastrointestinal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stiekema, Anna; Van de Vijver, Koen K; Boot, Henk; Broeks, Annegien; Korse, Catharina M; van Driel, Willemien J; Kenter, Gemma G; Lok, Christianne A R

    2017-03-01

    An accurate diagnosis of cancer of Müllerian origin is required before the initiation of treatment. An overlap in clinical presentation and cytological, histological, or imaging studies with other nongynecological tumors does occur. Therefore, immunocytochemistry markers are used to determine tumor origin. Human epididymis protein 4 (HE4) is overexpressed in tissue of epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC). It has shown to be a sensitive and specific serum marker for EOC and to be of value for the differentiation between EOC and ovarian metastases of gastrointestinal origin. The objective of the current study was to evaluate HE4 immunocytochemistry in malignant ascites for differentiation between cancer of Müllerian origin, including EOC, and adenocarcinomas of the gastrointestinal tract. Cytological specimens of 115 different adenocarcinomas (45 EOCs, 46 cases of gastric cancer, and 24 cases of colorectal cancer) were stained for HE4, paired box 8 (PAX8), and other specific markers. 91% of the ascites samples from patients with EOC stained for both HE4 and PAX8. The 4 samples without HE4 staining were a clear cell carcinoma, a low-grade serous adenocarcinoma, an undifferentiated adenocarcinoma, and a neuroendocrine carcinoma. All high-grade serous adenocarcinomas (n = 37, 100%) stained with HE4, compared with 94% that stained positively for PAX8. In cases of gastric or colorectal cancer, 25% and 21% of cases, respectively, stained positive for HE4. No PAX8 staining was observed in colorectal or gastric adenocarcinomas. HE4 staining in ascites is feasible and appears to have a high sensitivity for high-grade serous ovarian cancer. HE4 is a useful addition to the current panel of immunocytochemistry markers for the diagnosis of EOC and for differentiation with gastrointestinal adenocarcinomas. Cancer Cytopathol 2017;125:197-204. © 2016 American Cancer Society. © 2017 American Cancer Society.

  13. Does biodiversity protect humans against infectious disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Chelsea L; Lafferty, Kevin D; DeLeo, Giulio; Young, Hillary S; Hudson, Peter J; Kuris, Armand M

    2014-04-01

    Control of human infectious disease has been promoted as a valuable ecosystem service arising from the conservation of biodiversity. There are two commonly discussed mechanisms by which biodiversity loss could increase rates of infectious disease in a landscape. First, loss of competitors or predators could facilitate an increase in the abundance of competent reservoir hosts. Second, biodiversity loss could disproportionately affect non-competent, or less competent reservoir hosts, which would otherwise interfere with pathogen transmission to human populations by, for example, wasting the bites of infected vectors. A negative association between biodiversity and disease risk, sometimes called the "dilution effect hypothesis," has been supported for a few disease agents, suggests an exciting win-win outcome for the environment and society, and has become a pervasive topic in the disease ecology literature. Case studies have been assembled to argue that the dilution effect is general across disease agents. Less touted are examples in which elevated biodiversity does not affect or increases infectious disease risk for pathogens of public health concern. In order to assess the likely generality of the dilution effect, we review the association between biodiversity and public health across a broad variety of human disease agents. Overall, we hypothesize that conditions for the dilution effect are unlikely to be met for most important diseases of humans. Biodiversity probably has little net effect on most human infectious diseases but, when it does have an effect, observation and basic logic suggest that biodiversity will be more likely to increase than to decrease infectious disease risk.

  14. Probiotic yogurt consumption may improve gastrointestinal symptoms, productivity, and nutritional intake of people living with human immunodeficiency virus in Mwanza, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irvine, Stephanie L; Hummelen, Ruben; Hekmat, Sharareh

    2011-12-01

    The gut-associated lymphoid tissue is a major site of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) activity and significantly influences disease prognosis. Reducing immune activation due to gastroenteritis may thus help slow disease progression. Probiotic microorganisms have considerable immunomodulatory effects at the level of the gut-associated lymphoid tissue. A probiotic yogurt initiative was thus established in Mwanza, Tanzania, to improve gastrointestinal (GI) integrity and reduce the incidence and severity of opportunistic infections among people with HIV. The research objective was to retrospectively evaluate the effects of yogurt supplemented with Lactobacillus rhamnosus as an adjunct to the diet of people living with HIV on systemic and GI symptoms, daily routine activities, and nutritional intake. Eighty-five people with HIV consuming probiotic yogurt and 86 controls were interviewed. Demographics and HIV disease stage were comparable between groups. Probiotic yogurt consumers reported an ability to work a median of 2 hours more daily (P = .01), experienced a lower fever incidence (P = .01), and were more likely to achieve daily nutrient requirements for vitamin A, several B complex vitamins, and calcium (P = .02). Antiretroviral users experienced less drug-induced stomach pain (P = .02) and a lower overall impact of GI symptoms on routine activities (P = .03). The results of this study need be further substantiated because of limits imposed by the observational, retrospective study design; however, results suggest that yogurt supplemented with L rhamnosus may effectively alleviate GI symptoms and improve productivity, nutritional intake, and tolerance to antiretroviral treatment among people with HIV in Mwanza.

  15. Parasitic diseases in humans transmitted by vectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cholewiński, Marcin; Derda, Monika; Hadaś, Edward

    2015-01-01

    Despite the considerable progress of medicine, parasitic diseases still pose a great threat to human health and life. Among parasitic diseases, those transmitted by vectors, mainly arthropods, play a particular role. These diseases occur most frequently in the poorest countries and affect a vast part of the human population. They include malaria, babesiosis, trypanosomiasis, leishmaniasis and filariasis. This study presents those vector-transmitted diseases that are responsible for the greatest incidence and mortality of people on a global scale. Attention is focused primarily on diseases transmitted by mosquitoes, flies, Hemiptera and ticks.

  16. The Association of Combined Total Kidney and Liver Volume with Pain and Gastrointestinal Symptoms in Patients with Later Stage Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D'Agnolo, Hedwig M A; Casteleijn, Niek F; Gevers, Tom J G; de Fijter, Hans; van Gastel, Maartje D A; Messchendorp, Annemarie L; Peters, Dorien J M; Salih, Mahdi; Soonawala, Darius; Spithoven, Edwin M; Visser, Folkert W; Wetzels, Jack F M; Zietse, Robert; Gansevoort, Ron T; Drenth, Joost P H

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There is an ongoing debate if and how kidney and liver volume are associated with pain and gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) patients. Since both kidney and liver volume could interact, we investigated whether combined total kidney and

  17. Diseases of the Gastrointestinal Tract in Individuals Diagnosed as Children with Atypical Autism: A Danish Register Study Based on Hospital Diagnoses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouridsen, Svend Erik; Isager, Torben; Rich, Bente

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to compare the prevalence and types of diseases (International Classification of Mental and Behavioural Disorders, 10th Edition codes K20-K93) relating to the gastrointestinal tract in a clinical sample of 89 individuals diagnosed as children with atypical autism/pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified…

  18. Update on diagnostic value of breath test in gastrointestinal and liver diseases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Imran Siddiqui; Sibtain Ahmed; Shahab Abid

    2016-01-01

    In the field of gastroenterology,breath tests(BTs) are used intermittently as diagnostic tools that allow indirect,non-invasive and relatively less cumbersome evaluation of several disorders by simply quantifying the appearance in exhaled breath of a metabolite of a specific substrate administered.The aim of this review is to have an insight into the principles,methods of analysis and performance parameters of various hydrogen,methane and carbon BTs which are available for diagnosing gastrointestinal disorders such as Helicobacter pylori infection,small intestinal bacterial overgrowth,and carbohydrate malabsorption.Evaluation of gastric emptying is routinely performed by scintigraphy which is however,difficult to perform and not suitable for children and pregnant women,this review has abridged the 13C-octanoic acid test in comparison to scintigraphy and has emphasized on its working protocol and challenges.A new development such as electronic nose test is also highlighted.Moreover we have also explored the limitations and constraints restraining the wide use of these BT.We conclude that breath testing has an enormous potential to be used as a diagnostic modality.In addition it offers distinct advantages over the traditional invasive methods commonly employed.

  19. Crohn Disease of the Vulva without Gastrointestinal Manifestations in a 16-Year-Old Girl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ai-jun; Zhan, Shu-hui; Chang, Hong; Gao, Yu-qiang; Li, Yan-qing

    2015-01-01

    Crohn disease of the vulva is a rare disease that is difficult to diagnose. There are limited reports describing treatment of this condition. To describe the diagnosis and treatment of a 16-year-old girl with Crohn disease of the vulva, without onset of intestinal symptoms. Crohn disease was diagnosed by histopathology. The patient was treated with corticosteroids and followed for 1 year. After the final diagnosis, cutaneous lesions responded rapidly to corticosteroid treatment, which was gradually stopped after 6 months. The disease was well controlled at the 1-year follow-up. Crohn disease of the vulva can develop alone without the onset of intestinal symptoms. Diagnosis relies on special pathologic findings. Corticosteroid treatment is effective for this condition. © 2014 Canadian Dermatology Association.

  20. Dissemination and clinical impact of minimal metastatic disease in gastrointestinal cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doekhie, Fania Shahanaaz

    2009-01-01

    In this thesis, we assess whether gastric and colorectal cancer (CRC) patients with minimal metastatic disease at the time of surgery who are at risk for disease recurrence, can be identified by detection of occult tumor cells (OTC) in lymph nodes or bone marrow or by analyzing the primary tumor for

  1. Gastrointestinal Complications of Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camilleri, Michael; Malhi, Harmeet; Acosta, Andres

    2017-01-01

    Obesity usually is associated with morbidity related to diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular diseases. However, there are many gastrointestinal and hepatic diseases for which obesity is the direct cause (eg, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease) or is a significant risk factor, such as reflux esophagitis and gallstones. When obesity is a risk factor, it may interact with other mechanisms and result in earlier presentation or complicated diseases. There are increased odds ratios or relative risks of several gastrointestinal complications of obesity: gastroesophageal reflux disease, erosive esophagitis, Barrett’s esophagus, esophageal adenocarcinoma, erosive gastritis, gastric cancer, diarrhea, colonic diverticular disease, polyps, cancer, liver disease including nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma, gallstones, acute pancreatitis, and pancreatic cancer. Gastroenterologists are uniquely poised to participate in the multidisciplinary management of obesity as physicians caring for people with obesity-related diseases, in addition to their expertise in nutrition and endoscopic interventions. PMID:28192107

  2. Gastrointestinal Complications of Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camilleri, Michael; Malhi, Harmeet; Acosta, Andres

    2017-05-01

    Obesity usually is associated with morbidity related to diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular diseases. However, there are many gastrointestinal and hepatic diseases for which obesity is the direct cause (eg, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease) or is a significant risk factor, such as reflux esophagitis and gallstones. When obesity is a risk factor, it may interact with other mechanisms and result in earlier presentation or complicated diseases. There are increased odds ratios or relative risks of several gastrointestinal complications of obesity: gastroesophageal reflux disease, erosive esophagitis, Barrett's esophagus, esophageal adenocarcinoma, erosive gastritis, gastric cancer, diarrhea, colonic diverticular disease, polyps, cancer, liver disease including nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma, gallstones, acute pancreatitis, and pancreatic cancer. Gastroenterologists are uniquely poised to participate in the multidisciplinary management of obesity as physicians caring for people with obesity-related diseases, in addition to their expertise in nutrition and endoscopic interventions. Copyright © 2017 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. The pattern of lower gastrointestinal disease in the eastern region of Saudi Arabia: A retrospective analysis of 1590 consecutive patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al Quorain Abdulaziz

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available To determine the pattern of lower gastrointestinal disease in the Eastern region of Saudi Arabia we analysed 1907 colorectal biopsies obtained from 1590 consecutive patients (1256 males &334 females, evaluated during a 13 year period (1983-1996 in a tertiary care teaching hospital. The age range was 6-81 years with a mean of 37 + 15. During the same period 6874 new patients were seen in the Gastroenterology Clinics. Saudi Arabs constituted 970 (61 % of all patients. The remaining 620 (39% were non-Saudi, mostly of Arab origin from neighbouring countries. The most common presenting symptom for referral was abdominal pain (1193 patients, 75% followed by diarrhea (636 patients, 40%. The most frequent histologic diagnosis was a normal mucosa followed by non specific proctocolitis accounting respectively for 37.9% and 37.4% of all cases. These were followed by schistosomiasis, 113 (7.1%, adenocarcinoma, 91 (5.7% and ulcerative colitis, 91 cases with a relative frequency of 5.7% and a calculated prevalence of 1.3%. Of significance was the encounter of 14 cases of Crohn′s disease amounting to 0.9% of all cases with a calculated prevalence of 0.2%. A minority of 83 patients (5.2% were cases of either a benign polyp, diverticular disease, tuberculosis, ischaemia, lymphoma, pseudomembranous colitis (PMC, eosinophilic gastroenteritis or malacoplakia. These data show that although a "normal mucosa" and "nonspecific proctocolitis" were the dominant diagnoses, significantly, ulcerative colitis and Crohn′s disease exist and should be considered in the differential diagnosis of lower GI disease.

  4. Appropriate use of endoscopy in the diagnosis and treatment of gastrointestinal diseases: up-to-date indications for primary care providers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vien X Nguyen

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Vien X Nguyen1, Vi Thuy Le Nguyen2, Cuong C Nguyen11Department of Gastroenterology, Mayo Clinic, Scottsdale, AZ, USA; 2Department of Pharmacy, Banner Baywood Medical Center, Mesa, AZ, USAAbstract: The field of endoscopy has revolutionized the diagnosis and treatment of ­gastrointestinal (GI diseases in recent years. Besides the ‘traditional’ endoscopic ­procedures (esophagogastroduodenoscopy, colonoscopy, flexible sigmoidoscopy, and endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography, advances in imaging technology (endoscopic ultrasonography, ­wireless capsule endoscopy, and double balloon enteroscopy have allowed GI specialists to detect and manage disorders throughout the digestive system. This article reviews various ­endoscopic procedures and provides up-to-date endoscopic indications based on the ­recommendations of American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy and American Cancer Society for primary care providers in order to achieve high-quality and cost-effective care.Keywords: endoscopy, endoscopic indications, endoscopic procedures, imaging, primary care, gastrointestinal disorders, appropriate use

  5. [The course of inpatient rehabilitation in gastrointestinal and metabolic diseases under increasing integration of behavior and experience].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutschmidt, S; Hänisch, S; Würthner, K

    1993-08-01

    Starting out from the thesis that behaviour and felt experience, i.e., the patient's "subjective world", have considerable influence on chronic diseases and their consequences in the gastrointestinal field, a "basic course documentation"-based comparison has been carried out of the courses of 4-week in-patient rehabilitation programmes designed to increasingly incorporate interventions directed at this area; the study population had consisted of two groups of patients (n = 688 each) without any significant differences concerning age and sex distribution admitted during the summer terms of 1990 (Group A) and 1991 (Group B), respectively. This documentation (in DBASE IV format) compiles (anonymized) patient data at an "objective" level on the one hand, i.e. basic data (such as diagnoses, age, sex), results obtained by the Edinburgh Rehabilitation Status Scale (ERSS), risk behaviour, and scope of interventions both in the organ-medical and physical therapy fields and in the area of "instruction, motivation, support, group work, and creativity" (designed to achieve integration of behaviour and felt experience); on the other hand, at "subjective level", it comprises the patient's own judgements relative to the treatment regimen and its environment, with subsequent correlational analysis of the data obtained (using the SPSSPC statistical package). As had been expected, correlations have on the one hand been stated at the "objective" level between an increased share of more "serious" conditions (ICD) in 1990 as compared to 1991 and higher ERSS scores (i.e., increased impact of disease consequences), greater organ-medical care intensity, and frequency of incapacity for work; on the other hand, at "subjective" level, strong linkages were found among the item ratings for general sense of improvement, specific and general therapy, as well as so-called "therapeutic environment". When the two levels are linked, the sense of improvement, as expected, is found to correlate

  6. Stem cell differentiation and human liver disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wen-Li Zhou; Claire N Medine; Liang Zhu; David C Hay

    2012-01-01

    Human stem cells are scalable cell populations capable of cellular differentiation.This makes them a very attractive in vitro cellular resource and in theory provides unlimited amounts of primary cells.Such an approach has the potential to improve our understanding of human biology and treating disease.In the future it may be possible to deploy novel stem cell-based approaches to treat human liver diseases.In recent years,efficient hepatic differentiation from human stem cells has been achieved by several research groups including our own.In this review we provide an overview of the field and discuss the future potential and limitations of stem cell technology.

  7. Human methanogen diversity and incidence in healthy and diseased colonic groups using mcrA gene analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scanlan Pauline D

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The incidence and diversity of human methanogens are insufficiently characterised in the gastrointestinal tract of both health and disease. A PCR and clone library methodology targeting the mcrA gene was adopted to facilitate the two-fold aim of surveying the relative incidence of methanogens in health and disease groups and also to provide an overview of methanogen diversity in the human gastrointestinal tract. Results DNA faecal extracts (207 in total from a group of healthy controls and five gastrointestinal disease groups were investigated. Colorectal cancer, polypectomised, irritable bowel syndrome and the control group had largely equivalent numbers of individuals positive for methanogens (range 45–50%. Methanogen incidence in the inflammatory bowel disease groups was reduced, 24% for ulcerative colitis and 30% for Crohn's disease. Four unique mcrA gene restriction fragment length polymorphism profiles were identified and bioinformatic analyses revealed that the majority of all sequences (94% retrieved from libraries were 100% identical to Methanobrevibacter smithii mcrA gene. In addition, mcrA gene sequences most closely related to Methanobrevibacter oralis and members of the order Methanosarcinales were also recovered. Conclusion The mcrA gene serves as a useful biomarker for methanogen detection in the human gut and the varying trends of methanogen incidence in the human gut could serve as important indicators of intestinal function. Although Methanobrevibacter smithii is the dominant methanogen in both the distal colon of individuals in health and disease, the diversity of methanogens is greater than previously reported. In conclusion, the low incidence of methanogens in Inflammatory Bowel Disease, the functionality of the methanogens and impact of methane production in addition to competitive interactions between methanogens and other microbial groups in the human gastrointestinal tract warrants further

  8. Expression of the Bcl-2 apoptotic marker in cats diagnosed with inflammatory bowel disease and gastrointestinal lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, Christine M; Smedley, Rebecca C; Saavedra, Paulo Vilar; Kiupel, Matti; Kitchell, Barbara E

    2012-10-01

    Immunolabeling for the critical lymphocyte survival factor, Bcl-2, of intestinal biopsies from cats with histologic evidence of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) or gastrointestinal (GI) lymphoma was evaluated to determine if expression differed significantly between these two disease processes. Immunolabeling for Bcl-2 was performed on small intestinal endoscopic or full thickness biopsy sections from 55 cats. Diagnosis of IBD, T-cell lymphoma or B-cell lymphoma was established previously. The percentage of infiltrating lymphocytes that were positively labeled for Bcl-2 was subjectively determined for each case. Eight cats were diagnosed with IBD and 47 cats with lymphoma. A significantly higher percentage of cells were positively immunolabeled for Bcl-2 in cats with GI lymphoma [median (range); 90 (5-95)%] compared with cats with IBD [60 (15-95)%] (P = 0.029). However, the overall degree of positive immunolabeling in both groups tended to be high. This over-expression of Bcl-2 may prove useful as a therapeutic target for IBD and GI lymphoma in cats.

  9. Investigation of Genipin Cross-Linked Microcapsule for Oral Delivery of Live Bacterial Cells and Other Biotherapeutics: Preparation and In Vitro Analysis in Simulated Human Gastrointestinal Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongmei Chen

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Oral therapy utilizing engineered microorganisms has shown promise in the treatment of many diseases. By microencapsulation, viable cells can overcome the harsh gastrointestinal (GI environment and secrete needed therapeutics into the gut. These engineered cells should be encased without escaping into the GI tract for safety concerns, thus robust microcapsule membrane is requisite. This paper examined the GI performance of a novel microcapsule membrane using a dynamic simulated human GI model. Results showed that the genipin cross-linked alginate-chitosan (GCAC microcapsules possessed strong resistance to structural disintegration in the simulated GI environment. Leakage of encapsulated high molecular weight dextran, a model material to be protected during the simulated GI transit, was negligible over 72 h of exposure, in contrast to considerable leakage of dextran from the non-cross-linked counterparts. These microcapsules did not alter the microflora and enzymatic activities in the simulated human colonic media. This study suggested the potential of the GCAC microcapsules for oral delivery of live microorganisms and other biotherapeutics.

  10. 8-Hydroxydeoxyguanosine: Not mere biomarker for oxidative stress, but remedy for oxidative stress-implicated gastrointestinal diseases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chan-Young Ock; Eun-Hee Kim; Duck Joo Choi; Ho Jae Lee; Ki-Baik Hahm; Myung Hee Chung

    2012-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) attack guanine bases in DNA easily and form 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), which can bind to thymidine rather than cytosine, based on which, the level of 8-OHdG is generally regarded as a biomarker of mutagenesis consequent to oxidative stress. For example, higher levels of 8-OHdG are noted in Helicobacter pylori -associated chronic atrophic gastritis as well as gastric cancer. However, we have found that exogenous 8-OHdG can paradoxically reduce ROS production, attenuate the nuclear factor-κB signaling pathway, and ameliorate the expression of proinflammatory mediators such as interleukin (IL)-1, IL-6, cyclo-oxygenase-2, and inducible nitric oxide synthase in addition to expression of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase (NOX)-1, NOX organizer-1 and NOX activator-1 in various conditions of inflammation-based gastrointestinal (GI) diseases including gastritis, inflammatory bowel disease, pancreatitis, and even colitis-associated carcinogenesis. Our recent finding that exogenous 8-OHdG was very effective in either inflammation-based or oxidative-stress-associated diseases of stress-related mucosal damage has inspired the hope that synthetic 8-OHdG can be a potential candidate for the treatment of inflammation-based GI diseases, as well as the prevention of inflammation-associated GI cancer. In this editorial review, the novel fact that exogenous 8-OHdG can be a functional molecule regulating oxidativestress-induced gastritis through either antagonizing Rac-guanosine triphosphate binding or blocking the signals responsible for gastric inflammatory cascade is introduced.

  11. Reduced penetrance in human inherited disease

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rabah M. Shawky

    2014-01-31

    Jan 31, 2014 ... tant role in cellular senescence, tumorigenesis and in several diseases ... A correlation between epigenetic DNA modifications and human life span ... Most studies demonstrated that aging is associated with a relaxation in ...

  12. Gut microbiome diversity in acute infective and chronic inflammatory gastrointestinal diseases in North India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kedia, Saurabh; Rampal, Ritika; Paul, Jaishree; Ahuja, Vineet

    2016-07-01

    The disease profile in the Indian population provides a unique opportunity for studying the host microbiome interaction in both infectious (amebiasis) and autoimmune diseases like inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) from a similar environment and genetic background. Analysis of fecal samples from untreated amebic liver abscess (ALA) patients, Entamoeba histolytica (Eh)-negative and -positive asymptomatic individuals, and pus samples from naive ALA patients revealed a significant reduction in Lactobacillus in asymptomatic individuals (Eh +ve) and ALA patients. Two anaerobic genera, namely Bacteroides and Peptostreptococcus, were detected in naive ALA pus samples. Analysis of fecal samples from amoebic colitis patients showed a significant decline in population of Bacteroides, Clostridium coccoides and leptum subgroup, Lactobacillus, Campylobacter, and Eubacterium, whereas a significant increase in Bifidobacterium was observed. Mucosa-associated bacterial flora analysis from IBD patients and healthy controls revealed a significant difference in concentration of bacteria among predominating and subdominating genera between ulcerative colitis (UC), Crohn's disease (CD) patients, and controls. In contrast to the mucosal studies, we found a significant increase in lactobacilli population in fecal samples of active UC patients. Another study revealed a significant decrease of Clostridium coccoides and leptum clusters in fecal samples of active UC patients along with decreased concentrations of fecal SCFAs, especially of n-butyrate, iso-butyrate, and acetate. We therefore found similar perturbations in gut microbiome in both infectious and autoimmune diseases, indicating inflammation to be the major driver for changes in gut microbiome.

  13. Genome sequence of Victivallis vadensis ATCC BAA-548, an anaerobic bacterium from the phylum Lentisphaerae, isolated from the human gastro-intestinal tract

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Passel, Mark W.J. [Wageningen University and Research Centre, The Netherlands; Kant, Ravi [University of Helsinki; Palva, Airi [University of Helsinki; Lucas, Susan [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Copeland, A [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Lapidus, Alla L. [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Glavina Del Rio, Tijana [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Dalin, Eileen [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Tice, Hope [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Bruce, David [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Goodwin, Lynne A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Pitluck, Sam [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Davenport, Karen W. [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Sims, David [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Detter, J. Chris [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Han, Cliff [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Larimer, Frank W [ORNL; Land, Miriam L [ORNL; Hauser, Loren John [ORNL; Kyrpides, Nikos C [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Ovchinnikova, Galina [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Richardson, Paul [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; De Vos, Willem M. [Wageningen University and Research Centre, The Netherlands; Smidt, Hauke [Wageningen University and Research Centre, The Netherlands; Zoetendal, Erwin G. [Wageningen University and Research Centre, The Netherlands

    2011-01-01

    Victivallis vadensis ATCC BAA-548 represents the first cultured representative from the novel phylum Lentisphaerae, a deep-branching bacterial lineage. Few cultured bacteria from this phylum are known, and V. vadensis therefore represents an important organism for evolutionary studies. V. vadensis is a strictly anaerobic sugar-fermenting isolate from the human gastro-intestinal tract.

  14. Protein Misfolding and Human Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gregersen, Niels; Bross, Peter Gerd; Vang, Søren

    2006-01-01

    phenylketonuria, Parkinson's disease, α-1-antitrypsin deficiency, familial neurohypophyseal diabetes insipidus, and short-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency. Despite the differences, an emerging paradigm suggests that the cellular effects of protein misfolding provide a common framework that may contribute......Protein misfolding is a common event in living cells. In young and healthy cells, the misfolded protein load is disposed of by protein quality control (PQC) systems. In aging cells and in cells from certain individuals with genetic diseases, the load may overwhelm the PQC capacity, resulting...... in accumulation of misfolded proteins. Dependent on the properties of the protein and the efficiency of the PQC systems, the accumulated protein may be degraded or assembled into toxic oligomers and aggregates. To illustrate this concept, we discuss a number of very different protein misfolding diseases including...

  15. Tumor-initiating label-retaining cancer cells in human gastrointestinal cancers undergo asymmetric cell division.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Hong-Wu; Hari, Danielle M; Mullinax, John E; Ambe, Chenwi M; Koizumi, Tomotake; Ray, Satyajit; Anderson, Andrew J; Wiegand, Gordon W; Garfield, Susan H; Thorgeirsson, Snorri S; Avital, Itzhak

    2012-04-01

    Label-retaining cells (LRCs) have been proposed to represent adult tissue stem cells. LRCs are hypothesized to result from either slow cycling or asymmetric cell division (ACD). However, the stem cell nature and whether LRC undergo ACD remain controversial. Here, we demonstrate label-retaining cancer cells (LRCCs) in several gastrointestinal (GI) cancers including fresh surgical specimens. Using a novel method for isolation of live LRCC, we demonstrate that a subpopulation of LRCC is actively dividing and exhibits stem cells and pluripotency gene expression profiles. Using real-time confocal microscopic cinematography, we show live LRCC undergoing asymmetric nonrandom chromosomal cosegregation LRC division. Importantly, LRCCs have greater tumor-initiating capacity than non-LRCCs. Based on our data and that cancers develop in tissues that harbor normal-LRC, we propose that LRCC might represent a novel population of GI stem-like cancer cells. LRCC may provide novel mechanistic insights into the biology of cancer and regenerative medicine and present novel targets for cancer treatment. Copyright © 2012 AlphaMed Press.

  16. Comparison of the gastrointestinal absorption and bioavailability of fenofibrate and fenofibric acid in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Tong; Ansquer, Jean-Claude; Kelly, Maureen T; Sleep, Darryl J; Pradhan, Rajendra S

    2010-08-01

    This study compared the gastrointestinal (GI) absorption characteristics and absolute bioavailability of fenofibric acid and fenofibrate (which is converted to fenofibric acid in vivo) in healthy volunteers. Treatments were delivered to the proximal small bowel, distal small bowel, and colon using a site-specific delivery system (Enterion capsule) and to the stomach by oral administration of equimolar doses. Serial blood samples were collected for 120 hours postdose and assayed for plasma fenofibric acid concentrations. The absolute bioavailability of each treatment was determined relative to 50 mg of fenofibric acid administered intravenously. Plasma exposure to fenofibric acid following fenofibric acid administration was approximately 1.5 times higher than that following fenofibrate administration for delivery to the proximal and distal small bowel and following oral administration, and it was approximately 5 times higher following colon delivery. The absolute bioavailability in the stomach, proximal small bowel, distal small bowel, and colon was approximately 81%, 88%, 84%, and 78%, respectively, for fenofibric acid and 69%, 73%, 66%, and 22%, respectively, for fenofibrate (P fenofibric acid vs fenofibrate in the colon and distal small bowel, respectively). In conclusion, fenofibric acid is well absorbed throughout the GI tract and has greater bioavailability than fenofibrate in all GI regions.

  17. Gastrointestinal complications and extraintestinal manifestations of inflammatory bowel disease in Taiwan: A population-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yung-Cheng Hsu

    2017-02-01

    Conclusion: Our study found that CD had a more complicated course, with a higher incidence of GI complications and EIMs. However, the prevalence of intestinal complications, perianal disease, and major EIMs was less common than in Western countries. This study provided a distinct clinical feature of IBD in Taiwan.

  18. Gastrointestinal factors contribute to glucometabolic disturbances in nondiabetic patients with end-stage renal disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Idorn, Thomas; Knop, Filip K; Jørgensen, Morten;

    2013-01-01

    Nondiabetic patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) have disturbed glucose metabolism, the underlying pathophysiology of which is unclear. To help elucidate this, we studied patients with ESRD and either normal or impaired glucose tolerance (10 each NGT or IGT, respectively) and 11 controls...

  19. The volatile metabolome and microbiome in pulmonary and gastro-intestinal disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Schee, M.P.C.

    2015-01-01

    Omics-technologies allow detailed characterization of biochemical molecular families enabling data-driven and hypothesis-generating research. In this thesis we explore potential merits and pitfalls of such an approach by studying the volatile metabolome and microbiome in disease diagnosis,

  20. The volatile metabolome and microbiome in pulmonary and gastro-intestinal disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Schee, M.P.C.

    2015-01-01

    Omics-technologies allow detailed characterization of biochemical molecular families enabling data-driven and hypothesis-generating research. In this thesis we explore potential merits and pitfalls of such an approach by studying the volatile metabolome and microbiome in disease diagnosis, phenotypi

  1. Physiochemical basis of human degenerative disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeliger Harold I.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The onset of human degenerative diseases in humans, including type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, neurological disorders, neurodevelopmental disease and neurodegenerative disease has been shown to be related to exposures to persistent organic pollutants, including polychlorinated biphenyls, chlorinated pesticides, polybrominated diphenyl ethers and others, as well as to polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons, phthalates, bisphenol-A and other aromatic lipophilic species. The onset of these diseases has also been related to exposures to transition metal ions. A physiochemical mechanism for the onset of degenerative environmental disease dependent upon exposure to a combination of lipophilic aromatic hydrocarbons and transition metal ions is proposed here. The findings reported here also, for the first time, explain why aromatic hydrocarbons exhibit greater toxicity than aliphatic hydrocarbons of equal carbon numbers.

  2. Human Echinococcosis: A Neglected Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    António Menezes da Silva

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Echinococcosis is among the most neglected parasitic diseases. Development of new drugs and other treatment modalities receives very little attention, if any. In most developed countries, Cystic Echinococcosis (CE is an imported disease of very low incidence and prevalence and is found almost exclusively in migrants from endemic regions. In endemic regions, predominantly settings with limited resources, patient numbers are high. Whole communities do not have access to appropriate treatment. The choice of treatment modalities is limited because of poor infrastructure and shortage of equipment and drugs. In this context, CE meets the criteria for a neglected disease. Furthermore, the terminology related to the designations around the parasite, its evolution and some therapeutic procedures is not uniform and sometimes inappropriate terms and wrong designations are used based on incorrect concepts. Although all of us know the different aspects of the disease it is pertinent to remember some important points and, above all, to clarify some aspects concerning the hydatid cyst's nomenclature in order to understand better the therapeutic options in the liver locations, particularly the different surgical approaches.

  3. 植物多糖在胃肠道及肝病中的新作用%VEGETAL POLYSACCHARIDES: A NEW ROLE IN GASTROINTESTINAL AND HEPATIC DISEASES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶毅妮; 曹之宪

    2002-01-01

    @@ The polysaccharide fraction from various herbal medicines has been well studied for its immunomodulatory action and antitumor effect, such as lentinan and lucid Ganoderma, for more than twenty years. These actions and effects may be due to stimulation of the phagocytic activity and anti-inflammatory action. It is also found to increase hematopoiesis in the bone marrow and to promote proliferation of several types of hematopoietic precursor cells. It was also found to provide radioprotective effect by improving the recovery of hematopoietic function in animals. These findings suggest that the polysaccharides from plant origins have significant pharmacological action on cells with high proliferative capacity in the body. Recently, increasing evidence implicates that vegetal polysaccharides have similar protective and repairing activities in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract as the cells in this system also have the same biological property. In this review, we would like to update and summarize findings both in animals and in human pertaining to the pharmacological actions of polysaccharides from different vegetal sources on the GI and hepatic disorders including ulcer and cancer diseases.

  4. Molecular Pathology of Human Prion Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Prion diseases are fatal neurodegenerative conditions in humans and animals. In this review, we summarize the molecular background of phenotypic variability, relation of prion protein (PrP to other proteins associated with neurodegenerative diseases, and pathogenesis of neuronal vulnerability. PrP exists in different forms that may be present in both diseased and non-diseased brain, however, abundant disease-associated PrP together with tissue pathology characterizes prion diseases and associates with transmissibility. Prion diseases have different etiological background with distinct pathogenesis and phenotype. Mutations of the prion protein gene are associated with genetic forms. The codon 129 polymorphism in combination with the Western blot pattern of PrP after proteinase K digestion serves as a basis for molecular subtyping of sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. Tissue damage may result from several parallel, interacting or subsequent pathways that involve cellular systems associated with synapses, protein processing, oxidative stress, autophagy, and apoptosis.

  5. [Primary human demodicosis. A disease sui generis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, C-K; Zink, A; Wei, K-J; Dzika, E; Plewig, G; Chen, W

    2015-03-01

    Human Demodex mites (Demodex folliculorum and Demodex brevis) are unique in that they are an obligate human ectoparasite that can inhabit the pilosebaceous unit lifelong without causing obvious host immune response in most cases. The mode of symbiosis between humans and human Demodex mites is unclear, while the pathogenicity of human Demodex mites in many inflammatory skin diseases is now better understood. Primary human demodicosis is a skin disease sui generis not associated with local or systemic immunosuppression. Diagnosis is often underestimated and differentiation from folliculitis, papulopustular rosacea and perioral dermatitis is not always straightforward. Dependent on the morphology and degree of inflammation, the clinical manifestations can be classified into spinulate, papulopustular, nodulocystic, crustic and fulminant demodicosis. Therapy success can be achieved only with acaricides/arachidicides. The effective doses, optimal regimen and antimicrobial resistance remain to be determined.

  6. Global biogeography of human infectious diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Kris A; Preston, Nicholas; Allen, Toph; Zambrana-Torrelio, Carlos; Hosseini, Parviez R; Daszak, Peter

    2015-10-13

    The distributions of most infectious agents causing disease in humans are poorly resolved or unknown. However, poorly known and unknown agents contribute to the global burden of disease and will underlie many future disease risks. Existing patterns of infectious disease co-occurrence could thus play a critical role in resolving or anticipating current and future disease threats. We analyzed the global occurrence patterns of 187 human infectious diseases across 225 countries and seven epidemiological classes (human-specific, zoonotic, vector-borne, non-vector-borne, bacterial, viral, and parasitic) to show that human infectious diseases exhibit distinct spatial grouping patterns at a global scale. We demonstrate, using outbreaks of Ebola virus as a test case, that this spatial structuring provides an untapped source of prior information that could be used to tighten the focus of a range of health-related research and management activities at early stages or in data-poor settings, including disease surveillance, outbreak responses, or optimizing pathogen discovery. In examining the correlates of these spatial patterns, among a range of geographic, epidemiological, environmental, and social factors, mammalian biodiversity was the strongest predictor of infectious disease co-occurrence overall and for six of the seven disease classes examined, giving rise to a striking congruence between global pathogeographic and "Wallacean" zoogeographic patterns. This clear biogeographic signal suggests that infectious disease assemblages remain fundamentally constrained in their distributions by ecological barriers to dispersal or establishment, despite the homogenizing forces of globalization. Pathogeography thus provides an overarching context in which other factors promoting infectious disease emergence and spread are set.

  7. Risk factors for upper gastrointestinal bleeding in coronary artery disease patients receiving both aspirin and clopidogrel

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    Kuang-Wei Huang

    2013-01-01

    Conclusion: ACS and mechanical ventilation are important risk factors of UGIB at the early stage (≤ 2 weeks. Additionally, old age (>75 years, past peptic ulcer disease history, and the use of mechanical ventilation play important roles in the occurrence of UGIB at late stage (>2 weeks. However, it was also noted that use of PPI plays a protective role in patients with CAD receiving aspirin and clopidogrel therapy.

  8. Cis-regulatory mutations in human disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, Douglas J

    2009-07-01

    Cis-acting regulatory sequences are required for the proper temporal and spatial control of gene expression. Variation in gene expression is highly heritable and a significant determinant of human disease susceptibility. The diversity of human genetic diseases attributed, in whole or in part, to mutations in non-coding regulatory sequences is on the rise. Improvements in genome-wide methods of associating genetic variation with human disease and predicting DNA with cis-regulatory potential are two of the major reasons for these recent advances. This review will highlight select examples from the literature that have successfully integrated genetic and genomic approaches to uncover the molecular basis by which cis-regulatory mutations alter gene expression and contribute to human disease. The fine mapping of disease-causing variants has led to the discovery of novel cis-acting regulatory elements that, in some instances, are located as far away as 1.5 Mb from the target gene. In other cases, the prior knowledge of the regulatory landscape surrounding the gene of interest aided in the selection of enhancers for mutation screening. The success of these studies should provide a framework for following up on the large number of genome-wide association studies that have identified common variants in non-coding regions of the genome that associate with increased risk of human diseases including, diabetes, autism, Crohn's, colorectal cancer, and asthma, to name a few.

  9. Functional consequences of microbial shifts in the human gastrointestinal tract linked to antibiotic treatment and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, Ester; Bargiela, Rafael; Diez, María Suárez; Friedrichs, Anette; Pérez-Cobas, Ana Elena; Gosalbes, María José; Knecht, Henrik; Martínez-Martínez, Mónica; Seifert, Jana; von Bergen, Martin; Artacho, Alejandro; Ruiz, Alicia; Campoy, Cristina; Latorre, Amparo; Ott, Stephan J; Moya, Andrés; Suárez, Antonio; Martins dos Santos, Vitor A P; Ferrer, Manuel

    2013-01-01

    The microbiomes in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) of individuals receiving antibiotics and those in obese subjects undergo compositional shifts, the metabolic effects and linkages of which are not clearly understood. Herein, we set to gain insight into these effects, particularly with regard to carbohydrate metabolism, and to contribute to unravel the underlying mechanisms and consequences for health conditions. We measured the activity level of GIT carbohydrate-active enzymes toward 23 distinct sugars in adults patients (n = 2) receiving 14-d β-lactam therapy and in obese (n = 7) and lean (n = 5) adolescents. We observed that both 14 d antibiotic-treated and obese subjects showed higher and less balanced sugar anabolic capacities, with 40% carbohydrates being preferentially processed as compared with non-treated and lean patients. Metaproteome-wide metabolic reconstructions confirmed that the impaired utilization of sugars propagated throughout the pentose phosphate metabolism, which had adverse consequences for the metabolic status of the GIT microbiota. The results point to an age-independent positive association between GIT glycosidase activity and the body mass index, fasting blood glucose and insulin resistance (r ( 2) ≥ 0.95). Moreover, antibiotics altered the active fraction of enzymes controlling the thickness, composition and consistency of the mucin glycans. Our data and analyses provide biochemical insights into the effects of antibiotic usage on the dynamics of the GIT microbiota and pin-point presumptive links to obesity. The knowledge and the hypotheses generated herein lay a foundation for subsequent, systematic research that will be paramount for the design of "smart" dietary and therapeutic interventions to modulate host-microbe metabolic co-regulation in intestinal homeostasis.

  10. Effect of bread gluten content on gastrointestinal function: a crossover MRI study on healthy humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coletta, Marina; Gates, Fred K; Marciani, Luca; Shiwani, Henna; Major, Giles; Hoad, Caroline L; Chaddock, Gemma; Gowland, Penny A; Spiller, Robin C

    2016-01-14

    Gluten is a crucial functional component of bread, but the effect of increasing gluten content on gastrointestinal (GI) function remains uncertain. Our aim was to investigate the effect of increasing gluten content on GI function and symptoms in healthy participants using the unique capabilities of MRI. A total of twelve healthy participants completed this randomised, mechanistic, open-label, three-way crossover study. On days 1 and 2 they consumed either gluten-free bread (GFB), or normal gluten content bread (NGCB) or added gluten content bread (AGCB). The same bread was consumed on day 3, and MRI scans were performed every 60 min from fasting baseline up to 360 min after eating. The appearance of the gastric chime in the images was assessed using a visual heterogeneity score. Gastric volumes, the small bowel water content (SBWC), colonic volumes and colonic gas content and GI symptoms were measured. Fasting transverse colonic volume after the 2-d preload was significantly higher after GFB compared with NGCB and AGCB with a dose-dependent response (289 (SEM 96) v. 212 (SEM 74) v. 179 (SEM 87) ml, respectively; P=0·02). The intragastric chyme heterogeneity score was higher for the bread with increased gluten (AGCB 6 (interquartile range (IQR) 0·5) compared with GFB 3 (IQR 0·5); P=0·003). However, gastric half-emptying time was not different between breads nor were study day GI symptoms, postprandial SBWC, colonic volume and gas content. This MRI study showed novel mechanistic insights in the GI responses to different breads, which are poorly understood notwithstanding the importance of this staple food.

  11. Prevalence of functional gastrointestinal diseases in a cohort of Sri Lankan adolescents: comparison between Rome II and Rome III criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devanarayana, Niranga Manjuri; Adhikari, Chandralatha; Pannala, Waruni; Rajindrajith, Shaman

    2011-02-01

    Little is known about the prevalence of functional gastrointestinal diseases (FGDs) in adolescents, especially in developing countries. This cross-sectional survey conducted in a semi-urban school in Sri Lanka, assessed the prevalence of whole spectrum of FGDs in 427 adolescents (age 12-16 years) using a validated self-administered questionnaire. According to Rome III criteria, 123 (28.8%) adolescents had FGDs. Of them, 59 (13.8%) had abdominal-pain-related FGDs [irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) 30, functional dyspepsia 15, functional abdominal pain 13 and abdominal migraine 1]. Prevalence of functional constipation, aerophagia, adolescent rumination syndrome, cyclical vomiting syndrome and non-retentive faecal incontinence were 4.2, 6.3, 4, 0.5 and 0.2%, respectively. Only 58 (13.6%) adolescents were found to have FGDs when Rome II criteria were used. In conclusion, FGDs were present in more than one-fourth of adolescents in the study group, of which IBS was the most common. Rome III criteria were able to diagnose FGDs more comprehensively than Rome II.

  12. [Investigation of the genetic profile of Blastocystis species in Saint Petersburg residents with gastrointestinal tract diseases in different age groups].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigidaev, A S; Kozlov, S S; Tarasova, E A; Suvorova, M A

    2013-01-01

    A total of 1500 people, including 1273 children with various gastrointestinal tract diseases and 327 patients with chronic viral hepatitis C, were examined. Microscopy and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) were used to determine Blastocystis in the feces. Blastocysts were detected in 33% of the patients with chronic viral hepatitis C and in 4.9% of the children. Genotyping established that Blastocystis species subtype 3 (antroponous) was encountered relatively rarely (25%) in these patients; there were most common Blastocystis species subtypes 5 (36.1%) and 6 (36.1%). Significant intestinal dyspepsia was noted in all the patients with chronic hepatitis C and Blastocystis invasion. Blastocystis species subtype 3 was prevalent (62.3%) among the examined children. The other subtypes were less frequently detected. These were subtype 1 (29.5%), subtype 2 (24.3%), subtype 4 (1.3%), and subtype 7 (3.8%) whereas subtype 5 and subtype 6 were not found in any case. The comparison of clinical symptoms in children could reveal the following tendency: there were digestive disorders and skin allergic reactions with Blastocystis species subtype 1 and subtype 2, respectively.

  13. A Household Level Analysis of Water Sanitation Associated with Gastrointestinal Disease in an Urban Slum Setting of South Okkalapa Township, Myanmar

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    Zar Ni Hlaing

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This research analyzed the prevalence of water sanitation at the household level against gastrointestinal disease occurrence in the urban slum setting of South Okkalapa Township, Myanmar, using cross-sectional study design techniques. A total of 364 household respondents were interviewed face to face by well-trained research assistants using structured questionnaires. Chi-square tests and multiple logistic regression analyses were used to determine the association between independent and dependent variables. Results showed that the source of household water (OR: 13.58, 95% CI: 6.90-26.74, and the types of drinking water (OR: 1.85, 95% CI: 0.92-3.71, were significantly associated with gastrointestinal diseases (p-value<0.05. After adjustment for confounding factors, this study found that occupation (AOR: 2.63, 95% CI: 1.25-5.54, employment status (AOR: 2.25, 95% CI: 1.01-5.01, type of household toilet (AOR: 8.66, 95% CI: 4.03-18.60, sources of household water (AOR: 6.56, 95% CI: 2.86-15.08, and the method of vector control (AOR: 3.12, 95% CI: 1.37-7.30 were all significantly associated with gastrointestinal diseases (p-value<0.05. Health education and appropriate technology for household water, sanitary latrines, environmental sanitation and waste disposal, and the implementation of policies focusing on systematic water management are therefore urgently required to control the spread of waterborne diseases.

  14. Incidence, risk factors, and outcome of cytomegalovirus viremia and gastroenteritis in patients with gastrointestinal graft-versus-host disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhutani, Divaya; Dyson, Gregory; Manasa, Richard; Deol, Abhinav; Ratanatharathorn, Voravit; Ayash, Lois; Abidi, Muneer; Lum, Lawrence G; Al-Kadhimi, Zaid; Uberti, Joseph P

    2015-01-01

    Gastrointestinal (GI) graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) is one of the most common causes of morbidity and mortality after allogeneic stem cell transplantation. In addition, cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection of the gastrointestinal tract can complicate the post-transplantation course of these patients and it can be difficult to differentiate the 2 diagnoses given that they can present with similar symptoms. We retrospectively analyzed 252 patients who were diagnosed with GI GVHD to evaluate the incidence, risk factors, and outcomes of CMV viremia and CMV gastroenteritis in these patients. The median age at the time of transplantation was 51 years, 35% were related donor transplantations, and 65% were unrelated donor transplantations. A total of 114 (45%) patients developed CMV viremia at a median of 34 days (range, 14 to 236 days) after transplantation. Only recipient CMV IgG serostatus was significantly associated with development of CMV viremia (P gastroenteritis; 2 patients had evidence of CMV gastroenteritis and GVHD on the first biopsy and 29 on the second biopsy. Median time to development of CMV gastroenteritis was 52 days (range, 19 to 236 days) after transplantation. Using death as a competing risk, the cumulative incidence of CMV gastroenteritis at 1 year was 16.4%. The incidence of CMV gastroenteritis in relation to the donor/recipient serostatus was as follows: D+/R+, 22%; D-/R+, 31%; D+/R-, 12%; and D-/R-, 0. Median follow-up time for the 252 patients was 35.4 (95% CI 23.8 to 44.8) months. The estimated overall survival rate at 1 and 2 years was .45 (95% confidence interval [CI], .39 to .52) and .39 (95% CI, .33 to .46), respectively. Of the examined variables, those related to the overall survival were maximal clinical GVHD grade (P gastroenteritis (P = .008). Development of CMV viremia was not associated with increased mortality. In conclusion, CMV gastroenteritis is common complication in patients with GI GVHD and can adversely affect the prognosis.

  15. Gastrointestinal bleeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Sigmoidoscopy Alternative Names Lower GI bleeding; GI bleeding; Upper GI bleeding; Hematochezia Images GI bleeding - series Fecal occult blood test References Kovacs TO, Jensen DM. Gastrointestinal hemorrhage. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman-Cecil ...

  16. [Analysis of a blog for gastrointestinal disease in the view point of the big data: a single institutional study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jungran; Park, Hyojin; Lee, Choong-Hyun

    2014-06-01

    With the enormous increase in the amount of data, the concept of big data has emerged and this allows us to gain new insights and appreciate its value. However, analysis related to gastrointestinal diseases in the viewpoint of the big data has not been performed yet in Korea. This study analyzed the data of the blog's visitors as a set of big data to investigate questions they did not mention in the clinical situation. We analyzed the blog of a professor whose subspecialty is gastroenterology at Gangnam Severance Hospital. We assessed the changes in the number of visitors, access path of visitors, and the queries from January 2011 to December 2013. A total of 50,084 visitors gained accessed to the blog. An average of 1,535.3 people visited the blog per month and 49.5 people per day. The number of visitors and the cumulative number of registered posts showed a positive correlation. The most utilized access path of visitors to the website was blog.iseverance.com (42.2%), followed by Google (32.8%) and Daum (6.6%). The most searched term by the visitors in the blog was intestinal metaplasia (16.6%), followed by dizziness (8.3%) and gastric submucosal tumor (7.0%). Personal blog can function as a communication route for patients with digestive diseases. The most frequently searched word necessitating explanation and education was 'intestinal metaplasia'. Identifying and analyzing even unstructured data as a set of big data is expected to provide meaningful information.

  17. The complement system in human cardiometabolic disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertle, E; Stehouwer, C D A; van Greevenbroek, M M J

    2014-10-01

    The complement system has been implicated in obesity, fatty liver, diabetes and cardiovascular disease (CVD). Complement factors are produced in adipose tissue and appear to be involved in adipose tissue metabolism and local inflammation. Thereby complement links adipose tissue inflammation to systemic metabolic derangements, such as low-grade inflammation, insulin resistance and dyslipidaemia. Furthermore, complement has been implicated in pathophysiological mechanisms of diet- and alcohol induced liver damage, hyperglycaemia, endothelial dysfunction, atherosclerosis and fibrinolysis. In this review, we summarize current evidence on the role of the complement system in several processes of human cardiometabolic disease. C3 is the central component in complement activation, and has most widely been studied in humans. C3 concentrations are associated with insulin resistance, liver dysfunction, risk of the metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes and CVD. C3 can be activated by the classical, the lectin and the alternative pathway of complement activation; and downstream activation of C3 activates the terminal pathway. Complement may also be activated via extrinsic proteases of the coagulation, fibrinolysis and the kinin systems. Studies on the different complement activation pathways in human cardiometabolic disease are limited, but available evidence suggests that they may have distinct roles in processes underlying cardiometabolic disease. The lectin pathway appeared beneficial in some studies on type 2 diabetes and CVD, while factors of the classical and the alternative pathway were related to unfavourable cardiometabolic traits. The terminal complement pathway was also implicated in insulin resistance and liver disease, and appears to have a prominent role in acute and advanced CVD. The available human data suggest a complex and potentially causal role for the complement system in human cardiometabolic disease. Further, preferably longitudinal studies are needed to

  18. Comparison of Nitrogen Bioaccessibility from Salmon and Whey Protein Hydrolysates using a Human Gastrointestinal Model (TIM-1

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    Bomi Framroze

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: The TIM-1 system is a computer-controlled multi-compartmental dynamic model that closely simulates in vivo gastrointestinal tract digestion in humans. During digestion, the compounds released from meal matrix by gastric and intestinal secretions (enzymes are progressively absorbed through semipermeable membranes depending on their molecular weight. These absorbed (dialysed compounds are considered as bioaccessible, which means that they can be theoretically absorbed by the small intestine in the body. Methods: Salmon protein hydrolysate (SPH, whey protein hydrolysates extensively (WPHHigh or weakly (WPH-Low hydrolysed, non-hydrolysed whey protein isolate (WPI and mixtures of WPI:SPH (90:10, 80:20 were digested in TIM-1 using the conditions for a fast gastrointestinal transit that simulate the digestion of a liquid meal in human adults. During digestion (2 hours, samples were collected in intestinal compartments (duodenum, jejunum, and ileum and in both jejunal and ileal dialysates to determine their nitrogen content. All the products were compared in terms of kinetics of nitrogen absorption through the semipermeable membranes (bioaccessible nitrogen and nitrogen distribution throughout the intestinal compartments at the end of the 2 hour digestion. Results: After a 2 h-digestion in TIM-1, SPH was the protein substrate from which the highest amount of nitrogen (67.0% becomes available for the small intestine absorption. WPH-High had the second highest amount (56.0% of bioaccessible nitrogen while this amount decreased to 38.5–42.2% for the other protein substrates. The high nitrogen bioaccessibility of SPH is consistent with its richness in low molecular weight peptides (50% < 1000 Da. Conclusions: The results of this study indicate that SPH provides a higher proportion of bioaccessible nitrogen to a healthy adult compared to all forms of whey proteins, including extensively hydrolysed whey protein hydrolysate. The substitution of

  19. Chemoprevention in gastrointestinal physiology and disease. Anti-inflammatory approaches for colorectal cancer chemoprevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piazza, Gary A.

    2015-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most common human malignancies and a leading cause of cancer-related deaths in developed countries. Identifying effective preventive strategies aimed at inhibiting the development and progression of CRC is critical for reducing the incidence and mortality of this malignancy. The prevention of carcinogenesis by anti-inflammatory agents including nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), selective cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitors, and natural products is an area of considerable interest and research. Numerous anti-inflammatory agents have been identified as potential CRC chemopreventive agents but vary in their mechanism of action. This review will discuss the molecular mechanisms being studied for the CRC chemopreventive activity of NSAIDs (i.e., aspirin, sulindac, and ibuprofen), COX-2 inhibitors (i.e., celecoxib), natural products (i.e., curcumin, resveratrol, EGCG, genistein, and baicalein), and metformin. A deeper understanding of how these anti-inflammatory agents inhibit CRC will provide insight into the development of potentially safer and more effective chemopreventive drugs. PMID:26021807

  20. 血管炎相关性胃肠病研究进展%Advances in Study on Vasculitis Associated Gastrointestinal Disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕健; 李孟军; 孙强

    2012-01-01

    血管炎相关性胃肠病临床表现复杂,早期极易误诊,已越来越受到医学界的重视.血管炎相关性胃肠病的病因迄今尚未完全阐明,但随着研究的深入,对该病的发病机制和临床表现的认识可为疾病的早期诊断和治疗提供依据.本文就目前血管炎相关性胃肠病的研究进展作一综述.%The manifestations of vasculitis associated gastrointestinal disease are complex and misdiagnosis is frequent in its early stage. More attention and emphasis has been paid by gastroenterologists in recent years. The etiology of vasculitis associated gastrointestinal disease is not yet fully clarified. However, the recognition of its pathogenesis and clinical manifestations by recent deeper study will provide the evidence for early diagnosis and treatment. This article reviewed the advances in study on vasculitis associated gastrointestinal disease.

  1. Fecal microbiota transplantation in gastrointestinal diseases: what practicing physicians should know.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borody, Thomas J; Connelly, Nathan; Mitchell, Scott W

    2015-01-01

    Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is one of the most commonly reported nosocomial pathogens in the United States and Europe, with recent CDI-associated mortality in the United States approaching 30 000 deaths annually. Antibiotics remain the preferred treatment for CDI; however, a minority of patients experience numerous relapses and are treated with restoration of the bowel microbiota, termed fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT). FMT involves the introduction of a fecal suspension from a healthy donor into the gut of the infected patient to cure the CDI and replace depleted components of the gut microbiota. FMT is particularly effective and safe in curing CDI, using a colonoscope or enema to deliver 1 to 2 infusions. Given that 6425 CDIs were reported in Poland in 2014, practicing physicians should understand the benefits and limitations of FMT in CDI as this novel therapy has rapidly advanced to the level of the "standard-of-care" status in Australia, the United States, and many parts of Europe. FMT has been administered either as a suspension in saline, a highly refined liquid product which can be frozen, as lyophilized powder in capsules, and as an encapsulated spore preparation. The ultimate products to reach the market will be shaped by the indications approved by regulatory bodies. At present, the fecal suspension in saline remains the treatment of choice to terminate relapsing and severe CDI, which we will review here. The use of FMT for non-CDI indications, such as inflammatory bowel disease and irritable bowel syndrome, is likely to increase. At present, these indications remain in the domain of research institutions.

  2. Engineering large animal models of human disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitelaw, C Bruce A; Sheets, Timothy P; Lillico, Simon G; Telugu, Bhanu P

    2016-01-01

    The recent development of gene editing tools and methodology for use in livestock enables the production of new animal disease models. These tools facilitate site-specific mutation of the genome, allowing animals carrying known human disease mutations to be produced. In this review, we describe the various gene editing tools and how they can be used for a range of large animal models of diseases. This genomic technology is in its infancy but the expectation is that through the use of gene editing tools we will see a dramatic increase in animal model resources available for both the study of human disease and the translation of this knowledge into the clinic. Comparative pathology will be central to the productive use of these animal models and the successful translation of new therapeutic strategies.

  3. The dose-response relation in human volunteers for gastro-intestinal pathogens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teunis PFM; Heijden OG van der; Giessen JWB van der; Havelaar AH; MGB

    1996-01-01

    Published data on infection of human hosts with various protozoa, bacteria, and viruses causing gastro-enteritis are used to establish a quantitative relationship between ingested dose and the risk of infection. For all data sets analysed, this relationship is determined by fitting either an exponen

  4. The dose-response relation in human volunteers for gastro-intestinal pathogens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teunis PFM; van der Heijden OG; van der Giessen JWB; Havelaar AH; MGB

    1996-01-01

    Gepubliceerde gegevens omtrent infectie van humane proefpersonen met pathogene micro-organismen die gastro-enteritis veroorzaken (protozoa, bacterien en virussen), worden gebruikt om een kwantitatieve relatie vast te stellen tussen de ingenomen dosis en het risico op infectie. Voor alle bestudeerde

  5. N-nitrosation of medicinal drugs catalysed by bacteria from human saliva and gastro-intestinal tract, including Helicobacter pylori.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziebarth, D; Spiegelhalder, B; Bartsch, H

    1997-02-01

    Micro-organisms commonly present in human saliva and three DSM strains (Helicobacter pylori, Campylobacter jejuni and Neisseria cinerea), which can be isolated from the human gastro-intestinal tract, were assayed in vitro for their capacity to catalyse N-nitrosation of a series of medicinal drugs and other compounds. Following incubation at pH 7.2 in the presence of nitrate (or nitrite) for up to 24 (48) h, the yield of N-nitroso compounds (NOC) was quantified by HPLC equipped with a post-column derivatization device, allowing the sensitive detection of acid-labile and acid-stable NOC. Eleven out of the 23 test compounds underwent bacteria-catalysed nitrosation by salivary bacteria, the yield of the respective nitrosation products varying 800-fold. 4-(Methylamino)antipyrine exhibited the highest rate of nitrosation, followed by dichlofenac > metamizole > piperazine > five other drugs, whilst L-proline and L-thioproline had the lowest nitrosation rate. Ten drugs including aminophenazone, cimetidine and nicotine, did not inhibit bacterial growth, allowing transitory nitrite to be formed, but no N-nitroso derivatives were detected. Three drugs inhibited the proliferation of bacteria and neither nitrite nor any NOC were formed. Using metamizole as an easily nitrosatable precursor, two strains, Campylobacter jejuni and Helicobacter pylori, were shown to catalyse nitrosation in the presence of nitrite at pH 7.2. As compared to Neisseria cinerea used as a nitrosation-proficient control strain, H. pylori was 30-100 times less effective, whilst C. jejuni had intermediary activity. The results of our sensitive nitrosation assay further confirm that bacteria isolated from human sources, possessing nitrate reductase and/or nitrosating enzymes such as cytochrome cd1-nitrite reductase (Calmels et al., Carcinogenesis, 17, 533-536, 1996), can contribute to intragastric nitrosamine formation in the anacidic stomach when nitrosatable precursors from exogenous and endogenous sources

  6. Utility of the wireless motility capsule and lactulose breath testing in the evaluation of patients with Parkinson's disease who present with functional gastrointestinal symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Andrew; Gandhy, Rita; Barlow, Carrolee; Triadafilopoulos, George

    2017-01-01

    Background The aetiology and origin of gastrointestinal symptoms in Parkinson's disease (PD) remains poorly understood. Gastroparesis, small bowel transit delay and bacterial overgrowth may, individually or collectively, play a role. Aims In patients with PD and functional gastrointestinal symptoms, we aimed to determine the utility of the wireless motility capsule and lactulose breath tests in further defining their symptoms' aetiology. Methods In this retrospective cohort study, consecutive patients with PD and functional gastrointestinal symptoms underwent clinical assessment, as well as wireless motility capsule and lactulose breath testing using standard protocols. Results We studied 65 patients with PD and various gastrointestinal symptoms. 35% exhibited gastroparesis by the wireless motility capsule study, 20% small bowel transit delay, while 8% had combined transit abnormalities, suggestive of overlapping gastric and small bowel dysmotility. Small bowel bacterial overgrowth was seen in 34% of cases. Symptoms of abdominal pain, regurgitation, bloating, nausea, vomiting, belching and weight loss could not distinguish between patients with or without gastroparesis, although bloating was significantly more prominent (p<0.001) overall and specifically more so in patients with slow small bowel transit (p<0.01). There was no relationship between delayed small bowel transit time and bacterial overgrowth (p=0.5); PD scores and duration were not correlated with either the transit findings or small bowel bacterial overgrowth. Conclusions Functional gastrointestinal symptoms in patients with PD may reflect gastroparesis, small bowel transit delay or both, suggesting motor and/or autonomic dysfunction, and may be associated with small bowel bacterial overgrowth. The wireless motility capsule and lactulose breath testing are non-invasive and useful in the assessment of these patients.

  7. Intracellular gold nanoparticles enhance non-invasive radiofrequency thermal destruction of human gastrointestinal cancer cells

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    Mukherjee Priyabrata

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Novel approaches to treat human cancer that are effective with minimal toxicity profiles are needed. We evaluated gold nanoparticles (GNPs in human hepatocellular and pancreatic cancer cells to determine: 1 absence of intrinsic cytotoxicity of the GNPs and 2 external radiofrequency (RF field-induced heating of intracellular GNPs to produce thermal destruction of malignant cells. GNPs (5 nm diameter were added to 2 human cancer cell lines (Panc-1, Hep3B. 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT assay and propidium iodide-fluorescence associated cell sorting (PI-FACS assessed cell proliferation and GNP-related cytotoxicity. Other GNP-treated cells were exposed to a 13.56 MHz RF field for 1, 2, or 5 minutes, and then incubated for 24 hours. PI-FACS measured RF-induced cytotoxicity. Results GNPs had no impact on cellular proliferation by MTT assay. PI-FACS confirmed that GNPs alone produced no cytotoxicity. A GNP dose-dependent RF-induced cytotoxicity was observed. For Hep3B cells treated with a 67 μM/L dose of GNPs, cytotoxicity at 1, 2 and 5 minutes of RF was 99.0%, 98.5%, and 99.8%. For Panc-1 cells treated at the 67 μM/L dose, cytotoxicity at 1, 2, and 5 minutes of RF was 98.5%, 98.7%, and 96.5%. Lower doses of GNPs were associated with significantly lower rates of RF-induced thermal cytotoxicity for each cell line (P Conclusion We demonstrate that GNPs 1 have no intrinsic cytotoxicity or anti-proliferative effects in two human cancer cell lines in vitro and 2 GNPs release heat in a focused external RF field. This RF-induced heat release is lethal to cancer cells bearing intracellular GNPs in vitro.

  8. Colonizing the embryonic zebrafish gut with anaerobic bacteria derived from the human gastrointestinal tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toh, Michael C; Goodyear, Mara; Daigneault, Michelle; Allen-Vercoe, Emma; Van Raay, Terence J

    2013-06-01

    The zebrafish has become increasingly popular for microbiological research. It has been used as an infection model for a variety of pathogens, and is also emerging as a tool for studying interactions between a host and its resident microbial communities. The mouse microbiota has been transplanted into the zebrafish gut, but to our knowledge, there has been no attempt to introduce a bacterial community derived from the human gut. We explored two methods for colonizing the developing gut of 5-day-old germ-free zebrafish larvae with a defined anaerobic microbial community derived from a single human fecal sample. Both environmental exposure (static immersion) and direct microinjection into the gut resulted in the establishment of two species-Lactobacillus paracasei and Eubacterium limosum-from a community of 30 strains consisting of 22 anaerobic species. Of particular interest is E. limosum, which, as a strict anaerobe, represents a group of bacteria which until now have not been shown to colonize the developing zebrafish gut. Our success here indicates that further investigation of zebrafish as a tool for studying human gut microbial communities is warranted.

  9. In vivo near-infrared dual-axis confocal microendoscopy in the human lower gastrointestinal tract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piyawattanametha, Wibool; Ra, Hyejun; Qiu, Zhen; Friedland, Shai; Liu, Jonathan T. C.; Loewke, Kevin; Kino, Gordon S.; Solgaard, Olav; Wang, Thomas D.; Mandella, Michael J.; Contag, Christopher H.

    2012-02-01

    Near-infrared confocal microendoscopy is a promising technique for deep in vivo imaging of tissues and can generate high-resolution cross-sectional images at the micron-scale. We demonstrate the use of a dual-axis confocal (DAC) near-infrared fluorescence microendoscope with a 5.5-mm outer diameter for obtaining clinical images of human colorectal mucosa. High-speed two-dimensional en face scanning was achieved through a microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) scanner while a micromotor was used for adjusting the axial focus. In vivo images of human patients are collected at 5 frames/sec with a field of view of 362×212 μm2 and a maximum imaging depth of 140 μm. During routine endoscopy, indocyanine green (ICG) was topically applied a nonspecific optical contrasting agent to regions of the human colon. The DAC microendoscope was then used to obtain microanatomic images of the mucosa by detecting near-infrared fluorescence from ICG. These results suggest that DAC microendoscopy may have utility for visualizing the anatomical and, perhaps, functional changes associated with colorectal pathology for the early detection of colorectal cancer.

  10. The association of coeliac disease in childhood with functional gastrointestinal disorders: a prospective study in patients fulfilling Rome III criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turco, R; Boccia, G; Miele, E; Giannetti, E; Buonavolontà, R; Quitadamo, P; Auricchio, R; Staiano, A

    2011-10-01

    An association between coeliac disease (CD) and functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs) has at present only been demonstrated in adults. To assess the prevalence of FGIDs at 1 year and the role of psychological aspects on the development of FGIDs in CD children. One-hundred consecutive CD children (36M and 64F) were followed up for 1 year. Fifty-six children (25M and 31F) represented the control group. All children and/or their parents completed validated questionnaires for GI symptoms, depression, and anxiety. GI symptoms at diagnosis and after 1 year of gluten-free diet (GFD) were compared. Twenty-three/82 (28%) CD patients followed up prospectively, on GFD from at least 1 year, fulfilled the Rome III criteria for FGIDs compared with 5/56 (8.9%) controls (P = 0.008; χ² = 6.8; OR: 3.97; 95% CI: 1.40-11.21). Children complaining with GI symptoms alone [21/52 (40.3%)] more likely fulfilled Rome III criteria for FGIDs after 1 year of GFD than children with extra-intestinal symptoms (P = 0.045). CD children with FGDIs presented significantly higher anxiety and depression compared to CD children without FGIDs and controls (P = 0.02). This study demonstrates that children with CD on a GFD for a year have a much higher prevalence of functional GI symptoms than do controls. Whether the risk is due to the residua of a chronic inflammatory process, and/or due to psychological factors remains to be further tested. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  11. A Bamboo Joint-Like Appearance is a Characteristic Finding in the Upper Gastrointestinal Tract of Crohn's Disease Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiya, Mikihiro; Sakatani, Aki; Dokoshi, Tatsuya; Tanaka, Kazuyuki; Ando, Katsuyoshi; Ueno, Nobuhiro; Gotoh, Takuma; Kashima, Shin; Tominaga, Motoya; Inaba, Yuhei; Ito, Takahiro; Moriichi, Kentaro; Tanabe, Hiroki; Ikuta, Katsuya; Ohtake, Takaaki; Yokota, Kinnichi; Watari, Jiro; Saitoh, Yusuke; Kohgo, Yutaka

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The clinical importance of Crohn's disease (CD)-specific lesions in the upper gastrointestinal tract (upper GIT) has not been sufficiently established. The aim of this case-control study is to investigate the characteristic findings of CD in the upper GIT. In 2740 patients who underwent gastroduodenoscopy at Asahikawa Medical University between April 2011 and December 2012, 81 CD patients, 81 gender- and age-matched non-IBD patients, and 66 ulcerative colitis (UC) patients were investigated in the present study. (1) The diagnostic ability and odds ratio of each endoscopic finding (a bamboo joint-like appearance in the cardia, erosions, and/or ulcers in the antrum, notched signs, and erosions and/or ulcers in the duodenum) were compared between the CD and non-IBD patients or UC patients. (2) The interobserver agreement of the diagnosis based on the endoscopic findings was evaluated by 3 experienced and 3 less-experienced endoscopists. The incidence of detecting a bamboo joint-like appearance, notched signs, and erosions and/or ulcers in the duodenum was significantly higher in the CD patients than in the non-IBD and UC patients. In addition, the diagnostic ability and odds ratio of a bamboo joint-like appearance for CD were higher than those for the other findings. Kendall's coefficients of concordance in the group of experienced and less-experienced endoscopists were relatively high for a bamboo joint-like appearance (0.748 and 0.692, respectively). A cardiac bamboo joint-like appearance is a useful finding for identifying high-risk groups of CD patients using only gastroduodenoscopy. PMID:26376393

  12. Gastrointestinal safety of celecoxib versus naproxen in patients with cardiothrombotic diseases and arthritis after upper gastrointestinal bleeding (CONCERN): an industry-independent, double-blind, double-dummy, randomised trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Francis K L; Ching, Jessica Y L; Tse, Yee Kit; Lam, Kelvin; Wong, Grace L H; Ng, Siew C; Lee, Vivian; Au, Kim W L; Cheong, Pui Kuan; Suen, Bing Y; Chan, Heyson; Kee, Ka Man; Lo, Angeline; Wong, Vincent W S; Wu, Justin C Y; Kyaw, Moe H

    2017-06-17

    Present guidelines are conflicting for patients at high risk of both cardiovascular and gastrointestinal events who continue to require non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). We hypothesised that a cyclooxygenase-2-selective NSAID plus proton-pump inhibitor is superior to a non-selective NSAID plus proton-pump inhibitor for prevention of recurrent ulcer bleeding in concomitant users of aspirin with previous ulcer bleeding. For this industry-independent, double-blind, double-dummy, randomised trial done in one academic hospital in Hong Kong, we screened patients with arthritis and cardiothrombotic diseases who were presenting with upper gastrointestinal bleeding, were on NSAIDs, and require concomitant aspirin. After ulcer healing, an independent staff member randomly assigned (1:1) patients who were negative for Helicobacter pylori with a computer-generated list of random numbers to receive oral administrations of either celecoxib 100 mg twice per day plus esomeprazole 20 mg once per day or naproxen 500 mg twice per day plus esomeprazole 20 mg once per day for 18 months. All patients resumed aspirin 80 mg once per day. Both patients and investigators were masked to their treatments. The primary endpoint was recurrent upper gastrointestinal bleeding within 18 months. The primary endpoint and secondary safety endpoints were analysed in the modified intention-to-treat population. This study was registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00153660. Between May 24, 2005, and Nov 28, 2012, we enrolled 514 patients, assigning 257 patients to each study group, all of whom were included in the intention-to-treat population. Recurrent upper gastrointestinal bleeding occurred in 14 patients in the celecoxib group (nine gastric ulcers and five duodenal ulcers) and 31 patients in the naproxen group (25 gastric ulcers, three duodenal ulcers, one gastric ulcer and duodenal ulcer, and two bleeding erosions). The cumulative incidence of recurrent bleeding in 18 months

  13. Gastrointestinal involvement in systemic sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savarino, Edoardo; Furnari, Manuele; de Bortoli, Nicola; Martinucci, Irene; Bodini, Giorgia; Ghio, Massimo; Savarino, Vincenzo

    2014-10-01

    Systemic sclerosis is an autoimmune chronic disease characterised by microvascular, muscular and immunologic abnormalities that lead to progressive and systemic deposition of connective tissue in the skin and internal organs. The gastrointestinal tract is often overlooked by physicians but it is the most affected organ after the skin, from the mouth to the anus. Indeed, 80% of SSc patients may present with gastrointestinal involvement. Gastrointestinal manifestations range from bloating and heartburn to dysphagia and anorectal dysfunction to severe weight loss and malabsorption. However, the gastrointestinal involvement is rarely the direct cause of death, but has great impact on quality of life and leads to several comorbidities that subsequently affect patients' survival. Treatments, including nutritional support and prokinetics provide limited benefits and do not arrest the progressive course of the disease, but earlier detection of gastrointestinal involvement may reduce the risk of complications such as malnutrition.

  14. Presence of gastrointestinal parasites in swine and human of four swine production farms in Cundinamarca- Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María F Mendoza-Gómez

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. Determine the presence and the type of endoparasites with zoonotic potential in swine and human of two technified and two semi-technified farms in the department of Cundinamarca, Colombia. Materials and methods. Three serial samplings of feces were taken in a pen row within intervals of 15 days, in two technified and two semi-technified farms in different age groups distributed as follows: pregnant-sows, nursing-females, boars, weaners, suckling-piglets, and growing-pig. By means of informed consent thirty-three people agreed to enter the study. Thirty-three samples from men and women of different ages were received. The pool and individual samples of fecal were evaluated by direct analysis, qualitative flotation and sedimentation techniques and modified ZiehlNeelsen stain. Results. For the porcine population, on the average, the results obtained from both technified farms showed that Balantidium coli (42%, Endolimax nana (21.9% and Iodamoeba bütschlii (7.8% were the most common parasites. In semi-technified farms they were: Entamoeba coli (40%, Endolimax nana (35%, Iodamoeba bütschlii (25% and Balantidium coli (5%. By means of the test chi2 it is possible to conclude that there is a significant difference between the parasites species and the type of farm. The results obtained in human showed the presence of parasites as: E. coli (42.2%, Entamoeba hystolitica/dispar (12.1%, E. nana (9.1%, B. coli (9.1%, I. bütschlii (3.0% and Blastocystis hominis (3.0%. Conclusions. The presence of parasites such as Balantidium coli, Endolimax nana, Iodamoeba bütschlii and Entamoeba coli in swine and human suggests a possible rotation of parasitic species between hosts.

  15. Aspects of gastrointestinal immunology and nutrition in human immunodeficiency virus-1 infection in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Castello-Branco Luiz RR

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Mucosal surfaces have a fundamental participation in many aspects of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection pathogenesis. In Brazilian HIV-1 infected subjects, loss of weight and appetite are among the most debilitating symptoms. In this review we describe a defined mucosal immunogen that has profound but transient effects on HIV viral load, and we suggest that gut associated lymphoid tissue under constant immunostimulation is likely to provide a major contribution to the total levels of HIV. We also show that hypermetabolism appears to play a role in the wasting process in Brazilian patients coinfected with HIV and tuberculosis.

  16. Food allergy and allergic gastrointestinal diseases in infants%婴幼儿食物过敏与过敏性胃肠病的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    舒小莉; 江米足

    2012-01-01

    食物过敏(food allergy,FA)是指机体对食物变应原产生的不良免疫反应,可累及胃肠道、皮肤和呼吸道等.食物过敏累及消化系时常表现为溢乳、呕吐、腹痛腹泻、消化系出血等,近年来,食物过敏与婴幼儿腹泻的关系受到重视.本文着重就食物过敏的免疫学机制,与腹泻相关的食物过敏性胃肠病的种类、诊断及治疗进行阐述.%Food allergy is an adverse immune response to a food allergen, which can affect the gastrointestinal tract, skin and respiratory tract. The manifestations of a food allergy affecting the digestive tract include reflux, vomiting, abdominal pain, diarrhea, and gastrointestinal bleeding. In recent years, more and more attention has been paid to the relationship between food allergy and infantile diarrhea. This paper gives an overview of food allergies, reviews recent advances in understanding the relationship between food allergies and diarrhea-related allergic gastrointestinal diseases, and discusses the diagnosis and treatment of these diseases.

  17. Modeling human muscle disease in zebrafish

    OpenAIRE

    Guyon, Jeffrey R.; Steffen, Leta S; Howell, Melanie H.; Pusack, Timothy J; Lawrence, Chris; Kunkel, Louis M

    2007-01-01

    Modeling human muscle disease in zebrafish correspondence: Corresponding author. Children's Hospital Boston, Enders Bldg, Rm 570, 300 Longwood Ave Boston, MA 02115. Tel.: +1 617 355 7576. (Kunkel, Louis M.) (Kunkel, Louis M.) Program in Genomics and Howard Hughes Medical Institute at Children's Hospital Boston - Boston--> , MA 02115--> - UNITED STATES (Guyon, Jeffrey R.) Program in Genomics a...

  18. Animals models of gastrointestinal and liver diseases. Animal models of alcohol-induced liver disease: pathophysiology, translational relevance, and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathews, Stephanie; Xu, Mingjiang; Wang, Hua; Bertola, Adeline; Gao, Bin

    2014-05-15

    Over the last four decades, chronic ethanol feeding studies in rodents using either ad libitum feeding or intragastric infusion models have significantly enhanced our understanding of the pathogenesis of alcoholic liver disease (ALD). Recently, we developed a chronic plus binge alcohol feeding model in mice that is similar to the drinking patterns of many alcoholic hepatitis patients: a history of chronic drinking and recent excessive alcohol consumption. Chronic+binge ethanol feeding synergistically induced steatosis, liver injury, and neutrophil infiltration in mice, which may be useful for the study of early alcoholic liver injury and inflammation. Using this chronic+binge model, researchers have begun to identify novel mechanisms that participate in the pathogenesis of alcoholic liver injury, thereby revealing novel therapeutic targets. In this review article, we briefly discuss several mouse models of ALD with a focus on the chronic+binge ethanol feeding model.

  19. Mesenteric near-infrared spectroscopy and risk of gastrointestinal complications in infants undergoing surgery for congenital heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iliopoulos, Ilias; Branco, Ricardo G; Brinkhuis, Nadine; Furck, Anke; LaRovere, Joan; Cooper, David S; Pathan, Nazima

    2016-04-01

    We hypothesised that lower mesenteric near-infrared spectroscopy values would be associated with a greater incidence of gastrointestinal complications in children weighing infrared spectroscopy, central venous oxygen saturation, and arterial blood gases for 48 hours post-operatively. Enteral feeding intake, gastrointestinal complications, and markers of organ dysfunction were monitored for 7 days. A total of 50 children, with median age of 16.7 (3.2-31.6) weeks, were studied. On admission, the average mesenteric near-infrared spectroscopy value was 71±18%, and the systemic oxygen saturation was 93±7.5%. Lower admission mesenteric near-infrared spectroscopy correlated with longer time to establish enteral feeds (r=-0.58, pinfrared spectroscopy (58±18% versus 73±17%, p=0.01) and higher mesenteric arteriovenous difference of oxygen at admission [39 (23-47) % versus 19 (4-27) %, p=0.02]. Based on multiple logistic regression, admission mesenteric near-infrared spectroscopy was independently associated with gastrointestinal complications (Odds ratio, 0.95; 95% confidence interval, 0.93-0.97; p=0.03). Admission mesenteric near-infrared spectroscopy showed an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.76 to identify children who developed gastrointestinal complications, with a suggested cut-off value of 72% (78% sensitivity, 68% specificity). In this pilot study, we conclude that admission mesenteric near-infrared spectroscopy is associated with gastrointestinal complications and enteral feeding tolerance in children after cardiac surgery.

  20. Rosacea and gastrointestinal disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egeberg, A; Weinstock, L B; Thyssen, E P

    2017-01-01

    and coeliac disease (CeD), Crohn disease (CD), ulcerative colitis (UC), Helicobacter pylori infection (HPI), small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), respectively. METHODS: We performed a nationwide cohort study. A total of 49 475 patients with rosacea and 4 312 213......·02-1·39), and IBS (HR 1·34, 1·19-1·50), respectively, but not HPI (HR 1·04, 0·96-1·13) or SIBO (HR 0·71, 0·18-1·86). CONCLUSIONS: Rosacea is associated with certain gastrointestinal diseases, but the possible pathogenic link is unknown. Gastrointestinal complaints in patients with rosacea should warrant clinical...... suspicion of disease....

  1. In vitro approaches to assess bioavailability and human gastrointestinal mobilization of food-borne polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adenugba, Adeola A; McMartin, Dena W; Beck, Angus J

    2008-06-01

    This study reports on the potential for gastrointestinal (GI) mobilization and bioavailability of food-borne PCBs in humans. The development and validation of a GI simulator and operational protocols, developed in compliance with the requirements of German DIN 19738 risk assessment test procedure, are presented. Food, naturally contaminated with PCBs, was homogenized with simulated saliva fluid and shaken in the GI simulator with simulated gastric fluids (containing pepsin, mucine) for 2 h at 37 degrees C. Afterwards, the simulated intestinal fluids (containing pepsin, mucine, trypsin, pancreatin, bile) were added and the mixture shaken for a further 6 h prior to centrifugation and filtration using Buchner funnels to separate the undigested GI residues from GI fluids. PCBs were recovered from GI residues and fluids by Soxhlet and liquid-liquid extraction respectively, cleaned up using silica-SFE, and analyzed by gas chromatography mass spectrometry detection (GC-MSD). Detailed studies with fish indicate variations in mobilization and bioavailability of Sigma PCBs (28, 52, 101, 118, 153, 138 and 180). For example, the bioavailable fractions (fractions mobilized) in mackerel, salmon, crab and prawn were 0.77, 0.60, 0.54, and 0.72 respectively of the Sigma PCBs initially present in these food samples. The bioavailable fraction was dependent on the physicochemical characteristics of the PCBs. In mackerel bioavailable fractions for individual PCB congeners ranged from 0.47-0.82, from 0.30-0.70 in salmon, 0.44-0.64 in crab and in prawn from 0.47-0.77. Future studies will focus on understanding better, the variability in bioavailable fractions to be expected for different foodstuffs, in addition to tissue culture techniques using human gut cell lines to investigate a simultaneous mobilization and absorption of food-borne PCBs.

  2. Risk factors for gastrointestinal parasite infections of dogs living around protected areas of the Atlantic Forest: implications for human and wildlife health

    OpenAIRE

    N. H. A. Curi; Paschoal,A. M. O.; Massara,R. L.; SANTOS, H. A.; Guimarães,M.P.; M. Passamani; Chiarello,A.G.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Despite the ubiquity of domestic dogs, their role as zoonotic reservoirs and the large number of studies concerning parasites in urban dogs, rural areas in Brazil, especially those at the wildlife-domestic animal-human interface, have received little attention from scientists and public health managers. This paper reports a cross-sectional epidemiological survey of gastrointestinal parasites of rural dogs living in farms around Atlantic Forest fragments. Through standard parasitologi...

  3. Gastrointestinal complications of diabetes mellitus

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Babu Krishnan Shithu Babu Jessica Walker Adrian B Walker Joseph M Pappachan

    2013-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus affects virtually every organ system in the body and the degree of organ involvement depends on the duration and severity of the disease,and other co-morbidities.Gastrointestinal(GI...

  4. [Human prion diseases in the Czech Republic].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohan, Z; Rusina, R; Marešová, M; Matěj, R

    2015-09-01

    Human prion diseases are a group of very rare diseases with a unique pathogenesis and, due to an inauspicious prognosis and unavailability of therapy, with fatal consequences. The etiopathogenetic background is the presence of pathologically misfolded prion protein, highly resistant to denaturation, the aggregation and presence of which in the brain tissue causes irreversible neuronal damage. The most frequent prion disease in humans is Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) which occurs in sporadic, hereditary/familial, or acquired/infectious/iatrogenic forms. A new form of CJD, variant CJD, is considered to be linked to dietary exposure to beef products from cattle infected with bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) and to infection via blood transfusion. The clinical picture of these diseases is characterized by a rapidly progressing dementia, cerebellar and extrapyramidal symptoms, and rather specific MRI, EEG, and CSF findings. Clinically, the diagnosis is described as possible or probable prion disease and needs to be confirmed by neuropathological or immunological investigation of the brain tissue. Epidemiological data from the Czech Republic spanning the last decade are presented.

  5. Gastrointestinal Headache; a Narrative Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    T Noghani, Majid; Rezaeizadeh, Hossein; Fazljoo, Sayed Mohammad Baqer; Keshavarz, Mansoor

    2016-11-01

    There are studies reporting primary headaches to be associated with gastrointestinal disorders, and some report resolution of headache following the treatment of the associated gastrointestinal disorder. Headache disorders are classified by The International Headache Society as primary or secondary; however, among the secondary headaches, those attributed to gastrointestinal disorders are not appreciated. Therefore, we aimed to review the literature to provide evidence for headaches, which originate from the gastrointestinal system. Gastrointestinal disorders that are reported to be associated with primary headaches include dyspepsia, gastro esophageal reflux disease (GERD), constipation, functional abdominal pain, inflammatory bowel syndrome (IBS), inflammatory bowel disorders (IBD), celiac disease, and helicobacter pylori (H. Pylori) infection. Some studies have demonstrated remission or improvement of headache following the treatment of the accompanying gastrointestinal disorders. Hypotheses explaining this association are considered to be central sensitization and parasympathetic referred pain, serotonin pathways, autonomic nervous system dysfunction, systemic vasculopathy, and food allergy. Traditional Persian physicians, namely Ebn-e-Sina (Avicenna) and Râzi (Rhazes) believed in a type of headache originating from disorders of the stomach and named it as an individual entity, the "Participatory Headache of Gastric Origin". We suggest providing a unique diagnostic entity for headaches coexisting with any gastrointestinal abnormality that are improved or cured along with the treatment of the gastrointestinal disorder.

  6. Gastrointestinal Headache; a Narrative Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid T Noghani

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available There are studies reporting primary headaches to be associated with gastrointestinal disorders, and some report resolution of headache following the treatment of the associated gastrointestinal disorder. Headache disorders are classified by The International Headache Society as primary or secondary; however, among the secondary headaches, those attributed to gastrointestinal disorders are not appreciated. Therefore, we aimed to review the literature to provide evidence for headaches, which originate from the gastrointestinal system. Gastrointestinal disorders that are reported to be associated with primary headaches include dyspepsia, gastro esophageal reflux disease (GERD, constipation, functional abdominal pain, inflammatory bowel syndrome (IBS, inflammatory bowel disorders (IBD, celiac disease, and helicobacter pylori (H. Pylori infection. Some studies have demonstrated remission or improvement of headache following the treatment of the accompanying gastrointestinal disorders. Hypotheses explaining this association are considered to be central sensitization and parasympathetic referred pain, serotonin pathways, autonomic nervous system dysfunction, systemic vasculopathy, and food allergy. Traditional Persian physicians, namely Ebn-e-Sina (Avicenna and Râzi (Rhazes believed in a type of headache originating from disorders of the stomach and named it as an individual entity, the "Participatory Headache of Gastric Origin". We suggest providing a unique diagnostic entity for headaches coexisting with any gastrointestinal abnormality that are improved or cured along with the treatment of the gastrointestinal disorder.

  7. Gastrointestinal System

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jepson, Mark A.; Bouwmeester, Hans

    2017-01-01

    The epithelial lining of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) acts as a barrier to uptake of potentially dangerous material while allowing absorption of processed food. The gut may be exposed to a diverse range of engineered nanomaterials due to their deliberate addition to food and consumer products

  8. Human lagochilascariasis-A rare helminthic disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dulcinea Maria Barbosa Campos

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Lagochilascariasis is a parasitic disease caused by a helminth of the order Ascaroidea, genus Lagochilascaris that comprises 6 species, among which only Lagochilascaris minor Leiper, 1909, is implicated in the human form of the disease. It is remarkable that the majority of cases of human lagochilascariasis in the Americas have been reported in Brazil. The natural definitive hosts of this parasite seem to be wild felines and canines. Lagochilascariasis is mostly a chronic human disease that can persist for several years, in which the parasite burrows into the subcutaneous tissues of the neck, paranasal sinuses, and mastoid. L. minor exhibits remarkable ability to migrate through the tissues of its hosts, destroying even bone tissue. Fatal cases have been described in which the parasite was found in the lungs or central nervous system. Treatment is often palliative, with recurrence of lesions. This paper summarizes the main features of the disease and its etiologic agent, including prevalence, life cycle, clinical course, and treatment.

  9. Heartworm disease in animals and humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCall, John W; Genchi, Claudio; Kramer, Laura H; Guerrero, Jorge; Venco, Luigi

    2008-01-01

    Heartworm disease due to Dirofilaria immitis continues to cause severe disease and even death in dogs and other animals in many parts of the world, even though safe, highly effective and convenient preventatives have been available for the past two decades. Moreover, the parasite and vector mosquitoes continue to spread into areas where they have not been reported previously. Heartworm societies have been established in the USA and Japan and the First European Dirofilaria Days (FEDD) Conference was held in Zagreb, Croatia, in February of 2007. These organizations promote awareness, encourage research and provide updated guidelines for the diagnosis, treatment and prevention of heartworm disease. The chapter begins with a review of the biology and life cycle of the parasite. It continues with the prevalence and distribution of the disease in domestic and wild animals, with emphasis on more recent data on the spreading of the disease and the use of molecular biology techniques in vector studies. The section on pathogenesis and immunology also includes a discussion of the current knowledge of the potential role of the Wolbachia endosymbiont in inflammatory and immune responses to D. immitis infection, diagnostic use of specific immune responses to the bacteria, immunomodulatory activity and antibiotic treatment of infected animals. Canine, feline and ferret heartworm disease are updated with regard to the clinical presentation, diagnosis, prevention, therapy and management of the disease, with special emphasis on the recently described Heartworm Associated Respiratory Disease (HARD) Syndrome in cats. The section devoted to heartworm infection in humans also includes notes on other epizootic filariae, particularly D. repens in humans in Europe. The chapter concludes with a discussion on emerging strategies in heartworm treatment and control, highlighting the potential role of tetracycline antibiotics in adulticidal therapy.

  10. Unsolved issues related to human mitochondrial diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombès, Anne; Auré, Karine; Bellanné-Chantelot, Christine; Gilleron, Mylène; Jardel, Claude

    2014-05-01

    Human mitochondrial diseases, defined as the diseases due to a mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation defect, represent a large group of very diverse diseases with respect to phenotype and genetic causes. They present with many unsolved issues, the comprehensive analysis of which is beyond the scope of this review. We here essentially focus on the mechanisms underlying the diversity of targeted tissues, which is an important component of the large panel of these diseases phenotypic expression. The reproducibility of genotype/phenotype expression, the presence of modifying factors, and the potential causes for the restricted pattern of tissular expression are reviewed. Special emphasis is made on heteroplasmy, a specific feature of mitochondrial diseases, defined as the coexistence within the cell of mutant and wild type mitochondrial DNA molecules. Its existence permits unequal segregation during mitoses of the mitochondrial DNA populations and consequently heterogeneous tissue distribution of the mutation load. The observed tissue distributions of recurrent human mitochondrial DNA deleterious mutations are diverse but reproducible for a given mutation demonstrating that the segregation is not a random process. Its extent and mechanisms remain essentially unknown despite recent advances obtained in animal models.

  11. Terpinen-4-ol: A Novel and Promising Therapeutic Agent for Human Gastrointestinal Cancers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiran Shapira

    Full Text Available Terpinen-4-ol, a naturally occurring monoterpene is the main bioactive component of tea-tree oil and has been shown to have many biological activities.To study the antitumor effects of terpinen-4-ol and its mechanism of action in prostate and GI malignancies, alone and in combination with chemotherapeutic and biological agents.Terpinen-4-ol was administrated alone or combined with standard chemotherapy (Oxaliplatin, Fluorouracil, Gemcitabine, Tarceva and biological agent (Cetuximab. It was also combined with humanized anti-CD24 mAbs (was developed by us. Killing effects were measured qualitatively by light microscopy and quantitatively using the MTT and FACS analysis, following treatment of colorectal, pancreatic, gastric and prostate cancer cells. Terpinen-4-ol effect on tumor development was evaluated in xenograft model.Terpinen-4-ol induces a significant growth inhibition of colorectal, pancreatic, prostate and gastric cancer cells in a dose-dependent manner (10-90% in 0.005-0.1%. Terpinen-4-ol and various anti-cancer agents (0.2μM oxaliplatin and 0.5μM fluorouracil demonstrated a synergistic inhibitory effect (83% and 91%, respectively on cancer cell proliferation. In KRAS mutated colorectal cancer cells, which are resistant to anti-EGFR therapy, combining of terpinen-4-ol with cetuximab (1 μM resulted in impressive efficacy of 80-90% growth inhibition. Sub-toxic concentrations of terpinen-4-ol potentiate anti-CD24 mAb (150μg/ml-induced growth inhibition (90%. Considerable reduction in tumor volume was seen following terpinen-4-ol (0.2% treatment alone and with cetuximab (10mg/kg (40% and 63%, respectively as compare to the control group.Terpinen-4-ol significantly enhances the effect of several chemotherapeutic and biological agents. The possible molecular mechanism for its activity involves induction of cell-death rendering this compound as a potential anti-cancer drug alone and in combination in the treatment of numerous malignancies

  12. The role of formins in human disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeWard, Aaron D; Eisenmann, Kathryn M; Matheson, Stephen F; Alberts, Arthur S

    2010-02-01

    Formins are a conserved family of proteins that play key roles in cytoskeletal remodeling. They nucleate and processively elongate non-branched actin filaments and also modulate microtubule dynamics. Despite their significant contributions to cell biology and development, few studies have directly implicated formins in disease pathogenesis. This review highlights the roles of formins in cell division, migration, immunity, and microvesicle formation in the context of human disease. In addition, we discuss the importance of controlling formin activity and protein expression to maintain cell homeostasis.

  13. Human papillomavirus-associated diseases and cancers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lan Yang; Jianbo Zhu Co-first author; Xiaoyue Song; Yan Qi; Xiaobin Cui; Feng Li 

    2015-01-01

    Human papilomaviruses (HPVs) have been detected in cervical cancer cels and skin papiloma cels, which have a variety of types, including low-risk and high-risk types. HPV genome replication requires the host cel’s DNA synthesis machinery, and HPVs encode proteins that maintain diferentiated epithelial cels in a replication-competent state. HPV types are tissue-specific and generaly produce diferent types of le-sions, either benign or malignant. This review examines diferent HPV types and their associated diseases and presents therapeutic options for the treatment of HPV-positive diseases.

  14. Dysphagia, malnutrition and gastrointestinal problems in patients with mitochondrial disease caused by the m3243A>G mutation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laat, P. de; Zweers, H.E.; Knuijt, S.; Smeitink, J.A.M.; Wanten, G.J.A.; Janssen, M.C.H.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Previous research has shown that dysphagia and gastrointestinal problems occur frequently in carriers of the m.3243A>G mutation; however, the exact frequency and severity have not been determined. We hypothesise that adult carriers have an increased risk for malnutrition. METHODS: In

  15. Chronic kidney disease, hemodynamic instability, and endoscopic high-risk appearance are associated with 30-day rebleeding in patients with non-variceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yoo Jin; Kim, Eun Soo; Hah, Yu Jin; Park, Kyung Sik; Cho, Kwang Bum; Jang, Byoung Kuk; Chung, Woo Jin; Hwang, Jae Seok

    2013-10-01

    The results of studies that evaluated predictive factors for rebleeding in non-variceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding are inconsistent. The aim of this study was to investigate predictive factors for 30-day rebleeding in these patients. A consecutive 312 patients presenting symptoms and signs of gastrointestinal bleeding were enrolled in this prospective, observational study. Clinical and demographic characteristics and endoscopic findings were evaluated for potential factors associated with 30-day rebleeding using logistic regression analysis. Overall, 176 patients were included (male, 80.1%; mean age, 59.7±16.0 yr). Rebleeding within 7 and 30 days occurred in 21 (11.9%) and 27 (15.3%) patients, respectively. We found that chronic kidney disease (CKD) (OR, 10.29; 95% CI, 2.84-37.33; P100 beats/min) during the admission (OR, 3.79; 95% CI, 1.25-11.49; P=0.019), and Forrest classes I, IIa, and IIb (OR, 6.14; 95% CI, 1.36-27.66; P=0.018) were significant independent predictive factors for 30-day rebleeding. However, neither Rockall nor Blatchford scores showed statistically significant relationships with 30-day rebleeding in a multivariate analysis. CKD, hemodynamic instability during hospitalization, and an endoscopic high-risk appearance are significantly independent predictors of 30-day rebleeding in patients with non-variceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding. These factors may be useful for clinical management of such patients.

  16. Anti-infective activities of lactobacillus strains in the human intestinal microbiota: from probiotics to gastrointestinal anti-infectious biotherapeutic agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liévin-Le Moal, Vanessa; Servin, Alain L

    2014-04-01

    A vast and diverse array of microbial species displaying great phylogenic, genomic, and metabolic diversity have colonized the gastrointestinal tract. Resident microbes play a beneficial role by regulating the intestinal immune system, stimulating the maturation of host tissues, and playing a variety of roles in nutrition and in host resistance to gastric and enteric bacterial pathogens. The mechanisms by which the resident microbial species combat gastrointestinal pathogens are complex and include competitive metabolic interactions and the production of antimicrobial molecules. The human intestinal microbiota is a source from which Lactobacillus probiotic strains have often been isolated. Only six probiotic Lactobacillus strains isolated from human intestinal microbiota, i.e., L. rhamnosus GG, L. casei Shirota YIT9029, L. casei DN-114 001, L. johnsonii NCC 533, L. acidophilus LB, and L. reuteri DSM 17938, have been well characterized with regard to their potential antimicrobial effects against the major gastric and enteric bacterial pathogens and rotavirus. In this review, we describe the current knowledge concerning the experimental antibacterial activities, including antibiotic-like and cell-regulating activities, and therapeutic effects demonstrated in well-conducted, placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trials of these probiotic Lactobacillus strains. What is known about the antimicrobial activities supported by the molecules secreted by such probiotic Lactobacillus strains suggests that they constitute a promising new source for the development of innovative anti-infectious agents that act luminally and intracellularly in the gastrointestinal tract.

  17. [Human hantavirus diseases - still neglected zoonoses?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrbovská, V; Chalupa, P; Straková, P; Hubálek, Z; Rudolf, I

    2015-10-01

    Hantavirus disease is the most common rodent-borne viral infection in the Czech Republic, with a mean annual incidence of 0.02 cases per 100 000 population and specific antibodies detected in 1% of the human population. Four hantaviruses (Puumala, Dobrava-Belgrade, Tula, and Seewis) circulate in this country, of which Puumala virus (responsible for a mild form of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome called nephropathia epidemica) and Dobrava-Belgrade virus (causing haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome) have been proven to cause human disease. The aim of this study is to provide a comprehensive review of the hantaviruses occurring in the Czech Republic, based on the literature published during the past three decades, including their geographical distribution and clinical symptoms. The recent detection of Tula virus in an immunocompromised person as well as reports of Seoul virus infections in Europe highlight the possible emergence of neglected hantavirus infections in the foreseeable future.

  18. Molecular biology of human muscle disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunne, P.W.; Epstein, H.F. (Baylor Coll. of Medicine, Houston, TX (United States))

    1991-01-01

    The molecular revolution that is transforming the entire biomedical field has had far-reaching impact in its application to inherited human muscle disease. The gene for Duchenne muscular dystrophy was one of the first cloned without knowledge of the defective protein product. This success was based upon the availability of key chromosomal aberrations that provided molecular landmarks for the disease locus. Subsequent discoveries regarding the mode of expression for this gene, the structure and localization of its protein product dystrophin, and molecular diagnosis of affected and carrier individuals constitute a paradigm for investigation of human genetics. Finding the gene for myotonic muscular dystrophy is requiring the brute force approach of cloning several million bases of DNA, identifying expressed sequences, and characterizing candidate genes. The gene that causes hypertrophic cardiomyopathy has been found serendipitously to be one of the genetic markers on chromosome 14, the {beta} myosin heavy chain.

  19. The role of chemerin in human disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Stojek

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Adipose tissue is not merely a storage depot of triacylglycerols but also a major endocrine organ. Its cells, including adipocytes, synthesize and secrete a range of biologically active molecules termed adipokines. Adipokines that display the properties of cytokines are often called adipocytokines. In recent years there has been increasing interest in a new adipokine called chemerin. Chemerin is a protein synthesized mostly by the adipose tissue and the liver as inactive pre-pro-chemerin. After the intracellular hydrolytic cutting off of the 20-amino-acid N-terminal polypeptide, it is secreted into the bloodstream as inactive pro-chemerin. Biologically active chemerin is then derived from pro-chemerin after cleavage of the C-terminal fragment by serum proteases involved in inflammation, coagulation and fibrinolysis. Proteolytic cleavage leads to formation of several chemerin-derived peptides, both biologically active (often with opposing functions and inactive.Within the last decade, there has been a growing number of publications regarding the role of chemerin in human disease. It seems to be implicated in the inflammatory response, metabolic syndrome, cardiovascular disease and alimentary tract disorders. The article presents the most recent information on the role of chemerin in human disease, and specifically alimentary tract disorders. The available evidence suggests that chemerin is an important link between adipose tissue mass, metabolic processes, the immune system and inflammation, and therefore plays a major role in human pathophysiology.

  20. Genes of periodontopathogens expressed during human disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yo-Han; Kozarov, Emil V; Walters, Sheila M; Cao, Sam Linsen; Handfield, Martin; Hillman, Jeffrey D; Progulske-Fox, Ann

    2002-12-01

    Since many bacterial genes are environmentally regulated, the screening for virulence-associated factors using classical genetic and molecular biology approaches can be biased under laboratory growth conditions of a given pathogen, because the required conditions for expression of many virulence factors may not occur during in vitro growth. Thus, technologies have been developed during the past several years to identify genes that are expressed during disease using animal models of human disease. However, animal models are not always truly representative of human disease, and with many pathogens, there is no appropriate animal model. A new technology, in vivo-induced antigen technology (IVIAT) was thus engineered and tested in our laboratory to screen for genes of pathogenic organisms induced specifically in humans, without the use of animal or artificial models of infection. This technology uses pooled sera from patients to probe for genes expressed exclusively in vivo (or ivi, in vivo-induced genes). IVIAT was originally designed for the study of Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans pathogenesis, but we have now extended it to other oral pathogens including Porphyromonas gingivalis. One hundred seventy-one thousand (171,000) clones from P. gingivalis strain W83 were screened and 144 were confirmed positive. Over 300,000 A. actinomycetemcomitans clones were probed, and 116 were confirmed positive using a quantitative blot assay. MAT has proven useful in identifying previously unknown in vivo-induced genes that are likely involved in virulence and are thus excellent candidates for use in diagnostic : and therapeutic strategies, including vaccine design.

  1. Mitochondria: impaired mitochondrial translation in human disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boczonadi, Veronika; Horvath, Rita

    2014-03-01

    Defects of the mitochondrial protein synthesis cause a subgroup of mitochondrial diseases, which are usually associated with decreased activities of multiple respiratory chain (RC) enzymes. The clinical presentations of these disorders are often disabling, progressive or fatal, affecting the brain, liver, skeletal muscle, heart and other organs. Currently there are no effective cures for these disorders and treatment is at best symptomatic. The diagnosis in patients with multiple respiratory chain complex defects is particularly difficult because of the massive number of nuclear genes potentially involved in intra-mitochondrial protein synthesis. Many of these genes are not yet linked to human disease. Whole exome sequencing rapidly changed the diagnosis of these patients by identifying the primary defect in DNA, and preventing the need for invasive and complex biochemical testing. Better understanding of the mitochondrial protein synthesis apparatus will help us to explore disease mechanisms and will provide clues for developing novel therapies.

  2. Downward trend in the prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infections and corresponding frequent upper gastrointestinal diseases profile changes in Southeastern China between 2003 and 2012

    OpenAIRE

    Jiang, Jian-Xia; Liu, Qing; Mao, Xin-Yi; Zhang, Hai-Han; Zhang, Guo-Xin; Xu, Shun-Fu

    2016-01-01

    This present study aims to determine trends in the prevalence of H. pylori infections in Southeastern China between 2003 and 2012, and investigate corresponding changes in the prevalence of upper gastrointestinal diseases. This retrospective study screened 196,442 patients with a mean age of 47.49 ± 14.47 years (age range 5–100 years) in Southeastern China, and a total of 134,812 cases of an endoscopy-referral patient population with digestive symptoms between 2003 and 2012 were enrolled. Bas...

  3. Upper gastrointestinal bleeding as a risk factor for dialysis and all-cause mortality: a cohort study of chronic kidney disease patients in Taiwan

    OpenAIRE

    Liang, Chih-Chia; Chou, Che-Yi; Chang, Chiz-Tzung; Wang, I-Kuan; Huang, Chiu-Ching

    2016-01-01

    Objective Impaired renal function is associated with higher risk of upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIB) in patients with chronic kidney disease and not on dialysis (CKD-ND). It is unclear if UGIB increases risk of chronic dialysis. The aim of the study was to investigate risk of chronic dialysis in CKD-ND patients with UGIB. Setting All CKD-ND stage 3–5 patients of a CKD programme in one hospital between 2003 and 2009 were enrolled and prospectively followed until September 2012. Primary a...

  4. Prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites in captive non-human primates of twenty-four zoological gardens in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mei; Zhao, Bo; Li, Bo; Wang, Qiang; Niu, Lili; Deng, Jiabo; Gu, Xiaobin; Peng, Xuerong; Wang, Tao; Yang, Guangyou

    2015-06-01

    Captive primates are susceptible to gastrointestinal (GIT) parasitic infections, which are often zoonotic and can contribute to morbidity and mortality. Fecal samples were examined by the means of direct smear, fecal flotation, fecal sedimentation, and fecal cultures. Of 26.51% (317/1196) of the captive primates were diagnosed gastrointestinal parasitic infections. Trichuris spp. were the most predominant in the primates, while Entamoeba spp. were the most prevalent in Old World monkeys (P primates and the safety of animal keepers and visitors.

  5. Fluorescence multi-scale endoscopy and its applications in the study and diagnosis of gastro-intestinal diseases: set-up design and software implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-García, Pablo Aurelio; Arranz, Alicia; Fresno, Manuel; Desco, Manuel; Mahmood, Umar; Vaquero, Juan José; Ripoll, Jorge

    2015-06-01

    Endoscopy is frequently used in the diagnosis of several gastro-intestinal pathologies as Crohn disease, ulcerative colitis or colorectal cancer. It has great potential as a non-invasive screening technique capable of detecting suspicious alterations in the intestinal mucosa, such as inflammatory processes. However, these early lesions usually cannot be detected with conventional endoscopes, due to lack of cellular detail and the absence of specific markers. Due to this lack of specificity, the development of new endoscopy technologies, which are able to show microscopic changes in the mucosa structure, are necessary. We here present a confocal endomicroscope, which in combination with a wide field fluorescence endoscope offers fast and specific macroscopic information through the use of activatable probes and a detailed analysis at cellular level of the possible altered tissue areas. This multi-modal and multi-scale imaging module, compatible with commercial endoscopes, combines near-infrared fluorescence (NIRF) measurements (enabling specific imaging of markers of disease and prognosis) and confocal endomicroscopy making use of a fiber bundle, providing a cellular level resolution. The system will be used in animal models exhibiting gastro-intestinal diseases in order to analyze the use of potential diagnostic markers in colorectal cancer. In this work, we present in detail the set-up design and the software implementation in order to obtain simultaneous RGB/NIRF measurements and short confocal scanning times.

  6. Associations among hair loss, oral sulfur-containing gases, and gastrointestinal and metabolic linked diseases in Japanese elderly men: pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamasaki Tomoko

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Male pattern baldness (MPB, an observable trait, has been reported to be associated with various diseases, such as prostate cancer and cardiovascular disease. Oral sulfur-containing gases have also been suggested to be useful as markers of systemic health condition. However, there are no known reports regarding the associations among MPB, and oral sulfur-containing gases, and systemic health conditions in males. Methods We studied 170 male subjects aged either 60 or 65 years old. The degree of MPB was assessed using the Norwood-Hamilton Baldness scale. Oral sulfur-containing gases were measured using a compact-designed device. All subjects completed physical and laboratory blood examinations, a face-to-face medical questionnaire, and an oral examination. Results There were significant differences between the levels of CH3SCH3 and baldness patterns, independent of age. When we analyzed whether the association was linked to systemic health condition, a strong significant association was observed between the level of CH3SCH3 and severe MPB in subjects with gastrointestinal diseases, hypertension, and hypercholesterolemia. Conclusion These results suggest that MPB is associated with the level of CH3SCH3, a sulfur-containing gas that causes oral malodor, in elderly Japanese males. Further, the association was intensified by the existence of gastrointestinal tract and metabolic disorders.

  7. Graft versus host disease in the bone marrow, liver and thymus humanized mouse model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew B Greenblatt

    Full Text Available Mice bearing a "humanized" immune system are valuable tools to experimentally manipulate human cells in vivo and facilitate disease models not normally possible in laboratory animals. Here we describe a form of GVHD that develops in NOD/SCID mice reconstituted with human fetal bone marrow, liver and thymus (NS BLT mice. The skin, lungs, gastrointestinal tract and parotid glands are affected with progressive inflammation and sclerosis. Although all mice showed involvement of at least one organ site, the incidence of overt clinical disease was approximately 35% by 22 weeks after reconstitution. The use of hosts lacking the IL2 common gamma chain (NOD/SCID/γc(-/- delayed the onset of disease, but ultimately did not affect incidence. Genetic analysis revealed that particular donor HLA class I alleles influenced the risk for the development of GVHD. At a cellular level, GVHD is associated with the infiltration of human CD4+ T cells into the skin and a shift towards Th1 cytokine production. GVHD also induced a mixed M1/M2 polarization phenotype in a dermal murine CD11b+, MHC class II+ macrophage population. The presence of xenogenic GVHD in BLT mice both presents a major obstacle in the use of humanized mice and an opportunity to conduct preclinical studies on GVHD in a humanized model.

  8. Strongyloides stercoralis Hyperinfection Syndrome Presenting as Severe, Recurrent Gastrointestinal Bleeding, Leading to a Diagnosis of Cushing Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yee, Brittany; Chi, Nai-Wen; Hansen, Lawrence A; Lee, Roland R; U, Hoi-Sang; Savides, Thomas J; Vinetz, Joseph M

    2015-10-01

    A 50-year-old male immigrant from Ethiopia presented for consultation after 3 years of hematochezia/melena requiring > 25 units of blood transfusions. Physical examination revealed severe proximal muscle wasting and weakness, central obesity, proptosis, and abdominal striae, accompanied by eosinophilia, elevated hemoglobin A1c, elevated 24-hour urinary cortisol, lack of suppression of 8 am cortisol levels by 1 mg dexamethasone, and inappropriately elevated random adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) level. Histopathological examination of gastrointestinal biopsies showed large numbers of Strongyloides stercoralis, indicating Strongyloides hyperinfection. Treatment with 2 days of ivermectin led to resolution of gastrointestinal bleeding. This syndrome was due to chronic immunosuppression from a pituitary ACTH (corticotroph) microadenoma, of which resection led to gradual normalization of urine cortisol, improved glycemic control, resolution of eosinophilia, and no recurrence of infection.

  9. Strongyloides stercoralis Hyperinfection Syndrome Presenting as Severe, Recurrent Gastrointestinal Bleeding, Leading to a Diagnosis of Cushing Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yee, Brittany; Chi, Nai-Wen; Hansen, Lawrence A.; Lee, Roland R.; U, Hoi-Sang; Savides, Thomas J.; Vinetz, Joseph M.

    2015-01-01

    A 50-year-old male immigrant from Ethiopia presented for consultation after 3 years of hematochezia/melena requiring > 25 units of blood transfusions. Physical examination revealed severe proximal muscle wasting and weakness, central obesity, proptosis, and abdominal striae, accompanied by eosinophilia, elevated hemoglobin A1c, elevated 24-hour urinary cortisol, lack of suppression of 8 am cortisol levels by 1 mg dexamethasone, and inappropriately elevated random adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) level. Histopathological examination of gastrointestinal biopsies showed large numbers of Strongyloides stercoralis, indicating Strongyloides hyperinfection. Treatment with 2 days of ivermectin led to resolution of gastrointestinal bleeding. This syndrome was due to chronic immunosuppression from a pituitary ACTH (corticotroph) microadenoma, of which resection led to gradual normalization of urine cortisol, improved glycemic control, resolution of eosinophilia, and no recurrence of infection. PMID:26195463

  10. Gastrointestinal mucormycosis in immunocompromised hosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dioverti, M Veronica; Cawcutt, Kelly A; Abidi, Maheen; Sohail, M Rizwan; Walker, Randall C; Osmon, Douglas R

    2015-12-01

    Invasive mucormycosis is a rare fungal infection in immunocompromised hosts, but it carries a high mortality rate. Primary gastrointestinal disease is the least frequent form of presentation. Early diagnosis and treatment are critical in the management; however, symptoms are typically non-specific in gastrointestinal disease, leading to delayed therapy. To describe the clinical presentation, diagnosis, treatment and outcomes of gastrointestinal mucormycosis in immunocompromised hosts, we reviewed all cases of primary gastrointestinal mucormycosis in immunocompromised hosts reported in English literature as well as in our Institution from January 1st 1991 to December 31st 2013 for a total of 31 patients. About 52% of patients underwent solid organ transplant (SOT), while the rest had an underlying haematologic malignancy. Abdominal pain was the most common presenting symptom, followed by gastrointestinal bleeding and fever. Gastric disease was more common in SOT, whereas those with haematologic malignancy presented with intestinal disease (P = 0.002). Although gastrointestinal mucormycosis remains an uncommon condition in immunocompromised hosts, it carries significant morbidity and mortality, particularly in cases with intestinal involvement. A high index of suspicion is of utmost importance to institute early and appropriate therapy and improve outcomes.

  11. Combined application of metagenomics and metabonomics techniques in human gastrointestinal ecosystem%宏基因组学和代谢组学在人类肠道微生态研究中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张金娜; 柳爱华; 吴晓磊; 宝福凯

    2013-01-01

    人类胃肠道中寄居着庞大复杂的微生物,它们与人类健康和疾病有着密切的关系.采用宏基因组学研究技术分析肠道微生物,能在更高层次上揭示肠道菌群与宿主的关系,代谢组学相关技术能测量人体肠道生态系统某个时间点或整个时程的代谢动力学或代谢流.本文综述了宏基因组学和代谢组学相关技术在肠道菌群引起的人类疾病的可能应用.%In human gastrointestinal ecosystem,there are enormous and complicated microbes which are closely related to human health and disease.Metagenomic studies can reveal the relationship between intestinal microbiota and the host in much deeper level.Metabonomics has the capacity to measure the metabolic kinetic or flux of metabolites through the human gut ecosystem at a particular point in time or over a time course.The review summarizes the combination of metagenomics and metabonomics holds great potential for application in human diseases caused by the intestinal microbiota.

  12. Radiology illustrated. Gastrointestinal tract

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Byung Ihn (ed.) [Seoul National University Hospital (Korea, Republic of). Dept. of Radiology

    2015-02-01

    Radiology Illustrated: Gastrointestinal Tract is the second of two volumes designed to provide clear and practical guidance on the diagnostic imaging of abdominal diseases. The book presents approximately 300 cases with 1500 carefully selected and categorized illustrations of gastrointestinal tract diseases, along with key text messages and tables that will help the reader easily to recall the relevant images as an aid to differential diagnosis., Essential points are summarized at the end of each text message to facilitate rapid review and learning. Additionally, brief descriptions of each clinical problem are provided, followed by case studies of both common and uncommon pathologies that illustrate the roles of the different imaging modalities, including ultrasound, radiography, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging.

  13. Humanized Mouse Model of Ebola Virus Disease Mimics the Immune Responses in Human Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, Brian H; Spengler, Jessica R; Chakrabarti, Ayan K; Khristova, Marina L; Sealy, Tara K; Coleman-McCray, JoAnn D; Martin, Brock E; Dodd, Kimberly A; Goldsmith, Cynthia S; Sanders, Jeanine; Zaki, Sherif R; Nichol, Stuart T; Spiropoulou, Christina F

    2016-03-01

    Animal models recapitulating human Ebola virus disease (EVD) are critical for insights into virus pathogenesis. Ebola virus (EBOV) isolates derived directly from human specimens do not, without adaptation, cause disease in immunocompetent adult rodents. Here, we describe EVD in mice engrafted with human immune cells (hu-BLT). hu-BLT mice developed EVD following wild-type EBOV infection. Infection with high-dose EBOV resulted in rapid, lethal EVD with high viral loads, alterations in key human antiviral immune cytokines and chemokines, and severe histopathologic findings similar to those shown in the limited human postmortem data available. A dose- and donor-dependent clinical course was observed in hu-BLT mice infected with lower doses of either Mayinga (1976) or Makona (2014) isolates derived from human EBOV cases. Engraftment of the human cellular immune system appeared to be essential for the observed virulence, as nonengrafted mice did not support productive EBOV replication or develop lethal disease. hu-BLT mice offer a unique model for investigating the human immune response in EVD and an alternative animal model for EVD pathogenesis studies and therapeutic screening.

  14. Human Genome Sequencing in Health and Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzaga-Jauregui, Claudia; Lupski, James R.; Gibbs, Richard A.

    2013-01-01

    Following the “finished,” euchromatic, haploid human reference genome sequence, the rapid development of novel, faster, and cheaper sequencing technologies is making possible the era of personalized human genomics. Personal diploid human genome sequences have been generated, and each has contributed to our better understanding of variation in the human genome. We have consequently begun to appreciate the vastness of individual genetic variation from single nucleotide to structural variants. Translation of genome-scale variation into medically useful information is, however, in its infancy. This review summarizes the initial steps undertaken in clinical implementation of personal genome information, and describes the application of whole-genome and exome sequencing to identify the cause of genetic diseases and to suggest adjuvant therapies. Better analysis tools and a deeper understanding of the biology of our genome are necessary in order to decipher, interpret, and optimize clinical utility of what the variation in the human genome can teach us. Personal genome sequencing may eventually become an instrument of common medical practice, providing information that assists in the formulation of a differential diagnosis. We outline herein some of the remaining challenges. PMID:22248320

  15. Angiotensin I-Converting Enzyme (ACE Inhibitory Activity and ACE Inhibitory Peptides of Salmon (Salmo salar Protein Hydrolysates Obtained by Human and Porcine Gastrointestinal Enzymes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Darewicz

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of the present study were two-fold: first, to detect whether salmon protein fractions possess angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE inhibitory properties and whether salmon proteins can release ACE inhibitory peptides during a sequential in vitro hydrolysis (with commercial porcine enzymes and ex vivo digestion (with human gastrointestinal enzymes. Secondly, to evaluate the ACE inhibitory activity of generated hydrolysates. A two-step ex vivo and in vitro model digestion was performed to simulate the human digestion process. Salmon proteins were degraded more efficiently by porcine enzymes than by human gastrointestinal juices and sarcoplasmic proteins were digested/hydrolyzed more easily than myofibrillar proteins. The ex vivo digested myofibrillar and sarcoplasmic duodenal samples showed IC50 values (concentration required to decrease the ACE activity by 50% of 1.06 and 2.16 mg/mL, respectively. The in vitro hydrolyzed myofibrillar and sarcoplasmic samples showed IC50 values of 0.91 and 1.04 mg/mL, respectively. Based on the results of in silico studies, it was possible to identify 9 peptides of the ex vivo hydrolysates and 7 peptides of the in vitro hydrolysates of salmon proteins of 11 selected peptides. In both types of salmon hydrolysates, ACE-inhibitory peptides IW, IY, TVY and VW were identified. In the in vitro salmon protein hydrolysates an ACE-inhibitory peptides VPW and VY were also detected, while ACE-inhibitory peptides ALPHA, IVY and IWHHT were identified in the hydrolysates generated with ex vivo digestion. In our studies, we documented ACE inhibitory in vitro effects of salmon protein hydrolysates obtained by human and as well as porcine gastrointestinal enzymes.

  16. [Development and evaluation of individualized fluid therapy in the elderly patients with coronary heart disease undergoing gastrointestinal surgery: a randomized, controlled trial].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Hong; Guo, Hai; Ye, Jian-rong; Chen, Lin

    2012-06-01

    To develop and evaluate an individualized fluid therapy in the elderly patients with coronary heart disease undergoing gastrointestinal surgery. In this prospective study, 60 coronary heart disease patients undergoing gastrointestinal surgery were included in the First Affiliated Hospital of Xinjiang Medical University from March 2009 to March 2012. Patients were randomized into the intervention group and the control group with 30 patients in each group. Individualized fluid therapy was used during surgery and postoperative period in the ICU, which was determined based on target controlled fluid therapy according to cardiac index, stroke volume, and stroke volume variation. Traditional fluid therapy was used in the control group in the intraoperative and postoperative period. The two groups were compared in terms of postoperative hemodynamic parameters, total fluid volume, incidence of adverse cardiac events, and recovery of bowel function. Compared with the control group, mean arterial pressure was significantly increased at the commencement of the surgery. The cardiac index was significantly elevated during surgery and at the end of the surgery. Stroke volume was significantly increased after induction of anesthesia, during the surgery, and at the early stay of ICU period(all Pfluid volume, crystal usage, and urine were significantly less, while colloidal fluid use was significantly more in the intervention group as compared to the control group(all P0.05). In the intervention group, defecation time, time to first flatus, resumption of liquid intake, length of ICU stay and hospital stay were significantly less compared with the control group(Pfluid therapy can effectively decrease adverse cardiac events, improve postoperative gastrointestinal function, and reduce length of hospital stay.

  17. Conditional Lineage Ablation to Model Human Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Paul; Morley, Gregory; Huang, Qian; Fischer, Avi; Seiler, Stephanie; Horner, James W.; Factor, Stephen; Vaidya, Dhananjay; Jalife, Jose; Fishman, Glenn I.

    1998-09-01

    Cell loss contributes to the pathogenesis of many inherited and acquired human diseases. We have developed a system to conditionally ablate cells of any lineage and developmental stage in the mouse by regulated expression of the diphtheria toxin A (DTA) gene by using tetracycline-responsive promoters. As an example of this approach, we targeted expression of DTA to the hearts of adult mice to model structural abnormalities commonly observed in human cardiomyopathies. Induction of DTA expression resulted in cell loss, fibrosis, and chamber dilatation. As in many human cardiomyopathies, transgenic mice developed spontaneous arrhythmias in vivo, and programmed electrical stimulation of isolated-perfused transgenic hearts demonstrated a strikingly high incidence of spontaneous and inducible ventricular tachycardia. Affected mice showed marked perturbations of cardiac gap junction channel expression and localization, including a subset with disorganized epicardial activation patterns as revealed by optical action potential mapping. These studies provide important insights into mechanisms of arrhythmogenesis and suggest that conditional lineage ablation may have wide applicability for studies of disease pathogenesis.

  18. Efficient Inhibition of HIV Replication in the Gastrointestinal and Female Reproductive Tracts of Humanized BLT Mice by EFdA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uma Shanmugasundaram

    Full Text Available The nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI 4'-ethynyl-2-fluoro-2'-deoxyadenosine (EFdA in preclinical development exhibits improved safety and antiviral activity profiles with minimal drug resistance compared to approved NRTIs. However, the systemic antiviral efficacy of EFdA has not been fully evaluated. In this study, we utilized bone marrow/liver/thymus (BLT humanized mice to investigate the systemic effect of EFdA treatment on HIV replication and CD4+ T cell depletion in the peripheral blood (PB and tissues. In particular, we performed a comprehensive analysis of the female reproductive tract (FRT and gastrointestinal (GI tract, major sites of transmission, viral replication, and CD4+ T cell depletion and where some current antiretroviral drugs have a sub-optimal effect.EFdA treatment resulted in reduction of HIV-RNA in PB to undetectable levels in the majority of treated mice by 3 weeks post-treatment. HIV-RNA levels in cervicovaginal lavage of EFdA-treated BLT mice also declined to undetectable levels demonstrating strong penetration of EFdA into the FRT. Our results also demonstrate a strong systemic suppression of HIV replication in all tissues analyzed. In particular, we observed more than a 2-log difference in HIV-RNA levels in the GI tract and FRT of EFdA-treated BLT mice compared to untreated HIV-infected control mice. In addition, HIV-RNA was also significantly lower in the lymph nodes, liver, lung, spleen of EFdA-treated BLT mice compared to untreated HIV-infected control mice. Furthermore, EFdA treatment prevented the depletion of CD4+ T cells in the PB, mucosal tissues and lymphoid tissues.Our findings indicate that EFdA is highly effective in controlling viral replication and preserving CD4+ T cells in particular with high efficiency in the GI and FRT tract. Thus, EFdA represents a strong potential candidate for further development as a part of antiretroviral therapy regimens.

  19. Uniparental disomy and human disease: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamazawa, Kazuki; Ogata, Tsutomu; Ferguson-Smith, Anne C

    2010-08-15

    Uniparental disomy (UPD) refers to the situation in which both homologues of a chromosomal region/segment have originated from only one parent. This can involve the entire chromosome or only a small segment. As a consequence of UPD, or uniparental duplication/deficiency of part of a chromosome, there are two types of developmental risk: aberrant dosage of genes regulated by genomic imprinting and homozygosity of a recessive mutation. UPD models generated by reciprocal and Robertsonian translocation heterozygote intercrosses have been a powerful tool to investigate genomic imprinting in mice, whereas novel UPD patients such as those with cystic fibrosis and Prader-Willi syndrome, triggered the clarification of recessive diseases and genomic imprinting disorders in human. Newly developed genomic technologies as well as conventional microsatellite marker methods have been contributing to the functional and mechanistic investigation of UPD, leading to not only the acquisition of clinically valuable information, but also the further clarification of diverse genetic processes and disease pathogenesis.

  20. Mitochondrial Fusion Proteins and Human Diseases

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    Michela Ranieri

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Mitochondria are highly dynamic, complex organelles that continuously alter their shape, ranging between two opposite processes, fission and fusion, in response to several stimuli and the metabolic demands of the cell. Alterations in mitochondrial dynamics due to mutations in proteins involved in the fusion-fission machinery represent an important pathogenic mechanism of human diseases. The most relevant proteins involved in the mitochondrial fusion process are three GTPase dynamin-like proteins: mitofusin 1 (MFN1 and 2 (MFN2, located in the outer mitochondrial membrane, and optic atrophy protein 1 (OPA1, in the inner membrane. An expanding number of degenerative disorders are associated with mutations in the genes encoding MFN2 and OPA1, including Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 2A and autosomal dominant optic atrophy. While these disorders can still be considered rare, defective mitochondrial dynamics seem to play a significant role in the molecular and cellular pathogenesis of more common neurodegenerative diseases, for example, Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s diseases. This review provides an overview of the basic molecular mechanisms involved in mitochondrial fusion and focuses on the alteration in mitochondrial DNA amount resulting from impairment of mitochondrial dynamics. We also review the literature describing the main disorders associated with the disruption of mitochondrial fusion.

  1. Human brain disease recreated in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marx, J.

    1990-12-14

    In the early 1980s, neurologist Stanley Prusiner suggested that scrapie, an apparently infectious degenerative brain disease of sheep, could be transmitted by prions, infectious particles made just of protein - and containing no nucleic acids. But prion research has come a long way since then. In 1985, the cloning of the gene encoding the prion protein proved that it does in fact exist. And the gene turned out to be widely expressed in the brains of higher organisms, a result suggesting that the prion protein has a normal brain function that can somehow be subverted, leading to brain degeneration. Then studies done during the past 2 years suggested that specific mutations in the prion gene might cause two similar human brain diseases, Gerstmann-Straeussler-Scheinker syndrome (GSS) and Creutzfelt-Jakob disease. Now, Prusiner's group at the University of California, San Francisco, has used genetic engineering techniques to recreate GSS by transplanting the mutated prion gene into mice. Not only will the animal model help neurobiologists answer the many remaining questions about prions and how they work, but it may also shed some light on other neurodegenerative diseases as well.

  2. Modern views on the pathogenesis of hard dental tissues and periodontium lesions and means of their treatment in children with chronic diseases of the gastrointestinal tract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krupey V.Y.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Changes in the mouth covity often reflect regularities of pathogenesis of a number of disease states, and primarily from the digestive tract. Therefore, the purpose of the study was to clarify pathogenesis of certain lesions of hard dental tissues and periodontal tissues in children with chronic diseases of the gastrointestinal tract and development of schemes for their treatment. The study observed 441 children aged from 7 to 15 years with dental caries and generalized chronic catarrhal gingivitis on the background of chronic gastritis and duodenitis, duodenal ulcer and malabsorption syndrome. All the children were divided into 2 groups - basic and comparison one. The study identified the most dan¬gerous and little-known way of pathogenesis, which passes through the general processes of reducing the production of various proteins (immune system and antiseptics, is a violation of the general and local resistance and, ultimately, mineral metabolism. Such disorders impair complete mineralization of tooth enamel, reduce optimal composition and properties of saliva stimulating glycolysis processes in oral cavity. Prevention of dental caries and generalized chronic catarrhal gingivitis in children with chronic pathology of the gastrointestinal tract is based on the use of developed therapeutic and prophylactic complex, which includes mucosal gel Kvertulin, probiotic Latsidofil and drug Calcium D.

  3. gastrointestinal tract

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    Rolandas Vaicekauskas

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction : Accurate diagnosis of subepithelial lesions (SELs in the gastrointestinal tract depends on a variety of methods: endoscopy, endoscopic ultrasound and different types of biopsy. Making an error-free diagnosis is vital for the subsequent application of an appropriate treatment. Aim: To evaluate the efficacy of deep biopsy via the endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD technique for SELs in the upper gastrointestinal tract. Material and methods: It was a case series study. Deep biopsy via the ESD technique was completed in 38 patients between November 2012 and October 2014. Thirty-eight SELs in the upper gastrointestinal tract of varying size (very small ≤ 1 cm, small 1–2 cm and large ≥ 2 cm by means of the ESD technique after an incision with an electrosurgical knife of the overlying layers and revealing a small part of the lesion were biopsied under direct endoscopic view. Results: Deep biopsy via the ESD technique was diagnostic in 28 of 38 patients (73.3%; 95% CI: 59.7–89.7%. The diagnostic yield for SELs with a clear endophytic shape increased to 91.3%. An evident endophytic appearance of a subepithelial lesion, the mean number of biopsied samples (6.65 ±1.36 and the total size in length of all samples per case (19.88 ±8.07 mm were the main criteria influencing the positiveness of deep biopsy in the diagnostic group compared to the nondiagnostic one (p = 0.001; p = 0.025; p = 0.008. Conclusions : Deep biopsy via the ESD technique is an effective and safe method for the diagnosis of SELs especially with a clear endophytic appearance in a large number of biopsied samples.

  4. Human prion diseases in the United States.

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    Robert C Holman

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Prion diseases are a family of rare, progressive, neurodegenerative disorders that affect humans and animals. The most common form of human prion disease, Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD, occurs worldwide. Variant CJD (vCJD, a recently emerged human prion disease, is a zoonotic foodborne disorder that occurs almost exclusively in countries with outbreaks of bovine spongiform encephalopathy. This study describes the occurrence and epidemiology of CJD and vCJD in the United States. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Analysis of CJD and vCJD deaths using death certificates of US residents for 1979-2006, and those identified through other surveillance mechanisms during 1996-2008. Since CJD is invariably fatal and illness duration is usually less than one year, the CJD incidence is estimated as the death rate. During 1979 through 2006, an estimated 6,917 deaths with CJD as a cause of death were reported in the United States, an annual average of approximately 247 deaths (range 172-304 deaths. The average annual age-adjusted incidence for CJD was 0.97 per 1,000,000 persons. Most (61.8% of the CJD deaths occurred among persons >or=65 years of age for an average annual incidence of 4.8 per 1,000,000 persons in this population. Most deaths were among whites (94.6%; the age-adjusted incidence for whites was 2.7 times higher than that for blacks (1.04 and 0.40, respectively. Three patients who died since 2004 were reported with vCJD; epidemiologic evidence indicated that their infection was acquired outside of the United States. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Surveillance continues to show an annual CJD incidence rate of about 1 case per 1,000,000 persons and marked differences in CJD rates by age and race in the United States. Ongoing surveillance remains important for monitoring the stability of the CJD incidence rates, and detecting occurrences of vCJD and possibly other novel prion diseases in the United States.

  5. In-vitro bioaccessibility of five pyrethroids after human ingestion and the corresponding gastrointestinal digestion parameters: A contribution for human exposure assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yan-Hong; Xiao, Jin-Jing; Feng, Rong-Peng; Liu, Yu-Ying; Liao, Min; Wu, Xiang-Wei; Hua, Ri-Mao; Cao, Hai-Qun

    2017-09-01

    Bioaccessibility is a crucial parameter in assessing the absorption of contaminants during the human digestive process, but few studies have involved the differences in the bioaccessibilities of pesticides. To investigate the mode of using the in vitro bioaccessibility to refine estimates of dietary exposure to pesticide residues, this study measured the bioaccessibilities of five pyrethroids in apples, and then, it modelled physicochemical predictors (gastrointestinal pH, digestive times, and the solid-liquid (S/L) ratio) of the bioaccessibilities of pyrethroids. Apple samples of gastric and intestinal phase digestive juices were obtained from an in vitro simulated digestion model. Our survey of in vitro digestion models found that the bioaccessibilities ranged from 4.42% to 31.22% and 10.58%-35.63% in the gastric and intestinal phases, respectively. A sharp trend similar to a normal distribution was observed between the bioaccessibilities and pH values. The bioaccessibility reached its highest value at a pH of 1.91 in the simulated gastric juice and did not significantly change with an increase of the digestive time. A significant negative correlation occurred between the bioaccessibility and S/L ratio, which followed a logarithmic equation. The correlation coefficients (R(2)) ranged from 0.9259 to 0.9831 and 0.9077 to 0.9960 in the simulated gastric and intestinal juice, respectively, suggested that both the pH value and S/L ratio were the main factors affecting the bioaccessibility. Furthermore, a combination of the acceptable daily intake (ADI) and bioaccessibility for human exposure assessments indicated the implication that traditional risk assessment using ADI may seriously overestimate the actual risk. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Enzyme activity of β-galactosidase from Kluyveromyces lactis and Aspergillus oryzae on simulated conditions of human gastrointestinal system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Bosso

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available An alternative to relieve the symptoms of lactose intolerance is the intake of the enzyme β-galactosidase in pharmaceutical dosage forms. The ability of β-galactosidase produced by Kluyveromyces lactis and Aspergillus oryzae to hydrolyze lactose in simulated conditions of the human gastrointestinal tract was investigated. The experiment was carried out in the optimum temperature for each enzyme activity, 40 and 55°C, respectively, and at the normal human body temperature (37°C at concentrations of 1.5, 3.0, and 5.0 g/L (enzyme from A. oryzae or mL/L (enzyme from K. lactis. Both enzymes were completely inactivated under simulated gastric conditions (pH 2. When the enzymes were subjected to simulated small intestine conditions (pH 7.4, lactose hydrolysis has occurred, but at 37°C the percentage was lower than that under the optimal temperatures. At concentrations of 1.5, 3.0, and 5.0 mL/L the enzyme from K. lactis hydrolyzed 76.63%, 88.91% and 94.80% of lactose at 40°C, and 55.99%, 80.91% and 81.53% at 37°C, respectively. In contrast, the enzyme from A. oryzae hydrolyzed 7.11%, 16.18% and 21.29% at 55°C, and 8.4%, 11.85% and 16.43% at 37°C. It was observed that under simulated intestinal conditions, the enzyme from K. lactis was more effective on lactose hydrolysis as compared to the enzyme from A. oryzae. Considering the findings of this study, it is extremely necessary to use an enteric coating on β-galactosidase capsules so that this enzyme is released only in the small intestine, which is its site of action, thus not suffering the action of the stomach pH.Keywords: Lactase. Hydrolysis. Lactose intolerance. Gastrointestinal tract. RESUMOAtividade de β-galactosidase de Kluyveromyces lactis e Aspergillus oryzae, em condições simuladas do sistema gastrintestinal humanoUma das alternativas para amenizar os sintomas da intolerância à lactose é a ingestão de β-galactosidase em formas farmacêuticas. Neste trabalho avaliou-se a

  7. Dynamic In Vitro Models of the Human Gastrointestinal Tract as Relevant Tools to Assess the Survival of Probiotic Strains and Their Interactions with Gut Microbiota

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlotte Cordonnier

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The beneficial effects of probiotics are conditioned by their survival during passage through the human gastrointestinal tract and their ability to favorably influence gut microbiota. The main objective of this study was to use dynamic in vitro models of the human digestive tract to investigate the effect of fasted or fed state on the survival kinetics of the new probiotic Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain CNCM I-3856 and to assess its influence on intestinal microbiota composition and activity. The probiotic yeast showed a high survival rate in the upper gastrointestinal tract whatever the route of admistration, i.e., within a glass of water or a Western-type meal. S. cerevisiae CNCM I-3856 was more sensitive to colonic conditions, as the strain was not able to colonize within the bioreactor despite a twice daily administration. The main bacterial populations of the gut microbiota, as well as the production of short chain fatty acids were not influenced by the probiotic treatment. However, the effect of the probiotic on the gut microbiota was found to be individual dependent. This study shows that dynamic in vitro models can be advantageously used to provide useful insight into the behavior of probiotic strains in the human digestive environment.

  8. Chronic inflammatory and non-inflammatory diseases of the gastrointestinal tract in cats: diagnostic advantages of full-thickness intestinal and extraintestinal biopsies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinschmidt, Sven; Harder, Jasmine; Nolte, Ingo; Marsilio, Sina; Hewicker-Trautwein, Marion

    2010-02-01

    An evaluation of histological findings in full-thickness biopsies from the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) and extraintestinal samples of 43 cats with chronic GIT disease signs was performed. In the majority of cases (46.5%) inflammatory bowel disease, ie, lymphocytic-plasmacytic enteritis/colitis (32.6%), eosinophilic gastroenterocolitis (11.6%) and mixed inflammatory infiltration (2.3%), was diagnosed. Furthermore, in four animals non-inflammatory mucosal band-shaped fibrosis (9.3%), and in 10 cats (23.3%) a diffuse lymphoma, was found. Six cats displayed only a gastritis (7.0%) or lymphangiectasia (7.0%), respectively. In two cats a mast cell tumour (4.7%) was diagnosed. In one cat no histopathological lesions were found. The availability of transmural biopsies from all segments of the intestine and the collection of extraintestinal samples, especially mesenteric lymph nodes, is especially helpful for diagnosing intestinal tumours such as lymphomas and tumours of mast cell origin.

  9. Deriving human ENS lineages for cell therapy and drug discovery in Hirschsprung disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fattahi, Faranak; Steinbeck, Julius A; Kriks, Sonja; Tchieu, Jason; Zimmer, Bastian; Kishinevsky, Sarah; Zeltner, Nadja; Mica, Yvonne; El-Nachef, Wael; Zhao, Huiyong; de Stanchina, Elisa; Gershon, Michael D; Grikscheit, Tracy C; Chen, Shuibing; Studer, Lorenz

    2016-03-03

    The enteric nervous system (ENS) is the largest component of the autonomic nervous system, with neuron numbers surpassing those present in the spinal cord. The ENS has been called the 'second brain' given its autonomy, remarkable neurotransmitter diversity and complex cytoarchitecture. Defects in ENS development are responsible for many human disorders including Hirschsprung disease (HSCR). HSCR is caused by the developmental failure of ENS progenitors to migrate into the gastrointestinal tract, particularly the distal colon. Human ENS development remains poorly understood owing to the lack of an easily accessible model system. Here we demonstrate the efficient derivation and isolation of ENS progenitors from human pluripotent stem (PS) cells, and their further differentiation into functional enteric neurons. ENS precursors derived in vitro are capable of targeted migration in the developing chick embryo and extensive colonization of the adult mouse colon. The in vivo engraftment and migration of human PS-cell-derived ENS precursors rescue disease-related mortality in HSCR mice (Ednrb(s-l/s-l)), although the mechanism of action remains unclear. Finally, EDNRB-null mutant ENS precursors enable modelling of HSCR-related migration defects, and the identification of pepstatin A as a candidate therapeutic target. Our study establishes the first, to our knowledge, human PS-cell-based platform for the study of human ENS development, and presents cell- and drug-based strategies for the treatment of HSCR.

  10. Probiotic yogurt consumption may improve gastrointestinal symptoms, productivity, and nutritional intake of people living with human immunodeficiency virus in Mwanza, Tanzania

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Irvine, Stephanie L.; Hummelen, Ruben; Hekmat, Sharareh

    2011-01-01

    The gut-associated lymphoid tissue is a major site of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) activity and significantly influences disease prognosis. Reducing immune activation due to gastroenteritis may thus help slow disease progression. Probiotic microorganisms have considerable immunomodulatory effe

  11. Gastrointestinal Amyloidosis: Diagnostic Approach and Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catarina Budyono

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Amyloidosis is a disease marked by deposition of misfolded proteins, known as amyloids, in the extracellular space, including gastrointestinal tract. According to the precursor protein, amyloidosis is classified into six types; all of which can be involved in the gastrointestinal tract. Amyloidosis has weight loss and gastrointestinal bleeding as the most frequent symptoms. Gastrointestinal tract biopsy is diagnostic in most cases of amyloidosis and Congo red stain is used to confirm the amyloid proteins deposit. Treatment of amyloidosis consists of controlling symptoms, terminating protein formation and deposit, and treating the underlying diseases. Chemotherapy might be applied depends on the type of amyloidosis.

  12. HIV and the spectrum of human disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Sebastian; Nelson, Ann Marie

    2015-01-01

    Infection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) causes systemic T cell destruction and reduced cell-mediated immunity that leads to a wide range of opportunistic infections and cancers. Second, it directly damages many tissues - gut, brain, lung - through mononuclear cell infection and activation. Third, through immune activation and effects on endothelia, it can cause more subtle systemic organ damage, such as chronic cardiovascular, hepatic, pulmonary and central nervous system disease. Antiretroviral treatment has enabled HIV-infected persons to live with chronic infection, although with some side-effects and mortality, including reactions due to the immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS). As cohorts of infected people get older, age-related diseases will combine with chronic HIV infection to produce disabilities whose scale is not yet understood. HIV is detectable in tissues by immunohistochemistry when infection loads are high, such as at first presentation. Pathologists should proactively consider HIV disease in routine diagnostic work, so as to identify more HIV-infected patients and enable their optimal management.

  13. Blood type biochemistry and human disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewald, D Rose; Sumner, Susan C J

    2016-11-01

    Associations between blood type and disease have been studied since the early 1900s when researchers determined that antibodies and antigens are inherited. In the 1950s, the chemical identification of the carbohydrate structure of surface antigens led to the understanding of biosynthetic pathways. The blood type is defined by oligosaccharide structures, which are specific to the antigens, thus, blood group antigens are secondary gene products, while the primary gene products are various glycosyltransferase enzymes that attach the sugar molecules to the oligosaccharide chain. Blood group antigens are found on red blood cells, platelets, leukocytes, plasma proteins, certain tissues, and various cell surface enzymes, and also exist in soluble form in body secretions such as breast milk, seminal fluid, saliva, sweat, gastric secretions, urine, and amniotic fluid. Recent advances in technology, biochemistry, and genetics have clarified the functional classifications of human blood group antigens, the structure of the A, B, H, and Lewis determinants and the enzymes that produce them, and the association of blood group antigens with disease risks. Further research to identify differences in the biochemical composition of blood group antigens, and the relationship to risks for disease, can be important for the identification of targets for the development of nutritional intervention strategies, or the identification of druggable targets. WIREs Syst Biol Med 2016, 8:517-535. doi: 10.1002/wsbm.1355 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website.

  14. HECT E3s and human disease

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    Staub Olivier

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In a simplified view, members of the HECT E3 family have a modular structure consisting of the C-terminal HECT domain, which is catalytically involved in the attachment of ubiquitin to substrate proteins, and N-terminal extensions of variable length and sequence that mediate the substrate specificity of the respective HECT E3. Although the physiologically relevant substrates of most HECT E3s have remained elusive, it is becoming increasingly clear that HECT E3s play an important role in sporadic and hereditary human diseases including cancer, cardiovascular (Liddle's syndrome and neurological (Angelman syndrome disorders, and/or in disease-relevant processes including bone homeostasis, immune response and retroviral budding. Thus, molecular approaches to target the activity of distinct HECT E3s, regulators thereof, and/or of HECT E3 substrates could prove valuable in the treatment of the respective diseases. Publication history: Republished from Current BioData's Targeted Proteins database (TPdb; http://www.targetedproteinsdb.com.

  15. Diet, disease and pigment variation in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, R; Khan, B S Razib

    2010-10-01

    There are several hypotheses which explain the de-pigmentation of humans. The most prominent environmental explanation is that reduced endogenous vitamin D production due to diminished radiation at higher latitudes had a deleterious impact on fitness. This drove de-pigmentation as an adaptive response. A model of natural selection explains the high correlations found between low vitamin D levels and ill health, as vitamin D's role in immune response has clear evolutionary implications. But recent genomic techniques have highlighted the likelihood that extreme de-pigmentation in Eurasia is a feature of the last 10,000years, not the Upper Pleistocene, when modern humans first settled northern Eurasia. Additionally the data imply two independent selection events in eastern and western Eurasia. Therefore new parameters must be added to the model of natural selection so as to explain the relatively recent and parallel adaptive responses. I propose a model of gene-culture co-evolution whereby the spread of agriculture both reduced dietary vitamin D sources and led to more powerful selection on immune response because of the rise of infectious diseases with greater population densities. This model explains the persistence of relatively dark-skinned peoples at relatively high latitudes and the existence of relatively light-skinned populations at low latitudes. It also reinforces the importance of vitamin D as a micronutrient because of the evidence of extremely powerful fitness implications in the recent human past of pigmentation. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. New insights into gastrointestinal anthrax infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, Jennifer L; Yang, Tao; Mohamadzadeh, Mansour

    2015-03-01

    Bacterial infections are the primary cause of gastrointestinal (GI) disorders in both developing and developed countries, and are particularly dangerous for infants and children. Bacillus anthracis is the 'archetype zoonotic' pathogen; no other infectious disease affects such a broad range of species, including humans. Importantly, there are more case reports of GI anthrax infection in children than inhalational disease. Early diagnosis is difficult and widespread systemic disease develops rapidly. This review highlights new findings concerning the roles of the gut epithelia, commensal microbiota, and innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) in initiation of disease and systemic dissemination in animal models of GI anthrax, the understanding of which is crucial to designing alternative therapies that target the establishment of infection.

  17. GASTROINTESTINAL STROMAL TUMOR (GIST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigi eTornillo

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Gastrointestinal stromal tumors are the most frequent mesenchymal tumors of the gastrointestinal tract. The discovery that these tumors, formerly thought of smooth muscle origin, are indeed better characterized by specific activating mutation in genes coding for the receptor tyrosine kinases CKIT and PDGFRA and that these mutations are strongly predictive for the response to targeted therapy with receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors has made GISTs the typical example of the integration of basic molecular knowledge in the daily clinical activity. The information on the mutational status of these tumors is essential to predict (and subsequently to plan the therapy. As resistant cases are frequently wild-type, other possible oncogenic events, defining other entities, have been discovered (e.g. succinil dehydrogenase mutation/dysregulation, insuline growth factor expression, mutations in the RAS-RAF-MAPK pathway. The classification of disease must nowadays rely on the integration of the clinico-morphological characteristics with the molecular data.

  18. Microbiota alterations in acute and chronic gastrointestinal inflammation of cats and dogs

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Julia B Honneffer Yasushi Minamoto Jan S Suchodolski

    2014-01-01

    ...) inhabiting the gastrointestinal tract. Novel bacterial identification approaches have revealed that the gastrointestinal microbiota of dogs and cats is, similarly to humans, a highly complex ecosystem...

  19. Profiles of microbial fatty acids in the human metabolome are disease-specific

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhanna A Ktsoyan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The human gastrointestinal tract is inhabited by a diverse and dense symbiotic microbiota, the composition of which is the result of host-microbe co-evolution and co-adaptation. This tight integration creates intense crosstalk and signalling between the host and microbiota at the cellular and metabolic levels. In many genetic or infectious diseases the balance between host and microbiota may be compromised resulting in erroneous communication. Consequently, the composition of the human metabolome, which includes the gut metabolome, may be different in health and disease states in terms of microbial products and metabolites entering systemic circulation. To test this hypothesis, we measured the level of hydroxy, branched, cyclopropyl and unsaturated fatty acids, aldehydes, and phenyl derivatives in blood of patients with a hereditary autoinflammatory disorder, familial Mediterranean fever (FMF, and in patients with peptic ulceration (PU resulting from Helicobacter pylori infection. Discriminant function analysis of a data matrix consisting of 94 cases as statistical units (37 FMF patients, 14 PU patients, and 43 healthy controls and the concentration of 35 microbial products in the blood as statistical variables revealed a high accuracy of the proposed model (all cases were correctly classified. This suggests that the profile of microbial products and metabolites in the human metabolome is specific for a given disease and may potentially serve as a biomarker for disease.

  20. 肝豆状核变性患者消化道出血的治疗%Management of gastrointestinal hemorrhage in patients with Wilsons disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李晓曦; 林勇杰; 黄灿之; 梁秀龄

    2001-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the pericardia devascularization with splenectomy for gastrointestinal hemorrhage in patients with Wilsons disease (WD) . Methods Fifteen WD patients with severe liver disease who underwent surgical intervention for gastrointestinal bleedings were reviewed retrospectively. Results Two of fifteen patients underwent emergency operation. The operative procedures included pericardia devascularization with splenectomy performed in 12 cases and simple splenectomy in other 3 patients. The patients had been treated with the copper-chelating agent for more than 3 months preoperatively. The indications of surgical intervention were serious hypersplenism and recurrent episodes of gastrointestinal hemorrhage from esophagogastric varices. Gastrointestinal bleedings were controlled, leukocyte and hemoglobin as well as blood platelet were significantly increased postoperatively. The medical regimen of eliminating copper continued and neurologic symptoms in the WD patients were improved. Conclusions Combined with effectively eliminating copper, the pericardia devascularization with splenectomy is safe and valuable for gastrointestinal hemorrhage from variceal hemorrhage in WD patient. It is a valuable auxiliary therapy also for copper-reducing pharmacotherapy for Wilsons disease.%目的评价贲门周围血管断流及脾切除术治疗肝豆状核变性患者消化道出血的疗效。方法回顾性分析贲门周围血管离断术、脾切除术治疗合并严重肝病、消化道大出血的肝豆状核变性患者15例资料。结果 15例中急诊手术2例。手术方式包括贲门周围血管离断及脾切除术12例,单纯脾切除术3例。术前铜离子络合剂驱铜治疗至少3个月。手术指征是食管下段和胃底静脉曲张破裂,消化道大出血反复发作和严重的脾功能亢进。术后消化道出血停止,白细胞、血红蛋白和血小板明显升高。术后继续驱铜治疗,经(4.2±3.0)年随访,未见

  1. Targeted therapies in upper gastrointestinal cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kordes, S.

    2016-01-01

    Upper gastrointestinal (GI) cancers, as esophageal, gastric and pancreatic cancer, are still highly lethal diseases, in spite of advances in surgery, radiotherapy, chemotherapy and specific targeted therapy. Especially when patients are diagnosed with locally advanced or metastasized disease, upper

  2. Evolutionary history of human disease genes reveals phenotypic connections and comorbidity among genetic diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Solip; Yang, Jae-Seong; Kim, Jinho; Shin, Young-Eun; Hwang, Jihye; Park, Juyong; Jang, Sung Key; Kim, Sanguk

    2012-01-01

    The extent to which evolutionary changes have impacted the phenotypic relationships among human diseases remains unclear. In this work, we report that phenotypically similar diseases are connected by the evolutionary constraints on human disease genes. Human disease groups can be classified into slowly or rapidly evolving classes, where the diseases in the slowly evolving class are enriched with morphological phenotypes and those in the rapidly evolving class are enriched with physiological phenotypes. Our findings establish a clear evolutionary connection between disease classes and disease phenotypes for the first time. Furthermore, the high comorbidity found between diseases connected by similar evolutionary constraints enables us to improve the predictability of the relative risk of human diseases. We find the evolutionary constraints on disease genes are a new layer of molecular connection in the network-based exploration of human diseases.

  3. Experience With and Attitudes Toward Psychotherapy and Antidepressants Among Patients With Inflammatory Bowel Disease and Functional Gastrointestinal Disorders: An Online Patient Survey to Inform System Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikocka-Walus, Antonina; Andrews, Jane M

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to explore and compare experiences with and attitudes toward psychotherapy and antidepressants of patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGiDs). Patients from gastroenterology clinic databases were invited to an online survey. Student's t test, Mann-Whitney U test, chi-square test, and Fisher's test were used to compare patients with IBD and FGiD on demographics and variables of interest. Of 86 participants, 56 (65%) had IBD and 30 (35%) had FGiDs. Mean levels of anxiety, depressive, and stress symptoms were within the moderate to severe range. Psychological care and antidepressants were offered to significantly more FGiD than to IBD respondents (37% vs. 9%; p = .009). Although the symptoms were generally reduced after the prescription of antidepressants, only 30% of IBD respondents and 21% of FGiD respondents using antidepressants would recommend them to others. In contrast, 53% of IBD respondents and 69% of FGiD respondents who used psychotherapy would recommend it to others. Both these therapies were valued by recipients; however, neither was reported to improve gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms. Given the high desire for and positive experiences of psychological care for these 2 common GI conditions, access to formal psychological support services within GI clinics would appear to be the most efficient model.

  4. Human KATP channelopathies: diseases of metabolic homeostasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Assembly of an inward rectifier K+ channel pore (Kir6.1/Kir6.2) and an adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-binding regulatory subunit (SUR1/SUR2A/SUR2B) forms ATP-sensitive K+ (KATP) channel heteromultimers, widely distributed in metabolically active tissues throughout the body. KATP channels are metabolism-gated biosensors functioning as molecular rheostats that adjust membrane potential-dependent functions to match cellular energetic demands. Vital in the adaptive response to (patho)physiological stress, KATP channels serve a homeostatic role ranging from glucose regulation to cardioprotection. Accordingly, genetic variation in KATP channel subunits has been linked to the etiology of life-threatening human diseases. In particular, pathogenic mutations in KATP channels have been identified in insulin secretion disorders, namely, congenital hyperinsulinism and neonatal diabetes. Moreover, KATP channel defects underlie the triad of developmental delay, epilepsy, and neonatal diabetes (DEND syndrome). KATP channelopathies implicated in patients with mechanical and/or electrical heart disease include dilated cardiomyopathy (with ventricular arrhythmia; CMD1O) and adrenergic atrial fibrillation. A common Kir6.2 E23K polymorphism has been associated with late-onset diabetes and as a risk factor for maladaptive cardiac remodeling in the community-at-large and abnormal cardiopulmonary exercise stress performance in patients with heart failure. The overall mutation frequency within KATP channel genes and the spectrum of genotype–phenotype relationships remain to be established, while predicting consequences of a deficit in channel function is becoming increasingly feasible through systems biology approaches. Thus, advances in molecular medicine in the emerging field of human KATP channelopathies offer new opportunities for targeted individualized screening, early diagnosis, and tailored therapy. PMID:20033705

  5. Major trends in human parasitic diseases in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ting; He, Shenyi; Zhao, Hong; Zhao, Guanghui; Zhu, Xing-Quan

    2010-05-01

    Tremendous progress has been made in the control and prevention of human parasitic diseases in mainland China in the past 30 years because of China's Reform and Opening to the Outside Policies initiated in 1978. However, parasitic diseases remain a major human health problem, with significant morbidity and mortality as well as adverse socioeconomic consequences. Although soil-transmitted parasitic diseases are in the process of being gradually controlled, food-borne parasitic diseases and emerging parasitic diseases are becoming the focus of new campaigns for control and prevention. This article reviews major trends in human parasitic diseases in mainland China, with perspectives for control.

  6. Surgical perspectives in gastrointestinal disease: A study of quality of life outcomes in esophageal, pancreatic, colon, and rectal cancers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kate V Viola; Charlotte Ariyan; Julie Ann Sosa

    2006-01-01

    Outcomes assessment in surgery traditionally has included data regarding peri-operative mortality and morbidity, as well as long-term survival and recurrence in surgical oncology. However, quality of life (QOL) is another important patient-related outcome measure.QOL data can be used to tailor treatment and improve clinical outcomes by detecting physical or psychological problems in patients that otherwise might be overlooked,but which have profound implications for the effective delivery of care. We review several well-validated QOL instruments developed specifically for use in patients with gastrointestinal malignancies, including esophageal,pancreatic and colorectal cancers, and conclude that QOL assessment routinely should be included in clinical trials of novel treatments.

  7. 根据中医望诊相关理论探讨胃肠道疾病与脑血管病的关系%Relationship between Gastrointestinal Disease and Cerebrovascular Disease Based on Chinese Medical Inspection Diagnosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高利; 徐敏; 黄礼媛; 宋珏娴; 王平平; 何家恺

    2014-01-01

    目的:根据中医望诊相关理论探讨脑血管病与胃肠道疾病的内在联系,为中医望诊的客观性与准确性提供依据,为临床诊治拓宽思路。方法根据脑血管病患者面、舌与胃肠道相关投射部位的色泽及纹理变化,对脑血管病患者疑有胃肠道疾病者用现代医学方法进行检测,观察脑血管病与胃肠道疾病的相关性,从而探讨国人脑血管病与胃肠道的内在联系。结果符合研究条件的观察病例共257例,在面、舌的相关部位出现特征性变化的有223例(86.7%),其中211例(82.1%)做了胃/肠镜检测和幽门螺杆菌(Hp)检测,其胃/肠镜检测阳性符合率为100.0%,Hp检测阳性率为49.8%(105/211)。结论唇周有皱褶或/和舌面有裂纹(沟)与胃肠道疾病有密切相关性,胃肠道疾病可能为中国人脑血管病重要的危险因素(始动因素)之一。%Objective To research the relationship between gastrointestinal disease and cerebrovascular disease,and provide the evidence for objectify and accuracy Chinese medical inspection diagnosis.Methods According with color and texture of face/tongue changes of patients with cerebrovascular disease detected with modern medical methods.To explore the intrinsic relationship between cerebrovascular disease and gastrointestinal disease in Chinese people.Results Two hundreds and fifty seven cases in-cluded in this study,and 223 cases had characteristic changes in the relevant parts of the face and tongue,of which 211 cases (82.1%) had gastrointestinal endoscope and Helicobacter pylori (Hp)detection,its gastrointestinal endoscope testing positive rate was 100.0%, Hp testing positive rate was 49.8%(105/211).Conclusion Wrinkled lip and/or tongue surface with cracks(groove)have closely re-lated with the gastrointestinal diseases.Gastrointestinal disease may be one of important risk factors(initial factor)in cerebro vascular disease for Chinese people.

  8. Wolbachia endosymbionts and human disease control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slatko, Barton E; Luck, Ashley N; Dobson, Stephen L; Foster, Jeremy M

    2014-07-01

    Most human filarial nematode parasites and arthropods are hosts for a bacterial endosymbiont, Wolbachia. In filaria, Wolbachia are required for normal development, fertility and survival, whereas in arthropods, they are largely parasitic and can influence development and reproduction, but are generally not required for host survival. Due to their obligate nature in filarial parasites, Wolbachia have been a target for drug discovery initiatives using several approaches including diversity and focused library screening and genomic sequence analysis. In vitro and in vivo anti-Wolbachia antibiotic treatments have been shown to have adulticidal activity, a long sought goal of filarial parasite drug discovery. In mosquitoes, it has been shown that the presence of Wolbachia can inhibit the transmission of certain viruses, such as Dengue, Chikungunya, Yellow Fever, West Nile, as well as the infectivity of the malaria-causing protozoan, Plasmodium and filarial nematodes. Furthermore, Wolbachia can cause a form of conditional sterility that can be used to suppress populations of mosquitoes and additional medically important insects. Thus Wolbachia, a pandemic endosymbiont offers great potential for elimination of a wide-variety of devastating human diseases.

  9. Gastrointestinal lipoma and malignancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegal, A; Witz, M

    1991-07-01

    Twenty gastrointestinal lipomata in 18 patients are reviewed: 15 located in the colon, 3 in the distal ileum, one in the duodenum, and one in the stomach. They were found most frequently in European-born, elderly women and presented with variable abdominal symptomatology. Four lipomata were removed during endoscopy, the remainder at laparotomy, partial colectomy being performed in 10 cases. All, except 2 subserosal types, were located in the submucosa, and their average size was 2.7 cm diameter. Microscopically, none showed true encapsulation, and all were composed of mature fat cells without cellular atypia. In spite of nonspecific changes at endoscopy, one-half of the cases showed, on microscopic examination, atrophy of the overlying glands and a prominent eosinophilic and/or lymphoplasmocytic infiltration of the lamina propria. Two large subserosal lipomata were associated with Crohn's disease. In addition, in 39% of cases, malignant tumours, either single or double, were present in the gastrointestinal tract or elsewhere. Gastrointestinal "lipomata" are located in the sites of normal fatty infiltration in the elderly; these growths could be a local aging or reactive process of the intestinal wall rather than true neoplasms without any potential malignancy. However, coexistent malignancies should be carefully searched for in elderly patients with colonic lipoma.

  10. Probiotics for Gastrointestinal Conditions: A Summary of the Evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkins, Thad; Sequoia, Jacqueline

    2017-08-01

    Probiotics contain microorganisms, most of which are bacteria similar to the beneficial bacteria that occur naturally in the human gut. Probiotics have been widely studied in a variety of gastrointestinal diseases. The most-studied species include Lactobacillus, Bifidobacterium, and Saccharomyces. However, a lack of clear guidelines on when to use probiotics and the most effective probiotic for different gastrointestinal conditions may be confusing for family physicians and their patients. Probiotics have an important role in the maintenance of immunologic equilibrium in the gastrointestinal tract through the direct interaction with immune cells. Probiotic effectiveness can be species-, dose-, and disease-specific, and the duration of therapy depends on the clinical indication. There is high-quality evidence that probiotics are effective for acute infectious diarrhea, antibiotic-associated diarrhea, Clostridium difficile- associated diarrhea, hepatic encephalopathy, ulcerative colitis, irritable bowel syndrome, functional gastrointestinal disorders, and necrotizing enterocolitis. Conversely, there is evidence that probiotics are not effective for acute pancreatitis and Crohn disease. Probiotics are safe for infants, children, adults, and older patients, but caution is advised in immunologically vulnerable populations.

  11. [Serial episodes of gastric and cecal perforation in a patient with Behcet's disease involving the whole gastrointestinal tract: a case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Dong Yeob; Cheon, Jae Hee; Park, Jae Jun; Kim, Hoguen; Kim, Tae Il; Lee, Yong Chan; Kim, Nam Kyu; Kim, Won Ho

    2009-02-01

    Behcet's disease (BD) has been recognized as multi-systemic chronic vasculitic disorder of recurrent inflammation, characterized by the involvement of multiple organs and resulting in orogenital ulcers, uveitis, and skin lesions. Involvement of the central nervous system, vessels, and intestines in BD often leads to a poor prognosis. Digestive manifestations in BD have been reported in up to 1-60% of cases, although the rate varies in different countries. The most frequent extra-oral sites of gastrointestinal involvement are the ileocecal region and the colon. Gastric or esophageal involvement is reported to be very rare. Moreover, there have been no reports on the simultaneous involvement of the esophagus, stomach, ileum, and colon. Here, we present a 55-year-old Korean man with intestinal BD and multiple ileal and colonic ulcerations complicated by perforation, gastric ulcer with bleeding followed by perforation, and esophageal ulcers with bleeding.

  12. Retrospective study on the diagnostic value of full-thickness biopsies from the stomach and intestines of dogs with chronic gastrointestinal disease symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinschmidt, S; Meneses, F; Nolte, I; Hewicker-Trautwein, M

    2006-11-01

    An evaluation of histologic findings in full-thickness biopsies from the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) from 64 dogs with chronic GIT disease symptoms was performed. In the majority of cases (38/64; 59%), intestinal lymphangiectasia and mucosal edema of unknown etiology were present. In 10 dogs (16%) an eosinophilic colitis, either alone or together with gastritis and/or enteritis, was found. In 5 dogs (8%) lymphocytic-plasmacytic enteritis or enterocolitis was diagnosed. Five dogs (8%) had an intestinal T-cell lymphoma. Samples from the remaining cases were histologically normal or did not allow for a final diagnosis. In contrast to reports about findings in endoscopic biopsies (which often are of varying quality or inadequate for diagnosis), in the majority of cases of this study, examination of full-thickness biopsies from the GIT allowed us to make a definitive histopathologic diagnosis. Furthermore, the study revealed that transmural biopsies are very helpful for diagnosing lymphoma.

  13. MicroRNAs in Human Diseases: From Autoimmune Diseases to Skin, Psychiatric and Neurodegenerative Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Tai-You

    2011-10-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small noncoding RNA molecules that negatively regulate gene expression via degradation or translational repression of their target messenger RNAs (mRNAs). Recent studies have clearly demonstrated that miRNAs play critical roles in several biologic processes, including cell cycle, differentiation, cell development, cell growth, and apoptosis and that miRNAs are highly expressed in regulatory T (Treg) cells and a wide range of miRNAs are involved in the regulation of immunity and in the prevention of autoimmunity. It has been increasingly reported that miRNAs are associated with various human diseases like autoimmune disease, skin disease, neurological disease and psychiatric disease. Recently, the identification of mi- RNAs in skin has added a new dimension in the regulatory network and attracted significant interest in this novel layer of gene regulation. Although miRNA research in the field of dermatology is still relatively new, miRNAs have been the subject of much dermatological interest in skin morphogenesis and in regulating angiogenesis. In addition, miRNAs are moving rapidly onto center stage as key regulators of neuronal development and function in addition to important contributions to neurodegenerative disorder. Moreover, there is now compelling evidence that dysregulation of miRNA networks is implicated in the development and onset of human neruodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease, Tourette's syndrome, Down syndrome, depression and schizophrenia. In this review, I briefly summarize the current studies about the roles of miRNAs in various autoimmune diseases, skin diseases, psychoneurological disorders and mental stress.

  14. Ghrelin and motilin in the gastrointestinal system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chih-Yen; Tsai, Chang-Youh

    2012-01-01

    Human ghrelin and human motilin, belonging to the ghrelin/motilin-related peptide family, share 36% amino acid sequence identity, while the human ghrelin receptor exhibits a remarkable 50% overall identity with the human motilin receptor. In addition to their structural resemblance, ghrelin and motilin are the only two mammalian hormones known to decrease in the postprandial period. Ghrelin and motilin participate in initiating the migrating motor complex in the stomach, and stimulate gastrointestinal motility, accelerate gastric emptying, and induce "gastric hunger". In addition to modulating the release of growth hormone and gut motility, ghrelin plays a crucial role in the secretion and protection of the stomach and colon. Ghrelin mimetics and motilin agonists are currently being developed to reverse gastrointestinal hypomotility disorders. With additional appetite-enhancing, adiposity-promoting, and anti-inflammatory effects, ghrelin and rikkunshito (a traditional Japanese herb enhancing acyl ghrelin signaling) are superior to motilin in the treatment of cancer-related anorexia and cachexia, post-chemotherapy symptoms, rheumatological diseases, age-related frailty, as well as post-operative, septic, and post-burn gut ileus.

  15. Higher Levels of Serum Zonulin May Rather Be Associated with Increased Risk of Obesity and Hyperlipidemia, Than with Gastrointestinal Symptoms or Disease Manifestations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bodil Ohlsson

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Zonulin is considered a biomarker of increased intestinal permeability, and elevated levels have been found in celiac disease. The primary aim of this study was to examine the association between serum zonulin levels and gastrointestinal (GI symptoms, and secondarily, between zonulin levels and anthropometric and metabolic factors. The offspring (n = 363 of the participants of the Malmö Diet and Cancer cardiovascular cohort (MDC-CV were invited to an anthropometric and clinical examination, where fasting plasma glucose levels were measured. Questionnaires about lifestyle factors and medical history were completed along with the Visual Analog Scale for Irritable Bowel Syndrome (VAS-IBS. Zonulin levels were measured in serum by ELISA. Neither GI symptoms nor GI diseases had any influence on zonulin levels. Higher zonulin levels were associated with higher waist circumference (p = 0.003, diastolic blood pressure (p = 0.003, and glucose levels (p = 0.036. Higher zonulin levels were associated with increased risk of overweight (p < 0.001, obesity (p = 0.047, and hyperlipidemia (p = 0.048. We cannot detect altered zonulin levels among individuals reporting GI symptoms or GI diseases, but higher zonulin levels are associated with higher waist circumference, diastolic blood pressure, fasting glucose, and increased risk of metabolic diseases.

  16. Gastrointestinal behavior of itraconazole in humans - Part 1: Supersaturation from a solid dispersion and a cyclodextrin-based solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brouwers, Joachim; Geboers, Sophie; Mols, Raf; Tack, Jan; Augustijns, Patrick

    2017-06-15

    This study evaluated the fasted state gastrointestinal behavior of the lipophilic drug itraconazole, orally administered to healthy volunteers as either a solid dispersion (Sporanox(®) capsules) or a cyclodextrin-based solution (Sporanox(®) solution). Following intake of the drug products, gastric and duodenal fluids were aspirated and analyzed for itraconazole concentration, total content and solubilizing capacity. Release of itraconazole from the solid dispersion generated high and metastable supersaturated levels in the stomach, but the dissolved fraction in the duodenum remained extremely low (median 2.5%). After intake of the itraconazole solution, precipitation was limited in the stomach but pronounced in the small intestine. Still, the dissolved fraction of itraconazole in the duodenum (median 38%) appeared much higher than after intake of the solid dispersion, possibly explaining the improved absorption of itraconazole from the solution. As for the solid dispersion, the absorption-enabling ability of the solution appeared mainly related to increased intraluminal concentrations by means of supersaturation. Cyclodextrin-based solubilization of itraconazole occurred only in the case of limited intraluminal dilution, but did not further enhance itraconazole absorption. The obtained data will help to understand critical aspects of supersaturating drug delivery systems and act as direct reference for the optimization of in vitro simulation tools for gastrointestinal drug behavior. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Heart Disease: A Price Humans Pay for Fertility?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_166826.html Heart Disease: A Price Humans Pay for Fertility? Study finds ... 22, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Certain genes linked to heart disease may also improve your chances of having children, ...

  18. Enrichment of Bifidobacterium longum subsp. infantis ATCC 15697 within the human gut microbiota using alginate-poly-L-lysine-alginate microencapsulation oral delivery system: an in vitro analysis using a computer-controlled dynamic human gastrointestinal model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodes, Laetitia; Tomaro-Duchesneau, Catherine; Saha, Shyamali; Paul, Arghya; Malhotra, Meenakshi; Marinescu, Daniel; Shao, Wei; Kahouli, Imen; Prakash, Satya

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluates alginate-poly-L-lysine-alginate Bifidobacterium longum subsp. infantis ATCC 15697-loaded microcapsules to enrich the human gut microbiota. The cell survival of alginate-poly-L-lysine-alginate microencapsulated B. infantis ATCC 15697 in gastric acid, bile, and through human gastrointestinal transit was investigated, as well as the formulation's effect on the gut microbiota. Results show that microencapsulation increases B. infantis ATCC 15697 cell survival at pH1.0 (33.54 ± 2.80% versus  0.05) colonic microbiota.

  19. Human extrahepatic cytochromes P450: function in xenobiotic metabolism and tissue-selective chemical toxicity in the respiratory and gastrointestinal tracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Xinxin; Kaminsky, Laurence S

    2003-01-01

    Cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes in extrahepatic tissues often play a dominant role in target tissue metabolic activation of xenobiotic compounds. They may also determine drug efficacy and influence the tissue burden of foreign chemicals or bioavailability of therapeutic agents. This review focuses on xenobiotic-metabolizing CYPs of the human respiratory and gastrointestinal tracts, including the lung, trachea, nasal respiratory and olfactory mucosa, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, and colon. Many CYPs are expressed in one or more of these organs, including CYP1A1, CYP1A2, CYP1B1, CYP2A6, CYP2A13, CYP2B6, CYP2C8, CYP2C9, CYP2C18, CYP2C19, CYP2D6, CYP2E1, CYP2F1, CYP2J2, CYP2S1, CYP3A4, CYP3A5, and CYP4B1. Of particular interest are the preferential expression of certain CYPs in the respiratory tract and the regional differences in CYP expression profile in different parts of the gastrointestinal tract. Current research activities on the characterization of CYP expression, function, and regulation in these tissues, as well as future research needs, are discussed.

  20. Reg gene family and human diseases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu-Wei Zhang; Liu-Song Ding; Mao-De Lai

    2003-01-01

    Regenerating gene (Reg or REG) family, within the superfamily of C-type lectin, is mainly involved in the liver,pancreatic, gastric and intestinal cell proliferation or differentiation. Considerable attention has focused on Reg family and its structurally related molecules. Over the last 15 years, 17 members of the Reg family have been cloned and sequenced. They have been considered as members of a conserved protein family sharing structural and some functional properties being involved in injury, inflammation,diabetes and carcinogenesis. We previously identified Reg Ⅳ as a strong candidate for a gene that was highly expressed in colorectal adenoma when compared to normal mucosa based on suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH),reverse Northern blot, semi-quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR)and Northern blot. In situ hybridization results further support that overexpression of Reg Ⅳ may be an early event in colorectal carcinogenesis. We suggest that detection of Reg Ⅳ overexpression might be useful in the early diagnosis of carcinomatous transformation of adenoma.This review summarizes the roles of Reg family in diseases in the literature as well as our recent results of Reg Ⅳ in colorectal cancer. The biological properties of Reg family and its possible roles in human diseases are discussed. We particularly focus on the roles of Reg family as sensitive reactants of tissue injury, prognostic indicators of tumor survival and early biomarkers of carcinogenesis. In addition to our current understanding of Reg gene functions, we postulate that there might be relationships between Reg family and microsatellite instability, apoptosis and cancer with a poor prognosis. Investigation of the correlation between tumor Reg expression and survival rate, and analysis of the Reg gene status in human maliganancies, are required to elucidate the biologic consequences of Reg gene expression, the implications for Reg gene regulation of cell growth, tumorigenesis

  1. A rare cause of recurrent gastrointestinal bleeding: mesenteric hemangioma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazimi, Mircelal; Ulas, Murat; Ibis, Cem; Unver, Mutlu; Ozsan, Nazan; Yilmaz, Funda; Ersoz, Galip; Zeytunlu, Murat; Kilic, Murat; Coker, Ahmet

    2009-01-01

    Lower gastrointestinal hemorrhage accounts for approximately 20% of gastrointestinal hemorrhage. The most common causes of lower gastrointestinal hemorrhage in adults are diverticular disease, inflammatory bowel disease, benign anorectal diseases, intestinal neoplasias, coagulopathies and arterio-venous malformations. Hemangiomas of gastrointestinal tract are rare. Mesenteric hemangiomas are also extremely rare. We present a 25-year-old female who was admitted to the emergency room with recurrent lower gastrointestinal bleeding. An intraluminal bleeding mass inside the small intestinal segment was detected during explorative laparotomy as the cause of the recurrent lower gastrointestinal bleeding. After partial resection of small bowel segment, the histopathologic examination revealed a cavernous hemagioma of mesenteric origin. Although rare, gastrointestinal hemangioma should be thought in differential diagnosis as a cause of recurrent lower gastrointestinal bleeding. PMID:19178725

  2. A rare cause of recurrent gastrointestinal bleeding: mesenteric hemangioma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeytunlu Murat

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Lower gastrointestinal hemorrhage accounts for approximately 20% of gastrointestinal hemorrhage. The most common causes of lower gastrointestinal hemorrhage in adults are diverticular disease, inflammatory bowel disease, benign anorectal diseases, intestinal neoplasias, coagulopathies and arterio-venous malformations. Hemangiomas of gastrointestinal tract are rare. Mesenteric hemangiomas are also extremely rare. We present a 25-year-old female who was admitted to the emergency room with recurrent lower gastrointestinal bleeding. An intraluminal bleeding mass inside the small intestinal segment was detected during explorative laparotomy as the cause of the recurrent lower gastrointestinal bleeding. After partial resection of small bowel segment, the histopathologic examination revealed a cavernous hemagioma of mesenteric origin. Although rare, gastrointestinal hemangioma should be thought in differential diagnosis as a cause of recurrent lower gastrointestinal bleeding.

  3. Intensity of human prion disease surveillance predicts observed disease incidence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.M. Klug (Genevieve); H. Wand (Handan); M. Simpson (Marion); A. Boyd (Alison); M. Law (Matthew); C. Masters (Colin); R. Mateǰ (Radoslav); R. Howley (Rachel); M. Farrell (Michael); M. Breithaupt; I. Zerr (Inga); C.M. van Duijn (Cock); C.A. Ibrahim-Verbaas (Carla); J. Mackenzie; R.G. Will (Robert); J-P. Brandel (Jean-Philippe); A. Alperovitch (Annick); H. Budka (Herbert); G.G. Kovacs (Gabor); G.H. Jansen (Gerard); M. Coulthard (Michael); S.J. Collins (Steven)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Prospective national screening and surveillance programmes serve a range of public health functions. Objectively determining their adequacy and impact on disease may be problematic for rare disorders. We undertook to assess whether objective measures of disease surveillance

  4. Higher Levels of Serum Zonulin May Rather Be Associated with Increased Risk of Obesity and Hyperlipidemia, Than with Gastrointestinal Symptoms or Disease Manifestations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohlsson, Bodil; Orho-Melander, Marju; Nilsson, Peter M.

    2017-01-01

    Zonulin is considered a biomarker of increased intestinal permeability, and elevated levels have been found in celiac disease. The primary aim of this study was to examine the association between serum zonulin levels and gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms, and secondarily, between zonulin levels and anthropometric and metabolic factors. The offspring (n = 363) of the participants of the Malmö Diet and Cancer cardiovascular cohort (MDC-CV) were invited to an anthropometric and clinical examination, where fasting plasma glucose levels were measured. Questionnaires about lifestyle factors and medical history were completed along with the Visual Analog Scale for Irritable Bowel Syndrome (VAS-IBS). Zonulin levels were measured in serum by ELISA. Neither GI symptoms nor GI diseases had any influence on zonulin levels. Higher zonulin levels were associated with higher waist circumference (p = 0.003), diastolic blood pressure (p = 0.003), and glucose levels (p = 0.036). Higher zonulin levels were associated with increased risk of overweight (p waist circumference, diastolic blood pressure, fasting glucose, and increased risk of metabolic diseases. PMID:28282855

  5. [Disturbances of gastrointestinal motility of the stomach in patients with chronic gastric erosions and biliary tract disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svintsitskyĭ, A S; Solovĭova, H A

    2012-12-01

    Article dwells on comparison data about motor function of the stomach in the three groups of patients: with gastric erosions and biliary tract diseases, duodenal ulcer disease, chronic gastritis. It is shown, that patients with gastric erosions and biliary tract diseases are characterized by slower evacuation function of the stomach, hypotonus of the stomach. Frequency of duodenal reflux in this group of patients is very high (85,9 %).

  6. E3B1/ABI-1 Isoforms Are Down-Regulated in Cancers of Human Gastrointestinal Tract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafia A. Baba

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The expression of E3B1/ABI-1 protein and its role in cancer progression and prognosis are largely unknown in the majority of solid tumors. In this study, we examined the expression pattern of E3B1/ABI-1 protein in histologically confirmed cases of esophageal (squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma, gastro-esophageal junction, colorectal cancers and corresponding normal tissues freshly resected from a cohort of 135 patients, by Western Blotting and Immunofluorescence Staining. The protein is present in its phosphorylated form in cells and tissues. Depending on the extent of phosphorylation it is either present in hyper-phosphorylated (M. Wt. 72 kDa form or in hypo-phosphorylated form (M. Wt. 68 kDa and 65 kDa. A thorough analysis revealed that expression of E3B1/ABI-1 protein is significantly decreased in esophageal, gastro-esophageal junction and colorectal carcinomas irrespective of age, gender, dietary and smoking habits of the patients. The decrease in expression of E3B1/ABI-1 was consistently observed for all the three isoforms. However, the decrease in the expression of isoforms varied with different forms of cancers. Down-regulation of E3B1/ABI-1 expression in human carcinomas may play a critical role in tumor progression and in determining disease prognosis.

  7. Nutritional Aspects of Gastrointestinal Wound Healing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Kaushik; Kavalukas, Sandra L.; Barbul, Adrian

    2016-01-01

    Significance: Although the wound healing cascade is similar in many tissues, in the gastrointestinal tract mucosal healing is critical for processes such as inflammatory bowel disease and ulcers and healing of the mucosa, submucosa, and serosal layers is needed for surgical anastomoses and for enterocutaneous fistula. Failure of wound healing can result in complications including infection, prolonged hospitalization, critical illness, organ failure, readmission, new or worsening enterocutaneous fistula, and even death. Recent Advances: Recent advances are relevant for the role of specific micronutrients, such as vitamin D, trace elements, and the interplay between molecules with pro- and antioxidant properties. Our understanding of the role of other small molecules, genes, proteins, and macronutrients is also rapidly changing. Recent work has elucidated relationships between oxidative stress, nutritional supplementation, and glucose metabolism. Thresholds have also been established to define adequate preoperative nutritional status. Critical Issues: Further work is needed to establish standards and definitions for measuring the extent of wound healing, particularly for inflammatory bowel disease and ulcers. In addition, a mounting body of evidence has determined the need for adequate preoperative nutritional supplementation for elective surgical procedures. Future Directions: A large portion of current work is restricted to model systems in rodents. Therefore, additional clinical and translational research is needed in this area to promote gastrointestinal wound healing in humans, particularly those suffering from critical illness, patients with enterocutaneous fistula, inflammatory bowel disease, and ulcers, and those undergoing surgical procedures. PMID:27867755

  8. Gastrointestinal lesions associated with spondyloarthropathies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ambrogio Orlando; Sara Renna; Giovanni Perricone; Mario Cottone

    2009-01-01

    Subclinical gut inflammation has been described in up to two-thirds of patients with spondyloarthropathies (SpA). Arthritis represents an extra-intestinal manifestation of several gastrointestinal diseases,including inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), Whipple's disease, Behcet's disease, celiac disease, intestinal bypass surgery, parasitic infections of the gut and pseudomembranous colitis. Moreover about twothirds of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug users demonstrate intestinal inflammation. Arthritis may manifest as a peripheral or axial arthritis. The spondyloarthropathy family consists of the following entities:ankylosing spondylitis, undifferentiated spondyloar thr i t is, react ive ar thr i t is, psor iat i c arthritis, spondyloarthritis associated with IBD,juvenile onset spondyloarthritis. This topic reviews the major gastrointestinal manifestations that can occur in patients with SpA and in nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs users.

  9. The Microbiome: The Trillions of Microorganisms That Maintain Health and Cause Disease in Humans and Companion Animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues Hoffmann, A; Proctor, L M; Surette, M G; Suchodolski, J S

    2016-01-01

    The microbiome is the complex collection of microorganisms, their genes, and their metabolites, colonizing the human and animal mucosal surfaces, digestive tract, and skin. It is now well known that the microbiome interacts with its host, assisting in digestion and detoxification, supporting immunity, protecting against pathogens, and maintaining health. Studies published to date have demonstrated that healthy individuals are often colonized with different microbiomes than those with disease involving various organ systems. This review covers a brief history of the development of the microbiome field, the main objectives of the Human Microbiome Project, and the most common microbiomes inhabiting the human respiratory tract, companion animal digestive tract, and skin in humans and companion animals. The main changes in the microbiomes in patients with pulmonary, gastrointestinal, and cutaneous lesions are described.

  10. Anti-inflammatory properties of fruit juices enriched with pine bark extract in an in vitro model of inflamed human intestinal epithelium: the effect of gastrointestinal digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frontela-Saseta, Carmen; López-Nicolás, Rubén; González-Bermúdez, Carlos A; Martínez-Graciá, Carmen; Ros-Berruezo, Gaspar

    2013-03-01

    Enrichment of fruit juices with pine bark extract (PBE) could be a strategy to compensate for phenolic losses during the gastrointestinal digestion. A coculture system with Caco-2 cells and RAW 264.7 macrophages was established as an in vitro model of inflamed human intestinal epithelium for evaluating the anti-inflammatory capacity of fruit juices enriched with PBE (0.5 g L(-1)) before and after in vitro digestion. The digestion of both PBE-enriched pineapple and red fruit juice led to significant changes in most of the analysed phenolic compounds. The in vitro inflammatory state showed cell barrier dysfunction and overproduction of IL-8, nitric oxide (NO) and reactive oxygen species (ROS). In the inflamed cells, incubation with nondigested samples reduced (Pproperties of PBE-enriched fruit juices decreased after digestion; further research on the bioavailability of the assayed compounds is needed to properly assess their usefulness for the treatment of gut inflammation.

  11. 精神心理因素与功能性胃肠疾病的研究进展%Psychological Factors and Functional Gastrointestinal Disease Research Progress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邱慧彬

    2011-01-01

    Functional gastrointestional disorders( FGIDs )is a variety of gastrointestinal symptoms which can not be explained with organic diseases or abnormal biochemical or pathological index so far. WHO proposed that "health is not only the absence of disease, but also physical health, mental health, good social and moral health." Modern medicine advocates biological-psychological-social medical model,making exploration and study of psychological factors a hot research point in the occurrence and development of diseases, especially in this type of psychosomatic disease. A large number of studies have shown that life events, mental stress, emotional disorders and other psychological factors seriously affect the genesis, progress and treatment of these diseases. Here is to review the research status of spiritual and psychological factors influence on FGIDs and the possible meachanisms, psychotherapy prognosis on FGIDs.%功能性胃肠病(FGIDs)是一类具有消化道症状而目前暂不能用器质性病变或生化、病理指标异常来解释的疾病.WHO提出"健康不仅是没有疾病,而且包括躯体健康、心理健康、社会适应良好和道德健康".现代医学倡导生物-心理-社会医学模式,使得精神心理因素在疾病的发生、发展中的作用成为研究热点之一.不同的精神心理因素影响这类疾病的发生、进展和治疗.现就精神心理因素对FGIDs的影响及可能机制和心理治疗对FGID预后的研究现状予以综述.

  12. Down-regulation of human leukocyte antigens class I on peripheral T lymphocytes and NK cells from subjects in region of high-incidence gastrointestinal tumor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Zhi-mian; LI Ying-jie; GUAN Xiao; YANG Xiao-yun; GAO Xi-mei; YANG Xiao-jing; WANG Li-shui; ZOU Xiong

    2011-01-01

    Background Many types of human tumors can suppress the immune system to enhance their survival. Loss or down-regulation of human leukocyte antigens (HLA) class I on tumors is considered to be a major mechanism of tumor immune escape. Our previous studies found that HLA class I on peripheral-blood mononuclear cells was significantly lower in gastric cancer patients. The present study made an analysis of HLA class I expression on peripheral-blood T lymphocytes and NK cells from subjects of Lijiadian village, a village with high-incidence gastrointestinal tumor. Methods A total of 181 villagers from Lijiadian village and 153 normal controls from the Department of Health Examination Center were enrolled in this study. Using a multi-tumor markers detection system, these villagers were divided into two groups: high-risk group (tumor markers positive group) and low-risk group (tumor markers negative group). The percentage of T lymphocytes and NK cells and levels of HLA class I on their surface were determined in these subjects by flow cytometry.Results Percentages of T lymphocytes and NK cells in peripheral-blood mononuclear cells did not vary with age. The expression level of HLA class I on peripheral T lymphocytes and NK cells was not affected by age or gender, but was significantly down-regulated in Lijiadian villagers (P<0.05), especially on the surface of NK cells (P<0.01). Compared with the low-risk group, there was a significant reduction of HLA class I on peripheral T lymphocytes (P <0.05) and NK cells (P <0.05) in the high-risk group.Conclusions HLA class I on peripheral T lymphocytes and NK cells may be involved in tumorigenesis and development of gastrointestinal tumor, and understanding their changes in expression may provide new insights into the mechanism of tumor immunity.

  13. Recent efforts to model human diseases in vivo in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfleger, Cathie M; Reiter, Lawrence T

    2008-01-01

    Upon completion of sequencing the Drosophila genome, it was estimated that 61% of human disease-associated genes had sequence homologs in flies, and in some diseases such as cancer, the number was as high as 68%. We now know that as many as 75% of the genes associated with genetic disease have counterparts in Drosophila. Using better tools for mutation detection, association studies and whole genome analysis the number of human genes associated with genetic disease is steadily increasing. These detection efforts are outpacing the ability to assign function and understand the underlying cause of the disease at the molecular level. Drosophila models can therefore advance human disease research in a number of ways by: establishing the normal role of these gene products during development, elucidating the mechanism underlying disease pathology, and even identifying candidate therapeutic agents for the treatment of human disease. At the 49(th) Annual Drosophila Research Conference in San Diego this year, a number of labs presented their exciting findings on Drosophila models of human disease in both platform presentations and poster sessions. Here we can only briefly review some of these developments, and we apologize that we do not have the time or space to review all of the findings presented which use Drosophila to understand human disease etiology.

  14. Human pluripotent stem cells: applications and challenges in neurological diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youssef eHIBAOUI

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The ability to generate human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs holds great promise for the understanding and the treatment of human neurological diseases in modern medicine. The hPSCs are considered for their in vitro use as research tools to provide relevant cellular model for human diseases, drug discovery and toxicity assays and for their in vivo use in regenerative medicine applications. In this review, we highlight recent progress, promises and challenges of hPSC applications in human neurological disease modelling and therapies.

  15. Modeling human disease using organotypic cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schweiger, Pawel J; Jensen, Kim B

    2016-01-01

    Reliable disease models are needed in order to improve quality of healthcare. This includes gaining better understanding of disease mechanisms, developing new therapeutic interventions and personalizing treatment. Up-to-date, the majority of our knowledge about disease states comes from in vivo...

  16. Human intestinal microbiota and diseases%人体肠道细菌群落与疾病

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    翁幸鐾; 糜祖煌

    2011-01-01

    肠道定植有100万亿细菌,这占到了人体细菌总量的绝大多数.一旦肠道菌群失调,就会产生一系列疾病.本文介绍了人体肠道细菌群落异常与5种肠道疾病和5种肠道外疾病的关系,并推荐用益生菌和益生素来治疗人体肠道细菌群落异常.为了解人体肠道细菌群落和人体健康的关系,美国国立卫生研究院已启动了人类微生物组计划,欧洲委员会也正在资助人类肠道宏基因组学项目,而中国在此项目中亦取得了可喜进步.基于肠道宏基因组的个体化医疗时代已不再遥远.%Gut homes 100 trillion microorganisms-the vast majority of our complement of microbes.Shifts in the microbial species that reside in our intestines have been associated with a long list of pathologies.The review introduces a strong correlation between disrupted microbial composition and 5 kinds of gastrointestinal problems as well as 5 kinds of extra-gastrointestinal problems, and recommends probiotics and prebiotics to treat microbiota-associated illness.In order to find out the relationship between human intestinal microbiota and diseases, the National Institutes of Health launched the Human Microbiome Project at the end of 2007, and the European Commission is funding a related effort, called Metagenomics of the Human Intestinal Tract, in which China makes delightful progress.In sum, individual therapy based on intestinal metagenomics is coming.

  17. 益生菌在消化系统感染性疾病中的应用%Prevention and management of gastrointestinal infections diseases by probiotics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    解奕瑞; 阮冰

    2011-01-01

    益生菌具有维护肠道微生态平衡、提高定植抗力及调节免疫等功能,被应用于诸多感染性疾病的临床治疗.本文着重概述益生菌在消化系统感染性疾病中的临床应用效果,包括外科大手术、感染性腹泻、抗生素相关性腹泻、坏死性肠炎、幽门螺旋杆菌感染、腹膜炎.%The use of probiotics in the management of infectious diseases is supported by their ability to stabilize the gut microbiota composition, enhance colonization resistance, and modulate immune function. The review focuses on the efficacy of probiotics used in gastrointestinal selected infections diseases including: infectious complications in surgery; infectious diarrhea; antibiotic associated diarrhea; necrotizing enterocolitis; helicobacter pylori infection and spontaneous bacterial peritonitis.

  18. Association of H pylori cagA and vacA genotypes and IL-8 gene polymorphisms with clinical outcome of infection in Iranian patients with gastrointestinal diseases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Eskandar Kamali-Sarvestani; Abdulah Bazargani; Malihe Masoudian; Kamran Lankarani; Ali-Reza Taghavi; Mehdi Saberifiroozi

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To find out if a functional promoter polymorphism in the IL-8 gene along with cagA status and polymorphisms in vac4 gene influence the type of diseases in Iranian patients infected by H pylori.METHODS: IL-8 -251 A/T polymorphism was genotypedby oligonucleotide allele specific PCR (ASO-PCR) in a sample of 233 patients with H pylori infection undergoing upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. The presence of cagA gene and polymorphisms in vacA gene was also determined by PCR. Association of these genetic polymorphisms with the development of gastritis, peptic ulcers as well as gastric cancer was tested. RESULTS: When the patients with different clinical manifestations were compared according to the presence of cagA gene or various vacA genotypes, only the vacA genotypes were significantly different among gastritis, peptic ulcer and gastric cancer patients (x2= 17.8; P =0.001). Furthermore, there was a significant difference in the frequency of IL-8 -251 A/T genotypes between patients with gastric cancer and benign diseases (x2=10.47; P = 0.005).CONCLUSION: The IL-8 -251 A/T polymorphism and the polymorphisms in H pylori vacA gene are involved in limiting the infection outcome to gastritis and peptic ulcer or in favoring cancer onset in Iranian patients.

  19. 胶囊内镜在消化道疾病的临床应用%Clinical Application of Capsule Endoscopy in Gastrointestinal Diseases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李萍; 郑苏云; 杨敏

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨国产OMOM胶囊内镜在消化道疾病的诊断价值.方法 总结分析曲靖市第一人民医院消化内科108例行胶囊内镜检查的临床资料.结果 108例均完成检查,发现病灶82例(75.9%),食道病变7例,胃病变39例,十二指肠球部病变24例,小肠病变64例,结肠病变12例.胶囊平均工作时间7.8 h,在食道内平均上作时间为34 s;胃内平均工作时54 min 42 s,小肠平均工作时间为3 h 53 min;结肠平均工作时间2 h48min,胶囊排出体外平均时间为35 h.结论 OMOM胶囊是一种无创、无交叉感染的新型的消化道检查方法,对消化道疾病特别是小肠疾病有较高的诊断价值.%Objective To investigate the diagnostic value of domestic OMOM capsule endoscopy in gastrointestinal diseases. Mothod We summarized and analysed the clinical data of 108 patients who received capsule endoscopy in our hospital. Results All the 108 patients completed capsule endoscopy inspection,pathological changes (75.9%) were found in 82 patients, including 7 patients with esophagus disease, 39 patients with gastric disease, 24 patients with duodenal disease, 64 patients with small intestine disease and 12 patients with colon disease. The average working time of capsule was 7.8 h, including 34 s in esophagus, 54 min 42s in stomach, 3 h 53min in small intestine, 2 h 4groin in clone. The average time of the capsule excreted from the body was 35 h. Conclusion OMOM capsule endoscopy is a new noninvasive inspection method for digestive tract without cross-infection, and has high value in diagnosis of digestive diseases, especially for small intestine disease.

  20. Temporal aspects of the pathophysiology of human ulcer disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarquini, B; Vener, K J

    1987-01-01

    In this paper, a peptic ulcer is considered from the perspective that it is representative of a heterogeneous group of multifactorial determined or influenced disorders having a common pathomorphologic expression. This heterogeneity involves pathophysiological attributes, including both functional (including secretory and motility events and their respective driving mechanisms) and morphologic alterations that relate to mucosal resistance. Patients with duodenal ulcer (DU) have been observed to exhibit alterations, in comparison to normal subjects, in the circadian rhythm characteristics of several gastrointestinal functions. Prominent among these are altered amplitudes of several circadian-organized gastric variables, such as intragastric pH, gastrin, pepsinogen and gastric mitotic index. With respect to any given variable, a reduced group amplitude (a measure of one-half the peak-trough difference of a 24-hr rhythm) could signify an increased dispersion of acrophases (the location of the peak of a circadian rhythm along the 24-hr time scale) reflecting interindividual variation in synchronization schedules, sleep-wake patterns, or chronobiologic alterations. A reduced interindividual amplitude further supports the concept of the heterogeneity of peptic disease. A decrease in the intraindividual amplitude of certain gastric rhythms implies an altered temporal pattern over the 24 hr. This is consistent with the hypothesis of a decrease in the amount of time available for recovery of a given function or set of integrated functions, and hence, increased susceptibility to mucosal injury. Normal high-amplitude variation in gastrointestinal functioning over the 24 hr appears to be required for natural restoration of the gut.

  1. In-situ visualization and evaluation of neoplastic lesions of the human gastrointestinal tract using endoscopic optical coherence tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rollins, Andrew M.; Westphal, Volker; Das, Ananya; Pfau, Patrick; Chak, Amitabh; Wong, Richard C. K.; Sivak, Michael J., Jr.; Izatt, Joseph A.

    2001-06-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a novel biomedical imaging technique that uses low-coherence optical interferometry to obtain micron-scale resolution cross- sectional images of tissue microstructure noninvasively. OCT fills a valuable niche in imaging of tissue structure, providing subsurface imaging with high spatial resolution (on the order of 10 micrometers) and penetration depths of 1 - 2 mm with no contact or matching medium needed between the probe and the tissue. An OCT system for gastrointestinal (GI) endoscopy has been developed using a small-diameter rotary-scanning probe compatible with standard GI endoscopes and capable of imaging in real-time. To date more than 100 volunteers have been imaged during routine upper and lower endoscopic procedures. Results of imaging in normal organs have demonstrated visualization of morphological layers (epithelium, lamina propria, muscularis mucosa, submucosa, muscularis propria) and microscopic structures (glands, villi, crypts, vessels) in all endoscopically accessible GI organs. It has been observed in more than 30 patients that the EOCT appearance of Barrett's mucosa is clearly differentiable from normal gastric or esophageal mucosa. Furthermore, the EOCT appearance of dysplasia and neoplastic lesions, including adenocarcenoma in Barrett's and villous tumor in colon have been observed and are under investigation. Preliminary data indicate the potential of EOCT for routine clinical diagnostics in GI tissues, including early cancer detection and staging and detection of tumor margins.

  2. How do they stick together? Bacterial adhesins implicated in the binding of bacteria to the human gastrointestinal mucins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ringot-Destrez, Bélinda; Kalach, Nicolas; Mihalache, Adriana; Gosset, Pierre; Michalski, Jean-Claude; Léonard, Renaud; Robbe-Masselot, Catherine

    2017-04-15

    The gastrointestinal mucosal surface is the primary interface between internal host tissues and the vast microbiota. Mucins, key components of mucus, are high-molecular-weight glycoproteins characterized by the presence of many O-linked oligosaccharides to the core polypeptide. They play many biological functions, helping to maintain cellular homeostasis and to establish symbiotic relationships with complex microbiota. Mucin O-glycans exhibit a huge variety of peripheral sequences implicated in the binding of bacteria to the mucosal tissues, thereby playing a key role in the selection of specific species and in the tissue tropism displayed by commensal and pathogenic bacteria. Bacteria have evolved numerous strategies to colonize host mucosae, and among these are modulation of expression of cell surface adhesins which allow bacteria to bind to mucins. However, despite well structurally characterized adhesins and lectins, information on the nature and structure of oligosaccharides recognized by bacteria is still disparate. This review summarizes the current knowledge on the structure of epithelial mucin O-glycans and the interaction between host and commensal or pathogenic bacteria mediated by mucins. © 2017 The Author(s); published by Portland Press Limited on behalf of the Biochemical Society.

  3. Encapsulation of probiotic Bifidobacterium longum BIOMA 5920 with alginate-human-like collagen and evaluation of survival in simulated gastrointestinal conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Ran; Zhu, Xiao-Li; Fan, Dai-Di; Mi, Yu; Yang, Chan-Yuan; Jia, Xin

    2011-12-01

    Alginate (ALg)-human-like collagen (HLC) microspheres were prepared by the technology of electrostatic droplet generation in order to develop a biocompatible vehicle for probiotic bacteria. Microparticles were spherical with mean particle size of 400μm. The encapsulation efficiency (EE) of ALg-HLC microspheres could reach 92-99.2%. Water-soluble and fibrous human-like collagen is combined with sodium alginate through intermolecular hydrogen bonding and electrostatic force which were investigated by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thus the matrix of ALg-HLC was very stable. Bifidobacterium longum BIOMA 5920, as a kind of probiotic bacteria, was encapsulated with alginate-human-like collagen to survive and function in simulated gastrointestinal juice. Microparticles were very easy to degradation in simulated intestinal juices. After incubation in simulated gastric (pH 2.0, 2h), the encapsulated B. longum BIOMA 5920 numbers were 4.81 ± 0.38 log cfu/g. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Can Gastrointestinal Carcinoid Tumors Be Found Early?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... may also be found when parts of the gastrointestinal system are removed to treat other diseases. For example, a person with stomach pain or bleeding may have a test called an upper endoscopy to look for an ulcer. In this ...

  5. Histiocytic disorders of the gastrointestinal tract

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Detlefsen, Sönke; Fagerberg, Christina R; Ousager, Lilian Bomme;

    2013-01-01

    , xanthogranulomatous inflammation, juvenile xanthogranuloma, Whipple's disease and malacoplakia are discussed as well. We also briefly go into primary histiocytic disorders of neoplastic origin, systemic diseases with secondary gastrointestinal tract involvement like the lysosomal storage disorders, and pigmented......The morphologic diagnosis of histiocytic lesions of the gastrointestinal tract can be challenging, and several disorders have to be considered in their differential diagnosis. We present one of the most widespread examples of xanthomatosis of the gastrointestinal tract published so far and give...... a short review on histiocytic disorders of the gastrointestinal tract in general. The primary histiocytic disorders of uncertain origin, Rosai-Dorfman disease, Langerhans cell histiocytosis, and Erdheim-Chester disease, are addressed. Reactive and infectious conditions such as xanthomatosis...

  6. Multinational corporations and infectious disease: Embracing human rights management techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salcito, Kendyl; Singer, Burton H; Weiss, Mitchell G; Winkler, Mirko S; Krieger, Gary R; Wielga, Mark; Utzinger, Jürg

    2014-01-01

    Global health institutions have called for governments, international organisations and health practitioners to employ a human rights-based approach to infectious diseases. The motivation for a human rights approach is clear: poverty and inequality create conditions for infectious diseases to thrive, and the diseases, in turn, interact with social-ecological systems to promulgate poverty, inequity and indignity. Governments and intergovernmental organisations should be concerned with the control and elimination of these diseases, as widespread infections delay economic growth and contribute to higher healthcare costs and slower processes for realising universal human rights. These social determinants and economic outcomes associated with infectious diseases should interest multinational companies, partly because they have bearing on corporate productivity and, increasingly, because new global norms impose on companies a responsibility to respect human rights, including the right to health. We reviewed historical and recent developments at the interface of infectious diseases, human rights and multinational corporations. Our investigation was supplemented with field-level insights at corporate capital projects that were developed in areas of high endemicity of infectious diseases, which embraced rights-based disease control strategies. Experience and literature provide a longstanding business case and an emerging social responsibility case for corporations to apply a human rights approach to health programmes at global operations. Indeed, in an increasingly globalised and interconnected world, multinational corporations have an interest, and an important role to play, in advancing rights-based control strategies for infectious diseases. There are new opportunities for governments and international health agencies to enlist corporate business actors in disease control and elimination strategies. Guidance offered by the United Nations in 2011 that is widely embraced

  7. Distribution of obestatin and ghrelin in human tissues: immunoreactive cells in the gastrointestinal tract, pancreas, and mammary glands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grönberg, Malin; Tsolakis, Apostolos V; Magnusson, Linda

    2008-01-01

    Obestatin and ghrelin are two peptides derived from the same prohormone. It is well established that ghrelin is produced by endocrine cells in the gastric mucosa. However, the distribution of human obestatin immunoreactive cells is not thoroughly characterized. A polyclonal antibody...... that specifically recognizes human obestatin was produced. Using this antibody and a commercial antibody vs ghrelin, the distribution of obestatin and ghrelin immunoreactive cells was determined in a panel of human tissues using immunohistochemistry. The two peptides were detected in the mucosa...

  8. Extracellular RNAs: development as biomarkers of human disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph F. Quinn

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Ten ongoing studies designed to test the possibility that extracellular RNAs may serve as biomarkers in human disease are described. These studies, funded by the NIH Common Fund Extracellular RNA Communication Program, examine diverse extracellular body fluids, including plasma, serum, urine and cerebrospinal fluid. The disorders studied include hepatic and gastric cancer, cardiovascular disease, chronic kidney disease, neurodegenerative disease, brain tumours, intracranial haemorrhage, multiple sclerosis and placental disorders. Progress to date and the plans for future studies are outlined.

  9. Gastrointestinal events with clopidogrel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grove, Erik Lerkevang; Würtz, Morten; Schwarz, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Clopidogrel prevents cardiovascular events, but has been linked with adverse gastrointestinal (GI) complications, particularly bleeding events.......Clopidogrel prevents cardiovascular events, but has been linked with adverse gastrointestinal (GI) complications, particularly bleeding events....

  10. Protein kinase CK2 in human diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guerra, Barbara; Issinger, Olaf-Georg

    2008-01-01

    in various disease processes including cancer has been gained in recent years, and the present review may help to further elucidate its aberrant role in many disease states. Its peculiar structural features [3-9] may be advantageous in designing tailor-made compounds with the possibility to specifically...

  11. QUANTITATIVE DETERMINATION OF MAIN GROUPS OF SUBSTANCES IN GRANULES ON THE BASIS OF MEDICINAL VEGETABLE RAW MATERIAL FOR TREATING GASTROINTESTINAL DISEASES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spiridonov S.V.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In the last time a significant increasing of gastrointestinal tract diseases has been observed. The poor quality and irrational feeding, environmental pollution, psychological and other factors is the causes of this. Very often the gastrointestinal tract has a multifactorial pathological effects, also affecting the hepatosphere organs and urogenital system. Also a great importance have accompanying disorders of the central nervous system. Thus we must to require a comprehensive approach to the creation of drugs for use in gastroenterology, the assortment range of which should be expanded. Advantageous position in this case takes a phytotherapy using drugs based on medicinal plant raw material, which acting on the main areas of the pathological process. For this purpose the scientists from the National University of Pharmacy (Kharkov, Ukraine was created a complex herbal drug in the form of granules under the code name "Poligerbagastrin", includes the following types of medicinal plant raw material powders: helichrysum arenarium flowers, corn stigmas, horsetail grass, knotweed grass, horse chestnut seeds, licorice roots and wheat bran. Materials and methods To determine the quantity of biologically active substances the method of spectrophotometry in the visible and UV spectral region was used. This method is well studied and available, equipped with high-precision hardware. He also described in the Ukrainian normative documents and contained in the world's leading pharmacopoeias. For determination was used the unifieds methods, which shown in pharmacopoeia monographs and other reference literature. Determination was carried out with a spectrophotometer HP 8543 UV-VIZ of «Hewlett Packard» company, USA. Results and discussion For the quantitative determination of flavonoids was used a methodology, which based on the complexation reaction of isolated by acid hydrolysis and extraction with ethylacetate hydrolysis products with aluminum chloride in