WorldWideScience

Sample records for human frontier science

  1. Snowmass 2013 Computing Frontier: Accelerator Science

    CERN Document Server

    Spentzouris, P; Joshi, C; Amundson, J; An, W; Bruhwiler, D L; Cary, J R; Cowan, B; Decyk, V K; Esarey, E; Fonseca, R A; Friedman, A; Geddes, C G R; Grote, D P; Kourbanis, I; Leemans, W P; Lu, W; Mori, W B; Ng, C; Qiang, Ji; Roberts, T; Ryne, R D; Schroeder, C B; Silva, L O; Tsung, F S; Vay, J -L; Vieira, J

    2013-01-01

    This is the working summary of the Accelerator Science working group of the Computing Frontier of the Snowmass meeting 2013. It summarizes the computing requirements to support accelerator technology in both Energy and Intensity Frontiers.

  2. Frontiers in Ecosystem Science: Energizing the Research Agenda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weathers, K. C.; Groffman, P. M.; VanDolah, E.

    2014-12-01

    Ecosystem science has a long history as a core component of the discipline of Ecology, and although topics of research have fluctuated over the years, it retains a clear identity and continues to be a vital field. As science is becoming more interdisciplinary, particularly the science of global environmental change, ecosystem scientists are addressing new and important questions at the interface of multiple disciplines. Over the last two years, we organized a series of workshops and discussion groups at multiple scientific-society meetings, including AGU to identify frontiers in ecosystem research. The workshops featured short "soapbox" presentations where speakers highlighted key questions in ecosystem science. The presentations were recorded (video and audio) and subjected to qualitative text analysis for identification of frontier themes, attendees completed surveys, and a dozen additional "key informants" were interviewed about their views about frontiers of the discipline. Our effort produced 253 survey participants; the two largest groups of participants were full professors (24%) and graduate students (24%); no other specific group was > 10%. Formal text analysis of the soapbox presentations produced three major themes; "frontiers," "capacity building," and "barriers to implementation" with four or five sub-themes within each major theme. Key "frontiers" included; 1) better understanding of the drivers of ecosystem change, 2) better understanding of ecosystem process and function, 3) human dimensions of ecosystem science, and 4) problem-solving/applied research. Under "capacity building," key topics included: holistic approaches, cross-disciplinary collaboration, public support for research, data, training, and technology investment. Under "barriers" key topics included: limitations in theoretical thinking, insufficient funding/support, fragmentation across discipline, data access and data synthesis. In-depth interviews with 13 experts validated findings

  3. Annual symposium on Frontiers in Science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Metzger, N.; Fulton, K.R.

    1998-12-31

    This final report summarizes activities conducted for the National Academy of Sciences' Annual Symposium on Frontiers of Science with support from the US Department of Energy for the period July 1, 1993 through May 31, 1998. During the report period, five Frontiers of Science symposia were held at the Arnold and Mabel Beckman Center of the National Academies of Sciences and Engineering. For each Symposium, an organizing committee appointed by the NAS President selected and planned the eight sessions for the Symposium and identified general participants for invitation by the NAS President. These Symposia accomplished their goal of bringing together outstanding younger (age 45 or less) scientists to hear presentations in disciplines outside their own and to discuss exciting advances and opportunities in their fields in a format that encourages, and allows adequate time for, informal one-on-one discussions among participants. Of the 458 younger scientists who participated, over a quarter (124) were women. Participant lists for all symposia (1993--1997) are attached. The scientific participants were leaders in basic research from academic, industrial, and federal laboratories in such disciplines as astronomy, astrophysics, atmospheric science, biochemistry, cell biology, chemistry, computer science, earth sciences, engineering, genetics, material sciences, mathematics, microbiology, neuroscience, physics, and physiology. For each symposia, the 24 speakers and discussants on the program were urged to focus their presentations on current cutting-edge research in their field for a scientifically sophisticated but non-specialist audience, and to provide a sense of the experimental data--what is actually measured and seen in the various fields. They were also asked to address questions such as: What are the major research problems and unique tools in their field? What are the current limitations on advances as well as the frontiers? Speakers were asked to provide a

  4. Research frontiers in the physical sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, J. M. T.

    2002-12-01

    As a prestigious generalist journal with a high scholarly reputation and a long influential history, the Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society (Series A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences), is an ideal vehicle for charting research frontiers across the physical sciences. It is the world's longest running scientific journal, and all issues since its foundation in 1665 are archived electronically by JSTOR in the USA (see http://www.jstor.org/) and are accessible through most university libraries. This archive gives facsimile access, and search facilities, to the works of many famous scientists. In this brief editorial I give first an introduction to the special Christmas issues by young scientists, followed by an overview of the fields covered.

  5. Human Being: the Next Space Frontier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnould, J.

    2002-01-01

    Since forty years and after the (mythical) speech of John F Kennedy, space offers a new frontier for the human odyssey. But, for this enterprise itself, the human person constitutes without any doubt a frontier as delicate to approach than necessary to cross, if we plan to give a continuation to the Apollo missions and the permanent occupation of a station in terrestrial orbit. Without neglecting the impact of the future space programs on philosophies and cultures of the humanity which stays on Earth, we have to pay a special attention to the consequences for the astronauts of long-time and far from Earth missions of exploration. These consequences are in connection with three types of human relation: - First, the relations of the human being with the Earth. How an inhabitant of the Earth will - Then, the relations of the crew members among themselves. Today, we do not know yet - Finally, the relations of the human persons with themselves. How to manage this singular To these three types of question, we are today able to give only partial answers. However, they would not have to be drawn aside : we are conscious of the human responsibility in the success or the failure of the future missions, inhabited or not. In addition, the answers which will offer search on inhabited flights of long duration and at long distance will be able also to help to live better together on the Earth.

  6. Leadership: a new frontier in conservation science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manolis, Jim C; Chan, Kai M; Finkelstein, Myra E; Stephens, Scott; Nelson, Cara R; Grant, Jacqualine B; Dombeck, Michael P

    2009-08-01

    Leadership is a critical tool for expanding the influence of conservation science, but recent advances in leadership concepts and practice remain underutilized by conservation scientists. Furthermore, an explicit conceptual foundation and definition of leadership in conservation science are not available in the literature. Here we drew on our diverse leadership experiences, our reading of leadership literature, and discussions with selected conservation science leaders to define conservation-science leadership, summarize an exploratory set of leadership principles that are applicable to conservation science, and recommend actions to expand leadership capacity among conservation scientists and practitioners. We define 2 types of conservation-science leadership: shaping conservation science through path-breaking research, and advancing the integration of conservation science into policy, management, and society at large. We focused on the second, integrative type of leadership because we believe it presents the greatest opportunity for improving conservation effectiveness. We identified 8 leadership principles derived mainly from the "adaptive leadership" literature: recognize the social dimension of the problem; cycle frequently through action and reflection; get and maintain attention; combine strengths of multiple leaders; extend your reach through networks of relationships; strategically time your effort; nurture productive conflict; and cultivate diversity. Conservation scientists and practitioners should strive to develop themselves as leaders, and the Society for Conservation Biology, conservation organizations, and academia should support this effort through professional development, mentoring, teaching, and research.

  7. Mapping Frontier Research in the Humanities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Whereas the classical sciences were organized around academic disciplines, knowledge production today is increasingly interdisciplinary and distributed across a variety of societal sectors. Classical disciplines have not only specialized and multiplied; they are increasingly interacting with extra...... of impact and styles of reasoning, both in classical and interdisciplinary fields of the humanities. From this perspective, a more composite picture of human culture, language and history can emerge from humanities research. It goes beyond the picture of rational agents, and situates human interaction...

  8. Human Gene Therapy: Genes without Frontiers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Eric J.

    2002-01-01

    Describes the latest advancements and setbacks in human gene therapy to provide reference material for biology teachers to use in their science classes. Focuses on basic concepts such as recombinant DNA technology, and provides examples of human gene therapy such as severe combined immunodeficiency syndrome, familial hypercholesterolemia, and…

  9. Optical synoptic telescopes: new science frontiers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyson, J. Anthony

    2010-07-01

    Over the past decade, sky surveys such as the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) have proven the power of large data sets for answering fundamental astrophysical questions. This observational progress, based on a synergy of advances in telescope construction, detectors, and information technology, has had a dramatic impact on nearly all fields of astronomy, and areas of fundamental physics. The next-generation instruments, and the surveys that will be made with them, will maintain this revolutionary progress. The hardware and computational technical challenges and the exciting science opportunities are attracting scientists and engineers from astronomy, optics, low-light-level detectors, high-energy physics, statistics, and computer science. The history of astronomy has taught us repeatedly that there are surprises whenever we view the sky in a new way. This will be particularly true of discoveries emerging from a new generation of sky surveys. Imaging data from large ground-based active optics telescopes with sufficient étendue can address many scientific missions simultaneously. These new investigations will rely on the statistical precision obtainable with billions of objects. For the first time, the full sky will be surveyed deep and fast, opening a new window on a universe of faint moving and distant exploding objects as well as unraveling the mystery of dark energy.

  10. Astronomy at the frontiers of science

    CERN Document Server

    2011-01-01

    Astronomy is by nature an interdisciplinary activity: it involves mathematics, physics, chemistry and biology. Astronomers use (and often develop) the latest technology, the fastest computers and the most refined software.  In this book twenty-two leading scientists from nine countries talk about how astronomy interacts with these other sciences. They describe modern instruments used in astronomy and the relations between astronomy and technology, industry, politics and philosophy. They also discuss what it means to be an astronomer, the history of astronomy, and the place of astronomy in society today.   The book contains twenty chapters grouped in four parts: ASTRONOMY AND PHYSICS discusses the place of astronomy among various branches of (mostly high-energy) physics. ASTRONOMY IN SOCIETY describes not only the historical context of astronomy, but issues facing astronomers today, including funding, planning, worldwide collaboration and links with industry. THE TOOLS OF OBSERVATION AND THE PROFESSION OF AS...

  11. The Frontiers of Nuclear Science: A Long-Range Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2007-12-01

    In a letter dated July 17, 2006, the Department of Energy’s (DOE) Office of Science for Nuclear Physics and the National Science Foundation’s (NSF) Mathematical and Physical Sciences Directorate charged the Nuclear Science Advisory Committee (NSAC) to “conduct a study of the opportunities and priorities for U.S. nuclear physics research and recommend a long range plan that will provide a framework for coordinated advancement of the nation’s nuclear science research programs over the next decade.” This request set in motion a bottom-up review and forward look by the nuclear science community. With input from this community-wide process, a 59 member working group, which included the present NSAC members, gathered at the beginning of May, 2007, to develop guidance on how to optimize the future research directions for the field based on the projected resources outlined in the charge letter from DOE and NSF. A new long range plan—The Frontiers of Nuclear Science—grew out of this meeting. For the last decade, the top priority for nuclear science has been to utilize the flagship facilities that were built with investments by the nation in the 1980s and 1990s. Research with these facilities has led to many significant new discoveries that have changed our understanding of the world in which we live. But new discoveries demand new facilities, and the successes cannot continue indefinitely without new investment.

  12. Metamaterials: a new frontier of science and technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yongmin; Zhang, Xiang

    2011-05-01

    Metamaterials, artificial composite structures with exotic material properties, have emerged as a new frontier of science involving physics, material science, engineering and chemistry. This critical review focuses on the fundamentals, recent progresses and future directions in the research of electromagnetic metamaterials. An introduction to metamaterials followed by a detailed elaboration on how to design unprecedented electromagnetic properties of metamaterials is presented. A number of intriguing phenomena and applications associated with metamaterials are discussed, including negative refraction, sub-diffraction-limited imaging, strong optical activities in chiral metamaterials, interaction of meta-atoms and transformation optics. Finally, we offer an outlook on future directions of metamaterials research including but not limited to three-dimensional optical metamaterials, nonlinear metamaterials and "quantum" perspectives of metamaterials (142 references).

  13. Introduction: Human response to environmental decline at the forest frontier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keith Alger

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Scientific insights about the places where the greatest environmental costs (and human welfare losses might be avoided has too frequently been misperceived as knowledge about which policy interventions are effective in the extremely varied contexts where these losses can occur. This forum demonstrates the behavioral consequences that can occur when protected areas are expanded to slow deforestation and highlights a need to better understand the behavioral changes that deforestation, infrastructure development, and malaria emergence prompt in tropical areas. Facilitation of this awareness will require the integration of rigorous social and ecological science in an interdisciplinary context. This work should be aimed at understanding the opportunity costs of economic drivers, such as soybean expansion, logging, mining, hunting, and wildlife trade, in order to scale the countervailing incentives that are incorporated into common property institutions or economic instruments. To get ahead of the curve of worsening environmental degradation and the poverty traps that occur at the forest edge requires special attention to the scientific evaluation of policies that create incentives for environmental stewardship in the varied contexts of the tropical forest frontier.

  14. IGNITION AND FRONTIER SCIENCE ON THE NATIONAL IGNITION FACILITY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moses, E

    2009-06-22

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF), the world's largest and most powerful laser system for inertial confinement fusion (ICF) and experiments studying high-energy-density (HED) science, is now operational at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The NIF construction Project was certified by the Department of Energy as complete on March 30, 2009. NIF, a 192-beam Nd-glass laser facility, will produce 1.8 MJ, 500 TW of light at the third-harmonic, ultraviolet light of 351 nm. On March 10, 2009, a total 192-beam energy of 1.1 MJ was demonstrated; this is approximately 30 times more energy than ever produced in an ICF laser system. The principal goal of NIF is to achieve ignition of a deuterium-tritium (DT) fuel capsule and provide access to HED physics regimes needed for experiments related to national security, fusion energy and for broader frontier scientific exploration. NIF experiments in support of indirect drive ignition will begin in FY2009. These first experiments represent the next phase of the National Ignition Campaign (NIC). The NIC is a 1.7 billion dollar national effort to achieve fusion ignition and is coordinated through a detailed execution plan that includes the science, technology, and equipment. Equipment required for ignition experiments include diagnostics, cryogenic target manipulator, and user optics. Participants in this effort include LLNL, General Atomics (GA), Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Sandia National Laboratory (SNL), and the University of Rochester Laboratory for Energetics (LLE). The primary goal for NIC is to have all of the equipment operational and integrated into the facility and be ready to begin a credible ignition campaign in 2010. With NIF now operational, the long-sought goal of achieving self-sustained nuclear fusion and energy gain in the laboratory is much closer to realization. Successful demonstration of ignition and net energy gain on NIF will be a major step towards demonstrating the feasibility

  15. Mercury speciation comparison. Brooks applied laboratories and eurofins frontier global sciences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bannochie, C. J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Wilmarth, W. R. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-12-16

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) was tasked with preparing and shipping samples for Hg speciation by Eurofins Frontier Global Sciences (FGS), Inc. in Bothell, WA on behalf of the Savannah River Remediation (SRR) Mercury Program Team.

  16. Protected areas as frontiers for human migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zommers, Zinta; MacDonald, David W

    2012-06-01

    Causes of human population growth near protected areas have been much debated. We conducted 821 interviews in 16 villages around Budongo Forest Reserve, Masindi district, Uganda, to explore the causes of human migration to protected areas and to identify differences in forest use between migrant and nonmigrant communities. We asked subjects for information about birthplace, migration, household assets, household activities, and forest use. Interview subjects were categorized as nonmigrants (born in one of the interview villages), socioeconomic migrants (chose to emigrate for economic or social reasons) from within Masindi district (i.e., local migrants) and from outside the Masindi district (i.e., regional migrants), or forced migrants (i.e., refugees or internally displaced individuals who emigrated as a result of conflict, human rights abuses, or natural disaster). Only 198 respondents were born in interview villages, indicating high rates of migration between 1998 and 2008. Migrants were drawn to Budongo Forest because they thought land was available (268 individuals) or had family in the area (161 individuals). A greater number of regional migrants settled in villages near Lake Albert than did forced and local migrants. Migration category was also associated with differences in sources of livelihood. Of forced migrants 40.5% earned wages through labor, whereas 25.5% of local and 14.5% of regional migrants engaged in wage labor. Migrant groups appeared to have different effects on the environment. Of respondents that hunted, 72.7% were regional migrants. Principal component analyses indicated households of regional migrants were more likely to be associated with deforestation. Our results revealed gaps in current models of human population growth around protected areas. By highlighting the importance of social networks and livelihood choices, our results contribute to a more nuanced understanding of causes of migration and of the environmental effects of

  17. Producing a Radio Show about Psychological Science: The Story of "Psychological Frontiers"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, Emily; Sachau, Daniel; Albertson, Dawn N.

    2012-01-01

    The authors describe the development of a campus-based radio show about psychological science. The authors' goals in creating the show were to inform the public about the science of psychology and to create a teaching and learning resource for faculty members and students. The show, "Psychological Frontiers," airs twice a week and consists of…

  18. New frontiers of multidisciplinary research in STEAM-H (science, technology, engineering, agriculture, mathematics, and health)

    CERN Document Server

    Springer Proceedings in Mathematics & Statistics : Volume 90

    2014-01-01

    This highly multidisciplinary volume contains contributions from leading researchers in STEAM-H disciplines (Science, Technology, Engineering, Agriculture, Mathematics and Health). The volume explores new frontiers in multidisciplinary research, including: the mathematics of cardiac arrhythmia; brain research on working memory; penalized ordinal regression to classify melanoma skin samples; forecasting of time series data; dynamics of niche models; analysis of chemical moieties as anticancer agents; study of gene locus control regions; qualitative mathematical modelling; convex quadrics and group circle systems; remanufacturing planning and control; complexity reduction of functional differential equations; computation of viscous interfacial motion; and differentiation in human pluripotent stem cells. An extension of a seminar series at Virginia State University, the collection is intended to foster student interest and participation in interdisciplinary research, and to stimulate new research. The content wi...

  19. The Quest for Immortality: Science at the Frontiers of Aging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olshansky, S. Jay (University of Illinois at Chicago); Carnes, Bruce A. (University of Chicago)

    2001-10-24

    For more than a decade, Dr. Olshansky and Dr. Carnes have been working in the field of aging to identify the biological attributes of species that influence their length of life. Amid countless claims by scientists and the lay population that human life expectancy will continue to rise indefinitely in the future, Olshansky and Carnes have stood fast in their conviction that such claims are without any scientific basis. In their book The Quest for Immortality, S. Jay Olshansky and Bruce A. Carnes provide a comprehensive account of the real science of aging, from a historical overview of religious and philosophical thinking about aging and death, to the biology behind the changes we see in the mirror, to the promising but frightening future of genetic engineering. They demystify the complex language and concepts of science, explain how to distinguish real science from media hype in order to help readers make informed health decisions, and offer a powerfully optimistic vision of aging and health in the twenty-first century.

  20. Frontiers in Laser Cooling, Single-Molecule Biophysics, and Enrgy Science: A Talk by Carl Wieman

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wieman, Carl

    2008-08-30

    Carl Wieman presents a talk at Frontiers in Laser Cooling, Single-Molecule Biophysics and Energy Science, a scientific symposium honoring Steve Chu, director of Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and recipient of the 1997 Nobel Prize in Physics. The symposium was held August 30, 2008 in Berkeley.

  1. Low-frequency gravitational-wave science frontiers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Scott

    2017-01-01

    With LIGO detecting stellar mass black holes and (soon) other stellar mass compact objects, and with LISA Pathfinder demonstrating important elements of the technology needed to fly a gravitational-wave antenna in space, the case for a low-frequency, space-based gravitational-wave detector - LISA - is stronger than ever. In this talk, I will survey the landscape of low-frequency gravitational-wave astronomy. The LISA frequency band from afew ×10-5 Hz to about 1 Hz is one which is rich with known sources whose measurement will enable new astronomical and physical measurements of important systems. It is also a band with great potential discovery space. In this talk, I will survey the known knowns and known unknowns in the LISA band, describing the frontiers that we can study in advance of the mission, and the frontiers that LISA measurements will unveil. I will also talk about the possible unknown unknowns where surprising discoveries may lurk.

  2. The great unknown seven journeys to the frontiers of science

    CERN Document Server

    Du Sautoy, Marcus

    2017-01-01

    Ever since the dawn of civilization we have been driven by a desire to know—to understand the physical world and the laws of nature. The idea that there might be a limit to human knowledge has inspired and challenged scientists and functioned as a spur to innovation. Now, in this dazzling journey through seven great breakthroughs in our understanding of the world, Marcus du Sautoy invites us to consider the outer reaches of human understanding. Are some things beyond the predictive powers of science? Or are those thorny challenges our next breakthroughs? In 1900, Lord Kelvin—who gave the world telegraph cables and the Second Law of Thermodynamics—pronounced that there was “nothing new to be discovered in physics now.” Then came Einstein. Du Sautoy reminds us that again and again major breakthroughs were ridiculed and dismissed at the time of their discovery. He takes us into the minds of the greats and reveals the fraught circumstances of their discoveries. And he carries us on a whirlwind tour of ...

  3. Innovation Gaps on Life Science Frontiers (IN PREPARATION)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Minssen, Timo; Price II, William Nicholson; Liddell, Kathleen

    2017-01-01

    for innovation; diagnostics and drug manufacturing are examples of this phenomenon. In the latter, patents may function, but market exclusivity does a poor job translating the social welfare gains from innovation into incentives for innovators; antibiotic resistance follows this model. This categorization has...... obvious implications for potential interventions: while policymakers can address internal failures by changing patent mechanisms, or by substituting regulatory exclusivity or trade secrecy, these interventions do not help resolve external failures....... to a specific frontier of lifescience innovation. They then often offer some menu of potential solutions from a developing set of traditional or nontraditional interventions. For instance, Rebecca Eisenberg and Rachel Sachs have each pointed out that patents are largely unavailable for medical diagnostics...

  4. Frontier Fields: A Cost-Effective Approach to Bringing Authentic Science to the Education Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenhamer, B.; Lawton, B.; Summers, F.; Ryer, H.

    2015-11-01

    For more than two decades, the Hubble EPO program has sought to bring the wonders of the universe to the education community and the public, and to engage audiences in the adventure of scientific discovery. Program components include standards-based, curriculum-support materials, exhibits and exhibit components, and professional development workshops. The main underpinnings of the program's infrastructure are scientist-educator development teams, partnerships, and an embedded program evaluation component. The Space Telescope Science Institute's Office of Public Outreach is leveraging this existing infrastructure to bring the Frontier Fields science program to the education community in a cost-effective way. Frontier Fields observations and results have been, and will continue to be, embedded into existing product lines and professional development offerings. We also are leveraging our new social media strategy to bring the science program to the public in the form of an ongoing blog.

  5. Political implications of science popularisation strategies: Frontiers of S cience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Maureen

    2016-07-01

    This examination of the mediation strategies of a very popular factual science comic strip series from the 1960s and 1970s illustrates, in this case by highlighting the ways in which women were targeted as an audience, that science popularisations are always political. For that reason, they should not be evaluated merely in terms of scientific accuracy. I demonstrate tensions between the dissemination model of communication used in the distribution of science popularisations, on the one hand, with the advocacy of a dialogue model in their content, on the other.

  6. Critical Trajectories for the Human Settlement of the High Frontier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentine, Lee S.

    2007-02-01

    If preservation and prosperity of humanity on the Earth and human settlement of space are our goals, we should concentrate on a commercial path to get there. Commercial enterprise has a long history of fortuitously aiding scientific progress. We expect radical changes in the cost of earth to orbit transportation, and in the methods and efficacy of deep space transportation, within the next two decades. A successful space tourism industry, beginning with suborbital tourism, will greatly drive down the cost of access to orbit over the next 15 years. Inexpensive transportation to low Earth orbit is the first requirement for a great future on the High Frontier. Inexpensive means the cost associated with a mature transportation system. A mature system has a cost of three to five times the cost of the propellant. The first cheap, reliable and highly reusable rocket engines are just now appearing in vehicles. With an assured market and high flight rate, the heretofore glacial progress in reducing the cost of space transportation is likely to become rapid. This is the first critical enabling example of synergy between free market economics and scientific and technical progress in space. It will not be the last. New high power switches and ultracapacitors developed for the automotive market make possible cheap, robust and reliable mass driver engines. In space construction, using masses of nonterrestrial materials make the gravity tractor technique much more capable than previous schemes to maneuver asteroids. Ion propulsion will continue to improve and the first solar sails will be flown. Advanced robotics will allow remarkable improvements in productivity. The computing power available to robots began to follow the exponential Moore's law less than decade ago. The first commercial autonomous mobile robots appeared in late summer 2006. Humans, however, will be required for the foreseeable future in repair and supervisory roles, particularly in unstructured settings such as

  7. Space: The Final Frontier in the Learning of Science?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milne, Catherine

    2014-01-01

    In "Space", relations, and the learning of science", Wolff-Michael Roth and Pei-Ling Hsu use ethnomethodology to explore high school interns learning shopwork and shoptalk in a research lab that is located in a world class facility for water quality analysis. Using interaction analysis they identify how spaces, like a research…

  8. Emerging Frontiers of Neuroengineering: A Network Science of Brain Connectivity

    OpenAIRE

    Bassett, Danielle S.; Ankit N Khambhati; Grafton, Scott T.

    2016-01-01

    Neuroengineering is faced with unique challenges in repairing or replacing complex neural systems that are composed of many interacting parts. These interactions form intricate patterns over large spatiotemporal scales, and produce emergent behaviors that are difficult to predict from individual elements. Network science provides a particularly appropriate framework in which to study and intervene in such systems, by treating neural elements (cells, volumes) as nodes in a graph and neural int...

  9. Space: the final frontier in the learning of science?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milne, Catherine

    2014-03-01

    In Space, relations, and the learning of science, Wolff-Michael Roth and Pei-Ling Hsu use ethnomethodology to explore high school interns learning shopwork and shoptalk in a research lab that is located in a world class facility for water quality analysis. Using interaction analysis they identify how spaces, like a research laboratory, can be structured as smart spaces to create a workflow (learning flow) so that shoptalk and shopwork can projectively organize the actions of interns even in new and unfamiliar settings. Using these findings they explore implications for the design of curriculum and learning spaces more broadly. The Forum papers of Erica Blatt and Cassie Quigley complement this analysis. Blatt expands the discussion on space as an active component of learning with an examination of teaching settings, beyond laboratory spaces, as active participants of education. Quigley examines smart spaces as authentic learning spaces while acknowledging how internship experiences all empirical elements of authentic learning including open-ended inquiry and empowerment. In this paper I synthesize these ideas and propose that a narrative structure might better support workflow, student agency and democratic decision making.

  10. Snowmass Energy Frontier Simulations using the Open Science Grid (A Snowmass 2013 whitepaper)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avetisyan, Aram [Boston Univ., MA (United States); Bhattacharya, Saptaparna [Brown Univ., Providence, RI (United States); Narain, Meenakshi [Brown Univ., Providence, RI (United States); Padhi, Sanjay [Univ. of California, San Diego, CA (United States); Hirschauer, Jim [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Levshina, Tanya [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); McBride, Patricia [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Sehgal, Chander [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Slyz, Marko [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Rynge, Mats [Information Sciences Inst., Marina del Rey, CA (United States); Malik, Sudhir [Univ. of Nebraska, Lincoln, NE (United States); Stupak, III, John [Purdue Univ. Northwest, Hammond, IN (United States)

    2013-08-04

    Snowmass is a US long-term planning study for the high-energy community by the American Physical Society's Division of Particles and Fields. For its simulation studies, opportunistic resources are harnessed using the Open Science Grid infrastructure. Late binding grid technology, GlideinWMS, was used for distributed scheduling of the simulation jobs across many sites mainly in the US. The pilot infrastructure also uses the Parrot mechanism to dynamically access CvmFS in order to ascertain a homogeneous environment across the nodes. This report presents the resource usage and the storage model used for simulating large statistics Standard Model backgrounds needed for Snowmass Energy Frontier studies.

  11. Snowmass Energy Frontier Simulations using the Open Science Grid (A Snowmass 2013 whitepaper)

    CERN Document Server

    Avetisyan, A; Narain, M; Padhi, S; Hirschauer, J; Levshina, T; McBride, P; Sehgal, C; Slyz, M; Rynge, M; Malik, S; Stupak, J

    2013-01-01

    Snowmass is a US long-term planning study for the high-energy community by the American Physical Society's Division of Particles and Fields. For its simulation studies, opportunistic resources are harnessed using the Open Science Grid infrastructure. Late binding grid technology, GlideinWMS, was used for distributed scheduling of the simulation jobs across many sites mainly in the US. The pilot infrastructure also uses the Parrot mechanism to dynamically access CvmFS in order to ascertain a homogeneous environment across the nodes. This report presents the resource usage and the storage model used for simulating large statistics Standard Model backgrounds needed for Snowmass Energy Frontier studies.

  12. Conditions for a Possible Dialogue between Theology and Science from the Perspective of the Concept of Frontier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saplacan Calin

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Is there a way without conquests and wars to be found in the relationship of theology and science? This relation is analyzed from the perspective of the concept of frontier in order to establish the conditions for a possible dialogue. Paradoxically, the frontier unites and divides at the same time. On the one hand, the frontier marks the differences, on the other hand it appears as a crossing, a passageway. The frontier is an in-between, a huge space in which the two sides are called together to explain each other, and in order to create a passage between the two sides. The methodological framework of analysis is the approach of analytical theology to distinctions in language and significance. As a frame of reference, the possibility conditions for a philosophical dialogue between phenomenology and analytical philosophy have been considered.

  13. Challenges at the Frontiers of Matter and Energy: Transformative Opportunities for Discovery Science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hemminger, John C. [Univ. of California, Irvine, CA (United States); Sarrao, John [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Crabtree, George [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); University of Illinois, Chicago; Flemming, Graham [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Ratner, Mark [Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States)

    2015-11-01

    FIVE TRANSFORMATIVE OPPORTUNITIES FOR DISCOVERY SCIENCE As a result of this effort, it has become clear that the progress made to date on the five Grand Challenges has created a springboard for seizing five new Transformative Opportunities that have the potential to further transform key technologies involving matter and energy. These five new Transformative Opportunities and the evidence supporting them are discussed in this new report, “Challenges at the Frontiers of Matter and Energy: Transformative Opportunities for Discovery Science.” Mastering Hierarchical Architectures and Beyond-Equilibrium Matter Complex materials and chemical processes transmute matter and energy, for example from CO2 and water to chemical fuel in photosynthesis, from visible light to electricity in solar cells and from electricity to light in light emitting diodes (LEDs) Such functionality requires complex assemblies of heterogeneous materials in hierarchical architectures that display time-dependent away-from-equilibrium behaviors. Much of the foundation of our understanding of such transformations however, is based on monolithic single- phase materials operating at or near thermodynamic equilibrium. The emergent functionalities enabling next-generation disruptive energy technologies require mastering the design, synthesis, and control of complex hierarchical materials employing dynamic far-from-equilibrium behavior. A key guide in this pursuit is nature, for biological systems prove the power of hierarchical assembly and far- from-equilibrium behavior. The challenges here are many: a description of the functionality of hierarchical assemblies in terms of their constituent parts, a blueprint of atomic and molecular positions for each constituent part, and a synthesis strategy for (a) placing the atoms and molecules in the proper positions for the component parts and (b) arranging the component parts into the required hierarchical structure. Targeted functionality will open the door

  14. Challenges at the Frontiers of Matter and Energy: Transformative Opportunities for Discovery Science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hemminger, John C. [Univ. of California, Irvine, CA (United States); Sarrao, John [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Crabtree, George [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); University of Illinois, Chicago; Flemming, Graham [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Ratner, Mark [Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States)

    2015-11-01

    architectures that are envisioned; instrumentation and tools, a category that includes theory and computation; and human capital, the most important asset for advancing the Grand Challenges and Transformative Opportunities. While “Challenges at the Frontiers of Matter and Energy: Transformative Opportunities for Discovery Science” could be viewed as a sequel to the original Grand Challenges report, it breaks much new ground in its assessment of the scientific landscape today versus the scientific landscape just a few years ago. In the original Grand Challenges report, it was noted that if the five Grand Challenges were met, our ability to direct matter and energy would be measured only by the limits of human imagination. This new report shows that, prodded by those challenges, the scientific community is positioned today to seize new opportunities whose impacts promise to be transformative for science and society, as well as dramatically accelerate progress in the pursuit of the original Grand Challenges.

  15. Frontiers in Laser Cooling, Single-Molecule Biophysics, and Enrgy Science: A Talk from Leo Holberg and Allen Mills

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holberg, Leo; Mills, Allen [NIST

    2008-08-30

    Leo Holberg and Allen Mills present a talk at Frontiers in Laser Cooling, Single-Molecule Biophysics and Energy Science, a scientific symposium honoring Steve Chu, director of Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and recipient of the 1997 Nobel Prize in Physics. The symposium was held August 30, 2008 in Berkeley.

  16. Science and Human Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Leon N.

    2015-01-01

    Part I. Science and Society: 1. Science and human experience; 2. Does science undermine our values?; 3. Can science serve mankind?; 4. Modern science and contemporary discomfort: metaphor and reality; 5. Faith and science; 6. Art and science; 7. Fraud in science; 8. Why study science? The keys to the cathedral; 9. Is evolution a theory? A modest proposal; 10. The silence of the second; 11. Introduction to Copenhagen; 12. The unpaid debt; Part II. Thought and Consciousness: 13. Source and limits of human intellect; 14. Neural networks; 15. Thought and mental experience: the Turing test; 16. Mind as machine: will we rubbish human experience?; 17. Memory and memories: a physicist's approach to the brain; 18. On the problem of consciousness; Part III. On the Nature and Limits of Science: 19. What is a good theory?; 20. Shall we deconstruct science?; 21. Visible and invisible in physical theory; 22. Experience and order; 23. The language of physics; 24. The structure of space; 25. Superconductivity and other insoluble problems; 26. From gravity to light and consciousness: does science have limits?

  17. New frontiers in biomedical science and engineering during 2014-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Feng; Lee, Dong-Hoon; Lagoa, Ricardo; Kumar, Sandeep

    2015-01-01

    The International Conference on Biomedical Engineering and Biotechnology (ICBEB) is an international meeting held once a year. This, the fourth International Conference on Biomedical Engineering and Biotechnology (ICBEB2015), will be held in Shanghai, China, during August 18th-21st, 2015. This annual conference intends to provide an opportunity for researchers and practitioners at home and abroad to present the most recent frontiers and future challenges in the fields of biomedical science, biomedical engineering, biomaterials, bioinformatics and computational biology, biomedical imaging and signal processing, biomechanical engineering and biotechnology, etc. The papers published in this issue are selected from this Conference, which witness the advances in biomedical engineering and biotechnology during 2014-2015.

  18. Energy Frontier Research Center, Center for Materials Science of Nuclear Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Todd R. Allen, Director

    2011-04-01

    The Office of Science, Basic Energy Sciences, has funded the INL as one of the Energy Frontier Research Centers in the area of material science of nuclear fuels. This document is the required annual report to the Office of Science that outlines the accomplishments for the period of May 2010 through April 2011. The aim of the Center for Material Science of Nuclear Fuels (CMSNF) is to establish the foundation for predictive understanding of the effects of irradiation-induced defects on thermal transport in oxide nuclear fuels. The science driver of the center’s investigation is to understand how complex defect and microstructures affect phonon mediated thermal transport in UO2, and achieve this understanding for the particular case of irradiation-induced defects and microstructures. The center’s research thus includes modeling and measurement of thermal transport in oxide fuels with different levels of impurities, lattice disorder and irradiation-induced microstructure, as well as theoretical and experimental investigation of the evolution of disorder, stoichiometry and microstructure in nuclear fuel under irradiation. With the premise that thermal transport in irradiated UO2 is a phonon-mediated energy transport process in a crystalline material with defects and microstructure, a step-by-step approach will be utilized to understand the effects of types of defects and microstructures on the collective phonon dynamics in irradiated UO2. Our efforts under the thermal transport thrust involved both measurement of diffusive phonon transport (an approach that integrates over the entire phonon spectrum) and spectroscopic measurements of phonon attenuation/lifetime and phonon dispersion. Our distinct experimental efforts dovetail with our modeling effort involving atomistic simulation of phonon transport and prediction of lattice thermal conductivity using the Boltzmann transport framework.

  19. Science and Humanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auger, Pierre

    1971-01-01

    Science and humanism are separated so completely as to bring about the creation of two cultures quite distinct from each other within contemporary civilization. Pragmatic, rational attitudes are needed on both sides to bring them together. (DF)

  20. Frontier Science in the Polar Regions: Current Activities of the Polar Research Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, L. M.

    2011-12-01

    The National Academies (the umbrella term for the National Academy of Sciences, National Academy of Engineering, Institute of Medicine, and National Research Council) is a private, nonprofit organization chartered by Congress in 1863. The Polar Research Board (PRB) is the focal point within the Academies for providing advice on issues related to the Arctic, Antarctic, and cold regions in general. Tasks within the PRB mission include: providing a forum for the polar science community to address research needs and policy issues; conducting studies and workshops on emerging scientific and policy issues in response to requests from federal agencies and others; providing program reviews, guidance, and assessments of priorities; and facilitating communication on polar issues among academia, industry, and government. The PRB also serves as the US National Committee to two international, nongovernmental polar science organizations: the Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research (SCAR) and the International Arctic Science Committee (IASC). The polar regions are experiencing rapid changes in environment and climate, and the PRB has a number of completed and ongoing studies that will enhance scientific understanding of these issues. This poster will illustrate current PRB activities as well as results from two recently released reports: Frontiers in Understanding Climate Change and Polar Ecosystems and Future Science Opportunities in Antarctica and the Southern Ocean. In the former, a set of frontier research questions are developed to help scientists understand the impacts of climate change on polar ecosystems. The report builds on existing knowledge of climate change impacts and highlights the next big topics to be addressed in the coming decades. In addition, a number of methods and technologies are identified that will be useful to advance future research in polar ecosystem science. In the latter, changes to important science conducted on Antarctica and the surrounding

  1. Web-Based Software Integration For Dissemination Of Archival Images: The Frontiers Of Science Website

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary Browne

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The Frontiers of Science illustrated comic strip of 'science fact' ran from 1961 to 1982, syndicated worldwide through over 600 newspapers. The Rare Books and Special Collections Library at the University of Sydney, in association with Sydney eScholarship, digitized all 939 strips. We aimed to create a website that could disseminate these comic strips to scholars, enthusiasts and the general public. We wanted to enable users to search and browse through the images simply and effectively, with an intuitive and novel viewing platform. Time and resource constraints dictated the use of (mostly open source code modules wherever possible and the integration and customisation of a range of web-based applications, code snippets and technologies (DSpace, eXtensible Text Framework (XTF, OmniFormat, JQuery Tools, Thickbox and Zoomify, stylistically pulled together using CSS. This approach allowed for a rapid development cycle (6 weeks to deliver the site on time as well as provide us with a framework for similar projects.

  2. Energy Frontier Research Centers: Science for Our Nation's Energy Future, September 2016

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2016-09-01

    As world demand for energy rapidly expands, transforming the way energy is collected, stored, and used has become a defining challenge of the 21st century. At its heart, this challenge is a scientific one, inspiring the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) Office of Basic Energy Sciences (BES) to establish the Energy Frontier Research Center (EFRC) program in 2009. The EFRCs represent a unique approach, bringing together creative, multidisciplinary scientific teams to perform energy-relevant basic research with a complexity beyond the scope of single-investigator projects. These centers take full advantage of powerful new tools for characterizing, understanding, modeling, and manipulating matter from atomic to macroscopic length scales. They also train the next-generation scientific workforce by attracting talented students and postdoctoral researchers interested in energy science. The EFRCs have collectively demonstrated the potential to substantially advance the scientific understanding underpinning transformational energy technologies. Both a BES Committee of Visitors and a Secretary of Energy Advisory Board Task Force have found the EFRC program to be highly successful in meeting its goals. The scientific output from the EFRCs is impressive, and many centers have reported that their results are already impacting both technology research and industry. This report on the EFRC program includes selected highlights from the initial 46 EFRCs and the current 36 EFRCs.

  3. Human Resources--The Last Resources of a Frontier Society?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, James L.

    1976-01-01

    The development of physical resources has brought about major problems for society. Management must recognize that it is in the realm of human resources where growth can be best achieved through training and development. (EC)

  4. The science of unitary human beings and interpretive human science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeder, F

    1993-01-01

    Natural science and human science are identified as the bases of most nursing theories and research programs. Natural science has been disclaimed by Martha Rogers as the philosophy of science that undergirds her work. The question remains, is the science of unitary human beings an interpretive human science? The author explores the works of Rogers through a dialectic with two human scientists' works. Wilhelm Dilthey's works represent the founding or traditional view, and Jurgen Habermas' works represent a contemporary, reconstructionist view. The ways Rogerian thought contributes to human studies but is distinct from traditional and reconstructionist human sciences are illuminated.

  5. Humanizing science education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnelly, James F.

    2004-09-01

    This paper argues that the diverse curriculum reform agendas associated with science education are strongly and critically associated with the educational characteristics of the humanities. The article begins with a survey of interpretations of the distinctive contribution which the humanities make to educational purposes. From this survey four general characteristics of the humanities are identified: an appeal to an autonomous self with the right and capacity to make independent judgements and interpretations; indeterminacy in the subject matter of these judgements and interpretations; a focus on meaning, in the context of human responses, actions, and relationships, and especially on the ethical, aesthetic, and purposive; and finally, the possibility of commonality in standards of judgement and interpretation, under conditions of indeterminacy. Inquiry and science technology and society (STS) orientated curriculum development agendas within science education are explored in the light of this analysis. It is argued that the four characteristics identified are central to the educational purposes of these and other less prominent modes of curriculum development in science, though not unproblematically so. In the light of this discussion the prognosis and challenges for science curriculum development are explored.

  6. New Frontiers in Optical Science: Terahertz Spectroscopy ot Two Dimensional Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yun-Shik

    2011-10-01

    Terahertz (THz) radiation is electromagnetic radiation whose frequency lies between the microwave and infrared regions of the spectrum. Naturally occurring THz radiation fills up the space of everyday life providing warmth, yet this part of the spectrum remains the least explored region mainly due to the technical difficulties. The technological gap, however, has been rapidly diminishing for the last two decades. The new and exciting frontier of the THz science and technology has encroached on many different disciplines producing a broad range of applications such as medical imaging, sensing of biochemical agents, and ultra-high speed communication. Furthermore, the unique and advanced techniques of the THz spectroscopy have been proved to be a powerful tool to investigate the material properties inaccessible until recently. For example, THz waves strongly interact with electrons and holes in two dimensional systems, in which their dynamics are governed mainly by many-body Coulomb interactions. I will present our experimental studies demonstrating remarkable quantum effects in semiconductor nanostructures and exotic charge carrier dynamics in graphene.

  7. Frontier In-Situ Resource Utilization for Enabling Sustained Human Presence on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moses, Robert W.; Bushnell, Dennis M.

    2016-01-01

    The currently known resources on Mars are massive, including extensive quantities of water and carbon dioxide and therefore carbon, hydrogen and oxygen for life support, fuels and plastics and much else. The regolith is replete with all manner of minerals. In Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) applicable frontier technologies include robotics, machine intelligence, nanotechnology, synthetic biology, 3-D printing/additive manufacturing and autonomy. These technologies combined with the vast natural resources should enable serious, pre- and post-human arrival ISRU to greatly increase reliability and safety and reduce cost for human colonization of Mars. Various system-level transportation concepts employing Mars produced fuel would enable Mars resources to evolve into a primary center of trade for the inner solar system for eventually nearly everything required for space faring and colonization. Mars resources and their exploitation via extensive ISRU are the key to a viable, safe and affordable, human presence beyond Earth. The purpose of this paper is four-fold: 1) to highlight the latest discoveries of water, minerals, and other materials on Mars that reshape our thinking about the value and capabilities of Mars ISRU; 2) to summarize the previous literature on Mars ISRU processes, equipment, and approaches; 3) to point to frontier ISRU technologies and approaches that can lead to safe and affordable human missions to Mars; and 4) to suggest an implementation strategy whereby the ISRU elements are phased into the mission campaign over time to enable a sustainable and increasing human presence on Mars.

  8. Africa: the next frontier for human disease gene discovery?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsay, Michèle; Tiemessen, Caroline T; Choudhury, Ananyo; Soodyall, Himla

    2011-10-15

    The populations of Africa harbour the greatest human genetic diversity following an evolutionary history tracing its beginnings on the continent to time before the emergence of Homo sapiens. Signatures of selection are detectable as responses to ancient environments and cultural practices, modulated by more recent events including infectious epidemics, migrations, admixture and, of course, chance. The age of high-throughput biology is not passing Africa by. African-based cohort studies and networks with an African footprint are ideal springboards for disease-related genetic and genomic studies. Initiatives like HapMap, the 1000 Genomes Project, MalariaGEN, the INDEPTH network and Human Heredity and Health in Africa are catalysts to exploring African genetic diversity and its role in the spectrum from health to disease. The challenges are abundant in dissecting biological questions in the light of linguistic, cultural, geographic and political boundaries and their respective roles in shaping health-related profiles. Will studies based on African populations lead to a new wave of discovery of genetic contributors to disease?

  9. The HST Frontier Fields: Complete High-Level Science Data Products for All 6 Clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koekemoer, Anton M.; Mack, Jennifer; Lotz, Jennifer M.; Borncamp, David; Khandrika, Harish G.; Lucas, Ray A.; Martlin, Catherine; Porterfield, Blair; Sunnquist, Ben; Anderson, Jay; Avila, Roberto J.; Barker, Elizabeth A.; Grogin, Norman A.; Gunning, Heather C.; Hilbert, Bryan; Ogaz, Sara; Robberto, Massimo; Sembach, Kenneth; Flanagan, Kathryn; Mountain, Matt; HST Frontier Fields Team

    2017-01-01

    The Hubble Space Telescope Frontier Fields program (PI: J. Lotz) is a large Director's Discretionary program of 840 orbits, to obtain ultra-deep observations of six strong lensing clusters of galaxies, together with parallel deep blank fields, making use of the strong lensing amplification by these clusters of distant background galaxies to detect the faintest galaxies currently observable in the high-redshift universe. The entire program has now completed successfully for all 6 clusters, namely Abell 2744, Abell S1063, Abell 370, MACS J0416.1-2403, MACS J0717.5+3745 and MACS J1149.5+2223,. Each of these was observed over two epochs, to a total depth of 140 orbits on the main cluster and an associated parallel field, obtaining images in ACS (F435W, F606W, F814W) and WFC3/IR (F105W, F125W, F140W, F160W) on both the main cluster and the parallel field in all cases. Full sets of high-level science products have been generated for all these clusters by the team at STScI, including cumulative-depth data releases during each epoch, as well as full-depth releases after the completion of each epoch. These products include all the full-depth distortion-corrected drizzled mosaics and associated products for each cluster, which are science-ready to facilitate the construction of lensing models as well as enabling a wide range of other science projects. Many improvements beyond default calibration for ACS and WFC3/IR are implemented in these data products, including corrections for persistence, time-variable sky, and low-level dark current residuals, as well as improvements in astrometric alignment to achieve milliarcsecond-level accuracy. The full set of resulting high-level science products and mosaics are publicly delivered to the community via the Mikulski Archive for Space Telescopes (MAST) to enable the widest scientific use of these data, as well as ensuring a public legacy dataset of the highest possible quality that is of lasting value to the entire community.

  10. The human genetic history of the Americas: the final frontier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Rourke, Dennis H; Raff, Jennifer A

    2010-02-23

    The Americas, the last continents to be entered by modern humans, were colonized during the late Pleistocene via a land bridge across what is now the Bering strait. However, the timing and nature of the initial colonization events remain contentious. The Asian origin of the earliest Americans has been amply established by numerous classical marker studies of the mid-twentieth century. More recently, mtDNA sequences, Y-chromosome and autosomal marker studies have provided a higher level of resolution in confirming the Asian origin of indigenous Americans and provided more precise time estimates for the emergence of Native Americans. But these data raise many additional questions regarding source populations, number and size of colonizing groups and the points of entry to the Americas. Rapidly accumulating molecular data from populations throughout the Americas, increased use of demographic models to test alternative colonization scenarios, and evaluation of the concordance of archaeological, paleoenvironmental and genetic data provide optimism for a fuller understanding of the initial colonization of the Americas.

  11. Frontiers of muon spectroscopy—25 years of muon science at ISIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cottrell, Stephen

    2013-12-01

    The ISIS muon source developed with support from the European Community (EC) and groups at Grenoble, Parma, Uppsala and Munich in the late 1980s, with a single instrument providing many scientists with their first opportunity to explore the unique capabilities of muon spectroscopy. The timing was opportune, as the muon technique was making an important contribution to the study of the then recently discovered cuprate high T c superconductors. The ISIS user community developed rapidly over subsequent years, with the technique finding a broad range of applications in condensed matter physics, materials science and chemistry. The single instrument was hugely oversubscribed, and the importance of the technique was recognized in 1993 with a further grant from the EC to develop the triple beamline facility that is currently available at ISIS. During 2009 the suite of spectrometers available at the facility received a major upgrade, with the Science and Technology Facilities Council funding the development of a 5 T high field instrument that has enabled entirely new applications of muon spectroscopy to be explored. The facility continues to flourish, with a strong user community exploiting the technique to support research across an increasingly broad range of subject areas. Condensed matter science continues to be a major area of interest, with applications including semiconductors and dielectrics, superconductors, magnetism, interstitial diffusion and charge transport. Recently, however, molecular science and radical chemistry have become prominent in the ISIS programme, applications where the availability of high magnetic fields is frequently vital to the success of the experiments. For ISIS, 23 March 2012 marked a significant milestone, it being 25 years since muons were first produced at the facility for research in condensed matter and molecular science. To celebrate, the ISIS muon group organized a science symposium with the theme 'Frontiers of Muon Spectroscopy

  12. Assessing Progress towards Public Health, Human Rights, and International Development Goals Using Frontier Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luh, Jeanne; Cronk, Ryan; Bartram, Jamie

    2016-01-01

    Indicators to measure progress towards achieving public health, human rights, and international development targets, such as 100% access to improved drinking water or zero maternal mortality ratio, generally focus on status (i.e., level of attainment or coverage) or trends in status (i.e., rates of change). However, these indicators do not account for different levels of development that countries experience, thus making it difficult to compare progress between countries. We describe a recently developed new use of frontier analysis and apply this method to calculate country performance indices in three areas: maternal mortality ratio, poverty headcount ratio, and primary school completion rate. Frontier analysis is used to identify the maximum achievable rates of change, defined by the historically best-performing countries, as a function of coverage level. Performance indices are calculated by comparing a country's rate of change against the maximum achievable rate at the same coverage level. A country's performance can be positive or negative, corresponding to progression or regression, respectively. The calculated performance indices allow countries to be compared against each other regardless of whether they have only begun to make progress or whether they have almost achieved the target. This paper is the first to use frontier analysis to determine the maximum achievable rates as a function of coverage level and to calculate performance indices for public health, human rights, and international development indicators. The method can be applied to multiple fields and settings, for example health targets such as cessation in smoking or specific vaccine immunizations, and offers both a new approach to analyze existing data and a new data source for consideration when assessing progress achieved.

  13. Assessing Progress towards Public Health, Human Rights, and International Development Goals Using Frontier Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeanne Luh

    Full Text Available Indicators to measure progress towards achieving public health, human rights, and international development targets, such as 100% access to improved drinking water or zero maternal mortality ratio, generally focus on status (i.e., level of attainment or coverage or trends in status (i.e., rates of change. However, these indicators do not account for different levels of development that countries experience, thus making it difficult to compare progress between countries. We describe a recently developed new use of frontier analysis and apply this method to calculate country performance indices in three areas: maternal mortality ratio, poverty headcount ratio, and primary school completion rate. Frontier analysis is used to identify the maximum achievable rates of change, defined by the historically best-performing countries, as a function of coverage level. Performance indices are calculated by comparing a country's rate of change against the maximum achievable rate at the same coverage level. A country's performance can be positive or negative, corresponding to progression or regression, respectively. The calculated performance indices allow countries to be compared against each other regardless of whether they have only begun to make progress or whether they have almost achieved the target. This paper is the first to use frontier analysis to determine the maximum achievable rates as a function of coverage level and to calculate performance indices for public health, human rights, and international development indicators. The method can be applied to multiple fields and settings, for example health targets such as cessation in smoking or specific vaccine immunizations, and offers both a new approach to analyze existing data and a new data source for consideration when assessing progress achieved.

  14. The Relative Efficiencies of Research Universities of Science and Technology in China: Based on the Data Envelopment Analysis and Stochastic Frontier Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuanyi, Wang; Xiaohong, Lv; Shikui, Zhao

    2016-01-01

    This paper applies data envelopment analysis (DEA) and stochastic frontier analysis (SFA) to explore the relative efficiency of China's research universities of science and technology. According to the finding, when talent training is the only output, the efficiency of research universities of science and technology is far lower than that of…

  15. [Human health sciences].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasada, Masataka; Toichi, Motomi; Yamane, Hiroshi

    2009-01-01

    Medical science and medical practice developed remarkably and economic conditions progressed so much in recent years in Japan. As the result, the average span of life of the Japanese is now the longest in the world and we are well off. The matter of the greatest concern of Japanese people at present is health. In fact, health foods, TV program on health and various matters concerning health overflow around us. It is fairly difficult to define health clearly and correctly. So long as anyone who wants to be in good health, he must be well physically and mentally. It is necessary to pursue the true health, and to investigate theories and techniques to obtain and concrete it, which is called human health sciences.

  16. Securitization, alterity, and the state Human (in)security on an Amazonian frontier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brightman, Marc; Grotti, Vanessa

    2014-12-01

    Focusing on the region surrounding the Maroni River, which forms the border between Suriname and French Guiana, we examine how relations between different state and non-state social groups are articulated in terms of security. The region is characterised by multiple "borders" and frontiers of various kinds, the state boundary having the features of an interface or contact zone. Several key collectivities meet in this border zone: native Amazonians, tribal Maroon peoples, migrant Brazilian gold prospectors, and metropolitan French state functionaries. We explore the relationships between these different sets of actors and describe how their mutual encounters center on discourses of human and state security, thus challenging the commonly held view of the region as a stateless zone and showing that the "human security" of citizens from the perspective of the state may compete with locally salient ideas or experiences of well-being.

  17. There is plenty of oil at the bottom: Frontier thinking in knowledge economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gorm Hansen, Birgitte

    frontier thinking it in a way that allows them to receive resources without simultaneously becoming a resource for others. Tsing, A. L. (2005) Friction - An Ethnography of Global Connection, Princeton University Press, New Jersey Bush, V. (1945)"Science, the endless frontier", ACLS Humanities e-book...

  18. The NASA Ames Life Sciences Data Archive: Biobanking for the Final Frontier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rask, Jon; Chakravarty, Kaushik; French, Alison J.; Choi, Sungshin; Stewart, Helen J.

    2017-01-01

    The NASA Ames Institutional Scientific Collection involves the Ames Life Sciences Data Archive (ALSDA) and a biospecimen repository, which are responsible for archiving information and non-human biospecimens collected from spaceflight and matching ground control experiments. The ALSDA also manages a biospecimen sharing program, performs curation and long-term storage operations, and facilitates distribution of biospecimens for research purposes via a public website (https:lsda.jsc.nasa.gov). As part of our best practices, a tissue viability testing plan has been developed for the repository, which will assess the quality of samples subjected to long-term storage. We expect that the test results will confirm usability of the samples, enable broader science community interest, and verify operational efficiency of the archives. This work will also support NASA open science initiatives and guides development of NASA directives and policy for curation of biological collections.

  19. Science is human

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Renato Zacharias

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Collective construction of scientific knowledge is doubtless a major accomplishment of humankind. Sharing of information is a manner of inviting the interested community to participate at each step of such construction. Thus, publication of scientific articles must be regarded as an essential activity or means, because it communicates the results of the work of one or more researchers, in turn based on previous shared knowledge. In this regard, scientific journals play an important role as one of the means of communication. However, they are not merely passive vehicles, but one of the steps of the construction of knowledge itself. ... Inconsequent, irresponsible and unstructured freedom of expression and rigid censorship refractory to anything new are both noxious to any community. Although reaching a balance between extremes is a universal goal, we discover how much we missed the point only when we act and assess the consequences of our actions. In this regard, science is no different from any other field of human action.

  20. The latest science and human

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sang Il; Lee, Hae Du; Lee, Geun Hui

    1985-04-15

    The book is collective reports on the science and human. The contents of this book are life ethics and technology ethics, conception of human and human science, biotechnology. The tower of Babel in computer age, human brain and robot, new media and communication innovation, status of computer engineering, current condition of development of new media, mass media and violence, crime and scientification of terror, condition of the life and peace, period of machine and literature, religious prophecy and scientific prophecy and hi-tech age and education of science.

  1. The genome in three dimensions: a new frontier in human brain research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Amanda C; Bharadwaj, Rahul; Whittle, Catheryne; Krueger, Winfried; Mirnics, Karoly; Hurd, Yasmin; Rasmussen, Theodore; Akbarian, Schahram

    2014-06-15

    Less than 1.5% of the human genome encodes protein. However, vast portions of the human genome are subject to transcriptional and epigenetic regulation, and many noncoding regulatory DNA elements are thought to regulate the spatial organization of interphase chromosomes. For example, chromosomal "loopings" are pivotal for the orderly process of gene expression, by enabling distal regulatory enhancer or silencer elements to directly interact with proximal promoter and transcription start sites, potentially bypassing hundreds of kilobases of interspersed sequence on the linear genome. To date, however, epigenetic studies in the human brain are mostly limited to the exploration of DNA methylation and posttranslational modifications of the nucleosome core histones. In contrast, very little is known about the regulation of supranucleosomal structures. Here, we show that chromosome conformation capture, a widely used approach to study higher-order chromatin, is applicable to tissue collected postmortem, thereby informing about genome organization in the human brain. We introduce chromosome conformation capture protocols for brain and compare higher-order chromatin structures at the chromosome 6p22.2-22.1 schizophrenia and bipolar disorder susceptibility locus, and additional neurodevelopmental risk genes, (DPP10, MCPH1) in adult prefrontal cortex and various cell culture systems, including neurons derived from reprogrammed skin cells. We predict that the exploration of three-dimensional genome architectures and function will open up new frontiers in human brain research and psychiatric genetics and provide novel insights into the epigenetic risk architectures of regulatory noncoding DNA. Copyright © 2014 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Humanism and science: a reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wampold, Bruce E

    2012-12-01

    Authors in this section have noted that humanism is intrinsic to psychotherapy, although disagreements remain. One of the disagreements is about the role of science in humanism. In this reaction, I contend that humanism, as discussed in these articles, is a legitimate theory to be subjected to scientific scrutiny. (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved.

  3. New frontiers in human cell biology and medicine: can pluripotent stem cells deliver?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Lawrence S B

    2012-11-12

    Human pluripotent stem cells provide enormous opportunities to treat disease using cell therapy. But human stem cells can also drive biomedical and cell biological discoveries in a human model system, which can be directly linked to understanding disease or developing new therapies. Finally, rigorous scientific studies of these cells can and should inform the many science and medical policy issues that confront the translation of these technologies to medicine. In this paper, I discuss these issues using amyotrophic lateral sclerosis as an example.

  4. Frontier Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Assaf, A. George; Josiassen, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    and macro applications of these approaches, summarizing and critically reviewing the characteristics of the existing studies. We also conduct a meta-analysis to create an overview of the efficiency results of frontier applications. This allows for an investigation of the impact of frontier methodology...

  5. Looking Across and Looking Beyond the Knowledge Frontier: Intellectual Distance, Novelty, and Resource Allocation in Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudreau, Kevin J.; Guinan, Eva C.; Lakhani, Karim R.; Riedl, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    Selecting among alternative projects is a core management task in all innovating organizations. In this paper, we focus on the evaluation of frontier scientific research projects. We argue that the “intellectual distance” between the knowledge embodied in research proposals and an evaluator’s own expertise systematically relates to the evaluations given. To estimate relationships, we designed and executed a grant proposal process at a leading research university in which we randomized the assignment of evaluators and proposals to generate 2,130 evaluator–proposal pairs. We find that evaluators systematically give lower scores to research proposals that are closer to their own areas of expertise and to those that are highly novel. The patterns are consistent with biases associated with boundedly rational evaluation of new ideas. The patterns are inconsistent with intellectual distance simply contributing “noise” or being associated with private interests of evaluators. We discuss implications for policy, managerial intervention, and allocation of resources in the ongoing accumulation of scientific knowledge.

  6. Human reasoning and cognitive science

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stenning, K.; van Lambalgen, M.

    2008-01-01

    In Human Reasoning and Cognitive Science, Keith Stenning and Michiel van Lambalgen—a cognitive scientist and a logician—argue for the indispensability of modern mathematical logic to the study of human reasoning. Logic and cognition were once closely connected, they write, but were "divorced" in the

  7. Energy Frontier Research Center, Center for Materials Science of Nuclear Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Todd R. Allen

    2011-12-01

    This is a document required by Basic Energy Sciences as part of a mid-term review, in the third year of the five-year award period and is intended to provide a critical assessment of the Center for Materials Science of Nuclear Fuels (strategic vision, scientific plans and progress, and technical accomplishments).

  8. I.I. Rabi Prize Talk: Exploring New Frontiers of Quantum Optical Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukin, Mikhail

    2009-05-01

    In this talk we will discuss recent developments involving a new scientific interface between quantum optics and atomic physics, many body physics, nanoscience and quantum information science. Specific examples include quantum manipulation of individual spins and photons using impurities in diamond and control of light-matter interactions using sub-wavelength localization of optical fields. Novel applications of these techniques ranging from implementation of ideas from quantum information science to nanoscale magnetic sensing will be discussed.

  9. Overview 2010 of ARL Program on Network Science for Human Decision Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    IN FRACTAL PHYSIOLOGY       OVERVIEW 2010 OF ARL PROGRAM ON NETWORK SCIENCE FOR HUMAN DECISION MAKING   Bruce J West Journal Name: Frontiers in...2:76. doi:10.3389/fphys.2011.00076 Article URL: http://www.frontiersin.org/Journal/Abstract.aspx?s=454& name= fractal %20physiology&ART_DOI=10.3389...functions: transportation, electrical power, food distribution, finance , and health care to name a few. The 1 2 interoperability of these networks

  10. Pushing the Frontiers of Science with Synchrotron Radiation: BESAC Panel on DOE Synchrotron Radiation Sources and Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birgeneau, Robert J.

    1998-04-01

    During 1997 a panel empowered by the Basic Energy Sciences Advisory Committee and chaired by the speaker carried out a comprehensive review of the four DOE synchrotron sources, the ALS, APS, NSLS and SSRL^1.(Report of Basic Energy Sciences Advisory Committee Panel on DOE Synchrotron Radiation Sources and Science, November 1997) We also reviewed the science and technology, past and present, carried out at these facilities. This included the areas of materials research, surface science, polymers and other forms of soft condensed matter, atomic, optical, and molecular physics and chemistry, molecular environmental science, the geosciences and structural biology. We also considered more cursorily ongoing and proposed research on fourth generation sources. The most straightforward and most important conclusion of this study is that over the past 20 years in the United States synchrotron radiation research has evolved from an esoteric endeavor practiced by a small number of scientists primarily from the fields of solid state physics and surface science to a mainstream activity which provides essential information in all of the above fields. The user community at U.S. synchrotron facilities continues to grow exponentially, having reached more than 4000 on-site users annually in FY97. The research carried out at the four DOE synchrotron sources is both very broad and often exceptionally deep. We will review the results of this study with emphasis on the current science and anticipated future research carried out at modern synchrotron sources.

  11. New frontiers in the study of human cultural and genetic evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Cody T; Richerson, Peter J

    2014-12-01

    In this review, we discuss the dynamic linkages between culture and the genetic evolution of the human species. We begin by briefly describing the framework of gene-culture coevolutionary (or dual-inheritance) models for human evolutionary change. Until recently, the literature on gene-culture coevolution was composed primarily of mathematical models and formalized theory describing the complex dynamics underlying human behavior, adaptation, and technological evolution, but had little empirical support concerning genetics. The rapid progress in the fields of molecular genetics and genomics, however, is now providing the kinds of data needed to produce rich empirical support for gene-culture coevolutionary models. We briefly outline how theoretical and methodological progress in genome sciences has provided ways for the strength of selection on genes to be evaluated, and then outline how evidence of selection on several key genes can be directly linked to human cultural practices. We then describe some exciting new directions in the empirical study of gene-culture coevolution, and conclude with a discussion of the role of gene-culture evolutionary models in the future integration of medical, biological, and social sciences.

  12. Evolving science of marine reserves: new developments and emerging research frontiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaines, Steven D; Lester, Sarah E; Grorud-Colvert, Kirsten; Costello, Christopher; Pollnac, Richard

    2010-10-26

    The field of marine reserve science has matured greatly over the last decade, moving beyond studies of single reserves and beyond perspectives from single disciplines. This Special Feature exemplifies recent advances in marine reserve research, showing insights gained from synthetic studies of reserve networks, long-term changes within reserves, integration of social and ecological science research, and balance between reserve design for conservation as well as fishery and other commercial objectives. This rich body of research helps to inform conservation planning for marine ecosystems but also poses new challenges for further study, including how to best design integrated fisheries management and conservation systems, how to effectively evaluate the performance of entire reserve networks, and how to examine the complex coupling between ecological and socioeconomic responses to reserve networks.

  13. Frontiers in fusion research

    CERN Document Server

    Kikuchi, Mitsuru

    2011-01-01

    Frontiers in Fusion Research provides a systematic overview of the latest physical principles of fusion and plasma confinement. It is primarily devoted to the principle of magnetic plasma confinement, that has been systematized through 50 years of fusion research. Frontiers in Fusion Research begins with an introduction to the study of plasma, discussing the astronomical birth of hydrogen energy and the beginnings of human attempts to harness the Sun's energy for use on Earth. It moves on to chapters that cover a variety of topics such as: * charged particle motion, * plasma kinetic theory, *

  14. Deep-sea genetic resources: New frontiers for science and stewardship in areas beyond national jurisdiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harden-Davies, Harriet

    2017-03-01

    The deep-sea is a large source of marine genetic resources (MGR), which have many potential uses and are a growing area of research. Much of the deep-sea lies in areas beyond national jurisdiction (ABNJ), including 65% of the global ocean. MGR in ABNJ occupy a significant gap in the international legal framework. Access and benefit sharing of MGR is a key issue in the development of a new international legally-binding instrument under the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS) for the conservation and sustainable use of marine biological diversity in ABNJ. This paper examines how this is relevant to deep-sea scientific research and identifies emerging challenges and opportunities. There is no internationally agreed definition of MGR, however, deep-sea genetic resources could incorporate any biological material including genes, proteins and natural products. Deep-sea scientific research is the key actor accessing MGR in ABNJ and sharing benefits such as data, samples and knowledge. UNCLOS provides the international legal framework for marine scientific research, international science cooperation, capacity building and marine technology transfer. Enhanced implementation could support access and benefit sharing of MGR in ABNJ. Deep-sea scientific researchers could play an important role in informing practical new governance solutions for access and benefit sharing of MGR that promote scientific research in ABNJ and support deep-sea stewardship. Advancing knowledge of deep-sea biodiversity in ABNJ, enhancing open-access to data and samples, standardisation and international marine science cooperation are significant potential opportunity areas.

  15. Frontier constellations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eilenberg, Michael

    2014-01-01

    contemporary state-capitalist processes of agricultural expansion in the borderlands of Indonesia and other parts of Southeast Asia are justified through discourses of national sovereignty and notions of ‘untamed’ and ‘wild’ resource frontiers. I highlight the multiple meanings and notions associated......Borderland regions in Southeast Asia have increasingly been reimagined as resource-rich, unexploited ‘wastelands’ targeted for large-scale development schemes for economic integration and control. Common and overlapping features of these regions are processes of resource extraction, agricultural...... with regions where resource frontiers and national borders interlock. The study offers an explanation of how frontiers as discursive constructs and material realities play out along national borders....

  16. Is Lifecycle Analysis Unconstitutional? New Frontiers in the Legal Battle Over Climate Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullenward, D.; Weiskopf, D.

    2012-12-01

    Recent federal court decisions have established that judges should not second-guess government agency findings related to basic climate change science [1,2]. Nevertheless, the legal battle over climate science is far from over. In the absence of federal legislation, climate policy opponents are developing new arguments to challenge the authority of states to regulate greenhouse gas emissions. This presentation describes a recent challenge to California's climate policy and provides an example of a strategic scientific response. In December 2011, a federal district court ruled that California's Low Carbon Fuel Standard ("LCFS") is unconstitutional [3]. The LCFS regulations employ lifecycle analysis to set a limit on the carbon intensity of fuels sold in California. According to the court, however, the policy's use of lifecycle analysis "facially discriminates" against interstate commerce. Because the court found that nondiscriminatory alternatives were available, it held the policy unconstitutional. If upheld, this reasoning would severely limit the ability of states to address climate change. On appeal to the Ninth Circuit, the Stanford Environmental Law Clinic represented climate scientists [4] and lifecycle analysis scientists [5] in support of upholding the LCFS. These briefs addressed the necessity of lifecycle analysis in the context of transportation fuels, and also presented evidence from the climate impacts literature that supports the state's interest in pursuing climate policy. Although written for the court and targeted at specific legal questions, both briefs were developed in the style of scientific assessments, based on published literature [6,7] and feedback from reviewers. Because courts lack the expertise to evaluate arguments about scientific issues, there is an ongoing need for climate scientists to participate in litigation. Perhaps most importantly, an effective response requires interdisciplinary collaboration between lawyers and scientists

  17. Frontiers in Superconducting Materials

    CERN Document Server

    Narlikar, Anant V

    2005-01-01

    Frontiers in Superconducting Materials gives a state-of-the-art report of the most important topics of the current research in superconductive materials and related phenomena. It comprises 30 chapters written by renowned international experts in the field. It is of central interest to researchers and specialists in Physics and Materials Science, both in academic and industrial research, as well as advanced students. It also addresses electronic and electrical engineers. Even non-specialists interested in superconductivity might find some useful answers.

  18. Sustainability Frontiers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selby, David

    2010-01-01

    This article introduces Sustainability Frontiers, a newly formed, international, not-for-profit alliance of sustainability and global educators dedicated to challenging and laying bare the assumptions, exposing the blind spots, and transgressing the boundaries of mainstream understandings of sustainability-related education. Among the orthodoxies…

  19. Frontier constellations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eilenberg, Michael

    2014-01-01

    contemporary state-capitalist processes of agricultural expansion in the borderlands of Indonesia and other parts of Southeast Asia are justified through discourses of national sovereignty and notions of ‘untamed’ and ‘wild’ resource frontiers. I highlight the multiple meanings and notions associated...

  20. Fundamental Physics at the Intensity Frontier

    CERN Document Server

    Hewett, J.L.; Brock, R.; Butler, J.N.; Casey, B.C.K.; Collar, J.; de Gouvea, A.; Essig, R.; Grossman, Y.; Haxton, W.; Jaros, J.A.; Jung, C.K.; Lu, Z.T.; Pitts, K.; Ligeti, Z.; Patterson, J.R.; Ramsey-Musolf, M.; Ritchie, J.L.; Roodman, A.; Scholberg, K.; Wagner, C.E.M.; Zeller, G.P.; Aefsky, S.; Afanasev, A.; Agashe, K.; Albright, C.; Alonso, J.; Ankenbrandt, C.; Aoki, M.; Arguelles, C.A.; Arkani-Hamed, N.; Armendariz, J.R.; Armendariz-Picon, C.; Arrieta Diaz, E.; Asaadi, J.; Asner, D.M.; Babu, K.S.; Bailey, K.; Baker, O.; Balantekin, B.; Baller, B.; Bass, M.; Batell, B.; Beacham, J.; Behr, J.; Berger, N.; Bergevin, M.; Berman, E.; Bernstein, R.; Bevan, A.J.; Bishai, M.; Blanke, M.; Blessing, S.; Blondel, A.; Blum, T.; Bock, G.; Bodek, A.; Bonvicini, G.; Bossi, F.; Boyce, J.; Breedon, R.; Breidenbach, M.; Brice, S.J.; Briere, R.A.; Brodsky, S.; Bromberg, C.; Bross, A.; Browder, T.E.; Bryman, D.A.; Buckley, M.; Burnstein, R.; Caden, E.; Campana, P.; Carlini, R.; Carosi, G.; Castromonte, C.; Cenci, R.; Chakaberia, I.; Chen, Mu-Chun; Cheng, C.H.; Choudhary, B.; Christ, N.H.; Christensen, E.; Christy, M.E.; Chupp, T.E.; Church, E.; Cline, D.B.; Coan, T.E.; Coloma, P.; Comfort, J.; Coney, L.; Cooper, J.; Cooper, R.J.; Cowan, R.; Cowen, D.F.; Cronin-Hennessy, D.; Datta, A.; Davies, G.S.; Demarteau, M.; DeMille, D.P.; Denig, A.; Dermisek, R.; Deshpande, A.; Dewey, M.S.; Dharmapalan, R.; Dhooghe, J.; Dietrich, M.R.; Diwan, M.; Djurcic, Z.; Dobbs, S.; Duraisamy, M.; Dutta, B.; Duyang, H.; Dwyer, D.A.; Eads, M.; Echenard, B.; Elliott, S.R.; Escobar, C.; Fajans, J.; Farooq, S.; Faroughy, C.; Fast, J.E.; Feinberg, B.; Felde, J.; Feldman, G.; Fierlinger, P.; Fileviez Perez, P.; Filippone, B.; Fisher, P.; Flemming, B.T.; Flood, K.T.; Forty, R.; Frank, M.J.; Freyberger, A.; Friedland, A.; Gandhi, R.; Ganezer, K.S.; Garcia, A.; Garcia, F.G.; Gardner, S.; Garrison, L.; Gasparian, A.; Geer, S.; Gehman, V.M.; Gershon, T.; Gilchriese, M.; Ginsberg, C.; Gogoladze, I.; Gonderinger, M.; Goodman, M.; Gould, H.; Graham, M.; Graham, P.W.; Gran, R.; Grange, J.; Gratta, G.; Green, J.P.; Greenlee, H.; Group, R.C.; Guardincerri, E.; Gudkov, V.; Guenette, R.; Haas, A.; Hahn, A.; Han, T.; Handler, T.; Hardy, J.C.; Harnik, R.; Harris, D.A.; Harris, F.A.; Harris, P.G.; Hartnett, J.; He, B.; Heckel, B.R.; Heeger, K.M.; Henderson, S.; Hertzog, D.; Hill, R.; Hinds, E.A.; Hitlin, D.G.; Holt, R.J.; Holtkamp, N.; Horton-Smith, G.; Huber, P.; Huelsnitz, W.; Imber, J.; Irastorza, I.; Jaeckel, J.; Jaegle, I.; James, C.; Jawahery, A.; Jensen, D.; Jessop, C.P.; Jones, B.; Jostlein, H.; Junk, T.; Kagan, A.L.; Kalita, M.; Kamyshkov, Y.; Kaplan, D.M.; Karagiorgi, G.; Karle, A.; Katori, T.; Kayser, B.; Kephart, R.; Kettell, S.; Kim, Y.K.; Kirby, M.; Kirch, K.; Klein, J.; Kneller, J.; Kobach, A.; Kohl, M.; Kopp, J.; Kordosky, M.; Korsch, W.; Kourbanis, I.; Krisch, A.D.; Krizan, P.; Kronfeld, A.S.; Kulkarni, S.; Kumar, K.S.; Kuno, Y.; Kutter, T.; Lachenmaier, T.; Lamm, M.; Lancaster, J.; Lancaster, M.; Lane, C.; Lang, K.; Langacker, P.; Lazarevic, S.; Le, T.; Lee, K.; Lesko, K.T.; Li, Y.; Lindgren, M.; Lindner, A.; Link, J.; Lissauer, D.; Littenberg, L.S.; Littlejohn, B.; Liu, C.Y.; Loinaz, W.; Lorenzon, W.; Louis, W.C.; Lozier, J.; Ludovici, L.; Lueking, L.; Lunardini, C.; MacFarlane, D.B.; Machado, P.A.N.; Mackenzie, P.B.; Maloney, J.; Marciano, W.J.; Marsh, W.; Marshak, M.; Martin, J.W.; Mauger, C.; McFarland, K.S.; McGrew, C.; McLaughlin, G.; McKeen, D.; McKeown, R.; Meadows, B.T.; Mehdiyev, R.; Melconian, D.; Merkel, H.; Messier, M.; Miller, J.P.; Mills, G.; Minamisono, U.K.; Mishra, S.R.; Mocioiu, I.; Sher, S.Moed; Mohapatra, R.N.; Monreal, B.; Moore, C.D.; Morfin, J.G.; Mousseau, J.; Moustakas, L.A.; Mueller, G.; Mueller, P.; Muether, M.; Mumm, H.P.; Munger, C.; Murayama, H.; Nath, P.; Naviliat-Cuncin, O.; Nelson, J.K.; Neuffer, D.; Nico, J.S.; Norman, A.; Nygren, D.; Obayashi, Y.; O'Connor, T.P.; Okada, Y.; Olsen, J.; Orozco, L.; Orrell, J.L.; Osta, J.; Pahlka, B.; Paley, J.; Papadimitriou, V.; Papucci, M.; Parke, S.; Parker, R.H.; Parsa, Z.; Partyka, K.; Patch, A.; Pati, J.C.; Patterson, R.B.; Pavlovic, Z.; Paz, Gil; Perdue, G.N.; Perevalov, D.; Perez, G.; Petti, R.; Pettus, W.; Piepke, A.; Pivovaroff, M.; Plunkett, R.; Polly, C.C.; Pospelov, M.; Povey, R.; Prakesh, A.; Purohit, M.V.; Raby, S.; Raaf, J.L.; Rajendran, R.; Rajendran, S.; Rameika, G.; Ramsey, R.; Rashed, A.; Ratcliff, B.N.; Rebel, B.; Redondo, J.; Reimer, P.; Reitzner, D.; Ringer, F.; Ringwald, A.; Riordan, S.; Roberts, B.L.; Roberts, D.A.; Robertson, R.; Robicheaux, F.; Rominsky, M.; Roser, R.; Rosner, J.L.; Rott, C.; Rubin, P.; Saito, N.; Sanchez, M.; Sarkar, S.; Schellman, H.; Schmidt, B.; Schmitt, M.; Schmitz, D.W.; Schneps, J.; Schopper, A.; Schuster, P.; Schwartz, A.J.; Schwarz, M.; Seeman, J.; Semertzidis, Y.K.; Seth, K.K.; Shafi, Q.; Shanahan, P.; Sharma, R.; Sharpe, S.R.; Shiozawa, M.; Shiltsev, V.; Sigurdson, K.; Sikivie, P.; Singh, J.; Sivers, D.; Skwarnicki, T.; Smith, N.; Sobczyk, J.; Sobel, H.; Soderberg, M.; Song, Y.H.; Soni, A.; Souder, P.; Sousa, A.; Spitz, J.; Stancari, M.; Stavenga, G.C.; Steffen, J.H.; Stepanyan, S.; Stoeckinger, D.; Stone, S.; Strait, J.; Strassler, M.; Sulai, I.A.; Sundrum, R.; Svoboda, R.; Szczerbinska, B.; Szelc, A.; Takeuchi, T.; Tanedo, P.; Taneja, S.; Tang, J.; Tanner, D.B.; Tayloe, R.; Taylor, I.; Thomas, J.; Thorn, C.; Tian, X.; Tice, B.G.; Tobar, M.; Tolich, N.; Toro, N.; Towner, I.S.; Tsai, Y.; Tschirhart, R.; Tunnell, C.D.; Tzanov, M.; Upadhye, A.; Urheim, J.; Vahsen, S.; Vainshtein, A.; Valencia, E.; Van de Water, R.G.; Van de Water, R.S.; Velasco, M.; Vogel, J.; Vogel, P.; Vogelsang, W.; Wah, Y.W.; Walker, D.; Weiner, N.; Weltman, A.; Wendell, R.; Wester, W.; Wetstein, M.; White, C.; Whitehead, L.; Whitmore, J.; Widmann, E.; Wiedemann, G.; Wilkerson, J.; Wilkinson, G.; Wilson, P.; Wilson, R.J.; Winter, W.; Wise, M.B.; Wodin, J.; Wojcicki, S.; Wojtsekhowski, B.; Wongjirad, T.; Worcester, E.; Wurtele, J.; Xin, T.; Xu, J.; Yamanaka, T.; Yamazaki, Y.; Yavin, I.; Yeck, J.; Yeh, M.; Yokoyama, M.; Yoo, J.; Young, A.; Zimmerman, E.; Zioutas, K.; Zisman, M.; Zupan, J.; Zwaska, R.; Intensity Frontier Workshop

    2012-01-01

    The Proceedings of the 2011 workshop on Fundamental Physics at the Intensity Frontier. Science opportunities at the intensity frontier are identified and described in the areas of heavy quarks, charged leptons, neutrinos, proton decay, new light weakly-coupled particles, and nucleons, nuclei, and atoms.

  1. NASA information sciences and human factors program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holcomb, Lee; Hood, Ray; Montemerlo, Melvin; Jenkins, James; Smith, Paul; Dibattista, John; Depaula, Ramon; Hunter, Paul; Lavery, David

    1991-01-01

    The FY-90 descriptions of technical accomplishments are contained in seven sections: Automation and Robotics, Communications, Computer Sciences, Controls and Guidance, Data Systems, Human Factors, and Sensor Technology.

  2. CAREERS IN INFORMATION SCIENCE,

    Science.gov (United States)

    Information Science . Sets forth that Information Science is concerned with the properties, behavior, and flow of information...Describes how it is used, both by individuals and in large systems. Discusses the opportunities in Information Science and outlines three relatively...6or participation in these career areas. Concludes that Information Science is a new but rapidly growing field pushing the frontiers of human knowledge and, thus, 3ontributing to human wellbeing and progress.

  3. Human and remote sensing data to investigate the frontiers of urbanization in the south of Mexico City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez Lopez, Juan Miguel; Heider, Katharina; Scheffran, Jürgen

    2017-04-01

    The data presented here were originally collected for the article "Frontiers of Urbanization: Identifying and Explaining Urbanization Hot Spots in the South of Mexico City Using Human and Remote Sensing" (Rodriguez et al. 2017) [4]. They were divided into three databases (remote sensing, human sensing, and census information), using a multi-method approach with the goal of analyzing the impact of urbanization on protected areas in southern Mexico City. The remote sensing database was prepared as a result of a semi-automatic classification, dividing the land cover data into urban and non-urban classes. The second data set details an alternative view of the phenomena of urbanization by concentrating on illegal settlements in the conservation zone. It was based on voluntary complaints about environmental and land use offences filed at the Procuraduria Ambiental y del Ordenamiento Territorial del Distrito Federal (PAOT), which is a governmental entity responsible for reviewing and processing grievances on five basic topics: illegal land use, deterioration of green areas, waste, noise/vibrations, and animals. Anyone can file a PAOT complaint by phone, electronically, or in person. The complaint ends with a resolution, act of conciliation, or recommendation for action by other actors, such as the police or health office. The third data about unemployment was extracted from Mexico׳s National Census 2010 database available via public access.

  4. Human and remote sensing data to investigate the frontiers of urbanization in the south of Mexico City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Miguel Rodriguez Lopez

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The data presented here were originally collected for the article “Frontiers of Urbanization: Identifying and Explaining Urbanization Hot Spots in the South of Mexico City Using Human and Remote Sensing” (Rodriguez et al. 2017 [4]. They were divided into three databases (remote sensing, human sensing, and census information, using a multi-method approach with the goal of analyzing the impact of urbanization on protected areas in southern Mexico City. The remote sensing database was prepared as a result of a semi-automatic classification, dividing the land cover data into urban and non-urban classes. The second data set details an alternative view of the phenomena of urbanization by concentrating on illegal settlements in the conservation zone. It was based on voluntary complaints about environmental and land use offences filed at the Procuraduria Ambiental y del Ordenamiento Territorial del Distrito Federal (PAOT, which is a governmental entity responsible for reviewing and processing grievances on five basic topics: illegal land use, deterioration of green areas, waste, noise/vibrations, and animals. Anyone can file a PAOT complaint by phone, electronically, or in person. The complaint ends with a resolution, act of conciliation, or recommendation for action by other actors, such as the police or health office. The third data about unemployment was extracted from Mexico׳s National Census 2010 database available via public access.

  5. Human Nature and the Nature of Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Richard J.

    1988-01-01

    Examines the procedural and philosophical perspectives taken by science in examining human characteristics. Discusses the different levels of accuracy of various scientific fields. Encourages discussion of what biological and behavioral sciences can and cannot reveal about complex human nature. Considers some characteristics of quality science…

  6. Frontiers in Magnetic Materials

    CERN Document Server

    Narlikar, Anant V

    2005-01-01

    Frontiers in Magnetic Materials focuses on the current achievements and state-of-the-art advancements in magnetic materials. Several lines of development- High-Tc Superconductivity, Nanotechnology and refined experimental techniques among them – raised knowledge and interest in magnetic materials remarkably. The book comprises 24 chapters on the most relevant topics written by renowned international experts in the field. It is of central interest to researchers and specialists in Physics and Materials Science, both in academic and industrial research, as well as advanced students.

  7. Frontiers in Computer Education

    CERN Document Server

    Zhu, Egui; 2011 International Conference on Frontiers in Computer Education (ICFCE 2011)

    2012-01-01

    This book is the proceedings of the 2011 International Conference on Frontiers in Computer Education (ICFCE 2011) in Sanya, China, December 1-2, 2011. The contributions can be useful for researchers, software engineers, and programmers, all interested in promoting the computer and education development. Topics covered are computing and communication technology, network management, wireless networks, telecommunication, Signal and Image Processing, Machine Learning, educational management, educational psychology, educational system, education engineering, education technology and training.  The emphasis is on methods and calculi for computer science and education technology development, verification and verification tools support, experiences from doing developments, and the associated theoretical problems.

  8. Behavioral externalities in natural resource production possibility frontiers: integrating biology and economics to model human-wildlife interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCoy, N H

    2003-09-01

    Production possibility modeling has been applied to a variety of wildlife management issues. Although it has seen only limited employment in modeling human-wildlife output decisions, it can be expected that the theory's use in this area will increase as human interactions with and impacts on wildlife become more frequent. At present, most models applying production possibility theory to wildlife production can be characterized in that wildlife output quantities are determined by physically quantifiable functions representing rivalrous resources. When the theory is applied to human-wildlife interactions, it may not be sufficient to model the production tradeoffs using only physical constraints. As wildlife are known to respond to human presence, it could be expected that human activity may appear in wildlife production functions as an externality. Behavioral externalities are revealed by an output's response to the presence of another output and can result in a loss of concavity of the production possibilities frontier. Ignoring the potential of a behavioral externality can result in an unexpected and inefficient output allocation that may compromise a wildlife population's well-being. Behavioral externalities can be included in PPF models in a number of ways, including the use of data or cumulative effects modeling. While identifying that behavioral externalities exist and incorporating them into a model is important, correctly interpreting their implications will be critical to improve the efficiency of natural resource management. Behavioral externalities may cause a loss of concavity anywhere along a PPF that may compel managerial decisions that are inconsistent with multiple use doctrines. Convex PPFs may result when wildlife species are extremely sensitive to any level of human activity. It may be possible to improve the PPF's concavity by reducing the strength of the behavioral effect. Any change in the PPF that increases the convexity of the production set

  9. Inkanyiso: Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Inkanyiso: Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences ... research, and health promotion · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT ... Maximising the potential of social media to deliver academic library services to students: A case ...

  10. Groundbreaking Mars Sample Return for Science and Human Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Barbara; Draper, David; Eppler, Dean; Treiman, Allan

    2012-01-01

    Partnerships between science and human exploration have recent heritage for the Moon (Lunar Precursor Robotics Program, LPRP) and nearearth objects (Exploration Precursor Robotics Program, xPRP). Both programs spent appreciable time and effort determining measurements needed or desired before human missions to these destinations. These measurements may be crucial to human health or spacecraft design, or may be desired to better optimize systems designs such as spacesuits or operations. Both LPRP and xPRP recommended measurements from orbit, by landed missions and by sample return. LPRP conducted the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) and Lunar Crater Observation and Sensing Satellite (LCROSS) missions, providing high-resolution visible imagery, surface and subsurface temperatures, global topography, mapping of possible water ice deposits, and the biological effects of radiation [1]. LPRP also initiated a landed mission to provide dust and regolith properties, local lighting conditions, assessment of resources, and demonstration of precision landing [2]. This mission was canceled in 2006 due to funding shortfalls. For the Moon, adequate samples of rocks and regolith were returned by the Apollo and Luna programs to conduct needed investigations. Many near-earth asteroids (NEAs) have been observed from the Earth and several have been more extensively characterized by close-flying missions and landings (NEAR, Hayabusa, Rosetta). The current Joint Robotic Precursor Activity program is considering activities such as partnering with the New Frontiers mission OSIRIS-Rex to visit a NEA and return a sample to the Earth. However, a strong consensus of the NEO User Team within xPRP was that a dedicated mission to the asteroid targeted by humans is required [3], ideally including regolith sample return for more extensive characterization and testing on the Earth.

  11. Biomedical engineering frontier research and converging technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Jun, Ho-Wook; Shin, Jennifer; Lee, SangHoon

    2016-01-01

    This book provides readers with an integrative overview of the latest research and developments in the broad field of biomedical engineering. Each of the chapters offers a timely review written by leading biomedical engineers and aims at showing how the convergence of scientific and engineering fields with medicine has created a new basis for practically solving problems concerning human health, wellbeing and disease. While some of the latest frontiers of biomedicine, such as neuroscience and regenerative medicine, are becoming increasingly dependent on new ideas and tools from other disciplines, the paradigm shift caused by technological innovations in the fields of information science, nanotechnology, and robotics is opening new opportunities in healthcare, besides dramatically changing the ways we actually practice science. At the same time, a new generation of engineers, fluent in many different scientific “languages,” is creating entirely new fields of research that approach the “old” questions f...

  12. The Great Obstetrical Syndromes and the Human Microbiome—A New Frontier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ido Solt

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Over the last two decades, advanced molecular genetics technology has enabled analysis of complex microbial communities and the study of microbial genomics. Interest has grown in characterizing the microbiome, defined as a collective microbial community and its extensive genome, as a clue to disease mechanisms. “The Human Microbiome Project,” sponsored by the NIH Common Fund, was established to characterize the pathology-associated human microbiome in nasal passages, oral cavities, skin, the gastrointestinal tract, and the urogenital compartment. In particular, characterization of urogenital microbiota may elucidate etiologies of complex obstetrical syndromes and factors in fetal development that define risk for pathology in adulthood. This article summarizes recent findings defining the microbiome associated with the female urogenital compartment in child-bearing age women. We also describe our analysis of microbiome samples from the oral, vaginal, and rectal compartments in a cohort of pregnant women. Findings present technical considerations in the characterization of microbial diversity and composition associated with gestational diabetes as a model pregnancy-associated pathology.

  13. The Science of Human Interaction and Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yano, Kazuo

    2013-01-01

    There is a missing link between our understanding of teaching as high-level social phenomenon and teaching as a physiological phenomenon of brain activity. We suggest that the science of human interaction is the missing link. Using over one-million days of human-behavior data, we have discovered that "collective activenes" (CA), which indicates…

  14. Introducing "Frontiers in Zoology"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinze, Jürgen; Tautz, Diethard

    2004-09-29

    As a biological discipline, zoology has one of the longest histories. Today it occasionally appears as though, due to the rapid expansion of life sciences, zoology has been replaced by more or less independent sub-disciplines amongst which exchange is often sparse. However, the recent advance of molecular methodology into "classical" fields of biology, and the development of theories that can explain phenomena on different levels of organisation, has led to a re-integration of zoological disciplines promoting a broader than usual approach to zoological questions. Zoology has re-emerged as an integrative discipline encompassing the most diverse aspects of animal life, from the level of the gene to the level of the ecosystem.The new journal Frontiers in Zoology is the first Open Access journal focussing on zoology as a whole. It aims to represent and re-unite the various disciplines that look at animal life from different perspectives and at providing the basis for a comprehensive understanding of zoological phenomena on all levels of analysis. Frontiers in Zoology provides a unique opportunity to publish high quality research and reviews on zoological issues that will be internationally accessible to any reader at no cost.

  15. Science fiction and the medical humanities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Gavin; McFarlane, Anna

    2016-12-01

    Research on science fiction within the medical humanities should articulate interpretative frameworks that do justice to medical themes within the genre. This means challenging modes of reading that encourage unduly narrow accounts of science fiction. Admittedly, science studies has moved away from reading science fiction as a variety of scientific popularisation and instead understands science fiction as an intervention in the technoscientific imaginary that calls for investment in particular scientific enterprises, including various biomedical technologies. However, this mode of reading neglects science fiction's critical relationship to the construction of 'the future' in the present: the ways in which science fiction proposes concrete alternatives to hegemonic narratives of medical progress and fosters critical self-awareness of the contingent activity which gives 'the future' substance in the here-and-now. Moreover, the future orientation of science fiction should not distract from the function of medical science fiction as 'cognitive estrangement': the technological innovations that dominate science-fiction narratives are less concrete predictions and more generic devices that explain in historical time the origins of a marvellous world bearing provocative correspondences to our own, everyday reality. The editorial concludes with a series of introductions to the articles comprising the special issue, covering the print edition and a special online-only section.

  16. Clinical science and human behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plaud, J J

    2001-09-01

    The debate between mentalism/cognitivism and behaviorism is analyzed, and it is concluded that behaviorism is the philosophy more closely associated with psychology as a behavioral science, the cognitive approach being more closely aligned with biological science. Specific objections to mentalistic interpretations of behavioral phenomena are detailed, and examples from clinical psychology are used to show the importance of behavioral approaches in applied domains. It is argued that the relation between behavior theory and clinical psychology is critical to the continued advancement of applied psychology. Behavior analysis is offered as a direct, applied extension of behavior theory as well as a highly practical and effective approach for understanding, explaining, and modifying the factors that contribute to and maintain maladaptive behaviors.

  17. Medicine as combining natural and human science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreyfus, Hubert L

    2011-08-01

    Medicine is unique in being a combination of natural science and human science in which both are essential. Therefore, in order to make sense of medical practice, we need to begin by drawing a clear distinction between the natural and the human sciences. In this paper, I try to bring the old distinction between the Geistes and Naturwissenschaften up to date by defending the essential difference between a realist explanatory theoretical study of nature including the body in which the scientist discovers the causal properties of natural kinds and the interpretive understanding of human beings as embodied agents which, as Charles Taylor has convincingly argued, requires a hermeneutic account of self-interpreting human practices.

  18. [Scientists in cartoons: humanizing science].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fioravanti, Carlos Henrique; Andrade, Rodrigo de Oliveira; Marques, Ivan da Costa

    2016-01-01

    Published daily from 1994 to 2002 in Correio Popular, a Campinas-based newspaper, Os cientistas (The scientists) comic strips produced by Brazilian researchers and journalists presented science critically and irreverently, exposing the insecurities and frustrations of scientists, as well as the conflicts between them and their communication difficulties with other groups, like journalists. This article shows the diversity of personalities, subjects, graphic styles, and potential meanings in a sample of comic strips published in the first four years.

  19. Beyond crisis resource management: new frontiers in human factors training for acute care medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrosoniak, Andrew; Hicks, Christopher M

    2013-12-01

    Error is ubiquitous in medicine, particularly during critical events and resuscitation. A significant proportion of adverse events can be attributed to inadequate team-based skills such as communication, leadership, situation awareness and resource utilization. Aviation-based crisis resource management (CRM) training using high-fidelity simulation has been proposed as a strategy to improve team behaviours. This review will address key considerations in CRM training and outline recommendations for the future of human factors education in healthcare. A critical examination of the current literature yields several important considerations to guide the development and implementation of effective simulation-based CRM training. These include defining a priori domain-specific objectives, creating an immersive environment that encourages deliberate practice and transfer-appropriate processing, and the importance of effective team debriefing. Building on research from high-risk industry, we suggest that traditional CRM training may be augmented with new training techniques that promote the development of shared mental models for team and task processes, address the effect of acute stress on team performance, and integrate strategies to improve clinical reasoning and the detection of cognitive errors. The evolution of CRM training involves a 'Triple Threat' approach that integrates mental model theory for team and task processes, training for stressful situations and metacognition and error theory towards a more comprehensive training paradigm, with roots in high-risk industry and cognitive psychology. Further research is required to evaluate the impact of this approach on patient-oriented outcomes.

  20. Snowmass 2013 Computing Frontier Storage and Data Management

    CERN Document Server

    Butler, Michelle; Hildreth, Mike

    2013-01-01

    The data storage and data management needs are summarized for the energy frontier, intensity frontier, cosmic frontier, lattice field theory, perturbative QCD and accelerator science. The outlook for data storage technologies and costs is then outlined, followed by a summary of the current state of data, software and physics analysis capability preservation. The HEP outlook is summarized, pointing out where future data volumes may strain against what is technologically and financially feasible. Finally recommendations for areas of particular attention and action are made.

  1. Human Exploration Science Office (KX) Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calhoun, Tracy A.

    2014-01-01

    The Human Exploration Science Office supports human spaceflight, conducts research, and develops technology in the areas of space orbital debris, hypervelocity impact technology, image science and analysis, remote sensing, imagery integration, and human and robotic exploration science. NASA's Orbital Debris Program Office (ODPO) resides in the Human Exploration Science Office. ODPO provides leadership in orbital debris research and the development of national and international space policy on orbital debris. The office is recognized internationally for its measurement and modeling of the debris environment. It takes the lead in developing technical consensus across U.S. agencies and other space agencies on debris mitigation measures to protect users of the orbital environment. The Hypervelocity Impact Technology (HVIT) project evaluates the risks to spacecraft posed by micrometeoroid and orbital debris (MMOD). HVIT facilities at JSC and White Sands Test Facility (WSTF) use light gas guns, diagnostic tools, and high-speed imagery to quantify the response of spacecraft materials to MMOD impacts. Impact tests, with debris environment data provided by ODPO, are used by HVIT to predict risks to NASA and commercial spacecraft. HVIT directly serves NASA crew safety with MMOD risk assessments for each crewed mission and research into advanced shielding design for future missions. The Image Science and Analysis Group (ISAG) supports the International Space Station (ISS) and commercial spaceflight through the design of imagery acquisition schemes (ground- and vehicle-based) and imagery analyses for vehicle performance assessments and mission anomaly resolution. ISAG assists the Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) Program in the development of camera systems for the Orion spacecraft that will serve as data sources for flight test objectives that lead to crewed missions. The multi-center Imagery Integration Team is led by the Human Exploration Science Office and provides

  2. Information sciences and human factors overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holcomb, Lee B.

    1988-01-01

    An overview of program objectives of the Information Sciences and Human Factors Division of NASA's Office of Aeronautics and Space Technology is given in viewgraph form. Information is given on the organizational structure, goals, the research and technology base, telerobotics, systems autonomy in space operations, space sensors, humans in space, space communications, space data systems, transportation vehicle guidance and control, spacecraft control, and major program directions in space.

  3. The HST Frontier Fields: High-Level Science Data Products for the First 4 Completed Clusters, and Latest Data on the Remaining Clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koekemoer, Anton M.; Mack, Jennifer; Lotz, Jennifer; Anderson, Jay; Avila, Roberto J.; Barker, Elizabeth A.; Borncamp, David; Gunning, Heather C.; Hilbert, Bryan; Khandrika, Harish G.; Lucas, Ray A.; Ogaz, Sara; Porterfield, Blair; Grogin, Norman A.; Robberto, Massimo; Flanagan, Kathryn; Mountain, Matt; HST Frontier Fields Team

    2016-01-01

    The Hubble Space Telescope Frontier Fields program is a large Director's Discretionary program of 840 orbits, to obtain ultra-deep observations of six strong lensing clusters of galaxies, together with parallel deep blank fields, making use of the strong lensing amplification by these clusters of distant background galaxies to detect the faintest galaxies currently observable in the high-redshift universe. The first four of these clusters are now complete, namely Abell 2744, MACS J0416.1-2403, MACS J0717.5+3745 and MACS J1149.5+2223, with each of these having been observed over two epochs, to a total depth of 140 orbits on the main cluster and an associated parallel field, using ACS (F435W, F606W, F814W) and WFC3/IR (F105W, F125W, F140W, F160W). The remaining two clusters, Abell 370 and Abell S1063, are currently in progress. Full sets of high-level science products have been generated for all these clusters by the team at STScI, including a total of 24 separate cumulative-depth data releases during each epoch, as well as full-depth version 1.0 releases at the end of each completed epoch. These products include all the full-depth distortion-corrected mosaics and associated products for each cluster, which are science-ready to facilitate the construction of lensing models as well as enabling a wide range of other science projects. Many improvements beyond default calibration for ACS and WFC3/IR are implemented in these data products, including corrections for persistence, time-variable sky, and low-level dark current residuals, as well as improvements in astrometric alignment to achieve milliarcsecond-level accuracy. The resulting high-level science products are delivered via the Mikulski Archive for Space Telescopes (MAST) to the community on a rapid timescale to enable the widest scientific use of these data, as well as ensuring a public legacy dataset of the highest possible quality that is of lasting value to the entire community.

  4. The HST Frontier Fields: High-Level Science Data Products for the First 4 Completed Clusters, and for the Last 2 Clusters Currently in Progress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koekemoer, Anton M.; Mack, Jennifer; Lotz, Jennifer M.; Anderson, Jay; Avila, Roberto J.; Barker, Elizabeth A.; Borncamp, David; Gunning, Heather C.; Hilbert, Bryan; Khandrika, Harish G.; Lucas, Ray A.; Ogaz, Sara; Porterfield, Blair; Sunnquist, Ben; Grogin, Norman A.; Robberto, Massimo; Sembach, Kenneth; Flanagan, Kathryn; Mountain, Matt; HST Frontier Fields Team

    2016-06-01

    The Hubble Space Telescope Frontier Fields program (PI: J. Lotz) is a large Director's Discretionary program of 840 orbits, to obtain ultra-deep observations of six strong lensing clusters of galaxies, together with parallel deep blank fields, making use of the strong lensing amplification by these clusters of distant background galaxies to detect the faintest galaxies currently observable in the high-redshift universe. The first four of these clusters are now complete, namely Abell 2744, MACS J0416.1-2403, MACS J0717.5+3745 and MACS J1149.5+2223, with each of these having been observed over two epochs, to a total depth of 140 orbits on the main cluster and an associated parallel field, using ACS (F435W, F606W, F814W) and WFC3/IR (F105W, F125W, F140W, F160W). The remaining two clusters, Abell 370 and Abell S1063, are currently in progress, with the first epoch for each having been completed. Full sets of high-level science products have been generated for all these clusters by the team at STScI, including cumulative-depth v0.5 data releases during each epoch, as well as full-depth version 1.0 releases after the completion of each epoch. These products include all the full-depth distortion-corrected mosaics and associated products for each cluster, which are science-ready to facilitate the construction of lensing models as well as enabling a wide range of other science projects. Many improvements beyond default calibration for ACS and WFC3/IR are implemented in these data products, including corrections for persistence, time-variable sky, and low-level dark current residuals, as well as improvements in astrometric alignment to achieve milliarcsecond-level accuracy. The full set of resulting high-level science products are publicly delivered to the community via the Mikulski Archive for Space Telescopes (MAST) to enable the widest scientific use of these data, as well as ensuring a public legacy dataset of the highest possible quality that is of lasting value to the

  5. Development Tendencies of Sciences of Human Settlements

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    In reviewing the scientific explorations in human settlements in the past century, as well as the new accomplishments in the study on Chinese human settlements, the author proposes that the Sciences of Human Settlements should respond to a series of new situations and chal-lenges of world development, such as global climate change and development mode transformation, in order to embody the ideal of "a Greater Science, a Greater Humanism, and a Greater Art". It is argued that the development tendencies of Sciences of Human Settlements in China should include: the concern for people’s livelihood based on the principle of people-oriented, the enhancement of strategic spatial planning for the new modes of spatial growth, the rising of ecological awareness for the Green Revolution, the balance of urban and rural development for rational urbanization, the exploration for the Third System from the perspectives of both Eastern and Western cultures, the innovations on the education of human settlements and the creation of both a better environment and a harmonious society.

  6. ASAS Centennial paper: a century of pioneers and progress in meat science in the United States leads to new frontiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beermann, D H

    2009-03-01

    Discoveries, understanding, and innovations in meat science during the last century have led to revolutionary changes in meat and poultry production, processing, marketing, and consumption. American Society of Animal Science members have made key contributions in most, if not all, categories of advancement. The first US university meat science program was begun in Minnesota in 1905. Use of mechanical refrigeration in the meatpacking industry, improved transportation and packaging, and home refrigeration provided more flexibility, variety, and consistency in meat and meat products in the early 1900s. Cooperative meat research was begun by 27 universities in 1925, with a focus on the observational characterization of carcass traits and composition, meat quality attributes, and causes of the wide variation in these variables. Scientific study of genetic, nutritional, and environmental influences on the growth, physiology, and postmortem biochemistry of muscle often used muscle-comparative investigations. Rigor mortis, cold shortening and thaw rigor, postmortem muscle metabolism, postmortem tenderization and tenderness variation, and postmortem myoglobin and lipid oxidation were studied vigorously in the 1960s and beyond, defining the biochemical bases for associated outcomes in fresh and processed products. Value-added benefits resulted from implementation of electrical stimulation, boxed beef and modified-atmosphere packaging, restructuring technologies, collagen recovery, and muscle profiling work. Isolation, purification, and definition of the primary structure and biophysical properties of the myofribillar and cytoskeletal proteins in muscle aided the understanding of contraction and postmortem changes. The role of Ca-dependent proteases in meat tenderness and muscle growth is being clarified. The chemistry of meat curing, meat emulsion formation, fermentation, and other processing methods led to new technologies, new meat products, and new benchmarks in product

  7. Workshop on Fundamental Physics at the Intensity Frontier

    CERN Document Server

    Hewett, J L; Brock, R; Butler, J N; Casey, B C K; Collar, J; de Gouvea, A; Essig, R; Grossman, Y; Haxton, W; Jaros, J A; Jung, C K; Lu, Z T; Pitts, K; Ligeti, Z; Patterson, J R; Ramsey-Musolf, M; Ritchie, J L; Roodman, A; Scholberg, K; Wagner, C E M; Zeller, G P; Aefsky, S; Afanasev, A; Agashe, K; Albright, C; Alonso, J; Ankenbrandt, C; Aoki, M; Arguelles, C A; Arkani-Hamed, N; Armendariz, J R; Armendariz-Picon, C; Diaz, E Arrieta; Asaadi, J; Asner, D M; Babu, K S; Bailey, K; Baker, O; Balantekin, B; Baller, B; Bass, M; Batell, B; Beacham, J; Behr, J; Berger, N; Bergevin, M; Berman, E; Bernstein, R; Bevan, A J; Bishai, M; Blanke, M; Blessing, S; Blondel, A; Blum, T; Bock, G; Bodek, A; Bonvicini, G; Bossi, F; Boyce, J; Breedon, R; Breidenbach, M; Brice, S J; Briere, R A; Brodsky, S; Bromberg, C; Bross, A; Browder, T E; Bryman, D A; Buckley, M; Burnstein, R; Caden, E; Campana, P; Carlini, R; Carosi, G; Castromonte, C; Cenci, R; Chakaberia, I; Chen, M C; Cheng, C H; Choudhary, B; Christ, N H; Christensen, E; Christy, M E; Chupp, T E; Church, E; Cline, D B; Coan, T E; Coloma, P; Comfort, J; Coney, L; Cooper, J; Cooper, R J; Cowan, R; Cowen, D F; Cronin-Hennessy, D; Datta, A; Davies, G S; Demarteau, M; DeMille, D P; Denig, A; Dermisek, R; Deshpande, A; Dewey, M S; Dharmapalan, R; Dhooghe, J; Dietrich, M R; Diwan, M; Djurcic, Z; Dobbs, S; Duraisamy, M; Dutta, B; Duyang, H; Dwyer, D A; Eads, M; Echenard, B; Elliott, S R; Escobar, C; Fajans, J; Farooq, S; Faroughy, C; Fast, J E; Feinberg, B; Felde, J; Feldman, G; Fierlinger, P; Perez, P Fileviez; Filippone, B; Fisher, P; Flemming, B T; Flood, K T; Forty, R; Frank, M J; Freyberger, A; Friedland, A; Gandhi, R; Ganezer, K S; Garcia, A; Garcia, F G; Gardner, S; Garrison, L; Gasparian, A; Geer, S; Gehman, V M; Gershon, T; Gilchriese, M; Ginsberg, C; Gogoladze, I; Gonderinger, M; Goodman, M; Gould, H; Graham, M; Graham, P W; Gran, R; Grange, J; Gratta, G; Green, J P; Greenlee, H; Guardincerri, E; Gudkov, V; Guenette, R; Haas, A; Hahn, A; Han, T; Handler, T; Hardy, J C; Harnik, R; Harris, D A; Harris, F A; Harris, P G; Hartnett, J; He, B; Heckel, B R; Heeger, K M; Henderson, S; Hertzog, D; Hill, R; Hinds, E A; Hitlin, D G; Holt, R J; Holtkamp, N; Horton-Smith, G; Huber, P; Huelsnitz, W; Imber, J; Irastorza, I; Jaeckel, J; Jaegle, I; James, C; Jawahery, A; Jensen, D; Jessop, C P; Jones, B; Jostlein, H; Junk, T; Kagan, A L; Kalita, M; Kamyshkov, Y; Kaplan, D M; Karagiorgi, G; Karle, A; Katori, T; Kayser, B; Kephart, R; Kettell, S; Kim, Y K; Kirby, M; Kirch, K; Klein, J; Kneller, J; Kobach, A; Kohl, M; Kopp, J; Kordosky, M; Korsch, W; Kourbanis, I; Krisch, A D; Krizan, P; Kronfeld, A S; Kulkarni, S; Kumar, K S; Kuno, Y; Kutter, T; Lachenmaier, T; Lamm, M; Lancaster, J; Lancaster, M; Lane, C; Lang, K; Langacker, P; Lazarevic, S; Le, T; Lee, K; Lesko, K T; Li, Y; Lindgren, M; Lindner, A; Link, J; Lissauer, D; Littenberg, L S; Littlejohn, B; Liu, C Y; Loinaz, W; Lorenzon, W; Louis, W C; Lozier, J; Ludovici, L; Lueking, L; Lunardini, C; MacFarlane, D B; Machado, P A N; Mackenzie, P B; Maloney, J; Marciano, W J; Marsh, W; Marshak, M; Martin, J W; Mauger, C; McFarland, K S; McGrew, C; McLaughlin, G; McKeen, D; McKeown, R; Meadows, B T; Mehdiyev, R; Melconian, D; Merkel, H; Messier, M; Miller, J P; Mills, G; Minamisono, U K; Mishra, S R; Mocioiu, I; Sher, S Moed; Mohapatra, R N; Monreal, B; Moore, C D; Morfin, J G; Mousseau, J; Moustakas, L A; Mueller, G; Mueller, P; Muether, M; Mumm, H P; Munger, C; Murayama, H; Nath, P; Naviliat-Cuncin, O; Nelson, J K; Neuffer, D; Nico, J S; Norman, A; Nygren, D; Obayashi, Y; O'Connor, T P; Okada, Y; Olsen, J; Orozco, L; Orrell, J L; Osta, J; Pahlka, B; Paley, J; Papadimitriou, V; Papucci, M; Parke, S; Parker, R H; Parsa, Z; Partyka, K; Patch, A; Pati, J C; Patterson, R B; Pavlovic, Z; Paz, G; Perdue, G N; Perevalov, D; Perez, G; Petti, R; Pettus, W; Piepke, A; Pivovaroff, M; Plunkett, R; Polly, C C; Pospelov, M; Povey, R; Prakesh, A; Purohit, M V; Raby, S; Raaf, J L; Rajendran, R; Rajendran, S; Rameika, G; Ramsey, R; Rashed, A; Ratcliff, B N; Rebel, B; Redondo, J; Reimer, P; Reitzner, D; Ringer, F; Ringwald, A; Riordan, S; Roberts, B L; Roberts, D A; Robertson, R; Robicheaux, F; Rominsky, M; Roser, R; Rosner, J L; Rott, C; Rubin, P; Saito, N; Sanchez, M; Sarkar, S; Schellman, H; Schmidt, B; Schmitt, M; Schmitz, D W; Schneps, J; Schopper, A; Schuster, P; Schwartz, A J; Schwarz, M; Seeman, J; Semertzidis, Y K; Seth, K K; Shafi, Q; Shanahan, P; Sharma, R; Sharpe, S R; Shiozawa, M; Shiltsev, V; Sigurdson, K; Sikivie, P; Singh, J; Sivers, D; Skwarnicki, T; Smith, N; Sobczyk, J; Sobel, H; Soderberg, M; Song, Y H; Soni, A; Souder, P; Sousa, A; Spitz, J; Stancari, M; Stavenga, G C; Steffen, J H; Stepanyan, S; Stoeckinger, D; Stone, S; Strait, J; Strassler, M; Sulai, I A; Sundrum, R; Svoboda, R; Szczerbinska, B; Szelc, A; Takeuchi, T; Tanedo, P; Taneja, S; Tang, J; Tanner, D B; Tayloe, R; Taylor, I; Thomas, J; Thorn, C; Tian, X; Tice, B G; Tobar, M; Tolich, N; Toro, N; Towner, I S; Tsai, Y; Tschirhart, R; Tunnell, C D; Tzanov, M; Upadhye, A; Urheim, J; Vahsen, S; Vainshtein, A; Valencia, E; Van de Water, R G; Van de Water, R S; Velasco, M; Vogel, J; Vogel, P; Vogelsang, W; Wah, Y W; Walker, D; Weiner, N; Weltman, A; Wendell, R; Wester, W; Wetstein, M; White, C; Whitehead, L; Whitmore, J; Widmann, E; Wiedemann, G; Wilkerson, J; Wilkinson, G; Wilson, P; Wilson, R J; Winter, W; Wise, M B; Wodin, J; Wojcicki, S; Wojtsekhowski, B; Wongjirad, T; Worcester, E; Wurtele, J; Xin, T; Xu, J; Yamanaka, T; Yamazaki, Y; Yavin, I; Yeck, J; Yeh, M; Yokoyama, M; Yoo, J; Young, A; Zimmerman, E; Zioutas, K; Zisman, M; Zupan, J; Zwaska, R

    2012-01-01

    The Proceedings of the 2011 workshop on Fundamental Physics at the Intensity Frontier. Science opportunities at the intensity frontier are identified and described in the areas of heavy quarks, charged leptons, neutrinos, proton decay, new light weakly-coupled particles, and nucleons, nuclei, and atoms.

  8. Frontier Fields: Engaging Educators, the Youth, and the Public in Exploring the Cosmic Frontier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawton, Brandon L.; Eisenhamer, Bonnie; Smith, Denise A.; Summers, Frank; Darnell, John A.; Ryer, Holly

    2015-01-01

    The Frontier Fields is a multi-cycle program of six deep-field observations of strong-lensing galaxy clusters that will be taken in parallel with six deep 'blank fields.' The three-year long collaborative program is led by observations from NASA's Great Observatories. The observations allow astronomers to look deeper into the universe than ever before, and potentially uncover galaxies that are as much as 100 times fainter than what the telescopes can typically observe. The Frontier Fields science program is ideal for informing audiences about scientific advances and topics in STEM. The study of galaxy properties, statistics, optics, and Einstein's theory of general relativity naturally leverages off of the science returns of the Frontier Fields program. As a result, the Space Telescope Science Institute's Office of Public Outreach (OPO) has initiated an education and public outreach (EPO) project to follow the progress of the Frontier Fields.For over two decades, the Hubble EPO program has sought to bring the wonders of the universe to the education community, the youth, and the public, and engage audiences in the adventure of scientific discovery. Program components include standards-based curriculum-support materials, exhibits and exhibit components, professional development workshops, and direct interactions with scientists. We are also leveraging our new social media strategy to bring the science program to the public in the form of an ongoing blog. The main underpinnings of the program's infrastructure are scientist-educator development teams, partnerships, and an embedded program evaluation component. OPO is leveraging this existing infrastructure to bring the Frontier Fields science program to the education community and the public in a cost-effective way.The Frontier Fields program has just completed its first year. This talk will feature the goals and current status of the Frontier Fields EPO program. We will highlight OPO's strategies and infrastructure

  9. The science of human security: a response from political science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, David

    2008-01-01

    The concept of human security has developed in significance in the last decade to the point that its meaning and validity is hotly contested in the field of international relations, security, and development studies. A key consideration relates to its ambiguity at best and its amorphousness at worst. Medical scholarship proposes approaches that may render more meaningful the concept. However, collaboration and co-operation between political scientists and medical practitioners offers even greater potential to this vital programme. The latter offer the technical and methodological skills and approaches lacking in political science, whilst the former develop political frameworks to shift the causal focus towards human, institutional and structural agency in mass avoidable global civilian mortality.

  10. Decision science a human-oriented perspective

    CERN Document Server

    Mengov, George

    2015-01-01

    This book offers a new perspective on human decision-making by comparing the established methods in decision science with innovative modelling at the level of neurons and neural interactions. The book presents a new generation of computer models, which can predict with astonishing accuracy individual economic choices when people make them by quick intuition rather than by effort. A vision for a new kind of social science is outlined, whereby neural models of emotion and cognition capture the dynamics of socioeconomic systems and virtual social networks. The exposition is approachable by experts as well as by advanced students. The author is an Associate Professor of Decision Science with a doctorate in Computational Neuroscience, and a former software consultant to banks in the City of London.  .

  11. Frontiers in the bioarchaeology of stress and disease: cross-disciplinary perspectives from pathophysiology, human biology, and epidemiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaus, Haagen D

    2014-10-01

    Over the last four decades, bioarchaeology has experienced significant technical growth and theoretical maturation. Early 21st century bioarchaeology may also be enhanced from a renewed engagement with the concept of biological stress. New insights on biological stress and disease can be gained from cross-disciplinary perspectives regarding human skeletal variation and disease. First, pathophysiologic and molecular signaling mechanisms can provide more precise understandings regarding formation of pathological phenotypes in bone. Using periosteal new bone formation as an example, various mechanisms and pathways are explored in which new bone can be formed under conditions of biological stress, particularly in bone microenvironments that involve inflammatory changes. Second, insights from human biology are examined regarding some epigenetic factors and disease etiology. While epigenetic effects on stress and disease outcomes appear profoundly influential, they are mostly invisible in skeletal tissue. However, some indirect and downstream effects, such as the developmental origins of adult health outcomes, may be partially observable in bioarchaeological data. Emerging perspectives from the human microbiome are also considered. Microbiomics involves a remarkable potential to understand ancient biology, disease, and stress. Third, tools from epidemiology are examined that may aid bioarchaeologists to better cope with some of the inherent limitations of skeletal samples to better measure and quantify the expressions of skeletal stress markers. Such cross-disciplinary synergisms hopefully will promote more complete understandings of health and stress in bioarchaeological science.

  12. Climate Change and the Science of Human Settlements

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gary; Hack

    2011-01-01

    <正>1.Endeavors for constructing a comprehensive science of human settlements A new science of human settlements is emerging as a result of the threats we all face as a result of excessive greenhouse gases in the atmosphere,

  13. Soft Computing in Humanities and Social Sciences

    CERN Document Server

    González, Veronica

    2012-01-01

    The field of Soft Computing in Humanities and Social Sciences is at a turning point. The strong distinction between “science” and “humanities” has been criticized from many fronts and, at the same time, an increasing cooperation between the so-called “hard sciences” and “soft sciences” is taking place in a wide range of scientific projects dealing with very complex and interdisciplinary topics. In the last fifteen years the area of Soft Computing has also experienced a gradual rapprochement to disciplines in the Humanities and Social Sciences, and also in the field of Medicine, Biology and even the Arts, a phenomenon that did not occur much in the previous years.   The collection of this book presents a generous sampling of the new and burgeoning field of Soft Computing in Humanities and Social Sciences, bringing together a wide array of authors and subject matters from different disciplines. Some of the contributors of the book belong to the scientific and technical areas of Soft Computing w...

  14. Review on the recent progress of laser frontiers in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIN; ZunQi; CHEN; WeiBiao; LOU; QiHong; FAN; Wei; XIANG; ShiQing; XUE; HuiBin

    2013-01-01

    The discussion on laser science and technology during the "Laser Frontier" forum on 20 to 21 October 2012 in Beijing provided a global overview of laser development status and trends. Several frontiers in the application and industrial development of laser science and technology in China are reviewed. Suggestions on several aspects of China’s laser technology and industry development, especially on a number of laser technology fields and their applications that are closely related to the national economy and industry, are proposed.

  15. The Hubble Frontier Fields: Engaging Multiple Audiences in Exploring the Cosmic Frontier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawton, Brandon L.; Smith, Denise A.; Summers, Frank; Ryer, Holly; Slivinski, Carolyn; Lotz, Jennifer M.

    2017-06-01

    The Hubble Frontier Fields is a multi-cycle program of six deep-field observations of strong-lensing galaxy clusters taken in parallel with six deep “blank fields.” The three-year long collaborative program began in late 2013 and is led by observations from NASA’s Great Observatories. The observations, now complete, allow astronomers to look deeper into the universe than ever before, and potentially uncover galaxies that are as much as 100 times fainter than what the telescopes can typically observe. The Frontier Fields science program is ideal for informing audiences about scientific advances and topics in STEM. The study of galaxy properties, statistics, optics, and Einstein’s theory of general relativity naturally leverages off of the science returns of the Frontier Fields program. As a result, the Space Telescope Science Institute’s Office of Public Outreach (OPO) has engaged multiple audiences over the past three years to follow the progress of the Frontier Fields.For over two decades, the STScI outreach program has sought to bring the wonders of the universe to the public and engage audiences in the adventure of scientific discovery. In addition, we are leveraging the reach of the new NASA’s Universe of Learning education program to bring the science of the Frontier Fields to informal education audiences. The main underpinnings of the STScI outreach program and the Universe of Learning education program are scientist-educator development teams, partnerships, and an embedded program evaluation component. OPO is leveraging the infrastructure of these education and outreach programs to bring the Frontier Fields science program to the education community and the public in a cost-effective way.This talk will feature highlights over the past three years of the program. We will highlight OPO’s strategies and infrastructure that allows for the quick delivery of groundbreaking science to the education community and public.

  16. Review of Psychotherapy as a human science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langan, Robert

    2008-12-01

    Reviews the book, Psychotherapy as a human science by Daniel Burston and Roger Frie (see record 2006-12980-000). In this book, the authors show how philosophical assumptions pervade therapeutic praxis. "In our view, philosophy is inherent to the very practice of psychotherapy" (p. 2). There is a "common ground that unites the therapists of today with the philosophers of the past" (p. 17). Their effort succeeds brilliantly in reconnecting psychology and philosophy and, by that homecoming, to ground psychotherapy (including contemporary psychoanalysis) as a "human science." The book begins by sketching ideas about truth we inherit from the Greeks, then shows how Descartes and Pascal helped launch the Enlightenment with their thinking about truth and the limits of reason. Kant, Hegel, and Marx broaden the scope to include reason, the unconscious, and the course of history. Kierkegaard and Nietzsche interject angst and authenticity. Dilthey proposes a human science neither scientistic nor irrational. Husserl launches phenomenology as the proper study of experience; Scheler, Jaspers and Heidegger react in their particular ways. Freud and Jung come to loggerheads over the unconscious. Buber, Binswanger, and Boss further develop existential-phenomenological perspectives in terms of human interrelatedness. Confrontation with the other and the limits of reciprocity engage Sartre, Lacan, and Laing. Psychoanalysis grows intersubjectively through the work of Sullivan, Fromm, Merleau-Ponty, Benjamin, and Stolorow. Postmodernism's excess, Frie and Burston conclude, requires acknowledgment of an authentic self answerable for choices in life: '...[W]e are both determined by, and exercise our agency in determining, the communicative contexts in which we exist" (p. 262). Psychotherapy from this existential-phenomenological perspective becomes "a rigorous exploration of our ways of making meaning--both consciously and unconsciously" (p. 263). The book ends, then, with an affirmation

  17. Human neuroimaging as a "Big Data" science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Horn, John Darrell; Toga, Arthur W

    2014-06-01

    The maturation of in vivo neuroimaging has led to incredible quantities of digital information about the human brain. While much is made of the data deluge in science, neuroimaging represents the leading edge of this onslaught of "big data". A range of neuroimaging databasing approaches has streamlined the transmission, storage, and dissemination of data from such brain imaging studies. Yet few, if any, common solutions exist to support the science of neuroimaging. In this article, we discuss how modern neuroimaging research represents a multifactorial and broad ranging data challenge, involving the growing size of the data being acquired; sociological and logistical sharing issues; infrastructural challenges for multi-site, multi-datatype archiving; and the means by which to explore and mine these data. As neuroimaging advances further, e.g. aging, genetics, and age-related disease, new vision is needed to manage and process this information while marshalling of these resources into novel results. Thus, "big data" can become "big" brain science.

  18. The idea of human prehistory: the natural sciences, the human sciences, and the problem of human origins in Victorian Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodrum, Matthew R

    2012-01-01

    The idea of human prehistory was a provocative and profoundly influential new notion that took shape gradually during the nineteenth century. While archaeology played an important role in providing the evidence for this idea many other sciences such as geology, paleontology, ethnology, and physical anthropology all made critical contributions to discussions about human prehistory. Many works have explored the history of prehistoric archaeology but this paper examines the conceptual content of the idea of "human prehistory" as it developed in the British scientific community. Both the natural and the human sciences contributed to what was in fact a complex collection of individual elements that together constituted the prevailing idea of human prehistory, although there were other competing conceptions of human prehistory endorsed by various scientists and critics of the new view of early human history.

  19. Derivatives Trading, Climate Science and Human Rights

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haigh, Matthew

    the heaviest polluters as contributing to carbon-minimised investment portfolios. Assets owned by privately managed pension funds have remained materially exposed to risks posed by climate change. In public finance, a narrow range of financial instruments centred on derivatives trading has entrenched global...... for capital flows associated with climate management. Media communications and decision making theories are used to interpret data drawn from participant observation and interviews with climate scientists, policy makers and institutional investors. Findings - The framework suggests a digital divide between...... between human rights, climate change, and the stability of private pensions provision. Originality/value - Provides policy sciences useful assessments of communication media and financial instruments used in climate management. Establishes bases for theoretical and applied communications research...

  20. Derivatives Trading, Climate Science and Human Rights

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haigh, Matthew

    Purpose - An assessment of the ideology of climate management. Design/Methodology/Approach - Zizek's (S. Zizek, 2004, From politics to biopolitics . . . and back, The South Atlantic Quarterly, 103(2/3): 501-521) theorization of the real and the signified is used to develop a discursive framework...... the heaviest polluters as contributing to carbon-minimised investment portfolios. Assets owned by privately managed pension funds have remained materially exposed to risks posed by climate change. In public finance, a narrow range of financial instruments centred on derivatives trading has entrenched global...... between human rights, climate change, and the stability of private pensions provision. Originality/value - Provides policy sciences useful assessments of communication media and financial instruments used in climate management. Establishes bases for theoretical and applied communications research...

  1. Citizen-science, Geoethics and Human Niche

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohle, Martin

    2017-04-01

    researching know-how and deploying it, i.e. needs 'citizen geo-scientists' to maintain the human niche. (B) Regarding knowledge-based societies: The rapidly increasing human knowledge base accelerates the scientific-technical revolution. Its industrial-societal implementation confronts societies with numerous change processes. Their speed and scope is a risk as well as the mutual interferences of different change processes that often only get obvious within everyday societal doings. This vigour of change requires robust two-way linkages between research and technological development on one side and societal activities on the other side. Research and development undertaken in cooperation with citizen scientists would improve such linkages, e.g. through increased transparency of research and development or strengthening the sense of belonging of people for their environments. Citizen scientists are a resource, because they are complementary partner to the professional researcher. On one side citizen scientists provide experiences that are rooted in everyday practices and on the other side they facilitate uptake of new practices. Both features are needed in societies that face anthropogenic global change. Summarizing, geoethics affiliates geosciences and 'citizen science' in a particular relationship, i.e. 'citizen geo-science', which is beneficial for knowledge-based societies that are functioning under conditions of anthropogenic global change. [1] http://www.geoethics.org/ (accessed: 8th November 2016) Disclaimer: The views expressed engage the author only, not the employer.

  2. Collaboration in the Humanities, Arts and Social Sciences in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddow, Gaby; Xia, Jianhong; Willson, Michele

    2017-01-01

    This paper reports on the first large-scale quantitative investigation into collaboration, demonstrated in co-authorship, by Australian humanities, arts and social sciences (HASS) researchers. Web of Science data were extracted for Australian HASS publications, with a focus on the softer social sciences, over the period 2004-2013. The findings…

  3. Science Teachers' Drawings of What Is inside the Human Body

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick, Patricia G.; Tunnicliffe, Sue Dale

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to report United States of America (USA) science teachers' understandings of the internal structures of the human body. The 71 science teachers who participated in this study attended a frog/pig, two-hour dissection workshop at the 2004 National Science Teachers Association (NSTA) conference in Atlanta, Georgia. The…

  4. The relations between neuroscience and human behavioral science.

    OpenAIRE

    Strumwasser, F.

    1994-01-01

    Neuroscience seeks to understand how the human brain, perhaps the most complex electrochemical machine in the universe, works, in terms of molecules, membranes, cells and cell assemblies, development, plasticity, learning, memory, cognition, and behavior. The human behavioral sciences, in particular psychiatry and clinical psychology, deal with disorders of human behavior and mentation. The gap between neuroscience and the human behavioral sciences is still large. However, some major advances...

  5. Reconfiguring frontier spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Mattias Borg; Lund, Christian

    2017-01-01

    dissolve existing social orders—property systems, political jurisdictions, rights, and social contracts—whereas territorialization is shorthand for all the dynamics that establish them and re-order space anew. Frontier moments offer new opportunities, and old social contracts give way to struggles over new......, fundamentally challenging and replacing existing patterns of spatial control, authority, and institutional orders. It is dynamics of this sort that the articles in this collection explore: the outcomes produced in the frontier space, the kinds of authority that emerge through control over space and the people...... in it, and the battles for legitimacy that this entails. This collection explores the emergence of frontier spaces, arguing that these are transitional, liminal spaces in which existing regimes of resource control are suspended, making way for new ones....

  6. The frontier beneath our feet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Gordon E.; Dietrich, William E.

    2017-04-01

    Following the simple question as to where water goes when it rains leads to one of the most exciting frontiers in earth science: the critical zone—Earth's dynamic skin. The critical zone extends from the top of the vegetation canopy through the soil and down to fresh bedrock and the bottom of the groundwater. Only recently recognized as a distinct zone, it is challenging to study because it is hard to observe directly, and varies widely across biogeoclimatic regions. Yet new ideas, instruments, and observations are revealing surprising and sometimes paradoxical insights, underscoring the value of field campaigns and long-term observatories. These insights bear directly on some of the most pressing societal problems today: maintaining healthy forests, sustaining streamflow during droughts, and restoring productive terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. The critical zone is critical because it supports all terrestrial life; it is the nexus where water and carbon is cycled, vegetation (hence food) grows, soil develops, landscapes evolve, and we live. No other frontier is so close to home.

  7. New Frontier Process using Bio Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-05

    1 New Frontier Process using Bio Technology (AOARD-114014) Yukiharu Uraoka, Nara Institute of Science and Technology Term:2011.5.1-2012.12.31...Fabricated by Bio -layer-by-layer Method The properties of a nanodot-type floating gate memory with a multilayered nanodot array were investigated...High-density and uniform cobalt bio -nanodot (Co-BND) arrays were stacked on a SiO2 tunnel oxide layer by a bio -layer-by-layer method ( Bio -LBL

  8. Basing Science Ethics on Respect for Human Dignity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aközer, Mehmet; Aközer, Emel

    2016-12-01

    A "no ethics" principle has long been prevalent in science and has demotivated deliberation on scientific ethics. This paper argues the following: (1) An understanding of a scientific "ethos" based on actual "value preferences" and "value repugnances" prevalent in the scientific community permits and demands critical accounts of the "no ethics" principle in science. (2) The roots of this principle may be traced to a repugnance of human dignity, which was instilled at a historical breaking point in the interrelation between science and ethics. This breaking point involved granting science the exclusive mandate to pass judgment on the life worth living. (3) By contrast, respect for human dignity, in its Kantian definition as "the absolute inner worth of being human," should be adopted as the basis to ground science ethics. (4) The pathway from this foundation to the articulation of an ethical duty specific to scientific practice, i.e., respect for objective truth, is charted by Karl Popper's discussion of the ethical principles that form the basis of science. This also permits an integrated account of the "external" and "internal" ethical problems in science. (5) Principles of the respect for human dignity and the respect for objective truth are also safeguards of epistemic integrity. Plain defiance of human dignity by genetic determinism has compromised integrity of claims to knowledge in behavioral genetics and other behavioral sciences. Disregard of the ethical principles that form the basis of science threatens epistemic integrity.

  9. Introduction: the human sciences and Cold War America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaac, Joel

    2011-01-01

    Studies of the history of the human sciences during the Cold War era have proliferated over the past decade--in JHBS and elsewhere. This special issue focuses on the connections between the behavioral sciences and the culture and politics of the Cold War in the United States. In the recent literature, there is a tendency to identify the Cold War human sciences with two main paradigms: that of psychocultural analysis, on the one hand, and of the systems sciences, on the other. The essays in the special issue both extend understanding of each of these interpretive frameworks and help us to grasp their interconnection. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Social sciences and humanities contribution to tackle the obesity epidemic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Lotte; Sandøe, Peter; Nielsen, Morten Ebbe Juul

    establishing strong networks and building bridges between the natural sciences and social sciences and humanities that can address obesity as a complex societal challenge and help minimise the gap between research, markets, and citizens. The objectives of the workshop were to create a cross‐European forum...... for identifying, describing, and discussing future potential in obesity research, to establish new and to nurture existing networks and collaborations between researchers across the social sciences and humanities and the natural sciences with an interest in obesity research, and thereby to mobilise significant...

  11. Social sciences and humanities contribution to tackle the obesity epidemic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Lotte; Sandøe, Peter; Nielsen, Morten Ebbe Juul

    establishing strong networks and building bridges between the natural sciences and social sciences and humanities that can address obesity as a complex societal challenge and help minimise the gap between research, markets, and citizens. The objectives of the workshop were to create a cross‐European forum...... for identifying, describing, and discussing future potential in obesity research, to establish new and to nurture existing networks and collaborations between researchers across the social sciences and humanities and the natural sciences with an interest in obesity research, and thereby to mobilise significant...

  12. Science Fiction, Ethics and the Human Condition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baron, Christian; Halvorsen, Peter Nicolai; Cornea, Christine

    . Further, those with a concern for the future may find inspiration in what a study of the politics and ethics of science fiction can tell us about the moral and political dilemmas of our own time. Although this book is more likely to be picked up by someone who already has an interest in science fiction...

  13. Human pluripotent stem cell models of autism spectrum disorder: emerging frontiers, opportunities, and challenges towards neuronal networks in a dish

    OpenAIRE

    Aigner, Stefan; Heckel, Tobias; Zhang, Jitao D.; Andreae, Laura C.; Jagasia, Ravi

    2013-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is characterized by deficits in language development and social cognition and the manifestation of repetitive and restrictive behaviors. Despite recent major advances, our understanding of the pathophysiological mechanisms leading to ASD is limited. Although most ASD cases have unknown genetic underpinnings, animal and human cellular models of several rare, genetically defined syndromic forms of ASD have provided evidence for shared pathophysiological mechanisms...

  14. Human Science for Human Freedom? Piaget's Developmental Research and Foucault's Ethical Truth Games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Guoping

    2012-01-01

    The construction of the modern subject and the pursuit of human freedom and autonomy, as well as the practice of human science has been pivotal in the development of modern education. But for Foucault, the subject is only the effect of discourses and power-knowledge arrangements, and modern human science is part of the very arrangement that has…

  15. Human Science for Human Freedom? Piaget's Developmental Research and Foucault's Ethical Truth Games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Guoping

    2012-01-01

    The construction of the modern subject and the pursuit of human freedom and autonomy, as well as the practice of human science has been pivotal in the development of modern education. But for Foucault, the subject is only the effect of discourses and power-knowledge arrangements, and modern human science is part of the very arrangement that has…

  16. Kant and the development of the human and cultural sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makkreel, Rudolf A

    2008-12-01

    Starting with Kant's doubts about psychology as a natural science capable of explaining human behavior, several alternative attempts to conceive of human life, culture and history are examined. Kant proposes an anthropology that will be a commonly useful human science rather than a universally valid natural science. This anthropology relates to philosophy as a mode of world-cognition. Special attention is given to how Kant's theory of right can help define our appropriate place in a communal world. The different ways in which Wilhelm Dilthey and Hermann Cohen respond to Kant's idea of legitimate appropriation are also considered. The various tasks that descriptive elucidation, explanation, reflective understanding, characterization and interpretation can perform for the human and cultural sciences are examined throughout the essay.

  17. Human Centred Design: a bibliometric overview based on Science Direct

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lucas José Garcia; Giselle Schmidt Alves Díaz Merino; Susana Cristina Domenech; Eugenio Andres Díaz Merino; Adilson Luiz Pinto

    2016-01-01

    This article aims to realize a bibliometric review on Science Direct to create a outlook about Human Centred Design in order to identify the most significant authors, journals and key-words as well...

  18. Ethiopian Journal of the Social Sciences and Humanities

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EJOSSAH is a peer-reviewed journal of the social sciences and humanities ... Beyond Cartesian Philosophy of Essentialism, and the Quest for Intercultural ... the Booranaa: A Historical Perspective1 · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT

  19. Humanity in Science: A Perspective and a Plea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodfield, June

    1977-01-01

    Problems of "humanity in science" are discussed through the historical circumstances in which they arose and by examining the changing nature of the social contract between the scientific profession and society. (Author/SL)

  20. The ALMA Frontier Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Franz E.; Gonzalez-Lopez, Jorge; Laporte, Nicolas; Muñoz Arancibia, Alejandra; Villard, Eric; Kneissl, Ruediger; Kim, Sam; ALMA Frontier Fields Team

    2017-01-01

    The Frontier Fields Legacy Program targets six strong lensing clusters with deep HST and Spitzer imaging to detect and characterize the faint background galaxy population, particularly the first galaxies at z~6-10. We initiated an ALMA survey to produce “shallow” ~2'x2' maps of the Frontier Field cluster fields at 1.1mm to study intrinsically faint dusty star-forming galaxies (DSFGs) and place constraints on the star formation from a variety of interesting extragalactic source populations. Five of the six clusters have now been completed, yielding relatively uniform maps that pinpoint cool dust emission from powerful DSFGs at z>1. I will present a census of the detected objects thus far, as well as some stacking constraints on the average emission from undetected source populations.

  1. Connections between Frontier Markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliza-Olivia Lungu

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The global financial system presents a high degree of connectivity and the network theory provides the natural framework for visualizing the structure of it connections. I analyse the financial links established between the frontier markets and how these links evolve over a 10 years period (2001 - 2011. I identify patterns in the network looking both at the node specific statistics (degree, strength and clustering coefficient and at the aggregated network statistics (network density and network asymmetry index.

  2. Mapping scientific frontiers : the quest for knowledge visualization.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyack, Kevin W.

    2003-08-01

    Visualization of scientific frontiers is a relatively new field, yet it has a long history and many predecessors. The application of science to science itself has been undertaken for decades with notable early contributions by Derek Price, Thomas Kuhn, Diana Crane, Eugene Garfield, and many others. What is new is the field of information visualization and application of its techniques to help us understand the process of science in the making. In his new book, Chaomei Chen takes us on a journey through this history, touching on predecessors, and then leading us firmly into the new world of Mapping Scientific Frontiers. Building on the foundation of his earlier book, Information Visualization and Virtual Environments, Chen's new offering is much less a tutorial in how to do information visualization, and much more a conceptual exploration of why and how the visualization of science can change the way we do science, amplified by real examples. Chen's stated intents for the book are: (1) to focus on principles of visual thinking that enable the identification of scientific frontiers; (2) to introduce a way to systematize the identification of scientific frontiers (or paradigms) through visualization techniques; and (3) to stimulate interdisciplinary research between information visualization and information science researchers. On all these counts, he succeeds. Chen's book can be broken into two parts which focus on the first two purposes stated above. The first, consisting of the initial four chapters, covers history and predecessors. Kuhn's theory of normal science punctuated by periods of revolution, now commonly known as paradigm shifts, motivates the work. Relevant predecessors outside the traditional field of information science such as cartography (both terrestrial and celestial), mapping the mind, and principles of visual association and communication, are given ample coverage. Chen also describes enabling techniques known to information

  3. New frontiers in human assisted reproduction ‑ from research to clinical practice: Several considerations (Review).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gizzo, Salvatore; Noventa, Marco; Quaranta, Michela; Venturella, Roberta; Vitagliano, Amerigo; Gangemi, Michele; D'Antona, Donato

    2016-11-01

    In the era of very late, or advanced, motherhood, in which 'egg banks', 'social' egg‑freezing, egg donation and surrogacy represent a potential solution to a number of obstacles to human reproduction, what is the role of scientists and clinicians involved in assisted reproduction? In light of the apprehension that, in the future, through fertility treatment infertility may be passed on to the offspring, boundaries of medical vs. 'social' infertility are being created. Scientists and clinicians are joining forces in a synergistic effort to improve the effectiveness of infertility care by introducing novel therapeutic protocols with the intent of customising care and improving cost‑effectiveness, testing novel drugs and formulations, and searching for novel markers (for estimating biological age) and nomograms (to optimise the yield of a controlled ovarian hyperstimulation cycle). On the other hand, political, social and health institutions are doing little to educate young women with respect to disinformation and to increase their awareness regarding age as the predominant factor that contributes towards the decline in fertility. Nevertheless, despite the great advances that have been made, 38 years after the birth of the first baby via in vitro fertilisation, the intricate road leading from the antral follicle to the fully developed baby continues to be designated as being too 'expensive', 'empirical', 'mysterious' or 'bound by ethics', with few significant improvements in terms of real cost‑effectiveness.

  4. Optimization and industry new frontiers

    CERN Document Server

    Korotkikh, Victor

    2003-01-01

    Optimization from Human Genes to Cutting Edge Technologies The challenges faced by industry today are so complex that they can only be solved through the help and participation of optimization ex­ perts. For example, many industries in e-commerce, finance, medicine, and engineering, face several computational challenges due to the mas­ sive data sets that arise in their applications. Some of the challenges include, extended memory algorithms and data structures, new program­ ming environments, software systems, cryptographic protocols, storage devices, data compression, mathematical and statistical methods for knowledge mining, and information visualization. With advances in computer and information systems technologies, and many interdisci­ plinary efforts, many of the "data avalanche challenges" are beginning to be addressed. Optimization is the most crucial component in these efforts. Nowadays, the main task of optimization is to investigate the cutting edge frontiers of these technologies and systems ...

  5. Quantum computing and the entanglement frontier

    CERN Document Server

    Preskill, John

    2012-01-01

    Quantum information science explores the frontier of highly complex quantum states, the "entanglement frontier." This study is motivated by the observation (widely believed but unproven) that classical systems cannot simulate highly entangled quantum systems efficiently, and we hope to hasten the day when well controlled quantum systems can perform tasks surpassing what can be done in the classical world. One way to achieve such "quantum supremacy" would be to run an algorithm on a quantum computer which solves a problem with a super-polynomial speedup relative to classical computers, but there may be other ways that can be achieved sooner, such as simulating exotic quantum states of strongly correlated matter. To operate a large scale quantum computer reliably we will need to overcome the debilitating effects of decoherence, which might be done using "standard" quantum hardware protected by quantum error-correcting codes, or by exploiting the nonabelian quantum statistics of anyons realized in solid state sy...

  6. Where is the Efficient Frontier

    OpenAIRE

    Jing Chen

    2010-01-01

    Tremendous effort has been spent on the construction of reliable efficient frontiers. However, mean-variance efficient portfolios constructed using sample means and covariance often perform poorly out of sample. We prove that, the capital market line is the efficient frontier for the risky assets in a financial market with liquid fixed income trading. This unified understanding of riskless asset as the boundary of risky assets relieves the burden of constructing efficient frontiers in asset a...

  7. Managing the Junior Science & Humanities Symposium: Management and Operation of the Pacific Region Junior Science & Humanities Symposium, 2001-2002.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlenker, Richard M.

    This publication provides administrative, management, supervisory guidance, and other information necessary for successful conduct and support of grades 7-12 science symposia. Originally the text was developed as the operations manual for the Pacific Region Junior Science and Humanities Symposium (PJSHS). It contains information necessary to…

  8. Toward discovery science of human brain function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswal, Bharat B; Mennes, Maarten; Zuo, Xi-Nian; Gohel, Suril; Kelly, Clare; Smith, Steve M; Beckmann, Christian F; Adelstein, Jonathan S; Buckner, Randy L; Colcombe, Stan; Dogonowski, Anne-Marie; Ernst, Monique; Fair, Damien; Hampson, Michelle; Hoptman, Matthew J; Hyde, James S; Kiviniemi, Vesa J; Kötter, Rolf; Li, Shi-Jiang; Lin, Ching-Po; Lowe, Mark J; Mackay, Clare; Madden, David J; Madsen, Kristoffer H; Margulies, Daniel S; Mayberg, Helen S; McMahon, Katie; Monk, Christopher S; Mostofsky, Stewart H; Nagel, Bonnie J; Pekar, James J; Peltier, Scott J; Petersen, Steven E; Riedl, Valentin; Rombouts, Serge A R B; Rypma, Bart; Schlaggar, Bradley L; Schmidt, Sein; Seidler, Rachael D; Siegle, Greg J; Sorg, Christian; Teng, Gao-Jun; Veijola, Juha; Villringer, Arno; Walter, Martin; Wang, Lihong; Weng, Xu-Chu; Whitfield-Gabrieli, Susan; Williamson, Peter; Windischberger, Christian; Zang, Yu-Feng; Zhang, Hong-Ying; Castellanos, F Xavier; Milham, Michael P

    2010-03-09

    Although it is being successfully implemented for exploration of the genome, discovery science has eluded the functional neuroimaging community. The core challenge remains the development of common paradigms for interrogating the myriad functional systems in the brain without the constraints of a priori hypotheses. Resting-state functional MRI (R-fMRI) constitutes a candidate approach capable of addressing this challenge. Imaging the brain during rest reveals large-amplitude spontaneous low-frequency (science of brain function, the 1000 Functional Connectomes Project dataset is freely accessible at www.nitrc.org/projects/fcon_1000/.

  9. Toward discovery science of human brain function.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biswal, B.B.; Mennes, M.J.J.; Zuo, X.N.; Gohel, S.; Kelly, C.; Smith, S.M.; Beckmann, C.F.; Adelstein, J.S.; Buckner, R.L.; Colcombe, S.; Dogonowski, A.M.; Ernst, M.; Fair, D.; Hampson, M.; Hoptman, M.J.; Hyde, J.S.; Kiviniemi, V.J.; Kotter, R.; Li, S.J.; Lin, C.P.; Lowe, M.J.; Mackay, C.; Madden, D.J.; Madsen, K.H.; Margulies, D.S.; Mayberg, H.S.; McMahon, K.; Monk, C.S.; Mostofsky, S.H.; Nagel, B.J.; Pekar, J.J.; Peltier, S.J.; Petersen, S.E.; Riedl, V.; Rombouts, S.A.R.B.; Rypma, B.; Schlaggar, B.L.; Schmidt, S.; Seidler, R.D.; Siegle, G.J.; Sorg, C.; Teng, G.J.; Veijola, J.; Villringer, A.; Walter, M.; Wang, L.; Weng, X.C.; Whitfield-Gabrieli, S.; Williamson, P.; Windischberger, C.; Zang, Y.F.; Zhang, H.Y.; Castellanos, F.X.; Milham, M.P.

    2010-01-01

    Although it is being successfully implemented for exploration of the genome, discovery science has eluded the functional neuroimaging community. The core challenge remains the development of common paradigms for interrogating the myriad functional systems in the brain without the constraints of a

  10. Science, Technology, & Human Values. Issue No. 26.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelanski, Vivien B., Ed.; La Follette, Marcel C., Ed.

    This issue contains articles on the recombinant DNA controversy, the ethical principles of scientific institutions, and the effect of disaster novels on public opinion and technology assessment, as well as a guide to funding for science, technology and values projects, and a bibliography on professional ethics. In addition, 14 pages of news items…

  11. Toward discovery science of human brain function.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biswal, B.B.; Mennes, M.; Zuo, X.N.; Gohel, S.; Kelly, C.; Smith, S.M.; Beckmann, C.F.; Adelstein, J.S.; Buckner, R.L.; Colcombe, S.; Dogonowski, A.M.; Ernst, M.; Fair, D.; Hampson, M.; Hoptman, M.J.; Hyde, J.S.; Kiviniemi, V.J.; Kotter, R.; Li, S.J.; Lin, C.P.; Lowe, M.J.; Mackay, C.; Madden, D.J.; Madsen, K.H.; Margulies, D.S.; Mayberg, H.S.; McMahon, K.; Monk, C.S.; Mostofsky, S.H.; Nagel, B.J.; Pekar, J.J.; Peltier, S.J.; Petersen, S.E.; Riedl, V.; Rombouts, S.A.; Rypma, B.; Schlaggar, B.L.; Schmidt, S.; Seidler, R.D.; Siegle, G.J.; Sorg, C.; Teng, G.J.; Veijola, J.; Villringer, A.; Walter, M.; Wang, L.; Weng, X.C.; Whitfield-Gabrieli, S.; Williamson, P.; Windischberger, C.; Zang, Y.F.; Zhang, H.Y.; Castellanos, F.X.; Milham, M.P.

    2010-01-01

    Although it is being successfully implemented for exploration of the genome, discovery science has eluded the functional neuroimaging community. The core challenge remains the development of common paradigms for interrogating the myriad functional systems in the brain without the constraints of a pr

  12. Toward discovery science of human brain function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biswal, Bharat B; Mennes, Maarten; Zuo, Xi-Nian

    2010-01-01

    Although it is being successfully implemented for exploration of the genome, discovery science has eluded the functional neuroimaging community. The core challenge remains the development of common paradigms for interrogating the myriad functional systems in the brain without the constraints of a...

  13. The Diffusion of Academic Information: A Mathematical Model of Citations in the Sciences, Social Sciences and Arts and Humanities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, George A.; And Others

    This paper examines the pattern of diffusion in the academic literatures of the sciences, social sciences, and arts and humanities based on citations. An examination of the citations of articles in the Science Citation Index, Social Science Citation Index, and Arts and Humanities Citation Index from a given year to the year in which the cited…

  14. The Difference in Cognition Consistency Between the Sciences and Humanities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jianzhang Zhou

    2003-01-01

    @@ It is reasonable that the strict sciences represented by mathematics, physics and chemistry have nearly been a kind of substitutional belief of humans after"the Death of God". To conclude theoretically, the significant attraction or the extremely great power of science is, in a word, the validity of thinking and action. From the viewpoint of human action or practice, science is the only really effective means we have to deal with nature (the other) that speaks the language of power. Being a creature that maybe has no competitive advantage in biological sense except the brain, men could not live in the world without power, and the subjective human power represented and embodied in science can be considered as the only secret by whic h we could stand above all the other beings on the earth.

  15. Enabling Intensity and Energy Frontier Science with a Muon Accelerator Facility in the U.S.: A White Paper Submitted to the 2013 U.S. Community Summer Study of the Division of Particles and Fields of the American Physical Society

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delahaye, J-P. [SLAC; Ankenbrandt, C. [Fermilab; Bogacz, A. [Jefferson Lab; Brice, S. [Fermilab; Bross, A. [Fermilab; Denisov, D. [Fermilab; Eichten, E. [Fermilab; Huber, P. [Virginia Tech.; Kaplan, D. M. [IIT, Chicago; Kirk, H. [Brookhaven; Lipton, R. [Fermilab; Neuffer, D. [Fermilab; Palmer, M. A. [Fermilab; Palmer, R. [Brookhaven; Ryne, R. [LBNL, Berkeley; Snopok, P. [Fermilab

    2013-08-01

    A staged approach towards muon based facilities for Intensity and Energy Frontier science, building upon existing and proposed facilities at Fermilab, is presented. At each stage, a facility exploring new physics also provides an R&D platform to validate the technology needed for subsequent stages. The envisioned program begins with nuSTORM, a sensitive sterile neutrino search which also provides precision neutrino cross-section measurements while developing the technology of using and cooling muons. A staged Neutrino Factory based upon Project X, sending beams towards the Sanford Underground Research Facility (SURF), which will house the LBNE detector, could follow for detailed exploration of neutrino properties at the Intensity Frontier, while also establishing the technology of using intense bunched muon beams. The complex could then evolve towards Muon Colliders, starting at 126 GeV with measurements of the Higgs resonance to sub-MeV precision, and continuing to multi-TeV colliders for the exploration of physics beyond the Standard Model at the Energy Frontier. An Appendix addresses specific questions raised by the Lepton Colliders subgroup of the CSS2013 Frontier Capabilities Study Group.

  16. Early Science with the Large Millimeter Telescope: Detection of Dust Emission in Multiple Images of a Normal Galaxy at z > 4 Lensed by a Frontier Fields Cluster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope, Alexandra; Montaña, Alfredo; Battisti, Andrew; Limousin, Marceau; Marchesini, Danilo; Wilson, Grant W.; Alberts, Stacey; Aretxaga, Itziar; Avila-Reese, Vladimir; Ramón Bermejo-Climent, José; Brammer, Gabriel; Bravo-Alfaro, Hector; Calzetti, Daniela; Chary, Ranga-Ram; Cybulski, Ryan; Giavalisco, Mauro; Hughes, David; Kado-Fong, Erin; Keller, Erica; Kirkpatrick, Allison; Labbe, Ivo; Lange-Vagle, Daniel; Lowenthal, James; Murphy, Eric; Oesch, Pascal; Rosa Gonzalez, Daniel; Sánchez-Argüelles, David; Shipley, Heath; Stefanon, Mauro; Vega, Olga; Whitaker, Katherine; Williams, Christina C.; Yun, Min; Zavala, Jorge A.; Zeballos, Milagros

    2017-04-01

    We directly detect dust emission in an optically detected, multiply imaged galaxy lensed by the Frontier Fields cluster MACSJ0717.5+3745. We detect two images of the same galaxy at 1.1 mm with the AzTEC camera on the Large Millimeter Telescope leaving no ambiguity in the counterpart identification. This galaxy, MACS0717_Az9, is at z > 4 and the strong lensing model (μ = 7.5) allows us to calculate an intrinsic IR luminosity of 9.7 × 1010 L ⊙ and an obscured star formation rate of 14.6 ± 4.5 M ⊙ yr‑1. The unobscured star formation rate from the UV is only 4.1 ± 0.3 M ⊙ yr‑1, which means the total star formation rate (18.7 ± 4.5 M ⊙ yr‑1) is dominated (75%–80%) by the obscured component. With an intrinsic stellar mass of only 6.9 × 109 M ⊙, MACS0717_Az9 is one of only a handful of z > 4 galaxies at these lower masses that is detected in dust emission. This galaxy lies close to the estimated star formation sequence at this epoch. However, it does not lie on the dust obscuration relation (IRX-β) for local starburst galaxies and is instead consistent with the Small Magellanic Cloud attenuation law. This remarkable lower mass galaxy, showing signs of both low metallicity and high dust content, may challenge our picture of dust production in the early universe.

  17. The phenomenological movement and research in the human sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giorgi, Amedeo

    2005-01-01

    Phenomenology, as a modern movement in philosophy, has focused discussion upon human subjectivity in new and critically important ways. Because human participants can relate intentionally to objects of the world consciousness manifests relationships to things and others that are other than cause-effect relationships. Consequently, the concepts and practices of the natural sciences are not the best model for the human sciences to follow. Husserl in his philosophy introduced a method for a more adequate approach to the achievements of consciousness and when properly modified the phenomenological method can serve as the basis for the human sciences, including nursing. The use of such a method can make the qualitative analysis of phenomena rigorous and scientific.

  18. Human resources training in coastal science

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Vijayaraghavan, S.

    The paper stresses the importance of training and education to the development and application of knowledge on the coastal marine environment and its resources. Present status of human resources training in India is discussed and changes...

  19. Testing SDRT's Right Frontier

    CERN Document Server

    Afantenos, Stergos

    2010-01-01

    The Right Frontier Constraint (RFC), as a constraint on the attachment of new constituents to an existing discourse structure, has important implications for the interpretation of anaphoric elements in discourse and for Machine Learning (ML) approaches to learning discourse structures. In this paper we provide strong empirical support for SDRT's version of RFC. The analysis of about 100 doubly annotated documents by five different naive annotators shows that SDRT's RFC is respected about 95% of the time. The qualitative analysis of presumed violations that we have performed shows that they are either click-errors or structural misconceptions.

  20. Frontiers of Aerothermodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-09-01

    future, entry speed of up to about 12 km/ s must be considered. Frontiers of Aerothermodynamics 10 - 14 RTO-EN-AVT-162 Entry flights to the moons of...the four large moons of Jupiter , all of which have an atmosphere though thin. The SO2 atmosphere of Io, H2O atmosphere of Europa, O2 atmosphere of...NUMBER 6. AUTHOR( S ) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME( S ) AND ADDRESS(ES) Department of Aerospace

  1. The romantic drive and human sciences in western culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Fernando Dias Duarte

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Modern Western culture is based upon the tension between a basic universalism and its permanent romantic counterpoint. Science is one of the main expressions of the universalistic attitude and the romantic genius dealt actively with it, criticizing and transforming it in many different ways. The emergence of modern 'human sciences' (originally conceived of as the Geisteswissenschaften, or 'moral sciences' is due to this tension, in the sense that they came to provide a sense of reality and knowledge very different from that prevailing in the pristine universalistic ideology. The themes of 'difference', 'totality', 'uniqueness', 'flow', 'drive', 'experience', and 'understanding' inspired or challenged the great founding fathers of the human sciences - eventually in contradictory directions. They remain nowadays as powerful as ever, either as the necessary rationalization for any anthropological research or as the channel for the so-called 'post-modern' speculations. To make them explicit and understandable is the task of this article.

  2. Navigating to new frontiers in behavioral neuroscience: Traditional neuropsychological tests predict human performance on a rodent-inspired radial-arm maze

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah E. Mennenga

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available We constructed an 11-arm, walk-through, human radial-arm maze (HRAM as a translational instrument to compare existing methodology in the areas of rodent and human learning and memory research. The HRAM, utilized here, serves as an intermediary test between the classic rat radial-arm maze (RAM and standard human neuropsychological and cognitive tests. We show that the HRAM is a useful instrument to examine working memory ability, explore the relationships between rodent and human memory and cognition models, and evaluate factors that contribute to human navigational ability. One-hundred-and-fifty-seven participants were tested on the HRAM, and scores were compared to performance on a standard cognitive battery focused on episodic memory, working memory capacity, and visuospatial ability. We found that errors on the HRAM increased as working memory demand became elevated, similar to the pattern typically seen in rodents, and that for this task, performance appears similar to Miller’s classic description of human working memory capacity of 7±2 items. Regression analysis revealed that measures of working memory capacity and visuospatial ability accounted for a large proportion of variance in HRAM scores, while measures of episodic memory and general intelligence did not serve as significant predictors of HRAM performance. We present the HRAM as a novel instrument for measuring navigational behavior in humans, as is traditionally done in basic science studies evaluating rodent learning and memory, thus providing a useful tool to help connect and translate between human and rodent models of cognitive functioning.

  3. Review - China's 'Tibetan' Frontiers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benno Ryan Weiner

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Review of: Beth Meriam. 2012. China's 'Tibetan' Frontiers: Sharing the Contested Ground. Leiden and Boston: Global Oriental. In recent years, the study of China's minorities has become something of an ethnographic subgenre. Given the political sensitivities involved, however, it is unsurprising that relatively little of this fieldwork has been conducted among populations the Chinese state defines as 'Tibetan'. Beth Merriam's important new addition to the literature, China's 'Tibetan' Frontiers, begins to fill this gap. However, as the author is quick to point out, hers is not an ethnography of Tibet or Tibetans, nor the ethno-cultural region of Khams, or even Yushu Prefecture. It is, instead, an intensely local, "school-based study" (10 of Trinde (Khri 'du, Chenduo Township, a remote, eponymously named county seat in the far south of Qinghai Province. Meriam spent fourteen months (2002-2003 as the first foreign teacher at Trinde County Nationalities Middle School. Her inquiry is focused on the region's cultural elite, "a small educated class of the local population" (10 primarily consisting of the school's directors and teachers, but also students, work unit functionaries, cadres, and NGO administrators. "Rather than analysing a specific 'ethnic group,' or political structure," Meriam writes, her study "proceeds from a critical vantage point of practices and concepts associated with a number of broadly-defined political themes and...

  4. The Asteroid Frontier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcfadden, Lucyann A.

    2012-01-01

    There are many ways of studying the Asteroid Frontier as a scientist. In my career, I have used large telescopes atop a 14,000 ft mountain top observatory in Hawaii, used the Hubble Space Telescope in orbit around the Earth, traveled to Antarctica to collect meteorites sitting on the ice waiting for them to be recovered by scientists for scientific investigation, walked the desert with 50 students from University of Khartoum searching for fragments of an asteroid that collided with earth, exploded in the upper atmosphere and rained fragments on the desert floor. Most recently, I have looked at one of the largest Main Belt Asteroids named (4) Vesta through the eyes of a robotic spacecraft named Dawn, exploring the asteroid frontier. I will share my adventures, place the thrill of scientific exploration through NASA's solar system exploration program in context and provide opportunities for students to engage in NASA's exciting missions to expand scientific understanding of Earth and the Universe in which we live

  5. Applying Human Computation Methods to Information Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Christopher Glenn

    2013-01-01

    Human Computation methods such as crowdsourcing and games with a purpose (GWAP) have each recently drawn considerable attention for their ability to synergize the strengths of people and technology to accomplish tasks that are challenging for either to do well alone. Despite this increased attention, much of this transformation has been focused on…

  6. Nutrition Frontiers E-Newsletter | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Nutritional Science Research Group, Division of Cancer Prevention at NCI issues a quarterly electronic newsletter, Nutrition Frontiers, that highlights emerging evidence linking diet to cancer prevention and showcases recent findings about who will likely benefit most from dietary change. |

  7. Ebola Virus: Sensationalism, Science, and Human Rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bausch, Daniel G; Clougherty, Marguerite M

    2015-10-01

    Outbreaks of the filoviruses, Ebola and Marburg, usually garner immense public attention, often with a sensationalist bent in the lay press, focused on the apparently mysterious origins of the outbreak and the high mortality rates. The scientific community may present a more objective viewpoint, but usually with a rather technical focus on identifying epidemiological risk factors and experimental therapies and vaccines. Often lost in the discussion are the human rights elements that consistently underlie large outbreaks of these dangerous viruses.

  8. CERN and the high energy frontier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsesmelis Emmanuel

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the particle physics programme at CERN at the high-energy frontier. Starting from the key open questions in particle physics and the large-scale science facilities existing at CERN, concentrating on the Large Hadron Collider(LHC, this paper goes on to present future possibilities for global projects in high energy physics. The paper presents options for future colliders, all being within the framework of the recently updated European Strategy for Particle Physics, and all of which have a unique value to add to experimental particle physics. The paper concludes by outlining key messages for the way forward for high-energy physics research.

  9. CERN and the high energy frontier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsesmelis, Emmanuel

    2014-04-01

    This paper presents the particle physics programme at CERN at the high-energy frontier. Starting from the key open questions in particle physics and the large-scale science facilities existing at CERN, concentrating on the Large Hadron Collider(LHC), this paper goes on to present future possibilities for global projects in high energy physics. The paper presents options for future colliders, all being within the framework of the recently updated European Strategy for Particle Physics, and all of which have a unique value to add to experimental particle physics. The paper concludes by outlining key messages for the way forward for high-energy physics research.

  10. Enabling Intensity and Energy Frontier Science with a Muon Accelerator Facility in the U.S.: A White Paper Submitted to the 2013 U.S. Community Summer Study of the Division of Particles and Fields of the American Physical Society

    CERN Document Server

    Delahaye, J-P; Bogacz, A; Brice, S; Bross, A; Denisov, D; Eichten, E; Huber, P; Kaplan, D M; Kirk, H; Lipton, R; Neuffer, D; Palmer, M A; Palmer, R; Ryne, R; Snopok, P

    2013-01-01

    A staged approach towards muon based facilities for Intensity and Energy Frontier science, building upon existing and proposed facilities at Fermilab, is presented. At each stage, a facility exploring new physics also provides an R&D platform to validate the technology needed for subsequent stages. The envisioned program begins with nuSTORM, a sensitive sterile neutrino search which also provides precision neutrino cross-section measurements while developing the technology of using and cooling muons. A staged Neutrino Factory based upon Project X, sending beams towards the Sanford Underground Research Facility (SURF), which will house the LBNE detector, could follow for detailed exploration of neutrino properties at the Intensity Frontier, while also establishing the technology of using intense bunched muon beams. The complex could then evolve towards Muon Colliders, starting at 126 GeV with measurements of the Higgs resonance to sub-MeV precision, and continuing to multi-TeV colliders for the exploration...

  11. Estimating the NIH efficient frontier.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrios Bisias

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The National Institutes of Health (NIH is among the world's largest investors in biomedical research, with a mandate to: "…lengthen life, and reduce the burdens of illness and disability." Its funding decisions have been criticized as insufficiently focused on disease burden. We hypothesize that modern portfolio theory can create a closer link between basic research and outcome, and offer insight into basic-science related improvements in public health. We propose portfolio theory as a systematic framework for making biomedical funding allocation decisions-one that is directly tied to the risk/reward trade-off of burden-of-disease outcomes. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Using data from 1965 to 2007, we provide estimates of the NIH "efficient frontier", the set of funding allocations across 7 groups of disease-oriented NIH institutes that yield the greatest expected return on investment for a given level of risk, where return on investment is measured by subsequent impact on U.S. years of life lost (YLL. The results suggest that NIH may be actively managing its research risk, given that the volatility of its current allocation is 17% less than that of an equal-allocation portfolio with similar expected returns. The estimated efficient frontier suggests that further improvements in expected return (89% to 119% vs. current or reduction in risk (22% to 35% vs. current are available holding risk or expected return, respectively, constant, and that 28% to 89% greater decrease in average years-of-life-lost per unit risk may be achievable. However, these results also reflect the imprecision of YLL as a measure of disease burden, the noisy statistical link between basic research and YLL, and other known limitations of portfolio theory itself. CONCLUSIONS: Our analysis is intended to serve as a proof-of-concept and starting point for applying quantitative methods to allocating biomedical research funding that are objective, systematic, transparent

  12. Estimating the NIH efficient frontier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisias, Dimitrios; Lo, Andrew W; Watkins, James F

    2012-01-01

    The National Institutes of Health (NIH) is among the world's largest investors in biomedical research, with a mandate to: "…lengthen life, and reduce the burdens of illness and disability." Its funding decisions have been criticized as insufficiently focused on disease burden. We hypothesize that modern portfolio theory can create a closer link between basic research and outcome, and offer insight into basic-science related improvements in public health. We propose portfolio theory as a systematic framework for making biomedical funding allocation decisions-one that is directly tied to the risk/reward trade-off of burden-of-disease outcomes. Using data from 1965 to 2007, we provide estimates of the NIH "efficient frontier", the set of funding allocations across 7 groups of disease-oriented NIH institutes that yield the greatest expected return on investment for a given level of risk, where return on investment is measured by subsequent impact on U.S. years of life lost (YLL). The results suggest that NIH may be actively managing its research risk, given that the volatility of its current allocation is 17% less than that of an equal-allocation portfolio with similar expected returns. The estimated efficient frontier suggests that further improvements in expected return (89% to 119% vs. current) or reduction in risk (22% to 35% vs. current) are available holding risk or expected return, respectively, constant, and that 28% to 89% greater decrease in average years-of-life-lost per unit risk may be achievable. However, these results also reflect the imprecision of YLL as a measure of disease burden, the noisy statistical link between basic research and YLL, and other known limitations of portfolio theory itself. Our analysis is intended to serve as a proof-of-concept and starting point for applying quantitative methods to allocating biomedical research funding that are objective, systematic, transparent, repeatable, and expressly designed to reduce the burden of

  13. The 'medical humanities' in health sciences education in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, S

    2014-02-01

    A new masters-level course, 'Medicine and the Arts" will be offered in 2014 at the University of Cape Town, setting a precedent for interdisciplinary education in the field of medical humanities in South Africa. The humanities and social sciences have always been an implicit part of undergraduate and postgraduate education in the health sciences, but increasingly they are becoming an explicit and essential component of the curriculum, as the importance of graduate attributes and outcomes in the workplace is acknowledged. Traditionally, the medical humanities have included medical ethics, history, literature and anthropology. Less prominent in the literature has been the engagement with medicine of the disciplines of sociology, politics, philosophy, linguistics, education, and law, as well as the creative and expressive arts. The development of the medical humanities in education and research in South Africa is set to expand over the next few years, and it looks as if it will be an exciting inter-disciplinary journey.

  14. "Scientific peep show": the human body in contemporary science museums.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canadelli, Elena

    2011-01-01

    The essay focuses on the discourse about the human body developed by contemporary science museums with educational and instructive purposes directed at the general public. These museums aim mostly at mediating concepts such as health and prevention. The current scenario is linked with two examples of past museums: the popular anatomical museums which emerged during the 19th century and the health museums thrived between 1910 and 1940. On the museological path about the human body self-care we went from the emotionally involving anatomical Venuses to the inexpressive Transparent Man, from anatomical specimens of ill organs and deformed subjects to the mechanical and electronic models of the healthy body. Today the body is made transparent by the new medical diagnostics and by the latest discoveries of endoscopy. The way museums and science centers presently display the human body involves computers, 3D animation, digital technologies, hands-on models of large size human parts.

  15. KEEPING Exploring New Frontiers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan Manman

    2010-01-01

    @@ "To live fully is to surge ahead constantly. After achieving what you have aimed at, you should aim higher.Therefore, success doesn't mean what level you are at, but the journey of achieving next level". This is the meaning of success in the eyes of Guy Lam, Chairman of Pacrim International Capital Inc, Over 20 years since he began to engage in business, He has been keeping it in mind that the value of life lies in the journey to new creation but not the level of ownership. Therefore, when he achieved one success after another in different fields, Guy was never content with the achievement he had obtained.but more eager to explore new frontiers.

  16. The Human Genome Project: big science transforms biology and medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hood, Leroy; Rowen, Lee

    2013-01-01

    The Human Genome Project has transformed biology through its integrated big science approach to deciphering a reference human genome sequence along with the complete sequences of key model organisms. The project exemplifies the power, necessity and success of large, integrated, cross-disciplinary efforts - so-called 'big science' - directed towards complex major objectives. In this article, we discuss the ways in which this ambitious endeavor led to the development of novel technologies and analytical tools, and how it brought the expertise of engineers, computer scientists and mathematicians together with biologists. It established an open approach to data sharing and open-source software, thereby making the data resulting from the project accessible to all. The genome sequences of microbes, plants and animals have revolutionized many fields of science, including microbiology, virology, infectious disease and plant biology. Moreover, deeper knowledge of human sequence variation has begun to alter the practice of medicine. The Human Genome Project has inspired subsequent large-scale data acquisition initiatives such as the International HapMap Project, 1000 Genomes, and The Cancer Genome Atlas, as well as the recently announced Human Brain Project and the emerging Human Proteome Project.

  17. Knowledge machines digital transformations of the sciences and humanities

    CERN Document Server

    Meyer, Eric T

    2015-01-01

    In Knowledge Machines, Eric Meyer and Ralph Schroeder argue that digital technologies have fundamentally changed research practices in the sciences, social sciences, and humanities. Meyer and Schroeder show that digital tools and data, used collectively and in distributed mode -- which they term e-research -- have transformed not just the consumption of knowledge but also the production of knowledge. Digital technologies for research are reshaping how knowledge advances in disciplines that range from physics to literary analysis. Meyer and Schroeder map the rise of digital research and offer case studies from many fields, including biomedicine, social science uses of the Web, astronomy, and large-scale textual analysis in the humanities. They consider such topics as the challenges of sharing research data and of big data approaches, disciplinary differences and new forms of interdisciplinary collaboration, the shifting boundaries between researchers and their publics, and the ways that digital tools promote o...

  18. Trade Books and the Human Endeavor of Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farland, Donna

    2006-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that classroom visits by scientists can change and improve students' perceptions of scientists and what they do. However, having scientists visit the classroom is not always a practical option for every classroom. A more readily available and less time-consuming strategy is to introduce "Science as a Human Endeavor"…

  19. Research Dissemination in Creative Arts, Humanities and the Social Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazeley, Pat

    2006-01-01

    An ethnographic case study of issues related to research performance and promotion of research was conducted within the Creative and Performing Arts, Humanities and Social Sciences (AHSS) disciplines of a regional university. The purpose of the study was to explore a variety of ways in which the research work of those disciplines could be made…

  20. Humanities and Science: A Necessary Unity for the Counseling Profession

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guterman, Jeffrey T.; Martin, Clayton V.; Kopp, David M.

    2012-01-01

    This article is a reply to Hansen's (2012) call for the counseling profession to embrace a purely humanistic ideology for counseling. The authors suggest the relationship between humanities and science set forth by Hansen does not emphasize the both-and aspects of these ideologies. An integrative framework is considered for counseling.

  1. Human/Nature Discourse in Environmental Science Education Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, Joan M.

    2008-01-01

    It is argued that the view of nature and the relationship between human beings and nature that each of us holds impacts our decisions, actions, and notions of environmental responsibility and consciousness. In this study, I investigate the discursive patterns of selected environmental science classroom resources produced by three disparate…

  2. Ra: The Sun for Science and Humanity

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    To guide the development of the Ra Strategic Framework, we defined scientific and applications objectives. For our primary areas of scientific interest, we choose the corona, the solar wind, the Sun's effect on the Earth, and solar theory and model development. For secondary areas of scientific interest, we selected sunspots, the solar constant, the Sun's gravitational field, helioseismology and the galactic cosmic rays. We stress the importance of stereoscopic imaging, observations at high spatial, spectral, and temporal resolutions, as well as of long duration measurements. Further exploration of the Sun's polar regions is also important, as shown already by the Ulysses mission. From an applications perspective, we adopted three broad objectives that would derive complementary inputs for the Strategic Framework. These were to identify and investigate: possible application spin-offs from science missions, possible solar-terrestrial missions dedicated to a particular application, and possible future applications that require technology development. The Sun can be viewed as both a source of resources and of threats. Our principal applications focus was that of threat mitigation, by examining ways to improve solar threat monitoring and early warning systems. We compared these objectives to the mission objectives of past, current, and planned international solar missions. Past missions (1962-1980) seem to have been focused on improvement of scientific knowledge, using multiple instrument spacecraft. A ten year gap followed this period, during which the results from previous missions were analyzed and solar study programmes were prepared in international organizations. Current missions (1990-1996) focus on particular topics such as the corona, solar flares, and coronal mass ejections. In planned missions, Sun/Earth interactions and environmental effects of solar activity are becoming more important. The corona is the centre of interest of almost all planned missions

  3. DOE A9024 Final Report Functional and Nanoscale Materials Systems: Frontier Programs of Science at the Frederick Seitz Materials Research Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, Jennifer A.

    2009-03-24

    The scientific programs of the FSMRL supported under the DOE A9024 Grant consisted of four interdisciplinary research clusters, as described. The clusters were led by Professors Tai Chiang (Physics), Jeffrey Moore (Chemistry), Paul Goldbart (Physics), and Steven Granick (Materials Science and Engineering). The completed work followed a dominant theme--Nanoscale Materials Systems--and emphasized studies of complex phenomena involving surfaces, interfaces, complex materials, dynamics, energetics, and structures and their transformations. A summary of our key accomplishments is provided for each cluster.

  4. One Kind of Human Being: MACOS, the Human Sciences, and Governmentality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivens, John P.

    2013-01-01

    Contemporary reform movements have roots in post-World War II changes. Back then, social reformers in the United States targeted education as a field for the human sciences to intervene and impart a new kind of knowledge into daily life. These experts developed Man: A Course of Study (MACOS), a science-based curriculum, steeped in biological and…

  5. Outplacement: The New Counseling Frontier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branstead, Elizabeth; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Includes "Outplacement: The New Counseling Frontier" (Branstead); "Interview with Bob Ward"; "Ethics of Outplacement" (Axmith); "Outplacement--The View from Over Here" (Murray); "In-House Outplacement Programs for the 1990s and Beyond" (Benedict); "Government and Outplacement"…

  6. Ghana's cocoa frontier in transition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Michael Helt; Agergaard, Jytte

    2015-01-01

    Since the first commercial planting of cocoa in Ghana more than a century ago, the production of cocoa has been a key factor in the redistribution of migrants and has played a pivotal role in the development of both sending and receiving communities. This process has been acknowledged...... in the literature for decades. However, how migration flows have changed in response to changing livelihoods dynamics of the frontier and how this has impacted on the development of the frontier has only attracted limited attention. Based on a study of immigration to Ghana's current cocoa frontier in the Western...... Region, this article aims to examine how immigration and frontier dynamics in the Western region are contributing to livelihood transitions and small town development, and how this process is gradually becoming delinked from the production of cocoa. The article focuses on how migration dynamics interlink...

  7. Outplacement: The New Counseling Frontier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branstead, Elizabeth; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Includes "Outplacement: The New Counseling Frontier" (Branstead); "Interview with Bob Ward"; "Ethics of Outplacement" (Axmith); "Outplacement--The View from Over Here" (Murray); "In-House Outplacement Programs for the 1990s and Beyond" (Benedict); "Government and Outplacement"…

  8. What is Social Sciences and Humanities Research "Worth,"? Neoliberalism and the Framing of Social Sciences and Humanities Work in Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson-Harden, Adam

    2013-01-01

    This article offers a critique of the discursive politics represented in attempts to frame social sciences and humanities work in the mould of neoliberal knowledge capitalism. The critique offered is inspired by Foucault's critical thought on neoliberalism and an interpretation of "neoliberal governmentality" that flows from his…

  9. What is Social Sciences and Humanities Research "Worth,"? Neoliberalism and the Framing of Social Sciences and Humanities Work in Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson-Harden, Adam

    2013-01-01

    This article offers a critique of the discursive politics represented in attempts to frame social sciences and humanities work in the mould of neoliberal knowledge capitalism. The critique offered is inspired by Foucault's critical thought on neoliberalism and an interpretation of "neoliberal governmentality" that flows from his College…

  10. Proceedings of the 182nd basic science seminar (The workshop on neutron structural biology ) 'New frontiers of structural biology advanced by solution scattering'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujiwara, Satoru (ed.) [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    2001-03-01

    182nd advanced science seminar (the workshop on neutron structural biology) was held in February 9-10, 2000 at Tokai. Thirty-six participants from universities, research institutes, and private companies took part in the workshop, and total of 24 lectures were given. This proceedings collects abstracts, the figures and tables, which the speakers used in their lectures. The proceedings contains two reviews from the point of view of x-ray and neutron scatterings, and six subjects (21 papers) including neutron and x-ray scattering in the era of structure genomics, structural changes detected with solution scattering, a new way in structural biology opened by neutron crystallography and neutron scattering, x-ray sources and detectors, simulation and solution scattering, and neutron sources and detectors. (Kazumata, Y.)

  11. NASA Ames and Future of Space Exploration, Science, and Aeronautics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Jacob

    2015-01-01

    Pushing the frontiers of aeronautics and space exploration presents multiple challenges. NASA Ames Research Center is at the forefront of tackling these issues, conducting cutting edge research in the fields of air traffic management, entry systems, advanced information technology, intelligent human and robotic systems, astrobiology, aeronautics, space, earth and life sciences and small satellites. Knowledge gained from this research helps ensure the success of NASA's missions, leading us closer to a world that was only imagined as science fiction just decades ago.

  12. Frontiers in Surface Nanophotonics Principles and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Andrews, David L

    2007-01-01

    With the rapid technical advancement of nanoscale fabrication, the science of optics has recently undergone a renaissance with the characterization of new and distinctive kinds of photonic interaction. Beyond the well-known plasmonic processes, many of these effects also arise from intricate local field effects associated with surfaces, where the surface morphology determines the detailed electromagnetic behavior. As such interactions move into practical device applications across the globe, this book presents an overview of some cutting edge developments, contributed by members of several highly renowned research groups. Copiously illustrated and with extensive references to original literature, Frontiers in Surface Nanophotonics will appeal to a wide readership with interests in optics, materials science and nanotechnology.

  13. 'Nature and the Greeks' and 'Science and Humanism'

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrödinger, Erwin

    2014-11-01

    Foreword; Part I. Nature and the Greeks: 1. The motives for returning to ancient thought; 2. The competition, reason v. senses; 3. The Pythagoreans; 4. The Ionian enlightenment; 5. The religion of Xenophanes, Heraclitus of Ephesus; 6. The atomists; 7. What are the special features?; Part II. Science and Humanism: 1. The spiritual bearing of science on life; 2. The practical achievements of science tending to obliterate its true import; 3. A radical change in our ideas of matter; 4. Form, not substance, the fundamental concept; 5. The nature of our 'models'; 6. Continuous descriptions and causality; 7. The intricacy of the continuum; 8. The makeshift of wave mechanics; 9. The alleged breakdown of the barrier between subject and object; 10. Atoms or quanta - the counter-spell of old standing, to escape the intricacy of the continuum; 11. Would physical indeterminacy give free will a chance?; 12. The bar to prediction, according to Niels Bohr; Literature.

  14. Modeling human behavior in economics and social science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolfin, M; Leonida, L; Outada, N

    2017-06-29

    The complex interactions between human behaviors and social economic sciences is critically analyzed in this paper in view of possible applications of mathematical modeling as an attainable interdisciplinary approach to understand and simulate the aforementioned dynamics. The quest is developed along three steps: Firstly an overall analysis of social and economic sciences indicates the main requirements that a contribution of mathematical modeling should bring to these sciences; subsequently the focus moves to an overview of mathematical tools and to the selection of those which appear, according to the authors bias, appropriate to the modeling; finally, a survey of applications is presented looking ahead to research perspectives. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Intensity Frontier Instrumentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kettell S.; Rameika, R.; Tshirhart, B.

    2013-09-24

    The fundamental origin of flavor in the Standard Model (SM) remains a mystery. Despite the roughly eighty years since Rabi asked “Who ordered that?” upon learning of the discovery of the muon, we have not understood the reason that there are three generations or, more recently, why the quark and neutrino mixing matrices and masses are so different. The solution to the flavor problem would give profound insights into physics beyond the Standard Model (BSM) and tell us about the couplings and the mass scale at which the next level of insight can be found. The SM fails to explain all observed phenomena: new interactions and yet unseen particles must exist. They may manifest themselves by causing SM reactions to differ from often very precise predictions. The Intensity Frontier (1) explores these fundamental questions by searching for new physics in extremely rare processes or those forbidden in the SM. This often requires massive and/or extremely finely tuned detectors.

  16. Frontiers in Chemical Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowlan, Pamela Renee [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-05-02

    These are slides dealing with frontiers in chemical physics. The following topics are covered: Time resolving chemistry with ultrashort pulses in the 0.1-40 THz spectral range; Example: Mid-infrared absorption spectrum of the intermediate state CH2OO; Tracking reaction dynamics through changes in the spectra; Single-shot measurement of the mid-IR absorption dynamics; Applying 2D coherent mid-IR spectroscopy to learn more about transition states; Time resolving chemical reactions at a catalysis using mid-IR and THz pulses; Studying topological insulators requires a surface sensitive probe; Nonlinear phonon dynamics in Bi2Se3; THz-pump, SHG-probe as a surface sensitive coherent 2D spectroscopy; Nanometer and femtosecond spatiotemporal resolution mid-IR spectroscopy; Coherent two-dimensional THz/mid-IR spectroscopy with 10nm spatial resolution; Pervoskite oxides as catalysts; Functionalized graphene for catalysis; Single-shot spatiotemporal measurements; Spatiotemporal pulse measurement; Intense, broad-band THz/mid-IR generation with organic crystals.

  17. Voyager Approaches Final Frontier

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    An artist's concept illustrates the positions of the Voyager spacecraft in relation to structures formed around our Sun by the solar wind. Also illustrated is the termination shock, a violent region the spacecraft must pass through before reaching the outer limits of the solar system. At the termination shock, the supersonic solar wind abruptly slows from an average speed of 400 kilometers per second to less than 100 kilometer per second (900,000 to less than 225,000 miles per hour). Beyond the termination shock is the solar system's final frontier, the heliosheath, a vast region where the turbulent and hot solar wind is compressed as it presses outward against the interstellar wind that is beyond the heliopause. A bow shock likely forms as the interstellar wind approaches and is deflected around the heliosphere, forcing it into a teardrop-shaped structure with a long, comet-like tail.The exact location of the termination shock is unknown, and it originally was thought to be closer to the Sun than Voyager 1 currently is. As Voyager 1 cruised ever farther from the Sun, it confirmed that all the planets are inside an immense bubble blown by the solar wind and the termination shock was much more distant.

  18. Science versus (?) Art: Human Perception of Other Worlds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, William K.

    1998-09-01

    At the time of the Renaissance, science and art were mixed together as a way to understand the human relation to the larger cosmos. Leonardo da Vinci exemplifies this approach. In modern times, the two have become separate, and even antagonistic, ``two cultures." Scientists have increasingly been satisfied to present quantitative measures of phenomena, without ever asking what the measures mean in human terms. Examples include the nature of the lunar surface, asteroid colors and brightness of the Io aurora, as will be discussed. However, in presenting the "big picture" to the public, and even to other working scientists, it is useful to revisit the Renaissance paradigm. Artists are increasingly working with scientists to translate the understanding of other worlds to the public, and this creates many opportunities for education projects in schools, and for careers in public outreach and science journalism.

  19. PREFACE: IUMRS-ICA 2008 Symposium, Sessions 'X. Applications of Synchrotron Radiation and Neutron Beam to Soft Matter Science' and 'Y. Frontier of Polymeric Nano-Soft-Materials - Precision Polymer Synthesis, Self-assembling and Their Functionalization'

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahara, Atsushi; Kawahara, Seiichi

    2009-09-01

    Tashiro (Toyota Technological Institute) Professor Kazuo Sakurai(Kitakyushu University) Professor Keiji Tanaka (Kyushu University) Dr Sono Sasaki (JASRI/Spring-8) Professor Naoya Torikai (KENS) Professor Moonhor Ree (POSTECH) Professor Kookheon Char (Seoul National University) Professor Charles C Han (CAS) Professor Atsushi Takahara(Kyushu University) Frontier of Polymeric Nano-Soft-Materials, Precision Polymer Synthesis, Self-assembling and Their Functionalization (Symposium Y of IUMRS-ICA2008) Seiichi Kawahara, Rong-Ming Ho, Hiroshi Jinnai, Masami Kamigaito, Takashi Miyata, Hiroshi Morita, Hideyuki Otsuka, Daewon Sohn, Keiji Tanaka It is our great pleasure and honor to publish peer-reviewed papers, presented in Symposium Y 'Frontier of Polymeric Nano-Soft-Materials Precision Polymer Synthesis, Self-assembling and Their Functionalization' at the International Union of Materials Research Societies International Conference in Asia 2008 (IUMRS-ICA2008), which was held on 9-13 December 2008, at Nagoya Congress Center, Nagoya, Japan. 'Polymeric nano-soft-materials' are novel outcomes based on a recent innovative evolution in polymer science, i.e. precision polymer synthesis, self-assembling and functionalization of multi-component systems. The materials are expected to exhibit specific functions and unique properties due to their hierarchic morphologies brought either by naturally-generated ordering or by artificial manipulation of the systems, e.g., crystallization and phase-separation. The emerging precision synthesis has brought out new types of polymers with well-controlled primary structures. Furthermore, the surface and interface of the material are recognized to play an important role in the outstanding mechanical, electrical and optical properties, which are required for medical and engineering applications. In order to understand structure-property relationships in the nano-soft-materials, it is indispensable to develop novel characterization techniques. Symposium Y

  20. EDITORIAL: Frontiers in semiconductor-based devices Frontiers in semiconductor-based devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishna, Sanjay; Phillips, Jamie; Ghosh, Siddhartha; Ma, Jack; Sabarinanthan, Jayshri; Stiff-Roberts, Adrienne; Xu, Jian; Zhou, Weidong

    2009-12-01

    This special cluster of Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics reports proceedings from the Frontiers in Semiconductor-Based Devices Symposium, held in honor of the 60th birthday of Professor Pallab Bhattacharya by his former doctoral students. The symposium took place at the University of Michigan, Ann Arbor on 6-7 December 2009. Pallab Bhattacharya has served on the faculty of the Electrical Engineering and Computer Science Department at the University of Michigan, Ann Arbor for 25 years. During this time, he has made pioneering contributions to semiconductor epitaxy, characterization of strained heterostructures, self-organized quantum dots, quantum-dot optoelectronic devices, and integrated optoelectronics. Professor Bhattacharya has been recognized for his accomplishments by membership of the National Academy of Engineering, by chaired professorships (Charles M Vest Distinguished University Professor and James R Mellor Professor of Engineering), and by selection as a Fellow of the IEEE, among numerous other honors and awards. Professor Bhattacharya has also made remarkable contributions in education, including authorship of the textbook Semiconductor Optoelectronic Devices (Prentice Hall, 2nd edition) and the production of 60 PhD students (and counting). In fact, this development of critical human resources is one of the biggest impacts of Professor Bhattacharya's career. His guidance and dedication have shaped the varied professional paths of his students, many of whom currently enjoy successful careers in academia, industry, and government around the world. This special cluster acknowledges the importance of Professor Bhattacharya's influence as all of the contributions are from his former doctoral students. The symposium reflects the significant impact of Professor Bhattacharya's research in that the topics span diverse, critical research areas, including: semiconductor lasers and modulators, nanoscale quantum structure-based devices, flexible CMOS

  1. Crowdsourcing the human gut:Is crowdsourcing also 'citizen science'?

    OpenAIRE

    Del Savio, Lorenzo; Prainsack, Barbara; Buyx, Alena

    2016-01-01

    The participation of non-professionally trained people in so-called citizen science (CS) projects is a much discussed topic at the moment. Frequently, however, the contribution of citizens is limited to only a few narrow tasks. Focusing on an initiative dedicated to the study of the human microbiome, this paper describes such a case where citizen participation is limited to the provision of funding, samples, and personal data. Researchers opted for a crowdsourced approaches because other form...

  2. Science, human nature, and a new paradigm for ethics education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampe, Marc

    2012-09-01

    For centuries, religion and philosophy have been the primary basis for efforts to guide humans to be more ethical. However, training in ethics and religion and imparting positive values and morality tests such as those emanating from the categorical imperative and the Golden Rule have not been enough to protect humankind from its bad behaviors. To improve ethics education educators must better understand aspects of human nature such as those that lead to "self-deception" and "personal bias." Through rationalizations, faulty reasoning and hidden bias, individuals trick themselves into believing there is little wrong with their own unethical behavior. The application of science to human nature offers the possibility of improving ethics education through better self-knowledge. The author recommends a new paradigm for ethics education in contemporary modern society. This includes the creation of a new field called "applied evolutionary neuro-ethics" which integrates science and social sciences to improve ethics education. The paradigm can merge traditional thinking about ethics from religious and philosophical perspectives with new ideas from applied evolutionary neuro-ethics.

  3. Integration of Social Sciences and Humanities into Mechanical Engineering Curriculum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikša Dubreta

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Article deals with ways in which social sciences and humanities have been integrated from the 1980s to the present day into curriculum of Faculty of Mechanical Engineering and Naval Architecture at University of Zagreb, Croatia. After a brief review and summary of selected research and theoretical contributions to the subject theme, a specific research setting is indicated and contextualized. Elements of socio-historical approach are established primarily through analysis of corresponding documents: curriculums from the 1980s, 1990s and 2000s and from key documents on strategic development of the Faculty. It is stressed that social sciences and humanities topics are continually represented in mechanical engineering study program as legitimate, but separate unit, poorly integrated in the main engineering courses. Together with more or less expressed orientation toward micro-social and micro-economical issues in industry and business, it points to the main features in continuity of establishing the field of social sciences and humanities. Finally, it is shown that chances to widen and enrich aforementioned field are in close relation to the character of engineering and its social contextualization expressed in a key Faculty’s strategic documents.

  4. Dawn Mission Education and Public Outreach: Science as Human Endeavor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobb, W. H.; Wise, J.; Schmidt, B. E.; Ristvey, J.

    2012-12-01

    general public into the thrill of NASA science. Helping teachers develop a picture of the history and evolution of our understanding of the solar system, and honing in on the place of asteroids in helping us answer old questions and discover new ones, students and the general public sees the power and excitement underlying planetary science as human endeavor. Research indicates that science inquiry is powerful in the classroom and mission scientists are real-life models of science inquiry in action. Cross-curricular elements include examining research-based strategies for enhancing English language learners' ability to engage in higher order questions and a professional astronomy artist's insight into how visual analysis requires not just our eyes engaged, but our brains: comparing, synthesizing, questioning, evaluating, and wondering. Dawn Education and Public Outreach will share out perspectives and lessons learned, backed by extensive evaluation examining the efficacy of the mission's efforts.

  5. Videos Designed to Watch but Audience Required Telling stories is a cliché for best practice in videos. Frontier Scientists, a NSF project titled Science in Alaska: using Multimedia to Support Science Education stressed story but faced audience limitations. FS describes project's story process, reach results, and hypothesizes better scenarios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connell, E. A.

    2016-12-01

    Telling stories is a cliché for best practice in science videos. It's upheld as a method to capture audience attention in many fields. Findings from neurobiology research show character-driven stories cause the release of the neurochemical oxytocin in the brain. Oxytocin motivates cooperation with others and enhances a sense of empathy, in particular the ability to experience others' emotions. Developing character tension- as in our video design showcasing scientists along with their work- holds the viewers' attention, promotes recall of story, and has the potential to clearly broadcast the feelings and behaviors of the scientists. The brain chemical change should help answer the questions: Why should a viewer care about this science? How does it improve the world, or our lives? Is just a story-driven video the solution to science outreach? Answer: Not in our multi-media world. Frontier Scientists (FS) discovered in its three year National Science Foundation project titled 'Science in Alaska: using Multimedia to Support Science Education': the storied video is only part of the effort. Although FS created from scratch and drove a multimedia national campaign throughout the project, major reach was not achieved. Despite FS' dedicated web site, YouTube channel, weekly blog, monthly press release, Facebook and G+ pages, Twitter activity, contact with scientists' institutions, and TV broadcast, monthly activity on the web site seemed to plateau at about 3000 visitors to the FS website per month. Several factors hampered the effort: Inadequate funding for social media limited the ability of FS to get the word to untapped markets: those whose interest might be sparked by ad campaigns but who do not actively explore unfamiliar agencies' science education content. However, when institutions took advantage of promoting their scientists through the FS videos we saw an uptick in video views and the participating scientists were often contacted for additional stories or were

  6. Nutrition Frontiers - Spring 2016 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volume 7, Issue 2 The spring issue of Nutrition Frontiers showcases green tea's effect on human metabolism, fish oil — as a chemopreventive agent in myeloid leukemia and, with pectin, how they affect microRNA expression in the colon. Learn about our spotlight investigator, Dr. Richard Eckert, and his research on skin cancer prevention, upcoming announcements and more. |

  7. Editorial: Council of Science Editors Task Force on Science Journals, Poverty, and Human Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Bozuwa

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available World leaders often look to science to solve intractable human problems. Scientific journals play a key role in this process, as publication in respected venues validates investigation and generates professional credentials for further research. Editors have a responsibility to the MDGs and should honor this obligation by examining issues of the developing world, by increasing developing world membership in their author and peer review pools, and by encouraging local research and publication.

  8. Aerospace Nursing: The New Frontier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polk-Walker, Glenda C.

    1989-01-01

    The physiological and psychological stresses that have an impact on the ability of humans to achieve space habitation and nursing's role in that endeavor are discussed. The nursing knowledge base needed to establish the discipline as a major contributor to space health science is discussed. (Author/MLW)

  9. Students’ Ideas Regarding Science and Pseudo-science in Relation to the Human Body and Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mats Lundström

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the pseudo-scientific and superstitious ideas Swedish upper-secondary students articulate and if there is a relationship between their ideas and their knowledge of the human body and health. The study is based on a questionnaire among 300 students in which the students were asked to consider statements related to different treatments that may influence the human body and health, and questions about physiology, health and nutrition. The analysis reveals that a relatively large group of students give credance to statements such as that some people can transfer thoughts or that the phases of the moon can affect a person’s health. The analysis also shows that there is no apparent relationship between the students’ pseudo-scientific beliefs and their scientific knowledge about the human body. Furthermore, although the results do not indicate a gender difference with regards to the power of faith in pseudo-scientific ideas, they do indicate that male and females consider these questions differently. The results imply a need for discussion and critical investigation in school science concerning the relationship between science and pseudo-scientific ideas in order to enhance critical thinking and development of the understanding of the nature of science.

  10. Reimagining Human Research Protections for 21st Century Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bietz, Matthew; Bae, Deborah; Bigby, Barbara; Devereaux, Mary; Fowler, James; Waldo, Ann; Weibel, Nadir; Patrick, Kevin; Klemmer, Scott; Melichar, Lori

    2016-01-01

    Background Evolving research practices and new forms of research enabled by technological advances require a redesigned research oversight system that respects and protects human research participants. Objective Our objective was to generate creative ideas for redesigning our current human research oversight system. Methods A total of 11 researchers and institutional review board (IRB) professionals participated in a January 2015 design thinking workshop to develop ideas for redesigning the IRB system. Results Ideas in 5 major domains were generated. The areas of focus were (1) improving the consent form and process, (2) empowering researchers to protect their participants, (3) creating a system to learn from mistakes, (4) improving IRB efficiency, and (5) facilitating review of research that leverages technological advances. Conclusions We describe the impetus for and results of a design thinking workshop to reimagine a human research protections system that is responsive to 21st century science. PMID:28007687

  11. The United Nations Human Space Technology Initiative (HSTI): Science Activities

    CERN Document Server

    Niu, A; Haubold, H J; Doi, T

    2012-01-01

    The United Nations Human Space Technology Initiative (HSTI) aims at promoting international cooperation in human spaceflight and space exploration-related activities; creating awareness among countries on the benefits of utilizing human space technology and its applications; and building capacity in microgravity education and research. HSTI has been conducting various scientific activities to promote microgravity education and research. The primary science activity is called 'Zero-gravity Instrument Distribution Project', in which one-axis clinostats will be distributed worldwide. The distribution project will provide unique opportunities for students and researchers to observe the growth of indigenous plants in their countries in a simulated microgravity condition and is expected to create a huge dataset of plant species with their responses to gravity.

  12. A Case for Psychology as a Human Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Morehouse

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The disciples of Psychology and Sociology and the social sciences more generally, are and have been for some time, in a state of flux, especially with regard to research methods. The tension, in the view if many, is between the approaches to research in terms of positivist verses naturalist [1,2]. This tension has to a considerable degree remains unsolved and has been exacerbated by the postmodernist’s discourse as exemplified in the works of Foucault [3] and Lyotard [4] (see Rosenberg, 2003 for an overview of this discourse. This short commentary cannot address all of these issues. Instead, it will [5] provide an introduction to the history of 19th century and early 20th century social sciences focusing on key differences and similarities in research methods and their philosophic underpinning [6]. This will be followed by a short statement regarding the nature of mid 20th century evolution of the social sciences, touching on both the philosophical and practical aspects of research [7]. This essay will end with an overview of some psychology research conducted within the parameters of the Human sciences.

  13. Basic Science Research and the Protection of Human Research Participants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eiseman, Elisa

    2001-03-01

    Technological advances in basic biological research have been instrumental in recent biomedical discoveries, such as in the understanding and treatment of cancer, HIV/AIDS, and heart disease. However, many of these advances also raise several new ethical challenges. For example, genetic research may pose no physical risk beyond that of obtaining the initial blood sample, yet it can pose significant psychological and economic risks to research participants, such as stigmatization, discrimination in insurance and employment, invasion of privacy, or breach of confidentiality. These harms may occur even when investigators do not directly interact with the person whose DNA they are studying. Moreover, this type of basic research also raises broader questions, such as what is the definition of a human subject, and what kinds of expertise do Institutional Review Boards (IRBs) need to review the increasingly diverse types of research made possible by these advances in technology. The National Bioethics Advisory Commission (NBAC), a presidentially appointed federal advisory committee, has addressed these and other ethical, scientific and policy issues that arise in basic science research involving human participants. Two of its six reports, in particular, have proposed recommendations in this regard. "Research Involving Human Biological Materials: Ethical and Policy Guidance" addresses the basic research use of human tissues, cells and DNA and the protection of human participants in this type of research. In "Ethical and Policy Issues in the Oversight of Human Research" NBAC proposes a definition of research involving human participants that would apply to all scientific disciplines, including physical, biological, and social sciences, as well as the humanities and related professions, such as business and law. Both of these reports make it clear that the protection of research participants is key to conducting ethically sound research. By ensuring that all participants in

  14. Applying Nanotechnology to Human Health: Revolution in Biomedical Sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siddhartha Shrivastava

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent research on biosystems at the nanoscale has created one of the most dynamic science and technology domains at the confluence of physical sciences, molecular engineering, biology, biotechnology, and medicine. This domain includes better understanding of living and thinking systems, revolutionary biotechnology processes, synthesis of new drugs and their targeted delivery, regenerative medicine, neuromorphic engineering, and developing a sustainable environment. Nanobiosystems research is a priority in many countries and its relevance within nanotechnology is expected to increase in the future. The realisation that the nanoscale has certain properties needed to solve important medical challenges and cater to unmet medical needs is driving nanomedical research. The present review explores the significance of nanoscience and latest nanotechnologies for human health. Addressing the associated opportunities, the review also suggests how to manage far-reaching developments in these areas.

  15. Life Sciences Division and Center for Human Genome Studies 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cram, L.S.; Stafford, C. [comp.

    1995-09-01

    This report summarizes the research and development activities of the Los Alamos National Laboratory`s Life Sciences Division and the biological aspects of the Center for Human Genome Studies for the calendar year 1994. The technical portion of the report is divided into two parts, (1) selected research highlights and (2) research projects and accomplishments. The research highlights provide a more detailed description of a select set of projects. A technical description of all projects is presented in sufficient detail so that the informed reader will be able to assess the scope and significance of each project. Summaries useful to the casual reader desiring general information have been prepared by the group leaders and appear in each group overview. Investigators on the staff of the Life Sciences Division will be pleased to provide further information.

  16. [How human sciences can help to understand blood donation?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danic, B

    2003-06-01

    In France, the necessity of managing sanitary risks associated with blood transfusion has induced a strong medicalization of blood collection. Practicing this activity of transfusion medicine confronts the professional with problems which the medical science is not sufficient to answer: curbs and motivations for donating, seasonal and geographic fluctuations in blood collection, sense of pre-donation interview, individual or collective contestings of guidelines for blood collection. From recent sociological works on donation in France, especially on blood donation, this paper suggests reporting the complexity of blood donation thought process and the necessity to refer to human and social sciences to approach it in a best way. Understanding the gift should help professionals to communicate not only on the promotion of blood donation, but also on the risk and its management.

  17. The Human Brain and Information Science: Lessons from Popular Neuroscience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Sturges

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Insights from the recent wealth of popular books on neuroscience are offered to suggest a strengthening of theory in information science. Information theory has traditionally neglected the human dimension in favour of 'scientific' theory often derived from the Shannon-Weaver model. Neuroscientists argue in excitingly fresh ways from the evidence of case studies, non-intrusive experimentation and the measurements that can be obtained from technologies that include electroencephalography, positron emission tomography (PET, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI, and magnetoencephalography (MEG. The way in which the findings of neuroscience intersect with ideas such as those of Kahneman on fast and slow thinking and Csikszentmihalyi on flow, is tentatively explored as lines of connection with information science. It is argued that the beginnings of a theoretical underpinning for current web-based information searching in relation to established information retrieval methods can be drawn from this.

  18. Human-computer interaction: psychology as a science of design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, J M

    1997-01-01

    Human-computer interaction (HCI) study is the region of intersection between psychology and the social sciences, on the one hand, and computer science and technology, on the other. HCI researchers analyze and design specific user interface technologies (e.g. pointing devices). They study and improve the processes of technology development (e.g. task analysis, design rationale). They develop and evaluate new applications of technology (e.g. word processors, digital libraries). Throughout the past two decades, HCI has progressively integrated its scientific concerns with the engineering goal of improving the usability of computer systems and applications, which has resulted in a body of technical knowledge and methodology. HCI continues to provide a challenging test domain for applying and developing psychological and social theory in the context of technology development and use.

  19. How to Save Human Lives with Complexity Science

    CERN Document Server

    Helbing, Dirk; Chadefaux, Thomas; Donnay, Karsten; Blanke, Ulf; Woolley-Meza, Olivia; Moussaid, Mehdi; Johansson, Anders; Krause, Jens; Schutte, Sebastian; Perc, Matjaz

    2014-01-01

    We discuss models and data of crowd disasters, crime, terrorism, war and disease spreading to show that conventional recipes, such as deterrence strategies, are not effective and sufficient to contain them. The failure of many conventional approaches results from their neglection of feedback loops, instabilities and/or cascade effects, due to which equilibrium models do often not provide a good picture of the actual system behavior. However, the complex and often counter-intuitive behavior of social systems and their macro-level collective dynamics can be understood by means of complexity science, which enables one to address the aforementioned problems more successfully. We highlight that a suitable system design and management can help to stop undesirable cascade effects and to enable favorable kinds of self-organization in the system. In such a way, complexity science can help to save human lives.

  20. Human Centred Design: a bibliometric overview based on Science Direct

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas José Garcia

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to realize a bibliometric review on Science Direct to create a outlook about Human Centred Design in order to identify the most significant authors, journals and key-words as well as the most recurrent denomination about the subject. The method employed consist of application of three classical bibliometric laws: the Inverse Square Law of Lotka; the Bradford’s Law of Scattering and; The frequency law of words in a text of Zipf. The results indicate that the subject is not a main subject of Design and related areas and does not have a main author based on Science Direct. The journals covered with more articles about the subject are the International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics and the Applied Ergonomics.

  1. Computational organization science: A new frontier

    OpenAIRE

    Carley, Kathleen M.

    2002-01-01

    Synthetic adaptation is the process whereby any entity composed of intelligent, adaptive, and computational agents is also an intelligent, adaptive, and computational agent. Because of synthetic adaptation, organizations, like the agents of which they are composed, are inherently computational. We can gain insight into the behavior of groups, organizations, and societies by using multiagent computational models composed of collections of intelligent adaptive artificial agents. CONSTRUCT-O and...

  2. A Discussion of Students Understanding, Learning and Application of Theory of Science within Humanities and Social Science

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiberg, Merete

    and results in there working life. The objective is to develop the theoretical foundation of a didactics of the cross disciplinary discipline ‘theory of science’ that is to discuss the content and function of theory of science within humanities and social science with the aim to provide teaching and learning...... the influence knowledge production might have on human life and human self understanding. Therefore a didactics of theory of science is to be developed where Dewey’s concept of inquiry is to be combined with a hermeneutic view on ontological complexity. Referencer (300 ord) Barnett, R. (ed.). Reshaping......The paper discusses why and how students within humanities and social science in the context of higher education must learn to implement theory of science, in terms of applying methods and approaches from philosophical theories such as positivism, hermeneutics, phenomenology, structuralism etc...

  3. International Conference on Frontiers of Intelligent Computing : Theory and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Bhateja, Vikrant; Udgata, Siba; Pattnaik, Prasant

    2017-01-01

    The book is a collection of high-quality peer-reviewed research papers presented at International Conference on Frontiers of Intelligent Computing: Theory and applications (FICTA 2016) held at School of Computer Engineering, KIIT University, Bhubaneswar, India during 16 – 17 September 2016. The book presents theories, methodologies, new ideas, experiences and applications in all areas of intelligent computing and its applications to various engineering disciplines like computer science, electronics, electrical and mechanical engineering.

  4. Tuberculin test in nursing and human-sciences students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Golchin

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Tuberculosis (TB is a leading cause of death worldwide due to any single infectious agent. It seems that health care workers including nursing students can be affected easier than the other people, because of probable contacts in hospital. The risk of TB infection in nursing students has not estimated in Iran, so we conducted this study to compare the results of tuberculin test in the beginning and the end of educational course for nursing and human-sciences student. Methods: In a Cohort study, 320 students (160 nursing and 160 human-sciences underwent PPD skin test (5 units RT 23 at the beginning and the end of educational course by expert technician. The data of remaining students (123 nursing and 111 human-sciences were analyzed by SPSS software using Wilcoxson and Mann-Whitney tests. Results: The frequency distribution of skin reaction in nursing students was negative (0-4 mm: 93.7%, suspected (5-9 mm: 4.4% and significant (≥15mm: 1.9% at the beginning of study, while it was negative( 75.5 %, suspected (9.8%, positive (10-14 mm 3.3% and significant (11.4% at the end of study. The frequency of skin reaction in human-sciences student was negative (93.7%, suspected (0.6%, positive (1.3% and significant (4.4% at the beginning of study, while it was negative (79.3%, significant (10.8%, suspected (8.1% and positive (1.8% at the end of study. The difference in that proportion of nursing students and control group with positive and significant PPD test at the end of study was statistically significant. The difference for the above proportions between two groups was not statistically significant. Conclusion: All subjects had no significant difference regarding to age, indigenous area and PPD test. Both groups have the same chance for exposure to M. Tuberculosis. The rate of new TB infection in Iranian community has diminished in comparison with the last few decades. Although risk of new infection may be a little bit more after age

  5. Human Centred Design: a bibliometric overview based on Science Direct

    OpenAIRE

    Lucas José Garcia; Giselle Schmidt Alves Díaz Merino; Susana Cristina Domenech; Eugenio Andres Díaz Merino; Adilson Luiz Pinto

    2016-01-01

    This article aims to realize a bibliometric review on Science Direct to create a outlook about Human Centred Design in order to identify the most significant authors, journals and key-words as well as the most recurrent denomination about the subject. The method employed consist of application of three classical bibliometric laws: the Inverse Square Law of Lotka; the Bradford’s Law of Scattering and; The frequency law of words in a text of Zipf. The results indicate that the subject is not a ...

  6. Will space actually be the final frontier of humankind?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genta, Giancarlo; Rycroft, Michael

    2006-03-01

    Science fiction gave us the idea of space as the final frontier. Strongly supported by the pioneers of spaceflight, this was first questioned in the 1970s. The Apollo landings on the Moon did not lead to a permanent human presence on our satellite, the environment of even the most Earth-like planet (Mars) turned out to be more hostile, and the technical difficulties and the cost of spaceflight were worse than expected. So humankind seemed for ever to be bound to its own planet. These rather pessimistic views are re-examined here, in the light of recent technological advances, scientific discoveries and new perspectives. It is suggested that they result from a lack of vision. Thus the ‘final frontier’ myth is found still to hold, but with a much more stretched out timetable for future space programmes that was envisaged in the 1960s. The present generation can take its first faltering steps on the path towards a spacefaring civilization, but the outcome will depend on social, political and economic issues rather than technological and scientific ones.

  7. Are Sciences Essential and Humanities Elective? Disentangling Competing Claims for Humanities' Research Public Value

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olmos-Peñuela, Julia; Benneworth, Paul; Castro-Martínez, Elena

    2015-01-01

    Recent policy discourse suggests that arts and humanities research is seen as being less useful to society than other disciplines, notably in science, technology, engineering and mathematics. The paper explores how this assumption's construction has been built and whether it is based upon an unfair prejudice: we argue for a prima facie case…

  8. Life Sciences Division and Center for Human Genome Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spitzmiller, D.; Bradbury, M.; Cram, S. (comps.)

    1992-05-01

    This report summarizes the research and development activities of Los Alamos National Laboratories Life Sciences Division and biological aspects of the Center for Human Genome Studies for the calendar year 1991. Selected research highlights include: yeast artificial chromosome libraries from flow sorted human chromosomes 16 and 21; distances between the antigen binding sites of three murine antibody subclasses measured using neutron and x-ray scattering; NFCR 10th anniversary highlights; kinase-mediated differences found in the cell cycle regulation of normal and transformed cells; and detecting mutations that cause Gaucher's disease by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis. Project descriptions include: genomic structure and regulation, molecular structure, cytometry, cell growth and differentiation, radiation biology and carcinogenesis, and pulmonary biology.

  9. Human Neuroimaging as a “Big Data” Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Horn, John Darrell; Toga, Arthur W.

    2013-01-01

    The maturation of in vivo neuroimaging has lead to incredible quantities of digital information about the human brain. While much is made of the data deluge in science, neuroimaging represents the leading edge of this onslaught of “big data”. A range of neuroimaging databasing approaches has streamlined the transmission, storage, and dissemination of data from such brain imaging studies. Yet few, if any, common solutions exist to support the science of neuroimaging. In this article, we discuss how modern neuroimaging research represents a mutifactorial and broad ranging data challenge, involving the growing size of the data being acquired; sociologial and logistical sharing issues; infrastructural challenges for multi-site, multi-datatype archiving; and the means by which to explore and mine these data. As neuroimaging advances further, e.g. aging, genetics, and age-related disease, new vision is needed to manage and process this information while marshalling of these resources into novel results. Thus, “big data” can become “big” brain science. PMID:24113873

  10. Frontiers in Bioarchaeology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    @@ Curiosity about our root is a shared nature of human kinds.For decades,the academic community has been diligently studying the origin and evolution of anatomically modern humans.A particularly exciting specialization in this pursuit is that of bioarchaeology.

  11. The Frontier Fields: Survey Design and Initial Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotz, J. M.; Koekemoer, A.; Coe, D.; Grogin, N.; Capak, P.; Mack, J.; Anderson, J.; Avila, R.; Barker, E. A.; Borncamp, D.; Brammer, G.; Durbin, M.; Gunning, H.; Hilbert, B.; Jenkner, H.; Khandrika, H.; Levay, Z.; Lucas, R. A.; MacKenty, J.; Ogaz, S.; Porterfield, B.; Reid, N.; Robberto, M.; Royle, P.; Smith, L. J.; Storrie-Lombardi, L. J.; Sunnquist, B.; Surace, J.; Taylor, D. C.; Williams, R.; Bullock, J.; Dickinson, M.; Finkelstein, S.; Natarajan, P.; Richard, J.; Robertson, B.; Tumlinson, J.; Zitrin, A.; Flanagan, K.; Sembach, K.; Soifer, B. T.; Mountain, M.

    2017-03-01

    What are the faintest distant galaxies we can see with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) now, before the launch of the James Webb Space Telescope? This is the challenge taken up by the Frontier Fields, a Director’s discretionary time campaign with HST and the Spitzer Space Telescope to see deeper into the universe than ever before. The Frontier Fields combines the power of HST and Spitzer with the natural gravitational telescopes of massive high-magnification clusters of galaxies to produce the deepest observations of clusters and their lensed galaxies ever obtained. Six clusters—Abell 2744, MACSJ0416.1-2403, MACSJ0717.5+3745, MACSJ1149.5+2223, Abell S1063, and Abell 370—have been targeted by the HST ACS/WFC and WFC3/IR cameras with coordinated parallel fields for over 840 HST orbits. The parallel fields are the second-deepest observations thus far by HST with 5σ point-source depths of ∼29th ABmag. Galaxies behind the clusters experience typical magnification factors of a few, with small regions magnified by factors of 10–100. Therefore, the Frontier Field cluster HST images achieve intrinsic depths of ∼30–33 mag over very small volumes. Spitzer has obtained over 1000 hr of Director’s discretionary imaging of the Frontier Field cluster and parallels in IRAC 3.6 and 4.5 μm bands to 5σ point-source depths of ∼26.5, 26.0 ABmag. We demonstrate the exceptional sensitivity of the HST Frontier Field images to faint high-redshift galaxies, and review the initial results related to the primary science goals.

  12. National Academy of Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Programs Arthur M. Sackler Colloquia Distinctive Voices Kavli Frontiers of Science Raymond and Beverly Sackler Forum Keck ... make the process of desalination more productive and efficient in providing clean water. Policy Studies & Reports Access ...

  13. Learning about the Human Genome. Part 2: Resources for Science Educators. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haury, David L.

    This ERIC Digest identifies how the human genome project fits into the "National Science Education Standards" and lists Human Genome Project Web sites found on the World Wide Web. It is a resource companion to "Learning about the Human Genome. Part 1: Challenge to Science Educators" (Haury 2001). The Web resources and…

  14. Pesticide use and biodiversity conservation in the Amazonian agricultural frontier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiesari, Luis; Waichman, Andrea; Brock, Theo; Adams, Cristina; Grillitsch, Britta

    2013-06-05

    Agricultural frontiers are dynamic environments characterized by the conversion of native habitats to agriculture. Because they are currently concentrated in diverse tropical habitats, agricultural frontiers are areas where the largest number of species is exposed to hazardous land management practices, including pesticide use. Focusing on the Amazonian frontier, we show that producers have varying access to resources, knowledge, control and reward mechanisms to improve land management practices. With poor education and no technical support, pesticide use by smallholders sharply deviated from agronomical recommendations, tending to overutilization of hazardous compounds. By contrast, with higher levels of technical expertise and resources, and aiming at more restrictive markets, large-scale producers adhered more closely to technical recommendations and even voluntarily replaced more hazardous compounds. However, the ecological footprint increased significantly over time because of increased dosage or because formulations that are less toxic to humans may be more toxic to other biodiversity. Frontier regions appear to be unique in terms of the conflicts between production and conservation, and the necessary pesticide risk management and risk reduction can only be achieved through responsibility-sharing by diverse stakeholders, including governmental and intergovernmental organizations, NGOs, financial institutions, pesticide and agricultural industries, producers, academia and consumers.

  15. Vitamin deficiencies in humans: can plant science help?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, Teresa B; Basset, Gilles J C; Borel, Patrick; Carrari, Fernando; DellaPenna, Dean; Fraser, Paul D; Hellmann, Hanjo; Osorio, Sonia; Rothan, Christophe; Valpuesta, Victoriano; Caris-Veyrat, Catherine; Fernie, Alisdair R

    2012-02-01

    The term vitamin describes a small group of organic compounds that are absolutely required in the human diet. Although for the most part, dependency criteria are met in developed countries through balanced diets, this is not the case for the five billion people in developing countries who depend predominantly on a single staple crop for survival. Thus, providing a more balanced vitamin intake from high-quality food remains one of the grandest challenges for global human nutrition in the coming decade(s). Here, we describe the known importance of vitamins in human health and current knowledge on their metabolism in plants. Deficits in developing countries are a combined consequence of a paucity of specific vitamins in major food staple crops, losses during crop processing, and/or overreliance on a single species as a primary food source. We discuss the role that plant science can play in addressing this problem and review successful engineering of vitamin pathways. We conclude that while considerable advances have been made in understanding vitamin metabolic pathways in plants, more cross-disciplinary approaches must be adopted to provide adequate levels of all vitamins in the major staple crops to eradicate vitamin deficiencies from the global population.

  16. Vitamin Deficiencies in Humans: Can Plant Science Help?[W

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, Teresa B.; Basset, Gilles J.C.; Borel, Patrick; Carrari, Fernando; DellaPenna, Dean; Fraser, Paul D.; Hellmann, Hanjo; Osorio, Sonia; Rothan, Christophe; Valpuesta, Victoriano; Caris-Veyrat, Catherine; Fernie, Alisdair R.

    2012-01-01

    The term vitamin describes a small group of organic compounds that are absolutely required in the human diet. Although for the most part, dependency criteria are met in developed countries through balanced diets, this is not the case for the five billion people in developing countries who depend predominantly on a single staple crop for survival. Thus, providing a more balanced vitamin intake from high-quality food remains one of the grandest challenges for global human nutrition in the coming decade(s). Here, we describe the known importance of vitamins in human health and current knowledge on their metabolism in plants. Deficits in developing countries are a combined consequence of a paucity of specific vitamins in major food staple crops, losses during crop processing, and/or overreliance on a single species as a primary food source. We discuss the role that plant science can play in addressing this problem and review successful engineering of vitamin pathways. We conclude that while considerable advances have been made in understanding vitamin metabolic pathways in plants, more cross-disciplinary approaches must be adopted to provide adequate levels of all vitamins in the major staple crops to eradicate vitamin deficiencies from the global population. PMID:22374394

  17. Frontier Scientists use Modern Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'connell, E. A.

    2013-12-01

    Engaging Americans and the international community in the excitement and value of Alaskan Arctic discovery is the goal of Frontier Scientists. With a changing climate, resources of polar regions are being eyed by many nations. Frontier Scientists brings the stories of field scientists in the Far North to the public. With a website, an app, short videos, and social media channels; FS is a model for making connections between the public and field scientists. FS will demonstrate how academia, web content, online communities, evaluation and marketing are brought together in a 21st century multi-media platform, how scientists can maintain their integrity while engaging in outreach, and how new forms of media such as short videos can entertain as well as inspire.

  18. Frontier geoscience program in action

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davies, G.R.; Nassichuk, W.W.

    The authors have recently discovered oil shales deposited in a Carboniferous lake during the earliest stages of formation of the Sverdrup rift basins in the Canadian Arctic Archipelago. The Geological Survey of Canada's Frontier Geoscience Program is designed to accelerate the study of sedimentary basins in Canada's frontier areas in anticipation of future exploration for oil and gas. Two specfic FGP objectives influenced the ISPG oil-shale project: to describe the tectonic and sedimentary evolution of oil- and gas-bearing basins, and to elucidate the processes governing generation, accumulation, and preservation of hydrocarbon resources. This article illustrates the significance of lacustrine sediments as petroleum source rocks and demonstrates that lacustrine sediments are commonly the oldest sequences deposited in evolving rift basins. 8 figs.

  19. Commercialization of the Space Frontier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piland, William M.

    1997-01-01

    This paper discusses the current outlook for space business, how growing space business will improve the quality of life for all, and identified strategies for better relating international space research, technology, and space system operations to commercial interests in space. By drawing on recent assessments of the future potential for business in space, opportunities will be defined for encouraging the growth of business uses of space and regaining the public's awareness and support for expanding the space frontier.

  20. Bioactive glasses: Frontiers and challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larry L. Hench

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Bioactive glasses were discovered in 1969 and provided for the first time an alternative to nearly inert implant materials. Bioglass formed a rapid, strong and stable bond with host tissues. This article examines the frontiers of research crossed to achieve clinical use of bioactive glasses and glass-ceramics. In the 1980’s it was discovered that bioactive glasses could be used in particulate form to stimulate osteogenesis, which thereby led to the concept of regeneration of tissues. Later, it was discovered that the dissolution ions from the glasses behaved like growth factors, providing signals to the cells. This article summarizes the frontiers of knowledge crossed during four eras of development of bioactive glasses that have led from concept of bioactivity to widespread clinical and commercial use, with emphasis on the first composition, 45S5 Bioglass®. The four eras are: a discovery; b clinical application; c tissue regeneration; and d innovation. Questions still to be answered for the fourth era are included to stimulate innovation in the field and exploration of new frontiers that can be the basis for a general theory of bioactive stimulation of regeneration of tissues and application to numerous clinical needs.

  1. Frontier petroleum basins of Colombia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keith, J.F. Jr.; Perez, V.E.

    1989-03-01

    The frontier basins of Colombia with hydrocarbon potential are numerous, have varying geological histories, and are in different stages of exploration development. In this paper, sedimentary or structural basins are classified as frontier petroleum basins if commercial discoveries of hydrocarbons are lacking, if the basin has not attained a high degree of exploration development, or if a new play concept has been perceived or developed for a portion of a mature exploration basin. Using these criteria for classification, the authors discuss the Cauca-Patia Choco-Pacifico, and Lower Magdalena basin complexes; the Cordillera Oriental foreland basin; and the Cesar-Rancheria, Sabana, and Amazonas basins. A comprehensive geological and structural setting of each of these frontier basins will be presented. The depositional and tectonic evolution of the basins will be highlighted, and the play concepts for each will be inventoried, catalogued, and categorized as to whether they are theoretical or established. The discussion of the available plays in each of these basins will include the main play concept elements of reservoirs traps, seals, source rocks, maturation, and timing. When detailed data permit, the reservoir and trap geometry will be presented.

  2. Integrating social sciences and humanities in interdisciplinary research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, David Budtz

    2016-01-01

    Recent attempts to integrate the social sciences and humanities (SSH) in funding for interdisciplinary research have been challenged by a number of barriers. In funding programmes, such as the EU Horizon 2020, the SSH are absent in most calls for contributions. This article revisits the main policy...... drivers for embedding SSH research in interdisciplinary research. By analysing recent policy initiatives, the article shows how policymakers across the world continue to be ambivalent regarding the role of the SSH. While many stakeholders acknowledge the need to integrate SSH research in solving key...... societal challenges, such as climate change, migration or national security, funding for SSH is limited and tends to focus on strategic interventions and instrumental solutions. By accounting for the diversity of interdisciplinary collaborations the article recommends a more context-sensitive approach...

  3. ‘Figuring out’ in science and the humanities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Martella

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to enquire into the notion of change in figures of speech, concepts, topics, and technical instruments-models when they are “travelling” through different milieus, contexts, systems or disciplines. I conceive of this travelling as a basic exchange of energy/information, amounting to an event which can reshape a given field of experience. My argument is based on the premise that our experience happens at multiple levels and areas, and develops along different phases, which imperceptibly flow into each other and bear at times barely decipherable traces of the events that have constituted them. The processes happening at a different level from that of present perception can only be conceived of as infractions of the world tissue and of the related universe of discourse. Therefore in any field of enquiry the process of discovery can develop only through figures of discourse. My thesis is that, at the present stage of techno-science, Scriptural Figurality, which constitutes the basis of both Western epistemology and hermeneutics, is superseded and has to be replaced by a new hypermedial rhetoric, capable to cope with complexity, infraction and emergence, both in science and the humanities.

  4. Human resources in science and engineering: Policy implications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leggon, C.B.

    1995-12-31

    Recently, there has been much debate concerning the adequacy of the United States` (U.S.) human resources base to meet its future needs for science and engineering (S/E) talent. Science policy analysts - and scientists and engineers themselves - disagree about whether there will be any shortages of scientists and engineers, and if so, what they will mean for the U.S. Whether or not these shortages materialize, it is necessary for the U.S. to expand the pool from which it recruits its S/E talent. This paper addresses the question of how to increases the diversity of the S/E talent pool to include those who are projected by the year 2000 to be the majority of entry-level workers in the U.S. workforce: women and racial/ethnic minorities. Market forces alone cannot increase the size and diversity of the U.S. S/E workforce. Policy intervention will continue to be required to increase the diversity of the S/E workforce.

  5. Biomembrane Frontiers Nanostructures, Models, and the Design of Life

    CERN Document Server

    Faller, Roland; Risbud, Subhash H; Jue, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    HANDBOOK OF MODERN BIOPHYSICS Series Editor Thomas Jue, PhD Handbook of Modern Biophysics brings current biophysics topics into focus, so that biology, medical, engineering, mathematics, and physical-science students or researchers can learn fundamental concepts and the application of new techniques in addressing biomedical challenges. Chapters explicate the conceptual framework of the physics formalism and illustrate the biomedical applications. With the addition of problem sets, guides to further study, and references, the interested reader can continue to explore independently the ideas presented. Volume II: Biomembrane Frontiers: Nanostructures, Models, and the Design of Life Editors: Roland Faller, PhD, Thomas Jue, PhD, Marjorie L. Longo, PhD, and Subhash H. Risbud, PhD In Biomembrane Frontiers: Nanostructures, Models, and the Design of Life, prominent researchers have established a foundation for the study of biophysics related to the following topics: Perspectives: Complexes in Liquids, 1900–2008 Mol...

  6. Frontier differences and the global malmquist index

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asmild, Mette

    2015-01-01

    This chapter reviews different ways of comparing the efficiency frontiers for subgroups within a data set, specifically program efficiency, the metatechnology (or technology gap) ratio and the global frontier difference index. The latter is subsequently used to define a global Malmquist index......, as well as in an alternative decomposition of the traditional Malmquist index which also considers socalled favourability and favourability change components, indicating whether individual observations are located in favourable positions in the production space based on the extent of frontier shifts...

  7. Aflatoxin biosynthesis: current frontiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roze, Ludmila V; Hong, Sung-Yong; Linz, John E

    2013-01-01

    Aflatoxins are among the principal mycotoxins that contaminate economically important food and feed crops. Aflatoxin B1 is the most potent naturally occurring carcinogen known and is also an immunosuppressant. Occurrence of aflatoxins in crops has vast economic and human health impacts worldwide. Thus, the study of aflatoxin biosynthesis has become a focal point in attempts to reduce human exposure to aflatoxins. This review highlights recent advances in the field of aflatoxin biosynthesis and explores the functional connection between aflatoxin biosynthesis, endomembrane trafficking, and response to oxidative stress. Dissection of the regulatory mechanisms involves a complete comprehension of the aflatoxin biosynthetic process and the dynamic network of transcription factors that orchestrates coordinated expression of the target genes. Despite advancements in the field, development of a safe and effective multifaceted approach to solve the aflatoxin food contamination problem is still required.

  8. The Intergovernmental Science-Policy Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services and the challenge of integrating social sciences and humanities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stenseke Marie

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available For the Intergovernmental Science-Policy Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services (IPBES, established in 2012, under the auspices of four United Nations entities (FAO, UNDP, UNEP and UNESCO, there is an urgent need to engage scholars in social sciences and humanities in assessing the state of the planet’s biodiversity. This article addresses the fundaments for involving scientists from these fields of science in IPBES, and reflects on the existing barriers. It builds on previous research on IPBES from various perspectives, as well as on the author’s insights from work in the organization. A fundamental condition recognized is that there needs to be a qualified understanding of what it means to integrate natural sciences and social sciences/humanities, and also that the latter have to be accepted on their own terms. Other barriers are related to the contextualisation of biodiversity issues and the more politically sensitive character of research carried out in social sciences and humanities. In the conclusions it is emphasized that the deliverables of the first round of IPBES assessments have to be solid enough from the perspectives of social sciences and humanities, in order to attract more of these scholars to work for the platform in the future.

  9. Making Human Beings Human: Bioecological Perspectives on Human Development. The SAGE Program on Applied Developmental Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronfenbrenner, Urie, Ed.

    2004-01-01

    To a greater extent than any other species, human beings create the environments that, in turn, shape their own development. This book endeavors to demonstrate that human beings can also develop those environments to optimize their most constructive genetic potentials. What makes human beings human, therefore, is both the potential to shape their…

  10. Double-edged sword of interdisciplinary knowledge flow from hard sciences to humanities and social sciences: Evidence from China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Meijun; Shi, Dongbo; Li, Jiang

    2017-01-01

    Humanities and Social Sciences (HSS) increasingly absorb knowledge from Hard Sciences, i.e., Science, Technology, Agriculture and Medicine (STAM), as testified by a growing number of citations. However, whether citing more Hard Sciences brings more citations to HSS remains to be investigated. Based on China's HSS articles indexed by the Web of Science during 1998-2014, this paper estimated two-way fixed effects negative binomial models, with journal effects and year effects. Findings include: (1) An inverse U-shaped curve was observed between the percentage of STAM references to the HSS articles and the number of citations they received; (2) STAM contributed increasing knowledge to China's HSS, while Science and Technology knowledge contributed more citations to HSS articles. It is recommended that research policy should be adjusted to encourage HSS researchers to adequately integrate STAM knowledge when conducting interdisciplinary research, as over-cited STAM knowledge may jeopardize the readability of HSS articles.

  11. Frontiers and Contemporary Thinking: Zygmunt Bauman and Salman Rushdie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana BADULESCU

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper looks into the nature of contemporary modernity as reflected by the metaphorical discourses of Zygmunt Bauman, an outstanding sociological writer, and Salman Rushdie, a famous novelist. This approach to the two writers’ echoing discourses focuses upon their new perceptions of frontiers, which are crucial in their inquiries. When Rushdie weaves a whole lecture, later published in book form under the title Step Across this Line, around the idea of frontier, he echoes Bauman’s vocabulary and perceptions when he explores his own ideas of modern “liquidity.” Rushdie, whose book-length essay came out in 2002, never references Bauman’s Liquid Modernity, published in 2000. Arguably, Rushdie may have never read Bauman’s book. However, the similarity of their perceptions upon the “liquid” nature of modernity, especially when applied to frontiers not only spatially but also temporally, is striking. Bauman’s statements that “in the fluid stage of modernity, the settled majority is ruled by the nomadic and exterritorial elite,” that “holding the ground is not that important if the ground can be reached and abandoned at whim, in a short time or in no time,” that “being modern means being perpetually ahead of oneself, in a state of constant transgression” find a mirror in Rushdie’s contentions that “in our deepest natures, we are frontier-crossing beings,” that “we are living in a frontier time, one of the great hinge periods in human history, in which great changes are coming about at great speed.”

  12. Proximate Population Factors and Deforestation in Tropical Agricultural Frontiers

    OpenAIRE

    Carr, David L.

    2004-01-01

    Forest conversion for agriculture expansion is the most salient signature of human occupation of the earth’s land surface. Although population growth and deforestation are significantly associated at the global and regional scales, evidence for population links to deforestation at micro-scales—where people are actually clearing0020forests—is scant. Much of the planet’s forest elimination is proceeding along tropical agricultural frontiers. This article examines the evolution of thought on pop...

  13. Charting the future frontier(s) of particle production

    CERN Document Server

    Rafelski, Jan

    2016-01-01

    This short note describes the long collaborative effort between Arizona and Krak\\'ow, showing some of the key strangeness signatures of quark-gluon plasma. It further presents an annotated catalog of foundational questions defining the research frontiers which I believe can be addressed in the foreseeable future in the context of relativistic heavy ion collision experiments. The list includes topics that are specific to the field, and ventures towards the known-to-be-unknown that may have a better chance with ions as compared to elementary interactions.

  14. Network frontier as a metaphor and myth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N V Plotichkina

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This article considers spatial metaphors of the Internet and the possibility to extrapolate the frontier thesis of F. Turner on the electronic space. The authors believe that information and communication technologies and the digital world have become new spaces for the expansion of states or individuals. That is why there are ongoing scientific debates on the limits and potential of western and electronic frontiers’ metaphors for analytical description of the digital space. The metaphor of the Internet as a western frontier is quite controversial; many authors prefer the electronic frontier analogy as more heuristic and valid for constructing metaphors of the digital reality. The network frontier is defined as a dynamic, elastic and permeable border of social and cultural practices of the network society. The authors estimate the heuristic potential of the concept ‘network frontier’ developed on the basis of integration of the frontier theory and the concept ‘network society’, taking into account the effects of globalization for the study of elastic, permeable and movable border of the network landscape. In the digital world, the spatiality transforms, the geography of the Internet network determines the metamorphosis of the frontier as a contact zone between online and offline spaces, which is dynamic, innovative, encourages mobility, and its permeability depends on the digital competence of citizens. The authors explain the mythology of western and electronic frontier; name the main network frontier myths related to the rhetoric of western frontier myth; describe the main components of the western frontier myth associated with the idea of American exceptionalism; and conclude with the identification of nowadays myths about frontier-men and the online space they master.

  15. A new vision for the science of human flavor perception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordon M Shepherd

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The conference was organized and welcomed by Lisa Sasson, representing the NYU Steinhardt School and its Department of Food Science, Nutrition and Public Health in cooperation with the NYU School of Dentistry. As a co-organizer, I added my welcome, and explained how the many disciplines brought together in the conference constituted a new vision for the science of human flavor perception, which can be summarized by the term “neurogastronomy” (1. The speakers and the disciplines they represent were bound together by several principles. First, "Nothing in biology makes sense except in the light of evolution." This is understood to apply to most research in biology; here we wished to show that it applies especially to the human behavior of choosing foods to eat, a view put forward most prominently by Richard Wrangham based on his book "Catching Fire: How Cooking Made Us Human". We also wished to show that the sensory and motor apparatus of the mouth and nose need to be understood as adaptations through human evolution, as carefully documented by Daniel Lieberman, based on his recent "Evolution of the Human Head". Many of the speakers picked up this theme in their presentations. It is clear that an evolutionary framework must be part of understanding flavor and healthy eating. A second principle was that "Flavor is not in the food; it is created by the brain". Just as color is created out of different wavelengths of light by neural processing mechanisms in our brains, so is flavor created by neural processing mechanisms out of different molecules emitted by the food and drink in our mouths. This requires understanding neural mechanisms at all levels of organization of the brain, a vast field that our conference only began to address, starting with the sensory receptors and sensory systems as discussed by Gary Beauchamp for taste and Stuart Firestein for olfaction. Current research reported by Ivan De Araujo on sugars is dissociating their sweet

  16. New frontiers in design synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldin, D. S.; Venneri, S. L.; Noor, A. K.

    1999-01-01

    The Intelligent Synthesis Environment (ISE), which is one of the major strategic technologies under development at NASA centers and the University of Virginia, is described. One of the major objectives of ISE is to significantly enhance the rapid creation of innovative affordable products and missions. ISE uses a synergistic combination of leading-edge technologies, including high performance computing, high capacity communications and networking, human-centered computing, knowledge-based engineering, computational intelligence, virtual product development, and product information management. The environment will link scientists, design teams, manufacturers, suppliers, and consultants who participate in the mission synthesis as well as in the creation and operation of the aerospace system. It will radically advance the process by which complex science missions are synthesized, and high-tech engineering Systems are designed, manufactured and operated. The five major components critical to ISE are human-centered computing, infrastructure for distributed collaboration, rapid synthesis and simulation tools, life cycle integration and validation, and cultural change in both the engineering and science creative process. The five components and their subelements are described. Related U.S. government programs are outlined and the future impact of ISE on engineering research and education is discussed.

  17. Historical Roots of Information Sciences and the Making of E-Humanities.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Heuvel, C.M.J.M.; Bod, Rens; Maat, Jaap; Westeijn, Thijs

    2014-01-01

    Christine Borgman in Scholarship in the Digital Age. Information, Infrastructure and the Internet (2007) distinguishes between data of the natural sciences, social sciences and humanities. This distinction has been used as one of the arguments to explain why scholars in the humanities and social sci

  18. Historical Roots of Information Sciences and the Making of E-Humanities.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Heuvel, C.M.J.M.; Bod, Rens; Maat, Jaap; Westeijn, Thijs

    2014-01-01

    Christine Borgman in Scholarship in the Digital Age. Information, Infrastructure and the Internet (2007) distinguishes between data of the natural sciences, social sciences and humanities. This distinction has been used as one of the arguments to explain why scholars in the humanities and social

  19. E-Book Use and Attitudes in the Humanities, Social Sciences, and Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corlett-Rivera, Kelsey; Hackman, Timothy

    2014-01-01

    A survey of more than 1,300 faculty, graduate students, and undergraduate students in the humanities and social sciences at the University of Maryland generated a wealth of data on use and opinions of e-books among those users. While the initial purpose of the survey was to gather data that would aid humanities and social sciences librarians in…

  20. Humanities and Social Sciences Books of Ten National Disciplinary Associations, 2000-2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiberley, Stephen E., Jr.

    2016-01-01

    Books are the most important medium of communication in the humanities, a major medium in the social sciences, and a central component of academic library collections. This study examined humanities and social sciences books that won prizes from ten leading United States disciplinary associations between 2000 and 2009. The study extends earlier…

  1. Humanities and Social Sciences Books of Ten National Disciplinary Associations, 2000-2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiberley, Stephen E., Jr.

    2016-01-01

    Books are the most important medium of communication in the humanities, a major medium in the social sciences, and a central component of academic library collections. This study examined humanities and social sciences books that won prizes from ten leading United States disciplinary associations between 2000 and 2009. The study extends earlier…

  2. E-Book Use and Attitudes in the Humanities, Social Sciences, and Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corlett-Rivera, Kelsey; Hackman, Timothy

    2014-01-01

    A survey of more than 1,300 faculty, graduate students, and undergraduate students in the humanities and social sciences at the University of Maryland generated a wealth of data on use and opinions of e-books among those users. While the initial purpose of the survey was to gather data that would aid humanities and social sciences librarians in…

  3. Developing Library GIS Services for Humanities and Social Science: An Action Research Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Ningning; Fosmire, Michael; Branch, Benjamin Dewayne

    2017-01-01

    In the academic libraries' efforts to support digital humanities and social science, GIS service plays an important role. However, there is no general service model existing about how libraries can develop GIS services to best engage with digital humanities and social science. In this study, we adopted the action research method to develop and…

  4. Indiana Health Science Teachers: Their Human Genetics/Bioethics Educational Needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrix, Jon R.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Results from a human genetics/bioethics needs assessment questionnaire (N = 124 out of 300) mailed to Indiana health teachers are reported. Genetic topics and human genetic diseases/defects included in health science instruction are listed in two tables. Responses to 16 science/society statements (and statements themselves) are also reported. (SK)

  5. Stealth and Natural Disasters: Science, Policy and Human Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kieffer, S. W.

    2008-12-01

    Geophysicists, earth scientists, and other natural scientists play a key role in studying disasters, and are challenged to convey the science to the public and policy makers (including government and business). I have found it useful to introduce the concept of two general types of disasters to these audiences: natural and stealth. Natural disasters are geological phenomena over which we humans have some, but relatively little, control. Earthquakes, tsunamis, floods and volcanic eruptions are the most familiar examples, but exogenous events such as meteorite impacts, solar flares, and supernovae are also possibly disruptive. Natural disasters typically have an abrupt onset, cause immediate major change, are familiar from the historic record, and get much media and public attention. They cannot be prevented, but preplanning can ameliorate their effects. Natural disasters are increasingly amplified by us (humans), and we are increasingly affected by them due to our expanding presence on the planet. Less familiar disasters are unfolding in the near-term, but they are not happening in the minds of most people. They are approaching us stealthily, and for this reason I propose that we call them stealth disasters. They differ from natural disasters in several important ways: stealth disasters are primarily caused by, or driven by, the interaction of humans with complex cycles of processes on the planet. Examples are: fresh water shortages and contamination, soil degradation and loss, climate changes, ocean degradation. The onset of stealth disasters is incremental rather than abrupt. They may not unfold significantly during the course of one term of political office, but they are unfolding in our lifetime. We as individuals may or may not escape their consequences, but they will affect our children and grandchildren. If humans are familiar with stealth disasters at all, it is from a relatively local experience, e.g., flooding of the Mississippi or the Dust Bowl in the U

  6. Charles Darwin and Evolution: Illustrating Human Aspects of Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kampourakis, Kostas; McComas, William F.

    2010-01-01

    Recently, the nature of science (NOS) has become recognized as an important element within the K-12 science curriculum. Despite differences in the ultimate lists of recommended aspects, a consensus is emerging on what specific NOS elements should be the focus of science instruction and inform textbook writers and curriculum developers. In this…

  7. Charles Darwin and Evolution: Illustrating Human Aspects of Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kampourakis, Kostas; McComas, William F.

    2010-01-01

    Recently, the nature of science (NOS) has become recognized as an important element within the K-12 science curriculum. Despite differences in the ultimate lists of recommended aspects, a consensus is emerging on what specific NOS elements should be the focus of science instruction and inform textbook writers and curriculum developers. In this…

  8. Black Frontier Settlements in Spanish Colonial Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landers, Jane

    1988-01-01

    Addresses the much neglected area of Black frontier experience in the Spanish colonies. Concentrates on the role played by Black settlers and one Black township in defending the Spanish frontier in colonial Florida against the threat of growing English settlements to the north. Provides an introduction to the 18th century Southeastern Spanish…

  9. Frederic Remington's Image of the Frontier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Robert L.

    2001-01-01

    Explores the work of Frederic Remington, an illustrator who presented an image of the U.S. western frontier that was more myth than reality. Includes excerpts from "The Significance of the Frontier in American History" by Frederick Jackson Turner. Presents a lesson where students find connections between Turner and Remington's views of…

  10. The Frontier Newspaper Community: A Computer Profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cloud, Barbara

    Relying on Daniel Boorstin's argument that the newspaper was at least one of the first institutions in a frontier community, a study examined the 1880 United States Census of eight western territories to determine the number of newspapers and the ratio of newspapers to population in frontier counties. Three groups were examined: counties that had…

  11. New frontiers in PDF determination

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2016-01-01

    Parton Distribution Functions (PDFs) are a crucial input at the LHC, their uncertainty often being the limiting factor in the accuracy of theoretical predictions. At the same time the LHC is delivering a number of precise measurements that have the potential to greatly constrain these functions. I will give an overview on the theory behind and on the state of the art of PDF determination. I will then mention the new theoretical and methodological challenges in modern PDF fits and explore the precision frontiers opened by the accuracy of the LHC data.

  12. New journal on biological frontiers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Weihua WU

    2010-01-01

    @@ Frontiers in Biology, an international peer-reviewed scientific journal to be published bi-monthly, is launched today. It is jointly published by Higher Education Press and Springer. The joumal provides a forum for a broad blend of peer-reviewed articles to promote rapid communication and exchanges among biologists around the world. The primary criterion for publication is new insights that are of broad interest to biologists, not just specialists, and the presentation of results must be appropriate to a wide audience of biologists.

  13. Interaction of Mycobacterium leprae with the HaCaT human keratinocyte cell line: new frontiers in the cellular immunology of leprosy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyrio, Eloah C D; Campos-Souza, Ivy C; Corrêa, Luiz C D; Lechuga, Guilherme C; Verícimo, Maurício; Castro, Helena C; Bourguignon, Saulo C; Côrte-Real, Suzana; Ratcliffe, Norman; Declercq, Wim; Santos, Dilvani O

    2015-07-01

    Leprosy is a chronic granulomatous disease caused by Mycobacterium leprae affecting the skin and peripheral nerves. Despite M. leprae invasion of the skin and keratinocytes importance in innate immunity, the interaction of these cells in vitro during M. leprae infection is poorly understood. Conventional and fluorescence optical microscopy, transmission electronic microscopy, flow cytometry and ELISA were used to study the in vitro interaction of M. leprae with the HaCaT human keratinocyte cell line. Keratinocytes uptake of M. leprae is described, and modulation of the surface expression of CD80 and CD209, cathelicidin expression and TNF-α and IL-1β production of human keratinocytes are compared with dendritic cells and macrophages during M. leprae interaction. This study demonstrated that M. leprae interaction with human keratinocytes enhanced expression of cathelicidin and greatly increased TNF-α production. The highest spontaneous expression of cathelicidin was by dendritic cells which are less susceptible to M. leprae infection. In contrast, keratinocytes displayed low spontaneous cathelicidin expression and were more susceptible to M. leprae infection than dendritic cells. The results show, for the first time, an active role for keratinocytes during infection by irradiated whole cells of M. leprae and the effect of vitamin D on this process. They also suggest that therapies which target cathelicidin modulation may provide novel approaches for treatment of leprosy.

  14. A Discussion of Students Understanding, Learning and Application of Theory of Science within Humanities and Social Science

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiberg, Merete

    The paper discusses why and how students within humanities and social science in the context of higher education must learn to implement theory of science, in terms of applying methods and approaches from philosophical theories such as positivism, hermeneutics, phenomenology, structuralism etc......., in their understanding and application of knowledge. The background for the discussion is the observation that theory of science in terms of a fundamental and philosophical approach to a specific topic very often is implemented in the methodology of students’ projects and assignments as external ‘ism’s which do not play...... will focus on the actual role theory of science might have as a resource for students understanding and investigation of topics within their disciplinary area. Theory of science as a philosophical discipline deals with ontological matters due to being a discipline where concepts and theories concerning...

  15. Intrinsically restless: Unifying science, writing, and the human condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sissom, Matthew

    The field of physics has always fascinated me, but I never possessed the mathematical skills necessary to extend that interest past the point of curiosity. This thesis was set up to explore how I and other writers, specifically Walt Whitman, use(d) the skills we do have to ask and attempt to answer the same cosmic questions normally reserved for scientists overseeing particle collider experiments. In Tao of Physics, Fritjof Capra attempted to blend the principles of Eastern philosophy with the movements associated with modern physics. In doing so, he offers up a few insights into the human desire to "divide the world into separate objects and events" (117), which I believe, when it comes to fiction, greatly influences the audience's interpretive framework. Capra suggests, "To believe that our abstract concepts of separate `things' and `vents' are realities of nature is an illusion" (117). Humans use this division to cope with our everyday environment, yet it is not a fundamental feature of reality but, rather, an abstraction devised by our discriminating and categorizing intellect. It is a coping mechanism, as Capra refers to it, that pins writers in a corner, encouraging them to forms and styles set by their predecessors to better satisfy the "discriminating and categorizing intellect" of their audience. Writers often struggle to achieve a balance between accurately presenting the human condition that, like Capra's description of subatomic particles as "intrinsically restless" (117), changes based on myriad variables and properly structuring their writing to fit a predetermined model. Whitman, a fan of popular science, drew from the scientific world, using his understanding of the interpretive framework, to better craft his poems' metaphors. In "Song of Myself," Whitman suggests that the celebration of one's own existence cannot be separated from the celebration of the universe, "For every atom belonging to me as good belongs to you" (1-3). Whitman's writing

  16. The Frontier Fields: Survey Design

    CERN Document Server

    Lotz, J M; Coe, D; Grogin, N; Capak, P; Mack, J; Anderson, J; Avila, R; Barker, E A; Borncamp, D; Brammer, G; Durbin, M; Gunning, H; Hilbert, B; Jenkner, H; Khandrika, H; Levay, Z; Lucas, R A; MacKenty, J; Ogaz, S; Porterfield, B; Reid, N; Robberto, M; Royle, P; Smith, L J; Storrie-Lombardi, L J; Sunnquist, B; Surace, J; Taylor, D C; Williams, R; Bullock, J; Dickinson, M; Finkelstein, S; Natarajan, P; Richard, J; Robertson, B; Tumlinson, J; Zitrin, A; Flanagan, K; Sembach, K; Soifer, B T; Mountain, M

    2016-01-01

    The Frontier Fields are a director's discretionary time campaign with HST and the Spitzer Space Telescope to see deeper into the universe than ever before. The Frontier Fields combine the power of HST and Spitzer with the natural gravitational telescopes of massive high-magnification clusters of galaxies to produce the deepest observations of clusters and their lensed galaxies ever obtained. Six clusters - Abell 2744, MACSJ0416.1-2403, MACSJ0717.5+3745, MACSJ1149.5+2223, Abell S1063, and Abell 370 - were selected based on their lensing strength, sky darkness, Galactic extinction, parallel field suitability, accessibility to ground-based facilities, HST, Spitzer and JWST observability, and pre-existing ancillary data. These clusters have been targeted by the HST ACS/WFC and WFC3/IR with coordinated parallels of adjacent blank fields for over 840 HST orbits. The Spitzer Space Telescope has dedicated > 1000 hours of director's discretionary time to obtain IRAC 3.6 and 4.5 micron imaging to ~26.5, 26.0 ABmag 5-si...

  17. The frontiers of identity, and the identity of frontiers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wojciech Burszta

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The frontiers of identity, and the identity of frontiers The essay discusses the relationship between group identities (especially national and the notion of territory and its symbolic significance in the creation of the idea of community. The author examines possible contexts that connect the frontiers of identity with the identities of national state borders, as well as ways in which these connections become symbolic, using the example of the recent plane crash tragedy in Smoleńsk. In the final part of the essay the author refers to Leszek Kołakowski’s notion of myth in order to justify the thesis that each nation (also in the first decades of the 21th century is always a mythical community that is being constantly reactivated through current political and ideological actions.   Granice tożsamości i tożsamość granic Artykuł omawia kwestie związków tożsamości zbiorowych, zwłaszcza narodowych, z pojęciem własnego terytorium i jego symbolicznego znaczenia dla budowania dla wyobrażeń wspólnotowych. Na przykładzie tragedii katastrofy samolotu pod Smoleńskiem autor artykułu pokazuje możliwe konteksty, w jakich tytułowe granice tożsamości wiążą się z tożsamością granic narodowego terytorium oraz w jaki sposób zaznacza się symbolicznie ten nierozerwalny związek. W końcowej partii artykułu autor odwołuje się do koncepcji mitu Leszka Kołakowskiego, aby uzasadnić tezę, że każdy naród, także w pierwszych dekadach XXI wieku, jest zawsze wspólnotą mityczną, która nieustannie się reaktywuje również w kontekście działań politycznych i ideologicznych.

  18. Evolution and the Human Population. Science In a Social CONtext.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, Joan

    Science In a Social CONtext is a series of eight books based on the project SISCON-in-Schools. The books provide a new course in science and society for general studies at sixth-form level. The course has been specially designed to make scientific problems accessible to the non-scientist, as well as to explain the social aspects of science to the…

  19. Frontiers: Research highlights 1946-1996 [50th Anniversary Edition. Argonne National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-31

    This special edition of 'Frontiers' commemorates Argonne National Laboratory's 50th anniversary of service to science and society. America's first national laboratory, Argonne has been in the forefront of U.S. scientific and technological research from its beginning. Past accomplishments, current research, and future plans are highlighted.

  20. 3rd International Conference on New Frontiers in Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Foka, Y; Kabana, S

    2015-01-01

    The International Conference on new Frontiers in Physics (ICNFP 2014) aims to promote scientific exchange and development of novel ideas in science with a particular accent on interdisciplinarity. The conference will bring together worldwide experts and promising young scientists working on experimental and theoretical aspects of particle, nuclear and astro-particle physics and cosmology, with colleagues from other disciplines, for example solid state physics, mathematics, mathematical physics, quantum physics, quantum entanglement and other. The conference will be hosted in the Conference Center of the Orthodox Academy of Creta (OAC), an exceptionally beautiful location only a few meters from the mediteranean sea.

  1. Trait-based ecological risk assessment (TERA): the new frontier?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baird, Donald J; Rubach, Mascha N; Van den Brink, Paul J

    2008-01-01

    Traits describe the physical characteristics, ecological niche, and functional role of species within ecosystems, and trait-based approaches are now being introduced into the field of Ecological Risk Assessment (ERA). The costs and benefits arising from the adoption of these approaches in the assessment of risks from toxic substances are described, and the path forward for this new frontier in risk assessment science is presented. In particular, the necessity for more open collaboration and web-based data-sharing to facilitate the development of these exciting new tools is stressed, and the role of scientific organizations such as SETAC as promoters of this ambitious program is highlighted.

  2. FRESNO State joins exploration of new frontiers in physics

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    California State University, Fresno has joined a prestigious collaboration of top physicists, giving the Department of Physics' students, faculty and staff access to the most up-to-date information possible on new frontiers in the science for the next 15 years or longer. The program is the ATLAS (an acronym for A Toroidal LHC ApparatuS) Experiment, which makes use of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) under construction at the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) near Geneva, Switzerland. (CERN also gave birth to the World Wide Web.)

  3. Terrasses de la Riera dels Canyars (Gavà, Barcelona): the landscape of Heinrich Stadial 4 north of the "Ebro frontier" and implications for modern human dispersal into Iberia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daura, J.; Sanz, M.; García, N.; Allué, E.; Vaquero, M.; Fierro, E.; Carrión, J. S.; López-García, J. M.; Blain, H. A.; Sánchez-Marco, A.; Valls, C.; Albert, R. M.; Fornós, J. J.; Julià, R.; Fullola, J. M.; Zilhão, J.

    2013-01-01

    Terrasses de la Riera dels Canyars is an Upper Pleistocene fluvial deposit containing the remains of large mammals, principally accumulated in the framework of hyena denning in the area, as well as a few artifacts. Radiocarbon-dated to ˜39.6 ka cal BP, the time of Heinrich Stadial (HS) 4, this site enables us to reconstruct the environmental conditions then prevalent in the NE of the Iberian Peninsula. The concentration in a single locus of finds generated by different agents relates to a flash-flood event, the rapidity of which, combined with the absence of archaeological, ecological or paleontological incongruities in the composition of the assemblage, warrants an assumption of broad contemporaneity for its contents. The ecofactual evidence (fauna, pollen, charcoal, phytoliths) indicates a steppe-dominated environment for the coastal areas between the Pyrenees and the Ebro delta; the dominant elements are cold- and dry-adapted species but a Mediterranean component is present, implying a less rigorous climate than farther north in Europe. The artifacts are clearly Upper Paleolithic, and assignment to the modern human-associated Aurignacian technocomplex is supported by the radiocarbon dates and the typology of a bilaterally retouched blade. This evidence is consistent with the notion that anatomical modernity spread across Europe over open landscape niches. Available pollen data from deep sea cores indicate that, during some of the interstadials of Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 3, a significant vegetation gradient existed at 40°N, broadly coincident with the "Ebro frontier:" temperate and warm temperate trees expanded significantly to the south, while steppe-tundra landscapes remained dominant to the north, a contrast best seen during Greenland Interstadial (GI) 8. Such an environmental boundary must have implied a durable barrier to diffusion and migration during interstadials. Under the cold and arid conditions of HS4, the site of Canyars shows that the Eurasian

  4. Handbook of human computation

    CERN Document Server

    Michelucci, Pietro

    2013-01-01

    This volume addresses the emerging area of human computation, The chapters, written by leading international researchers, explore existing and future opportunities to combine the respective strengths of both humans and machines in order to create powerful problem-solving capabilities. The book bridges scientific communities, capturing and integrating the unique perspective and achievements of each. It coalesces contributions from industry and across related disciplines in order to motivate, define, and anticipate the future of this exciting new frontier in science and cultural evolution. Reade

  5. "It's All Human Error!": When a School Science Experiment Fails

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viechnicki, Gail Brendel; Kuipers, Joel

    2006-01-01

    This paper traces the sophisticated negotiations to re-inscribe the authority of Nature when a school science experiment fails during the enactment of a highly rated science curriculum unit. Drawing on transcriptions from classroom videotapes, we identify and describe four primary patterns of interaction that characterize this process, arguing…

  6. "It's All Human Error!": When a School Science Experiment Fails

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viechnicki, Gail Brendel; Kuipers, Joel

    2006-01-01

    This paper traces the sophisticated negotiations to re-inscribe the authority of Nature when a school science experiment fails during the enactment of a highly rated science curriculum unit. Drawing on transcriptions from classroom videotapes, we identify and describe four primary patterns of interaction that characterize this process, arguing…

  7. Science in Society - A Challenging Frontier for Science Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klausen, Søren Harnow; Alix, Jean-Pierre

    2012-01-01

    Rapport med anbefaling til europæiske forskningsråd, fonde og forskningsinstitutioner, med henblik på at styrke båndene mellem forskning og samfund. Udarbejdet af en europæisk arbejdsgruppe, hovedforfatter Jean-Pierre Alix. Søren Harnow Klausen har især bidraget til kap. 2, bl.a. pp. 13-14...

  8. Proceedings of the symposium on frontier nuclear physics (FRONP99)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiba, Satoshi [ed.

    2000-01-01

    The symposium on Frontier Nuclear Physics (FRONP99), organized by the Research Group for Hadron Science, Advanced Science Research Center, under close cooperation with the Research Center for Nuclear Physics, Osaka University and High Energy Accelerator Research Organization, was held at Tokai Research Establishment of JAERI on August 2 to 4, 1999. The symposium was devoted for discussions and presentations of research results in wide variety of fields such as hyper nuclear physics, lepton nuclear physics, quark nuclear physics, unstable nuclear physics, superheavy elements and heavy-ion physics. Three talks on the joint project between JAERI (Neutron Science Research Center) and KEK (JHF) were presented in a public session. Thirty three talks on these topics presented at the symposium aroused lively discussions among approximately 70 participants. This report contains 26 papers submitted from the lecturers. (author)

  9. Human-Nature Relationships in School Science: A Critical Discourse Analysis of a Middle-Grade Science Textbook

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Ajay; Buxton, Cory A.

    2015-01-01

    Science education has a central role to play in preparing a scientifically literate citizenry that is capable of understanding complex environmental challenges facing human societies and making well-informed and evidence-based decisions that help resolve these challenges. However, evidence suggests that most Americans are poorly equipped with the…

  10. Comprehensive bibliographic coverage of the social sciences and humanities in a citation index

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sivertsen, Gunnar; Larsen, Birger

    2012-01-01

    A well-designed and comprehensive citation index for the social sciences and humanities has many potential uses, but has yet to be realised. Significant parts of the scholarly production in these areas are not published in international journals, but in national scholarly journals, in book chapters...... or in monographs. The potential for covering these literatures more comprehensively can now be investigated empirically using a complete publication output data set from the higher education sector of an entire country (Norway). We find that while the international journals in the social sciences and humanities...... are promising for a more comprehensive coverage of the social sciences and humanities....

  11. Developing a Collaborative Agenda for Humanities and Social Scientific Research on Laboratory Animal Science and Welfare.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gail F Davies

    Full Text Available Improving laboratory animal science and welfare requires both new scientific research and insights from research in the humanities and social sciences. Whilst scientific research provides evidence to replace, reduce and refine procedures involving laboratory animals (the '3Rs', work in the humanities and social sciences can help understand the social, economic and cultural processes that enhance or impede humane ways of knowing and working with laboratory animals. However, communication across these disciplinary perspectives is currently limited, and they design research programmes, generate results, engage users, and seek to influence policy in different ways. To facilitate dialogue and future research at this interface, we convened an interdisciplinary group of 45 life scientists, social scientists, humanities scholars, non-governmental organisations and policy-makers to generate a collaborative research agenda. This drew on methods employed by other agenda-setting exercises in science policy, using a collaborative and deliberative approach for the identification of research priorities. Participants were recruited from across the community, invited to submit research questions and vote on their priorities. They then met at an interactive workshop in the UK, discussed all 136 questions submitted, and collectively defined the 30 most important issues for the group. The output is a collaborative future agenda for research in the humanities and social sciences on laboratory animal science and welfare. The questions indicate a demand for new research in the humanities and social sciences to inform emerging discussions and priorities on the governance and practice of laboratory animal research, including on issues around: international harmonisation, openness and public engagement, 'cultures of care', harm-benefit analysis and the future of the 3Rs. The process outlined below underlines the value of interdisciplinary exchange for improving

  12. Developing a Collaborative Agenda for Humanities and Social Scientific Research on Laboratory Animal Science and Welfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Gail F.; Greenhough, Beth J; Hobson-West, Pru; Kirk, Robert G. W.; Applebee, Ken; Bellingan, Laura C.; Berdoy, Manuel; Buller, Henry; Cassaday, Helen J.; Davies, Keith; Diefenbacher, Daniela; Druglitrø, Tone; Escobar, Maria Paula; Friese, Carrie; Herrmann, Kathrin; Hinterberger, Amy; Jarrett, Wendy J.; Jayne, Kimberley; Johnson, Adam M.; Johnson, Elizabeth R.; Konold, Timm; Leach, Matthew C.; Leonelli, Sabina; Lewis, David I.; Lilley, Elliot J.; Longridge, Emma R.; McLeod, Carmen M.; Miele, Mara; Nelson, Nicole C.; Ormandy, Elisabeth H.; Pallett, Helen; Poort, Lonneke; Pound, Pandora; Ramsden, Edmund; Roe, Emma; Scalway, Helen; Schrader, Astrid; Scotton, Chris J.; Scudamore, Cheryl L.; Smith, Jane A.; Whitfield, Lucy; Wolfensohn, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    Improving laboratory animal science and welfare requires both new scientific research and insights from research in the humanities and social sciences. Whilst scientific research provides evidence to replace, reduce and refine procedures involving laboratory animals (the ‘3Rs’), work in the humanities and social sciences can help understand the social, economic and cultural processes that enhance or impede humane ways of knowing and working with laboratory animals. However, communication across these disciplinary perspectives is currently limited, and they design research programmes, generate results, engage users, and seek to influence policy in different ways. To facilitate dialogue and future research at this interface, we convened an interdisciplinary group of 45 life scientists, social scientists, humanities scholars, non-governmental organisations and policy-makers to generate a collaborative research agenda. This drew on methods employed by other agenda-setting exercises in science policy, using a collaborative and deliberative approach for the identification of research priorities. Participants were recruited from across the community, invited to submit research questions and vote on their priorities. They then met at an interactive workshop in the UK, discussed all 136 questions submitted, and collectively defined the 30 most important issues for the group. The output is a collaborative future agenda for research in the humanities and social sciences on laboratory animal science and welfare. The questions indicate a demand for new research in the humanities and social sciences to inform emerging discussions and priorities on the governance and practice of laboratory animal research, including on issues around: international harmonisation, openness and public engagement, ‘cultures of care’, harm-benefit analysis and the future of the 3Rs. The process outlined below underlines the value of interdisciplinary exchange for improving communication across

  13. Developing a Collaborative Agenda for Humanities and Social Scientific Research on Laboratory Animal Science and Welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Gail F; Greenhough, Beth J; Hobson-West, Pru; Kirk, Robert G W; Applebee, Ken; Bellingan, Laura C; Berdoy, Manuel; Buller, Henry; Cassaday, Helen J; Davies, Keith; Diefenbacher, Daniela; Druglitrø, Tone; Escobar, Maria Paula; Friese, Carrie; Herrmann, Kathrin; Hinterberger, Amy; Jarrett, Wendy J; Jayne, Kimberley; Johnson, Adam M; Johnson, Elizabeth R; Konold, Timm; Leach, Matthew C; Leonelli, Sabina; Lewis, David I; Lilley, Elliot J; Longridge, Emma R; McLeod, Carmen M; Miele, Mara; Nelson, Nicole C; Ormandy, Elisabeth H; Pallett, Helen; Poort, Lonneke; Pound, Pandora; Ramsden, Edmund; Roe, Emma; Scalway, Helen; Schrader, Astrid; Scotton, Chris J; Scudamore, Cheryl L; Smith, Jane A; Whitfield, Lucy; Wolfensohn, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    Improving laboratory animal science and welfare requires both new scientific research and insights from research in the humanities and social sciences. Whilst scientific research provides evidence to replace, reduce and refine procedures involving laboratory animals (the '3Rs'), work in the humanities and social sciences can help understand the social, economic and cultural processes that enhance or impede humane ways of knowing and working with laboratory animals. However, communication across these disciplinary perspectives is currently limited, and they design research programmes, generate results, engage users, and seek to influence policy in different ways. To facilitate dialogue and future research at this interface, we convened an interdisciplinary group of 45 life scientists, social scientists, humanities scholars, non-governmental organisations and policy-makers to generate a collaborative research agenda. This drew on methods employed by other agenda-setting exercises in science policy, using a collaborative and deliberative approach for the identification of research priorities. Participants were recruited from across the community, invited to submit research questions and vote on their priorities. They then met at an interactive workshop in the UK, discussed all 136 questions submitted, and collectively defined the 30 most important issues for the group. The output is a collaborative future agenda for research in the humanities and social sciences on laboratory animal science and welfare. The questions indicate a demand for new research in the humanities and social sciences to inform emerging discussions and priorities on the governance and practice of laboratory animal research, including on issues around: international harmonisation, openness and public engagement, 'cultures of care', harm-benefit analysis and the future of the 3Rs. The process outlined below underlines the value of interdisciplinary exchange for improving communication across

  14. Migrant decision-making in a frontier landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salerno, Jonathan

    2016-04-01

    Across the tropics, rural farmers and livestock keepers use mobility as an adaptive livelihood strategy. Continued migration to and within frontier areas is widely viewed as a driver of environmental decline and biodiversity loss. Recent scholarship advances our understanding of migration decision-making in the context of changing climate and environments, and in doing so it highlights the variation in migration responses to primarily economic and environmental factors. Building on these insights, this letter investigates past and future migration decisions in a frontier landscape of Tanzania, East Africa. Combining field observations and household data within a multilevel modeling framework, the letter analyzes the explicit importance of social factors relative to economic and environmental factors in driving decisions to migrate or remain. Results indeed suggest that local community ties and non-local social networks drive both immobility and anticipated migration, respectively. In addition, positive interactions with local protected natural resource areas promote longer-term residence. Findings shed new light on how frontier areas transition to human dominated landscapes. This highlights critical links between migration behavior and the conservation of biodiversity and management of natural resources, as well as how migrants evolve to become integrated into communities.

  15. South African Homelands as Frontiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This book explores what happened to the homelands – in many ways the ultimate apartheid disgrace – after the fall of apartheid. The nine chapters contribute to understanding the multiple configurations that currently exist in areas formerly declared "homelands" or "Bantustans". Using the concept...... of frontier zones, the homelands emerge as areas in which the future of the South African postcolony is being renegotiated, contested and remade with hyper-real intensity. This is so because the many fault lines left over from apartheid (its loose ends, so to speak) – between white and black; between...... in these settings that the postcolonial promise of liberation and freedom must face its test. As such, the book offers highly nuanced and richly detailed analyses that go to the heart of the diverse dilemmas of post-apartheid South Africa as a whole, but simultaneously also provides in condensed form an extended...

  16. New Frontiers of Land Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lee Peluso, Nancy; Lund, Christian

    2011-01-01

    Land questions have invigorated agrarian studies and economic history, with particular emphases on its control, since Marx. Words such as ‘exclusion’, ‘alienation’, ‘expropriation’, ‘dispossession’, and ‘violence’ describe processes that animate land histories and those of resources, property...... rights, and territories created, extracted, produced, or protected on land. Primitive and on-going forms of accumulation, frontiers, enclosures, territories, grabs, and racializations have all been associated with mechanisms for land control. Agrarian environments have been transformed by processes of de......-agrarianization, protected area establishment, urbanization, migration, land reform, resettlement, and re-peasantization. Even the classic agrarian question of how agriculture is influenced by capitalism has been reformulated multiple times at transformative conjunctures in the historical trajectories of these processes...

  17. A mars communication constellation for human exploration and network science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellini, Francesco; Simonetto, Andrea; Martini, Roberto; Lavagna, Michèle

    2010-01-01

    This paper analyses the possibility of exploiting a small spacecrafts constellation around Mars to ensure a complete and continuous coverage of the planet, for the purpose of supporting future human and robotic operations and taking advantage of optical transmission techniques. The study foresees such a communications mission to be implemented at least after 2020 and a high data-rate requirement is imposed for the return of huge scientific data from massive robotic exploration or to allow video transmissions from a possible human outpost. In addition, the set-up of a communication constellation around Mars would give the opportunity of exploiting this multi-platform infrastructure to perform network science, that would largely increase our knowledge of the planet. The paper covers all technical aspects of a feasibility study performed for the primary communications mission. Results are presented for the system trade-offs, including communication architecture, constellation configuration and transfer strategy, and the mission analysis optimization, performed through the application of a multi-objective genetic algorithm to two models of increasing difficulty for the low-thrust trajectory definition. The resulting communication architecture is quite complex and includes six 530 kg spacecrafts on two different orbital planes, plus one redundant unit per plane, that ensure complete coverage of the planet’s surface; communications between the satellites and Earth are achieved through optical links, that allow lower mass and power consumption with respect to traditional radio-frequency technology, while inter-satellite links and spacecrafts-to-Mars connections are ensured by radio transmissions. The resulting data-rates for Earth-Mars uplink and downlink, satellite-to-satellite and satellite-to-surface are respectively 13.7 Mbps, 10.2 Mbps, 4.8 Mbps and 4.3 Mbps, in worst-case. Two electric propulsion modules are foreseen, to be placed on a C3˜0 escape orbit with two

  18. Integrating Sustainability Science with the Sciences of Human Well-being to Inform Design and Planning in an Urbanizing World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberti, M.; Graumlich, L. J.; Frumkin, H.; Friedman, D.

    2012-12-01

    A sustainable human future requires both healthy ecosystems and communities in which people thrive, with opportunities for health, well-being, happiness, economic prosperity, and equity. To make progress towards this goal, two largely disparate communities of scholars and practitioners must come together: sustainability science needs to be integrated with the sciences of human health and well-being. The opportunity for such integration is particularly ripe for urbanizing regions which not only dominate energy and resource use but also increasingly represent the human habitat. We present a conceptual framework that integrates sustainability science with the sciences of human health and well-being to explicitly articulate testable hypotheses on the relationships between humans and their habitat. We are interested in human behaviors and metrics of health and well-being in relationship to the characteristics of the built environment at various scales from buildings to metro regions. Focusing on the U.S. Pacific Northwest (PNW) as a testbed, we are building on our current empirical studies on urban sprawl and ecosystem function including biodiversity, air quality, hydrological, biogeochemical, and human health to develop formal hypotheses on how alternative urban design and development patterns may influence health outcomes and well-being. The PNW is an ideal setting for this work because of the connected metropolitan areas within a region characterized by a spectacular diversity of aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems and deeply held cultural and political aspirations towards sustainability. The framework also highlights opportunities for translation of knowledge to practice in the design and planning of built environments. For example, understanding these associations is critical to assessing tradeoffs in design and planning strategies and exploring potential synergies that optimize both sustainability and human well-being. In complex systems such as cities, managers

  19. A plea for a behavioural approach in the science of Human Resources Management

    OpenAIRE

    Martin, Albert

    2004-01-01

    The aim of science is to develop true theories. From this it follows quite naturally that the Behavioural Approach is the only plausible approach in a Science of Human Resources Management. The Behavioural Approach derives its propositions from the best theories from the social and behavioural sciences. It is problem-oriented in the strictest sense and thus escapes discipline-specific narrow-mindedness. It integrates the knowledge bases necessary for good practice. The behavioural approach to...

  20. A plea for a behavioural approach in the science of Human Resources Management

    OpenAIRE

    Martin, Albert

    2004-01-01

    The aim of science is to develop true theories. From this it follows quite naturally that the Behavioural Approach is the only plausible approach in a Science of Human Resources Management. The Behavioural Approach derives its propositions from the best theories from the social and behavioural sciences. It is problem-oriented in the strictest sense and thus escapes discipline-specific narrow-mindedness. It integrates the knowledge bases necessary for good practice. The behavioural approach to...

  1. FIFE-Jobsub: a grid submission system for intensity frontier experiments at Fermilab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Box, Dennis

    2014-06-01

    The Fermilab Intensity Frontier Experiments use an integrated submission system known as FIFE-jobsub, part of the FIFE (Fabric for Frontier Experiments) initiative, to submit batch jobs to the Open Science Grid. FIFE-jobsub eases the burden on experimenters by integrating data transfer and site selection details in an easy to use and well-documented format. FIFE-jobsub automates tedious details of maintaining grid proxies for the lifetime of the grid job. Data transfer is handled using the Intensity Frontier Data Handling Client (IFDHC) [1] tool suite, which facilitates selecting the appropriate data transfer method from many possibilities while protecting shared resources from overload. Chaining of job dependencies into Directed Acyclic Graphs (Condor DAGS) is well supported and made easier through the use of input flags and parameters.

  2. Applied thermodynamics: A new frontier for biotechnology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mollerup, Jørgen

    2006-01-01

    The scientific career of one of the most outstanding scientists in molecular thermodynamics, Professor John M. Prausnitz at Berkeley, reflects the change in the agenda of molecular thermodynamics, from hydrocarbon chemistry to biotechnology. To make thermodynamics a frontier for biotechnology...

  3. The Structure of Arts, Science, and Humanities Colleges in Major Universities: A Macro-Sociological Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creswell, John W.; Jones, Larry R.

    1979-01-01

    The structure of arts, science, and humanities colleges within major universities was investigated to determine the relationship between number of faculty or students and the number of administrative levels, and the ratio of administrators to faculty. (SF)

  4. Inkanyiso: Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences - Vol 8, No 2 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Inkanyiso: Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences - Vol 8, No 2 (2016) ... and health promotion · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT ... Maximising the potential of social media to deliver academic library services to students: ...

  5. The Development of Human Capacity in Malawi: The Role of Science and Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nampota, Dorothy; Thompson, Jeff; Wikeley, Felicity

    2009-01-01

    Faced with accelerating poverty, the Malawi government has re-awakened its commitment to the development of human capacity and the role of development in this context. This paper explores the relationship between development and science and technology. It goes on to review the country's science and technology needs and how these justify taking…

  6. The Development of Human Capacity in Malawi: The Role of Science and Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nampota, Dorothy; Thompson, Jeff; Wikeley, Felicity

    2009-01-01

    Faced with accelerating poverty, the Malawi government has re-awakened its commitment to the development of human capacity and the role of development in this context. This paper explores the relationship between development and science and technology. It goes on to review the country's science and technology needs and how these justify taking…

  7. Truth in Packaging: Teaching Controversial Topics to Undergraduates in the Human Sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fredericks, Marcel; Miller, Steven I.

    1993-01-01

    Argues that the behavioral or "human" sciences are fundamentally different in scope and intent from the natural sciences. Describes the use of controversial topics in undergraduate courses and provides a four-step process. Recommends using Karl Popper's falsification theory to help students think critically about issues. (CFR)

  8. The Use of Ethical Frameworks for Implementing Science as a Human Endeavour in Year 10 Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yap, Siew Fong; Dawson, Vaille

    2014-01-01

    This research focuses on the use of ethical frameworks as a pedagogical model for socio-scientific education in implementing the "Science as a Human Endeavour" (SHE) strand of the Australian Curriculum: Science in a Year 10 biology class in a Christian college in metropolitan Perth, Western Australia. Using a case study approach, a mixed…

  9. Values Education and the Emergence of a "New Pedagogy" in the Humanities and Social Sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagschal, Harry

    Humanities and social science education are increasingly influenced by controversy over different conceptions of scientific thinking. The basic conflict is between those who view science as being objectively based and those who see scientific work as being based upon personal and societal variants such as values, feelings, and needs. The debate…

  10. The Hubble Space Telescope Frontier Fields Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koekemoer, Anton M.; Mack, Jennifer; Lotz, Jennifer M.; Borncamp, David; Khandrika, Harish G.; Lucas, Ray A.; Martlin, Catherine; Porterfield, Blair; Sunnquist, Ben; Anderson, Jay; Avila, Roberto J.; Barker, Elizabeth A.; Grogin, Norman A.; Gunning, Heather C.; Hilbert, Bryan; Ogaz, Sara; Robberto, Massimo; Sembach, Kenneth; Flanagan, Kathryn; Mountain, Matt

    2017-08-01

    The Hubble Space Telescope Frontier Fields program is a large Director's Discretionary program of 840 orbits, to obtain ultra-deep observations of six strong lensing clusters of galaxies, together with parallel deep blank fields, making use of the strong lensing amplification by these clusters of distant background galaxies to detect the faintest galaxies currently observable in the high-redshift universe. The entire program has now completed successfully for all 6 clusters, namely Abell 2744, Abell S1063, Abell 370, MACS J0416.1-2403, MACS J0717.5+3745 and MACS J1149.5+2223,. Each of these was observed over two epochs, to a total depth of 140 orbits on the main cluster and an associated parallel field, obtaining images in ACS (F435W, F606W, F814W) and WFC3/IR (F105W, F125W, F140W, F160W) on both the main cluster and the parallel field in all cases. Full sets of high-level science products have been generated for all these clusters by the team at STScI, including cumulative-depth data releases during each epoch, as well as full-depth releases after the completion of each epoch. These products include all the full-depth distortion-corrected drizzled mosaics and associated products for each cluster, which are science-ready to facilitate the construction of lensing models as well as enabling a wide range of other science projects. Many improvements beyond default calibration for ACS and WFC3/IR are implemented in these data products, including corrections for persistence, time-variable sky, and low-level dark current residuals, as well as improvements in astrometric alignment to achieve milliarcsecond-level accuracy. The full set of resulting high-level science products and mosaics are publicly delivered to the community via the Mikulski Archive for Space Telescopes (MAST) to enable the widest scientific use of these data, as well as ensuring a public legacy dataset of the highest possible quality that is of lasting value to the entire community.

  11. 28th Annual JPMorgan Healthcare Conference--Human Genome Sciences and Celgene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gale, Sophie; Croasdell, Gary

    2010-03-01

    The JPMorgan Healthcare Conference, held in San Francisco, included presentations by various pharmaceutical companies summarizing their achievements in 2009 and expectations for 2010. This conference report highlights presentations from Human Genome Sciences Inc and Celgene Corp. Investigational drugs from Human Genome Sciences, including belimumab (in collaboration with GlaxoSmithKline plc), albinterferon alfa-2b (with Novartis AG), mapatumumab (with Takeda Pharmaceutical Co Ltd) and HGS-1029, and from Celgene, including romidepsin, pomalidomide, apremilast and PDA-001 (Celgene Cellular Therapeutics), are discussed.

  12. The Cultural Argument for Understanding Nature of Science - A Chance to Reflect on Similarities and Differences Between Science and Humanities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiners, Christiane S.; Bliersbach, Markus; Marniok, Karl

    2017-08-01

    Understanding Nature of Science (NOS) is a central component of scientific literacy, which is agreed upon internationally, and consequently has been a major educational goal for many years all over the globe. In order to justify the promotion of an adequate understanding of NOS, educators have developed several arguments, among them the cultural argument. But what is behind this argument? In order to answer this question, C. P. Snow's vision of two cultures was used as a starting point. In his famous Rede Lecture from 1959, he complained about a wide gap between the arts and humanities on the one hand and sciences on the other hand. While the representatives of the humanities refer to themselves as real intellectuals, the scientists felt rather ignored as a culture, despite the fact that their achievements had been so important for Western society. Thus, Snow argued that as these intellectual cultures were completely different from each other, a mutual understanding was impossible. The first European Regional IHPST Conference took up the cultural view on science again. Thus, the topic of the conference "Science as Culture in the European Context" encouraged us to look at the two cultures and to figure out possibilities to bridge the gap between them in chemistry teacher education. For this reason, we put together three studies—one theoretical and two independent research projects (one dealing with creativity in science, the other with scientific laws and theories) which contribute to our main research field (promoting an understanding of NOS)—in order to address the cultural argument for understanding science from an educational point of view. Among the consented tenets of what understanding NOS implies in an educational context, there are aspects which are associated mainly with the humanities, like the tentativeness of knowledge, creativity, and social tradition, whereas others seem to have a domain-specific meaning, like empirical evidence, theories and laws

  13. Scientific Frontiers in the Management of Coral Reefs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shankar eAswani

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Coral reefs are subjected globally to a variety of natural and anthropogenic stressors that often act synergistically. Today, reversing ongoing and future coral reef degradation presents significant challenges and countering this negative trend will take considerable efforts and investments. Scientific knowledge can inform and guide the requisite decision-making process and offer practical solutions to the problem of protection as the effects of climate change exacerbate. However, implementation of solutions presently lags far behind the pace required to reverse global declines, and there is a need for an urgent and significant step-up in the extent and range of strategies being implemented. In this paper, we consider scientific frontiers in natural and social science research that can help build stronger support for reef management and improve the efficacy of interventions. We cover various areas including: (1 enhancing the case for reef conservation and management, (2 dealing with local stressors on reefs, (3 addressing global climate change impacts, (4 and reviewing various approaches to the governance of coral reefs. In sum, we consider scientific frontiers in natural and social science that will require further attention in coming years as managers’ work towards building stronger support for reef management and improve the efficacy of local interventions.

  14. At the frontier of human genius

    CERN Multimedia

    Lefèvre, Marie-Françoise

    2009-01-01

    "After 20 years of developments, the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) was launched on 10 September 2008. Just nine days later; a faulty electrical connection resulted in helium escape and a forced shutdown. It could be the summer of 2009 or even later before it starts up again. The excitement among physicists remains palpable nevertheless, as we discovered behind the scences at the site of this new jewel of high tehnology" (3 pages)

  15. Country School Legacy: Humanities on the Frontier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rankin, Dorothy, Ed.

    As late as 1938 there were 200,000 one-room schools scattered throughout the United States. By 1978 there were little more than 1,000 in operation. Primary-source research on rural education has now been conducted by 23 researchers in Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, Nevada, North Dakota, South Dakota, Utah, and Wyoming, sponsored by the Mountain…

  16. Human-Machine Teams: The Social Frontier

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Cleared: 31 December 2015 19 NOTES • Quadrant is a self - report tool for emotion /mood, but many indicators of mood. • RULER approach: skill-based...perceived situation and aid in judgment an decision- making (Lerner et al., 2014). • Emotional Literacy/ Intelligence : The capacity to reason about emotions ...in self and others) and use emotional information to guide thinking and behavior (e.g., Mayer, Salovey, & Caruso, 1997). • Social Cognition

  17. EFISIENSI BANK PEMBANGUNAN DAERAH: PENDEKATAN STOCHASTIC FRONTIER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Husein Fadhlullah

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research is to analyze the efficiency rate at Islamic regional banks (BPD in Indonesia, with case of 15 Islamic regional banks from 2008 – 2012. The method that used in this research is stochastic frontier analysis approach (SFA, which uses the input variable (such as human resources cost, administration cost, and other expenses and the output variable is SFA (operational income. The average efficiency rate from 15 Islamic regional banks from 2008 – 2012 with SFA method is 53.21 percent and all of the Islamic regional banks doesn’t achieve the 100 percent efficiency. The most efficient banks is Islamic regional bank of Kalimantan Barat which the efficiency rate achieve 90.42 percent and the most inefficiency banks is Islamic regional bank of Sumatera Barat. The average efficiency rate from 2008-2012 is always increase each year. In 2008 the average efficiency rate only 33.57 percent and in the last of 2012 achieve 71.81 percent.DOI: 10.15408/sjie.v4i1.2291

  18. All About Audio Equalization: Solutions and Frontiers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vesa Välimäki

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Audio equalization is a vast and active research area. The extent of research means that one often cannot identify the preferred technique for a particular problem. This review paper bridges those gaps, systemically providing a deep understanding of the problems and approaches in audio equalization, their relative merits and applications. Digital signal processing techniques for modifying the spectral balance in audio signals and applications of these techniques are reviewed, ranging from classic equalizers to emerging designs based on new advances in signal processing and machine learning. Emphasis is placed on putting the range of approaches within a common mathematical and conceptual framework. The application areas discussed herein are diverse, and include well-defined, solvable problems of filter design subject to constraints, as well as newly emerging challenges that touch on problems in semantics, perception and human computer interaction. Case studies are given in order to illustrate key concepts and how they are applied in practice. We also recommend preferred signal processing approaches for important audio equalization problems. Finally, we discuss current challenges and the uncharted frontiers in this field. The source code for methods discussed in this paper is made available at https://code.soundsoftware.ac.uk/projects/allaboutaudioeq.

  19. Measurement Frontiers in Molecular Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laderman, Stephen

    2009-03-01

    Developments of molecular measurements and manipulations have long enabled forefront research in evolution, genetics, biological development and its dysfunction, and the impact of external factors on the behavior of cells. Measurement remains at the heart of exciting and challenging basic and applied problems in molecular and cell biology. Methods to precisely determine the identity and abundance of particular molecules amongst a complex mixture of similar and dissimilar types require the successful design and integration of multiple steps involving biochemical manipulations, separations, physical probing, and data processing. Accordingly, today's most powerful methods for characterizing life at the molecular level depend on coordinated advances in applied physics, biochemistry, chemistry, computer science, and engineering. This is well illustrated by recent approaches to the measurement of DNA, RNA, proteins, and intact cells. Such successes underlie well founded visions of how molecular biology can further assist in answering compelling scientific questions and in enabling the development of remarkable advances in human health. These visions, in turn, are motivating the interdisciplinary creation of even more comprehensive measurements. As a further and closely related consequence, they are motivating innovations in the conceptual and practical approaches to organizing and visualizing large, complex sets of interrelated experimental results and distilling from those data compelling, informative conclusions.

  20. Joint Scaling Theory of Human Dynamics and Network Science

    CERN Document Server

    Song, Chaoming; Barabasi, Albert-Laszlo

    2012-01-01

    The increasing availability of large-scale data on human behavior has catalyzed simultaneous advances in network theory, capturing the scaling properties of the interactions between a large number of individuals, and human dynamics, quantifying the temporal characteristics of human activity patterns. These two areas remain disjoint, however, traditionally each pursuing as a separate modeling framework. Here we establish the first formal link between these two areas by showing that the exponents characterizing the degree and link weight distribution in social networks can be expressed in terms of the dynamical exponents characterizing human activity patterns. We test the validity of these theoretical predictions on datasets capturing various facets of human interactions, from mobile calls to tweets. We find evidence of a universal measure, that links networks and human dynamics, but whose value is independent of the means of communication, capturing a fundamental property of human activity.

  1. A sense of the mysterious science and the human spirit

    CERN Document Server

    Lightman, Alan

    2006-01-01

    From the bestselling author of Einstein's Dreams comes this lyrical and insightful collection of science writing that delves into the mysteries of the scientific process and exposes its beauty and intrigue.In these brilliant essays, Lightman explores the emotional life of science, the power of imagination, the creative moment, and the alternate ways in which scientists and humanists think about the world. Along the way, he provides in-depth portraits of some of the great geniuses of our time, including Albert Einstein, Richard Feynman, Edward Teller, and astronomer Vera Rubin. Thoughtful, beautifully written, and wonderfully original, A Sense of the Mysterious confirms Alan Lightman's unique position at the crossroads of science and art.

  2. A quantitative evaluation system of Chinese journals in the humanities and social sciences

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SU; Xinning; ZHOU; Ping

    2009-01-01

    Based on analyses on existing indicators for evaluating journals in the humanities and social sciences and our experience in constructing the Chinese Social Science Citation Index(CSSCI),we proposed a comprehensive system for evaluating Chinese academic journals in the humanities and social sciences.This system constitutes 8 primary indicators and 17 sub-indicators for multidisciplinary journals and 19 sub-indicators for discipline-specific journals.Each indicator or sub-indicator is assigned a suitable weight according to its importance in terms of measuring a journal’s academic quality and/or impact.

  3. Co-authorship of Iranian Researchers in Science, Social Science, Art and Humanities Citation Indexes in the Web of Science between 2000 and 2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farideh Osareh

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study determines the co-authorship factor in the Iranian scientific output between 2000 and 2006 as reflected in the science, social science art and humanities citation indexes made available through the Web of Science database. Webometric indicators were used. The data were extracted in plain text from WOS, analyzed using HistCite software and counted in MS Office Excel program. Of the Total of 25320 documents indexed, 24480 documents were in Science Citation Index, 783 in Social Citation Index and 57 in Art and Humanities index. The findings indicated that co-authorship factor in the period studied had been on the rise. The highest participation rate belonged to the documents with two or three authors. General coauthorship factor was 0.59. The year 2006 had the highest coauthorship factor (0.62 while the year 2000 had the least (0.55. Bradford and Lotka laws were applied to the data sets. The Lotka’s Law only held true for the science citation index. The Bradford’s Law, however, held true for all indexes. In all citation indexes, the United States with 1865 documents (7.38 had the highest degree of coauthorship in Iranian scientific output.

  4. Cosmology at the Crossroads of the Natural and Human Sciences: is demarcation possible?

    CERN Document Server

    Nesteruk, Alexei V

    2011-01-01

    The paper discusses the problem of demarcation between the dimensions of natural and the human sciences in contemporary cosmology. In spite of a common presumption that cosmology is a natural science, the specificity of its alleged subject matter, that is the universe as a whole, makes cosmology fundamentally different from other natural sciences. The reason is that in cosmology the subject of cosmological research and its "object" are in a certain sense inseparable. Any study of the universe involves two opposite perspectives which can be described as "a-cosmic" and "cosmic", egocentric and non-egocentric. Cosmology involves two languages, namely that of physical causality (pertaining to the natural sciences) and that of intentionality (pertaining to the human sciences). On the one hand the universe can be seen as a product of discursive reason, that is as an abstract "physical" entity unfolding in space and time. On the other hand the universe can be experienced through our participation in, or communion wi...

  5. Research on Efficient Frontier of Portfolios with Transaction Cost

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴祝武; 范胜君; 周圣武; 朱开永

    2004-01-01

    This paper is concerned with a study on the efficient frontier characters of portfolio with transaction cost. The conclusion is drawn that all portfolios are of positive correlation on the efficient frontier with transaction cost; the sufficient condition for the derivable efficient frontier has also been achieved. Meanwhile, in comparison with the position of the efficient frontier without transaction cost in the plane (σ2,R), the conclusion has been made that the efficient frontiers with transaction cost drift and its opening shrinks correspondingly. With this study, the content of the efficient frontier is further enriched. It's very constructive and important for the practical portfolio investment strategy.

  6. On Role of Science Museums in Promoting Human Rights

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO YANG

    2011-01-01

    @@ Participation in sci-tech activities is a latest development in the rights to subsistence and development that China sees as of primary importance.At a time when science and technology constitute a force shaping the social formation,participation in sci-tech activities has become a social right to which citizens are entitled.

  7. Cognitive neuroscience in forensic science: understanding and utilizing the human element.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dror, Itiel E

    2015-08-01

    The human element plays a critical role in forensic science. It is not limited only to issues relating to forensic decision-making, such as bias, but also relates to most aspects of forensic work (some of which even take place before a crime is ever committed or long after the verification of the forensic conclusion). In this paper, I explicate many aspects of forensic work that involve the human element and therefore show the relevance (and potential contribution) of cognitive neuroscience to forensic science. The 10 aspects covered in this paper are proactive forensic science, selection during recruitment, training, crime scene investigation, forensic decision-making, verification and conflict resolution, reporting, the role of the forensic examiner, presentation in court and judicial decisions. As the forensic community is taking on the challenges introduced by the realization that the human element is critical for forensic work, new opportunities emerge that allow for considerable improvement and enhancement of the forensic science endeavour.

  8. Cognitive neuroscience in forensic science: understanding and utilizing the human element

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dror, Itiel E.

    2015-01-01

    The human element plays a critical role in forensic science. It is not limited only to issues relating to forensic decision-making, such as bias, but also relates to most aspects of forensic work (some of which even take place before a crime is ever committed or long after the verification of the forensic conclusion). In this paper, I explicate many aspects of forensic work that involve the human element and therefore show the relevance (and potential contribution) of cognitive neuroscience to forensic science. The 10 aspects covered in this paper are proactive forensic science, selection during recruitment, training, crime scene investigation, forensic decision-making, verification and conflict resolution, reporting, the role of the forensic examiner, presentation in court and judicial decisions. As the forensic community is taking on the challenges introduced by the realization that the human element is critical for forensic work, new opportunities emerge that allow for considerable improvement and enhancement of the forensic science endeavour. PMID:26101281

  9. Environmental Nutrition: A New Frontier for Public Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabaté, Joan; Harwatt, Helen; Soret, Samuel

    2016-05-01

    Food systems must operate within environmental constraints to avoid disastrous consequences for the biosphere. Such constraints must also take into account nutritional quality and health outcomes. Given the intrinsic relationships between the environmental sciences and nutritional sciences, it is imperative that public health embraces environmental nutrition as the new frontier of research and practice and begins a concerted focus on the new discipline of environmental nutrition, which seeks to comprehensively address the sustainability of food systems. We provide an overview to justify our proposition, outline a research and practice agenda for environmental nutrition, and explore how the complex relationships within food systems that affect public health could be better understood through the environmental nutrition model.

  10. Investigating Students’ Achievements in Computing Science Using Human Metric

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezekiel U. Okike

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the role of personality traits, motivation for career choice and study habits in students’ academic achievements in the computing sciences. A quantitative research method was employed. Data was collected from 60 computing science students using the Myer Briggs Type indicator (MBTI with additional questionnaires. A model of the form y_(ij=ß_0+ß_1 x_(1j+ ß_2 x_(2j+ ß_3 x_(3j+ ß_4 x_(4j+ …ß_n x_nj was used, where y_ij represents a dependent variable, ß_0+ß_1 x_(1j+ ß_2 x_(2j+ ß_3 x_(3j+ ß_4 x_(4j+ …ß_n x_nj the independent variables. Data analysis was performed on the data using the Statistical Package for the social sciences (SPSS. Linear regression was done in order to fit the model and justify its significance or none significance at the 0.05 level of significance. Result of regression model was also used to determine the impact of the independent variable on students’ performance. Results from this study suggests that the strongest motivator for a choice of career in the computing sciences is the desire to become a computing professional. Students’ achievements especially in the computing sciences do not depend only on students temperamental ability or personality traits, motivations for choice of course of study and reading habit, but also on the use of Internet based sources more than going to the university library to read book materials available in all areas

  11. Visualization analysis of research frontiers and trends in nerve regeneration and osseoperception in the repair of tooth loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaoge; Tang, Tian; Zhao, Zhihe; Zheng, Leilei; Ding, Yin

    2014-11-15

    This study analyzed 85 articles indexed by the Web of Science concerning nerve regeneration and osseoperception during tooth loss repair. Using the Web of Science database and Citespace III software, a document co-citation network map was drawn by document co-citation analysis and word frequency analysis methods. Combined with emergent node secondary literature retrieval, subject headings with apparent changing word frequency trends were retrieved so as to identify research frontiers and development trends. Research frontiers and hotspots for neuronal calcium sensor protein were quantitatively explored to forecast future research developments in nerve regeneration and osseoperception during repair of tooth loss.

  12. Visualization analysis of research frontiers and trends in nerve regeneration and osseoperception in the repair of tooth loss

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaoge Zhang; Tian Tang; Zhihe Zhao; Leilei Zheng; Yin Ding

    2014-01-01

    This study analyzed 85 articles indexed by the Web of Science concerning nerve regeneration and osseoperception during tooth loss repair. Using the Web of Science database and Citespace III software, a document co-citation network map was drawn by document co-citation analysis and word frequency analysis methods. Combined with emergent node secondary literature retrieval, subject headings with apparent changing word frequency trends were retrieved so as to identify research frontiers and development trends. Research frontiers and hotspots for neuronal calcium sensor protein were quantitatively explored to forecast future research developments in nerve regeneration and osseoperception during repair of tooth loss.

  13. The Frontiers Approach: Defending a Sufficientarian Rule of Distributive Justice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lasse; Axelsen, David Vestergaard

    2012-01-01

    resources within and between societies are distributed. One important debate concerns which rule of distribution should govern distributive justice. Egalitarians argue that we should strive for equality as the distributive ideal. Others suggest sufficientarianism as the promising alternative, meaning....... Duress, therefore, captures the injustice of someone being below the level of a dignified human life to which they are entitled. Our reconstruction of the sufficientarian approach addresses the injustice of duress directly by suggesting a distributive scheme based on what we shall call frontiers...

  14. Emerging frontier technologies for food safety analysis and risk assessment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DONG Yi-yang; LIU Jia-hui; WANG Sai; CHEN Qi-long; GUO Tian-yang; ZHANG Li-ya; JIN Yong; SU Hai-jia; TAN Tian-wei

    2015-01-01

    Access to security and safe food is a basic human necessity and essential for a sustainable world. To perform hi-end food safety analysis and risk assessment with state of the art technologies is of utmost importance thereof. With applications as exempliifed by microlfuidic immunoassay, aptasensor, direct analysis in real time, high resolution mass spectrometry, benchmark dose and chemical speciifc adjustment factor, this review presents frontier food safety analysis and risk assess-ment technologies, from which both food quality and public health wil beneift undoubtedly in a foreseeable future.

  15. The Frontiers of Attosecond Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doumy, G.; Wheeler, J.; Blaga, C.; Catoire, F.; Chirla, R.; Colosimo, P.; March, A. M.; Agostini, P.; Dimauro, L. F.

    2009-03-01

    The genesis of light pulses with attosecond (10-18 seconds) durations signifies a new frontier in time-resolved physics. The scientific importance is obvious: the time-scale necessary for probing the motion of an electron(s) in the ground state is attoseconds (atomic unit of time = 24 as). The availability of attosecond pulses would allow, for the first time, the study of the time-dependent dynamics of correlated electron systems by freezing the motion, in essence exploring the structure with ultra-fast snapshots, then following the subsequent evolution using pump-probe techniques. This paper examines the fundamental principles of attosecond formation by Fourier synthesis of a high harmonic comb and phase measurements using two-color techniques. Quantum control of the spectral phase, critical to attosecond formation, has its origin in the fundamental response of an atom to an intense electromagnetic field. We will interpret the laser-atom interaction using a semi-classical trajectory model.

  16. Nature's longest threads new frontiers in the mathematics and physics of information in biology

    CERN Document Server

    Sreekantan, B V

    2014-01-01

    Organisms endowed with life show a sense of awareness, interacting with and learning from the universe in and around them. Each level of interaction involves transfer of information of various kinds, and at different levels. Each thread of information is interlinked with the other, and woven together, these constitute the universe — both the internal self and the external world — as we perceive it. They are, figuratively speaking, Nature's longest threads. This volume reports inter-disciplinary research and views on information and its transfer at different levels of organization by reputed scientists working on the frontier areas of science. It is a frontier where physics, mathematics and biology merge seamlessly, binding together specialized streams such as quantum mechanics, dynamical systems theory, and mathematics. The topics would interest a broad cross-section of researchers in life sciences, physics, cognition, neuroscience, mathematics and computer science, as well as interested amateurs, familia...

  17. Science between and against disciplines in the social sciences and humanities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksander Kobylarek

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the role of interdisciplinarity in the process of making science. Two patterns of research and development of discipline are presented: the closed pattern which concentrates on specialization and the open pattern which fosters interdisciplinary science. The key to success is always openness for new scientific experiences and communities. The conclusion of the article is a proposal for finding new scientific communities, which could be interested in new ideas, research and thoughts where interdisciplinary analyses are not acceptable to the local scientific community.

  18. Humberto R. Maturana and Francisco J. Varela on Science and the Humanities: The Poerksen Interviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    Journal of Aesthetic Education, 2006

    2006-01-01

    This article deals with Bernhard Poerksen's interviews with Humberto R. Maturana and Francisco J. Varela on science and the humanities. In Poerksen's conversation with Maturana, they talk about the: (1) responsibility of the teacher; (2) listening to the listening; (3) perception and illusion; and (4) all human beings are equally intelligent. In…

  19. Learning Research as a Human Science: Old Wine in New Bottles?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penuel, William R.; O'Connor, Kevin

    2010-01-01

    Taken as a whole, this volume can be viewed as an argument for reframing learning research as a human science, one focused on interpreting learning situations and organizing for improving learning in ways that put human agency, values, and engagement with social practices at the center. Each chapter illuminates one or more elements of a human…

  20. Computer science security research and human subjects: emerging considerations for research ethics boards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchanan, Elizabeth; Aycock, John; Dexter, Scott; Dittrich, David; Hvizdak, Erin

    2011-06-01

    This paper explores the growing concerns with computer science research, and in particular, computer security research and its relationship with the committees that review human subjects research. It offers cases that review boards are likely to confront, and provides a context for appropriate consideration of such research, as issues of bots, clouds, and worms enter the discourse of human subjects review.

  1. Mind the Gap: Appropriate Evolutionary Perspectives toward the Integration of the Sciences and Humanities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heywood, Leslie L.; Garcia, Justin R.; Wilson, David Sloan

    2010-01-01

    Although Darwinism has gained a foothold in the social sciences, in the humanities, with a few exceptions, it is still largely rejected--not, as some would claim, because humanists are all radical poststructuralists who deny that material reality exists, but rather because, with notable exceptions, Darwinists who work within the humanities have…

  2. Analysing an academic field through the lenses of Internet Science : Digital Humanities as a Virtual Community

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akdag Salah, A.; Scharnhorst, Andrea; Wyatt, S.; Tiropanis, Thanassis; Vakali, Athena; Sartori, Laura; Burnap, Pete

    2015-01-01

    Digital Humanities (DH) has been depicted as an innovative engine for humanities, as a challenge for Data Science, and as an area where libraries, archives and providers of e-research infrastructures join forces with research pioneers. However DH is defined, one thing is cer- tain: DH is a new commu

  3. Human Research Program Science Management: Overview of Research and Development Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles, John B.

    2007-01-01

    An overview of research and development activities of NASA's Human Research Science Management Program is presented. The topics include: 1) Human Research Program Goals; 2) Elements and Projects within HRP; 3) Development and Maintenance of Priorities; 4) Acquisition and Evaluation of Research and Technology Proposals; and 5) Annual Reviews

  4. Science and Ecological Economics: Integrating of the Study of Humans and the Rest of Nature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costanza, Robert

    2009-01-01

    Ecological economics is a transdisciplinary field that seeks to integrate the study of humans and the rest of nature as the basis for the creation of a sustainable and desirable future. It seeks to dissolve the barriers between the traditional disciplines and achieve a true "consilience" of all the sciences and humanities. This consilient,…

  5. Human Evolution in Science Textbooks from Twelve Different Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quessada, Marie-Pierre; Clement, Pierre; Oerke, Britta; Valente, Adriana

    2008-01-01

    What kinds of images of human beings illustrate human evolution in school textbooks? A comparison between the textbooks of eighteen different countries (twelve European countries and six non-European countries) was attempted. In six countries (Algeria, Malta, Morocco, Mozambique, Portugal, and Tunisia), we did not find any chapter on the topic of…

  6. Hysteria, race, and phlogiston. A model of ontological elimination in the human sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludwig, David

    2014-03-01

    Elimination controversies are ubiquitous in philosophy and the human sciences. For example, it has been suggested that human races, hysteria, intelligence, mental disorder, propositional attitudes such as beliefs and desires, the self, and the super-ego should be eliminated from the list of respectable entities in the human sciences. I argue that eliminativist proposals are often presented in the framework of an oversimplified "phlogiston model" and suggest an alternative account that describes ontological elimination on a gradual scale between criticism of empirical assumptions and conceptual choices.

  7. Distinguishing Science from Pseudoscience in School Psychology: Science and Scientific Thinking as Safeguards against Human Error

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lilienfeld, Scott O.; Ammirati, Rachel; David, Michal

    2012-01-01

    Like many domains of professional psychology, school psychology continues to struggle with the problem of distinguishing scientific from pseudoscientific and otherwise questionable clinical practices. We review evidence for the scientist-practitioner gap in school psychology and provide a user-friendly primer on science and scientific thinking for…

  8. Distinguishing Science from Pseudoscience in School Psychology: Science and Scientific Thinking as Safeguards against Human Error

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lilienfeld, Scott O.; Ammirati, Rachel; David, Michal

    2012-01-01

    Like many domains of professional psychology, school psychology continues to struggle with the problem of distinguishing scientific from pseudoscientific and otherwise questionable clinical practices. We review evidence for the scientist-practitioner gap in school psychology and provide a user-friendly primer on science and scientific thinking for…

  9. Integrating science and human values for cancer patient care

    OpenAIRE

    Sutcliffe, S. B.

    2008-01-01

    The burden of cancer continues to increase globally, with substantial personal, societal, and economic consequences. Population growth and aging underlie this increase—a reflection of the effect of population health interventions in the last two centuries. Much of this gain has come through observation, derivation of evidence, and rigorous application of valid science to the public, both healthy and affected by diseases such as cancer. Increasingly, molecular medicine will affect the knowledg...

  10. [Intellectual hoaxes. Various observations on epistemology and the human sciences].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bricmont, J

    1999-01-01

    In 1996, a New York physicist, Alan Sokal, published an article entitled "Transgressing the boundaries: towards transformative hermeneutics of quantum gravity" in the journal of cultural studies Social Text. He later revealed that it was a hoax; In this paper, I discuss the two main issues raised by the hoax: firstly, the abuse of scientific terminology by famous intellectuals such as Lacan, Kristeva or Irigaray, and other "postmodernist" thinkers; secondly, the epistemic relativism and its impact on the history and sociology of science.

  11. NASA Astrophysics Education and Public Outreach: Engaging Educators and Students in Exploring the Cosmic Frontier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawton, Brandon L.; Eisenhamer, Bonnie; Smith, Denise Anne; Jirdeh, Hussein; Summers, Frank; Darnell, John T.; Ryer, Holly

    2015-08-01

    NASA’s Frontier Fields is an ambitious three-year Great Observatories program that will expand our understanding of galaxy formation and evolution in the early universe. The program includes six deep-field observations of strong-lensing galaxy clusters that will be taken in parallel with six deep “blank fields.” The observations allow astronomers to look deeper into the universe than ever before, and potentially uncover galaxies that are as much as 100 times fainter than what the telescopes can typically observe. The Frontier Fields science program is ideal for informing audiences about scientific advances and topics in STEM. The study of galaxy properties, statistics, optics, and Einstein’s theory of general relativity naturally leverages off of the science returns of the Frontier Fields program. As a result, the Space Telescope Science Institute’s Office of Public Outreach (OPO) has initiated an E/PO project to follow the progress of the Frontier Fields.For over two decades, the Hubble E/PO program has sought to bring the wonders of the universe to the education community, the youth, and the public, and engage audiences in the adventure of scientific discovery. Program components include standards-based curriculum-support materials, exhibits and exhibit components, professional development workshops, and direct interactions with scientists. We are also leveraging our new social media strategy to bring the science program to the public in the form of an ongoing blog. The main underpinnings of the program’s infrastructure are scientist-educator development teams, partnerships, and an embedded program evaluation component. OPO is leveraging this existing infrastructure to bring the Frontier Fields science program to the education community and the public in a cost-effective way.This talk features the goals and current status of the Frontier Fields E/PO program, with a particular emphasis on our education goals and achievements. We also highlight OPO

  12. Digging into data using new collaborative infrastructures supporting humanities-based computer science research

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores infrastructure supporting humanities–computer science research in large–scale image data by asking: Why is collaboration a requirement for work within digital humanities projects? What is required for fruitful interdisciplinary collaboration? What are the technical and intellectual approaches to constructing such an infrastructure? What are the challenges associated with digital humanities collaborative work? We reveal that digital humanities collaboration requ...

  13. Pesticide use and biodiversity conservation in the Amazonian agricultural frontier

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schiesari, L.; Waichman, A.; Brock, T.C.M.; Adams, C.; Grillitsch, B.

    2013-01-01

    Agricultural frontiers are dynamic environments characterized by the conversion of native habitats to agriculture. Because they are currently concentrated in diverse tropical habitats, agricultural frontiers are areas where the largest number of species is exposed to hazardous land management

  14. Pesticide use and biodiversity conservation in the Amazonian agricultural frontier

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schiesari, L.; Waichman, A.; Brock, T.C.M.; Adams, C.; Grillitsch, B.

    2013-01-01

    Agricultural frontiers are dynamic environments characterized by the conversion of native habitats to agriculture. Because they are currently concentrated in diverse tropical habitats, agricultural frontiers are areas where the largest number of species is exposed to hazardous land management practi

  15. The International Space Station human life sciences experiment implementation process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, L. J.; Haven, C. P.; McCollum, S. G.; Lee, A. M.; Kamman, M. R.; Baumann, D. K.; Anderson, M. E.; Buderer, M. C.

    2001-01-01

    The selection, definition, and development phases of a Life Sciences flight research experiment has been consistent throughout the past decade. The implementation process, however, has changed significantly within the past two years. This change is driven primarily by the shift from highly integrated, dedicated research missions on platforms with well defined processes to self contained experiments with stand alone operations on platforms which are being concurrently designed. For experiments manifested on the International Space Station (ISS) and/or on short duration missions, the more modular, streamlined, and independent the individual experiment is, the more likely it is to be successfully implemented before the ISS assembly is completed. During the assembly phase of the ISS, science operations are lower in priority than the construction of the station. After the station has been completed, it is expected that more resources will be available to perform research. The complexity of implementing investigations increases with the logistics needed to perform the experiment. Examples of logistics issues include- hardware unique to the experiment; large up and down mass and volume needs; access to crew and hardware during the ascent or descent phases; maintenance of hardware and supplies with a limited shelf life,- baseline data collection schedules with lengthy sessions or sessions close to the launch or landing; onboard stowage availability, particularly cold stowage; and extensive training where highly proficient skills must be maintained. As the ISS processes become better defined, experiment implementation will meet new challenges due to distributed management, on-orbit resource sharing, and adjustments to crew availability pre- and post-increment. c 2001. Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. The Recursive Thick Frontier Approach to Estimating Efficiency

    OpenAIRE

    Wagenvoort, Rien; Schure, Paul

    1999-01-01

    The traditional econometric techniques for frontier models, namely the Stochastic Frontier Approach (SFA), the Thick Frontier Approach (TFA) and the Distribution Free Approach (DFA) have in common that they depend on a priori assumptions that are, whether feasible or not, difficult to test. This paper introduces the Recursive Thick Frontier Approach (RTFA) to the estimation of technology parameters when panel data is available. Our approach is based on the assertion that if deviations from th...

  17. Review of Cold war social science: Knowledge production, liberal democracy, and human nature, and Working knowledge: Making the human sciences from Parsons to Kuhn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Paul

    2013-11-01

    Reviews the books, Cold War Social Science: Knowledge Production, Liberal Democracy, and Human Nature by Mark Solovey and Hamilton Cravens (2012) and Working Knowledge: Making the Human Sciences From Parsons to Kuhn by Joel Isaac (see record 2012-13212-000). Taken together, these two important books make intriguing statements about the way to write the histories of fields like psychology, sociology, anthropology, and economics in the Anglo American world during the 20th century. To date, histories of these fields have drawn on a number of fairly well-established punctuation marks to assist in periodization: the shift from interwar institutionalism in economics to postwar neoclassicism, with its physics-like emphasis on mathematical theory-building; the transition from the regnant prewar behaviorism through a postwar "cognitive revolution" in American psychology; and the move in fields like sociology and anthropology away from positivism and the pursuit of what has sometimes been called "grand theory" in the early postwar era toward a period defined by intellectual and political fragmentation, the reemergence of interpretive approaches and a reaction to the scientistic pretensions of the earlier period. These books, by contrast, provide perspectives orthogonal to such existing narrative frameworks by adopting cross-cutting lenses like the "Cold War" and the working practices of researchers in the social and behavioral sciences. As a result, they do much to indicate the value of casting a historiographical net beyond individual disciplines, or even beyond the "social sciences" or the "human sciences" sensu stricto, in the search for deeper patterns of historical development in these fields. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. Frontiers, territoriality and tensions in bordering spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Eugenia Comerci

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The expansión of the agricultural frontier in the Argentine pampas implied a re-valuation of "bordering" spaces, which were considered "marginal" by capital. This paper aims at interpreting the socio-territorial impact -from both a material and a symbolic level- being caused by the expansión of the productive, business-profile [agricultural and oil] frontier in the center-west of the province of La Pampa. With the interpretative approach provided by qualitative methodologies, we intend to analyze -in a case study- how these frontier expansión processes altered and re-defined the social arena between the years 2000 and 2010, the social construction of the space and the power relations in Chos Malal

  19. Economics as a Science of the Human Mind and Interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fast, Michael; Hertel, Frederik; Clark, Woodrow

    2014-01-01

    as important in the understanding of economics activities, actions and results. Those meanings and definitions of economics are being produced and exchanged in order to become a new comprehensive framework that influences, co-produces, limits and creates contradictions in everyday economic life....... This additional qualitative focus [1] outlines the importance of understanding how human cognitions produce meaning of objects, definitions, activities and actions which provides the framework for the field of economics. The epistemological perspective for this is that the objects are not only within themselves...... references), then it can be stated that economics cannot only be understood as something that appears in nature. On the contrary, economics must be understood as “something” which results from human behaviour, interaction and groups in human activities and the thinking involved and embedded in those...

  20. Human-centric decision-making models for social sciences

    CERN Document Server

    Pedrycz, Witold

    2014-01-01

    The volume delivers a wealth of effective methods to deal with various types of uncertainty inherently existing in human-centric decision problems. It elaborates on  comprehensive decision frameworks to handle different decision scenarios, which help use effectively the explicit and tacit knowledge and intuition, model perceptions and preferences in a more human-oriented style. The book presents original approaches and delivers new results on fundamentals and applications related to human-centered decision making approaches to business, economics and social systems. Individual chapters cover multi-criteria (multiattribute) decision making, decision making with prospect theory, decision making with incomplete probabilistic information, granular models of decision making and decision making realized with the use of non-additive measures. New emerging decision theories being presented as along with a wide spectrum of ongoing research make the book valuable to all interested in the field of advanced decision-mak...

  1. Einstein in the crossroad of the sciences, arts and humanities

    CERN Document Server

    Salomón, Daniel

    2007-01-01

    Western thinking underwent a turning point between 1885 and 1925. Einstein in 1905 symbolizes the emblematic hinge of this change of direction. To find an equivalent phenomenon in the past we need to go back to the period from the XV century to the XVII century. It was not a mere reform of codes but a new code. In 1905 the perception of reality changed through the introduction of relativism in three levels of the reference systems: the ego-other relation, the world perceived by the senses, and the 'ideal' universe of the concepts. We will try to identify how this change was expressed and developed in the cited levels, both in the physic and nature based sciences, in the social sciences, and in literature and fine arts. Today, 100 years after, the 1905's generation still proposes us two options: to live sheltered by the dogma that reassures us with its only and exclusive viewpoint claimed objective, or to dare to live with the multiple, the transient, the relative. The first way led to the worst regimes and in...

  2. Science as a (TRANSITORY?) Phase in Human Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leibowitz, Elia

    One of the key elements of human knowledge in the last 150 years is the recognition that the universe, as well as each of its components, are in a permanent stage of evolution. Mankind and human affairs are of course no exceptions. Human beings owe their biological supremacy to the possession of a form of inheritance quite unlike that of other animals: exogenetic heredity. They have a non genetic channel for transmitting information from one generation to another, namely, the entire apparatus of culture. As information is correlated with brain structure, culture is a non genetic means to create patterns in human brains. It therefore plays a major role in human evolution. This apparatus by itself is however also undergoing a process of evolution. Using examples of astronomical, cosmological and other cultural concepts and argumentations, I shall show that throughout recorded human history, 4 distinct phases can be recognized in the evolution of this non genetic apparatus. The latest phase, the beginning of which is symbolized by the life and work of Galileo, is the "scientific" era. At the turn of the millenium, humankind is possibly at a transition state, from the "scientific" towards a new phase that may be termed a "public relation" or "propaganda" era. Causes for this transition can be found among recent developments in mass media and communications. These, in turn, are correlated with modern, 20th century trends in economy, technology and sociology that are other dominants factors in this transition. The apparent decline of the "scientific" culture may have profound consequences on the future evolution of mankind.

  3. A frontier in fast computing

    CERN Document Server

    von der Schmitt, Hans; The ATLAS collaboration

    2012-01-01

    The primary mission of particle physics is fundamental science. Big apparatus is required however to do such science: accelerators, detectors, and computing. Also the methodology used forms a trinity: experiment, theory, and simulation. This talk has a focus on computing and simulation. The worldwide Grid computing allows us to analyze all data within days after they are recorded at the experiment and to get to physics results quickly, as in the case of the recently discovered Higgs-like boson at 126 GeV mass. Developments in simulation, computing, accelerators and detectors all provided valuable technical results to society, e.g. the WWW, hadron therapy and medical imaging. The technology aspect and the fundamental science aspect of particle physics, and of other fields of physics, are both important for the role of science in the third millenium.

  4. ON THE UNBIASED ESTIMATOR OF THE EFFICIENT FRONTIER

    OpenAIRE

    OLHA BODNAR; TARAS BODNAR

    2010-01-01

    In the paper, we derive an unbiased estimator of the efficient frontier. It is shown that the suggested estimator corrects the overoptimism of the sample efficient frontier documented in Siegel and Woodgate (2007). Moreover, an exact F-test on the efficient frontier is presented.

  5. Practice and application of the construction of the human's secret science museum in medical colleges

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mu Zhaoxin; Sui Yuelin; Lu Lanhong

    2015-01-01

    Human anatomy showroom is an important place for students to contact the theory with prac-tice, at the same time is also a window to exchange with other schools. How to make the high quality anatomy teaching resources to service the public? How to provide a place for medical practitioners' to continue learning? It is a subject that many anatomical workers have been studied all the way. This study is based on the human anatomy laboratory, and developing from basic construction, space layout to the design of Showcase and exhibition booth, sample production, writing materials and other aspects. Every link has been carefully argument and arranged. It puts science, knowledge, interest and artistry together. So we can build up the human's secret science museum to allow people to cognize human`s inner construction and open to primary and middle school students and the public. It has finally obtained good social and economic benefits.

  6. The Contribution of Equitation Science to Minimising Horse-Related Risks to Humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starling, Melissa; McLean, Andrew; McGreevy, Paul

    2016-02-23

    Equitation science is an evidence-based approach to horse training and riding that focuses on a thorough understanding of both equine ethology and learning theory. This combination leads to more effective horse training, but also plays a role in keeping horse riders and trainers safe around horses. Equitation science underpins ethical equitation, and recognises the limits of the horse's cognitive and physical abilities. Equitation is an ancient practice that has benefited from a rich tradition that sees it flourishing in contemporary sporting pursuits. Despite its history, horse-riding is an activity for which neither horses nor humans evolved, and it brings with it significant risks to the safety of both species. This review outlines the reasons horses may behave in ways that endanger humans and how training choices can exacerbate this. It then discusses the recently introduced 10 Principles of Equitation Science and explains how following these principles can minimise horse-related risk to humans and enhance horse welfare.

  7. Human Blood Typing: A Forensic Science Approach: Part II. Experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobilinsky, Lawrence; Sheehan, Francis X.

    1988-01-01

    Describes several experiments that explore the methodology available to the forensic serologist for typing a human bloodstain in the ABH grouping system. Presents ABO blood group of wet blood, Lattes Crust test procedure, and the absorption-elution procedure. Uses outdated blood; equipment requirements are minimal. (ML)

  8. Integrating Digital Humanities into the Library and Information Science Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moazeni, Sarah Leila

    2015-01-01

    Digital Humanities (DH) is a hot topic, in demand and on the rise. This article begins with excerpts from job listings that were posted to the American Library Association's job list in a two-month span in spring 2015 and they seem to indicate that DH is an increasingly important competency and interest for academic librarians who perform…

  9. Humanism and the Sciences: Monogamy, Polygamy, and Sociobiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saladin, Kenneth S.

    1981-01-01

    Portrays sociobiology in a rational light and examines its human implications in the area of sexual selection and mating systems. Sociobiology is the analysis of social behavior in terms of its revolutionary and genetic origins and consequences. Concludes with a discussion of the potential contributions of sociobiology toward understanding of…

  10. Humanism and the Sciences: Monogamy, Polygamy, and Sociobiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saladin, Kenneth S.

    1981-01-01

    Portrays sociobiology in a rational light and examines its human implications in the area of sexual selection and mating systems. Sociobiology is the analysis of social behavior in terms of its revolutionary and genetic origins and consequences. Concludes with a discussion of the potential contributions of sociobiology toward understanding of…

  11. Human Blood Typing: A Forensic Science Approach: Part II. Experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobilinsky, Lawrence; Sheehan, Francis X.

    1988-01-01

    Describes several experiments that explore the methodology available to the forensic serologist for typing a human bloodstain in the ABH grouping system. Presents ABO blood group of wet blood, Lattes Crust test procedure, and the absorption-elution procedure. Uses outdated blood; equipment requirements are minimal. (ML)

  12. NASA Planetary Science Division Vision 2050 Through Human Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, P. Y.

    2017-02-01

    Next 34 years PSD should play the role of the 21st century-version Lewis and Clark expedition to gather critical information about carefully chosen target celestial bodies in our solar system. PSD missions and human missions will benefit each other.

  13. Strong Lensing Cosmography in the Frontier Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jullo, Eric; Acebron, Ana; Limousin, Marceau; Giocoli, Carlo; Despali, Giulia; Bonamigo, Mario; Bonamigo

    The wealth of strong lensing features observed in the Frontier Fields clusters offers insights on the nature of dark energy. The large number of multiple-images systems with redshifts allows to simultaneously estimate the lens model parameters and the cosmological parameters involved in the distances calculations. In particular for the ΛCDM model, it is possible to estimate the matter density Ω m and the dark energy equations parameters w X . In this talk, I will present recent analyses of systematic errors based on Frontier Fields observed and simulated data.

  14. The “Moving” Frontiers of Burma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maxime Boutry

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available From the frontiers as an object to the frontiers as a methodAnthropology of borders in its contemporary developments answers to the awareness of the radical changes bring by the drawing of national borders. Before the colonization, territories were seen by their populations differently, subjected to moving and relative relations of power regarding the hegemony of a State, a kingdom or a society. Even if Thailand haven’t been, strictly speaking, colonized, the work of Winichakul (2005 Siam Ma...

  15. The International Space Station human life sciences experiment implementation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, L J; Haven, C P; McCollum, S G; Lee, A M; Kamman, M R; Baumann, D K; Anderson, M E; Buderer, M C

    2001-01-01

    The selection, definition, and development phases of a Life Sciences flight research experiment has been consistent throughout the past decade. The implementation process, however, has changed significantly within the past two years. This change is driven primarily by the shift from highly integrated, dedicated research missions on platforms with well defined processes to self contained experiments with stand alone operations on platforms which are being concurrently designed. For experiments manifested on the International Space Station (ISS) and/or on short duration missions, the more modular, streamlined, and independent the individual experiment is, the more likely it is to be successfully implemented before the ISS assembly is completed. During the assembly phase of the ISS, science operations are lower in priority than the construction of the station. After the station has been completed, it is expected that more resources will be available to perform research. The complexity of implementing investigations increases with the logistics needed to perform the experiment. Examples of logistics issues include- hardware unique to the experiment; large up and down mass and volume needs; access to crew and hardware during the ascent or descent phases; maintenance of hardware and supplies with a limited shelf life,- baseline data collection schedules with lengthy sessions or sessions close to the launch or landing; onboard stowage availability, particularly cold stowage; and extensive training where highly proficient skills must be maintained. As the ISS processes become better defined, experiment implementation will meet new challenges due to distributed management, on-orbit resource sharing, and adjustments to crew availability pre- and post-increment.

  16. The international space station human life sciences experiment implementation process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, LadonnaJ.; Haven, CynthiaP.; McCollum, SuzanneG.; Lee, AngeleneM.; Kamman, MichelleR.; Baumann, DavidK.; Anderson, MarkE.; Buderer, MelvinC.

    2001-08-01

    The selection, definition, and development phases of a Life Sciences flight research experiment has been consistent throughout the past decade. The implementation process, however, has changed significantly within the past two years. This change is driven primarily by the shift from highly integrated, dedicated research missions on platforms with well defined processes to self contained experiments with stand alone operations on platforms which are being concurrently designed. For experiments manifested on the International Space Station (ISS) and / or on short duration missions, the more modular, streamlined, and independent the individual experiment is, the more likely it is to be successfully implemented before the ISS assembly is completed. During the assembly phase of the ISS, science operations are lower in priority than the construction of the station. After the station has been completed, it is expected that more resources will be available to perform research. The complexity of implementing investigations increases with the logistics needed to perform the experiment. Examples of logistics issues include: hardware unique to the experiment; large up and down mass and volume needs; access to crew and hardware during the ascent or descent phases; maintenance of hardware and supplies with a limited shelf life; baseline data collection schedules with lengthy sessions or sessions close to the launch or landing; onboard stowage availability, particularly cold stowage; and extensive training where highly proficient skills must be maintained. As the ISS processes become better defined, experiment implementation will meet new challenges due to distributed management, on-orbit resource sharing, and adjustments to crew availability pre- and post-increment.

  17. Gregory Bateson and Eric Voegelin – Silent Dialogues across the Human Sciences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomassen, Bjørn

    2017-01-01

    This article argues that two important thinkers of the 20th century, Gregory Bateson (1904-1980) and Eric Voegelin (1901-1985), developed a set of ideas that are of importance to the history of the human sciences. The article also argues that their ideas display similarities that have not yet been...... discussed within the larger history of the human sciences. The aim of the article is to show how the diagnostic terms provided by Bateson and Voegelin complement each other toward an understanding of underlying tensions and social pathologies of contemporary civilization....

  18. World economics for mankind's frontier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finch, Edward R.

    2007-04-01

    In Acta Astronautica, Vol. 56, No. 5, March 2006, at ISSN0094-5765 there appears the article entitled “Will space actually be the Final Frontier of humankind?” written by Giancarlo Genta, and Michael Rycroft. This Acta Astronautica article requires amplification on the economic side. The writer of this article was personally present at the Apollo 11th launchings for the first landing on the Moon, by Buzz Aldrin and others. The Apollo 11 take off to the Moon, from Cape Carnival, did not leave the situation “so humankind seems forever to be bound to its own planet!” There was nothing pessimistic about the launch of Apollo 11. It is written that there was a lack of vision at that time, which is also not correct. The ‘Final Frontier’ myth was never mentioned on that occasion. At Apollo 11 we did take planet earth's “first faltering step for mankind” on the path towards a space faring civilization, exactly as these two authors later correctly mention. Now with the US Presidential initiatives “Moon, Mars and Beyond,” the authors suggested that it “will depend on social, political and economic issues rather than technological and scientific ones.” This Academy Note respectfully submits that all of these factors social, political and economic issues, plus psychological and scientific ones, instead of, “rather than technical and scientific ones” are going to be the determining factors of the speed of progress of the exploration of the entire universe, and particularly the sun in our Milky Way Galaxy. Russia and Ukraine are now on same, deep-space policy directions. The attention of the readers of this Academy Note is called to the current “Cosmic Collision” excellent presentation at the Hayden Planetarium, located at the Museum of National History in the City of New York. It shows the past, the present and the future of international humankind in exploring space and the creation of the universe, with particular reference to the protons of our

  19. Economics as a Science of the Human Mind and Interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fast, Michael; Hertel, Frederik; Clark, Woodrow

    2014-01-01

    upon the perspective chosen, in which one sees and thinks of economics from a particular philosophical and even political position and perspective. If one takes the perspective on economics from a qualitative paradigm that draws upon the tradition from Kant, Husserl, Simmel, Mead, Schutz, Blumer (see......In understanding economics and the organisation of economics, the questions are what constituteeconomics and the thinking behind economics today? In short what is the field of economics? And in what ways can we connect to and understand this field of study? Of course, the answer to this depends...... references), then it can be stated that economics cannot only be understood as something that appears in nature. On the contrary, economics must be understood as “something” which results from human behaviour, interaction and groups in human activities and the thinking involved and embedded in those...

  20. At the frontier of astrophysics and philosophy | Public conference by Hubert Reeves | 16 July

    CERN Multimedia

    2014-01-01

    "At the frontier of astrophysics and philosophy: between infinitely large and infinitely small" Public conference by Hubert Reeves Globe of Science and Innovation Wednesday 16 July 2014 - 7.00 p.m. Please note that this conference will be in French only. "The Universe is changing.  We are not strangers in the Universe: recent discoveries in astrophysics prove our intimate bond with everything shining in the sky." Save the date! On Wednesday 16 July 2014, Hubert Reeves, astrophysicist, philosopher and engaging communicator, is back at the Globe of Science and Innovation to talk about the frontiers of physics, astronomy and philosophy, two years after the discovery of the Higgs boson at CERN. If you ever wondered how this discovery has changed our knowledge of the Universe and strengthened the bond between the infinitely large world of astrophysics and the infinitely small world of quantum physics, this event is for you. The conference is part of POPSCIENCE, a p...

  1. The science behind One Health: at the interface of humans, animals, and the environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murtaugh, Michael P; Steer, Clifford J; Sreevatsan, Srinand; Patterson, Ned; Kennedy, Shaun; Sriramarao, P

    2017-05-01

    Humans face a grand quality-of-life challenge as growing demands for resources for an ever-expanding population threaten the existence of wildlife populations, degrade land, and pollute air and water. Public investment and policy decisions that will shape future interactions of humans, animals, and the environment need scientific input to help find common ground for durable and sustainable success. The Second International Conference on One Medicine One Science brought together a broad range of scientists, trainees, regulatory authorities, and health experts from 34 countries to inform and discuss the human impacts of air quality; the complexities of water quality, access, and conflicts; the opportunities and uncertainties in precision medicine; and the role of science communication in health policy formulation. Workshops focused on the roles and development of physician-scientists and multidisciplinary teams in complex problem solving, Big Data tools for analysis and visualization, international policy development processes, and health models that benefit animals and humans. Key realizations were that local and regional health challenges at the interface of humans, animals, and the environment are variations of the same overarching conflicts and that international gatherings provide new opportunities for investigation and policy development that are broadly applicable. © 2017 The Authors. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of New York Academy of Sciences.

  2. A comparative analysis of multi-output frontier models

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tao ZHANG; Eoghan GARVEY

    2008-01-01

    Recently, there have been more debates on the methods of measuring efficiency. The main objective of this paper is to make a sensitivity analysis for different frontier models and compare the results obtained from the different methods of estimating multi-output frontier for a specific application. The methods include stochastic distance function frontier, stochastic ray frontier,and data envelopment analysis. The stochastic frontier regressions with and without the inefficiency effects model are also com-pared and tested. The results indicate that there are significant correlations between the results obtained from the alternative estimation methods.

  3. Distinguishing science from pseudoscience in school psychology: science and scientific thinking as safeguards against human error.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lilienfeld, Scott O; Ammirati, Rachel; David, Michal

    2012-02-01

    Like many domains of professional psychology, school psychology continues to struggle with the problem of distinguishing scientific from pseudoscientific and otherwise questionable clinical practices. We review evidence for the scientist-practitioner gap in school psychology and provide a user-friendly primer on science and scientific thinking for school psychologists. Specifically, we (a) outline basic principles of scientific thinking, (b) delineate widespread cognitive errors that can contribute to belief in pseudoscientific practices within school psychology and allied professions, (c) provide a list of 10 key warning signs of pseudoscience, illustrated by contemporary examples from school psychology and allied disciplines, and (d) offer 10 user-friendly prescriptions designed to encourage scientific thinking among school psychology practitioners and researchers. We argue that scientific thinking, although fallible, is ultimately school psychologists' best safeguard against a host of errors in thinking.

  4. China's Maritime Frontiers and the Global System%China's Maritime Frontiers and the Global System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Junhong

    2012-01-01

    According to the concept of the Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) set out -in the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea, the "Maritime Frontier" of China can be defined as extending 200 nautical miles from its coastal baseline. According to the UN principles regarding the "continental shelf," the "Maritime Frontier" of China can be further extended up to 350 nautical miles from the coastal baseline.

  5. Ergonomics and human factors: the paradigms for science, engineering, design, technology and management of human-compatible systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karwowski, W

    2005-04-15

    This paper provides a theoretical perspective on human factors and ergonomics (HFE), defined as a unique and independent discipline that focuses on the nature of human-artefact interactions, viewed from the unified perspective of the science, engineering, design, technology and management of human-compatible systems. Such systems include a variety of natural and artificial products, processes and living environments. The distinguishing features of the contemporary HFE discipline and profession are discussed and a concept of ergonomics literacy is proposed. An axiomatic approach to ergonomics design and a universal measure of system-human incompatibility are also introduced. It is concluded that the main focus of the HFE discipline in the 21st century will be the design and management of systems that satisfy human compatibility requirements.

  6. 4th International Conference on Frontiers in Global Optimization

    CERN Document Server

    Pardalos, Panos

    2004-01-01

    Global Optimization has emerged as one of the most exciting new areas of mathematical programming. Global optimization has received a wide attraction from many fields in the past few years, due to the success of new algorithms for addressing previously intractable problems from diverse areas such as computational chemistry and biology, biomedicine, structural optimization, computer sciences, operations research, economics, and engineering design and control. This book contains refereed invited papers submitted at the 4th international confer­ ence on Frontiers in Global Optimization held at Santorini, Greece during June 8-12, 2003. Santorini is one of the few sites of Greece, with wild beauty created by the explosion of a volcano which is in the middle of the gulf of the island. The mystic landscape with its numerous mult-extrema, was an inspiring location particularly for researchers working on global optimization. The three previous conferences on "Recent Advances in Global Opti­ mization", "State-of-the-...

  7. Future Mission Proposal Opportunities: Discovery, New Frontiers, and Project Prometheus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niebur, S. M.; Morgan, T. H.; Niebur, C. S.

    2003-01-01

    The NASA Office of Space Science is expanding opportunities to propose missions to comets, asteroids, and other solar system targets. The Discovery Program continues to be popular, with two sample return missions, Stardust and Genesis, currently in operation. The New Frontiers Program, a new proposal opportunity modeled on the successful Discovery Program, begins this year with the release of its first Announcement of Opportunity. Project Prometheus, a program to develop nuclear electric power and propulsion technology intended to enable a new class of high-power, high-capability investigations, is a third opportunity to propose solar system exploration. All three classes of mission include a commitment to provide data to the Planetary Data System, any samples to the NASA Curatorial Facility at Johnson Space Center, and programs for education and public outreach.

  8. Astrobiology and other Mars science: how can humans help (and from where)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rummel, John; Conley, Catharine

    2016-07-01

    There are many advocates for the human exploration of Mars who wax poetical when discussing how good it is going to be, but there are only a few who may be willing to write requirements for how much direct human surface exploration on Mars needs to be possible before attempting it is worth the investment, or to compare modes of human exploration to see which one is most cost-efficient for the initial human missions to Mars (assuming that humans working in near-Mars space is a goal in and of itself. For example, the recent MEPAG Scientific Objectives for the Human Exploration of Mars Science Analysis Group (MEPAG HSO-SAG) [1] stated that "A defensible evaluation of surface science operations options and candidate scenarios cannot be done at this time - we recommend deferring this to a future team." Alternatively [e.g., 2], there are considerations of the science that can be done from the martian moon Phobos that do not require surface operations on Mars at all, except by robots controlled through low-latency telepresence. The promise of how to deliver better Mars science for the money (and risk) will be discussed in this paper, and some estimates made on how often a human has to step outside on Mars (and step back in) to accomplish more science than a telepresent rover. We will also look at what the estimates of contamination from on-site human explorers can mean to the search for possible indigenous life on Mars. Some [3] say that Mars is already "contaminated" by Earth organisms brought to Mars from Earth through impact-generated bolide exchanges, but (as noted in [4]) that statement suggests that they do not really hold a solid concept of what contamination is, and what it may mean to both our understanding of the pre-human past on Mars, as well as to the preservation of Mars resources for future human inhabitants. Refs. 1. Beaty et al., Candidate scientific objectives for the human exploration of Mars, and implications for the identification of Martian

  9. Road Infrastructure Development and Deforestation in Southwest Amazonia: a Tri-National Frontier Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeyda Zambrano, A. M.; Broadbent, E. N.; Asner, G. P.; Knapp, D. E.; Durham, W. H.; Duchelle, A. E.; Wunder, S.

    2012-12-01

    Infrastructure development is a priority in many tropical countries. Road infrastructure, in particular, has been linked to deforestation. However, there is an insufficient understanding of how road infrastructure interacts with population and market dynamics to influence forest clearing. To address this we conducted a large-scale interdisciplinary research project in the tri-national Amazonian frontier of Peru, Brazil, and Bolivia encompassing 101,463 km2. This setting, a gradient of young to old Amazon frontier areas, provided a unique opportunity for the study of human environment interactions under varying stages of road infrastructure development while controlling for biophysical variation. We coupled multivariate statistical approaches on roads, population, markets, and deforestation with multitemporal spatial analysis of deforestation and infrastructure development using remote sensing and geographic information systems. Our results highlight the dynamic conditions occurring in Amazonian frontier regions, including rapid road infrastructure development, expansion of markets, and decrease in forest cover. We found that travel time to the nearest market dominated deforestation dynamics, with infrastructure development resulting in increased market access. Findings from this study support a deforestation framework focusing on urban population and market dynamics, and highlight the importance of modeling landscape deforestation using travel time versus spatial proximity approaches. Results are directly applicable to both furthering the theoretical understanding of human-environment interactions in frontier landscapes, as well as for applied environmental conservation and sustainable development efforts in the tropics.;

  10. The humanization of technology and science in distance learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voelzke, Marcos Rincon; Rodrigues Ferreira, Orlando

    2016-07-01

    The Distance Education [DE] presents significant growth in graduates and postgraduates programs. Regarding this fact, new challenges arise and others must be considered, as the generation gap between digital immigrants and digital natives, the establishment of a population increasingly accustomed to Information and Communication Technologies [ICT] and teaching methodologies that should be used and developed. Vygotsky's model of social interaction related to mediation can and should be used in DE, and concerning historical, social and cultural approaches affecting Brazilian reality, Paulo Freire is still up-to-date, integrating humanization into the use of ICT. This work only proceeds with analyses of these elements, being an excerpt of the master's dissertation of one of the authors [Ferreira], under the guidance of another [Voelzke].

  11. Goddess Science, Primates and Feminism. Primatology and Human Nature Seeking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Derra

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The Author introduces basic aims, notions, methodological tools and theories of primatology. Underlining crucial role this discipline has played in defining human nature, she points out how it has changed due to its social duties, close relations to popular culture and growing impact of female researchers with feminist sensitivity. She posits the question about female or feminist character of primatology, indicating that the answer depends on taking for granted certain disputable assumptions about femininity and female scientific methods. Subsequently she presents androcentric bias of primatology studies (concerning sexuality, reproduction, male domination, female roles, aggression, and its later critique. Finally she problematizes culture/nature division which is used both in scientific and everyday discourse.

  12. Liberating methodological thinking in human sciences from grand theories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kharlamov, Nikita; Baldursson, Einar Baldvin

    2016-01-01

    Many humanistic and social disciplines are naturally inclined to seek for human-, person-, self- centered focus, and develop a holistic theory of such. Such disciplines continually engage with philosophical, metaphysical and meta-theoretical perspectives. This engagement often leads to a singular...... focus on the necessity of a “grand unified theory” at the expense of any and all alternative perspectives. Properties of grand theories are discussed on the examples of Giddens and Bourdieu. It is argued that grand theories hamper a more productive focus on concrete phenomena. Robert Merton’s focus...... on “middle range” theories is revisited and its continuing relevance is highlighted. The level of abstraction characteristic of such theories, as well as the way they engage with the empirical social reality, are discussed. The article concludes by considering the paradoxical reductionism that can...

  13. Promoting positive human development and social justice: Integrating theory, research and application in contemporary developmental science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerner, Richard M

    2015-06-01

    The bold claim that developmental science can contribute to both enhancing positive development among diverse individuals across the life span and promoting social justice in their communities, nations and regions is supported by decades of theoretical, methodological and research contributions. To explain the basis of this claim, I describe the relational developmental systems (RDS) metamodel that frames contemporary developmental science, and I present an example of a programme of research within the adolescent portion of the life span that is associated with this metamodel and is pertinent to promoting positive human development. I then discuss methodological issues associated with using RDS-based models as frames for research and application. Finally, I explain how the theoretical and methodological ideas associated with RDS thinking may provide the scholarly tools needed by developmental scientists seeking to contribute to human thriving and to advance social justice in the Global South. © 2015 International Union of Psychological Science.

  14. El estudio de caso en las bases de datos del Science Citation Index, Social Science Citation Index y Arts and Humanities Citation Index (1992-2000).

    OpenAIRE

    Delgado-Lopez-Cozar, Emilio; Fernández-Cano, A

    2002-01-01

    A bibliometric study in data bases of INSTITUTE FOR SCIENTIFIC INFORMATION(ISI) of Philadelphia: SCIENCE CITATION INDEX(SCI), SOCIAL SCIENCE CITATION INDEX(SSCI) snd ARTS AND HUMANITIES CITATION INDEX(A&HCI)is presented. The central finding attests to widespread use, progressive and diverse case study on such a basis, over time, in diverse disciplines, topics and in many scientific journals.

  15. Identifying the Learning Styles and Instructional Tool Preferences of Beginning Food Science and Human Nutrition Majors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohn, D. M.; Rasmussen, C. N.; Schmidt, S. J.

    2004-01-01

    Learning styles vary among individuals, and understanding which instructional tools certain learning styles prefer can be utilized to enhance student learning. Students in the introductory Food Science and Human Nutrition course (FSHN 101), taught at the Univ. of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, were asked to complete Gregorc's Learning Style…

  16. Identifying the Learning Styles and Instructional Tool Preferences of Beginning Food Science and Human Nutrition Majors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohn, D. M.; Rasmussen, C. N.; Schmidt, S. J.

    2004-01-01

    Learning styles vary among individuals, and understanding which instructional tools certain learning styles prefer can be utilized to enhance student learning. Students in the introductory Food Science and Human Nutrition course (FSHN 101), taught at the Univ. of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, were asked to complete Gregorc's Learning Style…

  17. "This war for men's minds": the birth of a human science in Cold War America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin-Nielsen, Janet

    2010-01-01

    The past decade has seen an explosion of work on the history of the human sciences during the Cold War. This work, however, does not engage with one of the leading human sciences of the period: linguistics. This article begins to rectify this knowledge gap by investigating the influence of linguistics and its concept of study, language, on American public, political and intellectual life during the postwar and early Cold War years. I show that language emerged in three frameworks in this period: language as tool, language as weapon, and language as knowledge. As America stepped onto the international stage, language and linguistics were at the forefront: the military poured millions of dollars into machine translation, American diplomats were required to master scores of foreign languages, and schoolchildren were exposed to language-learning on a scale never before seen in the United States. Together, I argue, language and linguistics formed a critical part of the rise of American leadership in the new world order - one that provided communities as dispersed as the military, the diplomatic corps, scientists and language teachers with a powerful way of tackling the problems they faced. To date, linguistics has not been integrated into the broader framework of Cold War human sciences. In this article, I aim to bring both language, as concept, and linguistics, as discipline, into this framework. In doing so, I pave the way for future work on the history of linguistics as a human science.

  18. Distancing Students from Nature: Science Camp and the Representation of the Human-Nature Relationship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrill, Laura Anne

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the curricular representations of the environment and the human-environment relationship at one residential school sponsored science camp. Data gathered included field notes from observational time at the camp, interviews with staff and classroom teachers, and documents from the site's website, guides, manuals, and…

  19. Problem-Based Learning of Social Sciences and Humanities by Fourth-Year Medical Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colby, Kathleen K.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    A required fourth-year course integrating the social sciences and humanities into the required clinical medical curriculum at Dartmouth Medical School is intended to prepare students to deal with the social and humanistic issues involved in medical practice, including law, ethics, economics, and social anthropology. (MSE)

  20. A Comparative Framework for Studying the Histories of the Humanities and Science

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bod, R.

    2015-01-01

    While the humanities and the sciences have a closely connected history, there are no general histories that bring the two fields together on an equal footing. This paper argues that there is a level at which some humanistic and scientific disciplines can be brought under a common denominator and com

  1. English Proficiency and Competency Background of Social Science and Humanities Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelayo, Jose Maria G., III; Kutschera, P. C.; Capili, Claire Ann P.

    2014-01-01

    The study focuses on the background of Social Science and Humanities students (specifically in the course General Psychology) on their English education and competence. This research aims to identify the common factors of these students in terms of their English Proficiency. The students will answer survey questions that will give us information…

  2. Congruence between National Policy for Science and Humanities Enrolment Ratio and Labour Market Demand in Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alabi, Goski; Alabi, Joshua; Mohammed, Ibrahim

    2013-01-01

    The paper undertook a snapshot of the demand for various academic programmes on the labour market and compared this with national policy norms for enrolment in public universities in Ghana. The objective was to ascertain whether national higher education enrolments are responsive to the national policy target of 60:40 (Sciences : Humanities) or…

  3. Designing an Exploratory Text Analysis Tool for Humanities and Social Sciences Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrikumar, Aditi

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation presents a new tool for exploratory text analysis that attempts to improve the experience of navigating and exploring text and its metadata. The design of the tool was motivated by the unmet need for text analysis tools in the humanities and social sciences. In these fields, it is common for scholars to have hundreds or thousands…

  4. Extending the Dialogue about Science and Humanities in Counseling: A Reply to Hansen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Clayton V.; Guterman, Jeffrey T.; Kopp, David M.

    2012-01-01

    This is a reply to Hansen's (2012b) rejoinder to the authors (Guterman, Martin, & Kopp, 2012), which is a response to Hansen's (2012a) keystone article about the relationship between humanities and science in counseling. In this reply, the authors provide remaining clarifications, points of disagreement, and suggestions for future directions in…

  5. Comprehensive bibliographic coverage of the social sciences and humanities in a citation index

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sivertsen, Gunnar; Larsen, Birger

    2012-01-01

    A well-designed and comprehensive citation index for the social sciences and humanities has many potential uses, but has yet to be realised. Significant parts of the scholarly production in these areas are not published in international journals, but in national scholarly journals, in book chapters...

  6. Neoliberal Universities and the Education of Arts, Humanities and Social Sciences in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anwaruddin, Rdar M.

    2013-01-01

    In this article, the author explores the neoliberal impacts on higher education in Bangladesh, how market-driven policies might limit the education of arts, humanities and social sciences, and whether or not this phenomenon may have consequences for the future of democracy in the country. First, the author focuses on the privatisation of higher…

  7. English Engagement Markers: A Comparison of Humanities and Science Journal Articles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahragard, Rahman; Yazdanpanahi, Solmaz

    2017-01-01

    Engagement markers (hereafter, EMs) are crucial interpersonal devices to interact with readers through texts. However, little is known about the differences of EMs use in Humanities and Science journal research articles (hereafter, RAs), as well as the changes in markers use over the passage of time. The present study provides a quantitative and…

  8. Learning about the Human Genome. Part 1: Challenge to Science Educators. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haury, David L.

    This digest explains how to inform high school students and their parents about the human genome project (HGP) and how the information from this milestone finding will affect future biological and medical research and challenge science educators. The sections include: (1) "The Emerging Legacy of the HGP"; (2) "Transforming How…

  9. The Contemporary Transdisciplinary Approach as a Methodology to Aid Students of Humanities and Social Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todorova, Petia

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, the author (Todorova, Petia) addresses the problems students of humanities and social sciences face in the choice of methodology which they should employ in the theoretic discussion of a given task. This is due to the fact that in the course of their education the necessity of methodological competency is largely neglected and is…

  10. Write Now! Using Reflective Writing beyond the Humanities and Social Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannady, Rachel E.; Gallo, Kasia Z.

    2016-01-01

    Writing is an important teaching and learning tool that fosters active and critical thinking. There are multiple pressures for disciplines outside the humanities and social sciences to integrate writing in their courses. The shift from teaching solely discipline-specific skills to including writing in a meaningful way can be a daunting process. An…

  11. Creative Minds: The Search for the Reconciling Principles of Science, the Humanities, Arts and Religion

    Science.gov (United States)

    England, Richard

    2009-01-01

    Since before the time of writers such as Plato in his "Republic" and "Timaeus"; Martianus Capella in "The Marriage of Mercury and Philology"; Boethius in "De institutione musica"; Kepler in "The Harmony of the Universe"; and many others, there have been attempts to reconcile the various disciplines in the sciences, arts, humanities, and religion…

  12. I'm Not Sure What to Do! Learning Experiences in the Humanities and Social Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maher, JaneMaree; Mitchell, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    This article reports on a focus group study of student experience in a large humanities and social science faculty in Australia. The study had two purposes: the first was to examine student study/work/life balance issues, and the second purpose was to investigate their experiences of study, workloads and assessment. This article reports on the…

  13. Science and Human Behavior translated into Portuguese: Ciência e Comportamento Humano.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todorov, João Claudio

    2003-11-01

    Science and Human Behavior was translated to Portuguese as part of the effort to begin a psychology course at the University of Brasília 40 years ago; one of the many results of the first visit of Fred S. Keller to Brazil. The book has been used continuously in undergraduate courses in Brazil since 1967.

  14. Frameworks for Africa-UK Research Collaboration in the Social Sciences and Humanities: African University Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harle, Jonathan

    2007-01-01

    This report was commissioned by the British Academy's Africa Panel to examine the challenges facing African universities when undertaking collaborative research with UK and other international partners, particularly in the social sciences and humanities. It draws principally on a consultation undertaken by the Association of Commonwealth…

  15. Neoliberal Universities and the Education of Arts, Humanities and Social Sciences in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anwaruddin, Rdar M.

    2013-01-01

    In this article, the author explores the neoliberal impacts on higher education in Bangladesh, how market-driven policies might limit the education of arts, humanities and social sciences, and whether or not this phenomenon may have consequences for the future of democracy in the country. First, the author focuses on the privatisation of higher…

  16. Write Now! Using Reflective Writing beyond the Humanities and Social Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannady, Rachel E.; Gallo, Kasia Z.

    2016-01-01

    Writing is an important teaching and learning tool that fosters active and critical thinking. There are multiple pressures for disciplines outside the humanities and social sciences to integrate writing in their courses. The shift from teaching solely discipline-specific skills to including writing in a meaningful way can be a daunting process. An…

  17. Freud, Weber, Durkheim: A Philosophical Foundation for Writing in the Humanities and Social Sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeFevre, Karen B.; Larkin, T. J.

    1983-01-01

    Proposes a continuum of lines of inquiry applicable to many of the human sciences. Illustrates the continuum by discussing the approaches of Sigmund Freud, Max Weber, and Emile Durkheim. Suggests uses of the continuum as an aid to invention and as a method of analysis. (RAE)

  18. Are sciences essential and humanities elective? Disentangling competing claims for humanities’ research public value

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olmos-Penuela, Julia; Benneworth, P.; Castro-Martinez, Elena

    2015-01-01

    Recent policy discourse suggests that arts and humanities research is seen as being less useful to society than other disciplines, notably in science, technology, engineering and mathematics. The paper explores how this assumption’s construction has been built and whether it is based upon an unfair

  19. Training Trainers in health and human rights: Implementing curriculum change in South African health sciences institutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baldwin-Ragaven Laurel

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The complicity of the South African health sector in apartheid and the international relevance of human rights as a professional obligation prompted moves to include human rights competencies in the curricula of health professionals in South Africa. A Train-the-Trainers course in Health and Human Rights was established in 1998 to equip faculty members from health sciences institutions nationwide with the necessary skills, attitudes and knowledge to teach human rights to their students. This study followed up participants to determine the extent of curriculum implementation, support needed as well as barriers encountered in integrating human rights into health sciences teaching and learning. Methods A survey including both quantitative and qualitative components was distributed in 2007 to past course participants from 1998-2006 via telephone, fax and electronic communication. Results Out of 162 past participants, 46 (28% completed the survey, the majority of whom were still employed in academic settings (67%. Twenty-two respondents (48% implemented a total of 33 formal human rights courses into the curricula at their institutions. Respondents were nine times more likely (relative risk 9.26; 95% CI 5.14-16.66 to implement human rights education after completing the training. Seventy-two extracurricular activities were offered by 21 respondents, many of whom had successfully implemented formal curricula. Enabling factors for implementation included: prior teaching experience in human rights, general institutional support and the presence of allies - most commonly coworkers as well as deans. Frequently cited barriers to implementation included: budget restrictions, time constraints and perceived apathy of colleagues or students. Overall, respondents noted personal enrichment and optimism in teaching human rights. Conclusion This Train-the-Trainer course provides the historical context, educational tools, and collective motivation

  20. Frontiere pericolose: l’adattamento Dangerous frontiers: adaptation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandro Volpe

    2011-04-01

    >good adaptation – must push further, dare in diversity. Departing from a text means setting off, travelling, crossing a frontier to land elsewhere. And sometimes, as Truffaut wished, doing «something different, and better».

  1. Human Health Science Building Geothermal Heat Pump Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leidel, James [Oakland Univ., Rochester, MI (United States)

    2014-12-22

    The grant objectives of the DOE grant funded project have been successfully completed. The Human Health Building (HHB) was constructed and opened for occupancy for the Fall 2012 semester of Oakland University. As with any large construction project, some issues arose which all were overcome to deliver the project on budget and on time. The facility design is a geothermal / solar-thermal hybrid building utilizing both desiccant dehumidification and variable refrigerant flow heat pumps. It is a cooling dominant building with a 400 ton cooling design day load, and 150 ton heating load on a design day. A 256 vertical borehole (320 ft depth) ground source heat pump array is located south of the building under the existing parking lot. The temperature swing and performance over 2013 through 2015 shows the ground loop is well sized, and may even have excess capacity for a future building to the north (planned lab facility). The HHB achieve a US Green Building Counsel LEED Platinum rating by collecting 52 of the total 69 available LEED points for the New Construction v.2 scoring checklist. Being Oakland's first geothermal project, we were very pleased with the building outcome and performance with the energy consumption approximately 1/2 of the campus average facility, on a square foot basis.

  2. Los Alamos Science: The Human Genome Project. Number 20, 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooper, N G; Shea, N [eds.

    1992-01-01

    This article provides a broad overview of the Human Genome Project, with particular emphasis on work being done at Los Alamos. It tries to emphasize the scientific aspects of the project, compared to the more speculative information presented in the popular press. There is a brief introduction to modern genetics, including a review of classic work. There is a broad overview of the Genome Project, describing what the project is, what are some of its major five-year goals, what are major technological challenges ahead of the project, and what can the field of biology, as well as society expect to see as benefits from this project. Specific results on the efforts directed at mapping chromosomes 16 and 5 are discussed. A brief introduction to DNA libraries is presented, bearing in mind that Los Alamos has housed such libraries for many years prior to the Genome Project. Information on efforts to do applied computational work related to the project are discussed, as well as experimental efforts to do rapid DNA sequencing by means of single-molecule detection using applied spectroscopic methods. The article introduces the Los Alamos staff which are working on the Genome Project, and concludes with brief discussions on ethical, legal, and social implications of this work; a brief glimpse of genetics as it may be practiced in the next century; and a glossary of relevant terms.

  3. Los Alamos Science: The Human Genome Project. Number 20, 1992

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, N. G.; Shea, N. eds.

    1992-01-01

    This document provides a broad overview of the Human Genome Project, with particular emphasis on work being done at Los Alamos. It tries to emphasize the scientific aspects of the project, compared to the more speculative information presented in the popular press. There is a brief introduction to modern genetics, including a review of classic work. There is a broad overview of the Genome Project, describing what the project is, what are some of its major five-year goals, what are major technological challenges ahead of the project, and what can the field of biology, as well as society expect to see as benefits from this project. Specific results on the efforts directed at mapping chromosomes 16 and 5 are discussed. A brief introduction to DNA libraries is presented, bearing in mind that Los Alamos has housed such libraries for many years prior to the Genome Project. Information on efforts to do applied computational work related to the project are discussed, as well as experimental efforts to do rapid DNA sequencing by means of single-molecule detection using applied spectroscopic methods. The article introduces the Los Alamos staff which are working on the Genome Project, and concludes with brief discussions on ethical, legal, and social implications of this work; a brief glimpse of genetics as it may be practiced in the next century; and a glossary of relevant terms.

  4. Frontiers in Sustainable Consumption Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reisch, Lucia A.; Cohen, Maurie J.; Thøgersen, John B.

    2016-01-01

    While the field of sustainable consumption research is relatively young, it has already attracted scholars from all corners of the social sciences. The time has come to identify a new research agenda as trends in sustainable consumption research seem to suggest the dawning of a new phase. Not onl...... does research need to be guided, but sustainable consumption policymaking, too, involving best practices around the application of standard and more innovative instruments.......While the field of sustainable consumption research is relatively young, it has already attracted scholars from all corners of the social sciences. The time has come to identify a new research agenda as trends in sustainable consumption research seem to suggest the dawning of a new phase. Not only...

  5. Frontiers in sustainable consumption research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reisch, Lucia A.; Cohen, Maurie J.; Thøgersen, John;

    2016-01-01

    While the field of sustainable consumption research is relatively young, it has already attracted scholars from all corners of the social sciences. The time has come to identify a new research agenda as trends in sustainable consumption research seem to suggest the dawning of a new phase. Not only...... does research need to be guided, but sustainable consumption policymaking, too, involving best practices around the application of standard and more innovative instruments....

  6. Frontiers in Sustainable Consumption Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reisch, Lucia A.; Cohen, Maurie J.; Thøgersen, John B.;

    2016-01-01

    While the field of sustainable consumption research is relatively young, it has already attracted scholars from all corners of the social sciences. The time has come to identify a new research agenda as trends in sustainable consumption research seem to suggest the dawning of a new phase. Not only...... does research need to be guided, but sustainable consumption policymaking, too, involving best practices around the application of standard and more innovative instruments....

  7. Cognitive neuroscience 2.0: building a cumulative science of human brain function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarkoni, Tal; Poldrack, Russell A; Van Essen, David C; Wager, Tor D

    2010-11-01

    Cognitive neuroscientists increasingly recognize that continued progress in understanding human brain function will require not only the acquisition of new data, but also the synthesis and integration of data across studies and laboratories. Here we review ongoing efforts to develop a more cumulative science of human brain function. We discuss the rationale for an increased focus on formal synthesis of the cognitive neuroscience literature, provide an overview of recently developed tools and platforms designed to facilitate the sharing and integration of neuroimaging data, and conclude with a discussion of several emerging developments that hold even greater promise in advancing the study of human brain function. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Healing psychiatry: a pragmatic approach to bridging the science/humanism divide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brendel, David

    2004-01-01

    Competing urges to think of human mental suffering as comprehensible and susceptible to scientific formulation, or as deeply complex and beyond the reach of scientific analysis, have torn at the fabric of psychiatry for many years and have left the field conceptually divided between science and humanism. Conceptual reparation of psychiatry is now a core mission of a field that is trying to heal itself so that it is equipped to heal the patients it serves. To formulate their cases comprehensively and provide patients with cutting-edge care, psychiatrists must heal the conceptual wounds that have resulted from dividing the human individual into an object of scientific scrutiny and a subject of personal experience. They must synthesize science and humanism in order to generate new understanding of mental disorders and to train future clinicians and researchers. Principles of classical American pragmatism, I argue in this article, can help to transcend the science/humanism divide in psychiatry. Clinical pragmatism focuses on favorable treatment outcomes by respecting the practical, pluralistic, participatory, and provisional aspects of psychiatric care. It demands that psychiatrists have the skill and flexibility to use multiple explanatory concepts in a collaborative, open-ended process with their patients. These themes are explored from the perspectives of contemporary psychiatric treatment, training, and research.

  9. Notes for methodological study of instant messaging from social sciences and humanities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosalba MANCINAS-CHÁVEZ

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article defends the need for transversality when methodologically addressing instant messaging via cellphones as a tool of communication from the point of view of social sciences and humanities. This leads us to the structural approach, which requires supplementary knowledge in fields such as Psychology or History, without losing sight that our study is composed in the areas of Communications and Journalism. We intend to avoid the functional approaches to think about the meaning of mobile phones as a communicative and palliative object of human loneliness. We believe that a part of the so-called applied research, in being useful to society, must take that path if we work as social science or humanities researchers. This issue gains even greater importance knowing that Spain is at the top of leading European countries in terms of the use of social networking systems of communication with software applications such as Whatsapp.

  10. Beyond prejudice and pride: The human sciences in nineteenth- and twentieth-century Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Julia

    2013-12-01

    Grappling with problematics of status and hierarchy, recent literature on the history of the human sciences in Latin America has gone through three overlapping phases. First, the scholarship has reflected a dialogue between Latin American scientists and their European colleagues, characterized by the "center/periphery" model of scientific diffusion. Next, scholars drew on postcolonial theory to undermine the power of the "center" and to recover the role of local agents, including both elites and subalterns. In the wake of numerous studies embracing both models, the way has been cleared to look at multiple dimensions simultaneously. Histories of the human sciences in the complex multicultural societies of Latin America provide an unusually direct path to integration. Moreover, this dynamic and multilayered approach has the potential to address ambivalences about authority and power that have characterized previous analyses of the production and application of knowledge about the human condition.

  11. A Comparative Framework for Studying the Histories of the Humanities and Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bod, Rens

    2015-06-01

    While the humanities and the sciences have a closely connected history, there are no general histories that bring the two fields together on an equal footing. This paper argues that there is a level at which some humanistic and scientific disciplines can be brought under a common denominator and compared. This is at the level of underlying methods, especially at the level of formalisms and rule systems used by different disciplines. The essay formally compares linguistics and computer science by noting that the same grammar formalism was used in the 1950s for describing both human and. programming languages. Additionally, it examines the influence of philology on molecular biology, and vice versa, by recognizing that the tree-formalism and rule system used for text reconstruction was also employed in DNA genetics. It also shows that rule systems for source criticism in history are used in forensic science, evidence-based medicine, and jurisprudence. This paper thus opens up a new comparative approach within which the histories of the humanities and the sciences can be examined on a common level.

  12. Progress on the Fabric for Frontier Experiments Project at Fermilab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Box, Dennis; Boyd, Joseph; Dykstra, Dave; Garzoglio, Gabriele; Herner, Kenneth; Kirby, Michael; Kreymer, Arthur; Levshina, Tanya; Mhashilkar, Parag; Sharma, Neha

    2015-12-01

    The FabrIc for Frontier Experiments (FIFE) project is an ambitious, major-impact initiative within the Fermilab Scientific Computing Division designed to lead the computing model for Fermilab experiments. FIFE is a collaborative effort between experimenters and computing professionals to design and develop integrated computing models for experiments of varying needs and infrastructure. The major focus of the FIFE project is the development, deployment, and integration of Open Science Grid solutions for high throughput computing, data management, database access and collaboration within experiment. To accomplish this goal, FIFE has developed workflows that utilize Open Science Grid sites along with dedicated and commercial cloud resources. The FIFE project has made significant progress integrating into experiment computing operations several services including new job submission services, software and reference data distribution through CVMFS repositories, flexible data transfer client, and access to opportunistic resources on the Open Science Grid. The progress with current experiments and plans for expansion with additional projects will be discussed. FIFE has taken a leading role in the definition of the computing model for Fermilab experiments, aided in the design of computing for experiments beyond Fermilab, and will continue to define the future direction of high throughput computing for future physics experiments worldwide.

  13. Mapping and sequencing the human genome: Science, ethics, and public policy. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McInerney, J.D.

    1993-03-31

    Development of Mapping and Sequencing the Human Genome: Science, Ethics, and Public Policy followed the standard process of curriculum development at the Biological Sciences Curriculum Study (BSCS), the process is described. The production of this module was a collaborative effort between BSCS and the American Medical Association (AMA). Appendix A contains a copy of the module. Copies of reports sent to the Department of Energy (DOE) during the development process are contained in Appendix B; all reports should be on file at DOE. Appendix B also contains copies of status reports submitted to the BSCS Board of Directors.

  14. Minerva: User-Centered Science Operations Software Capability for Future Human Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deans, Matthew; Marquez, Jessica J.; Cohen, Tamar; Miller, Matthew J.; Deliz, Ivonne; Hillenius, Steven; Hoffman, Jeffrey; Lee, Yeon Jin; Lees, David; Norheim, Johannes; Lim, Darlene S. S.

    2017-01-01

    In June of 2016, the Biologic Analog Science Associated with Lava Terrains (BASALT) research project conducted its first field deployment, which we call BASALT-1. BASALT-1 consisted of a science-driven field campaign in a volcanic field in Idaho as a simulated human mission to Mars. Scientists and mission operators were provided a suite of ground software tools that we refer to collectively as Minerva to carry out their work. Minerva provides capabilities for traverse planning and route optimization, timeline generation and display, procedure management, execution monitoring, data archiving, visualization, and search. This paper describes the Minerva architecture, constituent components, use cases, and some preliminary findings from the BASALT-1 campaign.

  15. In a Time of Change: Integrating the Arts and Humanities with Climate Change Science in Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leigh, M.; Golux, S.; Franzen, K.

    2011-12-01

    The arts and humanities have a powerful capacity to create lines of communication between the public, policy and scientific spheres. A growing network of visual and performing artists, writers and scientists has been actively working together since 2007 to integrate scientific and artistic perspectives on climate change in interior Alaska. These efforts have involved field workshops and collaborative creative processes culminating in public performances and a visual art exhibit. The most recent multimedia event was entitled In a Time of Change: Envisioning the Future, and challenged artists and scientists to consider future scenarios of climate change. This event included a public performance featuring original theatre, modern dance, Alaska Native Dance, poetry and music that was presented concurrently with an art exhibit featuring original works by 24 Alaskan visual artists. A related effort targeted K12 students, through an early college course entitled Climate Change and Creative Expression, which was offered to high school students at a predominantly Alaska Native charter school and integrated climate change science, creative writing, theatre and dance. Our program at Bonanza Creek Long Term Ecological Research (LTER) site is just one of many successful efforts to integrate arts and humanities with science within and beyond the NSF LTER Program. The efforts of various LTER sites to engage the arts and humanities with science, the public and policymakers have successfully generated excitement, facilitated mutual understanding, and promoted meaningful dialogue on issues facing science and society. The future outlook for integration of arts and humanities with science appears promising, with increasing interest from artists, scientists and scientific funding agencies.

  16. Review - China's Last Imperial Frontier and The Sichuan Frontier and Tibet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Entenmann

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Review of: Yingcong Dai. 2009. The Sichuan Frontier and Tibet: Imperial Strategy in the Early Qing. Seattle and London: University of Washington Press. xiv+368. Maps, notes, glossary of Chinese characters, bibliography, index. ISBN: 978-0-2959-8951-8 (hardcover, 80USD, 978-0-2959-8952-5 (paperback, 30USD. and Xiuyu Wang. 2011. China's Last Imperial Frontier: Late Qing Expansion in Sichuan's Tibetan Borderlands. Lanham, Maryland: Lexington Books. xv+291. Notes, tables, glossary of Chinese characters, bibliography, index. ISBN: 978-0-7391-6809-7 (hardcover, 80USD 978-0-7391-6810-3 (ebook, 79.99USD. Until recently, historians have not paid much attention to Qing China's Tibetan frontier, but two excellent new studies address this neglect. One is Yingcong Dai's The Sichuan Frontier and Tibet: Imperial Strategy in the Early Qing, which examines the Qing conquest of the Khams region up to the end of the eighteenth century and its effect on Sichuan. The other is China's Last Imperial Frontier: Late Qing Expansion in Sichuan's Tibetan Borderlands by Xiuyu Wang, in which he describes Qing efforts to impose direct administration on the Khams region in the last years of the dynasty. The Qing annexation of eastern Khams was part of the regime's attempt to secure military control of Tibet and deny it to the Zunghar Mongols. As Dai shows, Tibet's strategic importance to the Qing directly shaped Sichuan's development. Although Sichuan was long an integral part of China, its demographic collapse during the ...

  17. REVIEW OF THE 73RD SHUANGQING FORUM ON THE FRONTIERS OF SUPRAMOLECULAR POLYMERIC SCIENCE AND MATERIALS%超分子聚合物科学与材料前沿问题——第73期“双清论坛”综述

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄飞鹤; 董建华; 马玉国; 许华平

    2013-01-01

    The fabrication and functionalization of supramolecular polymers have been a topic of great interest for the scientific communities. The 73rd Shuangqing forum on the frontiers of supramolecular polymeric science and materials sponsored by National Natural Science Foundation of China was held in Zhejiang University, with the aim to push forward the investigations on supramolecular polymers in China. The key issues on the driving forces, characterizations, mechanisms of polymerization, functionalization, and material properties of supramolecular polymers were thoroughly addressed. Furthermore, the research and funding emphasis in the field of supramolecular polymers were proposed, thereby making technical and financial guarantee of the study of supramolecular polymers in the future.%设计、制备功能化超分子聚合物是当今高分子科学的研究热点和前沿.国家自然科学基金委员会于2012年5月19-21日在杭州召开了以“超分子聚合物科学与材料前沿问题”为主题的第73期双清论坛.会议围绕超分子聚合物结构构筑、聚合过程与功能调控等关键科学问题进行了深入探讨,旨在推动我国超分子聚合物科学与材料研究的发展,同时凝练该领域需要深入研究的关键科学问题,包括发展超分子聚合新的驱动力、深入研究超分子聚合过程与理论、实现超分子聚合物的特殊功能并发展成特殊聚合物材料.最后,本次论坛提炼了本研究领域的研究重点和国家自然科学基金委员会今后资助的重点与方向,对未来5-10年进一步推动我国超分子聚合物科学与材料研究具有重要推动作用.

  18. Nature-Culture Constructs in Science Learning: Human/Non-Human Agency and Intentionality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bang, Megan; Marin, Ananda

    2015-01-01

    The field of science education has struggled to create robust, meaningful forms of education that effectively engage students from historically non-dominant communities and women. This paper argues that a primary issue underlying this on-going struggle pivots on constructions of nature-culture relations. We take up structuration theory (Giddens,…

  19. Nature-Culture Constructs in Science Learning: Human/Non-Human Agency and Intentionality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bang, Megan; Marin, Ananda

    2015-01-01

    The field of science education has struggled to create robust, meaningful forms of education that effectively engage students from historically non-dominant communities and women. This paper argues that a primary issue underlying this on-going struggle pivots on constructions of nature-culture relations. We take up structuration theory (Giddens,…

  20. Human Error and the International Space Station: Challenges and Triumphs in Science Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Samantha S.; Simpson, Beau C.

    2016-01-01

    Any system with a human component is inherently risky. Studies in human factors and psychology have repeatedly shown that human operators will inevitably make errors, regardless of how well they are trained. Onboard the International Space Station (ISS) where crew time is arguably the most valuable resource, errors by the crew or ground operators can be costly to critical science objectives. Operations experts at the ISS Payload Operations Integration Center (POIC), located at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama, have learned that from payload concept development through execution, there are countless opportunities to introduce errors that can potentially result in costly losses of crew time and science. To effectively address this challenge, we must approach the design, testing, and operation processes with two specific goals in mind. First, a systematic approach to error and human centered design methodology should be implemented to minimize opportunities for user error. Second, we must assume that human errors will be made and enable rapid identification and recoverability when they occur. While a systematic approach and human centered development process can go a long way toward eliminating error, the complete exclusion of operator error is not a reasonable expectation. The ISS environment in particular poses challenging conditions, especially for flight controllers and astronauts. Operating a scientific laboratory 250 miles above the Earth is a complicated and dangerous task with high stakes and a steep learning curve. While human error is a reality that may never be fully eliminated, smart implementation of carefully chosen tools and techniques can go a long way toward minimizing risk and increasing the efficiency of NASA's space science operations.

  1. Sinanthropus in Britain: human origins and international science, 1920-1939.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manias, Chris

    2015-06-01

    The Peking Man fossils discovered at Zhoukoudian in north-east China in the 1920s and 1930s were some of the most extensive palaeoanthropological finds of the twentieth century. This article examines their publicization and discussion in Britain, where they were engaged with by some of the world's leading authorities in human evolution, and a media and public highly interested in human-origins research. This international link - simultaneously promoted by scientists in China and in Britain itself - reflected wider debates on international networks; the role of science in the modern world; and changing definitions of race, progress and human nature. This article illustrates how human-origins research was an important means of binding these areas together and presenting scientific work as simultaneously authoritative and credible, but also evoking mystery and adventurousness. Examining this illustrates important features of contemporary views of both science and human development, showing not only the complexities of contemporary regard for the international and public dynamics of scientific research, but wider concerns over human nature, which oscillated between optimistic notions of unity and progress and pessimistic ones of essential differences and misdirected development.

  2. The city: today’s frontier zone.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saskia Sassen

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Cities are complex systems, but they are incomplete systems. All cities are becoming the same, but all cities are competing with each other. Here actors from different worlds meet, but there are no clear rules of engagement. It is in this context that the complex global city becomes a frontier space with political consequences. Here we can find new hybrid bases from which to act, spaces where the powerless can make history even when they do not get empowered.

  3. New frontiers in nuclear physics with high-power lasers and brilliant monochromatic gamma beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gales, S.; Balabanski, D. L.; Negoita, F.; Tesileanu, O.; Ur, C. A.; Ursescu, D.; Zamfir, N. V.

    2016-09-01

    The development of high power lasers and the combination of such novel devices with accelerator technology has enlarged the science reach of many research fields, in particular particle and nuclear physics, astrophysics as well as societal applications in material science, nuclear energy and applications for medicine. The European Strategic Forum for Research Infrastructures has selected a proposal based on these new premises called the Extreme Light Infrastructure (ELI). The ELI will be built as a network of three complementary pillars at the frontier of laser technologies. The ELI-NP pillar (NP for nuclear physics) is under construction near Bucharest (Romania) and will develop a scientific program using two 10 PW lasers and a Compton back-scattering high-brilliance and intense low-energy gamma beam, a combination of laser and accelerator technology at the frontier of knowledge. This unique combination of beams that are unique worldwide allows us to develop an experimental program in nuclear physics at the frontiers of present-day knowledge as well as society driven applications. In the present paper, the technical description of the facility as well as the new perspectives in nuclear structure, nuclear reactions and nuclear astrophysics will be presented.

  4. The Frontiers of Additive Manufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grote, Christopher John [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-03-03

    Additive manufacturing, more commonly known as 3-D printing, has become a ubiquitous tool in science for its precise control over mechanical design. For additive manufacturing to work, a 3-D structure is split into thin 2D slices, and then different physical properties, such as photo-polymerization or melting, are used to grow the sequential layers. The level of control allows not only for devices to be made with a variety of materials: e.g. plastics, metals, and quantum dots, but to also have finely controlled structures leading to other novel properties. While 3-D printing is widely used by hobbyists for making models, it also has industrial applications in structural engineering, biological tissue scaffolding, customized electric circuitry, fuel cells, security, and more.

  5. Relevance of Piagetian cross-cultural psychology to the humanities and social sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oesterdiekhoff, Georg W

    2013-01-01

    Jean Piaget held views according to which there are parallels between ontogeny and the historical development of culture, sciences, and reason. His books are full of remarks and considerations about these parallels, with reference to many logical, physical, social, and moral phenomena.This article explains that Piagetian cross-cultural psychology has delivered the decisive data needed to extend the research interests of Piaget. These data provide a basis for reconstructing not only the history of sciences but also the history of religion, politics, morals, culture, philosophy, and social change and the emergence of industrial society. Thus, it is possible to develop Piagetian theory as a historical anthropology in order to provide a basis for the humanities and social sciences.

  6. 12th International Symposium on Frontiers of Fundamental Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Michelini, Marisa; Santi, Lorenzo; FFP12; Frontiers of fundamental physics and physics education research

    2014-01-01

    In a knowledge-based society, research into fundamental physics plays a vital role not only in the enhancement of human knowledge but also in the development of new technology that affects everday life.The international symposium series Frontiers of Fundamental Physics (FFP) regularly brings together eminent scholars and researchers working in various areas in physics to exchange expertise, ideas, results, and new research perspectives. The twelfth such symposium, FFP12, took place at the University of Udine, Italy, and covered diverse fields of research: astrophysics, high energy physics and particle physics, theoretical physics, gravitation and cosmology, condensed matter physics, statistical physics, computational physics, and mathematical physics. Importantly, it also devoted a great deal of attention to physics education research, teacher training in modern physics, and popularization of physics. The high scientific level of FFP12 was guaranteed by the careful selection made by scientific coordinators fr...

  7. Ultra-deep K-band Imaging of the Hubble Frontier Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brammer, G. B.; Marchesini, D.; Labbé, I.; Spitler, L.; Lange-Vagle, D.; Barker, E. A.; Tanaka, M.; Fontana, A.; Galametz, A.; Ferré-Mateu, A.; Kodama, T.; Lundgren, B.; Martis, N.; Muzzin, A.; Stefanon, M.; Toft, S.; van der Wel, A.; Vulcani, B.; Whitaker, K. E.

    2016-09-01

    We have recently completed a deep near-infrared imaging survey with the High Acuity Wide Field K-band Imager (HAWK-I), nicknamed KIFF (Ks-band Imaging of the Frontier Fields). KIFF provides ultra-deep images of six fields around massive galaxy clusters that have also recently been observed with the Hubble and Spitzer Space Telescopes as part of the Frontier Fields programme. Each of the KIFF mosaics is among the deepest Ks-band images ever obtained, and, with a boost from strong gravitational lensing by the galaxy clusters, they will be used to reveal the stellar populations of galaxies seen only a few hundred million years after the Big Bang. Fully reduced images are made available to the community through the Phase 3 infrastructure of the ESO Science Archive Facility.

  8. Carbon in Underland (A "Life at the Frontiers of Energy Research" contest entry from the 2011 Energy Frontier Research Centers (EFRCs) Summit and Forum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DePaolo, Donald J. (Director, Center for Nanoscale Control of Geologic CO2); NCGC Staff

    2011-05-01

    'Carbon in Underland' was submitted by the Center for Nanoscale Control of Geologic CO2 (NCGC) to the 'Life at the Frontiers of Energy Research' video contest at the 2011 Science for Our Nation's Energy Future: Energy Frontier Research Centers (EFRCs) Summit and Forum. Twenty-six EFRCs created short videos to highlight their mission and their work. This video was selected as one of five winners by a distinguished panel of judges for its 'entertaining animation and engaging explanations of carbon sequestration'. NCGC, an EFRC directed by Donald J. DePaolo at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory is a partnership of scientists from seven institutions: LBNL (lead) Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, University of California, Davis, Ohio State University, and Washington University in St. Louis. The Office of Basic Energy Sciences in the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Science established the 46 Energy Frontier Research Centers (EFRCs) in 2009. These collaboratively-organized centers conduct fundamental research focused on 'grand challenges' and use-inspired 'basic research needs' recently identified in major strategic planning efforts by the scientific community. The overall purpose is to accelerate scientific progress toward meeting the nation's critical energy challenges. The mission of the Center for Nanoscale Control of Geologic CO{sub 2} is 'to use new investigative tools, combined with experiments and computer simulations, to build a fundamental understanding of molecular-to-pore-scale processes in fluid-rock systems, and to demonstrate the ability to control critical aspects of flow, transport, and mineralization in porous rock media as applied to geologic sequestration of CO{sub 2}. Research topics are: bio-inspired, CO{sub 2} (store), greenhouse gas, and interfacial characterization.

  9. Reporting on Strategic Considerations About the Role of Science in Initial Human Missions to Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaty, David; Bass, Deborah; Thronson, Harley; Hays, Lindsay; Carberry, Chris; Cassady, Joe; Craig, Mark; Duggan, Matt; Drake, Bret; Stern, Jennifer; Zucker, Rick

    2016-07-01

    In December 2015, the "Third Community Workshop on Affording and Sustaining Human Mars Exploration" (AM III) was held, which was designed to provide community recommendations on the potential human exploration of Mars. To facilitate the workshop, we focused on two key questions: 1) From the dual and interrelated perspectives of affordability and sustainability, what are the strengths/challenges of Mars exploration scenarios?; and 2) From the perspective of prioritized scientific objectives for the martian system (the planet's surface or its moons), what are the most enabling capabilities of the different exploration architecture(s) and why? Group discussion over three days resulted in the following findings and observations: 1. NASA's incremental approach to deep-space exploration defines the so-called "Proving Ground," specifically in cis-lunar space, generally occurring in the 2020s and prior to human journeys to Mars. We concluded that there are capabilities directly related to, and on the critical path to, human exploration of Mars that could be developed in cis-lunar space. However, we also concluded that the Proving Ground should best be viewed as a campaign that occurs within a certain timeframe (including activities at Mars), rather than merely occurring at a specific location. 2. The workshop participants agreed that the most valuable purposes of sending humans to the martian system would be accomplished only by surface operations. We concluded that specific benefits, both technical and cost, of sending humans to the Mars system without landing on the martian surface should be assessed in depth. We discussed - although were unable to conclude - whether Mars orbit or Phobos/Deimos as a destination would make sufficient contributions towards humans landing on the martian surface or to answering high-priority science questions (as identified by the Decadal Survey) to justify their associated costs and possible risks. Further study on the value of an orbital

  10. Predictive validity of the Slovene Matura exam for academic achievement in humanities and social sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregor Sočan

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Matura is a Slovene national examination, which all the students take after successfully completing secondary education. The Matura has two major functions; it is a high school final examination and a selection instrument for University. The goal of the study was to investigate the predictive validity of Matura for predicting academic success in study programmes in the area of humanities and social sciences. Predictive validity was studied both from the traditional correlational perspective and from the multilevel regression perspective. Additionally, we checked for possible differences in predictive validity between study programmes. According to the expectations, the Matura score was a relatively strong and robust predictor of later academic achievement, even after controlling for the high school overall grade. The results support the use of Matura scores in selection of candidates for undergraduate studies in humanities and social sciences.

  11. Kilowatt-Class Fission Power Systems for Science and Human Precursor Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Lee S.; Gibson, Marc Andrew; Poston, Dave

    2013-01-01

    Nuclear power provides an enabling capability for NASA missions that might otherwise be constrained by power availability, mission duration, or operational robustness. NASA and the Department of Energy (DOE) are developing fission power technology to serve a wide range of future space uses. Advantages include lower mass, longer life, and greater mission flexibility than competing power system options. Kilowatt-class fission systems, designated "Kilopower," were conceived to address the need for systems to fill the gap above the current 100-W-class radioisotope power systems being developed for science missions and below the typical 100-k We-class reactor power systems being developed for human exploration missions. This paper reviews the current fission technology project and examines some Kilopower concepts that could be used to support future science missions or human precursors.

  12. Movement as a basic concept in physiotherapy--a human science approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wikström-Grotell, Camilla; Eriksson, Katie

    2012-08-01

    The development of scientific knowledge of physiotherapy (PT) has advanced significantly. Research is mostly conducted within a biomedical paradigm and theory-building is underpinned by a positivist paradigm. The basic philosophical questions and concepts are not much reflected on, and PT lacks an established theoretical frame. The first step in theory development is to define the basic concepts. The aim of this professional theoretical paper was to reflect on and describe the concept of movement in PT based on earlier research as a standpoint for a broader and deeper understanding of the complex nature of PT reality inspired by a model for concept analysis developed in caring science [Eriksson K 2010 Concept determination as part of the development of knowledge in caring science. Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences 24: 2-11]. The concept of movement in PT is conceptualized as complex and multidimensional. The understanding of human movement in PT is based on five categories described in the paper. The conceptualization of movement includes acting in relation to the socio-cultural environment, inter-dynamic aspects, as well as personal, intradynamic aspects. This paper argues for the need to further develop the concept of movement in PT within a human science approach. A deeper understanding is needed as a basis for understanding complex clinical practice as well as in shaping the PT discipline.

  13. Societal and ethical issues in human biomonitoring – a view from science studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bauer Susanne

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human biomonitoring (HBM has rapidly gained importance. In some epidemiological studies, the measurement and use of biomarkers of exposure, susceptibility and disease have replaced traditional environmental indicators. While in HBM, ethical issues have mostly been addressed in terms of informed consent and confidentiality, this paper maps out a larger array of societal issues from an epistemological perspective, i.e. bringing into focus the conditions of how and what is known in environmental health science. Methods In order to analyse the effects of HBM and the shift towards biomarker research in the assessment of environmental pollution in a broader societal context, selected analytical frameworks of science studies are introduced. To develop the epistemological perspective, concepts from "biomedical platform sociology" and the notion of "epistemic cultures" and "thought styles" are applied to the research infrastructures of HBM. Further, concepts of "biocitizenship" and "civic epistemologies" are drawn upon as analytical tools to discuss the visions and promises of HBM as well as related ethical problematisations. Results In human biomonitoring, two different epistemological cultures meet; these are environmental science with for instance pollution surveys and toxicological assessments on the one hand, and analytical epidemiology investigating the association between exposure and disease in probabilistic risk estimation on the other hand. The surveillance of exposure and dose via biomarkers as envisioned in HBM is shifting the site of exposure monitoring to the human body. Establishing an HBM platform faces not only the need to consider individual decision autonomy as an ethics issue, but also larger epistemological and societal questions, such as the mode of evidence demanded in science, policy and regulation. Conclusion The shift of exposure monitoring towards the biosurveillance of human populations involves fundamental

  14. Review: Catherine Kohler Riessman (2008. Narrative Methods for the Human Sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Lyle Duque

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Narrative inquiry is increasingly being used across disciplines in the human sciences to investigate a multitude of questions. In this review, RIESSMAN's book on narrative methods is discussed. The review focuses on how she situates narrative tradition within the broader landscape of qualitative research and her presentation of a typology of analytic methods in narrative inquiry. It will discuss her perspectives on data construction and the issue of validity in narrative research. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs1001193

  15. Boom-and-bust development patterns across the Amazon deforestation frontier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Ana S L; Ewers, Robert M; Parry, Luke; Souza, Carlos; Veríssimo, Adalberto; Balmford, Andrew

    2009-06-12

    The Brazilian Amazon is globally important for biodiversity, climate, and geochemical cycles, but is also among the least developed regions in Brazil. Economic development is often pursued through forest conversion for cattle ranching and agriculture, mediated by logging. However, on the basis of an assessment of 286 municipalities in different stages of deforestation, we found a boom-and-bust pattern in levels of human development across the deforestation frontier. Relative standards of living, literacy, and life expectancy increase as deforestation begins but then decline as the frontier evolves, so that pre- and postfrontier levels of human development are similarly low. New financial incentives and policies are creating opportunities for a more sustained development trajectory that is not based on the depletion of nature and ecosystem services.

  16. The Contribution of Equitation Science to Minimising Horse-Related Risks to Humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa Starling

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Equitation science is an evidence-based approach to horse training and riding that focuses on a thorough understanding of both equine ethology and learning theory. This combination leads to more effective horse training, but also plays a role in keeping horse riders and trainers safe around horses. Equitation science underpins ethical equitation, and recognises the limits of the horse’s cognitive and physical abilities. Equitation is an ancient practice that has benefited from a rich tradition that sees it flourishing in contemporary sporting pursuits. Despite its history, horse-riding is an activity for which neither horses nor humans evolved, and it brings with it significant risks to the safety of both species. This review outlines the reasons horses may behave in ways that endanger humans and how training choices can exacerbate this. It then discusses the recently introduced 10 Principles of Equitation Science and explains how following these principles can minimise horse-related risk to humans and enhance horse welfare.

  17. Study of an investigation on factors influencing human resources productivity in Shiraz University of Medical Sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Ghasemi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Human resources development is one of the most important components of any organization and detecting important factors influencing human resources management plays an essential role in the success of the firms. In this study, we investigated different factors influencing human resources productivity of Shiraz University of Medical Sciences staff. Method: The present research was a cross-sectional study. Sample size was calculated 208 individuals. To access information about the human resource productivity, a valid and reliable questionnaire was used. The data were analyzed using SPSS software. Pearson correlation was used for statistical analysis of the data (p=0.05. Results:The results showed that there was a statistically significant relationship (p-value<0.001 between human resources productivity and factors affecting the productivity of human resources (motivational factors, leadership style, creativity and innovation, general and applied education, and competitive spirit. Motivational factors (r =0.89 and general education (r =0.65 had the most and the least effects on human resources productivity. Conclusion: Considering the fact that motivational factors were the most effective factors on human resource productivity, we recommend that managers should care more than before about this factor; also, in order to motivate the employees, they should consider the staff’s individual differences.

  18. Information Physics: The New Frontier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knuth, Kevin H.

    2011-03-01

    At this point in time, two major areas of physics, statistical mechanics and quantum mechanics, rest on the foundations of probability and entropy. The last century saw several significant fundamental advances in our understanding of the process of inference, which make it clear that these are inferential theories. That is, rather than being a description of the behavior of the universe, these theories describe how observers can make optimal predictions about the universe. In such a picture, information plays a critical role. What is more is that little clues, such as the fact that black holes have entropy, continue to suggest that information is fundamental to physics in general. In the last decade, our fundamental understanding of probability theory has led to a Bayesian revolution. In addition, we have come to recognize that the foundations go far deeper and that Cox's approach of generalizing a Boolean algebra to a probability calculus is the first specific example of the more fundamental idea of assigning valuations to partially-ordered sets. By considering this as a natural way to introduce quantification to the more fundamental notion of ordering, one obtains an entirely new way of deriving physical laws. I will introduce this new way of thinking by demonstrating how one can quantify partially-ordered sets and, in the process, derive physical laws. The implication is that physical law does not reflect the order in the universe, instead it is derived from the order imposed by our description of the universe. Information physics, which is based on understanding the ways in which we both quantify and process information about the world around us, is a fundamentally new approach to science.

  19. Ethical Concerns About Human Genetic Enhancement in the Malay Science Fiction Novels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isa, Noor Munirah; Hj Safian Shuri, Muhammad Fakhruddin

    2017-03-09

    Advancements in science and technology have not only brought hope to humankind to produce disease-free offspring, but also offer possibilities to genetically enhance the next generation's traits and capacities. Human genetic enhancement, however, raises complex ethical questions, such as to what extent should it be allowed? It has been a great challenge for humankind to develop robust ethical guidelines for human genetic enhancement that address both public concerns and needs. We believe that research about public concerns is necessary prior to developing such guidelines, yet the issues have not been thoroughly investigated in many countries, including Malaysia. Since the novel often functions as a medium for the public to express their concerns, this paper explores ethical concerns about human genetic enhancement expressed in four Malay science fiction novels namely Klon, Leksikon Ledang, Transgenesis Bisikan Rimba and Transgenik Sifar. Religion has a strong influence on the worldview of the Malays therefore some concerns such as playing God are obviously religious. Association of the negative image of scientists as well as the private research companies with the research on human genetic enhancement reflects the authors' concerns about the main motivations for conducting such research and the extent to which such research will benefit society.

  20. Announcing a new international peer-reviewed journal: Food Science and Human Wellness now accepting manuscript submission in English

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    We are pleased to announce the launch of a new international peer-reviewed journal-Food Science and Human Wellness, ISSN 2213-4530, which is an open access journal, produced and hosted by Elsevier B.V. on behalf of Beijing Academy of Food Sciences.

  1. International Engagement versus Local Commitment: Hong Kong Academics in the Humanities and Social Sciences Writing for Publication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yongyan; Flowerdew, John

    2009-01-01

    It has been recognized that English as the language of international scholarship represents a more complex picture in the humanities and social sciences (HSS) than in science and engineering, with multilingual scholars in the HSS often negotiating international engagement and local commitment by publishing both in English and their first language.…

  2. The Humanistic Side of Engineering: Considering Social Science and Humanities Dimensions of Engineering in Education and Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hynes, Morgan; Swenson, Jessica

    2013-01-01

    Mathematics and science knowledge/skills are most commonly associated with engineering's pre-requisite knowledge. Our goals in this paper are to argue for a more systematic inclusion of social science and humanities knowledge in the introduction of engineering to K-12 students. As part of this argument, we present a construct for framing the…

  3. Moral Issues in Educational Praxis: A Perspective from "Pedagogiek" and "Didactiek" as Human Sciences in Continental Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ax, Jan; Ponte, Petra

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we will define the object of study of "Pedagogiek", followed by a brief discussion about current trends in educational policy, teacher education and educational research. We refer here to the continental European "pedagogy as human science", or more precisely the "science of the child's upbringing" in the social context. Central in…

  4. Humanoid: a final frontier; Humanoid wo mezashite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugano, S. [Waseda University, Tokyo (Japan). School of Science and Engineering

    1998-03-05

    With an intention to achieve a Humanoid (a robot resembling human being), this paper introduces three cases of robot research (to which the author has been involved) with eyes placed on bodily functionality of the robot. The Wabot-2 exhibited at the Tsukuba Science Exhibition in 1985 has fingers, arms and legs with nearly the same shapes as those of human being, had a conversation in the Japanese language, and played an electronic organ with a skill comparable to professional pianists. The Hadaly-2 developed in 1997 is equipped with shapes and functions closer to human being than in the Wabot-2 except for the movement mechanism. The Hadaly-2 recognized an approaching person, greeted and shook hands with him, and played with building blocks with him. These model base robots which can respond to works based on initially prepared environment and scenario consist only of motion systems, while robots equipped with even biological autonomy systems in addition to the motion systems (but have no body construction as complex as human being) have been developed. 5 refs., 2 figs.

  5. Contruction of a smoothed DEA frontier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Carlos Correia Baptista Soares de Mello

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available It is known that the DEA multipliers model does not allow a unique solution for the weights. This is due to the absence of unique derivatives in the extreme-efficient points, which is a consequence of the piecewise linear nature of the frontier. In this paper we propose a method to solve this problem, consisting of changing the original DEA frontier for a new one, smooth (with continuous derivatives at every point and closest to the original frontier. We present the theoretical development for the general case, exemplified with the particular case of the BCC model with one input and one output. The 3-dimensional problem is briefly discussed. Some uses of the model are summarised, and one of them, a new Cross-Evaluation model, is presented.O formulação dos multiplicadores para os modelos DEA não admite múltiplas soluções ótimas. Este fato pode ser interpretado no dual (modelo do envelope, como a inexistência derivadas nas DMUs extremo-eficientes, sendo esta propriedade, por seu turno, uma conseqüência da fronteira eficiente ser linear por partes. Neste artigo propõe-se substituir a fronteira original por outra, tão perto dela quanto possível, mas continuamente diferenciável. Nesta fronteira os multiplicadores sempre serão únicos para cada DMU. A teoria geral é deduzida e aplicada ao caso particular do modelo BCC com uma entrada e uma saída. A possível generalização do modelo é brevemente discutida, e são listadas algumas possíveis aplicações. É exemplificada uma das aplicações, a saber, um novo modelo de avaliação cruzada.

  6. Stretching the frontiers of precaution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derek Osborn

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available The increasing pace and impact of technological change in the world underline the growing need for taking due precautions. In this essay the author reviews a number of cases over the past 2 centuries where new technologies have been introduced too rapidly with too little attention to possible consequences and avoidable damage to health or the environment has been caused. The author goes on to discuss the precautionary approach to new technology, and urges more widespread use of it. He underlines the importance of 4 key points: (1 technology must not be demonised as the enemy - wise use of technology and technological solutions are themselves part of a precautionary approach; (2 a concern for social and environmental justice must be part of a broad precautionary approach - innovations which may potentially benefit one group while putting other groups at risk are very problematic; (3 we must safeguard the public realm and its ability to weigh up proposed innovations and new processes dispassionately - the privatisation of regulation and management of safeguards is very dangerous; (4 innovation and the management of precautionary safeguards are too important to be left to experts or governments alone - there must be sufficient public understanding and support for the introduction of new technologies with all the risks they may involve if public confidence is not to be eroded and greater restrictions imposed. The precautionary approach does not claim to be the answer to all issues concerning the wise use of new technologies. But it does point the way to how we can use public policy frameworks and processes to guide and constrain technological developments in the most appropriate way, and avoid some of the worst possible outcomes. At a time of accelerating technological change and overwhelming human dominance of the natural environment it is vital that we make wise use of this approach.

  7. New science metaphors to teach in a post-human era

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Amaral Guerrini

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This essay initially relates the great ruptures occurred in science during the 20th century which brought new philosophical and epistemological views quite more broad than those ruling science since the 17th century. Afterwards, it points out the new principles of Quantum Physics, Chaos Theory, System Thinking and those of the transdisciplinary approach stating the non-use of these principles by professionals in science, mainly those who are devoted only to publications of their experimental results in specific journals as well as those interested only in techno science. How to teach, then, the new wiki generation of students in order to bring passion and re-enchantment to them to have a new and transdisciplinary view of nature? What to do to become a good teacher and a wide-open mind educator in our days? The essay brings some metaphors to activate a healthy debate in and out of academy aiming to enlighten the path of the new scientist living in this wiki post-human era.

  8. On the Endogeneity of the Mean-Variance Efficient Frontier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somerville, R. A.; O'Connell, Paul G. J.

    2002-01-01

    Explains that the endogeneity of the efficient frontier in the mean-variance model of portfolio selection is commonly obscured in portfolio selection literature and in widely used textbooks. Demonstrates endogeneity and discusses the impact of parameter changes on the mean-variance efficient frontier and on the beta coefficients of individual…

  9. Efficient Provision of Employment Service Outputs: A Production Frontier Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavin, Edward S.; Stafford, Frank P.

    1985-01-01

    This article develops a production frontier model for the Employment Service and assesses the relative efficiency of the 51 State Employment Security Agencies in attaining program outcomes close to that frontier. This approach stands in contrast to such established practices as comparing programs to their own previous performance. (Author/CT)

  10. Fermilab a laboratory at the frontier of research

    CERN Document Server

    Gillies, James D

    2002-01-01

    Since its foundation in 1967, creeping urbanization has taken away some of Fermilab's remoteness, but the famous buffalo still roam, and farm buildings evocative of frontier America dot the landscape - appropriately for a laboratory at the high-energy frontier of modern research. Topics discussed are the Tevatron, detector upgrades, the neutrino programme, Fermilab and the LHC and the non-accelerator programme.

  11. Energy technology sources, systems and frontier conversion

    CERN Document Server

    Ohta, Tokio

    1994-01-01

    This book provides a concise and technical overview of energy technology: the sources of energy, energy systems and frontier conversion. As well as serving as a basic reference book for professional scientists and students of energy, it is intended for scientists and policy makers in other disciplines (including practising engineers, biologists, physicists, economists and managers in energy related industries) who need an up-to-date and authoritative guide to the field of energy technology.Energy systems and their elemental technologies are introduced and evaluated from the view point

  12. The Informationalized Management of the Frontier Forces

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张燕

    2016-01-01

    The decision to abandon the previous work mode for the management of frontier forces is because of its features of mission, distribution, geographical environment and social condi⁃tions. The exploration of the management model should depend on the actual situation so that it can ensure the stable and harmo⁃nious development. And it’s an effective way to enhance mili⁃tary strength through the modernization of the informationalized management. This paper comes up with some feasible advice based on the analysis of the information management of border forces.

  13. Frontiers in biomedical engineering and biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Feng; Goodarzi, Ali; Wang, Haifeng; Stasiak, Joanna; Sun, Jianbo; Zhou, Yu

    2014-01-01

    The 2nd International Conference on Biomedical Engineering and Biotechnology (iCBEB 2013), held in Wuhan on 11–13 October 2013, is an annual conference that aims at providing an opportunity for international and national researchers and practitioners to present the most recent advances and future challenges in the fields of Biomedical Information, Biomedical Engineering and Biotechnology. The papers published by this issue are selected from this conference, which witnesses the frontier in the field of Biomedical Engineering and Biotechnology, which particularly has helped improving the level of clinical diagnosis in medical work.

  14. The Research Frontier in Corporate Governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahrens, Thomas; Filatotchev, Igor; Thomsen, Steen

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we attempt to identify the research frontier in corporate governance using three different approaches: (1) what challenges does the financial crisis 2007–2009 pose for corporate governance research? We show that the financial crisis is a huge natural experiment which has exposed gaps...... in our knowledge of corporate governance and is likely to lead of a rethink of central concepts like shareholder value, debt governance, and management incentives (2) what do we know and what do we need to how about the impact of national institutions on corporate governance? (3) What research questions...... are raised by a focus on current corporate governance practices?...

  15. Problematizing Digital Research Evaluation using DOIs in Practice-Based Arts, Humanities and Social Science Research

    OpenAIRE

    Muriel Swijghuisen Reigersberg

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores emerging practices in research data management in the arts, humanities and social sciences (AHSS). It will do so vis-à-vis current citation conventions and impact measurement for research in AHSS. Case study findings on research data inventoried at Goldsmiths’, University of London will be presented. Goldsmiths is a UK research-intensive higher education institution which specialises in arts, humanities and social science research. The paper’s aim is to raise awareness of ...

  16. Virtual Reality for Artificial Intelligence: human-centered simulation for social science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cipresso, Pietro; Riva, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    There is a long last tradition in Artificial Intelligence as use of Robots endowing human peculiarities, from a cognitive and emotional point of view, and not only in shape. Today Artificial Intelligence is more oriented to several form of collective intelligence, also building robot simulators (hardware or software) to deeply understand collective behaviors in human beings and society as a whole. Modeling has also been crucial in the social sciences, to understand how complex systems can arise from simple rules. However, while engineers' simulations can be performed in the physical world using robots, for social scientist this is impossible. For decades, researchers tried to improve simulations by endowing artificial agents with simple and complex rules that emulated human behavior also by using artificial intelligence (AI). To include human beings and their real intelligence within artificial societies is now the big challenge. We present an hybrid (human-artificial) platform where experiments can be performed by simulated artificial worlds in the following manner: 1) agents' behaviors are regulated by the behaviors shown in Virtual Reality involving real human beings exposed to specific situations to simulate, and 2) technology transfers these rules into the artificial world. These form a closed-loop of real behaviors inserted into artificial agents, which can be used to study real society.

  17. Don't Explain so Much at Once, and Other Lessons From the Young Reviewers of Frontiers for Young Minds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, A. M.

    2015-12-01

    Most public communication about cutting-edge science happens through a series of filters - press teams, science journalists, news outlets, or even bloggers. Unfortunately, these filters can sometimes lead to research being presented in a way that demotivates the researchers from wanting to translate their science for a broader audience in the future. Frontiers for Young Minds was developed to bridge this gap by publishing plain-language research articles that are written by scientists about their own research and "peer reviewed" by kids ages 8-15 for their own young peers. Though Frontiers for Young Minds authors know that they are creating a high-quality science resource that will be freely available online, many are surprised by the lessons they stand to learn by having direct access to their target audience for feedback. The young reviewers can be refreshingly blunt, questioning everything from why money was spent on such a project to why researchers would make something that should be exciting "too boring to even finish reading." Frontiers for Young Minds is compiling this feedback to create guides for researchers who want to translate their research for young readers, including: using your structure as part of the communication process, the dangers of explaining too much at once, reading to learn, limitations in vocabulary for different age groups, outreach figures - vs - research figures, defining your communication goals, communicating motivation and context, and sharing your excitement. We are working to share our experiences and create resources that will not only be useful for people participating in Frontiers for Young Minds, but for anyone who wants to become a better science communicator.

  18. Measuring the Efficiency of a Hospital based on the Econometric Stochastic Frontier Analysis (SFA) Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaei, Satar; Zandian, Hamed; Baniasadi, Akram; Moghadam, Telma Zahirian; Delavari, Somayeh; Delavari, Sajad

    2016-02-01

    Hospitals are the most expensive health services provider in the world. Therefore, the evaluation of their performance can be used to reduce costs. The aim of this study was to determine the efficiency of the hospitals at the Kurdistan University of Medical Sciences using stochastic frontier analysis (SFA). This was a cross-sectional and retrospective study that assessed the performance of Kurdistan teaching hospitals (n = 12) between 2007 and 2013. The Stochastic Frontier Analysis method was used to achieve this aim. The numbers of active beds, nurses, physicians, and other staff members were considered as input variables, while the inpatient admission was considered as the output. The data were analyzed using Frontier 4.1 software. The mean technical efficiency of the hospitals we studied was 0.67. The results of the Cobb-Douglas production function showed that the maximum elasticity was related to the active beds and the elasticity of nurses was negative. Also, the return to scale was increasing. The results of this study indicated that the performances of the hospitals were not appropriate in terms of technical efficiency. In addition, there was a capacity enhancement of the output of the hospitals, compared with the most efficient hospitals studied, of about33%. It is suggested that the effect of various factors, such as the quality of health care and the patients' satisfaction, be considered in the future studies to assess hospitals' performances.

  19. STRATEGIC MILITARY COLONISATION: THE CAPE EASTERN FRONTIER 1806–1872

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Oranje

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The Cape Eastern Frontier of South Africa offers a fascinating insight into British military strategy as well as colonial development. The Eastern Frontier was for over 100 years a very turbulent frontier. It was the area where the four main population groups (the Dutch, the British, the Xhosa and the Khoikhoi met, and in many respects, key decisions taken on this frontier were seminal in the shaping of South Africa. This article seeks to analyse this frontier in a spatial manner, to analyse how British settlement patterns on the ground were influenced by strategy and policy. The time frame of the study reflects the truly imperial colonial era, from the second British occupation of the Cape colony in 1806 until representative self-governance of the Cape colony in 1872.

  20. Saving Human Lives: What Complexity Science and Information Systems can Contribute.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helbing, Dirk; Brockmann, Dirk; Chadefaux, Thomas; Donnay, Karsten; Blanke, Ulf; Woolley-Meza, Olivia; Moussaid, Mehdi; Johansson, Anders; Krause, Jens; Schutte, Sebastian; Perc, Matjaž

    We discuss models and data of crowd disasters, crime, terrorism, war and disease spreading to show that conventional recipes, such as deterrence strategies, are often not effective and sufficient to contain them. Many common approaches do not provide a good picture of the actual system behavior, because they neglect feedback loops, instabilities and cascade effects. The complex and often counter-intuitive behavior of social systems and their macro-level collective dynamics can be better understood by means of complexity science. We highlight that a suitable system design and management can help to stop undesirable cascade effects and to enable favorable kinds of self-organization in the system. In such a way, complexity science can help to save human lives.

  1. Measuring research in Humanities and Social Sciences: information from a new Italian data infrastructure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cicero, T.; Malgarini, M

    2016-07-01

    Measuring research output in Humanities and Social Sciences (HSS) is particularly important, since in these fields scientific production is much more heterogeneous than in Natural and Life Sciences, and as such it is not well represented in standard international databases normally used to assess research output and impact. For these reason, ANVUR has recently started a new data infrastructure, aimed at gathering information about scienticic production, research infrastructures and research groups active in the Italian Universities. On the basis of these data, the aim of this paper is to provide a first characterization of Italian research Departments active in HSS, clustering them according to their level of research productivity and infrastructure availability. On the basis of our analysis, it is generally possible to distinguish among two main groups of Departments, respectively characterized by higher productivity but lower research quality, or by higher shares of excellent articles, but lower overall number of publications. (Author)

  2. Alphabetical co-authorship in the social sciences and humanities: evidence from a comprehensive local database

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guns, R

    2016-07-01

    We present an analysis of alphabetical co-authorship in the social sciences and humanities (SSH), based on data from the VABB-SHW, a comprehensive database of SSH research output in Flanders (2000-2013). Using an unbiased estimator of the share of intentional alphabetical co-authorship (IAC), we find that alphabetical co-authorship is more engrained in SSH than in science as a whole. Within the SSH, large differences exist between disciplines. The highest proportions of IAC are found for Literature, Economics & business, and History. Furthermore, alphabetical co-authorship varies with publication type: it occurs most often in books, is less common in articles in journals or in books, and is rare in proceedings papers. The use of alphabetical co-authorship appears to be slowly declining. (Author)

  3. Effects of performance-based research funding on publication patterns in the social sciences and humanities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guns, R.; Engels, T.C.E.

    2016-07-01

    Publishing in the social sciences and humanities (SSH) and research evaluation practices are co-evolving. In this paper we present an analysis on how in Flanders the PRFS has shaped and influenced publication practices in the SSH. Our analysis is based on the VABB-SHW, a comprehensive database of research output in the SSH in Flanders. We find that a strong emphasis on WoS publications since 2003 has caused a growth in WoS publications, that is greater than what can be observed in other countries and other fields of science in Flanders. Other mechanisms appear to exist for book publications, which are not indexed in the WoS databases used for the PRFS. (Author)

  4. Reflections on Asia: Borrowing Lessons from the Humanities in Social Science Coursework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Howard Sanborn

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available What lessons can political science classes borrow from the humanities? This paper presents the results of a multi-year study on teaching about Asia as part of a general education program. Given the challenges of meeting common learning outcomes while also teaching discipline-specific lessons, political science courses often underperformed in assessments when compared to benchmark expectations. While our initial conclusion—that a greater focus on multimodal assignments would promote deeper learning and reflection—proved unfounded, explicitly emphasizing students’ reflection on their own process of democratic engagement, in comparison to that of their counterparts in Asia, did seem to address the shortcomings of the previous approaches by giving students context and guidance in their understanding of how democracy works at home and abroad. Data from reflective essays, collected over two years, provide evidence for this finding.

  5. Frontiers in earth sciences: new ideas and interpretation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Scalera

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available A one-day symposium on new and conventional ideas in plate tectonics and Mediterranean geodynamics was held in Rome on February 19, 2003 at the headquarters of INGV. There were two main reasons for such an initiative. The first was an invitation to Giancarlo Scalera from the «Gabriele D’Annunzio» University of Chieti to present his alternative ideas on global tectonics to final year students of the Regional Geology course. The second was a reciprocal invitation to Giusy Lavecchia and Francesco Stoppa to explain their criticisms of the application of subduction-related models to Italian geology and to present their data on the recently discovered intra-Apennines carbonatite occurrences. It was decided to dedicate an entire day to seminars, involving people with a more conventional approach to geodynamics, especially those involved with seismic tomography. In the last few years, high-resolution mantle tomographic models have been widely used to unravel the geometry of subduction zones. A turning point in the field, however, was a review paper written by Fukao et al. (Rev. Geophysics, 39, 291-323, 2001 showing that there was no clear evidence for slab subduction down to the core-mantle boundary, thus posing a major problem on the balance between the lithosphere subducted at consuming plate margins and the large amount of oceanic lithosphere accreted at diverging plate margins. This prompted the need to re-evaluate the nature of subduction and plate margin evolution. Accepting the theory of plate tectonics, many problems remain open, especially those regarding plate driving mechanisms and their possible link with the forces developed at the core-mantle boundary. Might these forces trigger pulsating tectonic and magmatic activity, with mantle upwellings and large-scale emission of CO2, capable of causing dramatic changes in the composition of the atmosphere and changes at the Earth’s surface? Could these lead to major catastrophic changes in Earth history? During the one-day symposium, a stimulating discussion took place involving different interpretations of observations, especially those relating to the geodynamics of the Mediterranean region. Although the papers in this collection do not provide unique solutions, they do, however, provide new insights into some problems and in some cases suggest new interpretations. Many questions also arise about the relationships between the tectonics of the lithosphere and the deep mantle processes. May the denser portions of the inner parts of the Earth transform into shallower, lighter chemical phases, with a possible increase in the Earth’s volume? May the asthenosphere above growing plume heads be capable of dragging the overlying lithosphere? May mantle plumes be wet rather than hot? Some papers consider gravitation to be a driving mechanism for the nucleation of contractional belts and others even doubt the compressional origin of orogens. Finally – as a link to fundamental physics – an original mechanism of energy conversion from gravitons to photons is proposed as a supply of energy for global tectonic processes. Obviously, because of an often diverse philosophical and scientific background, it is difficult for the ideas presented in this supplement to be shared by all readers and contributors. But we hope that these ideas will help to encourage critical evaluations of some commonly accepted concepts in modern plate tectonic theory. European geoscientists have available to them an exceptional natural laboratory – the Mediterranean and surrounding orogens – complete with all of its paradoxes and contradictions. In this natural laboratory, we hope that new evidence and new solutions to a variety of problems outside of the Mediterranean region will be found!

  6. Frontiers in earth sciences: new ideas and interpretation

    OpenAIRE

    G. Scalera; G. Lavecchia

    2006-01-01

    A one-day symposium on new and conventional ideas in plate tectonics and Mediterranean geodynamics was held in Rome on February 19, 2003 at the headquarters of INGV. There were two main reasons for such an initiative. The first was an invitation to Giancarlo Scalera from the «Gabriele D’Annunzio» University of Chieti to present his alternative ideas on global tectonics to final year students of the Regional Geology course. The second was a reciprocal invitation to Giusy Lavecchia and Fr...

  7. Frontiers in earth sciences: new ideas and interpretation

    OpenAIRE

    G. Scalera; G. Lavecchia

    2006-01-01

    A one-day symposium on new and conventional ideas in plate tectonics and Mediterranean geodynamics was held in Rome on February 19, 2003 at the headquarters of INGV. There were two main reasons for such an initiative. The first was an invitation to Giancarlo Scalera from the «Gabriele DAnnunzio» University of Chieti to present his alternative ideas on global tectonics to final year students of the Regional Geology course. The second was a reciprocal invitation to Giusy Lavecchia and...

  8. Shifting frontiers of transcendence in theology, philosophy and science

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Test

    2010-06-20

    Jun 20, 2010 ... that led to polarities like aesthesis or noiesis, idealism or realism, empiricism or rationalism, internalism or externalism, anti-realism or realism, etcetera. The metaphysical focus on the nature of things assigns the senses ...

  9. 基于离群点的前沿趋势探测方法研究%Study of scientific frontier detection based on outliers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张英杰; 冷伏海

    2011-01-01

    In view of the low-profile characteristics of the scientific frontier detection based on keyword clusters, the outliers outside high-frequency keyword clusters were taken as the research targets, and a WOS (web of science) data-set on the international space station (ISS) research from 2006 to 2010 was selected for the study. After constructing the matrixes of inclusion index, proximity index and equivalence index, the outliers were detected using the excellent selection algorithm based on clustering in the fields of human research, gravitational biology, space station technology, gravitational physics, earth observation, space astronomy, and so on. Those hot research frontiers were distinguished by comparing this result with that achieved using the citespace II, a high-frequency word method. It was found that the outliers, such as mars, space weather, etc. , were the same detected results, which present the current hot research frontiers. The proposed outlier method was proved to be effective in representing the hot research topics of the ISS. At last, the clustering outliers were visualized by the Matlab for a clear look of the outlier evolution.%针对科学前沿探测中的低频现特征,选取Web of Science 2006 -2010年的国际空间站(ISS)数据集,以高频聚类词簇外的低频现离群点为研究对象,分别构造数据集的包容指数、临近指数和等价指数矩阵,通过基于聚类的优选离群点算法,在ISS人体研究、微重力生物学、空间站技术、微重力物理学、对地观测、空间天文学等领域分别识别若干离群点,在与CitespaceⅡ的高频爆发词探测结果进行比对后,发现mars、space weather等离群点内容与之重合,代表了当前的热点研究前沿,验证了基于离群点开展前沿探测的有效性.为了更直观地跟踪查看各个离群点的演变情况,利用Matlab工具对聚类结果进行了可视化展示.

  10. Not going it alone: scientists and their work featured online at FrontierScientists

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connell, E. A.; Nielsen, L.

    2015-12-01

    Science outreach demystifies science, and outreach media gives scientists a voice to engage the public. Today scientists are expected to communicate effectively not only with peers but also with a braod public audience, yet training incentiives are sometimes scarce. Media creation training is even less emphasized. Editing video to modern standards takes practice; arrangling light and framing shots isn't intuitive. While great tutorials exist, learning videography, story boarding, editing and sharing techniques will always require a commitment of time and effort. Yet ideally sharing science should be low-hanging fruit. FrontierScientists, a science-sharing website funded by the NSF, seeks to let scientists display their breakthroughs and share their excitement for their work with the public by working closely yet non-exhaustively with a professional media team. A director and videographer join scientists to film first-person accounts in the field or lab. Pictures and footage with field site explanations give media creators raw material. Scientists communicate efficiently and retain editorial control over the project, but a small team of media creators craft the public aimed content. A series of engaging short videos with narrow focuses illuminate the science. Written articles support with explanations. Social media campaigns spread the word, link content, welcome comments and keep abreast of changing web requirements. All FrontierScientists featured projects are aggregated to one mobile-friendly site available online or via an App. There groupings of Arctic-focused science provide a wealth of topics and content to explore. Scientists describe why their science is important, what drew them to it, and why the average American should care. When scientists share their work it's wonderful; a team approach is a schedule-friendly way that lets them serve as science communicators without taking up a handful of extra careers.

  11. Advancing Environmental Health: A Ballroom Dance Between Human Health and Earth Sciences Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, A.

    2016-12-01

    The mission of the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS) is to discover how the environment affects people in order to promote healthier lives. Translation of this mission into a meaningful reality entails extensive interdisciplinary interactions, expertise, and collaborations between the traditional health and earth sciences communities. Efforts to advance our understanding of adverse effects and illness associated with environmental factors requires not only a refined understanding of the biological mechanisms and pathways (e.g., inflammation, epigenetic changes, oxidative stress, mutagenesis, etc.) related to function and disease, but also the incredibly broad and complex environmental exposures and systems that influence these processes. Further complicating efforts to understand such interactions is the need to take into account individual susceptibility to disease across the human life span. While it is clear that environmental exposures can be readily linked to disease in individuals and to disproportionate health disparities in populations, the underlying risk factors for such findings are often elusive. Health and earth scientists have a long tradition of crossing their scientific divides to work together on a wide range of problems and issues, including disasters. Emergency situations, such as the environmental asbestos contamination in Libby, Montana, the Gulf Oil Spill, numerous chemical releases into air and water, wildfires, the World Trade Center Attack, and responses to Ebola, and now Zika, demand the collective expertise of the "environmental health sciences enterprise" to protect the public's health, facilitate recovery, and improve future preparedness. Furthermore, such high visibility efforts stand as a clear example of what human and earth sciences research can accomplish when transformative interdisciplinary approaches and a diverse well-trained cadre of scientists dance together on the ballroom floor.

  12. Overview 2010 of ARL Program on Network Science for Human Decision Making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Bruce J

    2011-01-01

    The Army Research Laboratory program on the Network Science of Human Decision Making brings together researchers from a variety of disciplines to work on a complex research problem that defies confinement within any single discipline. Consequently, new and rewarding solutions have been obtained for a problem of importance to society and the Army, that being, the human dimension of complex networks. This program investigates the basic research foundation of a science of networks supporting the linkage between the cognitive and social domains as they relate to human decision making. The research strategy extends recent methods of non-equilibrium statistical physics to non-stationary, renewal stochastic processes characteristic of the interactions among nodes in complex networks. The theoretical analyses of complex networks, although mathematically rigorous, often elude analytic solutions and require simulation and computation to analyze the underlying dynamic process. The information transfer between two complex networks is calculated using the principle of complexity management as well as direct numerical calculation of the decision making model developed within the project.

  13. OVERVIEW 2010 OF ARL PROGRAM ON NETWORK SCIENCE FOR HUMAN DECISION MAKING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce J West

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The Army Research Laboratory program on the Network Science of Human Decision Making brings together researchers from a variety of disciplines to work on a complex research problem that defies confinement within any single discipline. Consequently, new and rewarding solutions have been obtained for a problem of importance to society and the Army, that being, the human dimension of complex networks. This program investigates the basic research foundation of a science of networks supporting the linkage between the cognitive and social domains as they relate to human decision making. The research strategy extends recent methods of non-equilibrium statistical physics to non-stationary, renewal stochastic processes characteristic of the interactions among nodes in complex networks. The theoretical analyses of complex networks, although mathematically rigorous, often elude analytic solutions and require simulation and computation to analyze the underlying dynamic process. The information transfer between two complex networks is calculated using the Principle of Complexity Management (PCM as well as direct numerical calculation of the decision making model (DMM developed within the project.

  14. Digging for the human mind cognitive archaeology and the origins of science, art and religion

    CERN Document Server

    Mithen, S

    1999-01-01

    Understanding the nature of the human mind is one of the greatest challenges faced by science, and one which requires the participation of many disciplines. During the last decade there have been strong arguments that an evolutionary perspective on the mind is required Ñ just like any other species humans are the products of biological evolution and this will have moulded the way we think as much as the way we walk and talk. Some evolutionary psychologists go so far as to argue that the way we think remains largely conditioned by the lifestyle of our prehistoric hunter-gatherer ancestors. While there is both logic and substantial evidence for this claim, it fails to account for many of the activities of modern humans which have no evolutionary precedent or even the faintest trace in our closest living relative, the great apes. Notably among these are the pursuit of pure science, art and religion Ñ activities that appear to lack any functional value. In my paper I will suggest how these can indeed be account...

  15. China' s Land & Sea Frontiers and Strategic Thinking%China' s Land & Sea Frontiers and Strategic Thinking

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chu Shulong

    2012-01-01

    Land frontiers and territorial seas are important to a country's 'development and security. The issue of frontiers should be considered and dealt with within the country's overall strategy of diplomacy and security. It should never be dealt with in isolation as some members of the public and media believe.

  16. Global partnerships: Expanding the frontiers of space exploration education

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLeish, Marlene Y.; Akinyede, Joseph O.; Goswami, Nandu; Thomson, William A.

    2012-11-01

    Globalization is creating an interdependent space-faring world and new opportunities for international partnerships that strengthen space knowledge development and transfer. These opportunities have been codified in the Global Exploration Strategy, which endorses the "inspirational and educational value of space exploration" [1]. Also, during the 2010 Heads of Space Agencies Summit celebrating the International Academy of Astronautics' (IAA) 50th Anniversary, space-faring nations from across the globe issued a collective call in support of robust international partnerships to expand the frontiers of space exploration and generate knowledge for improving life on Earth [2]. Educators play a unique role in this mission, developing strategic partnerships and sharing best educational practices to (1) further global understanding of the benefits of space exploration for life on Earth and (2) prepare the next generation of scientists required for the 21st Century space workforce. Educational Outreach (EO) programs use evidence-based, measurable outcomes strategies and cutting edge information technologies to transfer space-based science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) knowledge to new audiences; create indigenous materials with cultural resonance for emerging space societies; support teacher professional development; and contribute to workforce development initiatives that inspire and prepare new cohorts of students for space exploration careers. The National Space Biomedical Research Institute (NSBRI), the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and Morehouse School of Medicine (MSM) have sustained a 13-year space science education partnership dedicated to these objectives. This paper briefly describes the design and achievements of NSBRI's educational programs, with special emphasis on those initiatives' involvement with IAA and the International Astronautical Congress (IAC). The IAA Commission 2 Draft Report, Space for Africa, is discussed

  17. Using our Heads and HARTSS*: Developing Perspective-Taking Skills for Socioscientific Reasoning (*Humanities, ARTs, and Social Sciences)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahn, Sami; Zeidler, Dana L.

    2016-04-01

    Functional scientific literacy demands an informed citizenry capable of negotiating controversial socioscientific issues (SSI). Perspective taking is critical to SSI implementation as it enables understanding of the diverse cognitive and emotional perspectives of others. Science teacher educators must therefore facilitate teachers' promotion of classroom environments that value diverse perspectives. The purpose of this theoretical paper is to propose the HARTSS model through which successful practices that promote perspective taking in the humanities, arts, and social sciences are identified and translated into socioscientific contexts, thereby developing an array of promising interventions designed for science teacher educators to foster perspective taking in current and future science teachers and their students.

  18. National Register of research projects, 1986/1987: Part 3, Human sciences: Social sciences. Nasionale Register van navorsingsprojekte, 1986/1987: Deel III, Geesteswetenskappe: Sosiale wetenskappe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-08-01

    This Register is intended to serve as a source of information on research which is being conducted in all fields (both natural and human sciences) in the Republic of South Africa. New and current research projects that were commenced or modified during 1986--1987, on which information was received by the compilers until January 1988, are included, with the exception of confidential projects.

  19. Use of non-human DNA analysis in forensic science: a mini review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyengar, Arati; Hadi, Sibte

    2014-01-01

    Analysis of non-human DNA in forensic science, first reported about two decades ago, is now commonplace. Results have been used as evidence in court in a variety of cases ranging from abduction and murder to patent infringement and dog attack. DNA from diverse species, including commonly encountered pets such as dogs and cats, to plants, viruses and bacteria has been used and the sheer potential offered by such analyses has been proven. In this review, using case examples throughout, we detail the considerable literature in this field.

  20. [From human genome to man-made life: J. Craig Venter leads the life sciences].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Mingwei; Li, Yin; Gao, George F

    2010-06-01

    For the first time ever, the scientists of J. Craig Venter team have created actual self-replicating synthetic life. The research was just published in the Journal of Science on May 20, 2010. Although this news immediately brings the worry about the possible potential threat to biosecurity and biosafety as well as the ethical disputes, it yet indicates that mankind have made a new step forward in synthetic biology. In the time of post-genome era, we believe the advancement of synthetic biology that might affect or change the future life of human being will be widely used in energy, environment, materials, medication and many other fields.