WorldWideScience

Sample records for human fertility control

  1. Mifegyne (mifepristone), a new antiprogestagen with potential therapeutic use in human fertility control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couzinet, B; Schaison, G

    1988-03-01

    Animal and human volunteer research involving the hormone antagonist Mifegyne (mifepristone) is reviewed. Studies in animals and humans show that the potent antiprogesterone, Mifegyne, causes pregnancy interruption by acting directly at the level of the endometrium. Pharmacokinetic studies indicate that gastrointestinal absorption is low (25%), but subcutaneous and intramuscular routes do not fare better than does oral administration. Experimental studies in women testing for antiprogesterone effects indicate that mifegyne does not affect menstrual cycle length in women with regular ovulatory cycles, except when using the highest doses (600 mg). Mifegyne inhibits gonadotrophin secretion in a dose-dependent way. In humans, mifegyne has some progestomimetic activity in the endometrium in the absence of progesterone. Researchers know that larger doses of mifegyne than those sufficient to induce uterine bleeding are required to cause antiglucocorticosteroid effects. Studies demonstrate that in 18% of patients studied the only significant side effect is prolonged uterine bleeding. In addition, mifegyne fails to cause an abortion in 15% of the cases. The success rate is 85% when mifegyne is given prior to the 5th week of amenorrhea. Due to the occurrence of failed abortions and prolonged uterine bleeding in some women, researchers advise close medical supervision. An added effect of mifegyne is that in both animal and human studies it is effective in inducing labor. Preliminary studies suggest that mifegyne taken once a month only on the expected date of individual menses could be used as a safe and effective form of fertility control.

  2. Human rights to in vitro fertilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zegers-Hochschild, Fernando; Dickens, Bernard M; Dughman-Manzur, Sandra

    2013-10-01

    The Inter-American Court of Human Rights (the Court) has ruled that the Supreme Court of Costa Rica's judgment in 2000 prohibiting in vitro fertilization (IVF) violated the human right to private and family life, the human right to found and raise a family, and the human right to non-discrimination on grounds of disability, financial means, or gender. The Court's conclusions of violations contrary to the American Convention on Human Rights followed from its ruling that, under the Convention, in vitro embryos are not "persons" and do not possess a right to life. Accordingly, the prohibition of IVF to protect embryos constituted a disproportionate and unjustifiable denial of infertile individuals' human rights. The Court distinguished fertilization from conception, since conception-unlike fertilization-depends on an embryo's implantation in a woman's body. Under human rights law, legal protection of an embryo "from conception" is inapplicable between its creation by fertilization and completion of its implantation in utero. © 2013.

  3. Meticulous Overview on the Controlled Release Fertilizers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siafu Ibahati Sempeho

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Owing to the high demand for fertilizer formulations that will exhaust the possibilities of nutrient use efficiency (NUE, regulate fertilizer consumption, and lessen agrophysicochemical properties and environmental adverse effects instigated by conventional nutrient supply to crops, this review recapitulates controlled release fertilizers (CRFs as a cutting-edge and safe way to supply crops’ nutrients over the conventional ways. Essentially, CRFs entail fertilizer particles intercalated within excipients aiming at reducing the frequency of fertilizer application thereby abating potential adverse effects linked with conventional fertilizer use. Application of nanotechnology and materials engineering in agriculture particularly in the design of CRFs, the distinctions and classification of CRFs, and the economical, agronomical, and environmental aspects of CRFs has been revised putting into account the development and synthesis of CRFs, laboratory CRFs syntheses and testing, and both linear and sigmoid release features of CRF formulations. Methodical account on the mechanism of nutrient release centring on the empirical and mechanistic approaches of predicting nutrient release is given in view of selected mathematical models. Compositions and laboratory preparations of CRFs basing on in situ and graft polymerization are provided alongside the physical methods used in CRFs encapsulation, with an emphasis on the natural polymers, modified clays, and superabsorbent nanocomposite excipients.

  4. Behavior genetic modeling of human fertility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodgers, J L; Kohler, H P; Kyvik, K O

    2001-01-01

    Behavior genetic designs and analysis can be used to address issues of central importance to demography. We use this methodology to document genetic influence on human fertility. Our data come from Danish twin pairs born from 1953 to 1959, measured on age at first attempt to get pregnant (First......Try) and number of children (NumCh). Behavior genetic models were fitted using structural equation modeling and DF analysis. A consistent medium-level additive genetic influence was found for NumCh, equal across genders; a stronger genetic influence was identified for FirstTry, greater for females than for males....... A bivariate analysis indicated significant shared genetic variance between NumCh and FirstTry....

  5. Pituitary gonodal axis in fertile and infertile human males

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hafiez, A.A.; Mahmoud, K.Z.; Abbas, E.Z.; Halawa, F.

    1984-01-01

    Radioimmunoassays of serum PRL, LH, FSH, testosterone and estradiol were performed in normal fertile subjects and infertile patients. The findings in the fertile group suggest that prolactin in human males has a role in steroidogenesis. Oligospermic and azospermic patients revealed hormonal patterns which were significantly higher than in the fertile group. Hyperprolactinemia was found in most cases of both infertile groups indicating that PRL has a significant role. (author)

  6. Status of fertility control in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hefnawi, F I

    1982-01-01

    The concern for fertility control is not alien to the cultural and religious heritage of Egypt. Historically, Egyptian interest in fertility dates to the Pharoahs. Contraceptive recipes written at least 15-18 centuries B.C. have been found. Romans may have borrowed some of the more effective methods from Egypt when it became part of the Roman Empire as evidenced by the decline in size of aristocratic Roman families at the beginning of the Christian era. Muslim conquerors of Egypt encouraged fertility control. In the 9th century differences of opinion about the legality of contraception appeared among the interpreters of Islamic law. Some methods found in the writings of Muslim doctors as al-Razi and Avicenna still survive in the folk medicine of Egypt. In modern times use of barrier methods of contraception were encouraged by family planning organizations in Egypt. The medical profession was not deeply involved since these methods did not require much medical assistance. In 1936 a religiouss verdict declared contraception to be a lawful act of Islam. National programs in family planning in the 1960's encouraged the use of the Lippes Loop IUD. The medical problem of blood loss associated with the IUD caused anxiety because of the high incidence of anemia in the female Egyptian population. There was also a cultural limitation on the wide use of the IUD. "Spotting" due to the IUD resulted in females being ritually unclean and therefore unfit to pray or observe the Islamic fast. The Pill, initially favored caused complications due to its effect on breast milk which is the universal source of nutrition for infants in Egypt. Replacement of the Pill by depo-provera injections during the post partum period of lactation is a practical solution. Permanent sterilization is limited to females and only performed when medically indicated. Abortion is illegal and permitted only as a therapeutic measure.

  7. Nanocomposites for controlled release of nitrogen fertilizer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Viviane J.M. da; Visconte, Leila L.Y.; Nascimento, Regina Sandra V.

    2009-01-01

    The study aimed at the development of nano structured materials capable of reducing the rate of release of nitrogen in the soil from an agricultural nitrogen fertilizer. Four different systems of polymer composites were prepared: (1) montmorillonite clay/fertilizer, (2) montmorillonite clay/thermoplastic starch and fertilizer, (3) montmorillonite clay/fertilizer, thermoplastic starch and low-density polyethylene (LDPE) and also (4) montmorillonite clay/fertilizer, thermoplastic starch and polycaprolactone. It was confirmed the formation of nano structured materials by elemental analysis (CHN) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The kinetics of nitrogen release was detected by enzymatic colorimetric analysis and spectroscopy in the ultraviolet/visible. The results showed that all materials evaluated were able to reduce the rate of release of nitrogen in the fertilizers. (author)

  8. Integrated Public Education, Fertility and Human Capital

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azarnert, Leonid V.

    2014-01-01

    This paper analyzes the consequences of integration in public education. I show that the flight from the integrated multicultural public schools to private education increases private educational expenditures and, as a result, decreases fertility among more affluent parents whose children flee. In contrast, among less prosperous parents…

  9. Immunocontraceptives: New Approaches to Fertility Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiranjeet Kaur

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The rapidly increasing global population has bowed the attention of family planning and associated reproductive health programmes in the direction of providing a safe and reliable method which can be used to limit family size. The world population is estimated to exceed a phenomenal 10 billion by the year 2050 A.D., thus presenting a real jeopardy of overpopulation with severe implications for the future. Despite the availability of contraceptive methods, there are over one million elective abortions globally each year due to unintended pregnancies, having devastating impact on reproductive health of women worldwide. This highlights the need for the development of newer and improved contraceptive methods. A novel contraceptive approach that is gaining substantial attention is “immunocontraception” targeting gamete production, gamete outcome, or gamete function. Amongst these, use of sperm antigens (gamete function seems to be an exciting and feasible approach. However, the variability of immune response and time lag to attain titer among vaccinated individuals after active immunization has highlighted the potential relevance of preformed antibodies in this league. This review is an attempt to analyze the current status and progress of immunocontraceptive approaches with respect to their establishment as a future fertility control agent.

  10. Influence of Human Chorionic Gonadotropin on the Fertility Rate in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An experiment was carried out on the influence of human chorionic gonadotropin hormone (hCG) on the fertility rate of rabbit does under artificial insemination. The rabbit does (7-8 months old) were used for the trial. The hCG was administered to the rabbit does at varying doses: 0, 50, 100 and 150 I.U representing ...

  11. Quality control analysis of imported fertilizers used in Ghana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enti-Brown, S.

    2010-01-01

    Twenty three (23) imported fertilizer samples of 5 fertilizer types have been analysed to determine their quality. The main objective of this research was to validate specifications indicated by manufacturers' on their fertilizer products. To achieve this objective, the fertilizer samples were analysed using five analytical techniques (INAA, AAS, flame photometer, kjeldahl method and UV-visible spectroscopy) to determine the concentrations of macronutrients (N, P, K, Mg, Ca and S), micronutrients (Cu, Na, Fe, Mn, Mo and Zn) and heavy metals (As, Cd, Co, Hg and Pd) in the fertilizer samples. Results obtained from analysis were compared with certified values obtained from the companies and with standard values obtained from MOFA to establish whether the imported fertilizers met standards. Two reference materials (IAEA Soil-7 and SRM 1646a Estuarine Sediment) were used to validate the quantitative methods employed in the INAA and AAS techniques. Good agreements (98%) were obtained between the measured and verified concentrations for most of the elements. Analytical results revealed that the concentrations of the primary macronutrients (N, P and K) claimed by the manufacturers were valid. In contrast, manufacturers' claims for micronutrient concentrations did not agree with analytical results. The concentrations recorded were far below the minimum plant nutrient guarantees. For instance, the highest values recorded for Cu and Zn were 0.0265% and 0.00305% respectively, whiles the minimum guaranteed values were set at 0.05%. Heavy metal levels recorded in the fertilizers were insignificant and therefore do not present possible contamination problems during fertilizer application. In conclusion, not all the nutrient requirements expected of imported fertilizers were met. There is therefore the need for a good quality control system to monitor the chemical compositions of fertilizers imported into Ghana (au).

  12. [Human fertility in the Universidad de Tarapaca].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prenafeta Jenkin, S

    1988-01-01

    A group of students at the University of Tarapaca in Arica, Chile, recently surveyed 10% of the students on their knowledge of family planning and human sexuality. 47% of the 2378 students interviewed were male and 53% were female. 55% did not know the most effective contraceptive method, only 22% understood the correct use of oral contraceptives, and only 4% had any information about using natural methods. 25% of male students initiated sexual relations before the age of 15 but most did so at 15-18 years. 58% of female students had their 1st sexual relations at 17-20 years. 43.7% of sexually active students used contraception. 13.3% of the female students reported having undergone abortions, and 2.1% of the male students reported that their partners had done so. Women were more likely than men to have sought information on contraception. Their sources were books and magazines, parents and friends. 86% of those surveyed believed the responsibility for pregnancy should be shared, but 35.7% believed that the woman should be the one to use contraception.

  13. FERLENT - a controlled release fertilizer produced from a polymer material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, Mayra; Arces, Milagros; Cuesta, Ernesto; Corredera, Pilar; Sardina, Carmen; Rieumont, Jacques; Quintana, Patricia; Bartolo, Pascual; Guenther, Bluma

    2011-01-01

    The possibility to use release controlled fertilizers in the agriculture of the tropical countries is more important than in the agriculture of the countries of the template regions. In this context, this work purpose the development of a new Fertilizer of Controlled Release named FERLENT, which was obtained starting from a polymeric material, under controlled conditions which allowed to corroborate the adjustment of the synthesis parameters under the modulate of nutrients liberation. It was characterized by, Scanning Microscopy Electron (SEM), Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) and infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). (author)

  14. Genetic alterations affecting cholesterol metabolism and human fertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeAngelis, Anthony M; Roy-O'Reilly, Meaghan; Rodriguez, Annabelle

    2014-11-01

    Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) represent genetic variations among individuals in a population. In medicine, these small variations in the DNA sequence may significantly impact an individual's response to certain drugs or influence the risk of developing certain diseases. In the field of reproductive medicine, a significant amount of research has been devoted to identifying polymorphisms which may impact steroidogenesis and fertility. This review discusses current understanding of the effects of genetic variations in cholesterol metabolic pathways on human fertility that bridge novel linkages between cholesterol metabolism and reproductive health. For example, the role of the low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) in cellular metabolism and human reproduction has been well studied, whereas there is now an emerging body of research on the role of the high-density lipoprotein (HDL) receptor scavenger receptor class B type I (SR-BI) in human lipid metabolism and female reproduction. Identifying and understanding how polymorphisms in the SCARB1 gene or other genes related to lipid metabolism impact human physiology is essential and will play a major role in the development of personalized medicine for improved diagnosis and treatment of infertility. © 2014 by the Society for the Study of Reproduction, Inc.

  15. Human fertility, molecular genetics, and natural selection in modern societies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix C Tropf

    Full Text Available Research on genetic influences on human fertility outcomes such as number of children ever born (NEB or the age at first childbirth (AFB has been solely based on twin and family-designs that suffer from problematic assumptions and practical limitations. The current study exploits recent advances in the field of molecular genetics by applying the genomic-relationship-matrix based restricted maximum likelihood (GREML methods to quantify for the first time the extent to which common genetic variants influence the NEB and the AFB of women. Using data from the UK and the Netherlands (N = 6,758, results show significant additive genetic effects on both traits explaining 10% (SE = 5 of the variance in the NEB and 15% (SE = 4 in the AFB. We further find a significant negative genetic correlation between AFB and NEB in the pooled sample of -0.62 (SE = 0.27, p-value = 0.02. This finding implies that individuals with genetic predispositions for an earlier AFB had a reproductive advantage and that natural selection operated not only in historical, but also in contemporary populations. The observed postponement in the AFB across the past century in Europe contrasts with these findings, suggesting an evolutionary override by environmental effects and underscoring that evolutionary predictions in modern human societies are not straight forward. It emphasizes the necessity for an integrative research design from the fields of genetics and social sciences in order to understand and predict fertility outcomes. Finally, our results suggest that we may be able to find genetic variants associated with human fertility when conducting GWAS-meta analyses with sufficient sample size.

  16. Understanding variation in human fertility: what can we learn from evolutionary demography?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sear, Rebecca; Lawson, David W; Kaplan, Hillard; Shenk, Mary K

    2016-04-19

    Decades of research on human fertility has presented a clear picture of how fertility varies, including its dramatic decline over the last two centuries in most parts of the world. Why fertility varies, both between and within populations, is not nearly so well understood. Fertility is a complex phenomenon, partly physiologically and partly behaviourally determined, thus an interdisciplinary approach is required to understand it. Evolutionary demographers have focused on human fertility since the 1980s. The first wave of evolutionary demographic research made major theoretical and empirical advances, investigating variation in fertility primarily in terms of fitness maximization. Research focused particularly on variation within high-fertility populations and small-scale subsistence societies and also yielded a number of hypotheses for why fitness maximization seems to break down as fertility declines during the demographic transition. A second wave of evolutionary demography research on fertility is now underway, paying much more attention to the cultural and psychological mechanisms underpinning fertility. It is also engaging with the complex, multi-causal nature of fertility variation, and with understanding fertility in complex modern and transitioning societies. Here, we summarize the history of evolutionary demographic work on human fertility, describe the current state of the field, and suggest future directions. © 2016 The Author(s).

  17. Human sperm degradation of zona pellucida proteins contributes to fertilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saldívar-Hernández, Analilia; González-González, María E; Sánchez-Tusié, Ana; Maldonado-Rosas, Israel; López, Pablo; Treviño, Claudia L; Larrea, Fernando; Chirinos, Mayel

    2015-09-02

    The mammalian oocyte extracellular matrix known as the zona pellucida (ZP) acts as a barrier to accomplish sperm fusion with the female gamete. Although penetration of the ZP is a limiting event to achieve fertilization, this is one of the least comprehended stages of gamete interaction. Even though previous studies suggest that proteases of sperm origin contribute to facilitate the passage of sperm through the ZP, in human this process is not yet fully understood. The aim of this study was to determine the ability of human sperm to degrade recombinant human ZP (rhZPs) proteins and to characterize the proteases involved in this process. Purified rhZP2, rhZP3 and rhZP4 proteins were incubated with capacitated sperm and the proteolytic activity was determined by Western blot analysis. To further characterize the proteases involved, parallel incubations were performed in the presence of the protease inhibitors o-phenanthroline, benzamidine and MG-132 meant to block the activity of metalloproteases, serine proteases and the proteasome, respectively. Additionally, protease inhibitors effect on sperm-ZP binding was evaluated by hemizona assay. The results showed that rhZPs were hydrolyzed in the presence of capacitated sperm. O-phenanthroline inhibited the degradation of rhZP3, MG-132 inhibited the degradation of rhZP4 and benzamidine inhibited the degradation of the three proteins under investigation. Moreover, hemizona assays demonstrated that sperm proteasome inhibition impairs sperm interaction with human native ZP. This study suggests that sperm proteasomes could participate in the degradation of ZP, particularly of the ZP4 protein. Besides, metalloproteases may be involved in specific degradation of ZP3 while serine proteases may contribute to unspecific degradation of the ZP. These findings suggest that localized degradation of ZP proteins by sperm is probably involved in ZP penetration and may be of help in understanding the mechanisms of fertilization in humans.

  18. Silicone Doped Chitosan-Acrylamide Coencapsulated Urea Fertilizer: An Approach to Controlled Release Fertilizers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sempeho Ibahati Siafu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the absence of special management practices, urea is known to undergo chemical transformations resulting in severe losses (≈60–70% of total fertilizer applied. In an attempt to design urea controlled release fertilizers in order to counterbalance the 60–70% loss, urea was cross-linked with chitosan and acrylamide under refluxed in situ copolymerization technique; the procedures were repeated with silicone doping prior cross-linking with MBA. The particles were characterized with FTIR/ATR, EDX, XRD, and SEM. The IR bands observed within 3426–409 cm−1 revealed the formation of new bands after coencapsulation for the νγN-H, νβN-H, νOH, νsNH2, νCH2, νC=O, δ′NH2, νC=C, δNH2, νC-N, βCH3, $C-N, γNH2, νC=O, and $CH2. Crystallinity indices for urea with and without silicone doping were found to be 50.9% and 72.1%, respectively, with a distinctive split peak at (d 12.30°. The formation of Microdunes and Microballs 3D network sized 0.64 μm was noted. Release profiles demonstrated that 80% N was released in a period of 30 days at RT and pH 7. The release patterns exhibited linear and deformed sigmoid release models. Empirically, the findings demonstrated that it is possible to design urea controlled release fertilizers with varying particle sizes and morphologies by using chitosan-acrylamide coencapsulation.

  19. Pollution control -- Recovery of uranium from phosphatic fertilizer industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trivedi, R.N.; Pachaiyappan, V.

    1979-01-01

    Various uranium recovery processes, viz. Brazilian process (HCL leaching), selective extraction of U, Japanese process, ORNL process and the Indian methods, recently developed, pertaining to the fertilizer industry are reviewed and their relative merits are discussed. Special attention has been paid to the recovery of uranium from the Indian and imported phosphatic rocks, showing the advantages, both from the pollution control and nuclear energy aspects. (K.B.)

  20. Human responses to Florida red tides: policy awareness and adherence to local fertilizer ordinances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkpatrick, Barbara; Kohler, Kate; Byrne, Margaret; Fleming, Lora E; Scheller, Karen; Reich, Andrew; Hitchcock, Gary; Kirkpatrick, Gary; Ullmann, Steven; Hoagland, Porter

    2014-09-15

    To mitigate the damages of natural hazards, policy responses can be beneficial only if they are effective. Using a self-administered survey approach, this paper focuses on the adherence to local fertilizer ordinances (i.e., county or municipal rules regulating the application of fertilizer to private lawns or facilities such as golf courses) implemented in jurisdictions along the Southwest Florida coast in response to hazardous blooms of Florida red tides (Karenia brevis). These ordinances play a role in the context of evolving programs of water pollution control at federal, state, water basin, and local levels. With respect to policy effectiveness, while the strength of physical linkages is of critical importance, the extent to which humans affected are aware of and adhere to the relevant rules, is equally critical. We sought to understand the public's depth of understanding about the rationales for local fertilizer ordinances. Respondents in Sarasota, Florida, were asked about their fertilizer practices in an area that has experienced several major blooms of Florida red tides over the past two decades. A highly educated, older population of 305 residents and "snowbirds" reported relatively little knowledge about a local fertilizer ordinance, its purpose, or whether it would change the frequency, size, or duration of red tides. This finding held true even among subpopulations that were expected to have more interest in or to be more knowledgeable about harmful algal blooms. In the face of uncertain science and environmental outcomes, and with individual motivations at odds with evolving public policies, the effectiveness of local community efforts to decrease the impacts of red tides may be compromised. Targeted social-science research on human perceptions about the risks of Florida red tides and education about the rationales for potential policy responses are warranted. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Comparison between human serum and Albuminar-20 (TM) supplement for in-vitro fertilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staessen, C; Van den Abbeel, E; Carlé, M; Khan, I; Devroey, P; Van Steirteghem, A C

    1990-04-01

    Patient or fetal cord serum is commonly used as a protein supplement to culture media used in in-vitro fertilization (IVF). To eliminate the variability and possible hazards related to the use of human serum, a well-defined protein supplement, Albuminar-20 (Armour Pharmaceutical Cy) was evaluated as a substitute for serum. Prior to its application in the human, Earle's culture media supplemented with 0.5% (w/v) bovine serum albumin, 8% (v/v) decomplemented patient serum or 2.25% (v/v) Albuminar-20 were compared in a mouse bioassay. For the three different conditions, the percentages of blastocysts formed after 120 h in-vitro culture were respectively 91.2, 85.2 and 87.8% (NS). In the human IVF, a controlled comparison was performed from October to December 1988, between Earle's medium supplemented with patients' serum or Albuminar-20. When oocytes and spermatozoa were cultured in these two media, the fertilization rates were similar, 58.9% in human serum versus 59.4% in Albuminar-20. After further culture, the morphological quality of the cleaved embryos was better in the embryos cultured in Albuminar-20. The higher pregnancy rate in Albuminar-20 was correlated with the better morphological appearance of the embryos and their more advanced cleavage stage at the time of transfer. Therefore, Albuminar-20 can be considered as a suitable protein supplement in human IVF.

  2. Long-term effects of prenatal X ray on development and fertility of human females

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, M.B.; Tonascia, J.A.; Merz, T.

    1976-01-01

    This continuing epidemiologic study investigates possible effects of X-ray exposure during foetal life on the subsequent development and fertility of human females and on their offspring. The study population comprises 1458 females exposed in utero to maternal diagnostic X ray such as pelvimetry, and 1458 unexposed controls matched by hospital of birth, parity, race and birthdate (1947-1952). Phase I of the study showed a 10-15% increase in fertility in young exposed women, based on ascertainment of live births and foetal deaths registered in Baltimore City. This statistically significant difference (p=0.011) remained after adjustment for differences between exposed and control women in economic, social and medical factors. Phase II of the study, a direct follow-up of exposed control pairs of women now aged 22-28, continues to show more total pregnancies among exposed women. Exposed-in-utero women had 15% more total pregnancies than controls in 1960-1969, and 7% more in 1970-1975. Exposed and control women are similar in number of siblings, number of children wanted, contraceptive use, and frequency of therapeutic abortion. Other findings suggest possible exposed-control differences in growth, development and behaviour. Exposed women have completed fewer grades of school, have poorer general health, more menstrual problems, more of certain diseases and accidents, and are heavier for height than controls. (author)

  3. Using polymer-coated controlled-release fertilizers in the nursery and after outplanting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas D. Landis; R. Kasten Dumroese

    2009-01-01

    Controlled-release fertilizers (CRF) are the newest and most technically advanced way of supplying mineral nutrients to nursery crops. Compared to conventional fertilizers, their gradual pattern of nutrient release better meets plant needs, minimizes leaching, and therefore improves fertilizer use efficiency. In our review of the literature, we found many terms used...

  4. [Effects of mechanical transplanting of rice with controlled release bulk blending fertilizer on rice yield and soil fertility].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xuan; Ding, Jun-Shan; Liu, Yan-Ling; Gu, Yan; Han, Ke-Feng; Wu, Liang-Huan

    2014-03-01

    Abstract: A 2-year field experiment with a yellow-clay paddy soil in Zhejiang Province was conducted to study the effects of different planting measures combined with different fertilization practices on rice yield, soil nutrients, microbial biomass C and N and activities of urease, phosphatase, sucrase and hydrogen peroxidase at the maturity stage. Results showed that mechanical transplanting of rice with controlled release bulk blending (BB) fertilizer (BBMT) could achieve a significantly higher mean yield than traditional manual transplanting with traditional fertilizer (TFTM) and direct seeding with controlled release BB fertilizer (BBDS) by 16.3% and 27.0%, respectively. The yield by BBMT was similar to that by traditional manual transplanting with controlled release BB fertilizer (BBTM). Compared with TFTM, BBMT increased the contents of soil total-N, available N, available P and microbial biomass C, and the activities of urease, sucrase and hydrogen peroxidase by 21.5%, 13.6%, 41.2%, 27.1%, 50.0%, 22.5% and 46.2%, respectively. Therefore, BBMT, a simple high-efficiency rice cultivation method with use of a light-weighted mechanical transplanter, should be widely promoted and adopted.

  5. Human Fertility Increases with the Marital-radius

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Labouriau, Rodrigo; Amorim, António

    2008-01-01

    We report a positive association between marital radius (distance between mates' birthplaces) and fertility detected in a large population. Spurious association due to socioeconomic factors is discarded by a conditional analysis involving income, education, and urbanicity. Strong evidence...

  6. Sperm count as a surrogate endpoint for male fertility control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benda, Norbert; Gerlinger, Christoph

    2007-11-30

    When assessing the effectiveness of a hormonal method of fertility control in men, the classical approach used for the assessment of hormonal contraceptives in women, by estimating the pregnancy rate or using a life-table analysis for the time to pregnancy, is difficult to apply in a clinical development program. The main reasons are the dissociation of the treated unit, i.e. the man, and the observed unit, i.e. his female partner, the high variability in the frequency of male intercourse, the logistical cost and ethical concerns related to the monitoring of the trial. A reasonable surrogate endpoint of the definite endpoint time to pregnancy is sperm count. In addition to the avoidance of the mentioned problems, trials that compare different treatments are possible with reasonable sample sizes, and study duration can be shorter. However, current products do not suppress sperm production to 100 per cent in all men and the sperm count is only observed with measurement error. Complete azoospermia might not be necessary in order to achieve an acceptable failure rate compared with other forms of male fertility control. Therefore, the use of sperm count as a surrogate endpoint must rely on the results of a previous trial in which both the definitive- and surrogate-endpoint results were assessed. The paper discusses different estimation functions of the mean pregnancy rate (corresponding to the cumulative hazard) that are based on the results of sperm count trial and a previous trial in which both sperm count and time to pregnancy were assessed, as well as the underlying assumptions. Sample size estimations are given for pregnancy rate estimation with a given precision.

  7. Neuroendocrine control by kisspeptins: role in metabolic regulation of fertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, Victor M; Tena-Sempere, Manuel

    2011-09-13

    The neurohormonal control of reproduction involves a hierarchical network of central and peripheral signals in the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis. Development and function of this neuroendocrine system is the result of a lifelong delicate balance between endogenous regulators and environmental cues, including nutritional and metabolic factors. Kisspeptins are the peptide products of KISS1, which operate via the G-protein-coupled receptor GPR54 (also known as Kiss1R). These peptides have emerged as essential upstream regulators of neurons secreting gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH), the major hypothalamic node for the stimulatory control of the HPG axis. They are potent elicitors of gonadotropin secretion in various species and physiological settings. Moreover, Kiss1 neurons in the hypothalamus participate in crucial features of reproductive maturation and function, such as brain-level sex differentiation, puberty onset and the neuroendocrine regulation of gonadotropin secretion and ovulation. Cotransmitters of Kiss1 neurons, such as neurokinin B, with roles in controlling the HPG axis have been identified by genetic, neuroanatomical and physiological studies. In addition, a putative role has been proposed for Kiss1 neurons in transmitting metabolic information to GnRH neurons, although the precise mechanisms are as yet unclear. In this Review, we present the major reproductive features of kisspeptins, especially their interplay with neurokinin B and potential roles in the metabolic control of puberty and fertility, and suggest new avenues for research.

  8. The offspring quantity–quality trade-off and human fertility variation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, David W.; Borgerhoff Mulder, Monique

    2016-01-01

    The idea that trade-offs between offspring quantity and quality shape reproductive behaviour has long been central to economic perspectives on fertility. It also has a parallel and richer theoretical foundation in evolutionary ecology. We review the application of the quantity–quality trade-off concept to human reproduction, emphasizing distinctions between clutch size and lifetime fertility, and the wider set of forces contributing to fertility variation in iteroparous and sexually reproducing species like our own. We then argue that in settings approximating human evolutionary history, several factors limit costly sibling competition. Consequently, while the optimization of quantity–quality trade-offs undoubtedly shaped the evolution of human physiology setting the upper limits of reproduction, we argue it plays a modest role in accounting for socio-ecological and individual variation in fertility. Only upon entering the demographic transition can fertility limitation be clearly interpreted as strategically orientated to advancing offspring quality via increased parental investment per child, with low fertility increasing descendant socio-economic success, although not reproductive success. We conclude that existing economic and evolutionary literature has often overemphasized the centrality of quantity–quality trade-offs to human fertility variation and advocate for the development of more holistic frameworks encompassing alternative life-history trade-offs and the evolved mechanisms guiding their resolution. PMID:27022072

  9. Human oocyte calcium analysis predicts the response to assisted oocyte activation in patients experiencing fertilization failure after ICSI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrer-Buitrago, M; Dhaenens, L; Lu, Y; Bonte, D; Vanden Meerschaut, F; De Sutter, P; Leybaert, L; Heindryckx, B

    2018-01-10

    Can human oocyte calcium analysis predict fertilization success after assisted oocyte activation (AOA) in patients experiencing fertilization failure after ICSI? ICSI-AOA restores the fertilization rate only in patients displaying abnormal Ca2+ oscillations during human oocyte activation. Patients capable of activating mouse oocytes and who showed abnormal Ca2+ profiles after mouse oocyte Ca2+ analysis (M-OCA), have variable responses to ICSI-AOA. It remains unsettled whether human oocyte Ca2+ analysis (H-OCA) would yield an improved accuracy to predict fertilization success after ICSI-AOA. Sperm activation potential was first evaluated by MOAT. Subsequently, Ca2+ oscillatory patterns were determined with sperm from patients showing moderate to normal activation potential based on the capacity of human sperm to generate Ca2+ responses upon microinjection in mouse and human oocytes. Altogether, this study includes a total of 255 mouse and 122 human oocytes. M-OCA was performed with 16 different sperm samples before undergoing ICSI-AOA treatment. H-OCA was performed for 11 patients who finally underwent ICSI-AOA treatment. The diagnostic accuracy to predict fertilization success was calculated based on the response to ICSI-AOA. Patients experiencing low or total failed fertilization after conventional ICSI were included in the study. All participants showed moderate to high rates of activation after MOAT. Metaphase II (MII) oocytes from B6D2F1 mice were used for M-OCA. Control fertile sperm samples were used to obtain a reference Ca2+ oscillation profile elicited in human oocytes. Donated human oocytes, non-suitable for IVF treatments, were collected and vitrified at MII stage for further analysis by H-OCA. M-OCA and H-OCA predicted the response to ICSI-AOA in 8 out of 11 (73%) patients. Compared to M-OCA, H-OCA detected the presence of sperm activation deficiencies with greater sensitivity (75 vs 100%, respectively). ICSI-AOA never showed benefit to overcome

  10. Community perceptions of human excreta as fertilizer in peri-urban agriculture in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariwah, Simon; Drangert, Jan-Olof

    2011-08-01

    Although human excreta contain the necessary nutrients for plant growth, local authorities in Ghana spend huge sums of money to dispose them as waste. Reusing excreta for agricultural purposes saves expenditure for chemical fertilizers, improves soil fertility, reduces poverty and ensures food security. People's attitudes and perceptions about excreta vary between cultures and even within specific cultures. This study aimed to explore attitudes and perceptions among a peri-urban agricultural community towards sanitized human excreta and its use. The study adopted an exploratory design and collected data from 154 randomly selected households using questionnaires and focus group discussions. It was found that there is a general negative attitude to fresh excreta and the handling of it. However, the residents accept that excreta can be used as fertilizer, but they are not willing to use it on their own crops or consume crops fertilized with excreta. The study recommends open discussions in the community for a successful implementation of ecological sanitation.

  11. Does immunity regulate ejaculate quality and fertility in humans?

    OpenAIRE

    Philip A. Skau; Ivar Folstad

    2005-01-01

    The production of high-quality ejaculates may represent significant costs during male reproduction. Spermatozoa are perceived as nonself by the immune system and are exposed to immunological attacks in the male reproductive tract. Autoimmunity to spermatozoa results in the production of antisperm antibodies that reduce sperm quality and hence fertility. Thus, males are dependent on the testis being an immunoprivileged site to reduce immunological reactions against their own sperm, and immunop...

  12. Prevalence of Child Marriage and its Impact on the Fertility and Fertility Control Behaviors of Young Women in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raj, Anita; Saggurti, Niranjan; Balaiah, Donta; Silverman, Jay G.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives Child marriage in India is considered a major barrier to the nation's social and economic development, as well as a major women's health concern. The current study assesses prevalence of child marriage (i.e., marriage prior to the national legal age of 18 years) among young adult women in India, and associations between child marriage and women's fertility and fertility control behaviors. Study Design Cross-sectional analyses of a nationally representative household sample of Indian women ages 16-49 years (N=124,385) collected in 2005-2006 via the National Family Health Survey-3. Participants Analyses were restricted to women age 20-24 years (n=22,807) and the subsample of ever married women aged 20-24 years (n=14,628). Data Analysis Prevalence estimates of child marriage were produced for all women 20-24 years. Using the ever married subsample, simple regression models, models adjusted for demographics, and models adjusted for demographics and duration of marriage were constructed to estimate the odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the associations between child marriage and both fertility and fertility control outcomes. Fertility and Fertility Control Outcomes No contraception prior to childbirth, childbirth within first year of marriage, high fertility (3 or more births), history of recent rapid repeat childbirth, unwanted pregnancy, and female sterilization. Results Child marriage was reported by 44.5% of Indian women ages 20-24 years; 22.6% reported marriage prior to age 16 years, and 2.6% were married prior to age 13 years. Child marriage was significantly associated with women's increased risk for no contraceptive use prior to first childbirth (AOR=1.37, 95% CI=1.22, 1.54), high fertility (AOR=7.40, 95% CI=6.45, 8.50), history of rapid repeat childbirth (AOR=3.00, 95% CI=2.74, 3.29), multiple unwanted pregnancies (AOR=2.36, 95% CI=1.90, 2.94), pregnancy termination (AOR=1.22; 95% CI=1.06, 1.41) and female sterilization (AOR=5

  13. Reducing Runoff Loss of Applied Nutrients in Oil Palm Cultivation Using Controlled-Release Fertilizers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Bah

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Controlled-release fertilizers are expected to minimize nutrient loss from crop fields due to their potential to supply plant-available nutrients in synchrony with crop requirements. The evaluation of the efficiency of these fertilizers in tropical oil palm agroecological conditions is not yet fully explored. In this study, a one-year field trial was conducted to determine the impact of fertilization with water soluble conventional mixture and controlled-release fertilizers on runoff loss of nutrients from an immature oil palm field. Soil and nutrient loss were monitored for one year in 2012/2013 under erosion plots of 16 m2 on 10% slope gradient. Mean sediments concentration in runoff amounted to about 6.41 t ha−1. Conventional mixture fertilizer posed the greatest risk of nutrient loss in runoff following fertilization due to elevated nitrogen (6.97%, potassium (13.37%, and magnesium (14.76% as percentage of applied nutrients. In contrast, this risk decreased with the application of controlled-release fertilizers, representing 0.75–2.44% N, 3.55–5.09% K, and 4.35–5.43% Mg loss. Meanwhile, nutrient loss via eroded sediments was minimal compared with loss through runoff. This research demonstrates that the addition of controlled-release fertilizers reduced the runoff risks of nutrient loss possibly due to their slow-release properties.

  14. Human spinal motor control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jens Bo

    2016-01-01

    Human studies in the past three decades have provided us with an emerging understanding of how cortical and spinal networks collaborate to ensure the vast repertoire of human behaviors. We differ from other animals in having direct cortical connections to spinal motoneurons, which bypass spinal...... the central motor command by opening or closing sensory feedback pathways. In the future, human studies of spinal motor control, in close collaboration with animal studies on the molecular biology of the spinal cord, will continue to document the neural basis for human behavior. Expected final online...

  15. Controlled release fertilizers using superabsorbent hydrogel prepared by gamma radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elbarbary, Ahmed M.; Ghobashy, Mohamed Mohamady [Atomic Energy Authority, Nasr City (Egypt). National Center for Radiation Research and Technology (NCRTT)

    2017-07-01

    Superabsorbent hydrogels (PVP/CMC) based on polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP)/carboxylmethyl cellulose (CMC) of different copolymer compositions were prepared by gamma radiation. Factors affecting the gel content (%) and the swelling ratio (g/g) of hydrogel such as irradiation dose as well as copolymer composition were investigated. With increasing the CMC content in PVP/CMC hydrogels, increases the swelling and improves the water retention capability. The high swelling ratio was observed at copolymer composition of PVP/CMC (60/40). Fast swelling of the hydrogels was obtained after 20 min. The effect of different fertilizers and buffers of different pH's on equilibrium swelling of hydrogels was investigated. Fertilizers such as urea, monopotassium-phosphate (MPK), and nitrogen-phosphate-potassium (NPK) were loaded onto the hydrogel to supply nitrogen, potassium and phosphorous nutrients. PVP/CMC hydrogels retained 28-36% after 72 h and slow retention was noticed up to 9 days. The swelling of hydrogel in fertilizer solutions is lower than that in water. The hydrogels showed adsorption desorption of fertilizers which governs by slow release property. The release rate of urea is much higher 10 times than that of phosphate. After 3 days, urea released 60%, while phosphate released 10-12%. The applicability of PVP/CMC hydrogels in the agricultural fields shows greater growth effect on zea maize plants. The growth of zea maize plant in soil mixed with PVP/CMC hydrogels loaded fertilizers is greater than untreated soil. The slow release fertilize, the high swelling and the slow water retention behaviors of PVP/CMC hydrogels encourage their use as safer release systems for fertilizers and as soil conditioner in agricultural applications.

  16. Controlled release fertilizers using superabsorbent hydrogel prepared by gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elbarbary, Ahmed M.; Ghobashy, Mohamed Mohamady

    2017-01-01

    Superabsorbent hydrogels (PVP/CMC) based on polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP)/carboxylmethyl cellulose (CMC) of different copolymer compositions were prepared by gamma radiation. Factors affecting the gel content (%) and the swelling ratio (g/g) of hydrogel such as irradiation dose as well as copolymer composition were investigated. With increasing the CMC content in PVP/CMC hydrogels, increases the swelling and improves the water retention capability. The high swelling ratio was observed at copolymer composition of PVP/CMC (60/40). Fast swelling of the hydrogels was obtained after 20 min. The effect of different fertilizers and buffers of different pH's on equilibrium swelling of hydrogels was investigated. Fertilizers such as urea, monopotassium-phosphate (MPK), and nitrogen-phosphate-potassium (NPK) were loaded onto the hydrogel to supply nitrogen, potassium and phosphorous nutrients. PVP/CMC hydrogels retained 28-36% after 72 h and slow retention was noticed up to 9 days. The swelling of hydrogel in fertilizer solutions is lower than that in water. The hydrogels showed adsorption desorption of fertilizers which governs by slow release property. The release rate of urea is much higher 10 times than that of phosphate. After 3 days, urea released 60%, while phosphate released 10-12%. The applicability of PVP/CMC hydrogels in the agricultural fields shows greater growth effect on zea maize plants. The growth of zea maize plant in soil mixed with PVP/CMC hydrogels loaded fertilizers is greater than untreated soil. The slow release fertilize, the high swelling and the slow water retention behaviors of PVP/CMC hydrogels encourage their use as safer release systems for fertilizers and as soil conditioner in agricultural applications.

  17. Multivariate Cholesky models of human female fertility patterns in the NLSY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, Joseph Lee; Bard, David E; Miller, Warren B

    2007-03-01

    Substantial evidence now exists that variables measuring or correlated with human fertility outcomes have a heritable component. In this study, we define a series of age-sequenced fertility variables, and fit multivariate models to account for underlying shared genetic and environmental sources of variance. We make predictions based on a theory developed by Udry [(1996) Biosocial models of low-fertility societies. In: Casterline, JB, Lee RD, Foote KA (eds) Fertility in the United States: new patterns, new theories. The Population Council, New York] suggesting that biological/genetic motivations can be more easily realized and measured in settings in which fertility choices are available. Udry's theory, along with principles from molecular genetics and certain tenets of life history theory, allow us to make specific predictions about biometrical patterns across age. Consistent with predictions, our results suggest that there are different sources of genetic influence on fertility variance at early compared to later ages, but that there is only one source of shared environmental influence that occurs at early ages. These patterns are suggestive of the types of gene-gene and gene-environment interactions for which we must account to better understand individual differences in fertility outcomes.

  18. Prostasomes--their effects on human male reproduction and fertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burden, H P; Holmes, C H; Persad, R; Whittington, K

    2006-01-01

    The prostate is a glandular male accessory sex organ vital for normal fertility. It provides the prostatic component of seminal plasma which nourishes and protects sperm following ejaculation. Prostasomes are small (40-500 nm) membrane-bound vesicles produced by epithelial cells lining the prostate acini and are a component of prostatic secretions. Although the existence of these particles has been known for many years, their full function and relevance to reproductive health are largely unknown. Proteomic studies have shown a wide range of proteins (enzymes, structural proteins and novel, unannotated proteins) present in or on the surface of prostasomes providing them with a diverse nature. Interestingly prostasomes are able to fuse with sperm, this event and the associated transfer of proteins lies at the heart of many of their proposed functions. Sperm motility is increased by the presence of prostasomes and their fusion prevents premature acrosome reactions. Prostasomes have been shown to aid protection of sperm within the female reproductive tract because of immunosuppressive, antioxidant and antibacterial properties. Clinically these functions imply a role for prostasomes in male factor infertility. However, the very functions that promote fertility may have negative connotations in later life; recent work has suggested that prostasomes are involved in prostate cancer. Clearly more work is needed to clarify the role of these novel particles and their impact on men's health.

  19. Genome-wide association study identifies candidate genes for male fertility traits in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosova, Gülüm; Scott, Nicole M; Niederberger, Craig; Prins, Gail S; Ober, Carole

    2012-06-08

    Despite the fact that hundreds of genes are known to affect fertility in animal models, relatively little is known about genes that influence natural fertility in humans. To broadly survey genes contributing to variation in male fertility, we conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of two fertility traits (family size and birth rate) in 269 married men who are members of a founder population of European descent that proscribes contraception and has large family sizes. Associations between ∼250,000 autosomal SNPs and the fertility traits were examined. A total of 41 SNPs with p ≤ 1 × 10(-4) for either trait were taken forward to a validation study of 123 ethnically diverse men from Chicago who had previously undergone semen analyses. Nine (22%) of the SNPs associated with reduced fertility in the GWAS were also associated with one or more of the ten measures of reduced sperm quantity and/or function, yielding 27 associations with p values LRRC32, which encodes a latent transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) receptor on regulatory T cells. We suggest that mutations in these genes that are more severe may account for some of the unexplained infertility (or subfertility) in the general population. Copyright © 2012 The American Society of Human Genetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Effects of supplementation of fertilizers on human selenium status in Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aro, A; Alfthan, G; Varo, P

    1995-03-01

    The Se concentration of foods can be increased by supplementing fertilizers with soluble Se compounds. In Finland the availability of soil Se for plants is poor owing to the relatively low Se concentration, low pH and high iron content of the soil. Since 1984 multimineral fertilizers have been supplemented with Se (16 mg kg-1 to fertilizers for grain production and 6 mg kg-1 to those for fodder production) in the form of sodium selenate. Within two years a three-fold increase of mean Se intake was observed. The supplementation affected the Se content of all major food groups with the exception of fish. The concomitant human serum Se concentration increased by 70%. In 1990 the amount of Se that was supplemented was reduced to 6 mg kg-1 for all fertilizers. This reduced the mean Se intake by 30% and the serum Se concentration decreased by 25% from the highest levels observed in 1989. Plants take up part of the supplemented selenate and transform it into organic Se compounds, mainly selenomethionine. This affects human nutrition by increasing the Se content of foods of both animal and vegetable origin. According to data obtained in Finland, supplementation of fertilizers with Se is a safe and effective means of increasing the Se intake of both animals and humans that is feasible in countries with relatively uniform geochemical conditions. This kind of intervention requires careful monitoring of the effects on both animal and human nutrition and the environment.

  1. CONTROL OF SOME PATHOGENS BY USING SPECIAL FOLIAR FERTILIZERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I OROIAN

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available The present work points out to the interdisciplinary experimental results, obtained in the experimental fields of the Plant Protection and Soil Science Department, as well as at data which stress upon the interdependency between the satisfaction of the trophically needs of the wheat plants and the aggressiveness of the pathogens which cause the disease. The experimental results underline the fact that the attack level expressed through intensity and attack degree is different, both with the “out of root” fertilized variants and with the soil fertilization variants. The conclusions which come off the study of the obtained data point out at the fact that the fertilizer application, no matter the method, determines the growth or the regress of the attack degree. They also have an influence upon the Puccinia striformis f.sp. tritici, Blumeria graminis and, Septoria spp. fungus manifestation.

  2. Ecological feedbacks can reduce population-level efficacy of wildlife fertility control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ransom, Jason I.; Powers, Jenny G.; Hobbs, N. Thompson; Baker, Dan L.

    2014-01-01

    1. Anthropogenic stress on natural systems, particularly the fragmentation of landscapes and the extirpation of predators from food webs, has intensified the need to regulate abundance of wildlife populations with management. Controlling population growth using fertility control has been considered for almost four decades, but nearly all research has focused on understanding effects of fertility control agents on individual animals. Questions about the efficacy of fertility control as a way to control populations remain largely unanswered. 2. Collateral consequences of contraception can produce unexpected changes in birth rates, survival, immigration and emigration that may reduce the effectiveness of regulating animal abundance. The magnitude and frequency of such effects vary with species-specific social and reproductive systems, as well as connectivity of populations. Developing models that incorporate static demographic parameters from populations not controlled by contraception may bias predictions of fertility control efficacy. 3. Many population-level studies demonstrate that changes in survival and immigration induced by fertility control can compensate for the reduction in births caused by contraception. The most successful cases of regulating populations using fertility control come from applications of contraceptives to small, closed populations of gregarious and easily accessed species. 4. Fertility control can result in artificial selection pressures on the population and may lead to long-term unintentional genetic consequences. The magnitude of such selection is dependent on individual heritability and behavioural traits, as well as environmental variation. 5. Synthesis and applications. Understanding species' life-history strategies, biology, behavioural ecology and ecological context is critical to developing realistic expectations of regulating populations using fertility control. Before time, effort and funding are invested in wildlife

  3. Current status of fertility control methods in India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Use of the condom increased to 3.1% from 2.4%. ... Current efforts in India to develop a male contraceptive are mainly directed towards ... the existing range of contraceptive methods available in the National Family Planning Programme. ... long acting, relatively easily removed and fertility returns rapidly after their removal.

  4. Lifestyle factors and reproductive health: taking control of your fertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Rakesh; Biedenharn, Kelly R; Fedor, Jennifer M; Agarwal, Ashok

    2013-07-16

    Approximately 10 to 15% of couples are impacted by infertility. Recently, the pivotal role that lifestyle factors play in the development of infertility has generated a considerable amount of interest. Lifestyle factors are the modifiable habits and ways of life that can greatly influence overall health and well-being, including fertility. Many lifestyle factors such as the age at which to start a family, nutrition, weight, exercise, psychological stress, environmental and occupational exposures, and others can have substantial effects on fertility; lifestyle factors such as cigarette smoking, illicit drug use, and alcohol and caffeine consumption can negatively influence fertility while others such as preventative care may be beneficial. The present literature review encompasses multiple lifestyle factors and places infertility in context for the couple by focusing on both males and females; it aims to identify the roles that lifestyle factors play in determining reproductive status. The growing interest and amount of research in this field have made it evident that lifestyle factors have a significant impact on fertility.

  5. The evolutionary approach to understand human low fertility phenomenon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cernak, Jozef

    2017-05-01

    Is it possible to reverse the low total fertility rate (TFR) in the developed world? Using a hypothetical model of population we have analysed the decline of the TFR which have took place in the background of ongoing global economic changes, and a liberalization process after the end of the Cold War. These phenomena have affected more that 110 millions of inhabitants of Central Europe and the Baltics and approximately 80 millions of inhabitants in Germany. The model has features of complex and evolving system of interacting individuals, and it enables to investigate a broad spectrum of input factors on individual decisions to limit the offspring. In the case of the TFR 2.1. The changes should stimulate more uniform spatial distribution of wealth, capital and usage. They will increase a number of self-sufficient and cooperative territories, to decrease the income inequality, to decrease labour and social mobilities. Societies should investigate the impacts of economic regulations and actions on the TFR trends in advance and take into account a biological nature of women more responsible.

  6. Lifestyle factors and reproductive health: taking control of your fertility

    OpenAIRE

    Sharma, Rakesh; Biedenharn, Kelly R; Fedor, Jennifer M; Agarwal, Ashok

    2013-01-01

    Approximately 10 to 15% of couples are impacted by infertility. Recently, the pivotal role that lifestyle factors play in the development of infertility has generated a considerable amount of interest. Lifestyle factors are the modifiable habits and ways of life that can greatly influence overall health and well-being, including fertility. Many lifestyle factors such as the age at which to start a family, nutrition, weight, exercise, psychological stress, environmental and occupational exposu...

  7. [Is an act of human love the in vitro fertilization? A proposal ethical analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García Sánchez, Emilio

    2014-01-01

    Since 1978, when the first test tube baby, Louis Brown, was born, thousands of children have been born every year through in vitro fertilization. Many families keep attending fertility clinics in order to receive some treatment for their infertility problems and have a child. Children born in this way are worthy human beings. Their parents love them and devote themselves to their children admirably, showing real parental love. However, does this loving kindness justify, from an ethical point of view, any way of desiring and having a son or daughter? Is it really an act of human love to long for a child and satisfy this desire using artificial methods? Is it equally human and worthy to wish them choosing in vitro fertilization than to wish them through an intimate and loving relationship, in which the child emerges as a result of interpersonal donation? I answer these questions by analyzing the ethics proposal formulated by Rhonheimer and Carrasco de Paula. In short, only the intimate and loving sexual union between a man and a woman -as long as it is unconditional love- may be the dignity cause of the existence of a human being. And such union and unconditional requirement are absent in vitro fertilization.

  8. Non-Monotonicity of Fertility in Human Capital Accumulation and Economic Growth

    OpenAIRE

    Spyridon Boikos; Alberto Bucci; Thanasis Stengos

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigates the relationship between per-capita human capital investment and the birth rate. Since the consequences of higher fertility (birth rate) on per-capita human capital accumulation (the so-called dilution effect) are not the same (in sign and magnitude) across different groups of countries with different birth rates, we analyze the growth impact of a non-linear dilution-effect. The main predictions of the model (concerning the relationship between population and economic ...

  9. Human fertility variation, size-related obstetrical performance and the evolution of sexual stature dimorphism

    OpenAIRE

    Guégan, Jean-François; Teriokhin, A.T.; Thomas, F.

    2000-01-01

    In several animal species, change in sexual size dimorphism is a correlated response to selection on fecundity. In humans, different hypotheses have been proposed to explain the variation of sexual dimorphism in stature, but no consensus has yet emerged. In this paper, we evaluate from a theoretical and an empirical point of view the hypothesis that the extent of sexual dimorphism in human populations results from the interaction between fertility and size-related obstetric complications. We ...

  10. Reproduction and fertility in human immunodeficiency virus type-1 infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Leeuwen, E.; Prins, J. M.; Jurriaans, S.; Boer, K.; Reiss, P.; Repping, S.; van der Veen, F.

    2007-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) affects mostly men and women in their reproductive years. For those who have access to highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), the course of HIV-1 infection has shifted from a lethal to a chronic disease. As a result of this, many patients with HIV-1

  11. Ultrastructural dynamics of human reproduction, from ovulation to fertilization and early embryo development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Familiari, Giuseppe; Heyn, Rosemarie; Relucenti, Michela; Nottola, Stefania A; Sathananthan, A Henry

    2006-01-01

    This study describes the updated, fine structure of human gametes, the human fertilization process, and human embryos, mainly derived from assisted reproductive technology (ART). As clearly shown, the ultrastructure of human reproduction is a peculiar multistep process, which differs in part from that of other mammalian models, having some unique features. Particular attention has been devoted to the (1) sperm ultrastructure, likely "Tygerberg (Kruger) strict morphology criteria"; (2) mature oocyte, in which the MII spindle is barrel shaped, anastral, and lacking centrioles; (3) three-dimensional microarchitecture of the zona pellucida with its unique supramolecular filamentous organization; (4) sperm-egg interactions with the peculiarity of the sperm centrosome that activates the egg and organizes the sperm aster and mitotic spindles of the embryo; and (5) presence of viable cumulus cells whose metabolic activity is closely related to egg and embryo behavior in in vitro as well as in vivo conditions, in a sort of extraovarian "microfollicular unit." Even if the ultrastructural morphodynamic features of human fertilization are well understood, our knowledge about in vivo fertilization is still very limited and the complex sequence of in vivo biological steps involved in human reproduction is only partially reproduced in current ART procedures.

  12. Postmating sexual conflict and female control over fertilization during gamete interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firman, Renée C

    2018-06-01

    Males and females rarely have identical evolutionary interests over reproduction, and when the fitness of both sexes is dependent upon paternity outcomes, sexual conflict over fertilization is inevitable. In internal fertilizers, the female tract is a formidable selective force on the number and integrity of sperm that reach the egg. Selection on sperm quality is intensified when females mate multiply and rival males are forced to compete for fertilizations. While male adaptations to sperm competition have been well documented (e.g., increased sperm fertilizing capacity), much less attention has been given to the evolutionary consequences of postmating sexual conflict for egg form and function. Specifically, increased sperm competitiveness can be detrimental by giving rise to an elevation in reproductive failure resulting from polyspermy. Spanning literature on both internal and external fertilizers, in this review I discuss how females respond to sperm competition via fertilization barriers that mediate sperm entry. These findings, which align directly with sexual conflict theory, indicate that females have greater control over fertilization than has previously been appreciated. I then consider the implications of gametic sexual conflict in relation to the development of reproductive isolation and speculate on potential mechanisms accounting for "egg defensiveness." Finally, I discuss the functional significance of egg defensiveness for both the sexes, and sperm selection for females. © 2018 New York Academy of Sciences.

  13. Detecting the Evolution of Deliberate Fertility Control before the Demographic Transition in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aliaksandr Amialchuk

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Pervious literature has established the existence of deliberate non-parity-specific fertility control in pre-transitional populations. However, less focus has been given to the timing of its onset. In addition, previous studies focused on the changes in fertility in response to the local prices of grains, which may be endogenous. OBJECTIVE This paper studies the emergence and evolution of deliberate fertility control by investigating the link between child mortality and economic stress on the one hand and non-parity-specific birth control on the other, in historic German villages between 1700 and 1900. METHODS Birth histories from fourteen German villages (1700-1900 and rye price series are used in a micro-level event history analysis. The fertility response of second and higher-order births to the mortality of children over age two and exogenous fluctuations in rye price are used as measures of the extent of deliberate non-parity-specific birth control. RESULTS Over the course of the demographic transition, the effect of the death of children generally increases after controlling for the effect of the death of children less than two years old. The negative fertility response to high rye prices before and in the year immediately following the price change occurred only after 1800. CONCLUSIONS The replacement and insurance effects associated with child mortality generally increased before the demographic transition. The emergence of the negative effect of high rye prices on fertility after 1800 further supports the presence and evolution of deliberate non-parity-specific fertility control before the demographic transition.

  14. Adolescent leadership and adulthood fertility: revisiting the "central theoretical problem of human sociobiology".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jokela, Markus; Keltikangas-Järvinen, Liisa

    2009-02-01

    Human motivation for social status may reflect an evolved psychological adaptation that increased individual reproductive success in the evolutionary past. However, the association between status striving and reproduction in contemporary humans is unclear. It may be hypothesized that personality traits related to status achievement increase fertility even if modern indicators of socioeconomic status do not. We examined whether four subcomponents of type-A personality--leadership, hard-driving, eagerness, and aggressiveness--assessed at the age of 12 to 21 years predicted the likelihood of having children by the age of 39 in a population-based sample of Finnish women and men (N=1,313). Survival analyses indicated that high adolescent leadership increased adulthood fertility in men and women, independently of education level and urbanicity of residence. The findings suggest that personality determinants of status achievement may predict increased reproductive success in contemporary humans.

  15. Issues of biomedically assisted fertilization before the European Court of Human Rights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bordaš Bernadet

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of biomedicine has led to the birth of the first test-tube baby in 1978, and that event gave enormous impetus for further development of biomedically assisted fertilization, but also for the development of supporting legislation. Biomedically assisted fertilization and its application raises sensitive social and moral issues, so states retain their sovereign rights in this area and enact rules and regulations that reflect their national legislative policy. Comparative studies across Europe show that national legal acts are in force in many countries, but differences exist and states persist on them. Legal regulation of biomedically assisted fertilization provides legal security for individuals who are subjected to it, making easier the legal protection in cases where individual rights are violated. This paper presents two recent judgments of the European Court of Human Rights, the subject matter of which are issues of biomedically assisted fertilization, where legal remedy is sought under Article 8 of the European Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms. Both judgments are in favor of the states against which complaints are filed by individuals: the Court ruled that national regulations have not violated the right to respect for the individual's private life.

  16. Preparation and characterization of controlled-release fertilizers coated with marine polysaccharide derivatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing; Liu, Song; Qin, Yukun; Chen, Xiaolin; Xing, Rong'e.; Yu, Huahua; Li, Kecheng; Li, Pengcheng

    2017-09-01

    Encapsulation of water-soluble nitrogen fertilizers by membranes can be used to control the release of nutrients to maximize the fertilization effect and reduce environmental pollution. In this research, we formulated a new double-coated controlled-release fertilizer (CRF) by using food-grade microcrystalline wax (MW) and marine polysaccharide derivatives (calcium alginate and chitosan-glutaraldehyde copolymer). The pellets of water-soluble nitrogen fertilizer were coated with the marine polysaccharide derivatives and MW. A convenient and eco-friendly method was used to prepare the CRF. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) were used to characterize the morphology and composition of the products. The nitrogen-release properties were determined in water using UV-Vis spectrophotometry. The controlled-release properties of the fertilizer were improved dramatically after coating with MW and the marine polysaccharide derivatives. The results show that the double-coated CRFs can release nitrogen in a controlled manner, have excellent controlled-release features, and meet the European Standard for CRFs.

  17. MicroRNAs: From Female Fertility, Germ Cells, and Stem Cells to Cancer in Humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irma Virant-Klun

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs are a family of naturally occurring small noncoding RNA molecules that play an important regulatory role in gene expression. They are suggested to regulate a large proportion of protein encoding genes by mediating the translational suppression and posttranscriptional control of gene expression. Recent findings show that microRNAs are emerging as important regulators of cellular differentiation and dedifferentiation, and are deeply involved in developmental processes including human preimplantation development. They keep a balance between pluripotency and differentiation in the embryo and embryonic stem cells. Moreover, it became evident that dysregulation of microRNA expression may play a fundamental role in progression and dissemination of different cancers including ovarian cancer. The interest is still increased by the discovery of exosomes, that is, cell-derived vesicles, which can carry different proteins but also microRNAs between different cells and are involved in cell-to-cell communication. MicroRNAs, together with exosomes, have a great potential to be used for prognosis, therapy, and biomarkers of different diseases including infertility. The aim of this review paper is to summarize the existent knowledge on microRNAs related to female fertility and cancer: from primordial germ cells and ovarian function, germinal stem cells, oocytes, and embryos to embryonic stem cells.

  18. Eleventh-year results of fertilization, herbaceous, and woody plant control in a loblolly pine plantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    James D. Haywood; Allan E. Tiarks

    1990-01-01

    Through 11 years, fertilization at planting significantly increased the stemwood volume (outside bark) per loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) on an intensively prepared moderately well-drained fine sandy loam site in northern Louisiana. Four years of herbaceous plant control significantly increased pine survival, and because herbaceous plant control...

  19. Organics and mineral fertilizers and biological control on the incidence of stalk rot and corn yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Blume

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The expansion of area under maize (Zea mays L. and the use of no tillage have favored the incidence of stalk rot on this crop. The study aimed to evaluate the organic fertilizers and the treatment of corn seeds with Trichoderma spp. on the production of dry matter (DM of shoot, incidence of stalk rot and corn yield. The experiment consisted in a factorial with split-plot in strips, on the randomized block design with four replicates, and the fertilization treatments (pig slurry; swine deep bedding; cattle slurry; mineral fertilizer; control treatment were applied to the plots and the seeds treatment (with and without Trichoderma spp. in the subplots. At the flowering stage, three corn plants per subplot were collected for the assessment of DM production. At physiological maturity stage, the incidence of stalk rot was assessed, and the ears of corn harvested for productivity assessment. The organic and mineral fertilizers increased the production of DM and productivity of corn. Trichoderma spp. increased the production of DM of corn, but had no reflection on productivity. The incidence of stalk rot in corn was higher in treatments with organic and mineral fertilization. Organic fertilizers increase dry matter production of shoot and corn yield, and Trichoderma spp. provides an increase in dry matter production of shoot.

  20. Methods of fertility control in cats: Owner, breeder and veterinarian behavior and attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Jane K; Mosteller, Jill R; Loberg, Jenny M; Andersson, Maria; Benka, Valerie A W

    2015-09-01

    Fertility control is important for population management of owned and unowned cats, provides health benefits at the individual level and can reduce unwanted sexually dimorphic behaviors such as roaming, aggression, spraying and calling. This article reviews the available evidence regarding European and American veterinarian, owner and pedigree cat breeder attitudes toward both surgical sterilization and non-surgical fertility control. It additionally presents new data on veterinarians' and pedigree cat breeders' use of, and attitudes toward, alternative modalities of fertility control. Within the United States and Europe, the proportion of cats reported to be sterilized varies widely. Published estimates range from 27-93% for owned cats and 2-5% for cats trapped as part of a trap-neuter-return (TNR) program. In some regions and populations of cats, non-surgical fertility control is also used. Social context, cultural norms, individual preferences, economic considerations, legislation and professional organizations may all influence fertility control decisions for cats. Particularly in Europe, a limited number of non-surgical temporary contraceptives are available for cats; these include products with regulatory approval for cats as well as some used 'off label'. Non-surgical methods remove the risk of complications related to surgery and offer potential to treat more animals in less time and at lower cost; they may also appeal to pedigree cat breeders seeking temporary contraception. However, concerns over efficacy, delivery methods, target species safety, duration and side effects exist with current non-surgical options. Research is under way to develop new methods to control fertility in cats without surgery. US and European veterinarians place high value on three perceived benefits of surgical sterilization: permanence, behavioral benefits and health benefits. Non-surgical options will likely need to share these benefits to be widely accepted by the veterinary

  1. The Correlation of Human Development Index on Fertility and Mortality Rate: a Global Ecological Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Almasi-Hashiani

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundSeveral studies have examined the relationship between Human Development Index (HDI and various health outcomes. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between HDI, and infant mortality rate, mortality rate of children under one year and under 5 years, maternal mortality rate, and total fertility rate.Materials and MethodsIn this ecologic study, data on HDI, total fertility rate (TFR, maternal mortality rate (MMR, neonatal mortality rate (NMR, infant mortality rate (IMR and mortality rate in children under 5 years of age (< 5MR, were extracted from 188 countries in 2014 in the world. The data required in this study was obtained from the World Bank. Data analysis was performed using Pearson correlation in Stata version 12.0 software. ResultsIn this study, a negative significant correlation was observed between HDI and IMR (r = -0.878, P = 0.001, NMR (r = -0.870, 95% CI: -0.902, -0.828, P = 0.001, ConclusionIMR, children under one year old and under 5 years, and MMR mostly occur in developing countries. There was a correlation between HDI and its components, and the neonatal, infants, children under 5 years, maternal mortality rate and total fertility. The average annual percentage change of HDI also had a correlation with neonatal, infants, children under 5- year mortality rate, total fertility and maternal deaths.

  2. Feasibility of surveillance of changes in human fertility and semen quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, T M; Brown, E H; Venn, A; Mbizvo, M T; Farley, T M; Garrett, C; Baker, H W

    2001-01-01

    There is concern that male fertility is declining, but this is difficult to study because few men volunteer for studies of semen quality, and recruitment bias may over-represent the subfertile. The Human Reproduction Programme of the World Health Organization developed a protocol for multicentre studies of fertility involving a questionnaire for pregnant women to obtain time to pregnancy (TTP): the number of menstrual cycles taken to conceive. Male characteristics and semen quality will be determined in a subset of the partners. Our aim was to validate the TTP questionnaire, and to examine potential recruitment bias and feasibility of conducting large-scale surveillance of fertility. The questionnaire was administered to 120 pregnant women (16-32 weeks). Validation included internal reliability by consistency of responses, test-re-test reliability by repeat administration (20 women) and accuracy by comparison of gestational age from first antenatal ultrasound and menstrual dates. Internal reliability was high. Agreement between categorical responses on re-testing was very good (k > 0.8). In both the re-test and gestational age analysis, differences in TTP of 1 cycle were found (standard deviation recruitment bias. Response rates indicate the feasibility of surveillance of fertility in large maternity centres.

  3. Is there a role for contraceptive vaccines in fertility control?

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    (LH), human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) and gonadal steroids. In addition, the antigens of trophoblasts and early embryo, egg surface antigens and sperm surface antigens have also ... glycolytic enzyme that is found only in male germ cells.

  4. A review of mathematical modeling and simulation of controlled-release fertilizers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irfan, Sayed Ameenuddin; Razali, Radzuan; KuShaari, KuZilati; Mansor, Nurlidia; Azeem, Babar; Ford Versypt, Ashlee N

    2018-02-10

    Nutrients released into soils from uncoated fertilizer granules are lost continuously due to volatilization, leaching, denitrification, and surface run-off. These issues have caused economic loss due to low nutrient absorption efficiency and environmental pollution due to hazardous emissions and water eutrophication. Controlled-release fertilizers (CRFs) can change the release kinetics of the fertilizer nutrients through an abatement strategy to offset these issues by providing the fertilizer content in synchrony with the metabolic needs of the plants. Parametric analysis of release characteristics of CRFs is of paramount importance for the design and development of new CRFs. However, the experimental approaches are not only time consuming, but they are also cumbersome and expensive. Scientists have introduced mathematical modeling techniques to predict the release of nutrients from the CRFs to elucidate fundamental understanding of the dynamics of the release processes and to design new CRFs in a shorter time and with relatively lower cost. This paper reviews and critically analyzes the latest developments in the mathematical modeling and simulation techniques that have been reported for the characteristics and mechanisms of nutrient release from CRFs. The scope of this review includes the modeling and simulations techniques used for coated, controlled-release fertilizers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Ammonia and carbon dioxide emissions by stabilized conventional nitrogen fertilizers and controlled release in corn crop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taylor Lima de Souza

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The market of stabilized, slow and controlled release nitrogen (N fertilizers represents 1% of the world fertilizer consumption. On the other hand, the increase in availability, innovation and application of these technologies could lead to the improvement of N use efficiency in agroecossystems and to the reduction of environmental impacts. The objective of this study was to quantify agronomic efficiency relative index, ammonia volatilization, and CO2 emissions from conventional, stabilized and controlled release N fertilizers in corn summer crop. The experiment was carried out in a corn crop area located in Lavras, state of Minas Gerais, Brazil, without irrigation. All treatments were applied in topdressing at rate of 150 kg ha-1 N. N-NH3 losses from N fertilizers were: Granular urea (39% of the applied N = prilled urea (38% > urea coated with 16% S0 (32% = blend of urea + 7.9% S0 + polymers + conventional urea (32% > prilled urea incorporated at 0.02 m depth (24% > urea + 530 mg kg-1 of NBPT (8% = Hydrolyzed leather (9% > urea + thermoplastic resin (3% = ammonium sulfate (1% = ammonium nitrate (0.7%. Thermoplastic resin coated urea, ammonium nitrate and ammonium sulfate presented low values of cumulative CO2 emissions in corn crop. On the other hand, hydrolyzed leather promoted greater C-CO2 emission, when compared with other nitrogen fertilizers.

  6. Socio-economic differences in fertility control. Is there an early warning system at the village level?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutmann, M P; Watkins, S C

    1990-05-01

    "This article is about identifying the origins of fertility limitation in a way designed to overcome the constraints which require that fertility control be discovered only after it is undeniable. The analysis is based on data from the Belgian commune of La Hulpe, covering the period from 1846-1880. It shows (using hazard models) that the clearest signs of fertility control were visible among literate women and the bourgeoisie." (SUMMARY IN FRE) excerpt

  7. Impact of DNA mismatch repair system alterations on human fertility and related treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Min-hao; Liu, Shu-yuan; Wang, Ning; Wu, Yan; Jin, Fan

    2016-01-01

    DNA mismatch repair (MMR) is one of the biological pathways, which plays a critical role in DNA homeostasis, primarily by repairing base-pair mismatches and insertion/deletion loops that occur during DNA replication. MMR also takes part in other metabolic pathways and regulates cell cycle arrest. Defects in MMR are associated with genomic instability, predisposition to certain types of cancers and resistance to certain therapeutic drugs. Moreover, genetic and epigenetic alterations in the MMR system demonstrate a significant relationship with human fertility and related treatments, which helps us to understand the etiology and susceptibility of human infertility. Alterations in the MMR system may also influence the health of offspring conceived by assisted reproductive technology in humans. However, further studies are needed to explore the specific mechanisms by which the MMR system may affect human infertility. This review addresses the physiological mechanisms of the MMR system and associations between alterations of the MMR system and human fertility and related treatments, and potential effects on the next generation.

  8. Association between human leukocyte antigen-G genotype and success of in vitro fertilization and pregnancy outcome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hviid, T V F; Hylenius, S; Lindhard, A

    2004-01-01

    spontaneous abortions (RSA), 29 white women undergoing IVF treatments, 61 RSA women and 93 fertile controls were HLA-G genotype. The HLA-G genotype, homozygous for the presence of the 14 bp sequence in exon 8, was significantly associated with reduced fertility with respect to unsuccessful IVF treatments...

  9. Phosphate fertilizer and weed control effects on growth and yield of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Soil acidity and the associated low phosphorus availability and poor crop management practices are among the major factors constraining field pea productivity in the highlands of Ethiopia. The effect of phosphate fertilizer and weed control on yield and yield components of field pea (Pisum sativum L.) were studied on ...

  10. Foliar Potassium Fertilizer Additives Affect Soybean Response and Weed Control with Glyphosate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly A. Nelson

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Research in 2004 and 2005 determined the effects of foliar-applied K-fertilizer sources (0-0-62-0 (%N-%P2O5-%K2O-%S, 0-0-25-17, 3-18-18-0, and 5-0-20-13 and additive rates (2.2, 8.8, and 17.6 kg K ha−1 on glyphosate-resistant soybean response and weed control. Field experiments were conducted at Novelty and Portageville with high soil test K and weed populations and at Malden with low soil test K and weed populations. At Novelty, grain yield increased with fertilizer additives at 8.8 kg K ha−1 in a high-yield, weed-free environment in 2004, but fertilizer additives reduced yield up to 470 kg ha−1 in a low-yield year (2005 depending on the K source and rate. At Portageville, K-fertilizer additives increased grain yield from 700 to 1160 kg ha−1 compared to diammonium sulfate, depending on the K source and rate. At Malden, there was no yield response to K sources. Differences in leaf tissue K (P=0.03, S (P=0.03, B (P=0.0001, and Cu (P=0.008 concentrations among treatments were detected 14 d after treatment at Novelty and Malden. Tank mixtures of K-fertilizer additives with glyphosate may provide an option for foliar K applications.

  11. Viable acrosome-intact human spermatozoa in the ejaculate as a marker of semen quality and fertility status

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egeberg Palme, Dorte Louise; Rehfeld, Anders; Bang, Anne Kirstine

    2018-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION: Is it possible, in an unbiased and clinical relevant way, to determine the number of viable acrosome-intact human spermatozoa in ejaculates and to use this as a measure of fertility chances? SUMMARY ANSWER: Image cytometry enables easy and unbiased quantification of viable acrosome......-intact spermatozoa and it correlates with semen quality and fertility status. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: The presence of the acrosome and its ability to respond to physiological inducers (e.g. progesterone) in the female reproductive tract at the appropriate time and place is required for fertilization. However......, the available assays are labor intensive and therefore not used clinically. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION: Washed semen samples and capacitated swim-up fractions from volunteers were used to develop the assay. Subsequently washed ejaculates from patients in fertility treatment (n = 156), proven fertile men (n...

  12. Does fertility status influence impulsivity and risk taking in human females? Adaptive influences on intertemporal choice and risky decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaighobadi, Farnaz; Stevens, Jeffrey R

    2013-07-18

    Informed by the research on adaptive decision making in other animal species, this study investigated human females' intertemporal and risky choices across the ovulatory cycle. We tested the hypothesis that at peak fertility, women who are exposed to environments that signal availability of higher quality mates (by viewing images of attractive males), become more impulsive and risk-seeking in economic decision tasks. To test this, we collected intertemporal and risky choice measures before and after exposure to images of either attractive males or neutral landscapes both at peak and low fertility conditions. The results showed an interaction between women's fertility status and image type, such that women at peak fertility viewing images of attractive men chose the smaller, sooner monetary reward option less than women at peak fertility viewing neutral images. Neither fertility status nor image type influenced risky choice. Thus, though exposure to images of men altered intertemporal choices at peak fertility, this occurred in the opposite direction than predicted--i.e., women at peak fertility became less impulsive. Nevertheless, the results of the current study provide evidence for shifts in preferences over the ovulatory cycle and opens future research on economic decision making.

  13. Does Fertility Status Influence Impulsivity and Risk Taking in Human Females? Adaptive Influences on Intertemporal Choice and Risky Decision Making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farnaz Kaighobadi

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Informed by the research on adaptive decision making in other animal species, this study investigated human females' intertemporal and risky choices across the ovulatory cycle. We tested the hypothesis that at peak fertility, women who are exposed to environments that signal availability of higher quality mates (by viewing images of attractive males, become more impulsive and risk-seeking in economic decision tasks. To test this, we collected intertemporal and risky choice measures before and after exposure to images of either attractive males or neutral landscapes both at peak and low fertility conditions. The results showed an interaction between women's fertility status and image type, such that women at peak fertility viewing images of attractive men chose the smaller, sooner monetary reward option less than women at peak fertility viewing neutral images. Neither fertility status nor image type influenced risky choice. Thus, though exposure to images of men altered intertemporal choices at peak fertility, this occurred in the opposite direction than predicted—i.e., women at peak fertility became less impulsive. Nevertheless, the results of the current study provide evidence for shifts in preferences over the ovulatory cycle and opens future research on economic decision making.

  14. Doses of controlled-release fertilizer for production of rubber tree rootstocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Luis Grisi Macedo

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This experimental study aimed to evaluate the effects of doses of controlled-release fertilizer (ALL on the development of rubber tree rootstocks. The fertilizer used was Osmocote®, scheduled to be released for 8-9 months and with the following composition: N (15%, P2O5 (9%, K2O (12%, Mg (1%, S (2.3%, B (0.02%, Cu (0.05%, Fe (1%, Mn (0.06%, Mo (0.02% and Zn (0.05%. A randomized block design was used, with four treatments and eight replicates of 20 plants per plot. The controlled-release fertilizer was added to Rendimax Floreira® substrate at doses of 0, 3, 6 and 9 g per liter, and rootstocks were produced in plastic containers with a capacity of two liters of substrate. Three seeds of clone GT 1 were scattered in each container and thinning was performed on day 60, leaving the most vigorous plant only. After the fourth leaf shot from each rootstock, the containers of each treatment were topped, due to compaction, with 300 mL of the relevant fertilizer and substrate mixture. The rootstocks were evaluated at eight months of age as to height, stem diameter (DC 5 cm above root collar, total dry matter, shoot and root dry matter, leaf nutrient levels and percentage of plants suitable for grafting (DC≥1.0 cm. Results revealed that adequate development and nutrition of rootstocks was achieved by using 6 g of controlled-release fertilizer per liter of substrate.

  15. Effect of Soybean and Wheat as Cover Crops on Corn Yield and Weed Control using Different Fertilizer Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Dadashi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: According to the importance of corn in supplying the human food directly and indirectly, it is one of the most important plants among crops. One of the major problems in corn production systems, is competition with weeds that reduce corn yield significantly. Weeds not only reduce crop yields but also decrease the commercial quality and the feeding palatability of main crops. They enhance the soil seed bank of weeds, which may cause continuous weed infestation of field crops as well. Herbicide application is a reliable and highly effective method for weed control. However, demand for safe food products that have been produced with a minimum application of chemical inputs is increasing. Therefore, farmers interested in weed management have to rely on other control approaches. An alternative weed control method is the use of cover crops, which can suppress the growth of weeds by preventing them from light and by producing allelopathic compounds. Cover crops successfully have been integrated into conservational agriculture systems in many areas of the world. Legumes are used as cover crop because of their rapid growth, in addition their potential to provide further nitrogen,along with high ability to compete with weeds. Materials and Methods: In order to study the effect of cover crops (soybean and wheat and different fertilizers sources on yield of corn and weed control, a filed experiment was conducted in randomized complete block design with three replications in 2012. Treatments included two cover crop (wheat and soybean and three fertilizer (no fertilizer, chemical fertilizer and compost..Fertilizer treatments was used according to soil analysis and requirement of corn (as a main plant. Weed-infestation and weed-free plots were used as controls. Study cultivars of corn, wheat and soybean were NS-640, Milan and Sari, respectively. Planting of corn was in June and cover crop was planted with corn simultaneously and between corn rows

  16. The relationship of long term global temperature change and human fertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisch, Harry; Andrews, Howard F; Fisch, Karen S; Golden, Robert; Liberson, Gary; Olsson, Carl A

    2003-07-01

    According to the United Nations, global fertility has declined in the last century as reflected by a decline in birth rates. The earth's surface air temperature has increased considerably and is referred to as global warming. Since changes in temperature are well known to influence fertility we sought to determine if a statistical relationship exists between long-term changes in global air temperatures and birth rates. The most complete and reliable birth rate data in the 20th century was available in 19 industrialized countries. Using bivariate and multiple regression analysis, we compared yearly birth rates from these countries to global air temperatures from 1900 to 1994.A common pattern of change in birth rates was noted for the 19 industrialized countries studied. In general, birth rates declined markedly throughout the century except during the baby boom period of approximately 1940 to 1964. An inverse relationship was found between changes in global temperatures and birth rates in all 19 countries. Controlling for the linear yearly decline in birth rates over time, this relationship remained statistically significant for all the 19 countries in aggregate and in seven countries individually (phuman fertility may have been influenced by change in environmental temperatures.

  17. Fertilizer value of urine in pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima L. cultivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.K. PRADHAN

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The fertilizer value of human urine was compared with mineral fertilizer in pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima cultivation at a dose of 113 kg N ha-1 with no-fertilization used as control. The growth of the vine was better in urine fertilized pumpkins than in mineral fertilized and non-fertilized pumpkins. Total fruit biomass was higher in mineral fertilized plants compared to urine fertilized and non-fertilized pumpkins. Urine fertilized pumpkins may have suffered from lower potassium or higher chloride, thus they produced fewer flowers and fruits. However, total fruit biomass and the number of fruits were slightly higher in urine fertilized plants than in their non-fertilized counterparts, i.e. 17.2 t ha-1 more pumpkin could be produced with urine fertilizer. The microbial hygiene quality as well as the contents of soluble sugars, protein and taste quality were similar in all treatments, but lower nitrate and higher chloride contents were recorded in urine fertilized pumpkins than other treatments. In conclusion, our study shows that the production rate of urine fertilized pumpkins was somewhat lower than mineral fertilized pumpkins but it was higher than non-fertilized pumpkins. The hygienic quality was equally good with all treatments.;

  18. Prevalence of child marriage and its effect on fertility and fertility-control outcomes of young women in India: a cross-sectional, observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raj, Anita; Saggurti, Niranjan; Balaiah, Donta; Silverman, Jay G

    2009-05-30

    Child marriage is a substantial barrier to social and economic development in India, and a primary concern for women's health. We assessed the prevalence of child marriage-ie, before 18 years of age-in young adult women in India, and the associations between child marriage and women's fertility and fertility-control outcomes. Data from the National Family Health Survey-3 (2005-06) were limited to a sample of Indian women aged 20-24 years (n=22 807), of whom 14 813 had been or were presently married (ever-married). Prevalence of child marriage was estimated for the whole sample. We used regression models adjusted for demographics, and models adjusted for demographics and duration of marriage to estimate odds ratios (ORs) for the associations between child marriage and both fertility and fertility-control outcomes, in the ever-married subsample. 44.5% of women aged 20-24 years were married before age 18 years, 22.6% were married before age 16 years, and 2.6% were married before age 13 years. Child marriage was significantly associated with no contraceptive use before first childbirth (adjusted OR 1.37 [95% CI 1.22-1.54]), high fertility (three or more births) (7.40 [6.45-8.50]), a repeat childbirth in less than 24 months (3.00 [2.74-3.29]), multiple unwanted pregnancies (2.36 [1.90-2.94]), pregnancy termination (1.48 [1.34-1.63]), and female sterilisation (6.68 [5.78-7.60]). The association between child marriage and high fertility, a repeat childbirth in less than 24 months, multiple unwanted pregnancies, pregnancy termination, and sterilisation all remained significant after controlling for duration of marriage. Increased enforcement of existing policies is crucial for prevention of child marriage. Improved family-planning education, access, and support are urgently needed for women married as children, their husbands, and their families to reduce the high fertility and poor fertility-control outcomes of this practice. US National Institutes of Health and Indian

  19. Reduced rates of controlled-release fertilizer lower potential nitrogen leaching from a Wisconsin bare-root tree nursery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryosuke Fujinuma; Nick J. Balster; Hyung-Kyung. Lee

    2011-01-01

    Controlled-release fertilizer (CRF) typically increases nitrogen (N) fertilizer uptake and lowers N lost from the rooting zone via leaching. However, questions remain as to whether lower rates of CRF could further increase this efficiency, especially in sandy bare-root nurseries in Wisconsin. We hypothesized that: 1) a reduced CRF application at 60 percent of the...

  20. [Controlling effect of antagonist bioorganic fertilizer on tomato root-knot nematode].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Zhen; Chen, Fang; Xiao, Tong-jian; Wang, Xiao-hui; Ran, Wei; Yang, Xing-ming; Shen, Qi-rong

    2011-04-01

    Indoor in vitro culture experiment and greenhouse pot experiment were conducted to evaluate the capabilities of three bacterial strains XZ-173 (Bacillus amyloliquefaciens), SL-25 (B. gibsonii), and KS-62 (Paenibacillus polymyxa) that can hydrolyze collagen protein in controlling tomato root-knot nematode. In the in vitro culture experiment, suspensions of XZ-173, SL-25, and KS-62 induced a mortality rate of 75.9%, 66.7%, and 50.0% to the second-stage junior nematode within 24 h, and decreased the egg hatching rate to 17.8%, 28.9% and 37.6% after 7-day incubation, respectively, in contrast to the 17.4% mortality rate and 53.6% egg hatching rate in the control (sterilized water). In the greenhouse pot experiment, the bioorganic fertilizer mixed with equal parts of fermented XZ-173, SL-25, and KS-62 gained the best result, with the root-knot nematode population in rhizosphere soil decreased by 84.0% as compared with the control. The bioorganic fertilizer also decreased the numbers of galls and eggs on tomato roots significantly, and increased the underground and aboveground biomass of tomato. Therefore, antagonist bioorganic fertilizer has promising potential in controlling root-knot nematode.

  1. ANTI-FERTILITY EFFECTS OF SOME PLANTS USED BY THE STREET HERBAL VENDORS FOR BIRTH CONTROL

    OpenAIRE

    Sinha, Rajiv K.; Nathawat, G.S.

    1989-01-01

    The Herbal Vendors are the descendants of ancient mobile tribal medicine men. Now –a –days they sell crude Herbal Drugs on the streets of India. They have knowledge of medicinal plants – a skill which inherited from their forefathers. Also they are aware of the medicinal value of certain locally growing plants which are administered and control fertility and, do help family planning.

  2. Applying clinically proven human techniques for contraception and fertility to endangered species and zoo animals: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silber, Sherman J; Barbey, Natalie; Lenahan, Kathy; Silber, David Z

    2013-12-01

    Reversible contraception that does not alter natural behavior is a critical need for managing zoo populations. In addition to reversible contraception, other fertility techniques perfected in humans may be useful, such as in vitro fertilization (IVF) or oocyte and embryo banking for endangered species like amphibians and Mexican wolves (Canis lupus baileyi). Furthermore, the genetics of human fertility can give a better understanding of fertility in more exotic species. Collaborations were established to apply human fertility techniques to the captive population. Reversible vasectomy might be one solution for reversible contraception that does not alter behavior. Reversible approaches to vasectomy, avoiding secondary epididymal disruption, were attempted in South American bush dogs (Speothos venaticus), chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), gorillas (Gorilla gorilla), Przewalski's horse (Equus przewalski poliakov), and Sika deer (Cervus nippon) in a variety of zoos around the world. These techniques were first perfected in > 4,000 humans before attempting them in zoo animals. In vitro fertilization with gestational surrogacy was used to attempt to break the vicious cycle of hand rearing of purebred orangutans, and egg and ovary vitrification in humans have led to successful gamete banking for Mexican wolves and disappearing amphibians. The study of the human Y chromosome has even explained a mechanism of extinction related to global climate change. The best results with vasectomy reversal (normal sperm counts, pregnancy, and live offspring) were obtained when the original vasectomy was performed "open-ended," so as to avoid pressure-induced epididymal disruption. The attempt at gestational surrogacy for orangutans failed because of severe male infertility and the lack of success with human ovarian hyperstimulation protocols. Vitrification of oocytes is already being employed for the Amphibian Ark Project and for Mexican wolves. Vasectomy can be a reversible contraception

  3. The control of radioactivity in the working environment in the factories for production of phosphate fertilizers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ajdacic, B.N.; Gnjatovic, S.S.; Vujovic, P.V.

    1980-01-01

    The results of dosimetric control in factories for the production of phosphoric acid and phosphate fertilizers in Serbia, and of the measurement of the total beta radioactivity of samples collected in these factories, are presented. An increase in the radiation dose, even up to 1000 times background, has been found at certain places in the plant. These results serve as a basis for conclusions on the existence, variation and collection of the radioactive component in particular phases of the technological process for the production of phosphate fertilizers. An attempt is made on the basis of the results obtained in three plants to evaluate the degree of danger in the working environment and in the area surrounding the factories and to propose protective measures. (Author)

  4. Ubiquitin Carboxy-Terminal HydrolaseL3 Correlates with Human Sperm Count, Motility and Fertilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Meijiao; Yu, Tinghe; Hu, Lina; Cheng, Zhi; Li, Min

    2016-01-01

    Ubiquitin C-terminal hydrolase L3 (UCHL3) belongs to the group of deubiquitinating enzymes and plays a part in apoptosis of germ cells and the differentiation of spermatocytes into spermatids. However, the exact role of UCHL3 in human spermatogenesis and sperm function remains unknown. Here we examined the level and activity of UCHL3 in spermatozoa from men with asthenozoospermia (A), oligoasthenozoospermia (OA) or normozoospermia (N). Immunofluorescence indicated that UCHL3 was mainly localized in the acrosome and throughout the flagella, and western blotting revealed a lower level in A or OA compared with N (p sperm count, concentration and motility. The UCHL3 level was positively correlated with the normal fertilization rate (FR) and percentage of embryos suitable for transfer/cryopreservation of in vitro fertilization (IVF). The UCHL3 activity was also positively correlated with FR, the percentage of embryos suitable for transfer/cryopreservation and high-quality embryos rate of IVF. Aforementioned correlations were not manifested in intra-cytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). These findings suggest that UCHL3 may play a role in male infertility.

  5. Fertility drug use and the risk of ovarian tumors in infertile women: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asante, Albert; Leonard, Phoebe H; Weaver, Amy L; Goode, Ellen L; Jensen, Jani R; Stewart, Elizabeth A; Coddington, Charles C

    2013-06-01

    To assess the influence of infertility and fertility drugs on risk of ovarian tumors. Case-control study (Mayo Clinic Ovarian Cancer Study). Ongoing academic study of ovarian cancer. A total of 1,900 women (1,028 with ovarian tumors and 872 controls, frequency matched on age and region of residence) who had provided complete information in a self-report questionnaire about history of infertility and fertility drug use. None. Effect of infertility history, use of fertility drugs and oral contraception, and gravidity on the risk of ovarian tumor development, after controlling for potential confounders. Among women who had a history of infertility, use of fertility drugs was reported by 44 (24%) of 182 controls and 38 (17%) of 226 cases. Infertile women who used fertility drugs were not at increased risk of developing ovarian tumors compared with infertile women who did not use fertility drugs; the adjusted odds ratio was 0.64 (95% CI, 0.37, 1.11). The findings were similar when stratified by gravidity and when analyzed separately for borderline versus invasive tumors. We found no statistically significant association between fertility drug use and risk of ovarian tumors. Further larger, prospective studies are needed to confirm this observation. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. Nitrogen mineralization and volatilization from controlled release urea fertilizers in selected malaysian soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, K.J.K.A.; Yusop, M.K.; Oad, F.C.

    2017-01-01

    Controlled release urea fertilizers are usually used for extended duration in supplying nitrogen. The rate of urea hydrolysis could be efficiently minimized through these fertilizers. Various controlled released fertilizers i.e Uber-10 (30%N), Meister-20 (40%N), Meister-27 (40%N), Humate Coated Urea (45%N), Duration Polymer Coated Urea Type-V (43%N), Gold-N-Sulfur Coated Urea (41%N) and common urea (46%N) were applied to inland soil series of Malaysia. The soil series investigated were: Serdang (Typic Paleudult), Munchong (Typic Hapludox), Segamat (Typic Hapludox), Selangor (Typic Tropaquept), Rengam (Typic Kandiudult) and Holyrood (Typic Kandiudult). The maximum release of ammonium (NH/sub 4/-N) was noted in Gold-N-Sulfur Coated Urea, Humate Coated Urea and common Urea over 8 weeks of incubation. However, the release of NH4-N under the influence of Duration Type-V and Uber-10 took 2nd place. The Meister-20 and Meister-27 had minimum release of NH4-N. Munchong series was efficient in releasing higher NH4-N compared to rest of soils during 8th week of incubation due to higher soil total carbon, low /sub 4/-N and total nitrogen. Ammonia (NH/sub 3/-N) loss progressively increased with unit increase in incubation week and was higher during 6th week of fertilizer application. The higher loss of NH3-N was found in common Urea. However, Meister-20, Meister-27, Duration Polymer Coated Urea Type-V and Uber-10 had lower loss of NH/sub 3/-N due to slow release property and this character could be beneficial for supplying nutrients to next season crop. (author)

  7. Disease control through fertility control: Secondary benefits of animal birth control in Indian street dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoak, Andrew J; Reece, John F; Gehrt, Stanley D; Hamilton, Ian M

    2014-01-01

    We sought to (1) survey sexually intact street dogs for a wide range of diseases in three cities in Rajasthan, India and (2) evaluate links between the health of non-treated dogs and both the presence and duration of animal birth control (ABC) programs. ABC regimes sterilize and vaccinate stray dogs in an attempt to control their population and the spread of rabies. They are commonly suggested to improve the health of those dogs they serve, but here we provide evidence that these benefits also extend to untreated dogs in the community. Viral and bacterial disease seroprevalences were assessed in 240 sexually intact street dogs from Jaipur, Jodhpur, and Sawai Madhopur cities in October and September 2011. Those individuals and 50 additional dogs were assessed for the presence of ticks, fleas, fight wounds, and given body condition scores. Dogs in cities with an ABC program had with significantly (pdogs in cities with ABC programs had significantly higher prevalence of Brown Dog Tick (Rhipicephalus sanguineus) infestations. Canine parvovirus and Brucella canis prevalences were not significantly different between cities. This study is the first to demonstrate the health benefits of ABC on non-vaccinated diseases and non-treated individuals. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Prdm9 incompatibility controls oligospermia and delayed fertility but no selfish transmission in mouse intersubspecific hybrids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flachs, Petr; Bhattacharyya, Tanmoy; Mihola, Ondřej; Piálek, Jaroslav; Forejt, Jiří; Trachtulec, Zdenek

    2014-01-01

    PR-domain 9 (Prdm9) is the first hybrid sterility gene identified in mammals. The incompatibility between Prdm9 from Mus musculus domesticus (Mmd; the B6 strain) and the Hstx2 region of chromosome (Chr) X from M. m. musculus (Mmm; the PWD strain) participates in the complete meiotic arrest of mouse intersubspecific (PWD×B6)F1 hybrid males. Other studies suggest that also semisterile intersubspecific hybrids are relevant for mouse speciation, but the genes responsible remain unknown. To investigate the causes of this semisterility, we analyzed the role of Prdm9 and Chr X in hybrids resulting from the crosses of PWK, another Mmm-derived inbred strain. We demonstrate that Prdm9 and Chr X control the partial meiotic arrest and reduced sperm count in (PWK×B6)F1 males. Asynapsis of heterosubspecific chromosomes and semisterility were partially suppressed by removal of the B6 allele of Prdm9. Polymorphisms between PWK and PWD on Chr X but not in the Prdm9 region were responsible for the modification of the outcome of Prdm9-Chr X F1 hybrid incompatibility. Furthermore, (PWK×B6)F1 hybrid males displayed delayed fertility dependent on the Prdm9 incompatibility. While the Drosophila hybrid sterility gene Overdrive causes both delayed fertility and increased transmission of its own chromosome to the offspring, the segregation of Chr X and the Prdm9 region from the mouse (PWK×B6)F1 males was normal. Our results indicate extended functional consequences of Prdm9-Chr X intersubspecific incompatibility on the fertility of hybrids and should influence the design of fertility analyses in hybrid zones and of laboratory crosses between Mmm and Mmd strains.

  9. Prdm9 incompatibility controls oligospermia and delayed fertility but no selfish transmission in mouse intersubspecific hybrids.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Flachs

    Full Text Available PR-domain 9 (Prdm9 is the first hybrid sterility gene identified in mammals. The incompatibility between Prdm9 from Mus musculus domesticus (Mmd; the B6 strain and the Hstx2 region of chromosome (Chr X from M. m. musculus (Mmm; the PWD strain participates in the complete meiotic arrest of mouse intersubspecific (PWD×B6F1 hybrid males. Other studies suggest that also semisterile intersubspecific hybrids are relevant for mouse speciation, but the genes responsible remain unknown. To investigate the causes of this semisterility, we analyzed the role of Prdm9 and Chr X in hybrids resulting from the crosses of PWK, another Mmm-derived inbred strain. We demonstrate that Prdm9 and Chr X control the partial meiotic arrest and reduced sperm count in (PWK×B6F1 males. Asynapsis of heterosubspecific chromosomes and semisterility were partially suppressed by removal of the B6 allele of Prdm9. Polymorphisms between PWK and PWD on Chr X but not in the Prdm9 region were responsible for the modification of the outcome of Prdm9-Chr X F1 hybrid incompatibility. Furthermore, (PWK×B6F1 hybrid males displayed delayed fertility dependent on the Prdm9 incompatibility. While the Drosophila hybrid sterility gene Overdrive causes both delayed fertility and increased transmission of its own chromosome to the offspring, the segregation of Chr X and the Prdm9 region from the mouse (PWK×B6F1 males was normal. Our results indicate extended functional consequences of Prdm9-Chr X intersubspecific incompatibility on the fertility of hybrids and should influence the design of fertility analyses in hybrid zones and of laboratory crosses between Mmm and Mmd strains.

  10. Effects of fertility education on knowledge, desires and anxiety among the reproductive-aged population: findings from a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, E; Nakamura, F; Kobayashi, Y; Boivin, J; Sugimori, H; Murata, K; Saito, H

    2016-09-01

    What are the effects of fertility education on knowledge, childbearing desires and anxiety? Providing fertility information contributed to greater knowledge, but increased anxiety. Past studies have found that exposure to educational material improved fertility awareness and changed desires toward childbearing and its timing. Existing educational websites with evidence-based medical information provided in a non-judgmental manner have received favorable responses from reproductive-aged men and women. This three-armed (one intervention and two control groups), randomized controlled trial was conducted using online social research panels (SRPs) in Japan in January 2015. A total of 1455 participants (726 men and 729 women) between 20 and 39 years of age who hoped to have (more) children in the future were block-randomized and exposed to one of three information brochures: fertility education (intervention group), intake of folic acid during pregnancy (control group 1) or governmental financial support for pregnancy and childbirth (control group 2). Fertility knowledge was measured with the Japanese version of the Cardiff Fertility Knowledge Scale (CFKS-J). Knowledge, child-number and child-timing desires, subjective anxiety (i.e. whether participants felt anxiety [primary outcome]), and scores on the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory were assessed immediately after exposure. Non-inferiority comparisons were performed on subjective anxiety with non-inferiority declared if the upper limit of the two-sided 95% confidence interval (CI) for risk difference did not exceed a margin of 0.15. This test for non-inferiority was only performed for subjective anxiety; all the other variables were tests of superiority. Posttest scores on the CFKS-J (mean, SD) were higher in the intervention group than that of the control groups: intervention versus Control 1 and versus Control 2: 52.8 (28.8) versus 40.9 (26.2) (Pfertility may limit the generalizability of these findings. In addition to

  11. Population ecology of feral horses in an era of fertility control management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ransom, J.I.

    2012-01-01

    Management of wildlife often requires intervention to regulate growth of populations that would otherwise become overabundant. Controlling fecundity using contraceptives has become an increasingly popular tool for attempting to manage locally overabundant wildlife species, but the population-level effects of such applications are largely unknown. Contraceptive treatments can produce unexpected feedbacks that act on births, survival, immigration, and emigration. Such feedbacks may considerably influence our ability to regulate populations using fertility control. I followed feral horses (Equus caballus) in three intensively managed populations to assess longitudinal treatment effects on demography. The transient contraceptive porcine zona pellucida (PZP) produced longer duration of infertility than intended. Repeated PZP vaccinations of females extended the duration of infertility far beyond the targeted management period, with time to first post-treatment parturition increasing 411days for every annual inoculation received. When these animals did conceive and give birth, parturition was later in the year and temporally asynchronous with forage abundance. An average of 30% (range=11–77%) of females were contracepted annually during the treatment period in all three populations and apparent annual population growth rate was 4–9% lower in the post-treatment years as compared to pretreatment years. Population growth was positive, however, and increased steadily every year that a management removal did not occur. The observed number of births was 33% fewer than the expected number of births, based on number of treated females, individual efficacy of treatment, and number of untreated females and their age-specific fecundity rates. Only half of this difference was explained by the apparent residual effect of treatment. Birth rate in the youngest untreated females (age 2–5 years old) was reduced in years when their conspecifics were treated, enhancing the effects of

  12. The fertilizer nitrogen problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olson, R A; Halstead, E H

    1974-07-01

    A world-wide fossil fuel crisis has surfaced in the past year by reason of shortage and high cost, which is felt throughout all segments of human society. Nor has the agriculture sector, with its very high demand for energy to supply its power, machinery, fertilizer, processing and transport, escaped the energy crisis. Among the agricultural inputs, fertilizer nitrogen is one of major concern. This commodity is currently in extremely short supply, world prices having more than doubled in the past year alone. Serious as this situation is to agricultural production in the highly developed countries of the world, it is a real disaster to the production potential of the developing countries. The birth of the 'Green Revolution' in those countries in the last ten years came about from an amalgamation of higher yielding varieties, improved pest and disease control, better crop watering practices, and the introduction of fertilizer nitrogen. Shortcomings in any one of these requisites invalidates the entire package. (author)

  13. The fertilizer nitrogen problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olson, R.A.; Halstead, E.H.

    1974-01-01

    A world-wide fossil fuel crisis has surfaced in the past year by reason of shortage and high cost, which is felt throughout all segments of human society. Nor has the agriculture sector, with its very high demand for energy to supply its power, machinery, fertilizer, processing and transport, escaped the energy crisis. Among the agricultural inputs, fertilizer nitrogen is one of major concern. This commodity is currently in extremely short supply, world prices having more than doubled in the past year alone. Serious as this situation is to agricultural production in the highly developed countries of the world, it is a real disaster to the production potential of the developing countries. The birth of the 'Green Revolution' in those countries in the last ten years came about from an amalgamation of higher yielding varieties, improved pest and disease control, better crop watering practices, and the introduction of fertilizer nitrogen. Shortcomings in any one of these requisites invalidates the entire package. (author)

  14. Fertilizer standards for controlling groundwater nitrate pollution from agriculture: El Salobral-Los Llanos case study, Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peña-Haro, S.; Llopis-Albert, C.; Pulido-Velazquez, M.; Pulido-Velazquez, D.

    2010-10-01

    SummaryAlthough the legislation on groundwater quality targets pollutant concentration, the effects of measures on non-point source pollution control are often evaluated in terms of their emission reduction potential at the source, not on their capacity of reducing the pollutant concentration in groundwater. This paper applies a hydro-economic modelling framework to an aquifer, El Salobral-Los Llanos aquifer (Mancha Oriental, Spain), where nitrate concentrations higher than those allowed by the EU Water Framework Directive and Groundwater Directive are locally found due to the intense fertilizer use in irrigated crops. The approach allows defining the economically optimal allocation of spatially variable fertilizer standards in agricultural basins using a hydro-economic model that links the fertilizer application with groundwater nitrate concentration at different control sites while maximizing net economic benefits. The methodology incorporates results from agronomic simulations, groundwater flow and transport into a management framework that yields the fertilizer allocation that maximizes benefits in agriculture while meeting the environmental standards. The cost of applying fertilizer standards was estimated as the difference between the private net revenues from actual application and the scenarios generated considering the application of the standards. Furthermore, the cost of applying fertilizer standards was compared with the cost of taxing nitrogen fertilizers in order to reduce the fertilizer use to a level that the nitrate concentration in groundwater was below the limit. The results show the required reduction of fertilizer application in the different crop areas depending on its location with regards to the control sites, crop types and soil-plant conditions, groundwater flow and transport processes, time horizon for meeting the standards, and the cost of implementing such a policy (as forgone benefits). According to the results, a high fertilizer price

  15. Use of homeopathic drugs in combination with fertilizers for the control of root rot fungi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanif, A.; Dawar, S.

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the fungicidal effectiveness of homeopathic drugs in combination with fertilizers on the growth production and controlling of root rot fungi. Seeds treated with homeopathic drugs in addition of phosphorous and nitrogen fertilizers as soil amendment showed significant inhibitory effect on fungal growth as well as improved the plant growth. Remarkable control of root infecting fungi was shown by the seeds treated with Thuja occidentalis and Arnica montana at rate of 75 percentage v/v concentration and soil amended with urea at rate of 0.1 percentage w/w but greater increased in plant growth was observed by urea at rate of 0.01 percentage in the tested plants viz. mung bean, mash bean, sunflower and okra. Whereas, when A. montana and T. occidentalis at rate of 75 percentage v/v concentration along with the addition of DAP at rate of 0.01 and 0.1 percentage w/w respectively showed maximum suppression of Fusarium spp, R. solani and M. phaseolina and enhanced the plant height and weight followed by A. montana and T. occidentalis at rate of 50 percentage v/v concentration respectively showed a maximum control of root rot fungi and also strengthened the crop plant for better growth. (author)

  16. Promoting fertilizer use via controlled release of a bacteria-encapsulated film bag.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chin-San

    2010-05-26

    A phosphate-solubilizing bacterium ( Burkholderia cepacia isolate) encapsulated in maleic anhydride (MA) grafted onto poly(butylene succinate adipate) (PBSA) and then combined with starch as film bag material (PBSA-g-MA/starch) incubated in a saline solution required approximately 20 days to deplete the starch in the film bags. Thereafter, the cell concentration in the saline solution increased significantly because of the release of cells from the severely destroyed film bags and also their growth by use of depolymerized PBSA-g-MA fragments as a substrate. The incubation proceeded for 60 days, by which time the PBSA-g-MA/starch composite had suffered a >80% weight loss. For practical application, effectiveness of the above-mentioned film bags was demonstrated because it could improve the absorbability of a fertilizer for plants and promote the growth of plants. As a result, it can avoid the accumulation of the phosphate in excess fertilizer that lead to the phenomenon of poor soils. These results demonstrate that PBSA-g-MA/starch can be used to encapsulate cells of an indigenous phosphate-solubilizing bacterium ( B. cepacia isolate) to form a controlled release of bacteria-encapsulated film bag (BEFB). The B. cepacia isolate was able to degrade the film bags material, causing cell release. Biodegradability of the film bags depended upon the type of material used, because the PBSA film bags were also degraded but to a lesser degree. The addition of starch made the film bags more biodegradable. The decrease in intrinsic viscosity was also higher for the starch composite, suggesting a strong connection between the biodegradability and these characteristics. The results suggest that the release of fertilizer-promoted bacteria might be controllable via a suitable film bag material formulation. In addition, this work adopted live bacteria to promote the absorption of phosphate, which is superior to the phosphate used in the traditional way.

  17. Collaboration between industry and academia--prospects for male fertility control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stock, G; Habenicht, U F

    1999-12-01

    Drug development within the pharmaceutical industry is probably the field with the highest level of regulations. Due to the complexity of the different components of drug development and drug surveillance the need for a sophisticated organization and infrastructure is obvious. In addition, there is a necessity for sufficient resources and long-term commitment as well as logistic and long-term knowledge management. In order to secure high professional standards at all levels of this highly complex value creating chain, the number of cooperative arrangements in the pharmaceutical industry are increasing. The identification of new targets in the drug finding process calls in particular for outside partners. At the same time the preparedness of non-industrial researchers to cooperate with industry has also increased significantly. The area of fertility control, especially male fertility control, provides an excellent example for this kind of cooperation between industrial and non-industrial partners. Here a cooperative network is described which probably meets practically all relevant criteria for both the non-industrial but also the industrial partner. Some principles for the management of such a cooperative network are discussed. We believe that this kind of network can serve as a model for similar networks in other fields.

  18. Design and integration of components for site specific control of fertilizer application

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergeijk, van J.

    2001-01-01

    Keywords: Precision Agriculture, Site Specific Agriculture, Global Positioning System, GPS, Fertilizer Application, Information System.

    Spatial and temporal variability in soil, crop and climate characteristics results in non optimal use of fertilizers when the application

  19. [Nutrient use efficiency and yield-increasing effect of single basal application of rice specific controlled release fertilizer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jiansheng; Xu, Peizhi; Tang, Shuanhu; Zhang, Fabao; Xie, Chunsheng

    2005-10-01

    A series of pot and field experiments and field demonstrations showed that in comparing with the commonly used specific-fertilizers containing same amounts of nutrients, single basal application of rice-specific controlled release fertilizer could increase the use efficiency of N and P by 12.2% - 22.7% and 7.0% - 35.0%, respectively in pot experiment, and the use efficiency of N by 17.1% in field experiment. In 167 field demonstrations successively conducted for 3 years in various rice production areas of Guangdong Province, single basal application of the fertilizer saved the application rate of N and P by 22.1% and 21.8%, respectively, and increased the yield by 8.2%, compared with normal split fertilization.

  20. Impact of public programs on fertility and gender specific investment in human capital of children in rural India: cross sectional and time series analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duraisamy, P; Malathy, R

    1991-01-01

    Cross sectional and time series analyses are conducted with 1971 and 1981 rural district level data for India in order to estimate variations in program impacts on household decisionmaking concerning fertility, child mortality, and schooling; to analyze how the variation in public program subsidies and services influences sex specific investments in schooling; and to examine the bias in cross sectional estimates by employing fixed effects methodology. The theory of household production uses the framework development by Rosenzweig and Wolpin. The utility function is expressed as a function of families' desired number of children, sex specific investment in human capital of children measured by schooling of males and females, and a composite consumption good. Budget constraints are characterized in terms of the biological supply of births or natural fertility, the number of births averted by fertility control, exogenous money income, the prices of number of children, contraceptives, child schooling, and consumption of goods. Demand functions are constructed from maximizing the utility function subject to the budget constraint. Data constitute 40% of the total districts and 50% of the rural population. The empirical specification of the linear model and variable description are provided. Other explanatory variables included are adult educational attainment; % of scheduled castes and tribes and % Muslim; and % rural population. Estimation methods are described and justification is provided for the use of ordinary least squares and fixed effects methods. The results of the cross sectional analysis reveal that own-program effects of family planning and primary health centers reduced family size in 1971 and 81. The increase in secondary school enrollment is evidenced in only 1971. There is a significant effect of family planning (FP) clinics on the demand for surviving children only in 1971. The presence of a seconary school in a village reduces the demand for children in

  1. Random-start GnRH antagonist for emergency fertility preservation: a self-controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Checa MA

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Miguel A Checa,1,2 Mario Brassesco,2 Margalida Sastre,1 Manuel Gómez,2 Julio Herrero,3 Laura Marque,3 Arturo Brassesco,2 Juan José Espinós3 1Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Parc de Salut Mar, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, 2Centro de Infertilidad y Reproducción Humana (CIRH, 3Centro de Reproducción Asistida Sagrada Familia, Clínica Sagrada Familia, Barcelona, Spain Abstract: The aim of this study is to evaluate the feasibility and safety of random-start controlled ovarian hyperstimulation (COH for emergency fertility preservation, regardless of the phase of the menstrual cycle. A self-controlled pilot clinical trial (NCT01385332 was performed in an acute-care teaching hospital and in two private reproductive centers in Barcelona, Spain. Eleven egg donors participated in the study. Two random-start gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH antagonist protocols were assessed in which ganirelix was initiated on either day 10 (protocol B or on day 20 (protocol C of the menstrual cycle and was continued until estradiol levels were below 60 pg/dL. These protocols were compared with a standard protocol (protocol A. The main outcome of interest was the number of metaphase 2 oocytes retrieved. Results from this study show that the number of mature oocytes retrieved was comparable across the different protocols (14.3±4.6 in the standard protocol versus 13.0±9.1 and 13.2±5.2 in protocols B and C, respectively; values expressed as mean ± standard deviation. The mean number of days needed for a GnRH antagonist to lower estradiol levels, as well as the ongoing pregnancy rates, were also similar when protocols B (stimulation in follicular phase and C (stimulation on luteal phase were compared with protocol A (standard stimulation. GnRH antagonists can be effectively used for random-start controlled ovarian hyperstimulation with an ovarian response similar to that of standard protocols, and the antagonists appear suitable for emergency

  2. Starch derivative-based superabsorbent with integration of water-retaining and controlled-release fertilizers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Kang; Lin, Zuan-Tao; Zheng, Xi-Liang; Jiang, Gang-Biao; Fang, Yu-Sheng; Mao, Xiao-Yun; Liao, Zong-Wen

    2013-02-15

    Phosphate rock (PHR), a traditional fertilizer, is abundant, but is hard to be utilized by plants. To improve the utilization of PHR, and to integrate water-retaining and controlled-release fertilizers, an agricultural superabsorbent polymer based on sulfonated corn starch/poly (acrylic acid) embedding phosphate rock (SCS/PAA/PHR) was prepared. PHR can be suspended and well-dispersed in SCS/PAA by sulfonated corn starch (SCS). PHR and KOH were mixed in acrylic acid solution to provide phosphorus (P) and potassium (K) nutrients, respectively. Impacts on water absorption capacity of the superabsorbent were investigated. The maximum swelling capacity in distilled water or 0.9 wt.% (weight percent) NaCl solution reached 498 g g(-1) and 65 g g(-1) (water/prepared dry superabsorbent) respectively. Moreover, release behaviours of P and K in SCS/PAA/PHR were also investigated. The results showed that SCS/PAA/PHR possessed excellent sustained-release property of plant nutrient, and the SCS/PAA could improve the P release greatly. Besides, the XPS analysis was employed to study the relationship between PHR and superabsorbent polymer. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Low-fertility rate, market economy, and population control in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, C; Mu, G

    1996-01-01

    This article discusses the increasingly market-oriented economy in China and the implications for family planning and population control. Modern China has experienced in a few decades a dramatic decline in fertility. Some new issues include whether faster population increase is harmless with a rapidly growing economy, and about whether a large population size offers greater opportunity to attract investment. China adopted its population policies against a specific historical context, and future policies will pertain to new issues. The baby boom of the mid-1970s led to population increase and the impossibility of limiting total population by 2000 to under 1.6 billion. China's huge population size has a significant adverse effect on the survival and development of the nation. Land and natural resources limit the nation's ability to accommodate greater numbers of people. 22% of land is hilly and habitable, but 78.9% is largely uninhabitable basins, mountains, and plateaus. 53% of lands are arid or semi-arid. 20.3% of China's population live under harsh natural conditions, and many are impoverished. 95% of China's population live in the eastern part of the country. Population pressure depletes resources and creates environmental problems. There is pressure on consumption of grain, and labor surpluses threaten modernization and create conflicts between egalitarianism and efficiency. Unemployment insurance and social security are not yet in place to cushion a shift to a competitive market system. Success in rural economic reform is tied to absorbing surplus rural labor. Family planning is critical to improving individual lives, a planned economy, and world responsibility. A market economy in China is likely to modernize attitudes toward reproduction and smooth the transition to a low, stable fertility, but government population control will still be needed. The unanswered question is through what means population will be controlled.

  4. Phosphorus Characteristics with Controlled Nitrogen in Fertile Soils in Protected Vegetable Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WANG Heng

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available There is an unreasonable phenomenon of fertilization in vegetable facility cultivation, with the serious imbalance of soil nutrient. In purpose of understanding the absorption characteristics of phosphorus from nitrogen-rich soil, a long-term nitrogen-controlled experiment was carried from the year 2004 to 2007, and a split plot experiment of leaching was carried in winter-spring season of 2007. The results showed that the content of phosphorus varied with different nitrogen control. The TP was decreased with nitrogen supply of none(NN 、organic manure(MN 、organic manure and straw(MN+S, and the decreased range was NN>MN>MN+S, meanwhile the increase range of TP was traditional-nitrogen(CN >traditional-nitrogen+straw(CN+S >optimized-nitrogen+straw(SN+S >optimized-nitrogen(SN. The available P with CN and CN+S reached to 213.7 mg· kg -1 、225.4 mg·kg -1, which increased by 17.1 percent and 23.5 percent, which declared the phosphorus was accumulated; The available P with other nitrogen controlled decreased with the range of NN>MN>MN+S>SN+S>SN跃CN>CN+S, which showed that the supply reduction of nitrogen could slowdown the phosphorus accumulated and promote the utilization ratio of phosphorus. The organophosphorus was increased except NN, with obvious increase with CN、CN+S(308.4 mg·kg -1 、331.4 mg·kg -1 by 28.5 percent and 38.2 percent. The absorption coefficient of phosphorus with SN+S(P 2 O 5,mg· 100 g -1 reached to 1 571, increased by 143.6 percent; Otherwise the absorption coefficient of phosphorus with CN、CN+S showed negative growth, the CN dipped to 416(P 2 O 5,mg·100 g -1 by 35.5 percent. Adding wheat straw could greatly improved the capacity of absorption of phosphorus and slow down the accumulation of available phosphorus to some extent. The concentrations of total phosphorus in the filtrate with SN+S were less than SN, contrary to the concentration of organophosphorus, thus the straw returning had a certain effect on

  5. Productivity of irrigated beans due to sources of stabilized nitrogen fertilizer and controlled release

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiely Gomes Bernardes

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT New nitrogen fertilizers are available in the market actually, however, does not have results on the efficiency of the Cerrado conditions. With that objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of urea including stabilized and controlled release urea on yield of irrigated common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L in no-tillage system. The experiment was conducted in the winter crop, at Embrapa Arroz e Feijão, in Santo Antônio de Goiás, State of Goiás, Brazil. The experimental design was randomized blocks, with five replicates. Treatments consisted of five N sources (urea, urea + NBPT, urea + polymer, ammonium sulphate, and ammonium nitrate and a control (without N being applied 20 kg ha-1 of N at sowing and 80 kg ha-1 onf N in topdressing. We evaluated the chlorophyll content in leaves of common beans, the leaf N content and dry mass weight (MSPA in the flowering of common beans, the number of pods per plant, number of grains per pod, mass of 100 grains, grain yield and final stand of the common beans. The sources of nitrogen fertilizer did not influence, leaf N content, the mass of MSPA and the relative chlorophyll index of common beans. The use of polymerized urea and urea with urease inhibitor, did not produce increases in the number of grains per pod, number of pods per plant, mass of 100 grains and common beans yield compared to traditional sources of N, urea, ammonium sulfate and ammonium nitrate.

  6. New Reproductive Assemblages: Understanding, Managing and ‘Using’ Human In Vitro Fertilization (IVF)

    OpenAIRE

    Just, E.M.

    2009-01-01

    This dissertation is a contribution to the ongoing discussion about the body and in vitro fertilization (IVF), also known as assisted reproduction or technologically enhanced reproduction. With help of empirical research on Dutch and Polish IVF-couples, Edyta Just puts into question the meaning of IVF and discusses the best way of managing the phenomenon and to use it to transform existing ideologies, norms, convictions en discussions on matters such as reproduction, (in)fertility, female/mal...

  7. Nanocomposites for controlled release of nitrogen fertilizer;Nanocompositos para liberacao controlada de fertilizantes nitrogenados

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Viviane J.M. da; Visconte, Leila L.Y. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (IMA/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Macromoleculas Profa. Eloisa Mano; Matos, Talita S.; Lima, Erica S.A.; Polidoro, Jose Carlos [EMBRAPA Solos, RJ (Brazil); Nascimento, Regina Sandra V. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (IQ/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica

    2009-07-01

    The study aimed at the development of nano structured materials capable of reducing the rate of release of nitrogen in the soil from an agricultural nitrogen fertilizer. Four different systems of polymer composites were prepared: (1) montmorillonite clay/fertilizer, (2) montmorillonite clay/thermoplastic starch and fertilizer, (3) montmorillonite clay/fertilizer, thermoplastic starch and low-density polyethylene (LDPE) and also (4) montmorillonite clay/fertilizer, thermoplastic starch and polycaprolactone. It was confirmed the formation of nano structured materials by elemental analysis (CHN) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The kinetics of nitrogen release was detected by enzymatic colorimetric analysis and spectroscopy in the ultraviolet/visible. The results showed that all materials evaluated were able to reduce the rate of release of nitrogen in the fertilizers. (author)

  8. Fertility regulation as identity maintenance: Understanding the social aspects of birth control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marston, Cicely; Renedo, Alicia; Nyaaba, Gertrude Nsorma

    2018-02-01

    We take a dialogical approach to exploring fertility regulation practices and show how they can maintain or express social identity. We identify three themes in educated Ghanaian women's accounts of how they navigate conflicting social demands on their identity when trying to regulate fertility: secrecy and silence - hiding contraception use and avoiding talking about it; tolerating uncertainty - such as using unreliable but more socially acceptable contraception; and wanting to be fertile and protecting menses. Family planning programmes that fail to tackle such social-psychological obstacles to regulating fertility will risk reproducing social spaces where women struggle to claim their reproductive rights.

  9. IVF versus ICSI for the fertilization of in-vitro matured human oocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walls, M; Junk, S; Ryan, J P; Hart, R

    2012-12-01

    Traditional dogma suggests that intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) should be performed to ensure successful oocyte fertilization in an in-vitro maturation (IVM) cycle. This study postulated that there would be no difference in the fertilization rate when ICSI was compared with IVF. This hypothesis was tested in a randomized trial of IVF versus ICSI in IVM. A total of 150 immature oocytes were collected in eight cycles of IVM for patients diagnosed with polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS). Patients were primed with minimal FSH before transvaginal oocyte aspiration. Sibling oocytes were inseminated by 50% IVF and 50% ICSI. There was no significant difference in fertilization, useable or total blastocyst development between the two insemination technique groups. Clinical pregnancy results for combined fresh and cryopreserved transfers were identical between the two insemination techniques with a total of two fresh and five cryopreserved IVF-inseminated embryos resulting in three clinical pregnancies (42.9%) and five fresh and two cryopreserved ICSI-derived embryos resulting in three clinical pregnancies (42.9%). This research has shown IVF to be a legitimate fertilization technique for IVM oocytes in PCOS patients and provides a greater awareness of the use of a fertilization method previously not utilized with IVM. In-vitro maturation (IVM) is an alternative treatment method to traditional IVF. Due to the minimal use of stimulating hormones in this treatment, IVM has a lower risk of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome, it can be used for fertility preservation in cancer patients and it is more cost conservative. Early research into the effects of IVM showed a hardening effect on the membrane surrounding the egg (the zona pellucida). It was initially believed that, to overcome this hardening in order to allow the egg to be fertilized, spermatozoa would need to be injected into the egg using intracytoplasmic sperm injection. Due to recent advances in hormonal

  10. The impact of subjective work control, job strain and work-family conflict on fertility intentions: a European comparison

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Begall, K.; Mills, M.

    2011-01-01

    The link between employment and fertility is often only examined by focussing on women’s labour market status or the impact of part- versus full-time employment. This study introduces a new explanation by extending research to examine how women’s subjective perceptions of control or autonomy over

  11. The Impact of Subjective Work Control, Job Strain and Work-Family Conflict on Fertility Intentions : a European Comparison

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Begall, Katia; Mills, Melinda

    The link between employment and fertility is often only examined by focussing on women's labour market status or the impact of part- versus full-time employment. This study introduces a new explanation by extending research to examine how women's subjective perceptions of control or autonomy over

  12. Effect of fertilizer prepared from human feces and straw on germination, growth and development of wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dianlei; Xie, Beizhen; Dong, Chen; Liu, Guanghui; Hu, Dawei; Qin, Youcai; Li, Hongyan; Liu, Hong

    2018-04-01

    Solid waste treatment is one of the most important rate-limiting steps in the material circulation and energy flow of Bioregenerative Life Support System (BLSS). In our previous work, an efficient and controllable solid waste bio-convertor has been built and a solid waste degradation efficiency of 41.0% has been reached during a 105-d BLSS experiment. However, the fermented residues should be further utilized to fulfill the closure of the system. One solution might be to use the residues as the fertilizer for plant cultivation. Thus in this study, substrates were prepared using different ratios of the fermented residues to the vermiculite. And the influences of different ratios of the fermented residues on the seed germination, growth, photosynthetic characteristics and antioxidant capacity of wheat were studied. The results showed that the optimal rate of the fermented residue was 5%. With this ratio, the seed germination reached 97.3% with the root length, shoot length and biomass production as 59 mm, 52 mm and 150 mg, respectively, at the 4th day. Besides, the highest straw height of 25.1 cm was obtained at the 21st day. The salinity adversely affected the growth and some relevant metabolic processes of wheat. The Group-40% led to the lowest seed germination of 34.7% and the minimum straw height of 15 cm. This inhibition might be caused by the high Na content of 2118 mg/kg in the fermented residues. Chlorophyll b was more sensitive to the mineral nutrition stress and affects the wheat photosynthetic characteristics. Higher reactive oxygen species levels and reduced antioxidant enzymes may contribute, directly and/or indirectly, to the decline in the observed pigment contents in wheat.

  13. Effects of entomopathogenic fungus species, and impact of fertilizers, on biological control of pecan weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro-Ilan, David I; Gardner, Wayne A; Wells, Lenny; Cottrell, Ted E; Behle, Robert W; Wood, Bruce W

    2013-04-01

    The pecan weevil, Curculio caryae (Horn), is a key pest of pecan, Carya illinoinensis (Wangenh.) K. Koch. Prior research indicated the potential for use of Hypocreales fungi to suppress C. caryae. We compared the efficacy of two fungal spp., Beauveria bassiana (GHA strain) and Metarhizium brunneum (F52), in their ability to cause C. caryae mortality. The fungus, B. bassiana, was applied to trunks of pecan trees (a method previously shown to be effective in C. caryae suppression) and efficacy was compared with M. brunneum applied to the ground or to the trunk with or without SoyScreen Oil as an ultraviolet protecting agent. Results indicated B. bassiana to be superior to M. brunneum regardless of application method; consequently, the potential for applying B. bassiana to control C. caryae was explored further. Specifically, the impact of different fertilizer regimes (as used by pecan growers) on the persistence of B. bassiana (GHA) in soil was determined. B. bassiana was applied to soil in a pecan orchard after one of several fertilizer treatments--i.e., ammonium nitrate, crimson clover, poultry litter, clover plus poultry litter, and a no-fertilizer control. B. bassiana persistence up to 49 d in 2009 and 2010 was assessed by plating soil onto selective media and determining the number of colony forming units, and by baiting soil with a susceptible host, Galleria mellonella (L.). Fertilizer treatments did not impact B. bassiana persistence. We conclude that standard fertilizers for nitrogen management, when applied according to recommended practices, are unlikely to negatively impact survival of B. bassiana in pecan orchards when the fungus is applied for C. caryae suppression during weevil emergence. Additional research on interactions between entomopathogenic fungi and fertilizer amendments (or other tree nutrition or soil management practices) is merited.

  14. Patterned control of human locomotion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacquaniti, Francesco; Ivanenko, Yuri P; Zago, Myrka

    2012-01-01

    There is much experimental evidence for the existence of biomechanical constraints which simplify the problem of control of multi-segment movements. In addition, it has been hypothesized that movements are controlled using a small set of basic temporal components or activation patterns, shared by several different muscles and reflecting global kinematic and kinetic goals. Here we review recent studies on human locomotion showing that muscle activity is accounted for by a combination of few basic patterns, each one timed at a different phase of the gait cycle. Similar patterns are involved in walking and running at different speeds, walking forwards or backwards, and walking under different loading conditions. The corresponding weights of distribution to different muscles may change as a function of the condition, allowing highly flexible control. Biomechanical correlates of each activation pattern have been described, leading to the hypothesis that the co-ordination of limb and body segments arises from the coupling of neural oscillators between each other and with limb mechanical oscillators. Muscle activations need only intervene during limited time epochs to force intrinsic oscillations of the system when energy is lost. PMID:22411012

  15. Patterned control of human locomotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacquaniti, Francesco; Ivanenko, Yuri P; Zago, Myrka

    2012-05-15

    There is much experimental evidence for the existence of biomechanical constraints which simplify the problem of control of multi-segment movements. In addition, it has been hypothesized that movements are controlled using a small set of basic temporal components or activation patterns, shared by several different muscles and reflecting global kinematic and kinetic goals. Here we review recent studies on human locomotion showing that muscle activity is accounted for by a combination of few basic patterns, each one timed at a different phase of the gait cycle. Similar patterns are involved in walking and running at different speeds, walking forwards or backwards, and walking under different loading conditions. The corresponding weights of distribution to different muscles may change as a function of the condition, allowing highly flexible control. Biomechanical correlates of each activation pattern have been described, leading to the hypothesis that the co-ordination of limb and body segments arises from the coupling of neural oscillators between each other and with limb mechanical oscillators. Muscle activations need only intervene during limited time epochs to force intrinsic oscillations of the system when energy is lost.

  16. The control of male fertility by spermatid-specific factors: searching for contraceptive targets from spermatozoon's head to tail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Su-Ren; Batool, Aalia; Wang, Yu-Qian; Hao, Xiao-Xia; Chang, Chawn-Shang; Cheng, C Yan; Liu, Yi-Xun

    2016-01-01

    Male infertility due to abnormal spermatozoa has been reported in both animals and humans, but its pathogenic causes, including genetic abnormalities, remain largely unknown. On the other hand, contraceptive options for men are limited, and a specific, reversible and safe method of male contraception has been a long-standing quest in medicine. Some progress has recently been made in exploring the effects of spermatid-specifical genetic factors in controlling male fertility. A comprehensive search of PubMed for articles and reviews published in English before July 2016 was carried out using the search terms ‘spermiogenesis failure', ‘globozoospermia', ‘spermatid-specific', ‘acrosome', ‘infertile', ‘manchette', ‘sperm connecting piece', ‘sperm annulus', ‘sperm ADAMs', ‘flagellar abnormalities', ‘sperm motility loss', ‘sperm ion exchanger' and ‘contraceptive targets'. Importantly, we have opted to focus on articles regarding spermatid-specific factors. Genetic studies to define the structure and physiology of sperm have shown that spermatozoa appear to be one of the most promising contraceptive targets. Here we summarize how these spermatid-specific factors regulate spermiogenesis and categorize them according to their localization and function from spermatid head to tail (e.g., acrosome, manchette, head-tail conjunction, annulus, principal piece of tail). In addition, we emphatically introduce small-molecule contraceptives, such as BRDT and PPP3CC/PPP3R2, which are currently being developed to target spermatogenic-specific proteins. We suggest that blocking the differentiation of haploid germ cells, which rarely affects early spermatogenic cell types and the testicular microenvironment, is a better choice than spermatogenic-specific proteins. The studies described here provide valuable information regarding the genetic and molecular defects causing male mouse infertility to improve our understanding of the importance of spermatid

  17. New Reproductive Assemblages: Understanding, Managing and ‘Using’ Human In Vitro Fertilization (IVF)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Just, E.M.

    2009-01-01

    This dissertation is a contribution to the ongoing discussion about the body and in vitro fertilization (IVF), also known as assisted reproduction or technologically enhanced reproduction. With help of empirical research on Dutch and Polish IVF-couples, Edyta Just puts into question the meaning of

  18. Societal foundations for explaining fertility: Gender equity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter McDonald

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Gender equity theory in relation to fertility argues that very low fertility is the result of incoherence in the levels of gender equity in individually-oriented social institutions and family-oriented social institutions. The salience of gender to the fertility transition is strong in theory but not as strong in specification of testable hypotheses as has been pointed out in the literature. OBJECTIVE The paper aims to clarify the specification of gender equity theory through a discussion of the difference between equity and equality and to suggest methods that might be applied to test the theory. METHODS The theory is restated and further developed using literature from different disciplines. The method is described using a decomposition of fertility for women by human capital levels. RESULTS The clarification of the theory includes a reminder that the theory relates to differences in fertility between countries and not to differences in fertility between women in the same country. In comparisons between countries, higher gender equity leads to higher fertility. In comparisons of fertility across women in the same country, higher gender equity does not necessarily imply higher fertility. In relation to measurement, a specification is suggested that effectively compares women across countries controlling for their level of human capital. Simple graphics are used to indicate ways in which fertility between countries may vary. CONCLUSIONS The paper concludes that it is likely the gender equity theory can be tested more readily by examining the behaviour across countries of women with higher levels of human capital.

  19. Controlled release fertilizer and container volumes in the production of Parapiptadenia rigida (Benth. Brenan seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezequiel Gasparin

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Growing demand for native tree seedlings will require improvements in quality standards of production processes through the use of more efficient cultivation techniques. This study evaluated the effects of different doses of controlled release fertilizer (CRF and different container volumes in the production of Parapiptadenia rigida seedlings. We examined the effects of five different concentrations (0, 3, 6, 9 and 12 g L-1 substrate of CRF (18-5-9 NPK and three different container volumes (50, 110 and 180 cm3 on seedling height (H and collar diameter (CD measured monthly for seven months and then calculated H/CD ratios. After 210 days of growth, the dry masses of the aerial portions, root systems, and total masses were determined, as well as the concentrations of macro- and micronutrients in the aerial portions of the seedlings. In general, the dose 9 g L-1 substrate combined with the 180 cm3 cultivation tubes demonstrated the best results in terms of the morphological variables analyzed, resulting in consistent quality seedlings for field planting.

  20. Controlled release fertilizer increased phytoremediation of petroleum-contaminated sandy soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartmill, Andrew D; Cartmill, Donita L; Alarcón, Alejandro

    2014-01-01

    A greenhouse experiment was conducted to determine the effect of the application of controlled release fertilizer [(CRF) 0, 4,6, or 8 kg m(-3)] on Lolium multiflorum Lam. survival and potential biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons (0, 3000, 6000, or 15000 mg kg(-1)) in sandy soil. Plant adaptation, growth, photosynthesis, total chlorophyll, and proline content as well as rhizosphere microbial population (culturable heterotrophic fungal and bacterial populations) and total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH)-degradation were determined. Petroleum induced-toxicity resulted in reduced plant growth, photosynthesis, and nutrient status. Plant adaptation, growth, photosynthesis, and chlorophyll content were enhanced by the application of CRF in contaminated soil. Proline content showed limited use as a physiological indicator of petroleum induced-stress in plants. Bacterial and filamentous fungi populations were stimulated by the petroleum concentrations. Bacterial populations were stimulated by CRF application. At low petroleum contamination, CRF did not enhance TPH-degradation. However, petroleum degradation in the rhizosphere was enhanced by the application of medium rates of CRF, especially when plants were exposed to intermediate and high petroleum contamination. Application of CRF allowed plants to overcome the growth impairment induced by the presence of petroleum hydrocarbons in soils.

  1. Human 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase deficiency seems to affect fertility but may not harbor a tumor risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burckhardt, Marie-Anne; Udhane, Sameer S; Marti, Nesa

    2015-01-01

    enlarged breasts through production of estrogens in the periphery. Testis histology in late puberty revealed primarily a Sertoli-cell-only pattern and only few tubules with arrested spermatogenesis, presence of few Leydig cells in stroma, but no neoplastic changes. CONCLUSIONS: The testis with HSD3B2...... histology, fertility and malignancy risk. OBJECTIVE: To describe the molecular genetics, the steroid biochemistry, the (immuno-)histochemistry and the clinical implications of a loss-of-function HSD3B2 mutation. METHODS: Biochemical, genetic and immunohistochemical investigations on human biomaterials...

  2. Use human urine as fertilizer in producing lettuce Waldmann green (Lactuca sativa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mamani-Mamani Virginia

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective was to evaluate the response of growing lettuce, variety Waldmann Green, to the application of fermented human urine (HUF at different times. Urine was obtained from ecological toilets in the 7th district of El Alto municipal- ity. These exudates, fermentation took during different times: 3, 6 and 12 months, in order to eliminate the possible presence of pathogens. The treatments were T-1, with no urine, T-2, three months of fermentation, T-3 six months of fermentations and T-4 twelve months of fermentation. The highest value obtained was 14.75 cm plant height, which corresponds to T-3 treatment and the control (T-1 reached 17.71 cm, plant height. The T-3 applied with six months of obtained a performance of 5.52 kg m-2. This result could be due to the high concentration of nitrogen that has human urine and the witness presented a performance of 3.04 kg m-2. Likewise, we realize product compositional analysis to evaluate the presence of potential pathogens and according to the results did not present infestation of pathogens such as Escherichia coli and Salmonella spp. It is therefore suitable for human consumption without presenting health risk.

  3. Practice of using human excreta as fertilizer and implications for health in Nghean Province, Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Phuc, P. D.; Konradsen, Flemming; Phuong, P. T.

    2006-01-01

    The ancient practice of applying latrine wastes to agricultural land has maintained soil fertility in Vietnam for several centuries but may be associated with health risks if the wastes are inadequately treated before usage. This study aimed at investigating the perceptions and handling practices...... to respondents with a low educational level (chi2 = 7.6; phealth impacts of latrine waste use in agriculture are to be reduced, then it is suggested that sustainable interventions should take into consideration farmers current excreta-use practices.......The ancient practice of applying latrine wastes to agricultural land has maintained soil fertility in Vietnam for several centuries but may be associated with health risks if the wastes are inadequately treated before usage. This study aimed at investigating the perceptions and handling practices...

  4. Interrelation between human fertility and seminal plasma lipids, prostaglandins and zinc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hafiez, A.A.; Zaki, K.; Abbas, E.Z.; Halawa, F.A.; Abdel-Azis, A.

    1986-01-01

    In adult fertile men (32), men with oligospermia (43) and men with azoospermia (31) seminal plasma lipids, prostaglandins (PG) and Zn were determined. The PGs were determined by radioimmunoassay. In oligospermia the seminal plasma levels of PGE phospholipids, triglycerides and Zn were significantly increased, while the PGF/sub 2α/ level was unchanged. In azoospermia the seminal plasma total lipids, phospholipids and cholesterol were significantly decreased, PGE revealed an insignificant decrease only

  5. Oviductal extracellular vesicles (oviductosomes, OVS) are conserved in humans: murine OVS play a pivotal role in sperm capacitation and fertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bathala, Pradeepthi; Fereshteh, Zeinab; Li, Kun; Al-Dossary, Amal A; Galileo, Deni S; Martin-DeLeon, Patricia A

    2018-03-01

    Are extracellular vesicles (EVs) in the murine oviduct (oviductosomes, OVS) conserved in humans and do they play a role in the fertility of Pmca4-/- females? OVS and their fertility-modulating proteins are conserved in humans, arise via the apocrine pathway, and mediate a compensatory upregulation of PMCA1 (plasma membrane Ca2+-ATPase 1) in Pmca4-/- female mice during proestrus/estrus, to account for their fertility. Recently murine OVS were identified and shown during proestrus/estrus to express elevated levels of PMCA4 which they can deliver to sperm. PMCA4 is the major Ca2+ efflux pump in murine sperm and Pmca4 deletion leads to loss of sperm motility and male infertility as there is no compensatory upregulation of the remaining Ca2+ pump, PMCA1. Of the four family members of PMCAs (PMCA1-4), PMCA1 and PMCA4 are ubiquitous, and to date there have been no reports of one isoform being upregulated to compensate for another in any organ/tissue. Since Pmca4-/- females are fertile, despite the abundant expression of PMCA4 in wild-type (WT) OVS, we propose that OVS serve a role of packaging and delivering to sperm elevated levels of PMCA1 in Pmca4-/- during proestrus/estrus to compensate for PMCA4's absence. Fallopian tubes from pre-menopausal women undergoing hysterectomy were used to study EVs in the luminal fluid. Oviducts from sexually mature WT mice were sectioned after perfusion fixation to detect EVs in situ. Oviducts were recovered from WT and Pmca4-/- after hormonally induced estrus and sectioned for PMCA1 immunofluorescence (IF) (detected with confocal microscopy) and hematoxylin and eosin staining. Reproductive tissues, luminal fluids and EVs were recovered after induced estrus and after natural cycling for western blot analysis of PMCA1 and qRT-PCR of Pmca1 to compare expression levels in WT and Pmca4-/-. OVS, uterosomes, and epididymal luminal fluid were included in the comparisons. WT and Pmca4-/- OVS were analyzed for the presence of known PMCA4 partners

  6. Forecasting the Effects of Fertility Control on Overabundant Ungulates: White-Tailed Deer in the National Capital Region.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann M Raiho

    Full Text Available Overabundant populations of ungulates have caused environmental degradation and loss of biological diversity in ecosystems throughout the world. Culling or regulated harvest is often used to control overabundant species. These methods are difficult to implement in national parks, other types of conservation reserves, or in residential areas where public hunting may be forbidden by policy. As a result, fertility control has been recommended as a non-lethal alternative for regulating ungulate populations. We evaluate this alternative using white-tailed deer in national parks in the vicinity of Washington, D.C., USA as a model system. Managers seek to reduce densities of white-tailed deer from the current average (50 deer per km2 to decrease harm to native plant communities caused by deer. We present a Bayesian hierarchical model using 13 years of population estimates from 8 national parks in the National Capital Region Network. We offer a novel way to evaluate management actions relative to goals using short term forecasts. Our approach confirms past analyses that fertility control is incapable of rapidly reducing deer abundance. Fertility control can be combined with culling to maintain a population below carrying capacity with a high probability of success. This gives managers confronted with problematic overabundance a framework for implementing management actions with a realistic assessment of uncertainty.

  7. Forecasting the effects of fertility control on overabundant ungulates: White-tailed deer in the National Capital Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raiho, Ann M.; Hooten, Mevin B.; Bates, Scott; Hobbs, N. Thompson

    2015-01-01

    Overabundant populations of ungulates have caused environmental degradation and loss of biological diversity in ecosystems throughout the world. Culling or regulated harvest is often used to control overabundant species. These methods are difficult to implement in national parks, other types of conservation reserves, or in residential areas where public hunting may be forbidden by policy. As a result, fertility control has been recommended as a non-lethal alternative for regulating ungulate populations. We evaluate this alternative using white-tailed deer in national parks in the vicinity of Washington, D.C., USA as a model system. Managers seek to reduce densities of white-tailed deer from the current average (50 deer per km2) to decrease harm to native plant communities caused by deer. We present a Bayesian hierarchical model using 13 years of population estimates from 8 national parks in the National Capital Region Network. We offer a novel way to evaluate management actions relative to goals using short term forecasts. Our approach confirms past analyses that fertility control is incapable of rapidly reducing deer abundance. Fertility control can be combined with culling to maintain a population below carrying capacity with a high probability of success. This gives managers confronted with problematic overabundance a framework for implementing management actions with a realistic assessment of uncertainty.

  8. Intermittent control: a computational theory of human control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gawthrop, Peter; Loram, Ian; Lakie, Martin; Gollee, Henrik

    2011-02-01

    The paradigm of continuous control using internal models has advanced understanding of human motor control. However, this paradigm ignores some aspects of human control, including intermittent feedback, serial ballistic control, triggered responses and refractory periods. It is shown that event-driven intermittent control provides a framework to explain the behaviour of the human operator under a wider range of conditions than continuous control. Continuous control is included as a special case, but sampling, system matched hold, an intermittent predictor and an event trigger allow serial open-loop trajectories using intermittent feedback. The implementation here may be described as "continuous observation, intermittent action". Beyond explaining unimodal regulation distributions in common with continuous control, these features naturally explain refractoriness and bimodal stabilisation distributions observed in double stimulus tracking experiments and quiet standing, respectively. Moreover, given that human control systems contain significant time delays, a biological-cybernetic rationale favours intermittent over continuous control: intermittent predictive control is computationally less demanding than continuous predictive control. A standard continuous-time predictive control model of the human operator is used as the underlying design method for an event-driven intermittent controller. It is shown that when event thresholds are small and sampling is regular, the intermittent controller can masquerade as the underlying continuous-time controller and thus, under these conditions, the continuous-time and intermittent controller cannot be distinguished. This explains why the intermittent control hypothesis is consistent with the continuous control hypothesis for certain experimental conditions.

  9. Utilization of wheat straw for the preparation of coated controlled-release fertilizer with the function of water retention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Lihua; Liu, Mingzhu; Ni, Boli; Wang, Yanfang

    2012-07-18

    With the aim of improving fertilizer use efficiency and minimizing the negative impact on the environment, a new coated controlled-release fertilizer with the function of water retention was prepared. A novel low water solubility macromolecular fertilizer, poly(dimethylourea phosphate) (PDUP), was "designed" and formulated from N,N'-dimethylolurea (DMU) and potassium dihydrogen phosphate. Simultaneously, an eco-friendly superabsorbent composite based on wheat straw (WS), acrylic acid (AA), 2-acryloylamino-2-methyl-1-propanesulfonic acid (AMPS), and N-hydroxymethyl acrylamide (NHMAAm) was synthesized and used as the coating to control the release of nutrient. The nitrogen release profile and water retention capacity of the product were also investigated. The degradation of the coating material in soil solution was studied. Meanwhile, the impact of the content of N-hydroxymethyl acrylamide on the degradation extent was examined. The experimental data showed that the product with good water retention and controlled-release capacities, being economical and eco-friendly, could be promising for applications in agriculture and horticulture.

  10. Overt leptin response to controlled ovarian hyperstimulation negatively correlates with pregnancy outcome in in vitro fertilization--embryo transfer cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Chakrabarti

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: A critical body mass of adipose tissue is essential for the normal development of female reproductive functions. Leptin, an adipocyte-derived hormone encoded by the ′Ob′ gene has been proposed as a peripheral signal indicating the adequacy of nutritional status for reproductive functions. It is reported as a direct regulator of gametogenic and steroidogenic potential of ovary. Though leptin is widely present in reproductive tissues, its relationship to reproductive hormones is still poorly understood. Aims: Present investigation attempts to explore ovarian response to secretory profile of leptin and its impact on pregnancy outcome in women undergoing controlled ovarian hyperstimulation for in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer (IVF-ET. Settings and Design: Patients enrolled for IVF-ET underwent pituitary-ovarian suppression by ′Long Protocol′ GnRH-agonist downregulation followed by ovarian stimulation. Materials and Methods: Sera were procured at different phases of IVF-ET for the assay of estradiol, progesterone, human chorionic gonadotropin, and for leptin. Ovarian follicular fluids were also assayed for leptin. Luteinized granulosa cells were cultured in vitro to evaluate their steroidogenic potential. Statistical Analysis Used: Statistical analyses were done by student′s t-test, ANOVA, and Chi-square tests as applicable. All results were expressed as Mean ± SE. P values < 0.05 were considered significant. Results: Positive correlation was observed between serum and ovarian follicular fluid leptin. A negative correlation was noted between the serum leptin levels and endometrial thickness. Conclusions: Elevated leptin response may exert adverse impacts on pregnancy success during IVF-ET possibly by modulating uterine receptivity.

  11. Release of sICAM-1 in oocytes and in vitro fertilized human embryos.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Borgatti

    Full Text Available During the last years, several studies have reported the significant relationship between the production of soluble HLA-G molecules (sHLA-G by 48-72 hours early embryos and an increased implantation rate in IVF protocols. As consequence, the detection of HLA-G modulation was suggested as a marker to identify the best embryos to be transferred. On the opposite, no suitable markers are available for the oocyte selection.The major finding of the present paper is that the release of ICAM-1 might be predictive of oocyte maturation. The results obtained are confirmed using three independent methodologies, such as ELISA, Bio-Plex assay and Western blotting. The sICAM-1 release is very high in immature oocytes, decrease in mature oocytes and become even lower in in vitro fertilized embryos. No significant differences were observed in the levels of sICAM-1 release between immature oocytes with different morphological characteristics. On the contrary, when the mature oocytes were subdivided accordingly to morphological criteria, the mean sICAM-I levels in grade 1 oocytes were significantly decreased when compared to grade 2 and 3 oocytes.The reduction of the number of fertilized oocytes and transferred embryos represents the main target of assisted reproductive medicine. We propose sICAM-1 as a biochemical marker for oocyte maturation and grading, with a possible interesting rebound in assisted reproduction techniques.

  12. The Control of Behavior: Human and Environmental

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burhoe, Ralph Wendell

    1972-01-01

    Theological perspective on human and environmental behavior, with a view toward man's ultimate concerns or longest range values and the ultimate controls of behavior. Maintains that all human behavior and destiny is ultimately in the hand of a transcendent power which prevails over any human errors.'' (LK)

  13. Human factors challenges for advanced process control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stubler, W.F.; O'Hara, J..M.

    1996-01-01

    New human-system interface technologies provide opportunities for improving operator and plant performance. However, if these technologies are not properly implemented, they may introduce new challenges to performance and safety. This paper reports the results from a survey of human factors considerations that arise in the implementation of advanced human-system interface technologies in process control and other complex systems. General trends were identified for several areas based on a review of technical literature and a combination of interviews and site visits with process control organizations. Human factors considerations are discussed for two of these areas, automation and controls

  14. Human performance interfaces in air traffic control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yu-Hern; Yeh, Chung-Hsing

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines how human performance factors in air traffic control (ATC) affect each other through their mutual interactions. The paper extends the conceptual SHEL model of ergonomics to describe the ATC system as human performance interfaces in which the air traffic controllers interact with other human performance factors including other controllers, software, hardware, environment, and organisation. New research hypotheses about the relationships between human performance interfaces of the system are developed and tested on data collected from air traffic controllers, using structural equation modelling. The research result suggests that organisation influences play a more significant role than individual differences or peer influences on how the controllers interact with the software, hardware, and environment of the ATC system. There are mutual influences between the controller-software, controller-hardware, controller-environment, and controller-organisation interfaces of the ATC system, with the exception of the controller-controller interface. Research findings of this study provide practical insights in managing human performance interfaces of the ATC system in the face of internal or external change, particularly in understanding its possible consequences in relation to the interactions between human performance factors.

  15. Embryological outcomes in cycles with human oocytes containing large tubular smooth endoplasmic reticulum clusters after conventional in vitro fertilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itoi, Fumiaki; Asano, Yukiko; Shimizu, Masashi; Honnma, Hiroyuki; Murata, Yasutaka

    2016-01-01

    There have been no studies analyzing the effect of large aggregates of tubular smooth endoplasmic reticulum (aSERT) after conventional in vitro fertilization (cIVF). The aim of this study was to investigate whether aSERT can be identified after cIVF and the association between the embryological outcomes of oocytes in cycles with aSERT. This is a retrospective study examining embryological data from cIVF cycles showing the presence of aSERT in oocytes 5-6 h after cIVF. To evaluate embryo quality, cIVF cycles with at least one aSERT-metaphase II (MII) oocyte observed (cycles with aSERT) were compared to cycles with normal-MII oocytes (control cycles). Among the 4098 MII oocytes observed in 579 cycles, aSERT was detected in 100 MII oocytes in 51 cycles (8.8%). The fertilization rate, the rate of embryo development on day 3 and day 5-6 did not significantly differ between cycles with aSERT and control group. However, aSERT-MII oocytes had lower rates for both blastocysts and good quality blastocysts (p cycles with aSERT.

  16. Early serum interleukin-8 evaluation may prove useful in localizing abnormally implanted human gestations after in vitro fertilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morelli, Sara S; Keegan, Debbra A; Krey, Lewis C; Katz, Joseph; Liu, Mengling; Noyes, Nicole

    2008-12-01

    To determine whether early measurement of the serum cytokines interleukin-2 receptor (IL-2R), IL-6, and IL-8 along with human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) and progesterone (P(4)) can differentiate an ectopic from an intrauterine gestation. Retrospective analysis. University-based fertility center. 75 women who underwent treatment with in vitro fertilization (IVF) and subsequently had an ectopic gestation (n = 15), spontaneous abortion (SAB) (n = 30), or term delivery (TD) (n = 30). Serum samples were obtained 14 (day 28) and 21 (day 35) days after oocyte retrieval. Serum concentrations of IL-2R, IL-6, IL-8, P(4), and hCG. Median hCG readings on day 28 and day 35 were statistically significantly lower in the ectopic gestation group than in those with spontaneous abortion or term delivery. On day 28, median IL-8 levels were lower in the ectopic gestation group when compared with all intrauterine gestations combined. No statistically significant differences in IL-2R or IL-6 levels were noted between groups. Despite P(4) supplementation, median day-35 P(4) levels were lower in ectopic gestation than in the spontaneous abortion and term delivery cycles. In the setting of a rise or plateau in hCG levels, low day-28 IL-8 and day-35 P(4) levels suggested an extrauterine implantation. This assay combination may facilitate earlier diagnosis of an ectopic gestation when pregnancy location is unclear.

  17. Altered cleavage patterns in human tripronuclear embryos and their association to fertilization method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joergensen, Mette Warming; Agerholm, Inge; Hindkjaer, Johnny

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE: To analyze the cleavage patterns in dipronuclear (2PN) and tripronuclear (3PN) embryos in relation to fertilization method. METHOD: Time-lapse analysis. RESULTS: Compared to 2PN, more 3PN IVF embryos displayed early cleavage into 3 cells (p ... stage (p embryos, the 2nd and 3rd cleavage cycles were completed within the expected time frame. However, timing of the cell divisions within the cleavage cycles differed between the two groups. In contrast......, the completion of the 1st, 2nd, and 3rd cleavage cycle was delayed, but with a similar division pattern for 3PN ICSI compared with the 2PN ICSI embryos. 3PN, more often than 2PN ICSI embryos, displayed early cleavage into 3 cells (p = 0.03) and arrested development from the compaction stage and onwards (p = 0...

  18. A single nucleotide polymorphism within the novel sex-linked testis-specific retrotransposed PGAM4 gene influences human male fertility.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hidenobu Okuda

    Full Text Available The development of novel fertilization treatments, including in vitro fertilization and intracytoplasmic injection, has made pregnancy possible regardless of the level of activity of the spermatozoa; however, the etiology of male-factor infertility is poorly understood. Multiple studies, primarily through the use of transgenic animals, have contributed to a list of candidate genes that may affect male infertility in humans. We examined single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs as a cause of male infertility in an analysis of spermatogenesis-specific genes.We carried out the prevalence of SNPs in the coding region of phosphoglycerate mutase 4 (PGAM4 on the X chromosome by the direct sequencing of PCR-amplified DNA from male patients. Using RT-PCR and western blot analyses, we identified that PGAM4 is a functional retrogene that is expressed predominantly in the testes and is associated with male infertility. PGAM4 is expressed in post-meiotic stages, including spermatids and spermatozoa in the testes, and the principal piece of the flagellum and acrosome in ejaculated spermatozoa. A case-control study revealed that 4.5% of infertile patients carry the G75C polymorphism, which causes an amino acid substitution in the encoded protein. Furthermore, an assay for enzymatic activity demonstrated that this polymorphism decreases the enzyme's activity both in vitro and in vivo.These results suggest that PGAM4, an X-linked retrogene, is a fundamental gene in human male reproduction and may escape meiotic sex chromosome inactivation. These findings provide fresh insight into elucidating the mechanisms of male infertility.

  19. Control system oriented human interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barale, P.; Jacobson, V.; Kilgore, R.; Rondeau, D.

    1976-11-01

    The on-line control system interface for magnet beam steering and focusing in the Bevalac is described. An Aydin model 5205B display generator was chosen. This display generator will allow the computer to completely rewrite a monitor screen in less than 50 ms and is also capable of controlling a color monitor

  20. Foods That Can Affect Fertility

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... That Can Affect Fertility Print Email Foods That Can Affect Fertility By Caroline Kaufman, MS, RDN Published ... the American Society for Reproductive Medicine. While couples can't control all of the causes of infertility, ...

  1. Sex and Fertility After SCI

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... male fertility? play_arrow Where can people get information on sex and fertility after a spinal cord ... health care products or services, or control the information found on external websites. The Hill Foundation is ...

  2. A prospective self-controlled study of fertility after second-trimester prostaglandin-induced abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKenzie, I Z; Fry, A

    1988-05-01

    One hundred forty women whose pregnancies were terminated in the second trimester with prostaglandins because of suspected fetal disease have been prospectively followed to assess their subsequent fertility. In six instances difficulties had been experienced in conceiving the pregnancy that was terminated. Since abortion 104 women have conceived, 97% within 24 months of abortion but in five instances after some delay. Only one woman had not succeeded in conceiving a wished-for pregnancy. There were no apparent differences in abortion management between those women readily conceiving and those in whom there was some delay, although termination because of chromosomal reasons or anatomic abnormalities was less commonly followed by another pregnancy as compared with those terminated for rubella or other viral infections. Reduced fertility after a late prostaglandin-induced abortion thus appears to be very infrequent.

  3. Control of civilian plutonium inventories using burning in a non-fertile fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oversby, V.M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); McPheeters, C.C. [Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Argonne, IL 60439-4837 (United States); Degueldre, C. [Paul Scherrer Institute, 5232 Villigen-PSI (Switzerland); Paratte, J.M. [Paul Scherrer Institute, 5232 Villigen-PSI (Switzerland)

    1997-05-01

    The increasing inventories of plutonium generated by commercial nuclear power production represent a potential source for proliferation of nuclear weapons. To address this threat we propose separating the plutonium from the other constituents of commercial reactor spent fuel and burning it in a non-fertile fuel based on a zirconium dioxide matrix. The separation can be performed by the Purex process currently in use, but we recommend development of a more compact separation technology that would produce less secondary waste than currently used technology and would allow for more stringent accounting of plutonium inventories. The non-fertile fuel is designed for use in conventional light water power reactors and does not require development of new reactor technology. (orig.).

  4. Control of civilian plutonium inventories using burning in a non-fertile fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oversby, V. M.; McPheeters, C. C.; Degueldre, C.; Paratte, J. M.

    1997-05-01

    The increasing inventories of plutonium generated by commercial nuclear power production represent a potential source for proliferation of nuclear weapons. To address this threat we propose separating the plutonium from the other constituents of commercial reactor spent fuel and burning it in a non-fertile fuel based on a zirconium dioxide matrix. The separation can be performed by the Purex process currently in use, but we recommend development of a more compact separation technology that would produce less secondary waste than currently used technology and would allow for more stringent accounting of plutonium inventories. The non-fertile fuel is designed for use in conventional light water power reactors and does not require development of new reactor technology.

  5. The impact of controlled nutrition during the dry period on dairy cow health, fertility and performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beever, David E

    2006-12-01

    Average dairy herd fertility is declining, with more serves per successful conception, extended calving intervals and increased culling due to failure to rebreed, all adding significant costs to milk production. Genetics, management and nutrition have all contributed to this decline in fertility; the paper focuses primarily on nutritional issues. The extent of body condition loss after calving and its possible impact on fertility is considered, with evidence that this phenomenon is common in many herds irrespective of average milk yields. Body tissue mobilisation after calving increases the flux of non-esterified fatty acids to the liver and pathways of fatty acid metabolism are considered. Particular attention is given to the effects of high plasma non-esterified fatty acid levels on fat accumulation in liver cells and possible impacts on nitrogen and glucose metabolism. Current nutritional practices with early lactation cows which aim to stimulate milk yield and peak milk production but have been shown to exacerbate body condition loss, are reviewed. The paper also considers cow health issues during the peri-parturient period and how these may affect milk yield and fertility. It is concluded that current feeding practices for dry cows, with the provision of increasing amounts of the lactation ration during the Close-up period to accustom the rumen microbes and offset the expected reduction in feed intake as pregnancy reaches term, have largely failed to overcome peri-parturient health problems, excessive body condition loss after calving or declining fertility. From an examination of the energy and protein requirements of dry cows, it is suggested that current Close-up feeding practices can lead to luxury intakes of nutrients that can increase fat deposition in the viscera and the liver. Under such conditions, metabolism of nutrients by the cow may be compromised. In contrast, limited feeding throughout the whole dry period has been shown to prevent many of the

  6. Effect of music therapy on the anxiety levels and pregnancy rate of women undergoing in vitro fertilization-embryo transfer: A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aba, Yilda Arzu; Avci, Dilek; Guzel, Yilmaz; Ozcelik, Semanur Kumral; Gurtekin, Basak

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of music therapy on the anxiety levels and pregnancy rates of women who underwent in vitro fertilization-embryo transfer. This prospective randomized controlled trial was conducted with 186 infertile women who presented to the In Vitro Fertilization Unit at the American Hospital in Turkey between April 2015 and April 2016. The infertile women who met the inclusion criteria were assigned to the music therapy group or the standard therapy group through block randomization. The study data were collected using the Personal Information Form, and State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. Early treatment success was determined by serum beta human chorionic gonadotrophin levels seven or ten days after the luteal day zero. For the analysis, descriptive statistics, chi-square test, Fisher's exact test, independent sample t-test were used. After the embryo transfer, the mean state anxiety scores decreased in both groups, and the mean trait anxiety score decreased in the music therapy group; however, the difference was not statistically significant (p>0.05). Clinical pregnancy rates did not differ between the music (48.3%) and standard (46.4%) therapy groups. After the two sessions of music therapy, state and trait anxiety levels decreased and pregnancy rates increased, but the difference was not significant. Therefore, larger sample sizes and more sessions are needed to evaluate whether music therapy has an effect on clinical outcomes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Manipulation of Contents of Nitrate, Phenolic Acids, Chlorophylls, and Carotenoids in Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) via Contrasting Responses to Nitrogen Fertilizer When Grown in a Controlled Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qadir, Othman; Siervo, Mario; Seal, Chris J; Brandt, Kirsten

    2017-11-22

    This study aimed to use different nitrogen fertilizer regimes to produce Butterhead lettuce with such large differences in nitrate content that they could be used as treatment and placebo to study the effect of inorganic nitrate on human health. Plants were grown under controlled conditions at 27/23 °C day/night with a relatively low photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) of 150 μmol m -2 s -1 for 14 h day -1 and nitrogen supplies ranging from 26 to 154 ppm of N as ammonium nitrate in the fertigation solution. This resulted in contrasting high (∼1078 mg nitrate 100 g -1 FW) or low (∼6 mg 100 g -1 ) nitrate contents in the leaves. Contents of carotenoids and chlorophylls in fresh weight did not differ significantly between the highest and the lowest N-supply levels. However, increased nitrogen supply reduced contents of phenolic compounds from 154 to 22 mg 100 g -1 FW, dry matter content from 8.9% to 4.6%, and fresh weight per plant from 108.52 to 47.57 g/plant FW (all P < 0.001). Thus, while fertilizer treatments can provide lettuce with substantially different nitrate contents, maintaining similar pigment contents (color), they also strongly influence the contents of phenolic acids and flavones.

  8. Evaluation of plasma membrane calcium/calmodulin-dependent ATPase isoform 4 as a potential target for fertility control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartwright, Elizabeth J; Neyses, Ludwig

    2010-01-01

    The array of contraceptives currently available is clearly inadequate and does not meet consumer demands since it is estimated that up to a quarter of all pregnancies worldwide are unintended. There is, therefore, an overwhelming global need to develop new effective, safe, ideally non-hormonal contraceptives for both male and female use. The contraceptive field, unlike other areas such as cancer, has a dearth of new targets. We have addressed this issue and propose that isoform 4 of the plasma membrane calcium ATPase is a potentially exciting novel target for fertility control. The plasma membrane calcium ATPase is a ubiquitously expressed calcium pump whose primary function in the majority of cells is to extrude calcium to the extracellular milieu. Two isoforms of this gene family, PMCA1 and PMCA4, are expressed in spermatozoa, with PMCA4 being the predominant isoform. Although this gene is ubiquitously expressed, its function is highly tissue-specific. Genetic deletion of PMCA4, in PMCA4 knockout mice, led to 100% infertility specifically in the male mutant mice due to a selective defect in sperm motility. It is important to note that the gene deletion did not affect normal mating characteristics in these mice. This phenotype was mimicked in wild-type sperm treated with the non-specific PMCA inhibitor 5-(and 6-) carboxyeosin diacetate succinimidyl ester; a proof-of-principle that inhibition of PMCA4 has potential importance in the control of fertility. This review outlines the potential for PMCA4 to be a novel target for fertility control by acting to inhibit sperm motility. It will outline the characteristics that make this target drugable and will describe methodologies to identify and validate novel inhibitors of this target.

  9. DESTAF: A database of text-mined associations for reproductive toxins potentially affecting human fertility

    KAUST Repository

    Dawe, Adam Sean; Radovanovic, Aleksandar; Kaur, Mandeep; Sagar, Sunil; Seshadri, Sundararajan Vijayaraghava; Schaefer, Ulf; Kamau, Allan; Christoffels, Alan G.; Bajic, Vladimir B.

    2012-01-01

    The Dragon Exploration System for Toxicants and Fertility (DESTAF) is a publicly available resource which enables researchers to efficiently explore both known and potentially novel information and associations in the field of reproductive toxicology. To create DESTAF we used data from the literature (including over 10. 500 PubMed abstracts), several publicly available biomedical repositories, and specialized, curated dictionaries. DESTAF has an interface designed to facilitate rapid assessment of the key associations between relevant concepts, allowing for a more in-depth exploration of information based on different gene/protein-, enzyme/metabolite-, toxin/chemical-, disease- or anatomically centric perspectives. As a special feature, DESTAF allows for the creation and initial testing of potentially new association hypotheses that suggest links between biological entities identified through the database.DESTAF, along with a PDF manual, can be found at http://cbrc.kaust.edu.sa/destaf. It is free to academic and non-commercial users and will be updated quarterly. © 2011 Elsevier Inc.

  10. In vitro development of donated frozen-thawed human embryos in a prototype static microfluidic device: a randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kieslinger, Dorit C.; Hao, Zhenxia; Vergouw, Carlijn G.; Kostelijk, Elisabeth H.; Lambalk, Cornelis B.; le Gac, Severine

    Objective: To compare the development of human embryos in microfluidic devices with culture in standard microdrop dishes, both under static conditions. Design: Prospective randomized controlled trial. Setting: In vitro fertilization laboratory. Patient(s): One hundred eighteen donated frozen-thawed

  11. Biofeedback, voluntary control, and human potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, P

    1986-03-01

    This paper examines some of the philosophical and scientific relationships involving self-control, voluntary control, and psychophysiologic self-regulation. The role of biofeedback in mediating conscious and unconscious processes is explored. Demonstrations of superior voluntary control and its relationship to belief, confidence, and expectation are examined. Biofeedback demonstrates the potential of control to oneself, creating confidence in one's ability to establish enhanced and peak performance in athletics, education, and psychophysiologic therapy. Emphasis is placed on the power of images in all human functioning, and in enhancing human potential.

  12. Controlling human oesophagostomiasis in northern Ghana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ziem, Juventus Benogle

    2006-01-01

    This thesis describes aspects of the epidemiology and attempts to control infection and pathology due to the nematode parasite Oesophagostomum bifurcum . In northern Ghana and Togo O. bifurcum is an important parasite of humans; elsewhere it is predominantly seen as a parasite of non-human primates.

  13. The control of radioactivity in the working environment in the factories for production of phosphate fertilizers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ajdacic, B.N.; Gnjatovic, S.S.; Vujovic, P.V.

    1980-01-01

    A study was made of three chemical fertilizer plants to investigate the extent of radioactive contamination due to uranium. The following general conclusions were made: 1) Workers should be classified as professionally exposed to ionizing radiation. 2) Protective masks should be obligatory for personnel working in raw materials warehouses. 3) Waste materials should be classified as radioactive wastes, and special attention should be paid to the problem of waste water. 4) Personal dosimeters should be introduced for workers at particular posts. (U.K.)

  14. Fertilizer and sanitary quality of digestate biofertilizer from the co-digestion of food waste and human excreta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owamah, H I; Dahunsi, S O; Oranusi, U S; Alfa, M I

    2014-04-01

    This research was aimed at assessing the fertilizer quality and public health implications of using digestate biofertilizer from the anaerobic digestion of food wastes and human excreta. Twelve (12) kg of food wastes and 3kg of human excreta were mixed with water in a 1:1 w/v to make 30-l slurry that was fed into the anaerobic digester to ferment for 60days at mesophilic temperature (22-31°C). Though BOD, COD, organic carbon and ash content in the feedstock were reduced after anaerobic digestion by 50.0%, 10.6%, 74.3% and 1.5% respectively, nitrogen, pH and total solids however increased by 12.1%, 42.5% and 12.4% respectively. The C/N ratios of the feedstock and compost are 135:1 and 15.8:1. The residual total coliforms of 2.10×10(8)CFU/100ml in the digestate was above tolerable limits for direct application on farmlands. Microbial analysis of the digestate biofertilizer revealed the presence of Pseudomonas, Klebsiella, Clostridium, Bacillus, Bacteroides, Penicillum, Salmollena, and Aspergillus. Klebsiella, Bacillus, Pseudomonas, Penicillum and Aspergillus can boost the efficiency of the biofertilizer through nitrogen fixation and nutrient solubility in soils but Klebsiella again and Salmollena are potential health risks to end users. Further treatment of the digestate for more efficient destruction of pathogens is advised. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Cryopreservation of human embryos and its contribution to in vitro fertilization success rates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wong, Kai Mee; Mastenbroek, Sebastiaan; Repping, Sjoerd

    2014-01-01

    Cryopreservation of human embryos is now a routine procedure in assisted reproductive technologies laboratories. There is no consensus on the superiority of any protocol, and substantial differences exist among centers in day of embryo cryopreservation, freezing method, selection criteria for which

  16. MicroRNAs: From Female Fertility, Germ Cells, and Stem Cells to Cancer in Humans

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Virant-Klun, I.; Stahlberg, A.; Kubista, Mikael; Skutella, T.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 2016, č. 2016 (2016), č. článku 3984937. E-ISSN 1687-9678 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0109 Institutional support: RVO:86652036 Keywords : PREMATURE OVARIAN FAILURE * CUMULUS-OOCYTE COMPLEX * HUMAN GRANULOSA-CELLS Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology

  17. Human rights and conventionality control in Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azul América Aguiar-Aguilar

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The protection of human rights in Mexico has, de jure, suffered an important change in the last years, given a new judicial interpretation delivered by the National Supreme Court of Justice that allows the use of conventionality control, which means, that it allows federal and state judges to verify the conformity of domestic laws with those established in the Inter-American Convention of Human Rights. To what extent domestic actors are protecting human rights using this new legal tool called conventionality control? In this article I explore whom and how is conventionality control being used in Mexico. Using N-Vivo Software I reviewed concluded decisions delivered by intermediate level courts (Collegiate Circuit Courts in three Mexican states. The evidence points that conventionality control is a very useful tool especially to defenders, who appear in sentences claiming compliance with the commitments Mexico has acquired when this country ratified the Convention.

  18. Nano Fertilizers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatice DAĞHAN

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural land is decreasing day by day due to erosion, environmental pollution, unconscious irrigation and fertilization. On the other hand, it is necessary to increase agricultural production in order to meet the needs of the developing industry as well as the nutritional needs of the growing population. In the recent years, nano fertilizers have begun to be produced to obtain the highest amount and quality of production from the unit area. Previous research shows that nano fertilizers cause an increase in the use efficiency of plant nutrients, reduce soil toxicity, minimize the potential adverse effects of excessive chemical fertilizer use, and reduce fertilizer application frequency. Nano fertilizers are important in agriculture to increase crop yield and nutrient use efficiency, and to reduce excessive use ofchemical fertilizers. The most important properties of these fertilizers are that they contain one or more of macro and micronutrients, they can be applied frequently in small amounts and are environmentally friendly. However, when applied at high doses, they exhibit decreasing effects on plant growth and crop yields, similar to chemical fertilizers. In this review, the definition, importan ce, and classification of nano fertilizers, their application in plant production, advantages and disadvantages and the results obtained in this field were discussed.

  19. Can Male Fertility Be Improved Prior to Assisted Reproduction through The Control of Uncommonly Considered Factors?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel M.Campagne

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Male factor infertility or subfertility is responsible for up to 50% of infertility cases. A considerablebody of recent studies indicates that lifestyle as well as environmental and psychological factorscan negatively affect male fertility, more than previously thought. These negative effects have beenshown in many cases to be reversible. This review aims to provide a rationale for early clinicalattention to these factors and presents a non-exhaustive evidence-based collection of primaryrelevant conditions and recommendations, specifically with a view to making first line diagnosticsand recommendations. The presently available evidence suggests that considering the high cost,success rates, and possible side effects of assisted reproduction techniques (ART, such as in vitrofertilization (IVF and intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI, early efforts to improve malefertility appear to be an attainable and worthwhile primary goal.A series of searches was conducted of Medline, Cochrane and related databases from November14th, 2010 to January 26th, 2012 with the following keywords: male, fertility, infertility, spermdefects, IVF, ICSI, healthy habits, and lifestyle. Subsequent follow-up searches were performed forupcoming links. The total number of studies contemplated were 1265; of these, 296 studies werereviewed with criteria of relevance; the date of study or review; study sample size and study type;and publishing journal impact status. Data were abstracted based upon probable general clinicalrelevancy and use. Only a selection of the references has been reflected here because of spacelimitations. The main results obtained were evidence-supported indications as to the other causes ofmale infertility, their early detection, and treatment.

  20. Correlations in fertility across generations: can low fertility persist?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolk, Martin; Cownden, Daniel; Enquist, Magnus

    2014-01-01

    Correlations in family size across generations could have a major influence on human population size in the future. Empirical studies have shown that the associations between the fertility of parents and the fertility of children are substantial and growing over time. Despite their potential long-term consequences, intergenerational fertility correlations have largely been ignored by researchers. We present a model of the fertility transition as a cultural process acting on new lifestyles associated with fertility. Differences in parental and social influences on the acquisition of these lifestyles result in intergenerational correlations in fertility. We show different scenarios for future population size based on models that disregard intergenerational correlations in fertility, models with fertility correlations and a single lifestyle, and models with fertility correlations and multiple lifestyles. We show that intergenerational fertility correlations will result in an increase in fertility over time. However, present low-fertility levels may persist if the rapid introduction of new cultural lifestyles continues into the future. PMID:24478294

  1. [Hydatid fertility and protoscolex viability in humans: study of 78 hydatid samples collected between 2005 and 2012 and analyzed at the parasitology laboratory of the Mustapha University Hospital Center of Algiers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zait, H; Boulahbel, M; Zait, F; Achir, I; Guerchani, M T; Chaouche, H; Ladjadje, Y; Hamrioui, B

    2013-05-01

    An analysis at the Mustapha University Hospital Center of Algiers examined 78 hydatid samples collected between 2005 and 2012 to determine the fertility rate of metacestodes and the viability of protoscolices. The fertility rate of the hydatid cysts in humans was 88.4% and the protoscolex viability rate 74.5%. The fertility and viability rates found here are high, despite the use of scolicides.

  2. Manipulation of the fertility of marsupials for conservation of endangered species and control of over-abundant populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mate, K E; Molinia, F C; Rodger, J C

    1998-10-01

    Marsupials present a dichotomy in population management; the numbers of many Australian marsupial species have declined due to loss of habitat, competition from introduced herbivores and predation by introduced carnivores, but other species have become locally overabundant in Australia or are introduced pests in New Zealand. The manipulation of reproduction offers the means to increase or decrease productivity; however, considerable fundamental research is required before reproductive technologies can be applied to marsupials. Marsupials differ from eutherian mammals in several aspects of their reproduction including sex differentiation, gamete function and endocrinology, as well as in the relative lengths of gestation and lactation. Although these differences present unique problems in the application of reproductive technologies to marsupials, they also present unique opportunities for marsupial-specific fertility control. This paper summarises the assisted breeding technologies currently being applied to marsupials including superovulation, artificial insemination, in vitro fertilization and gene banking; unique marsupial targets for contraceptive intervention including gamete production, sperm capacitation, gamete surface antigens and embryonic development; and some options for the delivery of contraceptive vaccines to marsupial populations.

  3. Establishment of a rice-duck integrated farming system and its effects on soil fertility and rice disease control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, Qing; Hu, Xue-Feng; Cheng, Chang; Luo, Zhi-Qing; Luo, Fan

    2015-04-01

    Rice-duck integrated farming is an ecological farming system newly established in some areas of southern China . It was reported that the ducks walking around the paddy fields is beneficial to control weed hazards and reduce rice pests and diseases. To study and evaluate the effects of the rice-duck integrated farming on soil fertility and rice disease control, a field experiment of rice cultivation was carried out in the suburb of Shanghai in 2014. It includes a treatment of raising ducks in the fields and a control without ducks. The treatment was implemented by building a duck coop nearby the experimental fields and driving 15 ducks into a plot at daytime since the early stage of rice growth. Each plot is 667 m2 in area. The treatment and control were replicated for three times. No any herbicides, pesticides, fungicides and chemical fertilizers were applied during the experiment to prevent any disturbance to duck growing and rice weed hazards and disease incidences from agrochemicals. The results are as follows: (1) The incidences of rice leaf rollers (Cnaphalocrocis medinalis) and stem borers treated with ducks, 0.45%and 1.18% on average, respectively, are lower than those of the control, 0.74% and 1.44% on average, respectively. At the late stage of rice growth, the incidence of rice sheath blight treated with ducks, 13.15% on average, is significantly lower than that of the control, 16.9% on average; and the incidence of rice planthoppers treated with ducks, 11.3 per hill on average, is also significantly lower than that of the control, 47.4 per hill on average. (2) The number of weeds in the plots treated with ducks, 8.3 per m2 on average, is significantly lower than that of the control, 87.5 m2 on average. (3) Raising ducks in the fields could also enhance soil enzyme activity and nutrient status. At the late stage of rice growth, the activities of urease, phosphatase, sucrase and catalase in the soils treated with ducks are 1.39 times, 1.40 times, 1

  4. Fertility Rates of Ewes Treated with Medroxyprogesterone and Injected with Equine Chorionic Gonadotropin plus Human Chorionic Gonadotropin in Anoestrous Season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. W. Santos

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present paper was to investigate the efficiency of the equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG plus human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG associated with medroxyprogesterone acetate (MAP to estrous ewes synchronization. Ninety Texel ewes were investigated during seasonal anoestrous. The ewes received intravaginal sponges containing MAP (60 mg for nine days. At the time of sponges' withdrawal, the ewes were divided into three groups (G: (1 receiving 2 mL of saline i.m. (n=30, (2 receiving eCG 400 IU i.m. (n=30, and (3 receiving eCG 400 IU plus hCG 200 IU i.m. (n=30. Twelve h after sponges' removal, teaser rams were used to estrus check and remained with the ewes for 96 h. The artificial insemination was made with fresh semen 10 h after estrus detection. The effect of the treatment was not significant for the estrous rates among the groups: 73%, 90%, and 86%, respectively. The main effect was observed in the pregnancy and lambing rates among the groups: 70%, 86%, 56%, and 80%, 120%, 56%, respectively. Based on these results from our study, the use of the MAP—eCG is the best choice to improve the fertility rate on ewes.

  5. Predictive value of early serum beta-human chorionic gonadotrophin for the successful outcome in women undergoing in vitro fertilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neeta Singh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: Pregnancies achieved by in vitro fertilization (IVF are at increased risk of adverse outcome. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the predictive value of β-human chorionic gonadotrophin (β-HCG and age of the patient for the successful outcome in IVF. Materials and Methods: A retrospective study was done in 139 pregnancies after IVF at single IVF center from June 2007 to July 2012. The age of the patient and initial serum values of β-HCG on day 14 of embryo transfer were correlated with ongoing pregnancy (>12 weeks gestation. Results: The β-HCG level on day 14 of more than 347 mIU/ml has a sensitivity of 72.2% and specificity of 73.6% in prediction of pregnancy beyond 12 weeks period of gestation. Positive likelihood ratio (LR is 2.74 and negative LR is 0.37, (receiver operating characteristic area = 0.79. Discussion: In IVF cycles, there is a lot of stress on the couples while the cycle is going on. There was a positive correlation between the higher values of early serum β-HCG levels and ongoing pregnancy. Hence, it can be used as an independent predictor of a successful outcome of IVF cycle. Conclusion: We concluded from our study that early serum β-HCG can be used as a predictor of a successful outcome in IVF.

  6. Compost, fertilizer, and biogas production from human and farm wastes in the People's Republic of China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGarry, M G; Stainforth, J [eds.

    1978-01-01

    This translation is divided into six parts: (1) The Practices and Management of Excreta and Farm Waste Composting, (2) Treatment of Livestock Manure and Human Waste for Reuse, (3) The Two-Partition Three-Tank Hygienic Toilet, (4) Construction of the Fixed Top Fully Enclosed Biogas Plant, (5) Research Results on the Effectiveness of Excreta Treatment in Biogas Plants, and (6) Biogas Production and Reuse from Farm and Human Wastes. A detailed description of the design and construction of fixed top, enclosed, three-stage biogas plants as well as the preparation of the building materials and accessories such as safety valves and gauges, biogas stores and lamps is presented. Safety precautions, examination procedures for water and gas leaks, the procedure of filling the plant, and proper treatment of the sludge and sediment are discussed. The results obtained on the effectiveness of these plants in settling out parasite eggs, in destroying hookworms and ascarid eggs and in totally eliminating schistosome flukes from the fecal liquid are described. It was also determined that the environment in the biogas plant greatly reduced the E. coli index, totally eliminated the Shigella bacillus and spirochetes in 30 hours and the typhoid B bacillus in 44 days. The use of a three-stage septic tank, which includes a biogas plant, in connection with pigpens and toilets is discussed. Particular attention is given to the location, size, structure and construction of the biogas tank. Descriptions of a safety pressure gauge and earthen-ware stoves and lamps operating on biogas are given.

  7. [Fertility transition in Peru].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrando, D; Aramburu, C E

    1992-12-01

    . From 1972 on, the fertility decline spread in the rural sectors and was intensified as a response to the profound economic crisis experienced in Peru from 1975 to the present. Increased contraceptive usage was apparently the most important cause of Peru's fertility decline. Overall prevalence increased from 31% in 1977-78 to 46% in 1986, and use of modern methods by women in union doubled in the same years. Regional fertility differences are correlated strongly to contraceptive prevalence and especially to prevalence of modern methods. The 3 most recent national fertility surveys and a series of more limited surveys suggest that women have an increasingly strong desire to control their fertility. The greatest barriers to use of modern contraception are fears of health effects and lack of knowledge.

  8. Highly purified human-derived follicle-stimulating hormone (Bravelle® has equivalent efficacy to follitropin-beta (Follistim ® in infertile women undergoing in vitro fertilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Webster Bobby W

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background These data compare the efficacy and safety of highly purified human-derived follicle-stimulating hormone (Bravelle(R and recombinant follitropin-β (Follistim(R in women undergoing in vitro fertilization. Methods This report describes the pooled data from two, nearly identical, randomized, controlled, parallel-group, multicenter studies conducted in a total of 19 academic and private IVF-ET centers in the United States. Infertile premenopausal women underwent pituitary down-regulation using leuprolide acetate followed by a maximum of 12 days of subcutaneous Bravelle(R (n = 120 or Follistim(R (n = 118, followed by administration of human chorionic gonadotropin, oocyte retrieval and embryo transfer. The primary efficacy measure was the mean number of oocytes retrieved; secondary efficacy measures included the total dose and duration of gonadotropin treatment; peak serum estradion levels; embryo transfer and implantation rates; chemical, clinical and continuing pregnancies; and live birth rates. All adverse events were recorded and injection site pain was recorded daily using a patient, self-assessment diary. Results Similar efficacy responses were observed for all outcome parameters in the two treatment groups. Although patients receiving Bravelle(R consistently reported a greater number of chemical, clinical and continuing pregnancies, as well as an increased rate of live birth, the data did not attain statistical significance (P > 0.05. The overall incidence of adverse events was similar in both groups, but compared to Follistim(R, injections of Bravelle(R were reported by patients to be significantly less painful (P Conclusions Bravelle(R and Follistim(R had comparable efficacy in controlled ovarian hyperstimulation in women undergoing IVF-ET. There were no differences in the nature or number of adverse events between the treatment groups although Bravelle(R injections were reported to be significantly less painful.

  9. Chemicals agents and human male fertility: Review of the past thirty years literature; Sostanze chimiche e infertilita` maschile: Rassegna degli studi condotti negli ultimi trenta anni

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Traina, Maria Elsa; Urbani, Elisabetta [Istituto Superiore di Sanita`, Rome (Italy). Lab. di Igiene Ambientale; Petrelli, Grazia; Pasquali, Massimo; Pace, Francesca [Istituto Superiore di Sanita`, Rome (Italy). Lab. di Epidemiologia e Biostatistica

    1997-03-01

    The effects of several industrial and environmental pollutants on the male reproductive system are known from animal studies, but to date the impact on human fertility is still scarcely documented by epidemiological studies. The literature of the past thirty years on the adverse effects of occupational chemical factors on human male fertility is reviewed. Eighty-nine studies have been analysed with the purpose to identify the substances and/or the working categories investigated and to evaluate the methods used. Since 1977 the interest has been focused on the human exposures to 1,2-dibromochloropropane, a powerful spermatotoxic agent, but a consistent number of studies was also related to other active ingredients of pesticides (lindane, carbaryl, 2,4-dichlorofenoxiacetic acid), solvents (glycol ethers, carbon disulfide) and heavy metals (lead, cadmium). Among the indicators used in these studies to evaluate the effects on male fertility, the seminal parameters are analysed in 67 % of the reports; blood hormonal tests are done in 54 % of the cases. The literature suggests that further epidemiological studies need to be conducted in other working categories; more attention should be paid to the sensitivity and biological significance of the male reproductive parameters used in human studies.

  10. Fertility desires and fertility outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bracher, M; Santow, G

    1991-05-01

    An Australian 1-in-1000 national probability sample conducted in 1986 yielded 2547 women aged 20-59 who provided detailed life histories on marital unions, childbearing, and contraception. Age specific fertility rates, desired family size, differentials in desired family size, desired fertility and achieved fertility, and sequential family building are examined. The results indicate that the desired family size at 1st marriage has declined only slightly over the past 30 years. 3 children are generally desired, and ver few desire 2. The constance of fertility desires in contrasted with the fertilitydecline to below replacement levels. Several reasons are suggested for the desired family size: the desire is for a family size within the family tradition and modified by the desire to have 1 of each sex, the desire reflects less on intentions but more on normative pressure to become a parent. Marrying is self selecting on the desire for a traditional family of at least 2 children. There is a rising age at marriage as well as a decline in marriages. Desired family size exceeds completed fertility. Period factors and personal circumstances affect fertility intentions. Future inquires should explore the multiple factors relating to fertility, rather than in comparing fertility desires and actual fertility. The data collected on age specific fertility were comparable to official estimates. The fertility decline was evidenced in all groups except teenagers. The decline was nearly 50% for those 20-24 years between the 1050's-80's, 33% for ages 25-29. Marriage patterns explain this decline in part. Between 1971-76, women aged 20-25 were married 37 months out of 60 months in 1971-76 versus 25 out of 60 months in 1981-86. Within the 25 year age group, marital fertility has declined and unmarried fertility, which is low, has risen, Women in a marital union of any kind has remained stable. Fertility within de facto unions, which is lower than within marriage, is higher than

  11. Human reliability analysis of control room operators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Isaac J.A.L.; Carvalho, Paulo Victor R.; Grecco, Claudio H.S. [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2005-07-01

    Human reliability is the probability that a person correctly performs some system required action in a required time period and performs no extraneous action that can degrade the system Human reliability analysis (HRA) is the analysis, prediction and evaluation of work-oriented human performance using some indices as human error likelihood and probability of task accomplishment. Significant progress has been made in the HRA field during the last years, mainly in nuclear area. Some first-generation HRA methods were developed, as THERP (Technique for human error rate prediction). Now, an array of called second-generation methods are emerging as alternatives, for instance ATHEANA (A Technique for human event analysis). The ergonomics approach has as tool the ergonomic work analysis. It focus on the study of operator's activities in physical and mental form, considering at the same time the observed characteristics of operator and the elements of the work environment as they are presented to and perceived by the operators. The aim of this paper is to propose a methodology to analyze the human reliability of the operators of industrial plant control room, using a framework that includes the approach used by ATHEANA, THERP and the work ergonomics analysis. (author)

  12. Control efficacy of Ca-containing foliar fertilizers on bitter pit in bagged 'Fuji' apple and effects on the Ca and N contents of apple fruits and leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xian-Mei; Wang, Jin-Zheng; Nie, Pei-Xian; Xue, Xaio-Min; Wang, Gui-Ping; An, Miao

    2018-04-20

    The preharvest application of Ca-containing foliar fertilizers can reduce bitter pit (BP) incidence in apples and improve fruit quality by increasing the Ca content and decreasing both the N content and the N/Ca ratio in fruits. In this study, we aimed to investigate the control efficacy of Ca-containing fertilizers on BP incidence and the effects on the Ca and N contents in bagged 'Fuji' apple by spraying the foliar fertilizer containing calcium chloride (CaCl 2 ), calcium nitrate [Ca(NO 3 ) 2 ] or calcium formate [Ca(HCOO) 2 ] at early stage [5 days after full bloom (DAFB) + 40 DAFB] and at late stage (80 DAFB + 125 DAFB). The BP incidences were reduced significantly with the reduce percentage of 43.2~73.0%, and the efficacy of spraying at early stage was significantly higher than that of spraying at late stage. The Ca content of bagged apple fruits was increased while the N content and N/Ca ratio were decreased after spraying Ca-containing foliar fertilizers, however, the Ca content, N content and N/Ca ratio of apple leaves were differentially influenced. The foliar fertilizer containing CaCl 2, Ca(NO 3 ) 2 or Ca(HCOO) 2 could be used at early stage to control BP in apple and improve the quality of bagged apple fruits. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  13. Control of the estrous cycle to improve fertility for fixed-time artificial insemination in beef cattle: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamb, G C; Dahlen, C R; Larson, J E; Marquezini, G; Stevenson, J S

    2010-04-01

    Early estrus-synchronization protocols focused on regressing the corpus luteum (CL) with an injection of PGF(2alpha) followed by detection of estrus or involved the use of exogenous progestins that prevent estrus from occurring. Later, protocols combining the use of PGF(2alpha) and exogenous progestins were developed. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone was utilized to control follicular waves, synchronize ovulation, or to luteinize large dominant follicles. Our research aimed to develop reliable protocols that 1) relied solely on fixed-timed AI (TAI); 2) required a maximum of 3 animal handlings, and 3) were successful in estrous-cycling and noncycling females. In cows, insertion of an intravaginal progesterone insert during the 7-d interval between the initial GnRH and PGF(2alpha) injections enhanced pregnancy rates by 9 to 10%. In a multi-location study, a TAI protocol yielded pregnancy rates similar to a protocol involving detection of estrus plus a fixed-time clean-up AI for females not detected in estrus (54 vs. 58%, respectively, for cows and 53 vs. 57%, respectively, for heifers). Initiation of estrous cycles in noncycling cows is likely the primary manner in which beef producers may improve fertility in response to estrus synchronization and TAI protocols. Treatment of noncycling females with progesterone and GnRH increases the percentage of cycling females and improves fertility to a TAI, but inducing cyclicity with hCG failed to enhance fertility in TAI protocols. Supplementing progesterone after TAI failed to increase pregnancy rates in beef cattle. In contrast, administration of hCG 7 d after TAI induced an accessory CL, increased progesterone, and tended to enhance pregnancy rates. Development of TAI protocols that reduce the hassle factors associated with ovulation synchronization and AI provide cattle producers efficient and effective tools for capturing selective genetic traits of economic consequences. Location variables, however, which may include

  14. The Obesity-Fertility Protocol: a randomized controlled trial assessing clinical outcomes and costs of a transferable interdisciplinary lifestyle intervention, before and during pregnancy, in obese infertile women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duval, Karine; Langlois, Marie-France; Carranza-Mamane, Belina; Pesant, Marie-Hélène; Hivert, Marie-France; Poder, Thomas G; Lavoie, Hélène B; Ainmelk, Youssef; St-Cyr Tribble, Denise; Laredo, Sheila; Greenblatt, Ellen; Sagle, Margaret; Waddell, Guy; Belisle, Serge; Riverin, Daniel; Jean-Denis, Farrah; Belan, Matea; Baillargeon, Jean-Patrice

    2015-01-01

    Obesity in infertile women increases the costs of fertility treatments, reduces their effectiveness and increases significantly the risks of many complications of pregnancy and for the newborn. Studies suggest that even a modest loss of 5-10 % of body weight can restore ovulation. However, there are gaps in knowledge regarding the benefits and cost-effectiveness of a lifestyle modification program targeting obese infertile women and integrated into the fertility clinics. This study will evaluate clinical outcomes and costs of a transferable interdisciplinary lifestyle intervention, before and during pregnancy, in obese infertile women. We hypothesize that the intervention will: 1) improve fertility, efficacy of fertility treatments, and health of mothers and their children; and 2) reduce the cost per live birth, including costs of fertility treatments and pregnancy outcomes. Obese infertile women (age: 18-40 years; BMI ≥30 kg/m(2) or ≥27 kg/m(2) with polycystic ovary syndrome) will be randomised to either a lifestyle intervention followed by standard fertility treatments after 6 months if no conception has been achieved (intervention group) or standard fertility treatments only (control group). The intervention and/or follow-up will last for a maximum of 18 months or up to the end of pregnancy. Evaluation visits will be planned every 6 months where different outcome measures will be assessed. The primary outcome will be live-birth rates at 18 months. The secondary outcomes will be sub-divided into four categories: lifestyle and anthropometric, fertility, pregnancy complications, and neonatal outcomes. Outcomes and costs will be also compared to similar women seen in three fertility clinics across Canada. Qualitative data will also be collected from both professionals and obese infertile women. This study will generate new knowledge about the implementation, impacts and costs of a lifestyle management program in obese infertile women. This information

  15. The Trojan Female Technique for pest control: a candidate mitochondrial mutation confers low male fertility across diverse nuclear backgrounds in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowling, Damian K; Tompkins, Daniel M; Gemmell, Neil J

    2015-10-01

    Pest species represent a major ongoing threat to global biodiversity. Effective management approaches are required that regulate pest numbers, while minimizing collateral damage to nontarget species. The Trojan Female Technique (TFT) was recently proposed as a prospective approach to biological pest control. The TFT draws on the evolutionary hypothesis that maternally inherited mitochondrial genomes are prone to the accumulation of male, but not female, harming mutations. These mutations could be harnessed to provide trans-generational fertility-based control of pest species. A candidate TFT mutation was recently described in the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, which confers male-only sterility in the specific isogenic nuclear background in which it is maintained. However, applicability of the TFT relies on mitochondrial mutations whose male-sterilizing effects are general across nuclear genomic contexts. We test this assumption, expressing the candidate TFT-mutation bearing haplotype alongside a range of nuclear backgrounds and comparing its fertility in males, relative to that of control haplotypes. We document consistently lower fertility for males harbouring the TFT mutation, in both competitive and noncompetitive mating contexts, across all nuclear backgrounds screened. This indicates that TFT mutations conferring reduced male fertility can segregate within populations and could be harnessed to facilitate this novel form of pest control.

  16. Initial substrate moisture content and storage temperature affects chemical properties of bagged substrates containing controlled release fertilizer at two different temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagged potting mixes can be stored for weeks or months before being used by consumers. Some bagged potting mixes are amended with controlled release fertilizers (CRF). The objective of this research was to observe how initial substrate moisture content and storage temperature affect the chemical p...

  17. Stressor controllability modulates fear extinction in humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartley, Catherine A.; Gorun, Alyson; Reddan, Marianne C.; Ramirez, Franchesca; Phelps, Elizabeth A.

    2014-01-01

    Traumatic events are proposed to play a role in the development of anxiety disorders, however not all individuals exposed to extreme stress experience a pathological increase in fear. Recent studies in animal models suggest that the degree to which one is able to control an aversive experience is a critical factor determining its behavioral consequences. In this study, we examined whether stressor controllability modulates subsequent conditioned fear expression in humans. Participants were randomly assigned to an escapable stressor condition, a yoked inescapable stressor condition, or a control condition involving no stress exposure. One week later, all participants underwent fear conditioning, fear extinction, and a test of extinction retrieval the following day. Participants exposed to inescapable stress showed impaired fear extinction learning and increased fear expression the following day. In contrast, escapable stress improved fear extinction and prevented the spontaneous recovery of fear. Consistent with the bidirectional controllability effects previously reported in animal models, these results suggest that one's degree of control over aversive experiences may be an important factor influencing the development of psychological resilience or vulnerability in humans. PMID:24333646

  18. Organic Biochar Based Fertilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Hans-Peter; Pandit, Bishnu Hari; Cornelissen, Gerard; Kammann, Claudia

    2017-04-01

    Biochar produced in cost-efficient flame curtain kilns (Kon-Tiki) was nutrient enriched either with cow urine or with dissolved mineral (NPK) fertilizer to produce biochar-based fertilizers containing between 60-100 kg N, 5-60 kg P2O5 and 60-100 kg K2O, respectively, per ton of biochar. In 21 field trials nutrient-enriched biochars were applied at rates of 0.5 to 2 t ha-1 into the root zone of 13 different annual and perennial crops. Treatments combining biochar, compost and organic or chemical fertilizer were evaluated; control treatments contained the same amounts of nutrients but without biochar. All nutrient-enriched biochar substrates improved yields compared to their respective no-biochar controls. Biochar enriched with dissolved NPK produced on average 20% ± 5.1% (N=4) higher yields than standard NPK fertilization without biochar. Cow urine-enriched biochar blended with compost resulted on average in 123% ± 76.7% (N=13) higher yields compared to the organic farmer practice with cow urine-blended compost and outcompeted NPK-enriched biochar (same nutrient dose) by 103% ± 12.4% (N=4) on average. 21 field trials robustly revealed that low-dosage root zone application of organic biochar-based fertilizers caused substantial yield increases in rather fertile silt loam soils compared to traditional organic fertilization and to mineral NPK- or NPK-biochar fertilization. This can likely be explained by the nutrient carrier effect of biochar causing a slow nutrient release behavior, more balanced nutrient fluxes and reduced nutrient losses especially when liquid organic nutrients are used for the biochar enrichment. The results promise new pathways for optimizing organic farming and improving on-farm nutrient cycling.

  19. Finding the Balance: Fertility Control for the Management of Fragmented Populations of a Threatened Rock-Wallaby Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willers, Nicole; Martin, Graeme B; Matson, Phill; Mawson, Peter R; Morris, Keith; Bencini, Roberta

    2015-12-16

    Populations of Australian marsupials can become overabundant, resulting in detrimental impacts on the environment. For example, the threatened black-flanked rock-wallaby ( Petrogale lateralis lateralis ) has previously been perceived as overabundant and thus 'unwanted' when they graze crops and cause habitat degradation. Hormonally-induced fertility control has been increasingly used to manage population size in other marsupials where alternative management options are not viable. We tested whether deslorelin, a superagonist of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH), would suppress reproduction in free-living adult female rock-wallabies without adversely impacting body condition. We trapped, synchronised reproduction and allocated female rock-wallabies to a placebo implant (control, n = 22), one (n = 22) or two (n = 20) subcutaneous implants of deslorelin. Females were then recaptured over the following 36 months to monitor reproduction, including Luteinising Hormone levels, and body condition. Following treatment, diapaused blastocysts reactivated in five females and the resulting young were carried through to weaning. No wallabies treated with deslorelin, conceivede a new young for at least 27 months. We did not observe adverse effects on body condition on treated females. We conclude that deslorelin implants are effective for the medium-term suppression of reproduction in female black-flanked rock-wallabies and for managing overabundant populations of some marsupials.

  20. Finding the Balance: Fertility Control for the Management of Fragmented Populations of a Threatened Rock-Wallaby Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole Willers

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Populations of Australian marsupials can become overabundant, resulting in detrimental impacts on the environment. For example, the threatened black-flanked rock-wallaby ( Petrogale lateralis lateralis has previously been perceived as overabundant and thus ‘unwanted’ when they graze crops and cause habitat degradation. Hormonally-induced fertility control has been increasingly used to manage population size in other marsupials where alternative management options are not viable. We tested whether deslorelin, a superagonist of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH, would suppress reproduction in free-living adult female rock-wallabies without adversely impacting body condition. We trapped, synchronised reproduction and allocated female rock-wallabies to a placebo implant (control, n = 22, one (n = 22 or two (n = 20 subcutaneous implants of deslorelin. Females were then recaptured over the following 36 months to monitor reproduction, including Luteinising Hormone levels, and body condition. Following treatment, diapaused blastocysts reactivated in five females and the resulting young were carried through to weaning. No wallabies treated with deslorelin, conceivede a new young for at least 27 months. We did not observe adverse effects on body condition on treated females. We conclude that deslorelin implants are effective for the medium-term suppression of reproduction in female black-flanked rock-wallabies and for managing overabundant populations of some marsupials.

  1. The ESEP study: Salpingostomy versus salpingectomy for tubal ectopic pregnancy; The impact on future fertility: A randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Mello Norah M

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background For most tubal ectopic pregnancies (EP surgery is the treatment of first choice. Whether surgical treatment should be performed conservatively (salpingostomy or radically (salpingectomy in women wishing to preserve their reproductive capacity, is subject to debate. Salpingostomy preserves the tube, but bears the risks of both persistent trophoblast and repeat ipsilateral tubal EP. Salpingectomy, avoids these risks, but leaves only one tube for reproductive capacity. This study aims to reveal the trade-off between both surgical options: whether the potential advantage of salpingostomy, i.e. a better fertility prognosis as compared to salpingectomy, outweighs the potential disadvantages, i.e. persistent trophoblast and an increased risk for a repeat EP. Methods/Design International multi centre randomised controlled trial comparing salpingostomy versus salpingectomy in women with a tubal EP without contra lateral tubal pathology. Hemodynamically stable women with a presumptive diagnosis of tubal EP, scheduled for surgery, are eligible for inclusion. Patients pregnant after in vitro fertilisation (IVF and/or known documented tubal pathology are excluded. At surgery, a tubal EP must be confirmed. Only women with a tubal EP amenable to both interventions and a healthy contra lateral tube are included. Salpingostomy and salpingectomy are performed according to standard procedures of participating hospitals. Up to 36 months after surgery, women will be contacted to assess their fertility status at six months intervals starting form the day of the operation. The primary outcome measure is the occurrence of spontaneous viable intra uterine pregnancy. Secondary outcome measures are persistent trophoblast, repeat EP, all pregnancies including those resulting from IVF and financial costs. The analysis will be performed according to the intention to treat principle. A cost-effectiveness analysis will be performed within a decision

  2. The importance of interactions among nutrition, seasonality and socio-sexual factors in the development of hormone-free methods for controlling fertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scaramuzzi, R J; Martin, G B

    2008-07-01

    Around the world, consumers are demanding animal products that are produced to agreed standards for human health, environmental management and animal welfare. This has led to the development in Australia of the concept of 'clean, green and ethical' (CGE) animal production based on the manipulation of nutrition ('focus feeding') and the application of phenomena, such as the 'male effect', to provide 'natural' methods for managing small ruminant production systems. With respect to the management of fertility, CGE involves utilization of the inherited responses of animals to environmental factors to manipulate their reproductive processes. The successful development and implementation of this new generation of management tools depends on a thorough yet holistic understanding of the interactions among environmental factors and the ways these interactions affect reproductive physiology and behaviour of the animal. For sheep and goats, a central aspect of CGE management is the way in which ovarian function is affected by three major factors (nutrition, photoperiod and socio-sexual signals) and by interactions among them. Nutrition can exert two profound yet contrasting types of effect on ovarian activity: (i) the complete inhibition of reproduction by undernutrition through the hypothalamic mechanism that controls ovulation and (ii) the enhancement of fecundity by nutritional supplementation, through a direct ovarian mechanism, in females that are already ovulating. A similarly profound control over ovarian function in female sheep and goats is exerted by the well-known endocrine responses to photoperiod (seasonality) and to male socio-sexual signals. The 'male effect' already has a long history as a valuable technique for inducing a synchronized fertile ovulation during seasonal and post-partum anoestrus in sheep and goats. Importantly, experimentation has shown that these three major environmental factors interact, synergistically and antagonistically, but the precise

  3. The fertility decline in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, W C; Harbison, S F

    1995-01-01

    In Sub-Saharan Africa Kenya is a prime example of a country experiencing a rapid decline in fertility and greater contraceptive prevalence. These changes have occurred since 1980 when fertility was high at 8.0 children per woman. In 1993 the total fertility rate (TFR) was 5.4, and the growth rate declined to about 2.0%. This transition is swifter than any country in contemporary Asia or historical Europe. The likely projection for Kenya is attainment of replacement level fertility during the 2020s and a leveling of population at about 100 million persons. Fertility has declined the most in urban areas and central and eastern regions. Bongaarts' proximate determinants (TFR, total marital fertility rate, total natural marital fertility rate, and total fecundity) are reduced to the proportion of currently married women using contraception, the proportion in lactational nonfecund status, and the proportion currently married. Actual fertility change is accounted for by total fertility change of 3.0 children. Lactational infecundability accounts for 0.5 potential births, and changes in marital fertility account for 1.0 reduced births per woman. About 70% of fertility reduction is accounted for by contraception and abortion. During 1977-78 80% of fertility control was due to lactational nonfecundity, 10% to nonmarriage, and 10% to contraception. In 1993 lactational nonfecundity accounted for 50% of the reduction, nonmarriage for 20%, and abortion about 30%. Future fertility is expected to be dependent on contraceptive prevalence. Kenya has experienced the Coale paradigm of preconditions necessary for demographic transition (willing, ready, and able). High fertility in Africa is not intractable. Creating the change in attitudes that leads to readiness is linked to education, health, and exposure to modernizing media and urban lifestyles. The public sector family planning program in Kenya has created the opportunity for access and availability of contraception. The key

  4. Brain Endothelial Cells Control Fertility through Ovarian-Steroid–Dependent Release of Semaphorin 3A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messina, Andrea; Casoni, Filippo; Vanacker, Charlotte; Langlet, Fanny; Hobo, Barbara; Cagnoni, Gabriella; Gallet, Sarah; Hanchate, Naresh Kumar; Mazur, Danièle; Taniguchi, Masahiko; Mazzone, Massimiliano; Verhaagen, Joost; Ciofi, Philippe; Bouret, Sébastien G.; Tamagnone, Luca; Prevot, Vincent

    2014-01-01

    Neuropilin-1 (Nrp1) guides the development of the nervous and vascular systems, but its role in the mature brain remains to be explored. Here we report that the expression of the 65 kDa isoform of Sema3A, the ligand of Nrp1, by adult vascular endothelial cells, is regulated during the ovarian cycle and promotes axonal sprouting in hypothalamic neurons secreting gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH), the neuropeptide controlling reproduction. Both the inhibition of Sema3A/Nrp1 signaling and the conditional deletion of Nrp1 in GnRH neurons counteract Sema3A-induced axonal sprouting. Furthermore, the localized intracerebral infusion of Nrp1- or Sema3A-neutralizing antibodies in vivo disrupts the ovarian cycle. Finally, the selective neutralization of endothelial-cell Sema3A signaling in adult Sema3a loxP/loxP mice by the intravenous injection of the recombinant TAT-Cre protein alters the amplitude of the preovulatory luteinizing hormone surge, likely by perturbing GnRH release into the hypothalamo-hypophyseal portal system. Our results identify a previously unknown function for 65 kDa Sema3A-Nrp1 signaling in the induction of axonal growth, and raise the possibility that endothelial cells actively participate in synaptic plasticity in specific functional domains of the adult central nervous system, thus controlling key physiological functions such as reproduction. PMID:24618750

  5. Brain endothelial cells control fertility through ovarian-steroid-dependent release of semaphorin 3A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giacobini, Paolo; Parkash, Jyoti; Campagne, Céline; Messina, Andrea; Casoni, Filippo; Vanacker, Charlotte; Langlet, Fanny; Hobo, Barbara; Cagnoni, Gabriella; Gallet, Sarah; Hanchate, Naresh Kumar; Mazur, Danièle; Taniguchi, Masahiko; Mazzone, Massimiliano; Verhaagen, Joost; Ciofi, Philippe; Bouret, Sébastien G; Tamagnone, Luca; Prevot, Vincent

    2014-03-01

    Neuropilin-1 (Nrp1) guides the development of the nervous and vascular systems, but its role in the mature brain remains to be explored. Here we report that the expression of the 65 kDa isoform of Sema3A, the ligand of Nrp1, by adult vascular endothelial cells, is regulated during the ovarian cycle and promotes axonal sprouting in hypothalamic neurons secreting gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH), the neuropeptide controlling reproduction. Both the inhibition of Sema3A/Nrp1 signaling and the conditional deletion of Nrp1 in GnRH neurons counteract Sema3A-induced axonal sprouting. Furthermore, the localized intracerebral infusion of Nrp1- or Sema3A-neutralizing antibodies in vivo disrupts the ovarian cycle. Finally, the selective neutralization of endothelial-cell Sema3A signaling in adult Sema3aloxP/loxP mice by the intravenous injection of the recombinant TAT-Cre protein alters the amplitude of the preovulatory luteinizing hormone surge, likely by perturbing GnRH release into the hypothalamo-hypophyseal portal system. Our results identify a previously unknown function for 65 kDa Sema3A-Nrp1 signaling in the induction of axonal growth, and raise the possibility that endothelial cells actively participate in synaptic plasticity in specific functional domains of the adult central nervous system, thus controlling key physiological functions such as reproduction.

  6. Brain endothelial cells control fertility through ovarian-steroid-dependent release of semaphorin 3A.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Giacobini

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Neuropilin-1 (Nrp1 guides the development of the nervous and vascular systems, but its role in the mature brain remains to be explored. Here we report that the expression of the 65 kDa isoform of Sema3A, the ligand of Nrp1, by adult vascular endothelial cells, is regulated during the ovarian cycle and promotes axonal sprouting in hypothalamic neurons secreting gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH, the neuropeptide controlling reproduction. Both the inhibition of Sema3A/Nrp1 signaling and the conditional deletion of Nrp1 in GnRH neurons counteract Sema3A-induced axonal sprouting. Furthermore, the localized intracerebral infusion of Nrp1- or Sema3A-neutralizing antibodies in vivo disrupts the ovarian cycle. Finally, the selective neutralization of endothelial-cell Sema3A signaling in adult Sema3aloxP/loxP mice by the intravenous injection of the recombinant TAT-Cre protein alters the amplitude of the preovulatory luteinizing hormone surge, likely by perturbing GnRH release into the hypothalamo-hypophyseal portal system. Our results identify a previously unknown function for 65 kDa Sema3A-Nrp1 signaling in the induction of axonal growth, and raise the possibility that endothelial cells actively participate in synaptic plasticity in specific functional domains of the adult central nervous system, thus controlling key physiological functions such as reproduction.

  7. Kerala reaps low fertility dividends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    Unlike much of India, the state of Kerala has promoted the development of human resources, resulting in lower fertility rates. If current UN projections are correct, India will overtake China as the most populous nation in the world by 2025. Within India, however, great differences exist in fertility rates, reflecting the level of commitment from state governments. In India, state governments control much of the policy and spending on health, education, etc. While the state of Kerala has been among the most committed to human resource development in the developing world, India's 5 northern states (Rajasthan, Uttar Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Bihar, and Orissa) have been among the least committed. As a result, Kerala's fertility rate has fallen to 2.3 children/women--a rate lower than that of Thailand, China, the formers USSR, or Ireland. Kerala has a contraceptive prevalence rate 3 times the national average and the lowest infant mortality rate in all of India--only 26/1000 live births (infant mortality is 4-5 times higher in the 5 northern states). Only 27% of Kerala's population lives in poverty, compared to 34-49.5% in the northern states. Real incomes and industrialization have been growing faster in Kerala. And industrialization does not appear to have come at the expense of the environment. 2 factors are responsible for Kerala' accomplishments: 1) State government support of human development--the state has invested in health, education, and has conducted a land reform benefiting 3 million landless peasants. 2) The status of women--in Kerala, women are viewed as an asset, not a liability (as in the north). Kerala's female literacy is 66%, compared to 11-21% in the northern states. Kerala also enjoys the highest level of female labor force participation (35%) anywhere in India.

  8. Genetic analysis of fertility restoration genes for WAtype cytoplasmic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pollen staining test with 1% I2KI solution showed segregation ratio of 15:1 (fertile: sterile), representing two nuclear independent dominant genes controlling the trait carried by fertile parent DN-33-18. Segregation for spikelet fertility in F2 confirmed the results of pollen fertility test. Molecular tagging of fertility restorer genes ...

  9. Individualization of controlled ovarian stimulation in vitro fertilization using ovarian reserve markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grisendi, Valentina; La Marca, Antonio

    2017-06-01

    In assisted reproduction technologies (ART) the controlled ovarian stimulation (COS) therapy is the starting point from which a good oocytes retrieval depends. Treatment individualization is based on ovarian response prediction, which largely depends on a woman's ovarian reserve. Anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) and antral follicle count (AFC) are considered the most accurate and reliable markers of ovarian reserve. A literature search was carried out for studies that addressed the ability of AMH and AFC to predict poor and/or excessive ovarian response in IVF cycles. According to the predicted response to ovarian stimulation (poor- normal- or high-response) is today possible not only to personalize pre-treatment counseling with the couple, but also to individualize the ovarian stimulation protocol, choosing among GnRH-agonists or antagonists for endogenous follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) suppression and formulating the FSH starting dose most adequate for the single patients. In this review we discuss how to choose the best COS therapy for the single patient, on the basis of the markers-guided ovarian response prediction.

  10. Social Bots: Human-Like by Means of Human Control?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimme, Christian; Preuss, Mike; Adam, Lena; Trautmann, Heike

    2017-12-01

    Social bots are currently regarded an influential but also somewhat mysterious factor in public discourse and opinion making. They are considered to be capable of massively distributing propaganda in social and online media, and their application is even suspected to be partly responsible for recent election results. Astonishingly, the term social bot is not well defined and different scientific disciplines use divergent definitions. This work starts with a balanced definition attempt, before providing an overview of how social bots actually work (taking the example of Twitter) and what their current technical limitations are. Despite recent research progress in Deep Learning and Big Data, there are many activities bots cannot handle well. We then discuss how bot capabilities can be extended and controlled by integrating humans into the process and reason that this is currently the most promising way to realize meaningful interactions with other humans. This finally leads to the conclusion that hybridization is a challenge for current detection mechanisms and has to be handled with more sophisticated approaches to identify political propaganda distributed with social bots.

  11. Ethnicity and fertility in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kollehlon, Konia T

    2003-01-01

    Using a sample of Hausa-Fulani, Yoruba, Ibo, and all other women from the 1990 Nigerian Demographic and Health Survey, this study examines ethnic fertility differentials in Nigeria within the context of the social characteristics and cultural hypotheses. Among all women, we find the net fertility of Hausa-Fulani women to be lower than that of Other women; with no statistically significant difference in the net fertility of Ibo, Yourba, and Other women. But, among currently married women, we find the net fertility of Hausa-Fulani and Yoruba women to be lower than that of Other women, while the net fertility of Ibo women is higher than that of Other women. Overall, the findings of this study are more consistent with the cultural hypothesis, because statistically significant fertility differentials by ethnicity remain, even after controlling for selected socioeconomic and demographic variables.

  12. Human Homeostatic Control Matrix in Norm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander G. Kruglov

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available We undertook our research to study and systemize the relationship between hemodynamics and biochemical parameters of arterial and venous blood in healthy people. Hemodynamic and biochemical characteristics were obtained through a probe by using catheterization in various vascular areas (aorta, brain, heart, lungs, and liver. Correlation and factor analyses were conducted to study the relationship between the obtained characteristics of the regional and systemic blood flow. Due to the nature of the correlation analysis, the significant (p<0.05 relation signs (+, 0, - without regard to their power were considered. The obtained results suggested that there are sets of both intra-organ and system regulatory relationships between metabolic and hemodynamic characteristics. The complex of relationships among the studied parameters makes it possible to maintain the homeostatic equilibrium in the body. The psychophysiological control system includes the subsystems we described: 1 the cardiac-hepatic-pulmonary complex having properties of the metabolic and hemodynamic information field providing biological stability of the homeostasis; any significant imbalance of its elements triggers afferent information flows actualizing an afferent synthesis; 2 the mind forming gradient patterns of targeted behavior to eliminate metabolic imbalance, to achieve goals both as coded biological parameters and as the highest forms of behavior, to reach the ultimate goal: parametric, homeostatic equilibrium in the “biosphere” of the human body. By using the results of our research and the complex of dynamic relationships in human homeostasis, we built a homeostatic control matrix (HCM.

  13. The application of human engineering in control room of HFETR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Shuchun; Shan Songlin

    2003-01-01

    The human-machine system for improving the working environment in the control room of HFETR is described. The reliability of the equipment, instruments and operation by human engineering is increased. The relations between human engineering and lowering human failure in HFETR are also discussed. It is concluded that the further application of human engineering can increase interaction of the human and machine in the control room and provide assurances for the safe and reliable operation of reactor. (authors)

  14. The application of human engineering in control room of HFETR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shuchun, Yang; Songlin, Shan [Nuclear Power Inst. of China, Chengdu (China)

    2003-07-01

    The human-machine system for improving the working environment in the control room of HFETR is described. The reliability of the equipment, instruments and operation by human engineering is increased. The relations between human engineering and lowering human failure in HFETR are also discussed. It is concluded that the further application of human engineering can increase interaction of the human and machine in the control room and provide assurances for the safe and reliable operation of reactor. (authors)

  15. Long term effects of prenatal X ray on human females: early fertility and frequency of operations to prevent pregnancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, M.B.; Tonascia, J.A.

    1980-01-01

    The subject of this paper is a long-term epidemiological study of human females who were exposed to radiation from maternal diagnostic x-ray procedures when they were in utero, compared with matched, unexposed controls. The study was designed to investigate possible effects of in-utero exposure, with particular interest being paid to reproductive capacity. In the human female and other mammals, because all mitotic divisions of germ cells occur during fetal life, the female baby is born with a finite supply of oocytes and future eggs. This supply is continuously depleted throughout life by ovulation and by cell degeneration, and there is no way for damaged or lost cells to be replaced. Experimental studies in a number of species have shown that female germ cells are extremely sensitive to radiation damage at two times during development. In humans the first of these probably occurs at around 4 to 5 months of gestation, and the second probably occurs around the time of birth. Radiation damage at these sensitive stages might show up at puberty ad during reproductive life, and might be detected by a well-designed study

  16. No choice. Human beings must continue to be fertile and to increase, but they must do so responsibly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tagle Ra

    1993-06-01

    Commentary is provided on the transition mankind has made from a maintained population growth rate of 2% to adaptation to a more civilized age. When the agricultural age began 100,000 years ago, man was still tribal, and it may well be that scientists are correct in postulating that adaptation is slow. Homo sapiens are still tribal or tried to family or kin groups, rather than to the nations state. These ties to family and tribe may contribute to present day "ethnic cleansing" and the illusion of the notion of a family of all peoples. In the past, families had to be large in order to sustain life; there was still a high death rate which slowed population growth. Population reached 2 billion in 1930 after a million years of growth. Mankind's tinkering with nature produced science and technology, which eliminated the natural balance of mortality. The consequence was a doubling of population in 47 years between 1930 to 1977 to 4 billion people. BY 1987, in just 10 years, another billion was added. Homo sapiens must not act responsible and influence the birth side by practicing "contraception control." Unfortunately, the force of habit has obliterated the reasons for large families, and humans have "unwittingly defied procreation from being merely a means to the status of an end." There is nothing in the Bible that forbids contraception or mentions multiplying in an irresponsible way. Neither this vast increase in population, which presently grows at 95 million per year, nor scientific advancement has eliminated mortality or disease. Million suffer from malnutrition and starvation, and the distribution of resources has been unequal and moves in the direction of resource depletion and environmental degradation. The formula for living must change; families need to plan for few children. Fighting to kill as a means of population control is unacceptable. Human beings possess the intelligence to preserve individual and social human life in a responsible way.

  17. Radioactivity in Chemical Fertilizers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jankovic, M.; Nikolic, J.; Pantelic, G.; Rajacic, M.; Sarap, N.; Todorovic, D.

    2013-01-01

    The fertilizers are essential in agriculture as they supply nutrients to the farming fields. One of the sources of radioactivity other than those of natural origin is mainly due to extensive use of fertilizers. The concentrations of natural radionuclides, 40K, 226Ra, 238U and 235U in different chemical fertilizers, which are part of the regular control of imported goods from the border crossing were analyzed using gamma spectrometry with a high purity germanium (HPGe) detector, relative efficiency 20 %, in order to assess the implications of the extended use of chemical fertilizers. Measurements were performed at Vinca Institute, Radiation and Environmental Protection Department. The obtained results show remarkable wide variations in the radioactivity contents of different samples. The mean (ranges) of specific activities for gamma activity of those fertilizer samples for 40K, 226Ra, 238U and 235U are 4857 (23 - 12 324) Bq/kg, 87 (4-393) Bq/kg, 220 (26-1145) Bq/kg and 15 (1.6-53) Bq/kg, respectively. The radium equivalent activity (Ra eq ) as well as the external absorbed gamma dose rate (D) for all samples was also calculated.(author)

  18. Association Between Progesterone Elevation on the Day of Human Chronic Gonadotropin Trigger and Pregnancy Outcomes After Fresh Embryo Transfer in In Vitro Fertilization/Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection Cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteves, Sandro C; Khastgir, Gautam; Shah, Jatin; Murdia, Kshitiz; Gupta, Shweta Mittal; Rao, Durga G; Dash, Soumyaroop; Ingale, Kundan; Patil, Milind; Moideen, Kunji; Thakor, Priti; Dewda, Pavitra

    2018-01-01

    Progesterone elevation (PE) during the late follicular phase of controlled ovarian stimulation in fresh embryo transfer in vitro fertilization (IVF)/intracytoplasmic sperm injection cycles has been claimed to be associated with decreased pregnancy rates. However, the evidence is not unequivocal, and clinicians still have questions about the clinical validity of measuring P levels during the follicular phase of stimulated cycles. We reviewed the existing literature aimed at answering four relevant clinical questions, namely (i) Is gonadotropin type associated with PE during the follicular phase of stimulated cycles? (ii) Is PE on the day of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) associated with negative fresh embryo transfer IVF/intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) cycles outcomes in all patient subgroups? (iii) Which P thresholds are best to identify patients at risk of implantation failure due to PE in a fresh embryo transfer? and (iv) Should a freeze all policy be adopted in all the cycles with PE on the day of hCG? The existing evidence indicates that late follicular phase progesterone rise in gonadotropin releasing analog cycles is mainly caused by the supraphysiological stimulation of granulosa cells with exogenous follicle-stimulating hormone. Yet, the type of gonadotropin used for stimulation seems to play no significant role on progesterone levels at the end of stimulation. Furthermore, PE is not a universal phenomenon with evidence indicating that its detrimental consequences on pregnancy outcomes do not affect all patient populations equally. Patients with high ovarian response to control ovarian stimulation are more prone to exhibit PE at the late follicular phase. However, in studies showing an overall detrimental effect of PE on pregnancy rates, the adverse effect of PE on endometrial receptivity seems to be offset, at least in part, by the availability of good quality embryo for transfer in women with a high ovarian response. Given the limitations of

  19. Association Between Progesterone Elevation on the Day of Human Chronic Gonadotropin Trigger and Pregnancy Outcomes After Fresh Embryo Transfer in In Vitro Fertilization/Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection Cycles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandro C. Esteves

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Progesterone elevation (PE during the late follicular phase of controlled ovarian stimulation in fresh embryo transfer in vitro fertilization (IVF/intracytoplasmic sperm injection cycles has been claimed to be associated with decreased pregnancy rates. However, the evidence is not unequivocal, and clinicians still have questions about the clinical validity of measuring P levels during the follicular phase of stimulated cycles. We reviewed the existing literature aimed at answering four relevant clinical questions, namely (i Is gonadotropin type associated with PE during the follicular phase of stimulated cycles? (ii Is PE on the day of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG associated with negative fresh embryo transfer IVF/intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI cycles outcomes in all patient subgroups? (iii Which P thresholds are best to identify patients at risk of implantation failure due to PE in a fresh embryo transfer? and (iv Should a freeze all policy be adopted in all the cycles with PE on the day of hCG? The existing evidence indicates that late follicular phase progesterone rise in gonadotropin releasing analog cycles is mainly caused by the supraphysiological stimulation of granulosa cells with exogenous follicle-stimulating hormone. Yet, the type of gonadotropin used for stimulation seems to play no significant role on progesterone levels at the end of stimulation. Furthermore, PE is not a universal phenomenon with evidence indicating that its detrimental consequences on pregnancy outcomes do not affect all patient populations equally. Patients with high ovarian response to control ovarian stimulation are more prone to exhibit PE at the late follicular phase. However, in studies showing an overall detrimental effect of PE on pregnancy rates, the adverse effect of PE on endometrial receptivity seems to be offset, at least in part, by the availability of good quality embryo for transfer in women with a high ovarian response. Given the

  20. Association Between Progesterone Elevation on the Day of Human Chronic Gonadotropin Trigger and Pregnancy Outcomes After Fresh Embryo Transfer in In Vitro Fertilization/Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection Cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteves, Sandro C.; Khastgir, Gautam; Shah, Jatin; Murdia, Kshitiz; Gupta, Shweta Mittal; Rao, Durga G.; Dash, Soumyaroop; Ingale, Kundan; Patil, Milind; Moideen, Kunji; Thakor, Priti; Dewda, Pavitra

    2018-01-01

    Progesterone elevation (PE) during the late follicular phase of controlled ovarian stimulation in fresh embryo transfer in vitro fertilization (IVF)/intracytoplasmic sperm injection cycles has been claimed to be associated with decreased pregnancy rates. However, the evidence is not unequivocal, and clinicians still have questions about the clinical validity of measuring P levels during the follicular phase of stimulated cycles. We reviewed the existing literature aimed at answering four relevant clinical questions, namely (i) Is gonadotropin type associated with PE during the follicular phase of stimulated cycles? (ii) Is PE on the day of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) associated with negative fresh embryo transfer IVF/intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) cycles outcomes in all patient subgroups? (iii) Which P thresholds are best to identify patients at risk of implantation failure due to PE in a fresh embryo transfer? and (iv) Should a freeze all policy be adopted in all the cycles with PE on the day of hCG? The existing evidence indicates that late follicular phase progesterone rise in gonadotropin releasing analog cycles is mainly caused by the supraphysiological stimulation of granulosa cells with exogenous follicle-stimulating hormone. Yet, the type of gonadotropin used for stimulation seems to play no significant role on progesterone levels at the end of stimulation. Furthermore, PE is not a universal phenomenon with evidence indicating that its detrimental consequences on pregnancy outcomes do not affect all patient populations equally. Patients with high ovarian response to control ovarian stimulation are more prone to exhibit PE at the late follicular phase. However, in studies showing an overall detrimental effect of PE on pregnancy rates, the adverse effect of PE on endometrial receptivity seems to be offset, at least in part, by the availability of good quality embryo for transfer in women with a high ovarian response. Given the limitations of

  1. Impact of GnRH analogues on oocyte/embryo quality and embryo development in in vitro fertilization/intracytoplasmic sperm injection cycles: a case control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rigó János

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite the clinical outcomes of ovarian stimulation with either GnRH-agonist or GnRH-antagonist analogues for in vitro fertilization (IVF being well analysed, the effect of analogues on oocyte/embryo quality and embryo development is still not known in detail. The aim of this case-control study was to compare the efficacy of a multiple-dose GnRH antagonist protocol with that of the GnRH agonist long protocol with a view to oocyte and embryo quality, embryo development and IVF treatment outcome. Methods Between October 2001 and December 2008, 100 patients were stimulated with human menopausal gonadotrophin (HMG and GnRH antagonist in their first treatment cycle for IVF or intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI. One hundred combined GnRH agonist + HMG (long protocol cycles were matched to the GnRH antagonist + HMG cycles by age, BMI, baseline FSH levels and by cause of infertility. We determined the number and quality of retrieved oocytes, the rate of early-cleavage embryos, the morphology and development of embryos, as well as clinical pregnancy rates. Statistical analysis was performed using Wilcoxon's matched pairs rank sum test and McNemar's chi-square test. P Results The rate of cytoplasmic abnormalities in retrieved oocytes was significantly higher with the use of GnRH antagonist than in GnRH agonist cycles (62.1% vs. 49.9%; P Conclusion Antagonist seemed to influence favourably some parameters of early embryo development dynamics, while other morphological parameters seemed not to be altered according to GnRH analogue used for ovarian stimulation in IVF cycles.

  2. Establishment of a high-resolution 2-D reference map of human spermatozoal proteins from 12 fertile sperm-bank donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ling-Wei; Fan, Li-Qing; Zhu, Wen-Bing; Nien, Hong-Chuan; Sun, Bo-Lan; Luo, Ke-Li; Liao, Ting-Ting; Tang, Le; Lu, Guang-Xiu

    2007-05-01

    To extend the analysis of the proteome of human spermatozoa and establish a 2-D gel electrophoresis (2-DE) reference map of human spermatozoal proteins in a pH range of 3.5-9.0. In order to reveal more protein spots, immobilized pH gradient strips (24 cm) of broad range of pH 3-10 and the narrower range of pH 6-9, as well as different overlapping narrow range pH immobilized pH gradient (IPG) strips, including 3.5-4.5, 4.0-5.0, 4.5-5.5, 5.0-6.0 and 5.5-6.7, were used. After 2-DE, several visually identical spots between the different pH range 2-D gel pairs were cut from the gels and confirmed by mass spectrometry and used as landmarks for computer analysis. The 2-D reference map with pH value from 3.5 to 9.0 was synthesized by using the ImageMaster analysis software. The overlapping spots were excluded, so that every spot was counted only once. A total of 3872 different protein spots were identified from the reference map, an approximately 3-fold increase compared to the broad range pH 3-10 IPG strip (1306 spots). The present 2-D pattern is a high resolution 2-D reference map for human fertile spermatozoal protein spots. A comprehensive knowledge of the protein composition of human spermatozoa is very meaningful in studying dysregulation of male fertility.

  3. Fertility and the economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, G S

    1992-08-01

    Fertility and the economy is examined in the context of the Malthusian question about the links between family choices and longterm economic growth. Micro level differences are not included not are a comprehensive range of economic or determinant variables. Specific attention is paid to income and price effects, the quality of children, overlapping generations, mortality effects, uncertainty, and economic growth. Fertility and the demand for children in linked to parental incomes and the cost of rearing children, which is affected by public policies that change the costs. Demand is also related to child and adult mortality, and uncertainty about sex of the child. Fertility in one generation affects fertility in the next. Malthusian and neoclassical models do not capture the current model of modern economies with rising income/capita and human and physical capital, extensive involvement of married women in the labor force, and declining fertility to very low levels. In spite of the present advances in firm knowledge about the relationships between fertility and economic and social variables, there is still much greater ignorance of the interactions. The Malthusian utility function that says fertility rises and falls with income did hold up to 2 centuries of scrutiny, and the Malthusian inclusion of the shifting tastes in his analysis could be translated in the modern context to include price of children. The inclusion of net cost has significant consequences, i.e., rural fertility can be higher because the cost of rearing when children contribute work to maintaining the farm is lower than in the city. An income tax deduction for children in the US reduces cost. Economic growth raises the cost of children due the time spent on child care becoming more valuable. The modern context has changed from Malthusian time, and the cost of education, training, and medical care is relevant. The implication is that a rise in income could reduce the demand for children when

  4. Hyaluronic acid binding ability of human sperm reflects cellular maturity and fertilizing potential: selection of sperm for intracytoplasmic sperm injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huszar, Gabor; Ozkavukcu, Sinan; Jakab, Attila; Celik-Ozenci, Ciler; Sati, G Leyla; Cayli, Sevil

    2006-06-01

    The current concepts of sperm biochemical markers and the central role of the HspA2 chaperone protein, a measure of sperm cellular maturity and fertilizing potential, are reviewed. Because HspA2 is a component of the synaptonemal complex, low HspA2 levels and increased frequency of chromosomal aneuploidies are related in diminished maturity sperm. We also suggest a relationship between HspA2 expression in elongating spermatids and events of late spermiogenesis, such as cytoplasmic extrusion and plasma membrane remodeling that aid the formation of the zona pellucida binding and hyaluronic acid binding sites. The presence of hyaluronic acid receptor on the plasma membrane of mature sperm, coupled with hyaluronic acid coated glass or plastic surfaces, facilitates testing of sperm function and selection of single mature sperm for intracytoplasmic sperm injection. The frequencies of sperm with chromosomal disomy are reduced approximately fourfold to fivefold in hyaluronic acid selected sperm compared with semen sperm, comparable to the increase in such abnormalities in intracytoplasmic sperm injection offspring. Hyaluronic acid binding also excludes immature sperm with cytoplasmic extrusion, persistent histones, and DNA chain breaks. Hyaluronic acid mediated sperm selection is a novel technique that is comparable to sperm zona pellucida binding. Hyaluronic acid selected sperm will also alleviate the risks related to intracytoplasmic sperm injection fertilization with sperm of diminished maturity that currently cause worldwide concern.

  5. Co-digestion of rice straw and cow dung to supply cooking fuel and fertilizers in rural India: Impact on human health, resource flows and climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sfez, Sophie; De Meester, Steven; Dewulf, Jo

    2017-12-31

    Anaerobic digestion of cow dung with new feedstock such as crop residues to increase the biogas potential is an option to help overcoming several issues faced by India. Anaerobic digestion provides biogas that can replace biomass cooking fuels and reduce indoor air pollution. It also provides digestate, a fertilizer that can contribute to compensate nutrient shortage on agricultural land. Moreover, it avoids the burning of rice straw in the fields which contributes to air pollution in India and climate change globally. Not only the technical and economical feasibility but also the environmental sustainability of such systems needs to be assessed. The potential effects of implementing community digesters co-digesting cow dung and rice straw on carbon and nutrients flows, human health, resource efficiency and climate change are analyzed by conducting a Substance Flow Analysis and a Life Cycle Assessment. The implementation of the technology is considered at the level of the state of Chhattisgarh. Implementing this scenario reduces the dependency of the rural community to nitrogen and phosphorus from synthetic fertilizers only by 0.1 and 1.6%, respectively, but the dependency of farmers to potassium from synthetic fertilizers by 31%. The prospective scenario returns more organic carbon to agricultural land and thus has a potential positive effect on soil quality. The implementation of the prospective scenario can reduce the health impact of the local population by 48%, increase the resource efficiency of the system by 60% and lower the impact on climate change by 13%. This study highlights the large potential of anaerobic digestion to overcome the aforementioned issues faced by India. It demonstrates the need to couple local and global assessments and to conduct analyses at the substance level to assess the sustainability of such systems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Reproduction (II): Human Control of Reproductive Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jost, Alfred

    1970-01-01

    Describes methods of intervening in reproduction of animals and humans (artificial insemination, contraception, ovular and blastodisc transplants, pre selection of sex, cloning) and discusses the social implications of their use with humans. (AL)

  7. Evaluation of human sperm chromatin status after selection using a modified Diff-Quik stain indicates embryo quality and pregnancy outcomes following in vitro fertilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavares, R S; Silva, A F; Lourenço, B; Almeida-Santos, T; Sousa, A P; Ramalho-Santos, J

    2013-11-01

    Sperm chromatin/DNA damage can be measured by a variety of assays. However, it has been reported that these tests may lose prognostic value in Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART) cycles when assessed in post-prepared samples, possibly due to the normalizing effect promoted by sperm preparation procedures. We have recently implemented a modified version of the Diff-Quik staining assay that allows for the evaluation of human sperm chromatin status in native samples, together with standard sperm morphology assessment. However, the value of this parameter in terms of predicting in vitro fertilization (IVF) and Intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) outcomes after sperm selection is unknown. In this study, data from 138 couples undergoing in vitro fertilization (IVF) or Intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) treatments showed that sperm chromatin integrity was significantly improved after density gradient centrifugation and swim up (p embryo development rates (p > 0.05). However, sperm samples presenting lower percentages of damaged chromatin were associated with better quality (Grade I) embryos in both ART procedures (p selection may occur; but not in ICSI, where sperm selection is operator dependent. This quick and low-cost assay is suggested as an alternative method to detect sperm chromatin status in minimal clinical settings, when no other well-established and robust assays (e.g. Sperm chromatin structure assay, terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUDP nick-end labelling) are available. © 2013 American Society of Andrology and European Academy of Andrology.

  8. In vitro maturation, fertilization, embryo development & clinical outcome of human metaphase-I oocytes retrieved from stimulated intracytoplasmic sperm injection cycles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Álvarez

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: The major cause of fertilisation failure after ICSI is failure of the oocyte to initiate the biochemical processes necessary for activation. This inability could be ascribed to cytoplasmic immaturity of those gametes even if they had reached nuclear maturity. The activation of a mature oocyte is characterised by release from metaphase II (MII arrest and extrusion of the second polar body, followed by pro-nuclear formation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the fate of in vitro matured (IVM metaphase I (MI oocytes subjected to intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI at different time intervals after extrusion of the first polar body (1PB in in vitro fertilization (IVF cycles. Methods: A total of 8030 oocytes were collected from 1400 ICSI cycles, 5504 MII at the time of cumulus retrieval. Four hundred eight metaphase II (MII (27.1% matured to MII after in vitro culture for 2-26 h and 5389 sibling MII in the moment of oocyte denudation were injected. On the other hand, 49 ICSI cycles containing only MI oocytes at retrieval were injected at three different time intervals after reaching the MII. The intervals were as follows: 2-6 h (n=10, 8-11 h (n=4 and 23-26 h (n=10. Fertilization and development potential were evaluated in both studies. Results: Fertilization, embryo cleavage and quality were significantly lower in IVM MI compared to MII at time of denudation. Pregnancy rate was higher in group MII. Pregnancy was achieved in three embryo transfers when ICSI was performed within 2-6 h (group I and 8-11 h (group II after PB extrusion. One pregnancy was obtained in group I and a healthy neonate was born. Interpretation & conclusions: Immature oocytes from women whose ovaries have been stimulated could be matured, fertilized by ICSI, cleaved in vitro and to give rise to a live birth. However, the developmental competence of embryos derived from immature oocytes is reduced, compared with sibling in vivo matured oocytes

  9. The Effects of Fungicide, Soil Fumigant, Bio-Organic Fertilizer and Their Combined Application on Chrysanthemum Fusarium Wilt Controlling, Soil Enzyme Activities and Microbial Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuang Zhao

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Sustained monoculture often leads to a decline in soil quality, in particular to the build-up of pathogen populations, a problem that is conventionally addressed by the use of either fungicide and/or soil fumigation. This practice is no longer considered to be either environmentally sustainable or safe. While the application of organic fertilizer is seen as a means of combating declining soil fertility, it has also been suggested as providing some control over certain soil-borne plant pathogens. Here, a greenhouse comparison was made of the Fusarium wilt control efficacy of various treatments given to a soil in which chrysanthemum had been produced continuously for many years. The treatments comprised the fungicide carbendazim (MBC, the soil fumigant dazomet (DAZ, the incorporation of a Paenibacillus polymyxa SQR21 (P. polymyxa SQR21, fungal antagonist enhanced bio-organic fertilizer (BOF, and applications of BOF combined with either MBC or DAZ. Data suggest that all the treatments evaluated show good control over Fusarium wilt. The MBC and DAZ treatments were effective in suppressing the disease, but led to significant decrease in urease activity and no enhancement of catalase activity in the rhizosphere soils. BOF including treatments showed significant enhancement in soil enzyme activities and microbial communities compared to the MBC and DAZ, evidenced by differences in bacterial/fungi (B/F ratios, Shannon–Wiener indexes and urease, catalase and sucrase activities in the rhizosphere soil of chrysanthemum. Of all the treatments evaluated, DAZ/BOF application not only greatly suppressed Fusarium wilt and enhanced soil enzyme activities and microbial communities but also promoted the quality of chrysanthemum obviously. Our findings suggest that combined BOF with DAZ could more effectively control Fusarium wilt disease of chrysanthemum.

  10. Utrogestan as an effective oral alternative for preventing premature luteinizing hormone surges in women undergoing controlled ovarian hyperstimulation for in vitro fertilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xiuxian; Zhang, Xiaole; Fu, Yonglun

    2015-05-01

    A major cause of cycle cancellation during controlled ovarian hyperstimulation (COH) in women undergoing in vitro fertilization (IVF) is the occurrence of premature luteinizing hormone (LH) surges. Steroidal preparations can modulate the secretion of gonadotropins (Gn); however, few studies using progesterone to inhibit the premature LH surges in COH have been published. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the oral delivery of progesterone soft capsules (Utrogestan) to prevent LH surges from the follicular phase and to compare cycle characteristics as well as to evaluate pregnancy outcomes in subsequent frozen-thawed embryo transfer (FET) cycles. A total of 374 patients were enrolled in this retrospective study, among which 187 patients were simultaneously administered Utrogestan and human menopausal gonadotrophin (hMG) from cycle day 3 until the trigger day. A short protocol including 187 controls with comparable age, body mass index (BMI), infertility duration, and antral follicle count was also used. GnRH agonist (0.1 mg) or hCG (3000 IU) was used for a trigger when the dominant follicles matured. Viable embryos were cryopreserved for later transfer in both groups. The primary outcome was the number of oocytes retrieved. The secondary outcomes included the number of mature oocytes, incidence of premature LH surge, and clinical pregnancy outcomes from FET cycles. Consistent LH suppression was achieved during COH, with a range of 0.07 to 8.9 IU/L, and no premature LH surge was detected. The number of oocytes retrieved in the Utrogestan and hMG protocol was comparable with that in the short protocol (10.92 ± 5.74 vs 10.6 ± 6.22, P > 0.05), and the dose of hMG was higher than that used in the short protocol (1884.22 ± 439.47 IU vs 1446.26 ± 550.48 IU, P effective oral alternative for preventing premature LH surges in women undergoing COH, which will help to establish a convenient user regimen in combination with FET.

  11. Birth after human chorionic gonadotropin-primed oocyte in vitro maturation and fertilization with testicular sperm in a normo-ovulatory patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia González-Ortega

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this report, we present a case of in vitro maturation (IVM with surgical retrieved testicular sperm in a normo-ovulatory female. Human chorionic gonadotropin-primed IVM, testicular biopsy for sperm retrieval and intracytoplasmic sperm injection with fresh sperm were performed. Fourteen cumulus-oocyte complexes were obtained in germinal vesicle or metaphase I stage, eight oocytes reached metaphase II, seven presumptive zygotes were obtained, and three cleavage stages embryos in day 2 were transferred producing a singleton pregnancy. A single healthy newborn was obtained. Our results suggest that IVM may be an alternative for in vitro fertilization in normo-ovulatory women even if surgical retrieval of sperm is needed. Further research is required to depict contributing factors to the success of IVM in indications different from polycystic ovaries syndrome and the role of male gamete.

  12. Will sex selection reduce fertility?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, S F

    1994-01-01

    Population control is one of the primary policies applied against poverty in many low income countries. The widespread prevalence of son preference in some countries such as China and India, however, works against any reduction of fertility. This is so because parents often continue to have children until they obtain the number of sons which they desire. The bias against girls has also led to higher abortion and mortality rates of female children. It is frequently argued that if sex selection methods are made available to parents so that they can control the gender of their children, population growth would be lowered and women's welfare improved. The author investigates both theoretically and numerically the impact of sex selection on fertility. A static quantity-quality model of fertility is used to compare fertility choices when parents cannot choose the gender of children versus a situation in which parents can choose gender. Empirical data are drawn from the 1976 Malaysian Family Life Survey. Analysis found that whether sex selection reduces fertility depends upon the second and third derivatives of the utility function and the child expenditure function. A numerical dynamic analysis is also presented. The simulation shows, using empirical dynamic models of fertility and the Monte Carlo integration technique, that sex selection on the firstborn child among the Chinese in Malaysia could reduce fertility by about 3%.

  13. Human factors methods for nuclear control room design. Volume I. Human factors enhancement of existing nuclear control rooms. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seminara, J.L.; Seidenstein, S.; Eckert, S.K.; Smith, D.L.

    1979-11-01

    Human factors engineering is an interdisciplinary specialty concerned with influencing the design of equipment systems, facilities, and operational environments to promote safe, efficient, and reliable operator performance. Human factors approaches were applied in the design of representative nuclear power plant control panels. First, methods for upgrading existing operational control panels were examined. Then, based on detailed human factors analyses of operator information and control requirements, designs of reactor, feedwater, and turbine-generator control panels were developed to improve the operator-control board interface, thereby reducing the potential for operator errors. In addition to examining present-generation concepts, human factors aspects of advanced systems and of hybrid combinations of advanced and conventional designs were investigated. Special attention was given to warning system designs. Also, a survey was conducted among control board designers to (1) develop an overview of design practices in the industry, and (2) establish appropriate measures leading to a more systematic concern for human factors in control board design

  14. Contraceptive vaccines for the humane control of community cat populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Julie K.

    2011-01-01

    Problem Free-roaming unowned stray and feral cats exist throughout the world, creating concerns regarding their welfare as well as their impact on the environment on public health. Millions of healthy cats are culled each year in an attempt to control their numbers. Surgical sterilization followed by return to the environment is an effective nonlethal population control method but is limited in scope due to expense and logistical impediments. Immunocontraception has the potential to be a more practical and cost-effective method of control. Method of study This is a review of current research in immunocontraception in domestic cats. Functional characteristics of an ideal immunocontraceptive for community cats would include a wide margin of safety for target animals and the environment, rapid onset and long duration of activity following a single treatment in males and females of all ages, and sex hormone inhibition. In addition, product characteristics should include stability and ease of use under field conditions, efficient manufacturing process, and low cost to the user. Two reproductive antigens, zona pellucida and GnRH, have been identified as possible targets for fertility control in cats. Results Zona pellucida, which is used successfully in multiple wildlife species, has achieved little success in cats. In contrast, immunization against GnRH has resulted in long-term contraception in both male and female cats following a single dose. GnRH is an ideal contraceptive target because it regulates pituitary and gonadal hormone responses in both males and females, thus suppressing nuisance behaviors associated with sex hormones in addition to preventing pregnancy. Conclusion The responsiveness of cats to fertility control via GnRH suppression should encourage researchers and cat control stakeholders to continue efforts to optimize vaccines that induce multi-year contraception following a single dose in a high proportion of treated cats. PMID:21501281

  15. Effects of mineral and organic fertilizers on crop productivity and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Other two fields grown with the same crops without fertilizer application served as control treatment. In addition, a greenhouse experiment was run to ... It was concluded that biophysical factors (field location and initial soil fertility status) greatly influenced crop yield and fertilizer. Keywords: Bean, maize, fertilizer response, ...

  16. Semen collection and fertility in naturally fertile sandhill cranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, G.; Gee, G.F.; Nicolich, Jane M.; Taylor, J.A.; Urbanek, R.P.; Stahlecker, D.W.

    1997-01-01

    Aviculturists often ask if semen collection will interfere with fertility in naturally fertile pairs of cranes. We used 12 naturally fertile Florida sandhill crane (Grus canadensis pratensis) pairs for this study, 6 control and 6 experimental. All pairs had produced fertile eggs in previous years and were in out-of-doors pens scattered throughout different pen complexes, within auditory range but physically isolated. Semen was collected on Tuesday mornings and Friday afternoons from 26 February 1993 to 4 June 1993. We used standard artificial insemination methods to collect and to evaluate the semen and spermatozoa. Semen collection did not affect semen quality or quantity. Semen volume, sperm density, sperm motility, sperm morphology, sperm live, sperm number per collection, and male response to semen collection exhibited significant daily variation (P semen collection began 13 days before the first egg in the experimental group, we observed no differences in the date of first egg laid or in fertility between experimental and control groups. Also, we observed no differences in the interval between clutches or in the percentage of broken eggs between experimental and control groups. Sires consistently producing better semen samples produced fewer fertile eggs than sires producing poorer semen samples (r = 0.60).

  17. HUMAN FACTORS GUIDANCE FOR CONTROL ROOM EVALUATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    OHARA, J.; BROWN, W.; STUBLER, W.; HIGGINS, J.; WACHTEL, J.; PERSENSKY, J.J.

    2000-01-01

    The Human-System Interface Design Review Guideline (NUREG-0700, Revision 1) was developed by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) to provide human factors guidance as a basis for the review of advanced human-system interface technologies. The guidance consists of three components: design review procedures, human factors engineering guidelines, and a software application to provide design review support called the ''Design Review Guideline.'' Since it was published in June 1996, Rev. 1 to NUREG-0700 has been used successfully by NRC staff, contractors and nuclear industry organizations, as well as by interested organizations outside the nuclear industry. The NRC has committed to the periodic update and improvement of the guidance to ensure that it remains a state-of-the-art design evaluation tool in the face of emerging and rapidly changing technology. This paper addresses the current research to update of NUREG-0700 based on the substantial work that has taken place since the publication of Revision 1

  18. Fertility Clinic Success Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Defects ART and Autism 2013 Assisted Reproductive Technology Fertility Clinic Success Rates Report Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... Additional Information About ART in the United States. Fertility Clinic Tables Introduction to Fertility Clinic Tables [PDF - ...

  19. A grounded theory approach to understand the process of decision making on fertility control methods in urban society of Mashhad, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roudsari, Robab Latifnejad; Khadivzadeh, Talat; Bahrami, Masoud

    2013-09-01

    More than 30% of pregnancies in Iran are unintended and most of them happen among the women who use various contraceptive methods. Results of Integrated Monitoring and Evaluation System (IMES) showed that the rate of innovative contraceptive use in Mashhad has been 41.5%-57% in different urban areas. This study was conducted to explore the process of making decision toward using family planning methods in women of reproductive age in urban society of Mashhad, Iran. In this grounded theory study, semi-structured interviews were conducted with 45 purposefully selected participants including 28 women and 17 key informants including family health providers and managers, and participants' mothers and husbands, who lived in urban society of Mashhad, Iran, in 2011-2012. Participants' recruitment continued until data saturation occurred. Data were analyzed using Strauss and Corbin's mode of analysis through constant comparative method, applying levels of open, axial, and selective coding with MAXqda software. Study rigor was confirmed through prolonged engagement, member check, expert debriefing, and thick description of the data. The core category of "caring the comprehensive health of my family," which emerged from the data, described the process of couples' decision making toward using family planning methods in this study. Other developed categories which were presented into a theoretical scheme consisted of 1) shaping the ideas of fertility control, 2) developing cognition about the fertility control methods, 3) appraising available choices and choosing the most appropriate one, 4) managing the course of using methods, and 5) realizing the fertility intentions. It is important that family planning providers understand the motivations, perceptions, and knowledge of women about contraceptive methods in their contextual situation, which illustrates their mode of interaction in the arenas of family planning decision making.

  20. Fertility and Population Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Ouedraogo, Abdoulaye; Tosun, Mehmet S.; Yang, Jingjing

    2018-01-01

    There have been significant changes in both the fertility rates and fertility perception since 1970s. In this paper, we examine the relationship between government policies towards fertility and the fertility trends. Total fertility rate, defined as the number of children per woman, is used as the main fertility trend variable. We use panel data from the United Nations World Population Policies database, and the World Bank World Development Indicators for the period 1976 through 2013. We find...

  1. Uniquely Human Self-Control Begins at School Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrmann, Esther; Misch, Antonia; Hernandez-Lloreda, Victoria; Tomasello, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Human beings have remarkable skills of self-control, but the evolutionary origins of these skills are unknown. Here we compare children at 3 and 6 years of age with one of humans' two nearest relatives, chimpanzees, on a battery of reactivity and self-control tasks. Three-year-old children and chimpanzees were very similar in their abilities to…

  2. SPL8 Acts Together with the Brassinosteroid-Signaling Component BIM1 in Controlling Arabidopsis thaliana Male Fertility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuping Xing

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The non-miR156 targeted SBP-box gene SQUAMOSA PROMOTER BINDING PROTEIN-LIKE 8 (SPL8, plays an important role in Arabidopsis anther development, where its loss-of-function results in a semi-sterile phenotype. Fully male-sterile plants are obtained when a spl8 loss-of-function mutation is introduced into a 35S:MIR156 genetic background, thereby revealing functional redundancy between SPL8 and miR156-targeted SBP-box genes. Here, we show that BIM1, a gene encoding a bHLH protein involved in brassinosteroid signaling and embryonic patterning, functions redundantly with SPL8 in its requirement for male fertility. Although bim1 single mutants displayed a mild fertility problem due to shortened filaments in some flowers, mutation of BIM1 significantly enhanced the semi-sterile phenotype of the spl8 mutant. Expression of both SPL8 and BIM1 was detected in overlapping expression domains during early anther developmental stages. Our data suggest that in regulating anther development, SPL8 and BIM1 function cooperatively in a common complex or in synergistic pathways. Phylogenetic analysis supports the idea of an evolutionary conserved function for both genes in angiosperm anther development.

  3. Control of Fusarium verticillioides (Sacc. Nirenberg and Fumonisins by Using a Combination of Crop Protection Products and Fertilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Raphael Madege

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Fusarium verticillioides is the most common fungal pathogen associated with maize ear rot in Tanzania. In a two-year trial, we investigated the efficacy of crop protection (insecticide and/or fungicide and fertilizer (nitrogen and/or phosphorus treatments in reducing the occurrence of F. verticillioides and its mycotoxins in maize grown in Tanzania. Seasonal differences were seen to have a substantial influence on the incidence and severity of insect infestation, Fusarium ear and kernel rot, biomass of F. verticillioides and contamination with fumonisins. With regard to the application of fertilizers, it was concluded that the impact on maize stalk borer injury, Fusarium symptoms and fumonisin levels was not significant, whereas crop protection significantly reduced maize damage. The application of an insecticide was most effective in reducing insect injury and as a result of the reduced insect injury the insecticide treatment also resulted in a significant decrease in Fusarium symptoms. In 2014, fumonisin levels were also significantly lower in maize treated with an insecticide. Additionally, significant positive correlations between insect damage and Fusarium symptoms were observed. In conclusion, this study clearly shows that application of an insecticide alone or in combination with a fungicide at anthesis significantly reduces insect damage and consequently reduces F. verticillioides infection and associated fumonisin contamination.

  4. Fertility in midlife women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoldemir, T

    2016-06-01

    Reduced maternal fertility is the consequence of depletion of follicles with maternal aging. In a 35-year-old woman, approximately 9.1% of the residual follicle pool disappears annually without entering into the growing stage, whereas, in a 45-year-old woman, this number triples. After the age of 35 years, the frequency of aneuploidies in oocytes increases sharply. Roughly 50-70% of mature oocytes from a 40-year-old woman have chromosomal abnormalities. The clinical pregnancy and implantation rates are lower in midlife women. Various controlled ovarian stimulation interventions have been suggested for the management of women in advanced age, most of whom are likely to be poor-responder patients. Currently, systematic reviews and meta-analyses suggest that there is insufficient evidence to recommend most of the treatments proposed to improve pregnancy rates in these poor responders. Minimal stimulation or natural cycle in vitro fertilization may be offered, without compromising the already existing pregnancy results.

  5. Human error mode identification for NPP main control room operations using soft controls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Seung Jun; Kim, Jaewhan; Jang, Seung-Cheol

    2011-01-01

    The operation environment of main control rooms (MCRs) in modern nuclear power plants (NPPs) has considerably changed over the years. Advanced MCRs, which have been designed by adapting digital and computer technologies, have simpler interfaces using large display panels, computerized displays, soft controls, computerized procedure systems, and so on. The actions for the NPP operations are performed using soft controls in advanced MCRs. Soft controls have different features from conventional controls. Operators need to navigate the screens to find indicators and controls and manipulate controls using a mouse, touch screens, and so on. Due to these different interfaces, different human errors should be considered in the human reliability analysis (HRA) for advanced MCRs. In this work, human errors that could occur during operation executions using soft controls were analyzed. This work classified the human errors in soft controls into six types, and the reasons that affect the occurrence of the human errors were also analyzed. (author)

  6. The Trojan female technique: a novel, effective and humane approach for pest population control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gemmell, Neil J; Jalilzadeh, Aidin; Didham, Raphael K; Soboleva, Tanya; Tompkins, Daniel M

    2013-12-22

    Humankind's ongoing battle with pest species spans millennia. Pests cause or carry disease, damage or consume food crops and other resources, and drive global environmental change. Conventional approaches to pest management usually involve lethal control, but such approaches are costly, of varying efficiency and often have ethical issues. Thus, pest management via control of reproductive output is increasingly considered an optimal solution. One of the most successful such 'fertility control' strategies developed to date is the sterile male technique (SMT), in which large numbers of sterile males are released into a population each generation. However, this approach is time-consuming, labour-intensive and costly. We use mathematical models to test a new twist on the SMT, using maternally inherited mitochondrial (mtDNA) mutations that affect male, but not female reproductive fitness. 'Trojan females' carrying such mutations, and their female descendants, produce 'sterile-male'-equivalents under natural conditions over multiple generations. We find that the Trojan female technique (TFT) has the potential to be a novel humane approach for pest control. Single large releases and relatively few small repeat releases of Trojan females both provided effective and persistent control within relatively few generations. Although greatest efficacy was predicted for high-turnover species, the additive nature of multiple releases made the TFT applicable to the full range of life histories modelled. The extensive conservation of mtDNA among eukaryotes suggests this approach could have broad utility for pest control.

  7. The Trojan Female Technique: A Novel, Effective and Humane Approach for Pest Population Control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gemmell, Neil J. [Centre for Reproduction and Genomics and Allan Wilson Centre for Molecular Ecology and Evolution, Department of Anatomy, University of Otago, Dunedin (New Zealand); Jalilzadeh, Aidin [Department of Mathematics and Statistics, University of Otago, Dunedin (New Zealand); Didham, Raphael K. [School of Animal Biology, University of Western Australia (Australia); CSIRO Ecosystem Sciences, Perth, Western Australia (Australia); Soboleva, Tanya [Science and Risk Assessment Directorate, Ministry for Primary Industries, PO Box 2526, Wellington (New Zealand); Tompkins, Daniel M. [Landcare Research, Private Bag 1930, Dunedin (New Zealand); New Zealand Institute for Plant and Food Research Ltd., Christchurch (New Zealand)

    2014-01-15

    Full-text: Humankind's ongoing battle with pest species spans millennia. Pests cause or carry disease, damage or consume food crops and other resources, and drive global environmental change. Conventional approaches to pest management usually involve lethal control, but such approaches are costly, of varying efficiency and often have ethical issues. Thus, pest management via control of reproductive output is increasingly considered an optimal solution. One of the most successful such 'fertility control' strategies developed to date is the sterile male technique (SMT), in which large numbers of sterile males are released into a population each generation. However, this approach is time-consuming, labour- intensive and costly. We use mathematical models to test a new twist on the SMT, using maternally inherited mitochondrial (mtDNA) mutations that affect male, but not female reproductive fitness. 'Trojan females' carrying such mutations, and their female descendants, produce 'sterile-male'-equivalents under natural conditions over multiple generations. We find that the Trojan Female Technique (TFT) has the potential to be a novel humane approach for pest control. Single large releases and relatively few small repeat releases of Trojan females both provided effective and persistent control within relatively few generations. Although greatest efficacy was predicted for high-turnover species, the additive nature of multiple releases made the TFT applicable to the full range of life histories modelled. The extensive conservation of mtDNA among eukaryotes suggests this approach could have broad utility for pest control. (author)

  8. Improving patient-centeredness of fertility care using a multifaceted approach: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huppelschoten Aleida G

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Beside traditional outcomes of safety and (cost-effectiveness, the Institute of Medicine states patient-centeredness as an independent outcome indicator to evaluate the quality of healthcare. Providing patient-centered care is important because patients want to be heard for their ideas and concerns. Healthcare areas associated with high emotions and intensive treatment periods could especially benefit from patient-centered care. How care can become optimally improved in patient-centeredness is unknown. Therefore, we will conduct a study in the context of Dutch fertility care to determine the effects of a multifaceted approach on patient-centeredness, patients’ quality of life (QoL and levels of distress. Our aims are to investigate the effectiveness of a multifaceted approach and to identify determinants of a change in the level of patient-centeredness, patients’ QoL and distress levels. This paper presents the study protocol. Methods/Design In a cluster-randomized trial in 32 Dutch fertility clinics the effects of a multifaceted approach will be determined on the level of patient-centeredness (Patient-centredness Questionnaire – Infertility, patients’ QoL (FertiQoL and levels of distress (SCREENIVF. The multifaceted approach includes audit and feedback, educational outreach visits and patient-mediated interventions. Potential determinants of a change in patient-centeredness, patients’ QoL and levels of distress will be collected by an addendum to the patients’ questionnaire and a professionals’ questionnaire. The latter includes the Organizational Culture Assessment Instrument about the clinic’s culture as a possible determinant of an increase in patient-centered care. Discussion The study is expected to yield important new evidence about the effects of a multifaceted approach on levels of patient-centeredness, patients’ QoL and distress in fertility care. Furthermore, determinants associated with a change

  9. Human as the chief controller in the complex system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Yeonsub

    2012-01-01

    Due to accuracy of measurement and improvement of control logic, human beings are freed from time consuming and repeated task. When there are situations where the control logic cannot calculate the next state of system, human beings interrupt the system and steer the system manually. The most scope of human factors is focused on this interruption, and economists are concern how to present information cognitively and reliably. Fukushima nuclear accident has considered the role of human beings again. Human beings are forced to do something without proper knowledge, procedure, and process information. Thus post Fukushima actions should include how for human beings to be trained and how to get real time information. Finally because safety culture can determine behaviors of human beings, the method to cultivate safety culture should be considered

  10. The effect of administering equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG) and human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) post artificial insemination on fertility of lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartolome, J A; Wallace, S Perez; de la Sota, R L; Thatcher, W W

    2012-09-15

    The objective was to evaluate the effect of equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG) and hCG post artificial insemination (AI) on fertility of lactating dairy cows. In Experiment 1, cows were either treated with eCG on Day 22 post AI (400 IU; n = 80) or left untreated (n = 84). On Day 29, pregnant cows were either treated with hCG (2500 IU; n = 32) or left untreated (n = 36). Pregnancy and progesterone were evaluated on Days 29 and 45. In Experiment 2, cows (n = 28) were either treated with eCG on Day 22 (n = 13) or left untreated (n = 15) and either treated with hCG on Day 29 (n = 14) or left untreated (n = 14). Blood sampling and ultrasonography were conducted between Days 22 and 45. In Experiment 3, cows were either treated with eCG on Day 22 post AI (n = 229) or left untreated (n = 241). Pregnancy was evaluated on Days 36 and 85. In Experiment 1, eCG on Day 22 increased (P cows on Day 29 (50.0 vs. 33.3%) and on Day 45, the increase was higher (P cows with timed AI (41.2 vs. 6.5%) than in cows AI at detected estrus (50.0 vs. 37.8%). Pregnancy losses were reduced by eCG and hCG, but increased in cows that did not receive eCG but were given hCG (P cows, but not in cows treated with eCG. In Experiment 2, hCG increased (P cows (P cows with low body condition (eCG = 45.6 and 43.5%; Control = 22.9 and 22.9%). In conclusion, eCG at 22 days post insemination increased fertility, primarily in cows with low body condition and reduced pregnancy losses when given 7 days before hCG; hCG induced accessory CLs and slightly increased progesterone, but hCG given in the absence of a prior eCG treatment reduced fertility. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Modeling Human Error Mechanism for Soft Control in Advanced Control Rooms (ACRs)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aljneibi, Hanan Salah Ali; Ha, Jun Su; Kang, Seongkeun; Seong, Poong Hyun

    2015-01-01

    To achieve the switch from conventional analog-based design to digital design in ACRs, a large number of manual operating controls and switches have to be replaced by a few common multi-function devices which is called soft control system. The soft controls in APR-1400 ACRs are classified into safety-grade and non-safety-grade soft controls; each was designed using different and independent input devices in ACRs. The operations using soft controls require operators to perform new tasks which were not necessary in conventional controls such as navigating computerized displays to monitor plant information and control devices. These kinds of computerized displays and soft controls may make operations more convenient but they might cause new types of human error. In this study the human error mechanism during the soft controls is studied and modeled to be used for analysis and enhancement of human performance (or human errors) during NPP operation. The developed model would contribute to a lot of applications to improve human performance (or reduce human errors), HMI designs, and operators' training program in ACRs. The developed model of human error mechanism for the soft control is based on assumptions that a human operator has certain amount of capacity in cognitive resources and if resources required by operating tasks are greater than resources invested by the operator, human error (or poor human performance) is likely to occur (especially in 'slip'); good HMI (Human-machine Interface) design decreases the required resources; operator's skillfulness decreases the required resources; and high vigilance increases the invested resources. In this study the human error mechanism during the soft controls is studied and modeled to be used for analysis and enhancement of human performance (or reduction of human errors) during NPP operation

  12. Modeling Human Error Mechanism for Soft Control in Advanced Control Rooms (ACRs)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aljneibi, Hanan Salah Ali [Khalifa Univ., Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates); Ha, Jun Su; Kang, Seongkeun; Seong, Poong Hyun [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    To achieve the switch from conventional analog-based design to digital design in ACRs, a large number of manual operating controls and switches have to be replaced by a few common multi-function devices which is called soft control system. The soft controls in APR-1400 ACRs are classified into safety-grade and non-safety-grade soft controls; each was designed using different and independent input devices in ACRs. The operations using soft controls require operators to perform new tasks which were not necessary in conventional controls such as navigating computerized displays to monitor plant information and control devices. These kinds of computerized displays and soft controls may make operations more convenient but they might cause new types of human error. In this study the human error mechanism during the soft controls is studied and modeled to be used for analysis and enhancement of human performance (or human errors) during NPP operation. The developed model would contribute to a lot of applications to improve human performance (or reduce human errors), HMI designs, and operators' training program in ACRs. The developed model of human error mechanism for the soft control is based on assumptions that a human operator has certain amount of capacity in cognitive resources and if resources required by operating tasks are greater than resources invested by the operator, human error (or poor human performance) is likely to occur (especially in 'slip'); good HMI (Human-machine Interface) design decreases the required resources; operator's skillfulness decreases the required resources; and high vigilance increases the invested resources. In this study the human error mechanism during the soft controls is studied and modeled to be used for analysis and enhancement of human performance (or reduction of human errors) during NPP operation.

  13. Human Information Processing and Supervisory Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-05-01

    errors (that is of the output of the human operator). There is growing evidence (Senders, personal communication; Norman , personal communication...relates to the relative tendency to depend on sensory information or to be more analytic and independent. Norman (personal communication) has referred...decision process model. Ergonomics, 12, 543-557. Senders, J., Elkid, J., Grignetti, M., & Smallwood , R. 1966. An investigation of the visual sampling

  14. Visual servo control for a human-following robot

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Burke, Michael G

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This thesis presents work completed on the design of control and vision components for use in a monocular vision-based human-following robot. The use of vision in a controller feedback loop is referred to as vision-based or visual servo control...

  15. Human factors evaluation of the engineering test reactor control room

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banks, W.W.; Boone, M.P.

    1981-03-01

    The Reactor and Process Control Rooms at the Engineering Test Reactor were evaluated by a team of human factors engineers using available human factors design criteria. During the evaluation, ETR, equipment and facilities were compared with MIL-STD-1472-B, Human Engineering design Criteria for Military Systems. The focus of recommendations centered on: (a) displays and controls; placing displays and controls in functional groups; (b) establishing a consistent color coding (in compliance with a standard if possible); (c) systematizing annunciator alarms and reducing their number; (d) organizing equipment in functional groups; and (e) modifying labeling and lines of demarcation

  16. Occurrence of FSH, inhibin and other hypothalamic-pituitary-intestinal hormones in normal fertility, subfertility, and tumors of human testes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, M K; Garde, S V; Sheth, A R

    1995-01-01

    To compare the distribution of peptide hormones in presumably normal human testicular tissues and specimens exhibiting any of five pathologies. Biopsies from patients having testicular malfunctions were prepared as sections and specifically immunohistochemically stained for inhibin, FSH, serotonin, AUP, and oxytocin. Immunocytochemical studies revealed the presence of various hypophysial-pituitary-intestinal hormones, viz., FSH, inhibin, arginine vasopressin (AVP), calcitonin, serotonin, oxytocin, adrenocorticotropin (ACTH), gastrin, secretin, and somatostatin in human testicular biopsies exhibiting normal spermatogenesis, Sertoli-cell-only syndrome, spermatogenic arrest, Leydig cell hyperplasia, Leydig cell tumor, and seminoma. Intensity of immunostaining for all peptides except FSH was stronger in cases of subfertile as compared to normal testis. Intensity of immunostaining with inhibin was maximum in Leydig cell tumor. These regulatory peptides may be involved in the pathophysiology of the testes.

  17. Determination of total arsenic and arsenic(III) in phosphate fertilizers by hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry after ultrasound-assisted extraction based on a control acid media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezende, Helen Cristine; Coelho, Nivia Maria Melo

    2014-01-01

    An ultrasound-assisted extraction procedure was developed for determination of inorganic arsenic (As) in phosphate fertilizer by hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry. The variables that affect the hydride generation step were optimized, including the reducer, acid, sample flow rate, and concentrations of the acid and reducer. The determination of As(lll) was performed through the simple control of solution pH with a 0.5 M citric acid-sodium citrate buffer solution at pH 4.5, and total As was determined after a pre-reduction reaction with 1.0% (w/v) thiourea. Ultrasound-assisted acid extraction was performed, and the parameters sonication time and acid and Triton X-114 concentrations were optimized using a 23 factorial design and central composite design. LODs for As(lll) and total As were 0.029 and 0.022 microg/L, respectively. The accuracy of the method was confirmed with certified reference materials. The method was successfully applied in the determination of inorganic As in phosphate fertilizer samples.

  18. Synthesis composite hydrogels from inorganic-organic hybrids based on leftover rice for environment-friendly controlled-release urea fertilizers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Tao; Wang, Yan; Huang, Sheng; Zhao, Youcai

    2018-02-15

    Nearly 1.3 billion tons of food are discarded annually in the production process. In this study, a novel slow-release nitrogen fertilizer with water absorbency was developed using leftover rice and crosslinking methods. Urea was incorporated as the nitrogen source in a leftover rice-g-poly(acrylic acid)/montmorillonite (LR-g-PAA/MMT) network, and then the leftover rice-g-poly(acrylic acid)/montmorillonite/Urea (LR-g-PAA/MMT/Urea) retained in the soil, and used as the loss control agent for water and nutrients. Variables including concentrations of acrylic acid, montmorillonite, N,N´-methylenebis acrylamide (MBA), and potassium persulfate (KPS) were investigated. Samples were with a water absorbency of 102.6g/g in distilled water and 25.1g/g in 1.0wt% NaCl solution under optimized conditions. Swelling measurements and water-retention indicated that higher-covalent cations would aggregate the hydrogels and decrease swelling. Investigating leaching behavior showed that these samples have the potential to carry the necessary nitrogen (N). The results demonstrated that the LR-g-PAA/MMT/Urea had a low leaching losses of N (19.7%) compared with pure urea (52.3%). Therefore, the developed fertilizer may be widely applicable in agriculture and horticulture, and could provide a new platform for reusing leftover rice. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Adsorption of ammonium and phosphate by feather protein based semi-interpenetrating polymer networks hydrogel as a controlled-release fertilizer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Yuan; Liu, Jia; Yue, Qinyan; Li, Qian; Gao, Baoyu

    2014-01-01

    A new feather protein-grafted poly(potassium acrylate)/polyvinyl alcohol (FP-g-PKA/PVA) semi-interpenetrating polymer networks (semi-IPNs) hydrogel was produced through graft copolymerization with FP as a basic macromolecular skeletal material, acrylic acid as a monomer and PVA as a semi-IPNs polymer. The adsorption of ammonium and phosphate ions from aqueous solution using the new hydrogel as N and P controlled-release fertilizer with water-retention capacity was studied. The effects of pH value, concentration, contact time and ion strength on NH4+ and PO3-4 removal by FP-g-PKA/PVA semi-IPNs hydrogel were investigated using batch adsorption experiments. The results indicated that the hydrogel had high adsorption capacities and fast adsorption rates for NH4+ and PO3-4 in wide pH levels ranging from 4.0 to 9.0. Kinetic analysis presented that both NH4+ and PO3-4 removal were closely fitted with the pseudo-second-order model. Furthermore, the adsorption isotherms of hydrogel were best represented by the Freundlich model. The adsorption-desorption experimental results showed the sustainable stability of FP-g-PKA/PVA semi-IPNs hydrogel for NH4+ and PO3-4 removal. Overall, FP-g-PKA/PVA could be considered as an efficient material for the removal and recovery of nitrogen and phosphorus with the agronomic reuse as a fertilizer.

  20. Estimating Post-Emergency Fertility Among Disaster-Affected Adolescents: Findings From a Case-Control Study in Aceh Province, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinoshita, Mari; Suhardan, Suhardan; Danila Danila, Damsyik; Chiang, Chifa; Aoyama, Atsuko

    2016-02-01

    We aimed to retrospectively estimate adolescent fertility rates before and after a large-scale natural disaster. A case-control study was conducted in Aceh Province, Indonesia, 2 years after the Indian Ocean tsunami in 2004. The age-specific fertility rates of 15-19-year-old-women (ASFR 15-19) was estimated each year from 2004 to 2006 by creating hypothetical age cohorts. The results were compared with data from the closest edition of the Indonesian Demographic Health Survey (IDHS). The pre-disaster ASFR 15-19 (4.4% in 2004) was not significantly different from the 2002-2003 IDHS data (P=0.49), whereas the post-disaster ASFR 15-19 (1.1% in 2005-2006) was significantly lower than the provincial estimation in the 2007 IDHS (Pfertility estimation, however, we suggest excluding data from the 40-week period preceding the disaster, because the data may be biased by excess mortality in childbearing mothers and newborn babies in the disaster.

  1. Plant Modeling for Human Supervisory Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lind, Morten

    1999-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of multilevel flow modelling (MFM) and its application for design of displays for the supervisory control of industrial plant. The problem of designing the inforrrzatian content of sacpervisory displays is discussed and plant representations like MFM using levels...

  2. The impact of freedom on fertility decline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Martha M; Prata, Ndola; Potts, Malcolm

    2013-01-01

    Although fertility decline often correlates with improvements in socioeconomic conditions, many demographers have found flaws in demographic transition theories that depend on changes in distal factors such as increased wealth or education. Human beings worldwide engage in sexual intercourse much more frequently than is needed to conceive the number of children they want, and for women who do not have access to the information and means they need to separate sex from childbearing, the default position is a large family. In many societies, male patriarchal drives to control female reproduction give rise to unnecessary medical rules constraining family planning (including safe abortion) or justifying child marriage. Widespread misinformation about contraception makes women afraid to adopt modern family planning. The barriers to family planning can be so deeply infused that for many women the idea of managing their fertility is not considered an option. Conversely, there is evidence that once family planning is introduced into a society, then it is normal consumer behaviour for individuals to welcome a new technology they had not wanted until it became realistically available. We contend that in societies free from child marriage, wherever women have access to a range of contraceptive methods, along with correct information and backed up by safe abortion, family size will always fall. Education and wealth can make the adoption of family planning easier, but they are not prerequisites for fertility decline. By contrast, access to family planning itself can accelerate economic development and the spread of education.

  3. Comparisons between three nitrogen fertilizers (nitric, ammoniacal and uric) in an andic soil of the Comoro Islands. Studies in a controlled medium with nitrogen 15

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egoumenides, C.; Pichot, J.; Haribou, A.

    1980-01-01

    The fixation rate (nitrogen in the plant + nitrogen remaining in the soil) was measured for nitrogen from three different labelled fertilizers: calcium nitrate, ammonium sulfate and urea. This experiment, which was realized in pots with and without cultures led to the following observations: the same fixation rates occur for all fertilizers, which are greater when cultures are employed then when they are not employed (86% ans 72% respectively); the utilization rate of nitrogen fertilizers by plants is significantly higher with the nitric form of fertilizer than with the two other forms (73% and 63% respectively). With cultures, the nitrogen nonutilized by the plant is found in nitrogen organic forms of the soil. On the other hand, in the case of bare soil, the reorganization of nitrogen fertilizers (above all nitric fertilizers) is found to be highly limited, the greatest proportion of the fertilizer's nitrogen remaining in the mineral form [fr

  4. [QUANTITATIVE DNA EVALUATION OF THE HIGH CARCINOGENIC RISK OF HUMAN PAPILLOMA VIRUSES AND HUMAN HERPES VIRUSES IN MALES WITH FERTILITY DISORDERS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evdokimov, V V; Naumenko, V A; Tulenev, Yu A; Kurilo, L F; Kovalyk, V P; Sorokina, T M; Lebedeva, A L; Gomberg, M A; Kushch, A A

    2016-01-01

    Infertility is an actual medical and social problem. In 50% of couples it is associated with the male factor and in more than 50% of cases the etiology of the infertility remains insufficiently understood. The goal of this work was to study the prevalence and to perform quantitative analysis of the human herpes viruses (HHV) and high carcinogenic risk papilloma viruses (HR HPV) in males with infertility, as well as to assess the impact of these infections on sperm parameters. Ejaculate samples obtained from 196 males fall into 3 groups. Group 1 included men with the infertility of unknown etiology (n = 112); group 2, patients who had female partners with the history of spontaneous abortion (n = 63); group 3 (control), healthy men (n = 21). HHV and HR HPV DNA in the ejaculates were detected in a total of 42/196 (21.4%) males: in 31 and 11 patients in groups 1 and 2, respectively (p > 0.05) and in none of healthy males. HHV were detected in 24/42; HR HPV, in 18/42 males (p > 0.05) without significant difference between the groups. Among HR HPV genotypes of the clade A9 in ejaculate were more frequent (14/18, p = 0.04). Comparative analysis of the sperm parameters showed that in the ejaculates of the infected patients sperm motility as well as the number of morphologically normal cells were significantly reduced compared with the healthy men. The quantification of the viral DNA revealed that in 31% of the male ejaculates the viral load was high: > 3 Ig10/100000 cells. Conclusion. The detection of HHV and HR HPV in the ejaculate is associated with male infertility. Quantification of the viral DNA in the ejaculate is a useful indicator for monitoring viral infections in infertility and for decision to start therapy.

  5. Fecundidade e diferenciais intra-urbanos de desenvolvimento humano, São Paulo, Brasil, 1997 Fertility and its intra-urban differentials of human development, Brazil, 1997

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudia Maria Martins

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar possíveis divergências no padrão reprodutivo de mulheres residentes em áreas de diferentes níveis de desenvolvimento humano, pela análise de suas taxas de fecundidade total e taxas específicas de fecundidade por idade. MÉTODOS: Foram estudados os 96 distritos do Município de São Paulo, agrupados em cinco áreas segundo ordem crescente dos valores assumidos pelo Indicador de Desenvolvimento Humano. O estudo compreendeu a população feminina de 15 a 49 anos e os nascimentos vivos ocorridos durante o ano de 1997. As fontes de obtenção dos dados foram as declarações de nascidos vivos e a contagem da população 1996. Foram trabalhadas as seguintes variáveis: IDH, distrito de residência e idade da mulher. RESULTADOS: As mulheres residentes na área de menor desenvolvimento humano apresentaram taxa de fecundidade total de 2,62, sendo que a cúspide (151/1.000 filhos por mulheres situou-se no grupo etário de 20 a 24 anos. Na área de maior indicador de desenvolvimento humano, observou-se menor número médio de filhos por mulher (1,67, e a cúspide (93/1.000 filhos por mulheres se situou no grupo etário de 25 a 29 anos. CONCLUSÕES: As mulheres residentes nas áreas de maior desenvolvimento humano apresentaram menor número médio de filhos e tendência a tê-los em idades mais avançadas, o que sugere a coexistência de distintos padrões reprodutivos no Município de São Paulo.OBJECTIVE: To assess potential discrepancies in reproductive patterns of women living in areas at different levels of human development by analyzing their total fertility rates and age-specific rates. METHODS: Ninety-six districts of the city of São Paulo (Brazil were grouped in 5 areas according to their human development index (HDI. Women aged 15 to 49 years were included in the study and data was obtained from live birth certificates during the year of 1997. Data was collected from live birth certificates and population census for the

  6. Human Papilloma Virus Vaccination for Control of Cervical Cancer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Human Papilloma Virus Vaccination for Control of Cervical Cancer: A ... Primary HPV prevention may be the key to reducing incidence and burden of cervical cancer ... Other resources included locally-published articles and additional internet ...

  7. Taking account of human factors in control-room design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dien, Y.; Montmayeul, R.

    1995-07-01

    Since the Three Mile Island accident two ways for improving the Human-Machine Interface have mainly been followed: the development of computerized operator aids in existing control-rooms and the design of advanced control-rooms. Insufficient attention paid to human factors in the design of operator aids has generally led to these aids being neglected or unused by their potential users. While for the design of advanced control-rooms efforts have been made for dealing with human factors in more extensive way. Based upon this experience, a general method for taking account of human factors in a control-room design has been devised and is described in this paper. (author)

  8. Mechanics of human voice production and control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhaoyan

    2016-10-01

    As the primary means of communication, voice plays an important role in daily life. Voice also conveys personal information such as social status, personal traits, and the emotional state of the speaker. Mechanically, voice production involves complex fluid-structure interaction within the glottis and its control by laryngeal muscle activation. An important goal of voice research is to establish a causal theory linking voice physiology and biomechanics to how speakers use and control voice to communicate meaning and personal information. Establishing such a causal theory has important implications for clinical voice management, voice training, and many speech technology applications. This paper provides a review of voice physiology and biomechanics, the physics of vocal fold vibration and sound production, and laryngeal muscular control of the fundamental frequency of voice, vocal intensity, and voice quality. Current efforts to develop mechanical and computational models of voice production are also critically reviewed. Finally, issues and future challenges in developing a causal theory of voice production and perception are discussed.

  9. Human factors methods for nuclear control room design. Volume 2. Human factors survey of control room design practices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seminara, J.L.; Parsons, S.O.

    1979-11-01

    An earlier review of the control rooms of operating nuclear power plants identified many design problems having potential for degrading operator performance. As a result, the formal application of human factors principles was found to be needed. This report demonstrates the use of human factors in the design of power plant control rooms. The approaches shown in the report can be applied to operating power plants, as well as to those in the design stage. This study documents human factors techniques required to provide a sustained concern for the man-machine interface from control room concept definition to system implementation

  10. Safety Metrics for Human-Computer Controlled Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leveson, Nancy G; Hatanaka, Iwao

    2000-01-01

    The rapid growth of computer technology and innovation has played a significant role in the rise of computer automation of human tasks in modem production systems across all industries. Although the rationale for automation has been to eliminate "human error" or to relieve humans from manual repetitive tasks, various computer-related hazards and accidents have emerged as a direct result of increased system complexity attributed to computer automation. The risk assessment techniques utilized for electromechanical systems are not suitable for today's software-intensive systems or complex human-computer controlled systems.This thesis will propose a new systemic model-based framework for analyzing risk in safety-critical systems where both computers and humans are controlling safety-critical functions. A new systems accident model will be developed based upon modem systems theory and human cognitive processes to better characterize system accidents, the role of human operators, and the influence of software in its direct control of significant system functions Better risk assessments will then be achievable through the application of this new framework to complex human-computer controlled systems.

  11. Modular control of limb movements during human locomotion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ivanenko, Yuri P; Cappellini, Germana; Dominici, Nadia; Poppele, Richard E; Lacquaniti, Francesco

    2007-01-01

    The idea that the CNS may control complex interactions by modular decomposition has received considerable attention. We explored this idea for human locomotion by examining limb kinematics. The coordination of limb segments during human locomotion has been shown to follow a planar law for walking at

  12. Subcutaneously administered Menopur(R, a new highly purified human menopausal gonadotropin, causes significantly fewer injection site reactions than Repronex(R in subjects undergoing in vitro fertilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somkuti Stephen

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The safety and tolerability of a new highly purified, urine-derived human menopausal gonadotropin (hMG preparation [Menopur(R] was compared with a currently available hMG [Repronex (R] in women undergoing in vitro fertilization (IVF. Methods This was a randomized, open-label, parallel-group, multicenter study conducted in subjects undergoing IVF. Women (N = 125, 18–39 years of age, underwent pituitary down-regulation with leuprolide acetate beginning 7 days prior to onset of menses and continuing up to the day before hCG administration. Subjects were randomized to receive subcutaneous (SC Menopur (R (n = 61 or Repronex (R SC (n = 64 for a maximum of 12 days. All adverse events (AEs were recorded and subject self-assessments of injection site reactions were recorded in a daily diary. Results Significantly fewer subjects in the Menopur (R group reported injection site reactions (P Conclusion Menopur (R SC offers a greater safety and tolerability profile compared to Repronex (R SC.

  13. Statistical physics of human beings in games: Controlled experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang Yuan; Huang Ji-Ping

    2014-01-01

    It is important to know whether the laws or phenomena in statistical physics for natural systems with non-adaptive agents still hold for social human systems with adaptive agents, because this implies whether it is possible to study or understand social human systems by using statistical physics originating from natural systems. For this purpose, we review the role of human adaptability in four kinds of specific human behaviors, namely, normal behavior, herd behavior, contrarian behavior, and hedge behavior. The approach is based on controlled experiments in the framework of market-directed resource-allocation games. The role of the controlled experiments could be at least two-fold: adopting the real human decision-making process so that the system under consideration could reflect the performance of genuine human beings; making it possible to obtain macroscopic physical properties of a human system by tuning a particular factor of the system, thus directly revealing cause and effect. As a result, both computer simulations and theoretical analyses help to show a few counterparts of some laws or phenomena in statistical physics for social human systems: two-phase phenomena or phase transitions, entropy-related phenomena, and a non-equilibrium steady state. This review highlights the role of human adaptability in these counterparts, and makes it possible to study or understand some particular social human systems by means of statistical physics coming from natural systems. (topical review - statistical physics and complex systems)

  14. Statistical physics of human beings in games: Controlled experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Yuan; Huang, Ji-Ping

    2014-07-01

    It is important to know whether the laws or phenomena in statistical physics for natural systems with non-adaptive agents still hold for social human systems with adaptive agents, because this implies whether it is possible to study or understand social human systems by using statistical physics originating from natural systems. For this purpose, we review the role of human adaptability in four kinds of specific human behaviors, namely, normal behavior, herd behavior, contrarian behavior, and hedge behavior. The approach is based on controlled experiments in the framework of market-directed resource-allocation games. The role of the controlled experiments could be at least two-fold: adopting the real human decision-making process so that the system under consideration could reflect the performance of genuine human beings; making it possible to obtain macroscopic physical properties of a human system by tuning a particular factor of the system, thus directly revealing cause and effect. As a result, both computer simulations and theoretical analyses help to show a few counterparts of some laws or phenomena in statistical physics for social human systems: two-phase phenomena or phase transitions, entropy-related phenomena, and a non-equilibrium steady state. This review highlights the role of human adaptability in these counterparts, and makes it possible to study or understand some particular social human systems by means of statistical physics coming from natural systems.

  15. The use of anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) for controlled ovarian stimulation in assisted reproductive technology and for fertility assessment and -counselling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pilsgaard, Fie; Grynnerup, Anna Garcia-Alix; Loessl, Kristine

    2018-01-01

    stimulation protocol and gonadotrophin dose can be chosen specifically for each woman enabling the so called 'individualized treatment' in line with the personalized treatment concept. Many benefits come with using AMH as a biomarker for ovarian reserve; the hormone is considered fairly cycle independent....... Currently, no international standardised assays exist. AMH is a valid predictor of the ovarian response to controlled ovarian stimulation and to some extent the chance of pregnancy in relation to assisted reproductive technology, but AMH is less optimal in prediction of spontaneous pregnancy and live birth...... after assisted reproductive technology. Accordingly, AMH can be used to optimize gonadotrophin stimulation in fertility treatment, but is not recommended as a screening tool in the general population. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved....

  16. A matched case-control study comparing udder health, production and fertility parameters in dairy farms before and after the eradication of Bovine Virus Diarrhoea in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tschopp, A; Deiss, R; Rotzer, M; Wanda, S; Thomann, B; Schüpbach-Regula, G; Meylan, M

    2017-09-01

    An obligatory eradication programme for Bovine Virus Diarrhoea (BVD) was implemented in Switzerland in 2008. Between 2008 and 2012, all bovines were tested for antigen or antibodies against BVDV. By the year 2012, eradication was completed in the majority of farms. A decrease of the prevalence of persistently infected (PI) newborn calves was observed from 1.4% in 2008 to study was to assess the effects of BVD eradication on different parameters of animal health, production and fertility in Swiss dairy herds which had completed the eradication programme. A matched case-control study was carried out using data from two periods, before (Period 1) and after (Period 2) the active phase of eradication. Case farms had at least two PI animals detected before or during the eradication; controls were BVD-free and matched for region, herd size and use of alpine pasture. A total of 110 farmers (55 pairs) were recruited. During a phone interview, a questionnaire about farm characteristics, animal health and appreciation of the BVD eradication programme was filled in. Breeding data and milk test day records were also analyzed. Parameters were first compared between (i) case and control herds before eradication, and (ii) Period 1 and Period 2 for case herds only. Milk yield (MY), bulk milk somatic cell count (BMSCC), prevalence of subclinical mastitis (SCM), and non-return rate (NRR) showed a p-valuecase-control) was created (IA). Except for MY, the IA was significant for all parameters modelled. Despite an overall p-value of 0.27, case herds tended to have a higher MY after eradication (β=0.53, p=0.050). For BMSCC and SCM, case herds had higher values than controls in both periods; udder health was significantly improved in control herds and it remained stable in case herds, with a slight decrease of BMSCC (β=-0.19, p=0.010). Finally, among fertility parameters, NRR showed a general improvement but it was significant only in control herds (β=0.29, p=0.019). Even though the

  17. Buried waste integrated demonstration human engineered control station. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-09-01

    This document describes the Human Engineered Control Station (HECS) project activities including the conceptual designs. The purpose of the HECS is to enhance the effectiveness and efficiency of remote retrieval by providing an integrated remote control station. The HECS integrates human capabilities, limitations, and expectations into the design to reduce the potential for human error, provides an easy system to learn and operate, provides an increased productivity, and reduces the ultimate investment in training. The overall HECS consists of the technology interface stations, supporting engineering aids, platform (trailer), communications network (broadband system), and collision avoidance system.

  18. Buried waste integrated demonstration human engineered control station. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-09-01

    This document describes the Human Engineered Control Station (HECS) project activities including the conceptual designs. The purpose of the HECS is to enhance the effectiveness and efficiency of remote retrieval by providing an integrated remote control station. The HECS integrates human capabilities, limitations, and expectations into the design to reduce the potential for human error, provides an easy system to learn and operate, provides an increased productivity, and reduces the ultimate investment in training. The overall HECS consists of the technology interface stations, supporting engineering aids, platform (trailer), communications network (broadband system), and collision avoidance system

  19. Global Fertilizer and Manure, Version 1: Nitrogen Fertilizer Application

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Nitrogen Fertilizer Application dataset of the Global Fertilizer and Manure, Version 1 Data Collection represents the amount of nitrogen fertilizer nutrients...

  20. Global Fertilizer and Manure, Version 1: Phosphorus Fertilizer Application

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Phosphorus Fertilizer Application dataset of the Global Fertilizer and Manure, Version 1 Data Collection represents the amount of phosphorus fertilizer nutrients...

  1. Localization patterns of the ganglioside GM1 in human sperm are indicative of male fertility and independent of traditional semen measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardona, Cristina; Neri, Queenie V; Simpson, Alana J; Moody, Melissa A; Ostermeier, G Charles; Seaman, Eric K; Paniza, Theodore; Rosenwaks, Zev; Palermo, Gianpiero D; Travis, Alexander J

    2017-05-01

    Semen analysis lacks a functional component and best identifies extreme cases of infertility. The ganglioside G M1 is known to have functional roles during capacitation and acrosome exocytosis. Here, we assessed whether G M1 localization patterns (Cap-Score™) correspond with male fertility in different settings: Study 1 involved couples pursuing assisted reproduction in a tertiary care fertility clinic, while Study 2 involved men with known fertility versus those questioning their fertility at a local urology center. In Study 1, we examined various thresholds versus clinical history for 42 patients; 13 had Cap-Scores ≥39.5%, with 12 of these (92.3%) achieving clinical pregnancy by natural conception or ≤3 intrauterine insemination cycles. Of the 29 patients scoring fertile men (Cohort 1, pregnant partner or recent father) and compared to 122 men seeking fertility assessment (Cohort 2). Cap-Score values were normally distributed in Cohort 1, with 13.2% having Cap-Scores more than one standard deviation below the mean (35.3 ± 7.7%). Significantly, more men in Cohort 2 had Cap-Scores greater than one standard deviation below the normal mean (33.6%; p = 0.001). Minimal/no relationship was found between Cap-Score and sperm concentration, morphology, or motility. Together, these data demonstrate that Cap-Score provides novel, clinically relevant insights into sperm function and male fertility that complement traditional semen analysis. Furthermore, the data provide normal reference ranges for fertile men that can help clinicians counsel couples toward the most appropriate fertility treatment. © 2017 The Authors. Molecular Reproduction and Development Published by Wiley Periodicals Inc.

  2. Human factors survey of advanced instrumentation and controls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carter, R.J.

    1989-01-01

    A survey oriented towards identifying the human factors issues in regard to the use of advanced instrumentation and controls (I ampersand C) in the nuclear industry was conducted. A number of United States (US) and Canadian nuclear vendors and utilities were participants in the survey. Human factors items, subsumed under the categories of computer-generated displays (CGD), controls, organizational support, training, and related topics, were discussed. The survey found the industry to be concerned about the human factors issues related to the implementation of advanced I ampersand C. Fifteen potential human factors problems were identified. They include: the need for an advanced I ampersand C guideline equivalent to NUREG-0700; a role change in the control room from operator to supervisor; information overload; adequacy of existing training technology for advanced I ampersand C; and operator acceptance and trust. 11 refs., 1 tab

  3. Human machine interface for research reactor instrumentation and control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Sabri Minhat; Mohd Idris Taib; Izhar Abu Hussin; Zareen Khan Abdul Jalil Khan; Nurfarhana Ayuni Joha

    2010-01-01

    Most present design of Human Machine Interface for Research Reactor Instrumentation and Control System is modular-based, comprise of several cabinets such as Reactor Protection System, Control Console, Information Console as well as Communication Console. The safety, engineering and human factor will be concerned for the design. Redundancy and separation of signal and power supply are the main factor for safety consideration. The design of Operator Interface absolutely takes consideration of human and environmental factors. Physical parameters, experiences, trainability and long-established habit patterns are very important for user interface, instead of the Aesthetic and Operator-Interface Geometry. Physical design for New Instrumentation and Control System of RTP are proposed base on the state-of- the-art Human Machine Interface design. (author)

  4. Confinement lowers fertility rate of helmeted guinea fowl ( Numida ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... common game bird in Africa and there have been efforts to domesticate it for use as a source of human food. An important obstacle in successful domestication of guinea fowl is their low fertility rate.We studied the effects of semi-confinement on the fertility rates of helmeted guinea fowl by comparing egg fertility, hatch rate ...

  5. Ionizing radiation dose due to the use of agricultural fertilizers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Umisedo, Nancy Kuniko

    2007-01-01

    Among several agents that exist in the environment which can expose to different risks and effects, there is the ionizing radiation whose knowledge of dose is of importance to the effective control and prevention of possible damages to human beings and to the environment. The transfer of radionuclides from fertilizers to/and soils to the foodstuffs can result as an increment in the internal dose when they are consumed by the human beings. This work evaluates the contribution of fertilizers to the ionizing radiation dose in the environment and in the human being. Samples of fertilizers, soils and vegetables produced in fertilized soils were analysed through gamma spectrometry with the use of a hyper pure germanium detector. Measurements of ambient dose with thermoluminescent dosimeters were also performed. In the fertilized soil samples values of specific activities from 36 to 342 Bq/kg for K-40, from 42 to 142 Bq/kg for U-238 and from 36 to 107 Bq/kg for Th-232 were obtained. In the vegetables the values varied from 21 to 118 Bq/kg for K-40 and for the elements of uranium and thorium series the values were less than 2 Bq/kg. In fertilizers the maximum value of 5800 Bq/kg was obtained for K-40, 430 Bq/kg for U-238 and 230 Bq/kg for Th-232. The average values of soil to plant transfer factor were not significantly different among the types of vegetables. The annual committed effective dose of 0.882 μSv due to the ingestion of K-40 from the analysed vegetables is very small if compared to the reference value of 170 μv given by United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR, 2000). The thermoluminescent dosimetry provided the annual ambient dose equivalent from 1.5 to 1.8 mSv without differences between cultivated and non cultivated fields. Through the results obtained, it was not observed a significant transfer of radionuclides from fertilizers to soils and to foodstuffs in the conditions adopted in this work and consequently there

  6. The economics of fertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loraine, J A

    1982-01-01

    The statement that economics and fertility are closely interrelated is a truism. The classical economists--Adam Smith, Thomas Malthus, Karl Marx, John Stuart Mill and John Maynard Keynes appreciated this fact, and their reviews are recounted and their prescience is assessed. Adam Smith (1723-1790) was primarily concerned with the desire of humankind to better his/her material conditions. Although he did not put forward a specific population policy, the tenet of his writing is pronatalist. Economic advantages would accrue to parents by the production of many children. Yet, underneath Smith's optimism, there was an apocalyptic vision of the distant future, i.e., the "steady state" when resources would be depleted or near exhaustion, when capital accumulation would have ceased, and living standards would be dropping vertiginously. In his 1st "Essay on Population" Malthus maintained that "the power of population is infinitely greater than the power of the earth to produce subsistence of men." Malthus can be complimented on his prescience. There is little question that the planet of today is grossly overpopulated and that a great gulf exists between numbers of people and their aspirations and the resources which the earth can provide for them. Malthus was particularly concerned about the population food dilemma, and that is still much in evidence in 1982. 2 concomitants of overpopulation--excessive urbanization and joblessness--could not be foreseen by Malthus. Marx did not deny the basic tenet promulgated by Malthus but to him this was simply an artifact of capitalist society which required "enormous reserves of proletarians" in order to maintain its odius system. Officially Communist governments remain in a Marxist straitjacket regarding the population issue. Mills approach was strongly antinatalist; he saw little need for an increase in human numbers. Mills was concerned that because of unlimited population growth and wealth the earth would lose much of its

  7. Control room design and human engineering in power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herbst, L.; Hinz, W.

    1982-01-01

    The concept for modern plant control rooms is primary influenced by: The automation of protection, binary control and closed loop control functions; organization employing functional areas; computer based information processing; human engineered design. Automation reduces the human work load. Employment of functional areas permits optimization of operational sequences. Computer based information processing makes it possible to output information in accordance with operating requirements. Design based on human engineering principles assures the quality of the interaction between the operator and the equipment. The degree to which these conceptional features play a role in design of power plant control rooms depends on the unit rating, the mode of operation and on the requirements respecting safety and availability of the plant. (orig.)

  8. The Effect of Organic Fertilizers and Flowering Plants on Sheet-Web and Wolf Spider Populations (Araneae: Lycosidae and Linyphiidae) and Its Importance for Pest Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Nabawy, El-Said M; Tsuda, Katsuo; Sakamaki, Yositaka; Oda, Asahi; Ushijima, Yurie

    2016-01-01

    The main goal of this study was to identify the treatment that increases the populations of spiders, which are effective predators in agroecosystems. In 2013 and 2014 the experimental eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) field was two different treatments, organic fertilizers and chemical fertilizer treatment, and in 2014 we surrounded organic fertilizer plots with the flowering plants mealy cup sage (Salvia farinacea Benth.), spearmint (Mentha spicata L.), and basil (Ocimum basilicum L.). Analysis using repeated measures ANOVA revealed significant influences of fertilizer type on the numbers of linyphiid spiders and Collembola in 2013. In 2014, the numbers of Collembola, thrips, and lycosid and linyphiid spider were higher in organic fertilizer with flowering plants treatment comparing with the chemical fertilizer treatment. Moreover, the numbers of Henosepilachna vigintioctopunctata (F.) were significantly lower in the organic fertilizer with flowering plants treatment than in chemical fertilizers treatment. Finally, we expect that Thysanoptera and Collembola were important alternative prey for linyphiid and lycosid spiders and the use of organic fertilizer and flowering plants enhanced the density of these spiders, and may increase their effectiveness in suppressing the populations of H. vigintioctopunctata (F.). © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Entomological Society of America.

  9. Human performance: An essential element in materials control and accountability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haber, S.B.; Allentuck, J.

    1996-01-01

    The importance of the role of human performance in the successful and effective operation of many activities throughout many industries has been well documented. Most closely related to the materials control and accountability area is the work in human factors that has been ongoing in the U.S. nuclear industry since the Three Mile Island Nuclear Power Plant accident in 1979. Research related to the role of human reliability, human-system interface, and organization and management influences has been and is still being conducted to identify ways to enhance the safe and effective operation of nuclear facilities. This paper will discuss these human performance areas and how they relate to the materials control and accountability area. Particular attention will be focussed on the notion of open-quotes safety cultureclose quotes and how it can be defined and measured for understanding the values and attitudes held by individuals working in the materials control area. It is widely believed that the culture of an organization, which reflects the expectations and values of the management of an organization, is a key element to the operation of that organization. The human performance element is one which has not received a great deal of consideration in the materials control and accountability area and yet it will be demonstrated that it is an essential component to ensure the success of safeguards activities

  10. Male Fertility Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fertility issues are common in boys and men getting cancer treatment. Fertility preservation options include sperm banking, testicular shielding, testicular sperm extraction (TESE), and testicular tissue freezing. Support and clinical trials are listed.

  11. Individualized versus conventional ovarian stimulation for in vitro fertilization: a multicenter, randomized, controlled, assessor-blinded, phase 3 noninferiority trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyboe Andersen, Anders; Nelson, Scott M; Fauser, Bart C J M

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare the efficacy and safety of follitropin delta, a new human recombinant FSH with individualized dosing based on serum antimüllerian hormone (AMH) and body weight, with conventional follitropin alfa dosing for ovarian stimulation in women undergoing IVF. DESIGN: Randomized, mul...

  12. Control room human engineering influences on operator performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finlayson, F.C.

    1977-01-01

    Three general groups of factors influence operator performance in fulfilling their responsibilities in the control room: (1) control room and control system design, informational data displays (operator inputs) as well as control board design (for operator output); (2) operator characteristics, including those skills, mental, physical, and emotional qualities which are functions of operator selection, training, and motivation; (3) job performance guides, the prescribed operating procedures for normal and emergency operations. This paper presents some of the major results of an evaluation of the effect of human engineering on operator performance in the control room. Primary attention is given to discussion of control room and control system design influence on the operator. Brief observations on the influences of operator characteristics and job performance guides (operating procedures) on performance in the control room are also given. Under the objectives of the study, special emphasis was placed on the evaluation of the control room-operator relationships for severe emergency conditions in the power plant. Consequently, this presentation is restricted largely to material related to emergency conditions in the control room, though it is recognized that human engineering of control systems is of equal (or greater) importance for many other aspects of plant operation

  13. Human Factors Engineering Aspects of Modifications in Control Room Modernization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hugo, Jacques [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Clefton, Gordon [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Joe, Jeffrey [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2017-06-01

    This report describes the basic aspects of control room modernization projects in the U.S. nuclear industry and the need for supplementary guidance on the integration of human factors considerations into the licensing and regulatory aspects of digital upgrades. The report pays specific attention to the integration of principles described in NUREG-0711 (Human Factors Engineering Program Review Model) and how supplementary guidance can help to raise general awareness in the industry regarding the complexities of control room modernization projects created by many interdependent regulations, standards and guidelines. The report also describes how human factors engineering principles and methods provided by various resources and international standards can help in navigating through the process of licensing digital upgrades. In particular, the integration of human factors engineering guidance and requirements into the process of licensing digital upgrades can help reduce uncertainty related to development of technical bases for digital upgrades that will avoid the introduction of new failure modes.

  14. Human Engineering of Space Vehicle Displays and Controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitmore, Mihriban; Holden, Kritina L.; Boyer, Jennifer; Stephens, John-Paul; Ezer, Neta; Sandor, Aniko

    2010-01-01

    Proper attention to the integration of the human needs in the vehicle displays and controls design process creates a safe and productive environment for crew. Although this integration is critical for all phases of flight, for crew interfaces that are used during dynamic phases (e.g., ascent and entry), the integration is particularly important because of demanding environmental conditions. This panel addresses the process of how human engineering involvement ensures that human-system integration occurs early in the design and development process and continues throughout the lifecycle of a vehicle. This process includes the development of requirements and quantitative metrics to measure design success, research on fundamental design questions, human-in-the-loop evaluations, and iterative design. Processes and results from research on displays and controls; the creation and validation of usability, workload, and consistency metrics; and the design and evaluation of crew interfaces for NASA's Crew Exploration Vehicle are used as case studies.

  15. Everyday robotic action: Lessons from human action control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roy eDe Kleijn

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Robots are increasingly capable of performing everyday human activities such as cooking, cleaning, and doing the laundry. This requires the real-time planning and execution of complex, temporally-extended sequential actions under high degrees of uncertainty, which provides many challenges to traditional approaches to robot action control. We argue that important lessons in this respect can be learned from research on human action control. We provide a brief overview of available psychological insights into this issue and focus on four principles that we think could be particularly beneficial for robot control: the integration of symbolic and subsymbolic planning of action sequences, the integration of feedforward and feedback control, the clustering of complex actions into subcomponents, and the contextualization of action-control structures through goal representations.

  16. Optogenetic control of human neurons in organotypic brain cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, My; Avaliani, Natalia; Svensson, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Optogenetics is one of the most powerful tools in neuroscience, allowing for selective control of specific neuronal populations in the brain of experimental animals, including mammals. We report, for the first time, the application of optogenetic tools to human brain tissue providing a proof......-of-concept for the use of optogenetics in neuromodulation of human cortical and hippocampal neurons as a possible tool to explore network mechanisms and develop future therapeutic strategies....

  17. Sensing human hand motions for controlling dexterous robots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcus, Beth A.; Churchill, Philip J.; Little, Arthur D.

    1988-01-01

    The Dexterous Hand Master (DHM) system is designed to control dexterous robot hands such as the UTAH/MIT and Stanford/JPL hands. It is the first commercially available device which makes it possible to accurately and confortably track the complex motion of the human finger joints. The DHM is adaptable to a wide variety of human hand sizes and shapes, throughout their full range of motion.

  18. Glycosaminoglycan and transforming growth factor beta1 changes in human plasma and urine during the menstrual cycle, in vitro fertilization treatment, and pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Muro, Pierina; Capobianco, Giampiero; Formato, Marilena; Lepedda, Antonio Junior; Cherchi, Gian Mario; Gordini, Laila; Dessole, Salvatore

    2009-07-01

    To evaluate transforming growth factor beta1 (TGF-beta1) and glycosaminoglycans (GAG) changes in human plasma and urine during the menstrual cycle, IVF-ET, and pregnancy. Prospective clinical study. University hospital. Thirteen women with apparently normal menstrual cycle (group 1); 18 women undergoing IVF-ET (group 2); and 14 low-risk pregnant women (group 3). We assayed plasma and urine concentrations of TGF-beta1, urine content, and distribution of GAG. Blood and urine samples were collected during days 2 to 3, 12 to 13, and 23 to 24 in group 1; in group 2, samples were obtained at menstrual phase, oocyte pick-up day, and 15 days after ET; in group 3, samples were obtained during gestational weeks 10-12, 22-24, and 30-32 and 1 month after delivery. Changes in TGF-beta1 and GAG content. The mean value of total urinary trypsin inhibitor/chondroitin sulfate (UTI/CS) showed a distinct peak at day 12 of the menstrual cycle in the fertile women in whom we monitored the ovulatory period. In the IVF-ET group, GAG distribution and TGF-beta1 levels showed significant differences during the cycle. We observed increased levels of plasma TGF-beta1 15 days after ET. A significant increase of total UTI/CS value with increasing gestation was detected. Transforming growth factor beta1 and GAG levels could represent an additional tool to monitor reproductive events and could be useful, noninvasive markers of ovulation and ongoing pregnancy.

  19. Global fertility and population trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bongaarts, John

    2015-01-01

    Over the past several decades, the world and most countries have undergone unprecedented demographic change. The most obvious example of this change is the rise in human numbers, and there are also important trends in fertility, family structure, mortality, migration, urbanization, and population aging. This paper summarizes past trends and projections in fertility and population. After reaching 2.5 billion in 1950, the world population grew rapidly to 7.2 billion in 2013 and the projections expect this total to be 10.9 billion by 2100. World regions differ widely in their demographic trends, with rapid population growth and high fertility continuing in the poorest countries, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa, while population decline, population aging, and very low fertility are now a key concern in many developed countries. These trends have important implications for human welfare and are of interest to policy makers. The conclusion comments briefly on policy options to address these adverse trends. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  20. INTEGRATED ROBOT-HUMAN CONTROL IN MINING OPERATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    George Danko

    2005-04-01

    This report contains a detailed description of the work conducted in the first year of the project on Integrated Robot-Human Control in Mining Operations at University of Nevada, Reno. This project combines human operator control with robotic control concepts to create a hybrid control architecture, in which the strengths of each control method are combined to increase machine efficiency and reduce operator fatigue. The kinematics reconfiguration type differential control of the excavator implemented with a variety of ''software machine kinematics'' is the key feature of the project. This software re-configured excavator is more desirable to execute a given digging task. The human operator retains the master control of the main motion parameters, while the computer coordinates the repetitive movement patterns of the machine links. These repetitive movements may be selected from a pre-defined family of trajectories with different transformations. The operator can make adjustments to this pattern in real time, as needed, to accommodate rapidly-changing environmental conditions. A Bobcat{reg_sign} 435 excavator was retrofitted with electro-hydraulic control valve elements. The modular electronic control was tested and the basic valve characteristics were measured for each valve at the Robotics Laboratory at UNR. Position sensors were added to the individual joint control actuators, and the sensors were calibrated. An electronic central control system consisting of a portable computer, converters and electronic driver components was interfaced to the electro-hydraulic valves and position sensors. The machine is operational with or without the computer control system depending on whether the computer interface is on or off. In preparation for emulated mining tasks tests, typical, repetitive tool trajectories during surface mining operations were recorded at the Newmont Mining Corporation's ''Lone Tree'' mine in Nevada.

  1. Obesity: modern man's fertility nemesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabler, Stephanie; Agarwal, Ashok; Flint, Margot; du Plessis, Stefan S

    2010-07-01

    The obesity pandemic has grown to concerning proportions in recent years, not only in the Western World, but in developing countries as well. The corresponding decrease in male fertility and fecundity may be explained in parallel to obesity, and obesity should be considered as an etiology of male fertility. Studies show that obesity contributes to infertility by reducing semen quality, changing sperm proteomes, contributing to erectile dysfunction, and inducing other physical problems related to obesity. Mechanisms for explaining the effect of obesity on male infertility include abnormal reproductive hormone levels, an increased release of adipose-derived hormones and adipokines associated with obesity, and other physical problems including sleep apnea and increased scrotal temperatures. Recently, genetic factors and markers for an obesity-related infertility have been discovered and may explain the difference between fertile obese and infertile obese men. Treatments are available for not only infertility related to obesity, but also as a treatment for the other comorbidities arising from obesity. Natural weight loss, as well as bariatric surgery are options for obese patients and have shown promising results in restoring fertility and normal hormonal profiles. Therapeutic interventions including aromatase inhibitors, exogenous testosterone replacement therapy and maintenance and regulation of adipose-derived hormones, particularly leptin, may also be able to restore fertility in obese males. Because of the relative unawareness and lack of research in this area, controlled studies should be undertaken and more focus should be given to obesity as an etiolgy of male infertility.

  2. Cancer and fertility: strategies to preserve fertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diedrich, K; Fauser, B C J M; Devroey, P

    2011-03-01

    Fertility preservation is a key component of cancer management in young people. The Fourth Evian Annual Reproduction Workshop Meeting was held in April 2009 to discuss cancer and fertility in young adults. Specialists in oncology, assisted reproduction, embryology and clinical genetics presented published data and ongoing research on cancer and fertility, with particular focus on strategies to preserve fertility. This report is based on the expert presentations and group discussions, supplemented with publications from literature searches and the authors' knowledge. Fertility preservation should be considered for all young people undergoing potentially gonadotoxic cancer treatment. A variety of options are required to facilitate safe and effective fertility preservation for individual patients. Sperm banking is a simple and low-cost intervention. Embryo cryopreservation is the only established method of female fertility preservation. Oocyte cryopreservation offers a useful option for women without a male partner. Emergency ovarian stimulation and cryopreservation of ovarian tissue (followed by tissue transplantation or in-vitro maturation of oocytes) are experimental techniques for women who require urgent cancer treatment. Further prospective studies are required to validate cryopreservation of oocytes and ovarian tissue, in-vitro maturation of oocytes and new vitrification techniques and to identify any long-term sequelae of slow freezing of embryos. Copyright © 2010 Reproductive Healthcare Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Inhibiting sperm pyruvate dehydrogenase complex and its E3 subunit, dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase affects fertilization in Syrian hamsters.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Archana B Siva

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND/AIMS: The importance of sperm capacitation for mammalian fertilization has been confirmed in the present study via sperm metabolism. Involvement of the metabolic enzymes pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDHc and its E3 subunit, dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase (DLD in hamster in vitro fertilization (IVF via in vitro sperm capacitation is being proposed through regulation of sperm intracellular lactate, pH and calcium. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Capacitated hamster spermatozoa were allowed to fertilize hamster oocytes in vitro which were then assessed for fertilization, microscopically. PDHc/DLD was inhibited by the use of the specific DLD-inhibitor, MICA (5-methoxyindole-2-carboxylic acid. Oocytes fertilized with MICA-treated (MT [and thus PDHc/DLD-inhibited] spermatozoa showed defective fertilization where 2nd polar body release and pronuclei formation were not observed. Defective fertilization was attributable to capacitation failure owing to high lactate and low intracellular pH and calcium in MT-spermatozoa during capacitation. Moreover, this defect could be overcome by alkalinizing spermatozoa, before fertilization. Increasing intracellular calcium in spermatozoa pre-IVF and in defectively-fertilized oocytes, post-fertilization rescued the arrest seen, suggesting the role of intracellular calcium from either of the gametes in fertilization. Parallel experiments carried out with control spermatozoa capacitated in medium with low extracellular pH or high lactate substantiated the necessity of optimal sperm intracellular lactate levels, intracellular pH and calcium during sperm capacitation, for proper fertilization. CONCLUSIONS: This study confirms the importance of pyruvate/lactate metabolism in capacitating spermatozoa for successful fertilization, besides revealing for the first time the importance of sperm PDHc/ DLD in fertilization, via the modulation of sperm intracellular lactate, pH and calcium during capacitation. In

  4. Fertilizers applied to certified organic tomato culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martins, T.C.G.; De Nadai Fernandes, E.A.; Ferrari, A.A.; Bacchi, M.A.; Tagliaferro, F.S.

    2010-01-01

    The tomato culture demands large quantities of mineral nutrients, which are supplied by synthetic fertilizers in the conventional cultivation system. In the organic cultivation system only alternative fertilizers are allowed by the certifiers and accepted as safe for humans and environment. The chemical composition of rice bran, oyster flour, cattle manure and ground charcoal, as well as soils and tomato fruits were evaluated by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). The potential contribution of organic fertilizers to the enrichment of chemical elements in soil and their transfer to fruits was investigated using concentration ratios for fertilizer and soil samples, and also for soil and tomato. Results evidenced that these alternative fertilizers could be taken as important sources of Br, Ca, Ce, K, Na and Zn for the organic tomato culture. (author)

  5. In vitro fertilization with preimplantation genetic diagnosis for aneuploidies in advanced maternal age: a randomized, controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio, Carmen; Bellver, José; Rodrigo, Lorena; Castillón, Gema; Guillén, Alfredo; Vidal, Carmina; Giles, Juan; Ferrando, Marcos; Cabanillas, Sergio; Remohí, José; Pellicer, Antonio; Simón, Carlos

    2017-05-01

    To determine the clinical value of preimplantation genetic diagnosis for aneuploidy screening (PGD-A) in women of advanced maternal age (AMA; between 38 and 41 years). This was a multicenter, randomized trial with two arms: a PGD-A group with blastocyst transfer, and a control group with blastocyst transfer without PGD-A. Private reproductive centers. A total of 326 recruited patients fit the inclusion criteria, and 205 completed the study (100 in the PGD-A group and 105 in the control group). Day-3 embryo biopsy, array comparative genomic hybridization, blastocyst transfer, and vitrification. Primary outcomes were delivery and live birth rates in the first transfer and cumulative outcome rates. The PGD-A group exhibited significantly fewer ETs (68.0% vs. 90.5% for control) and lower miscarriage rates (2.7% vs. 39.0% for control). Delivery rate after the first transfer attempt was significantly higher in the PGD-A group per transfer (52.9% vs 24.2%) and per patient (36.0% vs. 21.9%). No significant differences were observed in the cumulative delivery rates per patient 6 months after closing the study. However, the mean number of ETs needed per live birth was lower in the PGD-A group compared with the control group (1.8 vs. 3.7), as was the time to pregnancy (7.7 vs. 14.9 weeks). Preimplantation genetic diagnosis for aneuploidy screening is superior compared with controls not only in clinical outcome at the first ET but also in dramatically decreasing miscarriage rates and shortening the time to pregnancy. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Effect of myo-inositol and melatonin versus myo-inositol, in a randomized controlled trial, for improving in vitro fertilization of patients with polycystic ovarian syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacchiarotti, Alessandro; Carlomagno, Gianfranco; Antonini, Gabriele; Pacchiarotti, Arianna

    2016-01-01

    Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) induces anovulation in women of reproductive age, and is one of the pathological factors involved in the failure of in vitro fertilization (IVF). Indeed, PCOS women are characterized by poor quality oocytes. Therefore, a treatment for enhancing oocyte quality becomes crucial for these patients. Myo-Inositol and melatonin proved to be efficient predictors for positive IVF outcomes, correlating with high oocyte quality. We tested the synergistic effect of myo-inositol and melatonin in IVF protocols with PCOS patients in a randomized, controlled, double-blind trial. Five-hundred twenty-six PCOS women were divided into three groups: Controls (only folic acid: 400 mcg), Group A (Inofolic® plus, a daily dose of myo-inositol: 4000 mg, folic acid: 400 mcg, and melatonin: 3 mg), and Group B (Inofolic®, a daily dose of myo-inositol: 4000 mg, and folic acid: 400 mcg). The main outcome measures were oocyte and embryo quality, clinical pregnancy and implantation rates. The treatment lasted from the first day of the cycle until 14 days after embryo transfer. Myo-inositol and melatonin have shown to enhance, synergistically, oocyte and embryo quality. In consideration of the beneficial effect observed in our trial and on the bases of previous studies, we decided to integrate routinely MI and M supplementation in the IVF protocols. The same treatment should be taken carefully in consideration in all procedures of this kind.

  7. INTEGRATED ROBOT-HUMAN CONTROL IN MINING OPERATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    George Danko

    2006-04-01

    This report describes the results of the 2nd year of a research project on the implementation of a novel human-robot control system for hydraulic machinery. Sensor and valve re-calibration experiments were conducted to improve open loop machine control. A Cartesian control example was tested both in simulation and on the machine; the results are discussed in detail. The machine tests included open-loop as well as closed-loop motion control. Both methods worked reasonably well, due to the high-quality electro-hydraulic valves used on the experimental machine. Experiments on 3-D analysis of the bucket trajectory using marker tracking software are also presented with the results obtained. Open-loop control is robustly stable and free of short-term dynamic problems, but it allows for drifting away from the desired motion kinematics of the machine. A novel, closed-loop control adjustment provides a remedy, while retaining much of the advantages of the open-loop control based on kinematics transformation. Additional analysis of previously recorded, three-dimensional working trajectories of the bucket of large mine shovels was completed. The motion patterns, when transformed into a family of curves, serve as the basis for software-controlled machine kinematics transformation in the new human-robot control system.

  8. Local control stations: Human engineering issues and insights

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, W.S.; Higgins, J.C.; O'Hara, J.M.

    1994-09-01

    The objective of this research project was to evaluate current human engineering at local control stations (LCSs) in nuclear power plants, and to identify good human engineering practices relevant to the design of these operator interfaces. General literature and reports of operating experience were reviewed to determine the extent and type of human engineering deficiencies at LCSs in nuclear power plants. In-plant assessments were made of human engineering at single-function as well as multifunction LCSs. Besides confirming the existence of human engineering deficiencies at LCSs, the in-plant assessments provided information about the human engineering upgrades that have been made at nuclear power plants. Upgrades were typically the result of any of three influences regulatory activity, broad industry initiatives such as INPO, and specific in-plant programs (e.g. activities related to training). It is concluded that the quality of LCSs is quite variable and might be improved if there were greater awareness of good practices and existing human engineering guidance relevant to these operator interfaces, which is available from a variety of sources. To make such human engineering guidance more readily accessible, guidelines were compiled from such sources and included in the report as an appendix

  9. Cattle Fever Tick, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, (Acari: Ixodidae): potential control on pastures by the application of urea fertilizer

    Science.gov (United States)

    The southern cattle fever tick, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, spends as much as 80–90% of its life cycle as a larva questing for a host. Standard control methods are limited to on-host applications, leaving a need for methods directed at the pasture infesting stages. Reports from Brazil indic...

  10. Can human populations be stabilized?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Stephen G.

    2015-02-01

    Historical examples of demographic change, in China, Italy, Nigeria, Utah, Easter Island, and elsewhere, together with simple mathematics and biological principles, show that stabilizing world population before it is limited by food supply will be more difficult than is generally appreciated. United Nations population projections are wrong because they assume, in spite of the absence of necessary feedbacks, that all nations will converge rapidly to replacement-level fertility and thereafter remain at that level. Education of women and provision of contraceptives have caused dramatic reductions in fertility, but many groups, including some that are well-educated, maintain high fertility. Small groups with persistent high fertility can grow to supplant low-fertility groups, resulting in continued growth of the total population. The global average fertility rate could rise even if each country's fertility rate is falling. In some low-fertility European countries where deaths exceed births, the population continues to grow because of immigration. Producing more than two offspring is normal for all animal species with stable populations because their populations are limited by resources or predation rather than birth control. It may therefore be appropriate to view the growth of human population as the result not of excess fertility but rather of excess food.

  11. Randomized controlled trials for influenza drugs and vaccines: a review of controlled human infection studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shobana Balasingam

    2016-08-01

    Conclusions: Controlled human infection studies are an important research tool in assessing promising influenza vaccines and antivirals. These studies are performed quickly and are cost-effective and safe, with a low incidence of serious adverse events.

  12. Intelligent (Autonomous) Power Controller Development for Human Deep Space Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soeder, James; Raitano, Paul; McNelis, Anne

    2016-01-01

    As NASAs Evolvable Mars Campaign and other exploration initiatives continue to mature they have identified the need for more autonomous operations of the power system. For current human space operations such as the International Space Station, the paradigm is to perform the planning, operation and fault diagnosis from the ground. However, the dual problems of communication lag as well as limited communication bandwidth beyond GEO synchronous orbit, underscore the need to change the operation methodology for human operation in deep space. To address this need, for the past several years the Glenn Research Center has had an effort to develop an autonomous power controller for human deep space vehicles. This presentation discusses the present roadmap for deep space exploration along with a description of conceptual power system architecture for exploration modules. It then contrasts the present ground centric control and management architecture with limited autonomy on-board the spacecraft with an advanced autonomous power control system that features ground based monitoring with a spacecraft mission manager with autonomous control of all core systems, including power. It then presents a functional breakdown of the autonomous power control system and examines its operation in both normal and fault modes. Finally, it discusses progress made in the development of a real-time power system model and how it is being used to evaluate the performance of the controller and well as using it for verification of the overall operation.

  13. Cooperative research for human factors review of advanced control rooms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jung Woon; Park, Jae Chang; Lee, Yong Hee; Oh, In Seok; Lee, Hyun Chul

    2000-12-01

    This project has been performed as cooperative research between KAERI and USNRC. Human factors issues related to soft controls, which is one of key features of advanced HSI, are identified in this project. The issues are analyzed for the evaluation approaches in either experimental or analytical ways. Also, issues requiring additional researches for the evaluation of advanced HSI are identified in the areas of advanced information systems design, computer-based procedure systems, soft controls, human systems interface and plant modernization process, and maintainability of digital systems. The issues are analyzed to discriminate the urgency of researches on it to high, medium, and low levels in consideration of advanced HSI development status in Korea, and some of the issues that can be handled by experimental researches are identified. Additionally, an experimental study is performed to compare operator's performance on human error detection in advanced control rooms vs. in conventional control rooms. It is found that advanced control rooms have several design characteristics hindering operator's error detection performance compared to conventional control rooms.

  14. Cooperative research for human factors review of advanced control rooms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jung Woon; Park, Jae Chang; Lee, Yong Hee; Oh, In Seok; Lee, Hyun Chul

    2000-12-01

    This project has been performed as cooperative research between KAERI and USNRC. Human factors issues related to soft controls, which is one of key features of advanced HSI, are identified in this project. The issues are analyzed for the evaluation approaches in either experimental or analytical ways. Also, issues requiring additional researches for the evaluation of advanced HSI are identified in the areas of advanced information systems design, computer-based procedure systems, soft controls, human systems interface and plant modernization process, and maintainability of digital systems. The issues are analyzed to discriminate the urgency of researches on it to high, medium, and low levels in consideration of advanced HSI development status in Korea, and some of the issues that can be handled by experimental researches are identified. Additionally, an experimental study is performed to compare operator's performance on human error detection in advanced control rooms vs. in conventional control rooms. It is found that advanced control rooms have several design characteristics hindering operator's error detection performance compared to conventional control rooms

  15. Radiological Evaluation of phosphate fertilizers used in Tunisia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jemli, Khaoula

    2010-01-01

    The need of control of natural radioactivity in the environment and the radiological impact of the use of chemical fertilizers has led us in this work to measure the natural radioactivity of the phosphate fertilizers in Tunisia. The distribution of various radionuclides during their manufacturing process of fertilizers is also part of this work.

  16. Thyrotropin-releasing hormone controls mitochondrial biology in human epidermis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knuever, Jana; Poeggeler, Burkhard; Gáspár, Erzsébet; Klinger, Matthias; Hellwig-Burgel, Thomas; Hardenbicker, Celine; Tóth, Balázs I; Bíró, Tamás; Paus, Ralf

    2012-03-01

    Mitochondrial capacity and metabolic potential are under the control of hormones, such as thyroid hormones. The most proximal regulator of the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) axis, TRH, is the key hypothalamic integrator of energy metabolism via its impact on thyroid hormone secretion. Here, we asked whether TRH directly modulates mitochondrial functions in normal, TRH-receptor-positive human epidermis. Organ-cultured human skin was treated with TRH (5-100 ng/ml) for 12-48 h. TRH significantly increased epidermal immunoreactivity for the mitochondria-selective subunit I of respiratory chain complex IV (MTCO1). This resulted from an increased MTCO1 transcription and protein synthesis and a stimulation of mitochondrial biogenesis as demonstrated by transmission electron microscopy and TRH-enhanced mitochondrial DNA synthesis. TRH also significantly stimulated the transcription of several other mitochondrial key genes (TFAM, HSP60, and BMAL1), including the master regulator of mitochondrial biogenesis (PGC-1α). TRH significantly enhanced mitochondrial complex I and IV enzyme activity and enhanced the oxygen consumption of human skin samples, which shows that the stimulated mitochondria are fully vital because the main source for cellular oxygen consumption is mitochondrial endoxidation. These findings identify TRH as a potent, novel neuroendocrine stimulator of mitochondrial activity and biogenesis in human epidermal keratinocytes in situ. Thus, human epidermis offers an excellent model for dissecting neuroendocrine controls of human mitochondrial biology under physiologically relevant conditions and for exploring corresponding clinical applications.

  17. Meaningful Human Control over Autonomous Systems: A Philosophical Account

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filippo Santoni de Sio

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Debates on lethal autonomous weapon systems have proliferated in the past 5 years. Ethical concerns have been voiced about a possible raise in the number of wrongs and crimes in military operations and about the creation of a “responsibility gap” for harms caused by these systems. To address these concerns, the principle of “meaningful human control” has been introduced in the legal–political debate; according to this principle, humans not computers and their algorithms should ultimately remain in control of, and thus morally responsible for, relevant decisions about (lethal military operations. However, policy-makers and technical designers lack a detailed theory of what “meaningful human control” exactly means. In this paper, we lay the foundation of a philosophical account of meaningful human control, based on the concept of “guidance control” as elaborated in the philosophical debate on free will and moral responsibility. Following the ideals of “Responsible Innovation” and “Value-sensitive Design,” our account of meaningful human control is cast in the form of design requirements. We identify two general necessary conditions to be satisfied for an autonomous system to remain under meaningful human control: first, a “tracking” condition, according to which the system should be able to respond to both the relevant moral reasons of the humans designing and deploying the system and the relevant facts in the environment in which the system operates; second, a “tracing” condition, according to which the system should be designed in such a way as to grant the possibility to always trace back the outcome of its operations to at least one human along the chain of design and operation. As we think that meaningful human control can be one of the central notions in ethics of robotics and AI, in the last part of the paper, we start exploring the implications of our account for the design and use of non

  18. Intrafollicular Endocrine Milieu After Addition of hCG to Recombinant FSH During Controlled Ovarian Stimulation for In Vitro Fertilization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thuesen, L L; Andersen, A Nyboe; Loft, A

    2014-01-01

    CONTEXT: The role of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) supplementation on the intrafollicular steroid milieu has been studied. OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to assess the impact on steroid levels in follicular fluids (FFs) after different doses of hCG supplementation to recombinant FSH...... protocol with recombinant FSH 150 IU/d and randomized from stimulation day 1 to supplementation with hCG: D0, 0 IU/d; D50, 50 IU/d; D100, 100 IU/d; and D150, 150 IU/d. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Intrafollicular hormone concentrations in relation to treatment groups, follicular sizes, and embryo quality were...... measured. RESULTS: In large follicles, hCG supplementation induced a nearly 3-fold increase of estradiol (nanomoles per liter) [D0: 1496; D50: 3138; D100: 4338; D150: 4009 (P

  19. Prosthetic Leg Control in the Nullspace of Human Interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregg, Robert D; Martin, Anne E

    2016-07-01

    Recent work has extended the control method of virtual constraints, originally developed for autonomous walking robots, to powered prosthetic legs for lower-limb amputees. Virtual constraints define desired joint patterns as functions of a mechanical phasing variable, which are typically enforced by torque control laws that linearize the output dynamics associated with the virtual constraints. However, the output dynamics of a powered prosthetic leg generally depend on the human interaction forces, which must be measured and canceled by the feedback linearizing control law. This feedback requires expensive multi-axis load cells, and actively canceling the interaction forces may minimize the human's influence over the prosthesis. To address these limitations, this paper proposes a method for projecting virtual constraints into the nullspace of the human interaction terms in the output dynamics. The projected virtual constraints naturally render the output dynamics invariant with respect to the human interaction forces, which instead enter into the internal dynamics of the partially linearized prosthetic system. This method is illustrated with simulations of a transfemoral amputee model walking with a powered knee-ankle prosthesis that is controlled via virtual constraints with and without the proposed projection.

  20. Determinants of human resource investment in internal controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong-Hag Choi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Using the unique reporting environment in Korea, this study investigates the determinants of human resource investment in internal controls for 1352 listed firms disclosing the number of personnel who are in charge of internal control-related tasks (IC personnel from 2005 to 2008. We find that the number of IC personnel within a firm and several key departments increase with firm size, number of employees, complexity and for Chaebols, and decrease in rapidly growing firms. Additional analysis reveals that the factors influencing internal control systems have an accentuated effect on firms with relatively larger firm size.

  1. Human-Machine Systems concepts applied to Control Engineering Education

    OpenAIRE

    Marangé , Pascale; Gellot , François; Riera , Bernard

    2008-01-01

    International audience; In this paper, we interest us to Human-Machine Systems (HMS) concepts applied to Education. It is shown how the HMS framework enables to propose original solution in matter of education in the field of control engineering. We focus on practical courses on control of manufacturing systems. The proposed solution is based on an original use of real and large-scale systems instead of simulation. The main idea is to enable the student, whatever his/her level to control the ...

  2. When soft controls get slippery: User interfaces and human error

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stubler, W.F.; O'Hara, J.M.

    1998-01-01

    Many types of products and systems that have traditionally featured physical control devices are now being designed with soft controls--input formats appearing on computer-based display devices and operated by a variety of input devices. A review of complex human-machine systems found that soft controls are particularly prone to some types of errors and may affect overall system performance and safety. This paper discusses the application of design approaches for reducing the likelihood of these errors and for enhancing usability, user satisfaction, and system performance and safety

  3. Effect of intermittent feedback control on robustness of human-like postural control system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanabe, Hiroko; Fujii, Keisuke; Suzuki, Yasuyuki; Kouzaki, Motoki

    2016-03-01

    Humans have to acquire postural robustness to maintain stability against internal and external perturbations. Human standing has been recently modelled using an intermittent feedback control. However, the causality inside of the closed-loop postural control system associated with the neural control strategy is still unknown. Here, we examined the effect of intermittent feedback control on postural robustness and of changes in active/passive components on joint coordinative structure. We implemented computer simulation of a quadruple inverted pendulum that is mechanically close to human tiptoe standing. We simulated three pairs of joint viscoelasticity and three choices of neural control strategies for each joint: intermittent, continuous, or passive control. We examined postural robustness for each parameter set by analysing the region of active feedback gain. We found intermittent control at the hip joint was necessary for model stabilisation and model parameters affected the robustness of the pendulum. Joint sways of the pendulum model were partially smaller than or similar to those of experimental data. In conclusion, intermittent feedback control was necessary for the stabilisation of the quadruple inverted pendulum. Also, postural robustness of human-like multi-link standing would be achieved by both passive joint viscoelasticity and neural joint control strategies.

  4. THE FERTILITY DECLINE IN THE UNITED STATES: SCHOOLING AND INCOME

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Casper Worm; Jensen, Peter Sandholt; Lønstrup, Lars

    2017-01-01

    This study investigates the determinants of the fertility transition in the United States from 1850 to the end of the 20th century. We find a robust negative relation between years of schooling and fertility. The magnitude of our baseline estimate suggests that the rise in schooling accounts...... for about 60% of the US fertility decline. In contrast, we find no evidence of a robust relation between income per capita and fertility. This pattern corroborates theories stressing the importance of human capital investments in generating a transition from high to low fertility....

  5. The Obesity-Fertility Protocol: a randomized controlled trial assessing clinical outcomes and costs of a transferable interdisciplinary lifestyle intervention, before and during pregnancy, in obese infertile women

    OpenAIRE

    Duval, Karine; Langlois, Marie-France; Carranza-Mamane, Belina; Pesant, Marie-H?l?ne; Hivert, Marie-France; Poder, Thomas G.; Lavoie, H?l?ne B.; Ainmelk, Youssef; St-Cyr Tribble, Denise; Laredo, Sheila; Greenblatt, Ellen; Sagle, Margaret; Waddell, Guy; Belisle, Serge; Riverin, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Background Obesity in infertile women increases the costs of fertility treatments, reduces their effectiveness and increases significantly the risks of many complications of pregnancy and for the newborn. Studies suggest that even a modest loss of 5?10?% of body weight can restore ovulation. However, there are gaps in knowledge regarding the benefits and cost-effectiveness of a lifestyle modification program targeting obese infertile women and integrated into the fertility clinics. This study...

  6. Control room design and human engineering in power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herbst, L.; Hinz, W.

    1981-01-01

    Automation reduces the human work load. Employment of functional areas permits optimization of operational sequences. Computer based information processing makes it possible to output information in accordance with operating requirements. Design based on human engineering principles assures the quality of the interaction between the operator and the equipment. The degree to which these conceptional features play a role in design of power plant control rooms depends on the unit rating, the mode of operation and on the requirements respecting safety and availability of the plant. (orig./RW)

  7. Metabolic control of muscle blood flow during exercise in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boushel, Robert Christopher

    2003-01-01

    that combined blockade of NOS and PGI2, and NOS and cytochrome P450, both attenuate exercise-induced hyperemia in humans. Combined vasodilator blockade studies offer the potential to uncover important interactions and compensatory vasodilator responses. The signaling pathways that link metabolic events evoked...... to exert control of muscle vasodilation. Adenosine, nitric oxide (NO), prostacyclin (PGI2), and endothelial-derived hyperpolarization factor (EDHF) are possible mediators of muscle vasodilation during exercise. In humans, adenosine has been shown to contribute to functional hyperemia as blood flow...... by muscle contraction to vasodilatory signals in the local vascular bed remains an important area of study....

  8. Integrated Robot-Human Control in Mining Operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    George Danko

    2007-09-30

    This report contains a detailed description of the work conducted for the project on Integrated Robot-Human Control in Mining Operations at University of Nevada, Reno. This project combines human operator control with robotic control concepts to create a hybrid control architecture, in which the strengths of each control method are combined to increase machine efficiency and reduce operator fatigue. The kinematics reconfiguration type differential control of the excavator implemented with a variety of 'software machine kinematics' is the key feature of the project. This software re-configured excavator is more desirable to execute a given digging task. The human operator retains the master control of the main motion parameters, while the computer coordinates the repetitive movement patterns of the machine links. These repetitive movements may be selected from a pre-defined family of trajectories with different transformations. The operator can make adjustments to this pattern in real time, as needed, to accommodate rapidly-changing environmental conditions. A working prototype has been developed using a Bobcat 435 excavator. The machine is operational with or without the computer control system depending on whether the computer interface is on or off. In preparation for emulated mining tasks tests, typical, repetitive tool trajectories during surface mining operations were recorded at the Newmont Mining Corporation's 'Lone Tree' mine in Nevada. Analysis of these working trajectories has been completed. The motion patterns, when transformed into a family of curves, may serve as the basis for software-controlled machine kinematics transformation in the new human-robot control system. A Cartesian control example has been developed and tested both in simulation and on the experimental excavator. Open-loop control is robustly stable and free of short-term dynamic problems, but it allows for drifting away from the desired motion kinematics of the

  9. Letrozole in a low-cost in vitro fertilization protocol in intracytoplasmic sperm injection cycles for male factor infertility: A randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiuli Mukherjee

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Letrozole, a selective aromatase inhibitor, reduces the total dose of gonadotrophin required for inducing follicular maturation. We evaluated if incorporation of letrozole could be an effective alternative for low-cost in vitro fertilization (IVF protocol particularly in intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI cycles where male factor infertility is the sole indication for IVF. Materials and Methods: It is a randomized controlled single-blind trial. 94 women with history of severe male factor infertility were selected. 42 women (study group received letrozole, 5 mg daily from day 3-7 and recombinant FSH (rFSH 75IU/day from day 5 continuously till hCG injection. 52 women (control group underwent continuous stimulation by rFSH (150-225IU/day from day 2. GnRH-antagonist (Inj. Orgalutran 0.25 ml sub-cutaneous was started at maximum follicle size of 14 in both groups. Ovulation was triggered by 10,000IU of hCG followed by IVF-ET. Main outcome measures were total dose of rFSH (IU/cycle, terminal E2 (pg/ml, number of mature follicles, number of oocyte retrieved, transferable embryo, endometrial thickness, pregnancy rate and mean expenditure. Statistical analysis is done by using SPSS11. Results :0 As compared to control group (1756 ± 75IU, the study group i.e., Let-rFSH received (625 ± 98IU significantly lower (P = 0.0001 total dose of rFSH. Terminal E2 was significantly lower (P = 0.0001 in study group than control (830 ± 36 vs. 1076 ± 41 pg/ml with significant increment in endometrial thickness (P = 0.0008 in study group, (9.1 ± 0.32 vs. 8.7 ± 0.69 which maintained an improved pregnancy rate though nonsignificant. The risk of hyperstimulation had significantly (P = 0.01 reduced in study group than control (0 vs. 7.Treatment outcome in all other aspects including pregnancy rate were statistically comparable. Per cycle mean expenditure was reduced by 34% in study group than control. Conclusion: Adjunctive use of letrozole may be an

  10. Reflex control of robotic gait using human walking data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine A Macleod

    Full Text Available Control of human walking is not thoroughly understood, which has implications in developing suitable strategies for the retraining of a functional gait following neurological injuries such as spinal cord injury (SCI. Bipedal robots allow us to investigate simple elements of the complex nervous system to quantify their contribution to motor control. RunBot is a bipedal robot which operates through reflexes without using central pattern generators or trajectory planning algorithms. Ground contact information from the feet is used to activate motors in the legs, generating a gait cycle visually similar to that of humans. Rather than developing a more complicated biologically realistic neural system to control the robot's stepping, we have instead further simplified our model by measuring the correlation between heel contact and leg muscle activity (EMG in human subjects during walking and from this data created filter functions transferring the sensory data into motor actions. Adaptive filtering was used to identify the unknown transfer functions which translate the contact information into muscle activation signals. Our results show a causal relationship between ground contact information from the heel and EMG, which allows us to create a minimal, linear, analogue control system for controlling walking. The derived transfer functions were applied to RunBot II as a proof of concept. The gait cycle produced was stable and controlled, which is a positive indication that the transfer functions have potential for use in the control of assistive devices for the retraining of an efficient and effective gait with potential applications in SCI rehabilitation.

  11. Impact of child mortality and fertility preferences on fertility status in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: To determine the effects of child mortality and fertility preference on fertility status in rural Ethiopia. Design: Case-referent where the cases were women with number of children ever born alive was less than five and controls were women with number of children ever born alive greater or equal to five.

  12. Fertilization failure after IVF in 304 couples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krog, Maria; Prior, Maria; Carlsen, Elisabeth

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To identify predictors of total fertilization failure (TFF) and thereby optimize the primary allocation of patients with no well-defined male factor to either IVF or intracytoplasmatic sperm injection (ICSI). Further, to evaluate the long-term fertility prognosis of couples experiencing...... TFF. STUDY DESIGN: A retrospective case-control study including 304 couples with TFF and 304 controls with fertilization after IVF during a 10-year period from year 2000-2010. The controls were the patients with minimum one fertilized oocyte just prior to the cases. Multiple logistic regression...... analysis was used to evaluate the predictors of TFF. RESULTS: The multiple regression analysis identified the following independent predictors of TFF: female smoking, adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 1.7 (95% CI 1.1-2.3), non-tubal factor AOR 2.2 (95% CI 1.5-3.4), progressive motile spermatozoa after preparation...

  13. Acupuncture to improve live birth rates for women undergoing in vitro fertilization: a protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background IVF is a costly treatment option for women, their partners, and the public. Therefore new therapies that improve reproductive and health outcomes are highly desirable. There is a growing body of research evaluating the effect of acupuncture administered during IVF, and specifically on the day of embryo transfer (ET). Many trials are heterogeneous and results inconsistent. There remains insufficient evidence to determine if acupuncture can enhance live birth rates when used as an adjunct to IVF treatment. The study will determine the clinical effectiveness of acupuncture with improving the proportion of women undergoing IVF having live births. Other objectives include: determination of the cost effectiveness of IVF with acupuncture; and examination of the personal and social context of acupuncture in IVF patients, and examining the reasons why the acupuncture may or may not have worked. Methods We will conduct a randomized controlled trial of acupuncture compared to placebo acupuncture. Inclusion criteria include: women aged less than 43 years; undergoing a fresh IVF or ICSI cycle; and restricted to women with the potential for a lower live birth rate defined as two or more previous unsuccessful ETs; and unsuccessful clinical pregnancies of quality embryos deemed by the embryologist to have been suitable for freezing by standard criteria. Women will be randomized to acupuncture or placebo acupuncture. Treatment is administered on days 6 to 8 of the stimulated cycle and two treatments on the day of ET. A non-randomized cohort of women not using acupuncture will be recruited to the study. The primary study outcome is the proportion of women reporting a live birth. Secondary outcomes include the proportion of women reporting a clinical pregnancy miscarriage prior to 12 weeks, quality of life, and self-efficacy. The sample size of the study is 1,168 women, with the aim of detecting a 7% difference in live births between groups (P = 0.05, 80% power

  14. Acupuncture to improve live birth rates for women undergoing in vitro fertilization: a protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smith Caroline A

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background IVF is a costly treatment option for women, their partners, and the public. Therefore new therapies that improve reproductive and health outcomes are highly desirable. There is a growing body of research evaluating the effect of acupuncture administered during IVF, and specifically on the day of embryo transfer (ET. Many trials are heterogeneous and results inconsistent. There remains insufficient evidence to determine if acupuncture can enhance live birth rates when used as an adjunct to IVF treatment. The study will determine the clinical effectiveness of acupuncture with improving the proportion of women undergoing IVF having live births. Other objectives include: determination of the cost effectiveness of IVF with acupuncture; and examination of the personal and social context of acupuncture in IVF patients, and examining the reasons why the acupuncture may or may not have worked. Methods We will conduct a randomized controlled trial of acupuncture compared to placebo acupuncture. Inclusion criteria include: women aged less than 43 years; undergoing a fresh IVF or ICSI cycle; and restricted to women with the potential for a lower live birth rate defined as two or more previous unsuccessful ETs; and unsuccessful clinical pregnancies of quality embryos deemed by the embryologist to have been suitable for freezing by standard criteria. Women will be randomized to acupuncture or placebo acupuncture. Treatment is administered on days 6 to 8 of the stimulated cycle and two treatments on the day of ET. A non-randomized cohort of women not using acupuncture will be recruited to the study. The primary study outcome is the proportion of women reporting a live birth. Secondary outcomes include the proportion of women reporting a clinical pregnancy miscarriage prior to 12 weeks, quality of life, and self-efficacy. The sample size of the study is 1,168 women, with the aim of detecting a 7% difference in live births between groups (P

  15. How does variance in fertility change over the demographic transition?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hruschka, Daniel J; Burger, Oskar

    2016-04-19

    Most work on the human fertility transition has focused on declines in mean fertility. However, understanding changes in the variance of reproductive outcomes can be equally important for evolutionary questions about the heritability of fertility, individual determinants of fertility and changing patterns of reproductive skew. Here, we document how variance in completed fertility among women (45-49 years) differs across 200 surveys in 72 low- to middle-income countries where fertility transitions are currently in progress at various stages. Nearly all (91%) of samples exhibit variance consistent with a Poisson process of fertility, which places systematic, and often severe, theoretical upper bounds on the proportion of variance that can be attributed to individual differences. In contrast to the pattern of total variance, these upper bounds increase from high- to mid-fertility samples, then decline again as samples move from mid to low fertility. Notably, the lowest fertility samples often deviate from a Poisson process. This suggests that as populations move to low fertility their reproduction shifts from a rate-based process to a focus on an ideal number of children. We discuss the implications of these findings for predicting completed fertility from individual-level variables. © 2016 The Author(s).

  16. Human factors in remote control engineering development activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clarke, M.M.; Hamel, W.R.; Draper, J.V.

    1983-01-01

    Human factors engineering, which is an integral part of the advanced remote control development activities at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, is described. First, work at the Remote Systems Development Facility (RSDF) has shown that operators can perform a wide variety of tasks, some of which were not specifically designed for remote systems, with a dextrous electronic force-reflecting servomanipulator and good television remote viewing capabilities. Second, the data collected during mock-up remote maintenance experiments at the RSDF have been analyzed to provide guidelines for the design of human interfaces with an integrated advanced remote maintenance system currently under development. Guidelines have been provided for task allocation between operators, remote viewing systems, and operator controls. 6 references, 5 figures, 2 tables

  17. Wood smoke in a controlled exposure experiment with human volunteers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riddervold, Ingunn Skogstad; Bønløkke, Jakob Hjort; Mølhave, Lars

    2011-01-01

    Exposure to wood smoke in the general population is increasing and concurrently, also our awareness. This article describes a wood-smoke generating system for studying human exposure to wood smoke and symptoms related to this exposure. Twenty nonsmoking atopic human participants with normal lung...... function and normal bronchial reactivity were randomly exposed for 3h at three different exposure conditions; clean filtered air (control exposure) and wood smoke with a characteristic particulate matter (PM) concentration of 200 µg/m3 (low) and 400 µg/m3 (high) under controlled environmental conditions.......0007), “irritative body perceptions” (p = 0.0127), “psychological/neurological effects” (p = 0.0075) and “weak inflammatory responses” (p = 0.0003). Furthermore, significant effects (p = 0.0192) on self-reported general mucosa irritation were found. In conclusion, exposure to wood smoke affected symptom rating...

  18. Identification of the unstable human postural control system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sungjae eHwang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Maintaining upright bipedal posture requires a control system that continually adapts to changing environmental conditions, such as different support surfaces. Behavioral changes associated with different support surfaces, such as the predominance of an ankle or hip strategy, is considered to reflect a change in the control strategy. However, tracing such behavioral changes to a specific component in a closed loop control system is challenging. Here we used the joint input-output (JIO method of closed-loop system identification to identify the musculoskeletal and neural feedback components of the human postural control loop. The goal was to establish changes in the control loop corresponding to behavioral changes observed on different support surfaces. Subjects were simultaneously perturbed by two independent mechanical and two independent sensory perturbations while standing on a normal or short support surface. The results show a dramatic phase reversal between visual input and body kinematics due to the change in surface condition from trunk leads legs to legs lead trunk with increasing frequency of the visual perturbation. Through decomposition of the control loop, we found that behavioral change is not necessarily due to a change in control strategy, but in the case of different support surfaces, is linked to changes in properties of the plant. The JIO method is an important tool to identify the contribution of specific components within a closed loop control system to overall postural behavior and may be useful to devise better treatment of balance disorders.

  19. Human factors in aviation: Terminal control area boundary conflicts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monan, William P.

    1989-01-01

    Air-to-air conflicts in the vicinity of Terminal Control Area (TCA) boundaries were studied to obtain a better understanding of the causal dynamics of these events with particular focus on human factor issues. The study dataset consisted of 381 Instrument Flight Rules/Visual Flight Rules (IFR/VFR) traffic conflicts in airspace layers above TCA ceiling and below TCA floors; 213 reports of incursions in TCA terminal airspace by VFR aircraft, of which 123 resulted in conflicts; and an additional set of reports describing problems with Air Traffic Control (ATC) services in and around TCAs. Results and conclusions are detailed.

  20. Determination of PBDEs in human milk. Analysis and quality control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paepke, O.; Herrmann, T. [Ergo Research, Hamburg (Germany); Vieth, B.; Ostermann, B. [Federal Institute for Risk Assessment, Berlin (Germany)

    2004-09-15

    Polybrominated diphenylethers (PBDEs) are widely used as flame retardants in polymer materials, textiles, electronic boards and various other materials. Technical PBDE preparations are produced as mixtures of mainly penta-, octa- or decabromobiphenyl ethers. PBDEs are structurally similar to other environmental pollutants, such as dioxins and PCBs. They are lipophilic and persistent compounds and widespread in the environment. For certain congeners, bioaccumulation has been observed. Recent findings of increasing levels in humans showed that more detailed investigations of human milk (or other suitable matrices) will be required in order to evaluate the general human exposure to this group of environmental contaminants. Only a few data on PBDE levels in breast milk from Germany had been published. To fill the data gaps, in 2001 a controlled study was started to characterize the PBDE levels in human milk from Germany with special efforts to identify and quantify deca-BDE-209. 103 samples were analyzed in this study so far including 10 hidden pool samples provided by Federal Institute for Risk Assessment to ERGO laboratory (total number of samples finally will be 157 (including 14 hidden pool samples)). This paper describes the analytical procedure applied and emphasizes on the quality control procedure.

  1. Studies in the Human Use of Controlled English

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Controlled English (CE) is intended to aid human problem solving processes when analysing data and generating high-value conclusions in collaboration...state of affairs. The second approach is to guide a user face-to-face to formulate free English sentences into CE to solve a logic problem. The paper describes both approaches and provides an informal analysis of the results to date.

  2. Engineering human factors into the Westinghouse advanced control room

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Easter, J.R.

    1987-01-01

    By coupling the work of the Riso Laboratory in Denmark on human behaviour with new digital computation and display technology, Westinghouse has developed a totally new control room design. This design features a separate, co-ordinated work station to support the systems management role in decision making, as well as robust alarm and display systems. This coupling of the functional and physical data presentation is now being implemented in test facilities. (author)

  3. Optimal life-cycle profiles of fertility and labor supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moffitt, R

    1984-01-01

    A model of life cycle fertility is developed using the language and framework of optimal control theory. The chief characteristic of children that distinguishes them from other consumer durables is, in the language of the optimal growth theory, the "irreversibility of investment." As the good does not depreciate in the ordinary sense, the stock must be monotonically nondecreasing over time. The optimal profile of fertility is, for this reason, characterized by the same type of "bang-bang" behavior found in many optimal growth problems. Yet, the fertility decision is complicated considerably by several other factors. Chief among these is the intrinsic relation to the labor-supply decision, for having children implies inevitable constraints on the mother's or father's time. Thus, optimal labor-supply decisions also must be considered. The model is developed in stages, proceeding from very simple to the more complex models. 1 section introduces the impact of fertility on the future demands for home time. It is shown that optimal fertility profiles follow turnpike paths similar to those in the growth-theory literature. A subsequent section introduces labor-supply and human-captial considerations. As the models become more complex, solutions become harder to derive and are often only outlined. The analysis provides some theoretical basis for expecting certain shapes of the life-cycle profiles of fertility, labor supply, and wages. Fertility profiles may be of 2 shapes--one beginning at a high rate, falling to a lower rate, then to zero; and one beginning at zero, rising to a moderate rate, then falling back down to zero. Labor supply profiles can be of a number of different shapes, but the impact of childbearing is to lower hours worked during the early childrearing period. As the children mature, hours worked rise (or at least fall more slowly) as home time responsibilities lessen, although the level to which they rise will probably be lower than before the 1st birth

  4. An Inverse Optimal Control Approach to Explain Human Arm Reaching Control Based on Multiple Internal Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oguz, Ozgur S; Zhou, Zhehua; Glasauer, Stefan; Wollherr, Dirk

    2018-04-03

    Human motor control is highly efficient in generating accurate and appropriate motor behavior for a multitude of tasks. This paper examines how kinematic and dynamic properties of the musculoskeletal system are controlled to achieve such efficiency. Even though recent studies have shown that the human motor control relies on multiple models, how the central nervous system (CNS) controls this combination is not fully addressed. In this study, we utilize an Inverse Optimal Control (IOC) framework in order to find the combination of those internal models and how this combination changes for different reaching tasks. We conducted an experiment where participants executed a comprehensive set of free-space reaching motions. The results show that there is a trade-off between kinematics and dynamics based controllers depending on the reaching task. In addition, this trade-off depends on the initial and final arm configurations, which in turn affect the musculoskeletal load to be controlled. Given this insight, we further provide a discomfort metric to demonstrate its influence on the contribution of different inverse internal models. This formulation together with our analysis not only support the multiple internal models (MIMs) hypothesis but also suggest a hierarchical framework for the control of human reaching motions by the CNS.

  5. Control of the exercise hyperpnoea in humans: a modeling perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, S A

    2000-09-01

    Models of the exercise hyperpnoea have classically incorporated elements of proportional feedback (carotid and medullary chemosensory) and feedforward (central and/or peripheral neurogenic) control. However, the precise details of the control process remain unresolved, reflecting in part both technical and interpretational limitations inherent in isolating putative control mechanisms in the intact human, and also the challenges to linear control theory presented by multiple-input integration, especially with regard to the ventilatory and gas-exchange complexities encountered at work rates which engender a metabolic acidosis. While some combination of neurogenic, chemoreflex and circulatory-coupled processes are likely to contribute to the control, the system appears to evidence considerable redundancy. This, coupled with the lack of appreciable error signals in the mean levels of arterial blood gas tensions and pH over a wide range of work rates, has motivated the formulation of innovative control models that reflect not only spatial interactions but also temporal interactions (i.e. memory). The challenge is to discriminate between robust competing control models that: (a) integrate such processes within plausible physiological equivalents; and (b) account for both the dynamic and steady-state system response over a range of exercise intensities. Such models are not yet available.

  6. The human factors specialist in nuclear control centre design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, R.B.; Beattie, J.D.

    The main focus at Ontario Hydro for man-machine interface design is in the design of control centres. Because the control of a nuclear generating unit is highly centralized there is an increasing need for effective information display and control layout. Control panel design innovations such as the use of CRT displays and the extended use of computerized control in the Darlington station have made it possible for Ontario Hydro to continue to have one first operator for each generating unit. The human factors specialist involved in control panel design must deal with people who know much more about the specific systems being controlled, and must become a generalist in all these systems as well. Designers have to use conceptual techniques such as task analysis, systems design, panel mock-ups, anthropometric data, and personal judgement based on experience as they design panels. They must find a balance between becoming locked into existing technology and methods, slavishly following the latest technological trends, and forgetting that real people will be using what they design

  7. Effect of Various Organic Fertilizers Substitute Chemical Fertilizer on Cucumber Productions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piadang, Nattayana; Ratanapanit, Sittisuk; Chaowanklang, Pratuang; Ratanapanit; Nadtinee; Jaipakdee, Putinee; Ongsakitboriboon

    2006-09-01

    The effect of using the various organic fertilizer to substitute on the chemical fertilizer on cucumber, was carried out at Tambol Pattananikom, Amphur Pattananikom, Lopburi, Thailand, from December 1, 2005 to February 1, 2006 By using Randomized Comp let Block Design (RCBD), Contain with 4 treatments, chemical fertilizer: 16-16-16: 40 Kg/rai (Control), Pillet organic fertilizer: 50 Kg/rai, Bio extract from cow milk: 300 cc./ water 20 Ltr,.+ compost mixed in soil and bio fertilizer from the office of Atomic Energy Peace : 300 cc./water 20 Ltr. + campost mixed in soil (15 m. 2 /plot) were compared. Experiment result indicate that there were no significant differences on the yield. The highest yield of 25.91 kg/plot (27663.73 kg/rai) was obtained from chemical fertilizer, Fertilizer, followed by pillet organic fertilizer 22.88 kg/plot (2440.53 kg/rai), bio fertilizer 22.34 kg/pot (2382.93 kg/rai) and bio extract 19.03 kg/plot) (2029.87 kg/rai.

  8. A Multinomial Model of Fertility Choice and Offspring Sex-Ratios in India

    OpenAIRE

    Rubiana Chamarbagwala; Martin Ranger

    2007-01-01

    Fertility decline in developing countries may have unexpected demographic consequences. Although lower fertility improves nutrition, health, and human capital investments for surviving children, little is known about the relationship between fertility outcomes and female-male offspring sex-ratios. Particularly in countries with a cultural preference for sons, like India and China, fertility decline may deteriorate the already imbalanced sex-ratios. We use the fertility histories of over 90,00...

  9. Protect Your Fertility

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... your teens and early twenties can affect your fertility for years to come. This prevention guide was written by ... loss of testic- ulor size, see your doctor. Fertility is something that you ... approximately 40 percent of infertile couples, the male partner is ...

  10. Human regulatory B cells control the TFH cell response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achour, Achouak; Simon, Quentin; Mohr, Audrey; Séité, Jean-François; Youinou, Pierre; Bendaoud, Boutahar; Ghedira, Ibtissem; Pers, Jacques-Olivier; Jamin, Christophe

    2017-07-01

    Follicular helper T (T FH ) cells support terminal B-cell differentiation. Human regulatory B (Breg) cells modulate cellular responses, but their control of T FH cell-dependent humoral immune responses is unknown. We sought to assess the role of Breg cells on T FH cell development and function. Human T cells were polyclonally stimulated in the presence of IL-12 and IL-21 to generate T FH cells. They were cocultured with B cells to induce their terminal differentiation. Breg cells were included in these cultures, and their effects were evaluated by using flow cytometry and ELISA. B-cell lymphoma 6, IL-21, inducible costimulator, CXCR5, and programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) expressions increased on stimulated human T cells, characterizing T FH cell maturation. In cocultures they differentiated B cells into CD138 + plasma and IgD - CD27 + memory cells and triggered immunoglobulin secretions. Breg cells obtained by Toll-like receptor 9 and CD40 activation of B cells prevented T FH cell development. Added to T FH cell and B-cell cocultures, they inhibited B-cell differentiation, impeded immunoglobulin secretions, and expanded Foxp3 + CXCR5 + PD-1 + follicular regulatory T cells. Breg cells modulated IL-21 receptor expressions on T FH cells and B cells, and their suppressive activities involved CD40, CD80, CD86, and intercellular adhesion molecule interactions and required production of IL-10 and TGF-β. Human Breg cells control T FH cell maturation, expand follicular regulatory T cells, and inhibit the T FH cell-mediated antibody secretion. These novel observations demonstrate a role for the Breg cell in germinal center reactions and suggest that deficient activities might impair the T FH cell-dependent control of humoral immunity and might lead to the development of aberrant autoimmune responses. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. The long-term effects of DDT exposure on semen, fertility, and sexual function of malaria vector-control workers in Limpopo Province, South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dalvie, M.A.; Myers, J.E.; Thompson, M.L.; Robins, T.G.; Dyer, Silke; Riebow, John; Molekwa, Josef; Jeebhay, Mohamed; Millar, Robert; Kruger, Phillip

    2004-01-01

    Hormonally active chemicals in the environment such as DDT have been associated with declining male reproductive health, especially semen quality. A cross-sectional study of 60 workers was performed near the Malaria Control Center (MCC) in Tzaneen, Limpopo Province, South Africa. Tests included a questionnaire (sexual function, fertility, and job history), a physical examination of the reproductive system, and semen analysis (produced via coitus interruptus or masturbation). Sperm count, density, and motility using the World Health Organization criteria and morphology using the strict Tygerberg criteria were determined. Serum o'p' and p'p' isomers of DDE, DDT, and DDD were measured. Forty-eight (81.0%) participants produced a semen sample, while all completed the questionnaires and physical examination. The mean sperm count was 93.8±130.3 million, and sperm density was 74.6±85.1 million/mL. The mean normal morphology score was 2.5±1.8% of subjects. Eighty-four percent of morphology scores were below either the WHO or the Tygerberg criteria, with the highest individual score being 6%. Self-perceived current problems with sexual function ranged between 10% and 20%. The most prevalent genital abnormality was abnormal testis disposition at 71%. There were few significant associations between DDT exposure measures (measured as years worked at MCC and serum DDT) and reproductive outcomes. p'p'-DDT was negatively associated with semen count (β-circumflex=-3.7±1.7; P=0.04; R 2 =0.05 adjusted for age, abstinence, physical abnormality, and fever in last 2 months). While the semen quality in the study was less than normal, no strong evidence for a DDT effect was found

  12. Characterizing the human postural control system using detrended fluctuation analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teresa Blázquez, M.; Anguiano, Marta; de Saavedra, Fernando Arias; Lallena, Antonio M.; Carpena, Pedro

    2010-01-01

    Detrended fluctuation analysis is used to study the behaviour of the time series of the position of the center of pressure, output from the activity of a human postural control system. The results suggest that these trajectories present a crossover in their scaling properties from persistent (for high frequencies, short-range time scale) to anti-persistent (for low frequencies, long-range time scale) behaviours. The values of the scaling exponent found for the persistent parts of the trajectories are very similar for all the cases analysed. The similarity of the results obtained for the measurements done with both eyes open and both eyes closed indicate either that the visual system may be disregarded by the postural control system, while maintaining quiet standing, or that the control mechanisms associated with each type of information (visual, vestibular and somatosensory) cannot be disentangled with this technique.

  13. The bilingual brain: Flexibility and control in the human cortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchweitz, Augusto; Prat, Chantel

    2013-12-01

    The goal of the present review is to discuss recent cognitive neuroscientific findings concerning bilingualism. Three interrelated questions about the bilingual brain are addressed: How are multiple languages represented in the brain? how are languages controlled in the brain? and what are the real-world implications of experience with multiple languages? The review is based on neuroimaging research findings about the nature of bilingual processing, namely, how the brain adapts to accommodate multiple languages in the bilingual brain and to control which language should be used, and when. We also address how this adaptation results in differences observed in the general cognition of bilingual individuals. General implications for models of human learning, plasticity, and cognitive control are discussed.

  14. Fertilization in northern forests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedwall, Per Ola; Gong, Peichen; Ingerslev, Morten

    2014-01-01

    resources into food, health and industrial products and energy. Fertilization in Sweden and Finland is currently practiced by extensive fertilization regimens where nitrogen fertilizers are applied once, or up to three times, during a rotation period, mainly in mature forest. This type of fertilization...... gives, in most cases, a small and transient effect on the environment as well as a high rate of return to the forest owner with low-economic risk. The increase in biomass production, however, is relatively small and consequently the impact on the processing industry and the bioeconomy is limited. More...... in combination with present management systems and, almost instantly, enhances forest productivity. There may, however, be both economic and environmental constraints to large-scale applications of fertilizers in forest. Here we review the literature concerning biomass production of forests under different...

  15. Hibernation Control Mechanism and Possible Applications to Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, N.

    Mammalian hibernation, characterized by the ability to survive temporarily at low body temperatures close to 0oC, has been reported to increase resistance to various lethal events such as low body temperature, severe ischemia, bacterial infection and irradiation, and to prolong the life span. The application of this physiological phenomenon to space life has been dreamed of. However, realization of this dream has been prevented by a poor understanding of the control mechanisms of hibernation. Recent findings of a novel and unique protein complex (HP) in the blood of chipmunks, a rodent hibernator, which is controlled by the endogenous circannual rhythm of hibernation, allowed new developments in understanding the molecular mechanism of hibernation and its physiological significance. From these studies, two hormones regulated by the brain were identified as promising candidate molecules controlling HP production in the liver, assuming that hibernation is controlled via the neuroendocrine system and regulated by the endogenous circannual rhythm in the brain. A circannual HP rhythm was observed in chipmunks maintaining euthermia under conditions of constant warmth, suggesting that the physiological control of hibernation progresses without a lowering of body temperature. Furthermore, the study of HP rhythm on longevity revealed that a circannual rhythm plays an essential role in the much longer life span of hibernators. The present progress in hibernation research may open a new pathway for manipulating a circannual rhythm controlling hibernation in humans. In the future, this will make it feasible to take advantage of hibernation in space life.

  16. Aspects of computer control from the human engineering standpoint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, T.V.

    1979-03-01

    A Computer Control System includes data acquisition, information display and output control signals. In order to design such a system effectively we must first determine the required operational mode: automatic control (closed loop), computer assisted (open loop), or hybrid control. The choice of operating mode will depend on the nature of the plant, the complexity of the operation, the funds available, and the technical expertise of the operating staff, among many other factors. Once the mode has been selected, consideration must be given to the method (man/machine interface) by which the operator interacts with this system. The human engineering factors are of prime importance to achieving high operating efficiency and very careful attention must be given to this aspect of the work, if full operator acceptance is to be achieved. This paper will discuss these topics and will draw on experience gained in setting up the computer control system in Main Control Center for Stanford University's Accelerator Center (a high energy physics research facility)

  17. Are Children with Autism More Responsive to Animated Characters? A Study of Interactions with Humans and Human-Controlled Avatars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Elizabeth J.; Williams, Diane L.; Hodgins, Jessica K.; Lehman, Jill F.

    2014-01-01

    Few direct comparisons have been made between the responsiveness of children with autism to computer-generated or animated characters and their responsiveness to humans. Twelve 4-to 8-year-old children with autism interacted with a human therapist; a human-controlled, interactive avatar in a theme park; a human actor speaking like the avatar; and…

  18. Accumulation of N and P in the Legume Lespedeza davurica in Controlled Mixtures with the Grass Bothriochloa ischaemum under Varying Water and Fertilization Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Bingcheng; Xu, Weizhou; Wang, Zhi; Chen, Zhifei; Palta, Jairo A; Chen, Yinglong

    2018-01-01

    Water and fertilizers affect the nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) acquisition and allocation among organs in dominant species in natural vegetation on the semiarid Loess Plateau. This study aimed to clarify the N and P accumulation and N:P ratio at organ and plant level of a local legume species mixed with a grass species under varying water and fertilizer supplies, and thus to fully understand the requirements and balance of nutrient elements in response to growth conditions change of native species. The N and P concentration in the organ (leaf, stem, and root) and plant level of Lespedeza davurica (C 3 legume), were examined when intercropped with Bothriochloa ischaemum (C 4 grass). The two species were grown outdoors in pots under 80, 60, and 40% of soil water field capacity (FC), -NP, +N, +P, and +NP supply and the grass:legume mixture ratios of 2:10, 4:8, 6:6, 8:4, 10:2, and 12:0. The three set of treatments were under a randomized complete block design. Intercropping with B. ischaemum did not affect N concentrations in leaf, stem and root of L. davurica , but reduced P concentration in each organ under P fertilization. Only leaf N concentration in L. davurica showed decreasing trend as soil water content decreased under all fertilization and mixture proportion treatments. Stems had the lowest, while roots had the highest N and P concentration. As the mixture proportion of L. davurica decreased under P fertilization, P concentration in leaf and root also decreased. The N concentration in L. davurica at the whole plant level was 11.1-17.2%. P fertilization improved P concentration, while decreased N:P ratio in L. davurica . The N:P ratios were less than 14.0 under +P and +NP treatments. Our results implied that exogenous N and P fertilizer application may change the N:P stoichiometry and influence the balance between nutrients and organs of native dominant species in natural grassland, and P element should be paid more attention when considering rehabilitating

  19. Accumulation of N and P in the Legume Lespedeza davurica in Controlled Mixtures with the Grass Bothriochloa ischaemum under Varying Water and Fertilization Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bingcheng Xu

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Water and fertilizers affect the nitrogen (N and phosphorus (P acquisition and allocation among organs in dominant species in natural vegetation on the semiarid Loess Plateau. This study aimed to clarify the N and P accumulation and N:P ratio at organ and plant level of a local legume species mixed with a grass species under varying water and fertilizer supplies, and thus to fully understand the requirements and balance of nutrient elements in response to growth conditions change of native species. The N and P concentration in the organ (leaf, stem, and root and plant level of Lespedeza davurica (C3 legume, were examined when intercropped with Bothriochloa ischaemum (C4 grass. The two species were grown outdoors in pots under 80, 60, and 40% of soil water field capacity (FC, -NP, +N, +P, and +NP supply and the grass:legume mixture ratios of 2:10, 4:8, 6:6, 8:4, 10:2, and 12:0. The three set of treatments were under a randomized complete block design. Intercropping with B. ischaemum did not affect N concentrations in leaf, stem and root of L. davurica, but reduced P concentration in each organ under P fertilization. Only leaf N concentration in L. davurica showed decreasing trend as soil water content decreased under all fertilization and mixture proportion treatments. Stems had the lowest, while roots had the highest N and P concentration. As the mixture proportion of L. davurica decreased under P fertilization, P concentration in leaf and root also decreased. The N concentration in L. davurica at the whole plant level was 11.1–17.2%. P fertilization improved P concentration, while decreased N:P ratio in L. davurica. The N:P ratios were less than 14.0 under +P and +NP treatments. Our results implied that exogenous N and P fertilizer application may change the N:P stoichiometry and influence the balance between nutrients and organs of native dominant species in natural grassland, and P element should be paid more attention when considering

  20. Human reliability analysis for advanced control room of KNGR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Myung-Ro; Park, Seong-Kyu

    2000-01-01

    There are two purposes in Human Reliability Analysis (HRA) which was performed during Korean Next Generation Reactor (KNGR) Phase 2 research project. One is to present the human error probability quantification results for Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) and the other is to provide a list of the critical operator actions for Human Factor Engineering (HFE). Critical operator actions were identified from the KNGR HRA/RSA based on selection criteria and incorporated in the MMI Task Analysis, where they receive additional treatment. The use of HRA/PSA results in design, procedure development, and training was ensured by their incorporation in the MMI task analysis and MCR design such as fixed position alarms, displays and controls. Any dominant PSA sequence that takes credit for human performance to achieve acceptable results was incorporated in MMIS validation activities through the PSA-based critical operator actions. The integration of KNGR HRA into MMI design was sufficiently addressed all applicable review criteria of NUREG-0800, Chapter 18, Section 2 F and NUREG-0711. (S.Y.)

  1. Controlled human infection models for vaccine development: Zika virus debate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopichandran, Vijayaprasad

    2018-01-01

    An ethics panel, convened by the National Institute of Health and other research bodies in the USA, disallowed researchers from the Johns Hopkins University and University of Vermont from performing controlled human infection of healthy volunteers to develop a vaccine against Zika virus infection. The members published their ethical analysis and recommendations in February 2017. They have elaborated on the risks posed by human challenge with Zika virus to the volunteers and other uninvolved third parties and have systematically analysed the social value of such a human challenge experiment. They have also posited some mandatory ethical requirements which should be met before allowing the infection of healthy volunteers with the Zika virus. This commentary elaborates on the debate on the ethics of the human challenge model for the development of a Zika virus vaccine and the role of systematic ethical analysis in protecting the interests of research participants. It further analyses the importance of this debate to the development of a Zika vaccine in India.

  2. Control of human parasitic diseases: Context and overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molyneux, David H

    2006-01-01

    The control of parasitic diseases of humans has been undertaken since the aetiology and natural history of the infections was recognized and the deleterious effects on human health and well-being appreciated by policy makers, medical practitioners and public health specialists. However, while some parasitic infections such as malaria have proved difficult to control, as defined by a sustained reduction in incidence, others, particularly helminth infections can be effectively controlled. The different approaches to control from diagnosis, to treatment and cure of the clinically sick patient, to control the transmission within the community by preventative chemotherapy and vector control are outlined. The concepts of eradication, elimination and control are defined and examples of success summarized. Overviews of the health policy and financing environment in which programmes to control or eliminate parasitic diseases are positioned and the development of public-private partnerships as vehicles for product development or access to drugs for parasite disease control are discussed. Failure to sustain control of parasites may be due to development of drug resistance or the failure to implement proven strategies as a result of decreased resources within the health system, decentralization of health management through health-sector reform and the lack of financial and human resources in settings where per capita government expenditure on health may be less than $US 5 per year. However, success has been achieved in several large-scale programmes through sustained national government investment and/or committed donor support. It is also widely accepted that the level of investment in drug development for the parasitic diseases of poor populations is an unattractive option for pharmaceutical companies. The development of partnerships to specifically address this need provides some hope that the intractable problems of the treatment regimens for the trypanosomiases and

  3. Fertility awareness online: the efficacy of a fertility education website in increasing knowledge and changing fertility beliefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniluk, J C; Koert, E

    2015-02-01

    -based approaches have the benefit of being easily and conveniently accessed by individuals worldwide. However, the findings of the current study call into question the long-term efficacy of online fertility education, and suggest that variables such as gender and relevance need to be considered in assessing the efficacy of online fertility education strategies. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Optimizing the human engineering design of control panels in nuclear power plant control rooms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Behrendt, V.; Krehbiehl, T.; Hartfiel, H.D.; Mannhaupt, H.R.

    1986-12-01

    The study contains two parts. In the first part an analytical procedure is developed to logically and reproducibly subdivide the control room personnel tasks resulting in a list of the elements (operations) and the structure (operations scheme) of a task. The second part lists together all knowledge of and influences on human engineering which are known at this time and which should be taken into account in designing control rooms. The content of this catalogue can best be used and presented by using a personal computer. Two fundamental different ways are possible to use the catalogue. Designing new control rooms or new parts of control rooms the results of the task analysis which should be done first, should guide the search in the catalogue to find the right human engineering factors. For assessing existing control room panels the performance shaping factors which are establishing the table of content, permit a quick access to the catalogue. Both the specific procedure of the task analysis and the different ways of access to the catalogue of human engineering knowledge for designing nuclear power plant control rooms have been proven by experienced system engineers and safety experts. The results are presented. They have been considered in this version of the study. (orig.) [de

  5. The using of the control room automation against human errors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kautto, A.

    1993-01-01

    The control room automation has developed very strongly during the 80's in IVO (Imatran Voima Oy). The former work expanded strongly with building of the full scope training simulator to the Loviisa plant. The important milestones has been, for example the testing of the Critical Function Monitoring System, a concept developed by Combustion Eng. Inc., in Loviisa training simulator 1982, the replacing of the process and simulator computers in Loviisa 1989, and 1990 and the presenting the use of the computer based procedures in training of operators 1993. With developing of automation and procedures it is possible to minimize the probability of human error. However, it is not possible totally eliminate the risks caused by human errors. (orig.)

  6. Human intestinal dendritic cells as controllers of mucosal immunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Bernardo

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Dendritic cells are the most potent, professional antigen-presenting cells in the body; following antigen presentation they control the type (proinflammatory/regulatory of immune response that will take place, as well as its location. Given their high plasticity and maturation ability in response to local danger signals derived from innate immunity, dendritic cells are key actors in the connection between innate immunity and adaptive immunity responses. In the gut dendritic cells control immune tolerance mechanisms against food and/or commensal flora antigens, and are also capable of initiating an active immune response in the presence of invading pathogens. Dendritic cells are thus highly efficient in controlling the delicate balance between tolerance and immunity in an environment so rich in antigens as the gut, and any factor involving these cells may impact their function, ultimately leading to the development of bowel conditions such as celiac disease or inflammatory bowel disease. In this review we shall summarize our understanding of human intestinal dendritic cells, their ability to express and induce migration markers, the various environmental factors modulating their properties, their subsets in the gut, and the problems entailed by their study, including identification strategies, differences between humans and murine models, and phenotypical variations along the gastrointestinal tract.

  7. Stability and Control of Human Trunk Movement During Walking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Q.; Sepehri, N.; Thornton-Trump, A. B.; Alexander, M.

    1998-01-01

    A mathematical model has been developed to study the control mechanisms of human trunk movement during walking. The trunk is modeled as a base-excited inverted pendulum with two-degrees of rotational freedom. The base point, corresponding to the bony landmark of the sacrum, can move in three-dimensional space in a general way. Since the stability of upright posture is essential for human walking, a controller has been designed such that the stability of the pendulum about the upright position is guaranteed. The control laws are developed based on Lyapunov's stability theory and include feedforward and linear feedback components. It is found that the feedforward component plays a critical role in keeping postural stability, and the linear feedback component, (resulting from viscoelastic function of the musculoskeletal system) can effectively duplicate the pattern of trunk movement. The mathematical model is validated by comparing the simulation results with those based on gait measurements performed in the Biomechanics Laboratory at the University of Manitoba.

  8. Human movement data for malaria control and elimination strategic planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pindolia, Deepa K; Garcia, Andres J; Wesolowski, Amy; Smith, David L; Buckee, Caroline O; Noor, Abdisalan M; Snow, Robert W; Tatem, Andrew J

    2012-06-18

    Recent increases in funding for malaria control have led to the reduction in transmission in many malaria endemic countries, prompting the national control programmes of 36 malaria endemic countries to set elimination targets. Accounting for human population movement (HPM) in planning for control, elimination and post-elimination surveillance is important, as evidenced by previous elimination attempts that were undermined by the reintroduction of malaria through HPM. Strategic control and elimination planning, therefore, requires quantitative information on HPM patterns and the translation of these into parasite dispersion. HPM patterns and the risk of malaria vary substantially across spatial and temporal scales, demographic and socioeconomic sub-groups, and motivation for travel, so multiple data sets are likely required for quantification of movement. While existing studies based on mobile phone call record data combined with malaria transmission maps have begun to address within-country HPM patterns, other aspects remain poorly quantified despite their importance in accurately gauging malaria movement patterns and building control and detection strategies, such as cross-border HPM, demographic and socioeconomic stratification of HPM patterns, forms of transport, personal malaria protection and other factors that modify malaria risk. A wealth of data exist to aid filling these gaps, which, when combined with spatial data on transport infrastructure, traffic and malaria transmission, can answer relevant questions to guide strategic planning. This review aims to (i) discuss relevant types of HPM across spatial and temporal scales, (ii) document where datasets exist to quantify HPM, (iii) highlight where data gaps remain and (iv) briefly put forward methods for integrating these datasets in a Geographic Information System (GIS) framework for analysing and modelling human population and Plasmodium falciparum malaria infection movements.

  9. Human movement data for malaria control and elimination strategic planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pindolia Deepa K

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Recent increases in funding for malaria control have led to the reduction in transmission in many malaria endemic countries, prompting the national control programmes of 36 malaria endemic countries to set elimination targets. Accounting for human population movement (HPM in planning for control, elimination and post-elimination surveillance is important, as evidenced by previous elimination attempts that were undermined by the reintroduction of malaria through HPM. Strategic control and elimination planning, therefore, requires quantitative information on HPM patterns and the translation of these into parasite dispersion. HPM patterns and the risk of malaria vary substantially across spatial and temporal scales, demographic and socioeconomic sub-groups, and motivation for travel, so multiple data sets are likely required for quantification of movement. While existing studies based on mobile phone call record data combined with malaria transmission maps have begun to address within-country HPM patterns, other aspects remain poorly quantified despite their importance in accurately gauging malaria movement patterns and building control and detection strategies, such as cross-border HPM, demographic and socioeconomic stratification of HPM patterns, forms of transport, personal malaria protection and other factors that modify malaria risk. A wealth of data exist to aid filling these gaps, which, when combined with spatial data on transport infrastructure, traffic and malaria transmission, can answer relevant questions to guide strategic planning. This review aims to (i discuss relevant types of HPM across spatial and temporal scales, (ii document where datasets exist to quantify HPM, (iii highlight where data gaps remain and (iv briefly put forward methods for integrating these datasets in a Geographic Information System (GIS framework for analysing and modelling human population and Plasmodium falciparum malaria infection movements.

  10. Discovery of human posterior head 20 (hPH20) and homo sapiens sperm acrosome associated 1 (hSPACA1) immunocontraceptive epitopes and their effects on fertility in male and female mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xuemei; Liu, Xiaodong; Ren, Xiuhua; Li, Xuewu; Wang, Li; Zang, Weidong

    2016-03-01

    The key goals of immunocontraception research are to obtain full contraceptive effects using vaccines administered to both males and females. Current research concerning human anti-sperm contraceptive vaccines is focused on delineating infertility-related epitopes to avoid autoimmune disease. We constructed phage-display peptide libraries to select epitope peptides derived from human posterior head 20 (hPH20) and homo sapiens sperm acrosome associated 1 (hSPACA1) using sera collected from infertile women harbouring anti-sperm antibodies. Following five rounds of selection, positive colonies were reconfirmed for reactivity with the immunoinfertile sera. We biopanned and analysed the chemical properties of four epitope peptides, named P82, Sa6, Sa37 and Sa76. Synthetic peptides were made and coupled to either bovine serum albumin (BSA) or ovalbumin. We used the BSA-conjugated peptides to immunise BALB/c mice and examined the effects on fertility in female and male mice. The synthetic peptides generated a sperm-specific antibody response in female and male mice that caused a contraceptive state. The immunocontraceptive effect was reversible and, with the disappearance of peptide-specific antibodies, there was complete restoration of fertility. Vaccinations using P82, Sa6 and Sa76 peptides resulted in no apparent side effects. Thus, it is efficient and practical to identify epitope peptide candidates by phage display. These peptides may find clinical application in the specific diagnosis and treatment of male and female infertility and contraceptive vaccine development.

  11. Cardioprotection by controlling hyperamylinemia in a "humanized" diabetic rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Despa, Sanda; Sharma, Savita; Harris, Todd R; Dong, Hua; Li, Ning; Chiamvimonvat, Nipavan; Taegtmeyer, Heinrich; Margulies, Kenneth B; Hammock, Bruce D; Despa, Florin

    2014-08-21

    Chronic hypersecretion of the pancreatic hormone amylin is common in humans with obesity or prediabetic insulin resistance and induces amylin aggregation and proteotoxicity in the pancreas. We recently showed that hyperamylinemia also affects the cardiovascular system. Here, we investigated whether amylin aggregates interact directly with cardiac myocytes and whether controlling hyperamylinemia protects the heart. By Western blot, we found abundant amylin aggregates in lysates of cardiac myocytes from obese patients, but not in controls. Aggregated amylin was elevated in failing hearts, suggesting a role in myocyte injury. Using rats overexpressing human amylin in the pancreas (HIP rats) and control myocytes incubated with human amylin, we show that amylin aggregation at the sarcolemma induces oxidative stress and Ca(2+) dysregulation. In time, HIP rats developed cardiac hypertrophy and left-ventricular dilation. We then tested whether metabolites with antiaggregation properties, such as eicosanoid acids, limit myocardial amylin deposition. Rats were treated with an inhibitor of soluble epoxide hydrolase, the enzyme that degrades endogenous eicosanoids. Treatment doubled the blood concentration of eicosanoids, which drastically reduced incorporation of aggregated amylin in cardiac myocytes and blood cells, without affecting pancreatic amylin secretion. Animals in the treated group showed reduced cardiac hypertrophy and left-ventricular dilation. The cardioprotective mechanisms included the mitigation of amylin-induced cardiac oxidative stress and Ca(2+) dysregulation. The results suggest blood amylin as a novel therapeutic target in diabetic heart disease and elevating blood levels of antiaggregation metabolites as a pharmacological strategy to reduce amylin aggregation and amylin-mediated cardiotoxicity. © 2014 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley Blackwell.

  12. A thermal manikin with human thermoregulatory control: implementation and validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foda, Ehab; Sirén, Kai

    2012-09-01

    Tens of different sorts of thermal manikins are employed worldwide, mainly in the evaluation of clothing thermal insulation and thermal environments. They are regulated thermally using simplified control modes. This paper reports on the implementation and validation of a new thermoregulatory control mode for thermal manikins. The new control mode is based on a multi-segmental Pierce (MSP) model. In this study, the MSP control mode was implemented, using the LabVIEW platform, onto the control system of the thermal manikin 'Therminator'. The MSP mode was then used to estimate the segmental equivalent temperature (t(eq)) along with constant surface temperature (CST) mode under two asymmetric thermal conditions. Furthermore, subjective tests under the same two conditions were carried out using 17 human subjects. The estimated segmental t(eq) from the experiments with the two modes and from the subjective assessment were compared in order to validate the use of the MSP mode for the estimation of t(eq). The results showed that the t(eq) values estimated by the MSP mode were closer to the subjective mean votes under the two test conditions for most body segments and compared favourably with values estimated by the CST mode.

  13. A HUMAN FACTORS ENGINEERING PROCESS TO SUPPORT HUMAN-SYSTEM INTERFACE DESIGN IN CONTROL ROOM MODERNIZATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kovesdi, C.; Joe, J.; Boring, R.

    2017-05-01

    The primary objective of the United States (U.S.) Department of Energy (DOE) Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) program is to sustain operation of the existing commercial nuclear power plants (NPPs) through a multi-pathway approach in conducting research and development (R&D). The Advanced Instrumentation, Information, and Control (II&C) System Technologies pathway conducts targeted R&D to address aging and reliability concerns with legacy instrumentation and control (I&C) and other information systems in existing U.S. NPPs. Control room modernization is an important part following this pathway, and human factors experts at Idaho National Laboratory (INL) have been involved in conducting R&D to support migration of new digital main control room (MCR) technologies from legacy analog and legacy digital I&C. This paper describes a human factors engineering (HFE) process that supports human-system interface (HSI) design in MCR modernization activities, particularly with migration of old digital to new digital I&C. The process described in this work is an expansion from the LWRS Report INL/EXT-16-38576, and is a requirements-driven approach that aligns with NUREG-0711 requirements. The work described builds upon the existing literature by adding more detail around key tasks and decisions to make when transitioning from HSI Design into Verification and Validation (V&V). The overall objective of this process is to inform HSI design and elicit specific, measurable, and achievable human factors criteria for new digital technologies. Upon following this process, utilities should have greater confidence with transitioning from HSI design into V&V.

  14. [Ruling of the Inter-American Court of Human Rights, the Case of Artavia Murillo et al (in vitro fertilization) v. Costa Rica; new hopes for the reproductive freedom in Latin America].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brena, Ingrid

    2013-01-01

    Modern reproductive technology has not been completely accepted and, especially in-vitro fertilization, IVF has generated serious social, political and legal controversies in Latin America. We may distinguish two trends that show us the oppositions; on one hand, the primacy of the embryo's live and its protection during artificial reproductive process and on the other, the primacy of liberal access to assisted reproduction techniques. The debate came to the fore, after a ruling by the Costa Rica's Constitutional Chamber who banned de IVF in 2000. The damaged couples after fulfilling the process toward the Inter-American Commission on Human Rights, present a petition to the Inter-American Court of Human Rights. The Court's sentence and its arguments will be the subject of these comments as well that will allow to considered that both of them should be considered as a very important step towards the construction of a secular liberal vision over the assisted reproduction in Latin America.

  15. Contextual control of attentional allocation in human discrimination learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uengoer, Metin; Lachnit, Harald; Lotz, Anja; Koenig, Stephan; Pearce, John M

    2013-01-01

    In 3 human predictive learning experiments, we investigated whether the allocation of attention can come under the control of contextual stimuli. In each experiment, participants initially received a conditional discrimination for which one set of cues was trained as relevant in Context 1 and irrelevant in Context 2, and another set was relevant in Context 2 and irrelevant in Context 1. For Experiments 1 and 2, we observed that a second discrimination based on cues that had previously been trained as relevant in Context 1 during the conditional discrimination was acquired more rapidly in Context 1 than in Context 2. Experiment 3 revealed a similar outcome when new stimuli from the original dimensions were used in the test stage. Our results support the view that the associability of a stimulus can be controlled by the stimuli that accompany it.

  16. Remote controlled capsules in human drug absorption (HDA) studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilding, Ian R; Prior, David V

    2003-01-01

    The biopharmaceutical complexity of today's new drug candidates provides significant challenges for pharmaceutical scientists in terms of both candidate selection and optimizing subsequent development strategy. In addition, life cycle management of marketed drugs has become an important income stream for pharmaceutical companies, but the selection of least risk/highest benefit strategies is far from simple. The proactive adoption of human drug absorption (HDA) studies using remote controlled capsules offers the pharmaceutical scientist significant guidance for planning a route through the maze of product development. This review examines the position of HDA studies in drug development, using a variety of case histories and an insightful update on remote controlled capsules to achieve site-specific delivery.

  17. Effects of External Loads on Human Head Movement Control Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, M. H.; Choi, O. M.

    1984-01-01

    The central and reflexive control strategies underlying movements were elucidated by studying the effects of external loads on human head movement control systems. Some experimental results are presented on dynamic changes weigh the addition of aviation helmet (SPH4) and lead weights (6 kg). Intended time-optimal movements, their dynamics and electromyographic activity of neck muscles in normal movements, and also in movements made with external weights applied to the head were measured. It was observed that, when the external loads were added, the subject went through complex adapting processes and the head movement trajectory and its derivatives reached steady conditions only after transient adapting period. The steady adapted state was reached after 15 to 20 seconds (i.e., 5 to 6 movements).

  18. Determination of the uranium content in phosphate fertilizers by the fission track registration technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rocha, A.C.S. da.

    1983-01-01

    The application of fission track registration technique (SSNTD) to determine the uranium contents in phosphate fertilizers is dealt with. Samples were prepared by the wet method and the detector used was Makrofol Kg 10μm thick. The determination of uranium in phosphate fertilizer industry is of considerable interest in environmental control. The roots of vegetables tend to absorb and accumulate uranium form soil and so the human body could be contaminated. The phosphate fertilizers were originated from the phosphate-rich apatite deposits located in the high naturally radioactive areas of Araxa and Tapira in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. The results obtained ranged from 11.1 to 100ppm of uranium with a total error from 8.2 to 15.7%. The thorium contributions to the total track counting were discounted, though the actual concentrations of thorium in the samples were not determined. (Author) [pt

  19. Design of intelligent comfort control system with human learning and minimum power control strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang, J.; Du, R.

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents the design of an intelligent comfort control system by combining the human learning and minimum power control strategies for the heating, ventilating and air conditioning (HVAC) system. In the system, the predicted mean vote (PMV) is adopted as the control objective to improve indoor comfort level by considering six comfort related variables, whilst a direct neural network controller is designed to overcome the nonlinear feature of the PMV calculation for better performance. To achieve the highest comfort level for the specific user, a human learning strategy is designed to tune the user's comfort zone, and then, a VAV and minimum power control strategy is proposed to minimize the energy consumption further. In order to validate the system design, a series of computer simulations are performed based on a derived HVAC and thermal space model. The simulation results confirm the design of the intelligent comfort control system. In comparison to the conventional temperature controller, this system can provide a higher comfort level and better system performance, so it has great potential for HVAC applications in the future

  20. Gaze-and-brain-controlled interfaces for human-computer and human-robot interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shishkin S. L.

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background. Human-machine interaction technology has greatly evolved during the last decades, but manual and speech modalities remain single output channels with their typical constraints imposed by the motor system’s information transfer limits. Will brain-computer interfaces (BCIs and gaze-based control be able to convey human commands or even intentions to machines in the near future? We provide an overview of basic approaches in this new area of applied cognitive research. Objective. We test the hypothesis that the use of communication paradigms and a combination of eye tracking with unobtrusive forms of registering brain activity can improve human-machine interaction. Methods and Results. Three groups of ongoing experiments at the Kurchatov Institute are reported. First, we discuss the communicative nature of human-robot interaction, and approaches to building a more e cient technology. Specifically, “communicative” patterns of interaction can be based on joint attention paradigms from developmental psychology, including a mutual “eye-to-eye” exchange of looks between human and robot. Further, we provide an example of “eye mouse” superiority over the computer mouse, here in emulating the task of selecting a moving robot from a swarm. Finally, we demonstrate a passive, noninvasive BCI that uses EEG correlates of expectation. This may become an important lter to separate intentional gaze dwells from non-intentional ones. Conclusion. The current noninvasive BCIs are not well suited for human-robot interaction, and their performance, when they are employed by healthy users, is critically dependent on the impact of the gaze on selection of spatial locations. The new approaches discussed show a high potential for creating alternative output pathways for the human brain. When support from passive BCIs becomes mature, the hybrid technology of the eye-brain-computer (EBCI interface will have a chance to enable natural, fluent, and the

  1. A randomized controlled dose-response pilot study of addition of hCG to recombinant FSH during controlled ovarian stimulation for in vitro fertilization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loft, A; Egeberg, Anne Noes; Smitz, J

    2012-01-01

    Is it possible to define an optimal dose of hCG in combination with rFSH from the first day of stimulation in the GnRH agonist protocol applied to IVF? SUMMARY ANSWER: Supplementation with hCG from the first day of stimulation may increase the number of top-quality embryos per patient. Daily doses...... has been previously reported. We suggest a large clinical trial to be proceeded with a group given 100 IU hCG daily versus a control group. WHAT IS KNOWN AND WHAT THIS PAPER ADDS: Prospective multicentre studies have indicated increased live birth rates and increased number of top-quality embryos when...

  2. Effects of Probiotics on Human Obesity Control: An Unproven Hypothesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amparo Arias

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study is to review the different publications associated with probiotics and obesity, as well as to get some new insights regarding the role of the microbiome in diseases such as obesity. An extensive search for scientific publications (studies in animal models, cells, clinical trials and reviews was performed in the following specialist computer databases (PubMed central (PMC-NCBI, Elsevier Journal, Scielo Spain, Scirus, Science Direct to establish the current status of the potential effect of probiotics in the control of obesity in humans, as well as the relationship between intestinal microbiota and obesity. The intestinal microbiota and oral probiotics have a positive effect on human health, as they can regulate the immune functions and protect from infections and chronic inflammatory processes. Although divergent results have recently been reported, it has been shown but not confirmed that intestinal microbiota might play a role as a new factor associated with the regulation of body weight and obesity-related diseases. The international MetaHIT project has shown that human microbiome populations can be grouped into three different enterotypes. Two of these enterotypes (Bacteroides and Ruminococcus seem to encode functions related to obesity. Although the relationship between intestinal microbiota and obesity are not yet well established, the attempt to manipulate intestinal microbiota through diet is suggested as a new plausible approach to prevent, or modify the risk of, obesity and its related diseases.

  3. Structure, function, and control of the human musculoskeletal network.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew C Murphy

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The human body is a complex organism, the gross mechanical properties of which are enabled by an interconnected musculoskeletal network controlled by the nervous system. The nature of musculoskeletal interconnection facilitates stability, voluntary movement, and robustness to injury. However, a fundamental understanding of this network and its control by neural systems has remained elusive. Here we address this gap in knowledge by utilizing medical databases and mathematical modeling to reveal the organizational structure, predicted function, and neural control of the musculoskeletal system. We constructed a highly simplified whole-body musculoskeletal network in which single muscles connect to multiple bones via both origin and insertion points. We demonstrated that, using this simplified model, a muscle's role in this network could offer a theoretical prediction of the susceptibility of surrounding components to secondary injury. Finally, we illustrated that sets of muscles cluster into network communities that mimic the organization of control modules in primary motor cortex. This novel formalism for describing interactions between the muscular and skeletal systems serves as a foundation to develop and test therapeutic responses to injury, inspiring future advances in clinical treatments.

  4. Expression of extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer (EMMPRIN) in the endometrium of patients with repeated implantation failure after in vitro fertilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turgut, A; Goruk, N Y; Tunc, S Y; Agaçayak, E; Alabalik, U; Yalinkaya, A; Gül, T

    2014-01-01

    To compare the immunohistochemical expression of extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer (EMMPRIN) in repeated implantation failure (RIF) patients with normal fertile controls. The study group consisted of primary infertile patients with RIF and normal fertile controls between January 2011 and February 2013. Endometrial samples received at the luteal phase were exposed to immunohistochemical staining for EMMPRIN antibodies. EMMPRIN expression of endometrial glandular epithelial cells, stromal cells and vascular endothelial cells were evaluated. The main outcome measure was defined as immunohistochemical score with regard to the severity and extent of staining. The study group consisted of 26 primary infertile patients, whereas the control group consisted of 40 normal fertile controls. The fertile group was found to have stronger expression of EMMPRIN than the study group when endometrial glandular epithelial cells, stromal cells and vascular endothelial cells were evaluated with regards to the severity of staining (p EMMPRIN in the endometrial cells of the patients with RIF compared with fertile healthy controls. We suggest that reduced EMMPRIN expression in the human endometrium may lead to poor endometrial receptivity.

  5. The Rule of Organic Fertilizer on Fertilizer Efficiency and Requirement Rate for Vegetable Crop on Inceptisols Ciherang, Bogor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ladiyani Retno Widowati

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Utilization of organic fertilizer is an alternative to increase soil health and supply a small amount of plant nutrient. Meanwhile agricultural soil in Indonesia commonly have low organic carbon content (<2% therefore application of organic fertilizer is recommended. Based on that, the aim of the research is to measure the effectiveness of organic fertilizer on caisim (Brassica chinensis L. growth, to measure the release of N-NO3- and N-NH4+, to determine the recommendation of organic fertilizer for caisim on Incentisols Ciherang, Bogor. The research had been conducted at Research and Soil Testing Laboratory and green house of Soil Research Institute, Laladon – Bogor on April to July 2008 using soil sample of Inceptisols Ciherang, Bogor. The treatments were: Control (no fertilizer, NPK, NPK + 500 kg organic fertilizer, ¾ NPK + 500 kg organic fertilizer, ½ NPK + 500 kg organic fertilizer, ¼ NPK + 500 kg organic fertilizer, organic fertilizer 500kg, organic fertilizer 1000 kg, NPK + 750 kg organic fertilizer, and NPK + 250 kg organic fertilizer. The five replications research had been conducted with Completely Randomized Design. The result indicated thats: (1 NPK fertilizer increased with addition of organic fertilizer approved by the evidence of increasing of plant high 2-10%, leaves number 1-2%, and crop production 16-36%. The relative agronomic effectiveness (RAE of treatment NPK+various rate of organic fertilizer were higher than NPK alone with value of 136-181%. (2 The release of NH4+-N and NO3--N from anorganic fertilizer (NPK treatment in four weeks incubation period showed balance proportion with N rate. Nitrogen released from organic fertilizer in the same incubation period are 5.39 mg NH4+-N kg-1 and 12.39 mg NO3- -N kg-1. (3 The best organic fertilizer rate based on fertilizer curve for Inceptisols Cicadas-Bogor having low C and N-organic is 560 kg organic fertilizer + NPK (300 kg Urea ha-1; 50 kg SP-36 ha-1; 50 kg KCl ha-1 produce

  6. Perchlorate in Fertilizers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Eldridge, J. E; Tsui, D. T; Mattie, D. R; Crown, J; Scott, R; Blackman, T

    1999-01-01

    ...) methods for perchlorate analysis in lawn and garden fertilizers. Seven government, private, and commercial laboratories participated in the analysis of 34 aqueous suspensions of the test materials, using similar ion chromatography systems...

  7. Commercial Phosporus Fertilizer Purchased

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Amounts of fertilizer P2O5 purchased by states in individual years 2003, 2005, 2007, 2009 and 2011, and the % change in average amounts purchased per year from...

  8. Commercial Nitrogen Fertilizer Purchased

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Amounts of fertilizer nitrogen (N) purchased by states in individual years 2003, 2005, 2007, 2009 and 2011, and the % change in average amounts purchased per year...

  9. Cancer and fertility preservation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lambertini, Matteo; Del Mastro, Lucia; Pescio, Maria C

    2016-01-01

    In the last years, thanks to the improvement in the prognosis of cancer patients, a growing attention has been given to the fertility issues. International guidelines on fertility preservation in cancer patients recommend that physicians discuss, as early as possible, with all patients...... of reproductive age their risk of infertility from the disease and/or treatment and their interest in having children after cancer, and help with informed fertility preservation decisions. As recommended by the American Society of Clinical Oncology and the European Society for Medical Oncology, sperm...... data have become available, and several issues in this field are still controversial and should be addressed by both patients and their treating physicians.In April 2015, physicians with expertise in the field of fertility preservation in cancer patients from several European countries were invited...

  10. Queering the fertility clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamo, Laura

    2013-06-01

    A sociologist examines contemporary engagements of queer bodies and identities with fertility biomedicine. Drawing on social science, media culture, and the author's own empirical research, three questions frame the analysis: 1. In what ways have queers on the gendered margins moved into the center and become implicated or central users of biomedicine's fertility offerings? 2. In what ways is Fertility Inc. transformed by its own incorporation of various gendered and queered bodies and identities? And 3. What are the biosocial and bioethical implications of expanded queer engagements and possibilities with Fertility Inc.? The author argues that "patient" activism through web 2.0 coupled with a largely unregulated free-market of assisted reproduction has included various queer identities as "parents-in-waiting." Such inclusions raise a set of ethical tensions regarding how to be accountable to the many people implicated in this supply and demand industry.

  11. Sperm preparation for fertilization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gadella, B.M.

    2014-01-01

    Description This book contains 19 chapters that discuss theoretical and applied andrology for domestic, zoo and wild animals. Topics include semen and its constituents; sperm production and harvest; determinants of sperm morphology; sperm preparation for fertilization; practical aspects of semen

  12. Fertilization in Flowering Plants

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ecology and the. Environment ... agents (pollinators), the next step before fertilization is to se- .... the embryo sac are referred to as pollen-pistil interaction and play ..... evolutionary success of flowering plants when compared to other groups of ...

  13. Effect of Gamma Irradiation, Organic and Mineral Fertilizers on Growth, Yield and Fruit Quality of Sweet Pepper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fath El-Bab, T.Sh.

    2014-01-01

    Field experiment was carried out for two successive seasons 2011 and 2012, on sweet pepper ( Capsicum annuum L. ) cv. California wonder in the Research Station of Atomic Energy Authority at Inshas, Egypt. This research aimed to evaluate response of sweet pepper to chemical and organic manure (poultry or sheep) fertilizers. Organic manures were treated with gamma rays at the dose of 10 KGy to keep it free from pathogenic organism pests and weed seeds. Growth characters such as plant height, num - ber of leaves, number of stems and dry weight per plant in the two seasons were significantly respond to tested factors. The highest vegetative growth characters were induced by 100% mineral fertilizer. Meanwhile, the lowest vegetative growth characters were recorded by using 100% organic manure as compared to mineral fertilizer. On the other hand dry weight of plants treated with organic manure treatment significantly decreased as compared to mineral fertilizer in the two seasons. Furthermore, using organic manure had enhanced or improved the quality of sweet pepper fruits. In conclusion, mineral fertilizers combined with organic fertilizers were the best treatment resulted in the highest vegetative growth, yield and fruit quality of sweet pepper. This treatment resulted in not only higher total chlorophyll in leave content compared to control plants, but also the highest chemical properties values of fruits, total soluble solids, acidity, vitamin C. and carotenoids in the two seasons. Nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium content non significantly increased with all treatments except that of 100% chemical fertilizer. The improvement of plant growth and production recorded with the irradiated organic manure as compared to the unirradiated one. All parameters were higher in sweet pepper fertilized with poultry manure as compared to that fertilized with sheep manure. Although the treatment of organic manure only gave to some extent, less total yield, it has great impact on the

  14. Immunosuppressive drugs and fertility

    OpenAIRE

    Leroy, Clara; Rigot, Jean-Marc; Leroy, Maryse; Decanter, Christine; Le Mapihan, Kristell; Parent, Anne-Sophie; Le Guillou, Anne-Claire; Yakoub-Agha, Ibrahim; Dharancy, Sébastien; Noel, Christian; Vantyghem, Marie-Christine

    2015-01-01

    Immunosuppressive drugs are used in the treatment of inflammatory and autoimmune diseases, as well as in transplantation. Frequently prescribed in young people, these treatments may have deleterious effects on fertility, pregnancy outcomes and the unborn child. This review aims to summarize the main gonadal side effects of immunosuppressants, to detail the effects on fertility and pregnancy of each class of drug, and to provide recommendations on the management of patients who are seen prior ...

  15. [Fertility in rural and urban areas of Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia Y Garma, I O

    1989-01-01

    Data from 6 fertility surveys conducted in Mexico between 1969-87 were used to compare rural and urban fertility and to determine whether a significant level of contraceptive usage could be achieved in rural areas despite their lack of socioeconomic development. Age-specific marital fertility rates were calculated for the 4 national-level and 2 rural fertility surveys. The index of fertility control developed by Coale and Trussel was calculated for rural, urban, and all areas. The marital total fertility rate in rural areas declined from 10.6 in 1970 to 7.4 in 1982, a decline of 2.5% annually. From 1982-87 the annual rate of decline in rural fertility slowed to 1.6%, reaching 6.8 children in 1987. The urban marital total fertility rate declined from 7.72 in 1976 to 5.03 in 1987, while the marital total fertility rate for Mexico as a whole declined from 9.04 in 1976 to 5.85 in 1987. The indices of fertility control showed slowly increasing use of contraception in rural areas starting from the very low level of 1969. The urban index of fertility control showed some contraceptive use for all age groups in all surveys. The increases in contraceptive usage were considerable in rural areas from 1976-82 and much less marked in urban areas. From 1982-87 the inverse was observed and the fertility decline in urban areas was more marked. The condition of natural fertility found in rural areas in 1969 subsequently disappeared. Over time, fertility decline and use of contraception have intensified. Contraception is widely practiced in urban areas and is continuing to become more prevalent. The rural fertility decline in 1976-82 suggests that at least sometimes increases in fertility control are more important in rural areas than in urban areas. The theory of modernization, which holds that fertility decline in developed countries is attributable to factors associated with the process of modernization, thus comes into question. However, it is probable that a sustained fertility

  16. Prediction of bull fertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utt, Matthew D

    2016-06-01

    Prediction of male fertility is an often sought-after endeavor for many species of domestic animals. This review will primarily focus on providing some examples of dependent and independent variables to stimulate thought about the approach and methodology of identifying the most appropriate of those variables to predict bull (bovine) fertility. Although the list of variables will continue to grow with advancements in science, the principles behind making predictions will likely not change significantly. The basic principle of prediction requires identifying a dependent variable that is an estimate of fertility and an independent variable or variables that may be useful in predicting the fertility estimate. Fertility estimates vary in which parts of the process leading to conception that they infer about and the amount of variation that influences the estimate and the uncertainty thereof. The list of potential independent variables can be divided into competence of sperm based on their performance in bioassays or direct measurement of sperm attributes. A good prediction will use a sample population of bulls that is representative of the population to which an inference will be made. Both dependent and independent variables should have a dynamic range in their values. Careful selection of independent variables includes reasonable measurement repeatability and minimal correlation among variables. Proper estimation and having an appreciation of the degree of uncertainty of dependent and independent variables are crucial for using predictions to make decisions regarding bull fertility. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Conference considers low fertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    At present, at least 51 countries--representing 44% of the world's population--are showing below-replacement fertility rates. In some of these countries, where the number of new births is not adequate to replace aging populations, this trend is problematic. In other countries, most notably China, declining fertility has conferred significant benefits. At an Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP) Population Commission meeting held in New York in 1997, staff from China's State Statistical Bureau reported the country has a current total fertility rate of 1.8. The birth rate remains high, however, because of the large numbers of Chinese women in the 15-49 year reproductive age group (336 million in 1997). Also buffering the impact of a low fertility rate is a large labor surplus (130 million excess workers in rural China). To keep fertility below the replacement level, China plans to improve the quality of its family planning service, enhance poverty alleviation programs, and increase incentives for small families in rural areas. China's low fertility rate has provided an important impetus for economic development.

  18. In-Vitro Fertilization Practice: Awareness and Perceptions ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BACKGROUND: In-vitro fertilization(IVF) is a procedure that is one of the options in managing infertility. It involves fertilizing the egg from the female with the spermatozoa from the male outside the human body. It is a common practice in the developed world. However it is still a new phenomenon in the developing countries.

  19. 76 FR 35130 - Pipeline Safety: Control Room Management/Human Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-16

    ...: Control Room Management/Human Factors AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration... the Control Room Management/Human Factors regulations in order to realize the safety benefits sooner... FR 5536). By this amendment to the Control Room Management/Human Factors (CRM) rule, an operator must...

  20. Compliance to the recommended use of folic acid supplements for women in Sweden is higher among those under treatment for infertility than among fertile controls and is also related to socioeconomic status and lifestyle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murto, Tiina; Yngve, Agneta; Skoog Svanberg, Agneta; Altmäe, Signe; Salumets, Andres; Wånggren, Kjell; Stavreus-Evers, Anneli

    2017-01-01

    Background : Folate has been discussed in relation to fertility among women, but studies on women under treatment for infertility are lacking. Objective : The objective of this study was to investigate folic acid supplement use and folate status among women under treatment for infertility (hereafter infertile) and fertile women also in regard to socioeconomic and lifestyle factors. Design : Lifestyle and dietary habits, and use of dietary supplements were assessed using a questionnaire. Blood samples were obtained for analysis of folate status. 24-hour recall interviews were also performed. Results : Highly educated, employed and infertile women were most prone to using folic acid supplements. The infertile women had a significantly better folate status than the fertile women. Folate status did not correlate with socioeconomic or lifestyle factors. The infertile women were physically more active, smoked less and were employed. Our questionnaire data had only fair agreement with the data from 24-hour recalls, but the folate status data was clearly correlated to our questionnaire results. Conclusions : Infertile women were most prone to using folic acid supplements and had better folate status than the controls. High educational and employment status were found to be key factors for high compliance to the recommended use folic acid supplements.

  1. Movement augmentation to evaluate human control of locomotor stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Geoffrey; Wu, Mengnan Mary; Huang, Felix C; Gordon, Keith E

    2017-07-01

    Controlling center of mass (COM) position and velocity within a dynamic base of support is essential for gait stability. This skill is often compromised following neurologic injury, creating a need to develop effective interventions to enhance gait stability. A movement augmentation paradigm applied to walking could potentially be used to improve control of COM dynamics. We have developed a cable robot system, the Agility Trainer, to apply continuous frontal-plane forces to the pelvis during treadmill walking. This cable robot system uses a set of series elastic actuators powered by linear motors to create bilateral forces. Here we use the Agility Trainer to create a negative viscosity force field proportional to the subject's lateral velocity. Two healthy young subjects performed two 10-minute walking trials, Baseline and Negative Viscosity. During the first minute of walking in the Negative Viscosity field, participants' lateral COM motion became less controlled when compared to the rhythmic sinusoidal motion observed during Baseline walking. By the 10th minute of walking in the Negative Viscosity field the participants had adapted their gait patterns, decreasing their variation in peak lateral COM speed each stride. These results demonstrate that it is feasible to use the Agility Trainer to apply a movement augmentation paradigm to human walking.

  2. SOCIAL DETERMINANTS OF LOW FERTILITY IN BRAZIL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castanheira, Helena Cruz; Kohler, Hans-Peter

    2017-11-01

    An increasing number of developing countries are experiencing below replacement fertility rates. Although the factors associated with low fertility in developed countries have been widely explored in the literature, studies of low fertility in middle- and low-income countries continue to be rare. To help fill this gap, Brazil was used as a case study to assess whether human development, gender equality and the ability of mothers with young children to work are associated with the likelihood of married or cohabiting women to have a child. For this purpose, multilevel logistic regressions were estimated using the 1991, 2000 and 2010 Brazilian Demographic Censuses. It was found that human development was negatively associated with fertility in the three periods analysed. Gender equality and the ability of mothers with young children to work were positively associated with the odds of having higher order births in Brazil in 2000 and 2010. In 1991, these variables were not associated with higher order births, and gender equality was negatively associated with first births. The positive association found in 2000 and 2010 may constitute a reversal of the relationship that in all likelihood prevailed earlier in the demographic transition when gender equality was most likely negatively correlated with fertility levels.

  3. Wealth, fertility and adaptive behaviour in industrial populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    The lack of association between wealth and fertility in contemporary industrialized populations has often been used to question the value of an evolutionary perspective on human behaviour. Here, we first present the history of this debate, and the evolutionary explanations for why wealth and fertility (the number of children) are decoupled in modern industrial settings. We suggest that the nature of the relationship between wealth and fertility remains an open question because of the multi-faceted nature of wealth, and because existing cross-sectional studies are ambiguous with respect to how material wealth and fertility are linked. A literature review of longitudinal studies on wealth and fertility shows that the majority of these report positive effects of wealth, although levels of fertility seem to fall below those that would maximize fitness. We emphasize that reproductive decision-making reflects a complex interplay between individual and societal factors that resists simple evolutionary interpretation, and highlight the role of economic insecurity in fertility decisions. We conclude by discussing whether the wealth–fertility relationship can inform us about the adaptiveness of modern fertility behaviour, and argue against simplistic claims regarding maladaptive behaviour in humans. PMID:27022080

  4. Host control of human papillomavirus infection and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doorbar, John

    2018-02-01

    Most human papillomaviruses cause inapparent infections, subtly affecting epithelial homeostasis, to ensure genome persistence in the epithelial basal layer. As with conspicuous papillomas, these self-limiting lesions shed viral particles to ensure population level maintenance and depend on a balance between viral gene expression, immune cell stimulation and immune surveillance for persistence. The complex immune evasion strategies, characteristic of high-risk HPV types, also allow the deregulated viral gene expression that underlies neoplasia. Neoplasia occurs at particular epithelial sites where vulnerable cells such as the reserve or cuboidal cells of the cervical transformation zone are found. Beta papillomavirus infection can also predispose an individual with immune deficiencies to the development of cancers. The host control of HPV infections thus involves local interactions between keratinocytes and the adaptive immune response. Effective immune detection and surveillance limits overt disease, leading to HPV persistence as productive microlesions or in a true latent state. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Collaborative human-machine analysis using a controlled natural language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mott, David H.; Shemanski, Donald R.; Giammanco, Cheryl; Braines, Dave

    2015-05-01

    A key aspect of an analyst's task in providing relevant information from data is the reasoning about the implications of that data, in order to build a picture of the real world situation. This requires human cognition, based upon domain knowledge about individuals, events and environmental conditions. For a computer system to collaborate with an analyst, it must be capable of following a similar reasoning process to that of the analyst. We describe ITA Controlled English (CE), a subset of English to represent analyst's domain knowledge and reasoning, in a form that it is understandable by both analyst and machine. CE can be used to express domain rules, background data, assumptions and inferred conclusions, thus supporting human-machine interaction. A CE reasoning and modeling system can perform inferences from the data and provide the user with conclusions together with their rationale. We present a logical problem called the "Analysis Game", used for training analysts, which presents "analytic pitfalls" inherent in many problems. We explore an iterative approach to its representation in CE, where a person can develop an understanding of the problem solution by incremental construction of relevant concepts and rules. We discuss how such interactions might occur, and propose that such techniques could lead to better collaborative tools to assist the analyst and avoid the "pitfalls".

  6. Efeito da solarização, adubação química e orgânica no controle de nematóides em alface sob cultivo protegido Effect of solarization, chemical and organic fertilization on the control of nematode on greenhouse lettuce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlene G da Silva

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Os efeitos da solarização do solo associados à adubação no controle de nematóides e na produtividade da alface cultivar "Verônica" foram avaliados em solo naturalmente infestado. Dois experimentos foram conduzidos, um com e outro sem solarização, em casa de vegetação, ambos com cinco tratamentos: adubação orgânica; nitrogênio na forma amoniacal (NH4; adubação com NPK; adubação orgânica mais NPK; testemunha (sem adubação. No experimento solarizado, o solo foi coberto durante 132 dias com filme plástico transparente. A população de nematóides foi avaliada em duas camadas (0-10 cm e 10-20 cm, e as coletas de solo foram feitas em três épocas (antes da implantação do experimento; após a solarização; após a colheita. O delineamento experimental foi o de blocos ao acaso com três repetições em parcelas sub-subdivididas, com medidas no espaço e no tempo (5 adubações x 2 camadas x 3 épocas, e a comparação entre experimentos foi feita pela análise conjunta. O efeito da solarização sobre o controle de nematóides dependeu da adubação e camada do solo. A solarização reduziu a população de nematóides na camada de 0-10 cm em todos os tratamentos de adubação. A solarização associada ao NH4 reduziu a diversidade na camada de 10-20 cm. A solarização combinada às adubações orgânica, N-NH4, NPK e orgânica mais NPK reduziu de maneira eficiente o número de galhas, o número de massas de ovos e a população de nematóides fitoparasitas nas raízes, em especial de Meloidogyne spp. Solarização combinada à adubação orgânica apresenta potencial para controle de nematóides e redução do uso de agrotóxicos.The effect of soil solarization and fertilization was evaluated for nematode control in 'Veronica' lettuce in naturally infested soil. The two greenhouse experiments consisted of five fertilization treatments: organic fertilization; ammoniacal nitrogen (ammonium sulphate; NPK fertilization; organic

  7. Age at First Birth, Fertility, and Contraception in Tanzania

    OpenAIRE

    Ngalinda, Innocent

    1998-01-01

    The first visible outcome of the fertility process is the birth of the first child. The first birth marks a woman's transition into motherhood. It plays a significant role in the future life of each individual woman and has a direct relationship with fertility. The age at which child bearing begins influences the number of children a woman bears throughout her reproductive period in the absence of any active fertility control. For countries in sub-Saharan Africa, where contraceptive use is re...

  8. In vitro development of donated frozen-thawed human embryos in a prototype static microfluidic device: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kieslinger, Dorit C; Hao, Zhenxia; Vergouw, Carlijn G; Kostelijk, Elisabeth H; Lambalk, Cornelis B; Le Gac, Séverine

    2015-03-01

    To compare the development of human embryos in microfluidic devices with culture in standard microdrop dishes, both under static conditions. Prospective randomized controlled trial. In vitro fertilization laboratory. One hundred eighteen donated frozen-thawed human day-4 embryos. Random allocation of embryos that fulfilled the inclusion criteria to single-embryo culture in a microfluidics device (n = 58) or standard microdrop dish (n = 60). Blastocyst formation rate and quality after 24, 28, 48, and 72 hours of culture. The percentage of frozen-thawed day-4 embryos that developed to the blastocyst stage did not differ significantly in the standard microdrop dishes and microfluidic devices after 28 hours of culture (53.3% vs. 58.6%) or at any of the other time points. The proportion of embryos that would have been suitable for embryo transfer was comparable after 28 hours of culture in the control dishes and microfluidic devices (90.0% vs. 93.1%). Furthermore, blastocyst quality was similar in the two study groups. This study shows that a microfluidic device can successfully support human blastocyst development in vitro under static culture conditions. Future studies need to clarify whether earlier stage embryos will benefit from the culture in microfluidic devices more than the tested day-4 embryos because many important steps in the development of human embryos already take place before day 4. Further improvements of the microfluidic device will include parallel culture of single embryos, application of medium refreshment, and built-in sensors. NTR3867. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Human error recovery failure probability when using soft controls in computerized control rooms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, Inseok; Kim, Ar Ryum; Seong, Poong Hyun; Jung, Wondea

    2014-01-01

    Many literatures categorized recovery process into three phases; detection of problem situation, explanation of problem causes or countermeasures against problem, and end of recovery. Although the focus of recovery promotion has been on categorizing recovery phases and modeling recovery process, research related to human recovery failure probabilities has not been perform actively. On the other hand, a few study regarding recovery failure probabilities were implemented empirically. Summarizing, researches that have performed so far have several problems in terms of use in human reliability analysis (HRA). By adopting new human-system interfaces that are based on computer-based technologies, the operation environment of MCRs in NPPs has changed from conventional MCRs to advanced MCRs. Because of the different interfaces between conventional and advanced MCRs, different recovery failure probabilities should be considered in the HRA for advanced MCRs. Therefore, this study carries out an empirical analysis of human error recovery probabilities under an advanced MCR mockup called compact nuclear simulator (CNS). The aim of this work is not only to compile a recovery failure probability database using the simulator for advanced MCRs but also to collect recovery failure probability according to defined human error modes to compare that which human error mode has highest recovery failure probability. The results show that recovery failure probability regarding wrong screen selection was lowest among human error modes, which means that most of human error related to wrong screen selection can be recovered. On the other hand, recovery failure probabilities of operation selection omission and delayed operation were 1.0. These results imply that once subject omitted one task in the procedure, they have difficulties finding and recovering their errors without supervisor's assistance. Also, wrong screen selection had an effect on delayed operation. That is, wrong screen

  10. Human strongyloidiasis: identifying knowledge gaps, with emphasis on environmental control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taylor MJ

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Michael J Taylor, Tara A Garrard, Francis J O'Donahoo, Kirstin E Ross Health and Environment, School of the Environment, Flinders University, Adelaide, SA, Australia Abstract: Strongyloides is a human parasitic nematode that is poorly understood outside a clinical context. This article identifies gaps within the literature, with particular emphasis on gaps that are hindering environmental control of Strongyloides. The prevalence and distribution of Strongyloides is unclear. An estimate of 100–370 million people infected worldwide has been proposed; however, inaccuracy of diagnosis, unreliability of prevalence mapping, and the fact that strongyloidiasis remains a neglected disease suggest that the higher figure of more than 300 million cases is likely to be a more accurate estimate. The complexity of Strongyloides life cycle means that laboratory cultures cannot be maintained outside of a host. This currently limits the range of laboratory-based research, which is vital to controlling Strongyloides through environmental alteration or treatment. Successful clinical treatment with antihelminthic drugs has meant that controlling Strongyloides through environmental control, rather than clinical intervention, has been largely overlooked. These control measures may encompass alteration of the soil environment through physical means, such as desiccation or removal of nutrients, or through chemical or biological agents. Repeated antihelminthic treatment of individuals with recurrent strongyloidiasis has not been observed to result in the selection of resistant strains; however, this has not been explicitly demonstrated, and relying on such assumptions in the long-term may prove to be shortsighted. It is ultimately naive to assume that continued administration of antihelminthics will be without any negative long-term effects. In Australia, strongyloidiasis primarily affects Indigenous communities, including communities from arid central Australia. This

  11. Fertility among female hairdressers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axmon, Anna; Rylander, Lars; Lillienberg, Linnea; Albin, Maria; Hagmar, Lars

    2006-02-01

    The study investigated whether working as a hairdresser has a negative impact on fertility, measured as time to pregnancy and miscarriage risk. Self-administered questionnaires were sent to 5289 Swedish hairdressers (response rate 50%) and to 5299 age-matched women from the general Swedish population (response rate 54%). Information was collected on time to pregnancy or trying time for women who had tried, but failed, to conceive at the time of the study. The outcome of the pregnancy was determined and categorized as either miscarriage or stillbirth or live birth. The hairdressers were compared with the referents with respect to these two outcomes. Within the hairdresser cohort, the effects of hair treatments, as well as physical workload and stress were investigated. The hairdressers were less successful than the reference cohort in conceiving (fecundability ratio 0.91, 95% confidence interval 0.83-0.99). The effect was reduced after first-month conceptions were excluded, the indication being that the effect may be the result of birth control bias. Within the hairdresser cohort, a self-perceived stressful work situation seemed to prolong the time to pregnancy. No effects were found for the different chemical hair treatments. There was no cohort difference with respect to miscarriage risk (odds ratio 1.12, 95% confidence interval 0.88-1.42), but miscarriage risks were increased for most of the hair treatments and for self-perceived stressful work situations. However, none of these effects were statistically significant. The present study indicates a negative impact on time to pregnancy and miscarriage risk for working as a hairdresser".

  12. Thalamic control of human attention driven by memory and learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Bourbon-Teles, José; Bentley, Paul; Koshino, Saori; Shah, Kushal; Dutta, Agneish; Malhotra, Paresh; Egner, Tobias; Husain, Masud; Soto, David

    2014-05-05

    The role of the thalamus in high-level cognition-attention, working memory (WM), rule-based learning, and decision making-remains poorly understood, especially in comparison to that of cortical frontoparietal networks [1-3]. Studies of visual thalamus have revealed important roles for pulvinar and lateral geniculate nucleus in visuospatial perception and attention [4-10] and for mediodorsal thalamus in oculomotor control [11]. Ventrolateral thalamus contains subdivisions devoted to action control as part of a circuit involving the basal ganglia [12, 13] and motor, premotor, and prefrontal cortices [14], whereas anterior thalamus forms a memory network in connection with the hippocampus [15]. This connectivity profile suggests that ventrolateral and anterior thalamus may represent a nexus between mnemonic and control functions, such as action or attentional selection. Here, we characterize the role of thalamus in the interplay between memory and visual attention. We show that ventrolateral lesions impair the influence of WM representations on attentional deployment. A subsequent fMRI study in healthy volunteers demonstrates involvement of ventrolateral and, notably, anterior thalamus in biasing attention through WM contents. To further characterize the memory types used by the thalamus to bias attention, we performed a second fMRI study that involved learning of stimulus-stimulus associations and their retrieval from long-term memory to optimize attention in search. Responses in ventrolateral and anterior thalamic nuclei tracked learning of the predictiveness of these abstract associations and their use in directing attention. These findings demonstrate a key role for human thalamus in higher-level cognition, notably, in mnemonic biasing of attention. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Feedforward neural control of toe walking in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorentzen, Jakob; Willerslev-Olsen, Maria; Hüche Larsen, Helle; Svane, Christian; Forman, Christian; Frisk, Rasmus; Farmer, Simon Francis; Kersting, Uwe; Nielsen, Jens Bo

    2018-03-23

    Activation of ankle muscles at ground contact during toe walking is unaltered when sensory feedback is blocked or the ground is suddenly dropped. Responses in the soleus muscle to transcranial magnetic stimulation, but not peripheral nerve stimulation, are facilitated at ground contact during toe walking. We argue that toe walking is supported by feedforward control at ground contact. Toe walking requires careful control of the ankle muscles in order to absorb the impact of ground contact and maintain a stable position of the joint. The present study aimed to clarify the peripheral and central neural mechanisms involved. Fifteen healthy adults walked on a treadmill (3.0 km h -1 ). Tibialis anterior (TA) and soleus (Sol) EMG, knee and ankle joint angles, and gastrocnemius-soleus muscle fascicle lengths were recorded. Peripheral and central contributions to the EMG activity were assessed by afferent blockade, H-reflex testing, transcranial magnetic brain stimulation (TMS) and sudden unloading of the planter flexor muscle-tendon complex. Sol EMG activity started prior to ground contact and remained high throughout stance. TA EMG activity, which is normally seen around ground contact during heel strike walking, was absent. Although stretch of the Achilles tendon-muscle complex was observed after ground contact, this was not associated with lengthening of the ankle plantar flexor muscle fascicles. Sol EMG around ground contact was not affected by ischaemic blockade of large-diameter sensory afferents, or the sudden removal of ground support shortly after toe contact. Soleus motor-evoked potentials elicited by TMS were facilitated immediately after ground contact, whereas Sol H-reflexes were not. These findings indicate that at the crucial time of ankle stabilization following ground contact, toe walking is governed by centrally mediated motor drive rather than sensory driven reflex mechanisms. These findings have implications for our understanding of the control of

  14. Controlled Human Malaria Infection: Applications, Advances, and Challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanisic, Danielle I; McCarthy, James S; Good, Michael F

    2018-01-01

    Controlled human malaria infection (CHMI) entails deliberate infection with malaria parasites either by mosquito bite or by direct injection of sporozoites or parasitized erythrocytes. When required, the resulting blood-stage infection is curtailed by the administration of antimalarial drugs. Inducing a malaria infection via inoculation with infected blood was first used as a treatment (malariotherapy) for neurosyphilis in Europe and the United States in the early 1900s. More recently, CHMI has been applied to the fields of malaria vaccine and drug development, where it is used to evaluate products in well-controlled early-phase proof-of-concept clinical studies, thus facilitating progression of only the most promising candidates for further evaluation in areas where malaria is endemic. Controlled infections have also been used to immunize against malaria infection. Historically, CHMI studies have been restricted by the need for access to insectaries housing infected mosquitoes or suitable malaria-infected individuals. Evaluation of vaccine and drug candidates has been constrained in these studies by the availability of a limited number of Plasmodium falciparum isolates. Recent advances have included cryopreservation of sporozoites, the manufacture of well-characterized and genetically distinct cultured malaria cell banks for blood-stage infection, and the availability of Plasmodium vivax -specific reagents. These advances will help to accelerate malaria vaccine and drug development by making the reagents for CHMI more widely accessible and also enabling a more rigorous evaluation with multiple parasite strains and species. Here we discuss the different applications of CHMI, recent advances in the use of CHMI, and ongoing challenges for consideration. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  15. Fertility trends and prospects in East and South-East Asian countries and implications for policies and programmes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leete, R

    1991-01-01

    Fertility trends and prospects for east and southeast Asian countries including cities in China, Taiwan, the Republic of Korea, Thailand, Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, Myanmar, and Viet Nam are described. Additional discussion focuses on family planning methods, marriage patterns, fertility prospects, theories of fertility change, and policy implications for the labor supply, labor migrants, increased female participation in the labor force (LFP), human resource development, and social policy measures. Figures provide graphic descriptions of total fertility rates (TFRS) for 12 countries/areas for selected years between 1960-90, TFR for selected Chinese cities between 1955-90, the % of currently married women 15-44 years using contraception by main method for selected years and for 10 countries, actual and projected TFR and annual growth rates between 1990-2020 for Korea and Indonesia. It is noted that the 1st southeast Asian country to experience a revolution in reproductive behavior was Japan with below replacement level fertility by 1960. This was accomplished by massive postponement in age at marriage and rapid reduction in marital fertility. Fertility was controlled primarily through abortion. Thereafter every southeast Asian country experienced fertility declines. Hong Kong, Penang, Shanghai, Singapore, and Taipei and declining fertility before the major thrust of family planning (FP). Chinese fertility declines were reflected in the 1970s to the early 1980s and paralleled the longer, later, fewer campaign and policy which set ambitious targets which were strictly enforced at all levels of administration. Korea and Taiwan's declines were a result of individual decision making to restrict fertility which was encouraged by private and government programs to provide FP information and subsidized services. The context was social and economic change. Indonesia's almost replacement level fertility was achieved dramatically through the 1970s and 1980s by

  16. SEWAGE SLUDGE AS AN INGREDIENT IN FERTILIZERS AND SOIL SUBSTITUTES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Grobelak

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In Poland, sludge management especially in medium and small sewage treatment plants is still a significant problem. According to data from the Central Statistical Office and the report on the implementation of the National Urban Wastewater Treatment Program (in polish KPOŚK land application of sewage sludge remains one of the main methods, although there has been considerable interest known: 'application for other purposes ", where the preparation of composts and fertilizers is included. The use of fertilizer produced from sewage sludge (compost, granules, organic and mineral fertilizers, is regulated by the Act on fertilizers and fertilization, and the relevant implementing rules. For example, they define the test procedure (concerning the quality of fertilizers to enable appropriate permissions to market this type of fertilizers. There is still only several technologies existing on the Polish market dedicated to production of fertilizers in advanced technologies of sewage sludge treatment. Usually the treatment plants are trying to obtain the necessary certificates for generated fertilizers (including composts, or soils substitutes. The advantages of these technologies should be no doubt: the loss of waste status, ability to store the fertilizer and unlimited transportation between areas, sanitization of the product (as a result of the use of calcium or sulfur compounds or temperature should be an alternative for drying technology. While the disadvantages are primarily the investment costs and time consuming certification procedures. However, these solutions enable to maintain the organic matter and phosphorus as well as greater control over possible pollution introduced into the soil.

  17. Occurrence of priority organic pollutants in the fertilizers, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, Ce-Hui; Cai, Quan-Ying; Li, Yun-Hui; Zeng, Qiao-Yun

    2008-04-15

    The use of large quantities of chemical fertilizers is usually associated with environmental problems. A lot of work has been done on the concentrations of heavy metals and radionuclides in chemical fertilizers, but little work has focused on the occurrence of semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs). In this study the occurrence of 43 SVOCs listed as priority pollutants in 22 widely used-fertilizers of China was determined by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. Twenty-six SVOCs were detected with different detection frequencies and concentrations. The most abundant compounds were phthalic acid esters (PAEs; ranging from 1.17 to 2795 microg kg(-1) dry weight, d.w.) and nitroaromatics (up to 9765 microg kg(-1) d.w.), followed by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs; fertilizers, and the total concentrations of each class of contaminants varied widely, too. The highest levels of sum concentration for 16 PAHs, for 6 PAEs and for nitroaromatics were found in organic fertilizer containing pesticide and soil amendments. Concentrations of SVOCs in coated fertilizers (the controlled release fertilizer with coating) were considerably higher than those in the corresponding fertilizers without coating. The occurrence frequencies of SVOCs in the straight fertilizers (containing only one of the major plant nutrients) were lower than in the other fertilizers.

  18. Occurrence of priority organic pollutants in the fertilizers, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mo Cehui; Cai Quanying; Li Yunhui; Zeng Qiaoyun

    2008-01-01

    The use of large quantities of chemical fertilizers is usually associated with environmental problems. A lot of work has been done on the concentrations of heavy metals and radionuclides in chemical fertilizers, but little work has focused on the occurrence of semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs). In this study the occurrence of 43 SVOCs listed as priority pollutants in 22 widely used-fertilizers of China was determined by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. Twenty-six SVOCs were detected with different detection frequencies and concentrations. The most abundant compounds were phthalic acid esters (PAEs; ranging from 1.17 to 2795 μg kg -1 dry weight, d.w.) and nitroaromatics (up to 9765 μg kg -1 d.w.), followed by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs; -1 d.w.) and halogenated hydrocarbons ( -1 d.w.). Chlorobenzenes and haloethers occurred generally at low concentrations. There are large variations in concentrations of various compounds in different fertilizers, and the total concentrations of each class of contaminants varied widely, too. The highest levels of sum concentration for 16 PAHs, for 6 PAEs and for nitroaromatics were found in organic fertilizer containing pesticide and soil amendments. Concentrations of SVOCs in coated fertilizers (the controlled release fertilizer with coating) were considerably higher than those in the corresponding fertilizers without coating. The occurrence frequencies of SVOCs in the straight fertilizers (containing only one of the major plant nutrients) were lower than in the other fertilizers

  19. Fertility outcomes in asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gade, Elisabeth Juul; Thomsen, Simon Francis; Lindenberg, Svend

    2016-01-01

    Evidence is increasing of an association between asthma and aspects of female reproduction. However, current knowledge is limited and furthermore relies on questionnaire studies or small populations. In a prospective observational cohort study to investigate whether time to pregnancy, the number...... of fertility treatments, and the number of successful pregnancies differ significantly between women with unexplained infertility with and without asthma.245 women with unexplained infertility (aged 23-45 years) underwent questionnaires and asthma and allergy testing while undergoing fertility treatment. 96...... women entering the study had either a former doctor's diagnosis of asthma or were diagnosed with asthma when included. After inclusion they were followed for a minimum of 12 months in fertility treatment, until they had a successful pregnancy, stopped treatment, or the observation ended.The likelihood...

  20. Exploring the genetics of fertility restoration controlled by Rf1 in common wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) using high-density linkage maps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geyer, Manuel; Albrecht, Theresa; Hartl, Lorenz; Mohler, Volker

    2018-04-01

    Hybrid wheat breeding has the potential to significantly increase wheat productivity compared to line breeding. The induction of male sterility by the cytoplasm of Triticum timopheevii Zhuk. is a widely discussed approach to ensure cross-pollination between parental inbred lines in hybrid wheat seed production. As fertility restoration in hybrids with this cytoplasm is often incomplete, understanding the underlying genetics is a prerequisite to apply this technology. A promising component for fertility restoration is the restorer locus Rf1, which was first detected on chromosome 1A of the restorer accession R3. In the present study, we performed quantitative trait locus (QTL) analyses to locate Rf1 and estimate its effect in populations involving the restorer lines R3, R113 and L19. Molecular markers linked to Rf1 in these populations were used to analyse the genomic target region in T. timopheevii accessions and common wheat breeding lines. The QTL analyses revealed that Rf1 interacted with a modifier locus on chromosome 1BS and the restorer locus Rf4 on chromosome 6B. The modifier locus significantly influenced both the penetrance and expressivity of Rf1. Whereas Rf1 exhibited expressivity higher than that of Rf4, the effects of these loci were not additive. Evaluating the marker haplotype for the Rf1 region, we propose that the restoring Rf1 allele may be derived exclusively from T. timopheevii. The present study demonstrates that interactions between restorer and modifier loci play a critical role in fertility restoration of common wheat with the cytoplasm of T. timopheevii.

  1. NCHS - Births and General Fertility Rates: United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This dataset includes crude birth rates and general fertility rates in the United States since 1909. The number of states in the reporting area differ historically....

  2. The monitoring and control of task sequences in human and non-human primates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theresa M Desrochers

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Our ability to plan and execute a series of tasks leading to a desired goal requires remarkable coordination between sensory, motor, and decision-related systems. Prefrontal cortex is thought to play a central role in this coordination, especially when actions must be assembled extemporaneously and cannot be programmed as a rote series of movements. A central component of this flexible behavior is the moment-by-moment allocation of working memory and attention. The ubiquity of sequence planning in our everyday lives belies the neural complexity that supports this capacity, and little is known about how frontal cortical regions orchestrate the monitoring and control of sequential behaviors. For example, it remains unclear if and how sensory cortical areas, which provide essential driving inputs for behavior, are modulated by the frontal cortex during these tasks. Here we review what is known about moment-to-moment monitoring as it relates to visually guided, rule-driven behaviors that change over time. We highlight recent human work that shows how the rostrolateral prefrontal cortex (RLPFC participates in monitoring during task sequences. Neurophysiological data from monkeys suggests that monitoring may be accomplished by neurons that respond to items within the sequence and may in turn influence the tuning properties of neurons in posterior sensory areas. Understanding the interplay between proceduralized or habitual acts and supervised control of sequences is key to our understanding of sequential task execution. A crucial bridge will be the use of experimental protocols that allow for the examination of the functional homology between monkeys and humans. We illustrate how task sequences may be parceled into components and examined experimentally, thereby opening future avenues of investigation into the neural basis of sequential monitoring and control.

  3. Human-level control through deep reinforcement learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mnih, Volodymyr; Kavukcuoglu, Koray; Silver, David; Rusu, Andrei A.; Veness, Joel; Bellemare, Marc G.; Graves, Alex; Riedmiller, Martin; Fidjeland, Andreas K.; Ostrovski, Georg; Petersen, Stig; Beattie, Charles; Sadik, Amir; Antonoglou, Ioannis; King, Helen; Kumaran, Dharshan; Wierstra, Daan; Legg, Shane; Hassabis, Demis

    2015-02-01

    The theory of reinforcement learning provides a normative account, deeply rooted in psychological and neuroscientific perspectives on animal behaviour, of how agents may optimize their control of an environment. To use reinforcement learning successfully in situations approaching real-world complexity, however, agents are confronted with a difficult task: they must derive efficient representations of the environment from high-dimensional sensory inputs, and use these to generalize past experience to new situations. Remarkably, humans and other animals seem to solve this problem through a harmonious combination of reinforcement learning and hierarchical sensory processing systems, the former evidenced by a wealth of neural data revealing notable parallels between the phasic signals emitted by dopaminergic neurons and temporal difference reinforcement learning algorithms. While reinforcement learning agents have achieved some successes in a variety of domains, their applicability has previously been limited to domains in which useful features can be handcrafted, or to domains with fully observed, low-dimensional state spaces. Here we use recent advances in training deep neural networks to develop a novel artificial agent, termed a deep Q-network, that can learn successful policies directly from high-dimensional sensory inputs using end-to-end reinforcement learning. We tested this agent on the challenging domain of classic Atari 2600 games. We demonstrate that the deep Q-network agent, receiving only the pixels and the game score as inputs, was able to surpass the performance of all previous algorithms and achieve a level comparable to that of a professional human games tester across a set of 49 games, using the same algorithm, network architecture and hyperparameters. This work bridges the divide between high-dimensional sensory inputs and actions, resulting in the first artificial agent that is capable of learning to excel at a diverse array of challenging tasks.

  4. Human-level control through deep reinforcement learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mnih, Volodymyr; Kavukcuoglu, Koray; Silver, David; Rusu, Andrei A; Veness, Joel; Bellemare, Marc G; Graves, Alex; Riedmiller, Martin; Fidjeland, Andreas K; Ostrovski, Georg; Petersen, Stig; Beattie, Charles; Sadik, Amir; Antonoglou, Ioannis; King, Helen; Kumaran, Dharshan; Wierstra, Daan; Legg, Shane; Hassabis, Demis

    2015-02-26

    The theory of reinforcement learning provides a normative account, deeply rooted in psychological and neuroscientific perspectives on animal behaviour, of how agents may optimize their control of an environment. To use reinforcement learning successfully in situations approaching real-world complexity, however, agents are confronted with a difficult task: they must derive efficient representations of the environment from high-dimensional sensory inputs, and use these to generalize past experience to new situations. Remarkably, humans and other animals seem to solve this problem through a harmonious combination of reinforcement learning and hierarchical sensory processing systems, the former evidenced by a wealth of neural data revealing notable parallels between the phasic signals emitted by dopaminergic neurons and temporal difference reinforcement learning algorithms. While reinforcement learning agents have achieved some successes in a variety of domains, their applicability has previously been limited to domains in which useful features can be handcrafted, or to domains with fully observed, low-dimensional state spaces. Here we use recent advances in training deep neural networks to develop a novel artificial agent, termed a deep Q-network, that can learn successful policies directly from high-dimensional sensory inputs using end-to-end reinforcement learning. We tested this agent on the challenging domain of classic Atari 2600 games. We demonstrate that the deep Q-network agent, receiving only the pixels and the game score as inputs, was able to surpass the performance of all previous algorithms and achieve a level comparable to that of a professional human games tester across a set of 49 games, using the same algorithm, network architecture and hyperparameters. This work bridges the divide between high-dimensional sensory inputs and actions, resulting in the first artificial agent that is capable of learning to excel at a diverse array of challenging tasks.

  5. Slimmer or fertile? Pharmacological mechanisms involved in reduced sperm quality and fertility in rats exposed to the anorexigen sibutramine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cibele S Borges

    Full Text Available Sperm acquire motility and fertility capacity during epididymal transit, under the control of androgens and sympathetic innervations. It is already known that the acceleration of epididymal sperm transit time can lead to lower sperm quality. In a previous work we showed that rats exposed to the anorexigen sibutramine, a non-selective serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor, presented faster sperm transit time, lower epididymal sperm reserves and potentiation of the tension of epididymal duct to norepinephrine exposed acutely in vitro to sibutramine. In the present work we aimed to further investigate pharmacological mechanisms involved in these alterations and the impact on rat sperm quality. For this, adult male Wistar rats were treated with sibutramine (10 mg/kg/day or vehicle for 30 days. Sibutramine decreased final body, seminal vesicle, ventral prostate and epididymal weights, as well as sperm transit time in the epididymal cauda. On the contrary of the in vitro pharmacological assays, in which sibutramine was added directly to the bath containing strips of distal epididymal cauda, the ductal tension was not altered after in vivo sub-chronic exposure to sibutramine. However, there is pharmacological evidence that the endogenous epididymal norepinephrine reserves were reduced in these animals. It was also shown that the decrease in prostate weight can be related to increased tension developed of the gland, due to sibutramine sympathomimetic effects. In addition, our results showed reduced sperm quality after in utero artificial insemination, a more sensitive procedure to assess fertility in rodents. The epididymal norepinephrine depletion exerted by sibutramine, associated with decreases in sperm transit time, quantity and quality, leading to reduced fertility in this experimental model, reinforces the concerns about the possible impact on fertility of man taking sibutramine as well as other non-selective serotonin

  6. Slimmer or fertile? Pharmacological mechanisms involved in reduced sperm quality and fertility in rats exposed to the anorexigen sibutramine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Cibele S; Missassi, Gabriela; Pacini, Enio S A; Kiguti, Luiz Ricardo A; Sanabria, Marciana; Silva, Raquel F; Banzato, Thais P; Perobelli, Juliana E; Pupo, André S; Kempinas, Wilma G

    2013-01-01

    Sperm acquire motility and fertility capacity during epididymal transit, under the control of androgens and sympathetic innervations. It is already known that the acceleration of epididymal sperm transit time can lead to lower sperm quality. In a previous work we showed that rats exposed to the anorexigen sibutramine, a non-selective serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor, presented faster sperm transit time, lower epididymal sperm reserves and potentiation of the tension of epididymal duct to norepinephrine exposed acutely in vitro to sibutramine. In the present work we aimed to further investigate pharmacological mechanisms involved in these alterations and the impact on rat sperm quality. For this, adult male Wistar rats were treated with sibutramine (10 mg/kg/day) or vehicle for 30 days. Sibutramine decreased final body, seminal vesicle, ventral prostate and epididymal weights, as well as sperm transit time in the epididymal cauda. On the contrary of the in vitro pharmacological assays, in which sibutramine was added directly to the bath containing strips of distal epididymal cauda, the ductal tension was not altered after in vivo sub-chronic exposure to sibutramine. However, there is pharmacological evidence that the endogenous epididymal norepinephrine reserves were reduced in these animals. It was also shown that the decrease in prostate weight can be related to increased tension developed of the gland, due to sibutramine sympathomimetic effects. In addition, our results showed reduced sperm quality after in utero artificial insemination, a more sensitive procedure to assess fertility in rodents. The epididymal norepinephrine depletion exerted by sibutramine, associated with decreases in sperm transit time, quantity and quality, leading to reduced fertility in this experimental model, reinforces the concerns about the possible impact on fertility of man taking sibutramine as well as other non-selective serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors

  7. Influence on the long-term fertilizing on radioactivity soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grubisic, M.; Stevanovic, D.; Stojanovic, M.; Vuletic, V.; Pantelic, G.

    2007-01-01

    Researching in this work need to give the answer in which degree application the mineral fertilizers, especially phosphate, contribute to the contamination of a soil because of long-term continually fertilizing (35 years) and differences of adopting from the corn culture and wheat nursing in monocultures. Like control, it is made measuring activity of radionuclides of a soil on experimental variety where wasn't fertilizing during the making the experiment, separately for both cultures. Based on that it is given accent only on chronic contamination of a soil by radionuclides by application mineral fertilizers at once and transport in the system of soil of different biocenoses. Based on measuring activity 40K, 137Cs, 238U, 235U, 226Ra, 232Th, 212Pb it is fortified differences in concentration of the activity of radionuclides of uranium row between the samples of smonica, fertilized and non-fertilized in the longer period. (author) [sr

  8. The effect of different P fertilizer application (chemical, biologic and integrated on forage quality of two barely varieties (Bahman and Fasieh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lezhia Zandiyeh

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract To evaluate the effect of different sources of P fertilizer on grain yield and yield components of two barely varieties, this experiment was conducted in Research Farm, College of Agriculture, University of Tehran in 2010. The experimental treatments were arranged as factorial based on randomized complete block design with three replications. The treatments consisted of two barely varieties (Bahman and Fasieh and 7 levels of P fertilizer viz: 1. Control (no fertilizer application, 2. Chemical P fertilizer (based on the soil test, 3. Biological P fertilizer (P solubilizing bacteria, 4. Biological P fertilizer + 100% chemical P fertilizer, 5. Biological P fertilizer + 75% chemical P fertilizer, 6. Biological P fertilizer + 50% chemical P fertilizer, 7. Biological P fertilizer + 25% chemical P fertilizer. The results indicated that the ash percentage in Fasieh was significantly higher than Bahman at Chemical P fertilizer, integrated and Biological P fertilizer + 50% chemical P fertilizer. Except for Biological P fertilizer, DMD percentage was significantly higher in Fasieh compared to Bahman. The highest crude protein percentage was obtained for Fasieh in Biological P fertilizer + 50% chemical P fertilizer for Bahman in Biological P fertilizer + 75% chemical P fertilizer, respectively. The water soluble carbohydrate content was significantly higher in Fasieh at Chemical P fertilizer and integrated fertilizer treatments compared to Bahman variety. The highest NDF in Bahman was observed when received Biological P fertilizer + 50% chemical P fertilizer treatment, while the same results was obtained for Fasieh when received Biological P fertilizer + 100% chemical P fertilizer and Biological P fertilizer + 75% chemical P fertilizer.

  9. High throughput, cell type-specific analysis of key proteins in human endometrial biopsies of women from fertile and infertile couples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leach, Richard E.; Jessmon, Philip; Coutifaris, Christos; Kruger, Michael; Myers, Evan R.; Ali-Fehmi, Rouba; Carson, Sandra A.; Legro, Richard S.; Schlaff, William D.; Carr, Bruce R.; Steinkampf, Michael P.; Silva, Susan; Leppert, Phyllis C.; Giudice, Linda; Diamond, Michael P.; Armant, D. Randall

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND Although histological dating of endometrial biopsies provides little help for prediction or diagnosis of infertility, analysis of individual endometrial proteins, proteomic profiling and transcriptome analysis have suggested several biomarkers with altered expression arising from intrinsic abnormalities, inadequate stimulation by or in response to gonadal steroids or altered function due to systemic disorders. The objective of this study was to delineate the developmental dynamics of potentially important proteins in the secretory phase of the menstrual cycle, utilizing a collection of endometrial biopsies from women of fertile (n = 89) and infertile (n = 89) couples. METHODS AND RESULTS Progesterone receptor-B (PGR-B), leukemia inhibitory factor, glycodelin/progestagen-associated endometrial protein (PAEP), homeobox A10, heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor, calcitonin and chemokine ligand 14 (CXCL14) were measured using a high-throughput, quantitative immunohistochemical method. Significant cyclic and tissue-specific regulation was documented for each protein, as well as their dysregulation in women of infertile couples. Infertile patients demonstrated a delay early in the secretory phase in the decline of PGR-B (P localization provided important insights into the potential roles of these proteins in normal and pathological development of the endometrium that is not attainable from transcriptome analysis, establishing a basis for biomarker, diagnostic and targeted drug development for women with infertility. PMID:22215622

  10. Noninvasive Metabolomic Profiling of Human Embryo Culture Media Using a Simple Spectroscopy Adjunct to Morphology for Embryo Assessment in in Vitro Fertilization (IVF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiming Hu

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Embryo quality is crucial to the outcome of in vitro fertilization (IVF; however, the ability to precisely distinguish the embryos with higher reproductive potential from others is poor. Morphologic evaluation used to play an important role in assessing embryo quality, but it is somewhat subjective. The culture medium is the immediate environment of the embryos in vitro, and a change of the substances in the culture medium is possibly related to the embryo quality. Thus, the present study aims to determine whether metabolomic profiling of the culture medium using Raman spectroscopy adjunct to morphology correlates with the reproductive potential of embryos in IVF and, thus, to look for a new method of assessing embryo quality. Fifty seven spent media samples were detected by Raman spectroscopy. Combined with embryo morphology scores, we found that embryos in culture media with less than 0.012 of sodium pyruvate and more than −0.00085 phenylalanine have a high reproductive potential, with up to 85.7% accuracy compared with clinical pregnancy. So, sodium pyruvate and phenylalanine in culture medium play an important role in the development of the embryo. Raman spectroscopy is an important tool that provides a new and accurate assessment of higher quality embryos.

  11. FERTILIZING INFLUENCE TOWARDS GROWTH AND FRUIT CROPS OF COCOA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azri

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available TRACT Fertilizers is one activities of maintenance plants that an important role to productivity plants. Without right fertilizing, cacao farms are many setbacks especially in quality of land. Land quality decline because reduction of nutrient in land, damage characteristics of biological or physical and more deplete substantially thickness of land. Nutrient reduction has occur caused by activities of harvest, washing, denitrification, and erosion that occurred in area of cacao plants roots. Damage of biological and physical of land include land aggregate damage, decreased stability of structure, decreased organic matter, and reducing amount of and activities of organisms that live in land. Efforts to increase land fertility can be with gift fertilizer. Study using a Random Group Design with 3 replication, with fertilizer treatment: P1 = Control (farmers; P2 = natural fertilizer 5 kg; P3 = natural fertilizer 5 kg+ 5 g urea + 5 g SP-36, and P4 = natural fertilizer 5 kg+ 5 g SP-36+ 5 g (KC1. Results of study showed that giving of manure and organic matter are significantly different with farmers (control, but best treatment is found on gift manure combined fertilizer anorganic (P3 provides growth and number of best fruit.

  12. Globalization and Contemporary Fertility Convergence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendi, Arun S

    2017-09-01

    The rise of the global network of nation-states has precipitated social transformations throughout the world. This article examines the role of political and economic globalization in driving fertility convergence across countries between 1965 and 2009. While past research has typically conceptualized fertility change as a country-level process, this study instead employs a theoretical and methodological framework that examines differences in fertility between pairs of countries over time. Convergence in fertility between pairs of countries is hypothesized to result from increased cross-country connectedness and cross-national transmission of fertility-related schemas. I investigate the impact of various cross-country ties, including ties through bilateral trade, intergovernmental organizations, and regional trade blocs, on fertility convergence. I find that globalization acts as a form of social interaction to produce fertility convergence. There is significant heterogeneity in the effects of different cross-country ties. In particular, trade with rich model countries, joint participation in the UN and UNESCO, and joining a free trade agreement all contribute to fertility convergence between countries. Whereas the prevailing focus in fertility research has been on factors producing fertility declines, this analysis highlights specific mechanisms-trade and connectedness through organizations-leading to greater similarity in fertility across countries. Globalization is a process that propels the spread of culturally laden goods and schemas impinging on fertility, which in turn produces fertility convergence.

  13. An empirical study on the basic human error probabilities for NPP advanced main control room operation using soft control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, Inseok; Kim, Ar Ryum; Harbi, Mohamed Ali Salem Al; Lee, Seung Jun; Kang, Hyun Gook; Seong, Poong Hyun

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► The operation environment of MCRs in NPPs has changed by adopting new HSIs. ► The operation action in NPP Advanced MCRs is performed by soft control. ► Different basic human error probabilities (BHEPs) should be considered. ► BHEPs in a soft control operation environment are investigated empirically. ► This work will be helpful to verify if soft control has positive or negative effects. -- Abstract: By adopting new human–system interfaces that are based on computer-based technologies, the operation environment of main control rooms (MCRs) in nuclear power plants (NPPs) has changed. The MCRs that include these digital and computer technologies, such as large display panels, computerized procedures, soft controls, and so on, are called Advanced MCRs. Among the many features in Advanced MCRs, soft controls are an important feature because the operation action in NPP Advanced MCRs is performed by soft control. Using soft controls such as mouse control, touch screens, and so on, operators can select a specific screen, then choose the controller, and finally manipulate the devices. However, because of the different interfaces between soft control and hardwired conventional type control, different basic human error probabilities (BHEPs) should be considered in the Human Reliability Analysis (HRA) for advanced MCRs. Although there are many HRA methods to assess human reliabilities, such as Technique for Human Error Rate Prediction (THERP), Accident Sequence Evaluation Program (ASEP), Human Error Assessment and Reduction Technique (HEART), Human Event Repository and Analysis (HERA), Nuclear Computerized Library for Assessing Reactor Reliability (NUCLARR), Cognitive Reliability and Error Analysis Method (CREAM), and so on, these methods have been applied to conventional MCRs, and they do not consider the new features of advance MCRs such as soft controls. As a result, there is an insufficient database for assessing human reliabilities in advanced

  14. Is function-based control room design human-centered?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norros, L.; Savioja, P.

    2006-01-01

    Function-based approaches to system interface design appears an appealing possibility in helping designers and operators to cope with the vast amount of information needed to control complex processes. In this paper we provide evidence of operator performance analyses showing that outcome-centered performance measures may not be sufficiently informative for design. We need analyses indicating habitual patterns of using information, operator practices. We argue that practices that portray functional orienting to the task support mastery of the process. They also create potential to make use of function-based information presentation. We see that functional design is not an absolute value. Instead, such design should support communication of the functional significance of the process information to the operators in variable situations. Hence, it should facilitate development of practices that focus to interpreting this message. Successful function-based design facilitates putting operations into their contexts and is human-centered in an extended sense: It aids making sense in the complex, dynamic and uncertain environment. (authors)

  15. Fertilizing Southern Hardwoods

    Science.gov (United States)

    W. M. Broadfoot; A. F. Ike

    1967-01-01

    If present trends continue, fertilizing may soon be economically feasible in southern hardwood stands. Demands for the wood are rising, and the acreage alloted for growing it is steadily shrinking. To supply anticipated requests for information, the U. S. Forest Service has established tree nutrition studies at the Southern Hardwoods Laboratory in Stoneville,...

  16. Hispanic Adolescent Fertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darabi, Katherine F.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Discusses fertility of Hispanic adolescents in the United States. Summarizes what is known about sexuality, contraception, pregnancy, and childbearing among male and female Hispanics of various countries of origin. Indicates Hispanic adolescent birthrates fall between those of non-Hispanic Whites and Blacks, but there is considerable within-group…

  17. Fertilizer micro-dosing

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Localized application of small quantities of fertilizer (micro-dosing), combined with improved planting pits for rainwater harvesting, has generated greater profits and food security for women farmers in the Sahel. • Women are 25% more likely to use combined applications, and have expanded areas of food crops (cowpea,.

  18. Fertility Treatments for Females

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... on: The underlying cause of the problem The woman's age Her history of previous pregnancies How long she has had infertility issues The presence or absence of male factor infertility Fertility treatments are most likely to benefit women whose infertility is due to problems with ovulation. ...

  19. Nutrition and fertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinelli, G; Tagliabue, A

    2007-12-01

    The first studies about fertility and nutrition date back to the 70ies and already showed a strict relation among female fertility, weight and body composition. However, the mechanisms of this connection started to be explained only after leptin's discovery. According to some authors' opinion, leptin could interact with reproductive axis at multiple sites with stimulatory effects at the hypothalamus and pituitary and stimulatory or inhibitory actions at the gonads. Leptin could play a role in other physiologic processes such as menstruation and pregnancy, and could initiate the complex process of puberty. It has been showed that conditions in which nutritional status is suboptimal, such as eating disorders, exercise induced amenhorrea, functional hypothalamic amenhorrea and polycystic ovarian syndrome, are associated with abnormal leptin levels. These conditions, are characterized by severe changes in body composition and dietary habits. Since leptin is regulated by body composition and dietary factors, (such as energy intake and macronutrient composition), a strict connection between nutritional intake and fertility regulated by leptin is confirmed. This review focuses on the current knowledge about nutritional factors that influence leptin levels. Since clinical and subclinical nutritional imbalance can determine the development and the maintenance of neuroendocrine and metabolic aberrations, studies on fertility need a deeper attention about dietary habits and nutritional status.

  20. Fertility and Infertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orgebin-Crist, Marie-Claire; And Others

    In this report, emphasis is placed on major research developments in the reproductive sciences, their impact on the health of individuals as well as on that of society, and on current trends that may provide new opportunities for future research in fertility and infertility. In the first section, major developments in the reproductive sciences are…

  1. Human factors considerations in the design and evaluation of flight deck displays and controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    The objective of this effort is to have a single source document for human factors regulatory and guidance material for flight deck displays and controls, in the interest of improving aviation safety. This document identifies guidance on human factor...

  2. Human Reliability Analysis in Support of Risk Assessment for Positive Train Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-06-01

    This report describes an approach to evaluating the reliability of human actions that are modeled in a probabilistic risk assessment : (PRA) of train control operations. This approach to human reliability analysis (HRA) has been applied in the case o...

  3. Sex and Fertility After SCI

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Cord Injury Medical Expert Videos Topics menu Topics Sex and Fertility After Spinal Cord Injury Adult Injuries ... Coping with a New Injury Robin Dorman, PsyD Sex and Fertility After Spinal Cord Injury Diane M. ...

  4. Sex and Fertility After SCI

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cord Injury Medical Expert Videos Topics menu Topics Sex and Fertility After Spinal Cord Injury Adult Injuries ... Coping with a New Injury Robin Dorman, PsyD Sex and Fertility After Spinal Cord Injury Diane M. ...

  5. Agriculture: Nutrient Management and Fertilizer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fertilizers and soil amendments can be derived from raw materials, composts and other organic matter, and wastes, such as sewage sludge and certain industrial wastes. Overuse of fertilizers can result in contamination of surface water and groundwater.

  6. Sex and Fertility After SCI

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Resources Peer Counseling Blog About Media Donate close search Understanding Spinal Cord Injury What is a Spinal ... male fertility? play_arrow Where can people get information on sex and fertility after a spinal cord ...

  7. Sex and Fertility After SCI

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Medical Expert Videos Topics menu Topics Sex and Fertility After Spinal Cord Injury Adult Injuries Spinal Cord ... a New Injury Robin Dorman, PsyD Sex and Fertility After Spinal Cord Injury Diane M. Rowles, MS, ...

  8. High-fertility phenotypes: two outbred mouse models exhibit substantially different molecular and physiological strategies warranting improved fertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langhammer, Martina; Michaelis, Marten; Hoeflich, Andreas; Sobczak, Alexander; Schoen, Jennifer; Weitzel, Joachim M

    2014-01-01

    Animal models are valuable tools in fertility research. Worldwide, there are more than 400 transgenic or knockout mouse models available showing a reproductive phenotype; almost all of them exhibit an infertile or at least subfertile phenotype. By contrast, animal models revealing an improved fertility phenotype are barely described. This article summarizes data on two outbred mouse models exhibiting a 'high-fertility' phenotype. These mouse lines were generated via selection over a time period of more than 40 years and 161 generations. During this selection period, the number of offspring per litter and the total birth weight of the entire litter nearly doubled. Concomitantly with the increased fertility phenotype, several endocrine parameters (e.g. serum testosterone concentrations in male animals), physiological parameters (e.g. body weight, accelerated puberty, and life expectancy), and behavioral parameters (e.g. behavior in an open field and endurance fitness on a treadmill) were altered. We demonstrate that the two independently bred high-fertility mouse lines warranted their improved fertility phenotype using different molecular and physiological strategies. The fertility lines display female- as well as male-specific characteristics. These genetically heterogeneous mouse models provide new insights into molecular and cellular mechanisms that enhance fertility. In view of decreasing fertility in men, these models will therefore be a precious information source for human reproductive medicine. Translated abstract A German translation of abstract is freely available at http://www.reproduction-online.org/content/147/4/427/suppl/DC1.

  9. Objective evaluation of human manual control adaptation boundaries using a cybernetic approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lu, T.

    2018-01-01

    Manual control tasks can be found everywhere in our daily activities, and the human ability to adapt in controlling many different vehicles such as cars and airplanes make it possible for us to travel farther, faster and higher. The human adaptation ability to changes in the controlled element

  10. 75 FR 69912 - Pipeline Safety: Control Room Management/Human Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-16

    ... 192 and 195 [Docket ID PHMSA-2007-27954] RIN 2137-AE64 Pipeline Safety: Control Room Management/Human... Control Room Management/Human Factors rule at 49 CFR 192.631 and 195.446. The NPRM proposes to expedite... rule and to engage in open discussions with the agency at PHMSA's Control Room Management...

  11. Objective Model Selection for Identifying the Human Feedforward Response in Manual Control

    OpenAIRE

    Drop, F.M.; Pool, D.M.; van Paassen, M.M.; Mulder, M.; Bülthoff, Heinrich H.

    2017-01-01

    Realistic manual control tasks typically involve predictable target signals and random disturbances. The human controller (HC) is hypothesized to use a feedforward control strategy for target-following, in addition to feedback control for disturbance-rejection. Little is known about human feedforward control, partly because common system identification methods have difficulty in identifying whether, and (if so) how, the HC applies a feedforward strategy. In this paper, an identification proce...

  12. Controle de verrugose, melanose e leprose em laranja pera, com fungicidas e acaricida em mistura com adubo foliar Control of citrus scab, melanose and leprosis with fungicides and miticide mixed to foliar fertilizer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Bettiol

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available Pulverizações com ziram (Rodisan SC, oxicloreto de cobre (Coprantol BR e óxido de fembutatina (Torque 500 SC em dosagens normais e subdosagens, isoladamente ou em mistura com um adubo foliar originário da fermentação glutâmica do melaço, controlaram de forma efetiva a verrugose, melanose e leprose em laranja pera. A aplicação isolada do resíduo da fermentação glutâmica do melaço, base para diversos adubos foliares, nas dosagens de 0,25% e 5% do produto comercial Ajifol, não interferiu na ocorrência de verrugose e melanose. Entretanto, ocasionou um aumento do número de frutos com leprose, do número de lesões de leprose por fruto e do número de ácaros da leprose (Brevipalpus phoenicis Geipsks nas folhas e nos frutos.Normal dosage and tinder-dosage sprays of ziram (Rodisan SC; cooper oxychloride (Coprantol BR and fenbutatin oxide (Torque 500 SC, isolately or in association with Ajifol, a foliar fertilizer from molasses glutamic fermentation, provided efficient control of scab, melanose and leprosis in 'Pera' orange. Sprays of Ajifol at 0.25 and 5% had no effect on the rate of occurrence of scab and melanose, but was correlated with increases in the rates of fruits with symptoms of leprosis, number of leprosis spots per fruit, and the number of leprosis mites (Brevipalpus phoenicis Geijskes on leaves and fruits.

  13. Effects of Different Fertilizing Formulae on Potato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanna Cucci

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Trials conducted on potato fertilization at different rates of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium have shown that the elements able to influence the marketable tuber yield are nitrogen and phosphorus. The potato dry matter, which reflects other quality aspects such as the specific gravity and the starch content, increases with nitrogen fertilization till 150-200 kg ha-1 of nitrogen; beyond those rates values remain nearly unchanged. Dry matter increases also with the application of phosphorus and at low potassium rates. The objective of the research was to test the effect of different rates of N P K fertilizer on yield and some quality traits of potato. The test was conducted at the Campus of the Agricultural Faculty, Bari University, Italy. It involved the comparison of 6 fertilizing formulae N1 P1 K1, N1 P2 K1, N2 P1 K1, N2 P2 K1, N3 P1 K1, N3 P2 K1, obtained from the factorial combination of three nitrogen levels (N = 100-200-300 kg ha-1 and two phosphorus rates (P2O5 = 50-100 kg ha-1 against an unfertilized control N0P0K0. The dose of potassium was constant for all fertilizing formulae (K2O = 300 kg ha-1. The highest total and marketable yields of tubers per plant have been observed at the two highest fertilizing levels (N3 P1 K1, N3 P2 K1, which are not statistically different so that the best treatments is shown to be N3 P1 K1; the trend was similar for the mean weight of tubers. With the various treatments, no difference was observed in terms of yield of tubers belonging to the two first size classes (< 35mm and 35-55mm; what has increased with the fertilizing levels is the yield of tubers greater than 55 mm. Tuber specific gravity show, as expected, a positive correlation with the dry matter percentage. Both parameters increased shifting from the control to the N2 P2 K1 and decreased at the highest N level, without any difference being observed with the change in the P rate. The highest starch percentage (20.5% was also observed in the

  14. Implementation strategy for achieving replacement level fertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    The recommendation of the Bali Declaration on Population and Sustainable Development at the ESCAP regional conference was to adopt strategies for attaining replacement-level fertility of 2.1 or 2.2 children by 2010. East Asian countries, except Mongolia and the Democratic People's Republic of Korea, and the Southeast Asian countries Singapore and Thailand have already reached replacement-level fertility. Most larger Oceanic countries have also done so. Only South Asian Sri Lanka and southern India have attained replacement level. The following conditions slow or hinder the goal, but they do not provide an "absolute" barrier to fertility decline: social welfare schemes and old age security, son preference, lack of government family planning, poverty, relatively high mortality, low status of women, and education status. Theories of demographic transition have postulated that economic and social development initially brings a decline in mortality, and later brings a decline in fertility; and high fertility was an adaptation to high mortality. Policy gets caught in the lag between mortality and fertility decline. Eventually the cultural motives for high fertility are undercut by social and economic development. Although the generalization that economic growth slows fertility is true for South Asia, the correlation is uneven. Forceful government-sponsored family planning programs in Bangladesh and China may lead the way to strategies for decline in ESCAP region. A Thailand study suggested important factors were fundamental social change, the increased cost of children, cultural acceptance of birth control, a latent demand for fertility control, and government efforts in family planning. ESCAP countries have in common relatively high morality and inadequate public health programs, patriarchal structures, and limited female autonomy, poverty and landlessness, lack of community cohesiveness, and inadequate family planning programs. Weaknesses in programs are attributed to

  15. interaction between phosphorus fertilizer and arbuscular ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    userpc

    examine the interaction between Phosphorus (P) fertilizer and Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungal ... recorded 28% and 4% total plant dry yield increment respectively over control. This study shows that ... ratio 1:3 inoculant: water, application per ... Table 1: Effect of P and AMF on the dry yield components of cassava (t ha-1).

  16. Male fertility preservation before gonadotoxic therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyns, C

    2010-01-01

    Recent advances in cancer therapy have resulted in an increased number of long-term cancer survivors. Unfortunately, aggressive chemotherapy, radiotherapy and preparative regimens for bone marrow transplantation can severely affect male germ cells, including spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs), and lead to permanent loss of fertility. Different options for fertility preservation are dependent on the pubertal state of the patient. Relevant studies were identified by an extensive Medline search of English and French language articles. Sperm cryopreservation prior to gonadotoxic treatment is a well established method after puberty. In case of ejaculation failure by masturbation, assisted ejaculation methods or testicular tissue sampling should be considered. Although no effective gonadoprotective drug is yet available for in vivo spermatogonial stem cell (SSC) protection in humans, current evidence supports the feasibility of immature testicular tissue (ITT) cryopreservation. The different cryopreservation protocols and available fertility restoration options from frozen tissue, i.e. cell suspension transplantation, tissue grafting and in vitro maturation, are presented. RESULTS obtained in humans are discussed in the light of lessons learned from animal studies. Advances in reproductive technology have made fertility preservation a real possibility in young patients whose gonadal function is threatened by gonadotoxic therapies. The putative indications for such techniques, as well as their limitations according to disease, are outlined.

  17. Metabolic profiles of pomalidomide in human plasma simulated with pharmacokinetic data in control and humanized-liver mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Makiko; Suemizu, Hiroshi; Mitsui, Marina; Shibata, Norio; Guengerich, F Peter; Yamazaki, Hiroshi

    2017-10-01

    1. Pomalidomide has been shown to be potentially teratogenic in thalidomide-sensitive animal species such as rabbits. Screening for thalidomide analogs devoid of teratogenicity/toxicity - attributable to metabolites formed by cytochrome P450 enzymes - but having immunomodulatory properties is a strategic pathway towards development of new anticancer drugs. 2. In this study, plasma concentrations of pomalidomide, its primary 5-hydroxylated metabolite, and its glucuronide conjugate(s) were investigated in control and humanized-liver mice. Following oral administration of pomalidomide (100 mg/kg), plasma concentrations of 7-hydroxypomalidomide and 5-hydroxypomalidomide glucuronide were slightly higher in humanized-liver mice than in control mice. 3. Simulations of human plasma concentrations of pomalidomide were achieved with simplified physiologically-based pharmacokinetic models in both groups of mice in accordance with reported pomalidomide concentrations after low dose administration in humans. 4. The results indicate that pharmacokinetic profiles of pomalidomide were roughly similar between control mice and humanized-liver mice and that control and humanized-liver mice mediated pomalidomide 5-hydroxylation in vivo. Introducing one aromatic amino group into thalidomide resulted in less species differences in in vivo pharmacokinetics in control and humanized-liver mice.

  18. Socioeconomic status and fertility decline

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dribe, Martin; Breschi, Marco; Gagnon, Alain

    2017-01-01

    America to analyse the relationship between socio-economic status and fertility during the fertility transition. Using comparable analytical models and class schemes for each population, we examined the changing socio-economic differences in marital fertility and related these to common theories...

  19. Production and levels of foliar nitrogen in rocket salad fertilized with controlled-release nitrogen fertilizers and urea Produção e teor de nitrogênio foliar em rúcula adubada com fertilizantes nitrogenados de liberação lenta e uréia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Felippe Ratke

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Controlled-release nitrogen fertilizers enhance crop productivity and decrease nitrogen loss through volatilization and leaching. This study aimed at determining the effect of nitrogen treatments provided by controlled-release nitrogen fertilizers and urea. The following fertilizers were tested: 1 (agricultural urea, 2 (ammonium sulfonitrate + nitrification inhibitor, dimethylpyrazole phosphate (Entec 26®,3 (urea + Kimberlit polymer (Kimcoat N® and 4 (urea + NBPT (Super N - Agrotain®. Treatments corresponded to 0, 100, 200, 400 and 800 kg ha-1 of N with rocket salad grown inside a greenhouse, assessing the production of fresh and dry leaf mass as well as levels of foliar nitrogen. Doses of different controlled-release nitrogen fertilizers showed significant polynomial regressions for the production of rocket salad fresh leaf mass and levels of foliar nitrogen, whereby Entec 26® did not show significant polynomial regression, considering the last parameter evaluated. The production of rocket salad dry leaf mass did not display significant linear regressions. The maximal production of rocket salad fresh leaf mass was reached at doses of 600, 490, 765, and 462 kg ha-1 of N with the use of urea, Entec 26®, Kimcoat N® and Super N®, respectively.Os fertilizantes nitrogenados de liberação lenta aumentam a produtividade das culturas e diminuem as perdas de nitrogênio por volatilização e lixiviação. O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar, no cultivo de rúcula, o efeito de doses de N fornecidas por fertilizantes nitrogenados de liberação lenta e pela uréia. Testaram-se os fertilizantes: 1 (uréia agrícola, 2 (sulfonitrato de amônio + inibidor de nitrificação Dimetil Pirazol Fosfato (Entec 26®,3 (uréia + polímero Kimberlit (kimcoat N® e 4 (uréia + NBPT (Super N - Agrotain®, e as doses de 0, 100, 200, 400 e 800 kg ha-1 de N em rúcula crescidas em casa de vegetação, avaliando-se a produtividade de matéria fresca de folhas

  20. Effects of different fertilizers on quantity and quality of silage corn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Di Francia

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Different fertilizers, ammonia sulfate and urea (MIN, Fertil 12.5 (ORG and Azoslow (ORG-MIN were compared in a silage corn crop. Total biomass yield was above 55.0 t ha-1 for all fertilizers. Azoslow showed the highest dry matter content (40.8%. No differences among the fertilizers were found in protein content (4.9% on average at waxy ripening, with the control showing the lowest value (3.9%. There were also no differences in silage quality among the fertilizers. The N budget was estimated in order to quantify the residual nitrogen amounts at harvest and the efficiency of fertilizers.

  1. An Integrated Gait and Balance Analysis System to Define Human Locomotor Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-29

    test hypotheses they developed about how people walk. An Integrated Gait and Balance Analysis System to define Human Locomotor Control W911NF-14-R-0009...An Integrated Gait and Balance Analysis System to Define Human Locomotor Control Walking is a complicated task that requires the motor coordination...Gait and Balance Analysis System to Define Human Locomotor Control Report Title Walking is a complicated task that requires the motor coordination across

  2. Fertility Preservation for Children Diagnosed with Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Provider Pocket Guides Provider Guides Fertility Preservation for Women Diagnosed with Cancer Fertility Preservation for Men Diagnosed ... Patient Pocket Guides Patient Guides Fertility Preservation for Women Diagnosed with Cancer Fertility Preservation for Men Diagnosed ...

  3. Fertility Preservation for Children Diagnosed with Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... for Women Diagnosed with Cancer Fertility Preservation for Men Diagnosed with Cancer Fertility Preservation for Children Diagnosed ... for Women Diagnosed with Cancer Fertility Preservation for Men Diagnosed with Cancer Fertility Preservation for Children Diagnosed ...

  4. Fertility Preservation for Children Diagnosed with Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Skip to main content SaveMyFertility An Online Fertility Preservation Toolkit for Patients and Their Providers Open menu ... with Cancer You are here Home » Patients Fertility Preservation for Children Diagnosed with Cancer Fertility Preservation for ...

  5. Balancing guava nutrition with liming and fertilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Hernandes

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Guava response to liming and fertilization can be monitored by tissue testing. Tissue nutrient signature is often diagnosed against nutrient concentration standards. However, this approach has been criticized for not considering nutrient interactions and to generate numerical biases as a result of data redundancy, scale dependency and non-normal distribution. Techniques of compositional data analysis can control those biases by balancing groups of nutrients, such as those involved in liming and fertilization. The sequentially arranged and orthonormal isometric log ratios (ilr or balances avoid numerical bias inherent to compositional data. The objectives were to relate tissue nutrient balances with the production of "Paluma" guava orchards differentially limed and fertilized, and to adjust the current patterns of nutrient balance with the range of more productive guava trees. It was conducted one experiment of 7-yr of liming and three experiments of 3-yr with N, P and K trials in 'Paluma' orchards on an Oxisol. Plant N, P, K, Ca and Mg were monitored yearly. It was selected the [N, P, K | Ca, Mg], [N, P | K], [N | P] and [Ca | Mg] balances to set apart the effects of liming (Ca-Mg and fertilizers (N-K on macronutrient balances. Liming largely influenced nutrient balances of guava in the Oxisol while fertilization was less influential. The large range of guava yields and nutrient balances allowed defining balance ranges and comparing them with the critical ranges of nutrient concentration values currently used in Brazil and combined into ilr coordinates.

  6. [Education, modernity, and fertility in Costa Rica].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stycos, J M

    1980-01-01

    In an effort to identify the causal mechanisms involved in the relationship between education and fertility in Costa Rica, all married women who were interviewed in the National Fertility Survey were reinterviewed in 1977-78. Questions on modernity and attitudes toward family size were designed to measure the extent of their influence on fertility. Questions on modernity were grouped into 4 measures of mass communications/information, sex roles, husband's power, and "instrumental activism." The intercorrelation of the 4 measures was enough to justify their use as separate subscales but high enough to permit their combined use as a single measure of modernity. The correlation between the combined total and education was strong and positive at .68, while the correlation between education and the number of live births controlled for age was -.35. Results of a multiple regression analysis indicate that high levels of general information and exposure to mass media are responsible for the positive correlation between education and fertility. A variety of scales were developed to measure the extent to which predispositions toward family size, numerical preference, and desire for additional children were responsible for the relationship between general information and fertility. Modernity and education showed strong negative relationships to predisposition toward family size, moderate negative relationships to size preference, and almost no relationship to the desire for more children.

  7. Comprehensive Control of Human Papillomavirus Infections and Related Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosch, F. Xavier; Broker, Thomas R.; Forman, David; Moscicki, Anna-Barbara; Gillison, Maura L.; Doorbar, John; Stern, Peter L.; Stanley, Margaret; Arbyn, Marc; Poljak, Mario; Cuzick, Jack; Castle, Philip E.; Schiller, John T.; Markowitz, Lauri E.; Fisher, William A.; Canfell, Karen; Denny, Lynette A.; Franco, Eduardo L.; Steben, Marc; Kane, Mark A.; Schiffman, Mark; Meijer, Chris J.L.M.; Sankaranarayanan, Rengaswamy; Castellsagué, Xavier; Kim, Jane J.; Brotons, Maria; Alemany, Laia; Albero, Ginesa; Diaz, Mireia; de Sanjosé, Silvia

    2014-01-01

    Infection with human papillomavirus (HPV) is recognized as one of the major causes of infection-related cancer worldwide, as well as the causal factor in other diseases. Strong evidence for a causal etiology with HPV has been stated by the International Agency for Research on Cancer for cancers of the cervix uteri, penis, vulva, vagina, anus and oropharynx (including base of the tongue and tonsils). Of the estimated 12.7 million new cancers occurring in 2008 worldwide, 4.8% were attributable to HPV infection, with substantially higher incidence and mortality rates seen in developing versus developed countries. In recent years, we have gained tremendous knowledge about HPVs and their interactions with host cells, tissues and the immune system; have validated and implemented strategies for safe and efficacious prophylactic vaccination against HPV infections; have developed increasingly sensitive and specific molecular diagnostic tools for HPV detection for use in cervical cancer screening; and have substantially increased global awareness of HPV and its many associated diseases in women, men, and children. While these achievements exemplify the success of biomedical research in generating important public health interventions, they also generate new and daunting challenges: costs of HPV prevention and medical care, the implementation of what is technically possible, socio-political resistance to prevention opportunities, and the very wide ranges of national economic capabilities and health care systems. Gains and challenges faced in the quest for comprehensive control of HPV infection and HPV-related cancers and other disease are summarized in this review. The information presented may be viewed in terms of a reframed paradigm of prevention of cervical cancer and other HPV-related diseases that will include strategic combinations of at least four major components: 1) routine introduction of HPV vaccines to women in all countries, 2) extension and simplification of

  8. Human factors measurement for future air traffic control systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langan-Fox, Janice; Sankey, Michael J; Canty, James M

    2009-10-01

    This article provides a critical review of research pertaining to the measurement of human factors (HF) issues in current and future air traffic control (ATC). Growing worldwide air traffic demands call for a radical departure from current ATC systems. Future systems will have a fundamental impact on the roles and responsibilities of ATC officers (ATCOs). Valid and reliable methods of assessing HF issues associated with these changes, such as a potential increase (or decrease) in workload, are of utmost importance for advancing theory and for designing systems, procedures, and training. We outline major aviation changes and how these relate to five key HF issues in ATC. Measures are outlined, compared, and evaluated and are followed by guidelines for assessing these issues in the ATC domain. Recommendations for future research are presented. A review of the literature suggests that situational awareness and workload have been widely researched and assessed using a variety of measures, but researchers have neglected the areas of trust, stress, and boredom. We make recommendations for use of particular measures and the construction of new measures. It is predicted that, given the changing role of ATCOs and profound future airspace requirements and configurations, issues of stress, trust, and boredom will become more significant. Researchers should develop and/or refine existing measures of all five key HF issues to assess their impact on ATCO performance. Furthermore, these issues should be considered in a holistic manner. The current article provides an evaluation of research and measures used in HF research on ATC that will aid research and ATC measurement.

  9. Kinship and the decline of fertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Y

    1996-01-01

    China's family planning and population control policies, together with the move toward a more market-oriented economy since the 1980s, have led to significant change in people's reproductive values and behavior and a substantial decline in fertility. Traditional kinship in China, its terminology, and the impact of fertility decline on kinship in China and Chinese society are discussed. The decline in fertility is affecting or will affect China's kinship system, the corresponding pattern of terminology, and the social structure. In the more market-oriented economy which has been developing in China, the simplification of the kinship system will help change the structure of Chinese society and weaken the traditional patriarchal culture. A more individualized, contractualized social structure and relationships will result.

  10. Advanced reproductive age and fertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Kimberly; Case, Allison

    2011-11-01

    To improve awareness of the natural age-related decline in female and male fertility with respect to natural fertility and assisted reproductive technologies (ART) and provide recommendations for their management, and to review investigations in the assessment of ovarian aging. This guideline reviews options for the assessment of ovarian reserve and fertility treatments using ART with women of advanced reproductive age presenting with infertility. The outcomes measured are the predictive value of ovarian reserve testing and pregnancy rates with natural and assisted fertility. Published literature was retrieved through searches of PubMed or Medline, CINAHL, and The Cochrane Library in June 2010, using appropriate key words (ovarian aging, ovarian reserve, advanced maternal age, advanced paternal age, ART). Results were restricted to systematic reviews, randomized controlled trials/controlled clinical trials, and observational studies. There were no date or language restrictions. Searches were updated on a regular basis and incorporated into the guideline to December 2010. The quality of evidence was rated using the criteria described in the Report of the Canadian Task Force on Preventive Health Care. Recommendations for practice were ranked according to the method described in that report (Table). Primary and specialist health care providers and women will be better informed about ovarian aging and the age-related decline in natural fertility and about options for assisted reproductive technology. 1. Women in their 20s and 30s should be counselled about the age-related risk of infertility when other reproductive health issues, such as sexual health or contraception, are addressed as part of their primary well-woman care. Reproductive-age women should be aware that natural fertility and assisted reproductive technology success (except with egg donation) is significantly lower for women in their late 30s and 40s. (II-2A) 2. Because of the decline in fertility and the

  11. Comparison of digestion methods to determine heavy metals in fertilizers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ygor Jacques Agra Bezerra da Silva

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The lack of a standard method to regulate heavy metal determination in Brazilian fertilizers and the subsequent use of several digestion methods have produced variations in the results, hampering interpretation. Thus, the aim of this study was to compare the effectiveness of three digestion methods for determination of metals such as Cd, Ni, Pb, and Cr in fertilizers. Samples of 45 fertilizers marketed in northeastern Brazil were used. A fertilizer sample with heavy metal contents certified by the US National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST was used as control. The following fertilizers were tested: rock phosphate; organo-mineral fertilizer with rock phosphate; single superphosphate; triple superphosphate; mixed N-P-K fertilizer; and fertilizer with micronutrients. The substances were digested according to the method recommended by the Ministry for Agriculture, Livestock and Supply of Brazil (MAPA and by the two methods 3051A and 3052 of the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA. By the USEPA method 3052, higher portions of the less soluble metals such as Ni and Pb were recovered, indicating that the conventional digestion methods for fertilizers underestimate the total amount of these elements. The results of the USEPA method 3051A were very similar to those of the method currently used in Brazil (Brasil, 2006. The latter is preferable, in view of the lower cost requirement for acids, a shorter digestion period and greater reproducibility.

  12. Census-linked Study on Ethnic Fertility Differentials in Lithuania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aiva Jasilioniene

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Fertility transformations observed since the early 1990s and their determinants have been rather thoroughly investigated in Lithuania. There are fairly numerous national and international studies devoted to this topic, mainly based on survey data. However, none of these studies looks into the effect of ethnicity on fertility. It is, to a large extent, caused by limitations of sample survey data. This study demonstrates potentials of census-linked fertility data to estimate robust and nationally representative parity-specific period fertility measures by ethnicity. The findings of this first systematic study of ethnicity-specific fertility differentials in Lithuania indicate that ethnicity does matter for fertility even in such ethnically homogenous country as Lithuania. Fertility among Lithuanians is higher than in the other ethnic groups, especially among Russians. Lower fertility in the Russian ethnic group is mainly explained by differences in the risk of having the second child. Importantly, this disadvantage remains significant even after controlling for selected compositional characteristics including urban-rural place of residence and education. The approach used in this study may be applied for Latvia and Estonia, where national minorities constitute substantial shares of the entire populations and significantly contribute to overall fertility levels.

  13. Cardiovascular Risk Following Fertility Therapy: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dayan, Natalie; Filion, Kristian B; Okano, Marisa; Kilmartin, Caitlin; Reinblatt, Shauna; Landry, Tara; Basso, Olga; Udell, Jacob A

    2017-09-05

    The longer term cardiovascular effects of fertility therapy are unknown. The aim of this study was to summarize data linking fertility therapy with subsequent cardiovascular outcomes. We systematically searched published reports for studies addressing the question "does fertility therapy increase the risk of longer term cardiovascular outcomes?" We included: 1) human studies; 2) case control, cohort, or randomized designs with 3) exposure to fertility therapy and 4) cardiovascular outcomes clearly reported; 5) presence of comparison group; 6) minimum 1-year follow-up; and 7) adjustment for age. Two independent reviewers screened abstracts, titles, and full texts, and assessed study quality. We used the DerSimonian and Laird random-effects models to pool hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of the following outcomes: acute cardiac event; stroke; venous thromboembolism; hypertension; and diabetes mellitus, comparing women who received fertility therapy with those who did not. Six observational studies met inclusion criteria including 41,910 women who received fertility therapy and 1,400,202 women who did not. There was no increased risk of a cardiac event (pooled HR: 0.91; 95% CI: 0.67 to 1.25; I 2  = 36.6%), or diabetes mellitus (pooled HR: 0.93; 95% CI: 0.87 to 1.001; I 2  = 0%). Results were not pooled for hypertension (I 2  = 95.0%) and venous thromboembolism (I 2  = 82.3%). There was a trend toward higher risk of stroke (pooled HR: 1.25; 95% CI: 0.96 to 1.63; I 2  = 0%). The small number of studies and significant heterogeneity precludes definitive reassurance about the longer term cardiovascular safety of these treatments, particularly stroke. Future studies are needed to address ongoing knowledge gaps in this area. Copyright © 2017 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Development of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome: interrogation of key proteins and biological processes in human follicular fluid of women undergoing in vitro fertilization

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jarkovská, Karla; Skalníková, Helena; Halada, Petr; Hrabáková, Rita; Moos, J.; Rezábek, K.; Gadher, S. J.; Kovářová, Hana

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 17, č. 11 (2011), s. 679-692 ISSN 1360-9947 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50450515; CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : biomarkers * computer modelling * human follicular fluid Subject RIV: FK - Gynaecology, Childbirth Impact factor: 3.852, year: 2011

  15. Telomerase levels control the lifespan of human T lymphocytes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roth, Alexander; Yssel, Hans; Pene, Jerome; Chavez, Elizabeth A.; Schertzer, Mike; Lansdorp, Peter M.; Spits, Hergen; Luiten, Rosalie M.

    2003-01-01

    The loss of telomeric DNA with each cell division contributes to the limited replicative lifespan of human T lymphocytes. Although telomerase is transiently expressed in T lymphocytes upon activation, it is insufficient to confer immortality. We have previously shown that immortalization of human

  16. [Stress and fertility].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ősapay, György; Ősapay, Klára

    2015-08-30

    In Western countries, sperm quality and fertility of men significantly worsened. Female infertility does not show a better trend either. Subtle defects in the reproductive functions can not be explained by the current methods, and "unexplained infertility" is becoming a more common diagnosis. Every year 1 million couples seek expensive and time consuming fertility treatment in the world. Deeper understanding of an unhealthy lifestyle and the environmental damages may lead to personalized treatments to increase the chance of conception.The effects of various stressors on the male and female reproductive performance were scientifically substantiated by Selye and coworkers in 1976. Cognitive therapy methods can be applied against emotional stressors, supplementation by antioxidants against reactive oxygen compounds, and administration of vitamins and trace elements, especially when deficiency is found, may help before medical intervention on a rational and economical way in the fight against infertility.

  17. Control of a Robot Dancer for Enhancing Haptic Human-Robot Interaction in Waltz.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hongbo Wang; Kosuge, K

    2012-01-01

    Haptic interaction between a human leader and a robot follower in waltz is studied in this paper. An inverted pendulum model is used to approximate the human's body dynamics. With the feedbacks from the force sensor and laser range finders, the robot is able to estimate the human leader's state by using an extended Kalman filter (EKF). To reduce interaction force, two robot controllers, namely, admittance with virtual force controller, and inverted pendulum controller, are proposed and evaluated in experiments. The former controller failed the experiment; reasons for the failure are explained. At the same time, the use of the latter controller is validated by experiment results.

  18. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi are an alternative to the application of chemical fertilizer in the production of the medicinal and aromatic plant Coriandrum sativum L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Rui S; Ma, Ying; Rocha, Inês; Carvalho, Maria F; Vosátka, Miroslav; Freitas, Helena

    2016-01-01

    The widespread use of agrochemicals is detrimental to the environment and may exert harmful effects on human health. The consumer demand for organic food plants has been increasing. There is thus a rising need for alternatives to agrochemicals that can foster sustainable plant production. The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential use of an arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungus as an alternative to application of chemical fertilizer for improving growth performance of the medicinal and aromatic plant Coriandrum sativum. Plants were inoculated with the AM fungus Rhizophagus irregularis BEG163 and/or supplemented with a commercial chemical fertilizer (Plant Marvel, Nutriculture Bent Special) in agricultural soil. Plant growth, nutrition, and development of AM fungus were assessed. Plants inoculated with R. irregularis and those supplemented with chemical fertilizer displayed significantly improved growth performances when compared with controls. There were no significant differences in total fresh weight between plants inoculated with R. irregularis or those supplemented with chemical fertilizer. Leaf chlorophyll a + b (82%), shoot nitrogen (44%), phosphorus (254%), and potassium (27%) concentrations increased in plants inoculated with R. irregularis compared to controls. Application of chemical fertilizer inhibited root mycorrhizal colonization and the length of the extraradical mycelium of R. irregularis. Inoculation with R. irregularis was equally or more efficient than application of chemical fertilizer in promoting growth and nutrition of C. sativum. AM fungi may thus contribute to improve biologically based production of food plants and reduce the dependence on agrochemicals in agriculture.

  19. Human-FES cooperative control for wrist movement: a preliminary study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Gui

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Functional electrical stimulation (FES sometimes applies to patients with partial paralysis, so human voluntary control and FES control both exist. Our study aims to build a cooperative controller to achieve human-FES cooperation. This cooperative controller is formed by a classical FES controller and an impedance controller. The FES controller consists of a back propagation (BP neural network-based feedforward controller and a PID-based feedback controller. The function of impedance controller is to convert volitional force/torque, which is estimated from a three-stage filter based on EMG, into additional angle. The additional angle can reduce the FES intensity in our cooperative controller, comparing to that in classical FES controller. Some assessment experiments are designed to test the performance of the cooperative controller.

  20. Fertility preservation 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Vos, Michel; Smitz, Johan; Woodruff, Teresa K

    2014-01-01

    Enhanced long-term survival rates of young women with cancer and advances in reproductive medicine and cryobiology have culminated in an increased interest in fertility preservation methods in girls and young women with cancer. Present data suggest that young patients with cancer should be referred for fertility preservation counselling quickly to help with their coping process. Although the clinical application of novel developments, including oocyte vitrification and oocyte maturation in vitro, has resulted in reasonable success rates in assisted reproduction programmes, experience with these techniques in the setting of fertility preservation is in its infancy. It is hoped that these and other approaches, some of which are still regarded as experimental (eg, ovarian tissue cryopreservation, pharmacological protection against gonadotoxic agents, in-vitro follicle growth, and follicle transplantation) will be optimised and become established within the next decade. Unravelling the complex mechanisms of activation and suppression of follicle growth will not only expand the care of thousands of women diagnosed with cancer, but also inform the care of millions of women confronted with reduced reproductive fitness because of ageing. PMID:25283571

  1. Soil and fertilizer nitrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winteringham, F.P.W.

    1984-01-01

    As a result of the intensified practices and effectively diminishing land resources per capita, increasing weights of both native soil- and added fertilizer-nitrogen will be lost to agriculture and its products, and will find their way into the environment. Soil-nitrogen levels and contingent productivity can nevertheless be maintained in the face of these losses on the basis of improved soil-N management. In some local situations nitrate levels in water for drinking purposes are likely to continue rising. In some cases agriculture and clearance practices are only one of several sources. In others they are clearly mainly responsible. In developing countries these losses represent those of a relatively increasingly costly input. This is due to the fact that industrial fertilizer nitrogen production is a particularly high energy-consuming process. In the more advanced industrialized countries they represent an addition to the problems and costs of environmental quality and health protection. The programmes, information and data reviewed here suggest that these problems can be contained by improved and extended soil and water management in agriculture on the basis of existing technology. In particular there appears to be enormous scope for the better exploitation of existing legumes both as non-legume crop alternatives or as biofertilizers which also possess more desirable C:N ratios than chemical fertilizer

  2. Fertility impairment in radiotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Biedka

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Infertility as a result of antineoplastic therapy is becoming a very important issue due to the growing incidence of neoplastic diseases. Routinely applied antineoplastic treatments and the illness itself lead to fertility disorders. Therapeutic methods used in antineoplastic treatment may cause fertility impairment or sterilization due to permanent damage to reproductive cells. The risk of sterilization depends on the patient’s sex, age during therapy, type of neoplasm, radiation dose and treatment area. It is known that chemotherapy and radiotherapy can lead to fertility impairment and the combination of these two gives an additive effect. The aim of this article is to raise the issue of infertility in these patients. It is of growing importance due to the increase in the number of children and young adults who underwent radiotherapy in the past. The progress in antineoplastic therapy improves treatment results, but at the same time requires a deeper look at existential needs of the patient. Reproductive function is an integral element of self-esteem and should be taken into account during therapy planning.

  3. Practice makes perfect: participatory innovation in soil fertility management to improve rural livelihoods in East Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Jager, de, A.

    2007-01-01

    Keywords: soil nutrient balances, soil fertility degradation, East Africa , participatory innovation, experiential learning, farmer field schools, smallholder agriculture Maintaining and improving soil fertility is crucial for Africa to attain the Millennium Development Goals. Fertile soil and balanced soil nutrient management are major foundations for sustainable food production, contribute to a sound management of natural resources and assist in controlling environmental degradation such ...

  4. Proteome Mining of Human Follicular Fluid Reveals a Crucial Role of Complement Cascade and Key Biological Pathways in Women Undergoing in Vitro Fertilization

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jarkovská, Karla; Martinková, Jiřina; Lišková, Lucie; Halada, Petr; Moos, J.; Rezábek, K.; Gadher, S. J.; Kovářová, Hana

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 9, č. 3 (2010), s. 1289-1301 ISSN 1535-3893 R&D Projects: GA MZd(CZ) NS9781; GA AV ČR 1QS500450568 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50450515; CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : Human follicular fluid * plasma * assisted reproduction Subject RIV: FK - Gynaecology, Childbirth Impact factor: 5.460, year: 2010

  5. Chinese culture and fertility decline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, C; Jia, S

    1992-01-01

    Coale has suggested that cultural factors exert a significant influence on fertility reduction; countries in the "Chinese cultural circle" would be the first to show fertility decline. In China, the view was that traditional Chinese culture contributed to increased population. This paper examines the nature of the relationship between Chinese culture and fertility. Attention was directed to a comparison of fertility rates of developing countries with strong Chinese cultural influence and of fertility within different regions of China. Discussion was followed by an explanation of the theoretical impact of Chinese culture on fertility and direct and indirect beliefs and practices that might either enhance or hinder fertility decline. Emigration to neighboring countries occurred after the Qing dynasty. Fertility after the 1950s declined markedly in Japan, Singapore, Hong Kong, South Korea, Taiwan, and mainland China: all countries within the Chinese cultural circle. Other countries within the Chinese circle which have higher fertility, yet lower fertility than other non-Chinese cultural countries, are Malaysia, Thailand, and Indonesia. Within China, regions with similar fertility patterns are identified as coastal regions, central plains, and mountainous and plateau regions. The Han ethnic group has lower fertility than that of ethnic minorities; regions with large Han populations have lower fertility. Overseas Chinese in East Asian countries also tend to have lower fertility than their host populations. Chinese culture consisted of the assimilation of other cultures over 5000 years. Fertility decline was dependent on the population's desire to limit reproduction, favorable social mechanisms, and availability of contraception: all factors related to economic development. Chinese culture affects fertility reduction by affecting reproductive views and social mechanisms directly, and indirectly through economics. Confucianism emphasizes collectivism, self

  6. Talking with a Virtual Human : Controlling the Human Experience and Behavior in a Virtual Conversation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Qu, C.

    2014-01-01

    Virtual humans are often designed to replace real humans in virtual reality applications for e.g., psychotherapy, education and entertainment. In general, applications with virtual humans are created for modifying a person's knowledge, beliefs, attitudes, emotions or behaviors. Reaching these

  7. Intrauterine fertilization capsules--a clinical trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lenz, S; Lindenberg, S; Sundberg, K

    1991-01-01

    Treatment of 26 women with tubal infertility was attempted using intrauterine capsules loaded with oocytes and spermatozoa. The stimulation protocol was as used for in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer and consisted of short-term use of Buserelin, human menopausal gonadotropin, and human...... and piston from an intrauterine device. Six complete capsules and parts of two other capsules were expelled. None of the women became pregnant, compared with a pregnancy rate of 21% per aspiration following in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer during the same period....... chorionic gonadotropin. Oocytes were collected by ultrasonically guided transvaginal aspiration, and spermatozoa were prepared by swim-up technique. The gametes were placed in agar capsules 4 hr after oocyte collection, and the capsules were introduced to the uterine fundus using an insertion tube...

  8. Radioactivity in chemical and organic fertilizer used in Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbady, A.G.E.; Yousef, A.M.M.; Abbady, A.; El-Taher, A.

    2005-01-01

    The Egypt Chemical factories (ECF); such as Talkha, Sues, Abo Qeyer, Kafer Elzayat, and Assuit factories, produces and markets a range of phosphate based fertilizers, including Simple Super Phosphate (SSP) fertilizer, Triple Super Phosphate (TSP) fertilizer and Urea. Phosphate fertilizers produced by ECF are derived from phosphate ore. In addition to phosphate minerals, these ores can contain significant amounts of a wide range of impurities, including heavy metals and naturally occurring radionuclides. This study was carried out to determine the content of radionuclides in fertilizer products produced by ECF and some organic fertilizer (animal manure) includes cow, sheep and chicken fertilizer. In both samples (Chemical and organic fertilizers), the activity concentrations of Ra 2 26 are higher than those Th 2 32. The radioactivity of 226 R a in chemical fertilizers ranged from 21.6 ± 3.6 to 111.2 ± 8.9 Bq kg-1, phosphate fertilizers TSP contained high contents of 226 R a. The average radioactivity of 226 R a in TSP was 79.3 ± 7.4 Bq kg-1, in SSP 51.2 ± 5 Bq kg-1, and in Urea 35.1± 3.5 Bq kg-1. The activity of 232 T h in the different fertilizers ranged from 1.3 ± 1.1 to 9.9 ± 3.2 Bq kg-1,the highest activity observed in SSP fertilizer. The activity of 40 K was found to be great in the TSP fertilizer, which contained a mean activity 478.1± 21.3 Bq kg-1. With respect to organic fertilizers the average radioactivity of 226 R a, 232 T h and 40 K are 40 ± 1.6 Bq kg-1, 3.1± 1.2 and 427.1± 20 Bq kg-1. The data are discussed and compared with those given in the literatures. This study could be useful as baseline data for radiation exposure to fertilizers, and their impact on human health

  9. Effects of controlled element dynamics on human feedforward behavior in ramp-tracking tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurense, Vincent A; Pool, Daan M; Damveld, Herman J; van Paassen, Marinus René M; Mulder, Max

    2015-02-01

    In real-life manual control tasks, human controllers are often required to follow a visible and predictable reference signal, enabling them to use feedforward control actions in conjunction with feedback actions that compensate for errors. Little is known about human control behavior in these situations. This paper investigates how humans adapt their feedforward control dynamics to the controlled element dynamics in a combined ramp-tracking and disturbance-rejection task. A human-in-the-loop experiment is performed with a pursuit display and vehicle-like controlled elements, ranging from a single integrator through second-order systems with a break frequency at either 3, 2, or 1 rad/s, to a double integrator. Because the potential benefits of feedforward control increase with steeper ramp segments in the target signal, three steepness levels are tested to investigate their possible effect on feedforward control with the various controlled elements. Analyses with four novel models of the operator, fitted to time-domain data, reveal feedforward control for all tested controlled elements and both (nonzero) tested levels of ramp steepness. For the range of controlled element dynamics investigated, it is found that humans adapt to these dynamics in their feedforward response, with a close to perfect inversion of the controlled element dynamics. No significant effects of ramp steepness on the feedforward model parameters are found.

  10. Human-Inspired Eigenmovement Concept Provides Coupling-Free Sensorimotor Control in Humanoid Robot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandrov, Alexei V; Lippi, Vittorio; Mergner, Thomas; Frolov, Alexander A; Hettich, Georg; Husek, Dusan

    2017-01-01

    Control of a multi-body system in both robots and humans may face the problem of destabilizing dynamic coupling effects arising between linked body segments. The state of the art solutions in robotics are full state feedback controllers. For human hip-ankle coordination, a more parsimonious and theoretically stable alternative to the robotics solution has been suggested in terms of the Eigenmovement (EM) control. Eigenmovements are kinematic synergies designed to describe the multi DoF system, and its control, with a set of independent, and hence coupling-free , scalar equations. This paper investigates whether the EM alternative shows "real-world robustness" against noisy and inaccurate sensors, mechanical non-linearities such as dead zones, and human-like feedback time delays when controlling hip-ankle movements of a balancing humanoid robot. The EM concept and the EM controller are introduced, the robot's dynamics are identified using a biomechanical approach, and robot tests are performed in a human posture control laboratory. The tests show that the EM controller provides stable control of the robot with proactive ("voluntary") movements and reactive balancing of stance during support surface tilts and translations. Although a preliminary robot-human comparison reveals similarities and differences, we conclude (i) the Eigenmovement concept is a valid candidate when different concepts of human sensorimotor control are considered, and (ii) that human-inspired robot experiments may help to decide in future the choice among the candidates and to improve the design of humanoid robots and robotic rehabilitation devices.

  11. Phosphate fertilizer influence on {sup 238} U content in vegetables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lauria D, C.; Rodrigues S, J.I. [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN), Av. Salvador Allende s/n, Rio de Janeiro-RJ (Brazil); Ribeiro, F.C.A. [Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares (CRCN/CNEN) Av. Prof. Luiz Freire 200 Cidade Universitaria Recife-PE (Brazil)]. e-mail: dejanira@ird.gov.br

    2006-07-01

    Uranium is a naturally radioactive element, which is usually found in soils, superficial and ground water, vegetables and animals. After ingestion by human beings, most is excreted in few days by feces and urine, without reaching the bloodstream. However, a small part circulates through the body, being accumulated in the soft tissues, as kidneys. A minor fraction can remain in bones per some years, being able through the radioactive decay to irradiate adjacent tissues. Phosphate fertilizers used in conventional crop management can present variable amounts of uranium. In accordance with origin and use, the fertilizer can raise the content of this element in vegetables, and consequently to increase the human exposure for radiation due the consumption of vegetables. It is estimated that the use of phosphate fertilizer has at least doubled the prolonged exposure of humans from ingestion of food. This work aims to evaluate the contribution of organic and chemical fertilizer on the concentration of {sup 238} U in vegetable samples. An experiment with black beans (a very important vegetable for Brazilian people) was conducted in a field which soil has never been fertilized with any sort of fertilizer, located near to the Rio de Janeiro city. On the organic management, bovine manure was used, while on conventional management urea, potassium chloride and superphosphate were used. Simultaneously, black bean samples from not fertilized management were collected. In addition, lettuce and carrot samples from organic and conventional managements were collected in Nova Friburgo farms (the most important vegetable supplier of Rio de Janeiro city market). The analyses of {sup 238} U have been carried out by conventional fluorimetric method. The geometric mean of {sup 238} U concentrations in the carrot and lettuce samples from conventional management were similar with those from organic management, while for beans the conventional samples had higher values than those ones found in

  12. Phosphate fertilizer influence on 238 U content in vegetables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lauria D, C.; Rodrigues S, J.I.; Ribeiro, F.C.A.

    2006-01-01

    Uranium is a naturally radioactive element, which is usually found in soils, superficial and ground water, vegetables and animals. After ingestion by human beings, most is excreted in few days by feces and urine, without reaching the bloodstream. However, a small part circulates through the body, being accumulated in the soft tissues, as kidneys. A minor fraction can remain in bones per some years, being able through the radioactive decay to irradiate adjacent tissues. Phosphate fertilizers used in conventional crop management can present variable amounts of uranium. In accordance with origin and use, the fertilizer can raise the content of this element in vegetables, and consequently to increase the human exposure for radiation due the consumption of vegetables. It is estimated that the use of phosphate fertilizer has at least doubled the prolonged exposure of humans from ingestion of food. This work aims to evaluate the contribution of organic and chemical fertilizer on the concentration of 238 U in vegetable samples. An experiment with black beans (a very important vegetable for Brazilian people) was conducted in a field which soil has never been fertilized with any sort of fertilizer, located near to the Rio de Janeiro city. On the organic management, bovine manure was used, while on conventional management urea, potassium chloride and superphosphate were used. Simultaneously, black bean samples from not fertilized management were collected. In addition, lettuce and carrot samples from organic and conventional managements were collected in Nova Friburgo farms (the most important vegetable supplier of Rio de Janeiro city market). The analyses of 238 U have been carried out by conventional fluorimetric method. The geometric mean of 238 U concentrations in the carrot and lettuce samples from conventional management were similar with those from organic management, while for beans the conventional samples had higher values than those ones found in organic management

  13. Use of the Human Centered Design concept when designing ergonomic NPP control rooms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skrehot, Petr A.; Houser, Frantisek; Riha, Radek; Tuma, Zdenek

    2015-01-01

    Human-Centered Design is a concept aimed at reconciling human needs on the one hand and limitations posed by the design disposition of the room being designed on the other hand. This paper describes the main aspects of application of the Human-Centered Design concept to the design of nuclear power plant control rooms. (orig.)

  14. Determination of ''2''1''0Po in fertilizers by electrochemical deposition method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oezalp, N.; Sac, M.; Tanbay, A.; Yener, G.

    2001-01-01

    In this study, activities of radioactive polonium and natural radionuclide concentrations in fertilizer most consumed in agricultural lands in Turkey were measured. Fertilizers containing phosphorus and potassium increase yield and quality. But, they contain some radionuclides. These radionuclides dissolve in water and first transport into plants and then transport from plants to humans. In the latest years, artificial fertilizing has replaced natural fertilizing in agriculture. Therefore, fruits and vegetables contain radionuclides those are found in artificial fertilizers. In this study, electrochemical deposition technique with alpha counting method was used for determining the radioactivity level of polonium in fertilizers. Radium, potassium and thorium concentrations were measured by gamma spectrometry. TSP, MAP, DSP,MKP, (15-15-15), (18-18-18), (20-20-20) compost fertilizers consumed at most has been analyzed and the results were evaluated with respect to human health

  15. Discussion on verification criterion and method of human factors engineering for nuclear power plant controller

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Hualong; Liu Yanzi; Jia Ming; Huang Weijun

    2014-01-01

    In order to prevent or reduce human error and ensure the safe operation of nuclear power plants, control device should be verified from the perspective of human factors engineering (HFE). The domestic and international human factors engineering guidelines about nuclear power plant controller were considered, the verification criterion and method of human factors engineering for nuclear power plant controller were discussed and the application examples were provided for reference in this paper. The results show that the appropriate verification criterion and method should be selected to ensure the objectivity and accuracy of the conclusion. (authors)

  16. The Role of Inhibitory Control in the Development of Human Figure Drawing in Young Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riggs, Kevin J.; Jolley, Richard P.; Simpson, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the role of inhibitory control in young children's human figure drawing. We used the Bear-Dragon task as a measure of inhibitory control and used the classification system devised by Cox and Parkin to measure the development of human figure drawing. We tested 50 children aged between 40 and 64 months. Regression analysis showed…

  17. Human Factors Analysis of Pipeline Monitoring and Control Operations: Final Technical Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-11-26

    The purpose of the Human Factors Analysis of Pipeline Monitoring and Control Operations project was to develop procedures that could be used by liquid pipeline operators to assess and manage the human factors risks in their control rooms that may adv...

  18. On the potential for a CO2 fertilization effect in forest trees: An assessment of 58 controlled-exposure studies and estimates of the biotic growth factor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wullschleger, S.D.; Post, W.M.; King, A.W.

    1992-01-01

    Characterizing the response of terrestrial ecosystems to increasing concentrations of atmospheric CO 2 and estimating their biological capacity to either moderate or accelerate predicted changes in the earth's climate, continues to present a formidable challenge to experimentalist and modelers alike. Nevertheless, it is generally recognized that the carbon dynamics of terrestrial vegetation represent an important biospheric feedback to increasing CO 2 concentrations, and hence to global warming, and as such there exists little debate that ecosystems occupy a.potentially pivotal role in determining both the direction and rate of future changes in atmospheric CO 2 concentration. What is currently the subject of much debate, however, is whether terrestrial ecosystems will contribute to global warming by releasing additional CO 2 the atmosphere as a result of increasing respiration and/or decomposition in a warming climate, or whether they will instead sequester additional carbon in response to the enhancing effects of atmospheric CO 2 on plant growth. This latter response, the so-called CO 2 fertilization effect, has been hypothesized as an important negative feedback to global warming, offering the potential to constrain future increases in atmospheric CO 2 concentration, and has often been invoked to either partially or wholly account for the estimated 1.6 Gt C/year imbalance or ''missing sink'' in calculations of the global carbon budget

  19. Total fertilization failure and idiopathic subfertility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goverde Angelique J

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To gain more insight in whether failure of intrauterine insemination (IUI treatment in patients with idiopathic subfertility could be related to diminished fertilization, the aim of this study is to compare the fertilization of an initial IVF procedure after six cycles of IUI and the fertilization of an initial IVF procedure without preceding IUI cycles in couples with idiopathic subfertility. Methods We performed a complimentary analysis of a randomized controlled trial, in which the number of total fertilization failure (TFF in the first IVF procedure after unsuccessful IUI was compared to those of IVF without preceding IUI in patients with idiopathic subfertility. These patients participated in a previous study that assessed the cost effectiveness of IUI versus IVF in idiopathic subfertility and were randomized to either IUI or IVF treatment. Results 45 patients underwent IVF after 6 cycles of unsuccessful IUI and 58 patients underwent IVF immediately without preceding IUI. In 7 patients the IVF treatment was cancelled before ovum pick. In the IVF after unsuccessful IUI group TFF was seen in 2 of the 39 patients (5% versus 7 of the 56 patients (13% in the immediate IVF group. After correction for confounding factors the TFF rate was not significantly different between the two groups (p = 0.08, OR 7.4; 95% CI: 0.5–14.9. Conclusion Our data showed that TFF and the fertilization rate in the first IVF treatment were not significantly different between couples with idiopathic subfertility undergoing IVF after failure of IUI versus those couples undergoing IVF immediately without prior IUI treatment. Apparently, impaired fertilization does not play a significant role in the success rate of IUI in patients with idiopathic subfertility.

  20. Social context of premarital fertility in rural South-Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    of authority of parents and increasing freedom of the youth. In contrast, late marriage ... patterns, family structures, and fertility behaviors in the .... assistants were present, one acting as the .... Parental authority and social control. Parents are ...

  1. Menstrual cycle pattern and fertility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolstad, Henrik A.; Bonde, Jens Peter; Hjøllund, Niels Henrik

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To characterize how the menstrual cycle pattern relates to fertility regardless of potential biases caused by inappropriate coital timing during the menstrual cycle or early embryonal loss. DESIGN: Prospective follow-up study. SETTING: Healthy couples recruited throughout Denmark....... PATIENT(S): Two hundred ninety-five couples who were planning their first pregnancy were followed up from the discontinuation of birth control until a pregnancy was recognized within six menstrual cycles. Early embryonal losses were detected by changes in urinary hCG levels. INTERVENTION(S): None. MAIN...... OUTCOME MEASURE(S): The probability of pregnancy occurring within one menstrual cycle (fecundity). RESULT(S): In women who had a cycle length that differed by >10 days from the usual cycle length, fecundity was approximately 25% that of women who had no variation (odds ratio 0.25, 95% confidence interval...

  2. The GMOC Model : Supporting Development of Systems for Human Control

    OpenAIRE

    Tschirner, Simon

    2015-01-01

    Train traffic control is a complex task in a dynamic environment. Different actors have to cooperate to meet strong requirements regarding safety, punctuality, capacity utilization, energy consumption, and more. The GMOC model has been developed and utilized in a number of studies in several different areas. This thesis describes GMOC and uses train traffic control as the application area for evaluating its utility. The GMOC model has its origin in control theory and relates to concepts of dy...

  3. SCHEME (Soft Control Human error Evaluation MEthod) for advanced MCR HRA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, Inseok; Jung, Wondea; Seong, Poong Hyun

    2015-01-01

    The Technique for Human Error Rate Prediction (THERP), Korean Human Reliability Analysis (K-HRA), Human Error Assessment and Reduction Technique (HEART), A Technique for Human Event Analysis (ATHEANA), Cognitive Reliability and Error Analysis Method (CREAM), and Simplified Plant Analysis Risk Human Reliability Assessment (SPAR-H) in relation to NPP maintenance and operation. Most of these methods were developed considering the conventional type of Main Control Rooms (MCRs). They are still used for HRA in advanced MCRs even though the operating environment of advanced MCRs in NPPs has been considerably changed by the adoption of new human-system interfaces such as computer-based soft controls. Among the many features in advanced MCRs, soft controls are an important feature because the operation action in NPP advanced MCRs is performed by soft controls. Consequently, those conventional methods may not sufficiently consider the features of soft control execution human errors. To this end, a new framework of a HRA method for evaluating soft control execution human error is suggested by performing the soft control task analysis and the literature reviews regarding widely accepted human error taxonomies. In this study, the framework of a HRA method for evaluating soft control execution human error in advanced MCRs is developed. First, the factors which HRA method in advanced MCRs should encompass are derived based on the literature review, and soft control task analysis. Based on the derived factors, execution HRA framework in advanced MCRs is developed mainly focusing on the features of soft control. Moreover, since most current HRA database deal with operation in conventional type of MCRs and are not explicitly designed to deal with digital HSI, HRA database are developed under lab scale simulation

  4. An Analysis and Quantification Method of Human Errors of Soft Controls in Advanced MCRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Seung Jun; Kim, Jae Whan; Jang, Seung Cheol

    2011-01-01

    In this work, a method was proposed for quantifying human errors that may occur during operation executions using soft control. Soft controls of advanced main control rooms (MCRs) have totally different features from conventional controls, and thus they may have different human error modes and occurrence probabilities. It is important to define the human error modes and to quantify the error probability for evaluating the reliability of the system and preventing errors. This work suggests a modified K-HRA method for quantifying error probability

  5. Design for the human-machine interface of a digitalized reactor control-room

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qu Ronghong; Zhang Liangju; Li Duo; Yu Hui

    2005-01-01

    Digitalized technology is implemented in the instrumentation and control system of an in-construction research reactor, which advances information display in both contents and styles in a nuclear reactor control-room, and greatly improves human-machine interface. In the design for a digitalized nuclear reactor control-room there are a series of new problems and technologies should be considered seriously. This paper mainly introduces the design for the digitalized control-room of the research nuclear reactor and covered topics include design principle of human-machine interface, organization and classification of interface graphics, technologies and principles based on human factors engineering and implemented in the graphics design. (authors)

  6. Effect of semen quality on human sex ratio in in vitro fertilization and intracytoplasmic sperm injection: an analysis of 27,158 singleton infants born after fresh single-embryo transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arikawa, Mikiko; Jwa, Seung Chik; Kuwahara, Akira; Irahara, Minoru; Saito, Hidekazu

    2016-04-01

    To evaluate the effect of semen quality on human sex ratio in in vitro fertilization (IVF) and intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). Retrospective cohort study. Not applicable. A total of 27,158 singleton infants born between 2007 and 2012 after fresh single-embryo transfer. None. Proportion of male infants among liveborn infants. There were 14,996 infants born after IVF, 12,164 infants born after ICSI with ejaculated sperm, and 646 infants born after ICSI with nonejaculated sperm. The sex ratio of IVF was 53.1% (95% confidence interval [CI], 52.3-53.9); the sex ratio of ICSI with ejaculated and nonejaculated sperm demonstrated as statistically significant reduction (48.2%; 95% CI, 47.3-49.1 and 47.7%; 95% CI, 43.8-51.6, respectively). In IVF, lower sperm motility, including asthenozoospermia (sperm motility ratio compared with normal sperm (51.0%; 95% CI, 48.6-53.3 vs. 53.4%; 95% CI, 52.5-54.3). In ICSI with ejaculated sperm, there was no association between sperm motility and sex ratio. Sperm concentration was not associated with sex ratio in both IVF and ICSI. In IVF, lower sperm motility was associated with a statistically significant reduction in sex ratio; ICSI with either ejaculated or nonejaculated sperm was associated with a statistically significant reduction in sex ratio regardless of semen quality. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Human Systems Integration Assessment of Network Centric Command and Control

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Quashnock, Dee; Kelly, Richard T; Dunaway, John; Smillie, Robert J

    2004-01-01

    .... FORCEnet is the operational construct and architectural framework for Naval Network Centric Warfare in the information age that integrates warriors, sensors, networks, command and control, platforms...

  8. Associative learning and the control of human dietary behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunstrom, Jeffrey M

    2007-07-01

    Most of our food likes and disliked are learned. Relevant forms of associative learning have been identified in animals. However, observations of the same associative processes are relatively scarce in humans. The first section of this paper outlines reasons why this might be the case. Emphasis is placed on recent research exploring individual differences and the importance or otherwise of hunger and contingency awareness. The second section briefly considers the effect of learning on meal size, and the author revisits the question of how learned associations might come to influence energy intake in humans.

  9. Cadmium in fertilizers, soil, crops and foods - the Swedish situation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hellstrand, S; Landner, L [Swedish Environmental Research Group (MFG)

    1998-03-01

    The aim of this report is to review available information on the fluxes of cadmium (Cd) to agricultural soils and crops in Sweden from phosphorus fertilizers (P-fertilizer) and other sources, and to discuss how the content of Cd in soil, crops and human food may be influenced by the specific environmental conditions in Sweden, as well as by the agricultural practices used in the country 62 refs, 15 figs, 18 tabs. With 5 page summary in Swedish

  10. Human pituitary and placental hormones control human insulin-like growth factor II secretion in human granulosa cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramasharma, K.; Li, C.H.

    1987-01-01

    Human granulosa cells cultured with calf serum actively proliferated for 18-20 generations and secreted progesterone into the medium; progesterone levels appeared to decline with increase in generation number. Cells cultured under serum-free conditions secreted significant amounts of progesterone and insulin-like growth factor II (IGF-II). The progesterone secretion was enhanced by the addition of human follitropin, lutropin, and chorionic gonadotropin but not by growth hormone. These cells, when challenged to varying concentrations of human growth hormone, human chorionic somatomammotropin, human prolactin, chorionic gonadotropin, follitropin, and lutropin, secreted IGF-II into the medium as measured by specific IGF-II RIA. Among these human hormones, chorionic gonadotropin, follitropin, and lutropin were most effective in inducing IGF-II secretion from these cells. When synthetic lutropin-releasing hormone and α-inhibin-92 were tested, only lutropin-releasing hormone was effective in releasing IGF-II. The results described suggest that cultured human granulosa cells can proliferate and actively secrete progesterone and IGF-II into the medium. IGF-II production in human granulosa cells was influenced by a multi-hormonal complex including human growth hormone, human chorionic somatomammotropin, and prolactin

  11. Analysis on nuclear power plant control room system design and improvement based on human factor engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Feng; Liu Yanzi; Sun Yongbin

    2014-01-01

    The design of nuclear power plant control room system is a process of improvement with the implementation of human factor engineering theory and guidance. The method of implementation human factor engineering principles into the nuclear power plant control room system design and improvement was discussed in this paper. It is recommended that comprehensive address should be done from control room system function, human machine interface, digital procedure, control room layout and environment design based on the human factor engineering theory and experience. The main issues which should be paid more attention during the control room system design and improvement also were addressed in this paper, and then advices and notices for the design and improvement of the nuclear power plant control room system were afforded. (authors)

  12. Immunosuppressive drugs and fertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leroy, Clara; Rigot, Jean-Marc; Leroy, Maryse; Decanter, Christine; Le Mapihan, Kristell; Parent, Anne-Sophie; Le Guillou, Anne-Claire; Yakoub-Agha, Ibrahim; Dharancy, Sébastien; Noel, Christian; Vantyghem, Marie-Christine

    2015-10-21

    Immunosuppressive drugs are used in the treatment of inflammatory and autoimmune diseases, as well as in transplantation. Frequently prescribed in young people, these treatments may have deleterious effects on fertility, pregnancy outcomes and the unborn child. This review aims to summarize the main gonadal side effects of immunosuppressants, to detail the effects on fertility and pregnancy of each class of drug, and to provide recommendations on the management of patients who are seen prior to starting or who are already receiving immunosuppressive treatment, allowing them in due course to bear children. The recommendations for use are established with a rather low level of proof, which needs to be taken into account in the patient management. Methotrexate, mycophenolate, and le- and teri-flunomide, cyclophosphamide, mitoxanthrone are contraindicated if pregnancy is desired due to their teratogenic effects, as well as gonadotoxic effects in the case of cyclophosphamide. Anti-TNF-alpha and mTOR-inhibitors are to be used cautiously if pregnancy is desired, since experience using these drugs is still relatively scarce. Azathioprine, glucocorticoids, mesalazine, anticalcineurins such as cyclosporine and tacrolimus, ß-interferon, glatiramer-acetate and chloroquine can be used during pregnancy, bearing in mind however that side effects may still occur. Experience is limited concerning natalizumab, fingolimod, dimethyl-fumarate and induction treatments. Conclusion: At the time of prescription, patients must be informed of the possible consequences of immunosuppressants on fertility and of the need for contraception. Pregnancy must be planned and the treatment modified if necessary in a pre-conception time period adapted to the half-life of the drug, imperatively in relation with the prescriber of the immunosuppressive drugs.

  13. Fertility behavior in rural and urban Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernichovsky, D; Newlon, B; Sigit, H

    1982-06-01

    restraining effect on average fertility. Both traditional and modern sector jobs have a negative association with fertility. Those jobs which take a woman away from the home were the most forceful in their association with lower fertility. Also noticed was what mig